Title Schedule 1—Treason, espionage, foreign interference and related offences
Database Bills & Legislation
Long Title a Bill for an Act to amend the criminal law and to provide for certain matters in relation to the foreign influence transparency scheme, and for related purposes
Date 07-12-2017 06:05 PM
Source House of Reps
Parl No. 45
Bill Number 295/17
Bill Type Government
Portfolio Attorney-General
Reps Bill Code O
Status Act
System Id legislation/bills/r6022_first-reps/0001


Schedule 1—Treason, espionage, foreign interference and related offences

Schedule 1—Treason, espionage, foreign interference and related offences

Part 1—Main amendments

Criminal Code Act 1995

1  Part 5.1 of the Criminal Code (heading)

Repeal the heading, substitute:

Part 5.1—Treason and related offences

2  Section 80.1A of the Criminal Code (heading)

Repeal the heading, substitute:

80.1A  Definitions

3  Section 80.1A of the Criminal Code

Insert:

party includes a person, body or group of any kind.

4  Section 80.1AA of the Criminal Code

Repeal the section, substitute:

80.1AA  Treason—assisting enemy to engage in armed conflict

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  a party (the enemy) is engaged in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; and

                     (b)  the enemy is declared in a Proclamation made under section 80.1AB; and

                     (c)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (d)  the person intends that the conduct will materially assist the enemy to engage in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; and

                     (e)  the conduct materially assists the enemy to engage in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; and

                      (f)  at the time the person engages in the conduct:

                              (i)  the person knows that the person is an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia; or

                             (ii)  the person knows that the person has voluntarily put himself or herself under the protection of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  the person is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory.

Note 1:       There is a defence in section 80.3 for acts done in good faith.

Note 2:       If a body corporate is convicted of an offence against subsection (1), subsection 4B(3) of the Crimes Act 1914 allows a court to impose a fine of up to 10,000 penalty units.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b) and subparagraph (1)(f)(iii).

             (3)  Absolute liability applies to paragraph (1)(e).

             (4)  Subsection (1) does not apply to engagement in conduct solely by way of, or for the purposes of, the provision of aid or assistance of a humanitarian nature.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

80.1AB  Proclamation of enemy engaged in armed conflict

                   The Governor‑General may, by Proclamation, declare a party to be an enemy engaged in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force.

Note:          See subsection 80.1AA(1) for the effect of the Proclamation.

80.1AC  Treachery

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct involves the use of force or violence; and

                     (c)  the person engages in the conduct with the intention of overthrowing:

                              (i)  the Constitution; or

                             (ii)  the Government of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory; or

                            (iii)  the lawful authority of the Government of the Commonwealth.

Note 1:       There is a defence in section 80.3 for acts done in good faith.

Note 2:       If a body corporate is convicted of an offence against subsection (1), subsection 4B(3) of the Crimes Act 1914 allows a court to impose a fine of up to 10,000 penalty units.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

5  Subsection 80.3(1) of the Criminal Code

After “Subdivisions B and C”, insert “, and section 83.4,”.

6  Paragraphs 80.3(2)(b), (c), (d) and (e) of the Criminal Code

Repeal the paragraphs, substitute:

                     (b)  with the intention of assisting a party:

                              (i)  engaged in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; and

                             (ii)  declared in a Proclamation made under section 80.1AB to be an enemy engaged in armed conflict involving the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; or

7  Subsection 80.4(2) of the Criminal Code

After “against”, insert “section 80.1AC or”.

8  At the end of Part 5.1 of the Criminal Code

Add:

Division 82—Sabotage

82.1  Definitions

                   In this Division:

damage to public infrastructure: conduct results in damage to public infrastructure if any of the following paragraphs apply in relation to public infrastructure:

                     (a)  the conduct destroys it or results in its destruction;

                     (b)  the conduct involves interfering with it, or abandoning it, resulting in it being lost or rendered unserviceable;

                     (c)  the conduct results in it suffering a loss of function or becoming unsafe or unfit for its purpose;

                     (d)  the conduct limits or prevents access to it or any part of it by persons who are ordinarily entitled to access it or that part of it;

                     (e)  the conduct results in it or any part of it becoming defective or being contaminated;

                      (f)  the conduct significantly degrades its quality;

                     (g)  if it is an electronic system—the conduct seriously disrupts it.

foreign principal has the meaning given by section 90.2.

national security has the meaning given by section 90.4.

public infrastructure: see section 82.2.

82.2  Public infrastructure

Public infrastructure

             (1)  Public infrastructure means any of the following:

                     (a)  any infrastructure, facility, premises, network or electronic system that belongs to the Commonwealth;

                     (b)  defence premises within the meaning of Part VIA of the Defence Act 1903;

                     (c)  service property, and service land, within the meaning of the Defence Force Discipline Act 1982;

                     (d)  any part of the infrastructure of a telecommunications network within the meaning of the Telecommunications Act 1997;

                     (e)  any infrastructure, facility, premises, network or electronic system (including an information, telecommunications or financial system) that:

                              (i)  provides or relates to providing the public with utilities or services (including transport of people or goods) of any kind; and

                             (ii)  is located in Australia; and

                            (iii)  belongs to or is operated by a constitutional corporation or is used to facilitate constitutional trade and commerce.

