Title Maritime Industry - Commission of Inquiry - Reports - Navigational aid systems, November 1974
Source Both Chambers
Date 26-11-1974
Parliament No. 29
Tabled in House of Reps 26-11-1974
Tabled in Senate 27-11-1974
Parliamentary Paper Year 1974
Parliamentary Paper No. 319
System Id publications/tabledpapers/HPP032016001898


Maritime Industry - Commission of Inquiry - Reports - Navigational aid systems, November 1974

THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

1974— Parliamentary Paper No. 319

Com m ission of Inquiry into

the M aritime Industry

REPORT ON

NAVIGATIONAL AID SYSTEMS

N O V EM B E R 1974

Presented by Command 27 November 1974 Ordered to be printed 3 December 1974

THE G O V E R N M E N T PRINTER OF AUSTRALIA CANBERRA 1975

(cT) Commonwealth of Australia 1974

ISBN 0 642 00952 4

Printed by Advocate Press Pty Ltd, Melbourne

MARITIME INDUSTRY COMMI SSI ON OF INQUIRY

Office of the Commissioner

P 0 Box 547 Canberra City. A C T 2601

Telephone 47 4611

7 November 1974

Your Excellency,

I have the honour to present my second Report in accordance with Letters Patent dated 25 September 1973. This Report deals with navigational aid systems in Australian waters.

(M.M. Summers) Commissioner

His Excellency, The Honourable Sir John Kerr, K.C.M.G., K.St.J. , Governor-General, Government House, CANBERRA.

■

NAVIGATIONAL AID SYSTEMS

PART I

PART I

NAVIGATIONAL AID SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

Page

Introduction 1

Development of Navigational Aids in 4

Australian Waters

Types of Navaids on the Australian Coast 6

Developments in Electronic Aids 12

Surveys and Charts 15

Fishing Industry Requirements 15

National Interest 16

Financial Aspects of Navaids 16

Staffing and Management 20

Special Authority 22

Research 22

Navaids Advisory Council 25

Conclusions 27

[Contents of Part II are shown at the beginning of that Part.]

[A list of those who provided information to the oEmission is shown on pages 109-111 of Part II.]

:

Burnett Head lighthouse near Bundaberg Qld. This new light

finished in ceramic tiles is typical of the lights now being

established by the Department of Transport. The old light was

removed and donated to the local historical society.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY

INTO THE MARITIME INDUSTRY

ON

"A Desirable Program for Modernisation and

Extension of Navigational Aid Systems"

(Item 4 in Terms of Reference)

PART I

Introduction

This Report, the second by this Commission, gives

consideration, under this Term of Reference, to coastal maritime

navigation aids which are the responsibility of the Australian

Government.

2. _ This Report is set out in two parts, following the

practice which this Commission adopts. Part I sets out the

principles and broad proposals and the conclusions which the

Commission wishes to put forward in relation to this Term of

Reference. Part II sets out factual information about

navigational aids, together with summaries of the views and

information put forward by parties who gave evidence to the

Commission.

2· It was most interesting to not'e the views given in

information to the Commission on this particular Term of

Reference. The Commission received well over 50 extensive

submissions, both in writing and at the various hearings held.

1

A summary of those is included in Part II. They cover a wide

range of matters related to navaids, from highly detailed

recommendations to broader policy. Government departments,

particularly the Department of Transport, shipping companies,

industry organisations and related bodies as well as private

individuals all have made a very useful contribution, most

helpful to the Commission in reaching its conclusions.

4. The Commission has not taken the words of the Term of

Reference - "a desirable program for modernisation and extension

of navigational aid systems" to mean that the Commission should

enumerate an item-by-item plan to deal specifically with such

matters as work scheduling - maintenance of existing lights -

which lights should be replaced and when - locations where new

lights or other aids should be installed and when - and so on.

5. The Commission has taken the view that it can act most

usefully by examining the present situation, endeavouring to set

out the principles and purposes and making proposals for a

desirable program. The Commission will however, be recommending

that the technical authorities for navigation aids should prepare

and provide an assessment of future needs and detailed plans, and

that those plans should:

. be the product of extensive consultation with users;

. include an evaluation of cost/benefit relationships;

. set the determination of priorities in terms of available

finance and the consequent effects on light dues;

2

consider the availability of skilled resources.

6· 0ne of the most interesting aspects in the history of

shipping over the centuries has been the development of nautical

navigation. Initially, navigation between any two points

depended basically on a limited knowledge of the sea coast, a

knowledge which was passed on from one mariner to another. By

the time Captain Cook made his voyage to Australia, (a considerable

achievement to round Cape Horn, sail into the then largely

unknown South Pacific Ocean, and finally set foot on the east

coast of Australia, in a vessel the size of an average Sydney

Harbour ferry), the art of celestial navigation had been

developed to such an extent that long voyages into unknown oceans

could be attempted. This added impetus to the seeking of new

trade routes and the discovery of new lands.

7. The original purposes of navigational aids - commonly

referred to as "navaids" - were to mark hazards and to enable

the mariner to know where he was, with the object of safety - the

prevention of loss of life and avoidance of shipwreck. The main

users were the captains of numerous small vessels without any

sophisticated navaids equipment.

8 . In recent years we have experienced an enormous

increase in the size and speed of ships serving the world's

trade routes. These ships of course cost far more to build and

to operate. Because of this development, tne purposes of navaids

have been extended beyond the purely safety function to assistance

in enabling a ship to go from A to B by the shortest, fastest,

safest route. Some of the new navaids to meet this extended

requirement include Omega, Decca and tide gauges.

9. There has thus also been an extension of the user of

navaids beyond the ship's captain to the owner/operator of these

large vessels, because of the owner's primary interest in cost

savings, efficiency and economy of operation.

10. To assist navigation of ships at sea, lights and

lighthouses have been in use for well over 2,000 years.

Originally they were towers of rocks with open wood fires at the

summit. In the last couple of hundred years oil, gas and

electricity have in turn been adopted to power lights placed on

light towers, lenses have extended the visibility of the light,

and the science of optics has been able to increase its intensity.

Of more recent history are the electronic aids.

Development of Navigational Aids in Australian Waters

11. Lighthouses were an integral part of the early

activities in Australia's settlement and trade, some being

built in the early part of the 19th century, reflecting the

country's dependence on sea transport. Associated with them are

many interesting tales of disasters and heroic rescues.

12. Because of the character of Australia's coastline,

many lights have been built in the past in rugged, almost

inaccessible places. The public would seldom be aware of the

ingenious manner in which the problems of installation and

4

servicing these have been solved by Government personnel

assigned to the task. In this Report any suggestion for changes

are not meant to be a criticism of the Department of Transport's

activities in the past, but rather relate to the extension of

the navigational aid system in the future.

13. At September 1974 there were some 333 aids on

Australia's coastline under the control of the Department of

Transport. That, of course, sounds like a great deal of

assistance, and so it is, but Australia has a very long and at

times hazardous coastline. Facts and details of navigation aids

are set forth in Part II. In short, they are:

manned lights _ _ 48

unattended lights 217

light vessels 2

lighted buoys 31

unlighted day beacons 23

radio beacons 10

Decca navigator chains 2

333

Mo s t of these are traditional coastal navigation aids for

hazard marking and position-fixing serving the vessel's safety

Some relate to the extended concept of navaids referred to in

tne Commission's earlier remarks.

5

14. Shipping is so important in carrying exports and

imports vital to Australia's economic growth that up-to-date

navigation aids must be provided. The safety with which vessels,

especially the new, larger ones, can sail over oceans and along

our coasts is an important consideration. Therefore, provision

of numerous reliable navigational aids is a key factor in safe,

efficient, economical shipping operations and Australia must do

its best to assist.

Type of Navaids on the Australian Coast

(i) Lights

15. Of the 333 aids under the control of the Australian

Department of Transport, the majority (298) are lights. Lights

remain as one of the most important types of aid to navigation

as they give the mariner visual assistance and have a proven

record of reliability. Moreover lights are often less expensive

than other aids. A light, depending on its power and elevation,

can be visible at night from as far as 25 miles, and sometimes

even farther, and in day time the lighthouse serves as a visible

navigational aid.

16. It is particularly interesting to consider the several

types of power being used. For many years lights were kerosene

powered and operated by men who lived nearby. This is no

longer the norm and most lights in Australia are now either

acetylene powered or electrically powered, and most are

unattended. With the advance of technology few new lights have

been manned; it has become possible to operate most lights

6

without a man in attendance. Nevertheless, these unattended

lights require periodic inspection and servicing, often a

difficult task. Reliability is of course most necessary. The

open flame type of acetylene powered light has a good reputation

for reliability. They do, however, have the disadvantage of

requiring handling of heavy gas bottles often in areas of

difficult access. Also, special skills, no longer common, are

needed for maintenance of the burners.

17. Some 48 lights are still manned, the manual tasks

consisting mainly of setting the light going, checking it,

cleaning and minor maintenance. These lights are usually not

modern lights, some still being powered by vaporised kerosene.

18. A good case can be made to terminate the manning of

many of these lights in the near future. The Department of

Transport advised the Commission that it is planning to unman

19 of the 48 stations before the end of the decade. The problems

of unmanning the remaining lights relate to the necessity of

providing reliable power supply, reduction of maintenance

requirements to allow for'only infrequent periodic servicing,

the deterioration of historic structures, and security from

vandalism.

19. The Commission does not, however, suggest that

unmanning for its own sake should be the prime objective. A

balance should be possible, to take into account the technical

considerations for replacing the old - fashioned type of light and

relate this to the rate of retirement of 1ightkeepers. It is to

7

Flying fox used in transporting lightkeeper's family at

Cape Cleveland to the beach prior to being taken out to the

lighthouse tender in the background.

8-

be noted in this connection (see page 102 in Part II) that there

is a high turnover in lighthouse staff. Unmanning, therefore,

without adverse consequences for the men in this service, should

be possible at a fairly rapid rate.

20. Australia should continue to augment its system of

lights, and a good case may be made for standardising existing

lights, modernising them and keeping up with new developments.

The Department of Transport's submission states that they are

working toward the goal of standardising to four levels of light

intensity and reducing the number of identification characteristics

now used. They are also working on standardisation of structures.

The Commission would urge that this be given priority as it will

reduce servicing requirements and help to keep costs under control,

as well as speeding up modernisation. Modernisation and standard­

isation of lights will of course mean an increase in the number

of automatic lights, and require no doubt an increase in the

number of technical personnel.

21. Maintaining and servicing of lights are dealt with

later in Part I under the headings of Expenditure ana Research.

(ii) Buoys

22. Although mariners are warned in general terms on charts

and in other nautical publications that buoys are to be considered

unreliable as they may drift off position, buoys are still

being used for the marking of channels and hazards. Most buoys

maintained by the Department of Transport are channel markers

in such areas as Torres Strait, the South Australian gulfs and

9

the off-shore approaches to Port Hedland and Port Walcott in

Western Australia.

23. The Commission understands there has in recent years

been development of a lightweight type of buoy which conceivably

could replace our present heavyweight buoys, so that a smaller

vessel could reposition and service them. This vessel will

apparently still need adequate lifting gear, deckspace and

personnel so that the advantage might not be so great. It

seems to the Commission that an investigation of economical

alternatives to buoys is warranted.

(iii) Radio Beacons

24. The Australian coast is provided with ten maritime

radio beacons. These are radio transmitters established at

coastal positions. Each emits its own specified radio signal to

enable a ship to fix its general position by means of its radio

directional receiver. The Commission has been told that other

radio transmitters have some use for the mariner, but their

reliability for ships is generally questioned. As the require­

ment to carry 'Direction Finders' is compulsory on most merchant

vessels, one could ask why so few radio beacons for purely

maritime purposes have been established. A number of submissions

received by the Commission recommend the extension of the present

marine radio beacon network.. (See Part II page 12 .)

25. The Commission has been told that, particularly where

these beacons are in groups (as in Bass Strait), they are of

considerable benefit for position fixing for botn shipping and the

10

fishing industry. The Commission would therefore suggest that

the Department of Transport review the proposals made in the

submissions to the Commission, and also establish which non-

maritime radio transmitters can be designated safe for maritime use.

(iv) Radar

26. Most ships today are equipped with radar. Radar is one

of the electronic aids available in post-war years. Unfortunately,

however, many parts of our coastline are featureless, and there­

fore the echo or response is not effective. It was pointed out

in many submissions the Commission received that provision of

radar reflectors and responders would be a valuable help to

navigation. (See Part II page 13.) The Commission was

informed that the reliability of responders is still open to

some question, and, as suggested later, the Commission would urge

research into means of overcoming these problems.

(v) Decca

27. Decca is the company name applied to one of the

electronic land based devices which transmits signals which are

picked up by ships carrying specific equipment to enable a .

navigator to fix his position with high accuracy. The Decca

system is one of the more sophisticated electronic navigational

aids developed in recent years. (See Part II page 59.) V.ith

appropriate shipboard equipment the system offers precision

navigation in coastal waters as well as in the nearb> ocean areas.

Two chains have been installed in Western Australia at lort

Hedland and Dampier to assist the large bulk carriers now calling

11

at these iron ore ports.

28. Many of the submissions put to the Commission,

especially those from shipowners, sought additional Decca

installations.The desirability of Decca chains in Torres Strait,

along the Barrier Reef, and in Bass Strait was frequently

mentioned, and there were proposals also for installations of

Decca in a number of other areas.

Developments in Electronic Aids

(i) General

29. Since World War II substantial advances have been made

in electronic aids. Certainly systems such as the Decca

Navigator Chain mentioned above have helped greatly in many

parts of the world, including Western Australia, giving ships,

particularly large vessels an accurate track to port.

30. These new radio navigation aids again raise the point

referred to in an earlier section emphasising the changing

character of navaid requirements and extending them beyond their

original purposes. Refined precision coastal and ocean navigation

allows for more accurate course plotting, which in addition to

the safety factor, gives the ship a shorter and thus less

costly transit time and a much more accurate forecast of time of

arrival.

31. Information given by the Department of Transport was

extremely cautious as regards the merits of Decca installations

on a wide scale. They pointed out that other systems such as

12

Differential Omega were still being developed, and Loran C may

also prove to be a radio navaid of similar value to that given

by Decca. The Department emphasised also that a cost evaluation

should be made in respect of certain locations between a

continued use of lights and shipboard radar or a move to the

more expensive electronic systems. These issues need to be

settled before proposals for a particular type of electronic

aid can be put into the plan.

(ii) Omega

32. One of the new electronic aids is Omega, developed by

the United States. This aid provides precise location assistance

to ships operating on deep-sea international voyages. It is

envisaged as a world-wide chain of eight installations, of which

an Australian installation would be one.

33. The Commission is aware that the proposal to locate one

of the Omega installations in Australia has been examined by

the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence.

It is understood that the question of whether an Omega

installation should be established is before the Government at

the present time.

34. The Commission would think that the technical arguments

which made the case for the value of Omega to deep-sea commercial

ships have been put forward effectively in submissions which the

Department of Transport and others have made to the Parliamentary

Joint Committee. The Commission does not therefore, propose to

canvass the case for establishing Omega in this Report. It should

13

be mentioned, however, that a substantial number of the

submissions put to the Commission from commercial shipowners

supported the adoption of Omega. In general terms the case was

made that Omega would be' a great assistance to ocean navigation

and wrould help reduce costs of operation by enabling ships to

use more accurate and shorter routes when Omega was fully

implemented as a global system.

35. It seems important, however - from what the Department

of Transport has put to the Commission - to say that a decision

to establish an Omega aid in Australia would have considerable

implications for the type of program for modernisation and

extension of other aids and for the managerial tasks of

implementing that program. Quite apart from the proportion of

the cost of an Omega installation which Australia would be

expected to provide, the availability of Omega might do away

with the need for provision of certain additional Decca chains

which have been advocated by parties giving information to the

Commission. An addition to Omega is Differential Omega. Its

accuracy is suitable for coastal navigation and it could there­

fore be an alternative to Decca.

36. The Department of Transport has also advised that the

work of establishing an Omega installation would call for

additional staffing, both in terms of the numbers of people who

will be needed and the types of technical skill which they need

to have. Indeed, it seems that a decision on Omega is a

necessary preliminary to establishment of the rest of the

14

Departments plan because of the technical implications, the

costs and the staffing considerations that would be involved.

