Title Defence - Military Forces - Liverpool Military Camp, New South Wales - Reports by Mr. Justice Rich - Report (18th August, 1915)
Source Both Chambers
Date 20-08-1915
Parliament No. 6
Tabled in House of Reps 20-08-1915
Tabled in Senate 20-08-1915
Parliamentary Paper Year 1915
Parliamentary Paper No. 199
System Id publications/tabledpapers/HPP052016004605


Defence - Military Forces - Liverpool Military Camp, New South Wales - Reports by Mr. Justice Rich - Report (18th August, 1915)

1914-15.

THE PARLIAMENT OF THE O.F AUSTl{A1l1t

LIVERPOOL MILIT1\R Y CAMP, NEW SOUTH WALES--

REPORT CJ N,

BY

HIS HONOUR MR. J USTI CE RICH. (1 8TH AUGUST, 191 5.)

P resented by Comm and ; orde red to be 20th August, 1915.

[Cos t of P ctper .-Prepa ra t ion, not given 950 copies; approx im ate cost of a nd publ ishing, £11 .]

Print('d anrl P ubli shed f o r the GOVER?O! E:->T o f the l-0:'-B! O. -\VE:ALTH o f A L"STRAL!A !)\" ALDERT ] . McL!.E"I 'f,

Government Printer f or the tate o f Victori a .

No. 199.- 1!'. 11 784.

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High Court of Australia, Judges' Chambers, Sydney, 18th August, 1915.

The Right Honorable Sir Ronald Oraufurd F erguson, P.O., G.O.M.G., Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

MAY IT PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY:

I have the honour to state that on the 12th July last I was appointed Royal Commissioner to inquire into and report upon certain charges rp.ade in respect of the administration of the Military Camp at Liverpool, in the State of New South Wales, by Richard Beaumont Orchard, Esquire, Member of the House of Representatives

of the Commonwealth, in a speech· delivered by him in Parliarnent on the 1st July last and reported in Hansard, pages Upon the receipt of the Commission on the 14th July last I opened the inquiry at the Court House, Sydney, and decided to sit at the Liverpool Cam.p for the examination of witnesses. -

As Mr. Orchard was not ready to proceed with the evidence I adjourned until the 16th July last. On the 15th July last I inspected the Liverpool Military and the German Concentration Camps. On the 16th July last I took up n1y quarters at the Liverpool Camp and began the taking of evidence. I continued to live in the Camp

until the 30th July last. Evidence was taken by me on the 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th days of July last. On the 21st and 27th July last I made two interim reports to Your Excellency

with regard to matters which I considered required i1nmediate attention. On the 31st July last I went to Melbourne and visited unofficially the Military Camps at Broadmeaclows, Flemington, and Seymour, and the Base Hospital, St. Kilda­ road. Upon my return to Sydney I forwarded, on the 12th August instant, certain recommendations to Your Excellency which are to be taken as part of t his Report.

I have now the honour. to 1nake my final Report t o Your Excellency. Mr. H. E. Manning was instructed by the Corrunonwealth Crown Solicitor to appear and "to lay before the Commission evidence of a ny facts at all which may have a bearing on the subject-matter of inquiry, and to see that those facts are laid before the Commission, irrespective of whether they are harmful or otherwise to any individual or to the Department, the ob ject being to enable your 1-Ionour to make a thorough investigation into the matter in the public intere t, and to ascertain whether there have been any defects in the adn1inistration of the ca1np, in order that the Department may knmv for future guidance what re1nedy should be adopted. "

. That is the proper attitude for the Crown to adopt in inquiries of this kind. I need hardly say that Mr. Manning fulfilled his dut y faithfully and well. Both he and Mr. R. H. Long Innes, who was assigned by the Attorney-General as Counsel for Mr. Orchard, have given me generous help and greatly lightened 1ny task. Mr. Milner Stephen appeared for Dr. Schlink. Colonel Kirkland and 1\Iajor Edwards appeared for the Defence Department.

The charges reported in H ansard at pages 4513 -4520 incl usive; may be su1nn1arized as follows :-A. General insufficiency of equip1nent- in particular as to­ (1) Clothing, Uniforms, Overcoat.· (page 4513 -4).

(2) Rifles for training purpose.· ; ob. olete rifles ; defective rifles fron1 Lithgow (page 4514) . (3) vVant of rifle practi e. Amn1uni ion fo · ·auung purpo. e.,

including dumn1y ammuni -ion (pages 4 1-1-5). (4) including blanket. and mattre se. (page 451 5),

A 2.

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B. JJ!ledical Services----'unsatisfactory as to--(1) Hospital arrangements, including sick parades (page 4515). (2) Medicine bottles (page 4516). (3) Latrines, dirty and insanitary. ( 4) Callousness and indifference of doctors (page 4516). (5) Doctor of German parentage believed by some to have German

sympathies (page 4516).

C. Housing unsatisfactory­

( I) Draughty huts (page 4515). (2) Storage of bread in huts (page 4515).

D. Preferential in German Concentration Camp as to­ (l) Clothing (pages 4514, 4516). (2) IIousing accommodation (pages 4515, 4517, 4518).

E. 111 iscellaneous-(1) Horses without food on one occasion ; want of nosebags and halters (page 4517). (2) Restrictions placed on Officers' leave (pages 4518-9). (3) VVasteful arrange1nents in connexion with water supply at

Hospital (page 4517).

F. (1) Excessive centralization. (2) Discouragen1ent of initiative (page 4519). It must be borne in mind that, as the question of the suitability of the site was not the subject of any of the charges, I was not mnpowered to inquire into it.

Mr. Innes was concerned only to prove the charges made and not to attach the blame for the .defects in administration to any particular person. The evidence before me proved all the charges, except E (2) , but it was not of a nature to enable me to state precisely who was responsible.

I now propose to deal with the charges seriatim. A. (1) and ( 4). -As to the charges in relation to the alleged general insufficiency of equipment, the evidence was directed to show-(1) that there was an insufficiency ;

(2) the efforts which were made to obtain supplies to n1eet the anticipated demand; and (3) the results with which these efforts were attended. The evidence clearly establishes that the supplies of clothing, uniforms, over-: coats, and bedding were, particularly during the month of June, wholly inadequate. Numerous instances were given by uncontradicted evidence of recruits sometimes having to wait several weeks before being supplied with articles of issue, such as dungarees, underclothing, cardigan jackets, overcoats, and proper bedding.

It appears also that in the Light Horse lines there was a shortage of overcoats, to such an extent that even the guard and pickets Were in some cases not supplied with them at all, and in other cases only with overcoats which were in a very bad state of repair, often unclean, and sometimes verminous.