             (2)  For the purposes of the application of paragraph (1)(a) or (e) in relation to property within the meaning of Chapter 7, whether the property belongs to the Commonwealth or a constitutional corporation is to be determined in the same way as it would be under Chapter 7 (see section 130.2).

Fault element for offences in relation to public infrastructure

             (3)  For the purposes of a reference, in an element of an offence, to public infrastructure within the meaning of this Division, absolute liability applies:

                     (a)  in relation to public infrastructure within the meaning of paragraph (1)(a)—to the element that the infrastructure, facility, premises, network or electronic system belongs to the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  in relation to public infrastructure within the meaning of paragraph (1)(e)—to the element that the infrastructure, facility, premises, network or electronic system belongs to or is operated by a constitutional corporation or is used to facilitate constitutional trade or commerce.

82.3  Offence of sabotage involving foreign principal with intention as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct results in damage to public infrastructure; and

                     (c)  the person intends that the conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (d)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of subparagraph (1)(c)(ii), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(d), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 82.12).

82.4  Offence of sabotage involving foreign principal reckless as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct results in damage to public infrastructure; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (d)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of subparagraph (1)(c)(ii), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(d), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 82.12).

82.5  Offence of sabotage with intention as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct results in damage to public infrastructure; and

                     (c)  the person intends that the conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of subparagraph (1)(c)(ii), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 82.12).

82.6  Offence of sabotage reckless as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct results in damage to public infrastructure; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

82.7  Offence of introducing vulnerability with intention as to national security

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct has the result that an article or thing, or software, becomes vulnerable:

                              (i)  to misuse or impairment; or

                             (ii)  to being accessed or modified by a person not entitled to access or modify it; and

                     (c)  the article or thing, or software, is or is part of public infrastructure; and

                     (d)  the person engages in the conduct with the intention that any of the following will occur (whether at the time or at a future time):

                              (i)  prejudice to Australia’s national security;

                             (ii)  harm or prejudice to Australia’s economic interests;

                            (iii)  disruption to the functions of the Government of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory;

                            (iv)  damage to public infrastructure.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 82.12).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

82.8  Offence of introducing vulnerability reckless as to national security

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct has the result that an article or thing, or software, becomes vulnerable:

                              (i)  to misuse or impairment; or

                             (ii)  to being accessed or modified by a person not entitled to access or modify it; and

                     (c)  the article or thing, or software, is or is part of public infrastructure; and

                     (d)  the person engages in the conduct reckless as to whether any of the following will occur (whether at the time or at a future time):

                              (i)  prejudice to Australia’s national security;

                             (ii)  harm or prejudice to Australia’s economic interests;

                            (iii)  disruption to the functions of the Government of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory;

                            (iv)  damage to public infrastructure.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

82.9  Preparing for or planning sabotage offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention of preparing for, or planning, an offence against this Division (other than this section).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  Section 11.1 (attempt) does not apply to an offence against subsection (1).

             (3)  Subsection (1) applies:

                     (a)  whether or not an offence against this Division is committed; and

                     (b)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, a specific offence against a provision of this Division; and

                     (c)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, more than one offence against this Division.

82.10  Defence

                   It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Division if:

                     (a)  the conduct the person engaged in was accessing or using a computer or other electronic system; and

                     (b)  the person engaged in the conduct in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this section (see subsection 13.3(3)).

82.11  Geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this Division.

82.12  Alternative verdicts

             (1)  If, on a trial of a person for an offence specified in column 1 of an item in the following table, the trier of fact:

                     (a)  is not satisfied that the person is guilty of that offence; and

                     (b)  is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the person is guilty of an offence against a provision specified in column 2 of that item;

it may find the person not guilty of the offence specified in column 1 but guilty of an offence specified in column 2.

 

Alternative verdicts

Item

Column 1
For an offence against:

Column 2
The alternative verdict is an offence against:

1

section 82.3 (sabotage involving foreign principal with intention as to national security)

any of the following:

(a) section 82.4 (sabotage involving foreign principal reckless as to national security);

(b) section 82.5 (sabotage with intention as to national security);

(c) section 82.6 (sabotage reckless as to national security)

2

section 82.4 (sabotage involving foreign principal reckless as to national security)

section 82.6 (sabotage reckless as to national security)

3

section 82.5 (sabotage with intention as to national security)

section 82.6 (sabotage reckless as to national security)

4

section 82.7 (introducing vulnerability with intention as to national security)

section 82.8 (introducing vulnerability reckless as to national security)

 

             (2)  Subsection (1) only applies if the person has been accorded procedural fairness in relation to the finding of guilt for the offence specified in column 2.

82.13  Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions

             (1)  Proceedings for the commitment of a person for trial for an offence against this Division must not be instituted without the written consent of the Attorney‑General.

             (2)  However, the following steps may be taken (but no further steps in proceedings may be taken) without consent having been given:

                     (a)  a person may be arrested for the offence and a warrant for such an arrest may be issued and executed;

                     (b)  a person may be charged with the offence;

                     (c)  a person so charged may be remanded in custody or on bail.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (2) prevents the discharge of the accused if proceedings are not continued within a reasonable time.