Surveys and Charts

37. Surveys of the coastal waters of Australia and the

preparation and dissemination of charts are the responsibility

of the Royal Australian Navy's Hydrographer. This highly

specialised work is a vital adjunct, not only to the provision

of navaids, but to safe navigation, for example, in the develop­

ment of new export ports and their coastal approaches, through

the Barrier Reef, and in Torres Strait. A close working

relationship must be encouraged too between the maritime

industries, the Department of Transport and the Hydrographer.

The Commission would also support the case for sufficient

Government funds to be provided to meet current needs for

surveys and chart preparation, and allow accurate information to

be established more quickly than it often is at present.

Fishing Industry Requirements

38. It was mentioned in a number of submissions to the

Commission that the general system of coastal navigational aids

did not particularly cater for the nation's growing fishing

fleet's peculiar requirements. Several specific suggestions

were made; for example; use of radio beacons or Decca in

northern waters and off the coast of Western Australia,

installation of lights specifically for fishing vessels in

certain areas such as the south east, northern and western

coasts. It seems to the Commission that attention should be

15

given to the need for these aids for the fishing industry, and

the financial cost of establishing such special aids. Fishing

boats are not at present charged light dues. To the extent that

aids are supplied for use by them it is concluded that the

fishing industry should also be charged light dues. This is

further discussed in paragraphs 40-42.

National Interest

39. There is wide public interest in lighthouses, many

being located in areas which are not merely important to

navigation but are also at scenic coastal beauty spots. Some

lighthouses have a most distinctive type of architecture, and

of course many have a long association with both national and

local history. Submissions were received regarding the

retention of many of these lighthouses and their surrounding

buildings as being in the public interest. Since lighthouses

can attract many visitors, this need could be met by designating

specific lighthouses, particularly near capital cities, to be

reserved, and provided with a guard/guide. If the lighthouse

is now redundant it could possibly be offered to the National

Trusts for preservation.

Financial Aspects of Navaids

(i) Revenue

40. As Section F of Part II, "Financial Aspects", shows,

two important changes have taken place in respect of the

financing of navigational aids. The installation and

maintenance of navigational aids are financed from the light

16

dues charged to the shipping industry. The first important

change is that the navaids finances are now calculated on what

is called a "commercial" accounting basis. The second point is

that on this basis expenditure each year has been brought

virtually into balance with revenue from light dues. These two

steps have been achieved in the last few years and together

they mean that there is now a basis from which future commitments to

meet the costs of a modernisation and extension program can be

calculated and assessed.

41. The Commission believes that the way in which light

dues are charged should be re-examined. At present, as is

explained in Part II, page 53, light dues are collected only from

commercial shipping. At one time the view was held that

commercial shipping should only be levied for an 80 per cent

recovery of the expected annual expenditures. The remaining

20 per cent was regarded as a Government contribution, not only

as assistance towards the costs of building and maintenance, but

also covering non-commercial users such as the fishing industry,

pleasure craft and the Government's own non-commercial ships.

42. It seems to the Commission that it is a desirable

principle to base the amount of finance needed from light dues

on a principle of full recovery of expenditures on navigational

aids. However, in putting this principle into practice, the

Commission believes that a proportion of the cost of navigational

aids should be regarded as attributable to the needs of the

fishing industry, pleasure craft and the Government's own non­

commercial ships. It is recommended that the level of light

17

dues should be varied in its application to different types of

shipping, and it might also be varied in application to reflect

the different purposes for which types of navaids are used. It

is recommended that the policy and principle be discussed with

the users at an early stage.

(ii) Expenditure

43. From discussion of revenue we now move on to the costs.

The tables in Part II show costs on two bases - actual money

costs, and costs calculated by "commercial" accounting. With

Government-owned assets and a Government-operated function such

as provision of navaids, it is obviously advantageous to have

achieved a position of full costing which includes interest on

capital invested, depreciation and contingent and other accrued

liabilities. This is especially the case if these figures are

to be used as the basis for recovery of costs from light dues.

In view of the changing character of navaids which may have to

be provided in the future, it is essential also to use depreciation

rates based on the economic life of each navaid which can be

then tiie foundation for a proper replacement and modernisation

program.

44. Details of costs of providing navaids over recent years

are set forth in Part II. (See tables, pages 56 to 59.) From

the tables it will be seen that substantially the largest portion

of costs arises from the operation and maintenance of the aids,

and relatively little relates to new work on modernisation. A

large amount is spent annually on the operation of the lighthouse

18

The lighthouse tender, CAPE PILLAR off Deal Island. LARC amphibious

craft, carried aboard the vessel, is used to land supplies.

19

servicing vessels. It is hoped that, in developing programs to

modernise and extend navaids some priority can be given to

types of aid which do not require the present high maintenance

cost. In addition, the Department believes that unmanning

of lighthouses will also assist in slowing the rate of increasing

costs, and the Commission agrees with this.

Staffing and Management

45. Between 1969 and 1971 the central staff at the head­

quarters of the Department of Transport's organisation concerned

with navaids was increased in number, so as to include a larger

number of professionally and technically qualified people.

46. While these changes have achieved much, the full .

effectiveness of this growth in the central planning unit has not

yet been fully reached. Reasons for this are stated as being

the need to send central staff into regions to do urgent tasks

there, and also to conduct a considerable amount of experimental

work. The Commission does not think that these needs will be

diminished. Strengthening of the number and types of regional

staff "is clearly needed.

47. The concept of a program which the Commission envisages

will call for a well-qualified and effective central planning

team, with additional skills no doubt to be added to handle more

sophisticated aids required in the future. There will also be

a change in the skills which the servicing staff in the regions

will need. Electronic aids call for particular technical know­

20

ledge from the members of the team, as does the servicing of

electrified aids. These requirements will assume greater

importance as the deliberate objective of unmanning lights goes

further. There are consequent needs for a better guarantee of

reliability from unattended lights.

48. On this it must be noted that a planned training

program for all maintenance and servicing staff would be needed.

If the proposal set out in this Commission's first report resulted

in a special college establishment to train sea-going personnel,

it may be possible to add suitable supplementary training for

navaid technicians at that college.

49. Automation and greater electrification would obviously

bring pressure to change servicing arrangements, both in the

central administration and regional office structures. This can

also have its effect on types of transport used in maintenance.

Helicopters and light aircraft are being used to some degree now

in certain areas, and must be considered for greater use if they

provide less costly transport than the lighthouse servicing

vessels which at present provide transport to many navaids.

50. A great deal of the future extension of maritime

navaids systems would appear to be in the area of radio and

electronic navaids. As the Department of Transport has pointed

out, the Air Transport Group's work in aeronautical navaids is

largely radio-oriented. It should be possible for the maritime

navaids branch to draw on this expertise.

21

Special Authority

51. When the basic policy considerations that govern the

program have been formulated, the detailed working out of that

program and putting it into practice are inherently technical

tasks, although complicated and calling for a great deal of

knowledge and effort. It seems to the Commission that, where

operational tasks are inherently technical and do not become

deeply involved in frequent advice to the Minister on high policy

matters, the carrying out of these operational tasks can be done

more efficiently if they are fitted into a specialised, stream­

lined unit.

52. The Commission believes that there are a number of

operational tasks in the maritime area where more efficient

operation would be obtained by separating them from the policy

department. The Commission sees handling of navigation aids as

falling into this category. In addition, it would encompass

ship surveys, search for ships lost at sea and marine pollution

controls.

53. The Commission feels quite strongly that these

operating functions would be best handled by setting up a

Coastal Services Authority. Those functions, other than navaids,

ivill be discussed as appropriate in other Reports.

Research

54. Australia's 12,000 mile coastline, between 10° and

45° South latitude, ranges through extremes of climatic conditions

(from the temperate south to the tropical north), and geography

22

(rugged, rocky areas, hundreds of miles of reefs, many sections

with featureless coastline) . A variety of reliable navaids are

required for all these diverse conditions.

55. More research is needed in some areas related especially

to Australia's navaid requirements. While it is apparent that

Australia keeps well posted on developments throughout the world

(and has made its own original contributions - e.g. fibre-glass

structures), the Navigational Aids Branch would have at present

only limited funds and not enough specialised manpower available

to conduct full research studies. If a Coastal Services Authority

were set up, it should be required to undertake research and

development, concentrating its efforts on specific needs. If

that suggestion is not accepted then the Commission believes it

would be essential that the Department of Transport be equipped

with more staff for this purpose perhaps both at central office

and in regional offices. The Commission believes that establish­

ment of a Coastal Services Authority is the best way of handling

this question.

56. Specific areas to which attention could be given

include:

(1) development of reliable radar responders, and

increased use of reflectors. It has been pointed out

that most vessels are equipped with radar, and many

submissions r-ecommended these radar-related devices

for position-fixing, particularly on featureless

coastlines. Apparently scientific developments in

this field are slower than had been hoped;

(2) development of reliable monitoring equipment. Work

is being done here and overseas. This would allow for

more rapid unmanning of lights, and assure reliability

of the many unattended lights;

(3) research into alternative power sources for lights,

especially solar batteries and wind powder. Some work

is being done, but much more could be achieved in our

own interests. Electric mains power is generally the

most desirable, but it is not practical in many cases,

and it is felt that battery power is less reliable

and presents other problems. Also new power sources

would relieve our dependence on acetylene, which powers

so many of our lights, with the attendant problems of

transport and special skills needed. There should be

a study to assess whether Australia's climatic conditions

offer scope for development of solar batteries and

wind power for lights.

57. One of the most interesting aspects of this Commission’s

Term of Reference is to consider to what extent Australia's

navigational aids have kept up with modern scientific developments

in other countries. The Department of Transport represents

Australia as a member of the International Association of

Lighthouse Authorities, an organisation of the navaid authorities

from a great many countries, which disseminates information on

many phases of modernisation of aids as well as new developments.

Continued active participation is urged.

24

58. Much work is being done overseas on some more

sophisticated navaid systems. The cost of changeover to these

new types is seldom cheap; nevertheless it is suggested that

because of the extended purposes of navaids today,referred to

earlier, more sophisticated navigation aids are essential to

efficient operation of shipping, in both overseas and coastal

trades. *

59. . Care of course has to be taken in installing new or

expensive aids. Decca, for example, is being sought for various

locations, whereas other navigational aids, deeper dredging, etc.

might be a more economical and suitable answer. Cost/benefit

analyses, as intended by the Department of Transport, are a

necessity when considering this type of aid.

60. Generally it can be said that the Department of

Transport has kept up with the times reasonably well in the

provision of navaids and that Australia's coastline is well

provided with traditional navaids. There should be a continuous

running re-assessment of present navaids to take account of

changing needs now' and in the future. This might also be assisted

by development of a questionnaire of serving masters, which was

proposed several times in submissions to the Commission.

Navaids Advisory Council

61. Looking at the subject of present and future needs for

improvements in the navigational aids system, it seems to t lie

Commission that the present system of obtaining information from

shipowners and other users is far from satisfactory. Inking into

account the extension from the original purpose and use of navaids

for solely safety purposes to their wider use in the future,

properly compiled information on user requirements is a necessity.

62. At the moment, legislation provides for a Lighthouse

Advisory Committee to advise the Minister, but the Committee has

not met for some years. In 1971 the Department convened a well-

attended Navaids Symposium, and one of the principal recommendations!

to come from that body was the setting up of a policy-level

Navaids Advisory Council, broadly representative of all users.

The Commission agrees and thinks that the present Committee

should be replaced by such a Council.

63. The Council would include Government Department

representatives and members representing the following groups -

overseas liners, tankers, tramp ship operators and Australian

coastal lines - and as necessary, the fishing industry. It is

suggested that the first four could be nominated by the

Australian Chamber of Shipping which includes the majority of

operators in its membership, and which in turn should ensure

good communication about policy decisions with all concerned.

Such a Council should act as an efficient advisory body to those

handling developments and changes needed and also help by advising

on priorities. The Council may also feel that the advisory function

would be more effective if exercised in relation to the activities

of a statutory authority to-whose revenue users would make a

major contribution, rather than a Government department which

expends funds from consolidated revenue.

26

Conclusions

64. The Term of Reference under which the Commission is

working in this Report requires it to examine "a desirable

program for modernisation and extension of navigational aid

systems". As stated in paragraphs 4-5, the Commission has handled

this task by setting down the principles on which a program

might be based. It has reached the following conclusions:

(1) There is little to criticise in terms of reliability

of navaids. For many years the navigation aids have

been planned, handled and developed effectively by a

small number of resourceful and ingenious people

within the Department of Transport. The Commission

believes, however, that the future approach to handling

needs of the shipping industry in navaids requires a

. larger group of specialists working within a Coastal

Services Authority. The Navigation Aids Branch would

become a part of this Authority.

The Commission has concluded that this statutory

authority should be set up to perform many of the

. other day-to-day practical activities of the Department

of Transport, for example, search and rescue, ship

surveys and marine pollution controls. The Department

of Transport would remain as the adviser to the Minister

on matters of policy.

An approach of this nature would ensure that technical

matters receive enough active attention, but should

27

ensure that technical matters and matters of policy do

not get out of balance.

The work of the Authority should be organised so that

there is a central office of the Authority which would

keep contact with the central office of the Department

of Transport and would develop action plans and

programs for navaids. There would also be regional

branches of the Authority which would be charged with

the task of erecting and maintaining navaids. This

does not mean that the present regional offices of

the Department would become the regional offices of

the Authority. Some of the positions may be transferred,

but this Commission is very much of the view that there

should be an increase in the staff handling regional

requirements as compared with the number at present

handling navaids in the regions.

It is considered that future work on marine radio

navigation aids should be integrated with the work

on similar matters carried out by the Air Transport

Group of the Department of Transport.

(2) The Authority should have the advice which could be

given by a Navaids Advisory Council, in lieu of the

present Lighthouse Advisory Committee. The Council

should include representatives of maritime user

industries, with the Department of Transport providing

a senior man as the Chairman. Such a Council would

28

for example, review the program for provision of

navaids, and assist the Authority in working out costs

and other aspects of the development of a detailed

forward plan.

(3) The Commission has concluded that further study is

needed on proposals put forward that the Australian

Government should take over provision of navaids in

port approaches, thus ensuring that ports are using

compatible types of aids. When handling Item 5 of the

Terms of Reference, this Commission will examine the

question as to whether the Australian Government might

exercise greater power in port aids than it now does.

(4) Having reached these basic conclusions, the Commission

then reached the further conclusion that a program for

"modernisation and extension of navigational aid

systems' should also be one which:

(a) takes account of changing needs

(b) is based on up-to-date information on user

requirements (the users to participate through the

proposed Navaids Advisory Council in the provision and

compilation of their detailed requirements)

(c) should use cost/benefit analysis in deciding the

best type of navaid in a particula,r circumstance

(d) exar.d nos the possibility of relating the charges

or levies made to the services rendered

29

(e) encourages research and development and uses

modern technology both in the design of the aids and

in the manner in which they are serviced

(f) pays some attention to the maintenance of

structures of historic and social interest.

Such a program would include in the Commission's view

the following:

(i) There should be a review of the needs of the

maritime-user industries in terms of installation of

modern electronic navaids, giving special attention

to present and future needs for navaids required for

new developments, including oil rigs, new export ports,

larger and faster ships, changes in density of traffic

patterns, etc., and also giving attention to the

needs for special navaids for our important fishing

industry and the requirements of the rapidly expanding

number of ocean-going pleasure craft;

(ii) There should be as much standardisation as

possible of types of navaids, putting that standardisation

into effect as rapidly as possible consistent.with

good economic management and the best world practices.

The plan should include a detailed program for

modernisation and installation, using the standardised

types decided upon;

(iii) A review of the need for surveys and the

30

provision of adequate charts (under the RAN Hydrographer)

should be made to determine to what extent these should

be expedited and the volume of this work increased;

(iv) A fairer method of assessing light dues against

commercial shipping should be developed and a formula

devised for charging dues to users such as the fishing

industry and other ocean-going craft. Operating costs

for servicing and transport should be under constant

review to achieve economies, and a realistic depreciation

rate should be applied to the operation and economic

life of navaids;

(v) The plan should ensure that unmanning of light­

houses progresses as rapidly as possible, and is done

efficiently and consistent with good personnel practice

and equipment reliability;

(vi) The Commission recommends the establishment of

a specially funded research program into reliable

radar responders, monitoring equipment, and solar

and wind power sources;

(vii) To the extent that these recommendations are

implemented, such changes as are necessary in the

legislation and regulations for navigational aids

should be made, at the same time reviewing existing

legislation for out-of-date items;

(viii) Actively working with the National Trusts,

31

a plan and budget should be developed for the

retention and maintenance of historical lighthouses

and buildings, together with provision of means of

access, information and guides for public use.

