Title Federal Capital - Proposed Sites - Commonwealth Royal Commission's Report on Sites for the Seat of Government, with Appendices and Plans (Plans in separate volume)
Source Both Chambers
Date 17-07-1903
Parliament No. 1
Tabled in House of Reps 21-07-1903
Tabled in Senate 17-07-1903
Parliamentary Paper Year 1903
Parliamentary Paper No. 23
System Id publications/tabledpapers/HPP032016002130_20


Federal Capital - Proposed Sites - Commonwealth Royal Commission's Report on Sites for the Seat of Government, with Appendices and Plans (Plans in separate volume)

211

THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMON,VEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON

:SITES FOR THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF THE

COMMONWEALTH.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS,

WITH APPENDICES AND PLANS.

Presented by Command; ordered by the Senate to be printed, 17th July, 1903.

No. 23.-F.6694.

Qtommonb:Jealtb of

EDW A.RD by the Grace of GoJ, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland', arid of the British Dominions beyond the King, of the Faith, Emperor of Ind.ia;

To Our Trusty and Well-beloved JouN KmKPA.Tni CK, E squire; ALFRED vVrLLIA.M Hownr, Esquire; HENRY Cu.&.nLES STANLEY, Esquire ; and 0R1HAM Esquire,-

. Greeting:-KNow YE that We do, by these Our Letters P,ttent, appoint you to be to inquire

i'nto and examine the sites proposed for the Seat of Government of tho Common'-'"ealth in the following localities, namely :-Albury, Armidale, Bo:nbala, L11re George, Orango (including Bn.Lhurst and Lynd!mrst), and Tumut; and to report up:m each of the sites in relation to the following matters, namely:-

1. Accessibility from tbe various capital cities (distances to be quott-d)-'-(a) Direct. .

(b) By existing means of communication. ·

Position with regard to ultimate settlement of Australia. 2. Means of Communication­ (a) Present. (b) Prospective.

Estimated cost to be quoted. 3. Cliniate-(a) Elevation above sea-level. (b) Rainfall (amount and how distributed the yfnr) .

. (c) Temperature (mean for each mouth, as well as maximum and min;mum), (d) Frequency of fog, mist, snow, and hot or co1d wind8. 4. l'opography- .

(a) Prominent natural features of site and neigl•bourhood. (b) Scenery in the neighbourhood. 5. Water Supply-(a) Natural sources of supply (river, spring, rainfall).

(b) Extent of watershed, and .freed•J:n from contaminating pos

(f) Cost. 6. Drainage-(a) Engineering difficulties (gravitation or pumping). (b) Ease or difficulty of driving underground channels.

(c) Disposal of discharge. 7. Soil.-(a) Nature. (b) Productiveness.

(c) Quality of neighbouring country. 8. Building Materials-(a) Accessible deposits of basalt, limestone and marble, granite, freestone, slate, trachyte, brick clay.

(b) 'l'imber of commercial value. D. Fuel-(a) Timber for· firing. (b) Extent and of amilable coal deposits.

10. General Suitability of Site.­ ( a) Pictnresquene,s. (b) Aspect. (c) Levels.

(d) Suitabiiity for arboreal and general horticultural growth. (e) Foundations of buildings. 11. Cost of resumption of site and area and Crown lands available. 1 J GeneraL--Any other matters considered material to a settlement of the question.

And We appoint you the said John Kirkpatrick, Esquire, to be the Chairman of the said Commiesioners : And We direct that at any meeting of the two Commissio!lers shall he sufficient

to constitute a quorum, and proceed with the in1uiry intrusted to you nuder these Our Letlers Patent, U":Jt1rithstawling the nhi!cnce of the other C'ommissioners ; And

iv

And We further direct that, in the event of the absence of the Chairman from any meeting of the said Commissioners, the Commissioners present may appoint one of their number to act as Chairman during such absence :

And "\Ve further direct that, in the event of the votes given on any question at any meeting of tho Eaid Commissioners being equal, the Chairman, if present, and if the Chairman is not }Jresent then the Commissioner appoiuted to act as Chairman in his absence, shall hare a second or casting vote :

And We require you, with as little delay as possible, to report to Our Governor-General in and over Our said Commonwealth the result of your inquiries and examination into the matters intrusted to you by these Our Letters Patent :

IN TESTIMONY whereof, We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent, and the Seal of Our said Commonwealth to be hereunto affixed.

WITNESS Our Trusty and Well.beloved The Right Honorable HALL .. nr BARON TENNYSoN, Knight Commander of Our Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Our Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in and orer Our Commonwealth of Australia, at Melbourne, this fourteenth day of January, One thousand nine hu'1drecl and three, and in the second year of Our reign.

TENNYSON.

By His Excellency's Command, EDMUND BARTON.

ENTERED on Record by me, in Register of Patents No. 1, page 150, this 15th day of January, one thousand nine hundred. and three. ATLEE HUNT, Secretary, Department of External A:l'fairs.

1903.

COMMONWEALTH OF A USTRALlA.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON SITES FOR THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH.

REPORT OP TilE COl\IMISSIONEl}S.

To His Excellency The Hight Honorable LORD TENNYSON, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. J\1ichaeLand St. George, . Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

MAY IT PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY:

We, your Commissioners, appointed on the 14th day of January, 1903, "to inquire into and examine the sites proposed for the Seat of Government of tho Commonwealth, in the following localities, namely, Albury, Armidale, Bombala, Lake George, Orange (including Bathurst and Lyndhurst), and rrnmut, and to

report upon each of the Sites in relation to" tho matters mentioned in the Commission, have the honor to submit this our Report.

Sixty-nine meetings for inspections of Sites and for taking evidence haye been held, and 184 witnesses have been examined; a considerable numbm· of meetings have also been held in Committee.

This Report is divided into Four Parts, as follows :­

Part I.-Preliminaru.

Part II.-Int1•oductory rema1·lcs, under headings of TfTct!er Suppl,y, D1·ainage, Accessibility, and Cost of Rewmnption. Part III.-Detailed Repm·ts on the sevet·al Sites, under headings enumerated in the Commission.

Part IV.-Summaru.

The Report is illustrated by 17 maps, viz., a separate map for each suggested site; a separate map for the district around each site, except in one case, where one district map serves for two sites; a map of New South \Vales showing the positions of all the sites, and a map of Australia showing existing and projected railways, and

also, the computed centres of population hereinafter described.

The plans being too bulky to lJe bound up with the Report, are enclosed in a separate portfolio.

2282()-_o\. PART I.

2

PART I.

Preliminary.

The great Charter which binds the six States of Australasia in an indissoluble federation, which brought the Commonwealth into being, and made its Government supreme in the weightiest matters .of national concern, endows that Government 1Yith the powers necessary for the acquisition of a territorial home.

Necessity for The nation must, have a national Capital, .. for the words of the Constitution national l d h d t • f S

Capital. exc u e t e a op wn o any tate Capital as the seat of Government for the

Ser. 123.

Commonwealth.

The Constitutional provisions with regard to the Capital ar({ as follows:-"The seat of Government of the:} Commonwealth (;lltall be determined by. the Parliament, and shall be within territory which shall have been granted to or acquired by the Commonwealth, and shall pe vested in and belong to the Commonwealth, and shall be in the State of New South \Vales, and oe distant not less than 100 miles from Sydney.

f' territory shall area of l-00 squar(3 miles,

portion as shall consist qf Crown lands shall pe granted to the

Commonwealth :;my payment therefor. "The Parliament shall sit at Melbourne until it meet at the seat of Government."

Ascertain- The first step towards the ascertainment of suitable sites for the establis. hment f . ..

suitable sites. o a Federal Capital was taken in 1899.

Action by N.S.W. Government.

:Mr. Oliver's report.

Inspections· by Members of the Com­ monwealth. Parliament.

In November of that year, a few months after the second referendum which made }.,ederation possible, but before the passing of the Constitution Act, the New South Wales Government commissioned Mr. Alexr. Oliver, M.A., President of the Land Appeal Court in that State, tq make full inquiry as to the (;luitability for the seat o£ Government of the Commonwealth of Australia of such tracts or areas as he might be invited to consider.

Towards the end of lQOO, Mr. Qliver duly reported to the State (Jovernment

The question remained in abeyance for so111e time, UI}til, in Commonwealth Government decided to give members of the Legislature an opportunity of becoming personally acquainted with the districts in which sites for a Capital had been suggested.

These inspections were successfully carried out, and a considerable number of the members of both tlms gained a knowledge of the ppuntry which inspection alone can supply, lj.nd whicll canp.ot fail to be of great value in coming to the decision which it is the statutory privilege of the Parliament to maJ<:e. Resolution by In September, 1902, on the motion of the Honorable Sir William Lyne,

Minister for Home Affairs, the House of Representatives adopted . the following

tives. resolution :-

"That, with a view to obtain p.ecessary information that will enable the Parliament of the Commonwealth to select a site for the seat of Government, a Committee of Experts should be appointed to examine and report upon sites in the following localities :-Albury, Armidale, Bombala, Lake George, Orange

(and in consequence of' their. proximity, Bathurst and Lyndhurst), Tumut, ii?­ relation to accessibility, building material, climate, drainage, physical condition and soil, water supply ,rith rainfall, general suitability, and such other salient matters as may lJe approved by the Honorable the Minister for Home Affairs."

The

-,.-,-- ,-­

2- l- -.r ·'I I .. 'i

3

'l'he passing of this resolution led to the appointment of the present Com- Appointrr.ent mission, who commencell their labours on the 5th January, 1903. In the course of their inspections of sites, the Commissioners travelled] ,076 Distances miles by coach and 3,022 miles by rail. The inspection of sources of water supply travelled. involved an additional 900 miles of travelling by vehicle.

ln pursuing their inquiry, the Commissioners have not felt bound to restrict not themselves to the actual sites which had previously been suggested as suitable for the establishment of a Capital City. These sites had been in every case selected by previout local bodies, and it was no reflection upon either their patriotism or bona-fides to suggeste • assume that careful examination by experts might possibly disclose other sites in the

same district possessing advantages superior to those which local predilection favoured. • The Conlmissioners, therefore, while carefully exam1mng the actual sites locally selected, extended their inspection over practically the whole district within 25 or 30 miles of these areas. This extended exploration led to important results, for, in the cases of Albury, New sites Tumut; Armidale; and Bathurst, the Commissioners have suggested sites which, in suggested. their judgment, are superior to those previously pointed out. The evidence shows, .. . too, that local residents admit the superiority of the new selection. In the case of 111 Orange, the site originally selected was on the south of the town, and this was Orange. reported upon by Mr. Oliver. The local League subsequently suggested an area on the western side of the town as preferable. Your Commissioners agree with the League in this preference, and now show, as their suggestion, the western site, with the addition of an area adjoining the northern boundary of the town of Orange.

l

Your Commissioners have made what they believe to be the best suggestions Necessity for :r for sites which were possible under the circumstances; but they wish to record an ,, '' emphatic opinion, that, when the loca1ity in which the Federal Capital is to be exact , , City Site placed shall have been selected. by the Parliament, extensive contour surveys, determined. covering the suggested site in that locality and the neighbourhood around such site, should be made before the exact city site is determined. Your· Commissioners have a vivid sense of the momentous importance of the Responsi­task to which they have been called. The responsibility of making the fateful choice will fix for ever the site of the Nation's Capital rests, of course, with the Parliament; but your Commissioners feel that, in so far as their inquiries and report may assist in guiding that great choice, their task is one of no little dignity and gravity. The City which is to be the seat of power, the nerve centre of the Common- wealth, and, in the future, the focus of its intellectual activities and the mirror of site. -the Nation's taste, will depend for its beauty and impressiveness in no small measure upon its situation. This will govern also, in a large degree, the comfort, health, and happiness of all its residents. This is not the occasion upon which to pass in review the great cities of the Old World, which are pre-eminent, not only for their architectural glories, but also for the natural beauties of their sites; but it would be easy to quote instances to show that how great soever may be the improvement which skill, taste, and money can effect, a site for a truly picturesque and regal city is created, not made. PART II.

:''

4

PART II.

Introductory Statements, under Headings Water Supply, Accessibility, Cost of Resumption. .

WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE.

coaditions. BEFORE describing in detail the water resources which could be made available in connection with the proposed sites, it may be advisable to set down the characteristics which the water supply for a large city should possess. It will then be evident that the site-the resources of which approach most nearly to the standard thus laid down-is, in this particular, the best. In the opinion of your Commissioners, a water supply for a large city-such as the capital of the qharacteris- Australian Commonwealth may be expected to become-should, if possible, possess­ tics of a good water supply. (1) A good reliable rainfall, yielding a supply sufficient for all requirements.

(2) A mountainous catchment, free from settlement, and intersected Ly perennial streams of good water. -

(3) An elevation sufficient to provide a gravitation scheme, giving a good pressure over the whole city area. ( 4) Suitable storage locations, to be used as found necessary. Condition No. 1 is, of course, absolutely essential.

If gr.witation Sufficient elevation to provide a gravitation supply with good pressme is eminently desirable; but where this cannot be the next best thing is a

pumpi"g source of supply so situated that the water can be economically pumped to the

required elevation, or a set of conditions such that part of the supply can be obtained

by gravitation and part by pumping. ·

Having outlined the main features of an ideal water supply, the next step is to compare these with the known possibilities at the several sites. Factors for 'fhe first concHtion of a perfect supply is sufficiency, and in order to ascertain calculation. whether the available supply at any site complies with this condition, two factors

must be assumed as a basis for calculation. These are-

Populatibn assumed 50,000.

(1) Population to be provided for ; and (2) Consumption per capita per diem.

In making estimates of cost, the population to he supplied has, in every case, been assumed to be 50,000. It maybe very many years before this figure is reached, and, in every case, the available resources described in the site reports are sufficient for the supply of a much greater population. Consumption After careful consideration a consumption of 100 gallons per capita per diem

lws been decided upon as sufficient for all purposes connected with a large city, and

this allowance has been adopted as a basis for calculation in the schemes proposed for the various Federal Capital city sites. 9onsumpti?n That this is sufficiently liberal appears from the fact that the consumption in the State Capitals of Australia is as follows:-

Rainfall.

Sydney .44 gallons per head.

Melbourne 63

" " Adelaide · 04

" " Brisbane 63 " " Perth 40 " " Hobart GO " " In. vVashingtOJ:t, U.S.A., the consumption is 125 gallons per head. WI.th the·factors of population and consumption assumed, the rainfall must be ascertamed, and the percentage of rainfall which reaches the streams. The

5

The rainfall on the catchment areas has been determined from information supplied· by the Gove1;nment Astronomer. Where the nearest rain gauge station is either not O:Q the catchment area, or at one side of it, the rainfall has been estimated with reference to the records of that station and other available information.

The percentage of rainfall flowing off the catchment area as hereafter stated in each case, has been arrived at after careful consideration of the rainfall, climatic conditions, configuration and geological formation of the country at each site, and of the experience gained on the subject in this and various other States.

This is an important matter, because where gaugings of the streams included Gauginy,s not in the catchment area are not available, as in most of the cases under consideration, it is the only means of estimating the quantity of water obtainable, which is the principal factor in determining the suitability or otherwise of any scheme of water

supply. . _ ..

The selection of the sources of supp'J- for each site was made after an Examination . t' f th d' t d . . th d' t . t d f f I of sources. examma Ion o e surroun mg coun ry an nvers In e Is rw , an a ter care u consideration of all the information obtainable on the subject. In every case the minimum annual rainfall has been taken as the basis of calculation.

The Commissioners' visits of inspection to the various sources of water supply Basis of. were made at a time when, owing to long-continued drought, the stream<; of the country were at their lowest. This, however, was the most favon;:able time for ma.ae d'!-ring judging the minimum supplies of water obtainable, which is of the utmost dry penod.

importance in dealing with water supply. Where large rivers, such as the Murray, &c., have dbeenb mekntioned as of supply, the

1 proportionbs of

mm1mum ow assume to eta en vary. There IS only one case, t 1at of Al ury, large rivers. in which a large river is the primary or (as in that case) the only source of supply, and the figures given show tbat for any c::mceivable increase in demand the supply would be adequate. In other cases, the proportions mentioned, fixed after consideration of local circumstances and probable demands for other purposes, must be regarded as approximate.

Gravitation schemes have been suggested "·herevcr the natmal conditions Puhmping d d cl t 11 ll l

. . . . } sc emes un·

an a ue regarL 0 econOlTIY WOU C a OW, JUt Ill som2 lllSt[lnC CS pumpmg SC 1emes avoidable in were unavoidable. somo

In estimating cost of water supply, a uniform elevation for the service Eie v:ation of reservoirs in relation to the average height of the site has been adopted, whether supply is by gravitation or pumping. 'l'his elevation is sufficient to give an adequate pressure.

The purity of the water supply is of such paramount importance that the Rfesumhptiont t • f th t h f l . f l • f o catc men s resump Ion o e ca c ment area or t 1e pnmary source or sources o supp y, or recom· a population of at least 50,000, has been recommended, except in cases of large rivers, mended. such as the Murray, where control of the whole catchment area is obviously impossible.

When extension beyond the primary source of supply becomes necessary, the question of resuming the catchment, or,.where that is impossible or inadvisable, of resorting to filtration, will haYc to be considered. Control of the catchment is the more important because the storages are on \Yhy the main streams (no suitable sites off them having been found), and, thet·eforc, must receive all the water flowing off the catchment arcl " ·ith any impurities it may contain, selection being impossible. In dealing with the cost ·of resuming the catchment areas, it has been assumed that the Crown Land \Yill be granted ft·ce of

cost to the Commonwealth. In support of the advisability of obtaining possession of the catchment area, it may be mentioned that, in connection with the Sydney \Yater Supply, the Water purchase of the alienated portion of the catchment is r..ow under consideration. Supply.

E ' f h · f tl d t l' r th Information st1mates o t e cost are g1ven o te propose wa cr supp 1es 10r eon whi <:h respective capital sites, the population assumed being 50,000. They are based upon estimates information obtained during an examination of the country for the purpose of based. selecting the sources of water supply, and also upon flying surYeys which were subsequently made. The complete preliminary surveys usually considered in such cases were not possible, nor indeed were they warranted under the Circum­ stances. It must, therefore, be understood that the estimates (sec Appendix No.1), although sufficient for purposes of comparison, are not to be regarded as more than

approximate. ·

As

6

Cost of ' As the cost of reticulation would be practically the same in each case, and is, reticulation. thc}efore, unnecessary for purposes of compariwn, it has not been included in the

estb:iiates.

. . . A source for a temporary water supply for use during the earlier stages of wa supp Y· the city has been indicated at eabh site, as well as the permanent supply.

Waterpower. . ••.. . •. Water power for generating electricity for electric lighting, &c:; has received as much consideration as possible without making location examinations of the sources. suggested. Tl:e distances of such sources, as given in the description of 1"\·ater pow.er for each site are in every case measured in a direct line, and it may be assm:ned that at any of the sources mentioned a large storage reservoii· would be r('quired to regulate the flow of water.

Drainage by gravitation.

of

Cost same at «Jach site.

Test of acce>sibility.

Four mcLhods.

Accepting point equi­ distant froni Sydney and .Melbourne as centre of accessibility.

Sydney and Melbourne as centres from which to com­ puteCom­ monwealth cehtrc of population.

Centres of gravity of population each State used to com­ pute Com­ monwealth centre. Modification of No.3.

DRAINAGE •

.All the sites could drained by gravitation, arid in no case would any extraorqinary engineering difficulties be niet 'vith. Sewage matter could be disposed of by septic tanks, or ill some cases by a sewage farm if preferred.

the purposes of comparison tlie cost of drainage mriy he assunied to be

the same with regard to each site.

AccEs.Sr:rlrirTY.

1Vhrit is the decisive test of accessibility in coriricction with the proposed Fed(o+hl Capital Sites ? Some may regard this as a question of hut one answer, and

fore superfluous. There are, ho"·ever, at least four methods of dealing with this ptoblem:-N o. L By accepting Sydney and Melbourne as the points through one or other of which persons travelling to or from the Federal Capital would pass,, and

rating the different .sites in order of accessibility according to their distance from the point on the Main Southern railway which is from

the two cities.

This. is the simJ?le and pOpular view. It does not, ho\vever, directly take into accolint the distributicm of population.

No. 2 . .Accepting Sydney and Melbourb."e (as as the two common points of arrival and departure, and assuming Sydneytb he the· centre, of gravity of the population. of New South Wales and Queensland (the latter on the nssumption that the stream of travel from Queensland would through Sydney), and for a similar reason Melbourne to be the centre of gravity of the population of Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia. :E'rom two centres (Sydney and Melbourne) to compute a Commonwealth centre of gravity of population, and deduce the relative accessibility of the Capital Sites according to their proximity to this latter point.

No. 3. By computing the centre of gravity of the population of each State, according to its distribution by counties or other recognised sub-divisior:s, and by combining the figures relating to each State centre-vide Appendix No. 3-ohtain the centre of gravity of population for the Commonwealth.

No. 4. Is a modification of No.3 assuming that the population of each State is concentrated in its Capital City, 'rasmania being with in

Melbourne. 'l'he distances of the Capitals apart 1s taken along ex1stmg lines of communication. Before

22F

7

Before further some general considerations relevant to the SJbject con.

Il).::ty bp stated. . . B!dera.tlODS.

(a) ·The site chosen mt1st be in New South Wales. Site in New South Wales.

. .(b) The of inquiry ':P to the !?resent, an.d tl:e current of public of

discussion seems to JUStify the assumptiOn that, If the Capital Is located North of it will be on, or near, or east of the railway joining Sydney and Brisbane,

while, If located South of Sydney it will be on, or near, or east of the line joining Sydney and Albury, and passing through Bathurst, Blayney and Harden.

(c) The most notable feature in the population distribution of Queensland, of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia is the massing of people ·the coast. and the western side of the fall from the DividinO' RanO'e. This is the region of highest and most reliable rainfall; it has a fair

of very

rich land, and four Capital Cities are situatecfi'on the coast line, two of ·which possess nearly one-third each of the whole population of their respective States.

(d) The State systems of railway development, without exception, tend to State systems emphasise and perpetuate the natural advantag-es by the Coastal strip of 0f1railwaytde. t 't ve opmen . err1 ory. In Queensland up to the present, with the exception of a coastal line from the Queensland. border of New South Wales through Brisbane to Gladstone, the plan pursued has ·. been to construct entirely unconnected with one another, running inland various ports.

In New South Wales all lines converge on Sydney, and with the single New South exception of the connection of the Western Line with the Southern, via Harden and Wales. Blayney, the railway map of New South Wales presents a series of lines traversing the country in various directions, having a common origin at Sydney, but devoid of cross connections. ''

In Victoria, the centralisation of the railway system at lfelbourne is equally Victoria. marked, and though there is a fair number of cross connections, some of these have been discontinued as non-paying, while as to others, it is a common experience of travellers to find that the quickest method of passing from one point to another in the country is to return to Melbourne and start afresh on another line instead of travelling by cross country lines, though the htter may be shol'ter in distance.

In South Australia,, though there is considerably less the state ofsouth .

affairs is very similar to that in New South Wales. Australia.

These considerations tend to show :

(1) The probability that tho imm.ense preponderance of population will concluswns continue to be within the coastal strip of territory. from. abo,·e

(2) That in estimating the accessibility of any ?f the proposed Capital Si.tes, there are strong 1·easons for accepting Sydney as practically the centre of populatiOn, apd therefore of convenience, for Queensland and the most populous parts of New South vVales, and Melbourne as the centre of convenience for Victoria, South Australia, West Australia, and Tasmania, so f!lr as travel to and from the Federal

Capital is concerned.

If this view is correct, the probability is that in forming their j udgmcnt upon Popular. the relative accessibility of the different Sites, most peo1)le 'rill proceed upon the first or popular method, or some modification of it. followed.

Table No. IVa has been prepared, showing the relati \'C accessibility of the Table IVa. different Sites on this basis. (.Method No. 1.) U sin 0' Method No. 2, the distance by existing means of communication Common-0 •t f wealth

between Sydney and Melbourne has been used to compute the centre of grav1 y o centre. the entire population of the Common wealth, ·which is found to be at a point on the 2. Southern Hailway 291 miles fl'Om Sydney, or. 4 miles south of. Junee Junctio?. (Centre No. G.) 'Jhe distances from this centre to the Capital Sites are m

'l'ablc IVh. 'rakinO' Method No. 3 the centre of population of each State has been Common· 0 ' b' • wealth

cnrefully computed from the latest available CC'nsus retm·ns (1001 ), and, com centre . .• ·with the distances in straight lines between the State centres of populatiOn Methoot\o.a.

. (by

• (by the method described in Appendix No. 3), the centre of gravity of the entire population of the Commonwealth has been obtained and is found to be at a point about 15 miles north of Carrathool Station, on the Junee-Hay Railway, 419 miles from Sydney. (Centre No. 1.) This determination, being merely theoretical, as

distances are taken -in straight lines, is not used for purposes of comparison. Common· By Method No. 4, in which the population is assumed to be concentrated in the State capitals and distances measured along the main lines of communication,

another computation shows the centre of population of the Commonwealth to b3

situated at a point on the Main Southern Line 352 miles from Sydney, 4 miles north of Oulcairn Station. (Centre No.5.) This centre is about 140 miles easterly from the one aseertained by the previous method. Table No. V shows the distances by this method from the centre thus determined and the various Capital Sites. (See Appendix No. 3.) Results not Whichever method be adopted, the result does not differ very materially,

or affect the position of the various sites in relation to their relative distance from

the centres of population. The comparative distances in direct lines have been determined trigono­ metrically between the proposed Sites and the Capital Cities of the several States comprised in the Commonwealth, and are given in tabulated form.

The distances between the State Capitals and proposed sites have been taken by the most direct routes along existing lines of communication. Bomba.la. Bombala differs in one respect from all the other sites in being at a distance

:: of, roughly, 60 miles from a railway., Theusual route taken by travellers wishing as being to proceed from Bombala to other States is via Cooma and Goulburn to Sydney or Melbourne. It is possible, however, to travel from Bombala to Eden, and thence by

occasional steamers to Hobart, and this would be the shorter way to that place, but the regular passenger connecting Hobart with New South Wales, run

direct to Sydney. The route via Eden, though not the usual one, has been taken for purposes of comparison on account of its shortness. Statutemiles. ·where parts of journeys are made by sea, the distances have been given in statute miles. ,

The average distance bet\Yeen each of the proposed sites and the State capitals is given merely for purposes of comparison. Ultimate The position of sites with regard to the "Ultimate Settlement of Australia/'

is one of the matters on which we are asked to report, and has. received our most

careful consideration. The Government Statisticians of the various States, to whom

opmwns. we appealed for guid::mce, pointed out that this is not a matter admitting of exact

calculation, r.nd they felt some diffidence in submitting estimates of the probable population of the even thirty years hence-the period selected by the

Commissioners in order to obtain some practical basis. of None of the Sbtisticians appealed to were able to suggest any basis upon

forecas 1 which an estimate could be framed of the probable "Ultimate Settlement of popu a. wn. A t l' ' T A 'd • f

M:. 9oghla.n's , us ra Ia.' LV.tr. . . Coghlan cons1 ered "It would be unwise to attempt to orecast opm,oD. the population" even "thirty years ahead." He stated, however, that an estimate

based upon the present average ratio of increase (about 2 per cent.) would be "on the safe side, speaking of the Commonwealth as a whole." In his opinion, the present ratio is "below what we might have a right to expect," as "it is ridiculous to think that a great Continent like this is dependent for its ultimate settlement on so small a factor." Mr. Fenton's The Victorian Statistician (Mr. J. J. :Fenton), however, submitted an

estimate of the centesimal ratio of increase, which he considers may be assumed to

give a fair approximation to the probable population in each of the States as well as of the Commonwealth after the lapse of the period named. In this, he places the increase.

Distribution of future population &l!sumed the

average rates of increase for the whole of Australia at 2·40 per cent., "hich, in view of Mr. Coghlan's opinion as above quoted, may, we think, be regarded as a very moderato and estimate, and the figures supplied by Mr. Fenton have

therefore been adoptc.d in col'nputing the future population of the different States, as shown upon the ra1lway- map forming one of the appendices to this report. In order to locate the future Commonwealth centre of population under the altered conditions supposed to exist at the end of the thirty-year period, it is assumed that the distribution of the increased population will be proportionate to that at same a.s at prJsent. pre5:ent

present existing, and. on this b::tsis the Commonwealth centre of population thirty Future Years hence is found to be located at a point about 80 miles westerly from Condobolin centre 0!

'1 f S d ) • populatwn.

(331 m1 es rom y ney . Centre 1\ o. 2.

In Appendix No 3 will be found an explanation of the methods used in of

determining the centres of population of the various States and of the Commonwealth; also a set of tables embodying the results of investigations into the question of the relative accessibility of the different sites, and including a table showing present population and estimated population thirty years hence.

Speed of tl·ansit being an factor in considering the question of of

accessibility the actual time which would be occupied in travelling between the transrt. Capital cities of the States and the proposed sites has been estimated and entered in the different tables of distances. As to improvement of existing means o£ communication, in every case it has

been regarded as essential that the site to should be connected with the

existing railway system. ways.

In the cases of Albury (Table Top), Orange, Lyndhurst, and Lake George, this connection already exists; at both Bathurst and Tumut an axtension of about 6 miles would suffice; a deviation of the Great Northern Line about 11 miles in length would provide communication with the Armidale site, while in the case of

Bombala, the construction of a line from Cooma, about 60 miles long, would be nece!:>sary. At the end of Appendix 3 will be found particulars of tho railway works necessary to connect with existing lines those sites not already so connected, and of

the pt•ojected or suggested railways, which if constructed, would affect the accessibility of the different sites from the various State Capitals. This information, so far as concerns each individual site, is given in Part III. Among the projected or suggested railways mentioned in the appendix it cannot be assumed that the degree of probability of construction is the same in

case, as it is impossible to foresee to what extent the Commonwealth Parliament, for f the sake of facilitating access to the Federal Capital or inter-State intercourse, may be prepared to contribute to the cost of building railways, which from the State point of view would be. unremunerative. Disregarding this unknown factor and looking at the matter in the light of evidence given by the various Railway Commissioners, it must be admitted that the prospects of construction of some of the lines enumerated appear remote. It would be unwise, therefore, when passing judgment upon the accessibility of the various sites to attach too much weight to the effect of prospective

means of communication.

Cos'r OF

For the purposes resumption of of this report it is only necessary to consider cost of Resumption (1) Proposed City Sites, and

(i) Catchment Areas for "\Yater Supply,

from

estima.te8 confined to City Sites and Catchment Areas.

in order to frame estimates on which a fair comparison of the different site3 the 11oint of view of cost may be based. In preparin()' this report it has been constantly borne in mind that its methods Methods of should differ entirely from those which will govern when the Parliament has chosen the Federal territory, and one site only has to be considered.

In a word, the methods of the present report are relative, not absolute. . Consequently, there is no at tern pt to discuss any of the difficult questions . . C . . l p . . l t' t t •t & questlons,&c. connected with interpretatiOn of onstrtutwna roviswns rea mg o erri ory, c., not dealt which have been publicly raised, and for the same reason, many with.

connected with resumptions, which will certainly arise when the Capttal Site IS selected, have been passed over, as being irrelevant at the present stage. It has of course been necessary to take into account Crown Lands. As to CrownLands. what constitutes Crown Lands, the Commission has simply taken as Crown Lands all those areas which the officers of the State Lands Department have indicated as such and in makin()' up estimates of cost, it has been assuh1ed that all such lands

'' b . h f" will "be granted to the Commonwealth 1.rithout any payment t ere or. ]3 In

Area of City Sites.

10

In dealing with City Sites, the Commission has adopted an area of 4,000 2-! miles square, us Sl1fficient, not perhaps for all time, but for a long period.

In order that a City may be planned with no restrictions beyond those imposed by the natut•al features, the whole of the City Area should become the absolute property of the Cornrnonwi:lalth. Viewing the small propt:h'tic:Jn of CroWn Lands within the suggested sites, this will practically mean the resumption of the whole area of whatever site may be finally chosen. Possib.nity ot In the event of a site adjoining, or near, a municipal area being .finally

selected, it .may possibly be found advisable, in. to secure of to

areas. resume a part or the whole of such area. InformatiOn as to :t11UmCipal valuatiOns of the incorporated towns nearest to all the proposed sites, is given in Appendix No. 9. Site .. . . . The estimates of probable cost of resumption within· the sites suggested are based upon evidence given by the District and Staff Surveyors; and other competent

on. valuators.

Are They must be regarded as approximations only (though probably close ones), approximate. as it \vas inadvisable to incut· the expense and spend the time .. necessary for detailed

valuations, and the witnesses Were obliged to confine themselves to stating average values, Values, The estjmated amounts are:-'=""Albury, Artnidale, Lake George, and Lyndhurst,

£20,000 each; Bombala, £24,000; Tumut, £25,000; Bathurst, £36,000 .; Orange,

£57,000.

Values affected by proximity tc towns.

A compal'ison of the estimates indicates that values are affected not only by the productive power of the land, but. also, in some cases,_ by its proximity to existing towt1.s. 'rhese towns, cf course, exercise an influence on the value of land in their vicinity in proportion to their own wealth and importance. Values have, in all cases, been estimated on a freehold basis, although the

basis, sites contain a proportion of conditionally purchased lands. As the sites are situated

principally in old settled distticts, it may safely be assumed that the amounts owing to the State on these lands do not1 in the case of any site, amount to a considel'able sum. Federal The question of extcrtt of Federal Territory, as distinct from the City

Territory. Site, not having been specially refetred to us, we have not dealt with it, except so

far as was in connection with Catolnnent Areas of st:reame selected as

Catchment areas for primary water supply

primary sources of water supply. . ·

.Except where the watersheds are so large that effective control of them is obviously impracticable, as, for instance, in the case of the Murray, it is i'ecolfiiilended that the Catchment Area of the primary source or sources of supply be resumed. Estimates. Estimates are therefore given of the values of the alienated lands within these

areas (Appendix No.1). The evidence on which these are based is of the same character as in the case of the City Sites, and the freehold basis of valuation is adopted. . . . . . .

9ro.wn I.artds · On the rnaps of the City Sites, and also on those showing Cnt{}ht11ent Areas and on territory surrounding the sites, Crown lands have been indicated in such a way that

they can be seen at a glance.

PART III.

225

11

PART III.

Detailed Descriptions of the Respective Sites under the Headings of ·Topography 2nd General Suitability, Climate, · Soil-productiveness, Building Materials, Timber, Fuel, Water Supply, Drainage, Accessibility, and Cost of Resumption.

ALBURY.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUI'l'ABILITY. THE Federal City Site originally suggested and submitted for the consideration Siteoriginally of the New South Wales Commissioner (Mr. Oliver) adjoins the northern town selected. boundary of Albury, and extends northerly and easterly. From the north of the town and through that proposed site there is a gradual rise northerly for 3 or 4

miles, to the foot of what is known as the :Black !lange, which rises steeply in pla(}es to a height of about 1,500 feet above sea level. Through the centre of the site, despite the gradual rise, the physical characteristics of the land arc Disadvan­ not sufficiently diversified to relieve the monotony inseparable from large flat tages. surfaces, while, when the foot of the hills js reached, the rise is too abrupt for convenience of traffic. Moreover, although the eastern portion of the site provides some undulating co-,_,mh·y well suited for residential purposes, the low ridges which break its north-western corner are too abrupt and uneven to permit of a design which would combine symmetry with convenience for traffic. Viewed generally physical conditions of the site are not of a nature favourable for the erection

of a beautiful and <;ommodious city. 'I he large extP-nt of flat surface alternates too quickly with the steeper land and does not provide sufficient area of gently undulating country. An examination was made of the surrounding district, and in the vicinity New site

of 'fable rrop railway station yoUl' Commissioners found a site which they suggested. suggest as preferable in every way to the one adjoining Albury. rrhis site is situated in the parish of Yambla, county of Goulburn, and is distant about 10 miles in a 10 miles from northerly direction from the town of Albury. It has an average elevation above Albury. level of fu1ly 800 feet, being thus about 250 feet above the present town. The ..

. dul · · l tl t" f t} · t · 11 '11 Descnpt!Onof area comprises un atmg country, w1t 1 1e excep IOn o 1e piC m·esque comca n country. known as Budginigi, from the top of which {250 feet above the general level) there is a fine panoramic view of the site, and of the beautiful scenery surrounding it. On the north the view is broken by the rugged crests of 'l'able Ton range, the nearest Picturesque­ point of which is about 5 miles distant. On the east and undulations and ness.

low ridges extend for about 7 miles, and beyond them the hills rise into high and grand proportions. Looking up the Murray Va:iley, the mountains extend as far as the eye can reach, the vista in one direction being closed by the snow-capped Victorian Bogongs. "'Within 6 miles from the centre of the site is the Murray,

which in places affords charming stretches of river scenery. _

The most striking feature of the Table 'l'op site is the readiness with which it VICws. will lend itself to future extension, while the open aspect and distant views convey to the eye a pleasing impression of spaciousness. _ .

As seen from the city streets, there would be a succession of varied and Dtlrccttlon of 1 h

M

plea

east. The aspect is, therefore, towardR the rising sun, und iu. thb; respect the sito may he considereq nt'a.rly perfect. '

Allmry •

Levels.

Display of buildings.

