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Education and the Arts-Senate Standing Committee - Reports - Tenure of Employment of Academics together with the transcript of evidence (3 Vols)


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TENURE

ACADEMIC

Report by

the Senate Standing Committee on

Education and the Arts

SEPTEMBER 1982

THE PARLIAM ENT OF THE COMMONW EALTH OF AUSTRALIA

SENATE STANDING COM M ITTEE ON EDUCATION AND THE ARTS

REPORT ON TENURE OF ACADEMICS

Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra 1982

© Commonwealth of Australia 1982

ISBN 0 644 01970 0

Prinled by C. J. Thompson, Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra

TERMS OF REFERENCE

As passed by the Senate on 23 September 1981

THE TENURE OF EMPLOYMENT OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION

Members of the committee Chairman- Senator Baden Teague (South Australia) D eputy C hair­ m an- Senator P. J. Giles (Western Australia)

Senator J. M. Hearn (Tasmania) Senator Μ. E. Lajovic (New South Wales) Senator R. F. Ray (Victoria) Senator Μ. E. Reid (Australian Capital Territory)

Secretary

C. H. Ducker, M.C. The Senate Tel: (062) 72 6557

iii

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Contents

Page

TERMS OF REFEREN CE AND MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE ...................................................................................................... iii

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ v

LIST OF T A B L E S ......................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................... xi

I N T R O D U C T I O N ......................................................................................... xiii

GLOSSARY ................................................................................................... xv

1. T EN U R E-ITS DEVELOPM ENT, PRACTICE AND LEGAL PO SITIO N

Paragraph 1.1 What is meant by ‘tenure’? .................................................... 1

1.3 Historical and international context of t e n u r e ..................... 1

1.8 Legal position and practice on tenure in Australia . . . . 2

1.19 Dismissal powers in u n iv e rsitie s-v a ria tio n s.......................... 5

1.24 Dismissal powers in CAEs-variations ............................... 7

1.28 Industrial j u r i s d i c t io n ............................................................. 9

1.34 C o n c l u s i o n s .............................................................................. 10

2. TH E ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TENURE

2.1 I n t r o d u c ti o n .............................................................................. 13

ADVANTAGES OF TENURE

2.2 Academic f r e e d o m .................................................................... 13

2.7 Job security/long-term commitment to research and in s titu tio n ................................................................................... 14

2.12 Ability to attract high quality s t a f f .................................................. 15

2.16 Implications of tenure on salary levels ....................................... 19

2.18 Staff morale/industrial relations ......................................... 19

DISADVANTAGES OF TENURE

2.20 Inflexibility in staff a r r a n g e m e n ts ......................................... 20

2.22 Need for ‘new blood’ .............................................................. 20

2.24 Effects on efficiency and complacency ............................... 21

2.30 Tenure creates a two-tier system .................................................. 23

2.32 C o n c l u s i o n s ............................................................................. 23 3

3. ACADEMIC STAFF STRUCTURE

3.1 Differences between universities and C A E s .......................... 25

3.7 The role and responsibilities of academic s t a f f ..................... 26

3.9 Who employs academics and in what numbers? . . . . 27

v

3.13 Distribution of tenured and non-tenured s t a f f ..................... 33

3.20 Academic staff s t r u c t u r e .......................................................... 35

3.22 Age profile of full-time academic staff ................................ 37

3.28 Staff turnover and the viability of institutions ..................... 39

3.33 Optimum age profile and staff t u r n o v e r ................................ 40

3.37 Legacy of expansion and quality of s t a f f ................................ 43

3.42 Growth in higher education not now supported by student n u m b e r s .................................................................................... 44

3.46 ‘Incremental creep’ .................................... · · · · ■ · 4~ ”

3.48 Funding ‘problems’ of higher education institutions and flexi­ bility ............................................................... ..

3.55 Pressure for superannuation reform and portability . . . 48

3.58 Academic specialisation and changing student preferences . 49

Page

4. PROCEDURES FOR THE APPOINTMENT AND REVIEW OF ACADEMIC STAFF

4.1 Initial appointment procedures for tenured staff . . . . 53

4.4 Probation before tenure is c o n f i r m e d .................... 54

4.9 Appointment of contract staff (lecturer and above) . . . 58

4.13 The question of tenure for tutors ...................................... 59

4.23 Promotion procedures ......................................................... 62

4.27 Staff development programs .............................................. 64

4.34 Periodic reviews of an academic’s performance and annual consultations for all academic staff .................................... 66

4.51 Student opinion of academic performance ......................... 72

4.53 Outside reviews of academic departments ..........................

4.55 Appeals-tenure, promotion and dismissal ......................... 73

5. FURTHER PROPOSALS FOR REFORM

5.1 Renewable term appointm ents for heads of d ep a rt­

ments/schools .......................................................................... 77

5.5 Reversion of senior appointments to senior lecturer? . . . 77

5.9 Salaries of senior staff to be varied according to merit? . . 78

5.15 No automatic increments? .......................... ..........................

5.19 Joint appointments, sharing of staff and exchange schemes . 80 5.29 Tenure applying to one function of the j o b ? ........................ 82

5.33 Fractional appointments (tenured) .................................... 83

5.41 Women academics and measures to assist them . . . . 85

5.52 Voluntary early retirement .................................................... 90

5.58 Management controlled early retirement ..........................

5.60 Reciprocity for Australian academics o v e r s e a s .................... 92

5.63 Schemes for ‘holding’ bright young a c a d e m i c s .................... 93

5.70 Retraining of academics for courses in d e m a n d .................... 95

5.73 Development funds for recruiting new s t a f f .......................... 96

5.74 Tighter establishment c o n t r o l ? ................................................ 96

vi

R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S ............................................................................... 101

Annex /1-Structure of the academic profession in the universities of the U .K ....................................................................................................... 109

Annex β -Tenure provisions at the University of Tasmania ..................... 115

Annex C-Tenure provisions at the University of Adelaide ..................... 125

Annex Z)-Authority under which full-time teaching staff tenure is regulated in CAEs ......................................................................................... 129

Annex F -T he effects of changing of staff turnover rates on the age-structure of the academic population .......................................... 133

Annex F-Superannuation in higher education .......................................... 149

Annex G-University of New South Wales-statement of activities by aca­ demic staff member (proforma) ............................................... 159

Annex //-A ustralian National University-form for reporting of re­ appointments ............................................................................... 161

Annex /-University of New South Wales-student evaluation form for lec­ turing staff .................................................................................... 171

Annex 7-List of persons and organisations who assisted the work of the Co­ mmittee ......................................................................................... 173

Page

vii

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List of tables

Page

Table 1-1 Universities-provisions for termination of tenured appointm ent-summary (Yes/No) ......................................................................... 5

1- 2 Colleges of advanced education-provisions for termination of tenured appointment-by State .......................................................... 8

2 - 1 Universities-proportion of academic staff in Australia who acquired their first degree in an overseas university 1980 ............................... 16

2-2 Universities-number of external a p p o in tm e n ts ............................... 17

2-3 Universities-location of first degree: lecturer and above (1977) . 18

2 - 4 Universities-location of second degree: lecturer and above (1977) 18 3 - 1 Universities-components of term time average weekly workload lec­ turer to professor, 1977 27

3-2 Universities-full-time equivalent staff by type of appointment, ac­ tivity, grade/level, 1981 28

3-3 Universities-full-time academic staff-age structure and percentage tenured (1979) number (1981); and student numbers (1981) . . 30

3-4 Colleges of advanced education-full-time academic staff, age struc­ ture and percentage tenured (lecturer and above) (1980); number (1981); and student numbers (1981) 31

3-5 Full-time teaching-and-research staff at State universities in 1979 and full-time academic staff at colleges of advanced education in 1980, by grade and type of appointment .......................................... 33

3-6 Full-time equivalent teaching-and-research staff at universities and full-time equivalent academic staff at colleges of advanced education by grade, 1975 and 1980 .................................................................... 36

3-7 Colleges of advanced education-full-time academic staff by grade and type of appointment .................................................................... 36

3-8 Full-time teaching-and-research staff at State universities in 1979 and full-time academic staff at colleges of advanced education in 1980, by age ........................................................................................ 37

3-9 Full-time tenured teaching-and-research staff at universities and full-tim e tenured academ ic staff at colleges of advanced educationseparation and appointments during the two years ended 30 April 1980 39

3-10 Recurrent grants and commitments for universities and colleges of advanced education approved for 1981 and guidelines for 1982-84 t r i e n n i u m ............................................................................................. 46

3-11 Universities-bachelor degree students by field of study, 1975, 1977 and 1979 49

3 - 12 Universities-student/staff ratios by departmental group 1975 to 1980 50

4 - 1 Universities-full-time teaching-and-research academic staff, by pro­ bationary and confirmed tenure, 1979 54

ix

Page

4-2 Colleges of advanced education-full-time academic staff, by pro­ bation and confirmed tenure, 1980 ....................................................

4-3 Academic levels in tertiary institutions ........................................... 62

4-4 Academic salary l e v e l s .......................................................................... 63

4 - 5 Universities-appeals procedures available to academic staff . . . 73

5 - 1 Universities-full-time teaching-and-research staff by designation and sex, 1979 to 1981 .................................................................... ..... 85

5-2 Colleges of advanced education-full-time staff engaged on teaching by designation and sex, 1979 to 1981 ............................................... 86

5-3 Sex by individual university-all academic staff (1977) . . . .

5-4 Sex by individual university-lecturer and above (1977) . . . . 88

5-5 Universities-percentage of staff who could retire by 1989 . . . 91

X

List of figures

Page

Figure 3-1 Age profile of full-time academic staff ............................................... 38

3-2 Comparison of age distributions of CSIRO research staff and full-time university teaching-and-research staff ............................................... 41

xi

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Introduction

The Committee’s terms of reference

On 23 September 1981, the Senate resolved that the Standing Committee on Education and the Arts inquire into and report upon the following m atter-The tenure of employment of academic staff in Australian universities and colleges of advanced education.

Work of the Committee

The Committee advertised nationally for submissions relating to the inquiry on 30 Sep­ tember 1981, and received a total of 150 submissions and 11 committee documents. It conducted a series of public hearings during the period December 1981 to April 1982, in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Canberra; two members of the Committee also

visited Perth to talk with a number of people who had made submissions to the inquiry. The Committee heard altogether 72 witnesses, appearing either in a private capacity or representing organisations. A total of 21 organisations were represented in the public hearings. The total length of the inquiry, from referral to the Committee to tabling of

the Report in Parliament, was approximately twelve months.

Acknowledgements

The Committee acknowledges its appreciation of those who contributed to the inquiry through written submissions and especially those who appeared personally before the Committee to give public evidence. Those who did not appear before the Committee may be assured that their submissions have been taken into account in the writing of

this Report.

A list of witnesses who appeared before the Committee at public hearings and of all persons and organisations who presented written submissions, is contained in Annex J. Thanks are also due to Mr Wayne Kathage, Ms Jane Palmer and Mrs Maresa Laird who valuably assisted the Secretary of the Committee in the conduct of the Com­

mittee's inquiry and the preparation of this Report.

Baden Teague Chairman

The Senate Canberra 1982

xiii

Glossary

Academic staff

ACPCAE

AFUW ANU ARGC ASTEC

AVCC CAE CAPA CSIRO

CTEC FAUSA FCA FSSU

Full-time academic staff

Full-time equivalent academic staff

Higher education State universities Tertiary education

Staff members who undertake teaching and research duties in universities or teaching duties in colleges of advanced edu­ cation, and whose salaries are related to academic salaries Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced

Education Australian Federation of University Women Australian National University Australian Research Grants Committee

Australian Science and Technology Council Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee College of Advanced Education Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organis­ ation Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission

Federation of Australian University Staff Associations Federation of College Academics Federated Superannuation System for Universities Staff who are engaged on a full-time basis and those who are

not engaged on a full-time basis but who hold a regular appointment which may be expressed as a fraction of a full­ time commitment. All academic staff, both full-time and part-time; where staff engaged by a university who are not classified as full-time are

expressed in the terms of full-time equivalent units using the following conversion: Part-time lecturing staff-250 hours per annum Part-time tutoring staff-700 hours per annum

All other part-time staff- 35 hours per week Higher education refers to the university and college sectors All Australian universities except the ANU Tertiary education refers to the university, college and TAPE sectors

xv

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1. Tenure-its development, practice and legal position

What is meant by ‘tenure’?

1.1 An examination of the detailed conditions of appointment in individual universi­ ties and colleges of advanced education (CAEs) indicates a great diversity in termin­ ology, provisions and interpretation. Academic appointments are made to a particular university or CAE and often to a specified post, department or school. As practices be­

tween these individual institutions differ it is difficult to define tenure (in so far as ten­ ure is reflected in the various procedures of appointment) with any precision. This is also because the so-called ‘granting of tenure’ often involves understandings, conven­ tions or moral commitments rather than precisely defined contractual rights.

1.2 For the purpose of this Report the statement that an academic staff member has tenure is taken to mean that the staff member holds a permanent appointment to a uni­ versity or a CAE until a specified age limit; subject to other conditions such as health and misconduct. These qualifications and variations between institutions are described

in more detail later in this chapter. However the common feature of the practices relat­ ing to tenure appears to be the granting of an assurance against dismissal, whether ex­ pressly or by custom of the institution, to a person holding an academic position at or above a certain level of appointment, usually after a probationary period. The conven­ tion is that the appointment of such staff can be terminated only after due process.

Historical and international context of tenure

1.3 In understanding the concept of tenure it is helpful to examine its historical back­ ground, and the notion of academic freedom which is also entrenched in higher edu­ cation in the English speaking world. Tenure has depended more on tradition and col­ legiate atmosphere than on express statements or legal rules. Historically, much of the

struggle for academic freedom focussed on the autonomy of the universities. The struggle for university independence during the Reformation and at the time of James IPs attack on Cambridge, as well as his interference at Oxford, led to the acceptance of the principle of autonomy of universities from the State. Autonomy was seen to guaran­

tee some measure of freedom to write, teach and research without intervention from outside. That this autonomy did not necessarily guarantee academic freedom within universities was evident from the history of religious intolerance at Oxford and Cambridge. The struggle to eliminate religious tests in the nineteenth century eventu­

ally resulted in express prohibitions in the statutes and charters on religious tests and in­ terference on religious grounds, but rarely has academic freedom been specified in charters and regulations of the universities. 1.4 One reason that tenure, in the interests of academic freedom, has not been for­

malised in the British system, has been the relatively low degree of interference in the United Kingdom with the appointment to and retaining of positions by academics who hold unpopular views. Nevertheless the Committee is unaware of any recent decision of a British court on the legal status of tenure in universities despite the fact that redun­ dancy arrangements are now being considered in the United Kingdom. These redun­

dancy arrangements will require adjustments to both the academic structure and tenure provisions presently prevailing at these universities. A proposal from the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals of Universities of the United Kingdom, outlining such an adjustment, was provided to this Committee during the Inquiry (see Annex A).

1.5 The formal tenure systems in the nineteenth century German universities, with the notion of the freedom of the university professor to examine evidence and to report his findings in lectures or published form, has influenced thinking on tenure throughout

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the world, but particularly in North America. Significantly, the development of a doc­ trine about academic freedom coincided with and was a reaction to the considerable in­ volvement of the individual German states in the universities through the provision of funds, the appointment of professors, and the creation of new chairs. The doctrine confirmed the historical role of the academic community itself controlling teaching an scholarship; a role already present but to a more limited extent in the medieval universities.

1.6 The development of tenure in the United States has been different from that in Britain. During the last century American professors usually held office indefinitely, subject to good behaviour. However, this practice depended on convention rather than law as is demonstrated by what occurred when pressures arose to dismiss or conrol aca­ demics. From about 1870 when some controlling boards of universities disapproved of

Darwin’s theories being taught, and then towards the end of the century when business patrons began to dominate controlling bodies, dismissal action taken by these bodies against certain professors was backed by the courts. This resulted in the introduction through collective bargaining of more formal tenure plans which became the mode in the United States by the first quarter of this century. A 1979-1980 survey by the American Council of Education showed that 64.4 per cent of all universities faculty held tenure and the figure is expected to rise.1

1.7 In Canada, as in the United States, two trends have been apparent in recent dec­ ades. The first is for tenure arrangements to be set down formally in writing as the result of negotiation between the managers of universities and academic staff union represen­ tatives, rather than being left to custom and concessions from university administra­ tions. The second is for tenure arrangements to become a matter of legal rights with detailed prescription of the procedures to be followed. However these arrangements do

not provide tenure automatically to all appointees; rather, the North American systems provide for and often result in denials of tenure.

Legal position and practice of tenure in Australia

1.8 While much of what is said under this heading refers to universities, it relates also but with some modifications to the CAE sector. Of Australia’s nineteen universities, all but one are established under State Acts of Parliament. The exception, the Australian National University, is established under Federal legislation. The Statutes for each uni­ versity provide for a governing body, either a ‘Council’ or a ‘Senate’. The composition of the governing body is specified in the Act, which also confers the necessary powers to enable the council or senate to manage the affairs of the university. These powers in­ clude the power to appoint and dismiss staff and to prescribe related procedures to be defined by regulations and by-laws. For example, Section 14 of the LJniversity o f New South Wales Act 1968 currently provides that, subject to the Act and to the regulations

and by-laws, the Council, inter alia.

. . (b) may from time to time appoint and terminate the appointment of deans, pro­ fessors, lecturers and other officers and employees of the university;’

1.9 Usually the statutory powers for the appointment and dismissal of staff are exer­ cised according to procedures which are defined by regulations under the relevant stat­ ute (by the Governor in Council) or by-laws as determined by the governing body. Among the various institutions there is a considerable variety in both the substance and the wording of these procedures. The university Acts, together with the regulations and

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oy-laws, are usually published in university calendars. Sometimes express terms of ten­ ure may be found in contracts of appointment. In other cases they are a matter of prac­ tice or custom. In the case of the University of New South Wales Act its Section 22 provides:

‘(1) The Council may make by-laws . . . with respect to all matters pertaining to the University. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection one of this section the Council may

make by-laws with respect to-(d) The numbers, stipend, manner of appointment and dismissal of deans, professors, lecturers, examiners and other officers and employees of the University; . . .’

It is interesting to note that the University of New South Wales has not actually made by-laws on the subject of tenure although Section 14 of the Act appears to contemplate that by-laws can limit the powers of dismissal.

1.10 The Committee received few submissions which addressed the legal aspects of an autonomous institution’s ability to dismiss its staff. Among the opinions relating to legal aspects was one from Professor Donald Harding (Dean of Law, University of New South Wales) who during evidence tended to the view that most statutes, contracts, by­

laws and regulations do not give tenure as a matter of law.2 Rather it is really just a mat­ ter of convention and so has become a matter of moral commitment. Generally the common law of employment implies that contracts of employment are terminable upon reasonable notice in the absence of contrary evidence. The circumstances may lead to

an inference that a particular period of notice is required or that the contract is for a fixed term (often one year) and not terminable short of that period, except on special grounds.

1.11 In exceptional cases, courts in the United Kingdom have accepted the possibility of permanent tenure of employment until an age or implied age of retirement. A lead­ ing example of this is the case of McClelland v The Northern Ireland General Health Services Board (1957).3 Despite the position as to the duration of the contract, in ordi­

nary circumstances the common law recognises rights of summary dismissal without notice for good causes, such as sufficiently serious misconduct, habitual neglect, incom­ petence, or sufficiently incapacitating illness. It would probably require clear evidence of contractual intent to the contrary before a court would fail to uphold the right of dis­

missal for such causes, even where there is a contract providing for tenure until a stipulated age of retirement.

1.12 Even where there is, as a matter of contract law, a legal right of tenure to a pos­ ition up to a certain time or age, the courts do not generally enforce contracts for per­ sonal services, by requiring the employer to retain the employee. The remedy for ter­ mination in breach of contract would be damages. The position in Australia may vary

depending on the particular terms of the initial contract. Some contracts, by reference to or by being subject to the relevant statutes, may incorporate regulations or by-laws.

1.13 Where the statutes confer a general power of dismissal, the legal ability of that institution to enter into a contract which appears to limit the power of dismissal may be rather uncertain. There may be a legal issue as to whether a contract which seeks to limit the power of a university to dismiss is effective. Whether the contracts have to be

read so as to always incorporate the power of a university senate or council to dismiss a person depends on the specific situation at a particular institution.4 1.14 The legal standing of tenure is thus not as clear in some Australian universities and colleges as it may be under some contracts now negotiated in North America. Pro­

fessor Peter Karmel, Chairman of the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission described the situation in this way:

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‘Tenure in Australia and, indeed, in many countries is to a large degree based on convention and not on legally enforceable contracts. There are many institutions where staff could be given six months notice. You will find it does not happen because the convention is indeed very strong.’5

1.15 It would seem that these complexities in the procedures for the appointment and dismissal of academics have acted as a deterrent to university administrations ‘chancing their arm ’ with dismissal procedures. The number of successful official dismissal pro­ ceedings is very small. For example, in the three years 1977-1979 (the only period for which the results of an AVCC survey are available) there were no dismissals of tenured academic staff through formal procedures. On the other hand the Committee was informed that a nmber of resignations take place to pre-empt formal dismissal proceedings. 4

1.16 The Committee is aware of only two decisions by courts in Australia relating to the tenure of an academic at an Australian university and none relating to a CAE. Both of the university cases were not directly related to tenure itself but to matters associated with tenure. The first is Orr v The University o f Tasmania.6 The University’s contract with Professor Orr referred to a retiring age of 65 for males with special annual exten­ sions to age 70, but it did state that it was terminable by either party giving six months

notice. The plaintiff’s arguments accepted that it was so terminable. However the issues in the case related to whether the contract allowed dismissal for misconduct and whether there had been misconduct, rather than to the more general question of whether the employment was or was not terminable before the age of retirement. The Court considered that the express terms of the contract did not rule out an implied con­ dition that the professor would faithfully carry out his duties. It considered that he could be summarily dismissed for misconduct and held that he had been guilty of mis­ conduct. In upholding the university’s action in dismissing Professor Orr for seducing one of his students, the Court ruled that the relation between university and professor comes within the general legal conception of that of master and servant.

1.17 The second, much more recent case is that of Arthur Lee Burns v The A us­ tralian National University in which Professor Burns applied under the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act (A D (JR )A ct) for a statement from the Australian National University of the reasons for his dismissal. His application succeeded because Mr Justice Ellicott found that the A D (JR) Act did apply to the Australian National University and that the decision to dismiss Professor Burns was of an administrative character under the Act. In concluding that the decision to dismiss was made under an appropriate enactment (i.e. The Australian National University Act) rather than simply a contract of appointment, and hence that the A D (JR ) Act applied to the Uni­ versity, Mr Justice Ellicott remarked:

‘I can think of no principle more basic to the existence of a university in a free society. The notion that in the involuntary termination of a professor’s appointment it is merely acting under the terms of appointment and not under its basic statute as well, in my view, debases the very principle upon which the university is founded—academic freedom. This is why, in my opinion, the decision for involuntary termination of a professor’s appointment is of a fundamental character and when it is made by a university set up by statute, it is inescapably one which is made in exercise of the powers conferred by statute even if the occasion for its exercise arises as a result of a contractual arrangement.’’

Mr Justice Ellicott’s finding, however, was not directly related to tenure so much as to the requirement of the university to give specific reasons for its decision to dismiss Pro­ fessor Burns. 1.18 It was brought to the attention of the Committee that the rights to which the A D (JR) Act gives rise are new in law and were not available a few years ago.8 Further,

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the AD(JR) Act is now paralleled in most of the States in the Commonwealth, although in some States universities are specifically excluded.9 Mr R. J. Snedden in Evidence remarked that Professor Burns’ resort to the Federal Court showed that-‘if we are concerned about trying to retain some nexus between the concept of academic

freedom and tenure of staff and the allied concept of the autonomy of institutions, then I be­ lieve that legally the institutions have some way to go, in many instances, in demonstrating that they understand how to operate the system themselves.’10

Dismissal powers in universities-variations

1.19 Subject to their enabling Acts and subject to their financial arrangements the in­ dividual Australian universities are autonomous bodies. As for their other management practices and procedures their provision for the termination of ‘tenured’ appointments vary considerably as in broad outline is indicated in Table 1 -1. All universities have pro­

visions to terminate appointments for reasons of sufficiently incapacitating illness; although in some institutions these provisions seem to be much more difficult to im­ plement than in others. Several universities have provisions to terminate appointments for reasons of financial exigency or redundancy. There are also a variety of other

reasons for terminating appointments including one or several of the following: serious misconduct, inefficiency, dereliction of duty, misbehaviour, negligence, conviction of a criminal offence and prejudicing the discipline and good management of the university (see Table 1-1).

Table 1-1: Universities— Provisions for Termination of Tenured Appointment-summary (Yes/No) (M ost recent inform ation as at June 1982*)

University

Financial exigency/ Redundancy

Incapacitating illness

Misconduct/ inefficiency

Adelaide Yes Yes Yes

ANU No Yes Yes

Deakin No Yes Yes

Flinders Yes Yes Yes

Griffith G eneral provision in Act

for te r m in a tio n w ith

notice

Yes Yes

James Cook No Yes Yes

La Trobe No Yes Yes

Macquarie G eneral provision in Act

for te rm in a tio n w ith

notice

Yes Yes

Melbourne G eneral provision in Act

for te rm in a tio n w ith

notice

Yes Yes

Monash No Professors: Yes

Others: G eneral provisions for term ination in Act and in conditions of

appointm ent

Professors: Yes Others: Under consideration at present

Murdoch No Yes Yes

Newcastle No Yes Yes

UNE G eneral provision in Act

for te rm in a tio n w ith

notice

Yes Yes

N.S.W. No Yes Yes

Qld Yes Yes Yes

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University

Financial exigencyj Redundancy Incapacitating illness

Misconduct 1 inefficiency

Sydney No Professors: Yes

Others: M atter for consideration by V ice-Chancellor and Senate

Professors: Yes Others: M atter for con­

s i d e r a t i o n by V ic e ­

C hancellor and Senate

Tasm ania No Yes Yes

W . A u s t r a l i a

( c o n d i t i o n s

c u r r e n t l y

u n d e r r e -

view)

No Yes Yes

W ollongong No Yes G eneral provision in Act

but no provision in con­ ditions of appointm ent

* Source: Prepared by Committee Secretariat on advice from AVCC Secretariat

1.20 An indication of the extent of variation in the wording of tenure/dismissal pro­ visions can also be seen in a comparative study of the provisions at the University of Tasmania (Annex B) and provisions at the University of Adelaide (Annex C). The spectrum of variations in these provisions is well understood by the Federation of Aus­ tralian University Staff Associations (FAUSA) whose representatives have indicated to the Committee that the provisions at the University of Tasmania, although in their opinion not ideal, are preferred by the Association to the tenure provisions of other

universities. FAUSA policy on tenure states: ‘Subject only to termination in cases of gross misconduct by the staff" member in the per­ formance of his or her academic duties or dereliction of academic duty in all cases strictly proven before an impartial tribunal operating in accordance with the standards of natural justice-these including at least those specified by the University of Tasmania Rules of

Tenure-Statutes shall clearly state that “tenure" means permanent appointment until retiring age . .

1.21 The Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) is also well aware of the variations in tenure provisions. The Chairman of the CTEC, Professor Peter Karmel, submitted that the terms and conditions of appointment should at all in­ stitutions be made to provide for termination of appointment on grounds of redun­ dancy and financial stringency.

*. . . if it turns out that there is not work for certain groups of people to do it should be possible to terminate their services with due procedures and with an appropriate separation payment. There are such provisions in several colleges.' ‘In the case of financial stringency there are provisions in several universities . . . It is not easy to define financial stringency but in the last resort if there are no funds available and the institution has no way of getting funds there ought to be some way by which, after due process and compensation, staff can be reduced. It would be better to have that codified within terms and conditions of appointment than to have the completely uncertain situation which prevails at present.’12

1.22 It was also submitted to the Committee that there are variations between the universities in dismissal provisions and procedures such that in some cases there may not be adequate provision for due process and natural justice. Some of the prescriptions referred to in this regard include the formal specification in writing of the charge against the academic; the ability of the academic to reply to the charge in writing and be

6

present and adequately represented at the hearing of the case; the ability to hear evi­ dence and examine material put to the committee of inquiry; and the right of appeal on matters of evidence and procedure to the governing council of a university. These pre­ scriptions and procedures are not provided for in all universities, whether in the regu­ lations and by-laws or in the contracts of appointment.

1.23 Most universities have established the requirement to hold an inquiry prior to dismissing a member of academic staff on conduct grounds. (At Monash and Mel­ bourne Universities, this requirement applies to professorial staff only.) According to evidence received from the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC)13, at

Adelaide, Flinders and Queensland appointments may be terminated on grounds of financial stringency/redundancy; at Griffith, Macquarie, Melbourne and New England, an appointment can in any case by terminated simply by giving (generally) six months notice to the staff member concerned. In the case of Griffith University in par­

ticular, the Vice-Chancellor has power of summary dismissal of staff, subject only to the requirement that the action be subsequently reported to the Council. (It should be noted that dismissal at the University of Queensland on grounds of redundancy can also only occur after a full inquiry.) In summary, although most universities can only dis­

miss a staff member on conduct grounds after conducting an inquiry into the matter, twelve of the nineteen universities have neither specific provision for dismissal on grounds of financial constraints/ redundancy, nor a blanket provision for dismissal with notice.

Dismissal powers in CAEs— variations

1.24 The majority of colleges of advanced education have developed from institutions in the States which were more directly controlled by the State Government and more closely related to the State public service. As a consequence, in their early periods, they were considerably influenced by the practices in regard to tenure which had been fol­ lowed in technical colleges, agricultural colleges and teachers’ colleges. For the most

part, these institutions employed staff, both academic and non-academic, on the same ‘permanent’ basis as did the State Government departments with which they were associated. As the colleges have developed to become accepted nationally and interna­ tionally as institutions of higher education they have acquired greater degrees of auton­ omy and adopted management and personnel practices more appropriate to the re­

quirements of such institutions. As illustrated in Table 3-4 changes in policy on tenure have caused the colleges to move away from a position where virtualy all full-time staff were ‘permanent’. The proportion of lecturer and above tenured staff in CAEs has moved from virtually 100% in the 1960s to a national average now of 88 per cent (see paragraph 3.13).

1.25 As indicated in more detail in paragraph 1.31 each State has a different insti­ tutional framework for regulating employment within the advanced education sector. As with the university sector, there are considerable variations in dismissal powers in the CAE sector. A summary of the various tenure provisions in CAEs in the States is set

out in Table 1-2.14 Dismissal procedures in some cases form part of the individual con­ tracts of appointment.

T able 1-2: Colleges of Advanced E ducation— Prov isions for T erm ination of Tenured Appointm ent— By S tate*

State Termination pro vis i ons

Victoria (i) Academ ic staff em ployed under the previous Victoria Institute of Colleges' terms

and conditions can be dismissed bv the Institution on three m onths' notice in writing.

7

S tate Termination provisions

(ii) A cadem ic staff em ployed under the previous S tate College o f Victoria term s and conditions are em ployed to 65 years, except for:

• dismissal for m isconduct, one ground of which is dereliction o f duty; • retirem ent after 60 years o f age; • retirem ent or resignation on grounds of ill-health.

New South Wales (i) T he absence o f statutory provisions m eans th at academ ic staff m ay be dismissed in accordance with the Com m on Law, except:

(ii) th at those who transferred from the Public or Teaching services can only be dis­ missed on disciplinary grounds.

Q ueensland A cadem ic staff em ployed under term s and conditions approved by the G overnor-in­ C ouncil on the recom m endation o f the M inister can be dismissed by the Institution on term s as set out in the Institutions’ by laws. T he usual provision is four m onths’ notice in writing. An exception is form er teacher college staff re-employed in the advanced edu­ cation sector, who rem ain on conditions not less favourable than their previous em ploy­

m ent.

W estern A ustralia Legislative changes in 1979 denied academ ics access to the industrial jurisdiction of W estern A ustralia. College academ ic staff may be dismissed by the Institution under the Colleges A ct (W A ). M ost contracts a t the W estern A ustralian Institute of T ech­ nology m ake provisions for dismissal o f the em ployee on six m onths’ w ritten notice.

South A ustralia Industrial agreem ents betw een the colleges and the Academ ic Staff Associations pro ­ vide for em ploym ent of academ ic staff m em bers until retirem ent except for dismissal for incom petence or m isconduct. Rem edies for wrongful dismissal include reinstate­ m ent and C om m on Law damages. W hile it has not been tested, it is unlikely th at re­ instatem ent would be available in cases of term ination on grounds o f ‘financial exigency’.

Tasm ania S tatutory provisions in T asm ania provide th at a tenured appointm ent may be te r­

m inated at any tim e by the giving of six m onths’ notice in Writing by the Council.

A ustralian C apital T erritory (i) Academ ic staff are em ployed until retirem ent at 65 except for dismissal by the Council for failure to com ply with a direction of Council, continuing and sig­

nificant neglect of duty, incom petence or serious m isconduct prejudicial to the m anagem ent o f the College or its standing.

(ii) A cadem ic staff who were perm anent officers of the A ustralian Public Service may retain their rights specified in Section 5 (1) of the Officers Rights Declaration Act.

* Source: Evidence 4 December 1981 pp. 584-85

1.26 In general tenure provisions in CAEs are not enforceable at law. The exceptions appear to be the State Colleges of Victoria, the South Australian CAE and members of the teaching profession or public service who transferred from government depart­ ments to the advanced education sector in Queensland and New South Wales. Never­ theless, it would seem that a large proportion of advanced education academics can be dismissed for similar reasons as in universities, including incompetence, negligence,

inefficiency, sufficiently incapacitating illness, redundancy, financial exigency or mis­ conduct (sometimes referred to as gross moral turpitude). 1.27 There are some CAEs where permanent appointments may be terminated upon three months notice for any reasons considered sufficient by the relevant council. How­ ever, the usual situation is that permanent appointments can be terminated only in such circumstances as incapacity (relating to health for example), inefficiency or miscon­ duct. One institution indicated in Evidence that over a five year period three tenured staff had been dismissed for reasons relating to poor performance, but taking the ad­ vanced education sector as a whole dismissals as a result of formal proceedings are rare. The Federation of College Academics (FCA) submitted to the Committee that a uni­ form definition of legally enforceable tenure should be adopted throughout the higher

8

education sector. The Chairman of the CTEC was also of the opinion that it was desir­ able to have codified within terms and conditions of appointment such matters as dis­ missal for reasons of financial stringency and after due process rather than to have the completely uncertain situation which prevails at present. The Commission said that

‘your Committee would be an appropriate body to look at this.’15

Industrial jurisdiction

1.28 The Committee sensed some frustration among academic staff associations that academics were in an ‘industrial no-man’s land’ in that their conditions of employment (except for salaries) were not set at a national level by an arbitral body. Under the Aus­ tralian Constitution, education is left as a responsibility of the States. The State univer­

sities are independent statutory bodies incorporated under State law and each State has its own institutional framework for regulating employment within the advanced edu­ cation sector (see paragraph 1.31 below). Nevertheless since 1974 the Commonwealth has completely taken up (under Section 96 of the Constitution) the funding of higher

education and could influence conditions of service, for example, by applying con­ ditions to financial assistance that require the level of salaries payable to staff to be in accordance with salary recommendations of the Academic Salaries Tribunal (under the States Grants (Tertiary Education Assistance) Act 1981). In the event of failure to ob­

serve such conditions there are discretionary penalty provisions available to the Minis­ ter through legislation for a financial penalty involving forfeiture of all or part of the grant.16 1.29 Furthermore both the Commonwealth and the States have had some influence

in relation to industrial disputes despite the finding of the High Court that education is not an ‘industry’ for this purpose. Thus to the extent that governments have some in­ volvement in the industrial relations aspect of universities and colleges, there is a div­ ision of responsibilities between the Federal and State governments. FAUSAs policy is that this responsibility should not be so divided, but for universities should rest solely

with the Commonwealth. Accordingly FAUSA is currently challenging the precedents of the High Court and the outcome of their appeal is expected to be brought down later in 1982. 1.30 In 1974 the Commonwealth established the Academic Salaries Tribunal, to rec­

ommend (to determine in the case of the ACT) the levels at which academic staff should be paid and also to recommend on any matter signficiantly related to salaries. Although Mr Justice Campbell recognised the link between salary levels and tenure in the 1973 Report on his Inquiry into Academic Salaries, the Academic Salaries Tribunal

has made few comments on the question of tenure since that time. In his most recent re­ port Mr Justice Ludeke referred to a request by the FCA that the Tribunal report on various underlying conditions of service and said:

*. . . questions of jurisdiction aside. 1 am not persuaded that the Tribunal should enter these areas. I believe that in the absence of a formal request from the Minister under 12D(2)(b) (Remuneration Tribunals Act 1973) exceptional circumstances would need to be established before the Tribunal should go beyond the consideration of salaries.'1" 1.31 There have been attempts to codify conditions of service for academics at the State level. In South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, academics have

access to the Industrial Commissions. In Western Australia academics previously had an industrial award but they have been excluded from access to the WA Industrial Commission following the decision in June 1979 of the Industrial Appeal Court in re­ lation to provisions of the Industrial Arbitration Act of WA. In Victoria, a special Tri­

bunal has been established. No industrial relations machinery exists in the ACT or Tasmania.

9

1.32 The full bench of the Industrial Commission of New South Wales, on 26 October 1981, in Re University o f Newcastle Academic S ta ff upheld an earlier ruling by Mr Justice Macken that the University of Newcastle is an employer, that the members of its academic staff are employees, and that the University’s Act and by-laws are not in­ consistent with the powers of a tribunal constituted under the Industrial Arbitration Act 1940 ( NSW) to make an award regulating conditions of service. Accordingly, the Commission held it had power to make an award regulating the conditions of employ­ ment of the University’s staff. The Commission left open the question whether, under the special provisions of the University’s Act, the Tribunal was deprived of jurisdiction

to deal with a dispute between an individual professor and the university concerning the terms of the professor’s employment or removal from office. But that may not preclude jurisdiction to make an award on the application of an association which includes professors.

1.33 Mr Justice Macken in an earlier judgement on 5 May 1981 more directly re­ ferred to tenure provisions when he said:

The whole issue of tenure raises questions which may be quite unsuitable for regulation by award. The agreement envisages defining causes for dismissal, the hearing of charges, and the provision by award of an opportunity for academic staff to resign rather than be dismis­ sed. This would constitute a novel award provision. The criteria for assessing probationary appointment to the academic staff would equally not seem to be an ‘industrial’ matter which should be regulated by award. Appendices to the award, providing for the election of tenure committees, reports on probationary appointees, and the like, would also not seem to be award matters . . . This question, however, cannot be determined until a schedule is

filed containing in detail the precise terms sought to be incorporated into an award. When, and if, that is done this question of discretion will fall for further argument.’18

Conclusions

1.34 From the outline in this chapter of the development and practice of tenure in Australian universities and colleges, several conclusions can be made. Tenure is cur­ rently in an uncertain legal position in Australia. Also there is considerable diversity among the individual institutions in the provisions made and the terminology used both

for conditions of appointment and for dismissal proceedings. Tenure in Australia relies more on convention than on contractual rights. Dismissals that arise through formal proceedings for reasons of misconduct, inefficiency or redundancy are all extremely rare. The uncertain legal position of tenure is compounded by the fact that apart from salaries, other conditions of service for academics are not set at the national level. Nevertheless, by having the ability to determine conditions in respect of its funding of higher education, the Commonwealth may move towards implementing more unified and coherent requirements for the conditions of service of academics. Any attempt to abolish or significantly depart from the tenure system, other than to allow for sensible

modifications of the system, would be likely to lead to industrial difficulties with con­ siderable uncertainties.

Endnotes

1. The Times Higher Education Supplement, 23 O ctober 1981, p. 10. 2. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1025. 3. M R. F reedland, The Contract o f Employment (1976), C hapter 5, pp. 157-58 and pp. 252-53, McClelland v The Northern Ireland Genera! Health Services Board (1957), 1 W .L.R. 594. 4. Evidence, 8 February 1982, pp. 981 and 1025 (U niversity of New South W ales). 5. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1372. 6. In Suprem e C ourt o f Tasm ania 1956; Professor O rr’s appeal dismissed in High C ourt of A ustralia i 957.

7. Reasons for Judgem ent (27 April 1982), p. 23. 8. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2263 (M r R.J. Snedden).

10

9. ibid. 10. ibid, p. 2265. 11. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 459. 12. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1447-48 (Professor P.H. K a m e l) .

13. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2161. 14. F u rth e r details for individual colleges can be found in a table incorporated in the Evidence o f the A us­ tralian C onference of Principals of Colleges of A dvanced Education (A C P C A E ), 4 D ecem ber 1981, pp. 748-56.

15. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1448. 16. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, pp. 19-20 (M r K.N. Jones, Secretary, C om m onw ealth D epartm ent of E ducation). 17. A cadem ic Salaries T ribunal 1981 Review (C an b erra), O ctober, 1981, p. 102. 18. Industrial Comm ission o f New- South W ales Re University o f Newcastle Academic Staff, p. 20.

11

Λ

'

2. The advantages and disadvantages of tenure

Introduction

2.1 The arguments for and against tenure can be variously assessed depending upon the view point from which they are examined. Those employed in tenured positions submit quite different views to their untenured colleagues. Viewpoints also differ depending on the type of tertiary education institution and the type of discipline or fac­

ulty involved. Persons in the community at large can be quite sceptical of academic claims for tenure if the supporting arguments lack credibility or if the so-called ‘necess­ ity of tenure’ appears to be merely an assertion of privilege. Accordingly, before examining proposals to modify or develop the tenure system it is essential to set out as

clearly as possible what the evidence indicates the advantages and disadvantages of ten­ ure to be.

ADVANTAGES OF TENURE

Academic freedom

2.2 An important and historical justification for tenure which has been widely ac­ cepted is that tenure enables academics to engage in teaching and research secure in the knowledge that they will not be dismissed on account of what they teach or on account of the findings of their research. Fear of such dismissal would otherwise inhibit indepen­

dent thought, communication and action. The academic is appointed ‘to seek the truth and make it known’. The pursuit of truth requires the questioning of existing theories, practices and values, and requires the establishment of new evidence and new analyses in a spirit of free inquiry. These activities are not peculiar to institutions of higher learn­

ing but they are widely accepted as essential if these institutions are to make the sig­ nificant contributions to society in both discovery and education which are expected of them. When from time to time, there are reactions in the community that would inter­ fere with the work of an academic whether from administrators and colleagues within

the relevant institution or from persons in government, business or other involvements outside the university or college, then tenure is seen as the guarantee of academic freedom.

2.3 Whatever its status as a matter of law, an assurance given to an academic by an autonomous institution that he or she will not be dismissed except for certain good causes, together with guarantees of fair dismissal procedures, does in practice give con­ siderable protection if an academic takes an unpopular stance in teaching or research.

Nevertheless criticism genuinely arises at times when academics abuse their academic freedom by being unwarrantedly selective in their use of evidence or by making con­ tested assertions outside their own field of expertise. Criticism also arises when aca­ demics fail to pursue their enquiries or speak out about their findings if controversy

would be generated at the risk of their own promotion. The clear evidence submitted to the Committee is that the kind of outspokenness that would require the protection of tenure is very much the exception in Australian tertiary institutions rather than the rule.

2.4 It is generally accepted that academics have an obligation to work at the frontier of the development of knowledge and ideas. This increases the likelihood that they will encounter substantial conflict with current beliefs and practices, requiring the protec­ tion of tenure to continue their work. The Committee has been made aware of several

13

examples where tenure in recent times has given protection to academics espousing un­ popular causes. Nevertheless in Australia where the concept of freedom of speech is comparatively widely accepted in the community, the historic reason for granting ten­

ure to guarantee academic freedom has now become such a basic assumption that it is overshadowed by some of the other advantages of tenure that are mentioned below. However, the importance of ensuring genuine academic freedom should not be underestimated. Currently threats are more likely to come from within an institution than from without. It is recognised that academics require continuing protection from jealous or offended colleagues who may wish to see the removal of a professional rival.

2.5 It should also be pointed out that where there is this sort of pressure from an aca­ demic’s colleagues, the pursuit of tenure can be inimical to academic freedom. The pub­ lication of controversial or iconoclastic research results may not always lead as readily to tenure as ‘safer’ publications which are more acceptable to the peers by whom an academic is assessed.1 While the concept of academic freedom is meant to safeguard the pursuit of knowledge, it is not meant to shield individual academics from proper ac­ countability regarding the quality of their own work. The Committee has more to say about this later in the Report.

2.6 Academic freedom should characterise academic activities but the resources available for these activities are not unlimited. Accordingly the autonomy of academic decisions is exercised within the limits of public financial decisions and within the limits of the academic institution’s own decisions about courses, degrees and general priori­ ties. These practical limitations are referred to in the recent Report of the Committee of

Inquiry into Education and Training (Williams Report):2

*. . . Academic freedom is a blend of a freedom for scholars to search for truth and to publish truth as they see it and to make their views available for critical appraisal, and a re­ lated judgement that the scholars in a particular field of knowledge are in the best position to decide on research activities and on the nature and standard of courses to be offered to students. The practice of academic freedom is however subject to the qualification that no individual or department has an absolute right to give courses since courses are (or should be) integral parts of more general degree requirements. This qualification reveals a certain tension between the concept of academic freedom and the role of universities in granting academic degrees. The second aspect of academic freedom is related to the concept of aca­ demic autonomy. Academic autonomy means that the academic members of the university determine decisions on central academic issues such as standards of entry, curricula, examin­ ations and research projects.’

Job security/iong-term commitment to research and institution

2.7 Tenure assists in the development of long-term commitments and long-term re­ search. The Committee received considerable testimony that persons without tenure were placed in a position where they tended to work with one eye always on the next job application or renewal of contract. This tends to encourage activities with immedi­

ate or short-term results. It was argued that limited term staff are less inclined to under­ take risky research or research for which it takes a significant time to obtain and set up equipment. This is frequently because untenured staff believe they would jeopardize their employment as an academic if they fail to publish their research in sufficient quan­ tity before their contract expires. This imperative has often been described as ‘publish or perish’. The pressures that are caused by insecurity and time constraints to finish re­ search are unlikely to lead to excellence of work.

2.8 On the other hand, academics are likely to be motivated to undertake worthwhile long-term research through the protection afforded by job security. University research is often pure or basic research rather than applied research and may often be in esoteric

14

areas not yet of any direct commercial interest. It is not usual for such projects to re­ quire ten or more years to achieve worthwhile conclusions. Indeed, universities are among the few places where a long-term conentrated research effort of no immediate

market value can be sustained, even though the final results may have significant practi­ cal and commercial applications in the national interest. It is unlikely that an academic is going to commence what may become a ten-year endeavour without a reasonable as­ surance of continuity of employment to complete the research.

2.9 Security of tenure encourages a commitment of an academic to the wider well­ being of the institution and to a particular avenue of scholarship. This may include par­ ticipation in the whole range of departmental activities such as academic boards, selec­ tion committees, course development and assistance to the community. Where

academic institutions or departments provide programs of staff development, these in­ vestments are more likely to facilitate improved performance in return when staff are tenured. Staff development has less long-term effectiveness for non-tenured academics who change their work place more frequently.

2.10 The commitment of an academic to a particular discipline, as fostered by the granting of tenure, may also have long-term benefits for that institution that are not so apparent in the short term. This was argued by Professor Hugh Emy of Monash University:

‘Tenure thus forms part of the system whereby a university, as a whole and over time, acts deliberately to safeguard a reservoir of skills and experience for the critical pursuit of knowl­ edge. Curious though it seems, a degree of organisational inertia even has some positive by­ products for the long-term viability of universities; tenure can help to maintain disciplines

whose long-term worth is more apparent than the immediate relevance or attractiveness of their courses.’3

2.11 Understandably staff associations emphasised in their submissions that tenure of employment is justifiable on grounds of equity and staff morale in addition to such reasons as effective recruitment, career commitment and academic freedom. It was

argued that continuity of employment is a condition common to most professional and administrative workers. This applies especially in the public sector and in the field of state-employed primary and secondary teachers.

Ability to attract high quality staff

2.12 It was not disputed during evidence that tenure is important in attracting and re­ taining staff. Without tenure universities and CAEs would experience difficulty in com­ peting for the most able academics. The competition comes from overseas universities and from a wide range of professional employment opportunities in industry and the

public service. This difficulty for universities and colleges has been accentuated by the gradual increase over the last decade in the qualifications and experience expected for all levels of appointment. Some witnesses said that a few very capable academics might feel secure in their work with or without tenure but in general the absence of tenure

would lead most academics to find secure employment elsewhere. Even with tenure there are some academic fields such as engineering and management accounting where it is difficult for institutions to attract or retain the best persons in academic positions. Certainly Australian institutions could not hope to attract distinguished academics

from overseas except on a short visiting basis, without offering tenure. This is because the practice of granting tenure, by convention or contract, is prevalent in the countries from which Australia would hope to recruit. The capacity to grant tenure will in­

evitably be significant in encouraging promising Australian academics to return to Australia after they have broadened their experience overseas, perhaps in a tenured position.

15

2.13 The international character of much research makes it imperative that Australia attract high quality academics by advertising not only in Australia but overseas. While not an indication of the quality of academics, Table 2-1 gives an indication of the large proportion of university academics who have been appointed from overseas. As well, this high proportion of overseas appointments continues to be a feature in the current pattern of academic employment. Table 2-2 shows that in the twelve months ending in April 1977 50 per cent of all the new academic appointments were recruitments of per­ sons from overseas and this proportion rises to 66 per cent if inter-university transfers within Australia are excluded. If the proportion of tenured positions were to become appreciably lower in Australia than overseas then this pattern of high quality overseas

recruitments could be diminished and at the same time there would be an increased tendency for capable academics already in Australia to move overseas. Conversely Australia may currently be advantaged by the more severe limitations to tenure in other countries and by the newly rigorous limitations to tenure being introduced in others, notably the United Kingdom. Tables 2-3 and 2-4 give an indication of the large number of academics at lecturer level or above who have trained overseas, their source and the variations between Australian universities in this regard.