N A V I G A T I O N A L A I D S Y S T E M S

PART II

PART II

NAVIGATIONAL AID SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

A. GENERAL 1

1. Background 1

2. Modernisation in Recent Years 1

3. International 3

4. Lighthouse Advisory Committee 4

5. Coastal Navaids Symposium - 5

6 . Departmental Planning 6

B. SUMMARY OF SUBMISSIONS RECEIVED BY COMMISSION n

1. Australian Coastal Navaids Symposium H

2. Navaids Advisory Council 11

3. Lights 11

4. Radio Beacons 12

5. Radar and Related Devices 13

6 . Decca 13

7. Other Navigational Aids 13

8 . Omega I4

9. Other Comments 14

c. TYPES OF MARINE AIDS TO NAVIGATION 17

1. Coastal Aids 17

a. Lights 17

b. Radar 17

c. Dacca 17

d. Buoys 18

2. Landfall Aids 18

a. Lights 18

b. Radio Direction Finder 18

c. Omega 18

d . Loran 'C ' 18

3. Open Ocean Aids 19

a. Celestial Navigation 19

b . Satellite Navigation 19

c. Inertial Systems 19

AIDS TO NAVIGATION USED IN AUSTRALIAN COASTAL WATERS 23

1. Lights 23

a. Unattended Acetylene Lights 23

b. Electric Lights 26

c. Structures 30

d. Light vessels 30

e. Lighted Buoys 32

f. Vaporised Kerosene 33

g. Unmanning of Lights 34

h. Alternative Power Sources 36

2. Radio Beacons 35

a. Position Fixing on group basis 36

b. Landfall beacons 37

c . Short-range beacons 37

3. Radar ' 3 7

a. Radar Responders 38

b. Radar Reflectors 39

4. becca Navigator Chains 39

5. Other Navigational Aids 41

6. Servicing - 43

a. General 43

b. Transport 43

c . Cargo Handling Facilities 45

,E. ORGANISATION OF NAVAIDS MANAGEMENT 49

F. FINANCIAL ASPECTS 53

1. General 53

2. Actual Expenditures 53

3. 1 Commercial1 Cost 53

4. Light Dues 53

G. COASTAL NAVAIDS BY REGION 61

1. Queensland/Northern Territory 61

a. General 61

b . Servicing and Transport 64

c. Establishment or Alteration of Navaids ih 65

Last Decade

2. New South Wales 76

a. General 76

b. Servicing and Transport 76

c. Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last 76

Decade

3. Victoria 80

a. General 80

b . Servicing and Transport 80

c . Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last 81

Decade

4. Tasmania 85

a. General 85

b . Servicing and Transport 85

c. Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last 86

Decade

5. South Australia 90

a. General 90

b. Servicing and Transport 90

c. Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last 91

Decade

6 . Western Australia 95

a. General 95

b. Servicing and Transport 96

c. Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last 96

Decade

7. Staffing 102

a. Regions

b . Ships

INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE COMMISSION IN

WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS OR DISCUSSIONS ON

102

105

109

NAVIGATIONAL AID QUESTIONS

Maatsuyker Island lighthouse, the most southern Australian

light, was built in 1891 and is one of the few remaining

manned kerosene lights.

A. GENERAL

1. Background

The first aid to navigation in Australia was

Macquarie Light, marking the entrance to Port Jackson. It

was established in 1817 and is still the major landfall

light for the port of Sydney. As the need arose, many

lights and other aids were established over the ensuing

years. At September 1974 some 333 marine aids to

navigation assisted the mariner in his approach to the

Australian coast and marked the shipping tracks along our

12,000 mile coastline. (See Table 1).

Under the Australian Constitution (Part V , 51.

(vii)), the Australian Government was given power with respect

to navigational aids. Governing legislation is the

Lighthouses Act of 1911, as amended. In 1915 the Australian

Government assumed responsibility from the States for all

navigation aids in coastal waters; the States, or their

port authorities, retaining control over aids within ports

and harbours. Responsibility was assigned initially to the

Lighthouse Service, within the Department of Trade and

Customs. At present, the function is carried out by the

Navigational Aids Branch of the Department of Transport.

2. Modernisation in Recent Years

The present era of modernisation and expansion

of the coastal navaids system dates from 1967. In that year

1

Source: Department of Transport

the Government approved in principle an improvement program

which was expected to cost approximately $ 19m. over a 5 to 10

year period. This amount included $3.5m. for modern electronic

systems. .

The Department of Transport has advised that the

basis of the program included the following objectives:

(a) provision of additional lights,

for a more comprehensive coastal system.

(b) phasing out of kerosene and of

acetylene lights

- the intention being that the latter

would be more gradual (up to 15-20

years) than the former (5-10 years).

' (c) progressive automation and unmanning of

the more isolated lightstations with difficult

access and living conditions.

(d) upgrading of living conditions at other

manned lightstations pending longer-term

unmanning programs.

(e) provision of modern electronic navigation

systems.

Before 1968 the typical level of expansion of

the coastal light system was about 4 or 5 new aids per year.

Leaving aside the provision of buoys at Port Hedland, Port

Walcott and Torres Strait, the rate of provision of new fixed

3

light structures remains today practically the same. However,

the new lights established since 1968 are key lights in

the north-west approaches to Australia, in the Coral Sea and

in Torres Strait, which were important outstanding requirements

in 1967

Since 1968 there has been the introduction of

modern electronic navigation systems at Port Hedland and Port

Walcott. The rate of conversion to electric operation or

phasing out of obsolescent equipment (including kerosene and

acetylene) has progressed steadily from 2 in 1969 to an

expected 22 in 1974/75.

The following is some indication of the progress

of modernisation over recent years and in the near future:

. In 1968 there were 17 kerosene manned lights,

in 1974 11 and these will be reduced to 5 in

1975.

. The rate of unmanning electric lights is

slower, although there is a planned reduction

from 37 to 35 in 1975.

. In 1968 there were 31 unattended electric

lights, 89 in 1974 and an expected 99 in 1975.

. Acetylene lights are being increasingly

converted and have been reduced from 146 in

1968 to 122 in 1974 and there is a further

planned reduction to 114 in 1975.

4

From the foregoing it will be seen that:

. Kerosene lights should be phased out

completely within three years.

. Acetylene lights are being replaced

at a significant rate in keeping with a

program extending to the end of the 1970's

and beyond.

3. International

Navaids contribute to the safety of ships at

sea, irrespective of their nationality. This was recognised

when the International Convention on the Safety of Life at

Sea was made in 1960. This Convention requires contracting

governments to provide marine aids to navigation where the

volume of traffic and the degree of risk requires such

aids. (Solas, Chapter V, Regulation 14).

The provision of marine navigational aids has

its own engineering design and equipment peculiarities. The

International Association of Lighthouse Authorities,

(I.A.L.A.) in which the Department of Transport represents

Australia as a member, is the vehicle used to disseminate

information on maritime navaid development and other associated

techniques. The quarterly bulletins carry articles by navigational

aid authorities on new development, maintenance and installation

techniques. Under the rules of this Association member

countries provide a report annually on their navaid .

5

activities. These reports are circulated to all members.

An International Conference on Lighthouses and

other Aids to Navigation is held every 5 years to facilitate

the exchange of technical information between lighthouse

services. The next Conference, the ninth, is scheduled to be

held in Ottawa in 1975. The technical papers presented at

these Conferences form an important part of navaid reference

material. Apart from the foregoing, close co-operation exists

between the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative

Organisation (I.M.C.O.) and the International Association of

Lighthouse Authorities (I.A.L.A.). I.A.L.A. has consultative

status with I.M.C.O.

4. Lighthouse Advisory Committee

The Lighthouses and Light Dues Regulations

(Part II) provide for the establishment of a Lighthouse

Advisory Committee.

The Committee is appointed by the Minister.

The regulations specify the composition of the Committee and

describe in general the matters which may be referred by the

Minister to the Committee for advice.

The composition of the Committee is as follows:

(a) three officers of the Department of

Transport -

(b) an officer of the Department of Works (now

Housing and Construction)

6

(c) an officer of the Royal Australian Navy

with hydrographic qualifications

(d) a representative of certificated navigating

officers and other seamen

(e) a representative of Australian coastal

shipping interests

(f) a representative of overseas shipping

interests

These regulations were made in 1930. The first

committee was appointed in 1931. Up to 1940 the Committee met

regularly every year (except for 1938) . The next meeting did

not take place until 1949. In the following 18 years meetings

were held at irregular intervals from 8 months to more than

4 years. The last meeting took place in December, 1967.

The Committee has primarily concerned itself

with proposals for new aids to navigation originated by the

shipping industry or by the Department.

Although a number of major projects have been

initiated since the Committee last met in 1967, they were

developed jointly by the Department and the industry.

5. Coastal Navaids Symposium

In 1971, a Coastal Navaids Symposium was

convened by the Department. It was attended by almost 150

7

representatives of industry, government departments, suppliers,

and port authorities. They heard papers and discussed and

made recommendations on present and future requirements. The

views of the syndicates taking part in the Symposium, and the

Chairman's summing up, are to be found in the "Australian

Coastal Navaids Symposium Report" at pages 15 to 35.

6 . Departmental Planning

The Department of Transport has advised that

consideration is being given to evolving a 5 year planning

system from the current activities, particularly the

following:

. shorter term programming, based upon a

diminishing register of outstanding

navaids requirements and upgrading and

modernisation of existing navaids.

. project studies of automation and system

monitoring.

. development of standard equipment and

plant.

. development of standard structures and

building plans. '

. study of new servicing schemes including

helicopter transport.

. study of manpower resources and facilities

in the navaids area in the light of future

installation and servicing requirements.

8 -

The Department envisages that a new master plan

should be prepared which would then be regarded as the

foundation for a second stage of modernisation and expansion.

The key factors in such a plan, in the

Department's view, are the following:

. Reorganisation and expansion of the radio

engineering resources of the Department

if Omega proceeds.

. Studies of future chain proposals and cost

benefit aspects if more Decca installed.

. If the fishing industry is to be supplied

with special navaids a significant expansion

of navaids in-particular areas may assume high

priority.

. Detailed planning of extended unmanning, subject

to the results of present pilot studies concerned

with automation/unmanning/monitoring.

. Major projects such as Torres Strait navaids

development.

. Specialised investigations of future

maintenance liabilities.

. Evaluation of task force approach to collective

upgrading jobs e.g. upgrading structures.

. More experience with helicopter servicing.

. Contacts with users.

9

The main area of uncertainty relates to

electronic navigational -aid systems and the future servicing

of navaids and availability of resources. The current progress

towards standardisation in automation and equipment design is

reasonably stable and forms a sound basis for a modernisation

program.

It is expected that by the end of 1975 these

matters will have been clarified to a stage where a specific

5-year works program can be formulated. This program will be

developed out of continuing reviews of existing navaid

services and the condition of existing navaids.

The Department of Transport considers that the

unmanning and replacement of obsolescent equipment is the most

important aspect of modernisation and is expected to result

in a large reduction in the number of manned lights.

Automation and monitoring of these stations will

be implemented in accordance with the standard plan

configurations now under development.

The main potential area of expansion is in

electronic navaids. Possibilities are Omega and its

derivative, Differential Omega, and/or additional Decca,and

radio beacons.

10

B. SUMMARY OF SUBMISSIONS RECEIVED BY COMMISSION

A substantial number of submissions were

received by the Commission, both in writing (52) and orally

at hearings held in various locations. They cover a wide

cross-section of the shipping industry, government departments,

port authorities, the fishing industry, other related industry

organisations, yachting associations, educational institutions

and suppliers. Following is a summary of the views and

recommendations submitted. (Names of the parties concerned are

set out on pages 109 to 111) .

1. Australian Coastal Navaids Symposium

This Symposium, held in December 1971, with some

150 persons widely representative of maritime industries,

government departments and port authorities, came to a number

of conclusions summarised in the report subsequently issued.

Eleven submissions specifically re-affirmed the recommendations

made at this Symposium and urged their implementation.

2. Navaids Advisory Council

Such a council was a basic recommendation of the

Navaids Symposium. Seven submissions also recommended early

establishment of an advisory council, working at a policy

level on provision of navigational aids.

3. Lights

In 15 submissions which mentioned lights along the

Australian coast, there were no specific criticisms, but

rather numerous detailed suggestions for upgrading, relocation

11

or additional installations. Areas most mentioned include

parts of the Barrier Reef, the coast of Western Australia,

portions of the north coast and Tasmania and Bass Strait.

Amongst others, it was suggested that Carpentaria light vessel

be replaced with a more sophisticated aid.

Many submissions placed particular emphasis on

the needs of the fishing industry for lights related to their

peculiar requirements, primarily on the Western Australian,

Northern Territory, Tasmanian and south east coasts.

Two strong, recommendations were made to preserve

certain structures and lighthouses as they have great historic

value and are of public interest.

4. Radio Beacons

Twelve suggestions covered a wide range of the

possibilities of increased use of radio beacons. It was

pointed out particularly that over the years there had been

great improvements in radio direction finders, which are

mandatory on most ships. These improvements warranted far

wider use of radio beacons, singly and particularly in groups,

in a number of locations such as Tasmania, the north and

western coasts of the continent, and in the Barrier Reef. They

also emphasized that, despite past unreliability, the advances

in recent years made this aid much more useful, especially with

an increase in training in its use. Also, charts could show

all radio transmitters sufficiently reliable as marine navaids.

12 -

5. Radar and Related Devices

Fourteen submissions proposed that, in view of the

fact that most ships today are equipped with radar, installation

of Racon or similar devices, and radar reflectors, would be

most advantageous. Many urged that specialized training in

radar be provided to ensure its proper use.

Several specific locations were named. They

include major port entrances such as Sydney, Fremantle and

Moreton Bay, and Bass Strait, the Barrier Reef, Sandy Cape,

Torres Strait and others.

6. Decca ·

Twenty-two submissions recommended additional

Decca Navigator Chains, including 4 which especially urged

installations for the benefit of the fishing industry. Its

usefulness to search-and -r e s cu e operations was pointed out.

Areas for installations most frequently mentioned were Bass

Strait, Torres Strait, the Barrier Reef and Western

Australia (Fremantle). Others suggested that special training

in use of Decca be provided for mariners.

7. Other Navigational Aids

Individual suggestions for other navigational aids

included:

. an increased number of high frequency radio

bands for shipping and fishing use

13

. traffic separation schemes and compulsory

tracks in Bass Strait and the Barrier

Reef

. harbour control schemes to allow 24 hour

harbour navigation

. acceleration of hydrographic surveys and

production of up-to-date charts

. radio traffic information services in the

Barrier Reef and Torres Strait

. various alternative aids such as fog signals,

tide gauges, sarus towers and solar

reflectors.

. attention to the specific problems of oil

rigs

8. Omega

Seventeen submissions referred to the values of

the Omega system for both ocean navigation and landfall. The

potential advantage of Differential Omega in place of

Decca or other systems was pointed out.

9. Other Comments

Numerous comments relating to navaids generally

were made. Those mentioned most frequently were:

development of a questionnaire to

Masters of vessels using Australia's coastal

aids which would survey their opinions.

- 14

growth and economic importance of the

fishing industry warrants government

support through provision of navaids.

provision of port approach aids, with

24 hour port entrance availability.

compulsory use of VHP radio, together

with ability to link ship's VHP radio to

shore telephone.

15 -

r

c. T Y P E S OF M A R I N E A I D S T O N A V I G A T I O N

Following are definitions of various aids to

navigation referred to in this report:

1. Coastal Aids

a . Lights

Used to mark hazards or as a means of position­

fixing. May be fixed, flashing or occulting;

also useful as daytime beacons. May be manned

or unmanned, powered by electricity (mains,

primary dry cell, or secondary rechargeable

batteries), acetylene or kerosene; of varying

candlepower. Limited to line of sight.

b. Radar

A system in wide use transmitting a signal

which, after bouncing off an object, returns to

provide an image on a screen; definition of

image depends on the set. Proper calibration

and skill in use necessary. Use as navaid

improved by shore-based radar-conspicuous

objects or beacons (Racon, Ramark). Limited to

line of sight.

c . Decca

A sophisticated position-fixing system

consisting of a chain of a master and 2 or 3

slave stations ashore; high degree of accuracy

(in metres) near shore. Shore station costly,

17

but shipboard equipment inexpensive. Use

ensures ship can proceed under all conditions.

d . Buoys

An anchored floating device, with or

without a light, marking hazards or channels.