12

Albury-continued. The levels are ·well adapted to the requirements of a large city. The falls in various directions, while being adequate for drainage purposes and for can·ying off storm waters, allow of easy gradients in all the thoroughfares. The nature of the ground offers special facilities for the display of the more important buildings, and would give the city a fine and imposing appearance.

Arboreal an

The climate and soil are both favourable to general arboreal and horticultural growth, and fine umbrageous public parks and luxuriant gardens could b3 made here, which would greatly enhance the beauty of the city. (See appendix No. 6 for detail of trees, shrubs, &c., suitable for the district.) Foundations.

Good foundations for large structures could be obtained at a depth of from 2 feet to 5 feet below the surface, while for smaller buildings a depth of from 18 inches to 2 feet 6 inches would probably he sufficient.

Rainfall.

Monthly distribution.

CLIMATE.

Altitude of Site (Table Top), 800 feet.

The mean annual rainfall at Albury for thirty-six years, ending with the year 1902, was 28·14 inches, distributed over ninety-one mean annual rainy days. 'fhe mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-Jan. I Feb. I March. I April. I May. I June. I July. I. Aug. I Sep. ) Oct. I Nov. i Dec.

I

I I I 1"49 1•77 2•011 2•31 I 2•57 3•48 2'56 2•95

I

2'60 2·82 1"92 l·G3

I

Temperature· In the period 1886 to 1902 (both years included) the mean highest shade

Table Top cooler than Albury. Pogs mi•ts.

Snow.

temperature during the four hottest months was 88"9°. The mean lowest shade temperature during the four coldest months was 38·9°. The mean shade temperatures during spring, summer, autumn, and winter were respectively 61'5°, 75"3°, 60·5°, and 48'1°. 'rhe highest and lowest readings of temperature were respectively 117·3° and 20·2°. The mean annual shade temperature was 60'7°. The following table shows for each month the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean minimum, and the mean temperature:-

Jan. I Feb. I Mar. I April.j May./ June. I July. I Aug./ Sept.j Oct. I Nov. I Dec.

Mean maximum ... 92·0 9091 8.t"l 74·2 64•3 57·8 562 l:i9'3 (j(j•3 73 9 83•8 89"1

Mean minimum ... 61•1 C0·2 53 2 47•2 40• 39 8 363 39·1 43•2 47"6 53•8 58·5

Mean temperature 7G·5 75 6 68 G G0·7 52'31 4SR 4(J 3 49·2 548 co·s us·8 1 73·8

I

I I

The temperature at the site at Table Top in summer is about so lower than at Albury. Fogs or mists are of rare occurrence about Albury, excepting in the winter, when they rise in the valleys and on river flats. At Table Top, drifting mists come up from the Murray River, but not oftener than four or five times in the year, and the site itself is practically free from them.

Snow has fallen occasionally at Albury. It lies for a few hours on the hills, but not in the town. During sixty-two years there were only five falls of snow on the Table Top site. Albury

13

AI bury-continued. The following Table gives particulars recorded at Albury :-Fogs. I Snow. I

Frosts.

Number

iN=bo< IN umber of Period of Year. of Period of Year. of Period of Year. Times. Times. Times. 1800 ... 16 April to July . .. 1 Aug11st ... ... 29 I April to October.

1900 ... 11 May to September .. . . ....... .... .. .. 22 April to October. ' : 1001 ... 7 May to July ... ... 1 j July (on the hills) .. . 20 April to August. 1902 ... 11 May to August I

I

..... .. .......... 37 May to September. '"[ ...

The prevailing winds are from the north-east. No hot winds were recorded Winds at tl1is station; but the evidence is that the district is not free from them. The particulars given, as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions generally, have been supplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales.

'The medical evidence taken before the Commission shows that the climate Albury is salubrious and conducive to longevity, and that there is very little zymotic disease. Since the water supply has been obtained from the River Munay typhoid salubrious. and diphtheria have almost disappeared. Influenza has been as prevalent as elsewhere, but the deaths from it have not been nearly as numerous as in other towns of a similar population.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

The land within 20 miles of Albury will carry from 1-! to 1! sheep per acre, Carry!ng and in a wider radius extending to Burrumbuttock on one side and Culcairn on the capacity. other the grazing capability is one sheep to the acre in ordinary seasons. On the . country lying east of the tailway line, both sheep and cattle are grazed, and the

average as to the latter would be 5 to 6 acres per head. At Bungowannab, about 6 miles down the river from Albury, there are rich river flats suitable for dairying and for the production of fruit and vegetables. does well without irrigation. 'Jhe whole of the country about Table Top,

with the exception of the high ranges, is suitable for the cultivation of wheat and other cereals. Wheat in goou years averages 1G to 18 bushels, varying from 10 to Cereals. 12 bushels on the Murray below Albury, to 20 to 25 bushels on the Upper Murray. That part of the surrounding district which is within the State of New South Wales is, so far as relates to its productiveness jn grazing, agriculture, viticulture, or orcharding, similar to the tract of country within the same radius on the Victorian side of the Murray.

The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, 5hows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Albury district, comprising the counties of Goulburn and Hume :-STATEMENT OF. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING THE EIGHT

YEARS ENDING MARCH, 1903, COUNTIES OJ<' GOULBURN AND HUME.

Wheat Maize Barley Oats Potatoes Other crops

Crop.

Total acreage

Grain.

acres. 120,34:6

380

Hay.

acres. 13,56R

3!)

5,!43

Total.

acres. 133,914 15 419

7,!J76 43

7,700

150,157

A vcrngc Yiei

10·3 20'8 ,

13 5 ,

20•2 "

1·9 tons.

Not available.

Alhury

Albury-continued.

Dairying. That dairying is already successfully carried on in the district is sufficiently

indicated by the existence of butter factories in Albury, which draw their supplies

Fruit.

Wine.

Return from fruit.

from farms within 10 or 12 miles of the town. In the country north-east of the Black Range fruit trees do remarkably well, particularly apples, pears, and peaches. The higher la;nds at and

'fhurgoona are admirably adapted for the growth of vmes for the productwn of wine and raisins. This is one of the most famous wine districts of Australia, Fallon's Murray Valley vineyard, near Albut'y, being one of the largest acreages under vines in the Oommomvealth.

A statement furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales gives the average return from fruit within a radius of 30 miles for the seven years ending 31st December, 1902, at £5 4s. 6d. per &ere, the average area being 217 acres. 'The return does not include grapes. Food suppl.ies Witnesses whose judgment is based upon experience gained by long residence forpopulatwn • h d' ' t d 't · , • t d 'th 1 l b'l't' t d t' of 5o,ooo. 1n t e l'3trw , an exper s acquam e. Wl the oca capa 1 1 1es as o pro • uc wn,

agree that the country within a radius of 50 miles could provide food supplies for a population of at least 50,000.

Sandstone.

Where psed,

Granite.

Sample3.

BUILDING MATERIALS=-STONE, BRIQl{S, &c.

There is a large extent of sandstones of Devonian in the Top Range. '\Vhat appear to be some of the upper beds of that formation show them.selves three or four miles to the west of Mount Table Top, and have been the source from which . stone has been taken during the last twenty or years for building

purposes. No quarries have been opened, surface blocks only having been used as required. ·

Sandstone from the place abQve mentioned has been used in building 1\'Ir. James Mitchell's homestead a,t Tabl!:l Top, as dressing for the Roman Catholic Church and the new part of the of England in Albury, and for steps or sills in the Land and Survey Office and other Pu.blic Buildings. The stone so qsed appears to be very durable.

There is an unlimited amount of granite in the .neighbomhood of Albury, some of which has been used for building. The Roman Catholic OhlJrch and the older part of the Church of England are built of a granite rock of a light grey colour obtained near Albury. Another granite of better appearance is found at IIawkesview, eight or nine miles from Albury, and was used in the baseme!lt of the 13ank of Au.stmlasin.

In order to obtain some definite information, the stone at Table Top an(l the places whence the granite was obtaine,d near· Albury, were inspected, and sample blocks procured both from Table 'fop and Rawkesview. .A. report by the District Architect on the building stones procurable in this. district has been supplied by the Public vVorks Department, and will be found in Appendix No.4, which also contains as to and tests of s(l.mples for stre!lgth" and

suitability for building purposes. 'J'hroughout the district there is an ample supply

local bncks. good brick clay. The bricks made at Albury by hand are d(:)use, and absorb but

little water. Locally-made bricks were used. in the construction of the Albury railway station. Lime.

Sand and gravel.

Lime is made at Gerogery, 18 miles from Albury, and h(l.s been extensively used in nearly all the older buildings at Albury, hut the supply is now obtained from Goulburn at £2 5s. per ton. There is abundance of sand and gravel for building purposes in the district.

TIMBER.

The timber suitable for building purposes jn the neighbourhood of Albury is

which is found along the Murray River, and it is estimated that five

m1lhons to six millions superficial feet of this timber could be out within a distance Youngforests of lu miles from Albury. Besides the timber of millinO' size there is a con-of Redgulll • I 1 1 • o

· · Sll orac> e B'rowtl1 of young Eedgum the river cou.rse1 the conservation of

· Alburv

229

15

Albury --continued. which would be of very great future importance. Stringybark is found throughout Stringybark. the district, . but not in sufficient quantity for milling purposes, except in the remoter parts.

Within a radius of about 50 miles there are forests of Eurabbie, Messmate and Mountain Ash, principally in Victoria, and beyond that distance there is heavily timbered country on the Carabost and Tumberumba table-lands in New South Wales. The price of hardwood is lls. to l2s. per 100 feet superficial. hard-

Cypress Pine is obtained from Junee on the main railway and Narrandera on Pine. the Jrtnee-IIay line, where there is a very large supply. rrhe price of rough pine is los. to 16s. per 100 feet superficial. Other particulars as to timbers suitable for building, &c., are given in Appendix No.5. ·

FUEL.

The supply of wood for fuel within 20 miles of Albury would be sufficient Wood. !or many years, were the Federal Capital established in this district. A further supply could be obtained from a wide area by means of the railways, as is the case in most of the capitals of the States,

The nearest coal to this site is at Bundanoon, 29lmiles from Albury on the Coal. Railway line. Coal also occurs at Mittagong and generally in the district

surrounding that place. The price of coal delivered at Albury is from 22s. 9d. to 29s. according to the locality from which it is obtained. Further information as to coal will be found in Appendix No. 8.

WATER SUPPLY.

The water supply for the Capital City site suggested in the neighbourhood of Albury would have to be derived from the River Murray, and a pumping scheme supply. \vould be necessaty. All the possible gravitation schemes were considered, but abandoned on account of the great length of main required, rendering them much Pumping • necessary. :more costly than the pumpmg scheme. The point from which it is proposed to take the supply is about 1 mile Off-take. below Cumberoona Station, and 8 miles distant from the City site. The River Murray, with its tributaries, takes its rise in the highest mountains of of Australia, and above the proposed off-take it ·h'ls a catchment area of about urray. 3,300 square miles, consisting principally of rough, mountainous country. It is a strong permanent stream, and discharges immense volumes of water during floods. Gaugings by the Victorian Water Supply Department, of the :Murray at Jingellic, about 40 miles up stream from the proposed off-take, show that the IDge Jc. minimum annual discharge for eleven years, ending 31st December, 1901, at the point of gauging, was 326,243 million gallons. One-tenth of this, if available for the Capital City, would be sufficient for a population of about 900,000. . The catchment area is sparsely settled, and with practicable sanitary Samtart¥ . . . l . ll . precau 1ons. precautiOns the water obtamed from 1t should be free from de eterwus po utwn, although it would no doubt be discoloured during floods if taken direct from the river. In order to provide clear water at all times without resorting to artificial filtration, it is proposed to obtain it from the drift which underlies the river flats, drifts. and which, being thoroughly saturated, would provide a good supply of wholesome and naturally filtered water (vide Analysis, Appendix No. 2). , The average elevation of the proposed City site is 800 feet above sea level, . and the elevation of the River Murray, where it is proposed to obtain the water, river. about 550 feet. A pumping scheme is therefore necessary, the lift required to give a good pressure being 580 feet.. In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed scheme to supply a population of 50,000. c f Capitalizing working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent., the cost is estimated water to be £512,000. Albury

Saving if electricity used for pumping.

16

Albury-con tinued. If electricity generated by water power obtained feom a dam at Cumberoona as heminafter referred to 1vere used for pumping instead of steam there would be a considerable saving in the annual working expenses, ani the total cost of the scheme

would then amount to about £317,000, annual cost being capitalised as before.

Temporary Water Supply.

A temporary water supply for the use of the workmen, &c., during the earlier

wnn ree ·stages of the city might be obtained from wells sunk in the valley of the Bowna

Creek and its tributaries, the well water in the neighbourhood being of good quality. AlLerna.ti,,e. If on further investigation this source of supply was not found to be

satisfactory the course to adopt would be to sink the well proposed for the permanent supply and convey the water from it to the City site by nieans of a temporary main and pumping appliances.

Water Power.

1'he inter-State Royal Commission on the River Murray has recommended

Cnmberoona. the construction of a dam to form a larO'e stora(J'e reservoir at Cumberoon3. If 0 0 this dam were built, water power would be rendered available for generating electricity, which could be used for pumping, and could be economically conveyed Otherpossible to the capital fOl' electric lighting purposes, &c. Failing this source, water power sources. for generating electricity might be obtained at Murray Gates on the Swampy -Plain

River or from 'rooma River at the foot of Black Jack .Mountain, both distant about

Po"ition of site.

70 miles.

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

ACCESSIBILITY.

The site suggested by your Commissioners as, in their opinion, the best adapted to the purposes of a Federal Capital, lies about ten to the Northward of the town of Albury and adjoins the 'fable Top Station on the main Southern line of Railway, the centre of the area proposed as a City site being nearly opposite

to the 376th mile post from Sydney. Distance from The distances by direct measurement from the Capital Citie ; of the various States are as under:-

straight lmes.

Site on main trunk rail­ w.a.y.

Position in relation to centres of population.

Sydney ". 278 miles.

Melbourne ] 72

"

Bi·isbane

" Adelaide " Perth ])812 " Tiobart ". 479 " Its proximity to a main trunk line of rail way render3 this site a particularly convenient one, as the city woald from the beginning be in direct communication with Sydney and Melbourne, as well as the Capital Cities of the other States. 'fhe position of the site in relation to the centres of population both present and future is as follows :-It bears south-e::tsterly 150 miles from the geometric centre of the present population of Australia, is 24 miles southerly by rail from the centre . as determined by existing lines of communication, and is 190 miles in a direct line from the geometric centre of "Ultimate Settlement." .Albury

2Bl

17

Albury -continued. The !hr?ugh .from the State Capitals by the shortest cxistinCl' means Distances b of are gLven m the following table, as also the actual t' exi)lting Y

OCCUpied Ill the JOUrneys:- Ime

mun1cat10n.

State Capital.

I Distance Distance I Time

I.

Total

by Rail. by Sea.

I

distance. occupied in journey.

i

I

I

Statute !

··I

miles. miles.

I miles. hours. Sydney ... 376 I 3i6 . .. . .. ... ... . .. ········· I 11 l Melbourne ... ... ... ... .. . ... ... 1 201 ········· 20l 6 Brisbane (a) ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... 1,099 ········· 1,099 39 Adelaide ... ... ... .. . ... . .. ... 684 ········· 684 23 Perth, tJia Adelaide and Albany (b) ... ... .. . .. 1,024 1,173 2,197 115 Hobart, via Melbourne and Launceston ... . .. . .. 334 326 Q60 32 Average distance and tiwe ... . .. . .. ... 1 869 38 Do do if lines mentioned in foot- notes (a) and (b) were constructed .... . .. 847 31 (a) If the Wellington to W erris Creek and Warwick to Brisbane "direct" linea were constructed, the would Effect of be reduced to 896 .miles and the time to 33 hours. . prospective . . (b) If the Hay-Morgan-Port .Augusta lines and the Trans-.Australian Railway were constructed, the distance would railways. be increased to 2,267 miles, but the time reduced to 80 hours. NoTE.-No allowance made for loss of time due to changes en 1'0uie, such as at Sydney, Melbourne, &c. On lines time-table speed adopted, on branch or other lines average speed of 30 miles an hour The following statement shows :-1. Immediate expenditure necessary to railway system of the State; and connect the sugO'ested site with the o£_ 0 Immediate 2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected lines affecting the prospective mean.s of communication as elsewhere. ·Immediate Expenditure and prospec· or suggested future . b d . d t .1 commumca­ desCrl e m e a1 tion. . .. Nil. Prospective Expenditure (projected or suggested railways)-Wellington to Wel'l·is Creek... £514,576 Warwick to Brisbane " direct" 631,500 Hay to Morgan and Burra . .. 1,296,000 Trans-Atl.stralian Railway- Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie 5,090,183 Total ... £7,532,259 COST RESUMPTION. 'fhe estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £20,GOO. In this case it would be quite impracticable to resume the cntchment area. c . .,

.:.

IB

ARMIDALE.

TOPOGRAPHY, AND GENERAL SUITABlLITY.

Site locally The site selected by the local Capital Site League is at G-ostwyck, about 7 suggested. b d d

miles south of Armidale, in a wide va:lley of open undulating country, oun e on the north·west by the Saumarez Creek. Disadvan- That site, although not picturesque, consists to a large extent o. f slopes

tages. h

suitable for building, and with ample space for extension. It g1ves t e

impression, howeYer, of being too low with regard to the surrounding country, and a city built upon it would lack the distinction which a prominent and imposing site alone can give. The appearance of the soil too, suggests that in wet seasons, there would be a considerable amount of unsound ground. About half way between the Gostwyck site and the City of Armidale and

near a picturesque coil.ical hill, called the Bald Knob, your Commissioners suggest

Aspect. Levels.

a site which they think much more suitable for the Federal Capital. . This site occupies an elevated plateau extending easterly from Creek, to which the area has a frontage of about 2! miles. To the eastward the plateauis joined by some undulating country to a lightly-timbered ridge, thus forming a sloping basin protected from the south-west winds, from which quarter heavy weather usually comes. If the streets were laid out in north-easterly and south-westerly directions, they would command very fine views of the surrounding country. The site, occupying as it does a considerable eminence, can be seen for many miles . and would give the oity an imposing a11d . commanding

adding much beauty to those resorts. The aspect is chiefly easterly and is therefore highly fayourable. The levels are very satisfactory, the slopes affording every facility for good drainage and carrying off storm waters, while they present no difficulties to the laying out of the Display of streets. The gentle undulations would be favourable to the construotioh of the city, buildings. .. . and would enable the larger buildings to be well displayed.

Both -soil and climate are suitable for atboreal and horticultural growth, and

ciillii vation. are in this respect all that could be desired. All. kinds of English trees ahd conifers

suited to temperate clin1ates, and a11 garden plants so suited thrive welL (See Appendix No. 6). Foundations. Good foundations for large structures can be obtained at a depth of frofii 8 feet to 5 feet, and for smaller buildings a depth of from 2 feet to 3 feet would suffice.

CLIMA1E.

Altitude of site, 3,450 feet.

Rainfall. The mean annual rainfall at Armidale, 5 miles from the site, for thirty-seven years ending with the year 1902, was 32·65 distributed over ninety-eight mean annual rainy days. The mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-

Jan.

I

Feb. J March. j April. j. May. I June. I July. August., Sept. I Oct. I Nov. 1 Dec.

3'83 3•52 2•81 2·03 1·86 2'79 2·01 1•95 2•24 2•78 3·25 3•58

Temperature. In the period 1886 to 1902 (both years included), the mean highest shade temperature during the four hottest months was 79'6°. The mean lowest shade temperature during the four coldest months was 35·2°. 'l'he mean shade temperatures during spring; summer, autumn, and winter were, respectively, 57·6°, 68·1 o, 56·7°, and

Armidale

II _

19

44·1:. highest and lowest readings of temperature were, respectively, 105·2° and 13·9. 'lhe mean annual shade.temperature was 56·6°. The following table shows for (lach month the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean mi.P.imum, and the mean temperature:-

'"· " "

I Jan, I ) March., April. I May.J June. I July. ) Sept. ) i Nov. I Dec.

F eb. Aug. Oct.

!

Mean maximum ... 81·3 79·3 75·4 68·7 60·5 1 53•8 51·3 1 56 ·3 62•4 70·5 77·5 80•2

winimum .. . 56·8 56·2 52•2 45•7 37•6 35•9 32'8 1 34<5 39•4 44• 8 51'1 54'6

+dean temperature I 69·7 67·8 63 ·8 57'2 49•0 4t·9 42 ·o I 45·4 I 50·9 57 ·7 64·3 167·4

,. ,, ' "" "·· ···

The evidence taken showed that periods of high temperature do not last more Periods of than three or four days at one time, and the hot days are usually followed by cool high nights. It is not usual for more than two or three such periods to occur during temperature. the summer.

The changes t emperature in ordina1·y seasons are not extreme, and although Changes of the winter may be said to be fairly severe, there is often a large proportion of bright temperature. S\llUI,Y 'l'he prevailing direction of the wind is from the west, and during winter such winds are very cold. 'Jhere are no hot winds, excepting in times of

drought, when they come from the north-west. Cool breezes blow from the east, bringing drizzling weather, accompanied by a fall of temperature of from

10° to 20°. Fogs on the lowe.r ground oc?asionally in but not after Fogs and

o'clock ln the mornmg. The h1gher lands, of whrch the site are mists.

free from them. There mists early in the morning in winter, but they soon dis!iq)pear, being in the form of clouds lying low on the table-land which rise as the warmer, desoending again in the afternoon. Snow may fall three or Snow.

fqQ.t• times dqring the winter, but does not lie on the ground for more than a few hours, or OQCasiona.lly for a day. It is seen on the distant mountains, such as Ben. ,, Lomond, for a fortnight at a time. 'l'he following table gives particulars recorded at Armidale :- .

Fogs. Snow. Frosts.

Numberl Kumberl N1nnber[ . of Period of Year. of Period of.Year. of P eriod of Year.

Times. I Times. Times.

lSOO ... G April to September .. 4 June to October ... 25 May to December.

.... 6 May to October .. . 2 • Tune and July ... 31 May to October .

1001 ... 8 Aprj] to August . .. 7 June and July ... 43 March to October.

1902 ... 12 March to July . .. 3 July and September 45 April to September.

above given as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions

h:we been supplied by the Government Astronomer of. New .south Wales.

According to the medical evidence, the chmate of Armtdale IS one of the iu Aqstralia, the temperature being even and the atmosphere dry. . evidence.

Before the town of Arrnidale was incorporated there was much sickness, but been considerably reduced by improved sanitary conditions municipal

and typhoid is now of rare occurrence. Consumptt.on 1s

except in cases brought to Armidale for cure. The. cases of hydatlds wh10h occur are confined to one locality, at a distance from Armidale. . The fact that Armidale has been chosen for the establishment of a 1arge school, to which boys from all parts of this and other a:re scp.t, strongly

as to the healthiness of the

\

.';.: ...

.· 1' .

Granite and basaltic rocks.

Carrying capacity.

Crops.

20

Armidale-aontinued.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

The soil about Armidale is derived either from some of the older sedimentary rocks, from the decomposition of gmnite and other igneous or basaltic

rocks. The soil formed from basaltic rocks is the most fertile, and that from the sedimentary rocks the least so, while that derived from the decomposition of granite is intermediate in value. In the pastoral district around Armidale the carrying capacity may be taken as one sheep to the acre, or, as stated by the Director of Agriculture, a sheep to an acre and a half in all seasons. The proportion of agricultural land to pastoral within

a radius of 50 miles from Armidale is stated at one-sixth. The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Armidale district, comprising the

counties of Sandon and Hardiuge.

STATEMENT OF' AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEARS ENDING MARCH, 1903 . ..,.--COUNTIES SANDON AND HARDINGE.

Crop.

I Grain.

I Hay.

I

Total. Average Yield

per Acre.

acres. acres. acres.

Wheat ... . .. ... ... ... 5,16'3 2,677 7,840 13·9 bus.

Maize ... .. ... ... ... ·············-· ··············· 3,435 19'2 "

Barley ... ... ... ... '" 61 35 96 17•8 "

Oats ... ... ... . .. .. . 2,422 7,B84 ·9,806 25•2

"

Potatoes ... ... ... ... .. .

··············· ............... . 2,751 2·7 tons.

Other crops .. ... .. . ... ·············"· ··············· 2,550 Not available.

Total acreage ... ... ... ... .. . 26,478

aten hay. It has been stated by a local witness that returns of wheaten hay average

1·1 tons per acre, oaten hay, 1·1, and lucerne hay, 1·5. Lucerne. Lucerne is only grown to a small extent, and maize principally for feeding, Potatoes. although the early kinds ripen well. Potatoes grow especially well at the Black Mountain and at Guyra, and for many years have rivalled those of Tasmania and

New Zealand in the Sydney market. ·

Dairying. Sufficient dairying could be done in ordinary seasons on this table-land to make the industry a success, if the farmers were to select their stock and house or rug and feed them in the cold parts of the year. There is a magnificent country on the warmer slopes of the coast lands east of Armidale. Fat stock and The evidence of competent witnesses shows that within a radius which would produce. include such wheat-producing districts as Glen Innes, Tamworth and Manilla, and

the Guy Fawkes fattening country, there could be grown far more produce and fat stock than would be required for a city with 50,000 inhabitants. Indeed, excluding fat stock, it is evident that a much less area than that indicated above would suffice; but in that case, much land in the Armidale district, which is now only used for grazing, would have to be cultivated. Fruit. 'l'he district of Armidale is noted for the good qu·ality of its fruit. In apples

and all English fruits it could compete with Tasmania, and table grapes do well. ·within 100 miles, tropical fruits and coffee can be grown. Return from. A return furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales states the average yield from fruit, within a radius of 30 miles, for the seven years ending

31st December, 1_902, at £5 2s. ld. per acre, the average area being 520 acres. 'l'he return does not include grapes.

Armidale

295

21 .

Armidale-continued.

BUILDING MATERIAL-STONE, BRICKS, &c.

The only building stone in the district of Armidale is granite ; and this has not been much used, excepting for steps and sills, as, for instance, in the Court-house, Lands Office, and Gaol. It occurs in unlimited quantity, and is obtained from Tilbuster Creek and from Rocky Creek, or Uralla.

There is no freestone in the district, the sources of supply being Gunnedah Freestone. and Ravensfield. Most of the stone used by the Government is brought from Ravensfield. The carriage increases the cost by about 2s. per cubic foot, and when it is handled and wm·ked, brings it up to about 3s. 9d. The cost of 'rilbuster

granite is from 7s. 6d. to lls. per cubic foot. Basalt is plentiful, and is used for Basalt. rubble work and road metal. A report by the District Architect on the building stones procurable in this Officia. district has been supplied by the Public vV orks Department, and will be found in report. Appendix No. 4, which also contains information as to examination and tests of

samples for strength and suitability for building purposes. There is abundance of material for 4lrick-making in the district, and bricks are Bricks. made on the semi-dry process. Durable bricks are turned out at £2 lOs. per 1,000; but they are somewhat porom, and absorb much water. Fire-bricks are made from

material obtained at U ralla, and are used in the gasworks at Armidale and at Newcastle. ·

Earthenware pipes and garden tiles are also made, and clay suitable for roofing tiles is reported to exist in the district. xr.s, ties,

Lime is obtained from Tamworth and Warwick, costing from 3s. 6d. to 5s. Lime. per bag, or £2 lOs. per ton delivered in Armidale; and there is plenty of clean sand for mortar.

TIMBER.

There are forest reserves between Armidale and the coast, from which timber Forest of commercial value can be obtained. The nearest available timber is 20 miles, and reserves. ,, the best timber 50 miles distant. The hardwood timber consists of stringybark, messmate, blue gum, tallow Hardwood.

wood, grey gum, spotted gum, blackbutt. Besides these hardwoods there is a large amount of brush timber at about 60 miles distance, such as cedar, hoop pine, Brush timber. rosewood, teak, beech, sassafras, and silky oak. These brush timbers would amount to about one-third of the whole timber supply.

Further particulars as to the timbers in this district will be found in Appendix No. 5. The principal supply of building timber is brought from the coast lands, but a certain amount comes from Tenterfield and Glen Innes. The price of hardwood timber is 13s. to 15s. per 100 feet super., hoop pine from the coast, for lining and flooring,

14s. to 15s. Sassafras, which is freely used, comes from 120 miles distant, and is used for lining. Beech has also been used.

FUEL.

Firewood can be obtained in large quantities within 20 miles of the site. Firewood. The nearest cbal supplies to Armidale are- Coal.

(a) Gunnedah coalfield, 144 miles by rail via Werris Creek, worked at Curlewis Source of and Black Jack a:rid connected by private railway with the State railway supply. system. (b) Ashford coal basin. This is unworked and situated about 50 miles across

country from Tenterfield, thence 121 miles by rail from Tenterfield to Armidale. (c) West Maitland. Important developments are now taking place in the West Maitland coalfield between W t>St Maitlqnd and Cessnock.

Armidale

Sources of supply.

Gyra River.

Catchment area.

Rainfall.

Site for storage' reservoir.

Elevation of site and of . reservoir.

Woolomom­ bie River.

MacDonald River.

Catchment areas.

Total supply.

Principal works.

22

Armida!e-continued. . The three coalfields mentioned are regarded as the principal sources from which the coal supply for Armidale could be drawn. The cost of coal delivered at Armidale is stated at from 19s. 9d, to 25s .. 7d., according to the place from which it is obtained. Further particulars as to coal supply are contained in Appendix No. 8.

WATER SUPPLY.

The most suitable sol1rces of water supply were found to be

(1) The Gyra River, distant about 25 miles; (2) the Woolomombie River (incl'(lding Chandler's Creek) distant a,bout 23 miles; and (3) the MacDonald River, distant 34 miles.

The Gyra River has been selected as the primary source of supply on account of its. admitting of a gravitation scheme, either of the other sources nect)ssitating pumpmg. · At the time of inspection the Gyra River was not but this was st;1ted

by residents to be due to the recent abnormally dry seasons, as usually there is mol'e or less :flowing throughout the year. as the driest years havf'l to be

provided for, flood waters only can be taken into consideration. The catchment area comprises about SQ sq'(lare miles of hilly favourable for the collection of water. The land included in it is principally used for pastoral and is only spa].'sely settled. Approxiwately 39,()0{} acres

within the catchment have been alienated, and the remainder is Crown land. The average minimum annual rainfall of the district as recorded at Gyra and Ben Lomond, the nearest rain-gauge stations, equals 25 inches. Assuming that 9 per cent. of this would run off, 2,610,000,000 gallons could be collected in the driest years, which, after allowing fQr would be sufficient for a

population of 57,000. · ·

',rhere is a very suitable place for ;:t large stora,ge ' reseryoir at a point on the river about 5t miles north-easterly from Black l\{ountain railw;1y station, A dam 70 feet high at this point would impound about 2,400,000,000 gallons of water. As the storage reservoir is in the main water COl!rse, and as portions of the watershed are suitable for cultivation and closer settlement, it would be to resume

the whole of the catchment area to insure the purity of the water. average elevation of the proposed city site is about 3 1450 feet above sea level, and the elevation of the proposed reservoir on the Gyra River is 3, 782 feet- .. a difference in level of 332 feet-which is sufficient for a gravitation sl1pply.

The Woolomombie River, which is suggested as an additional source of supplyl. was not running at time of im

The MacDonald River, which is also suggested as a possible additional source of supply, was not running at time of inspection. Below its junction with the Cobrabald Creek there is a suitable site for a storage reservoir, and at this point the river has a catchment area of about 250 square miles. The catchment areas of the Woolomombie and MacDonald Rivers are at present sparsely settled. If in the future it became necessary to draw supplies from either of these sources,

the l'elative cost of resuming the catchment or constructing filter beds would have to be.considered. The water supply of the Woolomombie would be distant about 23 mtles from the city site, and the water would have to be lifted about 400 feet. The supply on the MacDonald would he · distant about 34 miles, a,nd a lift of approximately 350 feet would be required. ·

The combined sources of the Gyra, Woolomombie, and MacDonald Rivers would, with suitable storage, provide a water supply sufficient for a population of about 480,000. In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the

prol?ose.d .primary scheme from the Gyra River, to supply a population of 50,000. Capitaltzmg working and at 4 per cent,, the eost is estimated

to Qe 700. · · · 'J ·

23

Armidale-continued. Temporary W ater Supply.

A temp?rary water supply for the use of the workmen, &c., during the earlier stages of the mty could by pumping the Gyra River, immediately

above Gara, .ll:bout. 8 d1stant from the mty site. A small storage reservoir would be reqUired m the river.

Water Power.

Water power for electric lighting, &c., might be obtained from the Muddy Sources;· and Chandler's Rivers near their junction, distant about 24 miles from the city site, · and from the Apsley River, distant about 35 miles.

DRAINAGE.

See Genei·al Note, p. 5.

..

ACCESSIBILITY.

. The proposed site near Bald Knobs, in the vicinity of Armidale, lies about 7 or miles :du;e south of the Armidale railway station, and the north-western corner of site. the area is 2 mites to the eastward of the 356th-mile post from Sydney. The distances by direct measurement from the several State capitals are as Distaucefrom under ·- · - ·· cities

' -strrught

Sydney 225 miles lines.

Melbourne . . . 627 ,

Brisbane 232 ,

Adelaide .. • .. . 817 ,

Perth 2,121 ,

Hobart 879 ,

The through distances from the site to the State capitals by existing means by .• o£ communication, as well as the net time occupied in the journeys, are given in the following table :- communica-

tion.

' Net Time I

State Capital. ! Distance Distance Distance

Total occupied

I

by Rail. by Road. by Sea Distance. in

J ourney.

I Statute I

miles, miles. miles. I miles. hours.

Sydney ". . " .. , ...

:1

358 7 ·· ·· ·· I 365 14 ". ... Melbourne 935 7

I 942 3l (a) ... ... .. . ... ... ······ i

Brisbane (b) ... ... R65 7 ······ I 372 16 ... ... ... ... . ..

Adelaide (c) . .. ... .. 1,417 7 . ..... 1,421 48 ... ... " . ...

Perth, via Adelaide and Albany (d)

I 1,757 7 1,173 2,937 141 . " ... ... 1

Robart, tia Melbourne and Lauuccston I 1,068 7 326

I

1,401 57 .. . ... ... 1 ' I I Average distance and time ; 1,240 51 ... ... ". " . ··· ; Do do i£ lines mentioned in foot-notes: (a), (b), (c), and (d) were constructed ... ' l,Oi5 38 ... 1 I (a) Wellington and Werris Creek-the distance Armidale .and would be reduced by 133 miles. Effect of. (b) 'Warwick and. Brisbane "direct "-would reduce .distance to Bnsba?e ,by ?!) . . pr?spcct1ve (c) Cobar to Broken Hill with Wen·is Creek to Welhngton would save 33, miles m distance .to Aclelai <_le. railways. (d) Do do in conjunction with. the !me from Mannal.ull to Carnet_on and the Trans-Australian Railway from Port Augusta to Kalgoorlic, would reduce distance between A rim dale an

-

Armidale-continued.

Position of The position of this site in relation to the centres of population, both present s!te, in reb- and future as follows:-tiOn to centres '

ofpopulation. It bears north-easterly 440 miles from the geometric centre of the prGsent

population of Australia; is 717 miles northerly by rail and road from the centre as determined by existing lines of communication; and is 40J miles in a direct line from the geometric centre of '' Ultimate Settlement." Connection As to communication, the first point which presents itself is the importance with main of placing- the Federal Capital in direct touch with the main line of railway. The railway.

site can be connected with the railway system ·without difficulty by means of a short deviation of the existing line between the Armidale and U ralla Stations, the length of which would be about 11 miles. The probable cost, including provision for a station, will be, approximately, £75,000. Suggested A local witness drew the attention of your Commissioners to a proposal to Railway. connect Armidale by rail with coast at Coff's Harbour. The distance is stated

to be 15 7 miles, but no estimate of cost is available.

Cost of . immediate and prospec tive railway

communica­ tion.

The following statement :-

1. The immediate expenditure necessary to connect the suggested site with the railway system of the State; and 2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or future lines affecting the prospective means of communication as described in detail elsewhere.

Immediate Expenditure­ Deviation to site

Prospective Expenditure (projected or suggested railways)-1\.,. ellington to W erris Creek . . . . .• . £514,5 76

Warwick to Brisbane "direct" 631,500

Cobar to Broken Hill and Cockburn 1,117,308

Trans-Australian Railway: Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie 5,090,183

Total

COST OF RESUMPTION.

7,353,567

£8,428,567

The estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £20,000, and within the catchment area for primary source of supply, i.e., to supply population of 50,000, £58,500.

DATHURS'l,

25

BATHURST.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUITABILITY.

Here, as at some of the other Sites, your Commissioners have departed from :afr. Oliver's the location selected by the New South Wales Commissioner (Mr. Oliver). Tho Site adopted by him immediately adjoins the boundary of tho City of Bathurst, and is bounded on the eastern side by the M acquarie River. Tv tho ·west of that Site. it extends beyond tho municipal boundary over the Bald Bills, and to the cast includes the Yalley of the Queen Charlotj:,e Vale Creek and the junction of that

stream with the That p:ut wJnch lies on the summit and slopes of the

Bald Hills and their northern extension is not, in the opinion of your Commissioners, Disadrnn­ for building; on account _of the extrem.e steepness of the grades. At_ the

foot of the slopes from these h1lls, the low-lymg land along the Queen Charlotte Vale Creek is also unsuitable, being subject to frequent flooding This land FlooJing. separates the ridge which lies between the Queen Charlotte Vale Creek &nd the M acquarie River from the remainder of the Site, and the ridge itself is in large part too steep to be suitable for the laying out of streets. The temainder of the Site, although in most parts well adapted to the laying out of city sections, is too restricted in area for a city, and would be quite without suitable surrounding lands for Restricted

any future extension. Moreover, it lies within the 100 miles radius from Sydney. 100 :For these reasons your Commissioners suggest another Site, which appears

to be without the objectionable features referred to. This Site is situated a few miles to the north-west of the beautiful City of Another Site Bathurst and immediately beyond the 100 miles limit. The R.iver Macquarie flows suggested. ,, through it from east to west, and is fringed by rich alluvial fiats.

