Title Sport and recreation policy
Database Political Party Documents
Date 01-02-1983
Source ALP
Author ALP
Citation Id 995155
Cover date 1983
MP no
Pages 130p.
Speech No
Text online yes

Sport and recreation policy



• -: port and Recreation



John Brown, A.L.P. Spokesman on Sport



Pages Summary and Proposals


1 - 16 1. Introduction

17 - 23 2. Physical Activity and Sport in a

Changing Society

24 - 27 3. Sport and the Labor Government

28 - 33 4. Sport for "fun" or sport for "blood"

- Amateur v. Professional

34 - 46 5. Present Funding for Sport

47 - 58 6. The Leisure Society

59 - 71 7. The Value of Sport and Active

Recreational Programmes

72 - 75 8. Politics and Sport

76 - 79 9. Problems with the Media Coverage

of Sport

S - 84 10. The. Role of the Government

85 - 88 1.1. Health Care and Sport

89 --91 12. Sports Lotteries and Bonds

92 - 93 13. Sports Insurance

94 - 99 14. Education and Sport

100 -101 15. Geographical Isolation

102 -104 16. Women and Sport



105 -107 17. The Aged and Sport

108 18. Disabled

109 -113 19. A long Term View of Australian Sport

114 -118 20. Sport and Industry

119 -122 21. Life be in it

123 -127 22. Bibliography, Reference and Other Sources


A Labor Government will ensure that sport, physical.

fitness and recreation facilities will be available to all

Australians who seek to enjoy them, whatever their economic

circumstances, ability or level of aspiration may be.

The standard of national health and well-being is

dependent to' a great extent on people of all socio-economic.

backgrounds having access to sport and recreation opportunities.

Labor will promote and co-ordinate the provision of these


Recognising all of these factors a Labor Government will



One of the major initiativ, •s of the Whitlam Labor

Government was the creation of the Ministry dealing specifically

with sport, tourism and recreation. In fact both the Minister, Mr

Stewart, and the concept of centralising the functions of these

inter-related areas enjoyed great popularity and success. The

Department was abolished soon after the "coup d'etat" by Mr

Fraser and of course, funding for sport dried up overnight.

However, following a number of major sporting events and the now

infamous 1980 Olympic boycott by the Liberal Government, Malcolm

Fraser has learnt the political and propaganda value of sport.

There was no way of keeping him away from the TV cameras during

the Commonwealth Games.


Considering the high disposable income of Australian

workers, high unemployment and an increase in leisure time due to

technological change (and economic crisis), a Ministry of Sport,

Tourism and Recreation would incorporate and unify all those

areas which deal with the leisure time of Australians.





The National Institute of Sport was an idea and an

initiative of the Labor Government even if the launching of the

Institute was left •to Mr Justice Ellicott who - in fairness must

be said - has been a strong supporter of Australian Sport.

The concept of an Institute for elite athletes - as we

saw during the Commonwealth Games - is an excellent one. After

all, if we expect our athletes to compete (and win!) in the world

arena we will have to provide, them with world, class training


There are of course still a number of difficulties, e.g.

accommodation for the athletes, under-utilisation of facilities

etc., but the concept is an excellent one and a Labor Government

will continue to generously fund the Institute. The training of

world class athletes is a long and laborious process and they

must know that there is financial backing and security from the

Federal Government.

-Of course the promotion of top-class elite Australian

sport is a necessary component in encouraging other youth to



emulate the great' deeds and reputations of our sporting heroes








Looking at the. facilities available to school children

in Canberra one is made green with envy, especially compared to

most of the schools in the metropolitan areas of our major

capital cities. There is little use emphasising the equal

opportunities available to all school children and the

egalitarian nature of our education system if we cannot provide

all of our children with the same, or the best possible

facilities and staff.

A Labor Government will ask State and Local government

authorities as well as Shire Councils to put at the disposal of

schools, wherever possible, better sporting and recreation


A Labor Government will provide special physical

education staff in our primary and se 7ondary schools and on the

development of specialised teachers. One can have the best

sporting grounds and facilities in the world, but if there is no

enthusiasm or expertise amongst teachers, many children will grow

up as spectators rather than participants in sporting events.



Particular emphasis will be put on the teaching of

swimming skills. This is imperative considering that nearly 90%

of the Australian population lives on our coastline or in the

proximity of rivers and lakes. We might be proud of the great

achievements of Australian swimmers, but the achievement of world

records is little consolation to. the hundreds of parents whose

children drown in the backyard swimming pool or the sea every

year. The teaching of water safety skills is imperative

considering that new generations will have more leisure time and

opportunities for holidays and travel, most of which will be

spent near the water. '




There are nearly 120 sporting organisations throughout

Australia representing some six million people who actively

participate in one or. more sporting activities. Unfortunately the

funding of these sporting organisations by the Federal Government

has been more a "gesture" than a catering for the real needs in

the community.

Currently there are some $3.2 million allocated to the

various sporting organisations in Australia. That is

approximately 20 cents per head of population which isn't

comparable with countries such as Germany, Canada or the UK.

Considering that the Federal Government is collecting some $90

million on sales tax on sporting goods alone, there is clearly a

need for better distribution of the sporting dollar.


In the long-term, the provision of more subsidies, will

encourage more people to actively participate in sport which

means more sporting equipment, sales, more employment and in turn

more tax returns to the government.











There is no doubt that some local government authorities

constrained by economic factors (particularly in newly developing

areas) have been unable to provide the basic sporting and

recreational facilities which are so necessary in every

community. In the western suburbs of Sydney for example there is

a great shortage of the basic network of public tennis courts,

hockey , pitches, netball courts, swimming pools, football grounds, rollerskating rinks, skateboard tracks, jogging tracks, picnic

grounds, bush-walking tracks etc. The facilities provided are

generally of such primitive nature that a person needs a touch of

the Spartan to want to perform regularly upon them. Thus there is

a direct disincentive for children particularly to involve

themselves in regular physical exercise either competitive or



The result of this is a failure to unearth the potential

sporting •stars who live in these disadvantaged areas.

There is a serious proliferation of delinquency in the

areas. where kids do not have the proper opportunities to use

their energies and skills to any real advantage.

The long-term effects are a lessening in community

health standards with several responsible surveys showing a

reduction in the physical standards of today's youth.

There is a damaging widening of the gap between

opportunities available to the affluent and those available to

people on the lower end of the economic scale.

It has to be pointed out also that some local

governments in the past have seen government subsidies as a

"Pandora's Box." It is to overcome abuses of the system that

specific guidelines are stipulated.






This is in line with ALP policy developed by Barry Cohen

which has received considerable support in the community. The

employment prospects which it can offer during the construction

as well as the operational stage are obvious and it can lead to a

better understanding between State and Federal Governments as

well as promoting a healthier lifestyle in the community.












Most "major" nations have an annual sporting event which

is aimed at the promotion of a healthier lifestyle and mass

participation in a range of events. The East German "Spartakiad"

and similar games in the USA and other countries are good


The first "Australia Games" will be held in 1984 in

Sydney. Preparations are already well advanced and there is a

National Committee as well as a NSW State organising committee.

These games are aimed at fostering national unity, mass

participation and the promotion of sport in Australia.

The Liberal Government has allocated a miserly $300 000

in this year's budget for the Australia Games. The rest of the

money will be raised from private organisations. including

television stations which have expressed a great interest in the


• The Games will be organised every two years and it is hoped that Australia will be able to attract world class athletes

and world-wide media coverage.





Tax averaging already exists for businessmen, authors,

inventors, artists and farmers. Basically, we aim at benefiting

those sportsmen in high body contact sports, e.g. boxing, rugby

league, VFL etc. who have a very short sporting career. These

sportsmen earn high incomes over a period of three or four years

at the end of which they are left with little more than a fading


Most professional athletes - golfers, cricketers,

jockeys, tennis players etc. - have a career which stretches for

ten years or more, thus effectively providing them with tax

averaging. We are. only 'concerned with those that for various

reasons have a very short period of high income and high


Tax averaging and wise investment could assure many

professional sportsmen of a secure income after retirement.




Responsibility for •the administration, promotion,

funding and development of sport currently lies with the Federal

Government (Department of Home Affairs, Department. of Education,

Department of Health, etc.), State Governments (Department of

Sport, Department of Education, Department of Health, etc.),

local authorities, private entrepreneurs, sporting bodies and

organisations, volunteers, etc. etc.


will provide not only

the future c f sport in

a .valuable advisor to

literature, a research

)f sports medicine) and

the sporting, academic,

assure a more equitable

A centralised organisation

leadership and long-term direction foi

Australia but it would act also as

governments, a repository of sports

institute (especially in the field

through its commissioners drawn from

media and business-worlds it could

distribution of the sporting dollar.




With the development of an increasingly complex

technological and industrialised society, greater demands have

• been placed on a meaningful use of leisure time. People are

turning to sport, physical fitness and leisure activities to

promote their health, happiness and fulfilment.

Labor recognises that sport is probably Australia's most

undervalued social service.

The contributions that sport in its many-faceted forms

makes to our physical, mental and social health are enormous. The

savings to our national health and social welfare bills directly

attributable to sport are incalculable..

Sport assists the physical and social development of

children at primary school level. It may also aid mental

development - studies have shown that children who play sport

regularly achieve higher academic results.

Among teenagers sport continues to aid physical

development. Equally important, it provides a socially acceptable

array of interests, goals and activities. It provides an

understanding of social discipline and is arguably our strongest

weapon against delinquency drug-taking and vandalism.

For millions of adults it provides exercise and

interests to fruitfully occupy our increasing leisure time.

The success of our athletes on the international stage

provides a focus for national pride in a country populated by

• people of diverse backgrounds. Sport in fact helps keep

Australia's States welded into one nation.


There is no doubt that Australia's great sports stars

have been our best international ambassadors over the years. They

have grabbed the world spotlight in the past bringing reflected.

glory to Australia. We are not producing these same stars today.

although there is similar talent available, simply because other

• nations have overtaken us - other nations where sports-people

have had the full support of their government.

Labor has no intention of promoting sport as an

extensions of an arm of the government. We do not intend to use

it for the promotion of nationalist propaganda or to show the

superiority of our way of life, ideology and race. Labor believes

that our task lies in meeting the basic leisure and sporting

needs of the Australian community rather than simply catering for

the needs of a small elite.

• Labor, however, realises the need, to encourage the

pursuit of excellence for talented sports performers. The success

of our elite athletes in international competition encourages

other lesser participants to high goals of achievement.

The Labor Party policy for Sport should aim at the

following general targets of achievement:

1. Improved management and administration of

Sport and Recreation.

2. Improved coaching standards.

• 3. Better Sports and physical fitness education

in schools. •



Heightened standards of elite performance.

5. Better co-ordination of community efforts.

• 6. Improved national health.

• 7. Opportunities for better use of increased

leisure time.

8. Greater recognition of the sporting needs of

women, ethnic groups, the 'handicapped and the


There is undoubtedly great electoral appeal in a

progressive and wide-ranging sports policy.

Australians do have a fascination with sports and

sporting personalities and seek to identify with their sporting

heroes and heroines.

We seem to be receding unfortunately to a race of

spectators. The classic image of Australians as lean bronzed

Anzacs is quite invalid. Research has proved us to be a nation

basically unfit, obese and with a. high degree of cardio-vascular


We need to encourage more Australians to get off their

butts and participate. Unfortunately most of Australia is not as

well endowed with facilities as the ACT. If only the rest of the

country possessed a similar structure of basic facilities the

• task of encouraging participation would be easier. The mass of cycling tracks, jogging areas well prepared and maintained


netball courts, hockey pitches, public golf courses, cricket

grounds, picnic grounds etc. which abound in the ACT should

ideally be provided for all Australians.

• Studies of recent years show quite conclusively a

direct co-relation between delinquency and violent crime and a

lack of sporting activity. If kids are not provided with proper

and reasonable facilities to encourage their participation in

sport they turn to other destructive ways to vent their energies..

The national health bill is estimated to be around ten

thousand million dollars. Most of this money is spent correcting

physical impairment caused by poor life-style, bad diet, smoking,

excessive alcohol use, drug taking and motor car accidents.

Surely it is time Australia realised that •the

encouragement of a healthy, active, physical life-style, would

considerably reduce this ever-increasing health budget.

Sport and active recreation pursuits should be

recognised as mild and enjoyable forms of preventive medicine.

Thus a sound economic argument can be advanced for the

provision of generous government funding to promote this concept

of a healthier more active life-style.

One half of one per cent of the national health bill is

approximately fifty million dollars. In the Commonwealth Games

Year the Federal budget for sport was approximately twenty

million dollars. However, a close examination of that expenditure

• will indicate that less than, three millions dollars 'of Federal

funds was directed towards the average Australian sporting o participant and nothing for those interested in a passive leisure activity.


Meanwhile Australians participating in some form of

sporting activity will in the current financial year contribute

to the Federal Treasury some eighty to ninety million dollars in.

sales tax on basic sporting equipment.

Thus there is another basically sound economic reason to,

encourage people to play a sport. The purchase of their basic

equipment - tennis racquet, cricket at etc. - leads to an.

immediate contribution to revenue.

The provision of extra sporting facilities is of course

job creating. Mostly semi-skilled workers are employed in this

area both in the construction and maintenance of jogging tracks,

ovals, etc.

Government participation in sport has undeniable

electoral benefit. The provision of a separate Department of

Sport,. Physical Fitness, Recreation and Tourism would have a

direct effect upon more Australians' lives than any government

instrumentality other than the Taxation Commission. Everyone

takes a holiday at some time. The Australian Confederation of

Sport through its hundred odd offiliates claims to speak for over

five million participants and fans - it probably does.

The Fraser Government is becoming increasingly

interested in sport as an electoral gain. However its basic

elitism constrains it from achieving the full impact that is

possible from a diverse imaginative and generous sports policy

such as we can undoubtedly evolve.

• There is still a lingering residual distrust in sporting

- organisations and with sports people generally of the Fraser


Government over their cynical attitude to sport at the time of

the Moscow Olympics.


I am sure that there is great goodwill available in the

community for the political party which can most effectively tap

Australia's predilection for sport. A generous-investment in the,

right areas and a recognition that the. Labor Party really does

• care Eor sport and sporting people might well be the special

impetus we require to win that small percentage of votes we

require for a Labor Government in 1983.

any list of the best-dead would probably

Fraser, Rosewall and

would be unlikely to

certainly would not

Finally, we should not forget that

known and best loved Australians living of

include Bradman, Darcy, Cuthbert, (Dawn)

even Phar Lap (a dead horse!) . Such a list

include Menzies, Holt or McMahon. (It

include (Malcolm Fraser!).

The lesson should be salutary. Whether we like it or not

people prefer sport on the front page as well as on the back

page. We should recognise this fact and capitalise upon it.

With regard to the proposition of tax averaging for

sportsman, the number of people who would be affected is very

small. The proportion concerns only sportsmen involved in heavy

body contact sports who have a very short career at the top.

Boxers of course would be a good example. Rugby league

professionals in Sydney to Brisbane average only 3 seasons at the

top. VFL Footballers in Melbourne would not survive much longer


In their short period of activity these particular

sportsmen earn high income and pay high taxes and aften finish

their career with •very little material gain, except a high esteem

in the public eye and a legacy of physical injury. Given that


authors, inventors and farmers have special tax averaging

benefits a good case can be made to provide tax averaging for

these particular sportsmen.

Sport is a spectacle. Active participation in sport is

the goal, but playing and watching are complementary not

contradictory activities. At its best elite sport is

inspirational - a stimulus for greater, as well as better

participation. It is a source of pleasure for millions of

Australians including many who are elderly or disabled.

The ALPs concern with recreation stems from our

recognition of its importance for the general welfare of the


In a society which enjoys substantial leisure time

governments have a responsibility to examine the contribution

which sport and recreation can make to a full life-style.

For many people physical activity makes an important

contribution to physical and mental well-being.

There is considerable evidence to prove that vigorous

physical exercise can reduce the incidence of coronary heart

disease. By reducing boredom and urban frustration participation

in active recreation contributes to the reduction of vandalism

and deliquency among young people.

Success in international sport has great value for the

community not only in terms of rising morale and inspiration for

• young people to take an active part in sport but also by

'providing a young country like Australia with a national





Of all the facets of modern civilisation, economic

affairs rank as the most vital area of concern to . most people because the state of the economy has the most direct impact on

their 'standards of living. Fields such as politics, military

affairs, and religion lack such ability to attract people's

interest. Prue science is no longer able to command the absolute

faith that it did in the past.