2. Landfall Aids

a . Lights .

See above.

b . Radio Direction Finder

A shipboard radio receiver which plots position

by fixing on beams transmitted from ashore.

Results achieved are generally cruder than those

by other systems.

c . Omega

A sophisticated navaid for accurate ocean

navigation, giving user easy determination of

position anywhere, and especially useful when

approaching land to estimate time of arrival.

Global system being built. Expensive shore

installation, but will become "off-the-shelf"

navaid; requiring user training. Differential

Omega, a refinement, even more precision,

usable close in-shore.

d . Loran 'C '

A system requiring expensive shore stations,

giving fine accuracy. Used in North Pacific and

Atlantic Oceans.

18

3 . Open Ocean Aids

a . Celestial Navigation and Dead Reckoning

Historical method using sextant, chronometer

and compass, requiring visibility of horizon

and stars, for position-fixing with reasonable

accuracy; failing this, dead reckoning is based

on estimating new position based on speed,

compass, weather, requiring some form of position

updating.

b . Satellite Navigation ,

NAVSAT system being developed depends on

transmission from satellites of position and

time messages, requiring shipboard computer to

calculate ship's position. An all-weather

system,has been very expensive in the past,

accurate, has had limited applicability

for commercial shipping up to the present.

c . Inertial Systems

A shipboard independent system, based on

gyroscopic measurement of the ship's real

movement. Highly sophisticated, very expensive

and still being developed.

The diagram following depicts these aids

to navigation in relation to effective range and accuracy.

- 19

NAVAIDS

TYPES USED RELATED TO RANGE

MILES Of---T---i'------''r0 __ ___:2r5 __ ___:5TO __ ___:IT00,__ _ ___:2'T5"-0---'50"00+

PORT

LIGHTS BUOYS 'IHf li:AOIO RADAR TIDAL GAUGES fOG SIGNALS

I COASTAL AIDS I

•••••••••• • LIGHTS 'l'

!LANDFALL AIDS I

••••••• • ••••••• • RADIO DIRECTION FINDER

l OPEN OCEAN AIDS I

NAVIGATI NG ACCURACY REQUIRED •

DISTANCE FROM NEAREST DANGER MILES Of----T----T---'l'O---''f'''-----'T'O'----'"foo"-----;""'0---"1500+

Trme Available toObtam Posrtron "'"'""' L ,, '"'""'"--+-----""'""'" ___ _

A"""""""'"'""""'"'"' "''' '"''"'' •• >/2••'•__J___ 1\ofd""-'""''"'••-

OMEGA

LORAN C

ACCURACY

Verveccurate in1kill..::lhand1

Vervaccuratewithproper

Yerd,close into 114 mile" range

Limottd

1/4mole

CELESTIAL NAVIGATION 1 mile in skilled hands

DEAD RECKONING 5-10mile•mtkilledha']d•

SATELLITE NAVIGATION

INERTIAL SYSTEMS

COMMENT

Vosiboloty nec11sary

Shop btl in ordar and p roperly calibrallod.

Radar beacons important. Anti· collition aid .

Ship mull btl in ordar and properly c.librltlld.

World·widecoverageforoc .. if 1dopted, m o ll useful for landfaii!OC(: u recy.

Tr•ditionalmethod. Horizon •nd •taf llilibilitynt"Catsery

Ettimatin9only; u..Owhenvitibility niland noother&CCur•talidl

Shipboardsystem,utel!prHI!nt limitlldbynumbtr ofsettllital. VtrVtxptntillt.

New shipboard system being dl!lltloped VaryaKptmsiveaouipmant.

• on tru• ConciYSion• and Recommendatior>s of the

Meeting on R":Uo Aids to Marine Navigation

adopted on 9 May lQ47 a-reproduced In 'Australlanco.,tol NavaldsSymposlum Report' 1972paye ISS. r

Page 21

D. AIDS TO NAVIGATION USED IN AUSTRALIAN COASTAL WATERS

1. Lights

Fixed lights constitute the largest number

of navaids (265 of 333 total), the power sources being

acetylene, electricity or vaporised kerosene. Only the

vaporised kerosene and certain electric lights are manned.

a . Unattended Acetylene Lights

This category forms the largest number of

coastal navaids (122) . Acetylene equipment, developed many

decades ago, was the first reliable power source that could

be applied to unattended navaids, thus accounting for the

large proportion being used. This type of navaid is still

generally in use in many parts of the world. New navaids

of this type are not being established in Australia, and

existing ones are gradually being replaced by electricity.

There are two types of acetylene light

in use, the mantle type, of which there are 11, and the

open flame (flasher type) of which there are 111.

(a) The mantle type utilises a fixed

• incandescent mantle in association with a

rotating lens. It provides a high intensity

light in the medium to high power range (15­

20 miles) . The pedestal on which the lens

is mounted is also driven by gas pressure. The

23

main disadvantages of the mantle type are the

unreliability of the life of the mantles, and

certain problems with the· gas driven pedestals.

For this reason this type of navaid is being

phased out. Currently, 3 of the 11 are planned

for conversion to electric.

(b) The open flame type is associated with a

fixed lens. The characteristic of the light is

provided by a flasher mechanism. This type of

light does not give the same intensity as the

mantle type, and they are therefore mostly used

for low-powered lights. They are reputed for

their reliability.

Disadvantages of the acetylene lights include:

. the difficulties experienced in handling

heavy gas bottles in often remote and

inaccessible areas.

. problems with transportation and special

handling techniques.

. special skills required to service this

equipment, and, as there is no equivalent

present day trade skill, it is necessary to

provide training, especially on the flasher

equipment associated with the open flame type.

Specially-equipped overhaul depots have been

established in Brisbane and Melbourne.

24

Citadel Island light off the Victorian coast is here being

serviced by regional maintenance personnel. The flying fox used

in transporting material is seen in the background. In the

foreground is the gasline to the bottle storage at the landing'

stage. The lighthouse tender CAPE PILLAR is seen anchored off

the island.

-2 5 -

The cost of operating these lights varies with

their intensity. During 1973/74 the average costs for high

powered acetylene lights were $1600 per annum, for medium

powered lights $900 and for low powered lights $750. However,

depending on location the costs varied from $500 to $6500 per

annum.

The future of acetylene lights needs special

consideration. The disadvantages associated with maintaining

these lights have influenced the present program of phasing

them out and replacing them with electric powered lights

(mostly battery).

At the present time most of the acetylene lights

which can be converted to electric power without difficulty'

have already been converted. The large number of remaining

acetylene lights are mostly in remote locations in north

Queensland and Western Australia. Access is difficult and

this is complicated by the fact that many of the supporting

structures and lanterns require rehabilitation or replacement.

b . Electric Lights

Electric lights fall into four categories as

regard power source:

(1) primary batteries

(2) secondary batteries

(3) generator electric

(4) mains electric

- 26

Batteries for use in navaids have the same

problems as the primary batteries (dry cells) used in torches,

radios etc., and the secondary batteries (rechargeable) in

cars, aircraft etc. The main problem is that they can break

down without warning or can suffer from considerable voltage

drops.

(1) Primary batteries are generally used in

navaids with a visibility of up to 15 miles (low

to medium intensity). This type of battery, not

being rechargeable, needs to be replaced usually

at quarterly intervals, and is mainly found as

the power source for navaids in difficult places

of access and in areas where it is not possible

to erect a more elaborate structure.

Primary cells, apart from their inherent failure

or breakdown rate, are dependent on overseas

sources of supply as they are not being

manufactured locally.

Primary-cell-powered navaids can be provided

at a reasonable cost, thus enabling them to be

used to fill the gaps in coastal lights. In

addition they are compact and do not require

elaborate structural support.

(2) Secondary batteries are mostly used for

navaids with visibility of up to 20 miles (medium

to high powered). These batteries are recharged

27

by diesel operated generators and in most cases

have no reserve power should there be a breakdown.

t > The recent development of sealed lamp arrays and

tungsten halogen lamps combined with reflectors

has greatly improved the use of this type of

power source as they are able to provide a light

of high intensity with a minimum current draw

on the secondary batteries.

One of the main advantages of this type is that

it is possible to provide a high intensity light

if required. Also, the equipment is quite simple

from a servicing point of view.

(3) Generator electric lights (as w611 as mains)

can be maintained by practical well-trained

tradesmen with an electrical and mechanical

background. Diesel plant is not always reliable

and consequently there is a need for stand-by

plant, in the forms of engines and generators

or battery or pressure lanterns. Despite the

inherent problems associated with establishing

or converting navaids to electricity generated by

diesel/generator power plant, there are situations

where this cannot be avoided, as mains power may

not be available.

(4) Mains electricity powers lights where possible,

either at original installation or on conversion.

28

Cost is often modest. However, depending on the

distance covered and environmental considerations

(underground installation to avoid unsightly

above ground wiring) other types of power supply

may be less expensive.

As mains electric supply may be interrupted,

backup facilities are necessary, usually a

diesel plant or a battery operated beacon.

Experimentation on effective monitoring devices

is being carried out by electricity supply

authorities.

From a cost point of view electrically powered

navaids other than mains-powered are expensive to run. They

require high maintenance, adequate and safe fuel storage

facilities, adequate means of supply (often at difficult

locations which require special cargo-handling facilities),

and last but not least the generating plant is also used for

domestic power supply at manned lights.

The cost of operating unattended electric lights

varies with intensity of the light. During 1973/74 the average

costs for high powered lights were $2500 per annum, medium

powered lights $1300 and low powered lights $1100. Depending

on location the cost varies from $700 to $4200 per annum.

On the other hand the manned electric lights cost

on an average $26,000 per annum to operate. Depending on

location and manning this varies from $17,000 to $67,000.

29

c. Structures

Many types of structures support unattended

lights. Early installations were mounted on steel lattice

towers or steel housings. In accessible areas they were

placed on concrete structures to prevent vandalism. Over the

last 10 years increased use has been made of fibreglass

structures, an Australian development. The structure also

doubles as storage for batteries or acetylene gas bottles.

This type has been found satisfactory for many locations.

A further development is the utilisation of

stainless steel and aluminium towers which have a low

maintenance component as they are not subject to the same rate

of corrosion as mild steel structures previously used. .

In areas where an eye pleasing structure is

required the concrete towers are often finished in ceramic

tiles.

d . Light Vessels

There are at present two unattended light vessels

(See Chart 7 ) with acetylene-powered lights serving as

navaids. These light vessels are essential as they denote

particular hazards which cannot at present be marked by a fixed

structure. Carpentaria light vessel is an important landfall

light marking the turning point for traffic through Torres

Strait, a buoy being unable to provide the range of light

required. The Breaksea Spit light vessel marks a hazard at a

location where a buoy would not suffice in all circumstances.

30

Servicing of Breaksea Spit lightvessel. The crane of the lighthouse

tender CAPE MORETON is seen lowering a new gas supply into the hold

of the light vessel.

. 31-

Both light vessels are over 50 years old and are a

maintenance problem. They must be slipped regularly, and a

spare ship is kept in reserve to replace'the Carpentaria

light vessel whilst the Breaksea Spit is temporarily replaced

by a buoy. Regular servicing is difficult due to their

remoteness (Carpentaria, in particular), often rough weather,

and the exacting nature of the work. Both vessels are regularly

surveyed by Department of Transport surveyors as to stability,

safety, etc. The world-wide trend is to replace light vessels

where possible with fixed structures or giant buoys. Recent

major overhaul of these light vessels has reduced any urgent

need to replace them. The Department is making a study of the

suitability of off-shore structures to replace light vessels,

in particular the Carpentaria light vessel.

e . Lighted Buoys

There are 31 navaids of this type in Australia.

Although it is generally accepted that buoys are not a very

satisfactory aid as far as accuracy is concerned because of

the possibility of drifting, they are a reasonably economical

solution to some navigational problems, (e.g . hazard and

channel marking).

Although most lights on buoys were originally

acetylene powered, over the last few years most of them have

been converted to electric (primary cell) operation except for

four buoys in waters off the Queensland coast.

- 3 2

Buoys present many servicing difficulties,

aggravated by the long coastline and the need for special

handling, equipment. At present the only vessels that can

adequately deal with these buoys are the lighthouse tenders

which are specially equipped to handle the buoys. Depots in

Fremantle, Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane are equipped to

carry out major buoy overhauls. Since a lighthouse tender

is necessary to handle these buoys * it may be some time, if a

buoy drifts off-station, before it is replaced. This is

especially the case during the cyclone season in northern

waters. Normal servicing such as replenishing batteries

or repairs to faulty equipment can be achieved by much

smaller vessels.

The buoys at Port Hedland and Port Walcott are

channel markers for use by vessels not equipped to use the

Decca Navigator system.

Progress in overseas development of fibreglass

buoys is being closely watched, as this lighter-weight buoy

may overcome many’ of the present servicing and maintenance

problems. Generally it is hoped that the need for buoys will

diminish with the development of more sophisticated

navigational equipment.

f . Vaporised~Kerosene Lights

At present there are still 11 vaporised- kerosene

lights in Australia, all manned. The Department of Transport

has advised that all except 5 of them are. on a three-year

33

program of conversion to electric operation. Australia is

following the worldwide trend towards conversion to other

power sources. Because of the nature of the equipment the

maintenance techniques needed have no real equivalent in present

day skills. Conversion eliminates the manual operation

associated with kerosene powered lights and some of these

lights will be unmanned and automated. As many of these

lights are major landfall lights, it is often desirable to

increase their power on conversion.

During 1973/74 the average cost of operating a

kerosene light was $36,000 per annum, with the most expensive

station costing $74,000 per annum.

g . Unmanning of Lights

There are at present 11 manned vaporised kerosene

and 37 manned electric lights. Staffing these 48 stations

are 51 Head Light Keepers, assisted by 68 Light Keepers.

99 are married, and they have 143 children, most of whom

live on the station.

The Department of Transport has a program for

gradual unmanning. Since 1969 the Department has unmanned

Cape Sorell, Cliffy Island, Point Stephens, Cape'Jaffa, and

Goods Island. Immediate plans for unmanning include Eclipse

Island, Neptune Island and Tasman Island and several other

stations. Unmanning will occur as personnel attrition allows.

34

There are, however, certain attendant considerations:

(1) Equipment reliability is as yet not sufficient

to unman certain lights. Problems are encountered

especially at those stations that have stationary

power'plants to generate the electricity required.

(2) Development of adequate and reliable monitoring

equipment is needed.

(3) To convert a kerosene light to manned

electric, at which time it may be worthwhile to

increase its power, costs about $30,000 in

equipment. In many cases it'is necessary to

duplicate power generating equipment and install

fuel storage for the diesels. It may also be

necessary to provide buildings to house the power

. plant. The cost of converting a light to

unmanned electric is some $15,000 depending on a

number of considerations such as the size of power

plant, whether primary or secondary battery cells

are being used, and whether the plant can be

housed within the tower itself.

(4) Since reliability is important, manned

lights have the inbuilt safety factor of

immediate attention to minor malfunctions in

equipment, not requiring the assistance of

technical personnel.

(5) Many of the old lighthouses, some of which

35

are of great historical value, can offer

maintenance problems. It has been ascertained

that there is a greater risk of deterioration,

if unmanned.

h. Alternative Power Sources

Experimentation is taking place with wind

generators. They are being considered for installation when

the light on Tasman Island is unmanned and converted to

electric. The main problem of using wind generators is

occasioned by birds that fly into the propellers.

Another alternative having possibilities for the

future is the use of solar batteries. There appears to be a

need for considerable further research before they can be

considered as a reliable power supply to marine aids of

navigation.

2. Radio Beacons

The Navigation (Direction Finders) Regulations

provide that ships above a specified tonnage be fitted with

radio-direction finding apparatus. In Australia 10 radio

beacons (See Charts 7, 12, 18 and 21) have been provided for

this specific purpose. Maritime radio beacons fall into three

distinct groups:

(a) Position fixing on group basis

The radio beacons in Bass Strait at Cape Otway,

Cape Schanck and Cape Wickham form such a group.

- 3 6

These beacons are especially useful in poor

weather conditions and dense traffic areas.