Very fine puhlie parks and garde11s cnuld be forined on these fiats, and the Positbn. banks of the river could be treated in a highly ornate and attractive manner. The ground rises gently from the river in wide undulations on the northern side to the boundary of the Site, where it is about 100 feet above the river level. On ness.

the southern side the fiats arc narrower and the ground rises more rapidly to a hteight of about 200 feet at a distance of two miles from the river. This higher ·ground terminates in a steep picturesque hill called 1\fount PlC'a'ant. .From this hill there is an extended view over a wide area of beautiful country in the of

Bathurst; indeed the views from the Site generally are extensive and beautiful, and the approach to the Site is also highly attractive. The aspect is partly to the east and partly to tho west, the slopes being Aspect. towards the 1'iver in each case.

The levels would permit of the streets being laid out north-easterly and Lm!s. south-westerly, with cross streets at right-angles. The slopes meet all requirements for effectual drainage, and would be favourable t<3 the display of the larger buildings. No difficult gradients in the thoroughfares would be experienced.

The beautiful gardens in and around this Site prove conclusively its suit- abilitv in soil and climnte for arboreal and horticultural cultivation. culti,•ation.

· It is only necessary to see tbe l\1 achattie Park at Bathurst, where all kinds Machattie of trees and shrubs suited to a temperate climat0 are growing to perfection, to l'drk. estimate how luxuriantly the public parks would flourish on tlw proposed Site.· In Appendix No. ti, will be found a list of the shrubs and trees adapted to

this district. At a depth of from 3 feet to 5 feet good foundations for large b?-ildings Found>1t:om. could be obtained, and a depth of from 2 feet to 3 feet would be sufficwnt for structures of a lighter character.

Bathurst

)J

l

Rainfall.

.Tempera. ture,

1!'tosts.

:Fogs.

Snow.

Bathurst-continued. 26 OLIMA'rE. Altitude of site, 2,200 feet.

The mean annual rainfall at Bathurst for forty-five years, ending with the year 1902, was 23·81 inches, distributed over eighty-four mean annual rainy days. 'rhe mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-Jan. I Feb. I March. I April. I May. j June. r July. I Aug. I Sept. I Oct. j Nov. I Dec.

' '

I

I

I

-

2•57 2·2J, 2·07 1·76 1•8! 1•93 1'59 I 1•69 1'86 2•12 2'22 1•95

I

In the period, 1886 to 1903 (both years included), the mean highest temper­ ature during the four hottest months was 84·2°. The mean lowest sha.de temperature during the four coldest months was 33·5°; tho mean shade temperature during spring, summer, autumn, winter, respectively, 57•9°, 70·2o, 57·6°, and 44·6°. The highest and lowest readings of temperature were respectively 112•5° and }:) 0 • The mean annual shade temperature was.5'i'h0 •

· The following table for each month the mean maximum shade

temperature of tl10 period, the mean minimuml and the mean

Jan. I Feb. j Marqh., April. May. f J\lne. / Aug. I Sept. I I Nov. I Dec.

ma:Jimum ... 86"2 85·51'80·0 I 72•3 63'4 f 56 Q r 5i•2 57·1) 65 0 n·o I 80'4 8cl!-7

Mean minimum ... 56·6 55·1 5l'l I 43·3 3k8 34r8 31·3 33·3 37·5 42·8 49·0 53·0

Mean temperature 71·4 70·3 1)6·5t 57'8 4!H 45·4 42'8 · 45·()

It is stated that the pel'iods of extreme heat in the summer do not continue longm: than two or three days at a time, a11d the temperature us'ually falls after sunset, with cool nights. The winter climate is dry and frosty, with a clear and bright atmosphere; the frosts usually cornmcneing about the end of April andlasting tlwough the winter.

Fogs occur at times in tlw river valleys and low.lying lands, but disappear, as a rule, at from !) to 11 in the morning.

In ordinary seasons snow is only seen on the Blue Mountains for a few days, but twice within the last tweuty years there have been heavy falls at Bathurst. In 1896 there was a fall of 10 inches, alld in a subsequent year one of 20 inches. The prevailing winds are fl·om the 1vest. Hot winds are sometimes experienced, but not for more than two or three days at a time, nor more than four to five times in the summer. At such times the shade temperature rises to about 100°. The official records do not show any hot winds.

The following table gives particulars recorded at Bathurst:-,Fogs. Snow. Frosts.

.

NumOO,: Number Number

of Period of Year. of Period of Year. of Period of Year.

Times. Times. Times.

-------· I 1899 ... 6 April to August ... 2 August and Septem berl 34 May to October .. . 1900 ... 12 May to Septem her ... 4 April to July ... 12 May to August ... 1901 10 I . . May to October ... March to October .. 2 June and September 30 .. . 1902 ... 9 May to September 55 May to September . .. '" • • • • • • •• ' # ••••• .. . Particulars above given as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions generally have been supplied by theGovernment Astronomer of South Wales. Bathurst

241

27

Bathurst-continued. The medical evidence is to the effect that the climate is excellent, and is Medical recognised as such by those in search of health. It is especially beneficial in cases evidence. of pulmonary diseases, and people affected with such complaints come to Bathurst,

not only from the States of the Commonwealth, but also from Great Britain, New Zealand, and India. There are not many epidemics. Cases of hydatids occasionally occur.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

The soils of the Bathurst district, including that of the Site, may be described SoiL as being derived, in the uplands, from the decomposition of granite or sedimentary rocks and of the basaltic sheets which overlie them. In the valleys and along the river and its branches there are rich alluvial deposits, derived from the washings of Alluv!al

the hills, . deposits,

The gTa)ling capa}lilities of the Bathurst shefp district are estimated at li sheep to the acre. The evidence shows that on the river .flats, especially where eapa 11tJes. lucerne is grown, as many as from ten to twenty sheep per acre are fattened, while it is said that near Bathurst even sixty sheep and near Cowra seventy-five have been

fattened per acre during the season on lucerne land. Fattening of sheep

in this ·way is especially carried on in the rich alluvial lands on the Macquarie River and Vale Greek, where in ordinary seasons five to six crops of lucerne may be obtained. ·where irrigation can be applied, much more can be done. For instance, when your Commissioners visited Bathurst on April 8th, the eighth crop of lucerne

was being cut on the Experimental Farm, with a prospect of another before the season closed. There is a large area of wheat land in the district, but it has been more or WhE'at lands less exhausted by continuous cultivation, with occasional intervals of grazing. The manager of the Experimental }.,arm states that, in consequence of the system of

continuous cropping, the yield has fallen from forty to fifty bushels per acre, which used to be obtained, to an average of 13·4, but if treated properly the croppmg. soil is very pl.'oductive, and this naturally fine district might, by good farming, again become one of the best in the State.

The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Crops. Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Bathurst district, comprising the Counties of Bathurst and Roxburgh .-

Sl'ATEMENT OF AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEARS ENJHNG MARCH, OF BATHURST AND ROXBUIWH.

Crop. Grain. Hay. Total. Average Yield per Acre.

acres. acres. acres.

Wheat 51,866 22,398 74,264 10·9 bus.

Maize ··············· ··············· 4,604 12·3 ,,

Barley 239 113 352 16•8 ,,

Oats 5,271 19,496 24,767 18•9

"

Potatoes ... .......... ... ··············· 8,229 1·8 tons

Other crops ··············· ··············· 7,272 Not available.

Total average 119,4S8

Maize is not a certain crop, but at times there are large yields from the rich Maize, river flats, and there are early ripening kinds which would do well and give about 40 bushels per acre. Turnips and mangolds grow well in the heavier soils. Oaten hay averages ft·om 15 cwt. on the uplands to from 20 to 30 cwt. on the Oaten hay.

flats per acre. It is said that this hay has for years been sent to Sydney and Melbourne. Lucerne hay, the yield of which is up to 2 tons per acr(', is also sent to Sydney and up countey to beyond Dubbo. Bathurst

Dairying.

Foodstuffs generally.

Fruit.

28

Bathurst-continued. There is a good future for dairying in the district .. At the present time it is only carried on in a small way, but provided that the cows were fed and either rugged or hrmsed in the cold months it might easily be extended sufficiently to supply a large population, especially if irrigation were applied to produce feed.

There was unanimity of opinion among the witnesses that a district included within a radius of 50 miles could, if the lands were properly worked, grow sufficient foodstuffs, and also supply fat stock, for a population of at least Nearly all the English fruits do well in this district, and as an instance of w·hat can be done in fruit-growing it may be mentioned that at the Experimental Farm at Bathurst there are 30 acres of bearing orchard six years old, planted with apples, pears, peaches, and cherries. The fruit sent from there in the past season brought the highest prices in the Sydney market. Return A statement furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales

gives the average return from fruit within a radius of 30 miles of Bathurst for the seven years ending 31st December, 1902, at £5 lOs. 9d. per acre, the average area being 1,140 acres. The return does not include grapes.

Sandstone.

Marbles and granites.

Basalt.

Official report.

Materials for concrete.

Bricks,

Colour and quality.

Price.

Lime and cement,

Sand and gravel.

BUILDING MATERIALS-STONE, BRICKS, &c. There is a fine grey, tough sandstone at Cave Hill, near Orange; a rather coarse freestone at Wallerawang; a better stone to the north, near Hill .End ; and, near Mudgee, the best freestone obtainable in the State. It is also said that there is promising looking sandstone at Tarana, anq the stone used in viaducts of the railway to Bathurst was brought from the Zig-zag.

Good red granite is obtainable at Waranbool, 12 miles from Bathurst; white marble of good quality and large quantity, which could be quarried out any size desired, J 2 miles distant; and several varieties of coloured marble are found within 18 to 25 miles of Bathurst. At the marble quarries. at Caleula a face from 15 to 20 feet is worked.

Basalt is of common occurrence, and is used for kerbing the streets, for rubble work, and road metal. ·

A report by the District Architect on the building stones procurable in this district has been supplied by the J>ublic vVorks Department, and will be found in Appendix No. d, which also contains information as to examination and tests of samples for strength and suitability for building purposes.

The best of materials for concrete footings, arches, ceilings, &c., can be obtained within 3 miles of Bathurst. ·

There is abundance of brick-Clay, and, 30 miles away by rail, shale suitable for making bricks with modern appliances. Pipe-clay in large quantity is found close to Bathurst. Th8 bricks made locally are of various colours, from white and dark cream to 1·ed and dark purple. 'l'hey are hand-made and pressed. 'The Bathurst bricks arc dense, and of excellent quality.

'l'he price of these bricks delivered within the municipality is from 30s. to £2 per I,OOU for coloured bricks, £5 for huff bricks, £1 lOs. for fire-bricks. Bricks from Lithgow can be landed at Bathurst at £2 5s. per 1,000. The Railway-station; Court-house, Gaol, and Hospital at Bathurst are built of locally-macle bricks.

'!'here is a large quantity of the ordinary hard blue limestone within 10 miles of Bathurst. 'l'he lime made locally is excellent, and costs, delivered, about 30s. per ton. Excellent cement is made within 49 miles by rail of Bathurst.

'l'herc is abundance of good sand and gravel for building purposes.

TI.MBElt.

Good supply There is no forest near Bathurst from which timber of commercial value on \Vcstern h

line. ca,n c ol!t aincd. 1 t wa-s stated jn evidence that there is a considerable supply,

at about 20 miles distance on the Western Railway line, of blackbutt,

Hardwood mountam ash! tallow-wood, peppermint, nnd turpentine.

Very little lwrdwood is used in llathurst for buildinO', and when required is UI < mg 11 bt · 1 f 0 obtainedfrom Yo :unec rom Sydney. · Sydney. Bathurst

243

29

Bathurst-continued. In Appendix No.5 will be found further particulars as to the timbers already referred to. Particulars are also given as to the hardwoods in the Sydney market and theie value at the present time.

Cypress pine is beought from Cowra and from the Mudgee line at 9s. and Pine. · lOs. per 100 feet.

FUEL.

There is a limited amount of timber in the district available for fuel, the Limited price being l:ls. per ton. of fire·

The coal supplies for Bathurst are drawn from the Western Coal-field in the Coal. vicinity of . Lithgow, situated by rail 49 miles from Bathurst. The cost of coal delivered at Bathurst is stated at lls. lOd. per ton. 'rhe price paid by the Town Council for coal from Lithgow for their gas-works is lOs. lld. per ton delivered at

Bathurst. Further information regarding the coal supply will be found in Appendix

No.8.

WATER Si!PPLY.

The following sources of water supply were selected as bein

(I) Campbell's River, distant about 31 miles; (2) Sewell's Creek below junction with Native Dog Creek, distant about 25 miles; and (3) Brisbane Valley Ci·eek, distant about 25 miles, from all of which the water could be taken by gravitation to the proposed city site. To th83e som·ces may be added (4) the drift underlying the flats adjacent to the Macquarie River below the junction with the Fish River, from which naturally-filtered water could be pumped to the proposed city site, distant about 7 miles. The water would be of good quality, similar to that

now supplied to Bathurst (vide Analysis, Appendix No. 2). Campbell's River, on account of superiority of catchment area and storage location, has been selected as the primary source of supply. The river is said, by River. residents, usually to contain a good sti·eam of running water, but at time of inspection it had practicttlly ceased to flow.

rrhe catchment area comprises about 142 square miles of rough mountainous Catchment. country favourable for collecting water, sparsely settled, and mostly unsuitable for cultivation. 'rhe estimated minimum annual rainfall on the catchment area is 20 inches. Assuming 8 per cent. Of this to run off, 3,294,400,000 gallons could be Run-oil'. collected in the driest years, which, after allowing for evaporation, would be sufficient for a population of 81,000.

A dam 80 feet high across the river, at a point near Dog Rocks, would form Sto:nge dam. a reservoir capable of containing about 2,500,000,000 gallons. As this storage reservoir would be in the main water-course, the c::ttchment area should be resumed to insure the purity of the water. About UG,550 have alienated, the remainder being Crown lands.

'rho average elevation of the proposed city site is 2,200 feet above sea-level, of and the elevation of the proposed reservoir in Campbell's River is 2,660 feet above sea-level, showing the reservoir to be 460 feet above the city site, whict1 sufficient for a good gravitation scheme.

Sewell's and Brisbane Valley Creeks, b)th distant about 25 miles feom the SuppJ,,mt·nt­ site, are suggested as supplementary sources of supply. Their of

areas comprise about 91 square miles, the country included being of a hilly ch:u•actcr . favourable for the collection of water. The minimum quantity of water olJtaim.ble from all the gmvibtion sources mentioned, after allowin; for evaporation, would, with suitable storage provision, be sufficient to supply a population of 133,0}0.

1 l'ho Macquarie ltiver, whence it is proposed to pump natlually-:filtered water 1\I.acquaric from the drift, has, above the point of offtake, a catchment area of about 717 sq narc Rim. miles. The estimated minimum annual flow is 18,300,000,000 gallons. Assuming

that one-sixth of this quantity would be available for the capital city, there woald he sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, for a population of about 76,000. This supply is distant about 7 miles from the city site, and a lift of about 350 feet would be nece:;sary.

'l'he combined supply from all the sources requirements of a population of about 209,000.

Combined

mentioned would provide for the t r

Bathurst or

Primary scheme. Cost.

30

Bath urst-'-con tinued. In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed primary scheme from Campbell's River to supply a population of 50,000. Capitalising working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent. the cost is estimated to be £4 7 4,865.

Tempora1·y Water Supply.

Pumping A temporary water supply for the use of the workmen, etc.," in the earlier

and stages of the city, might be obtained by pumping naturally filtered water from a

well and drives sunk in the drift underlying the flats bordering the Macquarie River, close to the City Site.

Where obtainable.

Position of site.

Tf7ater Fou:er.

Water power for electric lighting and other purposes might be obtained from the Macquurie River at 'Watton, or at a point below its junction with the Pyramul Oreek, distant about 38 miles, and from the Lachlan River near Mount MacDonald, distant about 53 miles, where a storage reservoir has already been 1woposed by the Works Department.

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, p. 5.

ACCESSIBILITY.

The Site suggested by your Commissioners at Mount Pleasant is about 5 miles by road from the J3athurst Raihvay Station (145 miles from Sydney), andis situated to the north-west of t}le City of lJathurst. rrlle Site is outside the lOO-mile lirn,it line from ti\ydney, that }inB forming its eastern boundary.

The distanc.es by direct measurement from the Capital Cities of the several

ap1a Jws,C!t ·t d .

straight line. to a es are as un er ;= Sydney · Melbourne P' Bri&bane Aclelaide Perth Hobart .. . .

• t 99 miles .

l1

,tq9 ll

"

.. , "

663 ll

by The through distanoe from the Site to the State Capitals by existing means

com, of communication as well as the net occupied in the journeys are given in the

munication. follow in()' table :- .. . . ' 0 . , ..

Effect of prospeeti vo railway,,

. - -· ·

Distance . .. , .,

Distance Distance Total Ti!De State CapitaL by Rail. byRoa,q. by Sea. Distance. occupied in ____ ) ___ .. _

Journcy.

Statute Miles. Hours. Miles. Miles Miles,

Sydney ... ... ... ... ... ... H5 u •• ! ··· ··· 150 6

Melbourne, via Blayney-Harden ... ... 489 5 ... ...... 494 16

(a) ... ... . . ... . .. 868 5 . ........ 873 34

Adelaide (h) ... ... ... ... .. . 972 5 . ...... .. 977 33

Perth, via .Adelaide and Albany (c) , .. "' 1,3[2 5 1,173 2,490 126 . Hobart, via Melbourne and Launceatou ... 622 5 326 953 42

----___ , ------------A vcrage distance and time ... ... ... .. 989 43 Do do if lines mentioned in fool notes (a), (b), and (c) were constructed ... .. 900 33 (a) Werris Creek to \Vellington and ·warwick to Brisbane direct would save 205 mileJ in distance between Bathurst and Bri>hane, · (11) Hay-Mor11an line reduce distance to Adelaide by 176 miles, , !J 1mles m through d1stance between Bathurst and Perth. . allowance made for lo•a of time due to changes en rout«, such as at Sydney, !\felhourne, &c. On Main Lmes llmc,table adopted; on branch or other lines average speed of 30 miles an hour assumed. Bathurst

24!5

31

Bathurst-continued. It may be mentioned in reference to communication between Bathurst and Blayney­ the South by the Blayney-Harden r.\Jailway that the present character of the line is HRa:lden 1' , ,at way me. not up to the usual standard of Mam Lines. It was, ho·wever, stated in evidence .

by the Chief ltailway Commissioner (N.S.W.) that there would be no difficulty in bringing it up to standard should the necessity arise. 'l'he position of the Site in relation to the centres of population, both present of_ and futuro, is as follows :-It bears north-westerly 230 miles from the geometric

centre of the present population of Australia; is 269 miles by rail and road from population. the centr0, as determined by existing lines of communication, and is 215 miles westerley in a direct line from the geometric centre of "ultimate settlement." In order to bring the suggested Capital Site into immediate touch with the Branch line

railway system, it would be necessary to construct a branch line from the "\Vestern railway, in the vicinity of the Bathurst station, of about 6 miles in length, or to necessary. form a deviation of the Main Line with the object of placing the Capital directly on it. The cost of the branch line, with provision for terminal would be

approximately about £45,000.

1'he following statement shows :-1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect the suggested Site with the post railway system of the State, and .

2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or future lines pr?spective t' tl t' f ' t' d 'b d' dt 'l l h rallwaycom- auec 1ng 1e prospec 1ve means o communiCa 1on, as escr1 e 1n e a1 e sew ere. municatiou.

Immediate Expenditure­ Branch railway to Site

Prospective Expenditure (p1·ojected . or suggested railways)---Wellington to Werris Creek ... '\Yarwick to Brisbane "direct"

Cobar to Broken Hill and Cockburn Hay to Morgan 'frnns-Australian ltailway-Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie ...

Total

514,576 6:U,500 1,117,a3s 1,080,000

5,090,183 8,433,597

. . . £8,478,597

cosrr OF RESUMPriON.

'fhe estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £36,000, and within the Catchment Area for primary source of supply, i.e., to supply of 50,000, £124,665.

BOMBALA

Situation of site.

Formation.

Views extens iYe.

Site

.Aspect.

Le\·els.

···········-- ------

32

BOMBALA.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUITABILITY.

'Ibis site is situated about 5 miles west of J3ombala, its eastern boundary coinciding with part of the western population boundary of that town. The J3ombala River, a permanent stream to which the site has about 2-!- miles of frontage, and which, at this place, flows in a north-westerly direction, forms the northern boundary, and the :M:aharatta or Saucy Creek forms part of the eastern boundary.

The formation of the site is almost ·wholly basaltic resting on granite, and resembles the open rolling downs country of which so much of Monaro consists. Standing high as compared withmuch of the surrounding country, which is vcrysimilae in character, the views from the site are extensive, but there are no striking feature::> in the landscape to arrest the attention or to attract the eye. 'fhe s[tc is tl'celess, and somewhat unsheltered.

Speaking gene-rally, the slope of the site is easterly, though- there is a con-siderable area in which the fall is to the south-east; and in parts the aspect is north-easterly. 'The general trend of the site is well adapted for the laying-out of the streets in north-easterly and south-westerly directions with cross streets at 1·ight angles.

. The levels are very suitable for the laying out of a fine city. They afford every facility for effective drainage, while presenting no difficulties in the way of street construction. The site being ·on an il.pland is exposed to winds to an extent which renders it of doubtful value for arboreal and horticultural cultivation. The few trees are occasionally met with growing upon the tops of the

cultivation. higher points of land have a stunted appearance. rrhere can be no doubt the

'l:rees need shelter.

Rainfall.

exposed position has much to do with retarding their growth, otherwise the soil and climate do not appear to be unfavourable; in fact, considerable plantations of trees indigenous to temperate climates, such as elms, oaks, and various conifers, have been established at Cambelong, 7 miles, and BurJ!ima, 10 miles distant, and where sheltered from the cold winds have done well.

A Jist of trees and shrubs to be adapted in the district is given in Appendix No.6. At.a depth of from 3 feet to 5 feet good foundations can be obtained for large and heavy buildings, while a depth of from 18 inches to 2 feet would suffice for smaller structures. ·

CLIMATE.

Altitude of Site, 2,100 feet.

The mean annual rainfall at Bombala, 5 miles from the site, for eighteen years ending with the year 1902 was 21:09 inches, distributed over 108 mean annual rainy days. The mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-·

Jan. ' Feb. I March. /.April. ) May. I June. I July. I August., Sept. I Oct. I No1·. I Dec.

2·3S 1'87 1·93 1'76 1·5.5 au I UlG l·G7 I·U3 1'90 1•86 2•41

I i -Temperatures. In the period 18S6 to 1902 (both years inclusi\·e) the mean maximum f?hade temperatures during the four hottest months was 78"7°. The mean minimum shade temperature during the four coldest months was 32'7°. The shade temperatures during Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter were respectively 55'2°, 61·4°, 5J,·l0 , aud 43·3". The highest and lowest readings of the ther-mometer were respecti \rely 10-L·l o and 15·5°. The mean annual shade temJ>erature was ;)1,·3°, J3ombala

33

Bombala-ooutinued. The following table shovt"s for each month the mean maximum shade tern· perature of the period, the mean minimum, and the mean temperature :-Jan. F eb. March., April. May. June. l July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

I I

M

I

67·71 598 I 54 3 1 56·7 I 69'9 174•9 ean maximum ... 81·0 79·7 I 752 52 6 63•0 i9·2 ! 41 0 1 45"2 Mean minimum 43·4 40·6 I

!

33·2 I 299 ... 48•8 j 46·5 3±·6 I 32 9 36•!) 48 ·0

I I I

43·81

I

. ean t emperature I 65·2 Gt·3 ) 60•9 5t·2l 47·2\ 41'3 1 4;1,'8 50·0 55"5 j (jQ•l 63·6

I I

M

The following table gives particulars recorded at Bombala :-Fog. I Snow.

I Frosts. . I

I I

Number \Number Number

of Period of the Year. I of Period of the Year. of Period of the Year.

Times. ) Times.

"

Times.

i

I.

1899 . .. . 17 January to July. 3 July and September. 33 April to September.

1900 ... 23 March to September. G June to September. 33 May to October.

1901 ... 14 -April to Aug11st. G June io September. 47 April to September.

1902 ... 24 April to September. 4 August to October. 64 February to October.

Particulars above given as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions generally have beensupplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales.

247

According to local evidence, the hot weather usually commences about the Heat. middle of November, and continues to the middle of February, when it becomes cooler, the winter season being from about May to August. There are sometimes Fogs and heavy fogs along the river courses, but they do not extend to the high lands, of mists.

which the greater part of the site is composed. The river fogs in the winter time are genflrally followed by bright sunny days, but the fogs or mists wbich drift across from the coast ranges indicate rain. During the last twenty years it is said that snow has not fallen on the site Snow.

to a greater depth than 3 inches at one time, nor lain longer than a few hours. In summer there are cool breezes from the east, and tl!e occasional. hot . winds which occur, lasting about a day, are generally followed by a rapid fall in sometimes amounting to 30° in four or :five hours. ·

· ·"" In _winter the winds are the and sometimes Winds.

accompamed by snow, which also occurs occasiOnally with an easterly wmd. Frosty nights are generally succeeded by bright sunny days. · According to the evidence of a medical man, who had lived in the district Medical for twenty years, it is pre-eminently healthy. The sudden changes in the weather evidence.

do not, in his opinion, constitute a danger to health if ordinary precautions are taken. During the last twenty years there have been less than twenty cases of typhoid; only one case of diphtheria, which originated. elsewhere; and only about half-a-dozen cases of hydatids. The climate is a good one for consumptives.

SOIL-PRODUOTIVENESS.

The soil in the Bombala district is of several kinds. Where there is basalt Character ot it is excellent, and it is good in the area of granitic rocks; but there are tracts of soil. poor soil in the areas of Devonian sandstones between Bombala and Bondi. Disregarding these poorer areas, the country round Bombala is excellent as a District pas­ pastoral district, and is held with few exceptions in large estates. According to the toral. stock returns it 'is capable of ca1Tying about a sheep to 2 acres all the year round.

Very little agriculture is carried on, and the crops grown are only for home use. The present facilities for getting produce away are not such as to stimulate production. Uombala

E

34

Bombala-continued.

Stock fatten· The country is so suitable for fattening stock that it pays better under

ing. · present conditions to utilise it for that purpose than for cultivation. It is stated

that even at the close of the winter fat sheep and cattle are sent from this district to Sydney and Melbourne, where they fetch top prices. Within a radius of 10 miles of the site the land is nearly all used for grazing; but there are small areas fit for cultivation, while within a radius of 20 miles there are larger areas suitable for agriculture. Easterly, the country is almost wholly

pastoral ; but at Cathcart, about 10 miles to the north-east, there is some good dairying country, and to the south there is a good deal of agricultural land suitable for small holdings. Between Bombala and Cooma there are fine, rolling plains,

Dairying.

Crops.

Wheat.

Maize ..

Foodstuffs generally.

Fruit.

Return from

Sandstone.

Granites.

suitable for mixed farming. Very little is done in dairying at the present time; but the pi·ospects should be excellent, as the butter made he:re is of good quality, though to make the industry profitable it would be necessary to conserve feed, and the cattle should· be rugged or housed in the cold weather.

The fo1lowing table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Bombala district, comprising the counties of Auckland and Wellesley :-STATEMENTS OF AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEAHS

ENDING MARCH, 1903-COUNTIES AUCKLAND AND WELLESLEY.

Wheat Maize Barley Oats Potatoes ... Other crops

Crop.

I

... j

... 1 ...

... 1 ...

•••I

Total acreage

Grain.

acres. 972

88 374

Hay.

acres . 534

83

3,192

Total.

acres. 1,506 4,207 17l 3,566

790 2,273

12,513

I Yield per Acre.

bushels.

40·3 "

25·1 "

20·9 "

2·6 tohs . Not available.

. ·According to the Director of Agriculture the average.yield.Of wheat might be increased to 20 or 25 bushels if the land were carefully cultivated. Maize is only grown for feeding stock, the climate beihg too except for the .early kinds. 'fhe district is well adapted for the growth of potatoes and vegetables of all kinds.

The evidence is to the effect that the district within a radius of 50 miles, which would include the rich coast country about Bega, would be able to produce sufficient produce to support a population of 50,000. Apples, plums, and nearly alJ English fruits should grow well provided they are not touched by frosts, as has been the case in some parts of the district. Small fruits grow freely.

A statement furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales gives the average return from f1·uit within a radius of 30 miles of Bombala for the seven years ending 31st December, 1902, at £7 2s. 8d. per acre, the average area being 30 acres. 'l'he return does not include grapes.

BUILDING MATERIALS.-STONE, BRICKS, &c. There is a tract of Devonian sandstones and grits extending from

Bombala towards the coast range, stone from which, obtained about 3 miles from Bombala, has been used for building purposes, and appears to be durable. As no lar!2:e quarries have been opened up, no definite opinion can be given as to the extent of the beds. Granites occur in great quantity about this district, but have been only used for rubble work. In order to obtain information sample blocks of these stones . were procured, and have been reported upon. (See Appendix No.4.) • • There is abundance of material suitable for road-making, and plenty of good

bwJdmg sand, and river gravel.

Bombala

249

35

Bombala-continued. A report by the District Architect on the building stones procurable in this Official district ha11 been supplied by the Public Works Department and will be found in report. Appendix No. 4, which also contains information as to examination and tests of: .

samples for strength and suitability for building purposes It is stated that at the McLachlan River there are slates which would do for Slates, rough work. There extensive deposits ot brick clay, which have been tested in many Bricks. places. The brwks are made by hand, and are good and serviceable. The price is

£2 per thousand. Clay suitable for fire-bricks is said to exist about 5 miles from Bombala. There are considerable deposits of limestone and marble in the district, as for Limestone in.stance, near Cam belong, about 7 miles from the site, also at Quidong, Gindery, and marble.

B1bbe.nluke, Bungarby, and other places. Lime has been burned at all the abovenamed places, and has been used in the Lime. School of Arts, the Court-house, and other buildings in Bombala. As there is no kiln nor a &uflicient demand for lime in the district, what is required at the

pre&ent time is obtained from Sydney.

• TIMBER. There is a supply of tim bel' of commercial value in the coast range s_upply of country between the eastern edge of the table-land and Wyndham. The nearest ttmber. point is at Bp_ckley's Springs, about 15 miles from Bombala. Some of the trees enmnerated in Appendix No.5 were observed at Buckley's Springs by your Commis­sioners, and the remainder were either observed on the road between V\i'"yndham and Bombala, were referred to in the evidence, or have l1een noted by Mr. Maiden. Other supplies of timber would be available c,n the coast. land between Other sup­ Wyudham and Eden if a railway were made to connect Bombala with that avail· Forests growing within Victoria would be made available were a railway line con­structed to connect Bombala with Bairnsdale. Pine timber would have to be imported from Sydney. FUEL. A good supply of firewood is obtainable within a reasonable distance of the site. The nearest coal supply to this site is at Bundanoon, 227 miles from Coal. Bombala, on the Southern railway line. Coal als0 occurs at Mittagong, distant 240 miles, and its surrounding district. The superior quality of the Southern or Illawarra coal is likely to give it the preference if a direct line of railway should be constructed from the site to the coast. The price of coal delivered at Bombala, on the assumption that the railways from Cooma to Bombala, and from Bombala to Eden, be constructed, is stated at from 20s. 5d. to 27s. 6d. per ton, according to the field from which it' is obtained. At present, owing to the absence of railway communication with Bombala, coal is not used in the district. (See Appendix No.8, in which further particulars as to coal supply are given.) WATER SUPPLY. The following were found to be the most suitable sources of supp1y, viz.: Sources of (1) Delegate, (2) Snowy, and (3) Little Plains Rivers, distant respectively about 18, supply. 13, and 8 miles from the city site. Although the examination of the country was extended to the neighbourhood Pumping of Dalgety, and the Snowy River was followed as far as J indabyne, it was found ueceseary. impossible to obtain a gravitation supply on account of the elevation of the city site, and,· indeed, of the country generally, with regard to the river beds. Whatever sources of supply are chosen, pumping will, therefore, have to be resorted to. The Delegate River, a permanent stream, which, at the time of inspection, after a series of dry years, was running strongly, has been selected as the primary source of supply, _on account of the purity of the water, its constant flow, and the source. fact that the lift in pumping would be less than that from the other sources. This river takes its rise in Victoria, and has a hilly catchment area favourable for the collection of water, the extent auoye the township of Delegate, the point at which it Bomba ln.

36

Bombala-continued. is to take the supply, being about 90 squilre miles. Of this area about 56

square miles are situated in Victoria, which would necessitate special arrangements being made with that State. The land included in the catchment area is at present principally used for pastoral purposes, and there is practically no pollution of the

waterflowingoff it, but a<> a large portion of the land is suitable for cultivation, and therefore capable of closer settlement, it would be necessary to resume the whole of it. 'fhis resumption would ensure a supply of clear water, suitable for domestic purposes at all times, a<> the information obtained on the subject shows that the river is very little discoloured even during floods. (See Appendix No. 2 for analysis of water.) The alienated portion within New South Wales amounts to 16,530 acres. Rainfallon The minimum annual rainfall on the catchment area is estimated to be 25 inches. Assuming 10 per cent. of this to run off, which is a fair estimate, the

avai'able supply during dry years would amount to 3,262,500,000 gallons, or, after allowing for evaporation, sufficient for a population of 74,000. Storage dam. A dam, 40 feet high, across the Delegate Rivel', immediately above its junction

Elevation of Site.

Lift.

with Hayden's Creek, and just above the township of Delegate, where the conformation of the valley is very favourable for a storage reservoir, would impound about 2,000,000,000 gallons.· This point of the river is about 18 miles from the City Site.

The average elevation of the suggested Capital City Site is about 2,400 feet above sea level, and the elevation of the Delegate River at the point from which it is proposed to take the supply is 2,470 feet above sea level. A. pumping scheme is therefore necessary, the lift required to give a good pressure being 230 feet.

With regard to the supplementary sources-Snowy River and Little Plains Supplement- River-the Snowy River is a permane.nt snow-fed stream, and disch_arges immense ary sources. quantities of water during floods. · The supply would be taken below its junction Snowy River. with the McLaughlin, at which point it has a catchment area of about 1,680 square

miles, including the eastern slopes of Mount· Kosciusko. This area, being rough and mountainous, is sparsely settled ; and the water from it is free deleterious pollution, but is somewhat discoloured during floods, which would necessitate a scheme for clarifying. Minimum The estimated minimum annual flow of the Snowy River at the point

flow. mentioned is 65,QOO,OOO,OOO gallons. · One quarter of this volume would be sufficient,

Little Plair. s l'l.iver.

Minimum flow.

Principal works. Cost.

after allowing for evaporation, for a population of about 406,000. The Little Plains River, the off-take from which would probably be just above Wellesley, has a hilly catchment area of about 60 square miles, favourable for the collection of water. At present the land is used both·for agricultural and pastoral purposes, and it would have to be resumed to ensure purity of water. About 15 square miles of the catchment a-rea is situated in Victoria.

The estimated minimum annual quantity obtainable from this source would be sufficient for a population of about 50,000. The combined sources of the Delegate, Snowy, and Little Plains Rivers would provide a water-supply sufficient for a population of about 530,000.

In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed primary scheme from the Delegate River to supply a population of 50,000. Capitalising working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent., the cost is estimated to be £531,090.

If electricity generated by water-power obtained from the Snowy River, as

used hereinafter referred to, were used for pumping froin the Delegate River instead of pumpmg. steam, there would be a considerable saving on the annual expenses, and the total

cost would then be reduced to £417,600. • If the fact that the greater part of its catchment is within the State of

a.ll require- VIctoria be regarded as a fatal objection to the Delegate River, the water supply

ments. should be obtained from the Snowy River, which, with sufficient stora00'e, wouid no High lift. l b r ou t be found cq ual to all requirements. The point of off-take is 13 miles from the City Site, and the lift would be about 1,100 feet. • In the case of the Snowy River the facilities for obtaining water-power with

water po';ver. whwh to generate electricity for pumping are so great that it has not been considered necessary to an estimate for pumpin£!.' by steam power. The estimated cost to supply a populatiOn of 50,000, capitalizin!!' working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent., is £617,500. '-

Bombala

37

Bombala-a01ztinued. Tempo,rary Water Supply.

A temporary water supply for the use of the workmen,. &c., · during the early stages of the city, could be pumped from the Maharatta or Saucy Creek, which traverses the eastern boundary of the city site. A small storage reservoir would be necessary.

Wato· Power.