Again, when the huts were first occupied, the only bedding supplied consisted of three blankets and a water-proof sheet, with the result that the occupants were but ill protected against the hardness of the floor. Straw was an article of issue, but for sometime was not supplied; and bed ticks for making the straw into mattresses were only supplied out of canteen funds during the month of June, after permission for the had been obtained at the request of the Camp Commandant.

To ascertain the real cause of the shortage has been aln1ost impossible. One extraordinary fact is t hat although on the 15th June two suits of dungarees were ordered to be supplied to each recruit upon con1ing into Ca1np, the order apparently bad not been acted upon in the Camp even after the inquiry had been instituted. I am not satisfied that the order even reached the Camp before the 23rd July. A return prepared by the Camp Quart ermaster showing the itions made by him, and the extent to which they were executed, shows that dunng the month of June there was a shortage of 4,500 .pairs of socks out of a requisition by him of 6,000 pairs, a shortage

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of 3,000 singlets out of a requisition of 4,000, and a similar shortage of flannel shirts (Exhibit A33).. It appears, also, that an order was given on the 11th March last, that every man coming into Camp should be supplied with an overcoat, and yet long after that date there were instances of recruits being kept waiting for three weeks or a month without overcoats being supplied to them. A reference to the return A33 will also show that requisitions were made in May and June last for 2,000 and 500 overcoats respectively, and of the total number requisitioned only 500 had been supplied up to the 22nd July.

These requisitions were all made by the Camp Quartermaster upon the District Ordnance Department. I have come to the conclusion, upon the evidence of Major Brown, that the District Ordnance adopted the only 1neasures available to obtain the supplies, and that the shortage was due either t o an insufficient supply being

available from the factories, or else to the delay in the system of referring all matters in connexion with the supply of clothing to Head-quarters in Melbourne. The failure to supply proper bedding in the huts appears to be due to nothing less than a failure on the part of the authorities to recognize that a proper supply of bedding was necessarily involved in any ordinary consideration for the comfort of the ·men.

The evidence on this charge (A. (1)) includes that of Montague, 7, 8; Creft, 11, 12, 14; Taggett, 15, 16; Talbot, 17, 18; Harrison, 34; Roscoe, 45, 46; lVIcGhie, 47; Moore, 49; Husson, 50, 52 ; Schlink, 58-76; Kennedy, 81 ; Holland, 85; Wilkinson, 92; lVIartin, 97; Crockett, 100-1; Gillies, 101-2; Mills, 102; Donald, 102, 105; Bruce, 108; Fleming, 109; vVoods, 112, 113; Allard, 113; Thompson, 115; Cooper, 121 ; Hackett, 123; Stanley, .136-148; Cotter, 152; Sullivan, 153-156;

Orchard, 157-8; Smith, 184; Downes, 195-6; Finlayson, 196-7; Levitt, 198; Soane, Woolley, 206; Cr!1wford, 207-8; Allen, 210; Holyoak, 210-11 ; Baines, 211 ;

T1tterton, 211 ; Doig, 212 ; Brown, 216-221. A. (4) Montague, 8; Ellis, 77 ; Donald, 103-5; Bennett, 113-114; Trotter, 120; Stanley, 136-148; Smith, 184-9; Hay, 198; Field, 198; Levitt, 198; Bosley, 199; Dawkins, 199; Crawford, 208; Allen, 210; Holyoak, ·210; Baines, 211 ; Titterton, 211 ; Doig, 212.

A. (2).-Rifles for training purposes, &c.-The evidence proved that there were not sufficient rifles for instructional purposes, and that the rifles used (Mark 1) were obsolete here, or, as Major Heritage said, obsolescent in England. It was also proved that some of the rifles from Lithgow had become defective in certain respects.

A. (3).-Ammunition for training purposes, &c.-It further appeared that some of the Reinforcements were sent awa\y without adequate instruction, and in some cases without any instruction. In these cases, however, the men's records were sent with them and were marked "Musketry Returns, Nil," and inst ructions were given that such men were to complete thei musketry t raining in Egypt before being sent to the front.

It was admitted that there was a lack of dummy am1nunition. These are topics which it is not expedient to discuss at length. The evidence is as follows :-A. (2).-Creft, 9, 12 ; Bailey, 19 ; Keevers, 36 ; Halle, 38 ; Roscoe, 46 ;

Moore, 49; Husson, 52; Kennedy, 81 ; Cooper, 121; Hackett, 123; Heritage, 124-128; 132-3; Fisher, 129--131 ; Taylor, 131 (confidential report dated 26th July, 1915) ; Chalker, 134; Cotter, 153; Smith, 186; Shipley, 193; Lusco1nbe , 205. A. (3).-Wallace, 6, 7; Creft, 12; Taggett, 16; Coates, 18; Ewing, 19;

Keevres, 36-38 ; Halle, 38 ; Donald, 103 ; Fleming, 109 ; Thompson, 115 ; Simpson, 120; Cooper, 121 ; Heritage, 124; Fisher, 128-131 ; Smith, 188; Shiple-y, 193-4; Kirkland, 194 ; Luscombe, 205. I presume that on the tran ·ports there are many opportunities for musketry

instruction and rifle practice, including firing at miniature ranges and floa ting target '· B. (1 ), (2), (4).-Medical Services.-To deal sati factorily with the charge that the hospital services are unsatisfact ory, a clear distinct ion must be drawn between the hospital establishment and its admini ·tration.

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The est ablishment consists o£-(1) The field hospital proper, capable of accommodating 150 patients ; (2) The cottage hospitals, comprising two cottages, staffed by female nurses and intended for the more serious cas es , for which accommo­

datio n cannot be found in the city hospitals ; (3) Measles hospital, where over 200 cases were dealt with ; (4) Measles contact camp, through which over 1,000 n1en have passed; (5) the venereal compound, in which 254 patients have been treated; and (6) a dispensary. So far as the accommodation is concerned, it appears t o be adequate for the requirements of the Camp , and there· should be no difficulty in making any additions to the establishment that may be required. .

The equipment of the hospitals, however, leaves much to be desired. · The stretchers and bedding appeared t o be sufficient; but the supply of ordinary utensils such as bed pans and sputum mugs was altogether inadequate, resulting in many cases in serious inconvenience to patients. There seems to me to be no excuse whatever for the failure to supply sufficient number of bed pans for the full requirements of the hospital, for the use of ordinary jam tins for the purposes of urination, and the indis­ criminate use of t hese articles among patients suffering from various forms of infectious complaints.