             (4)  In deciding whether to consent, the Attorney‑General must consider whether the conduct might be authorised by section 82.10.

Division 83—Other threats to security

83.1  Advocating mutiny

             (1)  A person (the advocate) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the advocate engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct involves advocating mutiny; and

                     (c)  the advocate engages in the conduct reckless as to whether the result will be that a defence member (within the meaning of the Defence Force Discipline Act 1982) will take part in a mutiny; and

                     (d)  at the time the advocate engages in the conduct:

                              (i)  the advocate knows that the advocate is an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia; or

                             (ii)  the advocate knows that the advocate has voluntarily put himself or herself under the protection of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  the advocate is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  A mutiny is a combination between persons who are, or at least 2 of whom are, members of the Australian Defence Force:

                     (a)  to overthrow lawful authority in the Australian Defence Force or in a force of another country that is acting in cooperation with the Australian Defence Force; or

                     (b)  to resist such lawful authority in such a manner as to substantially prejudice the operational efficiency of the Australian Defence Force or of, or of a part of, a force of another country that is acting in cooperation with the Australian Defence Force.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to subparagraph (1)(d)(iii).

             (4)  Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this section.

83.2  Assisting prisoners of war to escape

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct assists one or more prisoners of war (within the meaning of Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention) to escape from custody; and

                     (c)  the custody is controlled wholly or partly by the Commonwealth or the Australian Defence Force; and

                     (d)  the conduct takes place in the context of an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

             (3)  Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this section.

83.3  Military‑style training involving foreign government principal

Offence in relation to military‑style training

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person provides, receives, or participates in, training; and

                     (b)  the training involves using arms or practising military exercises, movements or evolutions; and

                     (c)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the training is provided on behalf of a foreign government principal within the meaning of Part 5.2 (see section 90.3);

                             (ii)  the training is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign government principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign government principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Defence—authorised by written agreement

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a person in relation to conduct engaged in by the person that is authorised by a written agreement to which the Commonwealth is a party.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

Defence—solely for service with armed force other than terrorist organisation

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to training a person provides, receives or participates in, if the provision, receipt or participation is solely in the course of, and as part of, the person’s service in any capacity in or with:

                     (a)  the armed forces of the government of a foreign country; or

                     (b)  any other armed force, if a declaration under subsection 119.8(1) covers the person and the circumstances of the person’s service in or with the force.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

             (4)  However, subsection (3) does not apply if:

                     (a)  at the time the person engages in the conduct:

                              (i)  the person is in or with an organisation; or

                             (ii)  the training is funded partly by an organisation; and

                     (b)  the organisation is:

                              (i)  a listed terrorist organisation within the meaning of Part 5.3 (see section 100.1); or

                             (ii)  a prescribed organisation within the meaning of Part 5.5 (see section 117.1).

Geographical jurisdiction

             (5)  Section 15.2 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category B) applies to an offence against this section.

83.4  Interference with political rights and duties

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct involves the use of force or violence, or intimidation, or the making of threats of any kind; and

                     (c)  the conduct results in interference with the exercise or performance, in Australia by any another person, of an Australian democratic or political right or duty; and

                     (d)  the right or duty arises under the Constitution or a law of the Commonwealth.

Note:          The defence in section 80.3 for acts done in good faith applies to this offence.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

83.5  Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions

             (1)  Proceedings for the commitment of a person for trial for an offence against this Division must not be instituted without the written consent of the Attorney‑General.

             (2)  However, the following steps may be taken (but no further steps in proceedings may be taken) without consent having been given:

                     (a)  a person may be arrested for the offence and a warrant for such an arrest may be issued and executed;

                     (b)  a person may be charged with the offence;

                     (c)  a person so charged may be remanded in custody or on bail.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (2) prevents the discharge of the accused if proceedings are not continued within a reasonable time.

             (4)  In deciding whether to consent, the Attorney‑General must consider whether the conduct might be authorised in a way mentioned in:

                     (a)  for an offence against section 83.3—subsection 83.3(2) or (3); and

                     (b)  for an offence against section 83.4—section 80.3.

9  Part 5.2 of the Criminal Code (heading)

Repeal the heading, substitute:

Part 5.2—Espionage and related offences

10  Subsection 90.1(1) of the Criminal Code

Insert:

deal: a person deals with information or an article if the person does any of the following in relation to the information or article:

                     (a)  receives or obtains it;

                     (b)  collects it;

                     (c)  possesses it;

                     (d)  makes a record of it;

                     (e)  copies it;

                      (f)  alters it;

                     (g)  conceals it;

                     (h)  communicates it;

                      (i)  publishes it;

                      (j)  makes it available.

Note:          See also subsection (2).

foreign government principal has the meaning given by section 90.3.

foreign political organisation means a foreign political party or a foreign political organisation.

foreign principal has the meaning given by section 90.2.

11  Subsection 90.1(1) of the Criminal Code (definition of intelligence or security agency)

Repeal the definition.

12  Subsection 90.1(1) of the Criminal Code

Insert:

national security has the meaning given by section 90.4.

security classification has the meaning given by section 90.5.