(b) Landfall Beacons

These radio beacons (Cape Leeuwin, Gabo Island,

Cape Borda, Cape Leveque and Booby Island)

greatly extend the range of the associated light,

thus enabling the mariner to establish his

position at a much earlier time.

(c) Short-range Beacons

This type of radio beacon (Browse Island and

Adele Island) is used to give- the mariner

additional assistance in fairly hazardous

waters in rather remote areas.

Servicing of these aids requires skilled radio

staff. Where such a radio beacon is .associated with a manned

light, lightkeepers receive special on-the-job training in

general maintenance.

It is the practice to associate high-powered

radio beacons with manned stations. Unattended radio beacons

are monitored by a nearby manned station (Cape Leveque

monitors Browse and Adele Island).

3. Radar

During the Navaids Symposium in 1971 considerable

reference was made to the usefulness of radar in ship

37

operation. The rather featureless appearance of some parts

of our coastline, or bad weather conditions, would be less

of a hazard if some form of radar response could be provided.

There are two methods by which this could be achieved, radar

responders and radar reflectors.

(a) Radar Responders

These are electronic devices which transmit

a pre-determined signal, thus enabling, the

navigator to determine his position by

interpreting the signal appearing on his radar

screen. Evaluation of Racons (a type of

radar responder) was carried out at Dangerous

Reef (S.A.) and Macquarie (N.S.W.) Lights. It ,

was found that there were a number of inherent

problems, perhaps because of limits in range.

Also, the condition of the ship's radar equipment

was found to affect the Racon's effectiveness.

Nevertheless, Racons or other similar devices

would be most useful in areas where radar

performance needs improvement (e .g . the Queensland

coast, where they could greatly assist in night

time navigation). They are also suitable for

landfall purposes in impaired visibility. For

these reasons experimentation is continuing.

Radar responders have however considerable

servicing problems. Being delicate electronic

38

instruments, they cannot be serviced in situ,

and must be withdrawn for servicing by highly

qualified radio technical officers using costly

specialized testing equipment at central repair

facilities, or be returned to the manufacturer.

(b) Radar Reflectors

Radar reflectors are metal shapes which are

increasingly used on buoys to give added

radar recognition. There is also considerable

benefit in establishing them on navaids of low

elevation, and on featureless coasts and reefs.

4. Decca Navigator Chains

Australia has two Decca Navigator Chains (Port

Hedland and Dampier in Western Australia). (See Chart 21).

The first Decca chain was established at Port Hedland in 1969

and the second at Dampier in 1973, primarily to assist large

vessels with restricted manoeuvrability in the navigation of

long approach channels, thus making precision navigation

pos sible.

Decca is currently one of the more sophisticated

electronic navaids available. The chains and related shipboard

equipment provide the means for precision navigation. In

addition, they assist general navigation along some 400 miles

of the north west coast of Western Australia and some 250

miles to the seaward.

39

Factors in the choice of Decca over conventional

navaids include density of traffic, difficulties with position

fixing, prevalence of bad weather, difficulty of port approach,

or a combination of these, and cost.

For Port Hedland, Decca was chosen at the time

as the most economical way of providing navigational assistance

for the very large ships which use the port. Installation of

conventional aids would have required off-shore structures at

high cost, with substantial maintenance problems. Supplementary

conventional aids (buoys) are still used, especially for ships

not equipped to use the Decca system.

An important aspect of Decca planning is industry

utilisation of the system. The Department of Transport

views with moderate satisfaction the percentage of ships

fitted with Decca receivers. This is tempered, however, with

disappointment in the low level of use of the system for track

guidance.

This type of electronic aid requires a high

level of technical skill on the part of maintenance personnel,

with back-up at the professional engineers' level. To ensure

this skill it was initially necessary to send technical

personnel associated with Decca operations to intensive

training courses with the Decca Company in the United

Kingdom.

40

5 . Other Navigational Aids

Limited use is made of tide gauges. A tide

gauge has been in operation at Booby Island in Torres Strait

for some years and transmits through the Booby Island radio

beacon the tide situation for use by mariners about to

proceed through the Strait. Pending the outcome of a number

of studies presently being conducted in the Torres Strait,

additional tide gauges may be installed in the area. Similarly,

the Department of Transport is considering the use of tide

gauges on the approaches to ports in north west Australia.

The recording equipment requires constant watch to ensure

efficient operation.

At present a number of wave recorders are being

used in Torres Strait in connection with the tide and current

survey. Depending on the result of this survey they might

well become part of the navaid system in the area.

Overseas experimentation is taking place with

leader cables, (activated cables laid in channels) which,

together with associated shipboard equipment, enable ships to

navigate with great precision. This development could well

be of interest to Australia in some of our more difficult

navigational channels.

Omega like Decca assists shipping in making an

accurate position fix. The main difference is that Decca is

for short range and Omega, through eight (8) strategically

41

placed transmitter stations, will provide global coverage

with a position accuracy of 2 to 4 miles.

It is not intended to go into the technicalities

of the Omega system. A short outline is however appropriate.

The system operates at the extremely low radio frequency of

10 kHz. The Omega transmitters send a signal at set intervals

and this signal is picked up by a receiver on board ship. By

utilising the specially prepared Omega lattice chart and

interpreting the signal of 2 or 3 Omega transmitters a

shipmaster can establish his position with considerable

accuracy.

On long ocean voyages where it is often not

possible to use celestial navigation due to weather conditions,

the ability to establish an accurate position fix with Omega

is of some importance to the economy of commercial ship

operation.

The Navaids Symposium held in December 1971

unanimously recommended the use of Omega for ship navigation.

In Australia the Department of Transport has

done considerable.research into the application of Omega

and has placed this information before the Parliamentary Joint

Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence.

Differential Omega is a further application of

Omega giving even greater accuracy and which can also be used

for in-shore navigation. Although still in the experimental

stages it will undoubtedly be developed for commercial use in

the not too distant future.

42

Lor an 1C 1 is a system of precision navigation

extensively used in Northern America. Although -similar to

Decca it covers a much larger area hut not to the extent

of Omega.

6 . Servicing

(a) General

Although this particular aspect has been referred

to under each of the various types of navaids, it

appears appropriate to give a general outline.

Servicing of navaids is done on a regional basis

by staff located in each capital city and at Darwin,

Thursday Island and Cairns. The servicing group

in each region is headed by a navaids engineer

who is assisted by technical officers and

mechanics of various grades. Other auxiliary

trades and administrative personnel are also

provided. Each maintenance staff location is

provided with workshop facilities of varying

capabilities. Upgrading of these facilities is

a continuing process. A new depot is presently

being constructed in Darwin, new premises have

been purchased in Adelaide and a site for a new

depot has been acquired in Cairns.

( b) T r a n s p o r t

Fairly large ships are necessary to provide

transport to many navaids partly because the aids

are in remote locations and partly because

43

Helicopter service to Tasman Island. The old cargo handling

facilities utilising cranes, flying fox and trolley line up the

cliff face are seen in the background.

-44-

construction and maintenance of them involves

handling heavy equipment which in turn requires

that the ships be equipped with special lifting

gear and related equipment. There are three

vessels specially equipped to handle this task,

(Cape Don, Cape Moreton and Cape Pillar). In

addition, a smaller vessel (Wallach), shortly

to be replaced by a more versatile vessel, is

used for servicing and maintenance functions

in the Torres Strait area. These vessels are

not always available for urgent maintenance and

service. Therefore, helicopters and light

aeroplanes hired from commercial operators are

being increasingly used, or where air transportation

is not feasible suitable small craft are chartered.

From figures supplied under Financial Aspects

the operation of the ships is a large cost

charged against navigational aids.

(c) Cargo Handling Facilities

Many island stations, whether manned or unattended,

are provided with some method of handling cargo

and transporting it across often hazardous and

difficult terrain. At certain manned stations

this same equipment is also used to transport

station personnel.

The cargo handling facilities are varied. In

some cases, a hand or engine-operated, crane on a

platform unloads cargo from small craft.

Depending on the terrain, the crane may be close

to the high water mark, or on a platform some

distance above the water. In other locations,

flying foxes are used to transport both cargo

and personnel to the crane platform.

Once personnel and cargo have been landed on the

crane platform, if the light and the residence

are located high above sea level, it is often

necessary to haul personnel and cargo up the

cliff face by a trolley attached to a winch.

At some unattended acetylene lights .trolley

tracks and mono-rail are provided for the

transportation of heavy gas bottles. LARC

transport (an amphibious vehicle equipped with a

light crane) is being used effectively at other

locations where supplies have to be moved from

ship to shore.

Weather and corrosion of the equipment cause

critical maintenance problems. To ensure

constant safety, regular checks are made to

ensure that this equipment conforms with safety

requirements related to lifting gear.

In many cases however the equipment is such that,

although good enough for the handling of cargo,

it is not really suitable for the transportation

46

of personnel, which influences the unmanning

of those stations. Conversion from acetylene

to electric will also make much of the cargo

gear redundant.

47

.

E. ORGANIZATION OF NAVAIDS MANAGEMENT

The Department of Transport through the

Navigational Aids Branch of the Surface Transport Group

provides, maintains and services some 333 marine aids to

navigation around the 12,000 mile coastline of Australia.

The Navigational Aids Branch consists of

three sections:

. Planning and Development

. Engineering Works

. Services

The Planning and Development Section consists

of 7 engineers and 3 technical officers. These officers have

qualifications in mechanical, electrical and communications

disciplines, and are engaged in the planning of automation,

modernisation, standardisation of present lights and the

development and evaluation of the new electronic aids.

The Engineering Works Section consists of 9

engineers, 7 technical officers, 5 draftsmen, an assistant

and a trainee. Their qualifications are similar to those of the

officers in the Planning and Development Section. They are

engaged in the design and construction of the new navaids and

implement the automation, standardisation and modernisation

program through the staff of the various Regions.

49

The Services Section comprises 8 clerical officers

who provide the normal services associated with program

implementation, procedures, supply and budgetary requirements.

Two experimental laboratories (electrical/radio

and mechanical) are operated by the Branch to provide testing

and research facilities.

The implementation of the program developed by

the Navaids Branch is carried out by the Regional staffs of

the Surface Transport Group of the Department of Transport.

The various Regions in their turn develop

programs for minor works and maintenance in their area and

these programs are in general complementary to the central

program. Details of regional staff appear at page 102

and in Table 5.

The navaids operation relies on support from

the following areas:

. Transport Operations Branch for the provision

of transport services. (Lighthouse tenders,

helicopter etc.)

. Management Services Branch for the provision

of financial, supply and personnel expertise.

. Nautical experts for advice on optimum use

of navaids proposed.

50

Department of Housing and Construction for

the detailed construction plan development

and actual construction.

Department of Services and Property for the

acquisition of land and buildings.

The Hydrographer of the R.A.N. for

consultation.

51

• η Sr

■

m

F. FINANCIAL ASPECTS

1. General

Tables 2 and 3, following, tabulate the

expenditures on navaids and receipts from light dues from

1961/62 to 1972/73. Table 2 lists the actual expenditures,

whilst Table 3 shows expenditures from 1967/68 on "commercial"

cost basis.

2. Actual Expenditures

It will be noted that, in the period 1961 to 1965

substantial capital outlays were made on the building of three

new lighthouse tenders. The period 1968 to 1970 saw large

capital expenditure, particularly for the Decca Navigator

Chain at Port Hedland. Also lighthouse tender operating

costs increased materially, particularly, in 1971/72.

3. "Commercial" Cost

The Department introduced commercial accounting

in 1968/69 , coinciding with a Government decision to implement

a program of overcoming the backlog of work, and to install

modern aids for new and larger vessels. "Commercial"

accounting attempts to arrive at a more realistic cost of

providing navaids by adding to the direct costs estimates of

indirect costs including interest on capital, depreciation,

overheads and contingent liabilities.

4. Light Dues . '

The Lighthouses Act 1911-1972 and the Lighthouses

53

and Light Dues Regulations provide for the commercial ship

operator to be charged a fee in the form of light dues.

Light dues are charged on the net registered

tonnage of a vessel on a quarterly basis. The present rate

is 31φ per net registered ton per quarter.

The regulations exempt the following vessels

from the payment of light dues:

. ships belonging to naval, military or

air forces and which earn no freight

. ships belonging to the Commonwealth or

States and which earn no freight

. ships wholly engaged in fishing

. ships wholly in ballast

. pleasure craft

. ships under 30 net registered tons

. cable ships

. mission ships

. hospital ships

. vessels carrying military personnel,

equipment, etc.

Table 2 - Actual Expenditures - shows the

percentage relationship between actual expenditures and

revenue in the years 1961-62 to 1972-73. Table 3 -

- 54

Commercial Cost - shows the percentage of revenue to this

basis of calculating expenditure from 1967-68 to 1972-73.

As Table 2 shows, there has been a steady increase in the

proportion of expenditure recovered by way of revenue from

light dues. This has been a deliberate administrative

decision in that in the middle 1960's it was decided to seek

a recovery rate such that revenue should provide at least

80 per cent of actual expenditures. A relationship of this

order has been achieved in the subsequent years. In 1973,

the Government decided to base light dues on a recovery rate

aimed to provide a 100 per cent recovery from revenue against

expenditures calculated on a "commercial" cost basis. This

latter objective is, of course, not yet reflected in the

figures shown in these Tables.

- 55

TABLE 2

ACTUAL EXPENDITURE OF NAVIGATIONAL AIDS SERVICE ($)

Years

1961/62

1962/63

1963/64

1964/65

1965/66

1966/67

1967/68

1968/69

1969/70

1970/71

1971/72

1972/73

Expenditure Revenue

Capital

Working S Admin

Total Total

2 ,354,520 1,817,760 4,172,280 1,422,598

2,494,812 1,819,630 4,314,442 1,657,992

1,747,454 1,931,106 3,678,560 1,932,024

1,065,758 2,028,854 3,094,612 2,073,834

742,250 2,255,895 2,998,145 2,522,348

678,319 2,465,267 3,143,586 3,033,514

825,128 2,620,783 3,445,911 3,216,609

1,736,628 3,542,849 5,279,477 4,316,193

1,856,219 4,169,900 6,026,119 5,000,000

1,150,359 4,438,972 5,589,331 6,356,431

794,769 5,809,956 6,604,725 7,118,419

3,198,259 6,525,419 9,723,678 8,700,000

%

Revenue to Expenditure

34.10

38.43

52.52

67.01

84.13

96.50

93.35

81.75

82.97

113.72

107.78

89.47

Rate of Light Dues

10Φ - 12Φ

12Φ

12Φ

12Φ

12Φ - 15Φ

15Φ

15Φ

15Φ - 18Φ

18Φ

18Φ - 20Φ

20Φ - 22Φ

22Φ - 25Φ

Source: Department of Transport Accounts

Port Walcott Light Tender Payment

Decca Staff Housing Payment

Source: Department of Transport Accounts

Source: Department of Transport Accounts

1970/71

3,000,270 1,198,702 130.000 110.000 4,438,972

143,738 415,278 398,793 160,930 1,118,739’

370,414 17,967 1,235,120 1,623,501

1971/72

3,802,637 1,576,010 271,309 160,000

5,809,956

150,401 438,336 398,793 161,000 1,148,530

469,480 99,800 1,274,825 1,844,105

88.51 80.87

1972/73

4,437,203 1,849,376 173,316 65,525

6,525,420

162,310 522,705 382,932

186,651 1,254,598

547,824 106,276 1,379,121 2,033,221

4,283,783 5,687,849 6,357,500 7,181,212 8,802,591 9,813,239

3,216,609 4,316,193 5,000,000 6,356,431 7,118,419 8,700,000

88.66

189 - 209 209 - 229 229 - 259

Source: Department of Transport Accounts

.

■

’

J f

■

G. COASTAL NAVA IDS BY RiiGIONS

Under this heading an outline is given of the

navigational aids by region, the associated servicing and

transportation set-ups and tne activities over the last

decade.

Table 4 (at page 62) gives an overall

indication of the navigational aid activities over the last

10 years and is a good indication of the continuing progress

made with upgrading, automating and provision of new navaids.

1. Queensland/Northern Territory

(a) General

The Northern Territory marine aids to navigation

are considered together with those in Queensland. The

administration, servicing and construction of these navaids

(143) are controlled by the Queensland office of the Surface

Transport Group of the Department of Transport (See Charts

1 to 7) .