251

Water power for electric lighting purposes, pumping "\Yater, &c., could be water power obtained from the Snowy River near the junction with the McLaughlin, where the {?rh conditions are very favourable for this purpose ; so much so that if a large storage 1

g tmg.

were provided for regulating the flow of water, electric power could a1so be obtained for working the h·amways and railways in and around the city. The Power Station would be about 15 miles from the proposed city site, and Power about the same distance from the point of off-take on the Delegate River. station.

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

• ACCESSIBILITY. . The suggested site at Lord's Hill is about 5 miles west from the town Of Position of Bombala, and 59 miles by road from Cooma, the present terminus of the branch site .. railway line from Goulburn. Cooma is distant 265 miles from Sydney. The distances by direct measurement from the capital cities of the States are as under :- several Distance from Capital Cities by direct mea· surement. Sydney 2:t0 miles, Melbourne 240 " Brisbane .. . , Adelaide 609 , Perth 1,934 , Hobart 424 , The through distances from the site to the State capital by existing means of Distance by communication, as well as the net time occupied in the J. ourneys, are given in the existingf . . , . . means o following table:- munication.' Distance I Distance Distance Total Net time State Capitals. by Rail. by Road. by Sea. distance. occupierl in I journey. i Statute miles. miles. miles. miles. hours. Sydney ... ... ... ... .. . ... 26.3 59 ............. 324 16 Melbourne (a) ... ... ... ... ... 5N , ......... 633 25 Brisbane (b) ... ... ... ... .. . 088 , ......... 1,0!7 4J. Adelaide (a) ... ... ... ... .. . l,O.:i6 , ········· 1,115 42 -Perth, via Adelade-Albany (c) ... ... 1,396 " l,li3 2,628 135 Hobart, via Eden ( tl) .. , . ... ... ......... I 69 389 458 37 1---------·---------Average distance and time ... ... . .. ... 1,034 50 Do do if lines mentioned in foot- notes (a), (b), and (c) were constructed ... .. 010 35 (a) Bombala and Bairnsdale Line, if constructed, would reduce distance between capital site and l\Ielbourne and Effect of .Adelaide by 286 miles. . . . prospective (b) Warwick and Brisbane "direct" will effect a saving of 69 miles on through distance to Brisbane, t'ta Sydney. railways. (c) The construction of the Hay-Morgan and Burra Lines, and the Line between and Kalgoorlie, would reduce the through distance between Bombala and Perth by 108 miles, and would save 46 hours m the time of journey. . . . (d) The distance in this case is taken t:ia Eden to Hobart. The route t:ia Sydney, whiCh IS the m?re usual, would make the distance 954 miles, and alter the average to l,ll6 miles. Via Melbourne and Launceston the d1stance would be 1,092 miles, making the average 1,140 miles. NoTE.-No allowance made for loss of time due to changes w 1·oute, such as at Sydney, Melbourne, &c. On main lineR time-table speed adopted; on branch or other lines a\·emge R{lecd of 3Q miles an hour

38

Bombala-continued.

of The position of the site in relation to the centres of population, both present

s1te In rela- · d f t • f 11 .

tion to centres an ·• U ure, IS as 0 OWS .-

ofpopulation. It bears south-easterly 280 miles from the geometric centre of the present

population of Australia; is 408 miles by rail and road from the centre as determined by existing lines of communication, and is 315 mides in a direct line from the geometric centre of "Ultimate Settlement." Railway com- The question of extending raihYay communication to Bombala has already m-qnication. been under consideration, on the one. side from Cooma, New South Wales, and on

the other from Bairnsdale, Victoria, whilst· a branch line from Bombala to Eden Cooma line- (Twofold Bay) has also been surveyed. · 'l_lhe line from Cooma would be necessary in order to bring the site into communication with the State railway system, and in the event of the capital being fixed in this place, the other lines ·would be required

to make it conveniently accessible from the southern States. Line- As to the construction of the through lines connecting Cooma, viet Bombala, to with the Victorian railway at Bairnsdale, the Victorian Railway Commissioner states

Opinions of Victorian Commis­ sioner.

that such a line could not compete with the present line between Sydney and J\felbonrne, via Albury, as it would be about 100 miles longer, and would probably be used only by those having business with the capital. The Commissioner said, however, tb.at at some not very distant date the Victorian portion of the li:qe from Bairnsdale, via Orbost, will probably have to be constructed for State purposes, a8 it will open up some fertile country. ·

'fhe Chief Railwav Commissioner of New South Wales states that the

n1is,siouer. construction of the New Smith Wales portion of the line could

Cost of immediate and vrospecti ve tail way communica­ tion.

only be justified on the ground of the necessity for connecting the Federal Capital, if at Bombala, with Melbourne direct. He also drew attention to the fact that the plans supplied showed undesirablegrades and curves.

The following statement shows :-_

1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect. the site with the

railway system of the State ; and, 2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or futqre affecting the prospective means of communication, as described in detail elE!ewhere.

Immediate expenditure­ Bombala to Cooma

Prospective expenditure (projected and suggested railways)-Bombala to Bairnsdale ... Branch line, Bondi to Eden Warwick to Brisbane "direct" Hay to Morgan and Burra Trans-Australian Railway, Port

Augusta to Kalgoorlie

Total ...

£

1,181,500 931,000 631,500 1,296,000

5,090,183

COST OF RESUMPTION.

£

337,000

9,130,183

£9,467,183

'l'he estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £24,000:, a.nd within the Catchment Area for primary source of supply (i.e., to supply popula-hon of 50,000), £121,590. ·

LAKE GEORGE

253

39

LAKE GEORGE.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUITABILITY.

Lake George is situated within a comparatively small basin, enclesed by Description two diverging branches of the dividing range, which, separatino> at South Black (l Lakeb . Range, pass on either side of a tract of country about 40 in length and eorge asm.

12 in breadth. There is no outlet from this basin, into which the waters of

numerous creeks flow, and collecting in its lowest part form Lake George. The lake has no defined banks, and, while sometimes holding a large body of water, is gen,erally shallow, and occasionally, as during the early part of this year, its bed is quite dry.

It does not appear that any satisfactory scheme for making the lake permanently ornamental can be devised at a prohi-.itive cost. Oii the western side the foot-hills of the range are close to the shores of the lake, while O:ii the eastern and southern sides there are intervening strips of low­

lying, and, in parts, swampy land. From them the country rises into hills of considei'able height, such as the Governor's Bill, near Butmaroo Creek, or more .gently as between that creek and the Turallo Creek, which enters Lake George at its southern end. At some distance back from the eastern and southern sides of

the .. lake . the slopes rise into considerable hills, as at Currandooley and beyond Bungendore. . . .. . Two sites were brought under the notice of your Commissioners, one situated Two sites. at the north-eastern and the other at the south-eastern end of Lake George.

The north-eastern site has some degree of picturesqueness, but it consists North- . tl f 1 d · t d f th · t' ·1 b 6 7 'l eastern site. par y o swampy an , IS separa e rom e ex1s mg rm way y or m1 es of hilly country, and as compared with the southern site is less adapted for the laying out of a fine city. ,,

For these reasons your Commissioners suggest the southern site as preferable, Southern site and, after of the surrounding country, as the best obtainable in the preferable.

locality. When Lake George site is referred to this south-eastern site is, therefore, to be understood. The site is situated to the east of the lake; Butmaroo Creek and Turallo Creek Position. lie on the north and south sides respectively, and the railway line to Goulburn on

the east. Beyond the railway the country rises to the higher hills, which lead to the eastern dividing range, containing some of the sources of the Shoalhaven River. 'Ihe alluvial flats on the south bank of the Butmaroo and the north bank of Alluvial flats.

the Turallo Creeks join the tract of low-lying land which fringes the lake, artd w-hich extends from it for varying distances inland up to two miles. This low-lying land adjoining both the lake and the creeks is liable to flood, and the fringe of the former is at times swampy.

A ridge extends from the township of Bungendore in a generally nOTth­ easterli direction across the site, with branch spurs towards the lake. The surrounding country has some prominent features, such as the distant General mountains on the northern shores of Lake George, the isolated Governor's Hill features. and Gibraltar Hill ; and on the south, the hills surrounding Bungendore. r.l'he site itself commands an extensive view of Lake George, which would undoubtedly possess much charm if the lake were full of water, but when your Commissioners

visited the spot it was dry, and presented anything but an attractive appearance. The site generally is wanting in picturesqueness. r.l'he principal aspect of the site is westerly. The levels are fairly suitable AApcct. for laying out a city, and the streets could he located in the most approved directions, Levels.

running north-east and south-west. The slopes would not present any difficulty in the way of effective drainage.

Lake George

;j '

I .

L

40

Lake George-con.linited. Arboreal and horticultural culti¥ation.

Doth soil and climate are fairly suitable for arboreal and general horticultural and your Commissioners are of that parks and gardens ?ould be

made here. 'rhe site is somewhat exposed to wmcls from the west, but 1s better sheltered on the south. In Appendix No. 6 will be found a list of those trees and plants which could be grown in the d!strict. . . .

Foundations. :Fmrly smtable foundatwns for large bmldmgs could be obtamed at a depth of from 3 feet to 6 feet., and at a less depth for smaller structures.

Rainfall,

Tempera· ture.

Heat.

Fogs •.

Snow.

Winds.

CLIMATE.

Altitude of Site, 2,300 feet.

The mean annual rainfall at Bungendore, adjoining the site, for IS years, endin,.,. with the year 1902, was 26·72 inches, distributed over 100 mean annual rainy days. The mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was .as follows:-

Jan. I Feb. I March. I May. I June. I July. I August., Sept. I O ct. I Nov. I Dec.

I I 2·01 I 3·5G 1•55 2•06 1·72 194 1 2•76 1·751 2'47 2·!7 2'00 2'43 I In the period 1886 to 1902. (both years inclusive), the mean maximum shade temperature during the four hottest months was 80·4 °. •

The mean minimum shade temperature during -the four coldest months was 36'8°. . .

The mean shade temperatures during spring, summer, autumn, and wjnter were respectively 58·2°, 69·9°, 58·2°, and 44'9°. The highest and lowest readings of the thermometer were respectively 105° and 2l·S0 •

The mean annual shade temperature was 57·S0 • 'l'he following table shows for e:wh month the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean minimum, and the mean

J an. I Feb. I March. I April./ May. I June. I Aug. I Sept. I Oct. I Nov., Dec. July . . Mean maximum ... 82·5 81 ·2 77'1 6D 1 61 •2 53•7 527 55•6 63 ·4 ()9·7 76·5 81 ·6

Mean minimum ... 58•6 57·4 54•6 47•7 39·3 3i·3 34·1 3G·3 40·6 46•1 530 57·9

Mean temperature .. ) 70·5 69'3 65'8 58·41 50·3 45 •5 43•4 46 0 52'0 57·9 6J,'8 69·8

The local evidence taken shows that the greatest heat is usually towards the end of andthe beginning of February. · .

:E o:rer the marshy land along the lake at both sides and up the

creeks flowmg mto It, but the greater number of the fooos which occur on the flat lands bordering the site do not remain longer than the middle of the dav and do not extend to the higher parts. • '

the winter s.outh wind is sometimes accompanied by snow, which falls

on the Site perhaps twice m the season, but does not lie on the ground for more than a few hours, the hills it lasts for a longer time.

The prevallmg wmds are from the west. It was stated in evidence that there are occasional hot winds from the north-west, though the returns furnished by the Government Astronomer do not record them. In the period 6th November, 1902, to 21st February, 1903, there were six hot winds, none of which lasted more than one day.

Lake George

255

41

Lake George-continued.

The following table gives p11rticulars recorded at Bungendore :-

I Fogs. Snow. Frosts.

Number I Number Number

of Period of Year. uf P eriod of Year. of Period of Year.

Times . . ) Times. I Times.

18!)9 ... 8 January to September 8 July to October . .. 1 May.

1900 ... 4 May to .August .. . 6 April to August . .. 8 June to August.

1901 ... 3 July to October ... 6 April to October ... ... ··················

1902 .. . 2 May aud June .. . 1 August ... ... ... ····· ·············

Particulars above given as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions generally have been supplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales. The climate is dry and bracing, alt1l the district is said to be one of the recognised health resorts. During the last two years there have not been any bracmg. epidemics, and no endemic diseases excepting slight attacks of dysentry.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

In this locality the soil on the uplands is derived from the weathering of Soil. granite and other massive igneous rocks, as well as of some of the olde1· sedimentary formations into which the former have been intruded. In the lower lying tracts and along the course of the creeks, as also bordering Sandy loa.m

Lake George, there are flats of sandy loam and of alluvium. In some places these are shallow, resting upon the underlying rocks, but in others, as for instance along the frontage of the Butmaroo Creek and Lake George, the depth is considerable. The grazing capacity of this district was stated in evidence by a number of Grazi?g

witnesses, who had lived there for periods ranging from thirty to fifty-two years, as capae1ty. being about one sheep to an acre and a half, but the Director of Agriculture . considers that it would require two acres to one sheep in all seasons. There is a considerable amount of agricultural land. The early ripening Agriculture.

varieties of maize can be successfully grown. rrhe average yield of oaten hay is Maize. stated to be about 30 cwt. per acre. I.1ucerne does well where the soil is of sufficient Lucerne. depth and Emerald Rye might be sown for grazing, or as an alternative crop. The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Crops.

Statistician, and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Lake George district, comprising the . counties of Murray and Cowley :-STATEMENT OF AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEARS

ENDING MARCH, ID03.-COUNTIES OF MUitu.AY COWLEY.

Wheal:

Maize

Barley

Oats

. Potatoes ...

Other crops

Crop.

Total average

l!'

Grain. Hay.

aere11. acres.

G,348 1,2;!!)

......... ...... ........ .. ... ..

HO 4J,

7G5 3,522

.. ··· ········· ···············

I 0 I 0 0 0 0 < 0 0 0 0 I II

···············

Total.

Average Yield per Acre.

acres. 7,577 10·8 bus.

!)(j,J, 1G·3

"

18t 16·5

"

4,287 IG·O

"

335 2·2 tons .

I 1,127 Not available.

... / 14,4-74

Lake George

42

Lake George-continued. Fruit.

Vegetables.

English fruit trees thrive "'ell, especially apples, pears; plums, p·eacll'es, and cherries. Small fruits also grow abundantly. A statement furnished by the Govern­ ment Stati&tician of New South Wales gives the average return from fruit within a radius of 30 miles from Lake George, for the seven years ending . 31st December, 1902; at £5 Os. 6d. p'er acre, the average area being 1,110 'fhi's does

not include grapes. Roots and vegetables are successfully grown) and in the mountains, 7 or 8 miles distant, as at Neil's Creek, fine potatoes produ'ced. Dairying.

Foodstuffs generally.

Freestone.

Granite.

Sandstones.

Official report.

Limestone, marble.

Lime.

Bricks.

Hardwood.

Price.

Firewood.

Coal.

There is little dairying in the district at but the district is not

umuitable foi· it, and in fair seasons the yield of' butter sho'Uld he v_ery good, especially on the flat lands. In winter it would be necessary to feed and house the · cattle. The evidence is to the effect that, including the rich farming lands about Goulburn, Gunning, and Gundaroo, the . district within a radius of 50 miles would provide food supplies for a city of 50,000 inhabitants.

BUILDING MATERIALS, STONE, BRICKS, &c. There are quarries of good fteestone near Gnulburn, abo'Ut 4D miles from Lake George. The only building stones in the neighbourho:ou 'of the site ar'e

gi·anite and basalt. No quati'ics Imve b'eeh opened, surfaee stone being used. Granite from Gibraltar Hill, distant about 3 miles, has been used for building in the township of Bungendore. The homestead at Cup-andooley, distant about 10 miles, is built of similar stone obtained from a hiU dose by, and stone of the same character

has been used at Gidleigh. According to the geological map of this district, Devonian sandstones occur to the north of Lake George; but no inforrn·ation was obtainable in the district as to their position, extent; or quality. ·.. . . . , .

A report by the District Atchitect Qn the building stones ptocurable in this district has been supplied by the PubHc WotkS Department, and will be .. found in Appendix No. 4, which also contains infolmation 'as to examination and tests .of samples for strength and suitability for building purposes. .. ..

There are deposits of limestone and marble of extent in

district, as at Faiey Meadow, Millpost, the Long Swamp, and at Excellent lime is made in the district. 'l'here is abundance of brick clay. 'fhe bricks are hand-mn

house at Michelago. The price of bricks is £2 per 1,000.

TIMBER.

A large supply of hardwood timbers is obtainable from the forests growing . between Lake George and Braid wood. The timbers used for milling purposes, are as follows :-At the Black Range, distant 13 to 14 miles from Bungendore : Brown barrel (also called messmate), mountain ash, and woolybutt. . _ ..

In the coast country, about 40 miles from Bungendqre: blue gum,

and spotted gum. Commencing at about 8 miles distant, in the country towards Bibo and Millpost, are red box and yellow box. ·

The price of hardwood timber is ftom lls. to l3s. 6d. p·er 100 fe·et sup·er. Further particulars as to timbers will be found in Appendix No. 5.

FUEL.

There is a considerable local supply of timber for fuel, and a much larger supply available by railway within a reasonable distance. 'Jhe nearest coal to this site is that at Bundanoon, about 70 miles from by Coal could also be obtained from Mittagong, 56 miles

distant, and from Lithgow, on the western line. The price of coal delivered at is stated at from 13s. 2d. to 22s. 3d., according to the field from which

It Is obtamed, lower price being from Bundanoon and Mittagong. Further as to coal supply will be found in Appendix No. 8.

Lake George

43

Lake George-continued. W ATEU SUPPLY.

'J'he available sources were found to be (1) the Queanbeyan River at a point Sources. about lf miles above its junction with the Tinderry Creek, distant from the city site about 3:i miles, which would provide a gravitation scheme; (2) the Shoalhaven River, alwut 4 miles above Larbert, distant 21 miles; (3) the Murrumbidgee River, below its junction with the Molonglo River, about 28 miles distant;

a:p,d (4) the },{olonglo River, distant ab0ut 14 miles. From both the Shoalhaven, the Murrumbidgee, and Molonglo Rivers the water would require to be pumped. 'l'he Queanbeyan River has been selected for the primary source of supply, Q?-eanbeyan as. a gravitation scheme can be obtained from it. Sufficient water for a

consumption, or about 2,300,000,000 ga1lons, could be stored by constructing a 8.0 fe.et high across the river near the point previously mentioned. Gravitation.

'l'he Queanbeyan River is not permanent, and was not running at the time of i1;1sp.ectio:t;1 ;. flood water would, therefore, have to be depended upon. '-fhe catchwent area above the site for the dam comprises about 195 square catchment mUes of hilly C01lntry, P,I;inc\pally used for u_astoral purposes, and at present sparsely area. settled. 'rhere is practically no pollution 'ef the w&ter flowing off, but, in view of

the probable increase of settlement in the future, the catchment should be resumed to ensure the purity of the water. This would involve the purchase of about 42,880 acres. The estimated minimum annual rainfall is 20 inches. Assuming 8 per cent. M!nimum

of this to run off, 4,524,000,000 gallons could be collected in the years of least ramfall. q1lal;lt.ity s11tlicient, after allowing for evaporation, for a population

qf'

The average elevation of the suggested city site is about 2,300 feet a,bove sea of a:t\1! elevatio11 of the propos,ed on the Queanbeyan River is

approximately 2,700 feet above sea level, which is sufficiently high for a gravitation · supply. .

The Shoalhaven River, which is suggested as an additional source of supply from which water could be pumped when required, has a catchment area above the RIVC.r .. point of off-take of . about 1,077 square miles, consisting of hilly country. The ,,

estimated minimum annual flow is 22,000,000,000 gallons. Assuming half of this Pumping. to be available for the requirements of the capital city there would be sufficient fro.rn this spurQe, after allowing for evaporation, for a p'opulation of about 269,000. A sto.rage :resel'voir would be required, and as the catchment area would not Storage.

be under control filtration would be necessary ' · • reqmred.

Tb.e from the city site is about 21 miles, and the lift would be about ,

85.0 feet. · The Murrumbidgee River, from vvhich a supply could also be obtained by Murrum­ pnmpi.ng, .has a catchment above the point of off-take of about 3,000 square miles, bidgee Ri,cr hot including the catchment area of the proposed reservoir on the Queanbeyan

River, which is a tri})utary. The estimated minimum annual flow at the point mentioned is 69,600,000,000 gallons. Assuming that -l6 of this would be available for the use of the capital city, there would be su:fficjent from this source, after allowing for evapomtion, for a population of about 171,000.

The distance from the city site is about 28 miles, and the lift would be about the same as from t\le Shoalhaven River. T:Qe combined supply from the Queanbeyan, Shoalhaven, and Murrumbidgee Rivers, with suitable storages, would be sufficient for a population of about 552,000.

The Molon(J'lo River, which has a catchment area of 150 square miles, and is Molonglo the to the city site, wag thoroughly investigated to River.

whether a gravitation supply could be obtained from it, or, failing that, It

would provide a good pumping scheme. It was found to be too low for a gravrtatwn Too scheme. There is a very suitable site for a dam near the 2\Iolonglo Road, gravltatwn. crossin(J' about 1 mile south of Balcombc 'frio:. Station, but the reservoir formed 0 0 bv it would include the greater part of the Molonglo Plain, and have such a surface area that the water would be very shallow, the loss by

extremely great. This source has, therefore, been considered only as a _POSsible subsidiary supply to be used when necessary to supplement the others mentwned. · Lake George

Principal works.

Cost.

44

Lake George-continued. In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed primary scheme from the . Queanbeyan River to supply a population of 50,000. Uapitalizing working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent., the cost is estimated to be £380,500.

Tempora1·y Wetter Supply.

Pending the construction of the permanent works, a temporary supply for the use of the workmen, &c., during the earlier stages of the city could be obtained by pumping from a small reservoir to be constructed in Butmaroo Creek near the City Site.

Water Power.

Electricity Water power for generating electricity for electric lighting purposes, &c., fur pumping. might be obtained from the following sources:-

E'itualion of site.

The Shoalhaven River at or near its junction with the Mongarlowe River, distant about 28 miles. 'l'he Murrumbidgee River, below its junction with the Molonglo, distant about 28 miles ; or near Barren Jack Mountain, distant about 52 miles, where a large storage reservoir has been proposed by the New South Wales Public Works

Department.

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

ACCESSIBILITY.

The centre of the suggested site near Lake George lies about 3 miles north of the town of Bungendore, and is opposite the 174th mile-post from Sydney, on the Goulburn-Cooma branch of the Southern railway line. Distances from capital cities by

dirrct measurement,

The distances by direct measurement from the cities of the several States are as under :­ Sydney Melbourne

Brisbane Adelaide Perth Hobart

139 miles. 306 ;,

577 "

616 "

Distances by existing rnenns of communi· cation.

Effect of prospccti ve railways.

1,951 "

539 "

The through distances from the site to the State capitals by existing means of communication, as well as the net time occupied in the journeys are given in the . following table :-I Distance I Distance Total Time. State C•pi·ul.

I

by Rail. by Sea. Di!tance.

·occupied in

I journey.

Stalu'e

miles .. miles. miles. hours.

Sydney ... ... ... . .. . .. . .. . .. 17 J, ......... 174 5

Melbourne ... ... . .. ... ... .. . . .. 483 ····· ... 483 15

Brisbane (a) ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. 897 ......... 897 34

Adelaide(/,) ... ... .. . ... . .. ... . .. 965 ......... 9u5 32

Perth, via .Adelaide-Albany (c) ... ... ... . .. 1,305 1,173 2,478

Hobart, via Melbourne and Launceaton ... . .. ... 616 326 9.J,2 41

------------------A verttge distance- and time ... ... ... ... 989 42 Do do if lines mentioned in foot- notes (a), (b), and (c) were constructed ... 931 33 (a) Warwick and Brisbane " direet" would reduce the dist.ance to Brisbane by 69 miles. (h) Hay·Morgan line would s-.ve 176 miles between Jrake George and Adelaide. . . . (c) The same line, with that between Morgan nnd Burra and tho 'l'rans-Austrohan )me-Port Augusta-Kalgo:rllc--­would reduce the through dislllnce to Perth by 108 miles, and would save 41 hourd in time of journey. NoTE.-No a'lowance made for loss of time due to charges en rou'e, such as at Sydney, Melbourne, &c. On main lines, time-table spe.•d on brnnch or other lines, averngtl speed of 30 miles an hour assumed. Lake George

l

259

45

Lake George-continued.

The of·this site in relation to the centres of population, both present of.

and future IS as follows ·- . Sitem relatwn

' · to centres of

It bears easterly 230 miles from the geometric centre of the present popula- population. tion of Australia; is 258 miles by rail from the centre, as determined by existing lines of communication ; and is 250 miles in a direct line from the geometric centre of "Ultimate Settlement."

The following statement shows-1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect the site with the railway Cost o£ system of the State ; and immediate

2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or future lines ·affecting the prospective means of communication as described in detail clsew here.

Immediate expenditure-Nil.

Prospective expenditure (projecte

Hay to Morgan and Burra 1,296,000

Trans-Australian Rail way-Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie 5,090,183

Total £7,017,683

· A suggestion was made by one of the witnesses that, should the Federal with

capital he located at the Lake George site, it might at some future time be connected Jervis Bay. by a railway with Jervis Bay as the nearest port. No survey, however, has been made of such a line, nor is any reliable information obtainable. But, as the length of line proposed, via Braidwood, as referred to in the evidence, would probably not be under 100 miles, the saving in distance as compared with Sydney would not amount to more than 70 miles.

COST OF RESUMPTION.

The estimated cost of resumption within the suggested city site is and within the catchment area for primary source of supply, i.e., to supp1J populatiOn of 50,000, is £80,4.00.

L YNDIIURST.

Site suggested.

Situation of site:

Slopes.

Picturesque­ ness.

Aspect.

Views.

Directions of streets.

Levels.

46

LYNDHURST.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL S.UITABILITY.

After careful inspection of the locality, your sl1ggest a Site

·which is a modification of that indicated by the New South Wales Commissioner (Mr. Oliver) in 1900. This Site is situated on the Mandurama Ponds, a confluent of the Belubula River, and is part of a table-land in which are the sources of the 1\.facquarie and Lachlan Rivers. 1t is bisected by Grubbenbon,g Creek; the eastern half, which has the greater elevation, includes the township of Lyndhurst on the south-east, while the western touches upon the township of Mandurama on the north-east. The greater part of both these areas has been cleared of timb.er.

The slopes in the lower part of the Site fall with easy grades towards Mandurama and Grubbenbong Creeks, rising again towards the Mandurama town­ ship. The part of the Sjte is . a pleasantly ·l111Ql1lating plateau which for picturesql!eness will compare with any yisited.

The co.\lntry is well adapted for the laying o.ut o.f a. fin,e Qity, which would occupy an imposing and conspicuous position. Beau,tifql paJ;k-lil\e undulations rise frequently into elevations offering great ad;yantages for t.lw display of fine buildings. There is ample and suitable space for extension of a city, and for the creation of

pleasant suburbs. This Site has various aspects, a proportion of the slopes facing the east. From all portions of the Site charming and interesting views meet the eye. ln the dista11ce., an,d in some cases are :mountain,s. such as the

chain of the Ca11oblas, the Weddin, the Napgar QlW\ an,d th,e qista.nt

mountains at Smmy CQTner. To t.he ra,n,ges, t.hE: :Bulgor

Mountain, limit a panoramic vie.w of the table.-la11d,. The streets could be laid out in north-east a11d south-west and the

beauty of the city could be greatly en,h,anced by fonniug a.n artificial lake on Grubbenbong Creek, and thus ornamenting a public park. The levels, w bile convenient for drainage purposes, would present no diffi­ culties in the way of gradients. Arboreal and The Site is well sheltered by hills lying to the south. The little that has

been done in tree planting and lwrticulturt} shows that the trees and plants of

temperate climates will do well. . One of the best indications is the luxuriance with which the hawthorn grows in the district. The plants and shrub;l mentioned in

Foundations.

Observation taken at Carcoar.

Rainfall.

Appendix No. 6 as suitable for Bathurst and Orange would grow equally well about Lyndhurst. The soil being of good quality, there is no doubt pa.t'ks and gardens would flourish here, and these, in conjunction with the mnamental waters which could be provided at a small cost, would form a charming feature of the city.

Good foundations for heavy structures· are found here at a depth of from 3 feet to 1'i feet ; for buildings of a lighter character a depth of from 2 feet to 3 feet would suffice. CLIMATE.

Altitude of Site, 2,280 feet.

As no official meteorological observations are taken at Lyndhurst, information obtained at Carcoar, 7 miles distant, where the climatic conditions are somewhat similar to those at Lyndhurst, is given. The mean annual rainfall for twenty-one years, ending with the year 1902, was 29·54 inches, distributed over eighty-seven mean annual rainy days. The mean distribution of the rainfall was as follows:-

Jan. FeL. /March. ! ApriL I May. I June. I July. I August. I Sept. I Oct. I NO\'. I Dec.

2'88 I·ss 2'CO 2·12 2'0:3 3 6.3 2•43 2·7& 2 51 2•65 2·45 2•21

Lyndhurst

261

47

Lyndhurst-· continued. · In the period, 1886 to 1902 (both years included), t}1e mean highest shade Temperati.tre. temperature during the four hottest months was 7'b0 • The mean lowest shade temperature during the four coldest months was 35· 1.0 • 'fhe mean shade temperatures

during spring, summer, autumn, and winter were, respectively, 55·7°, 68'1°, 54"8°, and 42"3°. 'J'he highest and low-est readings of temperature were, respectively, 98·4" and 15"4°. The mean annual shade temperature was 55·2°. The following table shows, for each month, the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean

minimum, and the mean temperature.

Jan. \ Feb. I March. I April. I May. I June. I July. I Aug. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. I! Nov.[ Dec.

Mean maximum ... 802 78·1 73•3 63·9 55•5 50·7 48'3 51"4 58•2 65·5 74·71791

Mean minitnum .... 538 562 53 3 45·2 37"7 33·8 32·8 34.5 39·() 44•3 51"6 56•2

Mean temperature I 69•5 67·2 63·3 54·5 46·61 43 3 40·6 43•0 48•9 54·9163"2 67·7

In summer the heat is Of a dry charatter, and even after hot days the nights F?gs and are usually cool. Fogs or mists arc very rare at the Site; they are chiefly confined mists. to the valleys of the river and creek, and do not last longer than a few hours. Some winters pass without any snow, while in others there are occasional Snow. falls on the Site; but it does :ClotJie on the ground for more than about a day. In 1900, however, there was a fall of from 2± to 30 inches in depth, which lay for

several days. . Snow lies for longer periods on the neighbouring mountains. Frosts are frequent and severe at the Site, but do not remain on the ground Frosts. for rnore than a few hours, except in shady places. The prevalent direction of the winds is from the north-east. Tho strongest Winds.

winds come from the west, but the coldest winds are from the south. Official returns give no information as to hot winds. . The following table gives particulars recorded at Carcoar :-

Fogs. I

I

Snow. Frosts.

-. --·

NUmbei Number ,Number of Period of Year. I of Period of Year. of • Period of Year.

Times. i Times. Times.

i

1S99 ... ... ···············-·· 1 September.

I I April to October. 5l I ! HlOO ... 5 May to August: 2 April and July. 35 April to September. 1901 ... ... .................. 6 June to September. 33 May to November. 19Q2 ... 2 I May and June. ... ······-············ 52 March to October. I 'Ihe particulars above given ns to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions generally have been supplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales. evidence. 'fhe medical testimony as to the climate is to the effect that it is healthy and Epidemics are very rarely of a marked character. The di.>trict is eminently suited for persons suffering from chest complaints, and particularly for the treatment of consumption. Hydatids are comparatively rare, five cases only having occurred during thirteen years. SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS. The soil varies considerably, being somowha t poor in the areas of the older Soil. sedimentary rocks, good when derived from granitic and other of the older igneous rocks, and of very rich character where there are flows of basaltic rocks as at Mill­thorpe and Neville. 'fhe rich volcanic soils south of Orange, are v.'ithin 50 miles of the Site. To the west and south-west there is a rich and productive district, commencing at Neville, about 14 miles distant, and including Cowra, Oanowindra, Young and other localities which produce the best milling wheat. Lyndhurst

48

Lyndhurst-continued.

Crops. The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government

Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Lyndhurst District, comprising the counties of Bathurst and Ashburnham. · STATEMENT OF AVERAGE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEARS

ENDING MARCH, 1903-COUNTIES OF ASHBURNHAM AND BATHURST.

Crop. Grain. Hay. Total. I Average yield.

acres. acres. acres. per acre.

Wheat ... ... ... ... '" 100,883 31,6:38 132,521 11 bushels.

Maize . ., .. ... ... ... ............... ··············· 6,983 10•3 , Barley ... ... ... . .. ... 332 90 422 16·7 " Oats ... ... ... ... . .. 5,298 16,186 21,4St )8·58 " Potatoes ... ... ... ... ... ··············· ............... 7,958 1·7tons. Other Crops ... ... .. .. ··············· ················· 9,93) Not available. Total acreage ... .. ··············· ··············· 17!),803 Dairying. There is not much dairying carried on, but there would be a good future for it if pror;erly managed, crops grown systematically for winter feed, and the cows either rugged or housed in the cold weather. The witnesses concurred in the belief that the district within a radius of 50 miles could provide for a city with a population of 50,000, both as to vegetable products and meat. Fruit. :Fruit culture is in its infancy in this locality, but what little has been done Ruilding stone.

Bricks.

Fit·eclay.

Limestone.

is satisfactory, and the country is very suitable for that purpose. A statement furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales gives the average return from fruit, within a radius of 30 miles, for the seven years ending 31st December, 1902, at £5 2s. per acre; the average area being 1,010 acres. 'l'he return does not include grapes.

BUILDING MATERIAL-STONE, BRICK, &c. f!'l10 only building stones in the immediate district are granite, of which there is great abundance, and a stone locally called basalt, both of which have been used for· building at Bungendore. The ·statements made as to the building stones occurring in the neighbourhood of Orange will apply to this Site, the difference in distance being borne in mind. A report by the District Architect on the building stones procurable in this district has been supplied by the Public Works Department, and will be found in Appendix No. 4, which also contains information as to examination and tests of samples, for strength and suitability for building purposes.

There are deposits of brick elay in the district, suffieient for any_ ordinary requirements. 'fhe bricks made at Carcoar are grey in colour; are very hard, and do not absorb much water. Clay suitable for making red bricks is found in the neighbourhood of the f:ojite .. Fireclay is also to be obtained. The price of bl'icks is £2 per 1 ,000 at the kiln.

Limestone occurs at Lyndhurst and other places in the district. Lime is made at Blayney and Lyndhurst; the latter is a good strong lime, similar to that obtained from Orange. ·

TIMBER.

There are not any forests h1 the neighbourhood of the Site which could supply

hood. timber of commercial value. The particulars given in spealdng of Bathurst, and the

sources from which the supply of building timber used there is obtained will apply also to the I.yndhurst Site, bearing in mind that Lyndhurst is distant 4.6 miles by railway from Bathurst. FUEL. Firewood. There is abundance oftimber suitable for fuel in the district. CoaL The coal supplies for this Site would be drawn from the Western coalfield in

the vicinity of Lithgow, situated 95 miles from Lyndhurst by railway. The cost per ton delivered in trucks at the local railway station is 15s. Sec Appendix, page 8. Lyndhurst

/ )

283

49

Lyndhurst--continued. WATER SUPPLY.

. The following sources of water supply were selected as being the most suitable, VIZ.:-(1) The Coombing Rivulet, distant about 9 miles; (2) Flyer's Creek, distant about 15! miles; (3) Cadiangullong Creek, distant about 18 miles; (4) Bro·wn's

Creek, distant about 12 miles; and (5) the Lachlan River, near. Mount Macdonald, distant about 22 miles. The Belubula River was also considered, but abandoned on account of liability Belubula to pollution from the township of Blayney, which is situated on its banks.

The first four of the sources mentioned would provide water by gravitation to the proposed Capital City Site, which is at an elevation of 2,280 feet above sea-level, supplies. but the supply from the Lachlan River would have to be pumped. The Coombing Rivulet, which is proposed as the primary source of supply, has

a catchment above the point of offtake, about lt mile south-west of the village of Rivulet. Shaw, of about 80 square miles, consisting of hilly country, in which is included the catchment. eastern slopes of Mount M acquarie. At the time of inspection the rivulet was practically dry, so_ that flood waters only 'lould have to be depended upon. In ordinary seasons, however, there is said to bl' running water in this creek throughout

the vear. II The land included in the catchment area is used partly for cultivation and .Area to be

partly for pastoral purposes. About 46,540 acres have been alie:r;1ated, the remainder resumed. being Crown land. 'ro insure the purity of the water the whole of it should be resumed. The estimated minimum annual rainfall on the catchment area is 20 inches. Minimum

Assuming 8 per cent. to run off, which is a fair estimate, 1,856,000,000 gallons would be collected in years of minimum rainfall; or sufficient, after allowing for for evaporation, for a population of 40,000. As the basis adopted for calculation is a of supply for a population of 50,000, which must be available in years of minimum

rainfall, it is necessary to provide for the remaining 10,000 population from another source, and it is proposed to adopt Flyer's Creek for this purpose, as hereinafter mentioned. A dam, 70 feet high, constructed across the Coombing Rivulet, at the point Storage. previously mentioned, where the elevation is feet above sea-level, and where there is _ a very suitable place for a storage reservoir, would impound about

2,200,000,000 gallons of water. Flyer's Creek, which takes its rise near the Canoblas Mountain, has a catch- Additional ment area above the Site of the dam, at the outlet end of Long Swamp, of 18 square miles, consisting principally of hilly country favourable for the collection of water. The land is used for both agricultural and pastoral purposes, and would have to be acquired to ensure the purity of the water, which would involve the purchase of .Area to be

about 10,750 acres, the remainder being Crown resumed.