At the same time sport, art and entertainment appear to

be gaining popularity. Probably the most fundamental reason that

sport and music attract people today - particularly the younger

generation - is the rise of individuality in western culture. The

decline of philosophies based on moralism and self denial after

the Second World War was accompanied by a growing tendency to

stress the senses. Indeed, we realised that solving the world's

problems was virtually impossible therefore we came to • concentrate more and more on "we" the individual.

The rediscovery or the "renaissance" of sports and arts

has not come about as a result of Government policies. Rather it

is a general orientation towards pleasure and satisfaction of. the


Of course, there are no suggestions that sport or the

arts offer more than symptomatic treatment of social problems.

But the simplicity of physical play and activity gives sport a

directness and immediacy of appeal to people. It's non lingual

nature renders it fully international enabling it to cross

• boundaries of education and social class, race, religion and

• language.


This is not to deny that there are problems in

guaranteeing all citizens the right to participate in sport and

an equal place at the starting line for the people in various


The social isolation which accompanies living in modern

urban society is an every day story in our newspapers. It

• increases.as cities get larger. As unemployment grows and more

people are joining the "lonely crowd." The main factors of this

mass loneliness are:

(a) many people through employment leave the areas

where they were born, went to school or were

brought up, thus losing the old family and

friendship ties;

(b) established communities are broken up through

urban renewal and the clearance of old


(c) social contact is inhibited in high-rise flat


(d) unemployment which leads to a decrease in

personal self esteem.

It has been observed that people who play sport or spend

their leisure time together usually maintain their relationship

beyond the time and space limits of the game or excursion itself.

Thus sport in our cities can open up opportunities for social

contact because participation can be a shared experience and not

• just a chance encounter.


There have been a number of reports directly or

indirectly linking "inactivity" with anti-social or criminal

behaviour. No doubt that with unemployment reaching all time

highs this problem might become even more acute.

"Getting kids off the street" might not remedy the

• underlying problem, but it can contribute considerably towards

• the individual's self esteem and sense of belonging.

The Police Citizens Clubs - to give just one example -have done an excellent job ever since the first one opened in

Sydney in 1937. With support from successive State governments

and volunteers the movement is performing better than ever. Today

there- are 48 clubs in NSW with combined assets of nearly $16

million, and it is estimated that nearly 10,000 kids are enjoying

the club's facilities free of charge.

Although Mr Justice Lusher has recommended that the 120

or so officers assigned from the Police Department should be

withdrawn from the structure and administration of the Police

Citizens Club (since 1976 girls are admitted as well) it is

imperative that the initiative be expanded rather than reduced in


We have to be careful however when promoting sport,

especially amongst young people. Many parents build their kids

sporting career around •their own lack of success. Money and

status from sport becomes a family dream and children are often

thrust into the more lucrative sports. The attitudes of these

parents often based on their own lack of success during childhood

can sometimes lead to great disappointment and ugly scenes.


The social stresses on many young people are enormous,

especially in the big cities. If we delay too long tackling the

causes of these stresses constructively the problems which arise

from them will be magnified and the cost of dealing with their

• results greatly increased.

• The need to provide for people to make the best of their

leisure must be seen in this context and in the division of

resources this requirement must also be balanced with the needs

of social services, housing and education.

The Labor Party believes that sport and recreation

provide enormous benefits for the individual in society, and that

it can provide one of the key factors in the enhancement of


The pursuit of certain sports offers legitimate

opportunities for some kinds of behaviour which in contemporary

Australian society would otherwise be deemed eccentric or even

anti-social. Opportunities to give vent to feelings of physical

aggression, or to experience physical danger or hard physical

contact are a necessary feature of a "healthy" yet peaceful


The national organising bodies of most sports in

Australia are reporting increases- in participation and

membership. While the number of people watching traditional

"spectator sports" (e.g. horse racing) is declining; the number

of people actually swimming, riding, fishing, sailing or playing

individual and team games such as golf, tennis, squash,

• badminton, hockey and rugby is growing.


Individual "combat" sports, e.g. fencing, karate and

judo, are on the whole growing faster than team sports. There has

been also an increase in the popularity of "high risk" activities

such as rock. climbing, scuba-diving, sky-diving, wind surfing,

hang-gliding, trail, bike riding and motor cycle riding. The

number of people enjoying the recreational amenities of the

countryside, rivers, mountains and coasts is also growing.

The sudden interest in sport and recreation is no doubt

due to the fact that many forms of industrial employment have

substituted an isolated repetitive activity, requiring little or

no skill for earlier total, meaningful and often highly skilled

activities. The effects of this change some call "emancipation"

and others "alienation".

When "alienation" at the workplace is associated with

isolation ' in urban living, there is a reduction in the options

open to individuals for the establishment of an adequate sense of

personal identity. This is a profound and increasing social

problem reflected in the growing incidence of "drop-outs" on the

one hand and of various forms of social protest on the other.

Self realisation through sport is one of the options

still remaining. Individuals who become involved in sporting

activities have an opportunity to discover and demonstrate what

they can do. This not only exists for elite sports-people but

also for the more "modest" competitors as well.

It is now generally recognised that since the Second

World War the problem of diseases afflicting industrialised

• nations has changed rapidly. Degenerative diseases have replaced

• infectious diseases as the major cause of death. In some.

• countries cardio-vascular diseases alone account for more deaths

than all other causes put together.


Regular physical activity can play an important role as

a therapeutic agent in cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular

illness. Other contributory factors like stress, smoking and bad

dietary habits are indirectly linked with a physically inactive

pattern of life.

There is a growing body of evidence pointing also to the

fact that an employee fitness program is good not only for the

physical health of a company, but also its economic health. The

cost of stress, accident and sickness related to a sedentary

lifestyle are incalculable. Heart disease alone represents

millions of lost working days to Australian employers.

Unfortunately the Liberal Government has failed to show any

initiative in this area both for its own employees as well as for

people employed in the private sector.

There is a need to develop more recreational facilities

in the urban fringe, in order to provide a wider range of

opportunities which are more accessible to city dwellers,

• especially those who do not own cars, and to relieve pressure on the national parks and other sensitive areas of countryside.

There remains another problem with which unfortunately

rio sporting nation in the world has dealt effectively - the

problem of occupational integration of champions and dedicated

sports-people whose careers end very early. The one exception, is

the socialist countries where civilian and military positions are

set aside for prominent sports-people.

In Australia sportsmen and women who are the headlines

• of today's newspapers, who have brought glory and national pride

to -millions of Australians can find themselves overnight with

• nothing more than memories.


Sports-people are "ending" their careers earlier and

earlier every year. We are talking of veteran girl gymnasts at

age 13 or retired tennis, cyclist and football champions at age

23-35 and old swimmers at age 16. Many other sportsmen and women

are left only with their medals and memories before they reach

age 35. Unfortunately we do not provide for their talents to be

better utilised in training and preparing future sportsmen and 1 women.

The most diffult thing to cope with is . the transition from a life of stardom to one of mediocrity. And from that point

of view we politicians have a lot in common with sports-people.




In 1972 the ALP, for the first time in the history of

Australian political parties, introduced sport into its platform.

In December that year the Labor Government created the Department

of Tourism and Recreation. The Department was abolished three

years later and sport was banished to the Department of

Environment, Housing and Community Development by the incoming

Liberal Government.

Whilst three years. is a very short time in which to

achieve a major re-organisation of any policy area, the energy

and dedication of Frank Stewart brought about something of a

revolution in Sport and Recreation policy at Federal Government


The Department of Tourism and Recreation under Labor was

established with responsibility for "the total leisure

environment". From the beginning the Department acknowledged . that recreation was more than just organised sport and that it had a

duty to provide sporting activities for the total population.

In a press release issued in 1975 the Minister stated:

"We have no intention of imitating some countries which regard success in sport as some sort of proof of the superiority of their way of life, ideology and race. Our task lies clearly elsewhere in meeting more basic needs in catering for masses,

not just a small elite".

This statement will remain the corner stone of a future

Labor Sovernment's policy on Sport and Recreation.


Frank Stewart's Ministry concentrated its efforts on

five major areas:

1. sports development;

2. fitness;

• 3. community recreation

4. youth affairs;

5. tourism.

Within these areas they aimed to provide "leadership, facilities

and encouragment to all those authorities, institutions,

organisations and individuals involved in leisure time


Because these areas had been almost totally neglected by

previous conservative governments the Department began to compile

a solid bank of factual information about the nature of

Australia's recreational needs and to completely revise the

concept of recreation in Australia. This was achieved by

commissioning reports into matters such as the role and scope of

recreation in Australia, the recreational priorities of young

Australians and the education of recreation workers by organising

seminars on the subject of recreation, by studying overseas

trends in recreation and by establishing close liaison with

organisations providing recreational facilities. This work

allowed the Department to establish for the first time a

comprehensive picture of the recreational and. sporting needs of

the Australian people.

Under the Fraser Government sport was shifted again from

• Housing and Community development into the Department of Home • Affairs. Presently it is within the area of responsibility of the


Minister for Home Affairs and the Environment who is also

responsible among other things for the Country Women's

Association of Australia, the National Trust, Christmas Island,

the Supervising Scientists and a range of other services.

In the 1973/74 Budget, $1 million was provided to help

amatuer sporting teams to a

competitions, administrative c

bringing overseas coaches to

was increased to $1.15 million

not spent in 1975/76.

Indeed the sudden influx of Government funds into sport

during the Whitlam government has come as a shock to many

sporting organisations. In fact many administrators did not know

what to do with it. Large sums went unspent or spent on the wrong

things. It was a good lesson for the future, and the Hawke Labor

government will devise effective mechanisms to prevent such

events occurring again.

As a result of austerity moves by the incoming

Liberal-Country Party g overnment these budgetary allocations

dried up in 1976. to fact the actual cutback in sport in 1976

saved the taxpayers the meagre sum of $208 000 (or 0.01 cents per

head of population) and threw plans by sporting associations out

the window. Sport was back to.where it started in 1972.

Curiously sporting associations have remained silent on

the issue of funding. The 1977-78 budget has provided $1 million

for sporting organisations. it was "raised" to $1.3 million in

the 78-79 budget and in 79-80 sports funding reached a total of

$2.7 million. In this year's budget there is $3.2 million

allocated for the more than 110 sporting organisations throughout


:tend national and international

osts for staging world events and

Australia. This budget allocation

in 1974/75 and more was added but


"There is no greater social problem facing

Australia than the good use of leisure. It is the problem of all modern and wealthy communities. It is, above all, the problem of urban societies and thus, in Australia, the most urbanized nation on earth, a problem more pressing for us than for any other nation on earth.. For such a nation as ours

this may very well be the problem of the 1980s ..."

This extract from Labor's 1972 policy speech indicates

. the importance placed upon the provision of leisure time

activities by a Federal Labor Government. Some 11 years later,

the statement is every bit as true as it was in 1972. In fact,

with new developments in the late seventies such as higher levels

of unemployment, particularly amongst the young, the push for a

universal 35 hour working week; earlier retirement and the

predicted longer holidays and increased leisure time which might

result from the proposed "resources boom"; the need to create

better recreational opportunities for the Australian people

should he of even greater concern to the Federal Government.

Sport and recreation'has been one of the more obvious

policy areas to suffer at the hands of the Fraser Government's

philosophy of "New Federalism", "Smaller Government", or whatever

the current cliche might be. It is thus regarded as being

primarily the concern of the States. Virtually the entire

budgetary allocation for-Youth, Sport & Recreation since 1976 has

been directed' towards activities involving the very small

minority of athletes of international standard with very little

money being provided for the recreational pursuits of ordinary

Australians in their local communities.







Basically there are two categories of sportspeople.

There are those who participate for "fun" the amateurs, and those

who play for "blood" the 'professionals.


• The notion that sport

amateur game (or profession) .o

This philosophy however was n

about social class. It is e.pit

Athletic Association rule:

is an altruistic, gentlemanly and:

lginated in 18th century England.

t so much about sport as it was

mised by the famous 1886 -Amateur,

"An amateur is a gentleman who has never taken part in a public competition open to all, has never competed for money, has never been a teacher or trainer of sport and is neither a working man nor an artist or journalist."

The issue of amateurism is seriously troubling, the sportsworld today. Sports in ancient Gteece were played only by

free men, with the result that all participants were equal and

distinctions between amateurs and professionals did not exist. In

addition the winners received substantial amounts of money.

Modern sports were originally within the reach of only

the wealthy tipper classes and money - accepted in the form of

bets -' was despised. To receive money for pleasure was

unacceptable. only poor people would engage in an activity for

profit. This attitude at the basis of which was the desire to

exclude the poorer classes from the world of sport, led these

. wealthy athletes to proclaim themselves amateurs with absolutely no interest in money.-

28. .

While respect for such virtues as honor,, fair play,

honesty and sincerity is desirable, to say that these qualities

vanish when money comes into the picture amounts to an all out

condemnation . of industrial society. There are very few reasons

now, at the end of the twentieth century, to place different

values on amateurs and professionals.

A very large number of people study music or painting

and many musicians teach as professionals. Yet society in the

case of artists no longer makes a distinction between amateurs

and professionals. 'Arid the system is functioning successfully.

Of those studying music some possess talents that enable

them to earn a living from music. Others do not so wish or are

unable to - become professional musicians. They perform without

payment simply for the pleasure of entertaining others.

The growing commercialisation of sport through

sponsorship has brought about a change in the attitude of

players. Players are emphasizing now the need for greater

economic reward, secure contracts and a range of fringe benefits.

It is important to work out with the utmost clarity a

new definition of sport as entertainment, and emphasize the

incidental relationship with sport as practiced by the average

person for personal reasons, recreation or health.

We should reach the point where Mr and Ms Sport

Enthusiast dress up in the evening and go to see a great sporting

event (or put on their slippers and watch it on television) just

• as they go to the theatre, without a feeling of any kinship with

the actors.


A soldier who

serves in the army plays his part and acts.

out his life to be sure; but if he is taken to see Aida at the

opera he does not identify with Caesar. He wants to see a great

actor who will transport him into the imaginary world. That

• should be the attitude of amateur sportspeople. Then we would no

longer suffer or rage over the dirty tricks played by someone we

• regard as our equal in interest.


• Thanks to money, enormous progress has been made in

sport,. ranging from major spectacles to scientific experiments

which will benefit the non-sporting community as well.

Sport is no longer a game. Sport, whether team or

individual, once it qualifies for publicity and news coverage,

has ceased to be a game; an intimate affair of concern only to

its practitioners. Sport at the. professional level has become a

spectacle watched by millions of people, while at the amateur

level it has become part of our social, economic and political


The solution does not lie in separating sport and money,.

but in regulating their relationship, if need, by increasing the

quantity of both.

The dichotomy between professional sport or sport for

"blood", and amateur sport, or sport for fun, is already more

than evident. The solitary jogger, mountain climber, bike rider

etc., has nothing in common with the professional athlete, except

in a certain obedience to the elementary laws of motor activity

in our fight against gravity. They are living in two absolutely

1 ' .

different worlds, and it is ridiculous if not unfair to use one

world to condemn the other or to set each against the other.


1 '


Those who see sport as fun usually take up this activity.

for one or more of the following reasons:

- improved physiological functioning and the

satisfaction of knowing that they can undertake

strenuous activity without distress;

- the satisfaction given by a subjective feeling of

well being;

- an experience of emotional release denied in

certain ,individual's working or domestic. life;

- the discovery that sport can be an absorbing

hobby and refreshing 'occupation for leisure


- some find in sport (or through their association

• with sport) the contacts and social activities

they couldn't find otherwise;

- some have the satisfaction of spending their

leisure time in solitude away from the urban

lifestyle; and

- through the exercise of a developing skill, there

can ' emerge self realisation and a clearer

definition of one's sense of personal indentity.

Professional sport is less complex. It tries to provide

and satisfy two basic requirements - spectacle and victory

through competition.


Competitiveness is the fundamental characteristic of

modern sport. It is unfortunate that competitiveness leads to

over-emphasis on winning, sometimes to the extent of regarding

victory as an absolute priority. We must realise that as long as

this emphasis on victory exists, the rush to join the ranks of

professional athletes will be unavoidable..

•' In the western world leading athletes are employed by

major corporations for their advertising potential. In the

scoialist communities it is the State that takes over the role of

sponsor and advertising company. The growth of professionalism

thus seems to bo i.h,2 . same in both the socialist communities and

the western world. It is imperative that the skills of champions

should not be lost. Their expertise and experience could and

should be deployed to the benefit of beginners and amateur

sportsmen. Its just a pity to see yesterday's champions fade into

oblivion or smiling at us at breakfast from the cover of a cereal

box. They surely must have a better and more important role to

play in our society.

