Title Secret Drugs, Cures and Foods - Report of Royal Commission on
Source Senate
Date 08-08-1907
Parliament No. 3
Tabled in Senate 08-08-1907
Parliamentary Paper Year 1907
Parliamentary Paper No. 28
System Id publications/tabledpapers/HPP032016003242_2


Secret Drugs, Cures and Foods - Report of Royal Commission on

1907.

(SECOND SESSION.)

THE PARLIAMENT OP THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

SECRET DRUGS, CURES, AND FOODS-.

\

REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON.

(VOLUME I.)

Presente(l by Command; Olf'dered by the House to be pnnted, 8th Aug1tst, 1907.

[Cost of Paper not given; 950 copies; approximate cost of printing and publishing, £477 8s.

Printed and Published for the GovERNMENT of the CoMMONWEALTH of AusTBALIA by "·· A. Guu.tc'K, Uovernment Printer of the State of New South Wales.

No. 28. •97267-(a -/1

·63

0}' CONTEN'TS.

PAGE.

I. COPY OF ROYAL COMMISSION v

:. AUTHORITIES CONSULTED ... . .. Vll

3· THE REPORT-INTRODUCTION I

DivisioN I.-PREVENTION oF CoNCEPTION, AND FCETICIDE 9 !I.-INFANTICIDE AND INFANTILE MoRTALITY ... 71

IlL-INJURY AND DEATH TO THE ADOLESCENT •·• 8g

IV.-INJURY AND DEATH TO ADULTS 137

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V .-ADVERTISEMENTS

Vl.-LEGISLATION ... 321

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 426

4· INDICES-

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 433

INDEX OF NAMES 444

INDEX OF DRUGS, DEATHS, AND "DOCTORS" (QUACK) 45 I

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[COPY OF CO.J!MISSION.]

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

EDWARD VII, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the

Faith, Emperor of India.

To

OCTAVIUS CHARLES BEALE, Esqu·ire. GREETING:-K N 0 W ye that We do, by these Our Letters Patent, appoint you to be a

Commissioner to inquire into the following matters:-(a) The manufacture, importation, announcements, offering for sale, sale and use of preparations commonly known as patent or proprietary medicines, and of drugs, alleged curative agents, medicinal preparations, toilet articles, foods,

and drinks, the composition of which is not dt'sclosed, and which are alleged to have medicinal or remedial properties ;

(b) the effects or consequences of the usc of any such articles; and

(c) the legislation and administration in Australia or elsewhere relating to any of the aforesaid matters :

and all matters relevant or material thereto :

AND WE require you, with as little delay as possible, to 1·eport to Our Govemor­ General in and over Our said Commonwealth the 1·esult of you1· inquiry into the aforesaid matters.

IN TEST I M 0 NY liV HERE 0 F We have caused these Our L etters to be made Patent, and the Seal of the Commonwealth to be affixed thereto.

WITNESS Our Trusty and Well.beloved HENRY STAFFORD, BARON NORTHCOTE, Knight Grand Cross of Our 1l'Iost Distinguished Order of Sa1:nt Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Commander of Our Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, Companion of our ill est Honourable Order of the Bath, Our Governor-General and Commander -in-Chief in and over

Our Commonwealth of Australia, this ele.venth day of December, in the year of Our Lord One thousand nine hundred ancl six, and in the Sixth Yertr of Our Reign.

(Sgd.) NORTH COTE, Governor-General.

By His Excellency's Command,

(Sgd.) ALFRED DEAIUN.

Entered on Record by me, in REGISTER OF PATENTS, No. 2, Page 347,

this eleventh day of December, One thousand nine hundred and six.

(Sgd.) ATLEE HUNT.

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AUTHORITIES.

IN the course of the preparation of this the following works, amongst others, have been consulted :-The British Medical Journal. (Series.) The Strand, London. Organ of the British Medical Association.

The Journal of the American Medical Association. (Series.) Organ of that Society. (Circu· lation, 49,000 copies weekly.) Chicago, Ill. The Lancet, London. (Series.) Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie; Octave Doin, Paris. (Series.) The Pharmaceutical Journal. (Series.) Organ of the Pharmaceutical bvc1ety of Greri.li B11tain,

Great Russell street, London. The Chemists' Annual, 1906. Same publishers. The Chemist and Druggist, 42, Cannon-street, London. (Series.) The Chemist and Druggist of Australasia. (Series.)

The Australasian Medical Gazette. (Series.) The Ethics of Marriage; Dr. H. Stirling Pomeroy, Boston, Mass. Of this book the Right Ron. W. E. Gladstone, in a four-page letter to the author, wrote :-" In your griefs and denunciations I sympat"\l,ise and share to the

as this you are at liberty to state when and where you will." Is Man Too Prolific? 1891. Same author. Funk and Wagnalls, Astor Place, New York. Pharmaceutical Formulas, " Chemist and Druggist Series." 1905. Journal of Mental Science. (Series.)

Reports of the Commissioners in Lunacy for Great Britain. Reports of the Inspectors of Lunatics for Ireland. Blochemisches Centralblatt, 1905, 1906. Leipzig, Borntraeger. Taylor's Medical Jurisprudence. Edited by F. J. Smith, M.A., M.D., Oxon., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S.

(Eng.); London, Churchill. 1905. Materia Medica and Therapeutics, by Roberts Bartholow. Appletons, Phila. 1904. Diagnostics of Internal Medicine, by Glentworth Reeve Butler, A.M., M.D. New York and · London, Appletons. 1904.

Diseases of the Skin; H. Radcliffe Crocker. Philadelphia, Blakistons. 1905. Pharmacy, Materia Medica afid Therapeutics; William Whitla, M.D. VIII Edition; 190lt Medicine. (Series.) Chicago and Philadelphia. Husband's Forensic Medicine, Toxicology and Public Health. 1904. Edinburgh, Livingstone.

System of Medicine ; Allbutt and Rolleston. 1906. Glaister's Medical Jurisprudence, Toxicology and Public Health. 1902. :Edinburgh, Livingstone. Diseases of the Skin. Stelwagon, Phila. 1902. Saunders. Medicine all.d the Public; S. Squire Sprigge. 1905. Heinemann, London. The Medical Annual. 1907. London, Simpkin, Marshall.

Adolesoence, 2 vols., G. Stanley Hall, Phil.D., LL.D., President, Clark University, Pre 'essor of Psychology and Pedagogy. New York, Appletons. 1905. Social .Evolution; Benjamin Kidd. 1902. London, Macmillan. Principles of Western Civilisation; Benjamin Kidd. 1902. Ibid.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry; Caspari. London, Kimpton. 1902. Text Book of Pharmacology; Torald Sollmann, M.D., Professor of Pharmacy, Cleveland, Ohio. Phila., Saunders. 1901. Manual of Pharmacology; W. E. Dixon, Exa.miner in Pha.rmacy to the Universities of Cambridge

and Glasgow. 1906. "The Times" Law Reports. (Series.) Intercolonial Medical Journal of Australasia. Melbourne, Stillwell. Centralblatt fiir die Medizinischen Wissenschaften. Redakteur, Profess0r Dr. M. Bernhardt,

Berlin.

Miinchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. Lehmann, l\'Hinchen. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. Berlin and Leipzig. Jrofessor Dr. Puppe (Konigsberg), Ueber die Gerichts rztliche Beurteilung der Kurpfuschereide­ Iikte (Vereinsbeilage der D. Med. Wochenschrift, Mai, 1905, XXXI, 774). The Medical Record, New York. (Series.) B

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Bulletin de l'Academie de Medecine, Paris. (Series.) Deutsches Archiv fur Klinische Medizin, Leipzig. (Series.\ Therapie der Gegenwart, Berlin. American Medicine. (Series.) Philadelphia. The American Illustrated Medical Dictionary; W. A. Newman Dorland. 1906. Phila., Saunders. Zeitschrift fiir Physiologische Chemic. 1906 et Series. Strassburg, Triibner. Zeitschrift fiir Physikalische Chemie. 1905 et Series. Leipzig, Engelmann. Justus Liebig's Annalen rler Chemie. 1905. Leipzig, Winter'sche Verlagshandlung. Revue Generale de Chimie. (Series.) Paris, Boulevard Malesherbes. Jahrbiicher der Gesammten Medizin. 1905. Leipzig, Hirtel. The Practitioner. (Series.) Edited by T. Lauder Brunton. London, Macmillan. Arzneibuch fiir das Deutsche Reich. Legal Medicine and Toxicology. Peterson and Haines, Saunders, Phila. 1904.

Materia Medica; Marshall. 1905. Poisons; A. Winter Blyth, M.R.C.S., F.C.S., Barrister-at-Law, &c., &c. IV Ed. 1906. Dr. Bergeret, Traite des Fraudes dans l'Accomplissement des Fonctions Generatrices. 1870. Paris. Professeur Edouard van der Smissen, University of Liege, Belgium; La Population, les Causes

de ses Progres et les Obstacles qui en Arretent l'Essor. Industrial America; J. H. Laughlin, Phil.D., Professor Political Economy, Univ. Chicago. London, Hodder and Stoughton. 1907. American Problems; James W. Baker, M.A., LL.D., President University of Colorado. London,

Longmans. 1907. What to do In Cases of Poisoning; William Murrell, M.D., F.R.C.P., &c. 1900. London, Lewis. Toxicology; Edwin H. Dwight, M.D., &c., &c. 1905. London, Hodder and Stoughton. Industrial Efficiency, 2 vols., Arthur Shadwell, I\1.A., M.D. 1906. London, Longmans. Foods and Food Adulterants, U.S. Department of Agriculture: Investigations made under

direction of H. W. Wiley, Chief of the Bure11u of Chemistry, by W. D. Bigelow, with the collaboration of Edward Mackay Chace, L. S. Munson, L. M. Tolman, and others; Part Tenth, Preserved Meats. Washington, Government Printer. 1902. Standards of Purity for Food Products, United States Department of Agriculture. 1904. Food Inspection Decisions, 1-25. Ibid. 1905.

Collier's Magazine. (Series.) P. F. Collier and Son, 416-424, West Thirteenth street, New York. The Ladies' Home Journal. (Series.) The Curtis Publishing Co., Phila. Patent Foods and Patent Medicines; by Robert Hutchison, M.D., Assistant Physician to London Hospital. London, Bale and Sons. Vorsehriften iiber den Handel mit Giften und die seitens der Einzelstaaten dazu herausgegebenen

Einfiihrungsverordnungen. Zusammengestellt und mit kurzen Erlauterungen versehen von Dr. H. Bottger (Redakteur der Pharmaceutischen Zeitung). 1898. Berlin, Julius Springer. Die Reichsgesetzlichen Bestimmungen iiber den Verkehr mit Arzneimitteln ausserhalb der Apotheken. Ibid. 1902. Die Preussisehe Apothekenbetriebsordnung und die Anweisung fiir die amtliehe Besiehtigung der

Apotheken. Ibid. 1905. Verzeichniss derjenigen Arzneimittel, welche nach Ansicht des Berliner Polizeiprasidiums dem freien Verkehr entzogen sind. Nach den neuesten Listen erganzt. 1906. Ibid. Die gesetzlichen Bestimmungen tiber die Ankundigung von Geheimmitteln, Arzneimitteln und

Heilmethoden im Deutschen Reiche einschliesslich der VorschrUten iiber den Verkehr mit Geheimmitteln. E. Urban, Redaktcur an der Pharmaceutischcn Zeitung. 1904. Ibid. Vorschriften des Bundesrats betreffend die Abgabe stark wirkender Arzneimittel sowie die Bes­ chaffenheit und Bezeichnung der ArzneigHiser und Standgetasse in den Apotheken. Ibid.

Die Nahrungsmittelgesetzgebung im Deutschen Reiche. Eine Samm1ung der Gesetze und wich­ tigsten Verordnungen betre:ffend den Verkehr mit Nahrungsmitteln, Genussmitteln und Gebrauchsgegenstanden, nebst den amtlichen Anweisungen zur chemischen Untersuchung derselben von Dr. K. von Buchka, Professor, Regierungsrath und Abtheilungsvorsteher im Kaiserl. Gesundheitsamte. 1901. Ibid. Gesetz betreffend den Verkehr mit Nahrungs- und Genussmitteln und Gebrauchsgegenstanden

nebst den Gesetze.n tiber den Verkehr mit blei- und zinkhaltigen Gegenstanden, die Verwendung gesundheitsschadlicher Farben &c., den Verkehr mit Butter, Kase, Schmalz (Margarine­ gesetz). Erlautert von Th. von der Pfordten. Munchen, C. H. Beck. 1901. Sammlung der Bestimmungen iiber die Priifung der Nahrungsmittel-Chemiker fiir das Deutsche

Reich und die einzelnen Bundesstaaten. Berlin, Springer. 1898. · Uebersicht iiber die Jahresberichte der offentlichen Anstalten zur technischen Untersuchung von Nahrungs- und Genuss- mitteln im Deutschen Reich fiir das Jahr, 1902. Bearbeitct im Gesundheitsamt. Berlrn. 1905. Springer

toMM:ISSioN

ON

>_ ', ,_--_ -_- :·._.,:' : _-_:. _;:_ -- __ .-._ ·-_.; ,: - -_-_- - ---- - ·---. .- - - -__ - -._' - - - ·-- -_-- ·-·- - -__ - 1

Td· .... .• Knight .•. Cross .of .the ..

· St .. :M-ichael a1;1d . S.t .... Geprge, CTranq . .. ·'- ..•.. . . , . ':. '-'' ': . • ·\·· CornnJahder_.of· .. the•·•·Most Emine,lt. Oxde.r .. .of .. tlle .. .. 9f MOst Order .of Bath, an:d! Co·mmander-in-Chief in over the Commonwealth of Australia .. MAY tou!i :Exc]J:idi:Nor,_;,. . I, your Ooll1fuissfonet, to inquire into the following rmittets =--(ti) The announcements, offering for sale, sale, and use. of . commonly known as patent or proprietary &1ld of_ d1·ugs, a1leged •. curative medicinal prepar_ ations, toilet drinks, the com.positiou. of which is not •• disclosed, and· W'nich are alleged· to: have· medicinal or remedial properties; (bl' r.pte consequences of the use of · any such articles ; and (d) in Australia or any of the aforesaid matters ; and all matters relevant or have honout to . the following report :-REPbRT. tN ••• j;?11r' Ex¢el1eJicy, in, . fulfi1Il1eiJ. t .pf •-• Royal· Oomn'lissiop, .. ·a •. Report upoi>=·tft:e:.investigatio.D, maidc .. i!lto·the malady which has so long afflicted qur it sho'Nld. the whole inquiry is sequent upon that made · :in N.ew ·&'9nth Wales,im 1908,dnto the Decline o£_ the Birth"'rate and the_ Mortality Cliild:ret1.. A ofthe duty of the last-named Royal Commissiop__was to examlne the h(Lde i11 secret .nostrums, in proprietary child-foods, .and in seer.et prepa:rations for tJie pravention of conception, and . for the destruction a,f the. huma.lk cmbrJ'O .• Themai11 of racial so vast in extent aud. in import t}Iat ad'e·quate inqpiry .could. not then be made into tho whole field by the paragraph. It became a part of my work, as a member of that to I;eport upon the nostrums mentioned. The present inquiry, at the instance firstly of your Excellency's Government, has therefore grown out of the former work. . ,. The s.cope of the Royal still wide:··. It includes af the domam of the former, 1nas;rn.uch as 1t deals w1th the proximate agents which, in_chief, bring abou't tne declifie in fertility, and those which affect in a high degree · · the *97267-A 69

the mortality of children. But it reaches far beyond, for it involves the whole range of life with the alleged and accepted, though secret, cm·ation of every kind of disease that affiicts mankind from birth to death; Your Commissioner has had the task of inquiring into a system far as Anglo-Saxondoll1 is concerned-is as all-embracing as the sea. The preservation of secrecy and of the privilege to deceive is absolutely indispensable to the traders whose traffic is reported upon, but the perpetuation of the advantages they now enjoy means moral corruption, physical deterioration, and national decadence. A high authority, as representing not merely the healing professions of Great Britain,. but in large measure of Europe­

The L{lnoet-recently wrote:-. . ' . Quackery has destroyed more in this country than the sword, famine, and pestilence united.