13  Subsection 90.1(1) of the Criminal Code (definition of security or defence)

Repeal the definition.

14  Subsection 90.1(1) of the Criminal Code (definition of the Commonwealth

Repeal the definition.

15  Subsections 90.1(2) and (3) of the Criminal Code

Repeal the subsections, substitute:

             (2)  In this Part, dealing with information or an article includes:

                     (a)  dealing with all or part of the information or article; and

                     (b)  dealing only with the substance, effect or description of the information or article.

16  At the end of Division 90 of the Criminal Code

Add:

90.2  Definition of foreign principal

                   Each of the following is a foreign principal:

                     (a)  a foreign government principal;

                     (b)  a public international organisation within the meaning of Division 70 (see section 70.1);

                     (c)  a terrorist organisation within the meaning of Division 102 (see section 102.1);

                     (d)  an entity or organisation owned, directed or controlled by a foreign principal within the meaning of paragraph (b) or (c);

                     (e)  an entity or organisation owned, directed or controlled by 2 or more foreign principals within the meaning of paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

90.3  Definition of foreign government principal

                   Each of the following is a foreign government principal:

                     (a)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country;

                     (b)  an authority of the government of a foreign country;

                     (c)  an authority of the government of part of a foreign country;

                     (d)  a foreign local government body or foreign regional government body;

                     (e)  a company to which any of the subparagraphs of paragraph (a) of the definition of foreign public enterprise in section 70.1 applies;

                      (f)  a body or association to which either of the subparagraphs of paragraph (b) of the definition of foreign public enterprise in section 70.1 applies;

                     (g)  a foreign political organisation;

                     (h)  an entity or organisation owned, directed or controlled:

                              (i)  by a foreign government principal within the meaning of any other paragraph of this definition; or

                             (ii)  by 2 or more such foreign government principals that are foreign government principals in relation to the same foreign country.

90.4  Definition of national security

             (1)  The national security of Australia or a foreign country means any of the following:

                     (a)  the defence of the country;

                     (b)  the protection of the country or any part of it, or the people of the country or any part of it, from activities covered by subsection (2);

                     (c)  the protection of the integrity of the country’s territory and borders from serious threats;

                     (d)  the carrying out of the country’s responsibilities to any other country in relation to the matter mentioned in paragraph (c) or an activity covered by subsection (2);

                     (e)  the country’s political, military or economic relations with another country or other countries.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), this subsection covers the following activities relating to a country, whether or not directed from, or committed within, the country:

                     (a)  espionage;

                     (b)  sabotage;

                     (c)  terrorism;

                     (d)  political violence;

                     (e)  activities intended and likely to obstruct, hinder or interfere with the performance by the country’s defence force of its functions or with the carrying out of other activities by or for the country for the purposes of its defence or safety;

                      (f)  foreign interference.

90.5  Definition of security classification

             (1)  Security classification has the meaning prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  Before the Governor‑General makes regulations for the purposes of subsection (1), the Minister must be satisfied that the regulations are not inconsistent with the policies of the Government of the Commonwealth in relation to protective security.

             (3)  Despite subsection 14(2) of the Legislation Act 2003, regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section may prescribe a matter by applying, adopting or incorporating any matter contained in an instrument or other writing as in force or existing from time to time.

17  Division 91 of the Criminal Code

Repeal the Division, substitute:

Division 91—Espionage

Subdivision A—Espionage

91.1  Espionage—dealing with information etc. concerning national security which is or will be made available to foreign principal

Intention as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the information or article:

                              (i)  has a security classification; or

                             (ii)  concerns Australia’s national security; and

                     (c)  the person intends that the person’s conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (d)  the conduct results or will result in the information or article being made available to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this subsection (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

Reckless as to national security

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the information or article:

                              (i)  has a security classification; or

                             (ii)  concerns Australia’s national security; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the person’s conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (d)  the conduct results or will result in the information or article being made available to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Strict liability

             (3)  Strict liability applies to subparagraphs (1)(b)(i) and (2)(b)(i).

Other matters

             (4)  For the purposes of subparagraphs (1)(c)(ii) and (2)(c)(ii), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

             (5)  For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(d) and (2)(d), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

91.2  Espionage—dealing with information etc. which is or will be made available to foreign principal

Intention as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person intends that the person’s conduct will prejudice Australia’s national security; and

                     (c)  the conduct results or will result in the information or article being made available to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this subsection (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Reckless as to national security

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person is reckless as to whether the person’s conduct will prejudice Australia’s national security; and

                     (c)  the conduct results or will result in the information or article being made available to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Other matters

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

91.3  Espionage—security classified information etc.

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person’s conduct results or will result in the information or article being made available to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

                     (c)  the information or article:

                              (i)  has a security classification; or

                             (ii)  concerns Australia’s national security.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to subparagraph (1)(c)(i).

91.4  Defences

             (1)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Subdivision that the person dealt with the information or article:

                     (a)  in accordance with a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  in accordance with an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth is party and which allows for the exchange of information or articles; or

                     (c)  in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution of an offence against this Subdivision that the information or article the person deals with is information or an article that has already been communicated or made available to the public with the authority of the Commonwealth.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

91.5  Matters affecting sentencing for offence against subsection 91.1(1)

             (1)  In determining the sentence to be passed in respect of a person for an offence against subsection 91.1(1) (punishable by life imprisonment), the court must take into account any circumstances set out in paragraph 91.6(1)(b) that exist in relation to the commission of the offence.