The supply of 1nedicine bottles was also wholly insufficient for the demand, the result being that the practice grew up of refusing to provide medicine to be taken away by the :men unless they were able to supply their own bottles. The administration of the medical services was also clumsy and uncertain. Sick parades were held at various times during the day, the first taking place about 7 a.m. The numbers on a parade frequently amounted to upwards of two and three hundred men. Until quite lately no waiting tent was provided for these men, many of whom were often kept for t wo or hours in t he open in all sorts of weather.

The lines are about one mile from the A.M.C. The effect of marching sick men from the lines to the A.M.C. and keeping them waiting for their turn for treatment cannot but aggravate their illness. In considering the administration of the venereal compound the evidence was

chiefly directed to-(1) laxity of discipline in allowing patients to escape ; and (2) carelessness in disposing of wads. Remedies have been effect ed since Captain Grigor was placed in charge. If the compound is allowed to remain at the Camp still 1nore effective measures must be adopted to

prevent the escape of men who , in their diseased condition, are a menace to the health of the community. All other considerations a part it is not fair to these men- victims for the most part-that they should be kept huddled up near a public road and exposed to the public gaze. The compound should be moved to a separate carnp where this class of patient should be kept . This is, I believe, the practice in Victoria.

The faulty administration of the A.M.C. appeared to me to be due chiefly to the insufficiency of the staff. The number of doctors was too small to secure proper attention to the requirement s of the patients, and the doctors had practically no time to t each and train t he st aff. The officer commanding the A.M. C. was not in attendance

until the afternoon. Continuity of n1anagement was also impossible owing to the fact that the doctors were const antly being changed, according to the requirements of the Expeditionary F orces, with the result that the new doct ors were frequently unaccustomed to Army work. It was due to these fa cts that a certain portion of the men, erroneously, as I believe, attributed callousness and indifference to the doctors in their dealings with the patients. Again, although there has bee n from time to time in the lines a supply of men trained and qualified in ambulance work, yet the authorities do not appear t o used suffic ient discrimination in their choice of A.M.C. men, to enable them to obtain a f.ull supply of the compet ent men available. The evidence shows that for the most part t he orderlies were untrained, incompetent, and inattentive.

I am aware that t here is a ·carcity of doctors owing to t he depletion caused by the war, but Dr. W. G. Armstrong told me that t he st aff of the Public Health Department, Sydney had offered its service t o the Director of Medical Services, Dr. Armstrong

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is a well-known expert in the public healt h, and has offered to supervise the sanitary conditions of the Camp. I also understand t hat many of t he Sydney doctors are willing to give their services. · If these are accepted the A.l\II.C. staff would have the advantage of consulting with senior and experienced doctors.

Dental Corps.-At present there is no organized dental corps in the camp at all. This appears to be an anomaly, seeing how great is the in1portance attached to the condition of the teeth by the military authorities. References were made during the evidence to resources available for services in connexion with the Camp. Generally there appears to be a desire on the part of large numbers of citizens- mostly professional-to place their services at the disposal of the military authorites as far as possible during the war. I refer in particular to the offers of the New South Wales Health Department; the Sydney doctors, and dentists, to render assistance in the discharge of medical and dental services.

· ' These offers imrnediately suggest to me that it is advisable to recommend the mobilization of the available medical and dental resources, enrolling members and granting temporary commissions. My observations with regard to medical services are not directed to the adminis­ tration of the A.M.C. by Major Lawes. He was not attached to the hospital as S.M.O. until the 13th August last.

As to dental services see evidence of Captain Donald Smith, 206-7. The following is the evidence directed to :-B. (!).-Montague, 7, 8, 9; Creft, 11, 13, 14; Taggett, 16; Kennedy, 17; Bailey, 19 ; Ewing, 19, 20' ; Leathart, 31, 32 ; Eyles, 32 , 33, 34 ; Harrison, 34, 227 ; Roscoe, 46 ; McGhie, 48 ; Moore, 49 ; Husson, 51 , 53 ; Armstrong, 54-8 ; Schlink, 58-76; Birrell, 78-79; MacLea, 79-80; Kennedy, 81 ; Wall, 82-5; vVallace, 88-91 ; Wilkinson, 91 ; Mc.Gouen, 97; Higgs, 98-99; Hudson, 100 ; Cockett, 100 ; Donald, 104-5; Fleming, 109; Thomas, 110-111 ; Walters, 112; Bennett, 113-114; Thompson, 115-116; Simpson, 120; Cooper, 121 ; Chalker, 135; Thorne, 155; Orchard, 158, 161 ; Lawes , 161 , 164-204; Partiett, 164-5; Perkins, Dr., 167-171 ; Lawrence, 181, 182, 228, 229; Young, 182; Roberts, 183; Gunnell, 190; Finnamore, 190; Stuart (Sir

T. A.), 202; Henderson, 209, 210; Baines, 211 ; Titterton, 211; Fowler, 212; Hosking, 212; Smith, 213; Purser, Dr., 222-4 ; F etherstone, Dr. , 224-227. B. (2).- Creft, 11 ; Moore, 49; Husson, 51 ; Kennedy, ; Thomas, 110;

Walters, 112; Lawes, 162; Henderson, 210; Titt erton, 211. · B. (4).-Coates, 18; Harrison, 35; MacLea, 80; Kennedy, 81; Wilkinson, 92; McGouen, 94-7; Hudson, 100; Woods, 112; Thompson, 115; Chalker, 135; Field, 198; Hosking, 213, 213, and exhibits (A.7) and (A.S).

B. (3).-Latrines.- The site chosen for the latrines seems to be the most suitable the purpose in the Camp. The latrines, themselves, however, are neither roofed

In nor floored, the consequence being that in wet weather it is impossible to use them with any degree of comfort. It appears to be unavoidable also t hat a certain amount of urine should remain on the ground round the pans, and be carried about on the men's boots to the tents and huts. . ·

This objection would disappear if the floor s were cement ed and flushed occasion- ally with a hose. .

. The fact that no bghts are provided within the enclosures and no privacy is obtainable greatly added t o the disco}nfort of t he men. The latrines were certainly in an insanitary condition, and t his was chiefly due to the fact that they were neither ro ofed nor floored.

Their condition from time to time may be ascertained by reference t o the following evidence:-Montague, 7, 8 ; Creft , 10; Roscoe, 46; Moore, 49 ; Armstrong, Dr. , 57 , 58; 166-7; 171-2; Wall, Dr ., 82 -3; Holland, 85 ; Martin, 97- 8 ; Donald, 104 ;

Just eliu , 107, 133; Hodgson, 108 ; Thomas, 110, 111 ; Bennett, 11 3; De Burgh, 118; Cooper, 121 ; Thompson , 122 ; Smith, 185 ; Harrison, 191 ; Scott, 200 ; Lawes, 204 ; Titterton, 211. . B. (5). - Doctor of German parrentage.-N o charge wa made again t Dr.

of disloyalty or of having had or at any time being identified with German sy1npathies . Mr. Orchard's st at ement was that the do ctor in charge was a German, of German parenta·ge, . and wa believed t o have German ympatbie .