That statement could be corroborated by a hundred pages of lilw extracts, but it suffices, for the corroboration will be found within. The present is the first authentic and authoritative investigation made into the subject from a point of view that may be called international. It was surprising and disconcerting to discover no beaten tracks, no finger-posts in the wildm·ness of frauu and- wrong, yet gi·atifying beyond measure to find cle·a;rings, here and ·there,· accomplished· by earnest pioneers. Fine work in this, the cause of .humanity, has

been done. by _ the conductors of The Lam;et; of the B1·itish Medical Journal; Mr. Edward Bok, the brave and brilliant editor of the L'ldies' ·Home Journal (Philadelphia); the resolute :Mr. Samuel Hopkins Adams (of Collier's); the P harma­ oeutioal Jow·nal; the painstaking Hahn, in his Geheimmittel; Dr. William MurreJI, the authority on poisons; Dr. Ge01·ge li. Simmons, the earnest and conscientious

editor of the Journal of the Americcu'6 Jfedical Association (Chicago), assisted by his distinguished colleague, Dr. Harvey ,V. ·w"1ley, head of the Bureau of Chemistry (Washington D.O.), -and the indefatigable- Dr. Ly;man F .. Kebler;. even more conspicuously by Sir 'l'homas Stevenson and by Dr. :b,rcd. J. Smith, ex-editor and editor respectivdy of Tctylor's Medical Jurisprudence. ·There are many others, as this Report shows, who owed and who have discharged handsomely a debt to 1nankincl. . .

_Throughout the present work the intention' has- been to collect evidence from admitted authorities ·with little citation of persona1 ·observations, there only where it seemed adv;isable to add confirmation by_ showing that own circumstances are slmilar to those narrated by the said authorities.

Your Excellency will' observe that the argumentative faculty is avoided in this report as as possible. 'l'he design ha.s addupe_ facts within the

domain, and guiding parallels, which may assist Parliament to devise measures for the protection of the public in their most sacred relations . . Six divisions or chapters haye been [Ldopted :-I. Prevention of Conception and Fceticide.

II. Infanticide. III. Injury and Death to the Adolescent. IV. Injury and Death to Adults. V. Advertisements.

VI. Legislation. It is hoped that by contemplating one after another the various provinces qf the inquiry under what may be called natural classification, legislators and other readers will be able to form a more permanimt impression of the multifa1•ious evils of the traffic in secret drugs. The principle of deception has come to be recognised as an unwritten law, a prescripti-ve right, a sanction by long-continued though not immemorial custom. Under these divisions it will be seen how the evil has taken hold on our national life, whilst perception is afforded as to whither it is spreaqing.

Reference is thus also facilitated, and to that end an index is provided. Short explanations are supplied of the technical terms used by the professional men whose observations are cited. Precise definition is not intended. Much evidence has been reluctantly laid aside that might and would be instructive, because of the bulk that an exhaustive report would entail. The fact is that the subject is practically inexhaustible. Whithersoever one turns in the tangle of fraud the appearances are alike. The growths are indeed diverse, but all flourish ip. the one soil-deception. The competition is keen, even violent, as will be shown, yet in the resultant atmosphere they propagate their kind and luxuriate. '

For

For the same reason-bulkiness-no report is :presented upon infants' foods, secretly :prepared, and sold by means of advertisements. These foods-it is stated by analysts in various parts of the world-:-are usually, but not always, quack - preparations containing injurious and improper ingredie11ts. They are seldom dated,

so that, as pha1·macists have decla1·ed, the foods may be stale stocks from London or elsewhere, may reach, and do reach, the infants in a deteriorated or partially decomposed condition. · The frequency with which mothers refuse to, or are unable to nurse their babies, is much lamented. But sobs do not save. From the lack of the physical warmth and the maternal love and encouragement the baby is disadvantaged. When to that defect is added constant injury from starchy or other indigestible f'oods, plus opiates or acetanilide, the baby's chance of survival is small. The first

and chief legislative remedy is to place babies in the same protection by statute as that now afforded to chattel-animals-pigs, lambs, and calves. That will be explained under its p1·oper heading. To sell, or hold for sale, for the use of those and other chattel-animals in Great Britain, foods in the condition described, or

secret foods of any kind, is, happily, a punishable offence. : This Report _has been prepared by your Commissioner without secretarial of any kind. _ 'l'he object has been throughout to come into contact with

and ·scrutinise as closely as practicable the evidence tendered. Particular attention is drawn to the complete liberty of the packers of secret drugs, wron-gly called 1 ' patent," to vary the ingredients and the proportions of them 'vhilst using the

name, description, and testimonials attached to the nostrums. 'l'herefore, mere contradiction by.the vendors o_f the authoritative analyses, or variation of .the analyses themselves, is not to beaccepted as evidence of inaccuracy on the part ot analysts: Personal contact with the3e eminent men in the countries visited,

together. with personal inspection of their systems, practice, and results, justifies your Commissioner in claiming preference for their authoritative statements made in the interests of society at large over ex pctrte declarations. In Washington, D.C., I received most ldnd attention and assistance from

His Excellency the British Ambassador, the Right Honorable Sir Henry Mot-timer Durand, who obtained for me an official introduction to the President of the United States, whose courtesy can only be exceeded by his known love of humanity. . Your Commissioner visited in the Commonwealth of the United States of

America the cities of San Francisco, Chicago, New York, Washington, and Boston,. in particular, in all of which places, as in many others, he was shown the utmost courtesy and furtherance in the quest of knowledge relating to proprietary dmgs and foods. In the body of this Report will be found classified details. The Republic

lms within recent years set up a Federal organisation for the examination and control of articles for humim consumption, with. branches in many of the great ports and . cities, where trained staffs are at work. They are all under central direction from Washington, thus securing economy, regularity,and uniformity in thework done.

The inspection of foreign imports is careful, conscientious, and comprehensive. But, by simply studying the shop-windows it was plain that interstate control is far from efficient, with which observation the chemists and customs officers agreed, whilst expressing eager hope that the Federal Government would proceed to arrange for

equally good internal checks in the public interest. Clearly there are much greater difficulties in the way of radical reform there, with· forty-eight States, mostly inland, enjoying a vast and active traffic by road, rail, and mails. There is not the homo­ geneity of race, manners, thought, and tradition which enables the twenty-six States

of the German Confederation so readily to adjust their laws, ordinances, and police as to devise and carry out effective control in the domain of food and medicine. Herein, too, our Commonwealth, with its six States chiefly connected by sea and with part of the old administrative apparatus remaining, has t1 great ad vantage. It is a question of arrangement and co-operation withot1t inherent difficulties to prevent

efficient control. K otwithstanding, there is a deep source of instruction available for us in the acquired knowledge of the American Bureau of Chemistry and the · Department of Customs, for the friendship of the President of tho United States for this Commonwealth, together with the good-will of his executive officers in each

place visited, is most and gracious and characteristica1ly American. ·where it relates to the scientific protection of human life and health, it is certain that the American Executive will impart knowledge, and it is to be hoped that .we can make return, if only by the results of our researches into the questions of interest to

them

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them in theh· J)epartment. of .Ageiculture. In Fh.e domains of bacteriology; entomology, and ornithology, we m_ay in particular be helpfuL J3e t}Hif !t it is certain that we have much to gain by a study of their organisation, Its and its results. .· · · ·.

At Ottawa, the Canadian capital, the Prime Minister, tl].e Rjght 1fonorable Sir )Yilfrid i11troduced rp.e to Mr. ;[. FJera!d,

(permmient head) of the Inland l{evenue Department, from Whomas Chief Analyst, were obtained all .answefs Jo:lJ1y 'inquiries. They also furnished specimens of the bulletins iss.lwd by the ))Epartment i:q. ·the public interest, and 'iYith copies of the rehti ve legislation; . As 'liereinafter·me'ntl6ned, it 1iil1 be of high value .to our Commonwealth to detaile4

f1S to foods, drugs, methods, and the results of analysts and of IS the

same :ltuman frame here as there, and we can never Jmow If Jlie

interchange he happily arranged, both will gain without cost; ancr 'th¢tl:? will pc frequent occasion for cougmtulations. ,

His Excellency the Governor-General of the Dominion is so distinguisped patriot that his intense interest in this, the qause of health and of honour, FaS only tn be expected. One of hi

f.Wel·y way. A revulsion from co.mmerc}alism _towards racjal injhe p1·eponderance is taking place there also, and 'is sure to succeed over ldiasez-.. Juire. . . · · ·

· . ·. In London, by direction of the Right Honorable the Ear! of ¥Igin, ()f the Colonies, the was ?f an witp l\Jfl'.

n. lfarnson, Clerk of the Pnvy CounetJ, who h>

$tated to him in connection with the control of secrev meqiciues. rpwre is occasi01i to acknowledge gratefully the courtesy of Lord Elgin, with a letter Of introduction to the Right Honorable Sir Frank :J:.iJsce+Ies, ffis J\![ajesty's Minister at Berlin. By the 1ion01;able the· ·Lord .f-ond on, Alderman Vaughan Morgan, and .Dr. William ColUngridge, CJlief' Qfficer of the City, the desired was granted. . · · · · ' · · · ' ' · · ·.

the offices of. the Medical f;t

COIT1fillsswner had occasiOn to make frequent an

by Doc.tors of

J. Smith Medical and ¥ac:gherspr.,

was obtamed every furtherance. . · .. · . . . • · ..•. ·.· .. ·. , ·

·•· · '. :From Mr. ]1ichard the ldnqly of }ne •.

and partic.ularly from Mr. F. c .. Gooqaq,

J, OlfrJial, were recmved very assistance an(i PMnsta1nng .•.

latper, tlmnks are due in cll.ief aosh:;:Vet @q

the sphere of pharmacy, for publications of the Socjety, · anf fcn1 · in my inquirie'S as to current and malpr.'wHces. . . · "' · .. · · · · ·· · ,. ·-r: ·

Dr. :FreeL J. Smith, Sir Tho:11as Stev.ct1sqn·, pi; .. :ijut9l1isop, ot}lf.}J; AUra"eon·s, and the Chief Dispenser of the London ]los pi tal r.eplies,. and polite attel}-tio?.

record, m vanous languages, 1t d1d not seem to · mgn,H'Y,

many other hospitals in person. .. : . , · • · · . ' ''; · · · · '· ·''

In .seve.Fal visfts to splendid library and o.£ the gf

Lmcoln s Inn .J!)elds,tbe learned

rendered ready help. lie rs a fine example of the aevote4 O.f ge:qms pre:e::tril}-g specimens of in

provmces of screnhfic mvestigatwn-that, too, under the pt

affliction. ..of optic. nerves. . One·. · h. e]p ... poip .. g .. t .... ·o. .. g.·. n . .. y .. .. a._'n .. ;.·if. '.·.n ..•... on·.· if·i·t·.'·Y· .. ;.-. of such hves, m contrast to the Sybarite existence of the of the trade. The seeker after truth t()' become .a .. COffiil:loll,

. he1•itage, has little hope of chateailx and yachts, of · ap.q s¥oot'in·g-

d . . . . . ' .. . .,. " .. '

emesnes. In Berlin the business received prompt and skilful from Ambassador. :By c his introduction communication was wit,$.,

distinguished head of the Reichs-Gesundheitsamt (!Inperial German f!ea1th QW,ce), President Dr. l3umm, by whom and by Regierungsrath Doctor phil. was furnished · . \ . .._. '. :

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furnished the neces:;ary information. The Presidrnt addressed me at length .describing the historical growth of the system which now exists, the pharmacies (Apotheken), and the legislative and administrative control. He also expressed with all candour his opinions as to the best course of procedure for a nation circumstanced

like his own, and as to what may well be avoided. In repeated visits these gentlemen showed me the analytical apparatus, the arrangement of the superb new building in the Klopstockstrasse, and their plans of working. The whole legal literature Dr. Schmidt most kindly detailed, which ·was purchased later at the authorised

publisher's in another part of the city. 'rhe essential po:rtions of this literature and legislation have been translated by myself with all care, and the remainder is at the disposal of Parliament. In addition were obtained the laws and regulations of the German Empire in relation to meat inspection, food-colouring, food adulteration,

poisonous and dangerous utensils, preservatives, articles of drink and luxury, and other things. It appeared desirable to procure a set of ordinances and regulations of one of the component States so as to show in detail the methods by which executive

control is carried out in the jurisdiction of the State Governments. For various l'easons were selected 1hose of the Kingdom of Saxony, and Dr. phil. Robert Bruno Walther Naumann, amember of the first chamber of the Saxon Legislature, obtained for me from the Minister of the Interior a complete statement in

manuscript. Herein is furnished a translation in full. In France, as wiil be seen from different authorities, the law and its administration although greatly in advance of anything existing in Anglo-Saxon countries for the repression of fraud, injury, and homicide by secret drugs, are too imperfect to, form a thorough example. The display in pharmacists' shops, and the

newspaper advertisements, showed that a model was not to he found

there. -Confirmation of that view will be found herein. Yet the foreign exploiters who draw .great revenues from Australasia, proportionally more, it is than from any other country, have no chance to bleed the citizens of the French Republic to a like extPnt. Apparently the few foreign nostrums-'' Antikamnia" for instance­

on sale there, arc for the foreign element. Synaptical statements are supplied to show the general aim of legislation, in this regard, of some other European countries. As may well be expected, only samples here and there c1n be given of the

acres of advertisements of quack medicines and drugs which appear in daily, weekly, and monthly journals throughout the English-speaking 11orld. It is an art to itself, that advertising, has its own experts- chevaliers d'indudrie-its special literature, even its own trade journals. It has its markets, its exchanges, its brokers,

wher0 and by whom are bought and sold the letters, the names and addresses of invalids, of past and of possible victims, of pharmacists' ordinary everyday customers. With what cheek and cunning those names and letters are obtained, how they are scanned, classified, stocked, and offered for sah', is shown herein.

Photographs of specimens of the correspondence of advertising quack doctors could and would be supplied only that space-limits forbid. vistas are opened in the maze generally whereby may be seen how strong and how spreading is the growth of the evil.

Finallv. as to the remedies. On the pedestal of a l:.eautiful stntue, U nter den Linden, is eng1:aved the passage, "Gerechtigkeit erhoehet ein V olk"-" Justice elevates a people "-or in the more rhetorical words of our Bible, " Righteousness exalteth a nation.'' The particular application of the maxim will be hereinafter

btated in certain recommendations very respectfully submitted for the consideration of your Excellency's Government. :But the fundamental principles claimed will be these three, at the le::tst in the domain of human health:--1. Prohibition of secrec'T·

2. Punishment of deception. 3. Uespon,ibility of the publisher and the vendor.

DIVISION I.

73

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DIVISION l.

PREVENTION 0-F CONCEPTION, AND .. CTD E.

75

9

DIVISION I.

PREVENTION OF CONCEPTION, AND FCETICIDE . • ("REGULATION OF FAMILIES.")

Spermatocidal Preparations.

1. The practice of interferences with the sexual function is so common, and the knowledge of it so universal that it would be thinnest hypocrisy upon the part of any grown persons to pretend that modesty may be shocked at considering its causes and consequences. The disastrous effects upon men and women are .set Jorth

in plain and decent language in the Report of the New South Wales Royal Com­ mission upon the Decline of the Birth-rate and upon Mortality of Children, which it would be well to reproduce by another inquiry over a wider sphere, or indeed, merely toreprint for distribution. ·

2. Just because deception and falsehood are widespread there is occasion to confront them by candid truth. In the present Report it is repeatedly shown that licentious literature is ceaselessly advertised and openly sold. Further, in every book-shop and upon every book-stall are books, read by both sexes, when able

to read, dealing unrestrainedly with what is called the sex problem.

3. Sacred principles, basic laws of the social contract, sexual relations throughout are discussed in public by novelists, male and female, and represented or misrepresented by imaginary specific instances. On the stage are "suggestive" plays and realistic displays, often adapted from the French, and from what the,

French themselves call" the decadence."

4. Just because abnormalities are discussed hv the works of romancers and dramatists, still more because sexual relations are dealt with by a host

of publications issued in the cash interests of quacks and announced by every news­ paper, it is desirable, even imperative, that authoritative statements should also be placed within reach of all who can read, so that they may be of dangers and pitfalls. Lascivious books and plays excite prurience all the time, but never will the

open announcement of the perils to be avoided, and the exposure of undermining infamies, injure the modesty of the pure.

6. · All the time unauthorised books and pamphlets, issued by cranks or villains, and in both cases for profit, deal overtly with questions relating to racial reproduction, to the incalculable damage of the nation. In that sphere the Manchester doctrine has full swing. Anybody can recommend anything. Lists of the filthiest books

from all ages and countries are advertised daily and weekly without intermission, year after year, and of these advertisements specimens are herein supplied. On the part of society, and for preservation of the social state nothing is published to counteract, and no measures are taken to check the evil, least of all to punish the

perpetrators of the treachery.

6. Before me is a copy of the second volume of the Report of the New South Wales Royal Commission. It was printed three years ago, only twelve copies produced, these being jealously guarded, even against the members of the Commission itself. For all the use they have been, they might as well never have been printed at all.