Table 2-1: Universities— Proportion of Academic Staff who Acquired their First Degree in an Overseas University* 1980

S taff Category

% with 1st Degree from Overseas University

Professor 43.1

Assoc. P ro f./R ead er 32.4

Senior L ecturer 37.4

L ecturer 34.6

Senior T utor 26.8

T utor 18.9

Note: The fact that a staff member acquired a first degree from an overseas university is taken as a reasonably reliable indicator that the staff member has been recruited from the international market.

* Source: FAUSA Survey of University Calendars 1980 (See Evidence 3 December 1981 p. 500)

16

Table 2-2: Universities— Number of External Appointments (Excluding ANU) Full-tim e T eaching and Research A cadem ic Staff during tw elve m onths ended 30 A pril 1977

Appointed to Prof- Associate Senior Lecturer Lecturer

previous position essor- P r o f e s s o r --------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total

Reader 6 5 4 3 2 Base Total 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Base Total

O th er A ustralian U n i­ versity Professor 6 4

Associate Professor 4 1

Senior L ecturer 10 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 9 2

L ecturer 2 8 10 11 3 3

Sub-lecturer grades 1 1 3 1 2

T O T A L 21 6 1 1 2 3 1 11 19 16 4 5

CA E C om m onw ealth or State

2 2 4 2

G overnm ent 5 3 2 5.6 10.6 7 4 1

Private Industry 1 .7 1 4 5.7 3 1

Overseas 34 8 10 3 5 10 12.5 40.5 29 15 15

O ther 1 1 1 4 5 3.4 1 3.8

T O T A L 4(1 10 13.7 5 7 10 1 26.1 63.8 46.4 23 19.8

10 5

1 3 23

5 5 5 1 9 42 52

11 6 16 39 40

6 5 16 7 25 84 130

3 1 2.5 12.5 14.5

2 8 3 11 7 43 58.6

2 2 1 6 15 21.7

17 31 20 15 43 185 *267.5

2 5 4 14.5 33.7 40.7

26 46 25 30 73 289.2 403.0

Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission. * The overseas figures are likely to include a number of Australian citizens/residents whose previous position was overseas (eg. higher degree students).

Table 2-3: Universities— Location of First Degree: Lecturer and Above (1977)

Other places

United North plus no

University Australia Kingdom America 1st degree

No. % No. %

1 W ollongong 2 M elbourne 3 New South W ales (1976) 4 Sydney

5 Newcastle 6 M acquarie 7 M onash 8 La T robe 9 Q ueensland 10 New England 11 Adelaide 12 T asm ania 13 M urdoch 14 W estern A ustralia 15 Flinders 16 A .N .U . (G en. Stud.) 17 Jam es Cook 18 A .N .U . (Adv. Stud.) 19 Griffith

88 71.5 11 8.9

570 69.3 120 14.7

732 69.3 164 15.5

593 68.2 163 18.8

162 68.1 36 15.1

254 67.4 66 17.5

406 61.2 129 19.4

224 61.0 70 19.1

502 60.6 162 19.6

168 57.1 65 22.1

337 56.4 164 27.4

136 56.2 67 27.7

41 55.4 22 29.7

253 54.8 105 22.7

146 53.9 57 21.0

156 53.1 59 20.1

72 50.3 38 26.6

138 50.2 69 25.1

35 46.1 11 14.5

No. % No. %

4 3.3 20 16.3

53 6.4 79 9.6

53 5.0 109 10.3

54 6.2 59 6.8

17 7.1 23 9.7

29 7.7 28 7.4

41 6.2 88 13.2

35 9.5 38 10.4

74 9.0 90 10.9

24 8.2 37 12.6

39 6.5 58 9.7

12 5.0 27 11.2

11 14.9 0 0.0

44 9.5 60 13.0

33 12.2 35 12.9

21 7.1 58 19.7

13 9.1 20 14.0

15 5.4 53 19.3

15 19.7 15 19.7

Table 2-4: Universities— Location of Second Degree: Lecturer and Above (1977)

University Australia

United Kingdom

North America

Other places plus no 1st degree

No. % No. % No. % No. %

1 Newcastle 128 53.8 41 17.2 36 15.1 33 13.9

2 M elbourne 432 52.6 152 18.5 102 12.4 136 16.5

3 Wollongong 63 51.2 19 15.5 18 14.6 23 18.7

4 New South W ales (1976) 534 50.5 235 22.2 122 11.5 167 15.8

5 Sydney 429 49.4 243 27.9 110 12.7 87 10.0

6 New England 130 44.2 77 26.2 48 16.3 39 13.3

7 Q ueensland 350 42.3 218 26.3 126 15.2 134 16.2

8 M acquarie 157 41.6 93 24.7 66 17.5 61 16.8

9 M urdoch 30 40.5 23 31.1 17 23.0 4 5.4

10 M onash 268 40.4 202 30.4 109 16.4 85 12.8

11 Adelaide 236 39.5 191 31.9 79 13.2 92 39.5

12 Jam es Cook 56 39.2 34 23.8 22 15.4 31 21.7

13 Tasm ania 94 38.8 74 30.6 35 14.5 39 16.1

14 A .N .U . (Adv. Stud.) 105 38.2 109 39.7 29 10.5 32 11.6

15 A .N .U . (G en. Stud.) 111 37.8 90 30.6 52 17.7 41 13.9

16 La T robe 136 37.1 108 29.4 74 20.2 49 13.3

17 W estern Australia 159 34.4 146 31.6 84 18.2 73 15.8

18 Flinders 92 34.0 78 28.8 60 22.1 41 15.1

19 Griffith 22 28.9 17 22.4 20 26.3 17 22.4

Australian ranking in percentages when those without second degees are omitted from the calculations. Melbourne 60.1, Newcastle 57.4, New South Wales 56.8, Wollongong 56.3, Sydney 52.3, Queensland 48.0, New England 47.5, Macquarie 46,7, Adelaide 44.4, James Cook 43.1, Monash 43.1, Tasmania 43.1, Murdoch 41.7, A.N.U. (Advanced Studies) 40.1, A.N.U. (General Studies) 39.9, La Trobe 39.5, Western Australia 37.5, Flinders 34.9, Griffith 31.9 . Source: Tables 2-3 and 2-4 F. Gale Academic Staffing: The Search for Excellence, Vestes, Vol. 23 No. 1 1980.

18

2.14 The reputation of a university or CAE is a very important factor in attracting capable staff, as well as in attracting the most promising postgraduate students who seek supervisors with established academic reputations or wide professional contacts. Related to this is the fact that the development of good schools or centres of excellence

does require a long-term commitment by able people and a consequent degree of stab­ ility. If senior staff are continually changing it is difficult to build up a school or faculty, and its reputation suffers. Tenure therefore helps to promote institutional stability and in turn attracts high quality staff.

2.15 Tenure is particularly important in attracting and retaining staff in tertiary insti­ tutions in the more remote parts of Australia. Applicants in the more competitive fields in Australia are reluctant to accept appointments involving transfer to, for example, Western Australia or North Queensland without the guarantee of tenure. Similarly it

may be difficult to persuade married staff to transfer to Sydney without tenure because of the very high housing costs in that city. Without tenure it would be hard to attract qualified and experienced professionals to become academics in the many vocationally oriented areas of teaching and research in CAEs: for example, accounting, computer

science and business studies.

Implications of tenure on salary levels

2.16 It was argued in several submissions to the Committee that tenure has impli­ cations for salary levels. As indicated in paragraph 1.30 Mr Justice Campbell was in­ clined towards this view in 1973 but he did not find it necessary to recommend loadings for non-tenured staff. The view was put to this Committee that if tenure were to be abolished, some academics might seek a higher salary to compensate for the loss of job

security. If in this event salaries were not increased (and without additional funding it is unlikely that they could be increased), then offers of employment or opportunities for private practice with higher levels of remuneration might well be taken up. This applies particularly to staff in faculties which prepare students for careers in the more highly

paid professions such as medicine, dentistry and engineering.

2.17 It is of course very difficult to quantify the value of tenure in money terms. FAUSA has unsuccessfully sought from the Academic Salaries Tribunal, a 20 per cent loading for academics on fixed term contracts. However this claim was more to com­ pensate for the absence of fringe benefits such as superannuation and long service leave,

rather than for the absence of tenure. Loadings for non-permanency do not exist in many areas of employment, but in others loadings vary and can be as high as 50 per cent. Many people, particularly academics, would say that tenure with its associated academic freedom and secure remuneration is a priceless commodity.

Staff morale/industrial relations 2.18 Good staff morale and job satisfaction are vital in any institution. The granting of tenure is a means of rewarding an individual’s accomplishments and of showing peer group approval. Also the job satisfaction of academics derives to a significant extent

from the degree of assurance they have of continuing employment in their own chosen field of scholarship and place of work. 2.19 A person who is already committed to a career with an institution into mid-life, rather than developing a position in another field of employment, would be unlikely to react kindly to finding that the assurances on which work has been done and plans have been made are then breached. It is obviously important to the maintenance of good in­ dustrial relations that tertiary institutions have a sensible and fair appreciation of the expectations created by past conventions and assurances with respect to tenure. Failure

19

to have such an appreciation might well precipitate deep resentment and legal challenge.

DISADVANTAGES OF TENURE

Inflexibility in staff arrangements

2.20 One of the main arguments that is put against the tenure system is that it creates a staffing situation that is relatively inflexible compared with a system that relies on fixed-term contracts. A tenured system is more difficult to adapt to the changing course demands of students which in turn partly reflect the changing employment opportuni­ ties of graduates. A tenured system is also more difficult to adjust in times of financial stringency as approximately 85 per cent of the budgets of tertiary institutions are ab­ sorbed by staff salaries. Accordingly if all staff are tenured then enormous and unrealis­ tic pressure bears down upon the remaining 15 per cent of the budget which related to non-salaried items and which by necessity is also quite inflexible. Any necessary changes in the tertiary education sectors can only be obtained by decisions affecting these very marginal areas of discretion and this remains true even when there is a growth in overall resources. For the grades of lecturer and above, 94 per cent of aca­ demics at universities and 88 per cent of academics at colleges are regarded as tenured

(calculated from Table 3-5). Accordingly any scope for reallocating existing resources in these institutions is determined largely by the rate at which vacancies arise from deaths, retirements or transfer of employment to outside the higher education sector.

2.21 Academic tenure arrangements lead to an unusual degree of inflexibility com­ pared with some other types of ‘permanent’ employment. For example, it is more difficult for academic administrators to cope with change and innovation than it is for public service administrators. This is largely because of the high degree of specialisation among academics. Public servants may be permanent employees but they have the capability of adjusting to frequent movements from one department to another and

from one program to another as the need arises. While not without advantages (see paragraph 2.10) the combination of specialisation and tenure encourages the perpetu­ ation of established departments, sometimes to the frustration of necessary institutional innovations.

Need for ‘new blood’

2.22 The reduced capacity in a predominately tenured system, for introducing young staff with new ideas as researchers and teachers, is a particular cause of concern in a situation of little or no growth. When the size of an institution is growing year by year it is natural to see more appointments going to young new graduates often with fresh and stimulating ideas. However, when established institutions are no longer growing in size the opportunity for new appointments of young graduates is much reduced for in this case positions become available only when vacancies arise on account of death, retire­

ment or resignation of existing staff. This no-growth situation has since the mid-1970s, come to typify almost all areas of higher education in Australia. Moreover, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable period ahead. When attention then is shifted to the oppor­ tunities arising from normal turnover of staff the general concern is further com­ pounded. There are some departments in tertiary institutions where there are no staff due to retire until the next century. For example, at the Australian National University there are three such departments. A 1977 survey conducted at the University of Mel­ bourne indicated that there were ten departments at the university where there were no

20

retirements foreshadowed for fiftefen years, and fifteen more departments where no retirements were expected within ten years.4 2.23 Limited opportunities for young graduates are of course not unique to the ter­ tiary education sector. This also applies in the public service when strict staff ceilings are imposed and in any industry where there is little or no growth. However, this situ­

ation for higher education has been greatly accentuated by the sharp discontinuity and contrast between the period of rapid growth in the 1960s and early 1970s being followed by the current period of little or no growth. One of the major outcomes of this discontinuity is the unbalanced age structure now evident in the academic staff of

education institutions. This imbalance is described in more detail in Chapter 3. While tenure of employment makes it more difficult to adjust any imbalances, any concept of permanency increases the need for long-term staff planning. This in turn is linked to a perception of the likely trends in long-term student enrolments, research programs and

the levels of financial support for tertiary institutions.

Effects on efficiency and complacency

2.24 The desire to become tenured is a powerful incentive to work hard and to pub­ lish the results of personal research. It would seem that once having achieved tenure, a small proportion of academics, earlier or later in their career, may lower their standards of performance. While permanency may to some extent relieve members of staff from

having to maintain their earlier level of diligence, there is no guarantee that in some of these cases deterioration would not have occurred anyway. At various stages in an aca­ demic’s career professional performance may be lowered by pressures and distractions arising from ill health or for family reasons. Distractions too may follow the develop­ ment of other interests and from other causes quite unconnected with work.

2.25 Not unexpectedly, there is disagreement in the community and amongst aca­ demics themselves as to what proportion of academics are ineffective, lazy or incom­ petent. There is also disagreement about whether these deficiencies are related or not to

the system of tenured employment. The Committee has no reason to believe that the proportion of inadequate performers is higher or lower than in other occupations. However, clear evidence is available of inadequate performance by some academics and that this is directly related to inadequate procedures for accountability. To a large extent these procedures are lacking because of vague and invalid appeals to the notion

of ‘tenure’. Professor Hugh Emy of Monash University, who estimated that 10 per cent of academics in some parts of his university were ineffective in some sense, and who be­ lieves that tenure should continue to form an integral part of the university system, said:

. . tenure seems to have become synonymous in the minds of some academics with a right to job security virtually irrespective of the individual’s contribution to teaching or scholarship. The assumption that he is tenured can lead an individual to imagine that he has a sole discretion to decide what work he will do and what energy he will expend on it. This can create problems for discipline and co-operation within a Department which are accen­

tuated by the lack of effective powers residing with the Chairman. The way the idea of ten­ ure has developed during the recent expansion of tertiary institutions has led to a decline in the principles of accountability within some parts of the organisation at least.-'

2.26 It is generally not disputed that academics work under less direct supervision than people in most other professions. Indeed, most work with no supervision at all apart from ‘collegiate’ decisions about lecture timetables and procedures for the assess­ ment of students’ work. Once tenure is achieved, there is limited formal process for

scrutinising the work of academics, making it possible for some individuals to achieve little and to become a serious handicap to their departments. While peer group pressure is considered to be an important source of remedy, heads of schools or departments

21

have very limited means to deal with that proportion of staff who may wilfully or unwittingly become undisciplined, ineffective, lazy or incompetent. Professor Emy de­ scribed it in this way:

‘The tenure system rests essentially on an honour system. There are virtually no disciplinary powers available to departmental Chairmen to deal with recalcitrant staff members who are, for example, absent from work without good reason, prone to cancelling lectures for reasons of convenience, repeatedly rude, unavailable to students or colleagues, or generally lazy. In all such cases, the only way to proceed is via persuasion, appeals to goodwill, or by utilisng indirect sanctions (e.g. opposing an application for study leave) where these are available. The Chairman generally has many of the responsibilities of an employer but none of his powers or sanctions. The problem is accentuated by the general unwillingness of the Univer­ sity authorities themselves to support or encourage action against inefficient staff members.

In a recent case in which I was concerned, the University found it did not have the power to stop the salary of a staff member who was absent without leave from teaching duties for one week at the start of the term. Sub-professorial staff are formally liable to six months’ notice, but this would only arise in the most extreme circumstances. Monash has been in existence for twenty years, during which time I gather only two tenured academics have been dismis­ sed for incompetence, and then only after the most strenuous efforts.’6 2.27 The Committee is in no doubt that there are many dedicated academics and that the great majority are good scholars who mostly perform well in their academic work.

Nevertheless it is also clear that there are widespread deficiencies in some areas such as in the presentation and techniques of undergraduate teaching and in the regular review of an academic’s research and teaching goals. These weaknesses in the system become particularly serious when they are compounded by complacency for that small pro­ portion of tenured academics who become uninterested in their profession. It was sub­ mitted to the Committee that these academics indicate their complacency by one or more of the following types of behaviour:

(a) failure to carry out any research; (b) failure to update lectures or their part of the curriculum, for several years; (c) not using the most up-to-date examples in their practical work; (d) setting similar questions in examination papers over several years (as distinct

from maintaining similar standards); (e) returning from sabbatical leave without giving any indication that they had been exposed to, sought, or brought back new ideas; (f) rarely making themselves available for assistance to their students; and (g) making little effort to reflect in their scholarship the relevance of what is

happening in the world outside the university or college. 2.28 In commenting on the assertions during the inquiry relating to ineffective and lazy staff, Professor Donald Stranks, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Adelaide, testified:

*. . . Equally it can be said that the staff in universities contain a high proportion of what are called workaholics-people who work almost to the point of the deterioration of their health-and it is a concern to me as a chief executive that I am more aware of those in­ stances than of the ineffective staff . . . . . . I have written to deans saying that even though the staffing situation at the univer­ sity is very tight they should not be inhibited in reporting to me any ineffective staff or cases of dereliction of duty by fearing that this might lead to staff losses. To sustain that point I have given an undertaking for staff replacement if dereliction of duty is the basis for dis­ missal. That, I think is an important attitude which underlines our commitment to sustaining tenure which is a responsibility as well as a right.’7 2.29 Those who claim that tenure arrangements support incompetent or inefficient staff have also to take account of the fact that the appointment process has become very professional, and applications keenly competitive. Moreover these appointments

2 2

have always been subject to a probationary period before tenure is confirmed. Accord­ ingly, it is not surprising that for most cases the granting of tenure does not adversely affect academic performance. Clearly it is not the general case which is of serious con­ cern but rather the minority of cases where there is serious inadequacy of performance.

In these cases the date of granting tenure seems to mark the dividing line between satis­ factory achievement and subsequent complacency. Once tenure has been granted, the grounds on which a staff member can be disciplined or dismissed almost disappear. It virtually appetQs to require gross misconduct, which can be fully documented, before

proceedings can be contemplated. Unfortunately in Australian higher education insti­ tutions there is sufficient evidence to indicate that there exist considerable areas of inefficiency and ineffectiveness in which academics can operate without crossing the line to a point where official action can be taken which has some hope of remedying the

situation.

Tenure creates a two-tier system

2.30 It is frequently said that one of the disadvantages of the tenure system is that it creates a two-tier system made up of those who have tenure and those who do not. In the present system those who do not manage to obtain tenure consider themselves

members of an underprivileged class of academics. This became very evident during the inquiry when those who had tenure naturally enough argued in favour of it, while those who did not have tenure lamented for the lack of it and urged that there be the same system for all academics alike. The latter group, a large proportion of whom are in tutor/dem onstrator positions, felt that while they have an important role within aca­ demic institutions this role is denied by their not having security of employment or the ability to accrue such benefits as superannuation, long-service and sabbatical leave. At

the same time non-tenured staff are denied the use of some facilities and equipment, are less successful in applications for research grants and they have less access to decision­ making processes. Long-term planning, appointment and promotion procedures are largely in the hands of tenured academics. Non-tenured staff claim that many of these

decision-makers obtained their tenure in the period of great expansion in the 1960s and early 1970s when standards were not as high as those of aspirants to tenured positions today.

2.31 Most non-tenured staff feel considerable frustration particularly when they cir­ culate around a pool of non-tenured positions, which has been shrinking steadily be­ cause of the financial restraints of recent years. Among these non-tenured staff there are instances of tension, anxiety and reduced commitment towards institutions which appear by excluding them from tenure to deem them unworthy of first-class support.

The questions of tenure for tutors and their conditions of employment are considered in more detail in Chapter 4.

Conclusions

2.32 From the outline in this Chapter it is clear that the advantages of the tenure sys­ tem are substantial and cannot be lightly dismissed. Tenure provides the security of em­ ployment and remuneration which allows the freedom of inquiry essential to academic

work. Whilst tenure may not be strictly necessary for effective teaching or research, it certainly enhances scholarly work. Without tenure provisions it would be more difficult to attract highly qualified staff to academic work whether from overseas or within Australia. Tenure is also an important foundation for long-term research commitments

and provides the essential stability for building up centres of excellence with widely ap­ preciated academic reputations.

23

2.33 At the same time the system of tenure has profound implications for the aca­ demic staff structures of higher education institutions and for the proper accountability of academics. The first problem may be summarised as inflexibility. Particularly in periods of little or no growth in the size of institutions there are few opportunities for innovation or for the appointment of younger academics with fresh ideas. These poten­ tially good developments are frustrated by the low turnover of the exisiting staff and the consequent entrenching of their specialisations. This area of difficulty is compounded

by the danger of there being inadequate institutional remedies in the face of ineffective academic work. A third problem is the interface between those staff who have tenure and those who do not. These several problems together with a number of issues related to them and a discussion of some possible solutions are the subject of the remaining Chapters of this Report. The aim of any review of academic tenure should be to strengthen the advantages of tenure and at the same time ensure that there are effective practical procedures to overcome the tenure system’s principal problems.

Endnotes

1. R eference to institutional constraints on academ ic freedom is contained in Evidence, 8 F ebruary 1982, pp. 890 and 917; and Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 373. 2. Report o f Committee o f Inquiry into Education and Training (W illiam s R eport) Volume 1 (February 1979), p. 151. '

3. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1168-69. 4. ibid, pp. 1255-56. 5. ibid, pp. 1165, 1190-91. 6. ibid, p. 1170. 7. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1710.

24

3. Academic staff structure

Differences between universities and CAEs

3.1 Between 1958 and 1975, demographic factors such as the increase of the tertiary aged population, combined with the increase of the participation rates of the 17 to 22 year old age group provided the impetus for a significant increase in the number of insti­ tutions providing tertiary education within Australia. The pivot for this expansion was

the Murray and Martin reports.1 During this period enrolments at tertiary institutions more than tripled from 41 000 in 1958 to 148 000 in 1975. Higher degree enrolments showed an even more dramatic increase during the same period increasing from 1 700 to 16 700.2

3.2 To cater for such demand, it was necessary not only to expand the size of existing institutions, but as well to increase their number. Thus the traditional tertiary insti­ tutions, the universities, doubled in number, from nine in 1958 to 18 in 1975.3 Since then, only one new university has been established (Deakin University in 1977). Ad­ ditionally, the increased demand was not solely directed at the traditional style of uni­ versity education. There was perceived to be a need for more vocationally oriented edu­ cation programs which were more akin to existing courses of teacher training. Thus

there came into being a new and distinctive education sector known as the advanced education sector.

3.3 In 1973, on the recommendation of this Committee,4 the 43 former teachers’ col­ leges were included under the advanced education funding arrangements, greatly increasing the CAE sector. By 1980 despite the decline in the demand for teachers, teacher education staff made up approximately 40 per cent of full-time staff in CAEs.

In 1975, there were 84 institutions defined as CAEs for the purpose of Commonwealth grants. Some of these were only small single-purpose institutions. By 1979 the number of institutions had been reduced to 71. Through a continuing process of amalgamations

and some closures this number is in the process of being reduced to 47.

3.4 The difference in roles between universities and colleges has its origins in each sec­ tor’s beginnings. The universities can trace a common heritage, even though newer universities vary greatly from the traditional and longer established institutions in re­ lation to their size, operation and the courses they provide. On the other hand, the ad­

vanced education sector does not have such a homogeneous heritage as it developed from a variety of elements such as institutes of technology, technical, agricultural and paramedical colleges, teachers’ colleges and art schools.

3.5 Some of the typical characteristics which reflect differences between the CAE sector and universities are as follows:

1. Academic staff at universities have an obligation to undertake research; conditions of appointment require them to engage in teaching and research and they are expected to devote a substantial portion of their time to the latter. Although some research activities occur in colleges, the staff’s commitment is strongly to teaching.

2. The academic qualifications of university staff tend to be higher, and in their appointment greater emphasis is placed on distinction in scholarship, research and pub­ lications; college staff are expected to retain links with industry and other relevant vo­

cational pursuits.

3. Universities have a higher proportion of senior staff in the grade of senior lecturer or above.

4. Universities are all established under their own Acts of Parliament. Some colleges are established under their own Acts but a large proportion of them are established

25

under ‘umbrella’ legislation of the relevant State. Universities tend to have a greater de­ gree of autonomy in the management of their affairs. College courses require formal ap­ proval for funding, are accredited by State Boards and are registered by the Australian Council on Awards in Advanced Education. The registration has a maximum currency of five years; beyond this each course must be re-accredited.

5. Colleges have a more direct relationship with industry, commerce and other employing authorities; their courses tend to have a more applied emphasis and to be more vocationally oriented. 6. The university sector’s national and international standing depends primarily on its quality of graduate and postgraduate instruction and its ability to carry out research of a high order. In contrast the college sector’s role extends (with a vocational orien­ tation) both above and below the graduate degree level. There is a significant commit­ ment of colleges to three-year diplomas following a full secondary education. In ad­ dition there are colleges which offer lower level two-year associate diplomas in some disciplines. Colleges tend to have more flexible entrance requirements than universities. 3.6 The attitude of the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) to research in CAEs is that college staff ought to be encouraged to become involved in ap­ plied research. Professor Karmel, the CTEC Chairman, informed the Committee that as for universities, although no specific CTEC funds are allocated for the purpose,

funding is sufficient to provide a staffing ratio which does give staff in CAEs, as in universities, enought time to pursue research. The bigger colleges have managed in ad­ dition to obtain research contracts to support substantial applied research activities. In any event the main channels of financial support for individual research programs are provided by the Australian Research Grants Committee (ARGC); and similar more specialised processes are available by application to university and college academics alike.

The role and responsibilities of academic staff

3.7 There is a clear expectation that an academic’s work should be multi-faceted. As already indicated they are expected to do research and to advance scholarship, to trans­ mit their knowledge by teaching students and by writing books and papers and to be in­ volved in the administration of their faculties, in other teaching-related activities and in community activities. Many academics in both sectors are closely involved with their associated professions, and they act as advisers in both the public and private sectors. Sometimes they are criticised for making unsolicited public statements and opinions particularly if these are outside their field of expertise. Whatever the balance of these expectations may be, it is not usual for academics to receive formal statements setting out the duties expected of them. The obvious weaknesses that flow from this lack of clearly defined duties needs to be addressed and remedied. 3.8 Some critics of the performance of academics underestimate the amount of time academic staff spend on research as well as overlook the requirement for this activity to continue during student vacations. The fact that academics give lectures and tutorials is common knowledge but it is sometimes overlooked that academics have to spend much longer periods on activities related to teaching such as preparation of lectures and tutorials, planning course structures, setting and assessing examination papers and assignments. Even less obvious to those unfamiliar with the work of academics is the re­ quirement, in varying degrees, for academics to participate in the decision-making and administrative processes of the department or faculty, and to supervise postgraduate students. There are also other calls on an academic’s time, from students, colleagues, their institution and from the outside community. The results of one recent survey of academic workloads (see Table 3-1) indicates a wide variety in the ways academics

26

have claimed their normal 45-hour week is divided between their several main types of activity. In general, most academics appear to spend half of the 40-week academic year in teaching and teaching-related activities and about one quarter in research. However, the 12-week period outside of the academic year is presumably more fully devoted to

research.

Table 3-1: Universities— Components of Term Time— Average Weekly Workload— Lecturer to Pro­ fessor» 1977

Components o f workload during semester by classification (hours per week)

Type o f activity Professor

Associate Professor/ Reader

Senior Lecturer Lecturer

T eaching 6.2 8.8 9.5 9.5

T eaching related duties 10.4 11.6 14.7 17.5

A dm inistration and com m ittee w ork 15.8 8.2 5.8 4.2

Research 10.6 13.2 10.8 11.3

C om m unity activity 2.5 1.8 2.2 1.5

O ther 1.5 2.2 1.9 1.3

TOTAL 47.0 45.8 44.9 45.3

Source: National Survey of Post-Secondary Teaching Staff 1977 carried out on behalf of the Williams Committee of Inquiry into Education and Training by the Sample Survey Centre, University of Sydney. The sample of 1,400 questionnaires received for the survey represented a two-thirds response and in excess of 10 per cent of the full-time university teaching staff. See Evidence 3 December 1981 p. 502 (FAUSA) and also Submission No. 124.

Who employs academics and in what numbers?

3.9 All universities, with the exception of the ANU, and most of the colleges of ad­ vanced education are established under State legislation. As indicated in paragraph 3.5 universities have a greater degree of independence. Even though each college is auton­ omous, the college sector is co-ordinated at the State level by State authorities. Consist­

ent with each institution’s autonomy, there is granted to the respective governing bodies the power of staff appointment and the power of termination of staff employment. These powers are accompanied by others for the general control and management of the institution’s affairs. It should be emphasised that the formal employer of academic

staff is the governing body of each autonomous institution and in practice it is the governing body which is in a position to implement procedures for tenure and to im­ plement any reforms which will strengthen the purposes for which academics are employed.

3.10 Since each institution has independently determined the conditions of appoint­ ment and service of its academic staff, there has developed little uniformity nationally in the codes of employment. A significant exception is in the area of academic salaries, since these are determined by the Academic Salaries Tribunal (see paragraph 1.30). In­

stitutions are not obliged to follow these salary determinations. However, each of the governing bodies has by and large accepted this measure of uniformity. Other con­ ditions of employment such as tenure and superannuation vary greatly between the two sectors as well as between institutions around Australia, although there is some uni­

formity in the superannuation area within individual States and between some institutions.

27

819 1 062

Table 3-3: Universities: Full-time Academic Staff—Age Structure and Percentage Tenured (1979); Number (1981); and Student Numbers (1981)

Prop o f F /T Academic S ta ff Number By Age (1979) F /T

% Academic S ta ff

(1981)

Perm/Prob Students F /T Academic (1981) (b) S ta ff as a Prop o f

Academic S ta ff

(1979) (a)

University 45 & over 50 & over 55 & over %

Sydney 40.3 24.8 12.8 1258 77.2 17 855

N ew South W ales 40.5 25.0 11.0 1244 80.6 16 655

N ew England 38.8 , 26.2 11.3 426 68.9 5 801

Newcastle 34.7 19.1 10.2 327 91.2 3 425

M acquarie 29.6 14.2 5.4 551 76.7 7 577

W ollongong 30.0 14.7 8.0 192 80.1 2 323

M elbourne 46.5 30.9 16.1 1010 72.4 15 326

M onash 35.8 20.2 8.1 871 76.0 13 214

L a T ro b e 24.8 12.3 6.4 496 73.6 7 198

Deakin 26.4 15.3 4.2 215 85.8 2 992

Q ueensland 41.8 26.2 12.1 1148 78.9 14 803

Jam es Cook 34.8 15.1 7.9 216 77.0 1 750

Griffith 18.9 .5.6 1.8 164 69.0 1 955

Adelaide 41.8 25.2 11.9 642 84.2 8 276

Flinders 23.2 13.8 4.7 303 84.6 3 196

W estern A ustralia 41.8 27.2 14.6 580 86.1 8 620

M urdoch 13.3 3.9 0.8 176 70.8 1 902

T asm ania 40.4 26.7 14.5 373 94.0 4 241

Aust. N ational— Faculties 29.6 17.6 7.2 394 76.9 5 515

TOTAL ALL UNIVERSE TIES 32.6 19.9 9.5 10 584 78.6 142 622

(a) ‘Tenured staff includes probationary appointments pending confirmation of tenure. (b) Equivalent full-time units.

Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.

3.11 As the power of appointment and the conditions of service lie with each governing body as the employing authority, the management of staff numbers is the di­ rect responsibility of each institution. However, in the CAE sector there is some control or consultation with the relevant State co-ordinating authority. The number of aca­ demics employed by individual universities and colleges are shown in Tables 3-2, 3-3 and 3-4. Student numbers are shown for comparison in the latter two tables to give an

indication of the size of the various institutions.

Table 3-4: Colleges of Advanced Education— Full-Time Academic Staff, Age Structure and Percentage Tenured (Lecturer and Above) (1980); Number (1981); and Student Numbers (1981)

Prop, o f Perm. F /T Number Perm./Prob. F /T Students Academic S ta ff by F /T Academic S ta ff 1981

Age (1980) Academic as a prop, o f (b)

(%) S ta ff F /T Academic

----------------------------------- 1981 S ta ff 1980 (a)

Institution 45 ά over 50 & over (%)

A lexander M ackie, now part of Sydney C A E ' 42.5 23.0 94 91.6 1 256

A rm idale CA E 46.9 26.6 80 80.0 1049

30

Prop, o f Perm. F/T Number Perm./Prob. F /T Students Academic S ta ff by F /T

Age (1980) Academic (%) S ta ff

Academic S ta ff as a prop, o f F /T Academic S ta ff 1980 (a)

(%)

1981 (6)

Institution 45 & over 50 & over

C atholic T eachers College, now p art of C atholic College o f Education 37.8 17.8 57 76.3 842

C um berland College of Health Sciences 28.8 7.6 122 64.1 1 253

G oulburn College of A dvanced E du­ cation, now p art of Riverina C A E 35.1 24.6 56 89.1 656

G uild T eachers College, now p a rt of Syd­ ney C A E 26.3 10.5 26 95.0 227

H aw kesbury A gricultural College 27.5 12.5 70 67.8 788

Kuring-gai C A E 42.9 21.0 171 72.1 3 096

M itchell CA E 33.6 15.3 159 89.1 2 622

N epean CA E 33.8 13.0 77 97.5 1 527

New castle C A E 44.4 21.6 169 91.6 2 037

N.S.W . S tate C onservatorium of Music 54.5 34.8 66 100.0 427

N ew castle Conservatorium of Music 80 40.0 4 100.0

N orthern Rivers C A E 47.2 19.4 48 78.7 886

N ursery School T raining College, now p art o f Sydney C A E 21.4 7.1 18 87.5 221

O range A gricultural College 29.4 11.8 21 100.0 254

Folding College, now p art of Catholic C A E 23.3 6.7 43 71.4 562

Riverina CA E 23.6 15.9 189 90.2 2 498

Sydney College o f the Arts 39.1 21.7 48 51.1 730

Sydney K indergarten T raining College, now p art of Sydney CA E 36.4 22.7 25 100.0 331

Sydney T eachers College, now p a rt of Sydney C A E 50.3 26.1 175 81.8 2 140

M ilperra CA E 24.3 16.2 48 80.4 658

N.S.W . In stitu te o f Technology 33.3 18.8 310 79.7 5 380

W ollongong Institute of E ducation from 1 M ay 1982, University of W ollongong 52.4 20.6 65 91.3 804

B allarat SCV 33.9 18.1 155 83.0 1 496

Bendigo SCV 37.8 18.2 153 96.7 1 495

Burwood SCV, now part of Victoria C ol­ lege 41.4 21.8 111 97.8 1 544

Caulfield Institute of Technology, now Chisholm In stitu te o f Technology 35.3 22.1 266 89.6 3 600

C oburg SCV, now p art of Phillip Institute of Technology 27.1 11.4 83 80.5 1 126

Foostcray Institute of Technology 25.0 8.3 171 86.3 2 303

F rankston SCV, now part of Chisholm Institute of Technology 32.7 13.5 49 98.1 529

G ippsland 24.2 12.6 102 80,8 1411

H aw thorn 37.4 24.0 99 85.2 1544

C atholic Institute of Education 38.9 26.4 92 83.7 1295

Institute of Early Childhood D evelop­ m ent 56.8 40.5 41 86.0 712

Lincoln Institute of Health Services now part of Phillip Institute of Technology 24.4 11.5 141 80.4 1 479

M elbourne 32.8 15.9 268 95.6 3 426

P rahran C A E now part of Victoria C ol­ lege 24.6 13.8 91 74.7 1 363

Preston Institute of Technology now part of Phillip Institute of Technology 28.3 15.0 162 84.3 1 946

Royal M elbourne Institute of Technology 43.8 30.9 542 90.2 8 252

31

Prop, o f Perm. F /T N um ber Academic S t a ff by F /T

Age (1980) Academic (%) S ta ff

Perm./Prob. F /T Students Academic S ta ff 1981

as a prop, o f (b)

F /T Academic

Institution 45 & over 50 ά over (%)

Rusden State College o f V ictoria now p a rt o f Victoria College 27.6 14.7 166 92.8 1 931

S w inburne Institute of Technololgy 25.3 15.4 290 96.2 3 880

V ictorian College of the A rts 45.4 27.3 39 29.7 496

T oorak SCV 41.2 22.1 89 91.9 1 118

V ictorian College o f Pharm acy 22.7 4.5 41 91.7 379

W arrn am b o o l In stitu te o f A d v an ce d E ducation 12.5 4.2 68 77.4 925

Brisbane K indergarten T eachers College now p art of Brisbane C A E 55.0 40.0 22 87.0 335

C apricornia Institute o f A dvanced E du­ cation 22.7 8.0 112 74.3 1 559

D arling Downs Institute o f A dvanced E duction 22.1 9.1 177 87.5 2 490

K elvin G rove C A E now p art o f Brisbane C A E 39.2 24.3 174 87.1 2 198

M ount G rav att C A E now p art o f Bris­ bane CA E 45.9 24.3 119 100.0 1 527

N orth Brisbane C A E now p a rt o f Bris­ bane CA E 29.3 22.8 103 95.8 1 364

Q ueensland A gricultural College 32.8 20.9 93 100.0 797

Q ueensland Conservatorium o f M usic 52.9 35.3 18 85.0 228

Q ueensland Institute o f T echnology 31 15.2 335 96.4 5 201

Townsville CA E now p art o f Jam es Cook U niversity o f N orth Q ueensland 31.6 10.5 65 74.5 803

A delaide College o f A rt and E ducation now part of South A ustralian C A E 39.5 21.8 279 85.0 3 534

H artley CA E now p a rt o f S outh A us­

tralian CAE 31.4 18.6 121 82.3 1 734

Rosew orthy A gricultural College 15.8 10.5 45 97.4 399

Salisbury CA E now p a rt o f S outh A us­ tralian CAE 28.9 14.5 89 86.4 1 253

S outh A ustralian Institute o f T echnology 43.3 23.8 350 90.0 4 132

S tu rt C A E now p art o f South A ustralian C A E 29.8 18.1 100 96.9 1 294

C hurchlands 36.1 20.6 138 77.0 1 966

C larem ont to be consolidated 48.1 22.2 68 84.4 903

M ount Lawley with W estern 33.3 9.2 122 87.9 1 449

N edlands A ustralian C A E 38.1 20.9 131 80.8 1 552

W estern A ustralian Institute o f T ech­ nology 43.3 27.6 609 81.8 8 496

T asm ania 40.0 23.3 134 88.7 1 520

D arw in Com m unity College 22.2 15.6 57 90.0 434

(a) ‘Tenured staff1 includes probationary appointments pending confirmation of tenure (b) Full-time equivalents Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission

3.12 In general terms, the role of the CTEC has not extended to matters relating to the employment of academics. Its prime task is to advise the Commonwealth Govern­ ment on financial assistance to the three sectors of tertiary education in Australia. The CTEC does this by publishing comprehensive triennial and annual reports and by

32

recommending patterns of block grants to each individual tertiary education insti­ tution. Occasionally funds are also earmarked for particular Commonwealth initiat­ ives. In the context of advising on balanced and co-ordinated development, the Com­ mission may investigate or be specifically required by the Government to investigate

issues which have implications for staff. An example of such an investigation was that relating to study leave, which was carried out by the Commission in 1978.

Distribution of tenured and non-tenured staff

3.13 Table 3-5 contains details of the proportion of tenured and non-tenured aca­ demics, by ranks, for State universities and the CAE sector. In 1979, 78.3 per cent of academics in universities were tenured, and in 1980, 83.2 per cent of college academics were tenured. (These figures become 94 per cent tenured in universities and 88 per cent

tenured in colleges when only lecturers and above are taken into account). The table shows that any staffing flexibility due to the proportion of tenured to non-tenured staff rests predominately at the lower levels of the academic staff structure. By contrast the table also clearly indicates the absence of flexibility at the level of senior lecturer and

above.

Table 3-5: Full-time Teaching-and-Research Staff at State Universities in 1979 and Full-time Academic Staff at Colleges of Advanced Education in 1980, by Grade and Type of Appointment

Grade

Tenured (a) Fixed term

Total

One year or less More thanone year

Proportion Proportion Proportion

Number o f total N um ber o f total Number o f total

p e rc e n t per cent per cent

S T A T E U N IV ER SITIES Professor 1 046 99.1 1 055

Associate professor/reader 1 143 99.3 26 0.5 36 0.7 1 151

Senior lecturer 3 148 98.6 3 193

L ecturer 2 352 84.1 131 4.7 312 11.2 2 795

P rincipal/senior tutor 359 44.7 224 27.9 220 27.4 803

T u tor/dem onstrator 4 0.3 922 71.6 362 28.1 1 288

TOTAL 8 052 78.3 1 303 12.7 930 9.0 10 285

C O L L E G E S O F A D V A N C E D E D U C A T IO N Above senior lecturer 772 97.0 — - 24 3.0 796

Senior lecturer 2 002 97.7 10 0.5 37 1.8 2 049

L ecturer 4 511 82.7 254 4.7 690 12.6 5 455

Below lecturer 182 27.1 291 43.3 199 29.6 672

TOTAL 7 467 83.2 555 6.2 950 10.6 8 972(A)

(a) Includes staff on probationary appointm ents.

(b) Excludes 108 staff on secondment and 61 staff who held other types of appointments.

Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium: Recommendations on Guidelines Vol. 1 Part 1 AGPS Canberra. February 1981 p. 82.

3.14 The information contained in the table relates to a few years ago but is the most recently accumulated material available. The current situation has not significantly changed with regard to the proportions of tenured and non-tenured staff. However, there is a tendency in both universities and colleges for the proportion of tenured staff

to be increasing, as current financial restraints have sometimes led to the elimination of

33

more junior non-tenured positions (by comparison) than to the filling of previously tenured positions with contract appointments.

3.15 The considerable variations between the individual universities and CAEs in the proportion of tenured staff are shown in Tables 3-3 and 3-4. Tenure statistics, in both tables, include within the overall percentage of tenured academic staff those staff who have probationary appointments. Thus, the number of academics who are still required to have their tenure confirmed are regarded as tenured staff for the purpose of these tables. Currently the number of staff with probationary appointments pending confir­ mation of tenure amount to 7.7 per cent of all academic staff in universities and 4.3 per cent of all academic staff in colleges. Among State universities, the proportion of tenured staff varies greatly, the range for 1979 being between 69 per cent and 94 per cent. Among colleges of advanced education in 1981, the proportion varied from 29 per cent to 100 per cent;5 and in 1980 offa State by State basis, it varied from 78 per cent to 97 per cent tenured.6 3.16 While the overwhelming majority of tertiary institutions maintain a high pro­ portion of tenured staff, there is a minority of institutions which purposely run contrary to this trend. Institutions such as the Australian National University Institute of Ad­ vanced Studies, the Sydney College of the Arts and the Victorian College of the Arts, maintain half or more than half of their academic staff on fixed-term appointments. This situation derives directly from their respective staffing policies which, due to their specialised fields of activity, dictate that staffing flexibility is an overriding consider­ ation. For example, the Australian National University Institute of Advanced Studies,

which is regarded as Australia’s leading university centre for theoretical and empirical research in the natural and social sciences, gives an overriding consideration to main­ taining the Institute’s research vitality by the continued and significant turnover of re­ search staff.7 This is achieved by employing approximately 50 per cent of academic re­ search staff on limited-term appointments. In relation to art schools, many of those employed are professional artists or musicians who prefer, for the sake of their pro­ fessional careers, to maintain a balance between employment in a tertiary institution and employment within the community.8 Such a situation is of positive value to the in­ stitution since because of this continual interchange of academic staff, the institution has the ability to offer a more varied range of courses than would be possible with a rigid staff establishment. Another aspect of a large staff turnover is that courses such as social work courses gain significantly from academics moving between the community and the place of instruction. Theory and practice can thus become complementary aspects of learning and not isolated as in some subject areas. This large degree of staff flexibility and interchange may also assist women academics by enabling them to attend to family commitments before returning to another fixed term appointment. This par­ ticular aspect is taken up more fully in Chapter 5.

3.17 Table 3-5 indicates the overall tenure statistics for State universities in 1979 and colleges in 1980. It is emphasised that these statistics include the grades of tutor, senior tutor and assistant lecturer. These positions generally are not expected to lead to pro­ motion to senior grades. If they are excluded, the proportion of tenured staff of the rank of lecturer and above is 94 per cent for universities (range: 85 per cent to 99 per cent), and 88 per cent for colleges of advanced education (range: 30 per cent to 100 per cent) ,9 Therefore in some institutions tenure is virtually universal for staff of the rank of lec­ turer and above and it would appear there is very little flexibility in the career grades in a large proportion of institutions in both sectors. 3.18 It should be noted from Table 3-5 that in universities (in 1979) there were only 62 or 1.1 per cent of senior positions (senior lecturer and above) which were non- tenured in comparison to 1 284 or 99.7 per cent non-tenured in the tutorship rank. This

34

reinforces the point made previously that non-tenured appointments are widely used in the area of junior academic staff; whereas they are used sparingly in the main career appointment areas such as senior lecturer and above. This highlights the two-tier sys­ tem referred to in paragraphs 2.30-2.31. Bearing in mind that there are far fewer staff

in senior lecturer or higher positions in the CAE sector compared with universities, there is overall similarity between the two sectors; the higher the rank the less the flexi­ bility regarding tenure.

3.19 It is within the confines of these overall staff numbers and staff structures that universities and colleges must look to improve their measure of staffing flexibility. Flexibility in academic staff structures depends on three factors: (a) the ability and inclination of an institution to declare otherwise tenured pos­

itions redundant or in the face of financial exigency to decide that similar pos­ itions should be retrenched and in these cases the redundant or retrenched staff would be dismissed; (b) the proportion of non-tenured staff with contract appointments; and (c) the normal staff separation rate or staff turnover. Redundancy and retrenchment decisions are clearly the most severe means of increas­ ing an institution’s staffing flexibility. Accordingly it is natural that governing bodies have looked to the other less stringent methods of improving the flexibility of their insti­ tutions. One method that has been adopted by some is to adopt maximum proportions of tenured positions for each department so that, for example, 15 per cent to 25 per cent

of all academic positions are contract appointments. However, where institutions have been reluctant to intervene in these ways it remains true that the rate at which an insti­ tution can make new staff appointments or rearrange the distribution of its staff numbers is dependent upon the rate of staff turnover. The factors which significantly

influence staff turnover are: (i) the proportion of tenured to non-tenured staff; (ii) separation rates due to deaths, retirements or resignations; (iii) age profile of academic staff which affects the continuation of an acceptable

retirement rate; and (iv) academic staff structure, that is the distribution of staff between the various levels of appointment.

Academic staff structure

3.20 Table 3-6 shows the distribution of full-time equivalent teaching-and-research staff at universities and full-time teaching staff at CAEs by grade, comparing them for the years 1975 and 1980. The table indicates that in the period there has been a sig­ nificant increase in the number of staff at the more senior levels in universities, particu­

larly at the senior lecturer level. In the latter grade the proportion of the total increased from 23.9 per cent to 29.2 per cent. This is said to reflect the tendency in some universi­ ties to promote lecturers to senior lecturer positions once they reach the top of the lec­ turer range. The Committee has more to say on this matter in a later chapter. In re­

lation to funding, the problem is illustrated by the fact that in 1980 the nominal mean salary (derived by weighting the mid-salary point for each grade according to the number of staff in each grade) for university academic staff was 3.1 per cent higher in real terms than it was in 1975.10 This shift in the overall proportion of senior to junior

staff was traditionally described as a move to top-heaviness but more recently the ter­ minology has been ‘incremental creep’.

35

Table 3-6: Full-Time Equivalent Teaching-and-Research Staff at Universities and Full-Time Equivalent Academic Staff at Colleges of Advanced Education, by Grade, 1975 and 1980

Grade

1975

Number Proportion o f total

1980

N um ber Proportion o f total

per cent per cent

U N IV E R S IT IE S

Professor 980 8.9 1 096 9.3

Associate professor/reader 1 042 9.4 1 265 10.7

Senior lecturer 2 652 23.9 3 436 29.2

L ecturer 3 062 27.7 2 9 1 7 24.8

P rincipal/senior tu to r j 943 8.5 819 6.9

T u to r/d e m o n stra to r 2 396 21.6 2 249 19.1

TOTAL 11 075 100.0 11 782 100.0

C O L L E G E S O F A D V A N C E D E D U C A T IO N

A bove senior lecturer 624 7.0 765 7.4

Senior lecturer 1 645 18.3 2 072 20.1

L ecturer 5 322 59.3 5 989 58.1

O th er teaching staff . 1 384 15.4 1 478 14.4

TOTAL 8 975 100.0 10 304 100.0

Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendations on Grants Vol. 1 Part 1 AGPS Canberra February 1981 p. 79.

3.21 Table 3-6 does not show any significant change in the staff structure of the total CAE sector during the period 1975-1980 although what change there does happen to be is in a similar direction to that of universities. It is also of interest to note from this table that there is a much larger proportion of tutors in universities than the proportion of junior teaching staff in the CAE sector (where the function of tutors is largely carried

out at the lecturer level). Table 3-7 shows the concentration of CAE staff in the highest grades of senior lecturer and lecturer respectively, as well as the type of appointment.

Table 3-7: Colleges of Advanced Education— Full-Time Academic Staff by Grade and Type of Appointment

Fixed Term (Years)

Grade

Perman­ ent*

One year or less

One to two years

Two to fo u r years

Four years or more Total Others Total %

Permanent

Above senior lecturer 772 0 6 13 5 24 3 779 96.6

Senior L ecturer 1 1 349 5 5 9 1 20 3 1 372 98.3

Senior L ecturer 2 653 5 3 19 0 27 2 682 95.8

L ecturer 1 3410 37 49 107 7 200 20 3 630 93.9

L ecturer 2 854 101 111 201 8 421 50 1 325 64.5

L ecturer 3 247 116 76 129 2 323 19 589 41.9

Below Lecturer 182 291 84 107 8 490 72 744 24.5

TOTAL 7 467 555 334 585 31 1 505 169 9 141 81.7

* Includes 321 probationary appointments

Source: CTEC Report for Triennium 1982-84 Advice o f Advanced Education Council, Vol. 1 Part 3 AGPS Canberra February 1981 p. 37

36

Age profile of full-time academic staff

3.22 Table 3-8 shows the age distribution of full-time teaching-and-research staff in 1979 (for State universities) and in 1980 (for CAEs). It will be seen that the age profile for the two sectors is similar, in that in both sectors approximately 70 per cent of staff were under 45 years at that time. The table also shows that the peak concentration of ages falls in the 35-44 age bracket at both universities and colleges and that this peak proportion is greater at the colleges.