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. Dr. Schlink admittedly has a German name, and is of German parentage. The evidence also clearly proves that some of the men believed that he had German sympathies . See the eviderice of Orchard, 27-31 ; 159-61 ; Leathart, 31-32; Husson, 52; Birrell, 78; MacLea, 80; Kennedy, 81 ; Holland, 85; Wilkinson, 111 ; Walters, 112; Chalker, 135; McKinnon, 149-152; Schlink, 156-7; Fallon, 183-4.

The impropriety and inexpediency of the appointment in war time of a person of German name and German parentage to a position in connexion with the defence of the eountry is so apparent as to call for no comment. The evidence to which I have referred proves that the appointment did, in the opinion of a large number of the soldiers, impair the satisfa ctory administration of the A.M.C. Another circumstance to which I wish to draw attention relates to the eonditions of Dr. Schlink's appointment. He was allowed the privilege of attending to his private practice in Sydney every morning. I find a large military camp in which t he staff of the A.M.C. is inadequate, and where there is no continuity of administ ration, because the doctors are constantly coming

and going- some being sent t o the front with the troops and others taking ·their places with no experience of A.M .C. work. Then I find that the officer commanding the A.M.C. did not come on dut y till about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Is it possible that any concern-business, hospital, hotel, what you will-could be properly and satis-factorjly managed under such circumstances ? ·

I strongly disapprove of the practice of allowing any officer of the permanent staff such a privilege. He should give his whole time to his work. There must be no conflict bet ween dut y and interest. In my opinion half service is no service. I wish it t o be clearly understood that I am expressing no opinion with regard to Dr. Schlink's zeal or efficiency, or powers of organization, or professional ability.

There was no charge or suggestion against Dr. Schlink with regard to any of these matt ers.

DRAUGHTY HuTs : CLEANSING oF HuTs : DRINK.

C. (1 ).-Mr. Orchard's charges in relation to the construction of huts and the consequent eff ect on t he health of the Camp have been investigated with as little restric­ tion as possible. I have considered evidence on the design of the huts, and also on how far health has been affected by the partieular designs ; and in addition I have gone further and eRdeavoured to ascertain what additional causes, if any, contributed to t he illness es con1plained of. I have come to the conclusion that the huts are draughty and t hat t he draughts, in many cases, were the cause of serious colds. Other contri­ buting causes were : t hat after wet weather water was often allowed to remain under the huts and in_ pools about t he streets and passages in the Camp; that the blankets used by the men were not sufficiently aired and sunned ; that the clothing supplied to the men was, at t iines, insufficient ; that no provision was n1ade for drying clothes, and that t he arrangement s for washing and bathing were inadequate; that after inoculation the syst em is lowered and men become susceptible to sickness; that some of the men get drunk and lie out all night in the cold and wet ; that there is a large body of troops encamped on a more or less confin.ed space ; that the men are constantly mixing with the people in town and city, and that people in large numbers visit the Camp. The draughts in the huts are due chiefly to the open spaces of about 2 feet between the roof and the top of the walls. The opening was left designedly to secure thorough ventila­ tion, and for t hat purpose is e1ninently desirable, especially in summer. An attempt was made to as certain a means of leaving the spaces for ventilation, and at the same time abolishing t he draught. Mr. E. A. Scott's suggestion, which will, I think, be satisfact ory, was t o n1ake a further opening along the ridge of the structure with a cowl outside and a shield to deflect t he draught. It would be well to seek the advice of experts before determining the t ype of all huts.

The officers in charge of units should insist upon careful cleansing and spraying of the huts. The evidence is as follows :-Montague, 7, 8 ; Creft, 9, 12, 13 ; Kennedy, 17 ; Roscoe, 45 ; McGhie, 47, 48; Moore, 49; Armstrong, Dr ., 57, 58; Kennedy, 81 ; Donald 103-4-5 · Just elius, 106-7, 133; H odg on, 107, 114, 115; Thomas, 110; Bennett, 113; De,Burgh, 116, 11 8; 116-7 ; Coop er, 121; Thompson, 121-122; Stanley, 136-148; Orchard, 158; Perkins, Dr. , 169 ; Smith, 185, 187; Scott, 199, 200 , 201 , 203; Allen, 210; Holyoak, 211 ; Baines, 211 ; Titterton, 211 ; Hosking, 212.

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Drink.-The evidence before me (Coates, page 215) was that the liquor sold at Liverpool and the vicinity was free from adulteration and up to standard, except in one instance, where the sample taken was five points below standard, the dilution being water. I have no evidence as to the purity of liquor sold elsewhere, except that the effect of some of the liquor on the men was so extraordinary as to suggest alcoholic poisoning (Dr. Schlink, page 65). The effect of excessive drink is to impair the efficiency of the soldiers, and endanger their health in the way I have 1nentioned above, and to expose them to temptations they might otherwise avoid.

If all hotels were closed to soldiers for the sale of liquor it is a matter of policy about which I express no opinion whether a wet canteen should be allowed where the . quality and quantity of liquor are under strict control, and the profits are paid back to the soldiers, or a canteen should be established in which liquor would be supplied

under a doctor's order, or what other steps should be taken to supervise effectively the sale of drink.

C. (2).-STORAGE oF BREAD IN H uTs : KITCHEN AccoMMODATION: DISTRIBUTION oF FooD: AND CLEANSING oF EATING UTENSILS. The practice of keeping bread uncovered in huts will be put a stop to

by the provision for lockers now being made. The carriage of bread to the lines by hand should be discontinued, and the use of light hand carts substituted. It has been freely admitted by all parties concerned in the inquiry that the quality of the food supplied is the best obtainable.

The preparation of the food for cooking, the cooking itself, and its distribution as rations, leave much to be desired. In the fir st place the cutlery supplied to some of the butchers is wholly unsuitable and inadequate for the purpose of severing the portions of the carcass. In most cases, all that is supplied to the butcher is an ordinary dinner knife of inferior steel, and tables unsuited for the purpose for which they were intended. Again, the butchers and cooks are called upon to work in the evenings after dark, and in the mornings before daylight. In some cases the only lighting available is supplied by candles, while at most the supply is from hurricane lamps.