*97267-B 7.

10

7. There, upon page after page, are photographs of the advertisements of obscene creatures who corrupt society at its core and live like larvre upon their own poison and the corruption it onuses. The announcements appear to-day just as before, only more of them. To debauch and degrade humanity is a profitable trade. On those pages are also photographs of numbers of preparations to prevent births, of contrivances towards obscene practices (things that even the experienced surgeons upon the Commission had never heard of), and photographs ofpamphlets jnstr1..tcting in vicious and even criminal acts. The trade went on then, the trade goes on now. There is only one 1·emedy-morailty by Act of Parliament, enforced by severe pefialties.

8. The mightiest conqueror the world has known was King Etzel. Void pf mercy or remorse, it is recorded of him that he caused, on one occasion and at one time, three millions of people to be slain. But all the lives that he took were few compared with the mischief by one woman of our own day, Mrs. Annie

Besant. It is everywhere conceded that her pamphlet, sold by the hundred thousand, urging the practice of what Dr. Bergeret properly calls " genesic frauds," of artificial interferences with the function., was the real and proximate cause of the decline in Anglo-Saxon productiveness.. It has cost·. Australia. already more than n million lives, many. of whom would l1ave beetl .now nmture o£ our .. own flesh and blood. ·what it hils cost ih moral and physical of the living,

in diseases of mind and body, and infantile degeneration, fio one clln ever e5titnate.

, .. 9: Drink conquered his dev;asmtions ended, and mankind recovered. But the other introduced into our nation racy a malady thatt far as we can know ()i' see, is malignant .. Our people ''refuse the waters of S4iloah that go softly"== the pure and living stream that sprang up in and gently flowed. through the city. And whither are we told to turn ?

"Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, And unto wizards that peep and that mutter : . .

'Should not a people seek unto their god the living tb the dead 7' To the law and to the testimony! If they speak not according to this word It is because there is no light in them."

10. The Lancet, of .Tune, 1906, page 1839, remarks :-·· A most able and veracious physician has truly asserted that "quackery has destroyed more in this than the swurd,famine, and pestilence united," and never was there a. period in

the of British medicine at which the force and truth of this opinion was more obvious than at this day.

U; That is a comprehensive statement, for. few hlitions have or do suffer, so much from wars,. pestilence,. as. the .And

the perversions thflit olir sins find the tleglept of. our rtilet!S oh3Ught Upotl Us, the Jiuneet would 6lutely include unnatul'al inhn•rerel:l:oe with racial reptddUction . . . ·· Prescr1ptipns are me for the secr{lt preparations alluded to, but . it \Vbuld serve no gqod purpose to publish them. They are still $ll1Uggled into the country, but are largely manufactured in the Gommo:nweQ,lth itself. There. are special shops for the sale of " preventives " and " irrepularity whilst

pharmacists .also stock aml. sell them. . As far as can be. judg-ed, .the. trrtde. tends to increase, and newspapers of .all grades accept the .of whitlli sot;ne

photographs herein supplied. . . With the purchasers shllme appears to oount for nothing. That subject is dealt with elsewhere ·

. . . . 13. At the desire or a ppysician, a chemist's assistant called upon me recently. Amo11gstother information 'fhich merely corroborated an abundance taken upon by the former Commission,. the young man saidl ''A little gfr]l aged about

9 or 10, came into our shop, put some money on the counter, and said loudly, 'Mother wants a box of soluble pessaries.'" 'nmt is one kind modern maternal training. . The chief det:hatH:l; the young man said, is f1-om women who would. claim to . he of ''the better class,'' and . they ask for the preparatibns as openly and indifferently as they would ask for a That agrees with the evidence of

every pharmacist , that came befoi'e the New South Wales Commission. Such women also purchase freely other means of interference which will not here be mentioned. One

ll

One of the tha.t of a.u article advertised . soine ago ip.

Australia, is G!llJ.ed ·H Orflttge :Blossom." Besides a spermatocid&l drng which m;ty not be innnediflti!ly to:dQ tq the wmuau! it contains one which would mwtainly be injurious. A prominent :fivm, wholl!e. head was president of an Australian association, had an organised department for the importation and sa,le of these preparatipns, On the table of the Roya,l Commission were lflid specimens obtained by purcl1Me. One of these wit& widely a strong acid1 which inust effected S,ltch as those which .. are believed to produce cancer at fl latet

penod. It was a 41 n firma a11d of high st;;indipg.

Another nostrum for vft,ginFtl "Q.§e e:q.joytil salth i111 persistently

advertised the Australian weekly journals specially p:rinted for women a.p,d girls, sells 1\t higq prices, is a acid: in capsules, but M its use is to be

habitual the consequences to be unfortunate, whi}st at best it

is a humbug. Photographs of these f\,ppear under the head

"A

dvugs for are whilst women are in to explain

lf cows, !140ws, and mares weJ?e thus interfe:red with, deterioration in progei1Y would be looked for would "Qe fou:nd. With those domestic a:ni!pals there ate and ponsequences just as they also

mheFitanoe of tr&Its. And the:re 1s of deplorable to

human femp,les froJU upnatural ipte:rferences. This part · qf the subject has been largely and dealt with by the previous inquiry. -

If the general statement be not sufficient that there are no visible qf change for the better in the diversity of the objects sold for genesic fra.uds, no dhnip,utim:), in a:p.d then it will be easy to furnish to Yo11r Excellency and to fre&h in addition to that all'eady take:p..

· Facts of 'Qerelllty.

"Visiting the iniquity o£ the fathers upon the children."

w4a never time when, as now, the supposed i:p.terests of the so

over of the fqture of QUr ufl;ce and nation. There is not spa.pe

su:fflciep.t to the f.ldl\lquately, o:r even synoptically, but there is cauaa for alarm, foJ! With Whom the i:utere&t& of the future do weigh

when tb.@ of nation-al qnestion!>l l);sked.,..., What effect have our aet& ili r Whtt.t for upon the unborn

has the destructio.n Qf diSlturbanees, in the veins of the

of .tl:teir . .. Wl}at. genera}

have the ceaseless aml multi£a,dOq$ !nterfereuGes wtth the hfe-actwn of qur of w4qse lf glas3y we a,;re ''most when most assured'' ? A.tte our

derived iQ tq the J>dm0rdial Intelligence we can Gatt¥ on

unn.atural upon f:!, natwnal scale and comprehensive vengeance P'

THE l'SYOHOLOGY OF 4DOLESOENOE.

('' A.dole&cence/' G. SW.!1ley Ph.D., LL.p., Pre!!idept of Clark University.) New York, Applet.Qn, l905. Tl}e ipdividql'.} f:}mily or stocl!: js the

over those of race-col).servatism. Thllse the sins of the g,re vi!lited on their

cl}.}ldrep, qevita.)i!'!ing 1 arresting their full development, a,ncl finally exterminatin8 t}wm. HPJlO\U' to the unborn by parents is their chief claim to reverence by their children, a11d to the power of hereditary transmission is worthy the conteiPpt and curses which recent literature has often as felt 'oy for those responsible for their The invective of a decadeJit sou upon a sire,

but for whose private vice he might have been well born, is as haunting and characteristic a note of our mpdem C!lltq.re as was the CIJrE!e of 1\.treus' time for Greece.

eJ:i&tli1 all. Austr11lia,n household where a feeble, neurasthenic girl is the

support of both parents and a sister. She is educated, literary, and industrious. Of her own poor physique she has said :- . "For what I am I have to thank my parents "-meaning their Besantine philosophy. Her mother has said:-" If I had known

------------

12

known as much as I know now, she (the daughter) would not be there." The unwelcome child, whom the mother had not succeeded in preventing, has become the sole dependence, though enfeebled as they all believe, by the genesic failed. What will be the further drop if and when she and her like become m their

turn mothers ?

14. A lady travelling, recently arrived at a large London hotel with her little child. The lady was enceinte. She had scarcely been shown her room when manager's wife, an utter stranger, visited her and sharply scolded her for being m that condition. She was distressed, and the husband, when he arrived, was furious. But thus the Besantine gospel makes marked progress.

16. There is no end to such cases, for the degenerate women who practise interferences upon themselves are often prompt to rebuke more faithful citizens. Sometimes the language used is rash, sometimes dangerous and cruel.

16. During my stay at a country house in England, one evening at dinner, a guest introduced the subject of annihilation of families. He said to the host:-" I was dining recently with nine other men, all of us married. Not one of the ten had a child, the nine by choice, myself-to my life-long regret-by what I regard as misfortune. The nine were amused at my regret, and congratulated one another." From the general circumstances it could be safely concluded that those persons were in what a1·e called the upper walks of life. It is quite probable that all considered themselves patriotic citizens, that they belonged to political organisations. No physical heredity there. Yet they serve to pass on the leaven by precept and example. ··

17. Suppose again that Our Lord, instead of welcoming the Nazarene mothers, instead of blessing and caressing their children ( parvulos-" darlings "), had scolded the women for having babies and had told them how to prevent or get rid of these by unnatural acts. That supposition revolts even more than the former, nor could such a gospel have lived. But these are the good tidings according to Besant, held up as a prophetess by Mr. Stead in his Review of Revie'lCs, and only too widely accepted by our race in this the twentieth century after the Christ.

18. Worse than anarchic, worse even than Antinomian, this gospel of nihilism leads further than was intended by the sciolist Mr. Malthus, its forerunner; the Manchester economist Mr. Mill, its missionary; and Mrs. Besant, its seer and specific promulgator. She, the esoteric, first amongst the p,vcrra.t, the would-be regeneratrix of mankind, so placed the evil leaven that it should not fail. Her gospel pullulates and spreads-a true zymotic scourge. Pity that all three names-out of many more such-are British, and as sure as Eratostratus of immortal remembrance.

19. Our nation is still Christian, and no apology need therefore be offered when your Commissioner is constrained to declare that the only vis reparatrix is the doctrine and the teaching of the Sa vi our of mankind. Regret has been publicly expressed that" there is a shortage of 200,000 in the annual crop of babies in Great Britain." But the gravity of the subject is beyond the coarse jocularity of the swine-market, beyond the more sober allusions to its commercial importance. It is clearly of higher import than the undermining and correlated and ancillary traffic in secret nostrums which is under the special protection of the London Chamber of

Commerce. That traffic is the chief phenomenon of the evil, but beyond that, as elsewhere said herein, is the noumenal which cannot be left out of this Report.

20. In the battle of Leipzig, the bloodiest of modern times, were lost nearly 200,000 lives. That number corresponds with the annual deficit in baby lives in Great Britain alone. But war and its losses are not the worst.

21. Ruskin, "Crown of Wild Olives," Lecture III, paragraphs 93 94 :-When I tell you that war is thefoundation of all the arts I mean also that it is the foundation of all the high virtues and faculties of men. It is very strange to me to discover this; and very dreadful­ but I saw it to be quite an undeniable fact . . . . I found, in brief, that all great nations

their truth of word and strength of thought in war, that they were nourished in war and wasted by peace ; taught by war, and deceived by peace; trained by war, and betrayed by peace; in a word, that they were born in war, and expired in peace.

22.

13

22. It is not only the loss of the babies which means, both concurrently and later, the loss of school children and the loss of procreators, but the augmenting damage by the spread of the pervert gospel itself. More than that, it is the tremendous interference with the arrangements of Nature, of whose existence we know well

enough and of their inconceivably vast import, but of whose essence (Wesen) we know no more than did our savage progenitors.

28. Dr. Hall's "Adolescence" is a valuable work, in two volumes, and displays enormous erudition. Therein at length, with abundant references for further research, is set forth the urgency of taking into serious account the underlying laws of our being. These above all, in legislation, education, industrial, commercial,

professional, and social life.

24. Take one item by itself out of the 'fhole mysterious range. It is certain that every conscientious physician, surgeon, pathologist, and biologist will declare that sexual periodicity is of inestimable moment in considering the life-interests of our own or any human race or nation. Where does it receive consideration in

politics, instruction, or the other departments of life ? Least of all by quacks, quackery, and the trading tribe who regard our unprotected women, their offspring, their minds and their morals as lawful and traditional prey. Does anyone doubt that, then let him be shown the second volume of the Report of theN ew South Wales

Commission, irrespective or all that has been herein adduced and of the illimitable array of evidence that can be commanded.

26. An A.ustralian surgeon, enjoying an active general practice, and having unusually wide opportunities of observation in a city of over half-a-million inhabitants, said to me when being questioned officially upon genesic frauds-A. Those abortifacients are not the worst, it is not those things that are so destructive.

Q. How can you say that? All. the authorities of your profession in all countries are unanimous in declaring that countless healthy lives are thus lost annually. We have proved and know for certain that the murderous wickedness is wide-spread and widely spreading. And you know yourself that the physical consequences to the women are disastrous.

A. I know all that, and I tell you again that the practice of abortion is not the worst phase of the trouble.

Q. Then what do you mean, for there is no greater crime to, or by, humanity 1

A. Prevention is the worst ! I tell you that women are destroyed by the practice. It means utter wreck to their morals and principles in every way. As to the other thing, the abortion, I could make all the money I want if I would only consent, for I am constantly asked to operate in that way.

That surgeon is the devoted father oi beautiful and. happy children. willing that his name be published with the others, for he is, in his duty, regardless of personal consequences. But it would serve no good purpose.

An Unpublished Report.

He is wholly

26. Amongst the conspicuous consequences of the change in or from moral principles which has brought about numerical declension are these three :-There is a large increase in the numher of sufferers from septic disease amonggt women.

There is a large and constant increase of insanity in Australasia.

The proportion of deaths in child-birth has increased by one-half.

Such are the facts as proven before the New South Wales Royal Commission, and they should be enough to make any lover of his country and his race ask for remedies. 27.

81

14

27. The second volume of the Report of that Comm.ission contains a :mass of information of inc;::Llculable value from the national standpoint. But most of it is a record of .such depravity des.perate societ;r. that it would not

be to the :mterest of the nation to make It pubhc. It IS not possible for anyone to deny the prevalence of fraud and infamy in the secret (ls dil!lplayed in

these pages, for the participators themselves declare nor that deception is universal1 for it is the working principle-yet there are depths which must not be revealed. It is.not that the fe.elings.ofm·a· ny., o.r any, a. re.to.be c.onsid.er.ed if·t. h.e con.te. mpl.atio·n···· of a loathsome social malady might lead to its cure? but we mtiy fear further immoral and criminal infection, And as the foulness must thus be cloaked over we see tll&t the .same scoundrels carry on the same wickedness, and there is no effective check. The felons who ought to be serving long periods in a house of correction are making money just as before in their indescribably filthy trade. In several directions, which cannot be plainly indicated in this Report, nothing whatever appears to have been done where common humanity-and ,the Law of God, if the expression may still claim currency-. demands active interference. I am, however, p1·epared to lay that book. before Your Excellency and His Majesty's Commonwealth Government, if so directed. If the facts be not made known to those who are entrusted with the innel' and necessary secrets of the nation1 then the labour spent will have peen wasted. That matters little to those who laboured, for their duty is discharge

15

0Gnnot be stated with exactitude. But we have a. pM·allel at hand and, many like it could be supplied. Three years ago a leading g;ynreco1ogist

of at a sitting o£ the Royal Commission above that he had

himself known twenty women who lost their lives from miscarriage induced by one well-known abortionist of the city. Another surgeon of the Oo:t:ntnissio11. said he had known more than twenty women killed by the same person, who was reputed to lose fifty such lives a year. .At that time the miscreant was being prosecuted. for

murder, and has been prosecuted more than once since. Although the prevention of such wrong. is apart from the. present subject, the deduction from this· case is obvious : induced abortion is sought even at great risk of sharp suffering and death. So long as reputedly abortifacient drugs are unrestrictedly advertised and sold, as

now, throughout the Commonwealth, there will be a still larger demand for what is supposed to be an easier and safer means than that above narrated of accomJ>lishing a criminal purpose. . Because of its. high social and national importance, with exceptional authentication, a statement of the consequences of procured miscarriage is given in the following pages, and can be antplified to any extent.

Some reputed Abortifacients.

30. (The authorities chosen are Sir Thomas Stevenson, M.D., Lecturer on Forensic Medicine to GJiy's Hospital, an Offici;ctl Analyst .to. the Home Office; Wlllia:m Murrell, M.D., F.R.O.P., Physician to the Westminster Hospital, Examiner in Materia Medica to the University of Glasgow;. Fred. J. Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.O.S., Lecturer in Jurisprudence

to the London Hospital, Medical Referee to the Home Office; Edwin Welles DWight, M.D., Instructor in Legal Medicihe; Harvard University, and others.)