There was very little running water in the creek at the time of inspection. Flood waters would, therefore, have to be depended upon as the source of supply. The estimated minimum annual rainfall on the catchment is 25 inches. Assuming 8 per cent. of this to run off, 522,000,000 gallons would be available from this source in years of least rainfall, which, after allowing for evaporation, would be for£

ffi . t . ' ' ' h tb C b' R' l l f l t' fpopu a wno su Cien , m COllJUnctwn Wit e ·oom mg 1vu et sc wme, or a popu a wn o 14,000. about 54,000. Long Swamp, the site proposed for the Flyer•s Creek reservoir, is very suitable for that purpose, and is at an elevation of 2,697 feet above sea level. A dam, 65 feet high, would impound 800,000,000 gallons. · Storage.

Cadiangullong Creek, which was dry at the time of inspection, has a catch- Cadiangnt ment area above the proposed site for the dam, below the junction with Soldier's long Cree · Creek, of 14! square miles, including the southern spurs of the Canoblas Mountain, the whole being favourable for collecting water. The land is principally rough and hilly and used chiefly for pastoral purposes, hut to ensure the purity of the water the area would need to be resumed.

Assuming the same rainfall conditions as on the Flyer's Creek catchment area, A""ailable 420,500,000 gallons would be available from Cadiaugullong Creek in years of minimum rainfall, which, after allowing for evaporation, would be sufficient for a long Creek. population of about 9,000. Population.

The elevation of the reservoir site is 2,610 feet above sea-level. G

site,

Brown's Creek.

50

Lyndh urst-aontinued. Brown's Creek, which is also proposed as a supplementary source of supply, has,. above the site for the dam, about 1 mile below Sugarloaf Creek, a hilly catchment area of about 47 square miles, favourable for the collection of water. 'l'he creek contained very little runuing water at the time of inspection. ·

The minimum annual rainfall, as recorded at Millthorpe, thenearest rain­ gauge station, is 20·45 inches. Assuming 8 per cent. of this to run off, 1,115,000,000 gallons would be collected in years of minimum rainfall, which, after allowing for Population. evaporation, is sufficient for a population of about 26,000.

Catchinent The land within the catchment area is used for both agricultural and pastoral

Minimum rainfall.

Run-off.

area.

purposes, and would have to be resumed to ensure the purity of the water. The township of Millthorpe is situated near the head of the creek, but the drainage from it could probably be diverted outside the catchment area. The elevation of the reservoir site is 2,549 feet above sea level.

Lachlan River The Lachlan River, which is suggested as a possible additional . source of additional supply by pumping would be tapped near Mount Macdonald, and has above that source. place a catchment area of about 3,200 square miles. The estimated miniilitiin

annual flow of this river is 82,000,000,000 gallons. Assuming that one-tenth of this would be available for the supply of the Capital.City, there. would be sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, for a }Jopulation of 203,000. This suti.:rce is distant about 22 miles from the Capital City Site, and the lift required would be about 1,400 feet. A storage resei·voir would be required; and as the catchment area would not

filtration be under conti·ol, fiitration would probably be necessary.

The total minimum supply obtainable from all the gravitation soin'ces

sufficient. mentioned would be sufficient, with suitable storage provision,. for a population of

about . 89;000, and the. water obtainable frotn the. Lachlan by pumping would provide for an additional populatio:n of 203,000, making .a total of 292,000. Principal worh.

Low weir across Coombing Rivulet,.

. . . In Appendix No. 1 will. be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed. primary schemes froin the Coombing Rivulet ,and Flyer's Creek to supply a population of . 50,000.. Capitalising working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent., the cost is estimated to be

Temporary Water Supply.

Pending the construction of the permanent works, a temporary stipply for the use of the workmen, &c., during the earlier stages of the City could be provided by constructing a low weir across the Coombing Rivulet above the falls, at a point about 8 miles distant from the City Site, from which the water could be conveyed by gravitation.

·Water Power.

Water power ·water power for generating electricity for electric lighting purposes, &c.,

might be obtained from the following sources:-=

poses. The Belubula River, at the Needles, 24 miles from the City Site. .

The Lachlan River, near Mount Macdonald, 22 miles distant from the City Site.

Access to Site.

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

ACCESSIBILITY.

The suggested Site at Lyndhurst is traversed through its corner

for about 2i miles by the railway connecting Blayney and Harden, and the present station, which is 191 miles from Sydney, is nearly opposite its centre. As previously stated in the case of Bathurst, this line would have to be brought up to standard, if used as a means of communication with the Federal Capital. The Chief Railway Commissioner of New South Wales stated there would be no difficulty in doing this, nor did he think the present condition of the line should be regarded as constituting any obstacle to the selection of Lyndhurst as a site for the Federal Capital. Distance from The distances by direct measurement from the State Capitals are as under:-State Capitals by direct Sydney 126 miles.

measurement. Melbourne 366 "

Brisbane . . . 489 ,

Adelaide 604 ,

Perth 1,936 ,

Hobart ••• 642 , Lyndhurst

285

51

Lyndhurst-continued.

The through distances from the site to the State Capitals, by existing means by of communication, as well a"! the net time occupied in the journeys, are given in com-following table:- munication.

Sydney

Melbourne

Brisbane (a) ...

1\-delaide (b) ...

Perth (c)

State Capital. Distance

by Rail.

Miles.

191

443

9l4

925

1,265

Distance by Sea.

Statute miles.

1,173

:Ilobart, via Melbourne and Launceston - .. 576 326 Average time and distance Do do if the line mentioned in foot-notes (a), (b), (c) were constructed ...

Total distance.

Miles.

191

443

914

925

2,438

902

969

876

Time

occupied in journey.

Hours.

7

14

35

31

124

40

42

32

(a) Werris Creek to Wellington, and Warwick to Brisbane direct, would reduce through distance to Bris1ane by 260 Effect of miles. · · · · · · prospective

(b) Hay-Morgan line would save 176 miles in distance to Adelaide. railways.

!c) Cobar to Broli;en Hill, ]'\iannahill to Qarrieton, and Tr(lns-A\lstralian line, Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie, would reduce thro\lgh distance to Perth by 121 miles. NoTE,:__No allowance made for loss of time due to changes en route, such as at Sydney, Melbourne, &c. On main lines, speed adopted; on branch or other lines, average speed of 30 miles an hour

The position of this site in relation to the centre of population, both present ltnd future, is as follows:-It bears north-easterly 185 miles from the geometric centre of the present P?sition of population of Australia; is 218 miles by rail from the centre, as determined by Stte.

existing lines of communication; and is 175 miles easterly in a direct line from the geometric centre of "ultimate settlement." The following statement shows:-1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect the Site with the railway Cost of · immediate system of the State, and and 2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or future lines · affecting the prospective means of communication, as described in detail elsewhere. Immediate expenditure-Nil. Prospective expenditure (projected or suggested railways)-Warwick to Brisbane direct £631,500 Wellington to Werris Creek 514,576 Cobar to Broken Hill and Cockburn 1,117,338 Hay to Morgan . . . 1,080,000 Trans-Australian Railway, Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie 5,090,183 Total ... £8,433,597 COST OF RESUMPTION. The estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £20,000, and within the catchment area for primary sources of supply, i.e. to supply population of 50,000, is £160,100. ORANGE

52

ORANGE.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUITABILITY. Site reported The site formerly selected and referred to in Mr. Oliver's report, 1900, is on bbr the south side cf the town of Orange. Though reasonably well adapted for the

laying out of a city, your Commissioners are convinced that the site they now

suggested. suggest, which adjoins the west and north boundaries of Orange, is superior.

Descriptionof 'J.1he site no\Y suggested is traversed by branches of a small intermittent site. stream called Ploughman's Creek, which ultimately joins the Macquarie River. Three low ridges with easy slopes extend across the site, which is generally of an undulating character, and }JOssesses a quiet beauty, highly suggestive of an English

landscape.

Picturesque- 1'he distant view is very fine, the most striking feature being the Canoblas ness. · Mountain, 4,500 feet high, lying to the south-west, which rises from 1,000 to 2,000 feet above the surrounding country. From the higher points a panoramic view of great extent and picturesqueness is obtained. · Aspect. The general aspect of the site may be described as south-easterly and north-

westerly, the fall of the water-courses being in the latter direction, The land lends itself to the laying out of streets in north-easterly and south-westerly directions wEh Views. cross streets at right angles, and from many of the streets fine views of the distant country would be obtained. Levels. The slopes of the site while offering ample facilities for drainage, and for

carrying off storm-waters, would not necessitate severe· gradients in the thorough­ fares, except in a very few cases. of The undulations would display the more important buildings to great

bmldmgs. advantage.

srn and It is evident from the appearance.of the very fine gardens surrounding the

to town of Orange that both the soil and climate of this locality are favourable to

arboreal and horticultural growth, and it is undoubted that city parks and gardens

ura could be brought to great perfection on this site. (See Appendix No. 6 for details

of trees, shrubs, &c., suitable for this district.) Foundatio11s. The foundations arc good-a depth of from 3 feet to 5 feet would furnish

Rainfall.

Tempera· tures.

excellent foundations for the larger structures, while a depth of from 2 to 3 feet would give a like result for buildings of a lighter charactf)r.

CLIMATE.

Altitude of site, 2,880 feet.

The mean annual rainfall at Orange for thirty-one years ending with the year H302, was 37·54 inches, distributed over 103 mean annual rainy days. The mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-

Jan. I Feb. I March./ April./ May. I June. I July. I August., Sept. I Oct. I Nov. I Dec.

I

2•91 2·93 2•85 2·32 3'35 4'52 3·10 3 48 3·24, 3'24 2·07 2'63

rn the period 1886 to 1902 (both years included) the mean highest

temperature during the four hottest months was 78·2°. 1'he mean lowest shade temperature during the four coldest months was 41·4°. The mean shade. temperature during Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter respectively 05'3°, 67'5°, 54'4°, and 42;6°.

The highest and lowest readings of the thermometer were respectively 102° and 21·3°. The mean annual shade temperature was 54·9°. Orange

53

Orange--continued.

The following table shows for each month the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean minimum, and the mean temperature :-

Jan. I Feb.[ Mar. I April./ .May., June., July., Aug. I

Sept. I

I '

Oct. i I

i Nov. I Dec. I I

Mean maximum ... I i

65·7° 174 5° 80 7° I 78·4° 72·8° 63·7° 54"9° 49"9° l 47·4° 50"8° 57·4° 7!J·2° '

44 0° i 50·7° Mean minimum .. . 56"5° ! 55"3° 51·6° 45·0° 381° 36-!J0 : 34•4c 3G·2" 39·5° 54"6°

I

.,.,0 1

I

I

68 6° I 66'8° 46"5° l 43'4° ;

.

Mean temperature 544° 40'9° 43"5° 48"5° 54, 9° I 62 ·6° (j(j ·!Jo

The following table gives particulars recorded at Orange :--

Fogs. Snow . Frost.

• Number Number Number of Period of Year. of Period of Year. of Period of Year. Times. Times. . Times . 18!)9 1 I July. 56 March to September. ... ... ·- ··········· ··· 1900 ... ... ··············· 4 June to Augu8t. 4:0 March to October. . 1901 ... ... . ........ ...... 4 June to September. 64 May to September.

1902 ... ... ············ ··· 2 September. 56 May to September.

287

No hot winds were recorded at this station. The prevailing winds are from Winds. the south-west. Very cold ·winds are sometimes experienced in September; principally from the south, sometimes lasting for two or three days at a time. There are occasional sudden changes of temperature in summer, after short periods Sudden ,,

of high temperatures, when the thermometer sometimes falls as much as 30°. The air is generally dry, and the nights cool and invigorating. rrhe winter empera ure. nights are cold and frosty, but the days generally clear and sunny. _ During the last few years there have been eleven i'alls of snow, principally Snow.

confined to the Canoblas, not more than 2 inches falling at one time at Orange. Snow does not lie in Orange much more than a day, but sometimes remains on the Canoblas for a ·fortnight. The particulars above given as to rainfall, temperature, and climatic conditions Climate is

generally ltave been supplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales. According to the medical evidence the climate is extremely healthy. There are no epidemics excepting influenza. A few cas.es of bronchial trouble occur. There is but little typhoid and diphtheria; measles and scarlatina are not prevalent,

and hydatids are almost unknown.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

On the whole the country to tlw cast and north of Orange is good pastoral Good pastoral country, and will carry about a sheep to an acre and a half, or where ringbarked, country. one and a half to two sheep per acre. In the southern parts of the district cattle are fattened, and it is said that three or four acres per head are sufficient.

One witness estimated the total exports from the district during the year Exports. 1902 to have been 50,000 to 60,

and north the country is poorer and better adapted for grazing than ngriculturc.

Orange

54

Orange-continued.

Crops. The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government

Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the average yields per acre of crops grown in the Orange district, comprising the counties of Bathurst and Wellington :-STATEMENT OF AVERA.GE ANNUAL AREAS UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEA.RS

ENDING MARCH, 1903, COUNTIES OF BATHURST AND WELLINGTON. \

Crop.

I

Grain.

I

Hay. Total.

I

Average Yield per acre.

acres. acres. acres.

Wheat ... ... . ... ... ... 56,034 22,422 78,456 13·4 bushels.

Maize ... ... ... ... . .. ......... ········· 5,135 8•7 ,

Barley ... ... ... .. . ... 301 116 417 18'6 ,

Oats ... ... ... ... .. . 5,287 16,538 21,825 20'3

"

Potatoes ... ... ... ... .. . ········· ......... 8,522 1·6 tons.

Other crops ... ... ... ... ········· .......... 10,436 Not available.

-----Total acreage ... ... ......... . ........ 124,791

Fruit. Fruits, especially English fruits, grow well, and orcharding has been unusually successful. A statement furnished by the Government Statistician of New South Wales gives the·average return from fruit, within a radius of 30 miles from Orange, for the seven years ending 3J st December, 1902, at £5 7s. 9d. per acre, the average area being 960 acres. The return does not include grapes.

Butter and milk can be produced here in sufficient quantity for a large population, but during the winter the cows should be fed and housed or rugged. The concensus of opinion of a number of witnesses of experience, who have lived in the district for periods ranging from eighteen to fifty-fom years, was that within a radius of 50 miles of Orange sufficient food supplies could be produced for a city of 50,000 inhabitants, and the Director of Agriculture regards this as an under-estimate.

BUILDING MATERIAL, STONE, BRIO KS, &c.

Sandstone. To the south-west of Orange there is a large amount of sandstone, but

the actual extent, thickness of beds, and quality of the stone has never been systematically investigated. The age of the formation appears to be Devonian, and it is probably analogous to that occurring at Table Top, and in other places in New South Wales.

The stone which luis been most used is from a place about 13 miles from Orange on the Cargo Road, where it shows on the surface over an area about 3 miles in length by from half a mile to a mile and a half in width. It also occurs at Coffee Hill, on a spur of the Canoblas. It is of two colours- cream or buff and light reddish. It has been used in a number of buildings in Orange during the

past twenty-five years, and has stood well. .

Flagstone. In the same locality there are also beds of flagstone obtainable in large

blocks, whieh are easily split. This is being used for sidewalks in Orange, and has proved to wear better than imported slate. Tr3chyte. Very large bodies of trachyte occur in the Canoblas Mountain, which may prove to be as useful locally as the Bowral trachyte is elsewhere, but it has never

been opened up or used for building. There is a limited supply of stone at Byn7, 11 miles east of Orange, where it occurs as a strong dyke-like mass of feldspar porphyry. The Springfield homestead was built of this stone in the year 1847, and has stood well, Severt.J,l other l;ru.ildings in the district have been constructed of the same stone. -

Orange

269

5.5

Orange-cont-inued. . . A report by the. District Archite?t on the building stones procurable in this Building district has been supphed by the Public Works Department, and will be found in stones. Appendix No. 4, which also contains information as to examination and tests of samples for strength and suitability for building purposes.

There is abundance of clay, from which good bricks are made. The price Bricks. is £2 lOs. per 1,000. These bricks have been used in Government works at Dubbo, and also op. the Blue Mountains. Neither firebricks, drain-pipes, nor tiles are made here ; but suitable clay for the manufacture of these is reported to exist at Mullion, and suitable shale for machine-made bricks in the direction of 'lhe :Porest. Basalt

occurs in unlimited quantity, and is used for kerbing and for road-making. The Caloola and Borenore marbles of this district are well and very Marble. favourably kno·wn. They can be obtained in any quantity in large dimensions and · fine quality. The stone from the former is sent to Sydney in large blocks. · · ·

In the vicinity of Lucknow there are immense deposits of green serpentine, which are well worth attention. Sand for building is not plentiful. Sand .

• TIMBER.

In the immediate vicinity of Orange there is no hardwood or other timber Cypress Pine o! commercial. value ; but it is stated about Gilgandra ironbark and cypress pme are obtamable from a forest which extends as far as Gula1'gambone and Turraweena; and is near a railway line. Cypress pine is also obtained from Parkes,

the cost of which is 20s. per 100 feet. The price for ironbark is 20s. per 100 fe et superficial in any size or length up to 25 feet. Very little hardwood is used in Orange for building, but such timber as is Hardwoo1. required is usually obtained from Local stringy bark is used for fencing. Further information as to timber will be found in Appendix No. 5.

FUEL.

The nearest supply of good firewood is at Molong and Mullion, 10 or 12 Firewood. miles distant. The price is 6s. per ton in the trucks at Orange. The coal 'supplies are drawn from the Western Coalfield, in the vicinity of Coal. Lithgow, situated 95 miles distant by rail. The cost of coal delivered at Orange is

i5s. ld. per ton. Other particulars are given in Appendix No. 8.

WATER SUPPLY.

The suggested city site is situated at such an elevation as . to render a Pumping gravitation scheme impossible; pumping schemes have, therefore, to be resorted to. necessary . . The sources of supply selected as the most suitable available are : (1) Source ?f. Flyei"s Creek (including Cadiangullong Creek), (2) Brown's Creek, and (3) the·sapply. Macquarie River, all of which at points of off-take are distant about 21 miles from the City Site.

The combined catchment areas of Flyer's and Cadiangullong Creeks, which Catchment are p1·oposed as the primary source of supply, comprise about 80 square miles of hilly area. country, in which is included the southern slopes of the Canoblas :Mountain, the whole being favourable for the collection of water.

The estimated minimum annual rainfall on the catchment area is 25 inches. Rainfall on Assuming 8 per cent. of this to run off, which is a fair estimate, about 2,320,0:J0,000 gallons would be collected in the dl'iest years; after allowing for evaporation this would be sufficient for a population of 59,000.

It is proposed to make a storage reservoir in Flyer's Creek, at a point Proposed near Errowanbang Station, about 21 miles distant, and to bring the water m

from Cadiangullong Creek into it. A dam about 75 feet high constructed at Flyor'sCretk. this place would form a reservoir capable of containing about 2,500,000,000. As the reservoir would collect the whole of the drainage from the catchment area, it would be necessary, in order to ensure the purity of the water, to resume

Orange

50

Orange-continued. the land included in that area. The purchase of about 40,000 acres \Vould be necessary, the remainder being Crown lands. Part of the land is arable and is used for cultivation, and part suitable only for pastoral purposes. l

.• the proposed reservoh· is 2,l,t0 feet above sea-level.· A pumping scheme is

' 41elltlssary. therefore necessary, th3 lift required to give a good pressure being 1,100 feet. S.Upplement· Brown's Creek, which is proposed as a supplementary source of supply, Las ary 8 1

ource of above the site for the dam, about 1 mile below the junction with Sugarloaf Creek, a supp Y· · hilly catchment area of about 4 7 square miles, favourable for the collection of water.

Minimum 1'he minimum annual rainfall, as recorded at Millthorpe, the nearest raiu rain- gauge station, is 20·45 inches. Assuming 8 per cent. of this to run off, 1,115,000,000

Additional source of supply, Macquarie Ri,•er.

gallons would be collected in years of minimum rainfall, which, after allowing for evaporation, would be sufficient fDl' a population of about 26,000. The water \Yould gravitate from a reservoir on Brown's Creek to the Flyer's Creek reservoir, and thus only one pumping station would be needed.

The Macquarie River, suggested as an additional source of supply, which could be drawn on if tho population increased beyond the capacity of the sources abovementioned, would be tapped at Watton, distant about 21 miles from the city site, where there is a suitable place for a large storage reservoir, and where one has already been proposed by the Public Works Department. The catchment area above this point comprises about 1,3:13 square miles of hilly country, and the estimated minimum annual flow of the river is 34,500,000,000 gallons. Assuming that one-sixth of this quantity would be available for the city supply, there would

be sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, fol' a population of about 140,000. The lift would be about 1,250 feet. Sanitary To prevent contamination of the water, strict sanitary precautions would precautions have to be enforced upon residents on the catchment area, and this would be necessary. .

works.

Supply from Watton.

especially necessary with regard to the town of Bathurst, which is situated on the banks of the Macquarie, about 16 miles above W-atton. Even with . these pl'f'lcautions :filtration would be absolutely necessary. The total minimum supply from the three sources mentioned would, with suitable storage provision, be sufficient a population of about 225,000.

In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed primary scheme from Flyer's Creek, to supply a population of 50,000. Capitalil'ing working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent.., the cost is estimated to be £1,207,050.

If the water supply were derived from Watton, on the Macquarie as before-mentioned, the total cost would amount to £989,400, or about £217,650 less than the Flyer's Creek scheme; but on account of the town of Bathurst being situated on the banks of the river, 16 miles above the off-take, it is considered that there would always be a suspicion of contamination even with :filtration; and for this reason this scheme has only been considered as a subsidiary supply that might have

to be resurted to in the future. Water·p<;n!er . Assumin·gthat sufficient electricity could be generated by water-power, derived forelectricity. from the Macquarie River at Watton, or from the River, near Mount

Macdonald, and used as a substitute for steam in pumping from the Flyer's Creek reservoir, and the same thing done at Watton in connection with the Macquarie River scheme, the approximate total capitalised costs of these schemes would then be as follows :-

Flyer's Creek scheme Macquarie River scheme

.

Temporary Tf7ater Supply.

£S71,000 £674,000

near. A temporary water supply for the use of the workmen, &c., during the

cJty earlier stages of the city, might be provided b.Y sinking wells near the proposed city

site, as good water is obtained by sinking in the vicinity of Orange ; in addition to this it might be possible to enlarge and extend the supply now being used for the town of Orange. .

Orange.

57

Orange-continu.ed. Water Powe1-.

·w·atcr power for Electric Lighting, &c., might be obtained from the following sources:- . 'Ihe Mncquarie River at Watton, distant about Or at a point below its junction with Pyramul Creek, ·

distant about . . • .. . .. . .. • . .. . ..

'l he Belubula River near 'Ihe Needles, distant about The Lachlan River, near Mount Macdonald

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

ACCESSIBILITY.

20 miles.

25 25 50

"

"

"

2'71

The proposed site for the Federal c:Pital adjoins the town of Orange on its S_ituation of western boundary, and part of its northern boundary, and the distances in the site. following .tables have been computed from the Orange railway station, which is 192 miles from Sydney.

The distance of Oranf'e by direct measurement from the several State Distancefrom 0 State capitals capitals is as under:-Sydney Melbourne

Brisbane Adelaide Perth Hobart

...

by direct

128 miles.

measurement.

390 ,,

464 " 613 " 1,941 " 669 " '1 he through distances by capitals, as well as the respective given in the suhjoined table :-existing means of communication to the State by net times occupied in the journeys thence, are means commumca· tion. Distance State Capital. by --Sydney ... ... ... .. . .. . ' .. . . .. 1!)2 via Blayney and Harden ... . .. ... \ 482 Brisbane (a) ... .... . .. ... . .. ... • •• 1 911> Adelaide (b) ... ' !)64 ... ... .. . . .. ... "'"! Perth, via Adelaide and Albat1y (c) i 1,304 ... ... ··· ' ! Hobart, via Melbourne and Launceston ... . .. I ···I 615 ·-----Average distance ·and time Distanco

by Sea.

Statute miles.

...... ....

·········

.........

·········

1,173

I 326

I

..I I I Do do if lines mentioned in foot· j notes (a), (b), and (c) were constructed... .. i I

Totnl Net Time

Distance. occupied in journey.

miles. hollrP.

1!)2 6

482 15

!)15

!)61. 32

2,477 125

941 41

42

883 32

(a) Creek t> Wellington, and Warwick und Bris!Jane dirl'ct would save 300 miles in through between Effect of. Orange ond Bri-bnne. · · pr?spect1ve

(b) HaJ·Morgnn would reduce di.tancl' to Adelaide by 176 • . railways.

(c) Cobnr to Broken Bill, und Mannahill to Cnrrieton, nnd 'frans-Ausfr..liun rnilwav-Port A•1gustn-Kalgcorhe-would reduce distance tetwecn Oronge ud Prrth by 199 milrs, and the in time would be 45 hours. . Narll.-No allowance mode for loss of t.ime due to chnngf'• '" ro•de, such as at. Bydnry, Melbourne, On mnm lines, titr.c·toble 'prcd adopt. d; rn bron<'h or other line•, nnr11ge sp('('d of 30 milcsl!n hour

H

Blayney­ Barden line.

Position of site.

58

Orange-oontinued. The reference made to the present character of the Blayney-Harden line in the cases of the Bathurst and Lyndhurst sites, applies equally to Orange, so far as that line would afford a means of communication with the south.

The position of the site in relation to the centres of population both present and future is as follows :-It bears north-westerly 210 miles from the present geometric centre of popu­ lation of Australia; is 257 miles by rail from the centre as determined by existing lines of communication, and is 180 miles east in a direct line from the geometric centre of" Ultimate Settlement."

Cost of imme- The followin!!' statement shows:-diate and '-'

1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect the suggested site with the

munication. railway system of the State, and

2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or future lines affecting the prospective means of communication as described in detail elsewhere.

Immediate expenditure ... Nil.

Prospective expenditure (projected or suggested rail ways)-Wellington to W erris Creek ... Warwick to .Brisbane "direct"

Hay to Morgan Cobar to Broken Hill and Cockburn

Trans-Australian .Railway-Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie ...

£514,576 691,500 1,080,000 1,117,938

5,090,183

Total ... £8,433,597

COST OF RESUMP'JliON.

The estimated cost of resumption within the suggested City Site is £57,000, and. within the Catchment Area for primary source of supply, i.e., to supply population of 50,000, £141,750.

TUMUT.

roPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL SUITABILITY.

. Tumut, though constituting the centre of a very old ·settled district, is

perhaps less known than most of the other towns near which are situated the sit.es with which this report is concerned.

273

A few words of description of the town may, therefore, not be out of place. · · It is situated on the left bank of the Tumut River, at its junction with the of the town. Gilmore .Qreek, and about 20 miles in a direct line above the junction of the Trimut with the Murrumbidgee. It is the terminus of a branch railway just completed

which leaves the Main Southern Railway at Oootamundra, and has a length of 65 miles. By road the distance is about 12 miles shorter. 'l'umut is situated i,n a wide valley, through which the Tumut River flows, In a wide receiving in its course the waters of -the Goo!arragandra River. Along these rivers valley. there is a l.arge area of exceedingly rich land, and that part above the junction of the two streams has received the name of the Tumut Plains. From these plains rise gentle slopes leading to the foot-hills of higher ranges on the western side of the 'l'umut River, and extending northwards as far as the boundary of the town. The

surroundings are beautiful, and the luxuriant growth of many English trees in the vicinity give a charm unusual in Australian towns. .

The site reported upon by the New South Wales Commissioner (Mr. Oliver) Site reported is at Gadara, about 4 or 5 miles west of Tumut, in the valley of a creek known as the Gadara or Sandy Ureek. 'l'his site is part of an upland valley with many gentle undulation.s, forming the lower slopes of the ranges which enclose the valley on the

east and west sides. It contains a fair extent of country, the physical characteristics of which offer no difficulties to the projection of a symmetrical city design. It is . in pict?-resqueness, but is en?ircled. by hills so closely as to

hm1tat10ns to expanswn such as are not desirable m the case of the Federal Capital. expansion. After a careful inspection of the surrounding district, your Commissioners Another site suggest a site which, in their opinion, better fulfils the required conditions. suggested. The centre of this site (which may be called the Lacmalac site) is about Description

5 miles easterly from the town of Tumut in the valley of the Goobarragandra, the river of that name flowing through it. Along the banks of this river alluvial lands · extend on both sides with an average width of a little over three-quarters of a mile. }!'rom the edges of these lands the ground rises gently into low ridges which extend northerly and southerly to the boundaries of the suggested city site. On these

ridges a large city could be built with ample room for expansion in almost every direction. The country through which the site is approached, and its immediate ViewA. surroundings, are highly attractive, while the distant hills, as seen from the valley, form pictures of great natural beauty.

The river, which is a permanently flowing stream, runs from east to west Aspect. through the middle of the Site, the general aspect of the land on one side of the river being towards the north and on the other towards the south. Witnesses are not agreed as to whether the Goobarragandra overflows its River effects banks; but, if so, there be no difficulty in confining it to its channel; and in the design of a city full advantage could be taken of the opportunities for ornamental treatment offered by the river. Its banks could be sloped and planted, thus adding beauty to a park, occupying both sides of the river, in the very heart of the city. Many cities owe the variety and charm of their wood and water scenery to the

skilful treatment of natural conditions such as prevail here. The undulations above the alluvial lands which border the river are favourable Directions of for the laying out of the streets in north-easterly and south-westerly directions, with streets. streets running at right angles. The slopes, while admirably adapted to

purposes of drainage and the carrying off of storm waters, would not present any difficult gradients in the construction of the thoroughfares. 'l'he undulations would of offer many opportunities for effective display of the more important buildings. u• mgs. 'l'umut

Contour surveys.

eo

Tumut-oontinued. The remark on p. 3, M to the desieability or _m tking extensive contour surveys of the locality chosen for the seat of Governm:mt before finally fi:s:ing the e:s:act city site, applies with perhaps more force to the Tumut Valley than to other localities, on account of the natural features being such as to m'1ke location by inspection only particularly difficult. Arboreal and Both the climate and soil seem, for arboreal and horticultural purpo-,es, to be horticultural perfect. 'fhis is most emphatically attested by the present condition of the elms, growth.

willows, poplars, and other English trees, which flourish here in great luxuriance without cultivation. In Appendix No. 6 will be found a list of those trees and

Foundations. plants which can be grown successfully here. -The surface formation on the flats does not indicate good foundations, but on

Observations taken at Tumut.

Rainfall.

the uplands and slopes the foundations are sound. On the flats, suitable foundations for large structures could be obtained at a depth of from 5 feet to 8 feet, and for smaller buildings from 2 feet to 4 feet. Less depths would suffice on the higher ground.

CLIMATE.

Altitude of Site, 1,050 feet.

It will be noticed that the evidence as to climate refers to Tumut, but it may safely be assumed that the climatic conditions at the Lacmalac site, which is only about 5 or 6 miles farther up the river, are practically the same. The mean annual rainfall at Tumut for sixteen years, ending with the year 1902, was 31·87 inches, distributed over lOS mean annual rainy days. The mean monthly distribution of the rainfall was as follows :-

Jan. I Fe March. I April. I May. I June. I July. I Aug. I Sept. I Oct .. / Nov. j Dec.

8 05 139 2•44 230 2•33 4·28 2·75 3·25 2·71 2·87 2'15 2•35

The above particulars were supplied by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales. Temperature. No official records of temperature at Tumut are available, and the following

figures are from observation extending over three years, taken by the Rev. T. E. Owens Mell. The mean maximum shade temperature during the four hottest months was 85"7°. The mean minimum shade temperature during the four coldest months was 41'2°.

The mean shade temperatures during Sprinf!', Summer, Autumn, and 'Vinter were respectively 64·3°, 73'6°, 61·5°, 48·6°. The highest and lowest readings of the thermometer were respectively 106° and 27°. ·

The mean annual shade temperature was 61·9°. .

The following table shows for each month the mean maximum shade temperature of the period, the mean minimum, and th.e mean temperature:-

Jan. I Feb. I March. April./ :May.! June. I July./ Aug. I Sept. I Oct. I Nov.J Dec,

i

89·1 I

'

I I i I I I

11·o I Mean ... 87·0 I 79'8 67·3 593 591 538 66•6 72•6 83·1 83

I

7

I

Mean minimum ... 62•5: I 56·1 56'4 43·1 40•5 413 37·2 45•8 47•6 51•5 6'.k7 64·

Mean

I

temperature 74'71 726 68'1 62'51 53•9 50"8 49·1 47•5 57'1

62•0 73·9 74·

Tumut

61

Tumut-continued. The following may be aided from the local evidence :-In a summer season there may be two or three days in which the

temperature rises over 100° in the sharle, but generally the nights are cool. At Tumut there are fogs in the winter and spring, mainly upon the river Fogs. flats. Snow rarely falls at Turimt, but oftener on the neighbouring mountains. In Snow. the winter months the days are generally cleat' and sunny, lmt frosts are fairly Frosts. frequent, and, in shady places, sometimes last all day. 'rhe 'rumut valley is well protected from strong winds, especially those coming ft·om the south and south-west. Winds.

Such winds as are experienced are generally from the east in the spring, and from the west and north-west in the winter.

2'75

The medical evidence shows that the climate is conducive to longevity, and has a beneficial effect upon persons suffering from pulmonary disease. The insanitary evtdence. conditions which, six years ago, caused an epidemic of typhoid in Tumut have since been remedied. At the beginning of the year 1903 there were only odd cases of typhoid which had been brought in from the surrounding country. There was an epidemic of scarlet fever eighteen years ago, but very little of that disease since, while whooping-cough and diphtheria have been unknown for some years.

.

SOIL-PRODUCTIVENESS.

The country within a radius of 10 miles of Tumut include3 a large amount of very rich land along the rivers, and in the valleys adjacent to them; the remainder may be divided into the rising ground and foot-hills, which form good agricultural land, and the higher slopes and ridges, which are exclusively used for

grazing, The rich lands adjoining the river will carry three sheep to the acre, the Carry_iog lower slopes and foot-hills about one sheep to the acre, and the mountainous country c11,pamty. about one sheep to 3 acres. The fiats are used for cultivation and also for fattening. Near Tumut, and Flats.

also at the Lacmalac site, there are large areas of very rich lands, on which maize, . potatoes, fruits, and vegetables of all kinds are grown. The maize produced on Marze. these :flats has a high reputation in the Sydney market, and generally commands the highest prices. The rich land extends through the Lacmalac site up the

Goobarragandra River, and the land within the Gilmore and other valleys is similar in character. The following table, compiled from information supplied by the Government Crops. Statistician and the Director of Agriculture, shows the acreages under crop, and the

average yields pe.r acre of crops grown in the Tumut districts, comprising the Counties of Buccleuch and W ynyard :-STA'rEMENT OF AVERA.GE ANNUAL UNDER CROP DURING EIGHT YEARS ENDING MARCH, 1903, COUNTIES OF BUCCLEUCH AND WYNYARD.

Crop. Grain. Hay. Total.

Average Yield per Acre.

acres. acres. acres.

Wheat ••• l 14,669 6,226 21,895 12'8 bus.

i

Maize ... i 6,692 30·8

" •• l

Barley

i

1!57 8 165 13"2 ... ! "

Oats

i 61.1 3,162 3,i73 21 •6 ... "

Potatoes ... 207 2·5 tons

Other crops ],597 Not available

Total acreage 33,320

Barley and rye are alw grown for feeding purposes, and there is a large area and in which lucerne can be successfully raised. A great deal of wheat is grown in the r)e. Tumut

Lucerne. Wheat.

62

Tumut-aontinued. more immediate neighbourhood of Tumut, and within a radius of 50 miles more than sufficient could be grown for a city of 50,000 i11habitants. The agricultural land within that radius is of superior quality, especially that upon the Batlow. table-land at Batlow, distant 20 miles from Tumut. This table-land is a tract of

Rich rich volcanic soil between the sources of the Gilmore and Adelong Creeks at an soil. elevation of about] ,600 feet above Tumut. It is a specially good fruit-producing

Potatoes.

district, and the quality of· the fruit grown there is equal to that of the best Tasmanian. On this table-land large crops of potatoes of the best quality are produt;led, the average being 4 to 5 tons per acre. Fruit and English fruits and vegetables thrive throughout the district generally. At veget\\bles. Batlow your Commissioners inspected an orchard of 40 acres, partly in bt'aring, and

were impressed with the evident adaptation of the soil and climate for the fruit industry. A statement furnished by the Govemment Statistician of South Wales gives the average return from fruit within a radius of 30 miles from 'rumut, for the

Milk supply.

llranite and bluestone.

Porphyry.

Marble.

Basalt.

Slate.

Official Report.

Bricks.

Cost.

Lime.

Sand and Gravel.

Forest Reserves.

. seven years ending 31st December, 1902, at £516s. 3d. per acre, the average area being 217 acres. This return does not include grapes. . .

So as a milk supply for a large population is concerned, this district would be very suitable, and if the cattle were housed or rugged in the winter, it might also be possible to compete with the coastal districts in other dairy produce. A local producer stated that even without feeding and rugging he had obtained an excellent return from a large dairy herd.