Together with the north-west coast of Western

Australia the off-shore Queensland waters are the most

hazardous waters of the Australian coast. I he many reefs of

the Great Barrier Reef and the shallow waters of Torres Strait

maKe navigation difficult for large vessels, which has

resulted in this area having the greatest density of navaids in

Australia. The Great Barrier Reef is an area with a large amount

of pleasure craft traffic as well as commercial shipping.

- 6 1

Developments at Gove, Groote Eylandt and Weipa

have resulted in a rapid increase of shipping in the Gulf

of Carpentaria and in addition, the Gulf has developed over

recent years into one of the major commercial fishing grounds.

Torres Strait has special problems, from a

navigational aid point of view, caused by shallow waters, the

tidal movements and the narrowness of the shipping tracks.

There has been considerable activity in this area to improve

navigation. Special Torres Strait tide tables were first

published in 1970, giving the tidal predictions for 5 points

in Torres Strait. Two studies have been completed in the

area and one is proceeding . A study of navaid requirements

has been completed, a hydrographic survey of Gannet Passage

has also been completed, and a detailed study of wave and

tidal action in Torres Strait is currently taking place.

The results of these studies will give detailed information

on the requirements to ensure that vessels using the Straits

can do so more fully loaded.

The G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f is served by 10 m anned

lights, 57 u n a t t e n d e d l i g h t s , one light vessel, two lighted

buoys and 19 d a y b e a c o n s . (See C h a r t s 4 to 7).

The m a j o r i t y of t hese lights provide navigational

assistance to v e s s e l s p r o c e e d i n g a long the Q u e e n s l a n d coast

and m a r k the v a r i o u s h a z a r d s and turning points on the

shipping t r a c k s .

63

(b) Servicing and Transport

In Queensland/Northern Territory there are

four depots for servicing navaids. ·

. Darwin

. Thursday Island

. Cairns

. Brisbane

Extensive use is made of the lighthouse tenders,

Cape Moreton and Wallach.

The depots at Darwin, Thursday Island and

Cairns are small and are equipped with machine tools sufficient

to meet the requirements of the areas they serve.

The Brisbane depot is located at New Farm on

the Brisbane River. A machine and wood-working shop is

provided with modern machine tools and equipment sufficient

to meet the requirements of both Queensland and the Northern

Territory. Air-conditioned rooms are provided for the

overhaul of acetylene, electrical and radio equipment. A

special area is provided where sandblasting and painting of

buoys can be carried out with equipment that reduces manpower

to a minimum. A ramp is provided for handling buoy mooring

chains.

A timber wharf is located within the boundary of

the Brisbane depot and is capable of berthing the navaid

vessels .

- 64

(c) Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in

Last Decade

1964

Bustard Head

1965

Cowlislaw Reef

Wye Reef

1966

North East Island Brady Rock Hand Island Connection Island

Cape Wessel

Gannet Passage

1967

Vernon Rocks Edward Island

North West Reef Dawson Reef

1968

Cape Flattery

- Old iron tower built in 1868 replaced by a new tower exhibiting an electric light.

- New beacon assisting vessels navigating through the Barrier Reef near Cooktown.

- New beacon marking a hazard on the shipping track.

- First four of these light the approaches to Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Cape Wessel, in addition to assisting vessels enroute to and from Torres

Strait, also acts as a turning point for vessels proceeding to Groote Eylandt.

- Two lighted buoys established to more accurately mark the passage.

- Lights mark the direct deep water route from Holbourne Island to High Peak Island.

- Day beacons fitted.with radar reflectors to provide improved radar conspicuity.

- Lighted buoy established but withdrawn in 1972 after it was found that it was not really required.

Gneering Shoal

Frederick Reef

1969

Howick Island Megaera Reef Watson Island

Caloundra Head

Hook Reef

Iris Reef

1970

Herald Patches Herald Patches Mecca Reef

Nardana Patches

Booby Island

Bus ton Reef

1971

Point Danger

Saumarez Reef

Osborne Reef

- Lighted buoy to mark a shoal off Caloundra

- Light to assist shipping to Japan and the Philippines.

- Lights were established to ensure safe navigation in the Howick Group following the survey of a new shipping track.

- New light and tower to replace old light.

- Four day beacons to assist the pleasure craft and tourist ferries in the area.

- Lighted buoy to mark a submerged rock west of Iris Reef.

West - Lighted buoys to mark the extent East of the shallow areas on or near the

recommended shipping tracks.

- Tide gauge to provide masters of deep draught vessels with accurate tidal information on entering Gannet Passage.

- Light to assist ships through Grafton Passage in the Great Barrier Reef.

- New light to improve coastal lighting in the area and marks the navigational hazard originally named by Captain James Cook two centuries earlier.

- Light to assist shipping to Japan and the Phillipines.

- A day beacon to assist shipping in the area.

66

1972

South Head (Burnett River)

Cox Peninsula (N.T .)

Eden Reef

Meaburn Rock

1975

Bramble Cay

Fitzroy Island

1974

Lady Musgrove Island

- Old light assisting shipping to Bundaberg discontinued and replaced by a new light.

- Rotating beacon established on a radio tower to assist shipping into Darwin. The light at Charles Point was discontinued at the same time.

- Light to assist vessels both on the inner and outer shipping tracks.

- Day beacon was fitted with a radar reflector to add to its conspicuity

- New tower and light to replace the old light.

- New light established to enable the light on Little Fitzroy Island to be discontinued.

- Light to assist shipping to Gladstone and to improve lighting of the shipping track near Lady Elliott Island.

- 67

CHARTS OF LOCATION OF NAVAIDS. EXPLANATORY NOTES

Throughout this section of the report are series of charts showing where the navaids in each region are located. The following symbols are used in each of these charts

Personnel

1 = Number of Personnel at manned light

Power Source

EM = Electric mains EG = Electric generator EB = Electric battery

K = Kerosene Ac = Acetylene

Intensity

VH = Very high H = High

M = Medium

L = Low

Established

1901 = date of establishment

1901/1970 = date of establishment and major change

Access

A = Air

Ξ = Sea

L = Land

The charts show the number of navaids in position at 1 March 1974.

68

Chart 1

NORTHERN TERRITORY

MANNED LIGHTHOUSES

j6 « # *

Cape Don (3.EG .V H .1917.S/A.I

ODMn y v u u ·

31

41 I ■HE- - ... ..."/ =~ y. v s' -*L , :l·: ■ t i r *, · -rExCy..,· - -" ' - f l * '-· '

GOVE

Jk

°GROOTE ISLAND

69 -

Chart 2

NORTHERN TERRITORY

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

t South West Vernon Is. (A c.L.1958.S.)

( East Vernon Is. (Ac.L.1928.S.)

i Cape Hotham (Ac.L.1928.S.)

• New Year Is. (EB.M. 1962.S.)

Cape Wessel (EB.M.1966.S.)

(Ac.L.1

Cox

(EM.VH

Erne

(Ac.M.

°co

- I

1 u 1 i *

$ ' ‘ · #T r j'

Brady Rock / (EB.L.1966.S.)

/ North East Is.

Z Z (EB.M.1966.S.)

V D \ \ GROOTE ISLAN D i \ Connexion Is. \ (EB.L.1966.S.)

\ Hand Is. (EB.L.1966.S.)

Chart 3

NORTHERN TERRITORY OTHER NAVAIDS

A bbot Shoal (Buoy)

Rooper Rock (Buoy)

Marsh Shoal (Buoy)

d DA R W IN

Channel Rock (Buoy)

Charles P oint Patches (Buoy)

- 7 1 -

C h a rt 4

QUEENSLAND

MANNED LIGHTHOUSES

Booby Is. (2.EG.M.1882.S.)· ^T H U R S D A Y ISLAN D

iWEIPA

CAPE F LA T T E R Y

• Low Isles (2.EG.H.1878.S.)

C A IR N S c · Fitzroy Is. (2.EG.H.1943.S.)

M O U R IL Y A N a

TO W NSVILLE a "Cape Cleveland (2.EG.L.1879.S.)

BOWEN □

• Dent Is. (2.EG.M.1879.S.)

M AC K A Y/HA Y P O IN T a

Pine Islet (3.K.M.1885.S.)

North Reef (3.K.M.1878.S.)

ROCKHAMPTON o

Cape Capricorn (2.E G .V.H .1875/1963.S .)·

GLADSTONE c

Bustard Head (2.EG.M. 1868.5,)·^ Lady E lliot Is. (3.K.M.1866.S.)

BU N D ABE R G c

Sandy Cape (2.EG.V.H.1870.S.)'/

M ARYBO RO UG Ho

Double Island Point (2.EG.H.1884.S/L.)

Cape Moreton (2.E G .V .H ,1857.S .)\

BRISBANE °

7 2

Chart 5

'

:

...

Q U E E N S L A N D

U N A T T E N D E D L I GHT S

ELECTRIC

•Bramble Cay (EB.M.1973.S.)

o TH U R S D A Y IS LA N D

CAPE F L A T T E R Y ^

Eden Reef (EB.L.1972.S.)

Watson Is. (EB.L.1969.S.)

H owick Is (EB.L.1969.S.)

Megaera Reef (EB.L.1969.S.)

Decapolis Reef (EB.L.1972.S.)

Euston Reef (EB.L.1970.S.)

'DA o

-O W N S VILLEv

BOWEN a

• Edward Is. (EB.L.1967.S.)

7

is mMA CKA Y/H A Y PO IN T □

s i .

Fredrick Reef (EB.M.1968.S.)

• Vernon Rocks (EB.L.1967.S.)

SaumaTez Reef (EB.M.1971.S.)

ROCKHAMPTON a • Rundle Is.(EB.L.1952/1972.S.)

G LA D S T O N E o

.. ....

BU N D A B E R G o

M A R Y B O R O U G H d

Caloundra Head (EM .V.H .1896/ 1969.L.) *

BRISBANE a

Point Danger (EM.M.1971 ,L .)—·

South Burnett Heads ' (EM.M.1972.L.)

73

Chart 6

Bet Reef (Ac.L.1957.S.)

Sue Is. (Ac.L.1962.S.)

Tw in Is. (A c.L .1959.S.)

I nee Point (A c.L .1921 .S.) \ \

Hammond Rock \ \

QUEENSLAND

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

ACETYLENE

(A c.L .1921 .S.) \ y

Goods THURSDA Y IS LA N D * lsland(Ac.L.1941/1973.S .r^. '

Eborac Is. (A c .L .1921 .S.)

Hannibal Is. (Ac.L.1921.S.)— ·

, :

ill M m m S m

Dalrym ple Is. (Ac.L.1950.S.)

Dove Is. (AC.L.1957.S.)

Harvey Rocks (A c .L .1957.S.)

East Strait Is. Main F & R (Ac.L.1959/1952.S.)

Albany Rock (A c.L .1921 S.)

W ybom Reef (A c .L .1938.S.)

Cairncross Is. (A c .L .1934.S.)

^ ^ / C l e r k e Is. (A c.L 1915.S.)

/ Eel Reef (A c .L .1952.S.I

Piper Is. (A c.L .1917 .S J —· / / „ „ „

Duyfken Point . · f Restoration Rock (A c.L1927.S I

(Ac.L 1962.S.) ' ^ Chapman Reef (Ac L 1917.S.)

Waterwitch Reef (Ac.L.1918.C.l·— Heath Reel (AC.L.19I8.S.)

Bow Reef (AC.L.1960.S.) - / Hannah Is. (A c .L .1934.S.)

Fife Island (Ac.L.1961 . S . i y Wharton Reef (Ac.L. 1915 S.)

Fahey Reef ( A c . L . 1 9 6 1 . S . ) Pi pon ls (AC.L.1901.S.)

King Is. (AC.L.1960.S.) j . Coquet Is. (Ac.L.1915.S.)

South Barrow Is. (Ac.L.1950.S.)· — Petherbridge Is (Ac L .1958 S.)

Palfrey Is. (Ac.L. 1936.5.1-^2 „ „ , , A ,

CAPE FLA T T E R Y ^ \ ·'" Bougainville Reef (A c.L .1958.S.)

Grassy H ill (A c.L 1 8 8 6 . ^ T h r e e Is. (Ac.L. 1942.S.)

Archer Point (Ac.M ,1883.S.K ^ Rocky Is. (Ac.M. 1883/1927.S.)

: » Port Douglas (A c.L.1878.L.)

CA IR NS a

Russell Is. (Ac.L.1929.S.)

M O U R IL Y A N a .— N th . Barnard Is. (Ac.L. 1897/1921.S.)

. ____Brook Is. (A c.L.1921 .S.l

-W hite Rock (AC.H.1940.S.I

, Bay Rock (AC.L.1866.SJ

TO W N SV ILLEo Bowling Green Cape (Ac.M.1874.S.)

Holbourne Is. (Ac.L.1963.SJ

»— · Pinnacle Point (A c.L .1966.S.)

Coppersmith Rock (A c.L.1928.S.)

- Penrith Is. (A c.M .1965.S.)

~ Bailey Is. (A c.L .1928.S.)

------ Pine Peak Is. (A c.L .1958.S.)

High Peak Is. (Ac.M .1920.S.)

11 :1111 : L U C I N D A o

BOWENo

Eshelby Is. (A c.L .1972.S . ) /

M AC K A Y /H A Y PO IN T a . '

Flat Top Is. (A C .L.1874.S.K

/Sea Hill Point (A c .L .1876.S.)

ROCKHAMPTON □

GLADSTONE __ __Gatcombe Head

Clews Point (Αε .Ε.1935/1965.5.)/ / ’ (Ac.L.1900.S.)

B U N D ABE R G o

M ARYBO RO UG H a.

BRISBANE a

North point f ( AC.L.1939.S.)

* \ Point Lookout (A c.L.1932.S.)

Chart 7

THURSDA Y ISLAN D x

Mecca Reef (Buoy) x \ /

Gannet Passage(2Buoys)x\ \ . / y

Booby Is. (Radio _ _ Beacon, Tide Gauge) „

Carpentaria (Light vessel)

Harrison Rock (Buoy)

Shortland Reef (Day Beacon) .

Young Reef (Day Beacon) □ WE! PA

QUEENSLAND

OTHER NAVAI DS

North West Reef (Day Beacon'

Nardana Patches (Buoy)

Herald Patches (2.Buoys)

H arrington Reef (Day Beacon)

Raine Is. (Day Beacon)

M oody Reef (Day Beacon)

Hazel Reef (Day Beacon)

Middle Reef (Day Beacon)

Wye Reef (Day Beacon)

Osborne Reef (Day Beacon)

• Iris Reef (Buoy)

* Miles Reef (Day Beacon)

CAPE FLATTER S

CA IR NS n

Dawson Reef (Day Beacon)

Egret Reef (Day Beacon)

Cowlishaw Reef (Day Beacon)

Gubbins Reef (Day Beacon)

Egmont Reef (Day Beacon)

M O U R IL V A N o · Meaburn Rock (Buoy)

L U C IN D A a

TO W NSV ILLE □

BOWEN d

• Hook Reef (4.Day Beacons)

M A C K A Y /H A Y P O IN T □

vfi';;, - >Λ;··;

R O CK HA M P TO No

G LA D STO N EP

Break sea S pit ( L ig h t vessel)

BUNDABERGO

M ARY BO R O U G H .□

BR ISBANE °

• G neering Shoal (B uoy)

e R oberts Shoal (B u oy)

2. New South Wales

(a) General

The Department of Transport■operates 24 coastal

lights for the assistance of shipping along the N.S.W. coast.

18 of these lights were established during the 19th century,

2 at the turn of the twentieth century and 4 at a later date.

(See Charts 8 and 9).

As mentioned earlier the first light in

Australia (Macquarie Light) was established outside Sydney in

1817. Other lights followed as sea traffic increased over

the ensuing years.

Because of the East Australian current, south­

bound traffic uses the outer shipping track, the major lights

providing assistance. North-bound traffic generally follows

a track closer inshore, and there are a number of smaller

lights to assist these vessels.

(b) Servicing and Transport

Except for 3 navaids on islands, all aids can be

serviced from land. The central servicing depot is located in

Sydney and from there routine maintenance is carried out at

all stations on a regular basis. The servicing depot/

workshop is provided with the usual machine tools sufficient

for the navaid requirements in N.S.W.

(c) Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last

Decade

1964 Warden Head - Converted to electric mains operation.

- 7 6

Point Perpendicular Converted to electric generator operation.

1968

Yarrahapinni

1969

Kiama Harbour

Montagu Island

1972

Macquarie

Barranj oey Head

1975

Point Stephens

Wollongong Head

1974

Tacking Point

- New electric mains light to assist shipping to Trial Bay.