Table 3-8: Full-Time Teaching-and-Research Staff at State Universities in 1979 and Full-Time Academic Staff at Colleges of Advanced Education in 1980, by Age

State universities Colleges o f advanced education

I f even distribution between ages 25 and 65 Age Number Proportion

o f totals Number

Proportion o f total

U nder 25 260

p e rc e n t 2.5 92

per cent 1.0

per cent 0

25-29 1 018 9.9 658 7.2 12.5

30-34 1 970 19.2 1 703 18.6 12.5

35-39 2 126 20.6 2 073 22.7 12.5

40-44 1 641 16.0 1 794 19.6 12.5

45-49 1 309 12.7 1 250 13.7 12.5

50-54 1 015 9.9 904 9.9 12.5

55-59 660 6.4 526 5.8 12.5

60-64 269 2.6 120 1.3 12.5

65 and over 16 0.2 21 0.2 0

Total 10 284 100.0 9 141 100.0 100.0

Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendations on Guidelines Vol. 1 Part 1 AGPS Canberra, February 1981 p. 81

3.23 The table also shows that the number of staff aged 55 and over is relatively small. Using the table’s statistics and based on a retirement age of 65 years, approximately 9 per cent of staff at universities would be due to retire within the next ten years; for

CAEs the corresponding figure is 7 per cent. However, if there were an even distri­ bution of ages in the range 25 to 65 years combined with recruitment only in the youn­ gest age group, then these proportions would be 25 per cent, that is about three times greater. Even when the option to retire at 60 years is taken into account (and this

applies to those academics who belong to State government supperannuation schemes) there is a theoretical maximum of 17 per cent who might retire over the next ten years. The proportions of full-time staff in the higher age groups in the various individual universities are indicated in Table 3-3, and for the individual CAEs in Table 3-4.

3.24 The general conclusion from this kind of examination of the current age profiles is that staff turnover especially throughout the 1980s but lasting until the mid-1990s can be expected to be very small, that is one-third rising to one-half of the ideal turnover rate. A second general conclusion is that, based on the current age profile, there will

subsequently in the first decade and a half of the new century be a very large turnover rate of one and a half times the ideal rate. 3.25 These two reciprocal phenomena might be termed a ‘drought’ followed by a ‘flood’ because in the first period, 1980-95, the trickle of retirements will lead to very

few opportunities for new appointments of younger academics and few opportunities for promotion in the middle levels; in the second period, 2000-2015 there will be a com­ parative avalanche of retirements leading to a rapid loss of the more experienced aca­ demics and unusually accelerated opportunities for new appointments and promotion.

If there are insufficient compensating remedies adopted in respect of these two periods

37

then there can be adverse qualitative impacts on the staff arrangements of Australia’s higher education institutions.

3.26 The background explanation of the phenomena of ‘drought’ followed by ‘flood’ requires reference to the years of expansion in the universities and colleges during the 1960s and early 1970s. This period of expansion saw a large influx of relatively young staff followed by a no-growth period. At the end of this period of expansion the staff age profiles had become considerably distorted. This is illustrated in Figure 3-1 which also shows how the expansion of the CAE sector peaked a little later than the expansion of the universities. As this distortion or bulge in the age profile works its way through the decades ahead there arises the expectation of a disproportionately low number of re­ tirements (1980-95) followed by a disproportionately high number of retirements

(2000-2015). ,

Figure 3-1: Age Profile o f Full-time Academic Staff

Percentage of staff in age group

State U niversities 1979

Colleges o f Advanced Education 1980

U nder25 2 5 -2 9 3 0 -3 4 3 5 -3 9 4 0 -^ 4 4 5 -4 9 5 0 -5 4 5 5 -5 9 6 0 -6 4 65 and over

Sou rc e: CTEC R eport for 1 9 8 2 —84 Triennium . R e c o m m e n d a tio n s on G uid e lin es. Vol 1 Part 1, T able 3 -1 1 , AGPS. C anberra. 1 9 8 1 , p.81

3.27 Whilst this chapter goes on to address the immediate problems of the next dec­ ade or so to 1995, it should be emphasised that the achievement of solutions for that period will be likely to ease the subsequent reverse cycle of problems in the first decade or so of the new century. This later cycle of difficulties is likely to include the following:

• rapid losses of large numbers of experienced staff with correspondingly rapid pro­ motions of staff to senior positions; • difficulty in finding enough high quality candidates to fill vacancies especially at junior levels; • hiring of large numbers of new academics which will tend to reinforce existing

distortions in the age structure; • attraction of a greatly increased number of students aspiring to a university or other academic career; however, given that it takes up to ten years to train an aca­ demic (particularly a competent researcher) the supply is not likely to be in line

with the demand.

38

Staff turnover and the viability of institutions

3.28 The rate at which the size and structural shape of the academic workforce in Australian univerities and CAEs can be adjusted depends as has been argued largely on the staff separation rate. Table 3-9 summarises the number of separations from and appointments to tenured positions in universities and colleges during the two years ended 30 April 1980.

Table 3-9: Full-time Tenured Teaching-and-Research Staff at Universities and Full-time Tenured Academic Staff at Colleges of Advanced Education— separations and appointments during the two years ended 30 April 1980

U n iv e r s itie s

C o lle g e s o f a d v a n c e d e d u c a t io n (< 2 )

Y e a r e n d e d

3 0 A p r i l

1 9 7 9

Y e a r e n d e d

3 0 A p r i l

1 9 8 0

Y e a r e n d e d

3 0 A p r i l

1 9 7 9

Y e a r e n d e d

3 0 A p r i l

1 9 8 0

N um ber em ployed a t 30 A pril o f previous year (b) 8 329 8 4 1 4 7 123 7 042

N um ber of separations: (r) - deaths 14 19 16 14

- retirem ents 73 83 80 78

resignations 152 187 285 253

- other 3 6 17 27

TOTAL 242 295 398 i l l

Separation R ate 2.9% 3.5% 5.6% 5.3%

N um ber of appointm ents by previous position held: {d) ( e ) - tenured position at institution w ithin same sector 43 40 59 53

institution in other sector (/) 24 9 24 22

untenured position at sam e institution 72 60 68 124

institution w ithin same sector 27 21 11 11

institution in other sector (/) 4 2 14 12

- other 157 102 141 124

TOTAL i l l 234 317 346

N et gain/loss + 85 -61 -81 -2 6

(a) Excludes Mitchell College of Advanced Education, Riverina College of Advanced Education and New South Wales Conservatorium of Music for which data are not available.

(b ) Includes only staff who held a tenured or probationary position.

(c) Includes only staff who actually ceased to be employed during the specified period.

(d) Excludes all internal movements (e.g. promotions) of tenured staff.

(e) Previous position refers to the position held immediately prior to appointment.

(J) The “other sector” relates to the advanced education sector and the university sector respectively.

Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendation on Guidelines Vol. 1 Part 1 AG PS Canberra. February 1981 p. 84.

3.29 Table 3-9 shows a retirement rate of less than 1.0 per cent per annum which is as predicted by the analysis of age profiles discussed in paragraph 3.23. However, the rate of resignations is as high as 2 per cent per annum contributing significantly to an aver­ age total separation rate11 in these years of 3.2 per cent for universities and 5.4 per cent

for colleges. These rates are low but more tolerable than they might have been if based on retirements alone. The bleaker picture returns however, when these separation rates

39

are converted to actual opportunities for new tenurable academic appointments; these represent just less than 1.0 per cent for universities and just over 1.0 per cent for col­ leges in these two years. The shortfall is explained by reference to contract appoint­ ments and an overall loss in staff numbers. It should be noted that these figures are aver­ ages for each of the two sectors as a whole.

3.30 Thus in individual universities and colleges some will experience extraordinarily low separation rates with correspondingly low staff flexibility. For example in the years 1979 and 1980, the separation rate for individual universities varied between 1.0 per cent and 4.5 per cent. Moreover, for about one-half of the universities, the separation rate showed considerable variation between the two years.12 3.31 In times of a general world recession and when there is no-growth in tertiary edu­ cation institutions, academic staff are doubly restricted in their employment mobility both within Australia and overseas. This applies currently both in the tertiary edu­ cation sectors, and between the education sectors and other employment avenues. Although it may be difficult to agree on what the ideal separation rates should be, it is clear that current separation rates are much lower than normal (i.e. if there were an even distribution in the age profiles) and they certainly are not high enough to ensure sufficient ‘new blood’ entering Australian academic life. Many witnesses before the Committee stressed that to function effectively as research and teaching centres, ter­ tiary institutions require the infusion of new ideas and perspectives in order to rejuven­ ate ageing teaching programs and research approaches.

3.32 One of the best methods of promoting this rejuvenation process is by the employ­ ment of new and younger staff with new lines of approach and enthusiasm. Dr John Powell, Acting Director of the Tertiary Education Research Centre of the University of New South Wales, described the risks if steady rejuvenation does not occur:

‘With virtually no new staff being recruited there is a risk of ossification and a reduction in the level of creativeness in both teaching and research. Life-long tenure is thus seen as a growing constraint on institutional flexibility and liveliness as no new blood is imported into the system. As the academic profession inevitably ages the stimulus for intellectual crea­ tiveness and educational change will progressively weaken. If this occurs then the long-term effects on the higher education system will be very serious indeed.'13

Optimum age profile and staff turnover

3.33 There would be very real advantages for both higher education sectors if they were able to gain a more even distribution of ages among their staff. Individual insti­ tutions should consider these advantages and address themselves to this situation. An even mix of the various age groupings ensures that the staff population never ages and administrators are not faced with the situation where there are few retirements in some years followed by years when large numbers of experienced staff retire. Also, a steadily continuous pattern of vacancies arising from retirements ensures even and sustained opportunities for new and younger academics. These recruitments in turn ensure the ability of the institution to maintain vitality, energy and creativeness. It should also ensure a steady balance between these qualities on the one hand and maturity and ex­

perience on the other. Moreover, there are other advantages which flow from a steady predictability in staff turnover. In terms of staff management, budgets are easier to maintain and there is a more predictable measure of flexibility in regard to the allo­ cation of staff and other resources to faculties.

3.34 The present age distribution is far from ideal as indicated by the statistics for years 1979-80 in Table 3-8 and Figure 3-1 which shows a pronounced bulge in the aged 30-44 years. If individual institutions are to be in a position to redress this imbalance it

40

appears necessary for them to have an increase in their staff separation rates, a sig­ nificant proportion of which is attributable to the rate of retirement. It should be remembered that in a simplistic model, if there were an exactly even distribution of ages between 25 and 65 then the ‘normal’ separation rate arising from retirements at age 65 would be 2.5 per cent per annum. However, as noted above the current retirement rate

in higher education is less than 1.0 per cent per anum and could continue at that low rate in the period 1980-95. In evidence before the Committee the CTEC Chairman, Professor Karmel, suggested that if institutions continue to be in a no-growth situation a separation rate of between 5 per cent and 6 per cent per annum for lecturer grades

and above, would be necessary in order for them to be in a position to improve the present age profile.14 The Commonwealth Department of Science and Technology sup­ ported this estimate. In evidence before the Committee, witnesses from the Depart­ ment suggested that in the present circumstances a separation rate of around 4 per cent

or 5 per cent per annum would be near the optimum for the higher education sectors.15 By way of comparison, the CSIRO informed the Committee that this organisation has a current separation rate for permanent research staff of 5 per cent per annum. Further­ more this separation rate is now accompanied by a more even and flatter age profile than that of the higher education sectors. This is shown in Figure 3-2. Professor L.M.

Birt, Vice-Chancellor of the University of New South Wales quoted the example of his own University in regard to separation rates, and suggested that the current turnover rate of 10 per cent per annum of all academic staff (including tutors etc) would appear

to be close to a planned ideal rate.16 If this separation rate is divided into its component parts, the implied ideal separation rate for the lecturer and above grades would be 5 per cent per annum.17

Figure 3-2: Comparison of Age Distributions o f CSIRO Research Staff and Full-Time U ni­ versity Teaching and Research Staff

CSIRO

P ercentage in each age bracket

2 5 - 2 9 3 0 - 3 4 3 5 - 3 9 4 0 - 4 4 4 5 - 4 9 5 0 -5 4 5 5 - 5 9 6 0 - 6 4

Age bracket (years)

41

U n i v e r s i t i e s

P ercentage in each age bracket

1 0-

2 5 - 2 9 3 0 - 3 4 3 5 - 3 9 4 0 - 4 4 4 5 - 4 9 5 0 -5 4 5 5 - 5 9 6 0 - 64

Age bracket (years)

Source: Evidence, 12 March 1982 (CSIRO), p. 2015

3.35 The Commonwealth Department of Science and Technology provided some statistical information which tends to support the abovementioned opinions concerning ideal separation rates. These statistics suggested the likely age patterns of full-time uni­ versity academic staff using different models with various resignation and retirement rates. These simple models are shown in Annex E. It should be emphasised that these models do not present actual staff projections, although the figures used do approxi­ mate the number of tenured positions in universities for each age bracket in 1979 (in­ cluding an estimate for the Australian National University which is usually not in­ cluded in tables showing university statistics). The models merely show that the age structure of the academic population (in this case universities) is important, and that

turnover rates that are too high are likely to introduce problems and distortions into the pattern as are rates that are too low. Models 4A and 4B are of particular interest. Model 5 shows the problems that are caused by an abrupt change in resignation/retirement rates. A further model gives an indication of the outcome if an early-retirement option were to be made available to staff. 3.36 It would help to achieve a more balanced age structure if selection committees and administrators when making new appointments were to bear in mind the imbal­ ances of the present age structure in their own particular institutions, if not the imbal­ ances of the tertiary system as a whole. However, this approach is likely to have only a marginal impact since it israther unrealistic to consider or even to urge such committees to do anything other than choose for appointment the best available candidates. What should be possible is that when choosing between equally well qualified applicants, preference could be given to appointees whose ages are below 32 or above 46. More­ over, to correct another imbalance, such an appointee would preferably be a woman.

(See section on female academics in Chapter 5). For the same reasons the CTEC sub­ mits that vacancies which arise from the resignation or retirement of a senior lecturer

42

should be filled by appointments at the bottom of the lectureship range so that new opportunities are created for young academics.

Legacy of expansion and quality of staff

3.37 The expansion of higher education in the 1960s and early 1970s saw the student population treble and the proportion of gross domestic product allocated to education double. As a result of this rapid expansion universities and colleges experienced severe shortages of qualified staff and many now claim that in some instances standards were

lowered in order to make the necessary new appointments and promotions. Indeed a number of submissions to the Committee claimed that the rush to fill vacancies was such that some of the staff appointed in this period would find it extremely difficult to qualify for appointment today. While these staff probably represented only a relatively

small proportion of the total academic staff, they are still likely today to be employed in the higher education sectors and are most likely to hold tenured positions. Professor G.C. Harcourt of Adelaide University described the situation in this way:

*. · ■ because of the expansion in the 1960s, on the whole blind Freddy could get a job and now he has probably got tenure. I am not saying that everyone was a blind Freddy. People of my age, for example, who were lucky enough to be born at the height of the de­ pression and then just come to fruition in time to teach the baby boom have had roses, roses all the way, whereas ten years later it is very different.’18

3.38 It was alleged both in the Committee hearings and in several unheard sub­ missions that staff appointed during the period of expansion were frequently not prop­ erly interviewed and investigated compared with the more rigorous selection pro­ cedures that are usually practised today. Professor Hugh Emy of Monash University stated:

‘The people who appointed the present problem cases back in th e e a rly 1960s a n d m iddle. 1960s and early 1970s were often-again drawing upon personal e x p e rie n c e p ro fe s so rs a c t ­ ing alone, whereas nowadays it is much more common to operate w ith m u c h m o re b ro a d ly constituted selection committees. The process of interview a n d a p p o in tm e n t is. 1 th in k , genuinely tougher than it was. It is no longer a cosy chat in the professor’s o ffice.’19

3.39 The more stringent financial restraints of recent years not permit universities and colleges the luxury of retaining academic staff whose competence or general suit­ ability for academic life is questionable. The problem remains, however, of that small proportion of academics, many of whom entered the higher education sectors in the

years of expansion and whose attitudes to teaching and research are not wholly compat­ ible with the ideals which underlie the concept of the scholarly community and the con­ cept of tenure. In relation to this matter Dr John Powell, Acting Director of the Ter­ tiary Education Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, said:

‘All the time that universities were expanding rapidly in the sixties a n d se v e n tie s y o u c o u ld afford to carry people who maybe were n o t people you w o u ld h a v e a p p o in te d 10 y e a rs la te r because there was a flood of others coming in. Now, of course, th a t s itu a tio n h as b een re v e r­ sed; if anything they become rather more evident. As the w o rk lo ad in c re a se s fo r e v e ry o n e else you tend to notice someone who is not p u llin g his w eig h t w h e re a s y o u w o u ld h av e

ignored that 10 years ago.’20

3.40 Given that this appears to be the present situation the current problem facing in­ stitutions is how to deal with such staff. Efforts are being made within faculties and within institutions to correct such problems. By means of peer group pressure and

through the leadership role played by the professoriate it would be reasonable to expect that the attitudes and performance of this small proportion of staff could be rectified. Staff development programs, which are now widely available but under-utilised, can

43

have a beneficial effect on such cases but much of the problem remains because staff at­ tendance at such programs and courses can only be voluntary.

3.41 When resorts to peer enouragement, professorial leadership and programs of staff development all seem to be failing, institutions need to be prepared to take steps towards dismissing the staff member. Even the strongest supporters of tenure do not see it as a protection for incompetence. But for institutions to dismiss staff there needs to be clarity in the powers and procedures available to their governing bodies. Currently, it is a widespread failing in higher education institutions that dismissal powers are ill- defined and sometimes altogether lacking and that the procedures for dismissal are vague or impractical (see paragraphs 1.19-1.27). In addition, there is often a total ab­ sence of intermediate disciplinary measures or other steps short of dismissal. These in­ termediate measures should also be clearly defined and available to those formally re­ sponsible for maintaining efficiency and performance, namely, chairmen of departments and deans of faculties.21

Growth in higher education not now supported by student numbers

3.42 Some spectacular increases in student numbers for both universities and colleges occurred during the early 1970s. In particular, universities registered in 1974 a growth rate of 7 per cent per annum. Parallel with this, colleges registered in 1973 a growth rate in student numbers of 18 per cent per annum. By 1980, these rates of growth had fallen to 1.5 per cent per annum for universities and 3.1 per cent per annum for colleges.22 This plateauing of student numbers for universities, and modest growth for colleges, re­ fers to the combination of student numbers in the categories of full-time, part-time and external students.

3.43 In recent years in both sectors the number of full-time students has been in de­ cline, although this seems to have been arrested in 1982 (based on preliminary stat­ istics). Both sectors have experienced modest increases in the number of part-time and external students. Yet as full-time students represent about two-thirds of university students and about half of college students, the decline in recent years in full-time student numbers has had a significant impact on the maintenance and operation of col­

leges and universities.

3.44 The operation and staffing of both colleges and universities, has been built up to satisfy both the past growth, as well as the expectation of future growth of basically full-time students. Assuming similar student participation rates, it would now seem from demographic studies that there can be no expectation of significant growth in student numbers until either 1987, or more probably several years later.23 In the mean­ time academic staff numbers are likely to remain at present levels.

3.45 From the viewpoint of higher education administrators, the plateauing of student numbers has meant a plateauing of financial support. Finance has always been, in the decisions of the Commonwealth Government and the CTEC, largely correlated to numbers of students although not to any precise formula. A large proportion of fac­ ulties are experiencing declines in absolute numbers of students and academic staff in these areas have now had to justify their positions not just by the number of students they teach but by the quality and quantity of their research. Higher education adminis­ trators however, in trying to balance their budgets must look to the overall operation of the institution and thus seek to decrease the number of academic staff employed in areas of student decline.

44

‘Incremental creep’

3.46 In an expanding situation when new staff are continually added to more senior staff, the annual net costs incurred through the movement of staff up incremental scales are likely to be small and to be overlooked. However, in the current situation of no­

growth and an uneven distribution in staff levels of employment a large proportion of staff will receive annual increments as they proceed year by year up the salary scale. This may amount to quite significant real increases in overall salary costs for an insti­ tution. This phenomenon of increasing costs for the same sized staff is referred to as

‘incremental creep’. The effect of incremental creep on the financial flexibility of an in­ stitution can be quite dramatic, the more so because for the superficial observer its dis­ covery comes as a surprise. 3.47 Incremental creep reached its most significant proportions in the later 1970s but

for some institutions may continue to have some financial impact into the 1980s. As an example, Professor Hancock in evidence before the Committee referred to the annual report of the University of Adelaide where it stated:

‘When account is taken of these processes, we find that the incremental creep eroded the university’s effective real grant by 4 per cent over the period from 1976 to 1980. ’24 In the present situation of little staff turnover a proportion of money may need to be

allocated just to service additional costs associated with a static number of academic staff. If the tenured proportion of an institution’s tenured staff is very large the incremental creep factor alone may result in pressures leading to financial exigency.

Funding ‘problems’ of higher education institutions and flexibility

3.48 Several organisations including the Federation of College Academics (FC A )25 and the Federation of Australian University Staff Associations (FAUSA)26 promoted in their submissions the argument that many of the problems facing higher education institutions today originate from the funding policies of the Federal Government in re­ cent years. The period of expansion in higher education up to the mid-1970s has been

followed by a period of consolidation and little or no growth. This overall change oc­ curred from about the same time as the 1975 change of Government. In this context there has been a readiness for some witnesses to criticize the current Government's pla-

teauing of financial support and to see this as the roof of all the problems. While this was a general theme for some submissions there were others which argued more specifically that institutional inflexibility could be better overcome by institutions re­ ceiving more financial support rather than by any new and rigorous examination of the arrangements for tenure. Professor Brian Wilson, Vice-Chancellor of the University of

Queensland, when representing the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee (AVCC) also thought the problem of inflexibility was more related to the budget allocations to institutions rather than to tenure. He said:

‘The difficulty we have as we move into 1982, however, is that we are actually reducing the academic staff by 4% to meet the budget ... My institution, in fact, of the major institutions was the best favoured in the allocation. So 1 think one has to recognise that the inflexibilities in the system are financial, really, rather than related to tenure.’27 3.49 When representing the AVCC, Professor J.F.Scott, Vice-Chancellor of La

Trobe University also linked the problems of inflexibility with the pattern of financial support and indicated that in this relationship tenure was relevant but not central:

‘As we have moved into more difficult times in terms of finance and in terms of moving from expansion to steady state so there have been problems of management, as resource manage­ ment of universities, to which tenure has had some relevance. Those problems of manage­

ment I think would have arisen whether we had a tenure system or not the reduction in

45

funding, the sudden cut back from expansion to steady state, and the need to move resources from one part of the university to another. The way in which universities perforce have tended to adapt to those two outside factors I believe has largely been by an increasing number of limited term appointments in order to preserve flexibility during the next difficult

10 to 20 years’.28

3.50 Table 3-10 shows the recurrent grants and commitments for universities and CAEs approved for 1981, and guidelines for each of the three years of the 1982-84 triennium. All money amounts are expressed in the same real values (i.e. 1982 average cost levels) and so for subsequent years need to be adjusted upwards by the appropriate higher education inflation indices. For the 1982-84 period the adjustments for inflation will be made prospectively rather than retrospectively as in earlier years. However, the same inflation indices as used in earjier years will apply. Table 3-10 shows that the level of recurrent financial support for higher education in the present triennium will be 0.5 per cent lower in real terms than for the preceding triennium. However, if specific new projects and the new programs announced as election commitments are discounted in this comparison, then the level of recurrent financial support for established institutions and programs of higher education in the present triennium will be 1.2 per cent lower in real terms than for the preceding triennium.

Table 3-10: Recurrent Grants and Commitments for Universities and Colleges of Advanced Education, Approved for 1981 and Guidelines for 1982-84 Triennium (E stim ated 1982 Average Cost Levels)

1981 (a) 1982 1983 1984

$m $m $m $m

G uidelines

Less

1 566.5 1 558.4 1 558.4 1 558.4

N ID A ( b ) 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Less Election com m itm ents

1 565.8 1 557.7 1 557.7 1 557.7

— research centres o f excellence (c) 1.2(4) 2.2 5.0 5.9

- additional nurse education places 0.1 0.6 1.2 1.8

- developm ent of com m unity language courses

A dditional funds for

0.2 0.9 0.9 0.9

non-governm ent teachers colleges — 1.2 1.3 1.4

— A ustralian M aritim e College — 0.9 1.0 1.3

N orthern T erritory (D C C and N A R U ) — 0.2 0.3 0.4

T em porary developm ent grants — 5.0 5.0

Sub-total 1.5 11.0 14.7 11.7

Available after com m itm ents 1 564.3 1 546.7 1 543.0 1 546.0

R eduction on 1981 — 17.6 21.3 18.3

(a) The figures are expressed on a comparable basis to the grants for the 1982-84 triennium (see paragraph 3.50 for further details).

(b) Subsequent to the release of the Guidelines, the Government decided that the responsibility for the funding of N1DA will be transferred to the Department of Home Affairs and Environment from the beginning of 1982.

(c) Expenditure on research centres of excellence for the years 1981 to 1984 will amount to $ 16 million in cash terms after al­ lowance for changes in cost levels.

(d ) These funds will not be required in 1981; the Universities Council has included this amount in the grant proposed for 1982 (see Part 2, Table A2.1).

Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendations on Grants Vol. 2 Part I AGPS Canberra August 1981. p. 3.

46

3.51 The Government’s financial approach to the recurrent needs of higher education when viewed in overall terms may appear to be maintaining the same real value (in fact, a decline of 0.5 per cent) but after new and special programs are put to one side

and after some variations in respect of particular universities and colleges are allowed, the actual recurrent support available as it is received by an individual institution or even one sector as a whole may show a significant real decline. This decline in available recurrent funds may exert such pressure on some of the more inflexibly staffed insti­

tutions that its impact amounts to a situation of financial exigency. Professor Scott when representing the AVCC referred to this in the following way:

‘I think it is important to realise that there is a discrepancy between the official funding reported in the CTEC recommendations accepted by government and the reality of how it hits individual universities. In this triennium, for example, we have been assured by the

Government that the actual funding for the tertiary sector of education has declined by only 0.4 per cent, or something of that order ... you will find that what is described as a 0.4 per cent reduction in terms of treasury statistics-and I am sure that is right-when it gets down to the general university sector, comes to a reduction of well over 2 per cent. 1 think 2.2 per cent was the average suggested to us by the CTEC.’29

3.52 Professor Scott also referred to another discrepancy of funding related to an in­ dividual institution’s own management of its staff structure, in particular the variations there may be between institutions in the proportion of staff employed at the various sal­

ary levels. Those institutions that have allowed themselves to become ‘top-heavy’ may find themselves facing additional financial pressures. Professor Scott said:

‘1 also believe, and this might be a question you might wish to address to the CTEC, that it has a proportion as a basis for funding. We do not get the money for the staff that we actu­ ally have; we get the money for what they feel we ought to have. I do not believe that they actually tell us what they think we ought to have. If a university has more senior staff, it is costing it more than the CTEC has recommended for each individual university. Therefore, there is certainly a strong motivation on us as vice-chancellors to keep to something like the accepted norm’.30

3.53 The CTEC in its Report to the Government has also shown concern regarding funding restraints on tertiary institutions:

‘Recurrent funding for higher education has been under increasing restraint since the late 1970s. It has been difficult for many institutions to maintain the quality of their operations in the face of constant or decreasing recurrent grants and unavoidable cost increases not covered by cost supplementation arrangements. The reduced level of funding for the

1982-84 triennium means that a decline in the operating standards of some universities and some CAEs is now unavoidable in the short-term. In the longer term this decline can only be avoided by increased Government financial assistance or by cutting back activities. Both the Universities Council and the Advanced Education Council have expressed concern at the

implications of the reduced funding levels for the operating standards of institutions and the range and quality of educational opportunities offered by them.'3 1

The Commission went on to say that it had been necessary to make reductions in the financial resources available to some newly amalgamated institutions. In a number of these cases, especially in Victoria, the reduction in funding is likely to result in problems of staff redundancy.32

3.54 As previously indicated, approximately 85 per cent (and in some cases higher) of an institution’s budget is allocated to the salaries of academic and general staff members. A decrease of even a small percentage can have a magnified effect on an insti­ tution’s budget flexibility. For instance, in the case of La Trobe University, the insti­

tution is required to reduce its budget by 2.8 per cent, the majority of which must be de­ rived from the 15 per cent or so of non-salary items. If staff numbers are not to be reduced, it becomes a reduction of over 18 per cent of non-salary items-the magnitude

47

of which is quite sizeable to any institution.33 It would seem that many universities have no alternative but to make some tough decisions to reduce staff in certain areas. Some institutions have been reluctant to do this as indicated by Professor Scott when representing the AVCC:

‘Many institutions, I think, would feel they had got off fairly lightly if they had only some­ thing under a 3% reduction in funding. But there are peculiar problems for universities and they are not entirely tied up with the question of tenure although 1 think related to the topic of this inquiry. First of all, so much of our funding has to be spent on staffing, whether it be tenured staff, academic staff, general staff or what. It varies from university to university, but something like 85% of the total budget has to be spent on staff. Whatever the contract re­ lationship, whether it be tenured, fixed term or on an annual basis, we are unwilling, or find it impossible to dismiss staff straight away for redundancy provisions.

We also believe we want to be in a position to recover if we have new requests being put on us by outside bodies, including Government, as quickly as possible. So we do not want to wind down too much. Therefore, reduction in staffing is slow; and if we cannot reduce on staffing, then the 15% non-staffing becomes the part in which perhaps rather more than its

fair share of cuts have to be.’34

Pressure for superannuation reform and portability 3.55 The pressures for a more comprehensive, but costlier superannuation scheme for academics has placed an additional financial burden on higher education institutions. Currently most CAEs and some universities participate in superannuation schemes run by State Governments, while the remaining group of universities are members of the Federated Superannuation System for Universities (FSSU). This latter scheme is based upon a salary contribution of 5 per cent by each academic and a contribution of 10 per cent by the university. This money provides the means by which endowment assurance can be purchased with maturity at retirement. However, inflation has steadily dwindled the value at maturity and in order to retain a viable superannuation scheme some universities have supplemented this system with their own schemes. To augment the FSSU however, placed additional financial strain on an institution, apart from that in­ curred by the original contribution of 10 per cent.35

3.56 A measure of the financial strain which is placed on a tertiary institution by superannuation can be gauged from the CTEC’s estimate that in 1984 colleges will possibly be required to provide an additional 2 per cent of their total recurrent income for superannuation purposes in comparison with what they provided in 1979.36 It will thus be difficult for universities and CAEs to meet further demands on already limited resources, let alone introduce modifications to superannuation schemes which would encourage early retirement, and thus enhance staff flexibility.37 3.57 The number and variety of superannuation schemes are not integrated nor inter­ changeable and this has meant that benefits are not always portable when moving from one academic institution to another. Accordingly academic staff after a number of years service are reluctant to move to an institution which does not offer portability of superannuation benefits. In this way the mobility of academic staff is restricted, which in turn restricts the turnover rate of staff. The disadvantages of the present schemes have produced pressure for reform, and there is a current proposal supported by most institutions, the CTEC and staff associations, for a national superannuation scheme for academics in both the university and advanced education sectors. The proposed scheme would enhance portability, but is not expected to encourage early retirement. (An outline of the proposed scheme is set out in Annex F). If the proposed scheme is ac­ cepted there will be higher costs to be borne by the participating universities and col­ leges. If these costs are not subsidised by the Commonwealth then the institutions will

48

have to contemplate reductions in the research and teaching they currently undertake, implying redundancies or else other consequences of general financial exigency.38

Academic specialisation and changing student preferences

3.58 Both the college and university sectors employ academic staff who are highly specialised in specific areas of research and/or teaching. Academic staff are expected to strive to maintain their excellence in their field or specialisation and in so doing tend

automatically to increase their degree of specialisation within an already specialist field. This is understandable, particularly when undertaking research. Nevertheless, increased specialisation has the disadvantage of increasing inflexibility in the face of

continuous demands to vary in accordance with student preferences the distribution of academic staff between the different academic disciplines and areas of specialised teaching and research. 3.59 In an atmosphere of constant or marginally diminishing financial resources, and

with the plateauing of student numbers, changes in the academic preferences of students take on a magnified importance. A combination of a surge of student numbers in some faculties with an ebb in others has had the effect of creating high student to staff ratios in popular or emerging departments, while other departments or faculties are

overstaffed. The balance between students and staff within and between faculties be­ comes increasingly difficult for tertiary institutions to maintain. A further difficulty for tertiary institutions arises in their need to identify long-term trends, since to respond immediately to a surge in student numbers may be to ignore a more fundamental and

enduring area of learning which would need to be maintained to meet the requirements of teaching and research many years ahead. Table 3-11 indicates little change in bach­ elor degree student preferences over the period 1975-79. Table 3-12 shows that there

has been no significant change in the total student/staff ratio in the period 1975-80. The information in these tables is too broad to indicate the fluctuations which are of real concern, i.e. those between departments and between specialised areas. Also, infor­ mation about changes in student preferences at CAE’s has not been available for this

Report but the indications are that departmental and course enrolments have generally fluctuated more than in universities.

Table 3-11: Universities— Bachelor Degree Students by Field of Study, 1975,1977 and 1979

1975 1977 1979

Field o f study Number

Proportion o f total Number

Proportion o f total Number

Proportion o f total

Agriculture 1 915

per cent 1.6 1 998

per cent 1.6 1 880

per cent 1.5

A rchitecture 2 699 2.2 2 868 2.2 2 699 2.1

Arts 43 574 36.2 47 656 37.3 47 651 37.1

Dentistry 1 488 1.2 1 539 1.2 1 540 1.2

Economics 16 169 13.4 16 670 13.1 16 967 13.2

Education 7 119 5.9 7 528 5.9 8 600 6.7

Engineering 9 9 1 3 8.2 9 434 7.4 8 985 7.0

Law 7917 6.6 8 315 6.5 8 225 6.4

M edicine 8 636 7.2 9 089 7.1 9 083 7.1

Science 19 759 16.4 21 363 16.7 21 596 16.8

Vet. Science 1 092 0.9 1 213 1.0 1 253 1.0

T O T A L 120 281 100.0 127 673 100.0 128 595(a) 100.0

(a) Includes 116 students who could not be classified to a field of study. Source: CTEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Advice o f Universities Council Vol. 1 Part 2 AGPS Canberra February 1981 p. 25

49

Table 3-12: Universities—Student/Staff Rations by Departmental Group, 1975 to 1980 (a)

Departmental Group 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980

Agriculture 8.2 8.6 8.8 8.6 8.6 8.8

A rchitecture 11.8 12.1 11.9 11.5 11.3 11.8

A rts Languages 8.7 9.1 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.2

Other 14.9 15.1 15.0 14.6 14.1 14.1

Dentistry 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.7 6.0

Economics 16.5 16.1 16.2 16.2 16.6 16.8

Education 15.8 14.9 13.9 14.0 13.4 13.3

Engineering 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.7 9.0

Law 2J.0 19.6 20.5 19.2 18.8 19.4

Mathematics 13.0 13.0 13.1 12.7 13.2 13.4

M edicine/therapies 8.8 8.8 9.1 9.1 8.9 9.1

Science 8.8 9.2 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3

Social work 14.4 13.0 13.2 12.9 12.5 12.4

Veterinary science 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.3 6.4 6.2

ALL G R O U P S 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.8 11.7 11.8

(a) For the AND, students and staff of the Faculties only are included.

Source: CTEC Report on 1982-84 Triennium Advice on Universities Council Vol. 1 Part 2 AG PS Canberra, February 1981 p. 46

Endnotes

1. The Report o f the Committee on Australian Universities chaired by Sir Keith Murray and presented in 1957, laid the framework for the provision of financial systems necessary for any growth of the university sector and provided a precedent for the future funding of the advanced education sector. 1 he second m ajor report was the Report o f the Committee on the Future o f Tertiary Education in Australia chaired by Sir Leslie M artin, which recommended the creation and development of an education struc­

ture com plem entary to, but different from, the tertiary education provided by universities. 2. Funding o f Tertiary Education Statem ent by Tertiary Education Commission to Joint Committee of Public Accounts, 1979, page 3.

3. loc.cit. 4. Senate Standing Com m ittee on Education, Science and the Arts, Report on the Commonwealth's Role in Teacher Education, February 1972 pp. xv-xvi. 5. See Table 3-4. 6. Evidence, 9 February 1982.p. I346(C T E C ). 7. Evidence. 12 M arch 1982, p. 1962. 8. Evidence, 4 December 1981, pp. 783-4 9. Evidence. 9 February 1982, p 1346 (C T E C ). 10. C TEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendations on Guidelines, Vol. 1, Part I, AGPS. Canberra.

February 1981, p. 78. 11. Note: Separation rate is percentage of total academic staff vacancies, arising from deaths, retirements, resignations and other causes. 12. Source: C TEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recommendations on Guidelines. Vol 1. Part I. AGPS.

C anberra, February 1981, p. 83. 13. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1113. 14. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p 1432. 15. Evidence, 12 March 1982, p. 1939. 16. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1015. 17 ibid, p 1050B 18. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p 1698. 19. Evidence. 9 February 1982, p 1191 20. Evidence. 8 February 1982. p 1124 Sec also paragraphs 2.23 to 2.28 on the effects of tenure on efficiency

and complacency . 21. Sec, for exam ple. Evidence, 9 February 1982. p. 1172.

50

22. C T E C Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recom m endations on Guidelines, Vol. 1, Part 1. AG PS. Canberra. February 1981, p. 34. 23. Projection based on advice from C TEC and also see ibid, pp. 58-59. 24. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p. 1849. 25. Evidence, 4 December 1981, p. 615. 26. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2099. 27. Evidence, 3 December 1981, p. 349.

28. ibid, pp. 391-2. 29. ibid, pp. 375-76. 30. ibid, p. 408. 31. C T EC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recom m endations on Grants, Vol. 2, Part 1. Canberra, August

1981, p. 2.

32. ibid, p. 4. 33. C TEC Report for 1982-84 Triennium Recom m endations on Guidelines, Vol. 1. Part 1, AGPS, Canberra. February 1981, p. 72. 34. Evidence, 3 December 1981, pp. 377-78. 35. Academic Salaries Tribunal 1976 Review p. 281 paragraph 10.60. 36. C T E C R eport for 1982-84 Triennium A dvice o f A dvanced Education Council, Vol. 1. Part 3. AGPS,

C anberra, February 1981, p. 123. 37. See also Evidence, 3 December 1981, pp. 366-68. 38. C TEC R eport for 1982-84 Triennium Advice o f Universities Council, Vol. 1. Part 2, AGPS, Canberra, February 1981,p. 110.

··· 1 :

"’V... !

■ · . · ·

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■

4. Procedures for the appointment and review of academic staff

Initial appointment of tenured staff

4.1 It is now the established practice for all Australian universities to advertise over­ seas when seeking to make any academic appointment at or above the level of lecturer. This is done in order to attract the best available candidates, to ensure the highest stan­ dards of appointment and to maintain each university’s international credibility and

vigour. This practice is sound and uncontroversial. Indeed, the practice of international advertisement is firmly supported by the Federation of Australian University Staff As­ sociations (FAUSA):

‘It is our policy that academic positions should not be filled without wide advertisement-in­ ternational advertisement as far as tenurable positions are concerned on the grounds that in­ ternational recruitment is important to the maintenance of international standards in Aus­ tralian universities’.1

As a result of this practice of international advertisement, it can be seen from Table 2-1, that as at 1980 in excess of one-third of the total academic staff (lecturer level and above) of Australian universities are likely to be overseas born. At the same time it

should not be overlooked that each year a significant proportion of appointments are made from overseas. For instance, in 1977, approximately 50 per cent of all university appointments were filled by overseas applicants. This proportion, however, is likely to include a number of Australians whose previous position was overseas. (See Table 2-2.)

4.2 The appointment practices of Australian CAEs are less clearly established, more varied and generally much more narrowly localised to Australia. Colleges advertise overseas only when no suitable applicant would seem to be available within Australia. The overly parochial advertisement practices of CAEs should now be reconsidered so that the colleges become more widely based and achieve a more international credi­

bility. This development would by no means aim to deny academic jobs to Australians, but rather aim to lift standards and self-confidence of academic staff in Australian col­ leges. For example, it could well become an established practice for all vacancies at the level of senior lecturer and above to be internationally advertised.

4.3 Currently, any academic advertisement invariably yields large numbers of appli­ cants especially for university, but also for college vacancies. Selection committees are now in a position to expect very high standards of qualification and experience in the applicants they come to consider and these high standards are increasingly being

matched by high standards in the selection procedures themselves, especially in univer­ sities. Selection committees are larger and less narrowly composed then previously. Indeed appointment decisions by lone ‘god-professors’ are a thing of the past. Selection

committees take account of a wide range of applicant abilities and make a final selec­ tion based on references, results of personal interviews, evaluation of the applicant's re­ search work as well as a general appraisal of how the applicant would perform within the tertiary institution. Some universities, for example the University of Adelaide, have students appointed to the selection committees.2 However, a major and persistent criti­ cism of current selection processes is the inadequate manner in which the applicant’s

teaching ability is usually assessed.3 It appears rather that the research prowess of the applicant, usually indicated by the number of scholarly publications to the applicant’s name, is foremost in the mind of selection committees. Another important criterion of selection can be the compatibility of the applicant’s research work with the direction of

research expected to take place within the relevant department. In most universities

53

when the work of any selection committee is completed it is now usual for the com­ m ittee’s recommendation to come to the Vice-Chancellor who, in the case of senior lec­ turer and lecturer positions, reviews the recommendation; or in the case of professorial positions, places it before the Governing Council for review. After this review the selec­ tion is confirmed.

Probation before tenure is confirmed

4.4 While individual institutions in both the university and CAE sectors have differences in the conditions of selection and appointment, they are nevertheless in agreement that a probationary period is necessary before tenure is confirmed. Any pre­ viously non-tenured academic is required to undertake a probationary period. The appointment however of a previously tenured academic to an equivalent or higher tenurable post does not normally involve a probationary period, but it may do so depending on the situation. It is customary for professors when going to new institutions to be granted tenure immediately they are appointed. An indication of the proportion of academics on probation is given in Tables 4-1 and 4-2. These tables show the number of probationary appointments in State universities in 1979 and the number of pro­ bationary appointments in colleges in 1980.

Table 4-1: Universities— Full-Time Teaching-and-Researeh Staff, bv Probationary and Confirmed Ten­ ure, 1979(a)

Probationary

Probationary Confirmed Total as a % o f

Total

Sydney 37.0 933.5 970.5 3.8

New South Wales 85.0 948.4 1 033.4 8.2

New England 5.0 290.0 295.0 1.7

N ewcastle 3.0 309.0 312.0 1.0

M acquarie 11.0 427.0 438.0 2.5

W ollongong 17.0 128.0 145.0 11.7

NEW SOUTH WALES 158.0 3 035.9 3 193.9 4.9

M elbourne 56.0 689.5 745.5 7.5

M onash 19.0 646.8 665.8 2.9

La T robe 15.0 354.7 369.7 4.1

Deakin 14.0 167.0 181.0 7.7

VICTORIA 104.0 1 858.0 1 962.0 5.3

Q ueensland 91.0 767.3 858.3 10.6

Jam es Cook 11.0 151.0 162.0 6.8

Griffith 34.5 75.0 109.5 31.5

QUEENSLAND 136.5 993.3 1 129.8 12.1

Adelaide 20.0 530.8 550.8 3.6

Flinders 20.0 247.5 267.5 7.5

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 40.0 778.3 818.3 4.9

W estern A ustralia 108.0 440.6 548.6 19.7

M urdoch 55.0 64.0 119.0 46.2

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 163.0 504.6 667.6 24.4

54

Probationary Confirmed Probationary Total as a % o f

Total

T asm ania 19.0 262.0 281.0 6.8

TOTAL AUSTRALIA 620.5 7 432.1 8 052.6 7.7

(a) Excludes Australian National University Source: CTEC Universities Council Statistical Collection, 1982-84 Triennium

Table 4-2: Colleges of Advanced Education— Full-time Academic Staff, by Probation and Confirmed Tenure, 1980

Prob. as %

College Probationary Confirmed Total o f Total

A lexander M ackieC A E 0 88 88 0.0

A rm idale C A E 0 64 64 0.0

C atholic T.C. 0 45 45 0.0

C um berland College 0 66 66 0.0

G oulburn C A E 0 57 57 0.0

H aw kesbury Ag. College 0 53 53 0.0

K uring-G ai C A E 0 119 119 0.0

M ilperra C A E 4 33 37 10.8

M itchell C A E 3 128 131 2.3

N epean C A E 4 73 77 5.2

N.S.W. Institute of Technology 0 240 240 0.0

N.S.W. C onservatorium of Music 9 62 71 12.7

N ew castle C A E 2 151 153 1.3

N orthern Rivers CA E 0 36 36 0.0

N ursery School T.C. 0 14 14 0.0

O range Ag. College 0 17 17 0.0

Riverina CA E 11 153 164 6.7

Sydney College o f the A rts 0 23 23 0.0

Sydney K indergarten T.C. 0 22 22 0.0

Sydney T.C. 0 157 157 0.0

T he G uild T.C. 0 19 19 0.0

W ollongong Institute of Education 0 63 63 0.0

Folding College 1 29 30 3.3

NEW SOUTH WALES 34 1 712 1 746 1.9

Ballarat C A E 0 131 131 0.0

Bendigo 0 159 159 0.0

Caulfield Institute of Tech. 4 203 207 1.9

Footscray Institute of Tech. 0 134 134 0.0

G ippsland Institute of A.E. 3 60 63 4.8

Lincoln Institute 5 95 100 5.0

P rahran CA E 0 66 66 0.0

Preston Institute of Tech. 3 113 116 2.6

R .M .l.T. 59 411 470 12.6

Sw inburn College of Tech. 4 257 261 1.5

V ictorian College of the A rts 0 1 1 11 0.0

V ictorian College of Pharm acy 0 22 22 0.0

W arrnam bool I.A.E. 0 48 48 0.0

S.C.V. Burwood 0 87 87 0.0

S.C.V. Coburg 0 70 70 0.0

S.C.V. F rankston 0 52 52 0.0

S.C.V. H aw thorn 0 75 75 0.0

S.C.V. Institute of Early Childhood 0 37 37 0.0

S.C.V. Institute of Catholic Education 0 72 72 0.0

55

College Probationary Confirmed Total

Prob. as % o f Total

S.C.V. M elbourne 0 209 209 0.0

S.C.V. Rusden 0 118 118 0.0

S.C.V. T oorak 0 73 73 0.0

VICTORIA 78 2503 2581 3.0

Brisbane K indergarten T.C. 0 21 21 0.0

D arling Downs I.A.E. 4 150 154 2.6

C apricornia I.A.E. 8 68 76 10.5

Kelvin G rove CAE 5 143 148 3.4

M tG ra v a ttC A E < 2 109 111 1.8

N orth Q ueensland C A E 3 89 92 3.3

Q ueensland Ag. College 3 65 68 4.4

Q ueensland C onservatorium of Music 0 17 17 0.0

Q ueensland Institute o f Tech. 24 280 304 7.9

Townsville CAE 0 38 38 0.0

QUEENSLAND 49 980 1029 4.8

A delaide College of A rts and E ducation 9 237 246 3.7

H artley CA E 4 98 102 3.9

R osew orthy Ag. College 2 48 50 4.0

Salisbury CAE 2 74 76 2.6

South A ustralian Institute o f Technology 0 269 269 0.0

S tu rt CA E 13 81 94 13.8

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 30 807 837 3.6

C hurchlandsT .C . 5 94 99 5.1

C larem ont T.C. 1 53 54 1.9

M t Lawley T.C. 0 87 87 0.0

N edlands College 0 106 106 0.0

W A I T . 72 392 464 15.5

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 78 732 810 9.6

T asm anian CA E 34 154 188 18.1

TASMANIA 34 154 188 18.1

C anberra CAE 17 214 231 7.4

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY 17 214 213 7.4

D arw in Com m unity College 1 44 45 2.2

NORTHERN TERRITORY 1 44 45 2.2

TOTAL 321 7146 7467 4.3

Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.

4.5 However, the length of the probationary period varies considerably and, in ad­ dition, these variations appear to be rather haphazard. The practice of short probation­ ary periods is not usually supported by arguments other than a weak appeal to precedent. Universities with their more significant involvement in research have a longer probationary period and it is currently between three years in some institutions

56

to five years in others. In some universities, a decision about tenure may be deferred by another one or two years at the end of the initial probationary period. The tenure re­ view is carried out by a committee of peers and although there appear to be require­ ments of satisfactory performance in teaching, research and in an academic’s adminis­

trative duties the precise requirements in these matters are usually not clearly defined. Confirmation of an academic’s tenure requires the final approval of either the Vice­ Chancellor or Council of the university. It would seem that only a negligible number of university academics fail to gain tenure at the end of their probationary period, since in

the three year period 1977-79, only sixteen probationary appointments were not con­ firmed, and another 38 resigned before completing their probationary period.4

4.6 Practices vary considerably in the CAE sector in the use of a probationary period before confirmation of permanent employment. Frequently, senior appointments are made without any probationary periods. Most colleges do require, however, satisfac­ tory probationary service before confirmation of permanent appointment at the lowest

lecturer levels. In some cases this is achieved by initial appointment on short-term con­ tract and in others by appointment to a tenured position with the formal requirement to perform satisfactorily during a specific probationary period. For many CAEs this pro­ bationary period is only one year. One of the more rigorous CAEs is the Western Aus­

tralian Institute of Technology where appointments leading to tenure are made on three years’ probation with annual reviews during that period. In summary it is unfor­ tunate to observe that in the CAE sector the general conception of probation is extra­ ordinarily weak. The CAE conception of probation does not sufficiently grasp the aca­

demic requirements of higher education. Rather it is currently too narrowly geared to the public service parallel requiring little more than confirmation of an applicant’s bona fides after a brief period of time.