BUILDING MATERIALS"--STONE, BRICKS, &c.

. In the district around Tumut, including Adelong, 12 miles distant, a very large supply of granite and bluestone is found, and these are the principal stones which have been used for building purposes. A very handsomely figured porphyry, suitable for decorative purposes in building, is found at Adelong.

Marble occurs about lt miles north-west of Gadara, near the mad to Adelong, outcropping for a distance of about half a mile in length; also at Bombowlee, 2 miles from the site, and at a third place on Gilmore Creek. Basalt is found in -great quantity near Batlow, about 25 miles from Tumut. The supply of material suitable for road-making is abundant. There is a slate

quarry about 16 miles distant, near Gundagai, but it bas not been successfully worked, owing principally to the fact that the slates were too bard and not sufficiently fissile to be worked profitably for roofing, but it makes fine sills and steps. A report by the District Architect, on the building stones pl·ocurable in this district, has been supplied by the Public Works Department, and will he found in Appendix No. 4, which also contains information as to examination and tests of samples for strength and suitability for building purposes. ·

There is good brick clay throughout the district, the bed worked at 'l'umut being about 30 feet thick and of the same quality throughout. The bricks are made by hand, are hard, absorb little water, and are of superior quality. 'rhe cost is £2 5s. per thousand, delivered. The lime burned in the district is strong, the supply being principally from Gilmore, distant about 15 miles from Tumut, and Tarabandra.

Good lime has been burned at the former place for a number of years, and is sent to Tumut, Adelong, 'l'umbarumba, and Gundagai, costing £1 15s. to £2 per ton. There is abundance of good sand and gravel for building purposes. ·

TIMBER.

There is no milling timber at Tumut, the forest ·reserves being from 18 to 50 miles distant. The forest at Batlow consists of 72,000 acres, and is the principal source of suppJy of timber. The Carabost forest, about 50 miles distant, on the outskirts of the mountainous country, contains 30,000 acres; and there is a large forest at Bago, which is practically in a virgin condition.

Tumut

2,7

63

Tumut-continued. 'rhe principal timbers of commercial value in these forests are :-Eurrabie Principal stringybark, messmate, mountain ash, red-gum, red box, yellow box. The price of sawn hardwood timber is 13s. per 100 feet superficial. rrce.

. Cypress. pine . is obtained from Riverina, and used mostly for lining and Pine-price. floormg, the pr1ce bemg 15s. per 100 feet superficial.

FUEL.

There is abundance of timber for firewood in the immediate neighbourhood Firewood. of the site. nearest supply of coal to this site is that at :Bundanoon, on the Southern Coal.

Railway Line, distant 223 miles. Coal also occurs at Mittagong on the same line, distant 246 miles. The price is stated to be 20s. per ton. For other particulars, see Appendix No.8.

WATElt SljPPLY.

The following rivers and creeks are the most suitable sources of water s11pply 9£ for the suggested City Site, :-• upp y, (1) The Goobarragandra River, immediately below its junction with Emu Creek, distant about 18 miles·; (2) the Peak or Balloo Arm River, distant about 12 mile$; (3) Sandy or Waterfall Creek, distant about 7 miles; (4) the Jounama

Creek, distant about 24 miles; (5) the Tumut River, distant about 32 miles; and (6) Gilmore Creek, including :Buddong Creek, distant about 20 miles.

All these sheams at the points named, from which it is proposed to take the · are at a sufficient elevation to provide water by gravitation; they have GravitatlOn.

mountainous catchment areas, and contain more or less flowing water throughout the

The Goobarragandra· River, on account of its large continuous flow of good Goobarra­ water (vide analysis, Appendix No. 2), estimated at time of inspection, when the river was at its lowest, to be at least 6,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, has been 1

•

selected as the prima1·y source of supply. 'l'his river takes its rise in the high Primary mountains south-east of Tumut, the higher parts of ·which are snow-clad during the Supply. winter months. 'rhe catchment area at the junction of the river with Emu Creek comprises Catchment 103 square miles, consisting almost entirely of rough, mountainous country, very Area. suitable for the collection of pure water and not very valuable for the purposes of

settlement. Nearly the whole of this area is Crown land, only about 120 acres having been alienated. .

The estimated minimum rainfall on the Goobarragandra catchment area is Minimum 30 inches. Assuming 12 per cent. of this to run off, which is a fair estimate, rainfall. 5,376,600,000 gallons would be available in years of minimum rainfall, sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, for a population of 130,000. ·

The average elevation of the proposed city site is 1,050 feet above sea level, of and the elevation of the Goobarragandra River below the junction of Emu Creek, the point from which it is proposed to take the primary supply, is 1,790 feet above sea level, or 790 feet above the city site, which will allow of a gravitation scheme

giving a good pressure. As the permanent flow of the river is more than sufficient fol' a population of Storage 50,000, it is. not proposed at present to make any storages for conserving water, but unneces!ary. to leave this for future consideration when required. Two settling tanks of a com- Settling bined capacity of 10,000,000 gallons are, however, estimated for, to be used when tanks. the water is discoloured by floods. ·

With regard to the other sources of supply previously mentioned, the Peak or Other sources Balloo Arm River has a mountainous catchment area of 57 square miles, very settled and nearly all Crown land, only about 750 acres having been alienated. Sandy Creek. Sandy or Waterfall Creek has a mountainous catchment area of 3!> square miles,

· Tumut

Jounama Creek.

64

Tumut- continued. sparsely settled, the alienations on which amount to about 9,600 acres. These are permanent streams, although not nearly so strong as the Goobarragandra, to which they are tributary, and as they are near the line of main from the primary supply, they would probably be utilised before any of the other supplementary sources mentioned.

Jounama Creek, which takes its rise at Michelago Mountain, has a moun­ tainous catchment area very sparsely settled, the extent of which above Black Perry Mountain, where the creek would be tapped, is about 30 square miles. Tumut River. Tl1e Tumut River is a strong, permanent strea m. Above the point of off-take,

Gilmore Creek.

near Lobbs Hole, it has a catcl1ment area of about 340 square miles, consisting of mountainous country, the high points being snow-clad in winter. The catchment is sparsely settled, and if, as is probable, the natural flow of the river would be sufficient without storage, sanitary precautions on the catchment area would ensure the purity of the water without resuming the land.

'l'he Gilmore Creek has a catchment area of about 39 square miles, and at time of inspection contained only a very small stream of water. .

Buddong 'Ihe Buddong Falls Creek has a catchment of about 18 square miles, and

Falls Creek. might be used in connection with the Gilmore Creek.

Combined . gravitation supply sufiicient for

population 620,000.

Murrnm· bid gee River­ supply by

pumping from.

Lift.

Total supply.

Principal work•.

Cost.

Water power for Plectric lighting, &c.

1'he combined supply available from the gravitation sources mentioned, which have a total catchment area of 626 square miles of mountainous country, would in years of minimum rainfall, with suitable storage provision, be sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, for a population of about 520,000-and this allows for taking only half the flow of the 'l'umut River, as other water rights would have to be considered in this case.

To this could be added a supply by pumping from the MmTumbidgee River, near Gundagai, where the estimated minimum annual flow is 195,000,000,000 gallons. Assuming that one-tenth of this would be available for the city supply, there would be sufficient, after allowing for evaporation, for a population of about 480,000. A storage reservoir would be required, and as the catchment area would not be under control filtration would be necessary. The distance of the off--take from the city site is about 21 miles, and the lift would be about 600 feet.

From all sources, therefore, water could be provived for a population of about l,COO,OOO. In Appendix No. 1 will be found particulars of the principal works for the proposed primary scheme from the Goobarragandra River to supply a population of 50,000. Capitalising working expenses and maintenance at 4 per cent. the cost is estimated to be £200,280.

Pemp01•ary Water -Supply.

A temporary water supply for the use of the workmen, &c., in theearlier stages of the city could either be obtained by gmvitation from Sandy Creek, distant about 7 miles, or be pumped from the Goobarragandra River, which passes through the city site, as might on fUl'ther investigation be found most advisable.

WATER POWER.

Water power for electric lighting purposes, &c., could be obtained from the various falls at the head of the Goobarragandra River (including the Dubbo Fall), distant from the city site about 19 mile-s, and this could be supplemented as required from the ·r:eumut River and Buddong Falls, distant respectively 35 miles and 23 miles, and Micalong Creek, distant 22 miles; also from the Murrumbidgee, near Barren Jack :Mountain, distant 27 miles, where a large storage reservoir has been proposed by the Public Works Department. .

DRAINAGE.

See General Note, page 5.

Tumut

279

65

Tumut-continued. ACCESSIBILITY.

site suggested by your Commissioners at Lacmalac is on the Goobarra- s.ituation of

gandra H1ver, about 5 miles by road to the eastward of the town of Tumut which is site .. 318 miles from Sydney by rail. '

· The distances hy direct measurement from the State Capitals are as under:- by direct measurement

Sydney 197 miles. from State

Melbourne 251

"

Brisbane 610

"

Adelaide 546

" Perth ],881 " Hobari 525 "

'l'he through distances from the site to the State Capitals by existing means of by communication, as well ag the net time in the journeys, arc given in the ·

table :- communica.

tion.

State Capital.

.

Sydney ... ... ... ... ... . ..

Melbourne .... ... ... ... . ..

Brisbane (a) ... ... ... .. . ..

Adelaide (b) ... ... ... ... . .

Perth (c) ... ... ... ... .. .

1,

Distance f by Rail.

miles.

318

389

l,OH

871

1,211

Distance by Road.

miles.

5

5

5

5

5

Distance by Sea.

Statute miles.

. ........

. .......

. ........

. ........

1,173

Hobart, via Melbourne and 5 326

--- --·--Avernge distance and time Do do if lines mentioned in foot-notes (a), (b), and (c) were constructed

Total distance.

miles.

323

394

l,O!G

87G

2,389

853

-----

DSO

I Net Time I

oc.cupied in Journey.

hours .

H

12

39

29

122

38

----42

POO I 33

(a) Werris Creek to '\Yellington line, and Warwick to Brisbane "direct," would reduce distance to Brisbane by Effect of 20 2 miles. prospective

(b) Hay-Morgan line, saving in distance between Tumut and Adelaide, would be li6 miles. railways.

(c) The Hay-Morgan line, in connection with that from .Morgan .to Burra, and the Trans-Australian line, Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie, would effect a swing in through distance to Perth of lOS miles.

NoTE.-No allowance made for loss of time due to changes en route, such as at Sydney, Melbourne, &c. On main lines time-table speed adopted, on branch or other lines, average speed of 30 miles an hour assumed.

The position of this site in relation to the centres of population, both present • Bite Wit and future, IS as follOWS :- regard to centres of It bears south-easterly 16j miles from the geometric centro of the present population. population of Australia; is 169 miles by rail and road from the centre as determined by existing lines of communication, and is 190 miles south-easterly in a direct line from the geometric centre of "ultimate settlement." As an extension of the Gundagai ]3ranch Hail way to 'l'umut is now almost Gundagai l 1 l , . I l l . tl b to Tumut comp ete(, am will shortly be open foe traffic,. It has been me lH er 111 lC a ove railway. table. Tumut I

Short exten• sion to site.

Tumut-continued. To connect the suggested site with the State rail way system an extension of the line from Tumut, a distance of about 6 miles, would benecessary. The cost of this short extension is estimated by the Public Works Department at £50,000, including some provision for a terminal station. Ex)loration Several exploration surveys have been made with the object of forming a for oop liM, loop line to pass at or near Tumut. The route from Wagga to Bowning, via Adelong

Crossing and Coolac, was considered the most practicable one, but the official reports are not altogether favourable to the proposal. The explorations did not directly con­ template connection with the site now suggested, but on present information, it appears probable that even though the loop line were constructed, the Capital, if located at the Lacmalac, would be on a short branch of about 6 miles from Tumut.

Cost of immediate and prospec. tive railway communica· tion.

The Chief Railway Commissioner (N.s."r.) stated that, as r.I.'mnut is not far off the main line, arrangements could easily be made for a train .service that would make it quite convenient of a.ccess, and if traffic justified it through trains could be run .

. The following statement shows :-1. Immediate expenditure necessary to connect the site with the railway system of the State, and 2. The ultimate outlay involved in the various projected or suggested lines affecting the prospective means of communication, as described in detail elsewhere.

Immediate Extension Tumut Railway to suggested site ..•...... £50,000

Prospective expenditure (projected or suggested Railways)-Wa1•wick to Brisbane f' direct" £631,500

Wellington to :Werris Creek... ..• 514,576

Hay to Morgan and Burra . . . .•• l ,296,000

Trans-Australian Railway, Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie ' 5,090,183

7,!J32,259

Total £7,582,259

COST OF RESUMPTION.

The estimated cost of resumption within the suggested city site is £25,000, and within the catchment area for primary source of supply,-i.e., to supply popula· tion of 50>000-£180. -

• PART IV.

67

PART IV.

Sumtnary.

The drawing of the conclusions upon which final judgment is to be based, is a matter for the Parliament. As an aid to the formation of such conclusions your Commissioners submit at the end of this chapter a statement which focusses the whole of the results arrived at. ald to SlUile.

Under some of the Headings, such as Water Supply, though the data in most Results given cases are to some extent approximate, the results are definite, and are practically as valuable for purposes of comparison as if based upon absolute information. Accessibility, too, is a subject reducible to figures, the basis of calculation in Some most cases being exact, though future events, viz., the construction of certain lines elemert

of railway, and, the growth of populatio!, affect some of the tables calculated. uneer any. 'rhese, of course, give results which contain elements of uncertainty, and are, therefore, of less weight than those representing existing facts. Of the other subjects on which we are asked to report, some, such as Building com­

Materials! &c., dependent on. matters of fact, are not capable of exact not

computatiOn, wlule others, e.g., Chmate, though not lndependent of such figures as possible. represent temperature and rainfall, &c., are not reducible to numerical values, and will be influenced by the personal equation. · Where results can be immediately derived from figures, as under the headings Modes of

of Water Supply and Accessibility:, figures afford the best, if not the only, means ohtainii_1g of comparing one site with another; in the case of Soil-productiveness no better compansons. guide can be found than the mature opinion of an experienced official such as the Director of Agriculture ; such :matters as Building Materials, Cost of Buildings, and Cost of Resumption are best judged in the light of general evidence and the of qualified experts; while,· as to Climate, Topography, and General

Suitability, the indications given of the comparative desirability of the various sites represent the opinions of the Commissioners, after personal experience and inspection and careful consideration of all relevant facts. As immediately preliminary to the final summm·ising statement, the

following particulars are given:-

SUITA:BILITY.

'!lhis may be taken to cover Topography, Picturesqueness, Aspect, Suitability for Arboreal Culture, and Foundations. It appears to your Commissioners that under this heading the sites may be placed thus:-

Albury Tumut Orange Lyndhurst ...

Armidale } l

Bathurst equa

Lake George Bombala ...

. .•. ...

CLIMATE.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Six of the suggested Capital Sites, namely, Armidale, Bathurst, Bombala, b d l t

. · sttes.

Lake George, Lyndhurst, and Orange, are upon ta le-lan s at e eva Ions varymg from 2,200 to 3,450 feet above sea-level. Tumut (Lacmalac) and Albury (Table Sites not on Top) have altitudes respectively of 1,050 anu 800 feet, the former being in the hilly table-land. country immediately west of the higher parts of the Southern table-land, and the

latter

Effect of altitude.

68

latter at the western termination of the foothills of the Australian Alps and the commencement of the almost level tract of country lying between the Murray and the Murrumbidgee, which is known as Riverina. ·

The element of altitude givEs a certain amount of similarity to the climates of the Bites though, of. course, local conditions, such as the degree of

shelter from trying winds, whether hot or cold, cause many variations. Albnry and Of the Sites not on the table-lands, Albury (Table 'I'op) and Tumut

(Lacmalac) have climates differing considerably from one another, and it is not

Tnmut more easy to. compare them. Table Top occupies an elevated plateau, while Tumut is particularly well sheltered from the cold southedy winds, and is cooler in summer,

Top. milder in winter, and more equable all the year round. Particnlars of Particulars of temperature, summarised as to all the Sites in Appendix No. D, and given in the detailed description of each Site will, with the further to be

found in those descriptions, supply materials upon which some conceptions of the climates be formed.

A diagram by the Government Astronomer of New South Wales, showing temperature and rainfall, will be found in Appendix No. 12. Relative Your Commissioners' opinion of the relative desirability of the climates of climates- l

opinions as t lC suggested Sites is as follows :-to.

Mr. Campbell's opinion.

Tumut Lyndhurst Bathurst } 1 e ua Lake George q Orange Albury Armidale Bombala

SoiL-PRODUC'l'IVENEss.

1

2

3

4

5

()

.7

The Director of Agriculture, Mr. W. S. Campbell, was asked by the Commission for an expression of opinion as to the relative productiveness of the districts within a radius of 50 miles of each of the Sites. His answer will be found in full in Appendix No. 7. .

Mr. Campbell places the districts thus-and your Commissioners prefer to be guided by his judgment. .

Tumut 1

Bathurst . . . 2 .

Lyndhurst 1 1 3 Orange f equa Albury 4

Bomba]a ... 5

Armidale ... 6

Lake George 7

Mr. Campbell points out that in the case of the three western Sites-Bathurst, Orange, and Lyndhmst-the districts overlap.

BUILDING MA'l'ERIALS AND CosT oF BUILDING.

Cost of The building materials obtainable in the districts adjacent to the suggested building. Sites have been described in detail in the Site reports, but the important element of relative cost of building has not been specially referred to. -Estimate3. In order to obtain trustworthy estimates on this subject, information was

sought from the New South Wales Public Works Dep1rtment, Mr. G. Sydney Jones, A.RI.B.A., Honorary Secretary of the Institute of Arcl1itects; nnd a well-known quantity surveyor (Mr. W. 'rhompson).

Taking

283

69

Taking the cost of building in Sydney as being represented by 1·00, the com- parative cost of building at the various Sites is estimated by the above-mentioned ta e. authorities as follows :-

\V arks Department, ' Locality. A.R.I. B.A., Mr. \V. Thompson. Mean. Government Hon. Sec. Institute I \ Estimate of Public JMr G Syclney Jones I Architect. of Architects.

I

I

Alburv I 1•22 1"10 1'08 l'lH ... ... ... 1 Armidale ... ...

'"\

1•22 1•10 l'l7 l"lG

Bathurst ... . .. . .. 1'10 1•15 1'10 1'12

Bombala ... ... . .. 1 1"25 1"30 1'22 1•2(j Lake George .. ... 1"18 1•20 116 1'18 Lyndhur&t ... ... .. 1·15 1'15 1•15 1•15 Orange ... ... ... 1•15 1"12 11:l Tumut ... ... ... 1"20 1·15 I 11G 1'17 The differences are not greater than might have been expected between the Differences estimates of perfectly competent and independent authorities, and it may fairly be not great. · assumed that a mean of the three will give atj'esult as close to the facts as is possible under the circumstances. ·wATER SuPPLY. Assuming that whatever Site may be selected for the Federal Capital, water Population supply provision for a population of at least 50,000 would be deemed necessary, the following statement gives-(1) The description and cost of a supply for each suggested Site for that population ; and (2) The description and extent of .the total water supply resources of the district. SUPPLY FOR A POPULATION OJ!' 50,000. Cost of W arks, including Cost of Site. Description of Supply. annual working Resumption of Total Cost. expenses, and Catehment n1aintenance, Area. capitalised. £ £ £ Albury ... ... ... Pumping scheme ... ... .. . 512,000 Nil. (a) 512,000 Armidale ... ... ... Gravitation scheme ... .. . 58,500 o!11,7CO Bathurst ... . .. Gravitation scheme ... . .. 350,200 l·14,UU5 Bomba Ia ... ... . .. Pumping scheme ... ... ... 409,500 121,500 (c) Lake George ... ... Gravitation scheme . .. ... 300,100 80,400 350,500 Lyndhurst ... ... ... Gravitation schemes (b) ... . .. 2!l7,300 160,lUO 4:!7,4l0 Orange ... ... ... ·Pumping scheme .•. ... . .. l,OG5,300 Ul,750 1,207,0.:0 'rumut ... ... ... Gravitation scheme .. . ... 200,100 180 20cl,280 (a) Catchment not to be resumed. (b) Two schemes required-virle p. 49. (c) If electricity instead of steam were used for pumping, the cost would be reduced to £4!7,600-vide p. 36. TOTAL WATE!l SUPPLY RESOURCES, INCLUDING THOSE MENTIONED IN TABLE ABOVE. Site. Description of SuprJy. GraYitation . n I I T I s I :3 1 t1i . t Pumpmg "upp J ota np1• y upp Y su sufficient for sufficient for for Population of of ----------- ---------Albury l'umping ... ···' Nil. flO(I,fJCO noo,ooo Armidale Gravitation and pumping 57,000 42:3,000 480,000 Gravita.tion and pumping ... }:13,000 76,000 20!l,OOO }{ombala l'umpin;! ... Nil. 530,000 530,00:) Lake George Gravitation and pumping 112,000 4W,OOO Ly.ndhurst .. Gravitation and pumping SD,OOO 203,000 2!J2,COO Orange ... Pumping... ... . .. Nil. 225,000 2:25,000 Tumut .. I Gravitation and pumping 520,000 450,00J 1,000,000

.AU s.ites can supply population of 60,000.

Comparison and basis of supply, population of 50,000.

70

. . All the Sites offer a practicable water supply for a population of 50,000, but 1t will be observed that gravitation schemes are cheaper than those in which is necessary, and n pumping scheme is actually at a somewhat greater

disadvantage as compared with a gravitation scheme of the same volume than appears from the actual figures given, owing to the fact that the machinery needs renewal at recurrent periods, and there is always a greater liability to interruption of supply.

On the basis of comparative cost of water supply for a population of 50,000, the Sites stand in the following order:-Table A. 'l'umut 1

Lake George 2

Armidale . .. .. , 3

Eombala . . . .. • 4

Lyndhurst . . • 5

:Bathurst ,.. ... 6

Albury '·" ... •.• ••. 7

Orange .. , 8

. . the case of Bombala, the facilities for generating electricity are sQ grent that the

posJt.Jtm to that place in the above table is on the supposition that it would be used as a motive power. Comparison Although there is no. reason to suppose that for a very long period the

popt,\lation of the Capital will the limit of 50,000 upon which estimates of

tiono.fg.reatQr cost of the primary supply are based, it is in considedng the relative

popul3t; tm. of the Sites from the point of view of water supply, to compare them on the

s·upposition that this limit may eventually be greatly exceeded. Washington, In view of the fact that Washin!!tOn 1 the Capital of a Federation with a present LJ population. population twenty times as great as tbatof Australasial has, :more than 100 years

of growth, than 28.0,000 inhabitants, it may perhaps b,e considered that a provision sufficient for 200,000 people would meet even the ultimate needs of the Federal of Capital. All the Sites have '\ater 1:esour<,>es ca;pahle of .supplying this

sites. and five of them have suffici,ent fot' popu.latHms varymg from half a mdhon to · a million. Comparison 'l'akin!! into account all considerations, such as increas.e of population from on basis .._, population 50,000 to 200,000, the time likely to intervene before the population reaches the of

200 • 000 · latter figure, the superiority of gra"itation schemes over pumping schemes, and all

the surroundings of each suggested Site, we place them in the following order :-

Tumnt­ gravitation supply for over 200,000.

Table B.

Tumut 1

:Bathurst } 1 Lake George equa 2

Armidale } 1 3 Lyndhurst equa Eombala 4

Albury 5

0 6 range ...

'l,umut is the only district in which a gravitation supply for a population of 200,000 or over can he obtained.

AccEssunLI'l'Y.

Consideration The iables given in Appendix No. 3 represent the subject of

from various points of view. After careful consideration of the results denvable

from those tables, we are of opinion that the Sites stand in the following order as regards accessibility :-Albury... 1

Lyndhurst 2

'rumut ... 3

Orange ... 4

Luke George 5

Bathurst ()

Bomhala 7

Armidale 8

Kon.-Lyndhurst and Tumut numerically come out equal, but the preferencn is g1ven lo the former in consequence of the advantage it has in being situated on a through line. CosT

71

CosT OF REsUMPTION.

The cost of resumption of the suggested Sites, as to the City area, taking the lowest cost first, and so oil, is :-Alburv }

Armiclale . equal.

Lake George Lyndhurst Bombala. Tumut.

Bathurst. Orange.

As to cost of resumption of catchm _ ent areas fur primary water supply, the order is :-Tumut.

{

It is i. m . practic.able in . this c. ase to resume the catchment area, Albury but the cost of the works necessary to ensure the purity of the water is an offset to the saving on catchment. Armidale. •

Lake George. · Bombala. Bathurst. Orange. Lyndhurst.

The following table summarises the placing of the Sites under the different headings:-..

!

Building

' Cost of Resumption. Topography Materials Water I Site . . and Climate. Soil-Pro- and Cost I

Accessi-

Suitability. ductiveness. of (Ta le B.) ' bility. !Catchment

Building. !

Site. Area..

i

.Albut·:r ... , .. . .. I 1 I 5 4 2 5 1 I 1 2 I Armidale I

5 I G ... "I

(j 4 3 8 1 3

I

Bathurst ... 5 I 3 2 l 2 G 4 G ''' i

Bombala ... . .. 7 7 5 7 4 7 2 5

Lake George .... .. 6 3 7 6 2 5 1 4

Lyndhurst ... ... 4 2 3 3 3 2 1 8

Orange ... ... . .. 8 4 3 2 (j .J, i 5 7

I

I Tumut ... ... . .. 2 1 1 5 1

3

I

3 1

I

I

I I I

No attempt has been made to determine the absolute order of merit of the Sites. 'l'his could only he done hy assigning values to the respective headings, anrl this, as we understand it, is outside the scope of the Commission.

AcKNOWLEDGMENTS.

In conclusion, your Commissioners desire to acknowledge tltc many obliga­ tions thcv are under for much valuable assistance most kincllv rendered to them while out the duties of their Commission. •

To the Premier of New South '\V nlcs, the Commissioners nrc inclehted for tltc issue of instructions to the Police and to nll t1w Govcrnmm1t Departments, which immensely facilitated the work of the Commission in numerous directions; to tlw Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, for his kindness in placing at th<'ir disposal

the Committee rooms which were occupied during the prep:tration of the Report ; and to the Officers of the House for their courtesy and ready help in many 'rays. Valuable

285

72

Valuable information was given by the Railway Commissioners of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and South Australia; whilst the Engineers-in-Chief of New South Wales and Victoria deserve special acknowledgment for the ready assistance afforded in supplying maps, estimates, &c.

The Railway Commissioners of New South Wales, and the Acting Commis­ sioner for Railways in Victoria (Mr. \V. Fitzpatrick), laid us under special obligation by their great-kindness in providing special carriage accommodation on the railways under their control ; while cordial thanks are due to Mr. H. McLachlan, Secretary to the New South \Vales Uailway Commissioners, and Mr. Kent, Secretary to the Victorian Commissioner, for the complete and convenient arrangements made in

connection therewith. The Government Statisticians of all the States, and the Engineers in charge of \Vater Supply in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and South Australia, courteously supplied much useful information. ·

New South Wales being the scene of inquiry, our obligations are naturally greater in that State than in the others. Our hearty thanks are due to the and officers of the Public ·works, L:mds, and Mines and .... '\ griculture

Departments, to the Government Astronomer, and to the Government Botanist, for invaluable aid. ·

Our special thanks are due to Mr. W. S. Campbell, Director of Agricultute, who visited most of the sites with us, and rendered us signal service in very many ways. In connection with the preparation of the maps accompanying this Report, we may be permitted to record specially the services of Mr. HarP, Chief Draftsman, J\{r. Vautin, of the Compiling Branch, and Mr. Cobham, of the Lithographic Branch of the NewSouth Wales Lands Department, all of whom were untiring in their efforts.

The District and Staff Surveyors of the Lands Department in the various districts earned our gratitude by placing at our disposal their professional skill, local knowledge, and mature experience as to values, which were of the greatest assistance. We should like to mention the names of District-Surveyors Crouch, Sheaffe,

Conolly, and Chapman, and Staff-Surveyors Hogarth, Nowland, Steane, Orr, and Chesterman. Mr. Chesterman not only gave us useful aiel in the country, but was attached to our staff for a few weeks and rendered material assistance in connection with the preparation of maps.

We remember, too, with pleasure, the kindly services rendered us by the Chairmen and Secretades of local Capital Site Leagues, the Mayors of the different towns visited, and the parliamentary representatives of districts examined. We received special assistance from Mr. 'I'. Pridham, of the Water Supply and Sewerage Branch, Public Works Dep:.utment, New South \Vales, who, with the kind permission of the Minister, was attached to the Commission as Assistant Engineer. Mr. Pridham accompanied us in our inspection of the Water Supply resources of the several districts, in which task his local knowledge and professional experience were very valuable. On our return to Sydney he prepared the Water

Supply estimates given in the Report. Your Commissioners must refer with regret to the resignation of their late Secretary, Mr. 'I'. F .. Purbcr, through ill-health, at an early period of their Inquiry. After an interval, Mr. Stephen Mills, of the Public V\r orks Department of New South Wales, ·was appointed to the vacant position; and we have much appreciated the valuable assistance he lms given, not only hy his prOfessional and literary ability, hut also by the zeal and energy be has displayed.

We have the honor to be, Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

16th July, 1903.

JOHN KIRKPATRICK, Ohairnwn. A. W. HOWIT'l\ F.G.S., HENRY C. STANLEY, M. Inst. C.F., GRAHAM STEWAitT.

73

LIST OF APPENDICES.

No. 1.-WATER SUPPLY-(a) List of proposed Water Supply works, and estimate of cost for primary sources of supply (50,000 population).

(b) Particulars and values of lands within catchment areas.

No. 2.-ANALYSIS OF WATER.

No. 3.-ACCESSIBILITY-(a) Explanation of methods used in determining the centres of population of the States and of the Commonwealth.

(b) Set of tables giving results of investigations into the question of relative accessibility to £he different sites, and a table stfwing present population and antiCipated population at the end of thirty years.

{c) Particulars of the Railway works necessary to connect with existing lines thosa sites

not already connected, and of the projected or suggested railways, which, if constructed, would affect the accessibility to the different sites from the various State Capitals.

No. 4.-BUILDING :MATERIALS-STONE-(a) Reports by District Architects, Public Works Department, on the Building Stone found in the districts surrounding suggested Federal Capital Sites.

(b) List of samples of stone collected by the Commissioners from various localities, with reports as to their strength and suitability for building purposes by Professor ·warren, Sydney University, and Messrs. Loveridge and Hudson, building contractors and quarry-masters.

No. 5. -TIMBER-( a) List of Timbers of commercial value found in the districts in which are the suggested sites for the Federal Capital.

(I!) Prices at Sydney of Hardwood Timbers.

No. G.-TREES AND SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR PLANTING'--List supplied by the Director of Agriculture of Trees and Shrubs suitable for planting about each of the proposed Capital Sites.

No. 7.-:-SOIL PRODUCTIVENESS-Report by the Direct-or of Agriculture as to the relative Productiveness of the districts within a radius of 50 miles of the proposed- Capital Sites.

No. 8.-COAL-PRICES OF-Statement furnished by the Chief Inspector of Coal-mines, New South \Yales, showing probable cost of coal delivered at several places where sites are under consideration for the Federal Capital.

No. 9.-TEMPERATURES-Temperatures of Spring, Summer, Autumn, and 'Vinter at the towns nearest the various suggested Capital Sites.

No. 10.-MUNICIPAL VALUATIONS--Municipal V,lnations-Towns nearest the various suggested Capital Sites.

No. H.-HEALTH AND PLEASURE RESORTS.

No. 12.-DIAGRAM SHOWING TEMPERATUHE AND RAINFALL.

No. 13.-LIST OF MAl'S.

K

287

Appendix No. 1.

1VATER SUPPLY.

Lists of Proposed Works to Supply Population of 50,000; also Statement of Capital Cost and Annual Cost ; and Schedule, giving Particulars and Values of Lands in Catchment Areas.

ALBURY.

The principal works of the proposed scheme, the positions of which are shown on Plan No.9, are as follows:-(a) Pumping-station, including a welt and galleries in the river drift, to provide the necessary infiltration area.

(b) 24<-inch steel rising main, 1 mile in length, to service reservoir. (c) Service res>rvoir to command the city site; capacity, 5,000,000 gallons. (d) 28-inch steel main, 7 miles in length, from service reservoir to city site,

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a population of 50,000, is as follows:-*Pumping by Steam Power-Oapital Oost.

Cost of works

Annual Oost.

Working expenses and maintenance .•. Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total...

Oost.

Capital cost Annual working expenses and maintenance, capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total. ..

£218,350

£11,746 8,734

£20,480

£:218,250 293,650

£51?,000

*If the Cumberoona dam were built, and electr:c pnrer used for pumping, the total capitali>ed cost would be reduced to £317,000.

ARMIDALE.

The principal works of the proposed scheme from the Gyra River, the positions of which are shown on Plan No. 10, are as follows:-(a) Curved concl'ete dam across the Gyra Hiver, 80 feet high. (b) 26-inch steel main, 25 miles in length, .to service reservoir.

(c) Service reservoir to command the city site-capacity, 5,000,000 gallons. (d) 30-inch steel main, 2t miles in length, from service reservoir to city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a population of 50,000 is as follows :-Capital Oost. Cost of works

Resumption of alienated portion of catchment area

Total

Annual Oost.

Working expenses and maintenance ... Interest at 4 per cent. per anl'.um

Totd

Total Cost.

Capital cost ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .

Annual working expensee and maintenance, capitalised at 4 per cent. ...

Total

£323,200 58,500

£381,700

£40J 15,26H

£15,66'1

£381,700 10,000

£3!)1,700

BATHURST.

75

Appendix No. 1-r:ontinued.

BATHURST.

The principal works included in the Campbell's River scbeme1 the positions of which are shown on Plan No. 11, are as follows:- .

(a) Concrete dam across Campbell's River 80 feet hiO"h. (b) 2-!·inch steel main, 31 miles in le11gth, to service (c) Service reservoir to command the city site; capacity, 5,000,000 gallons. (d) 30-inch steel main, l t miles in length, from service reservoir to city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a population of 60,000 is as follows:-Capital Cost. Cost of works . . . . ..

Resumption of alienated portion of catchment nrea ...

Total

Anmtal Cost.

W orking expenses and maintenanca ... Interest at 4 per cent. per annum •••

'l'otal

Total Cost.

Capital cost .. . .. . ... . . . ... ... ... . ..

Annual working expenses and maintenance, capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total

BOMBALA.

£340,200 124,665

£464,865

£400 18,594

£18,994

£464,865 10,000

£474,865

The principal works of the proposed scheme on the Delegate River, the positions of which are shown on Plan No. 12, are as follows :-(a) Concrete d:;Lm, 40 feet high, across the river. (b) Pumping station at the dam.

(c) 24-inch steel rising main , 16 miles in length, to service reservoir. (d) Service reservoir to command the city site; capacity, 5,000,000 gallons. (e) 30-inch steel main, 2 miles in length, from the service reservoir to the city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a population of 50,000, is as follows:-Pumping by steam power-Capital Cost.

Cost of works ...

Cost of resumption of alienated portion of catchment area within New South Wales Cost of resumption of the portion of the catchment situated in Victoria (assumed) ...

Total

Working expenses and maintenance Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total

Annual Co11t.

Total Oost.

Capital cost ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . ..

.Annual working expenses and maintenance, capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total

£209,325

49,590

72,000

£330,915

£8,007 . 13,237

£21,244

£;3:30,915 200,175

£531,090

If electricity, generated by water power obtained from the Snowy River, were used for pumping, the total capitalised cost would be reduced to £417,600.

The

289

76

Appendix No. !"-continued.

BO MBALA-continued.

The estimated cost of the Snowy River scheme, exclusive of reticulation, but includin"' provision for clarifying the water during floods, to supply a population of 50,000, is as follows:-0

Pumping to be by electricity generated by water power.

Capital Cost.

Cost of works, including provision for clarifying water during floods

Annual Cost.

w-orking expenses and maintenance ... Interest, at 4· per cent. per annum

Total

:l'otal Cost.

Capital cost ... ..

Annual working expenses and maintenance capitalised at 4 per cent ....

Total

LAKE GEORGE.

£301,378

£12,645 12,055

£24-,700

£301,378 316,122

£617,500

principal works included in the Queanbeyan River Scheme, the positions of which are show:r:.

on Plan l'lo. 14, are as follows :- -

(a) Curved concrete dam, 80 feet high across the Queanbeyan River. (h) 26-inch steel main, 3:3 miles in length, to service reservoir. (c) Service reservoir tJ co:nrnmd the citv Gtp.wity, 5,0 JO,OJJ gtllml. (d) :'lO-inch main, Jt miles in length from service reservoir to city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme to supp)y a population of 60,000, exclusive of reticulation, is as follows :-C11pitul Cost. Cost of works ...

Colt of resumption of alienated portion of catchment area

TotaL.

Annual Cost.

·working expenses and maintenance ... Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total. ..

Total Cost.

Capital cost ..

Annual working expenses and nnintenance capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total...

LYNDHURST.

£290,100 80,400

£370,500

£400 14,820

£15,220

£370,500 10,000

£380,500

The principal works inclu:.ied in t!1e Coombing Rivulet scheme, the positions of which are shown on Plan No. 11, are as follows :-(a) Concrete dam with eRrth wing 70 feet high acros3 the Cuombing Hivulet. (b) 20-inch steel main, !:lt miles in length, to set·vice reservoir.