These days the word "sport" has become synonymous with

the motion of "play" or "recreation". Play by definition is the

opposite of work. Therefore sport is. perceived as physical

exercise with no direct relevance to productive activities.

Though sport is essentially a form of play it is not an

activity that one can engage in on a whim. Walks in the forest

might be pleasurable but it cannot be regarded as sport. Sport

must-have an order that players are obliged to follow in the form

of a distinct set of rules.




Contemporary society considers everything as part of a

vast system of competition. That is why most people compete to

set new records. It is strange that we should make even our

recreational activities competitive when we are already living in

a competitive and regulated society.







• a lack of


•' causing many

Cinaiici'al crisis faced by Australian sporting

was highlighted in a "white paper" prepared by the

i of Australian Sport in May 1977. It was stated that

finance to provide national and international

top line coaching and high standard facilities was

Australian sports to fall into obscurity.

The Confederation of Australian Sport itself was created

in the light of the 1976 announcement of the withdrawal of

Federal Government funding for sport. At that time sports

administrators throughout Australia became aware that sport must

have one united and strong voice.

Practically every report published in this country

including the Bloomfield and TASI reports, have stressed the need

to upgrade the administration and funding of sport as a matter of


National fitness and sport are not one of the priorities

of the Fraser Government.

Although the proposed spending in the area of youth,

sport and recreation has increased from $20.1 million allocated

in 1981/82 to $26.7 million in 1982/83 nearly 90% of those funds

go to building, construction and maintenance costs. These sports

centres benefit . mainly the "glamour" sports (e.g. tennis and

swimming) and "elite" sports people.

• Its worth pointing out also that of the $26.7 million

• allocated for "Sport"(?) in this Budget, nearly half $12 million

• will be spent in the ACT.


Specifically the money allocated in this Budget will be

spent as follows:

Building of Sports Centres $15.5 million (of

which at least $7.3. million in the ACT);

Provisions for Elite Sportspersons $4.8 million

•' (of which at least $4 million in the ACT) ;


• Other - not necessarily sports programmes $3 million;

. Sports Assistance Programs $3.2 million.

In essence there is only $3.2 million available in this

year's Budget for 120 sporting organisations and some 5 million


According to Mr McVeigh "82 organisations will benefit

this financial year from Commonwealth Government Sports

Development Program grants". In a press release issued on 12

September 1982, he states that of the $3.19 million, more than $1

million will be used by national sporting bodies to meet, the

expenses of employing administrators and coaches (that is

approximately $12 200 for each organisation which would not

attract many coaches or administrators) approximately $600 000

will help. meet the cost of sending Australian teams to compete

overseas and $425 000 will go towards the cost of conducting

major international competitions -in Australia.

Specifically the following sporting organisations will

benefit from the Grants:


1982-83_Sports_Develop^nent Prog

ram Grants

Aerobatics 5,000

Anglers 3,000

Archery 2,000

Athletics 80,000

World Cup 50,000

• Australian Football 50,000

•' Auto Cycle 8,000

Badminton 22,000

Baseball 75,000

Basketball 103,000

Billiards & Snooker 7,000

Bocce 18,000

Bowls Council 8,000

Bowls (Women) 7,000

Bowls Indoor 3,000

Boxing 18,000

Canoeing 38,000

Casting 4,500

Cricket (M) 50,000

Cricket (W) 8,000

Croquet 13,800

Cycling 38,500

Darts 8,000

Equestrian 33,000

Fencing 25,000

Game Fishing 5,000

Gliding 19,500

Golf (M) 25,000

Golf (W) 48,000

Gymnastics 65,000

• Hang Gliding 10,000

Hockey (M) 94,000

Hockey (W) 50,000


Ice Hockey


Ice Racing 12,000

Ice Skating 18,000

Judo 30,000

Karate-Do 35,000

• Karting 4,000

Lacrosse (M) 19,000

• ^ S Lacrosse (W) 20,000

Life Saving (Surf) 22,000

Motor Sports 26,000

Netball 80,000'

Orienteering 8,000

Parachuting 54,000

Pentathlon 10,500

Polo 7,000

Polocrosse 17,000

Pony Club 500

Power Boats 10,000

Power Lifting 19,000

Roller Skaters 35,000

Rowing 65,000

Rugby Union 40,000

Australian Shooting Association 59,000

Clay Targets 25,000

Field & Game 5,000

Pistol 4,000

Rifle 3,000

• Small Bore Rifle 2,000

Sporting Shooters 3,000

• Skiing (Snow) 60,000

Soccer (M) 52,000

Soccer (W) 10,100

Softball 50,000

• • Squash 58,000





Swimming 90,000

Diving 23,000

Synchronised Swimming 8,000

Waterpolo 51,000

Table Tennis 45,000

• Taekwondo 8,600

•^ Tennis ( LTAA) 70,000

Custom Credit 50,000

Tenpin.Bowling 40,000

Touch Football 6,000

Trampoline 20,000

.Underwater 9,000

Volleyball 70,000

Waterskiing 47,000

Weightlifting 46,000

Wrestling 17,000

Yachting 105,000

Australian Commonwealth Games Association 1,000

Australian Olympic Federation 60,000

Confederation of Australian Sport 90,000 Universities Sports Association 8,000

Australian Council for Hey^lth,

Physical Education & Recreation 11,000

Australian Sports Medicine Federation 30,000 Research Officer 25,000

National Coaching Accreditation Scheme 40,000

National Athlete Award Scheme 250,000

Sports Workshops 25,000

• Sports Coach Magazine 25,000


On a per capita basis the $3.2 million allocated for the

promotion of sport, a healthier lifestyle and recreation for 15

million Australians, represents 21 cents for every Australian. We

are the poor cousins of countries such as Canada where more than

• six times as much ($1.30) is spent on sport and even the UK where

more than twice (55c) is spent on a per capita basis on sports.

• As far as revenue is concerned the increase of sales tax

on sporting goods from 15% to 17% will provide the Government

with a revenue of approximately $90 million in the next financial


These duties on sales of sporting goods, should be

considered in conjunction with other benefits such as a decrease

in the national health bill, increased sales and production in

the small business area and the not negligible benefit of

promoting Australia overseas.

The $3.7 million in the Budget papers consist of the

following allocations:

- $3.2 million ($2.9 million in 1981/82) for Sports

Development Programs. Under this heading

assistan::e is provided to the 120 national

sporting bodies to cover administraitve and

coaching . positions; grants are provided for • travel •to international competitions and

• meetings; for the hosting of major events in Australia; for coaching and development projects,

and for the National Athlete Award Scheme for

high performance athletes;



- ": '.00 000 ($200 000 in 1981/82) for Assistance

%rogra^ns t- or Sport and Recreation for Disabled People;

• - $180 000 ($50 000 in 1981/82) for the Australia

Games which will be held in Sydney in 1984. The

Games will be a biennial event and will be • conducted on a State rotation basis;

- $155 000 ($185 000 in 1981/82) for Australian

Commonwealth Ganes Association for team

pr paration.

The table below outlines some of the new initiatives

funded by the Federal Government. It is worth noting that it was

only the last two years that grants under Sports Assistance

Programs have increased in real terms compared to 75/76:



ealth Expenditure on_ National Sport, 1975-75 to 1 982 -83 ($ million)

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 -76 -77 -78 -79 -80 -81 -82 -83

Sports Assistance Program and Sports Development (1) 1.2 - 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 2.9 3.7

Australian Institute of Sport - expenses (2) - - - - - 1.1 2.7 4.0

- Canberra CAE course (3) - - - - - 0.1 0.2 0.3

International Standard Sports Facilities (4.) - - - - - 0.4 3.2 8.2

Contribution to Queensland Government for Commonwealth Games - - - 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 -

Grants to Australian Olympic Federation (5) - - - 0.1 0.7 - - 0.5

Grants to Australian Commonwealth Games Association - - 0.2 - - 0.1 0.2 -

Other Grants (.6) - - - - - 0.7 - -

National Athletics Stadium and Sports Centres, Bruce ACT (7) 1.2 4.6 0.4 - - 1.1 3.0 7.3

TOTAL 2.4 4.6 1.6 3.9 5.3 8.9 14.8 24.0

(errors due to rounding)

Sou rces and General Note: This table was compiled from

information contained in the annual Budget Papers and the Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development, Annual Reports.



1. Sports Assistance Programs .(previously the Sports Development Program) provides 'assistance to national sporting bodies for administration, coaching and international competition. From 1982-83 onwards the program will include sport and recreation

for the disabled and funds for the development . of the

Australia Games. Assistance for team preparation and travel for the 1982 Commonwealth Games Australian team is also included in this item.

2. The Australian Institute of Sport provides coaches and facilities to enable national standard athletes to receive specialised coaching in selected sports. As well as the running expenses of the Institute, this item includes funds for competition travel and scholarships and the purchase of plant and equipment. The Institute was registered as a company under the ACT Companies Ordinance In 'September 1980.

3. A degree course at the Canberra College of Education was established in 1981 to enable those attending the Australian Institute of Sport and other interested people to undertake tertiary studies in sports coaching, administration and journalism. From 1984-85 funds will be provided through the programs of the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.

4. In February 1981 the Government decided to provide funding on a dollar for dollar basis with the States to develop international standard sporting facilities over a period of. three years at an estimated cost of $25 million.

5. The grant of $0.5 million to the Australian Olympic Federation is the first instalment of a $1.4 million program towards team preparation for the 1984 Olympic Games.

6. The $0.7 million provided in 1980-81 was comprised of: (a) $0.52 million for Australian teams and individuals to compete in alternative international competition following the Government's call for a boycott of

the 1980 Moscow Olympics; (b) $0.11 million as a contribution towards the costs of the preparation of the application for the staging of the 1988 Olympics in Melbourne; (c) $0.05 million to assist the Confederation of.

Australian Sport in hosting the First General Meeting of the International Assembly of National Sports Con federatio s.



This item includes expenditure under the Civil Works Program for national works such as the Specialist Gymnastics Facility at the National Sports centre and the Swimming and Tennis Training Centre.

• But it is not only the Labor Party that believes that

the Government is not spending enough on sport. According to a

Morgan Gallup Poll fifty per cent of Australians say that the

Government is not spending enough on Fitness and sport. Only 39%

believe that we are spending enough while 11% are undecided.

This fact is made more reprehensible by the

Commonwealth's imposition of Sales tax on sports items. Prior to

this year's Budget, most items of sporting equipment were subject

to 15% sales tax and whilst no truly accurate figures are

available for the amount of revenue collected from this source it

was estimated to have netted the Government. some $60 million

annually. With the imposition of a virtually universal 2.5% sales

tax increase in this year' s budget, the situation has been made

far worse. Items of sports wear, previously exempt from sales tax

will now be taxed at 2.5%; whilst the basic rate of 15% on sports

equipment rises to 17.5%. This will net the Government around $90

million a year.

It is quite obvious that the people who are contributing

this $90 million a year: the ordinary sportsmen and women who

enjoy jogging, cycling or the occasional game of squash or

tennis, are receiving nothing whatsoever from the Government in

rec,.rn for the tax they are paying.

Currently, in addition to the 2.5% increase in sales tax

the Following taxes are paid on sporting equipment and clothing:


Clothing and footwear exempt, except that

manufacturers of the following items must register

for sales tax purposes:

• protective headgear, protective pads,

guards, gloves or mittens used

exclusively or primarily for the purposes

of sport or recreation.

These items attract sales tax at the rate of 15 per


Sporting equipment - sales tax of 15. per cent

applies over a wide range of sporting goods.

Cust oms Duty

Clothing - range 22.5-56% (General Rate)

15-22.5% (Preferential Rate)

e.g. swimwear - 34% + $4* each

tracksuits - 34% + $12* per kg.

Footwear - range 6-46.5% (General rate)

0-35% (Preferential Rate)

(*Goods subject to quota attract additional duty of



range 13


e.g. cri(



- 13-41% (General Rate)

- 13-15%.(Preferential Rate)

:ket bats 32% (General Rate)

15% (Preferential Rate)

racquets 41% (General Rate)

13% (Preferential Rate)


Moreover, the imposition of sales tax

. on sports

clothing and equipment acts as a disincentive to people to play

sport. With the overall rise in the cost of living which will

result from the introduction of increased sales tax on most

• goods, many people will be forced to make cuts in their standard

of.living. Sporting and recreational activities will be • sacrificed by quite a large number of people. Effectively then, • the application of sales tax to sports clothing and equipment is

a tax on physical fitness by the Fraser Government and this

represents a very shortsighted attitude indeed.

It is not good enough for the Federal Government to

leave the responsibility for community sporting activity to

individuals or to the States. As demonstrated above, individuals

are being discouraged by the Government from participating in

sporting activities. State Governments, which are increasingly

being' made to assume the responsibility for policy areas which

should be the concern of the Commonwealth, do not have the funds

to provide all the necessary assistance for sport and recreation.

This is not to say that the State Governments are not

doing their best to assist in this field.

Many State Governments, particularly NSW and Victoria

have made great progress in providing facilities for sport and

recreation. However, significant differences in expenditure do

exist. between the States, and clearly, this is an area where the

Commonwealth -Government has a major role to play in helping to

co-ordinate the, policies of the States and in ironing out

inconsistencies which exist between them.


Whilst it is extremely difficult to compare State

Budgets for sport and recreation because they contain liCEerent

components. The following figures demonstrate the differences in

expenditure between the States in this area:

• 1979/80 % Total 1980/81 % Total

• $m Budget $m Budget

N.S.W. 7.4 0.18 12.9 0.27

• VIC (including

youth) 10.4 0.26 15.3 0.34

QLD (including youth) 4.4 0.20 5.9 0.23

SA (including youth) 3.3 0.24 2.5 0.17

WA (including • youth) 2.9 0.18 3.5 0.19

TAS 0.95 0.17 1.1 0.17

In the vital game of lobbying played out every year by

the skilled representatives of hundreds of businesses and

organisations throughout Australia for a piece of the budget

action, sport is an amateur.

The principal sports organisations - The Commonwealth

Games Association, . TheOlympic Games Federation and the

Con yederation of Australian Sport - must act in concert. There- is

a al. dan,.jer ,f Fragmentation fuelled by petty jealousies and

diverse t.•i..i.:ics is dealing with governments. Gentlemen's

agreements and the old-boy network are no answers to the task

• conffo;nL-ing the sports lobby which, more than ever, needs a

pro Fessional approach to government in order to influence

decisions and the level of funding.




In its publication, P.ducatinc for Leisure, the office of

Youth Affairs has noted that:

"in future, the concept of a "career" will be • meaningless for many people because the nature of their work will change, not only at different ,• stages of their lives but possibly at different

• times of the week or year. Individuals.will need to be able to modify their patterns of activity from time to time to suit that changing conditions in which they find themselves."

This re-orientation of attitudes towards work and the

widespread availability of much greater periods of leisure time

will effectively mean that Australians will have to find new ways

to utilize their non-working hours. We will experience the

development of a "leisure society", a society where leisure time

activities become as significant in terns of the time devoted to

them as work activities.

What is leisure

Before tackling the problem of how Australians should be

able to utilize this new found leisure time, it is .important to

clarify just what i.s meant by the term. .

There is no universally agreed definition of leisure.

r10 v,ec a useELil w w.iy of looking at the concept is to regard "lc.: .r. e" as vacant or free time; time at one's disposal and

"recreation" as being what one does, during one's leisure time.


The importance of "l


Leisure is a major factor contributing to the quality of

life, it also plays a significant part in the mental and physical

well-being of society. For this reason, productive use of leisure

time can be regarded as an important aspect of preventitive

medicine. A meeting of the Recreation Ministers' Course in 1978

a declared that;

"increased expenditure in the area of recreation will signiicantly assist the enhancement of the social well-being of the community and in the containment of costs of health and welfare programmes and therefore urges that all governments

review their commitments and policies relating to recreation."

A Canadian survey undertaken in 1976 which studied the

relationship between Physical Fitness and the Cost of Health Care

showed that:

• people with high levels of fitness tend to have

lower medical claims;

• improved levels of fitness would reduce the incidence of chronic disease;

governments could save millions of dollars in

health expenditure if adult citizens had average

levels o'f fitness.

Australia's health bill is currently running at some

$10 000 million per. annum. Cardio-vascular disease causes some

30% of all deaths in Australia. The number of deaths from heart

disease in Australia is the second highest in the world after

= Finland. In 1977 Australians spent $3 000 million on alcohol.