             (2)  However, the court need only take the circumstances into account so far as the circumstances are known to the court and relevant.

             (3)  The circumstances are in addition to any other matters the court must take into account (for example, the matters mentioned in section 16A of theCrimes Act 1914).

91.6  Aggravated espionage offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence against this section if:

                     (a)  the person commits an offence against section 91.1, 91.2 or 91.3 (the underlying offence); and

                     (b)  any of the following circumstances exist in relation to the commission of the underlying offence:

                              (i)  the person dealt with information or an article that has a security classification of secret or above;

                             (ii)  the person dealt with information or an article from a foreign intelligence agency;

                            (iii)  the person dealt with 5 or more records or articles each of which has a security classification;

                            (iv)  the person altered a record or article to remove or conceal its security classification;

                             (v)  at the time the person dealt with the information or article, the person held an Australian Government security clearance.

Penalty:

                     (a)  if the penalty for the underlying offence is imprisonment for 25 years—imprisonment for life; or

                     (b)  if the penalty for the underlying offence is imprisonment for 20 years—imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  There is no fault element for the physical element in paragraph (1)(a) other than the fault elements (however described), if any, for the underlying offence.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to subparagraph (1)(b)(iii).

             (4)  To avoid doubt, a person does not commit an underlying offence for the purposes of paragraph (1)(a) if the person has a defence to the underlying offence.

             (5)  To avoid doubt, the person may be convicted of an offence against this section even if the person has not been convicted of the underlying offence.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 93.5).

91.7  Geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this Subdivision.

Subdivision B—Espionage on behalf of foreign principal

91.8  Espionage on behalf of foreign principal

Intention as to national security

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person intends that the person’s conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct involves the commission, by the person or any other person, of an offence against Subdivision A (espionage); and

                     (d)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this subsection (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Reckless as to national security

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person is reckless as to whether the person’s conduct will:

                              (i)  prejudice Australia’s national security; or

                             (ii)  advantage the national security of a foreign country; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct involves the commission, by the person or any other person, of an offence against Subdivision A (espionage); and

                     (d)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Conduct on behalf of foreign principal

             (3)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information or an article; and

                     (b)  the person is reckless as to whether the person’s conduct involves the commission, by the person or any other person, of an offence against Subdivision A (espionage); and

                     (c)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Other matters

             (4)  For the purposes of subparagraphs (1)(b)(ii) and (2)(b)(ii), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign country; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign country.

             (5)  For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(d), (2)(d) and (3)(c), the person:

                     (a)  does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

91.9  Defences

             (1)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Subdivision that the person dealt with the information or article:

                     (a)  in accordance with a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  in accordance with an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth is party and which allows for the exchange of information or articles; or

                     (c)  in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution of an offence against this Subdivision that the information or article the person deals with is information or an article that has already been communicated or made available to the public with the authority of the Commonwealth.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

91.10  Geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this Subdivision.

Subdivision C—Espionage‑related offences

91.11  Offence of soliciting or procuring an espionage offence or making it easier to do so

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct in relation to another person (the target); and

                     (b)  the person engages in the conduct with the intention of soliciting or procuring, or making it easier to solicit or procure, the target to deal with information or an article in a way that would constitute an offence against Subdivision A (espionage) or B (espionage on behalf of foreign principal); and

                     (c)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

             (3)  A person may commit an offence against subsection (1):

                     (a)  even if an offence against Subdivision A or B is not committed; and

                     (b)  even if it is impossible for the target to deal with information or an article in a way that would constitute an offence against Subdivision A or B; and

                     (c)  even if the person does not have in mind particular information or a particular article, or a particular dealing or kind of dealing with information or an article, at the time the person engages in conduct in relation to the target; and

                     (d)  whether it is a single dealing, or multiple dealings, that the person intends to solicit or procure or make it easier to solicit or procure.

             (4)  Section 11.1 (attempt) does not apply to an offence against subsection (1).

91.12  Offence of preparing for an espionage offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention of preparing for, or planning, an offence against Subdivision A (espionage) or B (espionage on behalf of foreign principal).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Section 11.1 (attempt) does not apply to an offence against subsection (1).

             (3)  Subsection (1) applies:

                     (a)  whether or not an offence against Subdivision A or B is committed; and

                     (b)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, a specific offence against a provision of Subdivision A or B; and

                     (c)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, more than one offence against Subdivision A or B.

91.13  Defences

                   It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Subdivision that the person dealt with the information or article:

                     (a)  in accordance with a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  in accordance with an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth is party and which allows for the exchange of information or articles; or

                     (c)  in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this section (see subsection 13.3(3)).