ABORTION OR MisCARRIAGE.-·· Some authorities claim a distinction betweeh the two. The terms are herein used optionally to signify " expulsion of the frnttts before it is viable."-(Dorland.)

Gelsemium sempervirens, often used as a pain-killer, and to induce abortioh.. Minittm,l f'atal Murrell· · dose, 2 drachms. Symptoms : Pains in the head, dimness of sight. Weakness in the lower extremities, 1 p. 146.' the patient staggering and swaying. Great pa,in in the chest, suff'ocaMve spasm, struggling for breath, foaming at the mouth, coma, and death.

,Savin (oil of sabina).-Sy!Iiptot:ns: Pains, vomiting, violent at sli>ql1 w:urrell,

tt'lJtn kid.tteys and uterUs, cOma, orcqnvnlsiorls. In large doses, or in eases of intolerance, death in.ll few p. 218. hoi.u•s, ()r afte,r some . days. . Death resulted from taking 1 . drachm of this oli, serious symptoms frol.fi less. From the extreme severity of the action of the drug, abortion may also take plase. . All sayin is Dw!ght, rarely used for any other homicidal purpose, the experience of its toxic effects appears to be drawn p. 179. fram abortion cases.

Sttvin is reputed tQ have an emmenagogic action, but it is exceedingly doUbtful It it has any direct Taylor. effect upon the uterus. . It is emplQyeq as a popular abortive. In small dosell it is useless1 while in lal'ge doses it acts as an irritanp poison •.. The. woman may die undelivered, or the fretus tnf\y be expelled and the mother subsequently die from the effects of the drug.

Elaterium.-" A drug which varies much in strength and in the amount of the active principle Dwight, contained in .. it. It is . used freely in medicine. as a poWerful drastic purgative; having much the same p. 171. effect as ctoton otl. It Mfl been used, as have :most ol the hydragogue cathartics, for the bringing on of abortion ... As a result of its use for this purpose, cases of poisoning have occurred." Symptolris:

Irritation, inflammation of the gastro-intestinal trad, associated with purging and collapse.

31. The medicinal dose is from one-eighth to half a grain. Death has ensued upon a dose of two·fl.fths of a grain. I draw attention to the extreme da:11ger to ybung women, who are voluntary br i:11voluntary victims, in being thus exposed to the action ot deadly drugs, whose preparation and sale is practically unchecked afid uncontrolled, and which are usually transmitted by the mails. Probably elaterium itself is not frequehtly used in Australia, but the significance o£ the phrase above

emphasised ca:11not be too rnuch urged. Abortionists apparently rely upon the suffering and shock inflicted upon the woman to cause premature expulsion of the fmtus.

83

Murrell, P• 175.

Murrell, p. 124.

Murrellt p. 121:

Murrell, P• 97.

16

32. Colchicum and colchinine.-When taken in a therapeutic dose it has a decided hydragogue Aside from its cathartic action, when taken in large doses it acts as a violent irritant to the

d1gestrve tract, the most marked general symptoms being abdominal pain, vomiting and purging, dilated pupils, ?old clammy skin, suppression of urine, and exhaustion. Death may be preceded by delirium and convuls10ns. Less than half a grain of colchicine is probably a fatal dose. Death usually follows within twenty-four hours.

Sulphate of copper.-Symptoms : Colic, nausea, vomiting, purging with much straining, jaundice. Difficult breathing, small pulse, great weakness, thirst, cold sweat, coldness of limbs, headache, coma, death.

Colocynth (bitter apple).-Extensively used for procuring abortion. A teaspoonful and a half have proved fatal. Symptoms: Persistent vomiting, purging, the motions containing mucus and perhaps blood, exhaustion, weak pulse, collapse, death.

Cantharides.-Burning in throat and stomach, difficulty in swallowing, of mucus mixed with blood, diarrhrea with blood and slime; salivation; incessant desire to pass water, but only blood or albuminous urine at each ; peritonitis, quick pulse convulsions, death.

Oxalic Acid.-Murreli remarks (page 197): "I have reason to think! that it is sometimes used as an abortifacient. Oxalic acid itself may be used or salt of sorrell." --

His observation shows only that where a drug acts with cruel severity, even destructively, upon the internal organism, its use as a supposed abortifacient may be expected.

Lead-poisoning to procure Miscarriage.

33. Attention is specially drawn to a newly.noted practice which has already attained a vogue in certain districts of Great Britain, is spreading, and threatens to cause much wider destruction. It confirms the conclusion already stated that risk of prolonged and terrible suffering does not deter from the crime when some women demand induced miscarriage upon their own or upon extraneous impulsion.

This method is intentional lead-poisoning. (B;·itish Medical Journal, 24th 1906) :-

THE USE OF DIACHYLON AS AN ABORTIFACIENT.

During the last twelve years the attention of the profession has repeatedly been drawn to the prevalence in the Midland Counties of cases of plumbism in women caused by the ingestion of diachylon, with the object of procuring abortion. In Birmingham, Leicester, Derby, and especially in Nottingham and Sheffield, as well as in the colliery districts adjacent to these towns, the practice bas grown, so that now the cases of poisoning from this cause occurring in the course of a year are to be numbered by hundreds.

The practice is not known to prevail largely in London, either because it really does not exist, or because the cases are not recognised by medical men, and hence, perhaps, has not excited the consideration which the seriousness of the evil deserves. In this connection it may be mentioned that in the Midlands many practitioners who had not previously observed it now find it quite common, either because it has really increased or because they have learnt the necessity of looking for evidence of plumbism ... In the out-patient rooms of the Nottingham and Sheffield Hospitals it has become a routine practice to 'examine

the gums of female patients.

There is reason to believe that the practice is growing. rapidly, and there is abundant evidence to show that serious injury to health, and even loss of life ensue from it. Hence it is satisfactory to find that the Medico-Political Committee of the British Medical Association has appointed a sub-committee to investigate the evil and to make suggestions for checking it. The paper by Dr. Hall (Sheffield) and Dr.

W. B. Ransom (Nottingham), (vide infra] will give some idea of the extent of the evil in Nottingbamshire, Derbyshire, and South Yorkshire.

It is obvious that precaution is needed in attempting preventive and remedial measures by legisla· tion, but the sub-committee has already had a conference with representatives of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society on the subject, and it is intended to approach the Privy Council and the Home Office.-[This was done, with failure as a result.1

Lead poisoning from the improper use of diachylon is actually in the Midlands of England a more potent cause of disease, and perhaps of death, than plumbism from industrial sources. It affects the mother, and, as shown in an interesting paper in the British Medical Journal of 3rd February by Messrs. Heelis, Jacob, and Trotman, may affect the offspring. It is a real and great danger to the health of the country, and may fairly claim the earnest consideration of the Legislature.

Medical

17

Medical Press, 14th February, 1906:-DoEs DIACHYLON AFFECT THE INFANT WHEN IT FAILS TO PROCURE ABORTION.

Heelis, Jacob, and Trotman (British JJ:fedical Jow·nal, 3rd February, 1906) record an interesting case under this heading. A young woman in her third pregnancy had symptoms of abortion at the third month-severe uterine and intestinal pains with vomiting and constipation. The os was patulous, but there was no bleeding. A blue line was noticed on the gums, but she denied having taken anything that

would have accounted for this. She remained in bed for two weeb, and after that went to full term without sickn0ss, and was deliyered of a live hydrocephalic child. The blue line by this time had dis­ appeared. The patient then confessed to having taken pills or lead plaster-three or four daily for a week -when she found herself to be pregnant, but had desisted, finding no result followed. Symptoms of poisoning did not appear till a month after. The child's head measured inches round its largest circum­ ference. A post-mortem examination marked thinning of the brain, which contained a pint of fluid. A examination of the liver showed the presence of lead in the proportion of 0·0002 per cent., an

eVIdence that lead taken by the mother doe<; reach the fretal tissues, and is eliminated very slowly.

Diachylon.-Dr. Hall is of the opinion that the spread of the evil is principally due to secret passed by one woman to another, that diachylon either preYents pregnancy or is a certain

abort1fament.-(Pharm. Journal, March, 190fi, p. 251.)

34. Lead.-· Dr. Ransom, of Nottingham, writing on lead-poisoning in the British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1900, . p. 1591, after describing three cases, says:-From my own experience, therefore, I have reason to believe that the use of diachylon as an

abortifacient is a fast growing evil. There is now in hospital a woman with wrist-drop from this cause, and Dr. Handford tells me that he has had in his wards three cases of lead encephalopathy and two or three others of less serious lead-poiaoning, all from taking diachylon. Two of these brain cases had to be transferred to the City Asylum. Inquides I have made among medical men in one qnarter of tho town

only-Sneinton-lead to the same conclusion. Thus Dr. Cole has sent two cases into hospital in the last year, and has seen several others.

Dr. Dabell writes:-" I remember two cases of poisoning due to diachylon taken to procure abortion. One was mild, with no nerve symptoms; the other was more sevf're. and her peripheral nerves were affected. Both recovered. I am now visiting a patient in a fairly g0od position who, in addition to a large quantity of purgatives, took a pennyworth of diachylon in one day, but with no off .. ct. It is not

uncommon for women to ask me about this drug." Possibly the purgatins taken by thislady sa,·ed her from the ill effects of the lead.

Dr. William Thompson says:--" I have had a good ma11y cases of abortion due to lead-poisoning from pills taken. Abortion usually occurs before nerve symptoms set in, although I had one case with severe amemia, jaundice, albuminuria, colic, and slight wrist-drop. I think the practice is vory common and on the increase, as I can recall half a dozen cases within the last year or two."

Dr. Cornwall writes:-" I have had several cases such as you mention, o.nd found the brain always more or less affected, also theperipheral nerves .. Jaundice was common."

Thinking it would be of interest to ascertain whether persistent weakness of the brain often ens1,1ed, I .wrote Dr. Powell, of the City Asylum, who replied:-"I have had two cases of insanity from the cause you name during the past year, both with melan­ cholia, one having also active hallucinations of hearing. · One recovered in three months, the other is now

slowly recovering after a residence of five months, but there is much secondary mental enfeeblement." These two cases were the two of Dr. Handford's already mentioned.

Dr. Moore Bennett, of Ruddinglon, lately told me the practice was common in hiil rura1 district and kindly sent me brief notes of three cases in which the abortion was associated with lead colic due to diachylon: In one of these there was also wrist-drop and much tremor, in another coffee-coloured vomit, and in the other septic metritis. All recovered after severe illnesses. Dr. Bennett thinkq that these cases

usually suffer from septic mischief.

Dr. Cole also informs me that he has no doubt many women take the drug without ever coming under medical treatment for it, as he has been frequently tolrl by patients that they have used it without the desired effect. He considered it a by no means certain abortifacient.

Turning to the medical journals of the last few years I find several cases of poisoning by diachylon taken to procure abortion. Dr. Pope (Leicester) records two c!lses which died with cerebral symptoms. The late Dr. Crooke (Birmingham) described a similar fatal case and expressed his belief in the use of this drug. Dr. Bell Taylor gives a case in which the drug had no other effect than to produce optic

atrophy and permanent blindness in the left eye. Dr. Branson relates the case of a multipara who took a pennyworth of diachylon in forty-eight hours when three months prPgnant. When seen a month later the uterus was empty and she was suffering from severe colic. He adds that tb2 Birmingham chemists told him diachylon is much used for this purpose.

There can be no doubt that diachylon is largely used by women of various classes to procure abortion. It is easily purchased. Anyone can go to a chemist' and buy a pennyworth of as I have myself done without being asked any question, except as to whether the purchaser wants 1t spread or in the mass. ' Penny balls ot the emplastrum plumbi are kept by the most respectable chemists

*97267-0 ready

85

18

Dr. Ransom-continned.

ready wrapped in a handy drawer, and there is absolutely no restriction 0;n For a ·a

woman can buy enough lead not only to empby the uterus, but to cause grave disease of the bowels, the kirl.ne7s, .the brain, 1t disease. which not rarely proves fatal. The drug to be. an uncertain

ab.ortlfaClent, always endangers and often destroys life, or leaves permanent bodily and mental !pent. It is a qu es tion whether something should not be done to restrict the indiscriminate sale of th1s drug and to it with poisons. Of course, lefJ.d can be bouo:ht in other in paint or

·but .we at least, Hmit the evil, and reduce temptation by removing the present dangerous facility ·for .mansl.aughter or J

: Dr, Bostock HiU has kindly giventhe editor the follo wing case :- . "At the Staffordshire Summer Assizes i n Hl03 the case of R. 1>. Goodall was heard, in the p'r:ison,et• was charged with manalaughte:r, and with supplying pill.s fodhe purpose of procuring 'l'he was one .in which pills 'of two kinds, namely, diacpylon and aloes, respectively, were adininister,ed.. A,s a. result, the woman miscarried, and a-lthough she lived for a fortnight aJter taking thA pUis; ¥wl.l1J:"

died, with sympto,nm o£ intense headache, convulsions, aruemia, &c.'' · ' .

, . On analysis, lead was fo:11nd in as small a as an of the would that a

e,quivalent to 20 g-\'ains per d,ay of the diachylon: ha9: been taken for Tb,e prisoner

was sentenced to seven years' penal servitude. · · · ·

. flrthur Bail, M.D., F.R.C.S., British il-fedical Journal, 18th March" 1905,,. p. : l,..ead appears to hit'le been only used as an abortifaeient in recent years: Di. F. M. IM.pe, g£ made the first ?hs,ervstion. In 1893 he reported two fatal ca,sl!ls plumbism, the source o.ll\vhich, after death, '\VaS discovered to be diachylon, taken for the purpose of procuring abortion. Subsequently, other CJJ,iles h,a.v.e been reported, principally in the Midlands. The practice seems to have extended to Sheffield in1901. In tJ¥s. it h.as become very prevalent ;. the (Dr. Ball) has seen thirty cases 1903.

Som

plaster, or in "female pills." Analysis of piUs, bearing a LondQn showe.d if they

\yere taken as recommended 1·250 grain of lead would be ingested daUy. Thia quantity, though small; sufficient to. produce plumbism. More tha.n the patients adm.itted t!!,ki:ng i in the

remaining cases aU ordinary sources of plumbism were excluded. The patients were all wo.tnen of the child­ beal,'ing age, and usually married and 111others of families. Of eighteen abortion took plaee in eleven. · The resulting illness wa.s serious. The mother of a large family died after f suffering for weeks from agonising hea:daehes. Other patients became temporarily insam) and had convulsions, All su1fer{3d from severe colic and. headache, and a blue line on the gums, · and became profound! J:' anremic.

35. As elsewhere stated, the growth of the disease w:Piclf

advanced towards the destruction of the Anglo-Saxon nations . is comparable to cancer, to carcinoma. The spread of the use o£ lead salts has q¢en amply'' pro.ved to l>e You see that famili,¢s a:r¢ o.ff solJ.fce. T]le

poor creatures 'd10 lived to gt:> to. hospital-h,o,w p:qt lwd

"mostly married and mothers of families." A11d the

which mean secret pills; are kept ·by .

respectable chemists," advertised in most respectable newspapers and in periodicals prepared for our wives a:n,d daughte11s. . They are also ca,r;ried

and handed by the postman into the homes of the people. There is any

l;>;l:lsi.ness wore competed for th.an abortion-ino.ng:e:ri'Q.g. w:•;>.:t¥14\'" \:t;l, oJJr own Australia claimed that she had "succes.sfuUy '' destroye(l, whilst another advertises in 9. S;ydney ll9.J?Eil; '' 3,00()

$6.. What is to be of the " most respectable 'f.l':\0. iAe lead

pyeparation in penny balls :fot the direct arid sole and of lead.•

p9isoning pregnant women,? The is well lmmrp, and

commercial provision is made for it, and the awful stuff · kept iJ;J,

Dr. Ransom's letter cites much evidence, and supplies the names of twelve medical witnesses,_ including himself. It is impossible to exclude some reflection upon the state of civilisation which places supposed trading interests so in the. that whereas it is a criminal offence to have secret foods even far less injurious, u,pon for to · sheep, cows, pif1s, or p_oultry, there was a ·

given to .even place drachylon upon the poisons list. If sold to l;>e glVen, to

hrl1te animals, there is statutory provision for ana,lysis, anu it would, ll.O defence €as expressly provided) . that Dr. Ransom had bought the pills for the p.mpose of analysis.. For human there is no such provision, and although the text-book, acknowledged and quoted · throughout the Empire, coldly relates, " the

dangerous facility for manslaughter and suicide " by a sure and cruel cumulative poison, the monstrous traffic proceeds and spreads. N omiually the criminal law cognisance of the drug-dealer selling a.nything to procure hU.!fian miscarriage.