4.7 A large number of witnesses claimed that probationary periods needed to be ex­ tended. In advocating increased rigour in the granting of tenure, the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) proposed five years probation before tenure is granted. The Vice-Chancellors agreed with this proposal because the existing three-

year probationary period proves quite inadequate to gain a satisfactory assessment of the developing teaching ability of the academic, and because three years is usually too short a period to assess the real worth and achievements of a research program. More­ over, if there is a three-year probationary period, it turns out in practice that the assess­

ment is made after barely more than two years’ work so that a decision to confirm or not confirm tenure may be given with reasonable notice before the three-year pro­ bationary period of employment expires. For these reasons many universities have already shifted to probation periods of four years and some to five. It is of interest that

in the United States the probationary period is seven years. In summary the grounds for requiring a five-year probationary period are that it allows the necessary time for an academic to participate in staff development programs, including the acquiring of ter­ tiary teaching skills, and it allows the necessary time for an academic to establish one or

more research programs and then for these developments to be capable of adequate assessment not only on the basis of annual consultations to assist the academic, but ultimately adequate assessment for the purpose of confirming tenure in the first half of the final probation year.

4.8 While it is the Committee’s view that there is a very strong case for a probation period generally of five years, it has not found any sufficient reason to recommend that all probationary appointments be made in terms of fixed contracts. The present pro­ cedures are flexible and they should continue to be determined to meet an institution‘s

57

particular requirements. There are real advantages, however, in a probationary ap­ pointee having the clear prospect of tenure being confirmed so long as teaching, re­ search and other related performance is adequately developed during the probationary period. Staff associations have expressed the wish that an explicit condition of appoint­ ment to a probationary position should be that the person will be tenured following competent probationary performance.5 In this circumstance, the employing authority would be bound to indicate inadequate performance as the ground for not confirming tenure and consequently termination of appointment. That is, there would be need to show that the appointee did not meet the criteria for tenure which were made explicit

on initial appointment to the probationary position.

Appointment of contract staff (lecturer and above)

4.9 For a number of reasons, tertiary institutions have employed academic staff on short-term contracts. These contracts have usually ranged in length from one to five years. The extent of the use of contract appointments has already been indicated in Tables 3-5 and 3-7. Considerable variations between institutions have arisen, however, in the proportion of staff so employed. Specialised institutions such as the Sydney Col­ lege of the Arts or the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National Univer­ sity employ about half of their total academic staff on contract appointments. Accord­ ingly, in these institutions the proportion of tenured staff is much lower than the level generally prevailing in universities and colleges. As an example of limited term appoint­

ments, the University of New South Wales offers two types of appointment, one of 3-5 year’s duration which may or may not be converted to a tenured appointment; and a second type which is an appointment for a specific period but without any expectation of tenure.6 Appointment procedures for the first category could be expected to be more rigorous than for short-term contract staff; indeed, they should be as rigorous as any academic appointment. 4.10 The Committee has already outlined the recurring criticisms of contract appointments during its discussion of the advantages of tenure in Chapter 2. A sig­ nificant disadvantage of short-term contract appointments was described by Professor John Scott, Vice-Chancellor of the La Trobe University:

‘If you have got an appointment only for three years, it takes a year to get into a project, a year, perhaps, doing useful work and then you are beginning to look for your next job in the last year and your concentration gets relaxed. They are an inefficient way, I think of using human resources.’7 4.11 While both the national staff associations accept the use of limited-term appoint­ ments, they seek limitations on their use. The Federation of College Academics (FCA) argued that the proportion of fixed-term academic staff should not exceed 15 per cent at any institution. FAUSA stated that it accepts contract appointments in the following circumstances:

‘a. recruitment to fill short-term absences, secondments and visiting fellowships: or b. where the appointee wishes such an arrangement; or c. where the position is funded from sources (such as external research grants, special development grants, etc) which may be available for only a limited period; or d. where there is genuine doubt about the continuing viability of a newly established course

or discipline or where a course or discipline is in an area of genuine decline in student demand.'8 4.12 This Report has already argued that limited-term appointments increase an in­ stitution’s staffing flexibility; that is flexibility to adapt sensibly to changing priorities and to adapt to the available financial resources. It is also apparent that tertiary insti­ tutions have in recent years sought to win some small degree of increased flexibility by

58

making a higher proportion of contract appointments and this trend is likely to con­ tinue. The Committee holds the view that some of the criticism of contract appoint­ ments can be overcome by lengthening the period of the contract to up to five years. The terms of each contract appointment should meet the particular circumstances re­

lating to the vacancy that needs to be filled. Undoubtedly some of these temporary vacancies will be for short periods. But in the general case the real advantages of con­ tract periods being from three to five years should not be overlooked. Provided the pro­ portion of such contract staff" does not become exceedingly large and provided rigorous selection procedures are used, then the standards and educational integrity of the ter­

tiary institution should not be affected.

The question of tenure for tutors

4.13 Tutors work under the supervision of more senior staff. They conduct tutorials and demonstrations, mark essays and assignments, are available for student consul­ tation and assist in the preparation of teaching material. In universities they are expected to pursue higher degrees. Rarely do tutors have tenure. In the case of senior

tutors there is more emphasis on supervision and organisation. Tutors and senior tutors are not expected to remain in their positions for long periods. Yearly contracts, with a maximum total service of five years as a tutor seems to be the norm. Most Vice­ Chancellors who appeared before the Committee, and the CTEC, did not consider

these appointments as career positions. On the other hand principal tutors who super­ vise the work of other tutoring staff tend to be regarded in some institutions as career appointments with a limited horizon. However, other institutions remain reluctant to grant tenure to any senior tutors.

4.14 A direct result of the cessation of growth in the tertiary sector has been the cur­ tailment of the career expectations of many tutors and junior academic staff. Any tacit understanding of progression from a tutorship to a lectureship has been dissolved and the proportion of full-time equivalent teaching-and-research staff in the tutorship area

has been reduced from 30.1 per cent in 1975 to 26.1 per cent in 1980.9 Not only have there been reductions in the number of tutorships available, but a limit on the total length of the contract has meant that many junior academics are denied continuing em­ ployment as tutors after four or five years.10 In this regard it is important to eliminate

the illusion that tutorial posts are mainly taken up by young honours graduates. A FAUSA survey of the tutorial population in Australian universities in 1978 indicated that the average age of tutors was then 32 years. The average age of senior tutorial staff was 37 for men and 43 for women.

4.15 The reaction from tutoring staff to the decrease in their employment security has been for them to seek tenure or contracts with longer terms than currently available. In their submissions, and in selected case histories given in evidence to the Committee, tutors put forward arguments about the value of their teaching role to higher education. There is no doubt about the importance of tutors and tutorial systems in higher edu­ cation. Some tutors went further to say they felt they were being exploited. This exploi­ tation in varying circumstances seemed to take one or other of four forms: first, tutors sometimes are so overloaded with tutorial work that they have little time to work on

their research program for a higher degree; second, tutors sometimes are pressed to do the work of lecturers; third, because most tutors are not in tenured positions their annual appointments sometimes cover only the nine teaching months of the year; and fourth, they suffer the greatest insecurity when institutions are cutting back on the total

number of staff. It is the Committee’s view that all of these apparent dangers of ‘exploi­ tation’ are unfair and with regard to the first three in particular, safeguards should be developed to ensure that they do not happen in any higher education institution. With 59

regard to the relative insecurity of tutors, Vice-Chancellors, as managers of tertiary in­ stitutions have argued that if there are constraints to reduce academic staff, then such reductions in junior academic staff are legitimate and often the only realistic option cur­ rently available. However, the CTEC has taken the attitude that institutions should not make disproportionate economies in the lower academic grades but should spread them as evenly as possible throughout all staff levels." Generally staff associations and the Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations (CAPA) favour the extension of ten­ ure to the tutorship area in order to protect tutors from the present insecurities and to consolidate the position of tutors within the higher education sector.12 4.16 It is a fundamental and universal observation that higher education institutions in Australia view tutorial staff as being quite separate and independent from the category of career academic staff. While there are some exceptions by individual insti­ tutions, it is generally regarded that tutorial staff are not ‘apprentices’, nor are they ‘probationary’ academic staff, even though their duties and responsibilities in some cases overlap with those of other academic staff. In outlining the historical develop­ ment of tutors, the Chairman of the CTEC, Professor Peter Karmel stated that:

‘By and large the people who were tutors and demonstrators were not people who were regarded as having an academic career.’13

He went on further to state that currently, while experienced tutors who have progres­ sed with postgraduate qualifications are eligible to apply for vacant lectureships, it is also considered that many tutors would not normally be regarded as appropriate for lectureship appointment. 4.17 In their evidence to the Committee some tutors stated that the lack of staff turn­ over in the higher academic positions has meant that vacancies in the tutorship area are contested so competitively that it has become the case that the qualifications of tutorial staff are rapidly approaching those of lecturing staff. In fact, some tutors now claim that their own qualifications are better than lecturers who were appointed in earlier and less competitive times. It is the Committee’s view that the root of this kind of anomaly does not lie in the traditional and sound separation of tutorial positions from the other more senior and permanent academic appointments, but rather in the extreme tightness of the ‘market’ for academic jobs now compared with the relative ease of a decade ago. Whatever the full assessment may be, it needs to be recognised that currently some higher education institutions do have some highly qualified tutors working alongside some less well-qualified lecturers. This situation has naturally led some departments to employ tutors in roles that are beyond the terms of appointment of tutors and so they have in some instances seen themselves as having roles that are indistinguishable from that of the more senior staff.14 This claim was alluded to by Professor Keith Hancock, Vice-Chancellor of Flinders University, when he discussed the nature and basic objec­ tives of tutorial appointments:

‘My Council has said quite explicitly that tutors must not be asked to do the work of lec­ turers. We have been trying to enforce that but I would not care to say that we have been a 100% successful . . . ... the universities generally-and this is certainly true of my own- think of tutorship and the demonstratorship as being not only teaching positions but also providing an opportunity for the young scholar to improve his credentials, in particular to pursue a higher degree. Indeed, we lay it down in the letter of appointment that the tutor or the demonstrator is expected to pursue a higher degree. Normally a tutorship or demonstratorship ends after four years, but if we have evidence that the person is making satisfactory progress towards a doctorate we will extend the appointment to six years. The consequence of giving tenure to tutors would be to deny that opportunity to so many other people. Perhaps it would be a consequence that would be quite acceptable if postgraduate scholarships were more freely available, but they are not. . .

60

I take the view that a person who already has a doctorate ought not to be appointed to a tutorship or a demonstratorship. There is an alternative view that when you are making an appointment you should always appoint the best applicant, but I see the decision as follow­

ing from the opinion that the tutorship and demonstratorship are opportunity posts and that they should not be made available to people who have had their opportunities.’15

4.18 The Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee (AVCC) gave some reasons, ad­ ditional to those put forward by Professor Karmel and Professor Hancock, for not giv­ ing tenure to tutors. While acknowledging that tutorial staff are not substitutes for lec­ turing staff, the AVCC pointed out that the deployment of tutorial posts within and

between faculties or schools is directly and significantly related to the numbers of student enrolments for particular courses, and thus the deployment of tutors is fairly closely matched to parallel the changes in student demand. The AVCC considers that universities must retain this staffing flexibility to ensure that tutors are available to the

varying extents that changing student enrolments may require and even for this reason alone tenure should not be granted to tutorial staff. The AVCCs additional arguments against tenure for tutorial staff are as follows:

(a) the granting of tenure to the present generation of tutors would close off opportunities for those that ordinarily would expect to take up tutorial appoint­ ments in the immediate and continuing years ahead; (b) the extra superannuation costs that would be associated with tenure for tutors

would reduce the number of posts by 10 per cent to 14 per cent since overall staffing funds are essentially fixed; and (c) it is doubtful whether all but a few of the existing tutorial positions were filled by international advertisement and rigorous competition, as has applied to lec­

tureships; the AVCC considers that the same high standards of appointment should apply to the filling of all tenurable academic posts.16 4.19 After considering the various assessments of the nature and status of tutoring staff, the Committee is in agreement with the long-established view as expressed by the AVCC and the CTEC that tutors should not be given tenure. While there may be some exceptions in the case of some principal tutors and some senior tutors and senior dem­ onstrators who may have a genuinely continuing career in these positions, the general nature of tutorial appointments should lead to them not being regarded as ‘apprentice’ lectureships nor as career positions. Essentially they are short-term appointments which give the tutor the opportunity to assist in some undergraduate teaching while ac­ quiring a postgraduate qualification as well as gaining some experience of the various functions of the higher education institution. 4.20 Safeguards should be developed to ensure tutors are protected from the dangers of ‘exploitation’ referred to in paragraph 4.15 above. With this in mind certain current terms of appointment for tutors need to be strengthened in order to lesser, avoidable anxiety amongst tutors and increase their expectation of a fair opportunity to complete a higher degree and so eventually, if they wish, compete for any available lecturing pos­ itions. In particular, the Committee concludes that wherever practicable tutors should be offered a minimum of a three-year contract, followed by a second and final three- year contract or by yearly extensions to what would in normal circumstances be a maxi­ mum of six years. Normally tutors should be expected to be undertaking postgraduate study and research towards a higher degree and, in these circumstances, their tutorial work should not be excessive but allow half of their time for the purposes of their own postgraduate degree. In these circumstances, initial appointments and yearly extensions should not be offered for less than a full twelve-month minimum period. Only when genuinely once-off, short-term tutorial vacancies occur, should periods shorter than twelve months be contemplated for contract appointment of tutors.

6 1

4.21 The Committee also concludes that the duties and conditions of appointment of tutorial staff be fully detailed in their letter of appointment and that these duties be known and observed by the more senior members of the relevant departments, in order that no unfair advantage be taken of the willingness of tutorial staff to undertake extra teaching and administrative loads to the detriment of their pursuit of higher degrees. The CTEC, after consultation with higher education institutions and the relevant staff associations, could very usefully establish more detailed guidelines as to what are con­ sidered to be reasonable terms and conditions for the appointment of tutors so as best to fulfil the twin objectives of providing tutorials for undergraduate teaching and oppor­ tunities for tutors themselves to undertake postgraduate study and research towards higher degrees.

4.22 Senior tutors (and senior demonstrators) have a legitimate place in some, but not all, departments and where there are special circumstances for such appointments to be made, special terms of appointment, including the prospect of tenure, may well be applicable. Senior tutors would not normally be undertaking higher degrees, but would bring skills and experience to their work which would be enhanced by their permanent appointment, and would have a workload consisting predominately of teaching and only to a lesser extent participating in research. An appointment as senior tutor is a ca­ reer appointment only in that it is permanent but it does not have the prospect of pro­ motion to any more senior level of academic appointment, in some but not all depart­ ments senior tutors may usefully act as co-ordinators of some departmental activities. It should be recognised as undesirable to appoint a person ‘senior tutor’ merely on the basis of length of service or age if the work involved is indistinguishable from the work undertaken by ‘tutors’.

Promotion Procedures

4.23 Both the university and college sectors have similar structures and procedures in relation to the promotion of academic staff; that is their elevation to a higher grade as distinct from incremental salary increase. Such annual increments, discussed elsewhere in this Report, tend to be awarded automatically although they come within the re­ sponsibility of the chairman of the department or his equivalent.17 Academic grades and salary levels are set out in simplified form in Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 below.

Table 4-3: Academic Levels in Tertiary Institutions

Universities Colleges o f Advanced Education

No. o f levels/ No. o f levels/

Position Salary steps Position Salary steps

'Professor 1 Level H ead of School 3 levels

Associate Professor/ 1 level Principal Lecturer 3 levels

Reader ^Senior L ecturer 6 Salary Steps ‘ Senior L ecturer 1 4 Salary steps

(5 Salary increm ents) (3 Salary increm ents)

*Senior Lecturer 2 4 Salary steps (3 Salary increm ents)

‘ L ecturer 8 Salary steps *L ecturer 1 5 Salary steps

(7 Salary increm ents) (4 Salary increm ents)

62

Universities Colleges o f Advanced Education

No. o f levels/ No. o f levels/

Position Salary steps Position Salary steps

♦L ecturer 2 5 Salary steps

(4 Salary increm ents)

♦L ecturer 3 6 Salary steps

(5 Salary increm ents)

1 Australian National University has 3 levels at Professorial grade.

* Annual increments in salary.

Source: Academic Salaries Tribunal 1981 Review AG PS Canberra, October 1981 pp. 21-22 and 27-28.

Table 4-4: Academic Salary Levels

Australian N ational University (Facilities) Canberra College o f Advanced Education

Salary level Salary level

(on or after (on or after

Classification 7 M ay 1981) Classification 7 M ay 1981)

$ $

Professor 49 914 H ead of School 43 904

46 651 42 401

43 904 40 896

Associate Professor 37 071 Principal 37 071

L ecturer 35 680

34 285

Senior Lecturer* 32 782 Senior 32 782

31 850 L ecturer 1* 32 116

30 921 31 450

29 991 29 058

30 781

28 127 Senior 30 118

L ecturer II* 29 453

28 790 28 127

Lecturer* 27 539 L ecturer I* 27 539

26 599 26 788

25 659 26 036

24 722 25 283

23 781 22 843

24 534

21 904 L ecturer II* 23 970

20 963

L ecturer III*

23 219 22 467 21 716 20 963

20 699 20 171 19 649 19 122

18 595 18 068

Principal T utor* 23 970 Principal T utor* 23 970

23 219 23 219

22 467 22 467

21 716 21 716

20 963 20 963

63

Australian National University (Facilities) Canberra College o f Advanced Education

Classification

Salary level (on or after 7 May 1981) Classification

Salary level (on or after 7 May 1981)

Senior T u to r t

$

20 699 Senior T u to rt 20 699

20 171 19 649 19 122 18 595 18 068

17 542 17016 16 493 15 966 15 437 14 900

$

20 171 19 649 19 122 18 595 18 068

T u to rt 4 7 542 T u to rt

17016 16 493 15 966 15 437 14 900

* annual increments

(1) Source: Academic Salaries Tribunal 1981 Review October 1981 pp 7-16, AG PS (Canberra) 1981.

(Note: The Academic Salaries Tribunal determines the salary levels for the Australian National University and the Canberra College of Advanced Education but only makes recommendations in the area of other universities and most other colleges see paragraphs 1.30 and 3.10)

4.24 Table 4-3 shows that for a university academic to move from the lectureship grade to the senior lectureship grade, only one promotion bar must be passed, while a college academic has to move through three or four bars depending on whether the starting point is lecturer 3 or lecturer 2 grade. In order to gain promotion, academics must satisfy certain criteria as assessed by a promotions committee consisting of a panel of senior academics. The promotion criteria in universities generally call for excellence in teaching, research and scholarship; or service to their discipline or profession. Further details are contained in the Evidence of the A VCC, pp. 251-311. 4.25 While an equivalent process takes place in the college sector as in universities, there is usually much less emphasis in most CAEs on research as distinct from teaching

(but see also paragraphs 3.5 and 3.6). It was also said in Evidence that many lecturers in CAEs who were ready for promotion could not obtain it because of the restriction of the staffing profile set by the State tertiary education co-ordinating authorities. (See paragraph 5.74).

4.26 Criticism was levelled at universities during the inquiry in that during the promotion process, relevant committees are allegedly placing too much emphasis on re­ search, particularly the number as distinct from the quality of publications, at the ex­ pense of teaching ability.18 However, the Chairman of the Universities Council. Pro­ fessor Noel Dunbar, while conceding that this may have been the case in past years, felt that the situation was changing and that universities now placed greater emphasis on teaching competence in the promotion process.19

Staff development programs

4.27 One of the often repeated themes during the Committee's hearings and in the written submissions was the allegation that academics, particularly in universities, needed to pay more attention to improving their teaching skills. Professor Charles Ren- wick of the Hunter Valley Research Foundation said:

64

Ί w o u ld lik e, th e r e fo r e , to see p e o p le in u n iv e rsitie s re g a rd th e m se lv e s as te a c h e r s a s w ell as

r e s e a rc h e r s . . . w h e re a s th e t r u t h o f th e m a tte r is t h a t th e y m a y in fact be very p o o r

te a c h e r s o f th e s u b je c t in w h ic h th e y a r e in v o lv e d a n d th e re s e a rc h th e y h a v e p u r s u e d m ight

h a v e b e e n m in isc u le , e v e n th o u g h in te n se , in a sm a ll d ir e c tio n .’20

Such allegations add to the general case for considering the question of staff develop­ ment and individual staff reviews.

4.28 There are academic staff development units in over twenty universities and CAEs which employ overall about 70 professional staff. As there has been no co­ ordination in the development of these units, higher education institutions have tailored the service of the units to meet their individual needs. There is thus no standard set of

functions and services provided by these units but they tend to include the following: (a) induction courses for new academic staff; (b) courses designed to improve teaching effectiveness; (c) range of audio-visual services;

(d) advice or evaluation of an individual’s teaching skills at the request of the indi­ vidual concerned and on a confidential basis; (e) provision of courses leading to an academic award such as a Diploma of Ter­ tiary Education; and

(f) provision of education research and publication material.2 1

4.29 In most cases these staff development units have little formal integration with the academic structure of their respective institutions. Overall the lack of integration is surprising given the degree of support which has been forthcoming from the major ini­ tiating organisations in higher education. The CTEC, the AVCC, the Australian Con­

ference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education (ACPCAE) as well as the national staff associations, have all supported the establishment of staff development units in higher education institutions. These organisations recognise that the quality of teaching can always be improved and in some cases there is a significant need for im­

provement in standards. There has been little indication that individual departments have the expertise or capacity to undertake such staff development work.

4.30 It would seem that staff development programs suffer in their overall effec­ tiveness because they have to overcome a persistent notion that there is little or no re­ ward for good teaching since promotion depends on research, publications and pro­ fessional standing. The programs also are not helped by an allegedly negative attitude

on the part of a considerable proportion of heads of schools and deans of faculties towards the programs. This crucial attitude of management was recognised by the AVCC when it stated:

‘H e a d s o f d e p a r tm e n ts o r sc h o o ls h a v e a p a r tic u la r re sp o n s ib ility ; th e ir a p a th y o r re sista n c e h a s o f te n b e e n d e a d ly to in itia tiv e s in s ta ff d e v e lo p m e n t. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e ir d isc rim i­

n a tin g e n c o u r a g e m e n t c a n c h a n g e th e a tm o s p h e re w ith in a d e p a r tm e n t.

4.31 Ultimately it is the attitude of an individual academic to improving his own work that counts, unless attendance and proficiency at development courses becomes a con­ dition of appointment or becomes mandatory for the award of tenure. Currently a serious limitation on progress in enhancing academic performance seems to be that

many academics are defensive about anyone scrutinising their performance or suggest­ ing any form of improvement. Such attitudes contribute to the under-utilisation of staff development programs. While no precise estimate was given to the Committee as to how much these programs were being used, Dr John Powell, Acting Director of the Tertiary Education Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, testified

that:

65

‘Since that time (1961) the university has continued to provide a program of one or two day workshop sessions, which are open to all members of the staff throughout the year. Gener­ ally, about 300 staff would attend these during the year, out of 1,400 or so. There is-rio com­ pulsion of course; it is an entirely voluntary thing for academics to involve themselves in this and also I should say that over the last few years we have broadened the idea of staff devel­ opment, or professional development, to cover the whole range of an academic’s responsibilities.’23 Dr Powell added that as the Research Centre tended to see the same 300 people year after year, there was a difficulty in voluntary programs reaching all academics who needed to be helped.24 4.32 A recent AVCC Report, Academic Staff" Development, which was tabled during the inquiry and examined by the Committee directly addresses the need for a greater recognition by all academics of the teaching function in the university sector. This is im­ portant not only in terms of more effective teaching of students but also because the teaching processes are the most visible means of assuring students and the general pub­ lic of the competence and effectiveness of academic staff. The Report recommended among other things:

‘That each university should develop a declared staff development policy incorporating-a. a program of induction for new staff members which commences for each staff member on arrival in post, and continues throughout the first year of service. Partici­ pation in such programs should be a condition of appointment; b. a significantly reduced teaching and administrative load for all staff in their first year

of probation; c. explicit procedures for formally advising probationary staff on their performance at the end of each probationary year; d. a formal evaluation program for all staff involving systematic and regular review of

performance in all roles. Such evaluation should be comprehensive both in terms of activities evaluated and sources of evaluative information used. Evaluation should be undertaken for both formative and summative purposes; e. the introduction of an incentive program or reward structure designed to encourage

effective staff performance, particularly in the teaching role.’25

The abovementioned recommendations were generally supported by FAUSA26 and by CAPA.27 Such support is not, however, unqualified; for example, FAUSA does not sup­ port the use of staff development personnel to assess academics for confirmation of ten­ ure appointments or for review purposes. 4.33 The Committee supports the continued development of staff development programs and the abovementioned AVCC Working Party recommendations. However, the Committee does not support any introduction of pay differentials within any par­ ticular salary grade (see paragraph 5.14). The Committee believes that the professional educational staff of the staff development centres should not be involved in any de­ cisions regarding confirmation of tenure or promotion. To do so would compromise

their role and may undermine the trust on which their assistance depends.

Periodic reviews of an academic’s performance and annual consultations for all academic staff

4.34 Throughout the inquiry staff associations consistently asserted their view that they wish only the most capable of academics to gain tenure and by this means to ensure the maintenance of academic excellence. For example, FAUSA in regard to probation­ ary appointments stated that:

‘The Federation does not, by its policies, seek to prolong the employment of incompetent staff who may have, at the time of their initial appointment indicated the potential to

6 6

measure up to rigorous standards of performance of academic d u tie s b u t w h o h a v e s u b ­ sequently not fulfilled that potential.’28

The Committee accepts this as a responsible and professional approach to academic employment. The Committee also agrees with the view expressed by many witnesses during the inquiry, that one of the basic premises for tenure is that an academic main­ tain a continuing standard of performance and academic contribution in teaching, re­

search and scholarship. Thus there should be a continuing accountability by each aca­ demic to the higher education institution of which he or she is a part. It is the Committee’s view that a merely informal accountability through conversation with and regard by one’s peers remains inadequate. What is required is a more explicit and reg­

ular review which is effective, and is seen to be effective, in ensuring a tenured academic is accountable for maintaining high standards of teaching, research and scholarship.

4.35 Some witnesses who fully accepted the importance of academic accountability, nevertheless sought to maintain that informal peer group pressure is sufficient to rem­ edy any instance of poor academic performance exhibited by a minority of academics. The Committee agrees that peer group encouragements are ideal and in practice are of assistance. However,the contention that this ideal is sufficient and effective is

monumentally unconvincing. In reality, any informal process of ‘peer review’ remains haphazard in application and results; also it proves a dismal failure in many serious cases of poor performance. A fairer, more open and more equitable approach can be found in a regular,formal review of individual academic performance. This formal re­

view process should be clear and uncomplicated and its results open and properly ac­ countable. Such reviews should be an ordinary part of the evaluation of an academic’s contribution to the teaching and research objectives of each department. The reviews should not primarily have a censoring or negative function but rather be a positive con­

tribution towards confirming shared goals within any teaching course or joint research program and enable feedback information and assessment of real benefit to an individ­ ual academic. The reviews should provide an increased interchange of information be­ tween the more junior and more senior academic staff. For example, unless chairmen of

departments actually appraise the work of their departmental members including their own academic colleagues, it is difficult to understand how they can maintain any necessary leadership or authority within the department; or to understand how that de­ partment can properly be accountable to the university or college as a whole. Many

witnesses have emphasised the vital importance of professional experience and the aca­ demic leadership of professors within a department. However, full advantage is not made of these resources when professors fail to exercise these leadership and ‘adminis­ trative’ functions and when their departments are chaired by sub-professorial staff who

do not adequately consult or involve them in the evaluation of departmental objectives and the performance of individual academics.

4.36 The Committee has been made aware that reviews of performance as distinct from reviews for promotion, are currently in operation in some colleges of advanced education, although not in all.29 They are essentially annual reviews carried out by heads of departments which appraise whether the aims and objectives of the depart­ ment are being achieved by the academic under review, and as well, what changes

might be necessary to improve the functioning and effectiveness of the courses being taught. An example of how such a review system is structured was provided to the Committee by Mr John Dolin, Assistant Director, Administration, Western Australian Institute of Technology, when he informed the Committee that:

‘W e h a v e n o w im p o se d a fo rm a l a n n u a l re v ie w n o t o n ly o f th o se s ta ff w h o a re su b je c t to

th e ir first th r e e y e a r re q u ire m e n t b u t o f all sta ff. T h is is la rg e ly a m a n a g e m e n t to o l to m ak e

th e d e p a r tm e n t h e a d s a c tu a lly in te rv ie w a n d ta lk w ith th e ir a c a d e m ic sta ff m em b ers.

67

describe to them what they believe their shortcomings are and formalise it in the form of a report. So if there is a criticism the criticism is written.’30

4.37 Two factors tend to lead academics in the CAE sector to undergo more reviews than their counterparts in universities. First, the additional promotion bars in colleges, mentioned in paragraph 4.24, ensure reviews of a college academic’s performance every few years depending on how quickly the academic may move up the career scale. Sec­ ond, as part of the process of accreditation of courses every five years, staff members who are teaching in a course under review are evaluated by the accreditation com­ mittee. Possibly these factors help to explain the fact that the Committee received less criticism of the general performance and teaching ability of academics in CAEs than of those in universities.

4.38 A number of witnesses were critical of the present university method of monitor­ ing academic performance. For instance, Professor Robert Baxt stated that some chair­ men of departments did not have the strength of will necessary to require any improve­ ment in an academic’s performance:

‘There are some chairmen who just do not have the necessary backbone to get tough with people, i would hate to be in the position where I would have to do that. It is a confrontation situation. There are many of us who hate confrontation and would put the matter aside rather than have it.’31

Professor Anthony Low,32 Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University, and Professor Geoffrey Harcourt33 of the University of Adelaide, suggested that on the whole academics did respond to suggestions from their chairmen. Yet in the final analy­ sis if the sort of evidence quoted in paragraph 2.26 is to be taken into account, the aca­ demic whose performance is inadequate need not necessarily take any notice of peer group pressure or of suggestions from his departmental chairman or faculty dean. Cer­ tainly, the Committee is not convinced that the present arrangements within depart­ ments are effective nor that there are sufficient procedures to deal with unresponsive academics who persist in their inadequate performance of academic work. The current lack of sufficient procedure, especially in universities, significantly contributes to the expressions of public distrust of tenure as being any kind of guarantee of academic excellence.

4.39 The Committee notes that there is opposition among some academics to the pro­ posal that there may be regular formal reviews of an individual academic’s performance particularly if these reviews allow the possibility of a tenured appointment being ter­ minated.34 Much of this opposition is inconsistent and unconvincing because, while agreeing to the principle that tenure should not be a protection for incompetence or in­ adequate performance, no agreement is allowed to propositions which seek to give that principle practical effect. However, some of the opposition is more credible when directed against review proposals that would be too cumbersome and inefficiently time­ consuming. The review processes should not be so elaborate as to require a dispro­ portionate amount of staff time to carry them out. The Committee also believes that, as the greatest current, threats to academic freedom lie in the rivalries within academic in­ stitutions themselves, so the review processes need to be sound and subject to appropri­ ate appeal so that abuses do not develop on this account. While conscious of the need for a balance between ensuring effective responsibility on the part of senior academic staff and the burden of evaluation which is imposed upon them by academic reviews, the Committee favours the extension to all higher education institutions of a formal process for the review of individual academic performance. The Committee is sup­ ported in this conclusion by many witnesses, for example, the submission by the Sydney University Students’ Representative Council expressed this view:

6 8

‘Tenure has of course, its disadvantages. The phenomenon of the complacent academic is not unusual. Such a person is secure in his or her employment, spends little time in develop­ ing teaching skills or keeping abreast of changes in the subject, whilst undertaking little re­ search. Although these academics are the product of the current system of tenure, this prob­

lem does not undermine the arguments advanced in support of the principle of tenure. The complacent academic problem illustrates the need for a regular review of performance in teaching and research, and hence the concept o f a renewal of tenure. Teaching in particular suffers from this problem, since there is little or no evaluation of teaching performance

within the universities. Teaching is often neglected in comparison with the priority given to research. This submission develops arguments for a periodic renewal of tenure, and a mandatory course on teaching skills for academics during their probationary years prior to tenured appointment.’35

(The Committee’s emphasis) 4.40 The need for formal periodic reviews of academic performance was a recurring theme in the evidence presented during the Committee’s inquiry. However, there was a variety of opinions about the two related questions of how elaborate such a review might be and how often the reviews should take place. Every five years, seven years or

ten years were the most common proposals, a main consideration being the length of time it takes to complete a major piece of research. There was also a variety of opinions about the composition of any review committee and the composition of any board of appeal. Some preferred to confine their membership to academic peers while others

preferred majority representation of persons outside the department concerned together with persons outside any employment in higher education institutions. Dr John Powell in arguing for reviews at five yearly intervals to commence with an aca­ demic reached the age of forty, said:

‘The adoption of such a policy of regular review would enable existing provisions for dis­ missal on the grounds of incompetence to be made more meaningful and effective. It would also give a much needed stimulus to staff development activities within universities and colleges.’36

4.41 While the Committee favours periodic reviews to be no less than five and no more than seven years apart, it does not wish to be inflexible about the time period. It may suit some institutions to have such reviews for some categories of staff more fre­

quently than for other categories of staff. Alternatively, it may suit some institutions to conduct reviews at certain defined stages in the career of an academic such as the time when an academic has been two years on the top increment as a lecturer, or two years on the top increment as a senior lecturer. At those stages an academic could well be

seriously contemplating the chances for promotion and perhaps wondering why such promotion had not already been achieved. A constructive process of formal review should help the academic to understand independent evaluations of academic work and identify any areas of performance which might by practical steps be improved. Such

constructive reviews should also help the institution as a whole.

4.42 However frequently reviews are carried out, there remains the very real problem for review committees of knowing how best to assess the quality of research. In certain cases it would be necessary to include on a review committee at least one person who has specialised in the same field as the academic under review. There may be a need to

take care that such a person is not the only rival in that field of specialisation.

4.43 The Committee believes it would not be sufficient for institutions to rely on such periodic reviews with intervals of up to seven years in order to maintain or improve aca­ demic performance. There is a prior and complementary need for annual consultations on a formal basis between an academic and the head of department. The annual written

record of these consultations would be available to any subsequent review committee.

69

The value of these annual consultations was referred to in Evidence by Dr D. W. Letcher, Principal of the Phillip Institute of Technology:

‘We monitor at our institution the performance of staff members. If we think somebody is falling below standard he is monitored very closely indeed. We have in many cases a stan­ dard procedure by which at the beginning of a year a staff member will be given a set of duties; we will ask him to think about them and then write down the aims and objectives that he will set for himself for the year, at the end of the year he comes in and tells us what aims and objectives he has achieved, what he has not achieved and why he thought he missed out.

It often reveals something which was not suspected, that is, that the aspirations of the staff member did not coincide with the aspirations of the head of the department or the head of the school or somebody else in authority . . .

It seems to me that the review process and the monitoring process should also concern them­ selves with whether everybody has got their acts together and whether they are all in fact pulling in the same direction. I therefore think one of the most important things is to remove the need for an academic review by having a continuing monitoring process so that the ques­ tion of poor performance should arise in comparatively few cases.’37

4.44 The Committee favours a system of annual ‘consultations’ between a head of departm ent/dean of faculty with each academic who comes within the responsibility of that head or dean. This would also provide an opportunity to discuss any problem areas while reviewing the year’s work. It is important that such consultations deal construc­ tively with the achievements of the year rather than only dwell on areas of difficulty. It has been noted that several institutions have already established a system of annual re­ views of all staff. The Committee believes that this procedure of annual consultations for all staff should be adopted by all institutions of higher education. 4.45 The proposed annual consultation will be more meaningful if an academic on such occasions submits a written account which assesses the teaching, research and scholarly program undertaken during the year. This report together with comments ini­ tiated by the head of department or received from others by the head of department would provide a basis for constructive discussion. The head of departm ent’s summary of the findings of this discussion should be lodged with the dean of the faculty or head of school and given to the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal. This report perhaps by mutual agreement could also be made available eventually to promotion committees. It may be an appropriate procedure for each academic following such an annual consul­ tation to be given a copy of the report and be able to respond to any unfavourable com­ ments. An example of a form used by the University of New South Wales which could be adapted by other institutions for annual consultations is contained at Annex G .38 A pro-forma used by the Australian National University for reporting on re­ appointments is contained at Annex H.39 4.46 In the light of the accumulated findings of these annual consultations being con­ structive and followed up by useful responses on the part of an academic, the less fre­ quent process of periodic review of an academic’s performance should take very little

time and effort in the great majority of cases. In these instances an academic would write an account which is more substantial than those prepared for the annual consul­ tations. This account would include evaluations of completed teaching, research and scholarship on a seven-year basis and perhaps refer to continuing and future proposals for teaching, research and scholarship on a seven-year basis. The process of review would require this account, together with a report from the head of department, being circulated to a review committee; the review committee would discuss these papers with the academic concerned and then submit the committee's finding to both the fac­ ulty dean or head of school and to the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal. It may be an appropriate procedure for each academic following such a periodic review to be given an opportunity to see and initial the review committee’s report.

70

4.47 The membership of the review committee could consist of three persons: one internal to the department concerned and nominated by the faculty dean or head of school, another member of the university or college outside the faculty concerned and nominated by the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal, and a third member not

employed in any higher education institution but experienced in the evaluation of pro­ fessional work and nominated by the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal. In addition, but only where the evaluation of specialised academic work became significantly con­ troversial, an academic referee external to the university or college, could be appointed on the nomination of the faculty dean or head of school, to receive the papers circulated

to the review committee, accompanied by relevant publications of the academic with the request that a written academic reference be submitted to the Committee. In the great majority of instances the review committee would be expected to meet only on one occasion: (a) to discuss if necessary the academic’s written seven-year account and

the head of departm ent’s report, (b) to interview the academic and (c) to formulate the committee’s findings.

4.48 In the small minority of cases where it may be necessary to evaluate allegations of inadequate performance of academic duties, the work of a review committee would be more onerous and the review procedure would take more time. The review pro­ cedure would still be the same but the committee might well need to meet on more than

one occasion. The Committee could receive any comments and allegations made in writing by members of the particular university or college, including staff, students and graduates. Alternatively, consideration could be restricted to any comments and alle­ gations made in writing by (i) the head of department, (ii) the faculty dean or head of

school, or (iii) the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal; with this approach the persons in these positions would be able to receive a wider circle of comment but only forward it to the review committee in the form they thought appropriate. The academic under re­ view should have the opportunity to read any and all of the comments and allegations

referred to the review committee.

4.49 When a review committee concludes that an academic has been persistently or seriously inadequate in the performance of academic duties then the report of the com­ mittee’s findings should recommend the termination of that academic’s appointment. When a review committee concludes that an academic has serious weaknesses in teach­

ing, research or other academic duties then the report of the committee’s findings should recommend that the academic be required to undertake satisfactorily an avail­ able course of staff development, or complete other consultations or take other re­ medial action pending the reconvening of the same review committee at a subsequent

date up to twelve months later. If at the subsequent evaluation the review committee finds insufficient remedy of the serious weaknesses referred to, then the committee’s findings should recommend the termination of that academic’s appointment. When a review committee recommends the termination of an academic’s appointment, that in­ stitution should immediately proceed to dismiss that academic. Only if the academic is successful in appealing against the dismissal to the institution’s board of appeal (see

paragraph 4.60 below) should dismissal not proceed.

4.50 While ordinarily an individual academic’s performance would be reviewed by a review committee at intervals of seven years, there should also be provision for an extraordinary review of an academic’s performance in the event that the head of the de­ partment concerned successfully petitions the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal, or

the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal independently decides that there is an urgent need to consider alleged serious inadequacies in an academic’s performance. The pro­ cedures of the review committee would be similar to those when ordinarily convened.

71

Student opinion of academic performance

4.51 Given that a central objective of both universities and colleges is to foster through teaching the capacity to think and research independently, it is important to ascertain whether the student ‘customers’ are satisfied with the quality of teaching. It would seem that student opinions are underrated by some academics as evaluations by students are not used as much as they ought to be. Some academics are quite disdainful of the idea. Pressure to change this situation is mounting however. Mr P.G. Rickard, the President of the Sydney University Students’ Representative Council said:

‘. . . it is very rare for an actual evaluation to be done by students. Recently we have been trying to encourage the university to carry out course evaluation surveys to survey students in relation to the teaching methods, study methods and so forth. We think it is par­ ticularly important that when yod try to evaluate the contribution as a teacher not only should comments come from their peers, heads of departments and so forth, but also they should be taken from students.’40 Senior academics also supported the view that student opinion should be taken into account in assessing teaching skills.41 4.52 It is the Committee’s view that student opinions derive from properly conducted surveys should not by any means be regarded as conclusive, but rather these student opinions, understood in the context in which they are expressed, should be fully taken into account by heads of departments and by review committees when assessing the teaching performance of academics. While the value of student opinions is not then disputed by the Committee, there are evident dangers in conducting such surveys of student opinion expressly to be taken into consideration during a review of an academic

for either probation or for promotion. The Committee believes that such student sur­ veys should be undertaken in the normal course of a teaching program and in the ordi­ nary way brought to the notice of a head of department. Accordingly heads of depart­ ments will be in a position to cite the findings of student surveys when reports for probation, promotion or review committees may be required. However, the Committee believes that student opinions of teaching techniques should be part of staff devel­ opment programs where teaching skills and course effectiveness are being taught or assessed. As example of an evaluation form used by the University of New South Wales is shown at Annex I.

Outside reviews of academic departments

4.53 In times of significant change, when the problems facing higher education re­ quire greater financial, academic and staffing flexibility, there is also a need to identify and monitor the direction in which departments, faculties or institutions are heading. To identify the future direction, and perhaps shortcomings of a department or faculty, one appropriate methods is the employment of an outside review. Greater use of such reviews was recommended by the Williams Committee following a review of this kind conducted by the Australian National University.42 The Australian National University had pioneered a program of such outside reviews in respect of some faculties at five or ten-year intervals. The Committee also notes that the CTEC at times has provided funds for an evaluative study program which would, for example, ascertain whether a certain university department should change its concentration or directions of research. Such reviews frequently involve distinguished scholars from outside the universities and sometimes from overseas.

4.54 In order that a department or faculty receives maximum advantage from an out­ side review, it is necessary for the results of the review to be available for open and frank discussion with the staff of the department under review. Evidence was given to

72

the Committee that when the John Curtin School of Medical Research at the Aus­ tralian National University was reviewed by a Committee in 1978, only a few of its recommendations were implemented and the findings in respect of individual depart­ ments were not made available for the relevant staff" to see.43 This is surprising and re­

grettable for its seems there would be real advantages in allowing the results of such a professionally conducted external review to be openly available for the benefits of constructive discussion in each department and within the university as a whole. The Committee supports the continued use and extension of outside reviews of faculties or

departments; it also supports the need for these evaluations to be open to scrutiny and discussion by all academic members involved in the departments under review. How­ ever, these reviews of whole departments or schools are no substitute for the reviews of an individual academic’s performance outlined in the earlier paragraphs of this chapter.

Appeals-tenure, promotion and dismissal

4.55 After an academic has undergone a probationary period, there are occasions on which tenure is refused. While these occasions have been very few in comparison to the number of academics on probation (see paragraph 4.5) this should not in any way limit the right of this minority to appeal against such a decision. Indeed, consideration of the

whole question of an appeal system, which endeavours to ensure fairness in the pro­ cedures and safeguard the rights of the individual, is an important aspect of academic administration of all higher education institutions. For a summary of which universities have appeal procedures, see Table 4-5 below.

Table 4-5: Universities— Appeals Procedures Available to Academic Staff

University

Refused Tenure

Refused Promotion

Dismissal

Adelaide Yes Yes Yes

A ustralian N ational Yes No No

Deakin Yes No Yes

Flinders No No No

Griffith Yes Yes Yes

Jam es Cook Yes No Yes

La T robe Yes No Yes

M acquarie Yes No Yes

M elbourne Yes Yes No

M onash Yes Yes Yes

M urdoch Yes Yes Yes

Newcastle Yes Yes Yes

New England Yes Yes Yes

New South W ales No No Yes

Queensland Yes Yes Yes

Sydney Yes Yes No

Tasm ania Yes Yes No

W estern A ustralia Yes Yes Yes

W ollongong Yes Yes Yes

Source: Australian Vice-Chancellors Committee

4.56 At present, in situations where tenure is refused following a probationary period, both the college and university sectors operate similar appeal systems. The Australian National University, for example, has an Appeals Committee44 which has the re­ sponsibility of ensuring that the original Review Committee has discharged its functions

in a proper manner. No other right of appeal is allowed the applicant once the Appeals Committee has determined its findings. In the college sector, an academic who is

73

refused tenure may request within fourteen days a review of the recommendation of the Tenure Committee by the Council Tenure Review Committee.45 As a particular example, the Tasmanian College of Advanced Education states in its appeal system that a joint committee of the Tenure Committee and Tenure Appeals Committee may be formed and has power to recommend:

‘a. that an offer of tenure appointment be made to the member of staff, b. that the appointment be extended for one year only, and once only, c. that the services of the member of staff not be retained after the expiration of his present appointment.’46 4.57 In relation to appeals against an adverse recommendation for promotion there appear to be no appeal structures, even though some staff associations have suggested

their introduction. At present, the, only practical recourse open to the applicant is to seek advice on why the application for promotion was unsuccessful and to reapply the following year. The Committee does not seek any change to current promotion pro­ cedures, as applications for promotion are tantamount to original applications for appointment at the new level being sought, and for new applications it is neither practi­ cable nor desirable to have appeal procedures. 4.58 The third and probably most difficult area regarding appeals relates to the dis­ missal of academic staff. Since the time of the celebrated case of the dismissal of Pro­ fessor Orr and the subsequent legal battle, dismissal procedures for academic staff have been refined and tightened. Generally, however, there are few institutions which allow appeals in such situations. One exception is Deakin University which allows an appeal inquiry following the termination of a member’s appointment.47 A traditional method of solving internal disputes without resorting to legal action was outlined to the Com­ mittee in the hearing of the submission made by Mr R.J. Snedden. This traditional method was by means of a Visitors’ Court. In Evidence Mr Snedden stated that:

‘The Visitors’ Court has traditionally dealt with questions of academic freedom involving both staff and students and with questions of tenure of academic staff.’48 In most State universities, the Visitor is the Governor of the relevant State. 4.59 It would appear that Australian higher education institutions have rarely if at all availed themselves of the Visitors’ Courts for settling internal disputes. Thus some dis­

missed academic staff have taken their case outside the university or college resorting directly to the courts. In what may prove a watershed case regarding tenure,the Federal Court on 28 April 1982, directed that Australian National University to furnish Pro­ fessor Arthur Lee Burns with the reasons for terminating his appointment. However, this decision is itself currently subject to appeal by the Australian National University: and it may yet eventuate that the determination of this dispute lies fully within the powers and internal procedures of the University. In any event it has become a usual procedure for higher education institutions to conduct rigorous investigations in re­ lation to any proposal for dismissal in order to ensure that the matter is convincingly re­ solved within the institution itself. Thus, for the most part legal action has been avoided. Yet the fact that appeal to the courts is often the academic’s only recourse, is reflected in the statement, for example, from FCA policy that:

‘Conditions of appointment to a tenured position should include a re-instatement clause in the event that a person is successful in an action for breach of contract in the civil or indus­ trial courts arising out of dismissal.’49 4.60 The Committee believes that each higher education institution should establish a

Board of Appeal along the traditional lines of Visitors’ Courts. That is, the governing body of the institution should prepare advice for the Executive Council concerned and this advice should define the composition and powers of the Board of Appeal. From time to time, the governing body of the institution sould nominate persons to serve on

74

the Board of Appeal for fixed and renewable periods. The principal responsibilities of these Boards of Appeal would be to safeguard academic freedom and ensure due pro­ cess in the institution’s determination of the dismissal of an academic. The decision of a Board of Appeal should be final.

Endnotes

1. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2103. 2. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1726. 3. Evidence, 10 F ebruary 1982. pp. 1570-71 (Professor R. Baxt). 4. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2161.

5. See for exam ple, Evidence, 4 D ecem ber 1981, p. 596 ( F C A ). 6. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 231 (A V C C ). 7. ibid, p. 393. 8. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2100. 9. C T E C R eport for 1982-84 T riennium : Advice o f Universities Council, Vol. 1, P art 2, AGPS, C anberra,

F ebruary 1981, p. 43, T able 4-3. 10. Evidence, 8 F ebruary 1982, p. 986. 11. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1422. 12. See for exam ple, Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1219 (C A P A ). 13. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1417. 14. Evidence, 10 F eburary 1982, p. 1460 (M r J.L. Penwill). 15. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1852-57.

16. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, pp. 2172-73. 17. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 379 (A V C C ). 18. See for exam ple, Evidence, 10 F ebruary 1982, p. 1495 (D r M.C. U ren). 19. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1393 (C T E C ). 20. Evidence, 8 F ebruary 1982, p. 1085. 21. C om m onw ealth T ertiary Education Com m ission, Evaluative Studies Program , Academic Development

Units in Australian Universities and Colleges o f Advanced Education, R. Johnson, July 1982, pp. 18-25. 22. A ustralian V ice-Chancellors’ C om m ittee Occasional Papers, No. 4, 1981, Academic S ta ff Development, R eport o f A V C C W orking Party, July 1981, p. (viii). 23. Evidence, 8 F ebruary 1982, p. 1136. 24. ibid, p. 1137.

25. A ustralian V ice-Chancellors’ C om m ittee Occasional Papers No. 4, 1981. Academic S ta ff Development, R eport o f the AVCC W orking Party, p. (xi). R eproduced in Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2182. 26. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2106. 27. Evidence, 8 F ebruary 1982, p. 894. 28. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p.463.

29. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1381 (D r H.S. H ouston, C T E C ). 30. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1785-86. 31. Evidence, 10 February 1981. p. 1577. 32. Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, pp. 1988-9. 33. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p. 1692. 34. See for exam ple, Evidence, 30 April 1982, pp. 2105-6 (F A U S A ). 35. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 891.

36. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1115. 37. Evidence, 9 February 1982, pp. 1314-15. 38. C ontained in a docum ent tabled by Professor L.M. Birt in Evidence, 8 February 1982. 39. C ontained in a docum ent tabled by F A U SA during Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981. 40. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 910.

41. See for exam ple Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1689 (Professor G.C. H arcourt, U niversity of A delaide). 42. C om m ittee of Inquiry into E ducation and Training Education. Training and Employment. Vol. I . AG PS, C anberra, F ebruary, 1979, p. 212. 43. See for exam ple Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, p. 1903 (D r W .G. Laver) For the A ustralian National Uni­

versity reply see Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, pp. 1977-78. 44. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 80 (A V C C ). 45. Evidence, 4 Decem ber 1981, p. 639 (F C A ). 46. ibid, p. 645. 47. Evidence, 3 Decem ber 1981, p. 89 (A V C C ). 48. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2248. 49. Evidence, 4 Decem ber 1981, p. 631.

75

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5. Further proposals for reform

Renewable term appointments for heads of departments/schoois

5.1 While an appointment to a chair is almost invariably a permanent appointment, appointment as head of department is frequently for a fixed term which may or may not be renewable. For example, in the Australian National University Institute of Ad­ vanced Studies, directors of Research Schools are appointed as professors with tenure,

but serve as directors for limited and negotiated periods. In the faculties chairmen of de­ partments are frequently elected and are therefore not necessarily professors. 5.2 The practice of appointing heads of departments, schools, or faculties for a fixed term (usually renewable) gives the opportunity for new leadership and perhaps a

change in the direction of research. The Committee is in favour of the concept. The concept has features in common with the notion of reversion of senior appointments to the substantive level of senior lecturer-the subject of the next section. 5.3 The concept of fixed-term appointments for heads of departments/schools has the

added advantage of ensuring that other senior academic staff have an opportunity to acquire administrative experience and to influence decision-making in the department. Another reason given for relieving professors of their role as head or chairman of a department/school is that professors are alleged to have a burdensome administrative

workload, which prevents them from participating sufficiently in teaching and research and may compromise the academic leadership expected of them. The Committee has some reservations about professors relinquishing the leadership of their departments to less senior academics. Perhaps they could delegate more of their administrative duties

and continue to play a key role as head of their department. This would include coun­ selling younger academics. It is difficult to visualise the annual consultation, proposed in the previous chapter, being quite as effective if conducted by a person who did not have such a distinguished record of academic experience as the only or senior professor

in the department. 5.4 With regard to the college sector, the Federation of College Academics (FCA) is not opposed to elected/selected leadership of heads of departments/schools for a fixed term. The appointment of staff to such positions on fixed-term contracts (either renew­ able or non-renewable) with tenure remaining at the substantive level of senior lec­ turer, is acceptable to the Federation provided it does not alter the terms and conditions

of employment of existing staff.1

Reversion of senior appointments to senior lecturer?

5.5 Professorial positions in universities and head of school positions in CAEs are be­ coming increasingly competitive as a result of low separation rates at all levels, and the fact that the bulk of university and college staff are in the lecturer/senior lecturer range. For example, in approximately four-fifths of the departments at the University

of Melbourne, no professors are due to retire until 1989.2 5.6 The Committee received several submissions which proposed that appointments at professorial level be temporary and renewable. It is also to be noted that the Com­ monwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) in its submission to the Com­ mittee canvassed the idea that in order to maintain a flow of vacancies in senior pos­

itions and to provide appropriate incentives the appointment of all academic staff above the rank of senior lecturer should be on a limited-term basis with tenure at the substantive level of senior lecturer. The CTEC went on to suggest that professorships or principal lectureships could be held for a period of ten years before the individual

reverted to senior lecturer status, unless the higher appointment were renewed.’ Even

77

more radical was one proposal to grant tenure to staff only at the level of lecturer, and for all positions above to be filled on a short-term basis from tenured lecturers who would revert to lecturer level at the end of their fixed-term higher appointment.4 5.7 However, the Committee was also presented with good arguments against the re­ version of senior appointments, particularly in response to the CTEC proposal outlined in 5.6 above. It was pointed out that, if a person has demonstrated rigorously on inter­ national standards the achievement of a particular level of appointment that person should not be demoted in order to give someone else a chance.5 In support of this view the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee (AVCC) expressed the view that the re­ version of appointments fails to recognise that the criteria and needs fulfilled by a prof­ essorial appointee are different from those of a reader, and, as well, Australian universi­ ties would have difficulty competing for professorial appointees on the international market if reversion to senior lectureship within ten years were possible.6 On the other hand, the AVCC acknowledged that personal promotions on merit to reader/associate professor levels, may warrant review if performance has faltered a decade later. How­ ever, it questioned whether, apart from legal considerations relating to existing con­ tracts, ‘the social, economic and administrative costs of continuing assessment of Readers’ performance are justified if only a very small number are ineffective’.7 5.8 The rank of professor is a prestigious appointment. The Committee is of the view that the reversion of professorial appointments would have a negative effect on the morale of a staff member who is asked to make way for others by accepting what is effectively a demotion at the end of his or her term as professor. Furthermore, the re­ version of professorial appointments would severely reduce the ability of Australian universities to compete internationally for professorial appointees. The Committee has indicated earlier that it favours appointments to heads of departments/schools to be for a renewable fixed term. However, for the reasons outlined in the preceding paragraphs, the Committee is not in favour of the reversion of professorial appointments.

Salaries of senior staff to be varied according to merit?

5.9 ‘Accelerated increments’ are rarely used in Australia for academics who perform exceptionally well. Several arguments were presented to the Committee both in favour of and against a merit pay system for academics. The main advantages as seen by its ad­ vocates are:

1. The merit system improves performance in that it provides incentives and rewards for excellence through the capacity of an institution to increase the salaries of aca­ demics who are performing exceptionally well.8 2. The present system can frustrate people of capability ‘preventing them from reach­

ing their goals in a sufficiently short period of time’.9 (In support of this it was suggested that accelerated promotion was much easier in North American universi­ ties, where a merit system is used with apparent success.)10 3. It would assist institutions in attracting the quality of staff they wanted by having

several options to offer a prospective appointee." 5.10 The AVCC expressed the view that a merit pay system would have minimal effect as an incentive, since ‘self-motivation is unlikely to be enhanced by a relatively small economic incentive which would be eroded significantly by taxation’.12

Despite the AVCCs reservations about the effectiveness of merit pay as an incentive, its Working Party on Academic Staff Development suggested that, especially with regard to teaching performance, there was some scope for pay differentials to reflect demon­ strated ability. In particular the Working Party stated:

‘This provides a flexibility whereby universities can financially reward significant internal contributions, such as superior teaching and administrative contributions, which may not be

78

seen as justifying promotion to a higher rank’.13 Furthermore the Working Party, while ac­ knowledging the historical and ideological reasons for the current lack of salary differentials in Australian universities, expressed the view that differentiation would provide an incentive for improved teaching performance at a time when the reduction in promotion opportuni­ ties, reversion of vacant positions and the increasing incidence of short-term appointments were causing a decline in staff morale.14

15.11 It was also pointed out to the Committee that an institution’s ability to offer an appointment within a range of salary points would assist it in attracting an applicant to an area where the costs of relocation are very high e.g. a transfer to Sydney. Professor Karmel said that particularly at professorial level, the relationship of such a system ‘to

mobility and to fluidity is fairly clear. With some salary flexibility there would be ways in which people could be persuaded to move from time to time.’15 Nevertheless, while this may be one advantage of a system where pay could be varied, it is not a general merit pay system and could in fact constitute an abuse of such a system: for example, if an academic acquires the prestige of being paid at the highest merit increment simply

because he or she is prepared to move to Sydney.

5.12 Although the CTEC had advocated the further investigation of an incentive sys­ tem Professor Karmel said the merit system may be too impractical because of the likely industrial relations consequences.16 The Federation of Australian University Staff Associations (FAUSA) stated that such a system ‘is in direct contraposition to the

egalitarian salary structure which this organisation has attained and defended for its members.’17 The FCA in general supported FAUSA’s views.

5.13 It should however be noted that the proposals concerning merit pay did not ad­ dress themselves to the possible corollary of a reduction in salary for poor performance. Such a system of ‘merit deloadine’ is in ooeration in Canadian universities.18 It could be expected that staff associations would object strongly to this system on

grounds similar to those outlined in 5.12 above. Another important objection to a merit pay system is the apparent encouragement which such a system would provide to the quick production of mediocre research publications. It was suggested that the necessary assessment process ‘would tend to gravitate to the simplest thing, such as one person has

three titles, somebody else has six publications and so on.’19 5.14 Considerable administrative and industrial difficulties would be involved in regu­ larly assessing academics for the purpose of merit pay. The latter would provide further

opportunities for the exercise of favouritism. As indicated in paragraphs 4.34 to 4.50 the Committee would prefer institutions to improve performance through the more widespread introduction of periodic reviews of academics’ performance, and concluded that there should be a systematic review of an academic’s performance about every seven years, and annual consultations with the head of department. Consideration should be given however to the FCA proposal that academics be rewarded in other

ways, for example by increased opportunities for staff development, professional ex­ perience programs and research.20

No automatic increments?

5.15 In examining the ways in which academics might be encouraged where necessary to improve their performance, the Committee received one proposal which recom­ mended the curtailment, in particular cases of unsatisfactory performance, of the annual automatic increments received by lecturers and senior lecturers. (In the sense

that these increments are virtually automatic, they are not regarded as promotions.) In support of this proposal to stop automatic annual increments for staff performing unsa­ tisfactorily, Professor R.R. Officer of Monash University stated:

79

‘We have members of our department who are very valued lecturers but have not done any research for a number of years. There is no question that I would want to see them get cost of living adjustments because we want to retain them but I would not want to see them go on up through the academic scales because they are expected to do research as well.’21

5.16 Professor Officer also suggested that an institution might indicate to an unsatis­ factory academic that employment be sought elsewhere, by stopping the cost of living and work-value adjustments to that academic’s salary. It was suggested that this would

help solve the problem that, with or without tenure, it is ‘very hard for universities to move people on.’22 The Committee strongly believes there should be other methods available for dealing with unsatisfactory performance rather than ‘starving out’ an in­ competent academic.23 Apart from the obvious legal difficulties which the latter pro­ posal might encounter, both Professor Officer’s proposals would receive strong oppo­ sition from staff associations.

5.17 FAUSA’s views were made clear in its response to a number of more wide- ranging proposals for a range of disciplinary action short of dismissal, for academics who were not performing adequately. These other forms of disciplinary action included not only the withholding of increments but demotion (e.g. from senior lecturer to lec­ turer) and the withholding of approvals for sabbatical leave programs.24 To this pro­ posal, which it called a system of ‘punishments’, FAUSA objected strongly and stated that:

‘In our view there are but two sorts of appropriate procedures for dealing with recalcitrant academics. The first is reprimand . . . For serious misbehaviour there is dismis­ sal . . . We simply do not see the need for a range of so-called punitive measures.’25

The FCA also pointed out that a considerable range of disciplinary action was already available in colleges. These included reprimand, fines and demotion.26 5.18 As with the merit pay proposal, the Committee views the industrial conse­ quences of stopping salary adjustments and increments as prohibitive. However, in some cases of very poor performance there may be no alternative for a department or

faculty head but to recommend the non-payment of an increment. Professor Hugh Emy from Monash University suggested a way around this problem. He proposed that the number of salary points in the university lecturer range be increased so that more time would elapse between appointment as lecturer and consideration for a senior lectureship:

‘What usually has happened is that individual lecturers are appointed two increments up the scale. So that we are considering promoting them after only four years in a university, to senior lecturer.’2’

In colleges, where there are more promotion bars within the lecturer range (see Table 4-3) such speedy movement up to senior lecturer level is less likely.

Joint appointments, sharing of staff and exchange schemes

5.19 A number of proposals were brought to the Committee’s attention which were designed to increase the flexibility in the allocation of staffing resources and which could have implications for tenure. These included ways of reallocating staff between departments of an institution, between institutions and across the public and private sectors. Some of these schemes also assist staff development. For example, both the in­ stitution and the staff member involved benefit from an academic’s secondment to a government department or private industry.

5.20 Several submissions expressed concern that there was substantially less interac­ tion between university academics, government and industry in Australia than, for example, in the United States universities or in the Canadian law schools.28 Others

8 0

indicated that academics should be encouraged to see careers not solely as a life-long full-time commitment in a single institution, but rather as an important component of a comprehensive and balanced scheme of personal development, which allows the staff member active professional practice as well as teaching and research.

5.21 It is usually accepted that some academics can supplement their salaries up to a maximum of 25 per cent with outside consultancy work. In one submission it was argued that, in cases where an academic has a heavy commitment to a professional extramural practice, payment of a full-time salary would not be justifiable. It was

suggested that these academics be offered part-time or fractional appointments without tenure, if their engagement in private practice did nothing to advance research. The Committee would be inclined to the view that such an academic could have tenure for that fraction of the appointment which is performed at the university or college. (See

also the discussion later in this chapter of ‘fractional appointments’ and ‘tenure apply­ ing to one function of the job’.) 5.22 FAUSA suggested that academics should be given leave without pay in order to explore opportunities in alternative careers e.g. in professional practice.29 This proposal is also discussed below under ‘fractional appointments’ (paragraph 5.37), but it does indicate a desire to provide academics with a wider range of experiences than those gained by working full-time in a university.

5.23 Other advantages which were seen to accrue to academics as a result of second­ ment to external bodies included:

(a) coming to know ‘what the real problems are’ in their area of specialisation; (b) increase in general knowledge of the operations of other organisations; (c) a stimulus to improve teaching ability; (d) a stimulus to research as a result of increased awareness of new problems; and

(e) opportunity to make new contacts within their chosen fields.

5.24 Staff exchanges with external bodies were also seen to benefit academic insti­ tutions in the following ways: 1. They provide a change or ‘new blood’ in the staff body i.e. where staff from outside the institution are seconded to replace staff on secondment to other sectors.30

2. Where academic staff are seconded from the institution for several years, and no re­ placement is appointed, some capacity is provided for the appointment of younger academics.31 3. The quality of academics in the institution is improved for the reasons outlined in

5.23 above. It was also suggested that surplus staff can be utilised in areas where their expertise is needed in Third World countries and that this could perhaps be financed on a short-term contract basis through the relevant government aid agency.32 5.25 The possibility of transferring staff from one institution to another was raised in a number of submissions. Staff associations generally supported a greater mobility of staff between institutions.33 Such mobility not only opens up more career opportunities

for academic staff, but might also be used by the management of two or more insti­ tutions to redirect staff where they are most needed. Clearly staff associations would want to express a view in the formulation of any system of management-initiated trans­ fer. Provided benefits such as tenure, superannuation and leave entitlements were

maintained, this may be one way of utilising staff more efficiently without any loss of se­ curity to individual staff members. 5.26 A large proportion of staff who currently move regularly from one institution to another are contract staff who do not accrue superannuation or leave entitlements.

81

However, the present lack of a uniform superannuation scheme between States and be­ tween institutions is a major hindrance to the transfer of tenured staff from one insti­ tution to another. This point was highlighted by the FCA when they stated that at present, even transfers of tenured staff between a university and a college in the same State are difficult, and often involve a loss of accrued benefits.34 The CTEC pointed out that short-term secondments are not a problem in this respect because the ‘home’ insti­ tution retains responsibility for superannuation.35 However, a system of indefinite or permanent transfers would obviously require considerable attention to be given to the preparation of uniform and workable schemes which allow staff members to retain not only their tenure, but all other associated benefits.

5.27 Joint appointments, where an academic might work half-time at one institution and half-time at another, retaining tenure and related benefits, could prove useful in cases where one institution’s requirement for a staff member had diminished to only part-time, and where another nearby institution had acquired a need for a part-time staff member in a related area. A joint appointment would avoid the possibility of re­ trenchment and retain the job security and benefits of the staff member concerned. A similar concept of staff sharing is involved in the teaching assistance which some insti­ tutions now provide to other tertiary institutions. There are currently nine universities which engage in the practice of sharing appointments with other institutions. A parallel system of sharing staff members could operate between departments within the one in­ stitution. Already it is fairly common for one department to provide teaching assistance to another. Nevertheless it may increase the flexibility of an institution which is forced to reduce staffing levels, if it is able to appoint a staff member directly to two departments.

5.28 The Committee believes that any proposals to increase the ability of an insti­ tution to reallocate staff deserves the close consideration of the CTEC, the AVCC, the Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education, and relevant staff associations. Close consultation among these bodies should result in means of reallocating staffing resources without necessitating the loss of tenure and other entitlements for the staff concerned.

Tenure applying to one function of the job?

5.29 The Committee’s attention was drawn to a proposal recently made in the United Kingdom by Professor Gareth Williams36 that academic appointments be split into two parts—one fixed tenured component which involves teaching and/or other respon­ sibilities, and the other limited tenure component to consist of an ‘accretion of con­ tracts’ involving additional teaching, research, administration or consultancy work, either inside or outside the institution. The number of Australian academics who sup­ plement their income with outside work to any substantial extent is not large. As indicated in paragraph 5.21 such extra income from consultancy work is expected to be limited to 25 per cent of salary. It is interesting to note that at the London School of Hy­ giene and Tropical Medicine where academics are tenured, they are funded by the con­ tracts and consultancies they obtain outside the institution.37 The CTEC Chairman, Professor Karmel supported the examination of Professor Gareth Williams' proposal and termed it ‘a novel idea but perhaps not totally impossible to contemplate’,38 as it held the promise of increasing an institution’s flexibility in changing circumstances.

5.30 It is to be expected that the proposal would not be welcomed by staff associ­ ations. Mr Tim Oakley from the La Trobe University Staff Association summed it up this way:

82

‘If people are to be protected at'all in order to have freedom of expression . . . it is as necessary to prevent the situation where they lose half their job as it is to prevent the situ­ ation where they might lose their whole job.’39

Similarly, the FCA stated that if academic freedom is to be protected at all, then the protection must be complete.40 FAUSA suggested that removal or restriction of tenure provisions would force a renegotiation of the entire salaries and conditions package offered to academic staff.41

5.31 Academics expressing unpopular views might be penalised to the extent that they find themselves unable to obtain additional work to supplement their income; for example in government departments, private industry or the institution itself. In ad­ dition, there may in any case be some academic areas, e.g. history and philosophy,

where there is no call for consultancy work, but where advancement of research takes place through an academic’s own initiative and effort, resulting in the limited financial rewards of producing esoteric publications. If the alternative, as Professor Williams in­ dicates, is for an academic to undertake additional teaching or administrative work

within institutions then this may not be making the best use of an academic who is capable of excellent research.

5.32 Professor Gareth Williams’ proposal envisages part tenure as applying initially to senior staff—he suggests that all salaries beyond the mid-point of the lecturers’ scale might be restricted to the limited tenure component.42 If this means that all academics under the scheme would receive at least a lecturer’s salary, with any additional income dependent upon the academic’s ability to attract other paid work, then every academic would be assured of at least a reasonable salary. If the proposal is to be implemented in

this way, academics would not be open to the loss of ‘half their job’, but merely that component which lifts their salary above that of a lecturer. Nevertheless the Com­ mittee believes the Williams proposal has to overcome considerable practical difficulties.

Fractional appointments (tenured)

5.33 Fractional tenured appointments are taken to be appointments which involve between half and two-thirds of the normal full-time workload. Currently there are two groups of people for whom such appointments hold special attraction. These groups are academics with child-rearing responsibilities; and academics who are approaching retir­

ing age and who wish to lessen gradually their activity within an institution. Since most child-rearing responsibilities are undertaken by women, the availability of fractional appointments is an important employment option for women academics. It is under­ standable that representatives of women academics presented strong arguments in favour of the wider introduction of fractional tenured appointments.

5.34 The South Australian Branch of the Australian Federation of University Women (AFUW ) submitted that fractional tenured appointments:

‘. . . would allow more women academics to maintain c a r e e r s th r o u g h a p e rio d o f f a m ­ ily responsibility which often, in the present system, m e a n s the e n d o f c a r e e r d e v e lo p m e n t for many able women.’43

FAUSA supported this view and remarked-‘The career structure within universities, as elsewhere in p ro fe s sio n a l life, d o e s n o t a d ­ equately allow for the flexibility necessary for women to combine w o rk w ith fam ily c o m m it­ ments, particularly during the “career-building” years o f th e la te tw e n tie s a n d th irtie s , w h en many women would wish to have children . . . the difficulties in v o lv e d . . . constitute an almost unsurmountable bar to career a d v a n c e m e n t.’44

83

Wider availability of fractional tenured posts and extended leave without pay would enable more women to take their place in academic life. 5.35 A need for the greater use of fractional appointments would also appear to be supported by a report on women at the Australian National University.45 From ques­ tionnaires and discussions with female academic staff at the Australian National Uni­ versity, the authors identified a desire for more flexible arrangements in employment during the child-rearing period. At present, the authors stated, academic women either:

(a) continue full-time with a minimum of maternity leave, where the double work and emotional load often results in stress affecting job performance, marriage and physical health; (b) obtain part-time research assistant positions to keep in touch, which does not help to develop their full potential; or (c) leave academic life altogether (possibly to return later as tutors) because.of lack of ‘carry-on’ employment.46 These conclusions on the effect of child-rearing on women academics were supported by other submissions and witnesses before the Committee.47 In all cases the solution was seen as the introduc­ tion of fractional appointments and several higher education institutions have already taken this step. Staff associations and the CTEC supported the wider introduction of fractional appointments for academics of all ages and levels.48 ft is the Committee’s view that in almost all circumstances the most viable fractional appointment would in­ volve conversion to a half-time (tenured) appointment on a continuous month by­ month basis for a pre-determined fixed period such as one, three or five years, renew­ able for a further fixed period. If the fraction is to be much less than a half then it is possible that the fractional appointee may not be able to participate sufficiently and keep up to date in teaching, research and all the other necessary professional aspects of such a continuing appointment. 5.36 An advantage to an institution in providing the opportunity for fractional appointments to women would be the increased staffing flexibility arising from the need to provide other part-time positions. There is also an advantage to the community as stated by the Australian Federation of University Women (SA):

*. . . the universities would benefit from the immediate work and the greater future potential of the women who choose to work in that way. They would also contribute to the gain to the general community resulting from a greater degree of fulfilment of its adult members and resultant better care of its juveniles.’49

5.37 For academics who are 55 years or over, the University of Adelaide has made available fractional appointmens without loss of superannuation benefits, thereby pro­ viding what is effectively a scheme for partial retirement.50 The University of Tasmania Staff Association is making submissions for the introduction of a similar scheme.51 Such a scheme allows staff of considerable skills and experience to make a continuing contri­ bution to departments on less than a full-time basis and enables the university either not to appoint a replacement or to appoint at a lower level. In both cases salary savings can result (but see next paragraph). Such a scheme also promotes staff mobility and flexibility in the allocation of staffing resources. Furthermore the general availability of fractional appointments to any member of academic staff allows the staff member to pursue outside interests more extensively (see also paragraph 5.20). Schemes which, for example, allowed an academic to work for one semester of each year, or two years out of three, would provide the opportunity to explore alternative careers. Whether or not these fractional appointees might retain tenure depends upon the application of a prin­ ciple which was seen to be central to the concept of fractional appointments that a fractional appointee should perform the full range of academic duties (research, teach­ ing and administration) on a fractional basis.52 5.38 The maintenance of superannuation benefits for partially retired staff requires additional contributions from the institution. These will be more than off-set by salary

84

savings if the staff member is not replaced in the relinquished part of his job. (The indi­ cators are that those academics on temporary fractional appointments will have their benefits adjusted accordingly.)53 Nevertheless, it should be recognised that these special superannuation arrangements mean that for these institutions the average cost per equivalent full-time staff member will rise.

5.39 Mentioned in Evidence were two other possible problems for a staff member who converts to a fractional appointment. It was acknowledged that fractional ap­ pointees often find themselves working more than their fraction, and that they have a disadvantage in departmental politics, which means they are less able to make sig­

nificant contributions to change in the department or its teaching programs.54 However, in the Committee’s view the difficulties which confront fractional appointees and the institutions which employ them are outweighed by the advantages. 5.40 While the savings on, for example, a half-time fractional appointee are generally

slightly less than those required to fund another half-time appointee, the financial flexibility available to the institution to combine its savings and appoint or promote staff where they are most needed would in many situations seem to outweigh this finan­ cial disadvantage. It should be noted that it is unlikely that a vast majority of older aca­

demics would take advantage of partial retirement, and that, although a system of frac­ tional appointments was introduced at the Australian National University for women with child-rearing responsibilities, no advantage has yet been taken of it.55 The Com­ mittee concludes that universities and colleges which currently do not offer fractional

tenured appointments to academic staff of all ages and levels, should give serious con­ sideration to doing so as the advantages for the institution and the advantages to the academics themselves may well outweigh the associated costs.

Women academics and measures to assist them

5.41 While approximately 45 per cent of students who undertake teritary education are women, this proportion is not reflected in the number of women academics in col­ leges and universities. Several witnesses focussed on the disproportionately low rep­

resentation of women academics in several areas of higher education, remarked that women are under represented in the more senior grades. This is illustrated in Tables 5-1 and 5-2 below. (As clearly indicated earlier in Chapter 3 it is the senior grades that have the highest proportion of tenure-see also Table 3-5.)

Table 5-1: Universities— Full-Time Teaching-and-Research Staff (a) by Designation and Sex 1979 to 1981

Females as

Percentage o f total

Designation Males Females Totals in each Grade %

Professor— 1979 1081 23 1105 2.1

1980 1083 23 1106 2.1

1981 1067 22 1089 2.0

Associate P rofessor/R eader -1979 1185 42 1227 3.4

1980 1222 54 1276 4.2

1981 1212 62 1274 4.9

Senior L ecturer -1979 3061 287 3348 8.6

1980 3176 286 3461 8.3

1981 3176 311 3487 8.9

L ecturer 1979 2406 523 2929 17.9

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Designation M ales Females Totals

Females as

Percentage o f total in each Grade %

1980 2255 530 2784 19.0

1981 2161 510 2671 19.1

Principal T u to r— 1979 514 334 848 39.4

1980 A ll 312 789 39.5

1981 451 316 767 41.2

T u to r/D e m o n stra to r— 1979 807 525 1332 39.4

1980 770 534 1305 40.9

1981 » 739

T otal full-tim e T eaching-and-R esearch Staff—

557 1296 43.0

1979 9055 1735 10790 16.1

1980 8983 1739 10722 16.2

1981 8806 1778 10584 16.8

(a) Full-time staff plus full-time equivalent of fractional full-time staff.

Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.

Table 5-2: Colleges of Advanced Education— Full-Time Staff (a) engaged on Teaching by Designation and Sex, 1979 to 1981

Females as a percentage o f total

Designation Year Males Females Total in each grade

A bove Senior L ecturer

1979 685 68 753 9.0

1980 671 66 737 9.0

1981 676 61 736 8.3

Senior L ecturer 1

1979 1 103 128 1 231 10.4

1980 1 238 137 1 375 10.0

1981 1 289 141 1 430 9.9

Senior L ecturer 11

1979 616 109 725 15.0

1980 530 95 625 15.2

1981 559 97 656 14.8

L ecturer 1

1979 2 786 623 3 409 18.3

1980 2 931 671 3 602 18.6

1981 2 884 652 3 536 18.4

L ecturer II

1979 872 482 1 354 35.6

1980 781 447 1 227 36.4

1981 729 432 1 161 37.2

L ecturer 111

1979 274 273 546 50.0

1980 279 289 568 50.9

1981 281 285 566 50.4

O ther Teaching Staff

1979 516 330 846 39.0

1980 472 321 793 40.5

1981 409 288 697 41.3

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Designation Year Males Females Total

Females as a percentage o f total in each grade

T otal T caching Staff

1979 6 851 2013 8 864 22.7

1980 6 902 2 025 8 927 22.7

1981 6 826 1 955 8 781 22.3

(a) Full-time staff plus full-time equivalents of fractional full-time staff

Source: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission

5.42 In the university sector, of the 16.21 per cent (in 1981) of full-time academic staff who were women, less than one-fifth of this group appeared to hold a tenured pos­ ition; and of this group only a small percentage held senior positions. For example in 1980 only 2 per cent of academics at the level of professor, and 4 per cent at the level of

associate professor/reader were women. The majority of women academics are employed in non-tenured positions as junior academic staff. In 1981 women at Aus­ tralian universities represented 42.2 per cent of the staff below lecturer level, as indicated in Table 5-1. This situation is paralleled in the college sector as indicated by

Table 5-2.

5.43 The disproportionately small number of women academics in universities is also illustrated in Tables 5-3 and 5-4. The latter table shows that women in positions of lec­ turer and above vary in Australian universities between 5 per cent and 16 per cent. The Committee has no reason to believe that the position is markedly different in the CAE sector.

Table 5-3: Sex by Individual University: All Academic Staff (1977)

Female Male

University No. % No. %

1 M acquarie 132 23.5 431 76.5

2 Griffith 22 20.4 86 79.6

3 M elbourne 163 16.6 821 83.4

4 Sydney 166 15.8 887 84.2

5 M urdoch 17 15.6 92 84.4

6 La Trobe 55 14.6 322 85.4

7 A .N.U. (G en. Stud.) 49 14.0 300 86.0

8 New England 50 12.6 346 87.4

9 Adelaide 87 12.0 636 88.0

10 Flinders 34 11.2 270 88.8

11 Monash 91 10.9 741 89.1

12 New South Wales 126 10.1 1 127 89.9

13 Newcastle 25 9 4 241 90.6

14 James Cook 18 9.0 181 91.0

15 Tasm ania 19 6.6 267 93.4

16 A .N .U . (Adv. Stud.) 18 6.6 257 93.4

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have less opportunity to pursue higher degrees overseas, primarily due, it has been suggested, to the fact that their mobility tends to depend upon their husband’s career and their family responsibilities.62 5.47 While the lack of mobility and family commitments are factors affecting

women’s ability to obtain higher degrees even in Australia,63 there are other factors which affect women in the pursuit of higher degrees. For example during the transition from secondary to tertiary education, and later in their degree studies, women tend to underestimate their abilities.64 This seems to be reflected in the fact that a much greater proportion of female honours graduates than male honours graduates undertake a Mas­ ter’s degree rather than a Doctorate.65 The Bramley-Ward report on women at the Aus­

tralian National University (1975) remarked:

‘It is interesting to note Australian National University Masters degree candidates 71% of fe­ males have obtained first or uppper second class honours in their bachelor’s degree, the com­ parable figure for males is 40%. Why do so many able women only go on to a master’s degree rather than a PhD.?’66

Yet the small number of women applying for PhD scholarships at the Australian National University had a higher rate of success than men.67 5.48 Lack of mobility and family responsibilities are also hindrances to women’s pro­ motion prospects, because the husband’s career prospects are usually given precedence.

The survey of women academics recently conducted by the Australian Federation of University Women (SA) concluded that ‘family pressures caused women, but hardly ever men, to avoid promotion’.68 Many women in this survey also claimed that they had reduced opportunities for promotion as a result of not being in the job long enough be­

cause of family commitments.69 This combination of lack of opportunity for research because of family commitments and less opportunity for overseas experience, is a sub­ stantial disadvantage for women since promotion committees judge quality largely on the basis of publications in overseas refereed journals. The Bramley-Ward report also

alleged that promotion panels, which consist mainly of men who have reached the top because of their research ability ‘are not likely to place weight on teaching and student welfare which does, from our survey, seem to be an area in which women lecturers de­ vote much of their time and energy.’70

5.49 A lack of confidence in their abilities, and the belief held by many female post­ graduate students that to obtain a job a woman must be better than her male competi­ tors,71 suggests that women would tend to apply for jobs only if their qualifications are

extremely good, and that this would be reflected in a greater rate of success for women applicants compared to men. The Bramley-Ward report indicated that, at the Aus­ tralian National University in 1975 there did not appear to be a significantly greater rate of appointment success for women.72 On the other hand, statistics from the Univer­

sity of Queensland for 1981-82 show that in 46 appointments, success rates were one in fifteen for men and one in nine for women. However 18 of the competitions produced no women applicants. (If these are excluded, the success rates are one in twenty-one for males and one in nine for females.)73 The fact that no applications for women were

received for nearly 40 per cent of the positions adds weight to the contention that women are hindered for a variety of reasons from both applying for jobs and acquiring the appropriate qualifications in certain academic areas. The success rate of women ap­ plicants at the University of Queensland does, however, provide contradictory evidence

to the suggestion of FAUSA that ‘there is prima facie evidence that the merit principle has been overridden by a male bias in appointment and promotions procedures in universities.’74 5.50 The lack of women’s representation in the tenured levels of university staff has

resulted in their corresponding lack of representation on decision-making bodies such

89

as selection or promotion committees.75 It has also been suggested that women’s percep­ tion of themselves as being better suited for committees relating to teaching/student welfare matters as opposed to committees dealing with finance, staff selection and pro­ motion, could be overcome initially by a quota system ensuring adequate represen­ tation of women on all committees.76 The Committee believes Vice-Chancellors and College Principals need to take steps to ensure that women are adequately represented on appointment, confirmation of tenure and promotion committees.

5.51 The Committee has not taken up in this chapter FAUSA’s suggestion that the extension of tenure to tutorial grades would enhance the employment situation of most women academics.77 The general question of tenure for tutors has been addressed in Chapter 4 and the Committee believes that such a proposal would not solve the most significant and fundamental problems facing women academics. It believes that the means of providing women with arf opportunity for more secure, satisfying and success­ ful academic careers at the more senior levels are addressed more effectively by several recommendations at the end of this Report. These relate to specific problems confront­ ing women in pursuit of an academic career. In this regard also it is particularly import­ ant to ensure that there are adequate arrangements for refresher courses, and access to

libraries, seminars etc. for those women academics who resign because of family respon­ sibilities, that there are adequate child-minding facilities at each institution, and that women are adequately represented on all decision-making bodies.

Voluntary early retirement

5.52 Concurrent with the general increase in the standard of living of western society has been the expectation of improvements in retirement benefits, a lowering of the re­ tirement age and the greater availability of the early retirement option. In the higher education sector, most institutions operate retirement arrangements based on a retiring age of 65 years.78 A notable and important exception to this is a majority of colleges in New South Wales which operate arrangements based on a retirement age of 60 years. Not all higher education institutions provide an option for early retirement. Where it is provided, early retirement usually becomes available five years prior to the normal re­ tirement age being reached. In order to exercise this option the retiree pays a penalty by way of receiving a reduced benefit. In the case of the New South Wales State Superan­ nuation Fund, males may retire from 55 years onwards with the following benefits:

Age and benefit as a percentage o f fu ll pension entitlement (respectively)

55- 59.62 per cent 56- 64.62 per cent 57- 71.15 per cent 58- 79.23 percent 59- 88.85 per cent79

5.53 It was suggested, particularly by staff associations, that higher education insti­ tutions would gain improved staffing flexibility by encouraging the wider introduction and use of the early retirement option. It was suggested that this flexibility could then be used to improve career opportunities for younger academics. It was also suggested there could be savings in salary (as distinct from total costs) since a replacement aca­ demic staff member could be employed at a lower academic level. FAUSA indicated to the Committee the possible extent of early retirements if retiring ages were reduced to 55 or 60 (see Table 5-5).

90

5.57 While it supports the wider availability of an early retirement option for aca­ demic staff at all higher education institutions, the Committee does not support at this time either the lowering of the compulsory retirement age or increased incentives to make the early retirement option more attractive. However, these proposals could well be implemented in ten or fifteen years time when academics in the present age bulge near retiring age. While some institutions may have reasons for improving the attract­ iveness of such schemes, i.e. by the direct allocation of a portion of their budget to them, the Committee is of the belief that resources could be better allocated directly to the provision of employment opportunities for young academics.

Management controlled early retirement 5.58 A variation of the early retirement process which received little mention during the inquiry is management controlled early retirement or management directed retire­ ment. This refers to retirement prior to the attainment of the prescribed age following a direction from management and based on criteria other than the medical health, or per­ haps even the competence of the individual involved. It is interesting to note that some universities already maintain the right to determine a professor’s occupation of office

following the attainment of age 60, even though the retirement age is 65. In the case of Sydney University: ‘The Senate has an absolute right to determine a professor’s occu­ pation of office without cause shown after he has attained the age of 60.’84 This is also the case for all academic staff in a number of colleges of advanced education.

5.59 The Committee has indicated in Chapter 1 that there is considerable variation in the provisions for terminating tenured appointments in Australian higher education institutions. Several institutions currently do not have provisions for terminating em­ ployment if there is no work for academics to do or because of financial exigency. The Committee has already concluded in its considerations in Chapter 3 that such pro­ visions should be available in all higher education institutions and that the relevant State authorities and autonomous institutions should ensure this by way of adequate statutes and regulations and by appropriate provisions being included in all contracts with newly employed staff. There is obviously a need for financial compensation in such cases and this would need to be determined fairly by the individual institutions in re­ spect of the particular staff members involved. Staff associations which have tradition­ ally remained reluctant to accept any suggestion that academic staff could be retired compulsorily85 would also need to be involved in such negotiations.

Reciprocity for Australian academics overseas

5.60 The Committee received some comments in a submission on the difficulties encountered by Australian academics in obtaining positions overseas. The submission acknowledged that the academic market place is an international one, and that insti­ tutions must advertise internationally to attract the best staff. However, concern was expressed that equivalent opportunities for Australian academics are not as accessible in overseas institutions because of government regulations in the countries concerned. Allegedly there are difficulties in taking up positions in the United States, France and other European countries as a result of inability to obtain work permits. It was also claimed that the United Kingdom, traditionally Australia’s major source of overseas re­ cruitment, now gives higher priority in academic positions to United Kingdom and Common Market nationals than to Australians. One academic has asked the question:

‘Why with the declining academic market overseas is Australia still taking up the overpro­ duction of other countries when most of those countries now place a quota on academics coming in from outside?’86

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5.61 The Committee noted a divergence of policies of the two major academic staff associations in respect of the importance of providing opportunities for Australian aca­ demics. The FCA suggested:

‘Institutions should ensure that there are no suitable applicants within Australia before ad­ vertising academic positions overseas.’87

Whereas FAUSA commented:

‘We do not agree with the Federation of College Academics, which has suggested an “Aus- tralianisation” of colleges by government action to ensure that before an overseas appoint­ ment is made, a college should have to prove that no suitable applicant exists in Australia. Universities in Australia enjoy substantial international recognition; one way to maintain

these standards is to advertise both nationally and internationally.’88

5.62 The Committee has already noted (in paragraph 2.13) that a substantial pro­ portion of academics in Australian institutions are recruited from overseas (see Table 2-2). Thus Australian academics, particularly in universities but also in colleges, must

face international competition in order to secure a position within an Australian insti­ tution, and would not wish to see any artifical barriers imposed on such competition, even if some countries were to raise such barriers against Australian academics over­ seas. Nevertheless there is perhaps a need to examine whether there are any unreason­

able restrictions on the accessibility of positions overseas for Australian academics such as an overseas country’s failure to grant work permits, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the light of this examination appropriate representations could be made to overseas authorities. The Committee believes that overseas compe­

tition is healthy for Australian higher education institutions and that this should be the approach of all countries. It would seem that exchange schemes between Australian and overseas educational institutions do operate successfully,89 so that there are at least some opportunities for Australian academics to gain the overseas experience which so

often provides useful additional qualifications for a successful academic career in Australia.

Schemes for ‘holding’ bright young academics

5.63 The concern to maintain staff of a high standard in Australian academic insti­ tutions is manifested not only in the advertising of positions internationally and the consequent high proportion of overseas appointees, but also by a desire to retain prom­

ising young Australian academics who might otherwise, in the current shortage of aca­ demic jobs, obtain positions in other organisations. As indicated in Chapter 3, the re­ taining of such young academics in order to develop their research and teaching potential, will be particularly important if and when more academic positions become

available in Australian institutions. Some witnesses such as the Commonwealth De­ partment of Science and Technology showed concern that it may well be difficult to find sufficient high quality researchers in the 1990s.90 5.64 Some efforts are being made to ensure that there will be continuing numbers of young Australian academics. For example, at the Australian National University Insti­ tute of Advanced Studies, a small proportion of ‘second-term’ appointments are being offered to fixed-term (e.g. five year) research fellows and senior research fellows, so that, combined with an initial postdoctoral fellowship of three years, a fellow can now

hold a non-tenured appointment for up to 13 years. It was submitted to the Committee:

‘This move was made only after extensive deliberation in which the Institute’s desire to re­ tain selected excellent research workers was balanced against its aim of maintaining that component of research vitality which can be obtained best through staff turnover.

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5.65 More wide-ranging is a proposal from Professor Brian Wilson which is also sup­ ported by the AVCC, that a system of mainly government-funded, postdoctoral fellow­ ships be introduced to expand career opportunities for a select number of very promis­ ing researchers. The sub-objectives of this proposal are:

‘a. To assist in maintaining the level of the university research and development effort in Australia; b. To assist in maintaining an adequate supply of promising and highly qualified re­ searchers in Australian universities to help meet the demand for new academic appoint­

ments which is expected to expand rapidly in the early 1990s when the retirement rate of the existing research force increases significantly, and to meet any governmental policy objective of increasing participation rates in the university sector.’92

5.66 Professor Wilson’s proposal is based on Canadian experience and involves fel­ lowships of up to five years, witf/potentially 50 per cent of the fellowships renewable for another five years.93 They would be available on an Australia-wide basis, without quotas for individual institutions (i.e. as with the Commonwealth Postgraduate ‘pool’ awards). It is envisaged that fellows would, besides pursuing research, assist with the supervision of post-graduate students and with some teaching.94 It is proposed that 50 new awards be offered annually so that when fully operational, there would be a total of 250 awards. Government funding would amount to $25 000 per annum for each award with annual adjustments for inflation, resulting in a total cost, on present values, of $6.25 million per annum.95 It has been designed as an interim operation only, to cope

with the present shortage of academic positions. Similarly the Canadian scheme is also designed to be of a temporary nature and is to be phased out within eight years of its commencement.96 5.67 The AVCC has indicated their qualified support for the scheme which is con­ ditional on the understanding that Government funding would be additional to and in no way affect the current levels of support for higher education institutions and for government research bodies such as the Australian Research Grants Committee or the

National Health and Medical Research Council.97 Further, the AVCC proposed that this scheme be in a quite separate funding category from normal funding of universities since:

‘If universities had the finance to make these awards for this length of time they would prefer to make lecturer appointments, which would be on the tenure track. That of course does not really help the system at the present time since there is no money available for that . . . it would be difficult internally to make these awards where it is recognised that we are very short of staff in certain areas.’98

5.68 The Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) has also recently considered the possibility of a postdoctoral ‘holding reservoir’ for scientists and engin­ eers. ASTEC suggested that a postdoctoral fellow be given a guarantee of a tenure track appointment at the time the fellowship was awarded.99 The AVCC’s response to this suggestion pointed out that it may be impossible for universities to provide such a guarantee, but that it may be possible to stipulate that ‘universities would do their best to find a position for the postdoctoral fellows at the completion of their awards.’10 1 1 The CTEC response to the proposal was that:

‘There are not likely to be significant increases in academic staff vacancies in the near future and it would be preferable, given the resources, for institutions to create additional academic posts with normal career opportunities to help meet the needs both of young graduates and the institutions themselves.’101

FAUSA’s response was also generally negative-‘On the surface, postdoctoral fellowship schemes seem like a good idea . . . On closer examination, however, it becomes clear that postdoctoral fellowships are simply a form of

94

contract or limited term employment, and that they involve all of the same disadvantages and inequities.’102

5.69 The Committee is concerned that young academics should continue to have access to a research and teaching career in higher education through the coming decade of tight employment opportunities and therefore sees merit in the central objectives of

the AVCC postdoctoral fellowship plan and the ASTEC postdoctoral fellowship plan. However, in the light of the reservations that have been expressed abut these proposals and as they are not the first priority of higher education institutions themselves or of the CTEC, the Committee is not in a position to advocate that these schemes receive Com­ monwealth financial resources with any greater priority than they have already been

able to gain.

Retraining of academics for courses in demand

5.70 In outlining some of the major problems currently facing higher education insti­ tutions, Professor Noel Dunbar, Chairman of the Universities Council, suggested that at present a major consideration for higher education institutions was the need to match

the existing academic staff with student demand for courses. The problem arises where one discipline is in need of extra academic staff while another has a greater than ad­ equate complement of staff. While there may be sufficient overall resources available to an institution to meet student needs, any imbalance caused by changing student

preferences confronts the institution with the problem of how to retrain and reallocate its staff resources.103 It may be that staff development units need to apply themselves to the retraining of academic staff just as much as to improving teaching techniques.

5.71 The retraining and redeployment of ‘displaced’ academic staff is supported by both the major staff associations,104 and is in fact actively pursued as a matter of policy by some higher education institutions. For example at Deakin University, the retraining and redeployment of academic staff is a part of the University’s staffing policy.105 Also, the University of Adeliade in Evidence before the Committee outlined its policy de­ signed to encourage the transfer of staff between departments, depending on student demand.106 Professor Donald Stranks said:

‘We have encouraged transfer between convenient departments . . . The limitations nevertheless are considerable . . . Within what might be called faculty groupings there are opportunities for that to occur but it does come to the rate at which the university system can adapt to change.’101

5.72 One institution which has developed a program for the retraining and redeploy­ ment of staff is the Armidale College of Advanced Education. In order to meet sig­ nificant reductions in academic staff numbers, the College reorganised its academic and administrative structures. This was undertaken by setting up new- academic structures

which broke down the conventional subject discipline boundaries. By replacing depart­ ments with centres, individual staff members were able to make contributions to several areas which created an increased opportunity for the redeployment of staff. This whole process was underpinned by an extensive staff development program which involved

staff in obtaining additional academic qualifications. It has thus been possible for the new staff establishment to be achieved over a period of seven to eight years, without dis­ ruption to the continuing employment of staff.108 A multi-disciplinary approach is also in operation at Griffith University, where the University is structured in schools so that staff are required to lecture in more than one discipline or across disciplines. A change

in the teaching capacities of the staff has been made possible by a more flexible aca­ demic structure.

95

Development funds for recruiting new staff

5.73 The University of Adelaide advised the Committee that it had established an internal development fund from its own resources ‘in order to try to encourage the appointment of new staff.’109 The establishment of such funds in institutions, possibly from salary savings incurred by early retirement of staff or conversion of staff to frac­ tional appointments, may help to offset the effects of the discontinuation in late 1981 of CTEC general development grants. Such funds could be used not only to encourage the appointment of new staff, but, as the Universities Council had envisaged for a modified development grant ‘to provide financial support, inter alia, for staff development, early retirement, retraining schemes and other means of providing increased staff turnover and new career opportunities.’110 The Committee commends the University of Adelaide’s initiative and suggests that other institutions may wish to consider whether some priority should be given to such a fund if savings can be achieved as a result of other staffing policies.

Tighter establishment control?

5.74 One important factor affecting an institution’s staffing flexibility (e.g. the ability to revert a position to a higher or lower level when it becomes vacant) is the control it has over its own staff establishment (i.e. the number of positions at each level). In the case of CAEs the State authorities generally provide specific guidelines on the quotas of staff at each level, whereas universities simply receive funds on an overall assessment by the CTEC of the total number of staff a university requires. As indicated by the AVCC in paragraph 3.52 universities are not made aware of the precise funding formula, par­ ticularly its relationship to staffing. Nevertheless, a university has more latitude to vary the proportions of staff at each level than do most CAEs.

5.75 At present academic staff in universities tend to be promoted, at least from lec­ ture level through to reader level, on the basis of demonstrated merit and capability. While there are sound arguments in favour of this as a promotion principle it can and does lead to the situation where the tenured staff in a university department tend to converge on the highest levels. An alternative, supported by the Commonwealth De­ partment of Science and Technology would be to have a set establishment for each de­ partment with appropriate numbers of staff in each rank and vacancies at all levels to be filled competitively. Thus when there are large numbers of staff in a particular age group not all would be promoted and some might seek to move into other sectors cre­ ating vacancies and opportunities for younger researchers. This would help to achieve necessary staff mobility in times of low growth. This approach could however be seen to be unfair as it would in some cases keep staff at lower levels of salary for longer periods. 5.76 The Committee is of the view that tight establishment control could inhibit the autonomy of institutions and their adaptation to changing financial circumstances. Sev­ eral ways are available to individual institutions to adapt without harm to either staff

members or the institution itself. Restrictions on funding and the tendency to maintain parity with other institutions now seem to create considerable constraints on staff numbers at each level, and to a lesser extent on rank structure. These constraints are likely to be exacerbated in the next 15 years on account of distorted age profiles.

Endnotes

1. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2066.

2. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1270.

3. ibid. p. 1352. 4. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1099 (D r K..C. T ronson)

96

5. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1737 (Professor D R. Stranks, V ice-Chancellor. U niversity of A delaide) and 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 407 (Professor J.F. Scott, A V C C ) 6. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2170 (A V C C ). 7. ibid, p. 2171.

8. Evidence, 10 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1560-2 (Professor R. Baxt, M onash U niversity). 9. ibid, p. 1561 (Professor R. Baxt, M onash U niversity). 10. ibid, p. 1560 (Professor Baxt).

11. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, pp. 1442-3 (Professor P.H. Karm el. C T E C ). 12. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2170.

13. A ustralian V ice-C hancellars’ C om m ittee, Occasional Papers No. 4, 1981 Academic S ta ff Development Report o f the A VCC Working Party, p. 14. 14. ibid, pp. 14-15.

15. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1443 (Professor P, K arm el). 16. ibid, p. 1443 (Professor K arm el, C T E C ). 17. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2119.

18. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p. 1692 (Professor G.C . H arcourt, University o f A delaide). 19. ibid, p. 1695 ( Professor J . Sheldon, University of A delaide). 20. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2076. 21. Evidence, 10 February 1982, p. 1661 (Professor R.R. Officer, M onash University). 22. ibid, p. 1656 ( Professor Officer).

23. See for exam ple Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2278 (M r R.J. Snedden, Chisholm Institute of

Technology). 24. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2278 (M r Snedden). 25. ibid, p. 2129. 26. ibid, pp. 2088 9.

27. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1196 (Professor H.V. Emy, M onash University). 28. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 534 (D r A.J. Ryan, F A U S A ); 12 M arch 1982, p. 1945 (D r J.D . Bell, D epartm ent of Science and T echnology); 10 February 1982, p. 1564 (Professor R. Baxt, Monash U niversity).

29. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2113. 30. ibid, p. 1427 ( Professor P. K arm el, C T E C ). 31. ibid, pp. 1427 8 (Professor D .N .F. D unbar, C T E C ). 32. Subm ission from South Australian College o f Advanced Education Academic S ta ff Association,

pp. 6-7.

33. See for exam ple, Evidence, 30 April 1982, pp. 2115 (F A U S A ) and 2058-9 (F C A ). 34. Evidence, 4 Decem ber 1981, p. 678. 35. Evidence, 9 February 1982, pp. 1426 7. 36. Professor G. Williams, O f adversity and innovation in higher education’ Studies in Higher Education

6 (2 ), 1981, pp. 131-8 referred to in Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1115. 37. Evidence, 8 February 1982, p. 1129 (D r J.P. Powell). 38. Evidence, 9 February 1982, p. 1371 cf. pp. 1400 1, 1442, 1445. 39. Evidence, 10 February 1982, p. 1537. 40. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2070. 41. ibid, p. 2119. 42. Professor G. Williams, op. cit., p. 136.

43. Evidence, II February 1982, p. 1873 (th e results o f an A F U W (S A ) questionnaire on female academics are reproduced in Evidence, p. 1888 97). 44. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2 1 11 cf Evidence. 11 February 1982. p. 1730 ( Professor D.R. Stranks. Vice­ C hancellor, Adelaide University).

45. G .M . Bramley and M.W. W ard. The role o f women in the Australian \a lio n a l University (A M 1976) (referred to in Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, p. 1995 (Professor D A Low. Vice-Chancellor. Aus­ tralian N ational U niversity)). 46. ibid.p. 149.

47. Evidence, 10 February 1982, p. 1485 (D r Lynne Selwood); and Evidence. I 1 February 1982. p. 1730 ( Professor D.R. S tranks). 48. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2042 (C T E C C om m ents on E vidence). 49. Evidence, II February 1982, p. 1868.

50. Evidence, 3 Decem ber 1981, p. 522; 1 1 February 1982, p. 1717, 5!. University of Tasm ania Staff Association Submission (121) Section 4.3. 52. Evidence. 30 April 1982. p. 2112 (F A U S A ). University of Tasm ania Staff Association Submission (121) Proposed C onditions of A ppointm ent; Evidence. 3 Decem ber 1981. p 389 ( Professor I) K

S tranks).

97

53. Evidence, 10 F ebruary 1982, p. 1545 (M r T. Oakley, La Trobe University S taff Association); 12M arch 1982, p. 1995 (Professor D. A. Low, Vice-Chancellor, A ustralian N ational U niversity). 54. ibid, pp. 1487, 1490-1 (D r Lynne Selwood). 55. Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, p. 1995 (Professor D. A. Low, Vice C hancellor, A ustalian National

University). 56. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1867 (A ustralian F ederation of Univesity W om en (S A )). 57. G . M. Bramley and M. W. W ard, op. cit. p. 147. 58. From R. Over, A ustralian Journal o f E ducation, 25 (1981) p. 166, including in Evidence, 11 February

1982, p. 1898. 59. F. G ale, op cit., p. 4. 60. ibid, p. 6. 61. ibid, p. 3. 62. ibid, p. 3, Bramley and W ard, op cit., pp. 20, 50; Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1874 (D r D.C. Elliott,

A ustralian Federation o f U niversity W om en, (SA ). 63. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1874. 64. Bramley and W ard, op cit., p. 44, p. 123.'* 65. ibid, p. 121. 66. ibid, p. 134. 67. ibid, p. 121. 68. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1874-5 (D r D. C. E lliott). 69. ibid, p. 1876 (D r D. C. E lliott). 70. Bramley and W ard, op. cit., pp. 56-7. 71. ibid, p. 44. 72. ibid, p. 44. 73. L etter o f 6 M ay 1982 from the Vice-Chancellor, University o f Queensland, in response to a C om m ittee

request during Evidence, 30 April 1982. 74. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2111. 75. Bramley and W ard, op. cit., pp. 39-40; Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1867 (A ustralian Federation of U niversity W om en (S A )). 76. Bramley and W ard, op. cit., p. 40. 77. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 211. 78. Evidence, 4 D ecem ber 1981, pp. 739-747 and Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, pp. 75-150 (A V CC ) passim. 79. ibid, p. 739 and Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1411 (C T E C ). 80. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2041. 81. Evidence, 9 F ebruary 1982, p. 1410. 82. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1711. 83. R. W. G ibberd, ‘G row th, Prom otion and R etirem ent in Universities’, Vestes, as quoted in Evidence, 9

F ebruary 1982, p. 1270. 84. Evidence, 3 D ecem ber 1981, p. 132. 85. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2115 (F A U S A ). 86. F. G ale, op. cit., p. 8. 87. Evidence, 30 April 1982, p. 2058. 88. ibid, p. 2104 (F A U S A ). 89. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p. 1712 (Professor D. R. Stranks, V ice-Chancellor, University of

Adelaide). 90. Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, p. 1930. 91. ibid, p. 1969 (A N U ). 92. Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2189. 93. ibid, pp. 2208, 2189 (A V C C ). 94. ibid.pp. 2190, 2218 (A V C C ). 95. ibid, p. 2166 (A V C C ). 96. ibid, p. 2207 (A V C C ). 97. ibid, p. 2166. 98. ibid, p. 2213. 99. ibid, p. 2164 (A V C C ). 100. ibid, p. 2165 (A V C C ). 101. ibid, p. 2043. 102. ibid, p. 2117. 103. Evidence, 9 February 1982, pp. 1386-87 (C T E C ). 104. Evidence, 30 April 1982, pp. 2058 (F C A ), p. 2116 (F A U S A ). 105. Deakin University Staff Association Submission (141), p. 3. 106. Evidence, 11 February 1982, p. 1735 (Professor D. Stranks. Vice-Chancellor, U niversity of Adelaide).

107. ibid, p. 1735.

98

108. A rm idale College o f A dvanced E ducation Submission (83) pp. 2-3.

109. Evidence, 11 F ebruary 1982, p. 1718 (Professor D. R. Stranks, Vice-chancellor, University of A delaide).

110. C T E C R eport for 1982-4 T riennium Recommendations on Guidelines, Vol. 1, Part 1, paragraph 5.41, A G PS, C anberra, F ebruary 1981, quoted in Evidence, 30 A pril 1982, p. 2112. 111. Evidence, 12 M arch 1982, p. 1933.

99

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Recommendations

The Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts endorses the concept of tenure in Australian universities and colleges of advanced education (CAEs) for appointment at the level of lecturer and above. Tenure, however, should be subject to

the requirements for flexibility of staffing and to review procedures that ensure the proper accountability of tenured staff to their academic institution through measures recommended in this Report. The advantages of tenure are substantial and on balance outweigh the disadvantages of tenure described in this Report. Tenure provides the se­

curity of employment which allows the freedom of inquiry so essential to academic work. Tenure provisions enhance an institution’s ability to attract highly qualified staff whether from overseas or within Australia. Tenure is also an important foundation for an academic’s commitment to long-term research and scholarship. Arising from the considerations set out in this R eport the Committee makes the following recommendations:

General arrangements for tenure

1. The arrangements for tenure in universities and colleges of advanced education should ensure that tenure is only granted after exacting and sound appointment and probation procedures have been fully met.

(Paragraphs 4.1 to 4.8)

2. Universities and colleges of advanced education when calling for applications for an academic position at the level of lecturer or above, should clearly state in the adver­ tisement whether or not the position carries the expectation of tenure subject to satis­ factory performance. In cases where there is reasonable doubt whether a position

would extend beyond say five years, fixed term contracts should be used. The short­ comings of limited-term appointments should be overcome by making such contracts of at least three years duration and whenever possible five years, particularly when there is a significant research expectation associated with the position.

(Paragraphs 3.7, 3.8,4.9 to 4.12)

3. Tenure should never be, or be seen to be, a protection against incompetence or inef­ ficiency. The granting of tenure should be conditional upon tenured academics indi­ vidually participating in annual consultations and periodic reviews of their work (see Recommendations 15 to 19). These reviews, subject to the necessary safeguards (see paragraph 4.34 ff and Recommendation 20), should lead to the termination of the

appointment where it is found that the academic’s performance of academic duties is inadequate.

(Paragraph 1.9, 3.7, 3.8)

4. Universities and colleges of advanced education should ensure that the termination of appointment of an academic on the grounds of inefficiency, negligence, inadequate performance of duties, or incompetence, proceeds in each case on the basis of appropri­

ate, clearly defined review and dismissal procedures, with due process for appeal. These procedures should be in accordance with the relevant later Recommendations in this Report.

(Paragraphs 4.34 to 4.50,4.55 t o 4.60)

101

Duties of academic staff

5. Each university and CAE should ensure that appointment to, and continuation in, any academic post at that institution is on the condition that the person appointed, to the satisfaction and consistent with the mission of that institution:

(a) undertakes such teaching as may be prescribed; (b) engages in research and scholarship; and (c) carries out such examining, administrative or other duties as the university or college may require from time to time.

(Paragraphs 3.7, 3.8,4.3 4.39,4.40,4.43,4.46) 6. In each university and CAE it should be clear to whom in that institution an aca­ demic is responsible for the performance of all or part of that academic’s duties. (Paragraphs 4.35,4.38,4.45)

Termination of appointment

7. All universities and colleges of advanced education should have clear statutory powers, complemented by precise regulations and by-laws to give procedural effect, to ensure that there are sufficient provisions for the termination of an academic’s appoint­ ment and including each of the following grounds:

(a) serious misconduct or serious misbehaviour which demonstrably puts in jeop­ ardy the capacity of the staff member to perform adequately the duties of an academic; (b) serious incapacity to perform academic duties by reason of physical or mental

illness;

(c) serious inefficiency, negligence, incompetence, or seriously inadequate perform­ ance of academic duties; (d) financial exigency. Each institution should ensure that it has fair and workable procedures which provide for termination of an appointment in any and all of the abovementioned circumstances. Letters of appointment should include direct reference to these provisions.

(Paragraphs 1.9,1.11,1.19 to 1.27,1.34,3.9,3.41,4.58, to 4.60)

Compensation for dismissal arising from financial exigency

8. Where there is a clear and demonstrable requirement for a university or CAE to dismiss an academic for reasons of institution-wide financial exigency:

(a) those positions identified as redundant should be the first to be terminated, fol­ lowed by other terminations to meet the financial circumstances; (b) the relevant university or CAE should make every reasonable effort to find for the terminated staff alternative re-employment; and (c) appropriate financial compensation should be provided. Such compensation

should be the subject of negotiation between the individual concerned and the employing institution and should take into account, inter alia, length of service and the level of final appointment together with such guidelines as the insti­ tution may develop in consultation with relevant staff associations and national administrator* organisations.

*i.e. AVCC and ACPCAE (Paragraphs 1.12, 1.23,1.26,1.27)

1 0 2

Extent of tenure

9. Each university and CAE should ensure that the proportion of academics at the level of lecturer and above who are tenured (including those on probation pending confirmation of tenure) should not exceed 90 per cent of the total full-time equivalent number of lecturers and above in universities, and lecturer level II and above in

colleges. (Paragraphs 3.13 to 3.19)

10. Some institutions in the CAE sector, some departments in both higher education sectors and specifically the Australian National University Institute of Advanced Studies have specific requirements for the ratio of tenured staff to be significantly lower than 90 per cent. For some the tenure ratio is lower than 50 per cent. These require­

ments include special arrangements for research or provisions to allow a high degree of regular interchange between persons in academic appointments and persons involved in professional work in the community. In these circumstances there requirements should continue to be met.

(Paragraph 3.16)

11. Universities or CAEs should not grant tenure to tutorial staff unless this would overwhelmingly be in the best interests of the higher education institution concerned. Tenure and some other conditions of service normally available to lecturing staff may be appropriate under certain circumstances for senior or principal tutors/demonstra­ tors only, providing not more than one-third of these senior categories of tutorial staff are tenured in any one institution. This extent of tenure for senior tutorial staff should

be further restricted by being available only in those departments which can demon­ strate specific and sound reasons for requiring tenured tutorial staff. In addition, the number of senior tutorial staff in any institution should not exceed one-third of the total number of tutorial staff. Thus no more than one-ninth of an institution’s total number of tutors could be granted tenure. (See also Recommendation 23.)

(Paragraphs 4.13 to 4.22)

Probationary periods

12. Where they have not already done so, universities and CAEs should make the period of probation for the first appointment to a lectureship a minimum of three years, but preferably five years. It should not be regarded as a matter of course that tenure will be confirmed on the expiry of the probationary period; rather, the confirmation should

be dependent on satisfactory academic performance. (Paragraphs 4.4 to 4.8)

Induction programs for academics

13. Universities and CAEs should have a suitable induction program for persons undertaking their initial appointment to a lecturing position. Participation in such a program should be a condition of appointment. These staff development programs should provide for teaching skills including lecturing techinques, tutorial arrangements

and assessment. Persons appointed to staff development centres or programs should not be involved in any decision-making process for confirmation of tenure or for promotion purposes so that the trust on which their assistance depends is not undermined. (Paragraphs 4.27 to 4.33)

14 Universities and CAEs should ensure that all staff undergoing their first year of probation for tenure have a reduced teaching and administrative load as recommended in the Report of the AVCC Working Party entitled Academic S ta ff Development.' (Paragraph 4.32)

103

Reviews of academic performance

15. Universities and CAEs should ensure that the heads of all departments/schools/ faculties provide for a system of ‘annual consultations’. These consultations should involve all academic staff and provide for them individually to review the year's aca­ demic work along the lines of the procedures proposed in paragraphs 4.43 to 4.45. Such consultations should deal constructively with the achievements of the year towards meeting common goals rather than be confined only to problem areas.

(Paragraph 4.43 to 4.45)

16. Arising from the annual consultation the head of department’s evaluation should be written in a succinct report. Each academic should be given a copy of this report and be able to respond to any unfavourable comments. The reports arising from annual consultations should be lodged with the head of school/dean of faculty and with the Vice-Chancellor or College Principal. Access to the report, including any access in due course by promotions committees, should not be given without the knowledge of the academic concerned.

(Paragraphs 4.43 to 4.45)

17. In addition to the annual consultations academics should participate in more comprehensive periodic reviews of their work, no more than seven years apart. There should also be provision for an extraordinary review of an academic’s performance in the event that the head of department concerned successfully petitions the Vice­ Chancellor or College Principal, or if one of the latter independently decides that there is an immediate need to consider serious inadequacies in an academic’s performance.

(Paragraphs 4.35,4.41,4.42,4.46 to 4.50)

18. When a committee of review concludes that an academic has serious weaknesses in teaching, research or other academic duties, then the report of the committee's findings should recommend that the academic be required to undertake satisfactorily an available course of staff development, or take other remedial action pending the reconvening of the same committee of review up to 12 months later. When a committee of review concludes that an academic has been persistently or seriously inadequate in

the performance of academic duties then the report of the committee should rec­ ommend that action be taken to terminate that academic’s appointment. (Paragraph 4.49)

19. Promotion committees and committees undertaking periodic reviews of lecturing staff in universities should give at least equal weight to teaching ability as to research consistent with the mission of that institution. (Paragraphs 4.27 to 4.33)

Right of appeal

20. Each university and CAE should establish a Board of Appeal. The principal responsibilities of such a Board of Appeal should be to safeguard academic freedom at that institution and to ensure due process in the institution's consideration of the dis­ missal of an academic. The governing body of each institution should prepare advice defining the composition and powers of the Board of Appeal for the Executive Council concerned. From time to time, the governing body of the institution should nominate persons to serve on the Board of Appeal for fixed renewable periods. The decision of a Board of Appeal should be final.

(Paragraphs 4.58 to 4.60)

104

Student opinions

21. Student opinions based on properly conducted surveys should be appropriately taken into account by heads of departments and committees of review, in universities and CAEs, when assessing the teaching performance of academics. While universities and CAEs should recognise the need to evaluate the opinions of their students, these opinions should not be regarded as a conclusive or decisive factor in comparison with

professional assessments of an academic’s work.

(Paragraph 4.51,4.52)

External reviews of departments/faculties

22. The CTEC should continue to support where appropriate the established practice of external reviews of whole departments or faculties in universities and CAEs. Support for such evaluations should require the report of a review being open to the scrutiny

and discussion of all academic members involved in the departments/ faculties under review. The reports should also be available to the head of the relevant university or CAE and to the CTEC for further action. Reviews of whole departments should not be regarded as a substitute for the review of an individual academic’s performance.

(Paragraph 4.54)

Tutorial staff-conditions of appointment

23. When appointing tutorial staff, universities and CAEs should give such staff a minimum of a 12-month contract including an annual leave entitlement unless an exceptional shorter-term vacancy occurs. Whenever practicable, universities and CAEs should offer tutors or demonstrators a three-year contract, renewable after satisfactory performance by a second and final one, two or three-year contract. Further extensions should be regarded as exceptional requiring the endorsement of the relevant insti­ tution’s governing body.

(Paragraphs 4.20,4.22)

24. Universities and CAEs should develop safeguards to ensure that tutorial staff are not subject to the sort of exploitation referred to in paragraph 4.15 of this Report. Tutorial staff should be given a fair opportunity to complete a higher degree. Universi­ ties and CAEs should ensure that the duties and conditions of appointment of tutorial staff are detailed in their letter of appointment, and that these duties are known and observed by the more senior members of the relevant departments. This should ensure

that the work-load of tutorial staff allows them sufficient time to complete a higher degree.

(Paragraphs 4.15,4.20,4.21)

Fixed-term appointments

25. Universities and CAEs should widen the practice of appointing heads of depart­ ments, schools or faculties for a fixed term normally renewable, recognising that this shares the burden of administration and enhances the opportunity for new approaches

and new leadership. These fixed-term appointments should not, however, be allowed to detract in any way from professors exercising their role of academic leadership in their own areas and in the institution as a whole.

(Paragraphs 5.2, 5.8)

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Joint appointments, sharing of staff and exchange schemes

26. Universities and CAEs should make greater use of schemes that improve the ability of academic staff to move between one higher education institution and another, as well as the greater use of joint appointments, exchange schemes and the sharing of staff with other organisations. The Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee and the Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education should strive to develop schemes which not only open up more career opportunities for academic staff, but might also be used by the management of two or more institutions to redirect staff where they are most needed. They should consult staff associations in the formu­ lation of any system of transfer and ensure that tenure and other benefits such as super­ annuation and leave entitlements are maintained where applicable.

(Paragraphs 5.19 to 5.28)

Tenured fractional appointments

27. Universities and CAEs which currently do not offer to academic staff fractional tenured appointments at all levels, should give favurable consideration to introducing such provisions.

(Paragraphs 5.33 to 5.40)

Measures to assist women

28. Apart from the introduction of tenured fractional appointments, and extended leave without pay, there are several other measures that higher education institutions should introduce to improve the disproportionately low representation of women in tenured appointments. These include:

(a) the appointment of women (as well as men) to the significant decision-making bodies in the institution, and committees concerned with the careers of academics; (b) the giving of preference to a woman applicant when choosing between equally

qualified applicants for an academic position;

(c) provision of adequate arrangements for refresher courses, and access to libraries, seminars etc. for those women academics who resign at some stage of their career because of family responsibilities; and

(d) provision of adequate child care facilities at each institution.

(Paragraphs 5.41 to 5.51)

Early retirement

29. While the wider availability of an early retirement option for academic staff in all universities and CAEs is desirable, governments need not support at this time either the compulsory lowering of the retirement age, or increased incentives for making early re­ tirement more attractive. However, such schemes should be considered before the mid-1990s when academics in the present age bulge near retiring age. While some insti­ tutions may have reasons now for improving the attractiveness of such schemes (by the direct allocation of a portion of their budget to them), in the case of most institutions it may be more prudent to allocate resources directly to the provision of continuing em­ ployment opportunities for young academics.

(Paragraphs 5.52 to 5.57)

106

Superannuation mobility

30. That every encouragement should be given to the establishment of a comprehen­ sive, portable superannuation scheme for academics in higher education. (Paragraphs 3.55, 3.56, 3.57, 5.25, 5.26)

Advertising overseas

31. CAEs should give consideration to advertising overseas as well as in Australia, as a matter of course whenever a vacancy occurs in a tenured position at the level of senior lecturer or above. Where an overseas applicant is being considered preference should be given to those from countries who give similar access to Australians.

(Paragraphs 4.1 and 4.2)

Reciprocity for Australian academics overseas

32. The CTEC should examine whether there are any unreasonable restrictions on the accessibility of positions for Australian academics in overseas countries such as fail­ ure to grant work permits, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. The CTEC should make known any adverse findings to the Commonwealth Govern­

ment so that appropriate representations can be made to the relevant overseas authorities. (Paragraph 5.60 to 5.62)

Retraining of academics for courses in demand

33. Universities and CAEs, and where applicable their staff development units, should give greater emphasis to the retraining of academics for disciplines where there is perceived to be a significant future student demand. (Paragraphs 5.70 to 5.72)

Implementation of the Report

34. The CTEC should be required to receive and monitor information from all universities and CAEs and report annually to the Parliament (through the established pattern of annual reports) on each higher education institution’s achievements with re­ gard to the Recommendations of this Report.

(Paragraph 3.12) 35. The CTEC should at the time of formulating the financial and other provisions for the 1985-87 triennium take into account each higher education institution's achieve­ ments with regard to the tenure provisions recommended in this Report and the costs

involved. The CTEC should take reasonable account of the time that will be required to meet some of the Recommendations in this Report. (Paragraphs 1.34 and 3.12) 36. The Commonwealth and States should negotiate with a view to enabling the Aca­

demic Salaries Tribunal to have powers with regard to other industrial conditions than guidelines for salaries. (Paragraphs 1.28 to 1.33) 37. The Recommendations of this Report should be implemented with regard to both

new appointments and existing appointments. Implementation with regard to both kinds of appointments should be based on the statutory powers given to governing bodies by the enabling Acts of Parliament. (Paragraphs 1.8 and 1.9)

107

38. The CTEC and State co-ordinating authorities as well as the individual universi­ ties and CAEs should handle the implementation of this Report with understanding and sensitivity. It should be recognised that some of the Committee’s proposals would involve changes to existing staff arrangements, as well as perhaps changes in conven­ tion. Staff associations should be consulted before decisions are made to alter staff arrangements.

39. The Commonwealth Government should receive and endorse these Recommen­ dations and refer them to the relevant bodies for implementation.

Endnote

1. AVCC O ccasional Papers 1981(4) (A V C C July 1981).

108

ANNEX A

press information

17 FEBRUARY 1982

STRUCTURE OF THE ACADEMIC PROFESSION

P r o p o s a l s f o r c h a n g e s i n t h e te rm s o f employm ent o f a c a d e m i c s t a f f which

h a v e b e e n u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r some tim e by t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r s '

C o m m ittee h a v e now b e e n s e n t t o u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n

i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r c h a r t e r s and s t a t u t e s an d t h e c o n t r a c t u a l

a r ra n g e m e n t s they- ha v e w i t h t h e i r s t a f f .

29 tavistock square london WC1H 9EZ tel 01-387 9231

109

A - 2

Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals

STRUCTURE OF THE ACADEMIC PROFESSION IN THE UNIVERSITIES OF THE U.K.

P ro p o s a ls f o r c o n s id e r a tio n by i n d iv i d u a l u n i v e r s i t i e s

The p ro p o s a ls d e a l w ith th r e e i s s u e s :

1. th e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f academic s t a f f .

2. the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f two complementary ty p es o f a p p o in tm en t

t h a t m ight be contem p lated f o r th e f u t u r e . The f i r s t , f o r

purp o ses o f i l l u s t r a t i o n i s d e sig n a te d an " u n e s t a b l i s h e d

ap p o in tm en t". I t i s f o r a f i x e d p e rio d o r p e r i o d s and i s

in te n d e d n o rm ally f o r new e n t r a n t s to th e acad em ic p r o f e s s i o n .

The second i s d e sig n a te d an " e s t a b l i s h e d a p p o in tm e n t" . I t i s

in te n d e d a s an appointm ent to a c a r e e r g ra d e , n o r m a l l y to the

r e ti r e m e n t age o f th e s t a f f of th e u n i v e r s i t y .

3 . the c o n d itio n s under which appointm ents m ight be t e r m i n a t e d .

1. D u ties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s governing a l l academic s t a f f

Appointment t o , ana c o n ti n u a ti o n i n , any academic p o s t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s on

the c o n d itio n t h a t the p erso n ap p o in te d , to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of th e u n i v e r s i t y .

( i ) u n d e rta k e s such te a c h in g as the d e s ig n a te d u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s

may p r e s c r i b e ;

( i i ) engages i n r e s e a r c h and s c h o la r s h ip ;

( i i i ) c a r r i e s o u t such examining and o th e r d u t ie s a s t h e d e s ig n a te d

u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s : may p r e s c r i b e .

2. N ature of appointm ents to an academic p o s t in th e u n i v e r s i t y

There would be two ty p es of appointm ent to academic p o s t s i n th e u n i v e r s i t y :

(a) Appointments on a fix e d - te r m b a s i s f o r a t o t a l p e r i o d n o t exceeding

e i g h t y e a rs ( " u n e s t a b l i s h e d ”) , b u t d e te rm in a b le b y n o t i c e on e i t h e r

s id e d u rin g t h a t p e r io d , and

(b) appointm ents n orm ally to r e tir e m e n t age ( " e s t a b l i s h e d " ) b u t s u b je c t

to t e r m in a tio n f o r re a so n s of "good cause" o r f o r f a i l u r e to perform

s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the d u t ie s of th e appointm ent o r f o r redundancy or

com pelling re aso n s of f i n a n c i a l e x ig n e c y .

(a) "U n e sta b lish e d p o s t "

I n i t i a l appointm ent to an academic p o s t fo r a new e n t r a n t to th e p r o f e s s i o n would

norm ally be f o r a fix e d - te r m period of th r e e y e a r s . P r o v id e d th e d u t ie s p r e s c r ib e d

under 1. above a re s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f u l f i l l e d , the u n i v e r s i t y n ay, i n w r i t in g , not

l e s s than th r e e months b e fo re the e x p ir a ti o n of the c o n t r a c t , g iv e n o t ic e of i t s

w i l li n g n e s s to c o n sid e r making an o f f e r of a f u r t h e r a p p o in tm e n t fo r a f i x e d - t e r n

p e rio d n o t exceed in g f i v e y e a r s .

/ T h e . . .

110

A-3

The U n i v e r s i t y w i l l h a v e th e r i g h t a t any tim e d u r i n g th e c o u r s e o f e i t h e r

c o n t r a c t t o g iv e n o t l e s s th a n t h r e e months n o t i c e , i n w r i t i n g , o f t e r m i n a t i o n

o f t h e a p p o in tm e n t f o r any o f t h e r e a s o n s s e t o u t i n 3 . b e lo w .

I n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s th e U n i v e r s i t y m ight c o n s i d e r making an a p p o in tm e n t

from t h e o u t s e t f o r a f i x e d - t e r m p e r io d o f f i v e y e a r s , s u b j e c t to t h e same

c o n d i t i o n s s e t o u t a b o v e .

At l e a s t tw e lv e months b e f o r e t h e e x p i r a t i o n of t h e f i v e y e a r f i x e d - t e r m c o n t r a c t

th e member o f s t a f f must i n d i c a t e i n w r i t i n g w h e th er he o r she w i s h e s to be

c o n s i d e r e d f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d p o s t . A d e c i s i o n by t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o o f f e r an

e s t a b l i s h e d p o s t w ould b e conveyed i n w r i t i n g a t l e a s t s i x months b e f o r e the

t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e u n e s t a b l i s h e d p o s t . A new c o n t r a c t w ould accompany th e o f f e r .

A l l p o s t s would b e s u p e r a n n u a b l e from t h e tim e o f i n i t i a l a p p o i n t m e n t .

(b) "E s t a b l i s h e d p o s t "

A p pointm e nt to an e s t a b l i s h e d p o s t would b e f o r t h e p e r i o d up to t h e t h i r t i e t h

day o f Septem ber f o l l o w i n g t h e d a t e on which t h e member o f s t a f f a t t a i n e d the

norm al r e t i r e m e n t age l a i d down by t h e u n i v e r s i t y .

The a p p o in tm e n t may b e t e r m i n a t e d by a member of s t a f f , g i v i n g n o t l e s s than

t h r e e m o n th s ' n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g , o r by t h e u n i v e r s i t y f o r any o f t h e re a s o n s s e t

o u t i n 3. b elow , g i v i n g n o t l e s s t h a n tw e lve m onths' n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g .

3 . T e r m i n a t io n o f a p p o in tm e n ts

The u n i v e r s i t y may t e r m i n a t e any appoin tm en t f o r one o r o t h e r o f t h e f o llo w in g

r e a s o n s :

( i ) Good c a u s e , a s n o r m a l l y d e f i n e d i n the s t a t u t e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y

and, i f n o t i n c l u d e d t h e r e i n ,

( i i ) f a i l u r e , a s ju d g e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o p e r fo r m

th o s e d u t i e s p r e s c r i b e d i n 1. above, b e in g t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

g o v e rn in g t h e a p p o in t m e n t .

( i i i ) Redundancy o r c o m p e l li n g r e a s o n s o f f i n a n c i a l e x ig e n c y .

I n t h e e v e n t of ( i i i ) above, t h e f o l lo w in g c o n d i t i o n s m ust be s a t i s f i e d :

( a ) t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y had confirm ed t h a t r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e

p o s t would n o t be e n v is a g e d f o r a d e f in e d p e r i o d ,

(b) t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y ha d made every r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t to f i n d f o r

t h e o c c u p a n t o f th e p o s t t o be a b o l i s h e d , a l t e r n a t i v e re-e m p lo y m e n t

f o r w hich h i s o r h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e - a p p r o p r i a t e .

1 1 1

Committee of Vice-Chanceiiors and Principals of the Universities of the United Kingdom

29 Tavistock Square London WC1 Η 9EZ Telephone 01-387 9231 Telex8811492

A-4

Saaatary General: G K Casion MA Executive Secratary:$ H Taylor BSc (Εςοη) Assistant Secretaries: D E Bennett ΜΑ K S Davies BA E Newcomb BA Miss B Crispin B S c (Econ)

T 3 / 2 / 4 C I R C / 8 2 / 1 1 16 F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2

»

The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a c a d e m i c p r o f e s s i o n i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s

o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom h a s r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d f o r som e con­

s i d e r a b l e t i m e . One o f i t s m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s i s t h a t , on

s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f an i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e a p p o i n t e e

i s c o n f i r m e d i n p o s t up t o t h e r e t i r e m e n t a g e r e c o g n i s e d b y t h e i n s t i ­

t u t i o n . The c a r e e r g r a d e i s t h a t o f L e c t u r e r b u t i n p r a c t i c e a s i g n i f i c a n t

num ber o f a c a d e m i c s t a f f a r e l a t e r p r o m o te d t o t h e g r a d e o f S e n i o r L e c t u r e r

o r R e a d e r .

The V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r s ' C o m m itte e h a s c o n s i d e r e d w h e t h e r t h i s s t r u c t u r e

c o n t i n u e s t o b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p r o p e r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t e a c h i n g and

r e s e a r c h w i t h i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d i n p u b l i c

d e b a t e on t h e f u n d i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y s y s t e m . I t has

become p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e a t t h e p r e s e n t t im e b y t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s i n

w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v e b e e n p l a c e d . Such d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e l i k e l y

t o r e c u r a nd t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s w o u ld w i s h to b e a b l e t o m e e t th em w i t h a

b e t t e r o r d e r e d r e s p o n s e t h a n i s now p o s s i b l e . I t i s n o t e a s y t o d e fe n d

a s t r u c t u r e w h ic h may b i n d a u n i v e r s i t y t o a l e g a l c o m m i tm e n t t o c o n t i n u e

an a p p o i n t m e n t to t h e n o r m a l a ge o f r e t i r e m e n t n o m a t t e r how c i r c u m s t a n c e s

c h a n g e .

The m a i n c o n c e r n o f t h e C o m m itte e , i n i t s d i s c u s s i o n s o v e r t h e p a s t m o n th s ,

h a s t h e r e f o r e b e e n to d ra w up a s e r i e s o f p r o p o s a l s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by

e v e r y u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s f a c i n g th e

s y s te m a s a w h o l e , and i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s own c u r r e n t c o n t r a c t u a l and

s t a t u t o r y a r r a n g e m e n t s . I am now w r i t i n g t o s e n d y o u t h e a t t a c h e d pa p er

w h ic h t h e C o m m itte e , a t i t s r e c e n t m e e t i n g , a g r e e d s h o u l d b e p u t fo rw a rd

to u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n f r a m i n g t h e s e p r o p o s a l s t h e

C o m m itte e h a s b e e n m i n d f u l o f t h e autonom y o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l u n i v e r s i t y ,

w h i c h i s f r e e to make a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h i t s own s t a f f a s i t w i s h e s in

a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s own C h a r t e r a nd s t a t u t e s , a n d s u b j e c t w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e

to t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s on s a l a r i e s a n d s u p e r a n n u a t i o n .

The a im o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s h a s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , b e e n t o c o n t i n u e to

p r o v i d e a s s e c u r e and r e w a r d i n g a c a r e e r f o r t h e s t a f f o f u n i v e r s i t i e s as

may b e fo u n d i n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s f i n a n c e d fr o m p u b l i c f u n d s . I t i s r e ­

c o g n i s e d n e v e r t h e l e s s t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s c a n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y be

immune fr o m c u t s i n p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , n o r c a n t h e y b e s e e n t o p ro v id e

1 1 2 / g r e a t e r . .

C ./ ~ ' "η

A-5

g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r e m p l o y e e s t h a n i s a f f o r d e d i n t h e r e s t 6 f

t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e e x c e p t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e i r d u t i e s a s s c h o l a r s

t o b e f r e e t o s t u d y , t e a c h a n d p u b l i s h s o r e q u i r e . As t h e i r s e c o n d

a im t h e p r o p o s a l s t h e r e f o r e a l s o s p e c i f y a s p r e c i s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h o s e

c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h a u n i v e r s i t y -may l e g a l l y t e r m i n a t e a n a p p o i n t ­

m e n t . I n t h e v i e w o f t h e C o m m itte e t h i s p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s a l s ( c o n t a i n e d

i n s e c t i o n 3 o f t h e a t t a c h e d p a p e r ) a s s u m e s p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a n d

u r g e n c y i n t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

T he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r a n d how t o p r o m o t e a n y

o r a l l o f t h e c h a n g e s s u g g e s t e d r e s t s w i t h e a c h u n i v e r s i t y , a n d e a c h

w i l l n o d o u b t t a k e i t s own l e g a l a n d o t h e r a d v i c e . (T he C o m m itte e h a s

n o t t a k e n l e g a l a d v i c e . ) G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , c h a n g e s c a n o n l y a p p l y

t o new c o n t r a c t s o f a p p o i n t m e n t . I f c h a n g e s i n . s t a t u t e s a r e r e q u i r e d ,

t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e w i l l o f c o u r s e h a v e t o b e f o l l o w e d , i n c l u d i n g

w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o v a l b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l .

Y o u rs s i n c e r e l y

GEOFFREY CASTON S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l

113

UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA ANNEX B

S t a t u t e VI and Tenure Rules

( S o u r c e s : U ni ver si t y Calendar and Admi ni s tr a t i ve Guide)

2. Conditions o f employment

5. TENURE RULES ACADEMIC AND ACADEMIC EQUATED STAFF

Note: These r u l e s have not been reviewed s i n ce 1966 and t h e r e f o r e

some of the pr ovi s i ons are in need of updating.

1. Period o f e l i g i b i l i t y to hold o f f i c e

S ubj e c t to t he s e r u l e s , every s t a f f member s h a l l be e l i g i b l e to hold

o f f i c e u n t i l the dat e o f r e t i r e m e n t s p e c i f i e d in S t a t u t e VI - Of

P ro fe s s or s and L e c t u r e r s , unless a more l i m i t e d p e r i o d , o r ot he r

s p e c ia l p r o vi s i on as to the t e r mi nat i on of o f f i c e , is s p e c i f i e d in

the terms of hi s appointment, which s p e c i f i c a t i o n s h a l l not be made

except by the d i r e c t i o n of the Council and then only in the case of

a p a r t i c u l a r named i n d i v i d u a l .

2. D e f i n i t i o n o f s t a f f member

A s t a f f member f o r the purpose o f t hese r ul es s h a l l be any person

holding the o f f i c e of p r o f e s s o r , a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r , r ea d e r , s e ni or

l e c t u r e r , l e c t u r e r , s e n i o r demonst r at or , r e g i s t r a r , l i b r a r i a n , b u r s a r ,

a s s i s t a n t r e g i s t r a r , a s s i s t a n t l i b r a r i a n and any o t he r person who may

be des i gnat ed a s t a f f member by the Council f o r the purpose of these

r u l e s .

3. P r oba t i ona ry period

The p rovi s i ons of Rule 1 of t hese r ul es sha l l take e f f e c t in each

case a t the e x p i r a t i o n of any pr obati onar y period (not exceeding

t h r e e ye a rs ) s o e c i f i e d in the terms of the appointment.

4. Notice of r e s i g n a t i o n

S ubj e c t to these r u l e s , any s t a f f member may r esi gn his o f f i c e by

giving s i x months' no t i c e in w ri t i n g .

5. Retirement on grounds o f i l l health

The Council may r eq ui r e a s t a f f member to r e t i r e from his o f f i c e on

the grounds o f i l l hea l t h i f , a t the e x p i r a t i o n o f the period of

s i c k leave to which he i s e n t i t l e d under the U n i v e r s i t y ' s rules

r e l a t i n g to sick leave, he i s unable to resume his d ut i e s and is

u n l i k e l y to be abl e to resume them wi t h i n a reasonable t i m e , being

not l e s s than twelve months. Provided t h a t , i f the s t a f f member

o r a person a c t i n g on hi s b e h a l f , so r e q u e s t s , the Council s h a l l not

take a c t io n under t h i s r u l e u n t i l i t has r eceived the f i ndi ngs of a

panel c o n s i s t i n g of t h r ee medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s , one of whom sha l l

be appointed by the Council, one by the s t a f f member or by a person

a c t i n g on his be h a l f and one nominated by the P re si de n t of the

Tasmanian Branch of the A us t r al i an Medical Associ at i on.

D e c e m b e r 1976

C o u n c i 1 , 11 M a rc h 1 9 6 6

115

8-2

6. Cause f o r dismissal

No s t a f f member s ha l l be given no ti c e of dismissal unless i t has been

e s t a b l i s h e d beyond reasonable doubt, in accordance with the provisions h e r e i n a f t e r s e t o ut , t h a t he has been g u i l t y o f e i t h e r -

(a) gross i n e f f i c i e n c y o r major d e r e l e c t i o n of duty in regard to

his academic work

(b) g-oss misbehaviour, the commission of which c o n s t i t u t e s a serious impediment to the ca rry ing out of his academic work.

Such gross i n e f f i c i e n c y , major d e r e l i c t i o n , or gross misbehaviour is

h e r e i n a f t e r termed "gross misconduct". Proof of the conviction of a

s t a f f member of a crime by a cour t of competent j u r i s d i c t i o n shall

be accepted as being proof beyond reasonable doubt of the commission o f t h a t crime.

Where any a l l e g a t i o n has been made, or any suspicion has a r i s e n t h a t

a s t a f f member has been g u i l t y o f gross misconduct, the ma tte r shall

be i n v e s t i g a t e d and d e a l t with s o l e l y in accordance with these r u l e s ,

notwithstanding anything to the c on tr ar y in the s t a f f member's terms of employment.

7. I n ve s t i g a t i on of charges

(a) The Vice-Chancellor may, of his own motion, whenever he is per so na ll y aware of the circumstances giving r i s e t h e r e t o ,

i n i t i a t e a charge o f gross misconduct a ga i n s t a s t a f f member

by r e f e r r i n g a complaint to a Preliminary Committee f or i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

( b) In any ot he r case the Vice-Chancellor, on r eceiving a formal

complaint in w ri t in g t h a t a s t a f f member has been g u i l t y of

gross misconduct s h a l l , within fourteen days or such f u r t h e r

period not exceeding t went y-eight days as he thinks f i t ,

charge the s t a f f member therewith by r e f e r r i n g the complaint to a Preliminary Committee f or i n v e s t i g a t i o n , unless he forms the opinion t h a t the complaint i s unfounded or t h a t the matters

complained of do not c o n s t i t u t e gross misconduct.

(c) The Preliminary Committee s h a l l , on r e c e i . of the complaint,

i n v e s t i g a t e the same and r ep o r t to the Vice-Chancellor i t s

f inding whether or not t he re is strong ground f o r bel ievi ng

t h a t the s t a f f member has committed gross misconduct. I f

the Preliminary Committee r ep or t s t h a t the re is strong ground for such b e l i e f , the Vice-Chancellor s h a l l , within fourteen

days r e f e r the complaint to a J o i n t Committee, unless he forms

the opinion t h a t having regard to the matter s t a t e d in the

r epo rt of the Preliminary Committee or any d i s s e n t i n g r eport accompanying the same, the ma t te r ought not to proceed f u r t h e r .

C o u n c i l 11 M a rc h 1 966 D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 7

1 1 6

8 - 3

I f t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r forms t h e a f o r e s a i d o p i n i o n he

s h a l l i n f o r m t h e s t a f f member i n w r i t i n g a c c o r d i n g l y .

I f t h e P r e l i m i n a r y Committee r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r e i s no

s t r o n g gr ound f o r such b e l i e f , t h e m a t t e r s h a l l n o t

( s u b j e c t as h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d ) p r o c e e d f u r t h e r

and t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r s h a l l i n f o r m t h e s t a f f member

a c c o r d i n g l y ; p r o v i d e d t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e

P r e l i m i n a r y Committ ee s h a l l have r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e

i s no s t r o n g gr ounds f o r such b e l i e f , t h e Vi ce­

C h a n c e l l o r may, i f he c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e r e a r e compel ­

l i n g r e a s o n s f o r so d o i n g , w i t h i n f o u r t e e n days r e f e r

t h e c o m p l a i n t t o a J o i n t Committ ee; and i n any such

c a s e he s h a l l , when s e n d i n g t h e Formal Compl ai nt t o

t h e J o i n t Committee in a c c o r d a n c e wi t h Rule 13 o f t h e s e

Ru l e s , accompany t h e Formal Compl ai nt wi t h a w r i t t e n

s t a t e m e n t o f r e a s o n s f o r so d o i n g and s h a l l s e r v i c e

c o p i e s o f t h a t s t a t e m e n t on t h e s t a f f member and t h e

A s s i s t a n t .

( d) The J o i n t Committee s h a l l , on r e c e i p t o f t h e c o mp l a i n t

i n v e s t i g a t e t h e same and s h a l l r e p o r t t o t h e Council

t hr ough t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r -

( i ) wh i c h , i f an y , o f t h e a l l e g a t i o n s i n t h e

c o m p l a i n t have been pr oven beyond r e a s o n a b l e

d o u b t , and

( i i ) wh e t h e r t h e f a c t s as pr oven c o n s t i t u t e g r o s s

mi s c o n d u c t .

I t may make such r ecommendat i ons to t h e Council as i t

t h i n k s f i t , i n c l u d i n g a r ecommendat i on wi t h r e g a r d t o any

c o s t s i n c u r r e d by t h e s t a f f member.

8. O p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s i g n

( a) A s t a f f member who has been cha r ged wi t h g r o s s mi s c o n d u c t may

r e s i g n h i s p o s i t i o n wi t h i mmedi at e e f f e c t , o r on such

o t h e r t e r ms as a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o t he Co u n c i l , a t any s t a g e

d u r i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f such c h a r g e , and h i s r e s i g n a t i o n ,

wi t h i mmedi at e e f f e c t o r such o t h e r t er ms as a r e a c c e p t e d by

t h e Counci l s h a l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o an

end.

( b) The V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r on r e c e i v i n g t h e r e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t

Commi t t ee, s h a l l g i v e a s t a f f member who has been found

g u i l t y o f g r o s s mi s c o n d u c t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e s i g n i n g

h i s p o s i t i o n wi t h e f f e c t from t h e d a t e on which t h e Vi ce­

C h a n c e l l o r has so g i v e n him t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . I f t h e s t a f f

member so r e s i g n s w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f t e n d ays , t h e Council

w i l l be i n f o r me d a c c o r d i n g l y a t t h e t i me i t r e c e i v e d t h e

r e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t Committ ee. No t i c e o f d i s m i s s a l s h a l l

n o t be g i v e n t o a s t a f f member who has so r e s i g n e d h i s

p o s i t i o n .

C o u n c i 1 11 M a rc h 1 9 6 6 D e c e m b e r 197 7

117

8-4

9. Notice o f dismissal

The Council may give to a s t a f f member who has not a v a i l e d himself

o f the opp or tu n it y of r es i gn i n g his p o s i t i o n as provided in sub­

r ul e (b) of Rule 8, the not i c e of dismissal with e f f e c t from a

date determined by the Council, but not e a r l i e r than the dat e on

which he was given the oppor tuni t y to r es i gn .

10. Composition o f committees

(a) A P r elimi nar y Committee s h a l l c o n s i s t of -

1. The Dean p f the Facul ty of Arts

2. The Dean o f the Facul ty o f Law

3. The Dean o f the Facul ty of Science

4. The no n - p r of es s or i a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on Council, and

5. The most r ec e n t p a s t no n - p r of es s or i a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

on the Council who i s a non - pr o f es s or i a l member of s t a f f

provided t h a t -

( i ) I f any dean i s unable to a c t (and a Dean who i s

Chairman o f the P r o f e s s o r i a l Board s h a l l be deemed unable to act) hi s pl ace s h a l l be taken by the most

r e c e n t p a s t dean of hi s f a c u l t y who i s a member of

the s t a f f o r i f no such member is a v a i l a b l e , by the

Dean o f the Facul ty o f A g r i cul t ur a l Science o r the

Dean o f the Facul ty o f Commerce or the Dean of the

Facul ty o f Education or the Dean o f the Facul ty of

Engineering o r t he Dean of the Faculty o f Medicine

in t h a t o r d er , and

( i i ) i f e i t h e r o f the non - pr o f es s or i a l members i s unable

t o a c t , his place sha l l be taken by the next most

r ec e n t p a s t non -p r o f es s or i a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on

Council who i s a n o n - pr of es s or i a l member of s t a f f ,

o r i f no such member o f s t a f f i s a v a i l a b l e , by a

no n - p r of es s or i a l member of s t a f f appointed by the remaining members of the Committee.

(b) A J o i n t Committee sha l l c o n s i s t of -

1. The Deputy Chancellor

2. The Chairman of the P r of es s or i a l Board

3. The Senior Dean

4. The Chairman o f the S t a f f Associ at i on, and

5. The Warden of Convocation

provided t h a t -

( i ) the term "Chairman of the P r o f es s o r i a l Board" shall

include an Acting Chairman

( i i ) i f the Deputy Chancellor i s unable to a c t , his place

s h al l be taken by the member o f Council who is the

most s e ni or in the terms of length o f membership

of Council

( i i i ) i f the Warden o f Convocation is unable to a c t his

place s h al l be taken by the Vice-Warden of Convocation

118 C o u n c i l 11 M a rc h 19 6 6 D e c e m b e r 1976

B-5

( iv) i f the Chairman o f the S t a f f Associati on i s unable

to a c t h is place sh al l be taken by the Acting Chairman

of the S t a f f A s so c ia ti o n, or , i f the Acting Chairman

i s unable to a c t , by such o t h e r person as may be

nominated to a c t by the Executive Committee of the S t a f f Ass oc i at i on , and

(v) no person who i s a member of the Preliminary Committee s ha l l be a member of the J o i n t Committee.

For the purposes of t h i s c l a u s e , the term "the s e n i or dean"

means t h a t dean who i s the s e n i o r in the terms of length of

s e rv i c e as a p r o fe s s o r in the Univer sit y of those deans who

ar e q u a l i f i e d to a c t .

(c) A member o f a Prelimi nary Committee or of a J o i n t Committee who, during the currency o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the Committee of which he is a member, ceases to hold the o f f i c e by v i r t u e

of which he i s a member of the Committee, sha ll be deemed to

r e t a i n t h a t o f f i c e f o r the purposes of these procedures and

sh al l remain a member o f the Committee u n t i l i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

has been completed.

(d) I f during the currency of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by a Preliminary

Committee or a J o i n t Committee a member of the Committee becomes unable to a c t through i l l n e s s o r some o t he r cause,

the Committee may complete i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n in his absence provided t h a t a t l e a s t t hr e e members ar e able to a c t .

(e) No person having taken p a rt in a p r i o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of any

of the matters r e f e r r e d to in a complaint shall be q u a l i f i e d

to s i t on a Preliminary Committee or a J o i n t Committee.

( f ) A member of a Prelimi nary Committee or a J o i n t Committee may be challenged by the s t a f f member on the grounds t h a t he is

a f f e c t e d by bias or i n t e r e s t or t h a t he has taken p a rt in a

p r i o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f any o f the matters r ef e r r e d to in the

complaint. I f , in the opinion of the o t he r members of the

Committee, the challenge i s reasonably grounded, the person challenged shall be replaced as a member of such Comnittee in the same manner as i f he were otherwise unable to a c t .

11. Chairman and Secr et ar y of the Committees: A s s is t a n t

(a) The Dean of the Faculty of Law shall be the Chairman of the

Preliminary Committee; i f he i s unable to a c t , the Chairman of the Preliminary Committee shall be the Dean who is a member o f the Comni t t e e and who is the s e ni or in terms of length

of s e r v i c e as a P ro fess or in the Univer sit y.

(b) The Chairman of the P r of es s or ia l Board shall be the Chairman of

the J o i n t Committee.

Council 11 March 1966 December 1976

1 19

B - 6

( c) The R e g i s t r a r o r d e p u t y a p p o i n t e d by him s h a l l be

S e c r e t a r y , t o t h e Commi t t ee. The S e c r e t a r y s h a l l

a s s i s t t h e Committee i n wh a t e v e r way t h e Commi t t ees,

t hr ough t h e i r Chai rman, may from t i me t o t i me d i r e c t .