The cooks up till now in the Infantry Camp have had to perform their work in the open, and in bad weather the disadvantages of this practice are obvious. In to the authorities, however, I should point out t hat ordinary field kitchens

were in course of construction before the Con1n1ission sat, and appeared to contain adequate provision for the proper · preparation of the food. The distribution of the food is very unsatisfactory. There are no mess sheds, and the men are not supposed to t ake the food into the huts. The dixies are brought to the men as they squat about t he ground. I n some cases there is a scramble for the food, witli the result that the last to come is the least served. Pannikins, to which soil

or sand is adhering, are dipped into the dixies with unwholesome and insanitary res ults. The method of cleaning the dixies and eating utensils in vogue may very easily have constituted one of the chief causes of illness at the Camp. It appears that hot water and soda were available for the purpose in quantities which it impossible for me to ascert ain definitely; but it is undoubt ed that the general practice prevailing in the Camp was to clean these articles with cold water and sand. The sand used must, in many cases, have been impregnated with urine and expectoration. This practice

prevailed in spite of definite rules and medical advice to the contrary. The mere mention of this fact necessarily carries with it the most strenuous condemnation of the highly objectionable practice . My recommendations (Nos. 7 and 8) will, I think, do away with these unsatis­ factory conditions.

The evidence under these heads is :-0. (2).-Montague, 7 ; Kennedy, 17 ; Orchard, 158 ; Dawkin ·, 199 ; Creft, 9, 10, 12, 13; Roscoe, 45; 1 YicGhie, 47, 48; Moore, 49; Hus. om, 51 -53 ; Elli , 76 ; Lipshutt, 87; Newell, 93; McGouen, 96; Harrison, 117; Si1n pso n, 120 ; Sta ley,

136-148; Smith, 185-188; Levitt, 198; Scott, 200, 204; V\ oolley, 206; Allen, 210; Holyoak, 210; Baines and Titterton, 211 ; Doig, 213 ; Holland, 85; Wilkinson, 92 , 93; Martin, 98; Thomas, 111 ; Bennett, 114; De Burgh, 11 8-119; Arm tr'ong, Dr., 172.

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D.-PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT IN GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMP IN REGARD TO CLOTHING AND HousiNG Acc oMMODATION.

The .better conditions which obtain at this Camp are a startling instance of the benefi.t of .decentralization, combined with t he virtue of intrusting full power or freedom of action to a man who is not afraid of exercising his responsibilities, and whose b;usiness training enables him to organize and administer the Camp under his command upon efficient and orderly lines. In this war between nations, the time is fully ripe for organizing t he services of all classes of the community. Professional men have already been mobilized. Business men might' well be empoyed in matters where their training and experienc e would be of the greatest advantage to the military authorities, e.g., in connexion with ordnance and on finance committees.

The evidence as to the German Camp is that of Sands, 40-45; Pirie, Dr ., 77.

E.- MISCELLANEOUS.

(1.)- It appears from t he evidence of Captain Thorne, page 214, that the horses at the remount depot were short of food on t he 11th to the 13th May, and on the 12th June last, and Mr . Downes, adjutant of the Light Horse, deposes to a shortage in his lines from the lOth t o the 23rd June last; the same witness at page 215 says that on the 14th of May last , nosebags were wanted badly , and from then on till 9th July last; meantime oat bags were used. At page 214, lVIr. Downes stated that the Light Horse had always had good head stalls and good ropes to tie the horses up with. With regard to this charge, see also the evidence of Higgs, 98-99; Cockett, 100; Simpson, . 120 ; Orchard, 158 ; McGrath, 207 ; Tunks, 221-222.

(2. )- This charge was not pressed. Mr. Innes admitted that' Colonel Kirkland's reasons for making the order for restricting the officers' leave were adequate. The. Commandant said t hat when he assumed command he found that there were 700 to 800 men in the I nfantry Brigade absent daily without leave, and that all the officers were absent except one or t wo. Aft er consultation with the District Commandant, the Camp Commandant issued Routine Order 159, placing restrictions on excessive leave, (see page 17 4).

(3. )- The arrangement of carting water from the water fire cock to the Measles Contact Camp every day during the past five months is not economical. The pipe could have been laid to the Camp at a cost of about £10; Donald, page 104; Thorne, page 155.

F. (1 ).-CENTRALIZATION.

One of t he causes to which Mr. Orchard attributed the maladministration of the Camp was t he syst em of centralization, necessitating communication with headquarters in 1\a:elbourne fo r official confirmation of comparatively trivial details. No doubt the system in substance does prevail. Dr . Schlink said it took him a month to get financial authority to erect a shelter shed for sick men on parade; that. he had requisitioned on the 9th June last for a number of cottage hospital requisites, and up to date had had no reply ; and that it had taken a long time to shift the hospital to its

present site. These for m a sample of t he many instances which might be cited from the evidence showing the delay in obtaining recognised necessaries ; and the suggestion has been made that this might be obviated by abolishing the whole system of requisi­ tions for supplies on headquart ers and a system of decentralization.

R eference has been made to observations of General Sir Ian ·Hamilton in para­ graph 73 of his report, wit h t he obj ect of showing that in t he opinion of that distin­ guished organizer the system adopt ed here wo;uld not be able to stand the strain of demands made upon it during t he war. Evidence was given at the request of the Department by Mr. McAnderson (pages 208, 209 ), who attempt ed t o deal with the question. He pointed out the probable advantage of giving the Dist rict Commandants a freer hand in the management of their district s, but at the same time he strongly emphasized the difficult y of adopting t his course in the case of a Public Department. H e was appar­ ently unable t o suggest t o me any rational alteration of the present syst em.

While I fully recognise t hat it would be desirable t o decentralize as much as possible, t he suqcess of the scheme of decentralization mu t obviously depend on the ability of the individuals who are intrusted with the local management. ·

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The scheme of allocating t he military vote arno:rig , the rnihtary districts and allowing the district headquarters a free hand in the expenditure of the amount so allocated to each district, could only be put in force at the commencement of the financia 1 year. Such a scheme requires great administrative ability, considerable powers of

organization, and large experience in military contracts. I am unable to say vvhether the personnel of district headquarters possesses these qualities. The recommendations I have n1ade with regard to keeping district

fully stocked in advance, No. 15 (d), and the provision for a pet ty cash account aud a district finance committee, No. 15 (e), will, if carried out with courage and detern1ina­ tion, enable the present syste1n to be worked with efficiency during the continuance of this war.

It must also be borne . in mind that any change in system at the present time, when the Department is taxed to its utmost capacity, would be fraught with a great danger of dislocation. An instance of delay or of failure to carry out recommendations made by t he Minister is supplied by consideration of the Minister's min,ute of the 9th 1\iarch. That provides, inter alia, for the roofing of cooking places, shower enclosures, and shelters for supplies. The necessary financial authority in connexion with these works was

not obtained until the 1st April, 1915. At the date of the Inquiry, although there had been urgent necessity for carrying out the work, it had not been carried out .