Practically it tak_es, no cognisance, because.· the pills are not o,atensibly s'o,ld for that purpose,

they are .. fbr ho other purpose. But the. German Cl'in,:tinallaw

be fooled. in any sudi way, nor the law in England that protect% br;ute

tJ,Uimals. The inevitable query is: Why not extend the Fertilisers and Stuffs A.ct by addition of. a single word, so as to protect the human animal.? . Why those soUi at ali ? There is only one possible answer-· · because there is

money in them.

,, ' .. It wlll be elsewhefe show!\ that society takes great i·isksin human

life, .health and morals, unchecked by statutes, to supposed mercantile :respectability.

37. In face of the facts cited it should be urmecessaty to dealwith the commercial aspect of the question; but as that is the dominant factor at present, and, as shown· by the action of the London Clnmhet of Commerce, the victorious principle, we. cannot ignore it; I inquired of Mr .. L. R. Scammel, F.O.S. (M:essrs. Faulding & Go,, Adelaide), whether there were other strapping plasters availttble in

the case of diachylon being prohibited, who answered, "Certainly; any quantitt;'' ;

. . $9, A woman asked a pharmacist in an Australian city, "Where is Parke, Davis, & Oo/s ?" '' "\Vhat do youwant them for?" "I want to buy some of their humber stating the catalogue number. These are called "in1prov·ed

ar1d. are . posed of. ergo tin, aloes,. oil of savin, .black. hellebore,

and of sa-vine. A whole page of the catalogue, is filled

with a list of these homicidal p:repf1ra'tions, offered at low prices. It would hardly with public interests io pl1b,lish a copy of it i but the nature of the. drugs,

their deplorable consequences, and the absolute fatuity of taking them for. the purpose which is tbe ordinary cause of their sale, cannot be too widely

As shown herein; they are commonly repacked and sold as secret medicines

by persons 1vho obtain a living by the traffic, and by pharmacists. The pills purchased by my instructions from pharmacists, openly for the purpose

S9. OB1i'l'!F1CATE OF AN. ALYSIS. Analfsls 'llegister Na. 6,'944. . ·· .. ·. . . . . . . . .

, ....... ·. , , ..... , .. . .•. ·.. .· ;Department Public Health, Ne'w Wales .

Ifni!: sample of Bonjean'!l Female Pills, marked or labelled "Bonjeari's Female coated," received on 26th March, 1907, from the Honorable the Attorney-General, has been examined with jpJJ.pwi;ng l'esl:l.lts;-J!'W.hll to corltB;ih--El'gotin, ferrous sulphate, savin:

These ct>mpq'Pehts lld'e drugs used both .as em):negagogues. l).myever;

Bohjean's Female Pills differ entirely from the above analysis. On a former occasion (th0 they were composed wholly of permanganate of potasf'ium. ·

WtLLIAM M. ...

Sydney, 22nd April, 1907. Government Analyst.

. . . I hetieye th,e on Patent Medicines is interested, perhaps the above reknits may b11

forwarded for his information.

. . .40, In order amply to el:ilcidate the subject of criminal abortion by dr.ugs, the !OHowirtg extracts are madefrotn Taylor's ·.Medical . Jurisprudence, VoL II, pages )otl Dr. Fred. J. Smith is thepresent editor. I have had the

benefit or his courteous information in this inquiry, and, inasmuch as he ha$ beep. sixtee11 years Chief Pathologist to London Hospital, the largest in the British

his. conclusions .ate entitled to great respect. He has unusual opportunities

of observation.

Iii adtlitio!l to the urugs already herein dealt with, several others are described. PRODUCTION OF ABORTION BY DRUGS.

41. The following generalisation, which is ,qtrictly warranted by facts, conveys a warr;ing to would-be \1-bortionists, whether professional or habitual, or lay and occasional :-There is no drug, and no combina.. tioti ot drugs, which will, when taken by the mouth, cause a healthy ute1us to empty itself, unless it btFgivtlti in doses_,sutfieiently:Iarge to seriqusly endanger, by€ poisoning, the life the woman

tattes it or them.

Notwithstanding

87

,....

'

20

Taglor's Hed{aal Jurisprudenae-aontinued.

Notwithstanding this very serious statement, abortionists still exist, and we must consider what drugs they use. For the actions of the drugs mentioned, and for much other information, the Editor has largely to thank the Lancet, vol. 2, 1898, and vol. 1, 1899, wherein the reader will find a series of articles on "Quacks and Abortion," giving much valuable information as to the modus operandi of these creatures.

. The of emmenagogues and ecbolics is a difficult question to decide, and one upon which very httle expenmental work has so far been done. The conclusions as to the actions of certain drugs rest almost entirely upon clinical evidence, often of very doubtful value. Emmenagogues may be defined as remedies used to produce or increase the menstrual flow. They may be divided into direct and indirect ; the for;:J.er are supposed to act directly upon the uterus or the nervous system in close relation to it, while the latter act by promoting or restoring the health of the body as a whole.

Indirect emmenagogues include, therefore-42. Tonics, such as iron and arsenic ; Hoomatinics, especially iron; and

Purgatives, especially of the stronger kind, such as colocynth, gamboge, magnesium and soda sulphate, and aloes, croton oil, elaterium, hiera-picra (a mixture of aloes and canella bark), and pilacotia (a mixture of aloes and colocynth).

Amongst direct emmenagogues the following drugs have from time to time been included :-Aloes, cantharides, caulophyllin, borax, apiol, cimicifuga racemosa, potassium permanganate, manganese dioxide, myrrh, anemone pulsatilla, polygala senega, sanguinarin, pennyroyal or mentha pulegium, senecio, yew leaves, grains of paradille, tansy, hellebore (white and black), squills; broom, male fern, laburnum, asarum arabi cum.

Ecbolics may be defined as drugs increasing the repulsive power of the uterine muscle. Commonly included amongst this class are ergot, hydrastis canadensis, ruta, juniperus sabina, quinine, and sodii salicylas, although this is rather an emmenagogue than an ecbolic. In addition to this list from the Lancet, a few metals must be included, lead especially, and also :mercury.

According to Dr. Stevenson's experience, a mixture of the watery extract of aloes and ferric chloride in large doses is a favourite abortifacient among abortion-mongers. Should this fail of its effect, ergot is given at a later stage of pregnancy ; and if this also fails to secure the desired result, instrumental means are employed.

43. Vegetable abortifacients, article in the Lancet then proceeds:-" We will

now consider the respective action of these drugs in detail,-Aloes apparently acts by producing congestion of the large intestine and of the pelvic organs. It is said to have a direct effect upon the uterus, but there is no exact evidence of this.

Cantharides has less effect upon the genito-urinary organs of women than tipon those of men. It has no special effect upon the uterus, but has, however, caused abortion in large doses, although one drachm has been taken by a pregnant patient with no effect. It would produce abortion only in large doses, and then only by its action as an irritant poison. We have not been able to find any experimental evidence as to its abortifacient powers.

Caulophyllin, from Caulophyllum thalictroides, a resinoid powder obtained from the root. This principle is said to have a direct effect upon the uterus, or upon the motor nerves supplying the uterus. It has been used in America for the purpose of producing abortion with apparent success. The dose of caulophyllin is given in Martindale's "Extra Pharmacopreia '1 as .from one to four grains, but the dose necessary to procure abortion is not definitely known.

Borax • ...,...This is used clinically for amenorrhrea, but no evidence exists of its possessing a definite effect upon the uterus.

Apiol.-The neutral principle of Petroselinum sativum, or common parsley; has a decided action as an emmenagogue. In doses of from 3 to 5 minims three or four times a day it is said to have no abortifacient effect whatever. Perhaps larger doses might produce such an effect.

44. Potassium permanganate and Manganese dioxide.-The clinical evidence as to the value of these salts as emmenagogues is conflicting. In ordinary doses they do not· tend to produce abortion, Oases of abortion occurring after the administration of potassium permanganate are recorded, but it is doubtful whether this result was not due to the general condition of the patient apart from the drug. (It is one of the commonest abortifacients.)

Polygala Senega.--This is used in the United States as an abortifacient, apparently with success; but the dose is uncertain, and there is no definite evidence, either clinical or experimental, as to its action upon the uterus.

Sanguinarin.-A resinoid powder obtained from the blood-root (Sanguinaria Canadensis). This is said to be an emmenagogue.

45. Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium).-This is a popular emmenagogue and abortifacient, but is, we believe, never used at the present day by medical men. It has neither emmenagogue nor ecbolic properties, and is not now employed for any purpose by medical practitioners. It is a warm stomachic, like the other mints, and its J1lace in pharmacy is now supplied by peppermint water.

Any notice of this substance here would have been quite unnecessary, but for the fa?t that a trial for criminal abortion (R. v. Wallis, 1871), strongly abortive properties were incorrectly assigned to 1t: and it was described as a highly noxious substance." .

46.

21

46. Pennyroyal seems to be the commonest of the abortifacients, and is included in many of the secret preparations. Dr. Potter (page 298) says, ''the author has known death by narcosis to result from an overdose of the oil of hedeoma (pennyroyal) taken to produce abortion.,'

47. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy, Oil of Tansy).-Hartshorne states that in the United States the oil t Taylor, of tansy has acquired the character of a popular abortive, and has caused death in several instances. In p. 175, England thi&. oil, and the herb, have been chiefly employed for the purpose of expelling worms. Pereira quotes a case in which half an ounce of the oil proved fatal. The symptoms were spasms, convulsive move-

ments, and impeded respiration ; no inflammation of the stomach or bowels were discovered upon dissection. The cases referred to by Hartshorne are-1. A teaspoonful of the volatile oil was taken by a girl in mistake for the essence. She complained of giddiness, and became insensible in ten minutes ; convulsions came on, with frothing at the

mouth, difficult respiration, and irregular pulse, and she died· in one hour after taking the oil.­ (.Amer. Jour. Med. Sc., July, 1852, p. 279.) 2. The second case occurred to Dalton, and is reported by him in the same journal for January, 1852, p. 136. A healthy looking girl, ret. 21, took 11 drachms of oil of tansy about six hours after a

hearty dinner. She was found insensible, and in convulsions, soon after she had taken the drug. She died in three hours and a half. A strong odour of tansy was observed in the breath before death, and on inspection in the peritoneal cavity, stomach, and even the interior of the heart, The uterus contained a well-formed £cetus about four months old, which did not, either in itself or its membranes, present any evidence of having been disturbed. ·

3. In a third case (Amer. Jour .. J1ed. Sc., May, 1835, p. 256), a woman but a few weeks pregnant took half an ounce of the oil, and did not entirely lose her consciousness until three-quarters of an hour had elapsed, although she was convulsed at intervals before that time. She died without abortion being produced, within two hours after taking the poison.-(For instance, see Jf;Jed.

Times and Gazette, 1861, I, p. 397.)

These facts show, that while oil of tansy possesses no specific action on the uterus as an abortive, and does not even affect this organ or its contents by sympathy, it is capable of acting as,a powerful poison on the brain and nervous system, and of destroying life rapidly. The oil would be easily recognist>d, either before or after distillation of the contents of the stomach, by its peculiar and odour. It is very soluble in ether, and this may be employed for its separation.

The "Sin that is a Reproach to any People."

48. In the catalogues, and therefore, it may be assumed, in the stocks of the wholesale druggists, reputed abortifacients are included. Always in these pages where the expressions "alleged" and "reputed abortifacients " are employed they must be understood as meaning real abortifacients, but that these are inevitably

accompanied by danger to the mother. It has been abundantly emphasised that there is no safe means of miscarriage.

49. It can serve no useful purpose in the present report to multiply examples, or t.o refer further to details of drugs employed, or of methods practised in the homicide of the unborn. It may be said, perhaps, that there are those who take life before. birth who would not do so afterwards. But we cannot il!nore the direct evidence upon interments, on page 48 of Report of Birth-Rate Commission, nor the evidences

of reckless use of poisons mentioned in the succeeding chapter. Where the woman told the police voluntarily that she had herself destroyed 2,000 baby lives without losing more than one mother's life, the former part is credible and the latter improbable in the extreme. There is the instance of the Sydney doctor already

quoted, who has been prosecuted many times for murder, and who is reputed to kill fifty mothers a year, and. of whose deaths two surgeons on the Royal Commission knew at least twenty each. .And there are no grounds for believing that 2,000 or 3,000 homicides are a.n extraordinarily high number for one practitioner.

60. It becomes necessary for us to preserve equilibrium of judgment regarding this phase of what is called civilisation. It is impossible to state the case shortly, and an exhaustive statement would be interminable. The prevention and destruction of child-life are commonly defined by the term "limitation of families." To those

who recognise the family as a Divine institution, to those who quote in any language the words of the Founder of Christian civilisation, Sinite parvulos venire ad me, such practices are inadmissible-indeed they are abomination. This "limitation of families," which is absolutely apart from, in essence distinguished from, celibacy,

abstinence, continence, or any kind of self-control, is the annihilating carcinoma which is breaking down the tissues of living nations. The individual vainly thinks that he or she will escape, but the consequences of unnatural interference are amply set

89

r· ,.

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22

in the evidence of the New South WalesRoyal Commission so often quoted

because it is. the only authoritative investigation known to us. Individ.nal

fnstartces of what has happened to adults and children are striking :111d instructive, out there is a tendency to assume them to be exceptionaL Collective. may better display to your Excellency's Government the operation of this malignant Y disease which has swept other nations into extinction, and which is progressing in

.w .. Saxondom with accelerated rapidity.

lit. The spreading use of means to induce miscarriage has been made manif.est

g-enerally must be, physically or mentally defective, were ·even both parents previQusly . The '!hole evidence of tlie. New South Wales Royal upon the

-.subject shows likelihood to each woman, and certitude in general, of injtil'Y to the genita,lorgans with subsequent degeneracy, froll1 the use either of pre-yeh,tfves or The maP., par. ,prepared by Mr .. J. :B .. Trivett, .exhiptts the

l'elatwn between the dechne of the b1rth-rate and the Increase of the msamty rate. 'Together with the . evidence in that regard it shows. ad oeulos the absurdity of the .9lain1 that the regulation of the size of families tends to eliminate the inefficient. 'Nature never argues, but only with facts .. .Par€mts cannot choose ,or know at

.before birth of the child whether it will be "efficient" or not. We know no

)nor.endw than wa,s kuown by the p1'imeval savage as to how the bo_:nes grow in the Avomb of her that is with child. But Nature shows clearly enough the consequences of our mistakes und crhnes.

Examples of the of Abortifacients.

S2. As with the case of the chemist-editor and partof whose

conversation is narrated on page 327, there will be found defenders of the principle of deception, of the '"liberty of sqbject" to seij, what likes those who choose tqlmy, , Therear£7 declare the right

rlike ·wfth o'V:l1 ·hodies a!ld their owli unborn offspring, to kill or M)t'!t to o,r des bi'?Y•. . I imv,e ilietpel'sotts on oooosions .in

so tWgued. . The· Rotal (JommiBsion upon the muefi pttin£ul

supplied by physicians, slu'g-f3ons, and Hi the dire!2tion. . To

•tim Irlembe'!?s of these professions, {is w the Herg.y, tne antl

of all social stations confide their separate secrets. n wits sworn to by :hleli ijf till four an{l . by women. and nurses, that the .crinJ.e .• Qf child­

lt;t the is _so. cotp.mo4 to.· s6me of, all classes

reprobttt}on. . A 1e:t,illng dfti!£glst the· CoinillfMi?fi ·

p.··r···dina. f.lly s. tr.ow .. he.sitation ... o.r.•··· sfi. .. a. ill. e .. in.··.·· ft? .. li· :.• fiilllin·:S.tti d.estfi?X .. · .. .. l.'epltea . t'? eonttary in these · .h None M.l51t rp,ost

unlJlttshi1lg1t, llo foU/', unawtittt tlUit

of his. _tl_te trll.de whti wttsexallilned; the l:l!i.tl

ljefore lia.d t.o the same . .·

lile a presct1ption at the .he

.. who had firstly a cer_tain insti•utuent apotper .

jjroper use, actually. ask the , a . very young man) .how .. ·to .. mse1tt ..

so as to ettsure the. death of.herown child. is

ttnusuat hi the case, and it calls for no special comttu3nt. ·

53. Nevertheless, appears advisabieto that the same and potent

!tfe importtid .and sold in Austt•alia a;s rnentloh€d in furegding pages of

.. I sent my SOlly aged 22, td pi•ocuM

ostertstl:Hy for the purpose. Here is his

PURCHASE OF DRUGS OSTE:NSISLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF. F

. obtained frotn ')(. * -'k 16th October, 19Dtl. I inquired for the New YorkCentrai

Drug Oompan}"s 'Tansy Pillsl and was informed that these were the herbs, "same tiling." Directions for 1)-Be; Infuse ip. hot and take three times a day. Price, 3d.