91.14  Geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this Subdivision.

Division 92—Foreign interference

Subdivision A—Preliminary

92.1  Definitions

                   In this Division:

deception means an intentional or reckless deception, whether by words or other conduct, and whether as to fact or as to law, and includes:

                     (a)  a deception as to the intentions of the person using the deception or any other person; and

                     (b)  conduct by a person that causes a computer, a machine or an electronic device to make a response that the person is not authorised to cause it to do.

menaces has the same meaning as in Part 7.5 (see section 138.2).

Subdivision B—Foreign interference

92.2  Offence of intentional foreign interference

Interference generally

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the person engages in the conduct on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

                     (c)  the person intends that the conduct will:

                              (i)  influence a political or governmental process of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  influence the exercise (whether or not in Australia) of an Australian democratic or political right or duty; or

                            (iii)  support intelligence activities of a foreign principal; or

                            (iv)  prejudice Australia’s national security; and

                     (d)  any part of the conduct:

                              (i)  is covert or involves deception; or

                             (ii)  involves the person making a threat to cause serious harm, whether to the person to whom the threat is made or any other person; or

                            (iii)  involves the person making a demand with menaces.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this subsection (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Interference involving targeted person

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

                     (c)  the person intends that the conduct will influence another person (the target):

                              (i)  in relation to a political or governmental process of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  in the target’s exercise (whether or not in Australia) of any Australian democratic or political right or duty; and

                     (d)  the person conceals from, or fails to disclose to, the target the circumstance mentioned in paragraph (b).

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this subsection (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Other matters

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

92.3  Offence of reckless foreign interference

Interference generally

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct will:

                              (i)  influence a political or governmental process of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  influence the exercise (whether or not in Australia) of an Australian democratic or political right or duty; or

                            (iii)  support intelligence activities of a foreign principal; or

                            (iv)  prejudice Australia’s national security; and

                     (d)  any part of the conduct:

                              (i)  is covert or deceptive; or

                             (ii)  involves the person making a threat to cause serious harm, whether to the person to whom the threat is made or any other person; or

                            (iii)  involves the person making a demand with menaces.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Interference involving targeted person

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

                     (c)  the person is reckless as to whether the conduct will influence another person (the target):

                              (i)  in relation to a political or governmental process of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  in the target’s exercise (whether or not in Australia) of any Australian democratic or political right or duty; and

                     (d)  the person conceals from, or fails to disclose to, the target the circumstance mentioned in paragraph (b).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Other matters

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign principal.

92.4  Offence of preparing for a foreign interference offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention of preparing for, or planning, an offence against another provision of this Subdivision (foreign interference).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Section 11.1 (attempt) does not apply to an offence against subsection (1).

             (3)  Subsection (1) applies:

                     (a)  whether or not an offence against this Subdivision is committed; and

                     (b)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, a specific offence against a provision of this Subdivision; and

                     (c)  whether or not the person engages in the conduct in preparation for, or planning, more than one offence against this Subdivision.

92.5  Defence

                   It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Subdivision that the person engaged in the conduct:

                     (a)  in accordance with a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  in accordance with an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth is party; or

                     (c)  in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this section (see subsection 13.3(3)).

92.6  Geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.2 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category B) applies to an offence against this Subdivision.

Subdivision C—Foreign interference involving foreign intelligence agencies

92.7  Knowingly supporting foreign intelligence agency

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person provides support or resources to an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; and

                     (b)  the person knows that the organisation is a foreign intelligence agency.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

92.8  Recklessly supporting foreign intelligence agency

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person provides support or resources to an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; and

                     (b)  the organisation is a foreign intelligence agency.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

92.9  Knowingly funding or being funded by foreign intelligence agency

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  directly or indirectly receives or obtains funds from, or directly or indirectly makes funds available to, an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; or

                             (ii)  directly or indirectly collects funds for or on behalf of an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; and

                     (b)  the person knows that the organisation is a foreign intelligence agency.

Note:          An alternative verdict may be available for an offence against this section (see section 93.5).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

92.10  Recklessly funding or being funded by foreign intelligence agency

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  directly or indirectly receives or obtains funds from, or directly or indirectly makes funds available to, an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; or

                             (ii)  directly or indirectly collects funds for or on behalf of an organisation or a person acting on behalf of an organisation; and

                     (b)  the organisation is a foreign intelligence agency.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

92.11  Defence

                   It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against this Subdivision that the person engaged in the conduct:

                     (a)  in accordance with a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  in accordance with an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth is party; or

                     (c)  in the person’s capacity as a public official.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this section (see subsection 13.3(3)).

Division 92A—Theft of trade secrets involving foreign government principal

92A.1  Theft of trade secrets involving foreign government principal

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person dishonestly receives, obtains, takes, copies or duplicates, sells, buys or discloses information; and

                     (b)  all of the following circumstances exist:

                              (i)  the information is not generally known in trade or business, or in the particular trade or business concerned;

                             (ii)  the information has a commercial value that would be, or could reasonably be expected to be, destroyed or diminished if the information were communicated;

                            (iii)  the owner of the information has made reasonable efforts in the circumstances to prevent the information becoming generally known; and

                     (c)  any of the following circumstances exists:

                              (i)  the conduct is engaged in on behalf of, or in collaboration with, a foreign government principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign government principal;

                             (ii)  the conduct is directed, funded or supervised by a foreign government principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign government principal.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(a), dishonest means:

                     (a)  dishonest according to the standards of ordinary people; and

                     (b)  known by the defendant to be dishonest according to the standards of ordinary people.