(d) The V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r s h a l l engage a per son who i s n o t

a member o f e i t h e r o f t h e two Committees ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d

t o as " t h e A s s i s t a n t " ) t o a s s i s t t h e Committ ees by p r e s e n t i n g

t h e ch a r g e and t h e e v i d e n c e and by a d d r e s s i n g them t h e r e o n .

12. Commencement o f p r o c e e d i n g s

( a) Where t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r d e c i d e s t o c h a r g e a s t a f f member

u n d e r t h e s e r u l e s , he s h a l l commence t h e p r o c e e d i n g s by

d e l i v e r i n g t o t h e Chairman o f t h e P r e l i m i n a r y Conmi t t e e a

Formal Compl ai nt which s h a l l s e t o u t t h e c h a r g e o r c h a r g e s

and a f u l l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e a l l e g a t i o n s o f f a c t on which t he

c h a r g e i s b a s e d .

(b) I f t h e m a t t e r i s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e J o i n t Committee

f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e s a i d Formal Compl ai nt s h a l l form t he

b a s i s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s a v e t h a t t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r

may, a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e p o r t o f t h e P r e l i m i n a r y Committee

and any d i s s e n t i n g r e p o r t s accompanying i t , d e l e t e any

c h a r g e o r c h a r g e s o r a l l e g a t i o n s o f f a c t t h e r e f r o m . Pr o c ee di ngs

b e f o r e t h e J o i n t Committee s h a l l commence wi t h d e l i v e r y o f t h e

s a i d Formal Compl ai nt by t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r t o t h e Chairman

o f t h e J o i n t Committ ee.

( c) Copi es o f e v e r y Formal Compl ai nt d e l i v e r e d by t h e Vi c e ­

C h a n c e l l o r p u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e s ( a ) o r (b) h e r e o f s h a l l be

s e r v e d by t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r f o r t h w i t h on t h e s t a f f member

and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e A s s i s t a n t .

13. Pr oc edur e a t h e a r i n g s

1. On r e c e i v i n g a Formal Compl ai nt t h e Chairman o f t h e Committee

s h a l l , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n wi t h t h e members o f t h e Commi t t ee, f i x

a d a t e and p l a c e f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g and s h a l l , a t l e a s t

f o u r t e e n days b e f o r e t h e d a t e o f t h a t h e a r i n g , ca us e a n o t i c e

t o be s e r v e d on t h e s t a f f member and t h e A s s i s t a n t s t a t i n g t he

d a t e and p l a c e o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g , t h e names o f t h e

members o f t h e Committee and, t h a t t h e s t a f f member has the

r i g h t i n a c c o r d a n c e wi t h t h e p r o v i s i o n h e r e i n a f t e r s e t o u t , t o

be a s s i s t e d o r r e p r e s e n t e d by an a g e n t a t a l l h e a r i n g s o f t h e

Commi t t e e .

2. At t h e p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g t h e Chairman o f t h e Committee s h a l l

o u t l i n e t h e p r o ce d u r e which t h e Committee pr opos es t o f o l l o w ;

t h e Committee s h a l l h e a r and d e t e r mi n e any p r e l i m i n a r y submi s s i on

which t h e s t a f f member o r t h e A s s i s t a n t may wish t o make; and t h e

Committee s h a l l , a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g t h e s t a f f member and t h e

A s s i s t a n t , f i x t h e t i me and p l a c e f o r t h e commencement o f t h e

i nqui r y .

Council 11 March 1966

120

D e c e m b e r 197 6

B - 7

3. The Committ ee s h a l l co n d u c t t h e i n q u i r y i n a c cor danc e

wi t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t u r a l j u s t i c e ; and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,

b u t w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e f o r e g o i n g

r e q u i r e m e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s s h a l l be o b s e r v e d :

( a) The s t a f f member s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o be a s s i s t e d

o r r e p r e s e n t e d by such a g e n t as he d e s i r e s , wh e t h e r

a l e g a l p r a c t i t i o n e r o r o t h e r w i s e .

(b) The s t a f f member and h i s a g e n t s h a l l have t h e r i g h t

t o be p r e s e n t a t a l l h e a r i n g s o f t h e Committ ee.

( c) Re a s o n a b l e n o t i c e o f each h e a r i n g s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e

day f i x e d f o r t h e commencement o f t h e i n q u i r y s h a l l

be gi v e n t o t h e s t a f f member.

(d) Evi de nce i n s u p p o r t o f t h e cha r ge s h a l l be p u t b e f o r e

t h e Committ ee o n l y d u r i n g t he h e a r i n g .

( e) A r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i me s h a l l be al l o we d t o t h e

s t a f f member t o p r e p a r e h i s d e f e n c e .

( f ) Any h e a r i n g s h a l l be a d j o u r n e d t o a l a t e r d a t e a t t h e

r e q u e s t o f t h e s t a f f member i f t h e Committee c o n s i d e r s

t h a t h i s gr ounds f o r r e q u e s t i n g t h e adj o u r n me n t a r e

r e a s o n a b l e .

(g) The s t a f f member s h a l l have t h e r i g h t t o c a l l w i t n e s s e s

and s h a l l be g i v e n a f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y t o deve l op h i s

d e f e n c e and s h a l l have t h e r i g h t t o c r o s s - e x a mi n e and

wher e a p p r o p r i a t e , t o r e - e x a mi n e , any w i t n e s s .

(h) The s t a f f member s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o - s e e and t o comment

upon any document s u b mi t t e d t o t h e Committee by way o f

e v i d e n c e and s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d wi t h a copy o f any such

document as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e .

( i ) All o r a l e v i d e n c e s h a l l be r e c o r d e d v e r b a t i m , and a copy

o f t h e r e c o r d s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d t o t h e s t a f f member a t

t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f each d a y ' s h e a r i n g o r so soon t h e r e ­

a f t e r as i s p r a c t i c a b l e . A t r a n s c r i p t a l s o s h a l l be

f u r n i s h e d t o t h e s t a f f member as soon as p o s s i b l e o f such

p a r t s o f t h e e v i d e n c e as he may r e q u e s t .

( j ) All p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Committee s h a l l be h e l d in c a me r a .

(k) No p e r s o n e x c e p t t h e members o f t h e Committee s h a l l be

p r e s e n t d u r i n g i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s a f t e r t he e v i d e n c e has

been p r e s e n t e d .

( l ) The members o f t h e Committee s h a l l t r e a t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s ,

r e p o r t and a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o as c o n f i d e n t i a l .

14. Repor t s o f commi t t ees

( a) The r e p o r t o f a Committee s h a l l be s i g n e d by t h e Chairman o f

t h e Committ ee.

(b) The r e p o r t o f a Committee may i n c l u d e , t o g e t h e r wi t h t he

f i n d i n g s which t h e Committee i s r e q u i r e d by t he f o r e g o i n g r u l e s

t o make, any recommendat i ons which t h e Committee s e e s f i t t o

pr o p o s e .

Council 11 March 1966 December 1976 121

B-8

(c) The Chairman or any member of a Committee who d i s s e n t s from -( i ) a f i nd i ng t h a t t he r e i s str ong ground f o r bel i ev i n g

t h a t the s t a f f member has been g u i l t y of gross

misconduct, or

( i i ) a f i ndi ng t h a t an a l l e g a t i o n in a Formal Complaint

has been proven beyond reasonable doubt, or

( i i i ) a f i ndi ng t h a t a s t a f f member has been g u i l t y of

gross misconduct,

as the case may be, s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to make a s e pa r a t e

r e p o r t s e t t i n g out his views and the reasons t h e r e f o r e , but

save as a f o r e s a i d no r e p o r t o t he r than the r ep o r t o f the

Committee s h al l be made.

(d) The r e p o r t of the Committee s h a l l , to g e th e r with any s e pa r at e

r e p o r t made pur suant to cl a u se (c) h er eof , be s e n t to the Vice­

Chancellor or the Council, as the case may be, and a copy or

copies t h e r e o f s h a l l be d e l i v e r e d to the s t a f f member.

15. Service of n ot i c es

Any document or n o ti c e r equi r ed to be served on o r given to the

s t a f f member may be s e n t by r e g i s t e r e d post addressed to hi s l a s t

known place of abode in Tasmania and shall be deemed to have been served on or given to the s t a f f member on the da t e on which i t

would be d e l i v e r e d in the or di nar y course o f the post.

Counci 1 11 March 1966 122

D e c e m b e r 1976

B - 9

VI - OF PROFESSORS AND LECTURERS

1. Ther e s h a l l be such and so many p r o f e s s o r s and o t h e r members o f

ac ademi c s t a f f f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e , as t h e Council s h a l l from t i me t o

t i me a p p o i n t , and s u b j e c t t o t h i s S t a t u t e a l l a p p o i n t me n t s s h a l l be made

i n such manner and upon such t erms and c o n d i t i o n s as t h e Counci l s h a l l

t h i n k f i t .

2. The Counci l s h a l l d e t e r mi n e t h e t i t l e , t e n u r e , s t i p e n d , t er ms and

d u t i e s o f any p r o f e s s o r o r o t h e r member o f academi c s t a f f a p p o i n t e d under

t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s S t a t u t e .

3. (1) S u b j e c t t o s u b - s e c t i o n s ( 2) and ( 3) o f t h i s S e c t i o n , t h e d a t e

o f r e t i r e m e n t o f any p e r s o n under t h i s S t a t u t e s h a l l be t h e 3 1 s t day o f

December i n t h e y e a r i n which t h a t p e r s o n a t t a i n s t h e age o f s i x t y - f i v e

y e a r s .

( 2) A p e r s o n may r e t i r e on t h e 3 1 s t day o f December i n t h e y e a r

i n which he a t t a i n s t h e age o f f i f t y - f i v e y e a r s o r on any d a t e t h e r e ­

a f t e r p r o v i d e d t h a t he g i v e s a t l e a s t s i x months n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g to

t h e R e g i s t r a r o f h i s i n t e n t i o n so t o do. The V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r may, in

s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a c c e p t a s h o r t e r n o t i c e on b e h a l f o f t h e Co u n c i l .

( 3) The Counci l may, i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n , o f f e r a p r o f e s s o r o r o t h e r

member o f t h e academi c s t a f f an a p p o i n t me n t t o t a k e e f f e c t a f t e r he has

r e a c h e d t h e age o f s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s b u t no such a p p o i n t me n t s h a l l be

c o n t i n u e d beyond t h e 3 1 s t day o f December o f t h e y e a r i n which he a t t a i n s

t h e age o f s e v e n t y y e a r s .

4 . The a p p o i n t me n t o f any p r o f e s s o r o r o t h e r f u l l - t i m e member o f t he

ac ademi c s t a f f s h a l l t e r m i n a t e i f he becomes a member o f P a r l i a m e n t .

T u t o r s

1. Appoi nt me nt as a T u t o r i s on an annual b a s i s f o r f o u r y e a r s . The Head

o f t h e Depar t ment i s as ked i n each y e a r t o make a r ecommendation f o r t h e

r enewal o r o t h e r w i s e o f t h e a p p o i n t me n t . His r ecommendat i on i n t h e f i r s t

i n s t a n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e T u t o r s h i p s Committ ee. I f t he Head of

D e p a r t me n t ' s r ecommendat i on i s a g a i n s t r e n e wa l , t h e s t a f f member has t h e

r i g h t o f a c c e s s t o t h e Committee t o s t a t e h i s c a s e . I f t h e d e c i s i o n o f

t h e Committ ee i s n o t t o renew an a p p o i n t me n t , t h e s t a f f member must be

g i v e n a t l e a s t t h r e e months n o t i c e o f t h e d e c i s i o n n o t to r enew. The

d e c i s i o n o f t h e T u t o r s h i p Committee i s f i n a l .

2 . At t h e end o f t h e f o u r y e a r p e r i o d , t h e Head o f t h e Depar t ment may

recommend in a s p e c i a l c a s e and t h e V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r may a g r e e t h a t t he

a p p o i n t me n t be e x t e n d e d f o r a f i f t h y e a r * . At t h e end o f t h e f o u r o r

f i v e y e a r s as t h e c a s e may be, t h e T u t o r ' s ap p o i n t me n t w i l l t hen

t e r m i n a t e u n l e s s :

( a ) t h e r e i s a v a c a n t S e n i o r T u t o r s h i p i n t h e d e p a r t me n t ,

t o which he i s a p p o i n t e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n wi t h o t h e r

a p p l i c a n t s , o r

( b) he i s r e - a p p o i n t e d , i n c o m p e t i t i o n wi t h o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s ,

t o t h e T u t o r s h i p which he has a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d , i n

a c c o r d a n c e wi t h s u b - s e c t i o n (3) below.

3 . Not l e s s t han t h r e e months b e f o r e t h e c o n c l u s i o n of a T u t o r ' s f o u r or

f i v e y e a r term o f a p p o i n t me n t , as t h e c a s e may be, t he p o s t w i l l

be a d v e r t i s e d . The e x i s t i n g i ncumbent may r e - a p p l y and may be r e ­

a p p o i n t e d , in c o m p e t i t i o n wi t h o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s , i f t h e commi t t ee i s

123

B - 1 0

s a t i s f i e d t h a t i t i s i n t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e d e p a r t me n t t h a t

he be r e - a p p o i n t e d i n p r e f e r e n c e t o new a p p l i c a n t s .

4 . The a p p o i n t me n t o f a T u t o r may be t e r m i n a t e d a t any s t a g e on t h r e e

months w r i t t e n n o t i c e b e i n g g i v e n e i t h e r by t h e T u t o r o r t h e

U n i v e r s i t y . *

* E x t e n s i o n s t o a f i f t h y e a r w i l l n o t a p p l y t o Tu t o r s a p p o i n t e d a f t e r

August 1977. -

124

ANNEX C

UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE

S t a t u t e IV

Chapter IV - Of the Academic S t a f f

S o u r c e s : U n iv er si t y Calendar and Conditions of Employment)

1. For the purposes of t h i s s t a t u t e the academic s t a f f s h a l l c o n s i s t of

such p r o f e s s o r s , r e a d e r s , s e n i o r l e c t u r e r s , l e c t u r e r s , s e n i o r t u t o r s and

Senior demonstrators as a r e wholly engaged in the s e r vi c e of the Uni ve r si t y,

and o f such o t h e r persons as the Council may determine.

2. There sha l l be such p r o f e s s o r s , r e a d e r s , s e n i o r l e c t u r e r s , l e c t u r e r s ,

s e n i o r t u t o r s and s e n i o r demonstrators as the Council may decide.

3. Every member of the academic s t a f f sh al l hold o f f i c e under t he terms

o f t h i s s t a t u t e and upon such terms o f his c o n t r a c t of employment as ar e

not i n c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s s t a t u t e .

4. Any person who i s f o r t he f i r s t time appointed a member of the academic

s t a f f may i f the Council so decides be appointed f o r a l i m i t e d period not

exceeding t h r e e y e a r s . Every such person who i s t h e r e a f t e r r e- appoi nt ed

as a member o f the academic s t a f f and every o t h e r member of the academic

s t a f f s h a l l , s u b j e c t to the pr ovi s i ons of cl ause s 5 and 9 o f t h i s s t a t u t e

hold o f f i c e u n t i l , and no longer t h a n , the 31st day of December o f the

y e a r in which he a t t a i n s the age of 65 y e a r s . A member may r es i g n his

o f f i c e by giving s i x months' n o t i c e in w r i t i n g . Provided always t h a t i f

a f i n a n c i a l emergency s h a l l a r i s e n e c e s s i t a t i n g r etrenchment of s t a f f (of

which t he Council s h a l l be the s o l e judge) the Council may dispense with

the s e r v i c e s of any one or more members of the academic s t a f f by giving to

each of those members s i x months' n o t i c e in w r i t i n g .

5. The Council may termi nat e the appointment o f any member of the academic s t a f f who sha l l have become permanently i n c a p a c i t a t e d from performing the d u t i e s of h i s o f f i c e by reason of physical or mental i l l n e s s . Where a

member of t he academic s t a f f s h al l be from i l l n e s s or any o t h e r cause

t e mp or ar i ly i n c a p a c i t a t e d from performing the d ut i e s of his o f f i c e the

Council may a ppoi nt a s u b s t i t u t e or s u b s t i t u t e s to a c t in his stead during

such i n c a p a c i t y and the member sha l l during such time r e c ei ve such s a l ar y

as the Council s h a l l d i r e c t .

6. No member of the academic s t a f f s h a l l take any o ut s i de employment,

r e g u l a r o r c a s u a l , without the permission of the Council.

7. I f any member of the academic s t a f f sha l l be e l ec t ed or otherwise

become a member o f P ar liament, he sha l l vacate his o f f i c e on the day on

which hi s par ii amentar y s a l a r y commences.

8. The Heads o f Departments s h a l l be r esponsi bl e to the Council f or the

proper f u n ct i oni ng of t h e i r de p a rt me n ts . Other members of the academic s t a f f sha l l work under the general d i r e c t i o n of the Head of t h e i r

department, and s h a l l give such l e c t u r e s , perform such o t h e r teaching

work, conduct such examinations and perform such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e duties as t he Head of t h e i r Department may determine and properly r eq u i r e.

125

C-2

9. Every member o f the academic s t a f f s h a l l d i l i g e n t l y perform the

d ut i e s l a wf ul l y to be r equi r ed of him. Should any member have gr ossl y

o r p e r s i s t e n t l y negl ec t ed hi s d ut i e s o r have been g u i l t y of s e ri ous

misconduct in or about the performance of his d u t i e s or have been

convi cted by any Court of any f elony or misdemeanour in circumstances which a r e such as to show s e r i o u s moral t u r p i t u d e on his p a r t he may

a f t e r such i n q u i r i e s as ar e h e r e i n a f t e r p r es c r i bed be dismissed from

hi s o f f i c e by the Counc i l .

10. Any complaint o f such n e g l e c t or misconduct on the p a r t o f any

member of the academic s t a f f an

make such complaint or r e p o r t , be made to the Vice-Chancel lor. Should the Vice-Chancel lor, a f t e r such c o n s u l t a t i o n s as he deems expedient, decide t h a t any complaint o r r e p o r t should be brought to the a t t e n t i o n

of the Council he s h a l l , a t l e a s t seven days before the meeting of the

Council a t which the complaint or r e p o r t i s f i r s t cons ider ed, send a

copy o f t he complaint or r e p o r t to the member concerned and s h a l l inform

him in w r i t i n g t h a t t h e complaint o r r e p o r t w il l be considered by the

Council on a day s t a t e d .

11. The Council s h a l l i nq ui r e i n t o any complaint or r e p o r t placed before

i t under c l a u s e 10 h er eof . The Council may and s h a l l i f requested by the

member concerned o r by any t h r ee members o f the Council r e f e r t he complaint or r e p o r t to a Commission of Inquiry c o n s i s t i n g of not less than f ive nor

more than seven members. Subj ec t to the pr ovisions o f cl ause 12 her eof,

the Commission s h al l c o n s i s t of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Education Committee and o f such o f the Deans and of such o t he r members o f the academic s t a f f as the Council s h a l l appoi nt. Pending the determina­

t i o n of t he ma t t e r the Council may i f i t thinks i t necessary in the b e s t

i n t e r e s t s of the U ni ver si t y tempor ar ily suspend the member from his o f f i c e wi t hout l oss o f s a l a r y . In a case where the complaint or r epor t

i s not r e f e r r e d to a Commission of I nquiry the Council sh a l l neve r thel e ss

before reaching any decisi on to dismiss the member concerned consider any w r i t t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s submitted by or on beha l f of the member and sha l l

i f the member so r e q u e st s gr ant him an oppor tuni t y to appear before and

address the Council e i t h e r in person or by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .

12. No person who i n i t i a t e s or makes a complaint or r ep o rt to the Vice­

Chancellor sha l l be p r es e nt during any c ons ide r at ion by the Council of

t h a t complaint o r r e p o r t or o f any r e p o r t of the Commission o f Inquiry

thereon. No such person and no person who has been p r es e nt during any

c o n s i de r at i on by the Council of a complaint or r e p o r t s h a l l be a member

of the Commission thereon nor s h al l any member of the Commission of Inquiry be p r es e nt during any co n s i d er at i on by the Council of the r epor t

of the Commission o f Inquiry. Where the Vice-Chancellor himself makes the r ep o r t or complaint he may a t his d i s c r e t i o n be pr ese nt a t Council

meetings r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o o r to any r e p o r t thereon.

13. The Council s h al l make r eg ul a t i o n s governing the conduct of proceedings in any ma tt e r which i t shall r e f e r to any Commission of I nquiry e s t a b l i s h e d

under the pr ovisions o f s e ct i on 11 o f t h i s S t a t u t e .

14. The e x i s t i n g Chapter IV i s hereby repealed.

S t a t u t e allowed 16 December 1965. Amended 28 February 1974.7.

126

C-3

Regulations made by the Council under clause 13 of Chapter IV of the S t a t u t e s of the Universit y

The following r e g u l a t i o n s sh al l apply to the proceedings o f a Commission of Inquiry upon a complaint o r r e p o r t r e l a t i n g to a member of the academic

s t a f f :

1. The Commission s ha l l be e n t i t l e d to be a s s i s t e d by a legal p r a c t i t i o n e r

during i t s formal meetings and may co ns ul t a legal p r a c t i t i o n e r a t any time

on ma tt er s o f law.

2. The member concerned s ha l l be e n t i t l e d to be r epr esented by a legal

p r a c t i t i o n e r o r o t h e r agent. I f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e is p r es e nt a t meetings

of the Commission, he and the member sh al l obey the d i r e c t i o n s of the

Commission as to manner in which they may r e s p e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e in the proceedings. In t hese r e g u l a t i o n s where the c ont ext so per mi ts, the term

member s h a ll include such r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .

3. The member s h a l l be f urnis hed with adequate d e t a i l s in w ri t in g of the

a l l e g a t i o n s made a g a i n s t him and sh al l be af forded adequate time to prepare his answers t h e r e t o .

4. The member s h a l l be given reasonable no ti c e of the time and place

where the Commission w ill i n i t i a l l y meet and i f he does not at t en d e i t h e r

p er s ona ll y o r by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t such meeting or a t any adjournment

t h e r e o f , the Commission may proceed in his absence.

5. The Commission may r e c ei ve evidence in such manner as i t thinks f i t

and e i t h e r o r a l l y or in w r i t i n g , provided t h a t where the evidence is in

w r i t i n g , the member and the Commission s h a ll be e n t i t l e d to have the author produced f o r cross-examination i f p r a c t i c a b l e .

6. The member s ha l l be e n t i t l e d to see a l l documents submitted by way of

evidence and to comment thereon and to submit documents by way of evidence on his own behalf .

7. The member s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to be pr esent throughout the pr es e nt at i on

of the evidence and to cross-examine the witnesses a g a i n s t him. He shall

be e n t i t l e d to ca ll such witnesses whether as to matters of f a c t or good

c h a r a c t e r as he may reasonably r e q u i r e ; to give evidence on his own beh al f;

and to address the Commission a f t e r a l l the evidence has been presented.

8. All oral evidence s ha l l be recorded verbatim and a copy the re of

s uppli ed to the member i f he so r e q u e s t s .

9. No person o t h e r than the members of the Commission sha ll be pr esent

during i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s a f t e r the evidence has been completed except t h a t

the Commission may cons ult a legal p r a c t i t i o n e r on points of law.

10. The r e p o r t of the Commission shall be in w ri t in g and sha ll s e t f orth

the f indings of f a c t made by the Commission and the course of action

recommended by i t , which matters shall be based s o l e l y upon the evidence taken by the Commission in manner a f o r es a id .

1 2 7

C-4

11. Before the r e p o r t i s pr esented to the Council, a copy s h a ll be

furnished to the member, who, wi thi n a reasonable period s p e c i f i e d to him when the copy of the r e p o r t is f ur ni s he d to him, s ha l l be e n t i t l e d to

submit w r i t t e n r ep r es e n t a t i o n s upon the r e p o r t , which r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( i f any) sh al l be placed before the Council a t the same time as the

r e p o r t .

12. Pending the c on si der at i on of the r e p o r t by the Council, the members

of the Commission sh al l t r e a t the r e p o r t and a l l matters r e l a t i n g t he r e t o

or contained t he r e i n as c o n f i d e n t i a l , to the i n t e n t t h a t the Council may

be enabled to take ac tion s o l e l y upon the basis of the material placed

before i t f o r co n si de ra t io n .

T ut or s :

Subject to s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of his teaching du ti e s and in research

a Tutor may hold his post f o r f i ve year s in a l l , but no l onger. His

performance w ill be reviewed a f t e r completion of a t l e a s t two academic terms o f s e r v i c e , and again two years l a t e r . Subject to s a t i s f a c t o r y

r ep o rt s a t each review, a T u t o r ' s appointment will be continued, but will

terminate upon completion of f i ve y e a r s ' s e rv i c e .

128

ANNEX D

AUTHORITY UNDER WHICH FULL-TIME TEACHING STAFF TENURE IS REGULATED

New South Wales

Alexander Mackie CAE

Armidale CAE

Folding College

Ca t ho li c TC

Cumberland CHS

Goulburn CAE

The Guild TC

Hawkesbury Ag. C.

Kuring-gai CAE

The Mil per ra CAE

Mitchell CAE

Newcastle CAE

Northern Rivers CAE

Nursery School TC

Orange Ag. C.

Ri verina CAE

Sydney C. Arts

Sydney KTC

Sydney TC

Wollongong IE

V i c t o r i a

B a l l a r a t CAE

Bendigo CAE

Footscray IT

Gippsland IAE

College By-law, CAE Conditions of Ser vice (NSW) approved by College Council

Conditions of S er vice determined by College Council, with concurrence o f NSWPSB (as pr es c ri b e d in the Colleges of Advanced Education Act, 1975)

College Council - Conditions o f Service

Conditions o f S er vice approved by College Council

Conditions o f S er vice approved by College Council

Conditions of Employment determined under Sect ion 12 of NSW Colleges o f Advanced Education Act

"Tenure" as such does not e x i s t . The College oper ates under

company law - a f t e r one y e a r ' s pr o ba t i on , teaching s t a f f are

regarded as permanent

Conditions o f Service approved by College Council

Conditions of Employment determined under Section 12 of NSW Colleges of Advanced Education Act

Sect ion 12, NSW Colleges o f Advanced Education Act '

Conditions of Service recommended to College by NSWPSB

College By-law under NSW Colleges o f Advanced Education Act, 1975

Conditions o f Employment approved by College Council on advice of NSWPSB

Conditions o f S er vice approved by College Council

NSWPSB

Rule of Council made under provisions by By-law

Conditions of Service approved by College Council

Conditions of Service approved by College Council

Conditions o f Service determined by College Council

At p r es e n t academic tenure e x i s t s only under the NSW Teaching Service Act. The I n s t i t u t e awaits " f u l l " i nc or por at ion f or

employment o f the ma j or i t y as s e r va nt s of the I n s t i t u t e , and,

say 25%, u l t i m a t e l y , on s h o r t c o n t r ac t s

S t a t e Order-in-Council

Conditions o f Service approved by College Council (in accordance with VIC s t a f f i n g c i r c u l a r s ) , but n e g ot i at i on s

with College Council and S t a f f Associati on have r e s u l t e d in more "f avourable" condi tions re t e n u r e .

VIC Terms and Conditions of Employment and agreement between I n s t i t u t e Council and S t a f f Association

VIC Terms and Conditions of Employment of Academic S t a f f

129

0 - 2

L i n c o l n IHS

P r a h r a n CAE

P r e s t o n IT

The V i c t o r i a n C. A r t s

War r nar abool IAE

SCV Bur wood

SCV Cobur g

SCV F r a n k s t o n

SCV Ha wt hor n

SCV-ICE

SCV-IECD

SCV Me l b o u r n e

SCV Rus den

SCV T o o r a k

Q u e e n s l a n d

B r i s b a n e KTC

C a p r i c o r n i a IAE

D a r l i n g Downs IAE

K e l v i n Gr ove CAE

Mount G r a v a t t CAE

No r t h B r i s b a n e CAE

Q u e e n s l a n d Ag. C.

T o wn s v i 11e CAE

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by VIC

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by C o l l e g e C o u n c i l

VIC

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by C o l l e g e Co u n c i l b a s e d on

t e r ms a nd c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by Go v e r n o r i n Co u n c i l

VIC Ac t

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l

SCV t e r ms a nd c o n d i t i o n s - p r o c e d u r e s and c r i t e r i a as

a p p r o v e d by C o l l e g e C o u n c i l

S e n a t e o f SCV

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d by SCV a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d by

t h e P r i n c i p a l on b e h a l f o f C o l l e g e Co u n c i l

SCV Ter ms a n d C o n d i t i o n s o f Empl oyment o f Ac a de mi c S t a f f

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by C o l l e g e C o u n c i l on t h e

a d v i c e o f SCV t h r o u g h O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i 1

SCV Ter ms a n d C o n d i t i o n s o f Empl oyment o f Ac a de mi c S t a f f

SCV Ter ms a n d C o n d i t i o n s o f Empl oyment o f Ac a de mi c S t a f f

O f f e r s a r e made w i t h f u l l t e n u r e o r l i m i t e d t e n u r e a c c o r d i n g

t o t h e t e r ms a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e SCV. D e c i s i o n s w h e t h e r

t e n u r e i s f u l l o r l i m i t e d a r e a p p r o v e d by C o l l e g e Co u n c i l

wo r k i n g t h r o u g h C o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n

C o n d i t i o n s a s a p p r o v e d by Q u e e n s l a n d Boa r d o f Adva nc e d E d u c a t

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e a p p r o v e d by t h e Q u e e n s l a n d BAE

By - l a w 8 o f t h e I n s t i t u t e ( Te r ms o f Empl oyment o f P e r ma n e n t

Ac a de mi c S t a f f a n d Ter ms o f Empl oyment o f L i m i t e d Term

Ac a de mi c S t a f f ) a p p r o v e d by I n s t i t u t e Co u n c i l and t h e

Q u e e n s l a n d BAE

C o n d i t i o n s o f S e r v i c e p r o p o s e d by C o l l e g e Co u n c i l a nd a p p r o v e

by t h e Q u e e n s l a n d BAE

Ter ms o f Empl oyment - P e r ma n e n t Ac a de mi c S t a f f . Appr ove d by

C o l l e g e Co u n c i l

( i ) Ter ms o f e mpl oyme nt a p p r o v e d by t h e Qu e e n s l a n d BAE

( i i ) S t a f f i n g establ ishme nt guidelines published by the

Queensland BAE

( i i i ) College policy c o n s i s t e n t with ( i ) and ( i i )

S tat e Education Act 1964-74

Terms of Employment are promulgated by College Council, based on Conditions of Employment as determined by the Executive Council on the advice of the Queensland BAE

Terms of Employment as approved by College Council with the concurrence of the Queensland BAE

130

South A u s t r a l i a

Martiey

Roseworthy Ag. C.

S a l i s b u r y CAE

S t u r t CAE

Western A u s t r a l i a

Church!ands

Claremont

Mount Lawley

WAIT

Nedlands

Tasmania

Tasmanian CAE

D-3

Conditions o f S er vice approved by College Council and r e g i s t e r e d as an I n d u s t r i a l Agreement, according to the

I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act, 1972, between College Council and Academic S t a f f Associati on

Conditions o f S er vice approved by College Council. Registered i n d u s t r i a l agreement according to I n d u s t r i a l C o n c il i at i o n and

A r b i t r a t i o n Act, 1972, between College Council and Academic S t a f f As s oc i at i on

Conditions o f S er vice - Academic S t a f f - approved by College Council, March 1976

Conditions of S er vice approved by College Council s u b j e c t to pr o v is i on s of t he Colleges o f Advanced Education Act 1972

In the process of being r ede fi ne d

In the process of being r ede f i ne d

In the process of being r edefi ned

Agreement between the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n and the I n s t i t u t e

In the process of being redefined

S t a t u t e . Advanced Education (Academic S t a f f Regulations) 1972

131

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THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING STAFF TURNOVER-RATES ON THE AGE-STRUCTURE OF THE ACADEMIC POPULATION

ANNEX E

In tro d u c tio n

The Department o f Science and Technology subm ission to the in q u iry in to the te n u re o f academ ics emphasised th e im portance o f the

s c i e n t i f i c re se a rc h c a r r ie d o u t by u n iv e r s ity s t a f f and asked th a t th e

Cbmmittee ta k e th is in to account during i t s d e lib e r a tio n s . The

subm ission suggested th a t th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f th e academic p o p u latio n conducting re se a rc h i s im p o rtan t fo r th e q u a lity o f such re se a rc h . In

p a r t i c u l a r , i t su ggested th a t re se a rc h e f f o r t i s enhanced when academic

s t a f f in volved in s c i e n t i f i c re se a rc h a re m ore-or le s s equally

d is t r i b u t e d between d if f e r e n t age groups. In p re se n tin g th is subm ission

to th e Cbmmittee i t was in d ic a te d th a t s t a f f tu rn o v er r a te s which a re too

Ι ι ί φ a re as lik e ly to d i s t o r t th e a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f th e academic

p o p u la tio n as a re r a t e s which a re too low.

This paper has been prep ared in response to a re q u e st from th e

Chairman o f the Cbmmittee (S e n ato r Teague) who asked th a t 'f o u r or fiv e m odels' be drawn up to i l l u s t r a t e the e f f e c ts o f varying turn o v er r a te s

on th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f academic s t a f f .

The paper th u s d e s c rib e s a s e r i e s o f num erical models which dem onstrate th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f academic s t a f f r e s u ltin g from s p e c if ie d tu r n o v e r - r a te s , under c e r ta in e x p l i c i t c o n d itio n s . The models

a re p u re ly d e s c r ip tiv e ; given th e s im p lis ti c assum ptions which underly them, th ey cannot be taken as p r e d ic tio n s or p ro je c tio n s o f what might

happen" R a th e r, they a re in te n d ed to i l l u s t r a t e , in a f a i r l y rig o ro u s

form, some problems in volved in determ ining 'o p tim a l' s t a f f turn o v er r a t e s .

The Im portance o f A q e-O lstrlb u tlo n

A b a s ic argument u n d erly in g th e D epartm ent's subm ission, and hence th e se m odels, i s th a t vigorous and prod u ctiv e s c i e n t i f i c research

i s most lik e ly in an environm ent in which growth and v i t a l i t y in te r a c t

w ith ex p e rie n c e ; such I n te r a c tio n i s f a c i l i t a t e d when academic s t a f f a re

evenly d is t r ib u t e d among d i f f e r e n t age-groups. Also im portant is th a t,

given a c o n s ta n t t o t a l p o p u la tio n , a co n tin u in g flow o f employment o p p o r tu n itie s fo r th o se newly e n te rin g th e academic system cannot be m aintained w ith a g ro ssly d is p ro p o rtio n a te d is t r ib u t io n o f age groups.

Some Assumptions

These models a l l ta k e as th e ir s ta r t in g p o in t the

a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f a l l f u l l tim e u n iv e rs ity te ac h in g -a n d -re sea rc h s t a f f

(from P ro fe s s o rs to L ectu rer grades) fo r 1979. This is for convenience

only. The main concern o f the Department of Science and Technology r e l a t e s to th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f tho se s t a f f involved in s c i e n t i f i c

re se a rc h . A f u rth e r assum ption ( fo r purposes o f i l l u s t r a t i o n ) is th a t

t h i s p o p u la tio n w ill remain c o n s ta n t, w ith r e c r u it s being equal in numoer

to tho se l o s t through re s ig n a tio n and re tire m e n t. Academic s t a f f in a l l

u n iv e r s i tie s are tr e a te d as a s in g le p o p u la tio n ; ana no account is taxen

o f d if fe r e n c e s between v a rio u s f ie l d s .

133

E-2

Model 1 uses a v a r ia b le r e tir e m e n t- r a te r e la te d to th e

a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f th e p o p u la tio n . Model 2 uses a c o n sta n t re tire m e n t

r a t e . Subsequent models have a l l o f th e o ld e s t age-group r e t i r i n g w ithin

each fiv e year p e rio d b u t, in a d d itio n , assume one or more uniform r a te s

o f r e tire m e n t/re s ig n a tio n , th e se r a te s being independent o f

a g e - s tr u c tu r e . I t i s n o t r e a l i s t i c to suppose th a t a uniform r a te o f

r e tire m e n t/re s ig n a tio n can be imposed and i t i s c e r ta in ly not intended to

sugg est th a t th is should be a tte m p te d . ' ' ' ......... ..

Those models which ta k e in to account r e s ig n a tio n s assume th a t they ta k e p la ce from a l l age-groups a t a uniform r a te . This i s a

s im p lif ic a tio n .made fo r purposes o f i l l u s t r a t i o n . The a c tu a l p a tte r n of

r e s ig n a tio n s w ill vary c o n s id e ra b ly , depending on economic and o th e r circu m stan ces. A stro n g demand from in d u stry or commerce for h ig h ly - tr a in e d p ersonnel mi g i t r e s u l t in a h ig h er p ro p o rtio n o f

r e s ig n a tio n s from younger age groups, as th e se s t a f f move to more lu c r a tiv e p o s itio n s . In th e absence o f such employment o p p o rtu n itie s tu rn o v er w ill be a r e s u l t mainly o f re tire m e n t from o ld e r age groups.

In th e sc ie n c e s a t l e a s t , re c ru itm e n t in to tenured academic

p o s itio n s i s preceded norm ally by se v e ra l y ears p o s t-d o c to ra l re se a rc h . For th e purpose o f th e se models i t i s assumed th a t re c ru itm e n t i s in to

th e th re e youngest age groups, w ith f o rty p erc en t o f r e c r u it s being aged

25-29; fo rty e ig h t p e rc e n t 30-34; and tw elve p e rc e n t being 35-39.

(These fig u re s a re e s tim a te s only and a re not based on e x p l i c i t d a t a ) .

The models have been developed to dem onstrate in a r a th e r s ta rk way th e com plexity o f th e s it u a ti o n , and to in d ic a te p o ssib le

consequences o f adopting mechanisms to encourage the turnover o f s t a f f . I t should be c le a r th a t many o f th e assum ptions made, p a r ti c u la r l y th a t

o f zero growth, would p rese n t problems i f a p p lie d in th e r e a l world and

a re u n lik e ly to be met.

D iscussion and Cbnclusions

D e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n s o f fiv e models, to g e th e r w ith ta b le s

showing th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n o f th e academic pop u latio n r e s u ltin g from t h e ir a p p lic a tio n , a re given in th e attachm ent to th is paper. Here i t i s

proposed to h ig h lig h t some o f the main co n clu sio n s. I t must be

emphasised again th a t th e se co n c lu sio n s a re v a lid only in the con tex t o f

th e r a th e r s im p lis tic assum ptions alre ad y d escrib ed . N ev erth eless, they should provide guidance in g en e ral terms as to p o s s ib le outcomes o f v ario u s p o lic y o p tio n s .

The a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f th e p re se n t academic population could lead to h ig h ly v a r ia b le re tire m e n t r a te s over the next 30 or so y e a rs. In a

no-growth s it u a ti o n w ith no r e s ig n a tio n s , th is age d is tr ib u tio n would tend to cy c le i t s e l f (Model 1 ).

In c o n tr a s t, as shown by Model 2, a c o n sta n t r a te o f re tire m e n t

w ith no r e s ig n a tio n s would in e v ita b ly le ad to a s ta b le a g e -s tru c tu re

( i . e . one which changes l i t t l e over tim e) in which, making necessary

allow ances for th e age a t which new r e c r u it s e n te r the system , there

would be an equal number o f s t a f f in a l l age groups. The h ig h er the

re tire m e n t r a te used, the more quick ly i s a s ta b le s itu a tio n reached.

However, th e h ig h er the re tire m e n t r a te the g re a te r is th e r e s u ltin g b ia s

towards the younger groups in th e s ta b le a g e - d is tr ib u tio n . For example, with a re tire m e n t r a te o f 6% p .a . th e re would be very soon no s t a f f

member over 49 y ea rs o ld . With no re s ig n a tio n s a re tire m e n t r a te o f

134

E-3

2.7% p .a . would le a d to a s t a b l e a g e - s tr u c tu r e by 2014, b u t even t h i s

would n e c e s s i t a t e r e tire m e n t o f a l l p erso n n e l ov er 55 and th e re tire m e n t

o f some o f th e 50-54 age group u n t i l a t l e a s t 1990. I t i s c l e a r ly

d i f f i c u l t to a c h ie v e even t h i s re tire m e n t r a t e in th e n ear f u tu r e . ·*

O bviously, c o n s ta n t r e tir e m e n t r a t e s would be very d i f f i c u l t to e n fo rc e

and, (as shown by th e 6% p . a . r a t e above) do n o t c o n s titu t e a v ia b le

p o lic y o p tio n . -A high p ro p o rtio n o f younger age groups i s no more to be

p r e f e r re d th an a h igh p ro p o rtio n o f th e o ld e r age groups.

Models based on r e tire m e n t w ith no r e s ig n a tio n a r e c l e a r ly

u n r e a l i s t i c . Model 3 shows th e r e s u l t o f combining a uniform r e s ig n a tio n

r a t e w ith r e tire m e n t o f th e o ld e s t age group. I t d em onstrates two

im p o rta n t p o in ts . F i r s t i s t h a t h ig h e r tu r n o v e r - r a te s r e s u l t in th e age

d i s t r i b u t i o n becoming skewed tow ards th e younger groups. I t can be

q u e s tio n e d w hether t h i s i s b e n e f i c i a l . Second i s th a t th e h ig h e r th e

r e s ig n a tio n r a t e th e more n e a r ly i s a s ta b le s i t u a t i o n rea ch ed . This i s

because th e v a r ia tio n in y e a r to y ea r tu rn o v e r i s d ecreased w ith h ig h e r

r e s ig n a tio n r a t e s as th e v a r ia b le number r e t i r i n g each y ear becomes

p r o p o rtio n a te ly l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . The more n e a rly a c o n s ta n t tu rn o v e r

r a t e i s re a c h e d , th e more does th e model ten d to Model 2 c o n d itio n s . A

p o lic y o f encouraging h ig h r e s ig n a tio n r a t e s , however, co u ld be d i f f i c u l t

to m a in ta in or e n fo rc e .

Model 4 shows th e e f f e c t s o f encouraging e a r ly r e tir e m e n t. The

im pact o f t h i s measure depends on th e d if fe r e n c e between th e p ro p o rtio n

e x p e c te d .to r e s ig n anyway and th e a d d itio n a l number who might e l e c t to r e t i r e e a r ly . E arly r e tir e m e n t te n d s to in c re a s e s l i g h t l y the p ro p o rtio n

o f younger in d iv id u a ls in th e p o p u la tio n . Given th e p re s e n t age

s t r u c t u r e t h i s e f f e c t would be g r e a te s t over th e n e x t 20 y e a rs as those

groups which now c o n ta in a d is p r o p o r tio n a te ly la r g e sh a re o f th e t o t a l

p o p u la tio n g ra d u a lly move in to th e p e n u ltim a te age group from which e a r ly r e tir e m e n t can ta k e p la c e .

The impact of a sudden change from a high resignation rate to a low one is demonstrated by Model 5. The detailed impact depends on the age structure of the population at the time the decrease takes place, and on the variation in recruitment pattern imposed by the number of people

coming up to retirement age. Perhaps the most important effect is that the sudden imposition of a lower resignation rate w ill lead to an aging of the population as the proportion of new recruits becomes a smaller proportion of the to ta l population. This then leads to a very uneven age distribution.

I t may be worth noting that the present distortions in the ace-structure of the academic population are similar to those that resu lt from a sudden decrease in resignation rate as shown by Model 5. In fact, of course, this was not the cause of the present age-structure. This

resulted not from a change (crop) in resignation rate but from a change (drop) in the growth race of the academic population. A decreased growth rate acts to reduce the number of new recruits so that the proportion of young s ta f f is reduced.

These models are too simple to adequately describe the real world situation because for excnmplc they are based on zero growth and uniform retirement. Dispite th is, they servo to show the complexities that can resu lt even in very simpl-fie-d systems. They demonstrate, for

example, not only th at hic-i turnover rates would be d iffic u lt to acniove, but also boat, i f they were achieved, they might lead to distortions in the population age-structure as serious in their own way as those which exist already.

The most r e a l i s t i c models a re perhaps 3 and 4 which assume a

c o n s ta n t r e s ig n a tio n r a t e in a d d itio n to th e re tire m e n t o f th e o ld e s t age

group. An assumed r e s ig n a tio n r e a te o f 1% very q u ic k ly le a d s to a

d is p r o p o r tio n a te re p r e s e n ta tio n o f younger groups. In f a c t even a 3%

r e s ig n a tio n r a te le a d s to r e l a t i v e l y hicft re p r e s e n ta tio n o f younger

groups as compared to th e uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n re p re se n te d py Model 2. * i obvious co n c lu sio n i s th a t any move to change s t a f f tu rn o v er r a te s

should proceed w ith c a u tio n and th a t even m oderately hig h r a t e s may produce u n intended r e s u l t s .

E-4

136

ATTACHMENT

E-5'

Model 1

T his model dem onstrates th e impact o f a g e - s tr u c tu r e on th e flow o f employment o p p o r tu n itie s . I t i s assumed th a t th e t o t a l pop u latio n

rem ains c o n s ta n t, th e r e a re no r e s ig n a tio n s , and th e only lo s s from th e

p o p u la tio n i s due to re tire m e n t o f th e 60-64 year o ld age group.

Given th e se assum ptions, and s t a r t i n g w ith th e 1979 a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f the academic p o p u la tio n , the follow ing number o f vacancies occur in each fiv e y ear perio d :

1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99 2000-04 2005-09 2010-14 2015-19

250 640 990 1240 1510 1830 1370 310

Lhder th e se c o n d itio n s f i l l i n g a l l vacancies as they became

a v a ila b le would m aintain and c y c le th e p re se n t d is to r te d

a g e - d is tr ib u tio n . I f a l l r e c r u i t s went in to the youngest age group, the

s it u a ti o n in 2019 would be e x a c tly as in 1979. The wide v a r ia tio n s in

employment o p p o r tu n itie s between each fiv e year p e rio d would produce d i s t o r ti o n s such t h a t, in p e rio d s o f h ig i employment o p p o rtu n ity , a

s u f f i c i e n t number o f r e a lly h ig h - c a lib r e people might n o t be a v a ila b le ;

y e t in p e rio d s o f few academic vacancies h ig h -q u a lity rese arch ta le n t

would be l o s t from th e u n iv e rs ity system . With th is model the vacancies

a v a ila b le over th e p erio d 1980-84 re p re s e n t only 14% o f tho se a v a ila o le during 2005-09.

137

E-6

Model 2 assumes a c o n s ta n t r a t e o f re tire m e n t (and th e re fo re a

c o n s ta n t r a t e o f r e c ru itm e n t) . R etirem ent is from th e o ld e s t age groups

and tho se who r e t i r e a re re p la c e d by re c ru itm e n t in to th e th re e youngest

age g ro u p s.

Model 2A Uses a re tire m e n t r a t e o f 2.7% p .a . w ith 1 118 re tire m e n ts each

fiv e year p e rio d . R esignations and o th e r lo s s e s a re assumed n o t to o cc u r.

Model 2

m u 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2 0 0 9 2014 2019 2024

AGE 25-29 310 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447

30-34 1370 847 984 984 984 984 984 984 984 984

35-39 1830 1504 981 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 8 1118 1118 1 118 111 8 1118

40-44 1510 1830 1504 981 1118 1118 111 8 111 8 1118 1118

45-49 1240 1510 1830 1504 981 1118 1118 111 8 1118 1118

50-54 990 1240 1510 1830 1504 981 1118 111 8 1118 1118

55-59 640 762 884 1276 1830 1504 981 1118 1118 1118

60-64 250 0 0 0 157 869 1255 1118 1118 111 8

Model 2B Uses ai re tire m e n t r a t e o f 6% p .a . ( i .e . 2 442 re tire m e n ts fo r

each fiv e year p e r io d ) .

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 ,2 0 0 9 2014 2 0 1 9 ;2024

AGE 25-29 310 977 977 977 977 977 977 977 977 977

30-34 1370 1482 2149 2149 .2149 2149 2149 2149 ;2149 2149

35-39 1830 1663 1775 2442 ;2442 ;2442 2442 ;2442 2442 2442

40-44 1510 1830 1663 1775 ;2442 ;2442 2442 ,2442 2442 2442

45-49 1240 1510 1576 797 130 130 130 130 130 130

50-54 990 678 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

55-59 640 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

60-64 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Model 2A dem onstrates t h a t , w ith in th e c o n s tr a in ts adopted, a c o n s ta n t re tire m e n t r a t e o f 2.7% per year w ill r e s u l t in a s ta b le

a g e - s tr u c tu r e developing by th e year 2014. From th a t d a te the

maintenance o f a c o n s ta n t re tire m e n t r a t e would p re se n t no d i f f i c u l t i e s :

th e number due to r e t i r e would equal th e number reaching th e 65 year old

age l i m it. However, th is ta b le a lso dem onstrates th a t, u n t i l a t le a s t

1990, some re tire m e n ts from th e 50-54 age group would be re q u ire d to g e th e r w ith the re tire m e n t o f a l l personnel o f 55 years and over, to

m aintain a 2.7% per year re tire m e n t r a te .

I t should be noted th a t the s ta b le a g e - s tr u c tu r e which develops

i s a necessary consequence o f a c o n sta n t number o f new r e c r u it s being added to each o f th e th re e youngest age groups during each fiv e year

p e rio d . As th e se groups age and move through the system i t i s c le a r

t h a t , assuming th e re a re no g ain s or lo s s e s , a l l l a t e r groups w ill

e v e n tu a lly c o n ta in e x a c tly th e same number o f in d iv id u a ls as the th ir d

youngest group. A 2.1% p .a . re tire m e n t r a te is the one wnich, with the

assum ptions rode concerning th e d is t r ib u t io n o f new r e c r u it s , leaos to a

s ta b le a g e - d is tr ib u tio n in which a l l e ig h t a g e -c la sse s a re m aintained.

Model 2B show th a t a 6% per year re tire m e n t r a te w ill proouce a

s ta b le a g e - d is tr ib u tio n by 1999. However, even when a s ta b le age d is t r ib u t io n i s reached, such a re tire m e n t r a te can be m aintained only i f

138

E-7

95% o f s t a f f in th e 40-45 y ea r age-group r e t i r e w ith in each fiv e year

p e rio d . The s ta b le a g e - d is tr ib u tio n reached i s stro n g ly b ia se d towards

the younger age groups and no s t a f f member i s over 49 y ears o ld . This is

obv io u sly an u n ten ab le s it u a t i o n .