- Light converted to electric mains operation.

- Light connected to electric generator operation.

- Experimental Racon established in addition to light but discontinued in 1973.

- Light converted to electric mains operation.

- Light converted to electric mains operation, automated and unmanned

- Light converted to electri'c mains operation.

- Light converted to mains electric operation.

77

• Cape Byron (2.EM .V H .1901 .L.)

EDEN a

COFFS H A R B O U R c

TR IA L BA Y ο­

ι Solitary Is. (3.K.H.1878.S.)

-ape (2.EG .V H.1891 .L.)

’.EM .VH.1875.L.)

NEW CASTLE a

IP· Norah Head (2.EM .VH.1903.L.)

SY DN EY Macquarie (1 .EM .VH.1817.L.)

PO RT KE M B LA □

• Point Perpendicular (2.EG.VH.1899.L.)

» Montagu Is. (2.EG.VH.1880.S.)

•Green Cape (2.EG.VH.1883.L.)

NEW SOUTH WALES

MANNED LI GHTHOUSES

Chart 8

- 7 8 -

Fingal Head (A c.L.1872.L.)

• Richm ond River (A c.L .1866.L.)

:* Clarence River (EM.M .1866.L.)

COFFS H A R B O U R a

T R I A L B A y D-* ^ arra^ aP 'nn' (EM.M.L.)

•Tacking Point (EM .M .1879.L.)

. eCrowdy Head (EM .M .1879.L.)

· Point Stephens (EM.H 1862/1973.S )

NEW CASTLE o ^ Nobbys Head , EM .VH.1858.L.)

• Barranjoey Head (EM.H. 1868.L )

SY DN EY'd

-Cape Baily (A c .L .1950.L.)

• Wollongong Head (E M .H .1937.L.)

P O R T K E M B LA o

• Kiama Harbour (EM.M. 1887.L.)

· Warden Head (E M .H .1889.L.)

• Brush Is. (E B .L .1867.S/A.)

NEW SOUTH WALES

UNATTENDED LI GHTS'

ED EN a

'

β* 'yf ‘ · :.!■ ■ ■ < X·:

C hart 9

3. Victoria

(a] General

The Department of Transport 'operates 21 aids to

marine navigation in the area from Cape Nelson in the West

to Gabo Island in the East and includes navigational aids

on King Island (Tas.) , Deal Island and Hogan Island.

(See Charts 10 to 12).

In addition to marine navigational aids there

is a traffic separation scheme off Wilson's Promontory„ (See

Chart 10 (A)). The various oil production platforms off-shore

of the Gippsland Coast display their own (owner - controlled)

navigational lights.

The majority of the marine navaids in Victoria

may be classified as coastal navaids to assist shipping,

although some of the major lights are also landfall lights.

The 3 radio beacons at Cape Schanck, Cape Otway and Cape Wickham

improve the landfall capability of these lights, and have

proven of great assistance to ships in adverse weather

conditions. The radio beacon at Gabo Island provides a similar

facility

(b) Servicing and Transport

Most of the navaids in the Victoria region can be

serviced by land or air. Servicing headquarters are located

in Melbourne, where there is a major maintenance depot/

workshop. The workshop is equipped with machine tools

and has a specially equipped and air-conditioned area for the

maintenance and testing of acetylene equipment and radio/

electrical apparatus.

The lighthouse tender Cape Pillar, based

at Melbourne, undertakes regular servicing trips to navaids

in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania.

(c) Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last

Decade

1964

Point Hicks

1965

Hogan Island

1970

Cape Liptrap

1971 '

Cliffy Island

- Converted to electric operation.

- New light assisting shipping passing between Wilson's Promontory and the Hogan Group of islands.

- Converted to electric operation.

- Converted to electric operation and unmanned.

1972

Cumberland - New lights assisting shipping enroute

Councillor Island to the new port of Grassy on King

Island.

81

Chart 10

VICTORIA

MANNED LIGHTHOUSES

Gabo Island (3.EG.VH.1853.S/A.)x_

Point Hicks (2.EG .VH .1890. L . ) \ n □ M ELBOURNE

WESTERN PO RT o PO RTLAN D * Cope Nelson (2.E M .M .1884.L.)

Cape Otwoy (3.EM .VH .1848.L.) ·

Cape Schanck (2.EM .VH.1859.L.)

- recommended

shipping lane Wilsons Promontory, ' (2.EG.M.1859.S/L.) Deal lsland/ (2.E G .VH .1848.S /A .)'

WILSON' S PROMONTORY TRAFFIC SEPARATION Wilson's Prom ontory

RECOMMENDED SHIPPING LANES

Forty Foot Rocks

SEPARATION ZONE

Rodondo Is. E. Moncoeur Is.

Chart 10(A)

Chart 11

VICTORIA

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

GEELONG a

° PO R TLAN D S p lit Point (E M .M .1 891.L.)·

a M ELB O U RNE

o WESTERN PORT

Cape Liptrap (EM .L.1913. L.)

Citadel Island (Ac. L.1913.S.)

Cape Wickham (E G .V H .1861 .L.) *

o o il rig s

< recom m en ded

shipping lanes

C liffy Island (EB.M .1884.S/A.)

Hogan Island (EB.L.1 965.S/A.)

Currie Harbour (EM .M .1880.L.) «

Stokes P oint (Ac. L.19 5 2 .L.) «

Cumberland (EB.L.1972.L.)

Councillor Island (EB.L.1972.S.)^

- 8 3 -

Chart 12

VICTORIA

OTHER NAVAIDS

G E E LO N G c

i PO RTLAND

π M ELBOU RNE

r WESTERN PO RT

WSh>,

Gabo Island (Radio Beacon! ' ...,

Cape Otway (Radio Beacon) *

Cape Schanck (Radio Beacon) "

Cape Wickham (Radio Beacon) *

o o il rig s

r— re com m en ded I shippin g lanes I

•4

84

4. Tasmania

(a) General

Tasmania is served by 27 coastal aids to

navigation, the majority on the north and east coasts, as

relatively little shipping traffic uses the west coast

(See Charts 13 to 15). There is substantial traffic from

the mainland using Bass Strait. In the last 10 years there

has been an increase of 7 navaids, the bulk of these, plus

conversion from acetylene, being unattended electric lights.

(b) Servicing and Transport

Navigational aids in Tasmania are serviced from

Hobart. Servicing is done by land, where possible. Island

stations and those on the inhospitable west coast of

Tasmania are serviced by sea or air depending on the

circumstances.

Tasmanian island stations and other stations with

difficult access are visited twice a year by the lighthouse

tender Cape Pillar for the provision of major supplies and

major maintenance work. The lighthouse tender is also used

when establishing new lights.

Workshop facilities for the overhaul and repair

of faulty equipment are located in Hobart. This workshop

is equipped with facilities necessary to carry out general

repairs to mechanical and electrical equipment. A program

of modernisation is in progress.

(c) Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last

Decade

1965

Waterhouse Island

1967

Cape Barren Cat Islet Hollaway Point

1970

Chicken Point lie Du Nord

1971

Point Home Lookout

1971

Cape Tourville

1973

Waterhouse Island

Low Head

- Light established to assist fishermen and small coasters proceeding to Bridport.

- Lights established to assist fishermen in the Furneaux Group, and small coasters running to the islands in the Group.

- Three lights, established at the request of the Hobart Port Authority and the users of the woodchip port of Triabunna. In addition to lighting the approaches to Triabunna, they fill a gap in coastal lighting between Cape Tourville and Tasmah Island and are of assistance to vessels plying the east coast of Tasmania.

- Light established to replace light on Cape Forestier.

- Light converted to electric.

- Fog signal discontinued.

86

g S T A N LE Y

PO RT L A T T A a

BU R N IE r,

DEVO NPO R T □ (7.EM .H.1833.L.) ·

Swan Is. (2.EG.VH.1845.S.A.)

•Eddystone Point (2.EG.H.1889.L.)

LAUNC ESTO N u

SPRING B A Y o

Maatsuyker Is. (3.K .M .18 9 1 .S .A .)·

• Tasman Is. (3.K.H.1906.S/A.)

•Cape Bruny (2.EG.H.1 838.L.)

TASMANIA

MANNED LIGHTHOUSES

C h a rt 13

-8 7 -

PH,

Three Humm ock Is. (EB.L.1924./1963.S.). Hunter Is. (EB.1924/1971 .S /A .)· *

High field Point (A c.L.1924.R.)

Rocky Cape (EG.M.1968.L.K\

Table Cape (Ac.M.1888.£'.}

S T A N L E Y m

West Point (A c.1916.L .)------- Lt.s

P O R T L A T T A .

BU RN IE °

DEVONPOR

Sandy Cape (EB.1953.S.)·

LAUNCESTON o

Holloway Point (EB.L.1967.L/A.)

Cat Is. (EB.L.1967.S.)

Round H ill Point (A c.L .1923.L.)

Mersey B luff

* Goose Is. (Ac.iyi.1846.S.)

• Cape Barren (EB.L.1967.S )

(EM .M .1889.R.) •Waterhouse Is. (EB.L.1965.S/A.)

Cape Sorell (EB.1899/1971.U L /P S .S .)·-

Low Rocky Point (EB.1963.A.) *

SPRING B A Y a*.

• Cape T ou rville (E M .V H .1971.R.)

• Chicken Point (EB.L.1970.S/A.)

' Point Home Lookout (EM .M .1971 .L.)

- lie Du Nord (E8.L.1970.S/A.)

H O B A R T □

TASMANIA

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

C hart 14

- 8 8 -

i W s

S T A N L E Y ψ North Point (Unlighted Day Beacon) PORT L A T T A a

BU RN IE a

DEVO N P O R Ta

LAUNC ESTO N a

'f

SPRING BA Y c

H O B A R T a

TASMANIA OTHER NAVAI DS

C hart 15

- 8 9 -

5. South Australia

(a) General

South Australia has a heavily indented

coastline. The main ports are located on the coast of these

indentations, which has necessitated the establishment of

coastal navigational aids in these areas to mark the numerous

navigational hazards, The main ports of South Australia

(Port Adelaide, Whyalla, Port Pirie and Port Lincoln) are

situated on the shores of the Gulf of St. Vincent and Spencer

Gulf.

The number of navaids in South Australia (46)

has not changed greatly over the last few years. (See

Charts 16 to 18). The new aids that were established were

largely offset by minor aids being abolished.

(b) Servicing and Transport

South Australia's navaids are serviced from Port

Adelaide. Recently a building has been purchased in Adelaide

for conversion to a larger and well equipped maintenance depot.

Servicing is done by land where possible, but, because of the

region's geography, many aids are serviced by helicopter.

Many navaids, especially the manned island stations, are

visited twice a year by the lighthouse tender Cape Pillar for

provision of major supplies and major maintenance work, this

vessel also caring for aids in the Spencer Gulf.

- 90 -

(C) E s t a b l i s h m e n t or A l t e r a t i o n of N a v a i d s in L a s t

Decade

1968

Plank Shoal - Lighted buoy marking a particular

hazard on the shipping track to Whyalla and Port Pirie.

Person Island - Unattended electric light to assist

shipping proceeding to Thevenard.

Marsden Point

1970

- Light was re-established to assist shipping proceeding to the north of Kangaroo Island.

Four Hummock Island - Old light, established in 1914, demolished and replaced by a new electrically operated light.

Tapley Shoal

1972

- Lighted buoy marks the shoal to the north of Troubridge Light.

Bolingbroke Point - Electric light to assist increased shipping to Port Lincoln.

Berlin Rock Quilty Rock Tumley Point

- Unlighted buoys permanently removed.

Dangerous Reef - Experimental Racon established but withdrawn after evaluation.

Cape Jervis

1973

- Unattended acetylene light completely reconstructed and converted to electric

Lowly Point - Kerosene light unmanned and converted

to automatic electric.

Robe - High powered electric mains light

to replace manned light on Margaret Brock Reef (Cape Jaffa).

Cape Jaffa (Margaret Brock Reef) - Kerosene light unmanned and replaced by small battery operated light.

91

M l : = ; S = ? · ' ■ ■ ■

3? :g

» g S S fc ig g i3 g ig

figggftg Sgigr’i . SpSog s

■ "■

:B3-

'

■^3" gg 6Ϊ BgggBg g.gggg;

m m m

° T H E V E N A R D

a P O R T A U G U S T A

W H Y A L L A o

a P O R T PI RLE

a W A L L A R O O

a A R D R O S S A N

P O R T L I N C O L N &

E D I T H B U R G H 9

South Neptune Is. (3.K .H .1901.A /S .)-

A lthorpe Is. (2.EG.VH.1879.A.) -

Troubridge Shoals (2.EG.H.1856.S .)"

Cape Borda (2.E M .H .1858.L.)'

Cape Willoughby (2.EG.VH.1852.L.) /

P O R T A D E L A I D E /

P O R T S T A N V A C

Cape Northum berland (2.EG .H.1859.L.)*

SOUTH AUSTRALI A

MANNED LI GHTHOUSES

C hart 10

- 9 2 -

oT H E V E N A R D

St. Francis Is. ( EB.L.19 24 /1973.S/A.)

Evans Is. (E B .L.1964.S/A.)

Cape Bauer (A c.L.19 64 .L/A .)

Low ly Point (EM.H

Flinders Is. (A c .L .1 9 1 4 .S /A >

Pearson Is. (E B.M .1968.S /A .)/ *

Winceby Is. (A c.L.1911 .S/A.)

PORT LIN C O L N

Four Hummocks Is. (EB.M .1914.S/A.) ^ / j

Bolingbroke Point (E B .L.1972.L / A . r / / /

Cape Donington.. (A c.L.19 05 .L/S/A.)'

Williams Is. (EB.L.1963.S/A.)

Dangerous Reef (A c.L.1911 .S/A,)

Wedge Is (A c.M .1911 .S/A.)

Wardang Is. (A c.L.1909.S/A.)

Corny Point (A c.L.18 82 .L.)

Cape Spencer (A c.L.1950.L.)

Cape du Couedic (A c .L .1 9 0 9 .L j

Marsden Point (EB.M .1915/1968.L.)

a PO RT AUGUSTA

1883/1973.L.h Eastern Shoal North W HY A L L A d. * · ^ (Ac.L.1902.S.)

\a P O R T P IR IE XX Eastern Shoal South (A c.L.1902.S.) *-----Middle Bank (Ac.L.1912.S.) \ a W ALLARO O

\ Tipara Reef (Ac.M.1866.S.) -to AROROSSAN • Long Spit (Ac.L.1957.S.I a PORT A D E L A ID E /

1 PORT STANVAC \ Marino Rocks (EM.VH.1962.L.) T \ Orontes Bank \ \ (A c.L.1957.S.)

\ \ Cape Jervis'

\ (EM .M .1871/1973.L.)

'Cape St. Alban (Ac.L.1908.L.)

Cape Jaffa (E B .L.1872/1973.S.)

Robe (EM .H .1973.L.)

Cape M artin (A c.L.1960.L.)7

Cape Banks (A c.H .1882.L.) 1

SOUTH AUSTRALI A

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

Chart 17

C T H E V E N A R D

d P O R T A U G U S T A

; ' ' ·Τ'■ ■ ■ ■ : ■ : ■ , W H Y A L L A d

a P O R T PIRIE

" Wood Point (Day Beacon)

Plank Point (Day Beacon) ·

Plank Shoal (B u o y ). a W A L L A R O O

P O R T L I N C O L N □

E D I T H B U R G H o

Marion Reef (Buoy)

Cape Borda (Radio Beacon) — ·

TarleyShoal (B u o y)

, Yatala Shoal (Buoy)

W a r o r o s s a n

iP O R T A D E L A I D E /

P O R T S T A N V A C

SOUTH AUSTRALI A

OTHER NAVAI DS

Chart 18

6. Western Australia

(a) General

"The coastline of Western Australia extends

for nearly 4,000 miles. The north and north­

west coasts experience giant tides, which

sluice among myriad islands and reefs, with the

added seasonal risk of destructive cyclones

sweeping down from the Arafura Sea. The

West Coast is studded with off-shore reefs

and dangers which, when combined with the

unpredictable sets and strong on-shore winds,

have been the graveyard of many ships. The

south coast is rugged and inhospitable,

battered by huge swells of the Southern Ocean

which has the deserved reputation of being

one of the world's stormiest." *

The Department of Transport maintains

72 navigational aids in Western Australia (See Charts 19 to 21).