(c) Service reservoir to command the city site; eapncity 5,000,000 gallons. (d) 30-inch steel main, 1 mile in length, from service reservoir to city site. The estimated cost of that part of the scheme derived from the Coombing exclusive of

reticulation, to provide for a population of 40,000, i$ as follows:-Capital Cost.

Cost of works Gust of resumption of alienated portion of the catchment area

Total ...

Working expenses and maintenance Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total. ..

.Annual Cos!.

Total Cost.

Capital cost ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . ..

Annual working expenses and maintenance capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total ...

£159,400 lll,500

£270,900

£200 10,83G

£Ll,03G

£270,900 5,00U

£275,900

The

77

Appendix No. 1-continued.

LYNDHURST-continued.

The principal included in the :Flyer'o:l Creek scheme to supplement the Coombing Rivulet scheme to the extent reqmred for a population or 50,000, the positions of which are shown on Plan No. 11, are aL follows:-(a) lJuned concrete dam 63 feet hi gh across the creek.

(h) 15-inch steel main, miles in length to the service reservoir connected the Coombing Rivulet scheme. Tho estimated cost of this scheme is as follows :-Capital Cost.

Cost of works . . . . ..

Cost of resumption of the aliena'eu portion of the catchment area

Total

An11ual Cost.

Working expenses and maintenance ... Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total

Capital cost

Annual working expenses and maintenance capitalised at 4 per cent.

Total

£fl5,400 48,660

£144,060

£300 5,762

£6,062

£14:1.,060 7,500

£151,560

Total cost of the combined schemes from the Coombing Rivulet and Flyer's Creek to supply a population of 50,000, £427,460.

ORANGE.

The principal items of the proposed scheme on Flyer's Creek, which are shown on Plan No. 13, are as follows :-(a) Concrete dam with earth wing 75 feet high across Flyer's Creek. (b) Dam across Cadiangullong Creek 30 feet high.

(c) 20-inch steel main 6t miles in length connecting Cadiangullong Creek weir with the Flyer's Creek reservoir. (d) Pumping station at Flyer's Creek reservoir. . .

(e) 24-inch steel rising main 13 miles in length from Flyer's Creek reservoir to servrce reservoir. , (f) Service reservoir to command the city site ; capacity, 5,000,000 gallons. (g) 30-inch steel main 8 miles in length from service reservoir to city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a population of 50,000, is as follows:-Pumping by steam power-Capital Cost.

Cost of worlrs ...

Cost of resumption of alienated portion of the catchment area

Total

Annual Cost.

Working expenses and maintenance ... Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total

Tutal c, st.

Capital cost Annual working expenses and maintenance capitalised at 4 per cent . .

Total

£583,775 141,750

£725,525

.119,261 29,021

£48,282

£725,525 481,525

TUM l iT

291

Appendix No, l-continued. TUMUT.

. . . The principal works ofthe propo

(a) Weir, 20 feet high, across the river, below its junction with Em:1 Creek. (h) 20-inch steel main; 17 miles in length, frorn wei1' to senice reservoir. (c) Two settling reservoirs-joint capaeity, 10,000,000 gallons. (d) Service reservoir to command the city site-capacity, 5,COO,OOO gallons.

(e) 30-inch steel rnain, 1 mile in length, from service reservoir to city site.

The estimated cost of the complete scheme, exclusive of reticulation, to supply a popt;lation of 50,000, is as follows :-Oap ital Oost. Cost of works ...

Cost of resumption of alienated portion of catchmcn(area £190,100 180

Total

Annual Oost.

Working expenses and maintenance ... Interest at 4 per cent. per annum

Total

Pula/ Oost.

Capital cost

£190,280

£4,00 7,611

£8,011

Annual working expenses and maintenance,·capitalised at 4 per cent. £190,280 10,000

Total £200,280

Estimated values of lands within catchment areas are recapitulated in the following Schedule:-

SCHEDULE SUPPLYING PARTICULARS AND VALUES OF LANDS ON CATCHMENT AREAS.

Site. Description of Catchment.

I

Albury .. ... . .. ....... Not to be resumed.

I

Armidale ......... .. .... Catchment area of the Gyra River, a road /

crossing 5i miles north-easterly from Black Moun-/ tain Range Station and miles south -easterly from Guyra Hailway Station.

Bathurst .............. Catchmen t area of Campbell's Ri1·er and tributaries above Dog Hocks, Burramagoo Station.

Bombala ...... ...... .. Catchment of Delegate Ri1'er, above junction of

Haydon's Springs, uk to the Victorian Border. Catchment of Delegate iver in Victoria .... ... .... ...

Lake George ..... ... Catchment of Queanbcyan River above a point miles above th e junction of Tinderry Creek. l :f

Lyndhurst ............ Catchm ent of Coombing Rivul et above westeru boundary of portion 5ti in the parish of Sl1<1w, l miles south-westerly from the village of Shaw. Catchm ent of Flyer's Creek above outlet of Long

Swamp.

Orange .... ..... ........ Joint ca tchm ents of Flyer's Creek, abo1·e a point about half-a-mile below junction of Creek, ncar Brrowanhang Homestead, and of Cadi angulong Cre!'k .

Tumut .. ... ... ... .... ... Catchment of Goobragandra River and tributaries

abOI'e a point immedi:ltely below its junction with Emu Creek.

Crown Lands Alienated Land in Catchment. in Catchnlent.

acres. acres.

12,20J 3U,OOO

24,330 66,550

5,230 10,530

Not known 36,000

( assuint>d ).

81,920 42,880

4,660 46,540

770 10,750

11,700

65,800 120

Approximate I mproved Freehold Value of ·

Alienated Lands in Catchment.

£58,500.

£124,665.

£49,590.

£72,000. (assumed). £80,400.

£lll,500.

£48,660.

£141,750.

£180.

79

Appendix No. 2.

Reports of Analyses of Water from Albury, Bathurst, Bombala, Orange, and '11umut.

NoTE.-Samples of water for analysis were only taken at those places where the streams were running time of inspection. Orange, well water.

ALBURY.

Health Department of New South Wales, Analytical Branch, Sydney, 7 April, Hl03.

Report on chemical analysis of a sample of water marked "B" from drift on premises near Murray River, Cumberoona, collected by Road Superintendent, Albury District, on 2ht March, 1903, at 2 p.m. Analysis commenced on 26th March, 1903. (No. 3,214.)

1. Colour (in 2-foot tube) 2. Clearness 3. Odour 4. Aeration ...

5. Reaction .. . 6. Sediment .. .

1. Total solid residue 2. Chlorides as chlorine 3. Phosphates 4. Sulphates

5. Organic matter:-Nitrogen as

Ammonia

Oxygen abs:nbrd

(Total

6. Hardness 00. -< (Permanent

7. Poisonous metals 8. Free oxygen 9. Free nitrogen* .. .

10. Carbonic acid .. .

Physical Okaracters.

Ohemical Characters.

··· l Nitrites

{

Free ...

·· · Combine.d ..

S In fifteen minutes ( In four hours ...

S Clark's degrees 00' ( Per l,OUO,OGO Clark's degrees ( Per 1,000,000 oo•

•oo (Combined ...

Remarks.

....

Brownish tint. Fairly clear. None.

Neutral. Small amount.

58•00 10·oo ·oo 2'10

Trace. ·oo '13 ·os

'20 •40

None.

This water is fit for human consumption. WILLIAM M. HAMLET, Government Analyst.

NoTE.-The constituents are stn.te1 in parts per million: to find equivalents in grains per imperial gallon, multiply by •07 . . • For cubic centimetres per litre, divide by l ,000.

BATHURST.

Health Department of Now South Wales, Analytical Branch, Sydney, 20 April, 1903.

Report on Chemical Analy;;is of a Sample of Water, mark('d Federal Capital Sites from well on premises at right bank of Macquarie Hiver, Bathurst, collected by Mr. Pridham, Vvorks Depart­ ment, on 7th April, 1903. Analysis commenced on !Jth April, 1903. (No. 2,28u.)

Physical Oharactcrs.

l. Colour (in 2-foot tube) ... 2. Clearness ...

Peaty tint. .. . Slightly turbid.

3. Odour None.

4. Aeration .. . 5. Reaction .. . Alkaline.

G. Sediment .. . Small amount.

Chemical

BA 1'HURST-continued.

1. Total solid residue :!. Chlorides as chlotir.o H. Phosphates 4. Sui phates 5. Organic matter:-

Xitrogen as

Ammonia

Oxygen absorbed

(Total

EO

Apuendix No. 2-continued.

Chemical Olwracters.

f Nitrates ··· (Nitrites

f Free .. .

... (_Combined .. . S In fifteen minutes "· (_In four hour a ...

5 Clark's degrees · · · (_ Per J ,000,00:)

28200 21 ()() ·oo 3'700

Trace. ·oo ·oo ·oa ·20 '41

G. Hardness )

... (Permanent f Clar·k's derrrees

.. · (_ Per J ,00),000

7·

1CO·

!);3·

7. Poisonous metal8 8. Free oxygen !1 . . Free nitrogen* ...

10. Carbonic acid

An oxcdlent drinking water;

(Free ...

"· ( Combined ... R cm ar!cs.

suitable for all domestic purposes. Fit for human consumption. 1'. COOKSEY, Second Goycrnment Analy8t.

NoTE.-The constituents are stated in parts per million: to find equivalents in grains per imperial gallon, multiply by ·07. '' l<'or cubic centimetres per litre, divide by 1,000.

BOMBALA.

Health Department of New South Wales, Analytical Branch, Sydney, 20 January, 1902.

on Chemical Analysis of a Sample of ·water, marked Delegate River, from proposed Storage

Reservoir on Works Department premises, near Delegate Station, New South Wales, collected by the Surveyor-in-Cha1·ge, on 21st December, 1901. Analysis commenced on 8th January, 1902, at 10 a.m. (No. 718.)

1. Colour (in 2-foot tube) ... 2. Clearness ... 3. Oduur 4. eration .. .

5. Reaction .. . G. Sediment .. .

] . Total solid residue 2. Chlorides as chlorine 3. Phosphates 4. Sulphates 5. Organic Matter:-

Nitrogen as

Ammonia

Oxygen absorbed

(Total

G. Hardness )

... (Permanent

7. Poisonous metals 8. J?ree oxygen 9. l•'ree nitrogen* .. .

10. Carbolic acid .. .

Ph.7Jsical Characters.

Chemical Oharac{(rs.

f Nitrates ... ( Nitrites

f Free .. .

... (Combined .. .

SIn fifteen minutes .. · (_In four hours ...

S Clark's degrees ··· (_ Per 1,000,000 f Clark's degrees .. · (_ Per 1 ,000,000

J Freo ...

... I_ Combined ...

Remarks.

Peaty tint. Little suspended matter. None.

Neutral. Small amount.

a2·oo s·oo ·oo 2•40

Trace. ·oo •02 •11 ·';'0 1'40 1• 1:1,·

None.

An excellent drinking water; suitable for all domestic purposes. WILLIAM M. HAMLE1', Government Analyst.

NoTE.-The are stated in parts per million: to fi1ul equivalents in grains per impel'ial gallon, multiply by ·Oi. • For cubic centimetres per litre, by 1,000.

TUJ\1UT.

81

Appendix No. 2-continued. TUMUT. Health Department of New South Wales,

. . Annlytical Branch, Sydney, 22 May, l!l03;

REPORT on chemical analys1s of a sample of water markC'd " :Federal Capital Sites Commission '' from Upper Goobragandra River, nC'ar junction with Emu Creek, at Tumut, collected bv F. G. Neilley on lOth May, 1903, at 3 p m. Analysis commenced on 14th May, 1903. • ·'

..

I Oxygen absorbed "' d

I o .. :s " gj I 0 :::l .; 11 L ... Q) c·- § .; J "'

C;l

gj General Physical No. Description. \ ·ll·=·s s 8 :s .c " .§]

I

"'"" "8 In 15 I In 4

.,o,. ..<:: Characters.

s

.$ 0 "' '"o z mim,1tes. hours. ;:: ..<:: ::; co<< ro. I 0 <11

I I

3502 River, Upper ·u ·oo ·oo itrace I·I8 2•35 6Z·OO 4·00 I ·oo 300 25· Peaty tint ; little sus·

Goobragandra,

I

pended matter ;

Tumut.

I neutral : odour.

I I i

less; small amount of sediment.

I I I

NoTE.-The constituents are stated in parts per million ; to find equh·alents in grains per Imperial gallon, multiply by ·o7.

Remarks.

An excellent drinking water, suitable for all domestic purposes.

ORANGE.

W. M. HAMLET, Government Analyst.

Health D<>parfment of New Soutl1 Wales, Analytical Branch, Sydney, 27 April, 1903.

HEPORT on clJemical analysis of three samples of water marked '1 Federal Capital Sites Commission," from wells at Railway Station and Breweries (2) premises at Orange, New South Wales. Analysis com· menced on 22nd April, 1903 .

I

..

I

"' d

I

0'0 Oxygen

" gj "d'S :e "' .s Hardness.

I

.;

No. Description. .sf:E'§

01

gj gj

Inl5 I In4

:s

;::

. . ;j General Phy•ical I ;:=::1Q s ] ..,op, ;:: Characters. 1 a "" I 0 € E s-. s-.

(b)

(a)

·02 ·oo trace[ 4•60 ·oo

I

·13 330•00 I 29•00 ·oo 111·20 I

NOTE.-The constituents are st>tcd in permillion; to find equivalents in grains per Imperial gallon, multiply by ·07.

Remarks.

Fit for human consumption. T. COOKSEY, Second Government Analyst.

Appendix No. 3.

ACCESSIBILITY.

This Appendix comprises-Explanation of methods used in determining the centres of population of the States, and of the Commonwealth ; Set of tables giving results of investigations into the question of the relative

accessibility of the different sites, and a table (IV) showing present population and population anticipated at end of 30 years hence; and Particulars of the ltailway works necessary to connect with existing lines those sites not already so connected, and of the projected or suggested railways

which, if constructed, would affect the accessibility of the different sites from the various State (a) The investigations to determine the centres of population, present and future, of the Common­ wealth were conducted in the following manner :-

The distribution of population by countiea and other recognised subdivisions was first ascertained from the last censns returns, and a centre of population assumed for each, allowance being made for any preponderance due to populous towns existing within the subdivision. From the values of these, as referred to a common origin of co-ordinates, the mean co-ordinates were derived, which afforded a means of locating the centres of population of the State. By a similar process applied to the State centre!!, thus computed, the centre of the Commonwealth population was finally obtained.

L In

29:1

82

.Appendix No. 3'-continued.

In order to ascertain the position of the centres of population as determined by existing lines of communication, State population was assumed to be concentrated in its capital, the only exception being in the case of Tasmania, the population of which has been combined with that of VIctoria as centered in Melbourne ... The number of the population of each State, multiplied by the distance of its capital by existing means of communication from the zero points either Brisbane or Perth, added together and divided by the total population, gives the mean distance or point on existing lines of communication at which the centre of population of th!' whole Commonwealth is situated from zero. By a like method. the centres of population have .been computed in those cases where it is assumed that the population of the is in Sydney arid Melbourne, those cities being regarded as the starting points

from which tlie stream of traffic would Row to the Federal capital. (b). Following is a set of tables embodying the results of investigations into the question of the relative accessibility of the different sites. Table I gives the direct diiStances from each site to the several capital citie,s.

Table II gives distances and times from the sites to the various capitals by existing means of cblllriiunica;tibi\. .. . . •

· .. Table IIJ gives distances and times ofjourney by prospective means of communication between the suggested sites the State capitals. 'l'ap]e IV _shows present and prospective popUlation (30 years hence} of the different States. · Table V Rhows distances of sites from the central point on existing railway between Sytlney and Melbourne, and from Commonwealth centre of population by existing means of communication, computed on the assumption that present population is concentrated in Sydney 'tnt! Melboume.

Table VI giVes relative .distances of by existing means of commu11ication, from CJmmon wealth centre of popu.lation; computed on the that population is concentrated in tho State capitals, but including Tasmania with Victoria. Table VII gives relative distances of sites, by existing means of communication, from Commonwealth centre of population, omitting the population of ·western Australia from the computation.

TABLE I.-DIRECT DISTANCES .

Site. . [ Sydney. I Melbourne.] Brisbane. i. Adelaide.

., .............................. .

Artmdale .. . .. .. . .. .. . ............... .

Bathurst .............................. .

Bombala ............................. .

Lake George .... , ................ ..

. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . ..

1

O:ra. D.g. .................. -...... -.......... .

Tumut .................................. .

278 225 99 240

139

128 197

172 627 .

306 366 390 251

684 232 459 68!) 577

48!J 464 610

481 817 638 609

616 604 6!3 546

Perth.

1,$12 2 121 1:969 1,934 1,951

1,93() 1,9H 1,881

Hobart. Average

Distance.

479 651

879 817

665 705

424 689

5:!9 688

642 6!14

669 701

525 6u8

The a\·erilges are insertecLmerely to show the relative centrality of the sites in relation to the State capitah, ami are not put forwttrd as having any practical \·alne in determining their acceesil.JJity.

TABLE !I.-EXISTING. MEANS OF COMNlUNICATION.

! ! I Averages for

Sydney. Meibourne. Brisbane. i Adelaide. Perth. Hobart. of Order of

I comparison Centrality.

Proposed Site. I

I only.

!

Dis- I Net tance. time. Dis- I Net I Dis- I Net I Dis- I Net tance. tim-e. tance. tirrie. · time. Dis- I Net tance. time. Dis- I Net tance. time. Dis- I Net Dis-.1 Net tance. time. 1

tance. time.

·'

miles. r miles. hours., miles./ hours. miles. houra. miles. hours. miles. hours. miles. hours. milfB. hours. Albury ........... 376 ll 201 6 1,099 40 684 23 2,197 ll5 660 32 869 38 1 I I

Armidale ......... 365 14 942 31 372 16 1,424 48 Hl 1,401 1,240 51 7 5

Bathurst ......... 150 6 491- 16 873 34 977 33 2,490 126 953 42 989 43 4 3

Bomba.la 324 .16 6;J2 25 1,047 44 1,115' 42 2,628 135 458• 37 1,0,'H 50 6 4

Lake George ... 174 5 483 15 897 34 965 32 2,478 1:l4 942 4l 989 42 4 2

Lyndhurst ...... 191 7 443 14 914 35 925 31 2,438 124 002 40 969 42 2 2

Orange ........... I !Ill 6 482 i5 915 -34 964 32 2,477 12S 941 41 991$ I 42 5 2 Tumut ............ 323 11 394 12 1,046 39 876 29 2,389 122 853 3S 980 42 3 2 • This distance is calculated via Eden to Hobart. The route via Sydney, which is the more usual one, would make the distance 954 miles and alter the average distance to l,ll7 miles. By Melbourne and Launceston the distance would be 1 092 miles and the average 1,140 miles. .

' NoTE.-ln the case of branch or other lines on which, under present conditions, the trains are necessarily run at lower speeds, an ave:age speed of S:n hour has been all?wed for on t?e in the event of such lines

becoming main arteries of commumcatwn With the Federal capital the sen·we of trams Will be adapted to the altered circumstances. ·

In the above table the averages of distance and time are given as a means of comparing the relative accessibility of the various sites by existing means of communication, irrespective of tke distribution of the population. Communication is not in all cases by rail, and comparison of di11tance alone might, therefore, in some cases be misleading. It is consequently important to give due emphasis to the factor of time.

TAbLE III.

83

·_Appendix No. 3-cont1 4Juea.

TABLE Ill.-PROSPECT IVF. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. - -

I \ I -- I Average for

I Sydne)'. Melbourne. - Bri>bane. I Adelaide. I Pert h. Hobart. purposes of Order of · corilpariSon 1

only. Proposed Site.

Dis - I Ne t I Di s- i Net I Dis- J Net Dis- I J:!et Dis- i Net Dis- I Net Dis- ! ' Dls-f Net . tance. i time tance. \ tim.e j tance. 1 time t ance. j time tance. I t1me tance. thne tance . n tarice. time I mls.Jhrs.l i

mls hrs. mls; hrs. mls. !hrs. mls. hrs. mls. ,hrs. rnls. hrs.

Albury .. .... .. .. . .. .... .... 8!6 11 201 6 896 33 684 I 23 2,267 78 ti60 31 847 31 1 1

Armidale .... .. ... .... ... ..... 353 12 796 302 13 1,087 ! 36 2,481 88 1,255 51 1,045 38 7 5

Bathurst .. _ ....... ..... .... ... 151 5 1 495 16 668 25 801 i 27 2,331 82 954 42 900 33 4 3

Bombala .. ... .... ........ .... lO :H7 13 9i7 35 830 ! 30 2,520 89 463 32 !HO 35 5 4

Lake George ............... 174 5 I 483 15 828 31 789 j 26 2,37 1 83 942 41 93 1 33 6 3

L y ndhur st . ......... .. ..... 19 1 71 443 14 654 25 749 ; 25 2,317 81 902 40 87 6 32 2 2

Orange .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 192 6 482 15 615 23 788 1 26 2,278 180 941 42 1 883 qg $ 2 Tumut .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 lO I 395 12 s44 I 31 701 I 23 2,283 81 854 38 . 900 :)3 4 3 I I .. , ,. ""'''"'" r·' - By comparing this table with t he previous one, it will qe obser ved that Albury and Lyndhurst hold first and second place in each, whilst the t hird ia divided between Tumut and Orange, the former taking precedence under existing and thf.') latter under prospective condition s. · · ·· · · T ABLE I V. -PRESEN:r POPUJ,ATION AND E STIMATED POPULATION 30 YEARS H E NCE.· State. I -.. I I Present population iat 31st December, 1902 ._ Centesimal . Rates . N ew South W ales ...... .. ... ... ...... ..... . ....... ........ ... .. 1, 405, 450 2 ·45 II 2,905,300 Vi ctoria . ... ...... .. .. .................. .... .............. .. .. .... 1,205,513 2·05 2,210,850 Queensland .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. .... .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. 514,851 3 ·20 I 1,324,560 South Australia ..... . ... .... ........ .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .... .......... 366,000 1·80 625,050 \Vestern Australia ................ ... .. .. .. . .. .. ................. 21 5, 140 3·45 595,163 . .. . .. . . . . . .. ... . .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. . J77 ,972 1·85 3Qfl, 880 -----a,Ss4,026- - .. -.. -.. 9-67,80 3 Jt mp.y be t hat this is rather in of what would be obtained by employ ing the av erl!ge ratio of incre!lse as by Mr. Fenton for the whole of Australia, but the diffe rence is not such as to materiall y affect the position of the fut ure cent re of population. · TABLJJ: V.-SHOWING (a) DISTANCES OF 8ITES FROM CENTRAL POINT BETWEEN SYDN EY AND MELBOURNE (M ETHOD No. i), AND (b) DISTANCES OF SITES FROM CENTRE OF POPULATIO N, No. 6 (M ETH OD No. 2). (a) Ctntr:>l Point (288 miles from Sydney). (b) Centre of Population Concentrated in Sy

84

Appendix No. 3-continued.

remammg States (Centre No. 3) would be some 85 miles further to the eastward and would then be within 90 miles of Lyndhurst. Again, omitting Western Australia, and on the assumption that the population of the States is concentrated in the several capitals (Method No.4), computations show that the eentre of gravity of population (Centre No.7) on the main line of communication would be near l{ocky Ponds railway station, 222 miles from Sydney.

The following table shows the order of proximity of the various sites from the centre of population thus computed:-TABLE VII.-(METH:OD No. 4). DISTANCES FROM CENrRE OF POPULATION (No. 7), OMITTING WESTERN AUSTRALIA IN THE COMPUTATION.

Present Population Existing means of Communication (Method No. 4).

Propq_scd Sites.

Miles. Order of Proximity.

Albury ...................................................................... /

Armida.le ...................................... .. .............. .. .......... .

Bathurst; ................................................................ .

154 587 14G 278 128 100 139 100

5

7

4

6

2

1

3

1

Bombala. ................................................................. .

Lake George ............................................. ., .... ...... .

Lyndhurst ............................................... ................. .

Orange ....................................................................... .

Tumut ...................................................................... .

(c) The following statement shows the Railway works necessary to connect the sites with existing lines, and projected or suggested Railways:-,-RAILWAY WORKS NECESSARY TO CONNECT SITES WITH EXISTING LINES.

Line.

Armidale-Deviation ...... Bombala--Extension from Cooma.

Bathurst-Branch .........

Tumut-Extension to Lac­ malac.

I Length. miles. ll

6

6t

'yell in gton Creek. to 157 miles

27 chains.

Hay to 'Ventwot·th and South Australian border, connecting with A presumed extension of

the South Australian Railway from Morgan. Cobar to Wilcannia .......

and

W ilcannia to Broken Hill.

Broken Hill to Cockburn ... Mannahill to Carrieton, South Australia.

'Varwick to Brisbane "direct."

Bombala (New South

Wales) to Bairnsdale (Victoria),

llondi Junction (Bombala· Bairnsdale survey) to

miles. 234

14!

164

120

34 92

10)

176

I . Estim. ated I Cost. Notes.

£ I

75,000. Three routes to connect Cooma and Rombala have been surveyed, and the

one via Nimitybelle was recommended by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works (1901), who, however, do not appear to have considered the question of choice of route in connection with the possible location of the Federal Capital in this vicinity.

The line they recommended does not touch capital site, and if constructed as part of a through line to Victoria the site would have to be connected by a branch.

i

For purposes of estimating distance and cost, therefore, what is called ·the Middle route, via Curry'sFlat and Boeo Gap, has been taken,

45,000ii 50,000

as it is the most direct, least costly of the routes, and passes through the suggested capHal site.

NoTE.-The other sites are on existing railways. PROJECTED OR SUGGESTED RAILWAYS. £

514,576

720,000

576,000 ( at

£4,000 per mile.) 510,92i

388,426

219,985 414,000

631,500

1,181,500

931,000

Evidence of Chief Railway Commissioner, New South Wales, unfavourable to present construction. \V ould shorten distance from Queensland to Southern and Western Districts of New South Wales. E"idence of Chief Railway Commissioner, New 'Vales, unfavourable

to construction.

If Alburv, Tumut, or Bombala selected as Federal Capital, this route would Le of advantage. Would shorten the Adelaide distance from any of the Western sites by about 130 miles. Authorised by Parliament, and permanent survey in hand.

; if constructed would probably be extended to Cockburn· on

the South Australian Border. Chief Railway Commissioner, New South Wales, thinks this the most desirable route between Sydney and Adelaide.

Railways Commissioner, South Australia, says no present prospect of con­ struction. Would effect great saYing of distance from Western Australia in connection with Cobar-Broken Hill route. . Commissioner for Railways, Queensland, thinks this best for

line Brisbane-Sydney, and holds out best prospect for hne on umform gauge;· would save Ml miles. .

Several routes surveyed. The one most favoured by Victorian enginee:s is that via Orbost avd Bondi, which is 17 miles longer than route vta Delegate, but is expected to be cheaper, that curves an_d grac1es be easier, and better country passed through. As .agamst ro:ntes vm Delegate or Bendock, would involve only one of rang:e

instead of two, in the event of line from Bombala to l!:den, 1'la Bond1, also being constructed. , .

Three lines have surveyed to connect Bombala an· I Eden. 1.hat ma Walumla (Possell's route) is favoured by the Department as bemg the least costly, but in view of the advantages of the junction with Bombala­ Bairnsdale line, as referred to abO\·e, this has been chosen for purposes of computing distance and estimate. T, an.s·A usfralian Railway. £

Port Augusta (South Aus­ tralia) to Kalgoorlie

(Western Australia).

miles. 1,100

1

5;( 90,183 Now. being studied hy Engineers-in-Chief .of States. \Vould time

I

between \Vestern Australia and Federal Capital, whatever s1te ·be . chosen.

85

Appendix No. 3-continued.

The co nstruction of the proposed line between \\T erris Creek and W cllinalon would effect a savinl)' in d!stanee of 133 miles the A_lbury and Tumut sites and and t he same

Arnndale and whilst, a_s the through communication between Bathurst, Lyndhurst,

and Orange w1th Bnsbane, the savmg would amount to as mueh as from 1:3G to 2:31 miles. Th e suggested line from Hay to \Ventworth and Morgan would 176 miles in throurrh distance between A_delaide and_ the sites at Lake G eorge, Orange, Bathurst, Lyndhurst, and 'l'umut. " A line co nnechng Co bar, Broken Hill and Co c-kburn (S.A.) would, in conjuction with the W erris Creek and ·wellington line, reduce the distance between Armidale and Adelaide bv 337 miles whilst, in co inb_inat_ion the. proposed trans-Australian railway from Port Augusta lo Kafgoo rliP, it \;ould effect a savmg m d1 s tance betweeu Lyndhurst, Bathurst, and Orange of 121, 1!59, and 1!19 miles respectively.

The propost>d line from \V arwick to Brisbane direct wiil,when constructed, save (j!) miles in through from any of the proposed sites t o Brisbane. ·

'Ihe line proposed to connect the New South \Vales and Vietc>rian Railways via Bombala, Bondi, and Bairnsdale, will reduce the distance from Bombala to Melbourne, Adelaide, and P erth by 2Su miles. The present route between Adelaide and Perth by sea to Albany a.nd thence bv rail is shorter by about 220 miles than the all rail route by the proposed trans-Australian railway Port Augusta and if taken in conjunction _with the . propos ed line via Cob;Ir to Brolien Hill, and Werris

Creek to W ellmgton, the route would reduce the distance as between the site at

Armidale and Perth by as much as 456 miles, whilst a'! regards tl1e sites at Lyndhurst, Bathurst and Orange, the saving would be respectively 121, 159, and Hl9 miles. Taken in connection with the Hay­ Morgan line, the saving in through distance by this route between Bombala., Lake G eorge and Tumut would amount to about 108 miles. ,

The route between Albury and P erth by the Trans-Australian Railway would be 70 miles longer than via Adelaide and by sea to Albany, but there would be a considerable saving in time, as shown elsewhere. ·

·Appendix No. 4.

JlUILDING STONE.

'fhis Appendix contains-( ct) Reports by District Architects, Public Works Department, on the building stone found in the districts surrounding suggested Federal Capital Sites. (b) List of samples of stone collected by the Commissioners from various

with reports as to strength and suitability for building purposes.

by Professor Warren, Sydney University, and Messrs. Loveridge and Hudson, Building Contractors and Quarry Masters.

ALBURY.

I have the honor to report, in reply to your communication of yesterday's date, that. the capacity of the district to provide a. supply of serviceable st_one has been p_ roperly tested, the httle stone so far used being all surface . From my own observatiOn, and from mformatwn g:tther?d from sources, however, I am of the opin!on that an unli!llited supply of freestone and gramte can be rel_Jed upon, the former a very fine gralhed and exceedmgly hard sombTe;tmted stone, the latt.er a grey

Neither of these stones are suitable for masonry in monumental or natwnal bmldlllgs, however,

tho colour in one and the coarseness of the other being unsuitable. •

In addition to the two I have mentioned and within a radius of 50 miles, both on the New South Wales and Victorian sides of the River Murray: outcrops of basalt and sandst_one strata occur irregularly, but I possess no information as to the quality or the quantity of the stene ava1lable from these sources for buildir.g purposes.

J\I. MACrA.GGART, District Architect, Albury.

ARMIDALE.

In accordance with instructions, I beg to submit the following tabulated list of building stones in the Armidale district:-

Where obtained. I Nature of Stone. /

Armidale and} Granite ... .. ... .

NewEngland ··· ··· Ba.s.1.lt ........ .

Ounnedah . . . . . . . . . . . Sandstone .. . Maitland .. ... ..... .

"

Reedy Cree It ... .. ..

"

Narrabri.. ..... ... ... .

Warialtla ... ...... .. .

Distance !rotn I Approximate cost, landed I Arwidale. and worked In Annidale. Remarks.

.. . . . . . .. . .. 17s. 6d. per cubic foot Good quality, hard, and costly to work. . . . . .. . ... lOs. per perch . .. .. . ... Suitable for random or_ coursed rubble.

IH miles .. .... ... 3s. 9d. per cubic foot Stone of excellent quahty._ . .

238 , .. . ...... 4s. , , .... From Ravensfield_ Quarrtes ; _obtamable m

' blue, grey, or hght brown t1l!ts.

334 mile• by rail 4s. 6d. ,

2)3 miles ....... .. 4!.

312 " 48. 6d. "

Near ; do not know th1s stone,

reliably informed slonc is of good quality ., .. . Stone of good quality.

A guod stone.

The stone from Gunnedah l\Iaitland (R:1vensficld), Narrabri, and ·warialda, has all been used in Oovernment buildings, and stands well, except in some instances where subjected to traffith:' in door steps, &c.

299

86

ARMI DALE-continued. Appendix No. 4-continued.

The Ravensfield stone is the only that is used in Armidale.

The quarries have been opened out to a greater extent than any others mentioned,

owing no doubt to the greater demand for that stone. I would be inclined to give the Ravensfield and Gunnedali stone the preference. A sample of the Gunnedah stone was forwarded by :M:r. 1\f. W. Hardy, on 20th March last, to Messrs. Loveridg!l and Hudson, Sydney, in accordance with instructions I received from Mr. Kirkpatrick, Chairman of the Federal Capital Sites Commission, and Mr. Browq, the proprietor of the quarries, was also requested to likewise forward a sample, whicp I believe haR been done.

. S. HERBERT,

District Architect, A

BOMBALA AND LAKE GEORGE.

· . In reply to a circular received this morning requesting information on the abore subject, I have the honor to report as follows :-In the Bombala District, so far as I am aware, the principal building stones are-freestone, procurable near Bombala, and granite in boulders fairly throughout the district, the latter suitable for rubble work only. .

The freestone, so far as I have had experience in its 11se, is of a fairly hard nature, and is suitable for window sills and work of a similar character, but I have not seen it used for a building in its entirety. In the Bungendore-Lake George District freestone is not, I believe, easily obtainable. In a public building recently erected in the township, the stone required was obtained from ,Bund,anoon. '

. So far as I am aware, granite and basalt could be obtained suitable for rubble work, but the only public building I am aware of built of the latter material is the Court-house, and the English Church at Bungendore is also built of this material, both buildings erected many years ago. E. E. BOISSIER,

District Architect, Goulburn.

ORANGE, AND LYNDHURST.

I beg to report re above.

ORANGE SITE.

Basalt and trachyte 16 miles from Orange o.n the proposed site. White sandstone of good quality and large quantity within HI miles of Orange. Brown sandstone flagging for wainscotting, panels, and veneers 16 miles from Orange. Marble good quality and large quantity within 6 miles of Orange. Marble good quality and large quantity, of different colours, 20 miles from Orange. Good stone for concrete on the site. /

BATHURST SITE.

Sandstone ·at W allerawaug, 40 miles by rail from Bathqrst. Good quality sandstone near Hill End, 45 miles from Bathurst. Red granite of good quality, 12 miles from Bathurst by rail. White marble of good quality a11d large quantity, 12 miles from Bathurst. Several varieties of coloured marble within 1t:l to 25 miles of BathllrBt.

The b!)st of materials for concrete footings, arches or ceilings, floors, &c., within 3 miles of eite. 'l'he Federal Site CommiiSsion have samples of most of the above stone, marble, &c. LYNJmu¥sT Granite in large quantities procurable within 5 miles of Lyndhurst Railway Station. . . Sandstone for building and paving p,urposes procurable within H miles of Lyndhurst Railway Btatwn.

Basalt is proeurable at the Forest, about 17 miles from Lyndhurst l{ai\way Station. The whole district is rich in marbles of various descriptions and colour8. Materials for concrete procurable on the site. J. DOWELL,

District Architilct, Bathurst.

TUMUT.

In the Tumut District, within a radius of 12 miles of the local post office, there ca;-t be procured blue stone, granite, porphj ry, and marble; all stone suitable for building purposes. In neither have J:hey been opened out, excepting the marble, on which limited operations have been made, and this o?lY to secure stone to burn for lime, most of the lime used in the district for tbe last twenty years havmg b.e.en obtained from this suurce.

Rut, judging from the large area over which outcrops arc to be found, the blue stone granite may be said to be here in unlimited quantity, the latter found, in boring with the diamond drill for gold, to go down to a very considerable depth, and from the long distances that outcrops of both yorphyry and marble can be traced, it may be fairly inferred that they too are here in considerable quanhty.

The Catholic Chapel in Tumut, erected some twenty years ago, is built entirely of this blue stone, procured from boulders on and near the surface, and the dwarf wall round the grounds is of granite, all Ill hammer-dressed work, the coping·being roughly punched into shape. .

The working of any of 1 he here named is as compared with freestone or brtcli ;

to? expensive at the prest>nt stage of progress to be used in buildings for commercial purposes, for this reason have not used, except in the case of the chapel, where cost was. not so much. a.n. · But where architectural effect and durability were the chief aims, I thmk the here

.Co!lld not well be surpassed, as, with the blue stune as a base, the superstriicturc of gramte or marble, ;md dressings of porphyry, anything more suitable and effeetive could scarcely be desired. . J. :MAcGREGOR,

District Architect, Cootamundra. (b} List

87

Appendix No. 4-continued.