             (3)  In a prosecution for an offence against this section, the determination of dishonesty is a matter for the trier of fact.

             (4)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c):

                     (a)  the person does not need to have in mind a particular foreign government principal; and

                     (b)  the person may have in mind more than one foreign government principal.

92A.2  Geographical jurisdiction

             (1)  Section 15.2 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category B) applies to an offence against section 92A.1.

             (2)  However, subsections 15.2(2) and 15.2(4) (defences for primary and ancillary offences) do not apply.

18  Section 93.1 of the Criminal Code

Repeal the section, substitute:

93.1  Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions

             (1)  Proceedings for the commitment of a person for trial for an offence against this Part must not be instituted without the written consent of the Attorney‑General.

             (2)  However, the following steps may be taken (but no further steps in proceedings may be taken) without consent having been given:

                     (a)  a person may be arrested for the offence and a warrant for such an arrest may be issued and executed;

                     (b)  a person may be charged with the offence;

                     (c)  a person so charged may be remanded in custody or on bail.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (2) prevents the discharge of the accused if proceedings are not continued within a reasonable time.

             (4)  In deciding whether to consent, the Attorney‑General must consider whether the conduct might be authorised:

                     (a)  for an offence against Subdivision A of Division 91 (espionage)—in a way mentioned in subsection 91.4(1); and

                     (b)  for an offence against Subdivision B of Division 91 (espionage on behalf of foreign principal)—in a way mentioned in subsection 91.9(1); and

                     (c)  for an offence against Subdivision B of Division 92 (foreign interference)—in a way mentioned in section 92.5; and

                     (d)  for an offence against Subdivision C of Division 92 (foreign interference involving foreign intelligence agencies)—in a way mentioned in section 92.11.

19  Subsection 93.2(2) of the Criminal Code

Omit “interest of the security or defence of the Commonwealth”, substitute “interests of Australia’s national security”.

20  At the end of Division 93 of the Criminal Code

Add:

93.3  Evidentiary certificate

             (1)  The Attorney‑General may sign a certificate stating any of the following matters in relation to information or an article identified in the certificate:

                     (a)  that the information or article has, or had at a specified time, a security classification;

                     (b)  that the information or article has, or had at a specified time, a specified level of security classification;

                     (c)  that the information or article concerns Australia’s national security;

                     (d)  that the information or article concerns a particular specified aspect of Australia’s national security.

             (2)  For the purposes of proceedings for an offence against Division 91 or 92, a certificate signed by the Attorney‑General under this section is prima facie evidence of the matters certified in it.

93.4  Fault elements for attempted espionage offences

                   Despite subsection 11.1(3), the fault element, in relation to each physical element of an offence of attempting to commit an offence against a provision of:

                     (a)  Subdivision A of Division 91 (espionage); or

                     (b)  Subdivision B of Division 91(espionage on behalf of foreign principal);

is the fault element in relation to that physical element of the offence against the provision of Subdivision A or B of Division 91.

93.5  Alternative verdicts

             (1)  If, on a trial of a person for an offence specified in column 1 of an item in the following table, the trier of fact:

                     (a)  is not satisfied that the person is guilty of that offence; and

                     (b)  is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the person is guilty of an offence against a provision specified in column 2 of that item;

it may find the person not guilty of the offence specified in column 1 but guilty of the offence specified in column 2.

 

Alternative verdicts

Item

Column 1
For an offence against:

Column 2
The alternative verdict is an offence against:

1

subsection 91.1(1)

subsection 91.1(2)

2

subsection 91.2(1)

subsection 91.2(2)

3

subsection 91.6(1)

the underlying offence mentioned in paragraph 91.6(1)(a)

4

subsection 91.8(1)

subsection 91.8(2)

5

subsection 92.2(1)

subsection 92.3(1)

6

subsection 92.2(2)

subsection 92.3(2)

7

section 92.7

section 92.8

8

section 92.9

section 92.10

 

             (2)  Subsection (1) only applies if the person has been accorded procedural fairness in relation to the finding of guilt for the offence specified in column 2.

21  Section 94.1 of the Criminal Code

Omit “or document which is made, obtained, recorded, retained, forged, possessed or otherwise”, substitute “, document or other article which is”.

22  After section 132.8 of the Criminal Code

Insert:

132.8A  Damaging Commonwealth property

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct results in damage to, or the destruction of, property; and

                     (c)  the property belongs to a Commonwealth entity.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

             (3)  Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against this section.

23  Subsection 132.7(5) of the Criminal Code (paragraph (e) of the definition of property offence)

After “132.8(1)”, insert “or 132.8A(1)”.

24  Dictionary in the Criminal Code

Insert:

constitutional trade and commerce means trade and commerce:

                     (a)  with other countries; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories.

Defence Minister means the Minister administering the Defence Force Discipline Act 1982.

foreign intelligence agency means an intelligence or security service (however described) of a foreign country.

mutiny has the meaning given by subsection 83.1(2).