(2. )- LACK OF INITIATIVE.

I consider that the system which prevailed before the war of referring a number of petty details to headquarters had the effect of paralyzing the initiative of the officers. War Letter 81 , which came into force upon the declaration c,f

war, failed in its object for one reason, because the officers having been trained '' to pass it on" either shirked their responsibility, or were incapable of successfully executing the larger power which had devolved on them. This is evidenced by the fact that these powers were afterwards curtailed on the 26th April, 1915, by War Letter 1521 1

GENERAL.

In the course of the Inquiry, lVIr. Innes drew my attention to the fact that there was a very · serious discrepancy between the numbers of men passing the doctors' test at the and those actually enlisting.

This matter, as I pointed out to him, does not fall within the sc ope of my

Commission. The matter, however, demands attention, and t he remedy t hat suggests itself is to swear the men in immediately upon their passing the doctors' test and before giving them leave. If t hey then fail to re-app.ear they can be treated as deserters.

Defect s in post al and telephonic matters were remedied at my suggestio n during the Inqp.iry. I consider that the recommendations which I have had the honour to 1nak to Your Excellency will introduce much needed reform, and will place the Camp on suc!J. a basis as will admit of its discharging its functions with a maximun1 of efficiency and a

minimum of discomfort and hardship. In order, however, to carry out any measure of reform, it is essential that th administration of the Camp should be handed to officers who are prepared to give their sympathetic and whole-hearted attention to the performanc of their duties, and wh,

may be trusted to display uch a degree of t horoughness as leaves nothing to chanc,__, or muddling through. . It must be remembered that the men who cmne into Camp are raw recruit. , and there are no old soldiers among them to inform them of t heir right. , Under

circumstances the officers in charge of Units should exercise more than ordinary car _, in seeing that all their reasonable requirements are attended to. While not from assuming and exerci.·ing the re ponsibility which i required of the1n, offi er · w 1H remember that it ha·s alway been regarded a an axiom of military admini trationin th __

Briti h Army that the comfort and well being of the men are the paramount duty f the officer , and that th m n : in re.· · m ·t k pr ede , f h . f h offi r ·

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The recruits are offering their lives for their country, and they are entitled to reasonable care and comfort without coddling and pampering. The duty of the Camp officers -is to train and harden the men by plenty of exercise and good food, and enable them to take the field fit and well. .

The Spartan-like method of exposing soft recruits to unnecessary privations and hardships ·is not only cruel, but calculated to endanger their lives. In many cases the men may be permanently incapacitated and so become a burden on the country before they have had a chance of fighting on its behalf. This method, while increasing . the expense of ;:tdministration, impairs the efficiency of the force, and diminishes the

numbers ready for active service. I have the honour to be, Your Excellency's Humble and obedient servant,

RECOMMENDATIONS.

1. ADMINISTRATION OF CAMP.

G. E. RICH, Royal Commissioner.

The administration of the -Camp should be entrusted to a permanent staff, composed of Officers, N.C.O's. and men, none of whom is to be available for service at . the front. The men and as many as possible of the officers and N.C.O's. should be supplied by mobilization from the Citizen Forces.

This permanent sta:ff should carry on the whole administrative routine duties of the Camp, leaving the men of the A.I.F. entirely free to train for the duties which will be required of thmn at the front. Routine duties to be perforn1ed by the men of the A.I.F only as part of their drill and instruction.

The permanent staff will provide the following :­ (a) The sanitary.squad; (b) the rnilitary police and Provost's staff and men; (c) all order lies ; (d) all officers' servants ; (e) all orderly ro01n and other clerks, typists, and secretaries; (f) sergeant or master cooks, to train cooks of the A.I.F. ; (g) the staff of the Camp Adjutant's Department (including the orderly

' room clerks, typists, and secretary) ; and (h) the staff of the Camp Quarter-Master.

2. For facility of administration the Liverpool Camp should be divided into areas, corresponding more or less with Brigade Areas. A Brigade Area should have a ce:n,tral permanent staff, and be subdivided into four smaller areas corresponding with Battalion Areas. ·

Each Battalion Area should be officered also with its own permanent staff. The Battalion Area should include four depot companies, and if necessary a certain nu1nber of Reinforcements or other Expeditionary Units for purposes of receiving medical attention, &c.

Each Battalion Area would be co-terminous with a hospital and dental area, one doctor, and, if possible, one dentist, residing in the lines of. each Battalion Area, with Pannier or Field Ambulance.

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The staff required for each Battalion Area would probably be the following:­ One doctor (with field pannier) ; one Adjutant; and one Regimental Quarter-1\Iaster ; in addition to the staff for each of the four depot Companies to be comprised in such area ; each of such depot Companies would require an O.C. (who might, as now, be a

Staff Sergeant-Major), a Company Sergeant-Major (second in command), and a Company Quarter-Master Sergeant. Each. Regimental Quarter-Master would require a R egimental Quarter-Master's store, and the necessary assistants (to be furnisl:red as above stated from the Citizen Forces).

3. The size of the Staff required for the Liverpool Camp or any other Camp will, of course, depend upon the number of troops to be trained there at any one time, and the number of Brigade Areas into which it is to be divided. The adoption of this system will be of immense advantage, as jt will permit of expansion, as the number of recruits increase. Immediately one Battalion Area is filled with its complement of men, the staff for another Battalion Area can be appointed, and the skeleton battalion made ready for the new recruits. Similarly, when one Brigade Area has been completed, a

fresh Brigade Staff can be appointed and preparations made for a new Brigade Area. Further advantages resulting from the adoption of this system will be­ (1) continuity of ad1ninistration ; (2) each department and area will be self-contained;

(3) decentralization combined with responsibility ; and (4) on the Camp being reduced in size, the staff can be at once reduced by doing away with one or more areas, without affecting the personnel or impairing the efficiency of the rest of the staff. Each area will in fact be a complete administrative unit in skeleton fo rm, requiring

only to be filled up with the 1nen as the recruits come into Camp and form the depot Companies. When the officers fo r a definite A.I.F. Battalion, have been appointed, the Commanding Officer will take over from the Battalion Area Adjutant the men in his area who are to form the new A.I.F. Battalion ; and as soon as t he Commanding Officer of the A.I.F. Battalion has got control of his organization the pern1anent staff of that particular Battalion Area will be available to organize a fresh Battalion Area. This principle will be equally applicable, with 1nodifications, for the despatch of Reinforce­ ments.