(b) List of sa:nples of stone collected by the Commissioners from the localities named, with reports on their and suitability for building purposes, by Professor Warren, Sydney Umvers1tv, and Messrs. LoveridO'e and Hudson Building Contractors and Quarry Masters. b '

. In the Report local _the rocks . been used as far as possible. :For

mstance, the gran.Ite mclude gramte, gramhte, quartz-dwnte, and aplite. The term basalt is· used not only as mcludmg ohvine but also probably andesite lavas and diorite.

No. Site. Locality. Local Name. Petrographical Name.-

1 Albury ············ 2 " 3 Armidale 4 fi " 6 Bombala 7 Hawkes View .................. J Oranite ............... Granite.

Table Top ........................

1

Sandstone ........ .

·

::: ::: ::::::::: ::: Quartz-mica-diorite.

Brought from Ravenfield ...... 1 , .......... I Bombala ........................ 1 Granite...... .. .... .. Granite. , .................. .. ....... ) Sandstone ......... .. s 9 " 10 Orange 11 " 12 Lake George ... 13 14 Tumut ............ 15 .. ::::::::::::j ::

Canoblas ............... .. ......

1

Trachyte ............ Riebeckite trachyte.

Springfield . . ...... ..... ......... ... ..... ... ... Feldspar porphyry.

Cave Hill .......... .. ...... .. ...... Sandstone ...... .

Bungcndore.......... ..... ...... .. . Granite.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aplite.

Adelong .. .. . ... .. .. . , ............. "I ,

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. . Porphyry . .. .... . .. . Quartz porphyry.

The Nos. given in column 1 serve as a reference to the samples dealt with in .the following reports:-Professor Warren's Report. In regard to the specimens of stones selected from various sites in New South Wales, sent to me

by the Federal Capital Sites Commission for testing their strength and suitability for building purposes,· I herewith report as follows:-All the specimens were carefully prepared in the form of cubes of 3" side, and four of each of the seven kinds were tested by subjecting them to a compressive stress in a testing machine; two were test(;ld.

as received, and two after soaking in water for twenty-four hours, the stress being applied parallel to perpendicular to the natural bed. The percentage of the absorption of water was calculated in each case ' from the results of weighing the specimens as received and after soaking for twenty-four hours in water. The results obtained are recorded in the table attached.

The durability nnd general suitability of a building stone in a climate such as New South Wales largely depends upon its capacity to ref:ist the absorption of water, and it has also been found to depend upon its resistance to crushing when tested under the four conditions above described. The value of the results recorded can be best r.ppreciated by comparing them with the results

obtained from testina Pvrmont sandstone under similar conditions. The percentllge absorption of water by Pyrmont stone varies from 2·5 to 3·5 per cent., and comparing these figures with those given in the attached table it will be seen that the stone from Gunnedah and one of the specimens from Bavensfield absorb slightly more water.

The crushing strength of Pyrmont stone is approximately as follows:-Perpendicular to the bed, tested dry 5,000 to 7,000 lb. per square inch.

Parallel to the bed, tested dry ... 4,000 , 5,600 , , ,

Perpendicular to the bed, after soaking for twenty-four hours 3,000 , 4,200 ,

" " Parallel to the bed, after soaking for twenty-four hours 2,500 , 3,500 , , ,

The results of the crushing tests in the attached table compare most favourably with these figures and show some excellent sandstones. TESTS OF STONE FOR FEDERAL SITES COMMISSION, 17TH JUNE, 1903.

\Vhere frctn.

Gunuedah ...

Bomba!:;

\r. H.

)I. Tnst. C.E., M. Am. i:ioc. C.E., . .

\Vh. Sc. Challis of Engll1CCrlng. 1 nth June, 1!)03.

aul

88

Appendix No. 4-continued.

I1overidge and Hudson's Report.

"\V e have the honor to report that we hare carefully examined the various sJmples of stones which you have se!ected from the different sites you have visited, and are of opinion that while some of them are excellent samples of building stones, others arc very inferior.

No. 1. Is a light brown' granite, even in texture, rery hard; a very useful stone, and if it can be procured in large blo cks, would make a splendid building stone.

No.2. Is a dark r ed freestone, very similar to No.7; works well, and a very suitable building stone. "\V e- consider this one of the best samples submitted to us.

No. 3. A dark grey granit!', hard and sound, works up well; takes a good and we specially recommend it as a building stone. .

No.4. A whitt>, hard works up well, and in every way a suit:tble building stone.

No. 5. Soft and easy to work, can be made up in!o any design where small are required,

but we would 11ot consider it as stone that should be used in permanent buildings, as it seems liable to lamiqate and split.

No. G. A g ranite, grey in colour, hard, but the block submitted was not large enough for us to tell whether it is sound or ot hcrwise. ··

No. 7. A dark red sandsto ne," very close in texture, sound, and easily worked. A vei'Y good building stone.

No. 8. A coarse brown sandstone, very inferior in quality, fulL of flaws, and will n Qt stand work­ ing. Vve had great difficulty in working the samples for Professor Warren's tests, and consider this the worst sample submitted.

No.9. A white sandstone, soft and easily worked, close and even in texture, but from its very softness cannot be relied on to work up into mouldings, as arrises will not stand the chisel. We do not consider this a good building stone.

N e. 10. A light-grey trachyte, which is very fine and even in texture, hard, and sound; works well, and can be brought to a good polish. For permanent buildings, we consider this a very fine stone.

11. The samples from Springfield are of light colour, very hard. to work, unsound, and full of

flaws. From the sample submitted to us we had great difficulty in procuring a 6-in. cube; and, unless the stone can be procured in a sounder condition, we consider it would be useless as a building stone.

No. 12. This is a brown stone from Care Hill, Orange, but very unsatisfactory to work, as it is not even in texture; small lumps are found in it, which are harder than the remainder. The sample sent us was full of flaws and unsound. We tried to polish one face of it, but it would not take a polish. We do not consider this a suitable building stone. . .

No. 13. The sample from Bungendore is a ver.v hard, variegated pink-red marble; but the sam pie we recE-ived was a 1·ery unsound stone, and, unless it can be procured in sounder blocks, it is not a good stone for perm::tment buildings. This stone polishes fairly well. ·

No. 14. The Adelong stone is very hard, resembling a yellow granite, close and sound in texture, and takes a good polish, and we consider it a very useful building stone.

. No. 15. This is a choc,)late-coloured piece of porphyry, with pink splashes, very hard, and close in texture, polishes well, and, if it can be obtained in large should be very useful in· ornamenting large public buildings.

June, 190:3. LOVERIDGE AND HUDSON.

Appendix No. 5.

TIMBERS.

(ct) Timbei·s of commercial value, found in the districts in which are the suggested sites for the Federal Capital ; and

(b) Prices, at Sydney, of Hardwood rrimbers.

The timber trees referred to in the Heport are almost all Eucalypts, the colloquial names of which vary in different localities. In the following list, which has been supplied by Mr. J. H. 1\faiden, Director of the Botanic Gardens, the local and botanical names are both given, with a statement of the economic Yalue of each timber. The collection of botanical made by the Commission was submitted to l1im, aPd is now in the Botanical Herbarium:-

Sit

I

Albury .......... \

Loctll Nttme. Uotanirol Ntlmc. Remarks.

Red gum; forest Eucalyptus tereticornis ... ; red gum. i

It is very hard, and interlocked, and inclinerl to shell ; very durable in the ground, and hence much esteemed for posts, wood-blocks, &c.

Murray red gum ;I' river red gum. Eurabbie ........

1

Stringy-bark .. .

White box ..... .

........ .

Red box ........ .

Yellow box .....

Cypress pine (of which there are two principal kinds). The white,

cotnmon, or Murray pi•w; it has other

names.

Red m' black

pine.

"

"

rostrata ....... .

globuhis ....... .

macrorrhyncha

hemiphloia, var. albens.

amygdalina ..

polyanthemos ..

melliodora

This is a tim her \'cry closely related to the preceding in every way, but it is reputed to be rather less durable. A good inlockel timber of the second class ; fairly durable and generally useful.

A useful timber for milling, including flooring, and for rails, &c. ,

The timber is very interlocked and hard ; useful but pipy, and hence not a favourit9 with millers ; a grand fuel wood. A timber of inferior character to the preceding, but used

for ordinary rough purposes. Especially durable in the ground, and hence much sought after for posts, surveyors' pegs, &c. A useful timber much esteemed for posts in the smtl.h, but

less so in the north ; durable in the ground ; ohcn pipy wht:n large.

Callitris \·errucosa (Frenela -1 As sawn stuff it often displays a most gorgeous figure, and robust a). I is hence much used for ceilings_, dados, &c., and even

1

for the whole interior fittings of buildings; but nails · L cannot be driven in it without boring, on account of its f brittle nature ; it resists the attack of white ants, and

I hence it is often used for telegraph posts, and also for fence-posts.

Callitris calcarata (Frenela J Endlicheri).

Arn:idale..... Tallow-wood .. Eucalyptus microcorys ...... Heavy, strong, and durable, and after ironbark the most valuable of the hardwoods of New South Wales; in fact, it is such a valuable timber that people e\·en

Red, or forest,

gum. Blackbutt ........ .

White box : .... .

Blue gum .. .... .. .

Brown gum ..... .

Stringy bark ..... .

Mountain ash ...

Grey gum ..

"

tereticornis ...

pilularis ....... .

hemiphloia ..... .

saligna ... .. .

saligna, var. parvitlora.

cugenoides .. .

Sicbcriana .. .

propin

give it the first place. !

See above. '

A strong, dural:..le, thol'Oughly safe, and wcli tried timber. It is a tough, hard, cross-grained wood of' great strength, and can be recommended for works rchuiring a strong durable timber for framing, &c. !

A Yery useful hardwood, very durable, and widely used for building and other purposes. Is used for building purposes, though not for flooring, a.s it shrinks unless earcblly seasoned. It is an excellent

hardwood to stand in the ground, and testimony as to its \·aluc is that it iR acecptccl for railway sleepers. A useful ntringyhark timber, much esteemed for sawn stuff, rails, &c. The excellence of this timher for general wheelwright•'

work is e\·et·ywhcre aclmitted, and its quality seems to be very uniform. It is recommendecl for shafts, swingle­ t•·ccs of buggies, &c ., and for miscellaneous purpoRes in c .. rriagc huilding. Tt is \·cry suitahlc for inside work, hut i• not clnrahlc unless protected from the weather. A ,-aluahle timber, closely rc>;cmhling re

t·cspectR ; in fact. it is very cliflicult to diHtinguish he­ tween the two; lmt it is inferior in tensile strenr,:th to the inmlmrk ; it is, howc\·cr, a dnrab!t: timhcr.

90

Appendix No.

Site. Local NarM. Botanical Name. Remarks.

Bombala .. .. .. Red gum .. .. . . . .. Eucalyptus tereticorn,is .. . Red box .. ., .. .. . , Bosistoana ..... .

Seep. 80. Largely used for !:>ridge building, and a really valuable timber. Not to be confnsl!d with Euo. polyanthemos, which is much darker in colour,

Grey or mount· ain gum. Messma.te ..... . .. .

White a.sh ..... .

White top, mess- , mate; or cut

tail.

Black ash ....... ..

Stringyba.rk ..... . Red box ..... , .. .

White gum, cab-bage gum, or big leaf. ·

,

"

"

,

,

goniocalyx ... ...

obliqua

A durable and valuable timber, used for culverts, bridge decking, &c. An ordinary mill t\fl1ber for general pqrposes. var ... . . A pale-coloured, very fissile timber; it is very tough, and

hence is used for axe-handles, swingle-trees, &c., and generally as a. substitute for American hickory or ash. His found on the highest mountail1s of southern New South Wales, and also in and Tasmania.

fastigata, a variety of E. r!Jgnans.

Sieberia.na ......

eugenioides polyanthemos .. coriacca .........

Has all the characteristics of the timber of Euc. ouliqua, from which it is scarcely or Qot at all to be distinguished. At the .mill the timbers are considered to be of equal value and >Lre cut up the one for the other. Seep. 80. ·

Seep. 80. Seep. 80. The best firewood , and the best to stand in the ground as posts for wire fences, of the timber growing upon the

table-land. ·

Lake George Red gum .. .. .. .. . Eucalyptus tereticornis ..... . Ironbar)j: . .. ... .. . , sideroxylon .. .

Seep. 80. A durable timber, but deficient in strength as compared with the best ironbarks; such as Euc. pannioul;\ta, and Euc siderophloia.

Orange ..... ...

Blue gum ... ... ... /

·

Woolly-bUtt .. . Mount!l.in allh .. . Striqgybark ... .. . Red bOx ... .. .. . ,

Y ello)V box ..... .

1

'

Tallow-wood Red ironbark :J !

I ( (a) .... .

i

Box -{ (b) .. .. :

l (c) ..... I Forest red gum! Stringy bark .. .' ... 1 Ironba.rk box .. .

"

,

"

Maitleni

ob)jqua ........ .

fastigata ....... ..

obJiquil. ........ .

Sieberiana ..... .

maerorthyncha polyanthemo!l ... melliodora ......

microcorys ... .. crebra ......... .

hemiphloia, var.

albens. Eucalyptus B:meriana, var. coni ca. Eucalyptus polyanthemos ...

tereticornili .... . . macrorrhyncha

"

a.ffinis .. ........ ..

Y el!ow box .. .. .. , melliodora .. .. ..

Cyptess pine . .. Callitris verrncosa. ........ ... .

Beech . :. .. .. .. .. Gmelina Leichhardtii .... ..

Bathurst .. . ... Iron bark Eucalyptus creba ....... .. ..

Black butt (n) ... , fastigata ........ .

{b) .. .

Bloodwood ..... .

pilnlaris ....... ..

corymbosa .. , .. .

Cypress Pine .. Callitris Muelleri ........... .

T nmut ......... Red or forest Eucalyptus tereticornis ......

gum Red gum .. ...... . , rostrata ....... .

Eurabbic .. ... ... .

"

globnlus .........

Stringy bark .... ..

"

macrorrhyncha

Red box ........

"

polha.nthemos

Yellow box .. ....

"

me liodora ......

Mountain ash ... , Sieberiana ......

White box .. ....

"

hemiphloia var. albens

MePsmate .. . .. ....

"

amygdalin& ...

A fairly durable second-class timber, and a perfect substi­ tute for En c. globulus of Victoria ilnd Tasmania. See above. See above.

See above. SeeP· 80. 80.

Seep. 80. Seep. 80.

Obtained from the coast ; seep. 80. Obtainetl from DubbJ District ; a very durable and strong timher. Seep. SO.

A very durable timber, much esteemou for posts and for exposure to the weather generaliy. Seep. 80. Seep. 80. Seep. 80. A very hard, inlocked , durable timber, partaking of the

chamcters of the .two timbers' mentioned in its name. Seep. 80. See p. 80 ; imported ; obtained froJil the interior . . Obtained from the coast ; its chief characteristic is the · absence of tendency to warp, hence it is especially

esteemed for flooring-, lining, &c.

See above ; obtained from Dubbo. See above. This occurs abont Cowra; also on volcanic mountains such as Tomah: ·

Seep. 80. •

Mr. J. B. Suttor suggests that a quantity of this timber may be obtained fro(n a forest 12 miles up the Nepean River from Penrith. Durable for fence posts ; its chief defect is the presence of large Sl!m veins. Very similar in character to the Cypress Pine mentioned

on page 80. It is brought from the Mudgee district.

Seep. 80.

Seep. 80. Seep. 80. Seep. 80. Seep. 80. Seep. 80.

Seep. 80. See p. 80.

Seep. 80.

91

Appendix No. 5-continuet:l. (2.) HARDWOOD TIMBER OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

Description. Dimensions and Lengths.

Sydney Market_Ra_te:__. __

Per cubic 1\ Per lineal I . Per 100 1

foot. foot. supertlcial feet.

Ironbark piles

Turpentine piles ... .. .......... ..

Hewn iron bark .................. ..

Sawn or hewn ironbark (free of heart). Sawn ironbark (with heart) ... Sawn ironbark (without heart)

3nin. circumference at small end, and in. at the butt. I 1/7

In lengths up to 40 ft.· 37i in. circumference at small end, and 56& in. at the butt. In lengths up to 40ft. 12 in. x 12 in., 13 in. x 12 in., 14 in. x 12 in., 14 in. x 14 in.

1/2

In lengths up to 30ft. 12 in. x 6 in., 6 in. x 6 in. .. ............................. .......... .

8 in. x 8 in .......................................................... ..

6 in. x 6 in., 8 in. x 8 in ........................................ .

16/-

17/6 16/·

Hard wood decking, 4 in. .. .. .. Hardwood ......................... ..

6 in. to 10 in. wide. Lengths up to 24ft. .. ................. ..

In lengths up to 24 ft. All sizes not exceeding 48 in.

17/6 to 20/. ll/·

sectional area. In lengths over 24 ft. All sizes not exceeding 48 in.

sectional area.

Tallow-wood ....................... . Say 1/- in advance of ordinary hardwood prices .............. .

Class. Where obtained.

Ironbark ......................... ,. ........ .

Grey gum ............................... ..

Tallow-weod ........ ................... .

Coast Districts (principally north).

Rivers. "

White mahogany ...................... .

Spotted gum .. .. .. . . . . ............... ..

ll/-12/6

Red mahogany ........................ ..

Blackbutt .............................. .

Blue gum (Sydney) ............ ...... ..

Turpentine .................... .......... .

Iron bark (JiJ. Crebra) . ............... ..

Brush box ................................ ..

southward and North Coast District.

Northern Rivers, and New England and Hawkesbury. Northern Rivers and South Coast District (principally Northern Ril'ers) Cumberland District and northward to Richmond River. .

Coast Districts from Ulladutla to Tweed River and around Hawkesbury River. From Dubbo in the north-easterly direction to Mundooran and Gilgandra Districts. North Coast. Grey box ...... ........... .. ....... : ..... . South Coast (good quality).

J urie, i903. J. V. DE COQUE, Officer-in-Charge.

Appendix No. 6.

AilBORICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. List supplied by. the Director of Agriculture of Trees and Shrubs suitable for planting about each of the Proposed Capital Sites. Arbutus of species. Ligustrum of species (Privet).

Acacias of species. Maclura aurantiaca (Osage Orange).

Acers (Maples) of species and varieties. Morns of species (Mulberry).

of species (Chestnut Horse). Myrtus of species (Myrtle).

Agaves of species. Olea of species (Olives).

Ailatitus glandulosa (a handsome tree, but objection- Photinia of species. able on account of suckers). Philadelphus of species (Syringa).

Aralias of species. Pittosporum of species.

Araucaria imbricata. Platanus oriental is (Oriental Plane).

Berberis of species. Plumbago of species.

Betula of species (Birch). Poly gala of speciAs.

Buxus (Box) of species. Populus of species (Poplar).

Carya (Hickory) o£ species. Prunus of species.

Caatanea sativa (Sweet Chestnut). Quercus of species (Oak).

Catalpas of species. Rhamnus of species.

Chamrerops of species (Palms). Rhus of specie11.

Citrus trifoliata. Ribies of species.

Cratregus of species (Thorn). Robinia pseudoacacia (Locust-tree).

Diospyros of species. Rubus of species.

Euonytnus of species. Salix of species (Willow).

Fagus of species (Beech). Sophara of species. .

:Fraxinus of species (Ash). Syringa of species (Lilac).

Genista of species (Broom). Tamarix of species.

Hibiscus of species. Tilia of species (Lime-tree).

Ilex of species (Holly). Ulmus of species (Elm) .

• Tasminium of species. Wistaria of species.

Juglans of species (Walnut). Yuccas of species.

Laburnam of species. Roses and a vast number of small perennials and annuals should succeed admirably here, as well as some of the most ornamental bulbs and bulbous plants. . . .

In addition to the plants named in above list, the Director of Agriculture thmks the followwp, would succeed at Albury, Bathurst, and Tumut :-Erythrinas of several species. Calodendron capense.

Hydrangeas. Camellias.

Lagerstromeas of species. silequa.

Magnolias of species. Metr01nderos tomentosa.

Paulownia imperialis. Ole.anders.

Schinus molle.

Appendix No 7.

305

92

Appendix No. 7.

SOIL-

lteport by the Director of Agriculture, New South Wales, as to the relative productiveness of the districts within a radius of 50 miles of the suggested :Federal Capital Sites. Departnwnt of Mines and Agriculture, Sir,- Sydney, 26th June, 1903.

In reply to your letter of the 2 tth instant, asking me to express an opinion as to the relative order of merit of the different proposed Capital Sites (judged by the productiveness of surrounding district), I have the honour to state that, in my opinion, they should be placed thus:-Tumut,

Bathurst, ) Orange, (_Lyndhurst, Alburv,

Bombala, Armidale, Lake George.

The Tumut District I consider to be the most fertile and the most likely to produce with certainty within a radius of 50 miles of the town of Tumut, the most varied requirements for a population of 50,000 or 100,000 persons. -

In a report made by me the Tumut district in the year and published in 188S with other· report8, I stated that-" This beautiful fertile district, although comparatively small, is capable of producing enormous surplies of food of great variety and excellence, and of supporting a very large population. Here dairy produce of the highest quality should be produced and probably will be when the markets are improved, and I have no doubt that the fruit industry will become exceedingly profitable in the future for the quality of the fruits grown here cannot well be surpassed."

Taking the town of Tumut as a centre, a radius of 50 miles will include a considerable area of land suitable for the production of wheat of high quality. This area will extend to Wagga on the west, Cootamundra on the north, within a few miles of Queanbeyan on the east, and some miles beyond Tumbarumba to the south, and embraces a great variety of soils, situations and climates. It is well watered with permanent streams, and should irrigation he desirable at any time, suitable places are abundant. · · '

Taking a 50-mile radius from Bathurst, Orange; and Lyndhurst, it will be seen that as these places are so close together, there will be a considerable overlap, and each district will embrace portions of one another; thus it is extremely difficult to determine which area contains the most productive land. Probably the most genial and reliable climate for vegetation and stock will be found within the Bathurst district. This extends on the north to about 10 miles of Mudgee, on the west (including Orange) to about the town of Cargo, on the south nearly to Tuena, and includes the town of Lyndhurst.

Oran:ge extends on the north to within a few miles of Wellington, southerly to Oowra (including town of Lyndhurst), east to Yetholme, including Bathurst, and west to within about 12 miles of Parkes. Lyndhurst extends on the north to Molong, including the town of Orange, on the east to Oberon, on the south to within about 16 miles of Burrowa, and on the west or westerly to about 12 miles of

Grenfell. To decide tl1e relative potential merits of these three districts, with any degree of certainty, a l'onsiderable amount of investigation would be necessary. I am inclined to think that the Bathurst district, within a radius of 50 miles of Bathurst, would include the best climates aud soils for the production of the ruost varied products suitable for the requirements of a large population.

The district of Albury embraces a considerable area of land suitable for the production of wheat, and abo for a considerable variety of crops, as well as for many kinds of fruits; but I do not consider it C'qual to Tumnt in producti1·eness, even under the most favourable· conditions. Bombala, or the chief portion of the 50-mile area, is chiefly suited to pastoral pursuits, but it contains many areas of rich soil suited for agricultural purposes, and very productive, although of a heavy character generally, and difficult to work.

The 50-mile radius includes the coastal district from Green Cape to about Tathra, embracing Eden, Pambula, Candela and Bega, all excellent da·;rying districts, and about these places considerable quantities of maize are produced. In my report on the Manaro district, published in 1888, I stated that-

" A very large proportion of the country is quite unsuited tp cultivation, but this is a good grazing country for sheep. Here and there are patches amongst the bare, .treeless and bleak plains, in sheltered situations, of rich land, capable of producing large crops in favourable se'asons. "The climate is said to be very healthy, but in winter the cold is very severe; frosts occur at most unexpected times, frequently cause loss to settlers. English fr.uits are said to grow to great

perfection, but, owwg to the frosts sometimes occurrmg when the trees are m bloom, t?e crops are very lllll'ortain. Verv larg"e yields of potatoes are somlltimes obtained, but these also, owmg to frosts, arc uncertain.'' Armidaie I do not consider nearly so prt..dactivc as Tumut, nor could such a variety of croFS bo

produced within a 50-mile radius. Lake George cannot comparo as regards fertility with either Tumut, Bathurst, Orange, Lyndhurst, Albury or Bombala. I hav,•, &c.,

WALTERS. CAMPBELf,,

1 he Secretary, Federal Site Commission. Director of Agriculture.

Appendix No. 8.

93

Appendix No.8. FUEL SUPPLY.

furnished by the Chief Imp ector of Coal Mines, New South Wales,

showmg prob:tble cost of coal delivered at senral places where sites are under consideration for the Federal Capital.

From To Description of coal.

Eskbank ................... ,Albury ...................... .

Exeter .......... . ........... , ....................... .

Helensburgh .................. , ..................... .

Eskbank .......... ........... Tnmut ...................... ..

Exeter ...................... .. ................... .

Lithgow ................... .

Southern Line .............. .

Illawarra ................... ..

Lithgow ................... .

Southern Line .............. .

Helensburgh .................. , ........... .. .......... .

Eskbank .................... Bombala ............... ..... .

Exeter ....................... . . .......... .... ... .. .

Illawarra ............. .. .. .. ..

Lithgow .................... .

Southern Line ............. .

Helensbnrgh .................. . .......... ......... .

Newcaotle ......... ... .. .. .. .. . . .................. .

Illawarra ................... ..

Newcastle ................ .

Wollongong ....... .......... , .................. .

Eskbank ................ : .. LakeGeorge(Bnngendore)

Exeter ..................... .

Illawarra ................... .

Lithgow .................. ..

Southern Line ............. .

Helensburgh .................. , ,

Eskbank ..................... Bathurst .................. ..

, .................... Lyndhurst ... .............. .

Ilbwarra. .................... .

Lithgow ..... ............... .

,, ...... ............. .

, ..................... Orange ....................... .

Gunnedah ..................... Armidale ......... .. · .... ..... . ::.:::

\Vest Maitland............... , ................... .

Rix's Creek ........ .. ....... .

Newcastle .................... .

Greta ...................... ..

Singleton ................... ..

Newcastle ................ ..

Appendix No.9. CLIMATE.

I

Rate per ton livered in trucks.

£ s. d.

l 5 6

I 2 9

1 9 7

l 2 9

l 0 0

l 7 2

l 6 10

1 0 5

l 7 6

l 3 0

0 19 0

1 2 3

0 13 2

1 2 4

0 11 10

0 15 0

0 15 1

0 1!) 9

1 4 10

1 3 7

1' 5 7

Remarks.

}

The assumption is made here that Bombala will be con­ nected with Oooma and Eden by railway.

} By sea to Eden.

Temperatures of Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter.

Mean Shade Temperature. Mean Minimum Shade Temperature. Mean Shade Temperature.

Localities. I Spring. I Summer., :-utumn.j [ Autumn. I Winter. Spring. I Summer. I Autumn.[ Wint•:·

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Albury ...... 74 7 !J0•7 74•2 57• 48•2 59•9 46·!) 38•4 61·5 75•3 60•5 48·1

Armidale ... 70•1 80·3 68·2 53•8 . 45·1 55!) 45·2 34"1 57"6 G8·1 56 7 44"1

Bathurst ... 72 8 83•5 72·1 56·0 43•1 5!·9 43•1 33•1 57"9 70'2 57•6 44·6

Bomb ala ... 69·3 7!J•!J 67•5 54·5 41·0 4S·7 40·6 32•0 55·2 64'4 54-1 43·3

L:tke Georg<> 6!)•!) 81·8 51·0 46·6 5S·O

I

47·2 33 9 58·2 69•!) 58·2 44·!)

Lyndhurst• 60·1 7!J-l 64 2 50 1 45·2 51"1 I 45·4 34•4 55•7

68·1 54 8 42·3

Orange ..... 6.)•!) 70•4 63·8 49•4 44•7 55·5 I 44·!) 3:>·8

I

55•3 67•5 54•4 42·5

Tumut .........

1

7-!•1 86·1 74"7 57 4 54·6 GI·O I 48•3 .J.l•4 61·3 13'8 61'5 4S·6

I I

':' As ther0 w0rc not any records for Lyndhurst, thoJe from Cucoar, dtstant 6 mtles, have been taken.

Thc3e tables have been compiled particulars given by the Government of New

S mth Wales, with the Pxception of those relating to Tumut, where, in the absence of official records, the rector, lkv. '1'. E. Owens Mell, h ts kindly supplied the information.

Appeniix No. 10.

Assessments of Municip;::tl Areas ncar Sugg0sted Sites. :Municip:1l ArJa.

Albury Armidale Bathurst Bombala

Lyndhurst (frange East Orange Tumut ...

:Mnnicip 1l As3cssment for 1903.

£532,50.i 393,GOO 031,400 7'!.,70'J

3l,!JOO 464-,900 I £G'n soo 184-,900 s .,.,,

107,400

Appendix: No. 11.

S07

94

Appendix No. lL

HEALTH AND PLEASURE -RESORTS. Several of the Site districts are themselves health and :pleasure resorts of the highest class, and it is only intended here to mention briefly the additional attractions outside their immediate neighbourhood.

ALBURY.

There are two ei!tablishedVictorian health and pleas)lre resorts which are easily reached from the Table Top Site ( ), Viz,, Beech'rortl,l and _ :Bright. :BeE;JchworJh, ,t_ he nearer, is 68 .miles distant via Wangaratta by ra1lway, or about 28 imles by railway to Chiltern, and thence 16 miles by road. The attractions of are its picturesque situation on a plateau among granite ranges,

1,775 feet above the leveldf the sea, and the· coolness d£ its summer c1imate. ·· · Bright is sitiuited on .the Ovens RiVer (98 miles bj railway from the Site), near the Buffalo Mountains, a main S:Pllr from the Yiptorian Alps, and is a favourite pleasure resort. The: of this part of is yer,_y fine, around I<'eather Top and the Victorian :Bogong Mountains, which are next m he1ght tq Mount :{\:oscmsko. . · · · · · ·

There is muqh, sce?ery in the :Val1ey ol and the of

South Wales and of that nver, but private enterpnse has not yet pro:v!ited fac1hties

in the wa.y of transit and and the JJeauties of that part of the country are .consequently

known to but few. • ·. · · · · · . · · · ·

ARMIDALE.

While the beauty spo:ts of distriet are So w.eil-k.nown as those oLpJAces nearer

Sydney, it has many attractions. Within driving of .Armidale there are magnificent falls; at Guyr

BATHURST.

The wonderful scenery of the :Blue .Mountains, and the vast and beautiful Jenoll!-n Caves, are within 50 miles of site. The Mountains are reached in a few hours by rail, while the .Caves are only five or six hours' drwe lroin 'l'arana Railway Station. · - _ .·

BOMBALA.

\\fithin o£ .. district there are two great natural features which would-; add to the

ti.ttractioi}s of a Federal City, namely, Twofold Bay and Mount Kosciusko. . · '!lie former;t>9 ii:iiles lroi:ti BoiribaJa, is a fiiie natural harbour of' great beauty, and possesses a mild winter climate; . · . · .. ·

Mount nearly ioo miles distant, not only the culminating .point of. tHe mountain system of New South ;Wales ana Vict9ria, but also the highest land in Australia. 'l'his trio'untain and the extensive open Alpine plateaus adjoining it constitute an ideal summer resort which only needs the establishment of convenient modes of. access and .the pr,ovision of • accornnwdation for

visitors to become; perhaps, ihe mosl; favoured holiday resor.t and .sanatorium in the Commonwealth. The snow"fed streams which rise in the Snowy Mountains are now stocked with trout.

LAKE GEORGE.

There is to thinffect that this is of the recognised Health Resorts of the

State, arid those wb:o have seen the Lake, when full, speak wiih enthusiasm 'of the charm which it adds to the district. LYNDHURST AND ORANGE. Lyndhurst aillfOrange aro about 48 miles further distant from world.rer.owned resorts.

A bout miles distatl.t from the Lyndhurst Site there are the. Belubula Caves, in a picturesque valley, with high and rocky spurs .. '1'hese cave! ate of grell.t extent, and if properly up and eared for as other sitnilar caves in New South Waifs have been, might form an attractive resort for the inhabitants of the Federal Capital, should it be situated at Lyndhurst, Orange,

or Bathurst.

TUMUT.

· The grand scenery to the south of the Site included a vast chain of mountains, which culminate in the Snowy Mountains, extending from Kiandra to Mount Kosciusko. The well-known Yarrangobilly Caves, distant 48 miles from Tumut, are situated in most romantic scenery on one of the sources of the Tumut River. Accommodation has been provided for vi!itors, and is under Government control.

1'he Batlow. table-lllnd, about 25 miles from Tumut, is eminently suited for a. saDatorium. The high plateau near Kosciusko described under headin" "Bombala" is about equally accessible from Tumut. At Kiandra, the highest town on this plateau, or iqdeed ig Australia, the- Carnival. of tobogganing, snow-shoeing, \!ki-jumping, &L'., is ra.pidly developing into a great functwn,.and attractmg

\'iaitors from all the States, _

A ppendi.r. No. 13.

ALBURY.

Comparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

ARMIDALE. FOR A PERIOD OF 44

Comparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

Oomparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

2'l826

1f

110 105 100 95

90

75 70 65

HO ·

105

-iOO

95 90 85 80 7.S

10 65

50 t!.5

2.0

-15

10

~5 110

105

35 5()

~o 1.5 10

NUARY FE.BRUARV MARCH . APRIL . MAY JUN£. JULY AUGUST E.PT£.MB OCTOBUi'. NOV£.1l1BER Of.C [MBER.

Photo-lithographed bv W. A. Gullick. Government Prinur, Svdnev, N.S. W.

ANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL .MAY JUNE. JULY AUGUST £PftM OCTOB£1? NOVE.M DEC[1'1B£.R

BOMBAL FOR A PERIOD OF 17YRS

Oomparative Period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

LAKE

GLORGE. FORAPERIOD OF 18Y'RS

OoHtParative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

LYNDHURST. I MILE.S FROM

CARCOAR FOR A PERIOD OF21YRS

Oomparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

22826

i

I

H5 -1f0

105

- 85 9e 85 80 TS 70 as 60 55 50 45 40 55 50 25 ~o 15 115 -118 105 100 S5 90 85 80 1J 'TO 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 -i15 110 105 100 95 90 35 80 75 70 65 6() 55 50 45 40 S5 50 25 20 15 10

MAY. JtJNt. Jtlt.V.

Photo-lithographed b11 W . ..4. Gullick, Goternment Printer, S11dne11, N.S.W.

MARCJ4 . APRIL- MAY. JUN£ . JUJ..Y. ·

ORANGE.. FOR A PERIOD or 22·YR

Oomparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

TUMUT RAINFALL.

FOR A PE.RIOD or 16 Y'RS

Oomparative period of

16 years in thinner

black line.

22826

•

ti 3 AIVUARY Ff.BRUAR'{ MARCH .lPRIL MAY JUNE. JULY AUGUST £.PTf.MBER OCTOBtR NOVEMBER D££E.MB£.R Q

10.r;

100 95 -- . ·- -- --

§D 85 80 75

]O 65 60 55

50 45 40 55

30 25 t!o

-15 - ---- --

0

1051--HHiHJ~~~l-:fflt1L__-l----1---l!----1~ 100------------------11----11---------- -------;-------------11 95------------+---------+-- 90t--=:=1;;;~~1i---+---t---t, &5---~--------~---.,f-----~---~--1-----tt- 861----.----..--""-=--·-f.----ll-----t.,-------t-----.---·--t--------.--15 t--""'illlll:i~=:-"~--t--~+-----t'----..----;----t--t-70 l----+--~-==---+-·---l~---1.:___.--I------I · ----65 t---..Jrlniv-a;nn---t---""l-.:----f---'~r---~-601---..:::.aw,.-=c---l-----+-___:::~1-----1__:::m~-t----t------::~~-=-11.-==.---,----t-..ifL----t----l ~al--~-l---::::::'.::=i=~-.:-1--~~~--1~--=~~~= 50t----l----f---~---+----+-__:::=,,o ...... :t---~---~-+-----::..-~~-t----f--~ 45 l--~l--~-l--~-l--~~----1-~-l-~-J--~~~ 401----1----1--.J_ __ _._~~~~..l--~~---l---1----1---l---l 5511----+----+----+-----lf---~---..,----------- ~ ---------~---------­ ao1----+---+----l-----lf--------:----..--+----•~---.----1---+---I e5 I--JI.W.U ........ C--ULllL<-.-l'o..._.--1----11----__.----..--+---..-----.-----t----+--- I w -------------- 15 11--~---------+--Photo-lithographed bu JV A. Gu!!ick, Goternment Printer, 5y,ir1ey N.S. W.

ANUARY. fIBRUARV MARCJ-1 .APRIL MAY JUN[ JULY AUGUST EPTE.MB OCTOSIB NOV016 DU.EM6E.R

No. 1. Albury. 2. Armidale. It Bathurst. 4. Bomba1a. 13. JJake George.

G. Lyndhurst.

7. Orange. 8. Tumut.

95

Appendix No. 13.

LIST OF MA.PS.

City Sites.

District Maps, showing round Ctty Sites, and TVater Supply information.

9. Albury. 10. Armidale. 1 L Bathurst and Lyndhurst. 12. Bombala.

13. Orange. 14. Lake George. 15, Tumut.

16. M:tp of New South Wales, showing positions of the suggested Federal CapiLal Sites.

17. Map of Australia, showing existing and prospective railways; also com puled centres of population.

[ 17 Maps.]

Sydney: William Applr.g:.te Gullick, Government Printer. -1903.

309