25  Saving provision

(1)       If, immediately before the commencement of this item, a Proclamation is in effect for the purposes of paragraph 80.1AA(1)(b) of the Criminal Code as in force at that time, the Proclamation:

                     (a)  continues in effect despite the repeal and substitution of section 80.1AA of the Criminal Code by this Schedule; and

                     (b)  has effect for the purposes of the Criminal Code as amended by this Schedule as if it had been made under section 80.1AB of the Criminal Code as inserted by this Schedule.

(2)       Subitem (1) does not prevent the Proclamation being repealed.

Part 2—Consequential amendments

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005

26  Subclause 1(1) of Schedule 4 (definition of undue influence)

Omit “section 28 of the Crimes Act 1914”, substitute “section 83.4 of the Criminal Code”.

Australian Citizenship Act 2007

27  Section 3 (paragraph (a) of the definition of national security offence)

Omit “II or”.

28  Section 3 (paragraph (c) of the definition of national security offence)

Repeal the paragraph, substitute:

                     (c)  an offence against Part 5.1 of the Criminal Code (treason and related offences); or

                    (ca)  an offence against Division 91 of the Criminal Code (espionage); or

                   (cb)  an offence against Part 5.3 (terrorism) of the Criminal Code; or

29  Subparagraph 35A(1)(a)(ii)

Repeal the subparagraph, substitute:

                             (ii)  a provision of Subdivision B of Division 80 of the Criminal Code (treason);

                           (iia)  a provision of Division 82 of the Criminal Code (sabotage);

                           (iib)  a provision of Division 91 of the Criminal Code (espionage);

30  Subparagraph 35A(1)(a)(v)

Repeal the subparagraph.

Australian Federal Police Act 1979

31  Subsection 4(1) (subparagraph (a)(i) of the definition of protective service offence)

Omit “24AB, 29,”.

32  Subsection 4(1) (after subparagraph (a)(ii) of the definition of protective service offence)

Insert:

                           (iia)  Division 82 of the Criminal Code (sabotage); or

                           (iib)  Division 91 of the Criminal Code (espionage), or

                           (iid)  section 132.8A of the Criminal Code (damaging Commonwealth property); or

33  Subsection 4(1) (subparagraph (a)(va) of the definition of protective service offence)

Omit “Act; or”, substitute “Act;”.

34  Subsection 4(1) (subparagraph (a)(vi) of the definition of protective service offence)

Repeal the subparagraph.

Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918

35  Subsection 352(1) (definition of undue influence)

Omit “28 of the Crimes Act 1914”, substitute “83.4 of the Criminal Code”.

36  Subparagraph 386(a)(i)

Omit “28 of the Crimes Act 1914”, substitute “83.4 of the Criminal Code”.

Crimes Act 1914

37  Subsection 4J(7)

Repeal the subsection, substitute:

             (7)  This section does not apply to an offence against:

                     (a)  subsection 79(2) or (5) of this Act; or

                     (b)  Division 80 of the Criminal Code (treason, urging violence and advocating terrorism or genocide); or

                     (c)  Division 82 of the Criminal Code (sabotage); or

                     (d)  Division 91 of the Criminal Code (espionage); or

                     (e)  Division 92 of the Criminal Code (foreign interference).

38  Paragraphs 15AA(2)(c) and (d)

Omit “Subdivision C of Division 80 or Division 91 of the Criminal Code, or against section 24AA of this Act,”, substitute “Division 80 (treason, urging violence and advocating terrorism or genocide) or Division 91 (espionage) of the Criminal Code”.

39  At the end of subsection 15AA(2)

Add:

             ; and (e)  an offence against subsection 92.2(1) or 92.3(1) (intentional or reckless offence of foreign interference), if it is alleged that any part of the conduct the defendant engaged in involved making a threat to cause serious harm or a demand with menaces.

40  After paragraph 15YU(1)(d)

Insert:

                   (da)  an offence against Subdivision B of Division 80 of the Criminal Code (treason); or

                   (db)  an offence against Division 82 of the Criminal Code (sabotage); or

41  Paragraph 15YU(1)(g)

Repeal the paragraph.

42  Paragraph 19AG(1)(a)

Repeal the paragraph.

43  Part II

Repeal the Part.

Foreign Evidence Act 1994

44  Subsection 3(1) (after paragraph (da) of the definition of designated offence)

Insert:

                   (db)  an offence against Division 82 of the Criminal Code (sabotage); or

45  Subsection 3(1) (paragraph (g) of the definition of designated offence)

Repeal the paragraph.

Migration Act 1958

46  Subparagraph 203(1)(c)(i)

Repeal the subparagraph.

47  Subparagraph 203(1)(c)(ia)

After “Division 80”, insert “or 82”.

48  After subparagraph 203(1)(c)(ia)

Insert:

                            (ib)  an offence against section 83.1 (advocating mutiny) or 83.2 (assisting prisoners of war to escape) of the Criminal Code; or

Surveillance Devices Act 2004

49  Subparagraph 30(1)(a)(vi)

Omit “, 73.3 or 91.1”, substitute “or 73.3”.

50  After subparagraph 30(1)(a)(vi)

Insert:

                           (vii)  an offence against Division 91 of the Criminal Code (espionage); or