Several lights are important landfall lights, the larger

proportion, however, being coastal aids. In addition to

the many conventional navaids - lights, buoys, beacons -

a gx"tract from evidence given before the Royal Commission

1964 inquiring into the safety of vessels operating in

the coastal waters of W.A. ( T r a n s c r i p t Page 1857 ) . . ,

95

Port Hedland and Dampler are served by the sophisticated

Decca systems to assist the large bulk carriers calling at

these ports. '

(b) Servicing and Transport

Navigational aids in Western Australia are

serviced from Perth/Fremantle. Most navigational aids in

Western Australia are serviced by sea. The lighthouse

tender Cape Don makes regular trips along the Western

Australian coast for this purpose. The improvement in light

aircraft and helicopter services results in servicing being

less dependent on the lighthouse tender.

Workshop facilities for the overhaul and repair

of faulty equipment are located in Fremantle.

The Decca chain at Port Hedland has its own

workshop facilities and operates completely independent from

the general workshop. Similar arrangements will apply to the

Dampier Decca chain.

(c) Establishment or Alteration of Navaids in Last

Decade

A large number of navigational aids established

in the last 10 years were for specific purposes (Port

Hedland, Dampier/Port Walcott, Cocos Island). In addition,

the following changes were made:

1964

Mary Anne Reef - Light to replace earlier light marking a reef on the coastal track and the approach to Onslow.

96

1965

Figure of Eight Island Gull Island

Rosemary Island

1966 "

Lights established to mark the approach to Esperance.

Light marking the approach to King Bay.

Cloates Point - Light marking off-shore reefs on

the coastal track and serving as a landfall on a rather featureless coast. Replaces the light originally located on Fraser Island.

1967

North Island

- Adele Island S Browse Island

Light to assist vessels on their approach to Geraldton.

Automatic radio beacons to assist vessels plying the north west coast.

I Cape Leveque

S' North West Cape

Powerful radio beacon to assist vessels in making a landfall in poor visibility.

Light to replace the manned light at Flaming Head.

tFoul Bay Light replacing light on Hamelin

Island.

C if fare 1 1 i Island Light to assist vessels bound for Yampi Sound.

11968

'Red Bluff EEast Island

ITrimouille Island ■North West Island

Lights to assist navigation and to mark hazards in the Lacepede Channel.

Lights to mark off-shore islands and assist vessels on the coastal shipping track.

11969

1C ape St. Cr icq

«Port Hedland

Light to mark the entrance to Useless Inlet.

Decca N a v i g a t i o n Chain and 5 Buoys established.

97

1970

Imperieuse Reef

1973

- Light to mark the Rowley Shoals off the coast.

Foul Bay - Converted to electric.

Dampier/Port Walcott - Decca Navigation Chain and 5 Buoys established.

- 9 8

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

MANNED LIGHTHOUSES

YAMPI SO UN Da

Cape Leveque (3.EG.H.1911 L.) ·

o D ERBY

a BROOME

' PO RT H E D LA N D

BARROW IS LA N D 3 ^ ’l^ R ^ W A L C O T T

o E X M O U TH G U LF

o CAPE C U V IE R

a C A R N A R V O N

W YN DH AM

nUSEL.ESS LOOP

Moore Point (2.EM .H.1878.L.) •a G E R A LD TON

Rottnest Is. (2.E M .H .1851 .S /A .)»l0 f r e m a N T LE /K W IN A N A

Cape N aturaliste(3.K.H .1 90 4 .L.)

Cape Leeuwin (3.K .H .18 96.L.) ·

aB U N B U R Y

ESPERANCEd

A L B A N Y ?Ec|jpse |S (2.EG.H.1926.S.I

C hart 19

- 9 9 -

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

UNATTENDED LIGHTS

Lacrosse Is. (Ac.M.1961 .S.) \

Lesueur Is. (Ac.L. 1963.S.) >

l ' l

\ —

Caffarelli Is. (Ac.M.1967.S.) · Tdnher ls (Ac.L.1951 .S.) &YAM P/ SOUND

Browse Is. (A c.L .1966.S.) ·

Degerando Is (A c.M .1960.S.)

Adele Is. (A c.L .1951 .S.I ·

East Is. (EB.M.1968.S.) -

Red B lu ff (EB.M.1968 S.) '

Imperieuse Reef (EB.M.1970.S.) ·

Gantheaume Point (A c.L 1905.L.) / /

o DERBY

o BROOME

Legendre Is. (Ac.L. 1927/1963.S.) y

Rosemary Is. (A c .L .1965.S.) \

T rim ouille Island (EB.L.1968.S.) \

North West Is. \

(EB.L.1968.S.) X \ BARR OW IS LA N D p

Beagle Is. (A c.L .1 9 5 9 .S .)'

A irlie Is. .

(A c .L .1913.S .)"

Cape Bossut (A c .L .1914.S .)«

Bedout Is. (A c .L .1909.S.I

a PO R T HED LA N D

Jarman Is. (Ac.L.1888.S.) a D A M PIER — IJ PO RT W ALCOTT North Sandy Is. (A c .L .1913.S.)

Mary Anne Reef (Ac.L.1927.S )

Anchor Is. (Ac.L. 1913.S.)

North West Cape f EXM O UTH G U LF η (EM . H. 196 7. L . p - |||§p • Point Cloates (EB.M.1966.L.)

*CAPE C U VIER • Quobba Point (Ac.M.1950.L.) . a CA R N AR V O N

Cape Ronsard (Ac.L.1961 .S.)

Cape St. Crica (EB.M.1969.S.)

Cape Inscription (Ac,M.1910.S.)

\ a USELESS LOOP

x Steep Point (Ac.L.1960.S.)

. — -Shoal Point (A C .M .1958.U

North Is. (EB.M.1967.S.)

oG ER ALO TO N

Escape Is. (Ac.M .1930.S.) * p j j |

Bathurst Point (Ac.M.1900.S.A.) · □ F R E M A N T LE /K W IN A N A

o BU NBURY ESPERANCEa

X Gull Island (EB.L.1965.S.)

Foul Bay (EM .L.1967/73.L.) ·

D'Entrecasteaux Point (A c .L .1960.L.) *

K Figure of Eight Island (Ac. L. 1965.S.)

A L B A N Y o * Breaksea Island (Ac. L .1858.S.)

C h a rt 20

100

Medusa Bank(Buoy)

WESTERN AUSTRALI A

OTHER NAVAI DS

Browse lsland(Radio Beacon)·

Adele lsland(Radio Beacon)·

W YNDHAM

Cape ί eveque(Radio Beacon)· o YAM PI SOUND

' DERBY

o BROOME

Port Hedland (5 Buoys) \

Port W alco tt(5 Buoys) x

Dampier(Decca 'x

Navigator Chain (M a n n e d ))'''''''-----^^ *

BARROW IS LA N D P a POF^TWWkLCOTT

a EXM O U TH G U LF

'^ P O R T MEDLAR

- Port Hedland

a CAPE C U VIER

o C A R N A R V O N

M i l ·

w |

LOOP

O G E R A LD TO N

□ FR E M A N T LE /K W IN A N A

□ B U N B U R Y

ESPERANCEo

Cape Leeuwin(Radio Beacon)· A L B A N Y π

C hart 21

101

7. Staffing

(a) Regions

The Regional staff, of the Department of

Transport, has increased from 196 in 1964/65 to 253 in 1973/74

(See Table 5 ). Increases in staff have occurred primarily

in the number of technicians and tradesmen. The majority

of the technicians are in the radio field, brought about by

the establishment of the Decca Navigator Chain at Port

Hedland (W.A.). The main increase in the number of tradesmen

was in the higher levels, possibly to ensure the retention of

tradesmen who had particular skills essential to the efficient

functioning of navaids.

The gradual departure of lightkeepers is

reflected in the reduction of the number of manned lighthouses

over the years. The Table shows that at most levels there is

considerable stability, the notable exception being lightkeepers

and to a lesser extent machanics.

The present servicing and maintenance arrangement

has long standing and it is clear that changes and expansion

are necessary to cope with the increasing number of navaids

with modern sophisticated electrical equipment as well as

electronic digital data equipment used in monitoring systems.

Introduction of more electronic systems would bring with it an

increasing need for adequate trained electronic technicians

as was the case in Western Australia.

TABLE 5

REGIONAL NAVIGATIONAL AIDS STAFF 1964/65 - 1973/74

FULL TIME PERSONNEL

1964/65 1969/70 1973/74

E 0 W E 0 W E 0 W

Navaids Engineer Class 3 1 1

Navaids Engineer Class 2 5 5 1 6 6 6 6

Senior Radio Tech Off Gr 2 1 1

Radio Tech Off Grade 2 9 9

Sen Tech Off Grade 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1

Technical Officer Grade 2 1 1

Technical Officer Grade 1 2 2

Tech Off (Eng) Grade 2 1 1

Tech Off (Eng) Grade 1 2 2 3 3

Tech Off (Building) Gr 2 2 2

Supervisor M.A. Grade 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 1

Supervisor M.A. Grade 2 3 3 1 6 7 6 6 1

Supervisor M.A. Grade 1 1 1 8 7 9 8

Senior Mech M.A. 4 4 17 16 , 1 18 18

Mechanic M.A. 29 24 32 32 10 33 33 4

Sen Carpenter Grade 1 3 3 5 5 6 6 1

Carpenter 2 2 3 3 1

Supvsr Radio Tech Gr 2 2 2 2 2 1 1

Supvsr Tech (MRS) Gr 2 1 2 1 1 1

Senior Radio Mechanic 2 2 2 2 1 1

Tradesman Radio 1 1 3 2

Operator Radio Aids 2 2 2 2

Apprentice 2 2 2 3 3

Workshop Assistant 2 2 1

Tradesman Assistant 2 2 2

Labourer 5 5 3 13 13 2 11 11 2

Head Lightkeeper 55 55 13 54 54 10 51 51 9

Lightkeeper 76 74 26 71 70 29 68 66 22

Field Officer 2 2

Clerical Asst Grade 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Clerical Asst Grade 3 1 1

Clerical Asst Grade 2 1 1

Painter 1 1

Master of Launch 1 1

Boatman ' 1 1

GRAND TOTAL 195 185 44 230 227 52 256 252

47

E = Establishment

0 = Maximum occupancy during year

W = Wastage during year.

Source: Department of Transport

103

The Department of Transport advises that at

present some effort is being directed towards increasing the

numbers of regional staff. This should be.seen as a reaction

to the large short-term workload in relation to modernisation,

particularly electric conversion of lighthouses. This

expansion is not necessarily geared to the longer-term needs

for servicing a modern system of sophisticated automatic

lighthouses nor to the possible requirements for developing

radio navaids. A review of all establishments (C.0. and

Regions) more relevant to the longer term commenced in mid

1974 in the Department with the object of relating it to a

5 year plan of works designed to complete modernisation and

progressively to embrace any expansion of the navaids system.

It is expected that this review will reach fruition by the end

of 1975.

The main features of future establishment plans

in the navaids area are assumed to be the following:

. higher level engineering positions in all

regions with a supporting professional and

sub-professional structure.

. substantial increases in numbers of sub­

professional officers in response to the

higher level of technology in navaids plant

and improved demarcation between professional

and sub-professional work.

104

. closer identification of artisan staff

with specific trades instead of the present

'jack of all trades' approach.

. centralised or multi-regional task force

approach to major construction or

rehabilitation projects, e.g. installation

of a Decca chain, reconstruction of a large

group of lighthouse towers.

Table 5 does not show the regional personnel

who are not engaged full time on navaid work. This in

particular refers to Regional Controllers, administration

personnel and other office staff.

(b) Ships

The ships operated by the Department of

Transport to service navigational aids have a total complement

of 170 men (See Table 6 ) and an administrative full time

staff of 7 at central office. Part of the duties of some

regional officers is also associated with the running of these

ships.

105

TABLE 6

CREWS - LIGHT TENDERS

CAPE PILLAR

CAPE MORETON CAPE DON

TOTAL

Master 1 1 1 3

1st Mate 2 2 2 6

2nd Mate 2 2 2 6

3rd Mate 1 1 1 3

Shipwright 1 1 2

Boatswain 1 1 1 3

Able Seaman 17 16 16 49

Ordinary Seaman 3 3 3 9

Deck Boy 1 1 1 3

Crew Attendant 3 3 3 9

Chief Engineer 1 1 1 3

2nd Engineer 2 2 2 6

3rd Engineer 2 2 2 6

4th Engineer 1 1 1 3

Electrical Engineer 1 1 1 3

Wiper 5 5 5 15

Chief Steward 1 1 1 3

Steward 5 . 5 5 15

Junior Steward 1 1 1 3

Chief Cook 1 1 1 3

Cook 2 2 2 6

Sculleryman 2 2 2 6

Radio Telegraphist

Relief (a)

Radio Telegraphist

Electrical Engineer

1

1

1

1 1 3

1

1

TOTAL 58 56 56 170

(a) Relief staff on the establishment of the Cape Pillar but rotating to other vessels as required.

Source: Department of Transport

106

I N F O R M A T I O N R E C E I V E D B Y T H E C O M M I S S I O N IN W R I T T E N

SUBMISSIONS OR DISCUSSIONS ON NAVIGATIONAL AID QUESTIONS

107

.

I N F O R M A T I O N R E C E I V E D BY T H E C O M M I S S I O N IN W R I T T E N

SUBMISSIONS OR DISCUSSIONS OH NAVIGATIONAL AID QUESTIONS

Below is a list of sources of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n

received by the C o m m i s s i o n . The s u b m i s s i o n s c o v e r e d a w ide

range of m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g to n a v a i d s , f rom h i g h l y d e t a i l e d

recommendations to b r o a d e r p o licy. C o l l e c t i v e l y t hey nave been

very useful c o n t r i b u t i o n s , m o s t h e l p f u l to the C o m m i s s i o n in

reaching its c o n c l u s i o n s :

A C T A Pty L i m i t e d

A m a l g a m a t e d W i r e l e s s (Australasia) Li m i t e d

A s s o c i a t e d S t e a m s h i p s Pty Ltd

A u s t r a l i a n C h a m b e r of S h i p p i n g

A u s t r a l i a n F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y Council

. A u s t r a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t m e n t s :

D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e

D e p a r t m e n t of De f e n c e

D e p a r t m e n t of D e f e n c e (Navy O f r i c e ) and k.A.N.

H y d r o g r a p h e r

D e p a r t m e n t of H o u s i n g and C o n s t r u c t i o n

D e p a r t m e n t of S c i e n c e ,

D e p a r t m e n t of S upply

D e p a r t m e n t of Iranspiort

P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l 's Depa r t m e n t

A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of N a v i g a t i o n

A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l Line (Australian Coastal

S h i p p i n g Commission)

109

J. Brace, Esq.

Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty. Ltd.

Craig Mostyn and Co. Pty. Ltd. .

Department of Harbours and Marine (Queensland)

Esso Australia Ltd.

Fremantle Port Authority

Harbour and Light Department (Western Australia)

H.C. Sleigh Limited

Captain D.A. Hopper

J. Horn, Esq.

Howard Smith Industries Pty Limited

John Burke Pty. Limited

John Swire § Sons Pty. Limited

Lloyd's Register of Shipping

W. McLuckie, Esq.

Marine Board of Hobart

Master Mariners' Association of Tasmania

Merchant Service Guild of Australia

National Safety Council of Australia (South

Australian Division)

National Trust of Australia (New South Wales)

National Trust of Australia (Victoria)

Northern Territory Port Authority

Orient Shipping Services Pty. Ltd.

P § 0 Australia Ltd.

Port Hedland Port Authority

Port of Launceston Authority

- 110

Professional Radio Employees' Institute of

number of

continued

or agreed

Australasia

Public Works Department (Victoria)

Public Works Department (Western Australia)

Seabridge Australia Pty. Ltd.

Captain D.A. Smith

Tasmanian Yachting Association

The British Phosphate Commissioners

The Company of Master Mariners of Australia

The Queensland Coast and Torres Strait Pilot Service

Captain D.R. Ward

J.P. Whitaker, Esq.

Wilh. Wilhelmsen Agency Pty Ltd

Yachting Association of Western Australia ■

In addition to the above sources of information a

other parties indicated to the Commission that they

to subscribe to the views which they had expressed

with at the Australian Coastal Navaids Symposium

1971.

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