4. There shquld be an Armoury at the Camp, consisting of a small room as armourer's shop, fitted with an armourer's bench and the usual kit of armourer's tools, as issued in the service. It is desirable that a storeroom be attached to t he armourer's shop. In this room "expanse stores," such as oil, flannelette, &c., could be kept and issued to the depot troops. " Drill pattern " rifles, not on actual issue to troops, could

be kept there also. Simple arm racks along the walls, and shelving, to be provided in each room. A building, 30 fe et x 15 feet, with 10 feet partitioned off (a door in the partition) should suffice. Rifles should be issued to recruits the third week after they are in Camp, and these rifles should be those the men are to fight with themselves, and not a loan issue.

Before troops are sent into the firing line, adequate musketry drill and rifle practice are essential.

5. ARMY MEDICAL AND DENTAL CoRPS : MoBILIZATION oF C IVILI AN S E RVICES. (a) I recommend the appointment of a permanent staff consisting of t he follow­ ing :-1 Major, 2 Staff Sergeants, 2 Dispensers, 4 Sergeants, 8 Corporals, 2 Cooks. Doctors should be posted in the Areas as I have already suggest ed.

No officer of the permanent staff should be allo wed t he privilege of privat e practice. (b) A Dental Corps and a Base Hos pital in connexio n with t he Camp should be formed under the command of an officer holding the rank of Major, and subordinate

officers holding the rank of Captain. Accommodation should be provided at the Camp itself for the purpose of examination of patients, extractions and t reatln ent . The t reatment should be conl­ pleted at the Base Hospital (see the evidence of Captain Donald Smith, and Exhibit

A. 44 and A. 45).

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(c) The services of Doctors and Dentist s not in the forces should be made use of. They mobilized and granted temporary commissions. In this way the A.M. C. would obtain the benefit of the help of senior and experienced doctors. In enrolling rnembers of the should be given to recruits who have already had

ambulance and sanitary expenence. ·

or forms should be provided in the waiting tent in the A.M.C. lines.

(d) Where soldiers are on sick leave from Camp or hospital, advantage should be taken of the homes provided by the Red Cross and similar societies. Lists of the homes should be sent to the Officer Commanding A.M. C., and he should be kept informed from tin1e to time of the space available in these homes.

. (e) Until the installation of a septic system latrine pans in hospitals should be pa1nted green, and in venereal compounds red, to distinguish thmn from those used in the ordinary latrines ..

6. PuBLIC HousEs.

All public houses throughout the Commonwealth should be closed to soldiers for the sale of liquor. Alternatively the public houses at Liverpool and within a radius of :five 1nilesof the Camp, should be closed to soldiers at 6 o'clock. (See War Precautions Regulations 1915, r. 12) .

Pickets should be placed in or near the hotels and instructed to see that no drink is carried away fr on1 the hot els by the soldiers in bottles or other receptacles for liquor. A further alternative is to place these hotels out of bounds. The sale of liquor to civilians and sn1uggling by them to soldiers should be strictly prevented.

7. LIGHT.

Electric light t o be installed throughout the Camp ; including the huts.

8. KITCHE N A c coMM ODATION AND DISTRIBUTION oF FooD : MEss SHEDS : CLEANSING OF EATING UTENSILS.

(a) The erection of covered-in kitchens with suitable working accommodation for cooks and assistant s and adequat e lighting. Proper drainage should be constructed from the kitchens. I{it chen t ables should be fitted with lockers for storage of tea, coffee, &c. , and properly constructed fly-proof butchers ' shops should be erected near the kitchens .

(b) The en1ployn1ent of trained co oks, many of whom are to be found in the ranks. There should be a periodical n1edical inspection of these cooks and their cleanliness should be insisted upon. (c) The supply of adequate in1plem.ents to the butchers and cooks, namely, proper butchers' knives, steels, choppers, blocks, t ables and large covered dixies for pealed vegetables. .

(d) The strictest supervision of the cleansing of all cooking and eating utensils. To provide t he facilit ies, t here should be a full supply of hot water and soda available at all t1mes . (e) Light covered hand carts to be provided fo r delivering brea d and meat.

(f) Dining sheds with cen1ent flo ors should be provided. These should be enclosed vvith wire gauze, &c ., to prevent any discomfort or the contmnination of food which

would be caused by the prevalence of dust and flies during the summer. They should be lighted with elect ric light so that they may used at night time by the 1nen for · recreation purposes. If these sheds are not trestle tables and should

be provided in the huts. Instructions should be g1ven t o the officers to 1ns1st upon the orderly distribution of food.

9. :HoT WATER, PLUNGE B ATHS, v.,r AS H Ho usES, ABLUTION BENCHES, SHOW E RS.

(ct ) Overhead tanks with taps to be erect ed and a steam boiler to supply stea1n to water. This boiler can also be used fo r t he heating and room, . a?-d supplying hot water for wash houses and plunge baths, and for the of d1x1es and eating utensils.

(b) Hot water plunge baths.

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(c). Wash houses for washing clothes to be provided. . . (d) Ablution benches should be provided consisting of a sufficient nu1nber of taps placed over a galvanized iron trough wit h a slight fall towards a sink at one end. Gro:und to be concreted for a distance of 2 feet 6 inches from the face of the bench , the

fall inwards leading . by a s1nall drain to the sink. The back bearer being 4 inches wide to carry brushes, &c.

(e) Grids or boards to be placed under the showers, and where t he bathers stand when dressing; pegs or hooks to be placed to hold the clothes of the bathers.

10. AIRING AND DISINFECTING BLANKETS AND DRYING C LOTHES.

(a) Blankets to be marked so that each man can retain his own. (b) Provision for disinfecting blankets, &c., and for drying clothes by t he erection of a sterilizing and drying plant. The use of the drying ground in fine weather should be insisted on for airing clothes and drying washing.

(d) Where the blankets are washed and sterilized by contract, care should be taken to see that the operation is supervised.