: . . Petersoi< and Haines, II, 635:--Tansy is extensively used by the laity as an abortifacient, usually wiibout success; and a number of deaths have occurred ftorn this practice. . AlL

Ml Drug manufactured ill ·.

- '

54.· ]?rice at t}le wholesale c1mggiJts in .Australia, ls. box; retail (The

box ?X piUs W(l.S. soW spe,cifi{lally to pr()cqrQ wiscar:riage)

RELIABLE

Female R.egulating, PiUs, OF TANSY, PENNYROYAL AND COTTON. ROOT.

It i.s best. in beginning the use of these pills, the: .

bowe}s should be thoroughiy opened by some good cathartic.; after which ta}{e of these pills every four hou,rs, until the e..fiec:t is prqduced. It is also well, while using these

pills, to make use of a warm foot bath every :n.igbt, which· · may be made further effici'en,t' by the addition of a Sil).aU Qt.l.;J.ntHY of mustard, salt or salsoda. In order to produce bee p,erspiration w bile taking the pills, good herb

_lw parte:tken freely of, such as one made from tansy,

· 1ill,yrpe, or pennyroyal; physical exercise in the open' air is e:tlso quite nece..ssary, being however, 'to be _

v.lotlleA out of doors, and' particularly keeping the feet b0dy: watJ)l. In cc;ses wl,len the period is irregular,

t,o the use of these pills three or four days

'h

opening the bowels with a good cathartic and taking the pills bathing the feet, etc.

The medicines of which these pills are composed are ones used by the best practitioners and are in no way dangerous, but of course, as in the taking of all medicines, be

t1.seq with judgment and strictly according to directions.

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· 1$6. ·The WO!'ding of the above shows how the vendor of the compound can dodge " the law,l'f0r whilst it is made u_p, imported, and then actually sold for the purpose of ;.-

miscarriage, ·there is the printed pretence that it is only emmenagogue. it

skilfully draft@d-· like Jf!qkson's circular on page 32-by a most respectable firm of . 56.

.( ;

I

56. "o. Female PiLs, extra powerful.'' -ObtaiMd fr?m. anothe: Australian shop, 16th October, 1906. I first asked for the New York Cenhal Drug Company s Tansy Pills, and told that _he had only Mrs. Shawe s Tansy, whJCh !.> " .. :: ) he took out of a glass-fronted show-

PROPRIETARIES, .PERFUMEF case immediately inside the door. . '' The chemist told me that tansy is

TANSY PILLS(Central Drug Stores. New An 1mproved formula, containing Pennyroyal and Cotton Root Safe and effectual. Fif1y Gelatine coated pills in a neat decorated ti n. with full directions 12/0 doz.

not much used now, and he offered to give me some pills that would be a better emmenagogue than tansy. I asked whether he would have to. make up the pills, or if he could give them to me "straight-away." He . replied that he would only have to . put some in a box for me, and told me · that they were better than tansy­ they contained iron, ergot, "and a . few things. " I then asked, "You

know what sort of regularity they are for, don't you 1" "Oh, yes;

female3, I suppose." "That's right, hut not the usual kind of regularity." "No; I understanrJ what they are for. Just the ordinary regularity,

I suppose." When handing me the pills he remarked, "These are extra strong pills ; they are a pink pill. They will cost you 5s., and there arf'. thirty-six in a box. The dose

is one pt11 three times a day after n eak They can't hurt anybody. Of course they may gripe a little, because they are so strong ; that is to be expected. But they can't do any h:um. 'You tell her to take them after meals. They are champion pills, and perfectly safe. If ever I give tbPse pills to anyone they always work-champion. Y ou could not buy a better pill, no matter what money you paid for it. are perfPctly safe."

57. "Female Pills," obtained at the shop of a third druggist.. As in the previous casrs, I asked for the New York Central Drug Company's Tansy Pills, but was informed by the young woman that they did not keep them. I then asked if they had a nything similar, Dnrl she lw,nded me a small box ot pills for the liver and kidneys. I said that was not what I wanted. when she replied that they wf're for the stomach also.

I p\1t the box on the counter, and looking straight at her I said that was not the nature of the pills that I required. "Oh, J know what you want. Are they for a lady 1" "Yes." "All right. Are they for

your wife 1" "Scarcely; the next thing to it." "I see, because we have to be careful how we sell that kind of thing." The pills were then placed in a plain box, without name or direction for use. I asked what were the directions, and, on being told that the dose was two pills in the afternoon and two at night, I wrote it on the lid of the box with a fountain pen, in the presence of the woman. I then inquired

whether I needed a whole boxful, or whether I could not" get along with half the quantity." "Well, you may need some more if these do nol; act. Sometimes you need a second lot, but if she comes up here herself we may be able t o do something for her." Price of pills, 5s. In this shop, right opposite the counter, in the most prominent position, are labelled boxes, with letters about 1 inch high, •• Pennyroyal."

58. Tansy, Cotton-root, and Pennyroyal Pills, obtained at a leading city pharmacy, 16th October, 1906. ·I first went to a wholesale druggist's warehouse and asked for the New York Central Drug Company's Tansy Pills. They did not Reem to know them, and asked, "Are those the steel and pennyroyal1" They sent upstairs for what they had, and the boy brought down a packet similar to that I afterwards obtained

at . . I was told to go for them, as they (the wholesale firm) could not sell retail. Calling at

. I asked for "some tansy pills. you have put up in little boxes." "Yes, in little green tins; is that what you want 1" "Yes. But see here a minute; these are for a girl in the family-way. I

suppose they will get her out of it all "That depends upon how long she has been pregnant.

How far has she gone 1" I answered that she was " four months gone, perhaps five. " "Oh, well, these are the best things you can have; if they fail, I do not think any drugs will have the proper effect." I asked if he had anything that I could use if the pills failed. " The only thing to do would be to see one of the medical men if they failed." He then got the pills, and, as be handed them to me, repeated, "You cannot have better than these for the purpose you want them for. If they fail, I do. not think there is any drug that will help you. The only thing to do in that cnse is to see a medical man." Price of pills, 6s. 6d.

59. From another Australian . central city drug store-that of a dispensing chemist, in large practice-was bought a box of colchicine pills, sold expressly for the purpose of destroying the child of a girl (imaginary, of course) in the sixth month o.f pregnancy. The man said, "You have to be careful with these things, you know;

they affect the · heart, and it might be serious. Why not try the usual things first?" "We have tried all these things-pennyroyal and the rest-they are no good; we want something stronger." And he supplied a box of tiny colchicine pills (as subsequent official analysis proved), without any notice of poison or any .other

warning or label of any kind. The fellow knew, as the other dealers everywhere ·'know, such is a murderous act, and that hosts of girls and women are thus ]{illed every year-not so much by colchicine and elaterium, but by all of the awful ·array of poisons always on sale for the direct pU1'pose of homicide. 60.

25

60. The poisons thus openly purchased were duly submitted to and tested by the Government Analyst of New South Wales, Mr. W. M. Hamlet, and proved to be the poisons specified. " The Text-book of Legal Medicine and Toxicology," Vol. II, p. 476, by

Doctors Peterson and Haines, says :-Colehieine: One-third of a grain is liable to cause death. Excretion is very slow, so that in repeated doses it may be cumulative.

Dwight (p. 175) says that half a grain is probably a fatal dose. Death generally follows in twenty-four hours. Taylor (Vol. II, p. 721) says that one grain is likely to be fatal. Other authorities consider one grain certainly fatal.

" The Encyclop::edia Medica," 1902, Vol. XII, p. 342, says :-Beyond the possible presence of signs of inflammation of the intestinal mucous membrane, there are no post-mortem appearances.

So that had the girl been real, and not imaginary, and had died, there would have been the usual verdict of natural causes. The last-named authority states upon the following page :-It not infrequently happens, when powerful drugs are taken with the object of causing abortion,

that the woman is fatally poisoned, and dies undelivered; in other ca.ses, abortion is speedily followed by the death of the mother.

Attsl1·alasian Medical Gazette, 20th .April, 1905, page 165. 61. In the report of the Royal Commission on the Declini:qg Birth-rate, the question of the large amount of abortion-mongering prevalent in Sydney was carefully considered, and some suggestions were made with a view to putting a stop to this practice but, judging from the number of deaths resulting apparently from criminally induced abortion, reported to the Crown, it would appear that the practice is as prevalent as ever. One cannot but view with the deepest regret the death of so large a number of

young women occurring as a result of septicremia.

62, Only by the production of such violent irritation of the abdominal and pelvic organs as generally endangers life can the pregnant uterus be stimulated to expel its contents.-" Materia Medica," by Chas. D. F. Phillips. The abortifacient effect o£ savin and other drugs cannot be obtained unless by the administration of a quantity sutfieient to endanger life.-" Materia Medica," by Roberts Bartholow.

Some results of the " Regulation of Families."

Shadwell's "Industrial Efficiency," page 290, et seq. 63. During forty-six years the number of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, of American parents has never reached one-half of the whole. The highest proportion was 415-19 per cent. in 1869; it has since diminished-and for the last fifteen or sixteen years pretty steadily-to 27·92 per cent. in 1901.

The native-born population at that time was 68·2 per cent. of the whole. According to these figures more than two-thirds of the population produced considerably less than one-third c£ the children born. But, in order to get the relative fertility of the native and foreign populations correctly, it is necessary to take into account the mixed marriages. In 1901 the actual number of children born was 4,696, being at the

rate of 26·35 per 1,000 of the population. They were thus distributed accorcling to parentage: American, 1,311 ; foreign, mixed, 906. If we credit half of the last class to the American and half to the

foreign element, we get the following totals :-Amerian, 1,764; foreign, 2,893; being respectively 37·5 and 62·5 of the -who\e number o£ children. The true relation, therefore, stands thus:-Percentage of Percentage of

Population. Children.

American 68·2 37·5

Foreign... 31·8 62·5

64, The birth-rates in the two sections were-American, 14·7 per 1,000; foreign, 51·6. This disparity is partly due to the difference of age distribution, there being a larger number of W.)man of child-bearing age among the foreign population. But the facts show how entirely the increase of population by excess of births over deaths depends on fresh immigration. That is seen still more clearly if the death-rates are

examined. The death-rate among the American population was 19·7 per 1,000. That is to say, it exceeded the birth-rate by 5·0. The native population is, therefore, dying rapidly. And this proeess seems to be progressive ; the death-rate in that section of the population wh1ch was not only born in America, but whose parents were born there, was 21·66 per 1,000. Thus a progressive decline of vitality is shown both by a lower rate of reproduction and a higher rate of mortality. The same tendency makes itself apparent in the infantile mortality, which is rising among children of American parentage, in spite of a very low birth-rate, and stands far higher than among those of foreign parentage; the respective figures in 1901 were-American, 173; foreign, 146, to 1,000 births. These figures are a terrible satire on

the theory that it is better to have a few children and take care of them, than to have more and neglect them. Nature is not mocked. One more point is brought out by the invaluable records of *97267-D Providence

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Providence. We have seen that the American section has never during the last forty-six years produced half the children born. It follows that the so-called native population is chiefly of foreign blood. The inference to be drawn is that the immigmnt races become Americanised and lose their vitality in the next generation.

66. In part of the Province of Ontario the birth-rate has fallen below the death­ rate. A physician in Toronto stated to me his opinion that the cause is constitutional sterility generally. 'rhis conclusion was not founded upon authentic or authoritative investigation, and must therefore be rejected. There is rather reason to believe that the causes else·where operating in Auglo-Saxon countries, and probably operative in Canada, are sufficient to account for the decline without guessing at any others.

66. Dr. Shadwell's figures relative to the towns of Lancashire, viewed in the light of our knowledge of the sale of drugs for the limitation of families, further illustrate the downward movement. It is not because they are factoTy towns, for they were that before, nor because of " the factory system/' for that also existed under worse conditions; nor because of sanitation, for that is better than before; but because of unchecked sale of means of limitation, the spread of literature upon the subject, /1 and, if we may judge hy :malogy, personal inculcation of checb by way of sexual interferences and by homicide. It has been shown that special methods-as wilful lead-poisoning-spread in particular districts, and it may be of guidance to note the higher vitality of the dwellers and workers in the iron districts of Staffordshire.

67. In Boston, Massachusetts, I visited Dr. H. Stirling Pomeroy, who has published valuable works upon that which the President of the United States has called "race suicide." 'l'he pursuit of this inquiry has been to the estimable doctor a subject of overmastering interest. In l)ersonal conference he informed me of his later observations, which go to show only an accelerated decay of the once virile and aggressive Anglo-Saxon race in Massachusetts. He showed me a sympathetic letter from the late R.ight Honorable W. E. Gladstone, which appears in fac-simile on page 39.

68. President Roosevelt said to me " Do you know that there are .fewer descen­ dants of the revolutionary forefathers living to-day than there were fifty years ago?" And upon another occasion he said to rnc " \Vc Inust either nlter our ways or we must make way for the other races, Asintic or whatever they are, that will certainly replace us." His race is our race, his trouble our trouble. lie well knows that, up to the present, physical degeneracy is not the active cause. He knows and declareE that it is unnatural interferences and actual homicide. Exactlv the same causes that operated to ruin ancient Rome are operating to our ruh{, and the very methods employed are the same.

69. It is said that "you cannot make people moral by Act of Parliament." But that is precisely what you can do, and it is the only way. Where we make our laws they are our national conscienee, in respect of personal conduct. At present the evils are unchecked, whilst mere personal inclination to right-living does not and cannot suffice to save the people, as a whole, from injury and ultimate extinction. The innocent, the ignorant, the helpless are depraved or destroyed. Parliament, and nothing else, can cut out the evil, save the :sound, and preserve society from the nefarious traffic herein described.

Chivalry to the Unborn. The Review of Reviews, I May, 1907.

'PRE LIMITATION OF THE FAMILY FROM THE MOTHER'S POINT OF VIEW. 70. Mt·s. Alfred Macfadyen writes in the Nineteenth Century on the Birth-rate and the Mother. speaks out; guitc boldly. She declares from personal experience that "a desire for limitation

of family is at work through all classes of the English-speaking peoples, certainly among the more provident of all classes." She scoffs at the ide:t of " celibate or childle;;c; men like Father Bernard Vaughan, the Bishop of I .. ondon, and 1\'Ir. Sydney Webb.". The restrictive movement is not an outcome of artificial civilisation or city life, for, she says, she finds even on South African farms "the same feeling and the contingent precautions." She argues that " with rational regulation of births the survival rate of infants is raised, and ultimately the marriage-rate." She turns trenchantly upon her

critics, and says:-Havc men who uphold C:o continuance of war any right to complain if women rebel against enduring without limit the disco:nforts and pangs of child-bearing, and tho long sacrifice of child­ rearing to provide food for powd

motive in restriction than to lighten the burden of motherhood. No man with a spark of imagination or chivalry would wish to force upon the woman dearest to him unwilling motherhood. - The

27

Mrs. Alfred Macfadyen-continued.

The woman of to-day suffers more than her ancestors both in the anticipation and in the hour of child-birth--that is the price paid in nerves and physique for her more complete and sympathetic share in the work, the thoughts, and the fortunes of her husband and children, and for the training which makes it possible. , . . . If child-bearing costs more, child-rearing

costs infinitely more. The writer sees increasing hope of earlier marriages :-Nothing but the regulation of the number of children can make early marriage possibie· Here we come upon the fact that under a system of restriction the increase of the marriage-rate will help to balance the decline of the birth-rate per mother. If ten women marry and each has three children, there will be as many births as if five marry and each h11s six. Not only so, but early marriage is the solution of most promise in dealing with one great problem which is not often discussed as part of the great question of matrimony, but which never ought to be

discussed apart from it. .. She laments the great evils produced by the refusal of the medical profession to recognise " that

the mother's claim is right within proper limits." She adds significantly : " U the doctor passes by on the other side, the quack is always at hand."

71. Mrs. Macfadyen's is a strange apostolate, but she does not inform the Anglo­ Saxon world through which her travels have led her, as to whether it be self-assumed or by proper appointment from the chiefs. 'fhe suggestion contained in the last para­ graph quoted is probably the most comprehensively wicked that was ever placed upon paper by man or woman. Its promulgation by the reckless Mr. Stead can only help

along the decadence, and do irremediable mischief in so far as it operates. It is the · Besantine gospel through its apostles, but it must have startled the clientele of the Nineteenth Century. 72. Suppose, for the third time, that the healing professions were so utterly renegade

to honour, apostate to the doctrine of humanity, as to listen to the "mother's claim," and do that which the quack does who is always at hand. Suppose forty thousand skilled practitioners in Great Br;tain, and one hundred and fifty thousand in the United · States were to destroy unborn babes, at cut rates, how long could such nations last?