Such statistics can hardly be regarded as a matter of

national pride, and they reflect greatly upon the way Australians

choose to spend their leisure time. Although Australia has

developed an image as a land where "the weekend" is regarded as

• sacrosanct, surveys indicate that Australians overwhelmingly

favour non-participatory forms of recreation. It is estimated,

• for example, that only 25% of Australians use their leisure time

to participate in sporting activities. Another 25% enjoy watching

sport but 33% claim to have no affinity with sport at all.

A recent survey by the advertising agency Ogilvy &

Mather indicated that the most popular leisure activities pursued

by Australians include going to films, clubs, visiting friends

and eating out. It was estimated also that Australians spend an

average 30 hours a week watching television.

Whilst the majority of these activities are sedentary,

they should not all be condemned. A state of psychological

well-being is as important as physical well-being and this can be

achieved by activities of a social nature such as visiting

friends or going to the cinema. Nevertheless, there is ample

evidence to suggest that the average Australian is an unfit,

overweight non-participant. Positive action is needed to correct

this trend.

The economic impli cations o f the " leisur e society"

The concept of a "leisure society", in which almost as

much time is devoted to leisure pursuits as it it to work, has

enormous implications for the Australian economy. The use to

which Australian's put their increased leisure time will have

further economic implications.


Australia is already witnessing the growth of a "leisure

industry". This industry services a broad spectrum of leisure

activities and includes such pastimes as active and passive

recreation, the entertainment industry, the registered club

• industry and the tourist industry.

The-overall contribution of the leisure industry to the

Australian economy is already immense. In a society where overall

levels of leisure.' time will increase dramatically, the leisure

industry will represent possibly the largest industry in

Australia. It is not, however, only the industry's contribution

to GDP which is important, but also its contribution to

increasing employment opportunities.

The concept of a "leisure industry" is relatively new.

For this reason, and because it encompasses such a wide range of

diverse activities, it is difficult to obtain accurate statistics

regarding its significance to the' economy. One estimate placed

the value of the leisure industry at $19 000 million per year.

This sum does not seem unrealistic. Those figures which are

available for individual sectors of the, industry are most


A recent survey of the economic impact of the NSW Club

industry,, for example, has shown that it employed 33 642 people

in a full-time capacity in 1978-79.

The total output of the Club industry in that State in

1978/79 was $627 million and it has been estimated that for every

dollar of income received directly from the club industry by

households, another 62 cents will be generated within the State.


Further, it was found that the construction of new club

buildings and extensions to existing clubs directly and

indirectly maintained nearly 1000 jobs in 1978-79 involving a wages and salary bill of $13.5 million.


The contribution of the tourist industry to the

Australian economy was overlooked until recently as specific

figures relating to the industry were not available. It was

really not until the Select Committee on Tourism presented its report in 1979 that the significance of the tourist industry was given general recognition. Statistics- commissioned by the Select Committee from the Bureau of Industry economics provided the

first concrete information regarding the characteristics of the industry.

The tourist industry affects almost every other industry

in the country. Obvious examples of industries which will benefit

from any boom in tourism are the accommodation, construction, transport retail and communications sections.

Even taking into account the present small scale of Australia's. tourist industry, the contribution to GDP is around

2.8% which is about the same as that of the automotive industry and only slightly less than that of the mining industry.

Moreover, on 1973/74 figures, the tourist industry employed between 2.3 and 2.4 percent of the work force, a figure which was expected to triple by 1985.

The most recent figures available from the Australian Tourist Commission supports the importance of tourism to the Australian economy.



.s tourists spent $900 million in Australian in 1980, an average of $1013 per tourist..

However, these figures represent only the tip of the

iceberg. Domestic tourism is responsible for 80% of all

Australian tourism. The increased leisure time will further

increase the importance of domestic tourism to the•economy.

A recent United Nations survey demonstrated that tourism

is a priority human activity for which individuals are willing to

sacrifice either consumer or durable goods. Only 6% of those

interviewed said that they would be prepared to forego holidays.

These results are supported by Australian experience which shows

that despite increasing fuel costs, and the erosion of real

incomes in recent years, overall domestic tourism growth remains


Holidays already represent an important element in the

Australian life-style. The Domestic Tourism Monitor estimated

that Australian residents aged 14 years and over, took 48 trips

of at least one night away from home and involving a journey of

at least 40 kilometres between April 1979 and March 1980. The

average duration of these trips was 4 nights and 81% were made

within the traveller's home state. The main purpose for this •

travel was pleasure,/holiday which accounted for 48% of all trips

taken and 53% of all nights spent away from home.

If those ajed less than 14 years were also taken into

account, the total volume of trips taken within Australia is estimated to have been some 62 million.


Domestic . tourism is the key area of the Australian

tourist industry. Expansion of domestic tourism will be


(a) to prevent significant amounts of revenue

• draining away in the forin of overseas holiday

• expenditure;

(b) increased leisure time will allow even those

Au.str.alian's wishing to travel overseas to

• participate in domestic tourism activities as

well, for, whilst such people may now take one

holiday a year which they spend overseas, with

perhaps twice the amount of leisure time

presently available to them they are likely to

choose to take 2 holidays a year, one overseas

and another in Australia;

(c) earlier retirement will encourage more people

to travel within Australia because they will

have snore time to do so. As people become

older they are more likely to prefer to travel

shorter distances within their own country

rather than to face the rigour of overseas

travel. The domestic tourism monitor already

recognises increasing numbers of people • in

older. age brackets travelling • within


(d) the continuing escalation of oi.l prices will

contribute to increasingly higher a `ir fares

• which will represent another disincentive for overseas travel.


It should be noted that any expansion of facilities for

(lone stic tourism will have in aritomatic spin-off for overseas

visitors to Australia in the form of improved accommodation,

easier and cheaper access to major tourist attractions etc.

The latest OECD figures show that the number of foreign

visitors arriving in Australia in 1980 grew by 16% compared with

a growth rate of 26% in 1979. Revenue from overseas tourism

increased by 19% in 1980 and 27% in 1979. Nevertheless, the OECD

describes the Australian Tourist Industry as "still vigorous" and

found i t ranked 4th highest amongst OECD countries after

Portugal, Canada and Japan.

Domestic tourism is an aria which has been badly

neglected by the Federal Government since 1975. In 1976, as part

of its overall cost .-cutting exercise, the Government eliminated

the domestic tourism promotion function of the Australian Tourist

Commission. The promotion of domestic tourism by the Federal

Government was . ini Lfated by Labor's Department of Sport and Recreation. It ran • a particu larly successful campaign called:

Australia : A Land of Things To Do.

The present Government justified its elimination of

domestic tourism pr.);notion by saying that it was more properly

the responsibility )i State and Local Governments. However, it

was lo reed to r e ;.;-ne the pr, )motion of ciornestic tourism after a

r+. • i i I: iOn i:) H t IIr^i : •. as ,Wade by the Select Committee on

I' • o r. t of 1.979. The 1979/30 Budget provided

1) 0 ?.; r 1.{; )r'c rll o Lion o { domestic tourism by the Australian

t' ; i st Con. :. sri. ,n over a :' year period. Obviously much more g in`: r wil. L !i ;vc t L )e provided for this purpose if the leisure

•; .. , L.up ; .i s pred i -t.ed



Labor's initia tives

Surveys repeatedly indicate that Australians in general

are not attracted to physical fitness campaigns or to highly

structured leisure time activities.

The Labor Party has a moral commitment to improve the

quality of life for all Australians. In April 1974, Gough

Whitlam, speaking at a seminar on leisure which was organised by

the Department of Sport and Recreation, stated that:

"No Governemnt' s responsibility terminates with bread and butter issues, with matters of finance, employment and defence - although material prosperity and national security are essential conditions for the good life. To an increasing degree governments are expected to improve the

intellectual, artistic, recreational and sporting opportunities of their people. There is more to life than work, no matter how creative or absorbing that work may be ... The capacity for leisure, the

enjoyment of games, arts and conversation for thier own sake, is one of the defining qualities of our species".

Several important points need to be made. "Leisured

Society" will affect every individual in Australia, the young,

who may be faced with long periods of unemployment, those in the

work force whose working hoi.irs will be significantly decreased

and those who retire early and find themselves with both the

money and the opportunity to enjoy themselves in whatever manner

they may choose. All these people must be catered for in a

leisure oriented policy.

Secondly, as Australians have been repeatedly shown to '• be averse to excessively structured leisure activities it would


be simply a waste of resources to impose grandiose recreational

schemes upon them. A tolerant view of recreational activities

must be accepted.

This is not to say that a Labor Government should

deliberately encourage sedentary activities such as 'television

• viewing, smoking and drinking, merely because they are enjoyed by a proportion of the population. Rather, it should attempt to

channel people's energies in more positive directions by

accepting that . certain types of sedentary recreational activity may contribute greatly to the well-being of the individual.

The club industry is a case in point. There is a

tendency to think of licenced clubs as being smoke-filled, noisy

institutions where drinking is often excessive and fortunes are

lost on poker machines. To a small extent this is true, on the

other hand, such clubs are also places of considerable

entertainment where families can enjoy a quiet meal together at a

resonable price, where a variety of often free entertainment is

provided in the form of films and stage shows and where members'

children are often able to enjoy a variety of sporting

activities. RSL youth clubs 'for example, provide activities for

young people ranging in age from 5 to 25, many of whom come from

underprivileged backgrounds. Young people attending these clubs.

are able to participate in a variety of sports including cricket,

football, tennis, swimming and gymnastics.

By providing these facilities, the clubs are fulfilling

a function which governments are often unable or unwilling to

provide. They are also giving young people the scope to develop

constructive leisure time activities.



Put quite simply, the leisure industry must be defined

with a fair degree of 'liberality. Leisure must not be merely in

terms of activities promoting physical well-being, although

recreation as form of preventitive medicine, is a most important

• facet of the overall concept. It must also be seen as promoting

mental well-being, even if such a state can be achieved merely by

• a quiet- chat with friends over a few drinks.

The final point which must be considered is the economic

importance of the leisure industry, both in terms of its

contribution to GDP and its role in generating employment

opportunities. Its overwhelming success in both these areas

ensures that any investment in the leisure industry will be

entirely justified.

Specific proposals

1. The nations health bill is currently some $10 000

million per year. If only half of one percent of this amount was

devoted to the fostering of recreational activities it would have

an enormously beneficial effect in lowering the health bill by

improving levels of physical and mental fitness.

2. Earlier ratire^nent and a greater proportion of

unemployed people particularly amongst the young, create specific

recreational needs which will quite likely be different from

those of the rest of the population. The importance of

recreational activity has been discovered only relatively

recently and much more reasearch needs to be undertaken by a

Labor Government particularly in these two areas.




Despite our sporting trad.itions,. the image of

Australians as unfit non-participants is very largely true. Bad

habits can effectively be corrected amongst the young. Our

schools are also the best places to equip children with the

necessary skills and mental attitudes they will need to cope with

a society which will not guarantee them permanent or lifelong


Educating for leisure points i.0 the inadequacy of any programmes in schools to prepare students for these. events. A

Labor Government must finance programmes to overcome this

deficiency in the education of our children.

4. A very worthwhile proposal was put forward in Labor's

1980 policy on Sport and recreation. This involved the provision

of leisure centres, on or near school sites, where entire

families could participate in healthy, recreational activities in

a relaxed and informal atmosphere. Such centres would be'.equipped

with gymnasiums, saunas, spas and free-form swimming pools

and provide child minding and restaurant facilities. This

proposal will be implemented as a matter of priority by a Hawke

Labor Government.





Whilst the importance of providing adequate laisure ti. ;n•

has been recognised, it is only relatively recently that the

positive benefits which accrue from the thoughtful use of

-recreation have been given much attention.

"Recreation is essentially enjoyment of freely chosen, wholesome activity which affords satisfaction in the doing and provides for the restoration of the zest for life which may be

impaired through toil. Recreation has no single form : there are therefore no limits to its potential for the enrichment and development of the personality. Furthermore, recreation provides the opportunity for the acquisition of skills and/or

the application of skills for original creative effort.

Recreation may be rest or it may be entertainment for the relief of boredom. For some, demanding charitable work is recreation. It may be a walk at lunchtime, a siesta after lunch, a game of ludo. Some people regard recreation as action - as distinguished from rest, even though the "activity"

requires no great effort as, for example, in reading or listening to music. The purpose of work is to attain leisure and whether or not an activity may be classified as recreation depends on motivation .. Recreation may be enjoyed before,

during or after work. Recreation is the dessert of life's meal. It is also the condiment which gives flavour to life for it stimulates, enthuses, rejuvenates, refreshes, restores." Writes A.W.


Specifically, recreation is seen to encourage:

• relaxation;

• the relief of emotional stress/mental fatigue;

• ,physical fitness;


• social adjustment;

• co-operation with others;

• a striving for achievement;

• a challenge through competition;

• . egalitarianism;

• the fostering of spiritual and aesthetic values;

• self-reliance

• strength of character.

.In doing so, it is of value to the entire community and,

whilst it is impossible to force people to undertake constructive

recreational activities, the Federal Government has a

responsibility to provide the leadership,. facilities and

encouragement necessary to allow Australians to make the best use

of their leisure time.

When physically active. forms of recreation are studied

in particular, other factors emerge:

Health : There is general agreement among the medical

profession regarding the benefits of regular exercise and a

sensible diet in reducing illness - both physical. and


The "Bronzed Australian" image which we have long been

pleased to promote, has been revealed as a myth in recent

studies. Hiding behind this image, Australians have been shown to

be a sedentary race. Cardio-vascular disease causes some 30% of

all deaths in Australia, a figure which is second in the world

only after Finland. Obesity, particularly amongst children, has

reached alarming proportions, and the incidence of smoking and

• • drinking is increasing. Added to this, Australians spend an

average of 30 hours a week in front of the television sets.



Dr B. Furness, the Director of Health Services at ANU,

has made reference to a new sub-species of human being:

"Homo-sedentarius." This creature is characterised by a box-like

life-style, living in little boxes, driving to work in little

boxes, ascending to the office in lifting boxes, eating lunch out

of plastic boxes, returning home to viewing boxes and finishing

up - often prematurely - in wooden boxes.

The extent to which Australia's overall level of fitness

has "declined can be seen in our decline as a nation of top

international sportsmen and women. Australia, which once ranked

among the leading countries in the world as a nation of

sportspeople, did not win a single gold medal at the 1976

Montreal Olympics. The first time this had occurred in 40 years.

This performance was rated so poor, that a national inquiry was

proposed to investigate the failure. Admittedly, the Montreal

disgrace was eclipsed to some extent by the performance of

Australia's athletes at Moscow in 1980, but, whilst not

detracting from their efforts, it must be remembered that many of

the world's leading sports nations were not represented at the

Moscow Games because of the boycott imposed after the invasion of


Whilst the vast majority of Australians would benefit

from better recreational opportunities, two groups in particular

stand out as being at risk if their leisure time remains

undirected and largely wasted. These are the young, particularly

those who are unemployed and the aged, who, having retired, find

themselves with almost unlimited spare time.

Unless the leisure time of both these groups is used

constructively, they will find themselves subject to boredom,



depression, a sense of futility and, in the case of the young,

this idleness may manifest itself in a variety of forms of

anti-social behaviour.

The _lc)_ of adequate recreational fac ii. ities_and


Research linking the level of the provision of

recreational facilities for young people and levels of juvenile

delinquency is limited. Nevertheless, several key factors emerge

from various studies.

It is generally acknowledged that recreational

activities provide many of the essential ingredients needed to

build character in young people and help them to cope better with

the pressures which are placed upon them. Participation in

recreational activities contribute to the physical and emotional

development of young people, improves their ability to organise

and to carry out responsible tasks, teaches them to co-operate

with others and provides them with opportunities for adventure

and self-realization.

In communities where adequate recreation facilities do

not exist, their absence is regarded as a major source of

grievance. A study into the factors contributing to mugging and

raping in American ghetto areas during the 1960s revealed that

the inadequate provision of recreational facilities ranked fifth

highest on a list of 12 grievances expressed by urban blacks.

The successful rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents

through programmes of recreational activities is quite well




The youth section of the Dallas Police Department

has undertaken a program in which counsellors

work with ten to sixteen year olds who have been


These young offenders rec ,^ive training in

physical, emotional and intellectual skills and

• then apply these skills during a 4 month follow

up period. The program includes both physical

fitness and recreational activities which are

selected by the offender according to his or her

individual needs or preferencE.

The usual rate of re-arrest fir these children is

35%. During the first year of the program only

2.7% of those who participated were re-arrested.