11. VENEREAL CoMPOUND.

Men suffering from venereal diseas es should be sent to some distant Ca mp, as is the case in Langwarrin Camp in Vi ctoria. If this is not done a barbed wire entangle­ ment consisting of two fences at a short distance apart, should be placed round the present isolation Camp and the wire electrified to prevent the escape of the prisoners

12. HuTs.

The draught in the huts is a matter essentially for expertH . I recommend the adoption of the remedies suggested by the well known Sydney architect, Mr. Ernest Scott. They are as follows :-" The more open type of hut is the better, and I should suggest t he following

alterations in accordance wit h attached sketch. The width would be 17 feet t o allow of 12 inches either side for lockers, 6 feet 3 inches either side for beds, wit h a 2 feet 6 inches wide central corridor. " The lockers to be on either side of huts, 3 fe et x 18 inches x 12 inches,

and made moveable in sections of three, having t he t op and riser hinged, the latt er chiefly for cleaning purposes, and fixed backs, ends and botton1s wit h staples, so that each · man can lock up his kit, wit h hooks over lockers. This will prevent the draught from striking directly on the heads of the m.en and direct it upwards,

as shown by arrows. The space between top of iron of walls and unden:; ide of plate to be 15 inches, with sheet of iron t urned inwards, fo llowing rake of roof and turned up 2 inches on inner edge . This will direct the air upwards and not allow it to

strike too directly on t he men. The ridge to be ventilating as shown with the ends of iron turned up 9 inches with a sen1i- circ ular ridge coming within 6 inches of iron of roof. "Neither the roofs nor walls should be lined, to prevent as much as possible the infection by vermin.

" In very frost y climates it may be necessary to line the ceiling to prevent the dropping of water on the men by condensation of heated air early in the morning;:; , bu t this is not likely in Sydney or Liverpo l with well ventilated huts. " With a view t o airing bedding I should suggest that gibbet brackets 2 feet long be hinged to walls every three feet externally, held in po ·ition when open d out

or closed back by a stout cabin hook. These being under the projecting portion of roof will be protected. The blankets, brackets, and bed space, ho uld be numbered to ensure the bedding ,being replaced by t he hut order lie in their proper position on the floor.·." " \Vhere the huts are considered as permanent the board · to be laid close -j ointed longitudinally. If temporary, t o be laid in ections t he full width f hut by 5 f et wide,

and at t he junc tions the tongue will fit into the gro ove of adjoining s ·tion .nd prev. nt any crack in floor to allow draught, ·oJn what aft r e .· T.'te n1 adopted 1n · ' ships ho lds, the section · being se ·ured to ether a centre and ends by 12 x :n

x 1 inch cleat s, the side· of t he e ·ection resting on cro · · bearer · with 4 inch x 2 1nch trimming at ends of joist s.

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" The height of huts to be 9 feet from floor to plate, roof pitch 2.0 degrees. much floor space per man as possible, as it is more important than cubic area, and In no case less than 25 super. feet." Any dra/ught arising from the openings in the. floorings the wal.l plates will be prevented by the construction of the lockers whwh are bmng placed In the huts. The type of locker which I have seen is faulty in and cannot be cleaned

owing to the opening being on the top. The opening should be made from the floor outwards so that the locker can be kept clean. Mattresses should be provided especially where the men are sleeping in the huts. The o-round round and under the huts to be drained into the street channels. 0 .

G..€OVJYLJ

The huts to be swept daily, scrubbed -and sprayed weekly. If meals are taken in the huts they should be carefully swept, and broken food collected and removed after each meal. ·

I recommend that the advic'e of experts be obtained before determining the type for all future huts. Having regard to the necessity for isolation of contacts, I suggest for consideration the necessity for subdividing the huts by wooden partitions into three or more spaces.

In addition the huts and tents should be fitted with rifle racks and hooks for clothes.

13. DRAINAGE AND FORMATION OF STREE TS. . The streets in the .Camp should be formed and drains cut. An adequate supply of cinders for the formatwn of the streets can probably be obtained from the Railway authorities.

Depressions throughout the Camp should be filled in. Surface water shou1d also be drained oft

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. 14. LATRTNES.

The latrines must be protected from the weather and a complete septic system installed. In this system pedestal pans should be provided and to insure privacy there should be small partitions between the pans carried not lower than the level of the seat or higher than a rnan's head when sitting. The floor should be concreted and the

necessary facilities should be provided for flushing. The seats should be thoroughly scrubbed each day. Sufficient lighting should also be provided to facilitate and encourage the utmost care on the part of the men ii1 their use of the latrines.

Latrines in camps where there is no septic systen1 should be protected fro n1 the weather. There should be covers for the pans and the seats should not be more than one inch above the pan. Pans when full should be carefully removed so that the contents should not be spilled during the transit.

Urine tubs should be placed at night in the lines outside the huts and tents. " 'Vhatever form the latrine takes, its successful managen1ent depends upon the enforcement of individual sanitary discipline, adequate personnel, and competent administrative control and supervision." ·

15. MISCELLANEOUS.

(a) A clothes-store should be provided for the men's civilian clothes. (b) The Camp should be notified of the number of recruits to arrive each day. This information should be promptly conveyed to the permanent staff of the battalion which is to receive the recruits in question. The recruits should arrive there · in the early part of the day. ·

In anticipation of their arrival the Ca1np Quarter-Master should provide their rations and equipment, e.g., greatcoats ; dup.garees (two suits) ; underclothing (two suits) ; hats, socks ; blankets, water-sheet ; straw and ticking (mattress) ; eating and drinking utensils.

The Depot Band should meet the recruits and play them into Camp. Upon arrival they should be provided with a hot meal. Immediately afterwards their rations and equipment should be given to them. (c) Embarkation of troops to take place at a time which does not necessitate

their departure from Camp at too early an hour. (d) Headquarters to take care that District Ordnance store is always fully stocked a month or two in advance with the full requirements of all forces to be raised and equipped in each district.

(e) The Commandant of a Camp to be credited with a petty cash account of say £500 , upon which he is at liberty to draw for small items of expenditure. As regards heavy items of expenditure which cannot properly be met out of this petty cash, there should be a Finance Cmnmittee at District Headquarters for each

Military District, composed of the District Commandant, the Assistant Q.M.G., the District Principal Medical Officer, and the District Paymaster. To this Con1mittee all heavy items might be referred; its decision to be final if in favour of the expendi­ ture, with, however, a right of appeal to Federal Headquarters if the District Finance Comn1ittee decide against the suggested expenditure.

(f) Notices should be posted in the huts and in other conspicuous places informing the men of the outfit jn detail to which they are entitled, and t he proper method of Dbtaining the same. (g) A list should also be posted in each hut or tent of the men occupying such

hut or tent, and opposite each n1an' s na1ne should be set out t he distinguishing numbers ·of his rifle and blankets respectively. (h) The police of the State should be asked to co -operate with the '\!Iilitary Police in order to prevent the vit>its of women of loose rnorals to t he Camp or its vicinity.

(i) Provision, at the Liverpool Railway Station, for draftjng yard for horses in connexion wi.th the Remount Depot. G. E. RICH, Royal Commissioner.

\>rinted and Published for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMO W EALTH of A "STRAT.T .'. b v ALBERT J · M LLETT > Government Printer for the State of Victoria. ·

.If.ll784.-B.

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