Who is to say what are the "proper limits" of homicide, when once the principle thus openly inculcated be put in practice and attain fult vogue with national recognition? 73. On the opposite page in the same number of Mr. Stead's Australian edition is quoted, without approbation this time, a sarcastic suggestion : "Why should not a

German invasion and conquest be welcomed as adding much-needed virility to our composite character? A German conquest may be hereafter looked back to with as much pride as the Norman conquest ! " Another conquest, more cheerful and bloodless, would be that our nation regain its own liberties from quacks and their coadjutors, thenceforward keeping these and

all other traitors to society well under foot, Its best-proved, long-tested and much tried helpers will be the same healing professions thus once more scandalously

74. "She speaks out quite boldly." To use Charles Dickens' phrase, much bolder than brass. Her scoff of childlessness at the three serious men who are doing patriotic work in speaking to the nation's heart and honour does not apply to myself, at least. For it happens that I am the twelfth child of my Quaker mother, who was very healthy, vigorous of mind, and who thanked God heartily for each of the existences entrusted

to her. She read her Greek testament, had received some medical education, to the . benefit of her children> and. enjoyed the deep respect of all who knew her. Her principles were, therefore, not founded upon ignorance. 75. My wife gave me twelve children. All are living, and all, thanks solely to her

loving and judicious care, are in excellent health of body and mind up to date. She called the twelfth child Dorothea because ot the meaning of the name, and during eleven happy years the child has justified it. Each believes that he or she has an Eternal Father Who is in heaven and to Whom account must be given, most of all

of human lives placed within their care. It is old-fashioned inculcation, but it is at all events a living gospel, and therefore likely to last ages hence, when the gospel of un-nature, of 1 acial felo-de-se, shall have necessmily completed its course and been forgotten.

76. The statements o£ lv'Irs. Alired Macfadyen, quoted above, are all opposed to facts, a;;; already shown. The marriage-rate of France (and of other countries showing racial decline) does no rise, but tep.ds to fall. As the population contains an undue and enlarging proportion of old lives, with a low or lessening proportion of young or

marriageable

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marriageable persons, the must fall lower still. Sexual and genesic

· tend to disunity and divorce. Divorces, accordingly, are largely on the

mcrease, and should, in reckoning, be deducted from the number of the marriages. 77. The marriage-rate in Great Britain has fallen in the last six years. The marriages of minors have fallen in the case of husbands from 77·8 in 1,000 marriages in 1876-80, to 43·8 in 1905; in the case of wives it fell from 217·0 to 146·9, comparing the same years.

78. Again, the surgical and medical professions thus scolded for the "great evils produced by " their loyal action, are the very people who unanimously and all the time are reducing infantile mortality in every way, by practice and precept. They, and they only, struggle to lessen the mortality in parturition which has herein been shown to be so heavily on the increase in recent years, since and because of the unnatural interferences introduced by Mrs. Besant' s maleficent teaching.

79. There is no evidence yet adduced to show that the occasional children of persons who practice spermatocide, froticide, or infanticide are healthier than the offspring of those who live naturally, whether the latter have few or many. The evidence hitherto submitted is absolutely and overwhelmingly to the contrary. It will be seen that the Besantine doctrine is argument only, and rests upon "ifs." But Nature and Nemesis are silent.

80. When the flood of war shall surely come over Australia from the North, it is not whining and sophistry that will avail, but rather the number of the sons of loving, patriotic, and pure-lived British mothers who refuse to practise the cruel horrors herein narrated and elsewhere openly preached.

81. Placing the food-for-powder argument opposite facts of existence, the shrinking young gentlemen brought up as solitary specimens by decadent mothers-as depicted by Professor Stanley Hall ("Adolescence ")-cannot calculate, however calculating, upon special treatment by their nation's enemies. Their tender necks must bear the

yoke with the more stalwart, and, even before that shall come, the .nation may not count neurasthenia as good to exempt from conscription. Theirs are the " nerveless fingers " which Dr. Ingram in England and Theodore Roosevelt in America contrast with the brawn of our hardy forefathers.

82. " No man with a spark of imagination or chivalry would wish to force upon the woman dearest to him unwilling motherhood." That is Mrs. Macfadyen's argument, and it need not be answered, for the realm of logic must always remain theirs who will dispute with Nature. The word Nature is here dialectically accurate. Another every­ day anecdote may enable us to see if the argument fits with facts.

83. A city merchant in Australia said : '" I met one of the tenants in our building, and observing that the man was pale and nervous, even trembling, asked him what was the matter. 'My wife has made up her mind that she will have no more children. I have used every persuasion to get her to see the wrong of it all, but without effect. She and her sister, who is also a married woman, have come to that decision together, and I cannot keep them apart. A few days ago I was called home from business, and there was this sister, and a nurse who had operated upon my wife, and she was dangerously iii.' "

" Why does your friend continue to live with a wife who thus murders their offspring ? " " I put that to him, but his answer was, ' What am I to do with my two poor little children ? ' "

·what hands to leave them in! Truly we owe much to the "doctor who passes by on the other side." Yet in the eyes of Mrs. Macfadyen, who is approvingly cited by Mr. Stead, the " quack who is always at hand " becomes the modern Good Samaritan. Compare the chivalry upheld by these writers with the " chivalry to the unborn " extolled by Dr. Stanley Hall.

Organised Depravation.

84. As the ultimate object of the present inquiry and report is the adoption of some remedial measures to iessen or to remove those ills within its scope which afflict our society and threaten its continuance, must regard as a whole the hidden

I

II

il

I

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II

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hidden causes of the trouble and their phenomena. At the back of the phenomenal in all things are the moral, the noumenal., the spiritual. No matter what our present fashion of thought and speech may be, any civilised nation that ignored those three became extinct. To speak specifically, if we allow secret drugging, we allow,

inevitably, the sale of so-called emmenagogues inseparably from ecbolics and abortifacients; also anti-conceptional means, chemical or mechanical. That trade further includes incitements to the vices that it lives by, in the shape of aids to seduction, to systematic demoralisation, and to the practice of infamies that cannot

here be mentioned. It must not be forgotten that the New South '\Vales Royal Commission had direct evidence of leading, important, commercial firms engaging by organised departments in the traffic in articles, not only of vice, but of criminality. I have elsewhere mentioned that the Departments of Customs and of the Post Office in the American Commonwealth have contended, and have still to contend, with like malpractices. There are shops, ostensibly pharmacists, in Australian cities

which deal chiefly and largely in abortifacients. They also deal in instruments for a like purpose-so that where one hegins and the other ends, a line cannot be drawn. Newspaper advertisements that lead up to the one lead up to the other, for the end is same--homicide.

85. I therefore submit to Your Excellency, for the information of the Govern­ ment, reports of actual investigations into the evil doings in this regard that are current, and add to them extracts from the Report of the New South Wales Royal Commission alrea,dy mentioned. It must here be reiterated that there is no ground

for belief that one Australian State differs materially from another in these practices. The same laws and customs prevail, and the same deadly epidemic persists in them all. "The tragedies of the newspapers" permit glimpses now and then, but these are mere negligible fractions of the evil. The facts adduced of more advanced decay, as those of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Providence (Rhode Island), of Lancashire,

and of Ontario, only give cause for extra anxiety and more earnest attention to the search for and securing of a remedy. It will be recognised that one kind of thread only is revealed by each department of this investigation-immorality not merely sexual. These threads I shall endeavour to bring together in the conclusions

to this Report; and if the several chapters should be found tautological, that also is with the intent of exhibiting to the mind of the reader the necessity for

extirpating the carcinoma, and not to indicate another palliation, a cloaking of the destructive malady. vVe are far down the slope of Avernus; and though it be a work and a need to revoke the steps, we may hope that it is not all too late.

The Newspapers and Organised Homicide.

86. To make sure beyond captious dispute of the nature of the advertisements of which some photographs are herein supplied, I caused correspondence to be conducted with the "nurses" who are allowed by our laws to carry on secret cures. A friend and his brave wife undertook to carry out an interview with the woman of the 3,000

successes, an interview preceded and appointed by interchange of letters in .what must be the usual way. On the table of the New South \Vales Royal Commission were laid hundreds of similar letters by an officer of police, the Chief Commissioner of Police being himself a member of the Commission. There were alleged copies

of diplomas of many great hospitals, instructions as to time and place of attendance, applications, answers, costs of operations, and, literally, market quotations often stated very low. Together with the mass of documentary evidence were verbal details by the loyal officer as to the general system of working of these practitioners,

for there is a general system. There were the advertisements by which the secret traffic is mainly driven (vide infra), year in, year out. Peterson and Haines, II, 100: "Forensic Medicine."-A most essential reform in the prevention of abortion could be brought about by the Press. There is scarcely a paper, religious or secular, which does

not contain the advertisement of a means to procure abortion. In the papers of great cities the name and address of those who will undertake this crime are daily published and widely circulated.

87. The names of probably honest nurses carrying on lawful practice are placed side by side in these advertising columns with those well known for years to the police, and whose announcements signify their character to persons requiring them. 88.

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,·;

88. Every-day Newspaper Announcements.

1 · MISCELLANEous. _ ____ · · I ·' OLAIIWOY AtkE.-Prof:-KiLLERY. RenoWlled A me· JOSEPHINE, Cl.airvcy'\nt, Palmist .. lim rmg·•t, Mcl b. Trav. c:tll, save money. G UIU>ON l'OSTJ.::H. Clairvoyant. ·.us GlenmOre·rd. M ADAilf: ZEPHEY, Palmist, 'france ,· l':tddingt on (late• Victoria ·•t. Potts Pt.).. 'Bus to dr. Complexion anyal ' ·n · ..... ,l O!•m:J, II , corner SS CARLENENT, b.igb·class Cla.!rvoyant , uii\S'I Il <·d. ·'( • . __ ell!:_ ------,.-•.,--- -.-- ·ut -tierbaliot Shop, daily. Oxford-st , TTI.f'D L ad.v, <:a re tl!lhY B;'.."· .Qf.:,-y >ermi. ,ADAME 13ELL, Clairvoya.nte, Palmist, .maY be

I

MiscELLANEous. 1 · MISCELLANEous. · r

'M .\D.UH: Cl> lf''oy• nte, Pa lnu st. Jlly. . A NICF: cared ior I

11 L0 !•, ndv1ce :l it n.l3tlcrs. HG Commonwt'al th st. -. b .v lad_v 0! llonJP,

1 1\ Jf' .\DAI.l: HT:RSCHE:L -<;>ucstic" s a!l!!\\Cri!d b}; pcsl , RIOFfNED Couple wi»i\ Care of nice ll•hy (;irl. !;·oro • .J..f'l .. three 5s : letters nrcp:url. 51 Hul!ter- c:: t. 2 ye41"S. l,ars .• Mr'S. \V. £ . Bo_ycc. P.O. , \\''lahra.

1

'M-A.D i\-M£ ltlt:t\Zl, ('a iuust ai\J Clurvoy· w ·- ANTED , l;ind 6 montlos.-fl:

t .:nt, :'ll:::.o Ski :1 n.r.d H ur Spec . Arcarl<:'. T. _ ..f ., North Sydney P.O.

M - -·T.f0:-LEYIIJ-:'18, Cl2L"Voyan t , sitts. dly. Meetgt;. 1\,f'RS. SCALES, I b1<>1l. , W., Fr. tvp. lS Cft-vela od-zt, c!! Ntwu.-rd. H'..!.. rla ol y. 11 1:;11 5. o'\l Kmg -•t A.r CJ>de, end. CLA!RVOY A!\1', -'1' Oowns Clieotsl l)ett' rs ham. i

Attention is specially drawn to the tender lives here offered (with added money every time) to those who will make away with them. Vide 81, 85, 86. Children of various ages are thus offered from day to day. A recent one was of a" little girl, just able to walk." The head of the Government Department for the Protection of Children said to me, "rrhere i(no doubt that great numbers of children are done to death." It can be done on easy terms. .. IUa.\.0 ... , - ..

MI.SCELLANEOUS. l

KILLERY, Renownrd

American ClairvoyJ.nt and Psych ometnst, may he consulted· on buein:•ss, pri vate mutters, ete, at J il(j Phllii£·Street, near Bent·•t. daily 0 t o 8. To•t• for the Purcha.sc ()f old Se,ving

I '"····· .. , ....... , ... = ··-. •. t..ai\.9 and Knives, and quantity Scrap Iron \Vilson, Fechter ond Co., Al exandna. SPlltlTl'ALlS); -M,·. and Mre . Snlliv•n. 279 P itt -st. upstairs, <'lllran<:e. MADAME ZEPII!>Y , Palmist on d 'franc<' Cla• rvoy · I ante, Complex ion nnd Hail' Sp•,c. t6 ltoral GORDON l' OS'l'EH, Clairvoyant. n o Olenmore-rd ; , __ _'bus_to dr !r0111 C. P.O. ·I J OS£PH!Nt:, Cr)·sto l Clairvoya n!1? and Palmlst, late Hat tr's .'a.rr ., now 3"J Ro al An ·., Pltt ·st . eutr ::O.P.,!Rll'UA ISTS' Ad vance and Hesea"'h ElO<'ietl', >Leigh Houso. -.Meelg. To-night, S -. Inquiri es in v. ' SP!RITUALIS!.I.-MI'I!, M. SC n ·rd. Newtown COSGULT Mme. De Solden o, Palmist.' Clo1t· e \ voyantt?, lft lmpetial A · Uopn. U to o. Ci A kt\a4a.,., and :Kyo.. . oz. -cl),. T cr. tr

W!

w

r

I

cl· M, Ia 3• u

p.

(

;rJ' .. d.

.... · ;

:.. ·

. ··q .. ,

f · dlii:lni'

•. .l:-1 - . term1 horn& romtorta. ·

·N-i.!Yi.'.IE-LR srno·WNe:-conBii:tiltlg Npf11:!', . · < nr.ar. ... beii)·U.-- 'l'it\-· oid<>.-N UK!U: 'l!'.-tJ. , IW•\•e comf£!t1 __ ..

N J'URSB. CAUTER'S l'rjvate Home , for 7.ddl!$'' · G.JemnorP.·r

COMMODATION for ladies ;I'Ccouchesnent. Outdoor cas€8 a ttended. ASHLEY, . •·1 · P a ddington, . near 'l'erln!l . moderate. •·

I M HS. LA VENDI>R, late of Olerunore-rd, Profcsofonal Nurse and AccoucW,...,, rcceiv"" Patienta Norse or Med. Atte'ndance, at Park llou•e, Ia. zooo·..,__.,. !!UCC

· ··The high of ":Infa nt mortality'­

that IS to say, of th(' deaths of babies

..

Wil les. ' ·

All noth.:es of objection t o tion must be

with me within one month trotn t.he date hereof.

Da ted t he 29th day o! May, 1907. ALLAN fl. UTll ER, Acting-RA!gi&lrat,

lnduatrlal A.rb1ttatio:1 A.ct.

"'i')ov"ALNNP.T!r'SHOaEiiosP'iTAL o;.· SYfiNEY. Xl.• On behalf or above H ospita l I ha;·e to ackno w­

ledge with THANKS the !4!ccipt of O:S 8 HUNDRED POUNDS from the Estat.e ol the J,\ :>/ E DAVY, {;er

i th:! Permanent TrUJ!tee Cu. of tU!. W. , r.w. '

. D. H . HonMa!y

.M. P. LIFE OFFICE.-!! you daire t-ull and reliable . '1 putic-.Ua.rs. col'. write, or 'phone 2 171!, a nd ! will cflll. JOHN B. YOlJDALl,, Ci!( A3ect,

1(73 (lp_p. O. P .O.

1 M· RS. LA VENDER, i't ofessional .f!>, • receives Ps. tieuta rt::quirir;g Nurse or hh!d . at P...-k liouoc, i3-l M·'JOrt Ovtt 3000 ca5.3S \"XJHY Pay fuorblta.'l.t Pri <' lUi color. v.iU stand t he re;;t of nit!ic at"id, '/Ia with caac; Pebbles, 2/6: Do"bk Vi•ion, B, BA.ll.N.ETr, 3'-.9 3 Doors lrom the Wa ter and Board. B !WtSR '&iid cheaper -tlWI uuttpte" Lard, In ne4t packet " fmJTOII.S to MELBOURNE re:n! Dd<.:l tl\51 ·. .:ntE S YDh"'EY D.\n.Y TELf:G RAPI:l e.!W Tits Wv.n.uv'S NEWS &J:e Oil Sale .u under ·.-- . ltaJlw• y Booksta U, 8pencer-s;r_.t . Rdlway Ronlr.stall, Flinder&-str.,;t. Gordon and Gotch, 9ueei>-street. U Leder mana . 460 Fhndtrs·otreet.