• In Britain, physical fitness a;t.ivities have been

made compulsory in junior detention centres

because of their value in in stalling discipline

and Fostering social adjustment. Some juvenile

offenders are sent to outward bound courses

because they further. encou-age the child to

become self-reliant and to co-operate with other


• A programme in America which was the subject of a

• television documentary called "The Last Chance

Wagon Train", has also been remarkably successful in rehabilitating juvenile delinquents. This

projramme takes a large group of selected teenage

offenders on a o month trek by wagon train across


the United States. Although under the supervision

of trained counsellors, the young people involved

are made responsible for their own welfare and

that of their animals and are required to work

together as a team with a small group of their

peers. Problems which arise during the course of

• the journey are usually subjected to peer-group examinations and in the main, worked out

satisfactorily. The programme has achieved very

good results in producing, at the completion of

the journey, a group of self-assured and

confident young people who are better equipped to

play a more responsible role in society.

A Programme with similar aims has been started in

Sydney's western suburbs by a group of welfare

workers and magistrates. This scheme takes small

groups of selected juvenile offenders on camping

trips during which they participate in activities

such as skiing, horse riding and sight-seeing as

well as counselling sessions and group

discussions to sort out problems which may arise.

Rules are made by the youths themselves and a

spirit of co-operation is quickly established.

The experience has been successful in creating in

the young offenders, a greater awareness of

themselves and of their responsibility to the

common i ty

In my own electorate of Parramatta, a welfare

worker, Trevor King, has established an

organisation called "Caring and Sharing."


This organisation, without any public funding, has

performed miracles in terms of rehabilitation of young drug

offenders and other delinquents using sporting activities

a major part of its programme. Such organisations need not only

encouragement but also financial support to proliferate this


I am particularly concerned at present with what appears

to be an increasing incidence of violent crime amongst young

people. In Sydney's western suburbs, we have witnessed the brutal

murders of two taxi-drivers by a gang of youths, and the fatal

bashings of pensioners in Burwood, Parramatta, and South Sydney

again by young people and apparently without motive.

Police officers I have spoken to about this phenomenon

have pointed to the fact that none of the young people involved

in these crimes had participated in any significant form of

sporting or recreational activity during their childhood or

adolescence which may have diverted them from these violent acts.

Whilst there is no definitive evidence to suggest that the

provision of recreational facilities will prevent such acts from

occurring, I am quite convinced that the provision of appropriate

recreational facilities in deprived areas such as the western

suburbs of Sydney would give many young people a non-violent

outlet for their egressions, energies and ansts.

Sporting • participation can provide kids with the

self-discipline of training and optimise their own performance

and the sense of belonging to a team and the experience of

learning to lose graciously and win modestly. Governments have

an obligation to provide basic facilities of decent standard to

encourage such kids to enjoy the opportunities of sporting


t '


A survey of the leisure time facilities available for

young people in the western suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken

in 1972 by R.C. Ellis. This survey found that "positive,

character-building activities for our young people are probably

the best investment we can make to ensure a bright and happy

future for our communities."

One of the problems with the provision of recreational

activities however is that it is just not good enough to provide

any sort of recreational activity. Too often recreational

activities have failed to attract large numbers of young people,

• particularly those who are most at risk, because they offer

activities which are highly structured and strictly supervised by

• adults and because there tends to be an inbuilt bias amongst some

of those in charge of youth recreation programmes towards

children who conform to adult values such as obedience and good

• manners.

Studies undertaken amongst juvenile delinquents, both in

Australia and overseas, show a high degree of correlation in the

type of recreational activities preferred by young people. These

include unstructured activities where groups of young people can

mEet together in a congenial atmosphere, active competitive.

sports, especially of an individual nature, social activities

such as dances and parties and activities which provide a degree

of adventure and excitement such as speedway sports, drag-racing

and car driving.

Most young people also express a desire for a place of

tteir own, not necessarily an elaborate youth centre, and for a

dEgree of autonomy within any community organisation. That is, to

be able to share in the decisions which are made about the type


of acitivites to be provided. There is little use in imposing

recreational activities upon young people, the activities must be

selected on the basis of catering for the particular needs of the

young people they wish to serve. In order to achieve this aim, it

is particularly important that properly trained youth leaders are

employed to supervise recreational activities and that detached

youth workers are provided to go into local communities to meet

young people' on their own ground and determine their needs

through discussion with them.

An approach to the problem of Sport and Recreational Polia

The preference for unorganised forms of recreation which

is noticeable amongst the young, extends to the Australian

Community as a whole. Anti-authoritarianism is perhaps a national

characteristic and I feel that it is quite likely that the sort

of highly organised sporting arrangements which are so successful

in some Eastern European countries, would attract very little

interest in AUstralia.

A.W. Robinson of the Western Australian Department of

Youth Sport and Recreation pointed to this fact in his paper,

"Leisure: A Priority":

"Experience and research indicate that most Australians are not attracted to physical Fitness campaigns as such, neither are they attracted to participation in highly structured, competitive

physical activities, except as spectators. They are however, keenly interested 'in more informal, sociable leisure activities, many of which have physical and mental components - to the extent that each year large commitments of . time, effort and money are made to this end. This phenomenon deserves Ear more attention than it has hitherto

received. Research is urgently needed both into how


we can better co-ordinate services and programmes

to provide more effectively for the general community and particularly for specific populations such as the unemployed, the disabled, the isolated and the aged, all of whom have a right to an

improved quality of life through leisure activity."

It is precisely this point which has, to a large extent, been

overlooked by the Federal Government, except during the Whitlam

years. The Commonwealth's only contribution to less organised

forms of recreational activity in recent years has been through

the "Life: Be in it" Campaign. which emphasised the creative use

of leisure time and involvement in a wide variety of enjoyable

informal activities rather than organised sport alone.

This campaign was noticeably successful. In Victoria,

which had shown a lower level of leisure time activities away

from home in 1975, the figure had caught up to . the national

average by 1979. An evaluation study conducted in 1979 also

revealed that about 20% of respondents stated that "Life: 'Be in

it" had caused them to be more active in their leisure time.

Despite this success, and a promise to fund the campaign

for a further three year period, "Life: Be in it" was

unceremoniously axed by the Razor Gang an obvious indication of

the Government's lack of commitment to the recreational' needs of

the Australian population.

A Hawke Labor Government will, direct its attention •to

the sport and recreational needs of the Australian Community at

large in order to encourage greater participation in active

physical exercise. At present, surveys indicate that only 25% of

Australians rank sport as a favourite pastime. This figure should

represent a significant challenge to any Federal Minister for


Sport and Recreation to provide the necessary facilities to

encourage a much greater proportion of the population to take

part in active recreational pursuits.

One of the ways in which this will be achieved will be

through a revival of some elements of Frank Stewarts' "Capital

Assistance for Leisure Facilities (CALF)" Programme. This

programme provided funds, usually through the State Governments,

for the provision of community sport and recreation facilities

and otherleisure facilities. Any project which aimed to extend

the range of leisure opportunities available in a local area was

eligible for funding under this scheme. It placed particular

emphasis on facilities which would encourage greater levels of

mass participation for example:

. the construction of sports facilities;

• the development of land and facilities in urban

. and neighbourhood parks;

• facilities for passive social and cultural

activities such as drop-in centres and halls;

• indoor heated leisure pools with a family

orientation as opposed to olympic size outdoor


• facilities where family groups could become casually involved;

multi-purpose facilities in which sporting,

cultural and social programmes could be pursued,

some of them based on schools so as to avoid the duplication of facilities.


Another of the Whitlam Government's policies which needs

to be revived by a Federal Labor Government is provision for the

training of adequate numbers of professional recreation workers,

particularly those who are able to work amongst young people

being in disadvantaged communities. The professionalisation of

recreation would greatly upgrade standards of community leisure

time activities..

In association with. the training of better recreation

workers it is necessary to educate people to make the most of

their leisure time. Such education should begin in schools and

should be extended to the wider community through publicity

campaigns and programmes undertaken through service clubs and

other community organisations.

Largely the sort of

should be community based.

encouraged to identify their

develop programmes best suite

the natural and historical


recreation programme I have in mind

Thus local communities should be

specific recreational needs and to

^d to these needs, taking account of

features unique to the particular

Such as programme would also identify the specific needs

of groups within the community such as, the young, the isolated,

the handicapped and the aged and develop programmes designed to

help these people to particpate more fully in recreational


All of these policies are the responsibility of the

Federal Government. Expenditure on Sport and Recreation

contributes as much to the nation' s well-being as - does

expenditure on health or social security and is therefore the


concern of the national government. It cannot be left to the

.:States and Local government to implement Sport and Recreation

policies which will involve the overwhelming majority of the

Australian people.

Labor's Department of Tourism and Recreation saw its

role as that of a "national catalyst, co-ordinator and a source

of funds" interacting with State and Local governments and with

the community. The success of this policy was seen in the close

co-operation which developed between the Federal Government and

the Council of Recreation Ministers.

A policy of large-scale Federal Government assistance to

develop a community based recreation programme was demonstrably

successful in the period 1972-75. Such a programme would be

equally successful in the social climate of the 1980s. The Labor

Party will accept the responsibility to all Australians to see that programme implemented.


There has been a long standing tradition that sport and

politics do not and should not mix. In recent years this

conventional belief has become very fragile. Sport now is

regularly being used as a vehicle for political exercise.

Australia is no exception. It is not difficult to give

examples of situations where sport has been included in a series

of sanctions imposed against other countries.

There are two widespread myths held by people on sport.

Firstly there is the belief that sport is a social activity quite

separate and remote from all other forms of human activity.

Therefore it is and should be divorced from politics law and

academia. Secondly there is a belief that sport in general is

fferent from other cultural traditions in our society such as

he tendency for agression, violence and war.

As a consequence we are beset by slogans like "sport and

p)litics don't mix."

There is much talk about the "purity" of sport as being

leisure, pleasure, innocence, bravery and nobility. But modern

ompetitive sport is a different activity. It is organised, it is

in industry, it is business, it is money and vested interests, it

is a medium of and for, ideology, prestige, status, nationalism,

internationalism, diplomacy and war it is about and inclusive of

Politics. The Moscow Olympics, British cricket teams visiting

South Africa, the Hungary v. USSR water polo match in Melbourne

in 1956, all bear witness to this.

After the Moscow Olympics it would be ridiculous to say

that politics has nothing to do with sports or that sports should

be independent from politics.

In no era has the State been as strong as it is today.

This might not be a desirable trend but it would be childish, to

refuse to recognise it.

'International sporting events with their flag raising,

national anthems and national costumes, promote, foster and

strengthen feelings of nationalism. Short of abolishing these

ceremonies it would be difficult to eradicate the promotion of

nationalism and simply promote the victory of the individual

athlete. What Australian heart does not beat faster as a national

hero or heroine accepts a gold medal with anthem playing and flag


Of course there is no need for individual athletes to be

political. But we must realise also that everything in some way

is related to politics. Therefore, rather than shying away from

the political process we need more and more sportsmen to become

involved in politics where due to their expertise and

intelligence they can argue a good case for sport.

Sport, politics and society in spite of philosophical

arguments 'have always intermixed and there are serious doubts

that this can be stopped. In the 1908 Olympics, Russia prevented

Finland marching under her own flag. In 1912 an American certain

to win the 100 m. was locked in the dressing room by his own

officials during the final to prevent an Olympic title being won

• by a black athlete. The 1920 Antwerp and 1924 Paris Olympics were

inseparable from politics. There is no need to mention the way

• the 1936 Berlin Olympics were used for political and propaganda



The riots in Mexico ten days before their 1968 games

with 260 dead and 1200 injured, the killing of 11 Israelis in

Munich, the African boycott of Montreal in 1976, the boycott of

Moscow in 1980 by 61 nations because of Russia's invasion of

Afghanistan, all point to a history of aggression, propaganda,

political interference and violence at these events.

The British Lion's tour of South Africa in 1980, the

disastrous Springbok tour of New Zealand in 1981 and the open use

of the Brisbane Commonwealth Games to further individual or group

interests are all indications of the inevitable relationships

which has developed between sport and politics.

Perhaps if we admitted that sport is part of our

political lives and politics is part of the sporting world then

we could start treating sport with the seriousness it deserves.

There have been politics in sport since well before

Athens and Sparta used to seek perfection against each other on

the Olympian field or later when Philip of Macedon was

assassinated at the Olympic games in order that Alexander the

Great might succeed him.

The Greeks were combative professionals. "Athlon" - from

which the word "athlete" and "athletics" derive - was the prize

for which Olympic competitors contended. Athens paid an olympic

victor 500 Drachmas and the winner at the Isthmian games

collected 100. Indeed an "athlon" or price was paid at many other

sporting competitions as well.

From as early as 600 B.C. Greek cities and states •saw

the enormous political and propoganda value of Olympic victories.

Malcolm Fraser understands it as well. During the Brisbane

a Commonwealth Games organised by the Labor City Council there was


no way of keeping Malcolm away from the TV cameras.. Although some

newspapers ridiculed his "pushy" attitude, even with reluctant

sportspeople, the opinion polls showed a 5% rise in his

popularity during the games. .

The problem is not with politics nor is it with sport.

The problem simply lies in the way some cynical politicians

trying to use sport in order to further their own careers or

party. We must learn to be more responsive and responsible

towards the need of the young people and use the power entrusted

in politicians to benefit the nation rather than the ballot box.

• Despite the isolated instances listed above there is no

other human manifestation which has a greater capacity to bring

peace and unity to varying races and nations than sporting

activity. Witness the closing ceremonies at Brisbane's

Commonwealth Games or the various Olympic Games as proof of this

statement.. The pursuit of excellence, the striving to suceed,

the nobility and courage of leading sports persons are lessons to

behold and admire. The commission of the world's athletes young

and old, black and white, poor and rich at these great events

brings more chance of peace and understanding than all the

Governments and forums the world can devise. Political Parties and Governments should foster and encourage sporting

participation as a means of promoting goodwill not as an

extension of political ideology or race superiority. These will

be the sporting aims of the Hawke Labor Government - Promotion of

national health, understanding unity and national pride.



Critics say that television has become the tail that

wags the dog, influencing the length of seasons, the time and

even the place where the game is played, with games repeatedly

halted for commercials.

Unfortunately, sportswriters do not seem to enjoy great

prestige and influence. They are still relegated to the back

pages of our major daily newspapers (even if people often read

those back pages before they have a look at page 3.)


One of the problems of sports coverage in the media is

that it is centred around the more popular sports. These sports

are also the ones which recieve the largest slice of the

sponsorship cake and the widest coverage on television.

Admittedly the adult population in Australia is interested in

rather a limited number of sports.


Adults Interested in Sport (Percentages)


• Met. Rest Met. Rest Met. Rest

Australian Rules 5 19 36 41 7 9 44 39 35

Rugby League 34 31 2 2 23 22

Cricket 15 17 14 16 12 14 17 19 11

Hors e racing 11 9 12 13 11 9 12 10 14

• 3o-ecer 15 15 10 5 5 10 10 10 5

Boxing 11 9 8 8 8 10 7 7 5

Tennis 10 12 8 6 10 8 7 9 5

Golf 6 6 6 6 3 8 4 4 5

Trotting 4 3 5 7 5 3 5 6 5

Motorsports 7 7 4 5 4 4 5 7 5

Less than two per cent

Wallace, A., Value for dollars in sporting promotions on

"Rydge a so', Dec. 1976, pp.20-22.

Unfortunately some of the sporting journalists have to be blamed as. well for the standard of sports reporting in

Australia. There are some "veteran" reporters who still try and impose a outdated morality on the readership. They have not

learnt from changing times and attitudes and believe that money has corrupted and will destroy competitive sports. But most

journalists understand that only by fully accepting the injection of money into sport is there any hope of regulating top-level

• mass entertainment sport.

• Another problem area in the coverage of sport is its effect on children. Excessive coverage and sensationalism

engenders in coaches, officials and spectators an importance Which it does not deserve. This superficial aura of importance


places undue pressure on children to perform better than they are

really capable of. Sport may thus give the impression of work and

create a situation where kids begin to think only in terms of

winning or losing. This attitude, can lead only to disappointments

and a high dropout rate amongst young sports enthusiasts.

• Crude sensationalism is another problem area. Some

journalists especially the "electronic media" often promote rabid

partisanship, over-emphasise violence and exaggerate the

qualities and talents of players. In fact they are promoting

sport . as an illusion rather than a social activity.