-------

:MIOOELLANEO.U'B •

A RJUYED, after & moat succeealui tour tht'OUJh Amel'iea, the onainal Wadune Palmtst and Hau 3n r1 Skin opec!a.liot; Supti'lluou. li.alr ,__ l!y 26 ll.oyal An·. lilLLERY, Renown!JSTRY.-M>dome WIEN will be in Sydney 29th January. 29 Regent-et, city. -H - UNT Bli.NDALL. Clai.-:rv c= oy - a"' a"' t"' , =-: .., "'an=e..:.e- . -n"'ig "'h'"'t"'l-y,-,7"" .s"""o l prhate dally. !16 Bligh·st, o1J lo! isaenden·rd, 1-l'tow n.. O)..A!RVOYANT. 'Mr. Bostoc-k, se.,nce, To·r.ight;. _ t c ly_ . _ 2.!1_ _ N P - -Clients c

0

-, • :::::;:;;:·: ::::: ,, . Ill fUi t n ·• 1: u

... .. " " ;;;;;;;;;;&iiiiiiiiiiiiiieaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiOiiiiMiiiOiiiiOiiiiOiiiiOiii;o;;;;;ooo;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,..

31

89. It is hard to understand how rich men, or any men who care to face their fellows, choose to receive from day to day such a stream of blood-stained coin. Three years ago, members of the Royal Commission privately expostulated, but the stream flows on, a little wider than before. In one column appears the advertisement,

in another the oft-reported tragedy. We

receive the story in plain print upon our

breakfast tables of the sowing to the flesh, and the reaping of corruption. Seed-time and harvest all the year round. Speaking recently to an eminent,· brave, and philan­

thropic surgeon, one of the New South Wales Royal Commission, who has served the cause of in two military campaigns, as

also m long, active, and honorable Australian pract.ice, he remarked, " Yes, we ( l'lllrgeons) see the consequences every day-every day."

The Every-day Story. ! TWO DEATHS FROM THE SAME

l Th 0. witb th e dcatb of Emily Gordon. a yo ung married woman. ll vinr; apart from ber husband. were investigated by the Coroner yesterday . .., Mrs. Gordon came> down from Tamw, rth. and last montil took a situation at a George-street restaurant. About the end o! the month she complained or b eing HI. and her employer suggested that she should go to h er sister's home for a rest. Instead or d< log tllnt r,he took lodgings In etreet, bnt 11.s her condition became serious. ebe on April 3 went to the Sydney Hospital. where she died on tho !ollowlng morning from , blood poisoning-. The Coroner found that dC'ath. 1 ,.as due to blood poisoninw;, which had been · I brour:ht about by mechanical means; but htl wu unable to say by whom the tllcgal act perrormed. c A•l lnquee, was held concerning the "or Kate Brodie, 24 , a single woman, which place at 11 bouGe !o Riley-street, city, on Sun · · day Tbe young woman resided at Peak Hi!!. ShP. lett .home for Sydney on March 21. A coupl.• of days later zhe went to the of a Mrs. Knight, Ill Riley-street. and oecurcd a TO om On Saturday night last she compla ineJ o: !:>Plug very Ill, and on the foJlowing morning Mrs. Knight !ound her dead in bed, death bciT.l.!', nt,t<·rdlng to the doctor, to ing, btcught about by mechanical means. was returned in accordance w\tb · t"::o 1 r:::z di ;; ::;l tc3tlmony. ' ......

90. The details of the visits to those criminals, who live in ease outside our half­ empty gaols, are not essential to · this Report. The courageous lady who accompanied her

husband in the quest ·was literally sickened, upon returning to the open street, hy the

atmosphere of villany she had just left. 'fhere, in the " Private Hospital," was an old 1:voman, much over 60, an Australian "Sarah Gamp," fat, strong, hard-faced, wholly callous, calcula­

ting, and full of cupidity. The letters purposely indicated easy circumstances, therefore she a hard bargain with the apparently

nervous and timid man, who was only "anxious to save a scandal." On top of 10 guineas for herself, and 10 "for the doctor," there was talk of "25 guineas for a specialist, in case of complications." Had the case been real, there would probably have been complications. rrhat "nurse," who had " been in the business, but not

always this business, for fifty years," said she had attended to "seven ladies in one day," which was quite credible. My friend's wife said, "The woman dealt with the matter with the same cold indifference as of a butcher cutting off chops." It is only too probable that the figure claimed, 3,000, is an under-statement. But that

they were all "successes," in respect of not losing the mothers' lives also, is utterly incredible. Secrecy reigns over the whole horror. The "nurses'" names, the names of the agents-chiefly palmists and astrologers, who are the pimps for these creatures, and who also advertise continuously-are usually false. The "doctor"

is unknown, and even unseen. And the advertisements continue.

The Church and Racial Decay.

91. 11he Bishop of London, at St. Paul's Cathedral, 19th October, 1905, said:-"I view the diminution of the birth-rate ·with dismay. It has dropped from 34·3 per 1,000 of the population in 187 4-78, to 28 per 1,000 in 1901 , notwithstanding that the marriage-rate has increased. Unfortunately the decline in the numbee of bi t·ths is not counterbalanced by an increase of quality. Crime

and lunacy are more prevalent, and it is questionable if the national physique is anything like what it was. A blight has gradually spread over the middle-class population of the land, and the true wealth of the nation- -the full-healthed, bright-eyed, aml happy-hearted children-have more or less gone down before it. . . . . . It is to stem this gigantic evil that I summon the forces of the Church to-day. The Roman

Church- all honor to it-has never wavered in condemning such prevention of conception as a sin, and it would ill become the Church of England to condemn less clearly a practice which, if continued, must eat away the heart and drain away the life-blood of our country." Touching on the prevalence of secret commissions in trade, and the temptations which such a system provided for dishonesty, the 13ishop stated

that, "'l'hough there was no reason to assume that English trade was universally, or even infected by the poison of dishonest competition, it would be idle to suppose that there was no genume evidence of the wide-spread prevalence of such dishonesty, and of tenible difficulties in avoiding it, o'"': the part of large numbers both of employers and employed who desired to keep themselveB ft·e e from tamt.

. . . . And with no uncedain voice he told his hea rers that "Tlwy learn themselvPs, and teach

others, t.o live the simple, harder, life of their forefathers, for unless they amended their ways their glorious. heritage must surely slip from their nerveless fingers." How

99

32

.. . How "the Law" regards Fceticide by Drugs.

(See next page.)

92. Mrs. Harle's Pansy Packet. This is an alteration from Tansy Packet, sold formerly under the same proprietary name. She had a shop in George-street, Sydney, and another in King-street, Newtown. In the Newtown business she was prosecuted and fined £20 for selling abortifacient pills and mixtures. The latter were found to be crude compounds of strong abortives unscientifically mixed. She was punished, not because the pills were freticidal, but because they contained substances (poisons) which may only be sold by persons registered by the Pharmacy Board. Thus from a slight commercial error which common prudence would correct, a homicidal trade brought her within the reach of the halting law. But she can place herself within legal protection by choosing out of a wider range, non-scheduled poisons, and sell them like Westcott's or Towle's pills, or under any faked "doctor's" name, at her own sweet will. She can sell them, like the rest, for "irregularity," of which child-bearing is a usual cause .. They will not cure irregularity of any kind, but that is merely legal fiction sanctioned by trade custom. In the current phrase-others do it all round, she may as well do it too. Commercially, however, there is scarcely a saving to be made by compounding and getting-up the poisons unscientifically. A reference to page 58 of Parke, Davis, & Co.'s 1905 catalogue, already mentioned, shows a wide choice of abortion pills, which_list can be enlarged at will. As they are quoted so low as 4s. 6d. for 500 pills, the margin is sufficiently tempting.

93. Homicide from day to day.

Safe and Unfailing,. Remedy for Women•

e ,.,. *' $ ..• _ ..........

EOOKS, PUBLh"JA'll'iCF.'So .._.

W IFE'S HANDBOOK. !Ius., LB.test Information ror the Married, · Ia; posted. lB 2d. Bear, lb

Park·st. Sydr.ey. e

.DB. T. JACXSOI

Begs to Announce that Ju,. SAFE anti UNFAILING REHEDY iJ positively tAt only one in AUSTRALIA upora wnick llitrlOlt

reliance can be placed. lts efficimcy to RESTORE LA.RITY -in-espective of tlu of obstnJclton-is IJ£!f(}ll!d a

of disput1. It dfJes not in tlu slzrhtesl depu interfere 'aJi..t/1

domestic duties ..

MRS. T. JACKSON, as MWWIFE, offiv-s Bat Prrivats Ll¢ommodatian to Ladies dlll'iNg CONjiJUment. nam:s ww.

Spuial advcmtagea ojfend. For j;4rtw.slars, v:...-itt c::nd mdose T w:J Skil!ir.ga ::t:::.!CCj>s

/Q -·

Mrs. T.

TEMPE, SYDNEYo

This is a photographic reproduction of the circular si

F RUlTS OF PHILOSOPHY.-Besant-Bradtaugh'S prosecuted Bock, edtuon. ls; posted. t.s

I 2d. Bear. J6 Park·st, SydneY's Cheapest Bock ... ore.

B OOK OF NATURE, Illustrated Marriage Guide, New 190:J Edition, 2s 6d posted, R. Bear, Park·.i'it ... 1\.TEf{VOUSNESS, Its Nature, Causes, Symptoms, j_'t4 and Treatment, 1s 2d. Bear, 16 __

FLANDERS, Repr.in. ted trom Original F..dl•

.L'I' tion, postel), ls 3d. R. Beat, 16 Parlt·st.

C ONFESSIONSOF -A iiYDNEY·-IiARMAID. Dlscl

Park-st.

At the same place are sold preventives and similar objects.

CALL OR VT,Rl'l'E FOR PARTICt.'LARS OF 01ffi FAMOUS REMEDIES.

THE DRUG CO.

13 BOND STREET. SYDNEY in N.S. W. 14 years.

Here are sold preventives and abortifacients. The proprietor, a man named. Hart, has been prosecuted, but the business continues as before, and is advertised daily.

Womatn9 S friend_,'

!

::.nd bl;W) Never Been l!nown to Fail 3s. all<;i 5s. box, securoly packed. ' UAP..SHALL BROS., Chemists, P:1.1k·street, Syd-' n•y ; aocl R. ,1, POULTON,

f Me!bam·ne.

This advertisement appears daily.! 93.

33

Homicide from dll.y to day--:-"co7ftinued.

MEDICAL.

MARTIN, M.D.,

E.tc.

CONSULT_!NG PHYSICIAN in atn' l)ISEASE:S OF MEN L'\fD,- W'OMEN, .

l.ll f'tivate •. Skrn,. Nervous, ·an.;

tures (Varicoc.eler-· SyPhllls; .Gonorrhoea. -anc:l: linpoten·ce). forxping a.

plete or the . 'S'?_XU&l \Tta.r·

be bad· !-or 2/6, pnst free. _

··PftESS EXTRACTS. "-The .A.ustralf'ln P,efilt on Dr. ).!arti'n'S' pnblicatl()ns. Post Free. PAGE/::l. "·-A gl!mpse of what:

c.The J;lH;eases ;>f Men and Women"· is like. Thirty-two DRII!es. fully !llustrated. Post.es. .

Consulting Ucursc U to 4 daily; Evenings. · '' to· 9. - ·

... HOUSE.·'.

161 Ji;lizabeth-st;eet. Hyde Park, Sydney.

n_ WESTCOTT'S A](ENORRHOEA. PILLS. V _ ,. t

· $o14 b;y A.ll ChemiSts, and Ell!ott Bro,g.,

otnd A-ustralian Drug' CQ:y., Sydliey. 1\J('EN. cm.suLT W. G. CAINS, 4i P1tt-atreet. .L1',L con.qu!ta.tl,ona Free. It will pay you to come 41i'e,.">t or. s!llld tor. his remedies. Dr. MU.ES Q,

a· In a few daya. Calna'

FOS FONE,·'a' Drain and Nerve Tonic. Dr. SMITH'S I alll!:NORRHOEA PILLS, 3a and lOs boxes. always .1 ieha'l;>le. '

Hunter-st. Syaney.

L ADlES' PA-CKET, 2li %d Vlta.!lty Pills. tor restoring P.OWer, '28 6d, 6s. Corn tor -l!.iid Soft COl'IIS, 18 ld. Dr, Beney's Heai!U OPJtment. 1s 3d and 2<> 9d. Dye, :Stack, Blo'lllle, !;>est on n>li.rket, 3a '9d posted. N. F. BENNET {late lflrlt. :s. N. Harle), 513 George-street.

lnvaluaf:!le to Ladies,.

TOWLE'S PENNYROYAL AND STEEl.. PILLS ·n quicl, arui ;:!ueve ;n 'distressing symptoms World no

such preparation for Ladies as thrs mvaluahle specrfic, justly

Thera is Nothing to

WOMAN'S UNFAILING. J FRIEND.

Not Anything so • '

Widely Known. Equal Them benefited the sex to an exttnt which c-"'n only be,

told tv those who have suffered and expenenced THEIR PRICELESS V A.LUE.

US'ED M

75 Years' Reputation.

r

-The Oldest and ONLY Reliable flemedy .

01 all Chemists and Stores thro\tt>hout Australasia.

Sole Propnetors •

E. T. TOWLE & CO., Mnfg. Chemists, 66, l..ong Row. Nottingham, Eng .• ,.

101

·Sydnq. ·

"Westcott's Fills No .. 1 m·e potassium per­ manganate; No. 2 are cblocynth and aloes."­ W. · }1. HAMLET. H Pansy Packet" is a

of tansy.

These abortion pills, Westcott's and others, are advertised and sold freely in New Zealand after having been prohibited by Or(lip.ance, which Ordinance was suddenly They

arc also sold in Australia,

f'WOMAI'S

BID TfMPfR

-Cured bg

94. In our Family Magazines.

;Â¥edlcal;l Sqlent]sts 'lt tile present day aver that a bll(! _Is

very often not the result of ungovernable passion, but rather the mere outward lnd}tati()J:l of .. inward physical Illness. Those whQ nave had any medical or hos­ pital eXJ>erl!lnce know this to be only too true. Thousands o! women suffer

great pain from Inward troul/)e, an!l continue to sutler year after year. '-'The:y go tQ lloctor e.fte,. doctor; but medicines and trea.tment d<>n't seem to do them any good. They get cranky and irritable, and are a source of trouble to t!lem­ uelvel!. and a worry tO their friends. ·';:)This is far from being a satisfactory

state ot a.lfalrs. Surely in thesG days of advanced speci;l.lisatkln It Is !l.bsurj) to eonfess t)la:J: there Is no positive remedy tor this Within the reach .ot aU ••

There is; That now well-known specific, the Orange Lily Remedy, will rapidly and certaJ.nly cure the inward- trouble. This is no IDf!i"e as_sertion. _ It js a which can. hi1Pt>11Y, be backed up by a.bunda.nc<> of sworn proof-the letters of many women all over Australia, Who are devoutly thankful that they got to

know ot the wonderful Orange Lily :Remedy. 1! you want to know more

about this, write to us to-day tor the valuable little Booklet, "WOM4N'S

QUIOE TO HEALTH," Post Free, on receipt of 3d In stamps; or call.

The COONLEY MEDICINE 00., W 177 HYDE ·PARK, SYDNEY.

TiJ ftl In a law case repor.tod tha ·other· n1;. u r · A IN 1 N VII FE day. tl)a husband. '" giving evl· U O..nce, stated his heme lite was mtiu:;ra.ble ln- the cxti'erne. Cont!nulnz. he sa! d. ".Had it not been tor the sake ot· o1:.r ttttle child, I woulc1 ha-ve cleare4 o.ut long ngo.,. the for all thta. b.e mentioned that hiS wl!e was al­ "'"'" Ill anll slc)tly; always suffering from some pafn or ache, :md continually In t!Jo hands or tho cloc:;tots. penny· he had saved ;Went in doctor's biUs. Hi.s -ui!e was una.ble· to ber hoUae.' hold dutlaS,· nod was ever ready to nag a.nd storm at him without the lca.st proVocaUon. This Is a sad story, but a true one, and Is of the conditions of many homes to-day. It C