Some newspapers can write for weeks and comentators talk

for hours about whether or not poor Navratilova, Connors or Borg

will manage somehow to win yet another million. This is ,just one

form of trivialising sport. The vast majority of people watching

or playing tennis (or any other sport) are led to believe that

because these players are given these huge amounts of money -through clever promotion - that is the only way to succeed.

Children and parents therefore come to associate sporting success

with the money earned. This sort of promotion can lead only to

disappointments because 99.9% of the population will never earn

that sort of money and it might discourage many young people from

continuing their association with a particular sport. It also

encourages some parents to "push" their children into sports in

which they perceive that their child could earn his/her first

million before the age of 18.

However it must be said also that the vast majority of

sports journalists and commentators are very responsible with

vast experience behind them and are often dedicated to a specific

. " area as a profession. It is just a pity that their articles are



: :

relegated to the last pages of the newspapers or at the •end of

the news, reflecting the prejudices of the editors and directors

rather than the population at large.

The vast majority of Australia's leading sporting stars

both male and female have been adornments to these various sports

and Australia's greatest advertisements both at home and

overseas. The Rosewalls and Newcombes of tennis. The Frasers and

Wickhams of swimming. The Cronins and Prices of Rugby League. The

Cuthberts and Landys of Athletics. The Bradmans and Lindwalls of

cricket. etc. etc. were all great examples of supremely talented

modest and noble competitors who provided wonderful examples for

Australian kids to emulate. The same cannot be said• unfortunately of some of to-days stars. The antics and boonish

behaviour of such people as tennis player McEnroe and even some

of our own present Australian cricketers leave much to be

desired. Thankfully we have in Australia an excess of superior

sporting models. Hopefully the media will concentrate on these

people and ignore those who provide sensationalism not real





Withoutovernme g nt subsidies to sport and recreation and in some cases public provision of recreational facilities, the

private sector will not allocate resources in this area to an optimum level.

Given the policy stance and the past record of the

Fraser Government it is virtually certain that public expenditure

' on sport and recreation would not increase and may well decrease

in real terms. The question that has to be asked of course is ,ither or not the existing provision of facilities is adequate for • the 1980s.

Despite the expansion of facilities in the early 1970s most of. these facilities are used to full capacity. For some sports there is . already excess demand for the available

facilities. Indeed, increasing unemployment and reduced working hours are leading to a greater demand for sport and recreation activities than ever before.

Many sports facilities provided as part of educational

institutions, by commercial firms for their employees, or by the

armed forces can and should be made more accessible for use by

other members of the community.

It is wrong for expensive facilities to be

-i«der-utilised. In a period of financial restraint, it is i mportant to assure that the maximum use is made by the community

of facilities already available.



Better use could be made of existing buildings such as

town halls, church halls, community centres, school rooms etc.,

which are often appropriate for a wide range of recreational activities and groups.

As buildings are replaced and new schools and

recreational centres are planned there is a need to ensure that

requirements for recreational activities are fully considered and

adequately catered for in the interest of the whole community.

Local authorities in the absence of the Federal

Government's committment have become the main providers of new

sports facilities, and parks and open spaces for informal outdoor

recreation in the towns. Although most of the countryside enjoyed

by the public is privately owned, the local authorities have

become important providers of recreational facilities such as

• country parks and picnic sites. Outside the ACT the Federal `Government has made little or no effort to provide such Facilities.

Admittedly it is not for the government to seek to

control or direct the diverse activities of people's leisure

time. Government's should not adopt a paternalistic attitude to the many different providers of recreation in this country.

Many voluntary associations offer excellent examples of the principle of self help based on personal enthusiasm.' But • luntary bodies alone cannot achieve all that is needed. A major re

sponsibility for provision of facilities will continue to rest

?n Federal and State Governments.

The role of the Federal Government should be one of

co-ordination, and the provision of leadership and direction in

long term planning. It should give a lead also in the planning

and use of resources within the community. Unfortunately under

the present arrangements where there are four different

Departments, responsible one way or another for the provision of

sport and sporting facilities, long term planning and leadership

in an effort to promote Australian sport is impossible.

Labor understands that the successful promotion of sport

will require well developed publicity and information services.

our objective is to increase the number of Australians actively

participating in sport. This will require the use of news media

at local and national levels and vigorous advertising as we have

seen with the "Life: Be in it" campaign, not only to inform

people of the opportunities available to them but also to

persuade them to take part. This latter demand will require

subtle and sophisticated techniques.

A vigorous promotion will be necessary in order to

establish positive attitudes towards sport and the development of

regular participation. Although we should aim at "popularising

sport among groups such as the elderly, immigrants, young

families etc., we must bear in mind also that the most critical

period of influence is during the years of compulsory schooling.

Indeed the earlier the better.

School curricula, especially physical education programs

will be perhaps the most significant factor in developing both an

understanding and an acknowledgement of physical recreation.


It is essential also that there be co-operation between

Federal and State authorities as far as the promotion of sport in

Australia is concerned. A Federal Labor Government will assist

State Governments in the development of their sports programs

both within and outside education institutions and will

co-ordinate the total effort towards the realisation of national

goals in athletic pursuits.

At the same time, in our complex sports structure with a

large variety of autonomous State and Local associations great

care will be taken not to discourage the drive and enthusiasm of

the private citizen whose voluntary work remains fundamental to

most sporting clubs. The generousity of corporate enterprise

whose contributions are essential to the continued success of

sport in this country must not be stifled either, but rather

encouraged by communities and governments.

We endorse in principle the "Masterplan for Sport"

formulated by the Confederation of Australian Sport. We agree

entirely that there is need for a uniform and united approach as

.well as a centralised point of reference for all sportsmen and

women in Australia. It is for that reason and in order to achieve

such goals that the National Sports Commission will be

.established by the Labor Government.

• The national Sports Commission will be charged with responsibility for matters relating to Australian national and

international sport. It will work with the various State and F ederal sporting organisations already in existence. It will also

Permit a greater degree of flexibility in the general a dministration of sporting activities.



The NSC is essential because excellence in sport demands ` funding and technical expertise beyond the reach of athletes and

most voluntary associations. The systematic co-ordination of all

levels of athletic activity within the bounds of any sport

demands not only funding and technical expertise, but also the

kind of administrative support and planning not generally found

within most voluntary structures. The dissemination of the latest information whether in sports medicine or the most recent

• techniques in sports disciplines, is beyond the capacity of most sporting bodies. These and many other functions e.g. coaching

schemes, sports insurance etc., etc., can be best achieved by a

.central and centralised institution.




Although death from cardio- vascular diseases has been in

consisent decline for some years, it remains the single most

frequent cause of death in Australia, particularly in the middle and older age group.

Regular physical activity has the effect of protecting

ie participant against heart disease. The risk of heart disease

)r inactive people is twice that of those who are active.

More than half of the Australian adult population is

?ading a sedentary lifestyle and those who are active only.

<ercise once or twice per week. Less than 20% of Australians

Kercise sufficiently regularly to prevent cardio-vascular iseases.

The economic cost of cardio-vascular diseases has been

alculated at $1700 million per year or $4.6 million per day.

ith an ageing population and no further reduction in risks these )sts are estimated to increase by 46% by the year 2000 to $2500

illion or nearly $7 million a day.

If 50% of our population exercised regularly the

?sulting savings to the community in economic terms (from irculatory diseases alone) would be $274 million per year. This

;presents a saving of $93 million to government, $74 million to

usiness organisations and $107 million to individuals and their

imilies every year.

We are constantly reminded by medicine of the many

1lnesses - particularly circulatory and metabolic ailments -tused by lack of movement, but also by ill-advised nutrition and

i unhealthy life-style.


Nearly every second child enters an Australian school

with a chronic complaint. The situation is the same throughout

the world.

Recently, 35% of the young men called up for military

duty in West Germany had circulatory ailments, 35% had posture

defects and 48% had other health impairments and only one out of

five was able to do a chin-up. Many complaints among the aged are

linked to a lack of exercise, and unhealthy eating and


It has been demonstrated that people who practice sport

or take part in regular daily exercise are less likely to become

alcoholics or drug addicts •and are less prone to disease.

Physical activity is very important also as an aid against the

problem of ageing, when self-confidence begins to fade and the

need for companionship grows.

Involvement in sporting and recreational activities is

often identified as an important aspect of preventitive medicine.

The ability to break the four minute mile is not a pre-requisite

for a long and healthy life but medical authorities often

identify the physical and psychological aspects of involvement in

recreational activities, active and passive, as beneficial to

health. On this theme, the Recreation Minister's Council, at a

meeting in 1978, declared:

"that increased expenditure in the area of recreation will significantly assist the enhancement of the social well-being of the

community and in the containment of costs of health and welfare programmes and therefore urges that all governments review their committments and policies relating to recreation."


Writers such as Robinson accuse modern technology, which

has brought us the computer, motor car, the telephone and

television plus many other labour saving devices, of discouraging

physical activity as well as contributing to increased physical

and mental tension.

In his paper "Leisure: A Priority", Robinson places

great emphasis on the role of leisure and recreation in improving

community health in Australia. Robinson paints a gloomy picture

of the Australian health scene and implies that the scene might

become brighter with great government investment in helping and

encouraging people to use their leisure time meaningfully. He

claims psychosomatic disorders which are more common in Australia

may be a result of our changed life-style and the resulting lack

of physical activity. Cardio-vascular disease causes some 30% of

all deaths in Australia. This is one of the highest rates in the

world. The national expenditure on alcohol in 1977 was $3000

million. For the year 1952-83, the Commonwealth estimates that it

.will spend $5000 million on health. In addition the States have

.large health budgets. The total national health bill exceeds

$10,000 million.

In May 1976, a Canadian survey, called "The Relationship

between Physical Fitness and the Cost of Health Care" was

published. While admitting some weaknesses in its survey

techniques, the study found evidence of the following:

people with high levels of fitness tend to have

lower medical claims;

improved levels of fitness would reduce the

incidence of chronic diseases;



• federal and provincial governments could save

millions of dollars in health expenditure if

adult citizens had average levels of fitness.

There are serious consequences of the unhealthy

life-style pursued by many Australians, both for private

companies and the nation as a whole. Over $10 000 million is

spent each year in this country for health services not counting

health measures undertaken by individuals on their own accounts.

If one adds the losses resulting from absence at work and the

constraints in our "intellectual capital" the urgency of

countermeasures becomes understandable just from an economic


investigations in the Soviet Union, Britain and Japan

show that companies in which work is interrupted for exercise

breaks are more productive, have much lower illness rates and

lower accident records. This type of compensatory exercise is

already part of the day's work in Japan and China. But in

Australia and a number of other western industrialised countries

physical activity at work has found very little recognition.

As mentioned earlier in this paper the national health

bill in Australia is over $10 000 million. If people could be

persuaded to lead a healthier life-style and eat a more balanced

diet, great savings could result in our health bill and the money

saved could be spent on many more worthwhile pursuits.




Sport is an essential part of our everyday life. Sport

has become part of our national ethos. Because of its importance

in Australian society funding for sport should come from Federal

and State governments. This funding should come from general

revenue or from special funds specifically allocated for that


In some overseas countries such "special funds" are

provided through a national sports lottery. Because of the,

predisposition of many Australians for gambling and our great

love for sport a variety of fund raising methods are worthwhile

mentioning in this paper. The concept is not new. After all,

there are a number of lotteries, bonds etc., operating in the

various States already, as well as overseas.

In 1981 the Canadian Minister responsible for fitness

and sport announced the formation of the national sports pools.

These will come into operation in 1983. The pools will be run by

a federal corporation. Funds will support the arts, general

fitness and recreation programs, amateur sport, medical research

and sporting projects of major interest (e.g. major games) . It is

expected that the pools will raise $30 million in the first year

and $65 million in the second. Some 40% of the proceeds will go

to prize money.

Prize Bonds Lottery Scheme (or Sportsbonds) such a

scheme would satisfy the fundamental requirement of sporting

associations, namely, the demand , for on-going and guaranteed funding . Uncertainty in budgetary allocations has probably been

the single most contentious issue for sports associations in


their relationship with federal governments. The reasons are

obvious. The uncertainty means that these associations are unable

to plan ahead. Adequate short-term, medium term and long-term

planning and organisation is of paramount importance if sporting

teams and individuals are to conduct training programs and

compete in events which are not conducted according to federal

and state budget timetables.

The Lottery system : This is nothing new as a reliable

fund-raising exercise. Most countries have such a system. So far,

there has been considerable resistance in Australia - mainly from

Western Australia and Queensland - on the grounds that a Lottery

would draw money away from other forms of gambling and, hence,

effect Treasury coffers. Former Liberal Home Affairs Minister,

Bob Ellicott, was a supporter of the Lottery after a visit to

Canada (1979) and was convinced that such a specialised lottery

would raise about $30 million for Australian sport (the concept

was dropped by Ian Wilson, Mr Ellicott's successor) .

Prize Bonds Scheme this became the compromise

arrangement after Mr Ellicott commissioned a feasibility study by

the Sydney consulting firm, Peat, Marwick and Mitchell Services.

The consultants reported to the Minister in late 1980. Since then

their suggestion, enthusiastically backed by Ellicott, has been

gathering dust. I understand that one of the consultants had

actually helped initiate such a prize bonds operation in Britain.

Operation : Prize bonds are not a traditional lottery.

Investors do not lose their initial stake money. As with

Australian Savings Bonds (Aussiebonds) a person invests, say $10,

for a period of months or years. Or, the investment can stay in

Prizebonds forever, a permanent "ticket". Interest from these


investments by individuals is pooled and a percentage of this

interest money is offered as prizes in a normal lottery draw. The

feasibility study estimated that up to $500 million - $600

million could be produced over a 10 year period.

Sports Trust : the distribution of these funds to sport.

could be made by a Sports Trust, established by the Government,

whose board members could be answerable to the responsible

Minister. The Sports bonds concept would still mean that sporting

associations would have to continue their. "self-help" practices

and to approach the local, state and federal governments for

funding. However, depending on the success of the Sportsbonds,

the growing pressure for budget funding would lessen.

Advantages : The study group maintained that the

Sportsbonds would have only a limited impact on State revenues

compared to other sports lottery proposals. It said that the

concept would encourage people to save, rather than gamble, since

the initial stake money would not be lost. The cash pool would

also increase national savings.

The inquiry suggested that post offices could be used as

selling points for the bonds.

Disadvantages and problems : The main problem would

still be convincing the States - especially Queensland and WA. It

would also have some impact on savings through Australian Savings

Bonds and other-semi-government bonds.

However it is a concept worthy of discussion and further

study to see whether or not the difficulties and problems can be

ironed out, in order to provide Australian sports with a steady

inflow of financial support. S




There is an urgent need for a National Sport Insurance

Scheme. Although there has been a lot of talk about this issue

very little that is concrete or tangible has emerged throughout

these years.

Unfortunately, injuries and accidents do happen in

sport. In most cases these are minor, however some injuries can

be very serious which can lead to distress and financial hardship

not only to the person injured but to whole families as well.

According to sources in the insurance industry it is not.

only feasible to provide low cost insurance protection for

sportsmen and women in AUstralia, but also it is feasible in the

longer term to work towards a situation where Australian sport

itself can underwrite its own scheme for this purpose.

Such an arrangement can carry with it very real side

benefits by allowing a flow of funds back into sport.

Under a National Sports Insurance Scheme- it will be

necessary to keep accurate statistics on sporting injuries and

accidents. This again would be of significant value to coaches,

manufacturers of sporting goods and sport in general.

Many sporting associations and clubs already. have

insurance cover for their members. The National Sport Scheme does

not necessarily have to be a replacement for that cover, but

rather a basic protection for all •sports participants in

Australia. Many clubs will have special requirements and will

want to provide supplementary cover on top of this basic



Like "Sportsbonds", sports insurance is another area

which is worthy of further studies. Perhaps through some private

companies such a scheme could be introduced quickly and with less expense to the taxpayers.




All state schools in Australia are required to provide

for the physical education (gymnastic, games, athletics, swimming

etc.) of their pupils. Even though sports education is not a

compulsory subject in our schools, schools must have a playing

field or the use of one. Most secondary schools have a gymnasium

and/or other facilities such as swimming pools, sports halls etc.

Unfortunately, many suburban schools in the metropolitan

areas lack adequate facilities for the proper training of the new

generation of Australians. Problems can range from a lack of

space to the lack of qualified and dedicated teachers and

coaches. Great steps will have to be made in the future to remedy this situation.

Research in the last few years has revealed some startling facts about our youth. According to a survey conducted

by the NSW Sport Science and Research Centre, Australian children

are much more obese than British children by comparison.

Boys' fitness drops off from age 14 and girls' by the

age of 10 years. Some children watch up to 90 hours a week of

television and the average is between. 35 and 40 hours of

television. In other words, they spend more time watching t elevision, sitting, (often eating junk food) than they do at

school or any other activity. Television watching for many t ?enage children is exceeded only by one other activity:


In harness with this unhealthy life style goes early t eenage smoking. According to the "Australian Medical Journal",

40 % of Australian children in their teens are regular smokers. By

age 30 some of these people have been smoking for 20 years. The

accumulative effect is poor physical fitness in the individual,

as borne out by the statistics.

Physical education should become compulsory in our

schools and not merely an option, depending on the headmaster's

attitude, as it is today.

Currently, the main problems for an effective

implementation of physical education courses in primary and

secondary schools are:

. lack of time alottment;

. misuse and abuse of time for PE;

. lack of practical curricula;

. lack of continuity;

. vague objectives;

• lack of resource and specialised teachers as well

as consultants and supervisors;


. lack of challenge for highly skilled children;

. inadequate facilities and equipment;

. good outdoor activity facilities not available;

lack of swimming pools and rinks.


Major emphasis should be placed on teaching children,

starting from kindergarten and elementary schools, to actively

participate in physical exercise and sport. A good elementary

school physical education should have the following elements:

daily instruction;

• . active participation by all children;

. wide range of movement experience;

• qualified, competent teachers;

. adequate facilities and equipment.

Although physical education has made some progress in

primary and secondary schools it is woefully inadequate, indeed,

in some cases, it is non-existent in tertiary education

insitutes. The irony is that although our tertiary institutes and

universities often have excellent facilities these are used only

by a handfull of enthusiasts rather than having anything

organised for the benefit of all students. Community access to

these facilities also leaves a lot to be desired.

Australian universities can play a decisive role in the

pursuit of athletic excellence in our country. They have the

capacity to relate advanced research to sport whenever that

research can be directly applied. They could be translators of

research and applied experimentation, bridging the gap between

theoretical concepts and programs of sports organisations.

According to numerous research reports up to 75% of our

primary school students do not have a planned program of physical

education. Without such program it is difficult if not impossible

to build a firm basic foundation for later development in

specialised sports.


We need to teach basic movement co-ordination and the

essential techniques in fundamental sports such as swimming,

athletics and gymnastics to our pre-teen and early teen-aged

children so that the natural talents will have a basic foundation

upon which to build when they do specialise in a chosen sport


Parents as taxpayers have a right to expect that after

• 12 years of schooling their children will be equipped not only

with the mental, but also with the physical requirements

necessary to succeed in Australian society. The National Sports

Commission will have an important role to play in this field by

providing programs and advice whenever and wherever it is


Educating for Leisure

In 1980 the Commonwealth Department of Employment and

Youth Affairs, published a report Educating for Leisure . it

stated its philosophy in the following way:

"The notion of 'educating for leisure' implies that people can be helped to develop skills, interests and attitudes which determine whether or not they

use their leisure time constructively."

The authors of Educating for Leisure saw the report

filling a gap which had always existed and which had always been

ignored. For too long, the report argues, the importance of

leisure in peoples' lives has been ignored. If schools are going

to prepare students for later life then surely leisure and

recreational themes must be pursued. "It is over-optimistic, and

perhaps dangerous, to assume that all people will automatically


find rewarding and constructive activities to pursue during their

leisure time ... (but) ... a central role of secondary education

is to stimulate students to explore their own values and , talents so that they have the best possible opportunities for further

education, work and leisure."

The report expressed disappointment that in the current

discussions of the value of the education system as a preparation

for the workforce and later life, education for leisure has been

almost completely ignored. Commenting on this subject, the report

says, for example, that the Committee of Inquiry into Education

and Training (Williams 1979) had largely ignored leisure issues.

In an effort to accommodate the changing work scene and

increasing youth unemployment reports like Williams have been

published, greater emphasis has been directed to- trade training

and to career education but leisure education has been passed

over. One would imagine such education being of great benefit to

unemployed youth who show signs of being almost completely

unprepared for the style of life they are forced to live.

Education for Leisure comes to the obvious conclusion

that educational institutions must place greater emphasis on this

aspect of education if students are "to live their lives in a

full and creative way." Such a move would be a challenge to

educators but leisure education is an investment in human

capital, "a most important part of the nation's capital



Educating for Survival

We view the lack of real swimming skills in Australian

youth as an obscenity. Far too many young Australians die each

year in water-related accidents. Considering our national

fascination with water sports, due of course to our climate and

geography, the level of real water skills is pitifully low.

"Learn to Swim" campaigns, with the best intentions of teachers

are inadequate. A child is convinced that he can swim because a

certificate says he is proficient in still water swimming over a

minimal distance. That belief is of little use when he is swept

200 metres off a beach in choppy water. We should aim at a

programme which will offer the opportunity to gain sufficient

skill and fitness for all youth to achieve the standards

necessary to qualify for the Bronze Medallion requried by members

of Surf Life Saving Associations. Labor will set about this task

by providing the necessary facilities and teachers to produce

this result. .



Our athletes, because of geographical isolation, face

high costs of travel to major international events which are held

in Europe or America and, conversely, the overseas teams are not

prepared to meet similar costs to visit Australia. Even within

Australia our athletes are disadvantaged by the high air fares

required (especially for team sports) to travel to the various

national trials and championships.

Top level international competition should be available

to Australian sportspeople with the full support of the

Australian Government. This is important because world rankings

are determined by performances in such competitions.

This aspect has become even more important because of

the introduction of the National Athletes Award Scheme. The

Scheme depends heavily on world rankings for its base. This means

that Australian athletes should be given every opportunity to

achieve appropriate rankings.

Many years of hard work and dedication, directed at

establishing Australia in a prominent administrative or technical

position in international sport, can be lost because of the

representative being "discouraged" from participating, due to the

Australian Government's reluctance to assist in travel costs.

As an example of this policy, the Australian Gymnastics

Federation sought Federal funding assistance to permit a national

representative team to compete in the World Championships held in

Moscow in 1981. The request was turned down because of the

Government's policy of discouraging sporting exchanges with the




USSR. There are no suitable alternative competitions available

for these gymnasts, who if the Tournament was being held anywhere

else in the world '(excluding Taiwan and South Africa) presumably

would qualify for aid.

It is vitally important that our high performance

athletes seek competition against the best. This cannot always be

arranged within our borders. Therefore our international

relations with other nations are just as important to the

attainment of sporting excellence as is the sponsorship of that

sport or the preparation and training of that person.

The Labor Government will offer increased aid to

sporting organisations and individuals to enable them to have

proper access to international experience. Our elite, athletes and sports people play an integral part in encouraging youngsters

and ordinary performers to emulate their pursuit of excellence.




If one looks at the, history of recreation and sport one

finds that physical recreation activities', and especially

competitive sport, have been almost exclusively a male domain.

Still today, males participate more in such activities than


However this pattern is rapidly changing. During the

past decade increased emphasis has been placed on physical

fitness in general. As a result educational institutions are

introducing so-called lifetime sports in an attempt to teach

skills in physical activities that are thought to have carry-over

potential throughout adult life, e.g. skiing, tracking, mountain

climbing, etc. The women's movement is also affecting

participation of women in a variety of ways. Women are becoming

more liberated and feel less bound by traditional sex-role

expectations and the notion that participation in physical

activities is "unfeminine". In the future women are likely to

become more vocal in their demands for equal opportunities

including those for physical activities.

For centuries different sets of stereotyped sex-roles

have been established for men and women. These are based on the

myth that men are inevitably aggressive, high achievers, outgoing

and in need of sexual and physical activity while women by their

nature are gentle, quiet and passive. However, there is no

evidence to substantiate that such differences - if they ever

existed are a significant cause for differing participation. rates

in physical recreation activities. Such differences are

predominantly the result of differing socialisation during

childhood, and adolescence and unequal opportunities. While


participation in sporting activities is strongly encouraged for

young boys, there is still some social disapproval concerning the

participation in certain sports of adolescent and adult females.

• The degree of approval or disapproval appears to be

strongly related to particular types of activities. Highly

structured, vigorous activities that are usually played

competively (e.g. team sports) have historically been considered

masculine as they give an opportunity to display attitudes that

traditionally are associated with males e.g. aggression,

strength, endurance etc. Team sports also tend to involve

physical contact and heavy perspiration two factors which were

not considered "feminine".

The participation of females in individual sports (e.g.

athletics,, swimming, bowling, skating, etc.) after some initial'

disapproval is well accepted now.


Money in sports also has the unconscious effect of

perpetuating inequality and discrimination in the development of

children's attitudes. Corporate involvement in sport immediately

gives the impression that the sport in question is popular,

important and socially acceptable. These -sponsored teams sports

often create "superstars" (most often male superstars) and the

impression generated is that they are tough and individual. This

differentiation between male and female sports.tends to convey in

children a generalised notion of inferiority as 'far as women's

sports is concerned.

In virtually every sport male participation rates are

substantially higher than females. This is particularly the case

after the age of 30. This is related to the conventional role of



women in society. As women have taken up a much more active role

in recent years, more and more women have become involved in

sport. A continuation of this trend suggests an increasing demand

for sport and recreational resources.

Naturally, stereotypes and ingrained prejudices are

difficult to overcome. However a beginning must be made through

the use of media, advertising and campaigns such as "Life: Be in

it" to assure equal participation for men and women in sporting

and recreational activities. The community seems to have accepted

- albeit reluctantly in the beginning - increased female

participation in the workforce. If -women are good enough to work

side by side with men and perform the same jobs as men do they

should be provided with special and specialised facilities (e.g.

child minding, separate showers, etc.) which could assure equal

rights in leisure as well.

The role of women in the history of Australian sport is

an honourable one. In tennis, squash, athletics, hockey,

netball, swimming etc. we have produced a bevy of world champions

over the last couple of decades. Spectator turmoil at womens

sport over the last few years has outstripped that at mens

tournaments. Crowds at womens tennis in Australia well outnumber

those at the corresponding mens events. Just recently the crowd

watching Jan Lock and Jan Stephenson competing in a challenge

golf tournament exceeded that audience concurrently watching the

mens Victorian. Open on the same day at the same venue.

The Labor Government will encourage even more women to

participate in all sporting activities and effectively remove all

trace of discrimination from sports funding.




It is an established pattern shown by every recreation

survey that participation in sporting activity drops dramatically

with increased age. But it is not necessarily just physical

deterioration that results in this pattern.

• One, important factor is often overlooked when sport

participation by elderly people is examined. And that is the

"sports-generation-gap". Previous generations were not as

involved in, or exposed to, sport as the younger generation is

today. The low particpation by older age-groups is not caused by

these people having given up sport as they grew older, but rather

because these people never particpated in the first place.

This implies not only a current need to cater for the

needs of the elderly but also an increased demand for recreation

resources in the future, as the present, more active generation

moves through the age categories.

Participation in team sports also rapidly declines with

age. The low carryover potential of team sports is a well

recognised phenomenom. Despite the concern about the inactivity

of Australian adults much emphasis continues to be placed on team

sports especially for boys by most schools.

Particular attention is needed to ensure that retired

people can enjoy recreation facilities by for example

arrangements being made for them to use facilities at appropriate

times, or to have particular areas set aside for them.

. p


The current. ageing of the Australian population is

another reason for paying increased attention to leisure and

recreation issues. The role of recreation in the lives of older

people, especially those who are no longer part of the workforce,

has always been of concern to people involved with this section

of the community.

The latest population figures indicate that at 30 June

1979, 9.43% of the Australian community was aged 65 and over. A

further 19.55% was between ages 45 and 64. These two groups

totalled 4 178 493 of a population of 14 421 916.

The ageing of the population highlights two important

issues. Firstly, and most obviously, if there are more retired

people (caused by ageing and earlier retirement) there will be

greater demand for recreation facilities and more people trying

to decide how to occupy themselves in their leisure time. This

high and increasing proportion of population which is retired or

near retirement, will not only change demand quantitatively but

also qualitatively. Most of Australia's recreational facilities

cater for younger people and for active recreational facilities.

New recreational facilities and policies will have to be

developed to meet this changed demand or existing policies will

have to be adapted to cope with changed needs.

Considerable savings could result in our health bill

from providing aged people with sporting and recreational

facilities. Movement and activity is essential for an individuals

self esteem and self perception. Someone who has been in the

workforce for thirty or forty years (and paid taxes all that

time) has a right to enjoy and make the most of his/her



rightfully gained rest. it is unfair that, after all the

contributions made throughout our working life, individuals

should find themselves treated as if they were nothing but a

burden on our society. The Department of Recreation and Sport,

under a Labor Government in co-operation 'with the Departments of

Health and Social Security, will make a major effort to ensure

that our aged citizens will have the same rights to sport and

recreation as everyone else.



In planning for recreation the special needs of disabled

people are being increasingly recognised. They, as much as

able-bodied people, need to be given the opportunity to

participate. The ALP believes that diabled people should not be

just spectators but should be active participants in sport and


For many the development of skill in some physical

activity is an invaluable means of acquiring social confidence

and a sense of fulfillment which their disability may otherwise

make it difficult to discover.

The physically handicapped should be able, not only to

use facilities specifically designed for them, but also to share

as many facilities and activities as is practicable with their

families and the community at large.

The continued success of Australians handicapped

sportspersons at Handicapped Olympics and Fespic Games has been

of great inspiration to quadraplegics, paraplegics, blind people

and other handicapped people in the community.

The Labor Government will set aside special funds to

encourage the elite handicapped athletes to continue their

sporting concerns. Funds will also be set aside to make proper

opportunities available to all handicapped people to enrich their

lives with sport.

Non-handicapped people also gain inspiration if not

humility from the achievements of handicapped persons; who could

forget the gold medal won by ????? the paraplegic archer from New

Zealand at the Brisbane Commonwealth Games.



If Australia is ever again to become a world power in

sport it will take a long time. Champions cannot be mass

produced. They are random occurrences resulting from mass

participation. The more people who become involved in sport the

greater the possibility of new champions emerging.

It will need a larger investment of funds from both

Government and private enterprise and a similar effort from

primary and secondary education institutions as well as the

community at large for Australia to •re.gain a position of sporting

pre-eminence in Australia. We are more a nation of sports

watchers rather than players.'

Producing champions is not as important as having a

nation of generally fit and healthy people. The broader the

projects for fitness the more likely we are to produce champions.

The Labor Party places particular emphasis on the

importance of attracting and retaining the interest of young

people in sport and physical fitness.

It is a duty of local education authorities to ensure

that the facilities for primary, secondary and further education

provided for their area include adequate recreation and training


It is also important to ensure that every encouragment

be given to those leaving school to continue active

participation. The practice of joint use and joint promotion will

assist in this purpose by helping pupils to see that the school


and the community are not set apart from one another and to

become accustomed to using facilities which are not too closely

identified with school alone.

-In addition there is a real need for closer contact

between school sports and governing bodies of sport and

recreation aimed at ensuring that school leavers are in touch

with the junior sections of adult clubs. There is a need also for

better co-ordination in administrative arrangements for example a

co-ordinated approach for school championships and major regional

and national sporting events.

Executives also need to be provided for voluntary clubs

to make the fullest use of their facilities to encourage

participation by young people e.g. by extending their premises to

accommodate a youth section, increasing the number of courts,

pitches etc. to meet the needs of young people, or introducing

coaching schemes for young people by club members.

Teachers of physical education can play a particularly

valuable part in this programme. They have a dual role - to

encourage young people generally to take part in physical

recreation and to develop standards of excellence among the more


As far as the administration of sports in concerned we

must ensure that:

• administrative development keeps pace with technical improvement;



it is conducted with the same efficiency, and

that policies are implemented with the same

consistency as are any normal business

corporations or the public service;

• they strive to improve communication within a • discipline and across disciplines and that they

hold periodic meetings and conferences to further


Australian sport should in the long term:

• dedicate itself to the pursuit of excellence and

to the development of world calibre athletes,

coaches and officials;

• encourage the formation of a team of experts, so that talent can be identified and ensure talented

athletes of an opportunity for development;

• provide increased . opportunities to enable athletes, coaches, officials and others to

enhance their sporting careers;

• assure that sportsmen and women are given an opportunity to find adequate employment during

and after their sporting careers.

Perhaps it is time also to think along the lines of

European nations. They understand that sports transcends

geographical boundaries. Although political borders do remain we

must assure that our sportspeople do not fall victims of petty



jealousies in the fight between State governments. Perhaps the

time has come to formulate a basic "charter" aligning the

resolution of the European Parliament which would assure all

sportspeople of their rights as well as the responsibilities of

Government towards sport. The five basic points in such a charter

would have to be along the following lines:

1. Every individual shall . have the right to participate in sport.

2. Sport will be encouraged as an important

factor in human development and appropriate

support will be made available from public


3. Sport being an aspect of semi-cultural

development should be related to local, State

and Federal levels to other areas of policy

making and planning e.g. education, health,

social service, town planning, conservation

and the arts.

4. We will seek to devise methods to safeguard sports and sportsmen and . women from

exploitation for political, commercial or

financial gain and from practices that are

abusive and including the use of drugs.

5. We recognise the pressing need for qualified

personnel at all levels of administrative and

technical management, leadership and coaching.


The Labor Party is concerned about the long term future

of sport . in Australia. It is for that reason that the Department of Tourism and Sport will be reconstituted as well as a National

Sports Commission will be established in order to assure

continuity and stablility for sport and recreation in Australia.




Since the industrial revolution, we have been

continually experiencing the effects of automation and new

technology. Several major effects are evident in everyday life.

The evolution of indutrial processes demands new skills

and dexterities from some people, but often also imposes

fragmentation and monotonous work as well as a high degree of

nervous tension.

The proces of industrialisation has led to growth and

expansion of urban areas. This is the cause of major changes in

the general setting and way of life; distance from nature;

slackening of family ties; ascendancy of a civilisation of

consumers; long and tiring daily journeys; anonymity of everyday

life etc.

The leisure time available for self development is

constantly rising but at the same time there is a multiplication

of those leisure time activities which only require of the

individual passive participation with no possibilities for

initiation or creation.

Mental activity is today more important than physical

activity in the work place. Qualities of strength, endurance and

agility do still find opportunities for expression, but less and less frequently.

The view that increased technology eliminates a great

number of jobs is oversimplified. The nature of man's work is

undoubtedly changing. More people may be engaged in maintenance



work, or in administration and other service activities. With

this redistribution from direct to indirect work, more people are

engaged in sedentary occupations. A study carried out by Durnin

and Passmore showed a wide variation in the amount of energy

expended at work. Where employees in heavy industry might expend

up to 2400 k/cal in a seven hour shift, an office worker

frequently expended only 1000 k/cal in an eight hour shift.

Further to this, the environment in which workers are

situated may be less stimulating. Restricted opportunities for

physical activity are combined with the limited demand for

intellectual activity. These people involved are socially

isolated in so far as conversation may be limited and work

repetitious and boring. The production -line provides a good

example. Studies have shown that concentration and efficiency

decrease over a period of time. Mackworth found that a simple

interruption of the work session due to the operator receiving a

telephone call was sufficient to restore the performance to its

original level of efficiency. The provision of a break in the

form of some interpolated activity, although only of very short

duration, can then effectively offset decline in efficiency. In

as much as physical exercises produces mobility it can bring the

individual into contact with a wider range of environmental

stimuli, and so help to break up the stagnation of boredom.

Most nations have now come to the realisation that

economically, it.pays employers to establish services for illness

prevention and even to provide time off for daily health

enjoyment rather than sick leave. It is generally agreed that

fitness delays the onset of fatigue, prolongs the time of

effective performance, promotes mental alertness, makes for

greater contentment, less absenteeism, fewer accidents, quicker

recovery from injury and overall increased productivity.


It has been established that the premature death rate in

the US of the professions not involving much physical exercise

was 5.7 times that of farmers, miners and construction workers.

The success of many industrial fitness programs overseas have

considerable implications for Australia on how the Government

employers, trade unions and workers may be persuaded that it is a

sound investment to encourage employee health and fitness, and to

appreciate that prevention is safer, more enjoyable and far less

expensive than cure. A great deal of importance is placed on

recreation and fitness in industry and other employment in

countries such as Canada, the United States, Japan and Sweden. An

attempt has in fact been made in Canada to have written into

national law a requirement that companies and departments

employing people in sedentary jobs must have fitness programs.

The fact that such importance can be placed on programs

throughout the world suggests some value has been established and

the evidence has proven this.

United States : The US President's Council on Fitness and Sports estimated in 1978 that American businesses lose $25

billion each year from the premature deaths of employees, and an

additional $3 billion because of employee illness. More than one

thousand corporations and businesses in the country have some

form of physical training program for employees. 8% of these

employ a full time staff person to lead the fitness program.

The fitness program of the US Justice Department (to

take an example) concentrates on coronary high risk employees. A

high percentage of employees considered high risk were returned

to normal or near normal ranges in terms of cardio-vascular risk

after taking part in the program.



The Council has a special advisory committee which has

been responsible for promoting fitness programs in business and

industry. It provides free consultative services and encourages a

greater flow of information between organisations providing these


The American Medical Association has also been involved

• in encouraging industrial fitness programs and has produced a

monograph entitled "Guidelines for Physical Fitness Programs in

Business and Industry".

The North American Rockwell Corporation and the Phillips

Petroleum Company sponsored for the President's Council a

publication entitled "Physical Fitness in Business and Industry"

because "we have seen how regular exercise programs help

employees become better workers through better health". The

publication concludes: "Physically fit employees are directly

related to higher production, positive problem solving,

co-operation, creative thinking, reduced absenteeism."

Some individual firms have introduced bonuses for

employees to maintain an assessed weight, and to attend

particular physical fitness or recreation programs.

Japan : A survey was conducted of some six thousand

industries and institutions. It was found that some .24% provided

athletic facilities for workers including outside recreational

grounds, gymnasiums, swimming pools, recreational clubs, and

other facilities. .66% provided subsidies to employees for

athletic activities. Of those enterprises sampled, with great

than 5000 employees, 93% provided facilities and 98% provided



Sweden :

Sweden founded a sporting industrial body as

early as 1945, with the primary task of establishing activity

programs in factories, offices, administrative centres,

government departments etc. Many offices, stores etc. employ

trained physical education teachers to lead employees in seven to

eight minute periods of rhythmic movements at strategically

placed intervals, usually during the longest work period of the

• day, when attention wanes and fatigue begins. These exercises are

accompanied by pleasant music, and are always relatively simple,

so that all age groups can participate comfortably.





The "Life. Be in it" program is seen as one of the most

important aspects of the current government's leisure and

recreation program. The aim of "Life. Be in it" is to present to

the community a new attitude to life; an attitude which promoted

'recreational opportunities and the beneficial and .creative use of • leisure time. "Life. Be in it" emphasises involvement in activity

as a positive experience where enjoyment, choice and informality

are key ingredients.

In ISLAND , Aldous Huxley offered a profile of modern

man. Huxley could very well have been describing modern

Australian society, the type of society that encouraged the

development of "Life. Be in it".

Huxley wrote:

"Western intellectuals are all sitting-addicts. Thats why most of you are so repulsively unwholesome. In the past even a Duke had to do a

lot of walking, even a money lender, even a metaphysician. And when they weren't using their legs, they were jogging about on horses. Whereas now, from the tycoon to his typist, from the

logical positivist to the positive thinker, you spend nine-tenths of your time on foam rubber. Spongy seats for spongy bottoms - at .home, in the office, in the cars and bars, in planes and trains and buses. No moving of legs, no struggles with distance and gravity - just lifts and planes and cars, just foam rubber and an eternity of sitting. The life force that used to find an outlet through

striped muscle gets turned back on the viscera and the nervous system, and slowly destroys them."


The idea behind "Life. Be in it" was developed by the

Victorian Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation. The

Department began to question whether a hard line fitness program

was appropriate to a planned state-wide community fitness

program. Early surveys showed that while there were favourable

attitudes towards fitness and recreation, activites to "get fit"

were seen as tedious. They also found that while most people

understood the benefits, of physical activity they tended to

remain inactive. When the Department took its ideas to a public

relations company, it saw the main points of the campaign as:

• Proposed departmental campaigns should emphasise

"activity" rather than "fitness".

It was necessary to adopt an "indirect" approach

rather than a frontal attack on lethargy.

• Activity should be associated with fun and.

enjoyment rather than directly with health and


. A broadened concept of activity needed to be

stressed and linked with opportunities 'for the

family unit to recreate together.

• Emphasis should be on demonstrating how the many

forms of "low key" activities could be built into

everyday life and all life styles.

The "Life. Be in it" program was begun in Victoria in November

1975 and adopted on a national level in November 1977. Because

the program is primarily an "awareness program", as distinct from

a "fitness program", emphasis has been placed on continual

evaluation of the program.


The evaluation surveys have shown a 97% level of

recognition of the "Life. Be in it" advertisements and equipment.

In a recent survey, in answer to "to the best o.f . your knowledge,

what do you think is the main purpose of the "Life. Be in it"

publicity campaign?" the following answers were offered:

Exercise 20.3%

Health 18.1%

Outdoor activities 17.3%

Fitness 16.8%

To be active 13.9%

Not to sit at home 12.8%

During 1979 "Life. Be in it" was the subject of a

national evaluation study, conducted on behalf of the National

Policy Committee for "Life. Be in it". Its aim was to assess

behaviour, attitudes and awareness, in relation to leisure time

activities in general and. the "Life. Be in it" program in

particular. Personal interviews were conducted with 4060

respondents covering major country towns and metropolitan areas

in all States and Territories.

In 1975 the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducted a

general social survey "Leisure Activities Away from Home". The

"Life. Be in it" evaluation study compared the differences in

activity- levels between Victoria and the other States in that

survey with the . results of its own survey. (Victoria had been

exposed to "Life.. Be in it" for a longer period than other areas

of Australia). The report of the evaluation study included the

following observations:



the Victorian population, which had showed a

lower level of leisure time activities away from home in 1975, had caught up to the national

average by 1979;

. approximately 20% of respondents stated that "Life. Be in it" had caused them to be more active in their leisure time;

• the analysis also suggested that the "Life. Be in

it" programme is most effective in influencing people's leisure time behaviour, when external

forces (e.g. retirement, change in family structure, health, etc.) cause a change in

lifestyle. In this period of change, people appear to be more receptive to the message "Life.

Be in it" is promoting:

the second phase of the campaign succeeded only in further increasing the awareness of those who

were receptive to the initial phase. Certain sections of the community remained unaffected.

The evaluation study concluded:

"Overall the results of the study indicate that • "Life. Be in it" has been effective when measured

against the most important criteria, i.e. whether • or not people have altered their behaviour. The study is significant. because it has demonstrated the value of applying marketing techniques to • recreation (through "Life. Be in it") , because of

• the information it provides and because the future • directions of the "Life. Be in it" programme will be determined on the basis of what has been learnt. Future phases of the "Life. .Be in it" programme can

now be directed towards the most appropriate target groups, ensuring an optimum allocation of recources." .




For the ease of reading footnotes, authors or any

specific references to various materials have been omitted from

the text. The following is a comprehensive list of publications

which have been used to compile this paper.

i Cohen, B., ALP Sports Policy , 1980.

Campaguolo, J., Partners in Pursuit of Excellence, A National

Policy on Amatuer Sport , a white paper on sport, Ontario,

Canada 1979.

European Sport for All Charter , Council of Europe, Strasbourg


Sport - is there too much? in "The Courier Mail", 23.1.1980.

Agostini, M., Wh at's Wrong with Australian Sport in "The

Bulletin", 4 March 1980.

Unkel, B.M., Physical Recreation Participation of Females and

Males During the Adult Life Cycle in "Liesure Sciences", ' Vol

4, No. 1, 1981, pp.1-27..

Law, P.G., The Fritz Duras Oration, 18 January 1968, "The Tough

Australian" in "University of Melbourne Gazette", 7.3.1968,

Vol xxiv, No. 1.

The National Re Eor t on New Pers pe ctives for E lementary School

Physical Education Programs in Canada . Present by: School

• Physical Activity Programs Committee of the Canadian

Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation,



Spo rt

and Recreation in Britain , HMSO, London, 1976.

"Canada Today", Vol 2, No. 6, 1982.

Wale, F., Sport in the Economic and Social Context in

"Prospects", No. 166, 1978, pp.8-11.

The Economic Benefits of Part icipation in Regular Physical

Activity . A study commissioned by the Recreation Ministers

Council of Australia and prepared by the Ballarat College of

Advanced Education, 1982.

Mas ter Pla n for Sport. Confederation of Australian Sport,

Melbourne, March 1980.

Takeo, K., Th e Role of Sport in Modern Society in "Japan Echo",

Vol ix, No. 3, 1982, pp.115-123.

Megalli, B., Mens Sa na_ .in C orpore Sano. Employeed Fitness Programs Philantropic Venture or Shrewd Investment? in the

Labour Gazette, May 1978, v.78, No. 5, pp.174-182.

Wild, D., Putting Their Trust in Luck and Fair Play. Why Sport

gets the Brush-off from our Politician s. in "The Telegraph",


Sands, R., Stewart, B., The Sport Sponsorship Paradox and Some

Consequences for Youth in "Australian Journal for Health,

Physical Education and Recreation", No. 85, September 1979,


Sport Australian 1978 Administrative , Confederation of Australian

Sport. Notes from the First Seminar for National SPort

Coaches and Administrators held in Sydney - between June 1 and

4 1978.


Morgan Gallop Poll

in "The Herald", 29 July 1982.

Willice, A.W., "Recreation and Industry" in The Australian

Journal_ for_Health,_Ph sical Ed ucation and Recreation ,

December 1976, p.20.

McCloy, Layham I., The Constitution of Play and Sports to

Emotional Health , pp.163-181., "Social Effects".

Hartung, G., Sport and the Canberra Lobby in "Sport, Money,

Morality and the Media".

Cashman, B., McKewan, M., (ed) 1981, pp.195-215.

Submission on Effects on Sport of Australian and Fore ign

-------------------------- --------------------------

Policies . Prepared by the Confederation of Australian Sport,


In Sports, the Big Time is Getting Even Bigger in "US News and

World Report", 16 October 1978, Vol 85, No. 15, pp.61-62.

Ormezzano, P.G., Sport _and Mon ey in "Forum", No. 2, 1980.

Supplement pp.v-vi.

Stewart, B., , Sport as Big Business in "Australian Quarterly", v.52(2) winter 1980, pp.163-177.

Shift ier the Sports Dollars from Pationage to Promotion in

"Rydges", October 1978, pp.101-102.

Bell,-G., Who is making the money in sport today? in "Bulletin",

v.102, 10 Aug. 1982, pp.38-51


Patz, C.,

The Corruptio n of Sport 1982.

Morris, J.N., Lahcet 1973, 1; 333.

Cullen, K.J., Sporting Activi ties and Exercise Habits of one 1975

Pomselton population in "Media journal of Australia", 28

January 1978.

Willee, A., Australian Youth Fitness Survey 1971 , Commonwealth

Council of National Fitness 1973.'

sical Fit ness Boom in "Editorial Research Reports", 14.4.78.

Nettleton, B., Some Perspectives i n Sport for All in "The

Australian Journal for Health and Physical Education"

September 1979.

Report on the Australian Sport Institute , Department of Tourism

and Recreation 1975.

Cohen, B., Green Paper on Spo rt and Recreation , Canberra,


Robinson, A.W., Leisure: A Priority , WA Department of Sport and

Recreation 1980.

"Life. Be in it" - National Evaluation Study, 1979, Melbourne.

Confederation 'of Australian Sport Annual Report 1981 .

IAC R rt ;Spor ting and Recreation Equi pment April 1979.

J 41





National Sports Centre - Five Years On ...., NCDC, Canberra 1982.

Wallace, H., Va lue fo r Dollars in Sporting Promotions in

"Rydgers" 1976.

The ALCOA Challenge , No. 4, November 1980.

Brown, M., Money Calls the Time in Sport : No Amateurs in "The

Herald" 12.12.80. ,

Dare, T., Variety is now the name of the game in school sports in

the Sydney Morning Herald, 18 July 1981.

Caldwell, G., Sport and the Australian Identity in "Hemisphere", Vol 16, June 1972, pp.9-16.

Sports Stadiums that Don't Burden the Taxpayers in "Nation's Business" November 1977, pp.104-111.

Kaplan, R.H., The Co nsequence of Work, Sport and Gambling in America in "Annuals" AAPSS, 445, Sept. 1979, pp.24-38.

Rapport, D., ' Its a Whol e New Ball Game for Pro Sports in

Washington in "National Journal", 2.6.1977, Vol 9, No. 9,


Cahman, R., McKewan, M., Sport, Money, Morality and the Media 1981.

"Life. Be in it" Sport . Draft copy, plan to commence in 1983,

Melbourne 1982. Prepared by the Consultative Group Seminar,

July 9, 1982.