I t i s c le a r th a t in th e absence o f r e s ig n a tio n s a tu rn o v e r-ra te

as low a s 2.7% p .a . would produce a s ta b le a g e - d is tr ib u tio n b u t th a t,

given th e p re s e n t a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f th e p o p u la tio n , i t i s u n lik e ly th a t

such a tu r n o v e r - ra te can be m aintained in th e absence o f r e s ig n a tio n s .

139

E - 8

Model 3 assumes th a t a l l o f th e o ld e s t age group w ill r e t i r e

w ith in any f iv e y ear p e rio d b u t t h a t, in a d d itio n , th e re is a known fix ed

r a t e o f r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t and th a t th is r a t e is th e same for a l l age

groups. A ll tho se who le a v e a re re p la c e d by rec ru itm en t in to the th re e

youngest age groups.

Model 3A Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t r a te o f IX p .a .

Model 3

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE GP 25-29 310 2 5 8 394 502 567 6 3 0 701 5 6 8 3 6 6 408

30-34 1370 604 7 1 8 977 1157 1295 1440 1348 979 837

35-39 1 8 3 0 1379 6 9 2 832 1 0 9 8 1289 1440 1538 1390 1053

40-44 1 5 1 0 1739 1310 657 791 1043 1224 1 3 6 8 1461 1321

45-49 1240 1435 1 6 5 2 1244 624 751 991 1163 1 3 0 0 1 3 8 8

50-54 990 1178 1363 1569 1 1 8 2 593 714 942 1105 1235

55-59 640 941 1119 1295 1491 1123 563 6 7 8 894 1 0 5 0

60-64 250 6 0 8 893 1063 1 2 3 0 1416 1067 535 644 8 5 0

Model 38 YEAR Uses a 1979

r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t

1984 1989 1994 1999

r a te o f 3% p .a .

2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE GP 25-29 310 573 673 732 747 756 764 6 9 0 641 6 8 8

30-34 1370 952 1295 1450 1519 1543 1560 1478 1356 1370

35-39 1 8 3 0 1337 1011 1321 1457 1518 1541 1533 1448 1359

40-44 1510 1556 1 1 3 6 859 1 1 2 2 1238 1290 1 3 1 0 1303 1231

45-49 1240 1284 1322 966 730 954 1053 1097 1113 1108

50-54 990 1054 1091 1124 821 621 811 895 932 946

55-59 640 842 896 927 955 698 528 689 761 792

60-64 250 544 715 762 788 8 1 2 593 449 586 646

Model 3C Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t r a te o f 7% p .a .

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE GP 25-29 3 1 0 1205 1248 1248 1228 1210 1195 1177 1183 1196

30-34 1370 1647 2280 2309 2285 2250 2220 2189 2185 2204

35-39 1830 1252 1445 1857 1869 1848 1821 1796 1778 1779

40-44 1510 1190 814 939 1207 1215 1201 1184 1168 1156

45-49 1240 982 773 529 6 1 0 784 790 781 769 759

50-54 990 806 638 503 344 397 510 513 508 500

55-59 640 644 524 415 327 223 258 331 334 330

60-64 250 416 418 341 270 212 145 168 215 217

The most im portant re s p e c t in which Model 3 d if f e r s from Model 2 i s th a t th e number o f r e tire m e n ts /r e s ig n a tio n s v a rie s from one fiv e year

period to th e n e x t. A c o n s ta n t turn o v er r a te is assumed fo r a l l the

younger age groups, b u t th e number o f people r e t i r i n g because they f a l l

in to the o ld e s t age group v a rie s as a r e s u lt o f the p rese n t d is to r te d

a g e - s tr u c tu r e (see Model 1). As a r e s u l t , a s ta o le s te a d y - s ta te is not

produced. However, a comparison o f Model 3A w ith Model 3C dem onstrates th a t th e higner th e p o s tu la te d re s ig n a tio n /re tire m e n t r a te , the more

n e a rly a s te a d y - s ta te i s reached. This is simply because the d is to r tio n

produced by v a r ia tio n s o f number in the o ld e s t age groups becomes p ro p o rtio n a te ly le s s s ig n i f ic a n t the g re a te r the t o t a l humcer o f

re s ig n a tio n s /re tir e m e n ts involved.

140

E - 9

Another p o in t to n o te in comparing Models 3A and 3C i s th a t th e

h ic jie r tu r n o v e r - r a te s skew th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n towards the younger age

groups. Hicfier tu r n o v e r - ra te s correspond to h ig h er re c ru itm e n t r a te s and

i t i s a n a tu r a l consequence o f assuming a l l re c ru itm e n t tak es p la ce in to

th e th r e e youngest age groups th a t th e se w ill show a p ro p o rtio n a te

in c re a s e .

141

E - 1 0

Model 4 follow s Model 3 in th a t i t assumes a l l o f th e o ld e s t age

group w ill r e t i r e w ith in any f iv e y ear p e rio d . I t d i f f e r s from Model 3

in th a t i t a ls o assumes th a t 8% o f people in th e 55-59 age group w ill

r e t i r e each year ( i . e . th a t 40% o f people in th is age group w ill have

r e t i r e d py th e end o f any fiv e y ear p e r io d ) . O therw ise, i t uses a fix ed

r e s ig n a tio n /r e tir e m e n t r a t e c o n s ta n t fo r a l l age groups except th e two

o ld e s t.

Model 4

Model 4A Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /r e tir e m e n t r a te o f 1% p .a . fo r a l l groups

ex cep t th e 55-59 age group wljich has an 8% p .a . r a t e , and th e o ld e s t

group, a l l o f which r e t i r e w ith in any 5 year p e rio d .

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE 25-29 310 347 440 534 599 667 663 516 424 479

30-34 1370 711 858 1059 1226 1369 1429 1249 999 978

33-39 1830 1406 808 976 1186 1363 1500 1512 1314 1093

40-44 1510 1739 1335 768 927 1127 1297 1425 1437 1248

45-49 1240 1435 1652 1269 729 881 1070 1232 1353 1365

50-54 990 1178 1363 1569 1205 693 837 1017 1170 1286

55-59 640 941 1119 1295 1491 1145 658 795 966 1112

60-64 250 384 564 671 777 894 687 395 477 580

Model 48 Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t r a t e o f 3% p .a . (p lu s a l l o f

o ld e s t age group and 8% p .a . o f 55-59 age group).

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE 25-29 310 637 703 750 764 773 754 689 677 716

30-34 1370 1028 1386 1497 1554 1577 1562 1468 1399 1435

35-39 1830 1356 1085 1403 1502 1533 1567 1535 1451 1404

40-44 1510 1556 1152 922 1192 1277 1320 1332 1304 1233

45-49 1240 1284 1322 980 784 1013 1085 1 122 1132 1 109

50-54 990 1054 1091 1124 833 666 861 922 954 962

55-59 640 842 896 927 955 708 566 732 784 811

60-64 250 384 505 338 536 573 425 340 439 470

Model 4C Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /r e tir e m e n t r a te o f 7% p .a . (p lu s a l l o f

o ld e s t age group and 8% p .a . o f 55-59 age group).

YEAR AGE

1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

25-29 310 1217 1232 1250 1230 1211 1193 1 180 1187 1198

30-34 1370 1662 2294 2315 2288 2252 2221 2192 2191 2209

35-39 1830 1256 1456 1866 1873 1851 1822 1798 1781 1734

40-44 1510 1190 816 947 1213 1218 1203 1185 1 168 1158

45-49 1240 982 773 531 615 789 791 782 770 760

50-54 990 806 638 503 345 400 513 514 508 500

55-59 640 644 324 413 327 224 260 333 334 330

60-64 230 384 386 314 249 196 134 156 200 201

The additional retirement rate from the second oldest age group serves to increase the nuiroer of recruits as compared to Model 3 and therefore to restructure the age distribution in favour of the younger groups. The extent to which this happens is proportional to the

142

E-ll

d if fe r e n c e between the age-in d ep en cen t r e s ig n a tio n r a t e and th e 8% p .a . re tire m e n t r a te assumed fo r th e 55-59 year group. Model 40, fo r example,

g iv e s r e s u l t s alm ost id e n tic a l to tho se o f Model 3C. This i s because the

only d if fe r e n c e is an e x tra 1% p .a . re tire m e n t r a t e fo r th e 55-59 year

o ld group in Model 4C.

The e f f e c t o f in c re a se d re tire m e n t from th e 55-59 year old age

group i s g r e a te s t when th e r e s ig n a tio n r a te from o th e r age groups is

low. I t should be n o te d , however, th a t th e number o f people in th is age

group w i l l vary as a r e s u l t o f the p re se n t d is t o r te d age s tr u c t u r e , so

th a t th e p ro p o rtio n o f new r e c r u i t s r e s u ltin g from a d d itio n a l re tire m e n t

from th e p en u ltim a te age group v a r ie s widely from one fiv e year p erio d to

th e n e x t. In the sim ple s it u a ti o n where th e re a re no re s ig n a tio n s , th e

nunber o f re tire m e n ts from t h i s cause over each o f th e next fiv e year

p e rio d s would be 256, 396, 496 and 604.

Comparison o f Model 3A (which assumes an age independent r e s ig n a tio n r a t e o f 1% p . a . ) w ith Model 4A (which assumes the same r e s ig n a tio n r a t e b u t uses a f ig u re o f 896 p .a . fo r th e p en u ltim a te age

group) se rv e s to dem onstrate th e e f f e c t o f in c re a se d e a rly re tire m e n t

when th e tu rn o v er r a t e due to re s ig n a tio n s i s low. The follow ing ta b le

compares th e p ro p o rtio n o f th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n below 40 y ea rs o ld in

each c a se .

1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

Model 3A 43 28 22 28 35 39 44 43 34 28

Model 4A 43 30 26 32 37 42 44 40 34 31

C le a rly , w hile th e enhanced re tire m e n t r a te tends to in c re a se

s l i g h t l y th e p ro p o rtio n o f younger in d iv id u a ls in th e p o p u la tio n , th e

g r e a te s t e f f e c t would be over th e n ex t 20 y ears as tho se groups which now

c o n ta in a d is p r o p o rtio n a te ly la rg e sh a re o f th e t o t a l popu latio n

g ra d u a lly move in to th e p en u ltim a te age group. The e f f e c t is n o t as

la rg e as m ig it be a t f i r s t im agined, in p a r t because, w ith 8% o f th e

p en u ltim a te age-group r e t i r i n g in any one year th e re a re fewer people

bound to r e t i r e because they a r e in th e o ld e s t age group.

143

Model 5

E-12

Model 5 i s an ex ten sio n o f (Model 3. A ll o f th e o ld e s t age group

r e t i r e w ith in any fiv e year p e rio d and th e re i s , in a d d itio n , re s ig n a tio n

th a t o ccurs a t th e same r a te fo r a l l groups. The model d i f f e r s from

Model 3 in th a t i t dem onstrates th e r e s u l t o f a change from a h ig h er to a

lower r a t e o f re s ig n a tio n during th e p erio d being co n sid ered . This i s to

i l l u s t r a t e problems which might a r i s e i f a p o lic y o f encouraging high

r e s ig n a tio n r a te s was implemented, b u t n o t m a in ta in ed .

Model 5A Uses a r e s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t r a t e o f 3% p .a . A fter 1994 the

r e s ig n a tio n r a t e f a l l s to IX p .a .

YEAR

AGE BP

1979 1984 1989·· 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

23-29 310 573 673 732 452 498 548 477 429 551

30-34 1370 952 1295 1450 1238 1027 1131 1094 968 1069

35-39 1830 1337 1011 1321 1513 1325 1 140 1217 1168 1085

40-44 1510 1556 1136 859 1255 1438 1259 1083 1136 1 109

43-49 1240 1284 1322 966 816 1192 1366 1196 1029 1099

50-54 990 1054 1091 1124 917 775 1132 1298 1 136 977

55-59 640 842 896 927 1068 871 737 1076 1233 1079

60-64 250 344 713 762 881 1014 828 700 1022 1171

If after 1994 the resignation rate falls to 2X p.a. the following results a re o b ta in ed ;

YEAH AGE GP 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

25-29 3 1 0 573 673 732 600 626 653 579 529 606

30-39 1370 952 1295 1450 1378 1291 1347 1283 1155 1203

35-39 1830 1337 1011 1321 1485 1428 1358 1386 1313 1222

40-44 1510 1556 1136 859 1189 1337 1285 1222 1248 1 1 8 2

45-49 1240 1284 1322 966 773 1070 1203 1157 1100 1123

50-54 990 1054 1091 1124 869 696 963 1083 1041 990

55-59 640 842 896 927 1011 782 626 866 974 937

60-64 250 544 715 762 835 9 1 0 704 564 780 877

Model 58 Uses a re s ig n a tio n /re tir e m e n t r a te o f 7% p .a . A fter 1994 the

re s ig n a tio n r a t e f a l l s to IX p .a .

YEAR 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024

AGE GP 25-29 310 1205 1248 1248 292 313 335 335 453 709

30-34 1370 1647 2280 2309 1537 653 699 721 863 1281

35-39 1830 1252 1445 1857 2281 1553 721 765 821 1032

40-44 1510 1190 814 939 1764 2167 1476 684 726 780

45-49 1240 982 773 529 892 1676 2059 1402 650 690

50-54 990 806 638 503 502 848 1592 1956 1332 618

55-59 640 644 524 415 477 477 805 1512 1858 1265

60-64 250 416 418 341 394 454 453 765 1437 1765

I f t h e r e s i g n a t i o n r a t e

a r e o b t a in e d ;

f a l l s to 2X p . a . a f t e r 1994 th e f o llo w i n g r e s u l t s

YEAR AGE GP 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 4 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 9 2 0 2 4

2 5 - 2 9 3 1 0 1 2 0 5 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 4 4 8 4 6 0 4 7 2 4 6 4 5 4 7 7 2 0

3 0 - 3 4 1 3 7 0 1 6 4 7 2 2 8 0 2 3 0 9 1 6 6 1 9 5 5 9 8 1 9 8 2 1 0 7 5 1 3 5 7

3 5 - 3 9 1 3 3 0 1 2 5 2 1 4 4 5 1 8 5 7 2 2 1 3 1 6 3 3 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 4 8 1 1 8 3 4 0 - 4 4 1 5 1 0 1 1 9 0 8 1 4 9 3 9 1 6 7 1 19 9 1 1 4 7 0 9 0 1 9 2 0 9 4 3 4 5 - 4 9 1 2 4 0 9 8 2 7 7 3 5 2 9 8 4 5 1 5 0 4 1 7 9 2 1 3 2 3 81 1 8 2 8 5 0 - 5 4 9 9 0 8 0 6 6 3 8 5 0 3 4 7 6 761 1 3 5 4 1 6 1 3 1 1 9 1 7 3 0 5 5 - 5 9 6 4 0 6 4 4 5 2 4 4 1 5 4 5 2 4 2 8 6 8 5 1 2 1 3 1 4 5 2 1 0 7 2 6 0 - 6 4 2 5 0 4 1 6 4 1 8 3 4 1 3 7 3 4 0 7 3 8 6 6 1 6 1 0 9 6 1 3 0 7 1 4 4

E-13

In c o n sid erin g th e s e models i t should be noted th a t th e changes

up to and in c lu d in g the year 1994 a re e x a c tly as in runs o f Model 3 using

th e same re s ig n a tio n r a t e . However, by 1994 an age s tr u c tu r e has

developed which i s very d if f e r e n t from th a t o f 1979, and the changed

r e s ig n a tio n r a te s o p e ra te on th e new age s tr u c t u r e . The follow ing ta P le

w ill make th is c l e a r .

Year P ro p o rtio n o f P ro p o rtio n of

p o p u la tio n under 40 p o p u latio n over 50

1979 43 23

1994 (assuming r e s ig n a tio n 43 35

r a t e o f 3%)

1994 (assum ing r e s ig n a tio n 67 15

r a t e o f 7%)

A sudden drop in r e s ig n a tio n r a t e le a d s to a r e d is t r i b u tio n o f

age s tr u c t u r e . For exam ple, i f in 1994 th e re s ig n a tio n r a t e were to f a l l

s ix p ercentage p o in ts from 7% to only 1% ana were to remain a t IX, by th e

y ear 2024 the p ro p o rtio n o f th e p o p u la tio n below 40 years o ld would f a l l

from 67% to 40% (Model 5 8 ). Had th e r e s ig n a tio n r a te remained a t 7%, then 64% o f the p o p u la tio n would have been below 40 in 2024 (Model 30). T his d iffe re n c e i s a sim ple r e f le c tio n o f th e f a c t th a t th e number o f new

r e c r u i t s has suddenly become a sm a lle r p ro p o rtio n o f the t o t a l

p o p u la tio n . The aging o f th e p o p u la tio n is g r e a te r th e la rg e r th e drop

in re s ig n a tio n r a t e , as dem onstrated by comparing Models 5A and 58. Were th e r e s ig n a tio n r a t e to f a l l two p ercentage p o in ts in 1994 from 3% to 1%,

the p ro p o rtio n o f th e p o p u la tio n below 40 y ears o ld would change from 43% to 33% by 2024. (Model 5A). Had th e re s ig n a tio n r a te changed from 3% to

2% th e change would be s m a lle r, from 43% to 37% (Model 5A). w ith a f a l l in r e s ig n a tio n r a t e th e p ro p o rtio n o f th e p o p u la tio n under 40 in 2024

would be 41% (Model 38).

145

E - 14

ATTACHMENT 2

The B asic o f th e 1979 A g e -d is trib u tio n used in tn e Models

A ll models ta k e as t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o in t th e a g e - d is tr ib u tio n of

f u ll- tim e u n iv e rs ity te a c h in g -a n d -re se a rc h s t a f f (from P ro fe ss o rs to L ec tu rer grades) fo r 1979. Given th a t th e purpose o f th e models i s to

in d ic a te tre n d s , the e x a c t numbers used a re o f l i t t l e im portance so long

as they r e f l e c t p ro p o rtio n a te ly th e r e a l a g e - s tr u c tu r e o f the

p o p u la tio n . The follow ing f ig u re s have been used:

Age-group 25-29 30-34 35-39 4 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64

Njntier 310 B 7 0 1830 1510 1240 990 640 250

These fig u re s were c a lc u la te d from d a ta p rese n ted in Volume 1 P a r t 2 o f th e T e rtia ry E ducation Commission "Report fo r th e 1982-84 Triennium ". The procedure was as follo w s:

- the number o f f u ll- tim e -e q u iv a le n t te ac h in g -a n d -re se a rc h s t a f f

a t A u stra lia n u n iv e r s i tie s in each grade from P ro fe ss o r to

L ectu rer were e x tra c te d from Table 4 .3 o f th e above re p o r t;

- th e s e fig u re s were then c o rre c te d in o rd er to remove non-tenured

s t a f f . This was done by u sin g th e fig u re s in Table 4 .9 which

g ive th e p ro p o rtio n o f tenu red s t a f f a t each graoe;

- d a ta in Table 4 .7 showing th e p ro p o rtio n o f each grade found in

d if f e r e n t age-groups were then used to c a lc u la te th e number o f

each grade a t each a g e - le v e l;

- f i n a l l y , th e t o t a l number o f s t a f f in each age-group was

c a lc u la te d by summing th e fig u re s fo r each grade in th a t

age-group.

1 4 6

ε - is

The use o f a r e s ig n a tio n r a te o f 2.1% in Model 2A

Model 2 dem onstrates th a t a s ta o le and uniform a g e - d is tr ib u tio n w ill develop i f a c o n s ta n t numoer of r e c r u i t s i s addeo eacn year to

re p la c e an equal numoer o f re tire m e n ts from th e o ld e s t age group. This

i s because, assuming th e re a re no o th e r g ains or lo s s e s , each age-group

moves through th e system w ith th e passage of tim e. Those in the 25-29

age-group in one fiv e year p erio d become the 30-34 age-group in the next

fiv e y ear p e rio d .

I f a l l r e c r u i t s a re added to th e youngest age-group, a l l groups

e v e n tu a lly c o n ta in th e same numoer o f in d iv id u a ls . The age-groups used in th e se models span 40 y e a rs . I f th e re are an equal numoer of

in d iv id u a ls in each y ear-group then each of th e se groups w ill co n tain

1/40 o f th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n . I f a l l in d iv id u a ls remain in the system

u n t i l they reach the age o f 65, when they r e t i r e , 1/40 of th e p o p u latio n

w ill r e t i r e each y e a r. This means th e re i s a re tire m e n t r a te o f

1/40 x 100 = 2.5%.

Because most academics in s c i e n t i f i c f ie l d s are over 25 i t has

been assumed fo r the purposes o f Model 2A th a t the age group l i s t e d as

25-29 in f a c t c o n ta in s in d iv id u a ls only from 28-29 years o ld . This gives

a t o t a l age-range fo r the whole p o p u la tio n o f 37 y e a rs, r a th e r than the

40 y e a rs used above. The re tire m e n t/re c ru itm e n t r a te needed to m aintain a c o n s ta n t p o p u la tio n in which a l l age-groups c o n ta in equal numbers and in which a l l those who e n te r the system remain u n t i l they r e t i r e on

reach in g 65 i s th e re fo r e 1/37 x 100 = 2.7 %

I f a l l r e c r u it s were added to th e youngest age-group, a l l groups

e v e n tu a lly would c o n ta in e x a c tly the same number o f in d iv id u a ls . However, i t has been assumed th a t r e c r u it s are d is tr ib u te d in th e r a ti o

o f 0 .4 :0 .4 8 :0 .1 2 between th e th re e youngest age groups. As a r e s u l t , the

youngest age group w ill s t a b i l i s e a t 40% o f the numoer in l a t e r groups;

and th e second youngest group w ill s t a b i l i s e a t 88% of the number in

l a t e r groups (made up of 48% new r e c r u it s and 40% who have moved in to i t from the youngest group). L ater age-groups a l l co n tain the same numoer o f in d iv id u a ls although 12% of those in th e th ir d group have been

acq u ired as new r e c r u it s r a th e r than from movement through the system .

14 7

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ANNEX F

SUPERANNUATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

C u r r e n t S u p e r a n n u a t i o n Ar r a n g e me n t s

Th e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t f u n d i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s

f o r s u p e r a n n u a t i o n schemes o p e r a t i n g i n S t a t e h i g h e r

e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s . F i r s t , most CAE' s and t h e

u n i v e r s i t i e s i n New S o u t h Wal es p a r t i c i p a t e i n S t a t e

Gover nment schemes whi ch a r e f u n d e d on an " e me r g i n g

c o s t " b a s i s , i . e . t h e i n s t i t u t i o n r e i m b u r s e s t h e S t a t e

s u p e r a n n u a t i o n a u t h o r i t y when b e n e f i t s a r e p a i d .

S e c o n d , most u n i v e r s i t i e s o p e r a t e endowment i n s u r a n c e

(FSSU) t y p e s chemes whi c h a r e " f u l l y f u n d e d " , i . e .

s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s a r e p a i d i n t o t h e scheme e a c h y e a r

by e m p l o y e r s and e mp l o y e e s t o meet f u t u r e l i a b i l i t i e s .

Maj or p r o b l e m s have been d e v e l o p i n g un d e r

b o t h a r r a n g e m e n t s . I n s t i t u t i o n s m e e t i n g t h e i r

l i a b i l i t i e s on an e me r g i n g c o s t b a s i s a r e now s t a r t i n g

t o f a c e s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t i n c r e a s e s . Wi t h t h e slowdown

i n g r o wt h o f t h e t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r , t h e a v e r a g e

age o f a c ad e mi c s t a f f i s i n c r e a s i n g and empl oye r

c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r s u p e r a n n u a t i o n a r e e s t i m a t e d t o r i s e

f r om an a v e r a g e o f a r o u n d 15 p e r c e n t o f s a l a r y t o

15 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e n e x t 15 y e a r s . I n t h e c a s e o f t he

" f u l l y f u n d e d " endowment i n s u r a n c e s c h e me s , t h e b e n e f i t s

p r o v i d e d a r e i n a d e q u a t e and s u p p l e m e n t a r y s chemes a r e

p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y e x p e n s i v e .

The AVCC/FAUSA Scheme

The AVCC and FAUSA have d e s i g n e d a n a t i o n a l S u p e r a n n u a t i o n Scheme f o r A u s t r a l i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s (SSAU)

whi ch i s f u l l y f u n d e d (14 p e r c e n t by i n s t i t u t i o n ,

7 p e r c e n t by e mpl oyee) and p r o v i d e s r e a s o n a b l e b e n e f i t s

t o r e t i r e d s t a f f . The Commi ssi on i n i t s R e p o r t f o r

1 982- 84 T r i e n n i u m Volume I i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t saw m e r i t

i n t h e Scheme, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f e x t e n d e d t o CAEs, and

r ecommended t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s t o

i n s t i t u t i o n s t o a s s i s t i n m e e t i n g t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s

o f s u p e r a n n u a t i o n up t o a l i m i t o f 14 p e r c e n t o f t h e

s a l a r i e s o f s t a f f e n t i t l e d t o s u p e r a n n u a t i o n .

Commonwealth Gover nment F i n a n c i a l S u p p o r t

On 18 December 1981 t h e M i n i s t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n

a nno u n c e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a g r e e m e n t t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l

f u n d s t o a s s i s t i n m e e t i n g t h e c o s t o f s t a f f i n

u n i v e r s i t i e s and CAEs j o i n i n g t h e new AVCC/FAUSA Scheme and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s scheme s h o u l d

f or m t h e b a s i s o f a n a t i o n a l s u p e r a n n u a t i o n scheme f o r

h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l s o a nnounc ed t h a t a d d i t i o n a l

f u n d s woul d be p r o v i d e d t o meet i n c r e a s i n g s u p e r a n n u a t i o n

e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h s t a f f i n S t a t e

Gover nment e me r g i n g c o s t s c h e me s , p r o v i d e d t h e u l t i m a t e

/ 2

149

F - 2

e x p e n d i t u r e d o e s n o t e x c e e d t h e 14 p e r c e n t l i m i t .

I n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Schem e

The T r u s t D eed h a s b e e n am ended t o a l l o w

m e m b e rs h ip by s t a f f o f CAEs, a c o n d i t i o n s o u g h t by

t h e G o v e rn m e n t b e f o r e c o m m itin g f u n d s t o i n s t i t u t i o n s

s e e k i n g t o j o i n t h e S c h e m e . W h ile t h e T r u s t D eed i s

s t i l l s u b j e c t t o f i n a l a p p r o v a l by t h e G o v e r n m e n t, i t

i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e Schem e w i l l be in o p e r a t i o n

fro m 1 J a n u a r y 1 9 8 3 .

Summary o f P r o v i s i o n s

T he S chem e i s d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r a l l m ain

c a t e g o r i e s o f a c a d e m ic an d g e n e r a l s t a f f i n u n i v e r s i t i e s

an d c o l l e g e s o f a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n . M em bers c o n t r i b u t e

a t t h e r a t e o f 7 p e r c e n t o f s a l a r y a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s

c o n t r i b u t e a t t h e r a t e o f 14 p e r c e n t . N o rm al r e t i r e m e n t

i s a t a g e 6 5 .

T he b e n e f i t p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e :

. n o r m a l r e t i r e m e n t - a p e n s i o n i s

p a y a b l e f o r l i f e e q u a l t o th e

a c c r u e d p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e m e m b e r's

p e n s i o n a b l e s a l a r y

. e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t - a f t e r a g e 55 a

r e d u c e d p e n s i o n i s p a y a b l e f o r l i f e

b a s e d on e i t h e r t h e d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n

o r a c c r u e d p e r c e n t a g e

. d i s a b l e m e n t - a p e n s i o n i s p a y a b l e

e q u a l t o th e n o t i o n a l p e n s i o n w ith

a m inimum r a t e o f p a y m e n t d u r i n g

t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e n o r m a l r e t i r e m e n t

d a t e o f 50 p e r c e n t o f s a l a r y

. d e a t h - a s p o u s e 's p e n s i o n o f 62%

p e r c e n t o f m e m b e r's p e n s i o n (n o t i o n a l

p e n s i o n i n c a s e o f d e a t h in s e r v i c e )

an d a c h i l d r e n ' s p e n s i o n t o t a l l i n g

17% p e r c e n t , 27% p e r c e n t o r 37% p e r c e n t

f o r o n e , tw o , o r t h r e e o r m ore c h i l d r e n

r e s p e c t i v e l y ( g r e a t e r f o r o r p h a n s )

- in t h e c a s e o f d e a t h in

s e r v i c e a lum p sum o f o n e y e a r 's

s a l a r y up t o a g e 45 an d s c a l i n g

down t o z e r o a t 65 i s a l s o p a y a b le ,

/ 3

150

F-3

P a y m e n t o f a l l b e n e f i t p r o v i s i o n s i s s u b j e c t to

i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e G o v e rn m e n t a g e p e n s i o n .

An a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f t h e SSAU Schem e

i s t h e c o m m u ta tio n p r o v i s i o n s . P e n s i o n s ( o t h e r

t h a n d i s a b i l i t y p e n s i o n s o r c h i l d r e n ' s p e n s i o n s )

may be com m uted t o a lum p sum w hen t h e y f i r s t a r i s e ,

on a s p e c i f i e d b a s i s . Any p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p e n s i o n

may b e s o c o m m u te d , e x c e p t t h a t a r e m a i n i n g p e n s i o n

a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h e t h e n c u r r e n t am o u n t o f t h e Age

P e n s i o n o f f s e t m u s t be r e t a i n e d . C o m m u ta tio n by a

m em ber ( o r f o r m e r M em ber) o f p a r t o f h i s p e n s i o n d o e s

n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f a n y c o n t i n g e n t

s p o u s e 's o r c h i l d r e n ' s p e n s i o n w h ic h may s u b s e q u e n t l y

a r i s e .

A m ore d e t a i l e d sum m ary o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s

o f SSAU i s a t t a c h e d .

151

F-4

SUPERANNUATION SCHEME FOR AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES

SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS

The i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s summary i s p r o vi de d as a

g ui de o n l y . In a l l m a t t e r s t h e T r u s t Deed of t h e Scheme i s

t h e document of a u t h o r i t y .

1. E s t a b l i s h m e n t and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Scheme

The Scheme i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d by a T r u s t Deed, and

a d m i n i s t e r e d by a c o r p o r a t e t r u s t e e , SSAU Nominees Pt y.

L i mi te d . The T r u s t e e w i l l have as i t s d i r e c t o r s

. f o u r p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g

u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

. two p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e academic s t a f f , and

. two p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f .

In a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s power t o c o - o p t two f u r t h e r

d i r e c t o r s .

There w i l l a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d a C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee,

t o a d v i s e t h e T r u s t e e on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t he Scheme's

o p e r a t i o n . Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g u n i v e r s i t y may a p p o i n t

f o u r members o f t h i s Committee:

. two p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g t he i n s t i t u t i o n ,

. one p e r s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e academic s t a f f , and

. one p e r s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t he g e n e r a l s t a f f .

2. Admission o f I n s t i t u t i o n s

The Scheme i s open t o U n i v e r s i t i e s , U n i v e r s i t y Co ll eg es

and o t h e r r e l a t e d b o di e s i n t he U n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r

(approved by t h e T r u s t e e ) , which a g re e t o j o i n .

P r o v i s i o n has a l s o been i n c l u d e d f o r C o l l eg e s of

Advanced E d u ca ti o n to j o i n the Scheme.

Each i n s t i t u t i o n w is hi ng t o j o i n t h e Scheme must s p e c i f y

i t s s u pe r a n n u a b l e employment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o t he

s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e T r u s t e e , and a g re e t h a t a l l f u t u r e

a ppo int me nt s to t h o se c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be r e q u i r e d

t o j o i n t h e Scheme as a c o n d i t i o n o f ap poi nt me nt .

During t he t h r e e y e a r s from 1 J an ua ry 1983 an i n s t i t u t i o n

may j o i n t h e Scheme, wi th s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of membership

a pp ly i ng t o employees who a r e members of an e x i s t i n g

scheme which s a t i s f i e s c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , and who

t r a n s f e r t o t h e Scheme w i t h i n one y e a r of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n

j o i n i n g t h e Scheme (the ' T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d ' ) .

1 5 2

3. Membership

F-5

Employees e l i g i b l e f o r membership c ompr ise t h o s e w i t h i n

t h e s p e c i f i e d s u p e r a n n u a b l e employment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ;

p r o v i s i o n i s i n c l u d e d f o r s p e c i a l c a s e s t o be a d m i t t e d

a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e T r u s t e e .

In t h e c a s e o f members t r a n s f e r r i n g from a q u a l i f y i n g

scheme d u r i n g t h e T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d , any p e r i o d of

r e c o g n i s e d membership of such scheme (or of a p r e d e c e s s o r

scheme) i n r e s p e c t o f which a s s e t s r e p r e s e n t i n g member

and employer c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a t l e a s t 5% and 10% of

s a l a r y r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e t r a n s f e r r e d , w i l l be r e c o g n i s e d

as P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e under t h e Scheme. Where t r a n s f e r s

a r e made a f t e r t h e T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d o r t h e a s s e t s

t r a n s f e r r e d r e p r e s e n t l e s s t h a n member and employer

c o n t r i b u t i o n s of 5% and 10% o f S a l a r y r e s p e c t i v e l y ,

t h e a s s e t s t r a n s f e r r e d w i l l be used t o p ur c h a s e

P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e on an a c t u a r i a l b a s i s .

I t i s n o t a r e q u i r e m e n t o f SSAU t h a t t h o s e a p p o i n t e d

i n f u t u r e i n s u p e r a n n u a b l e employment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s

and aged under 21 j o i n t h e Scheme u n t i l r e a c h i n g t h a t

age, o r t h a t t h o s e a p p o i n t e d o v e r age 60 be r e q u i r e d

t o j o i n . However, an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n

may r e q u i r e membership i n such c a s e s as a c o n d i t i o n

o f employment.

4. C o n t r i b u t i o n s

Members' c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e d e d u c t e d from s a l a r y a t t h e

r a t e o f 7% of s a l a r y , commencing on e n t r y t o t h e Scheme

and c e a s i n g on Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date o r on e a r l i e r

e x i t from c o n t r i b u t i n g membership.

I n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e r e g u l a r l y a t t h e r a t e of 14% of

t h e s a l a r i e s of t h e i r employees who a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g

members of t h e Scheme.

P r o v i s i o n i s a l s o i n c l u d e d f o r members t o i n c r e a s e

t h e i r P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e by making a d d i t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y

c o n t r i b u t i o n s , s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s .

I f i t becomes n e c e s s a r y , f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e

a c t u a r i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t o i n c r e a s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ,

t h e i n c r e a s e w i l l be borne by t h e employers and the

c o n t r i b u t i n g members i n t h e r a t i o 2 : 1 .

5. F r a c t i o n a l and P a r t i a l Membership

A member who i s employed on a f r a c t i o n a l b a s i s w i l l pay

c o n t r i b u t i o n s based on a c t u a l s a l a r y , and accrue b e n e f i t s

t a k i n g i n t o account the a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e f r a c t i o n .

An i n s t i t u t i o n and the T r u s te e may a g re e t h a t employees

in a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n e d c l a s s can have the o p t io n of

membership on normal terms (as d e s c r i b e d ) or p a r t i a l

membership on the b a s i s of 50% of normal c o n t r i b u t i o n s

153

F-6

f o r 50% of normal b e n e f i t s . Such an o p t i o n i s withdrawn

p e rm an en t ly once t h e member moves o u t o f t h e d e f i n e d

c l a s s .

More d e t a i l on t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of b e n e f i t s i n t h e s e

c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s s e t o u t i n s e c t i o n 7.

6. Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date

Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date i s t h e 65th b i r t h d a y o r such

l a t e r d a t e up t o 31 December i n t h e y e a r of a t t a i n i n g

age 65 as i s c o n s i s t e r i t w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t of employment.

7. B e n e f i t s

The main d e s c r i p t i o n s e t o u t below r e l a t e s t o f u l l - t i m e

employees who a r e f u l l - r a t e members. The comments i n

i t a l i c s c o v e r t h e p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o members

c u r r e n t l y o r p r e v i o u s l y on f r a c t i o n a l o r p a r t i a l member­

s h i p ( r e f e r r e d t o as F r a c t i o n a l Time Members o r P a r t i a l

Members r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .

(i) N e c e s s a r y D e f i n i t i o n s

' Accrued P e r c e n t a g e ' i s t h e sum o f 2% f o r each

y e a r o f P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e up t o 20 y e a r s , and 1%

f o r each y e a r o f P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e i n e x c e s s o f

20 y e a r s .

I n t h e c a s e o f b o t h F r a c t i o n a l Time Members a n d

P a r t i a l Members , t h e r e l e v a n t p e r i o d o f P e n s i o n a b l e

S e r v i c e i s m u l t i p l i e d by t h e r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e

f r a c t i o n o r one h a l f r e s p e c t i v e l y .

' E q u i v a l e n t F u l l - T i m e S e r v i c e ' i s t h e sum o f t h e

p e r i o d s o f P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e , wh e r e r e l e v a n t

m u l t i p l i e d by t h e r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e f r a c t i o n s

( F r a c t i o n a l Ti me Me mb e r s ) o r one h a l f ( P a r t i a l

M e m b e r s ).

' N o t i o n a l P e n s i o n ' i s t h e Normal R e t i r e me n t p e ns i o n

a Member would have r e c e i v e d i f he had c o n t i n u e d

i n s e r v i c e u n t i l Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date, wi t h

s a l a r y e qua l t o s a l a r y a t t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e of

c a l c u l a t i o n .

I n t h e c a s e o f F r a c t i o n a l Ti me Members , t h e e q u i v a l e n t

f u l l - t i m e s a l a r y i s u s e d i n l i e u o f s a l a r y . The

d e f i n i t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h o u t a d j u s t m e n t i n

t h e c a s e o f P a r t i a l Me mb e r s .

' P e n s i o n a b l e S a l a r y ' i s t he a ve ra ge annual i ndexed

s a l a r y over t h e f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o r e t i r e m e n t (or

t h e p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e i f s h o r t e r ) , where t he

i ndexed s a l a r y i n a y e a r i s t he s a l a r y r e c e i v e d ,

a d j u s t e d by t h e movement i n Consumer P r i c e Index

from t h e end o f t h a t y e a r up t o t he d a t e of

r e t i r e m e n t . P e n s i o n a b l e S a l a r y i s s u b j e c t t o

a maximum o f s a l a r y r e c e i v e d i n t he y e a r p r i o r

t o r e t i r e m e n t . 154

F - 7

I n t h e c a s e o f F r a c t i o n a l T i m e m e m b e r s , t h e e q u i v a l e n t

f u l l - t i m e s a l a r y i s u s e d i n l i e u o f s a l a r y . T h e

d e f i n i t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h o u t a d j u s t m e n t i n

t h e c a s e o f P a r t i a l M e m b e r s .

( i i ) Normal R e t i r e m e n t : On normal r e t i r e m e n t , a p e n s i o n

i s p a y a b l e f o r l i f e e q u a l t o t h e Accrued P e r c e n t a g e

o f t h e Member's P e n s i o n a b l e S a l a r y . The normal

r e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e g r a t i o n wi t h

t h e Government Age Pe ns i o n (see ( v i i i ) b e l o w ) .

( l i i ) E a r l y R e t i r e m e n t : On e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t a f t e r age

55, a p e n s i o n i s p a y a b l e f o r l i f e e q ua l t o t he

g r e a t e r of

. t h e D e f e r r e d P e n s io n (see ( v i i ) b e l o w ) ,

a c t u a r i a l l y r e d uc e d f o r e a r l y commencement,

and

. t h e Accrued P e r c e n t a g e o f t he Member's

P e n s i o n a b l e S a l a r y , r ed u c ed by M(M + 1 2 ) / 2 8 8 %

where M e q u a l s t h e number o f c ompl ete months

r e m a i n i n g t o Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date.

The e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o

i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e Government Age Pe nsion (see

( v i i i ) b e l o w ) .

( iv) D i s a b l e m e n t : Di s a bl e m e n t means ha vi ng been a b s e n t

from employment t h r o u g h i n j u r y o r i l l n e s s f o r s i x

months and i n such s t a t e o f h e a l t h a s i n t h e

o p i n i o n o f t h e T r u s t e e r e n d e r s t he member p e rma ne n tl y

i n c a p a b l e of p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s f o r which he i s o r

was by r e a s o n o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , r e a s o n a b l y

q u a l i f i e d .

On d i s a b l e m e n t , a p e n s i o n i s p a ya bl e eq u a l t o t he

N o t i o n a l P e n s i o n , w i t h a minimum r a t e of payment

d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e Normal R e t i r e me n t Date o f

50% o f S a l a r y . The p e n s i o n i s p a ya bl e f or l i f e ,

e x c e p t t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d up t o Normal R e t i r e me nt

D a t e , t h e p e n s i o n e r must c o n t i n u e t o s a t i s f y the

d e f i n i t i o n o f d i s a b l e m e n t . I f a d i s a b l e m e n t

p e n s i o n e r e a r n s income from p e r s o n a l e x e r t i o n

i n t h e p e r i o d up t o Normal R e t i r e m e n t Date, t h e r e

a r e c e r t a i n o f f s e t t i n g powers. The d i s a b l e m e n t

p e n s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t he Government

Age P e ns i o n (see ( v i i i ) b e l o w ) .

I n t h e c a s e o f F r a c t i o n a l Ti me Member s , ’SO % o f

S a l a r y ' i n t h e mi ni mum a b o v e s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d

w i t h '507a o f E q u i v a l e n t F u l l - T o m e S a l a r y ' , and i n

t h e c a 3 e o f b o t h F r a c t i o n a l Time and P a r t i a l

Members , s h o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d by t h e f r a c t i o n A/ 3

whe r e

A i s E q u i v a l e n t F u l l - T i m e S e r v i c e i f c o n t i n u e d to

f o r m a l R e t i r e m e n t Dat e on b a s i s o f e mp l o y me n t

a t d i s a b l e m e n t , and

B i s P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e t o Normal R e t i r e m e n t

D a t e . 155

F-8

(v) Death i n S e r v i c e :

i f s u r v i v e d by s p o us e, c h i l d r e n or de pe ndan ts -

• a lump sum o f one y e a r ' s s a l a r y up to

age 45 and s c a l i n g down t o zero a t age 65;

. a s p o u s e ' s p e n s i o n o f 62*s% of t h e No t io na l

P e n s i o n ;

. a c h i l d r e n ' s p e ns i o n t o t a l l i n g 17*5% (one

c h i l d ) , 427*s% (two c h i l d r e n ) o r 37*5% ( t h r e e o r more c h i l d r e n ) , of t h e N o t i o n a l Pension

(with p r o v i s i o n f o r g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s t o

o r p h a n s );

i f n o t s u r v i v e d by spou se, c h i l d r e n o r dependant s

a lump sum e qu a l t o t h e c ash wi t hdra wa l

b e n e f i t p l u s t h e a c t u a r i a l v a lu e of t h e

p a r t i a l d e f e r r e d p e n s io n (see ( v i i ) ).

S p o u s e ' s p e n s i o n s a r e pa y ab le f o r l i f e , and t he

d e f i n i t i o n o f spouse can i n c l u d e c e r t a i n de f a c t o

r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f more t h a n one spouse q u a l i f i e s ,

t h e s p o u s e ' s p e n s i o n d e f i n e d above may be d i v i d e d

between them as t h e T r u s t e e d e t e r m i n e s . The

s p o u s e ' s p e n s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e g r a t i o n wi th

t h e Government Age Pension (see ( v i i i ) b e l o w ) .

Components o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s pe ns ion a r e pa ya bl e

whi l e t h e r e l e v a n t c h i l d i s dependent in t he

o p i n i o n of t h e T r u s t e e , and may e xt end as f a r

as age 25 i f t h e c h i l d i s p u r s u i n g f u l l - t i m e

e d u c a t i o n .

I n t h e c a s e o f P a r t i a l Member s , t h e lump sum

b e n e f i t s p e c i f i e d , a b o v e f o r member s s u r v i v e d

by s p o u s e , c h i l d r e n o r d e p e n d a n t s i s h a l v e d :

no a d j u s t m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r F r a c t i o n a l Time

M e m b e r s .

(vi) Death a f t e r R e t i r e m e n t ;

. i f s u r v i v e d by a spouse - a s p o u s e ' s p e ns i on

o f 62*5% o f t h e Member's p e n s i o n (as i f any

commutation had no t t a k e n p l a c e , and i g n o r i n g

t h e e f f e c t o f t h e minimum a p p l y i n g t o d i s a b l e ­

ment p e n s i o n s ) ;

. i f s u r v i v e d by c h i l d r e n - a c o r r e s p o n d i n g

c h i l d r e n ' s p e n s i o n t o t a l l i n g 17*5% (one c h i l d ) ,

27*5% (two c h i l d r e n ) o r 37*5% (t h r e e o r more c h i l d r e n ) , o f t h e Member's p e ns i o n ( a d j u s t e d

as above i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f a s p o u s e ' s

p e ns io n ) (wi th p r o v i s i o n f o r g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s

t o o r p h a n s ) .

C o n d i t i o n s of payment o f s p o u s e ' s and c h i l d r e n ' s

p e n s i o n s on d e a t h a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t a r e t he same as

s p e c i f i e d i n (v) above f o r d e a t h i n s e r v i c e .

1 5 6

F-9·

( v i i ) W i t h d r a w a l : A c a sh w i t h d r a w a l b e n e f i t o f t h e sum

of

. t h e Member’ s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o SSAU, and

. s u b j e c t t o any c o n d i t i o n s imposed as a c o n d i t i o n

o f t h e t r a n s f e r , t h e amount t r a n s f e r r e d from

a f ormer scheme,

p l u s i n t e r e s t , i s a v a i l a b l e .

In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c a s h w i t h dr a wa l b e n e f i t , a

p a r t i a l d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n e q u i v a l e n t i n v a l u e t o 5%

of t h e d i f f e r e n c e ( i f any) between

. t h e a c t u a r i a l v a l u e of t h e D ef e r r e d Pension

( see below) and . t h e c a sh w i t h d r a w a l b e n e f i t ,

f o r each y e a r of P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e (maximum

20 y e a r s c o u n t i n g ) , i s p a y a b l e from Normal R e t i r e m e n t

Date. In any p a r t i c u l a r c a s e where t h e T r u s t e e

d e c i d e s t h a t t h e p a r t i a l d e f e r r e d p e n s io n i s too

s m a l l , i t may pay t h e a c t u a r i a l v a l u e i n c ash a t

t h e d a t e o f w i t h d r a w a l . O t h e r w i s e , t h e p a r t i a l

d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same c o n d i t i o n s

as t h e D e f e r r e d Pe ns ion (see b e l o w ) .

I f t h e Member has compl eted t h r e e y e a r s o f P e n s i o n a b l e

S e r v i c e , he o r she may o p t i n s t e a d f o r a D e f er re d

P e ns ion e q u a l t o t h e l e s s e r of

. 1.6% o f t h e Member's P e n s i o n a b l e S a l a r y f o r

ea ch y e a r o f P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e , and

. t h e Accrued P e r c e n t a g e of t h e Member's P e n s i o n a b l e

S a l a r y .

I n t h e c a s e o f F r a c t i o n a l Time Members o r P a r t i a l

Memb er s , ' P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e ' i s r e p l a c e d by

E q u i v a l e n t F u l l - T i m e S e r v i c e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f

t h e D e f e r r e d P e n s i o n .

D e f e r r e d p e n s i o n s commence on Normal R e t i r e m e n t D a t e ; a r ed u c e d i mmediate p e n s i o n i s a v a i l a b l e

from age 55, and on d e a t h o f t h e former member

b e f o r e commencement o f t h e d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n , t h e

a c t u a r i a l c a p i t a l v a l u e i s p a y a b l e . D e f e r r e d

p e n s i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t he

Government Age P e n s i on ( see ( v i i i ) b e l o w ) .

I f a f o r me r member who took a d e f e r r e d p e ns i o n

r e j o i n s t h e Scheme, he i s r e i n s t a t e d wi t h t he

P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e , Accrued P e r c e n t a g e e t c . t h a t

a p p l i e d when he wi t h d r e w, and t h e d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n

i s c a n c e l l e d .

157

F - 10

I f t h e Member t r a n s f e r s t o a n o t h e r scheme a p p r o v e d

by t h e T r u s t e e , t h e a c t u a r i a l c a p i t a l v a l u e o f h i s

d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n ( w h e t h e r o r n o t he h a s t h r e e

y e a r s o f P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e ) c a n be t r a n s f e r r e d

t o t h e new s c h e m e .

( v i i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h Gove r nme nt Age P e n s i o n : Once a

p e n s i o n e r be comes e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e a n o n - i n c o me

t e s t e d Age P e n s i o n ( c u r r e n t l y a t a g e 7 0 ) , t h e

Scheme p e n s i o n i s r e d u c e d by 2*$% o f t h e s i n g l e

p e r s o n r a t e o f 1 such Age P e n s io n f o r each y e a r o f

P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e ( s u b j e c t t o a maximum of 40

y e a r s ) . Ad j us tme n t s t o Scheme p e n s i o n s on a cc o u n t

o f cha nges i n t h e Age P e ns i o n a r e made once a

y e a r .

Th us , w i t h t h i s d e d u c t i o n , t h e t o t a l b e n e f i t

p a y a b l e from t h e Scheme and t h e Government w i l l

n e v e r be l e s s t h a n t h e Scheme b e n e f i t i f no non­

income t e s t e d Age P e n s io n was p a y a b l e ( i g n o r i n g

any income t e s t e d Age P e n s i o n ) . I t w i l l g e n e r a l l y

be more.

I n t h e c a s e o f F r a c t i o n a l Time Members o r P a r t i a l

Member s , ' P e n s i o n a b l e S e r v i c e ' i s r e p l a c e d by

E q u i v a l e n t F u l l - T i m e S e r v i c e .

8. Commutation

P e n s i o n s ( o t h e r t h a n d i s a b i l i t y p e n s i o n s o r c h i l d r e n ' s

p e n s i o n s ) may be commuted t o a lump sum when t h ey f i r s t

a r i s e , on a s p e c i f i e d b a s i s ( e . g . 10. 0 t i m e s t he a nnual

p e n s i o n commuted a t age 60, 9.5 t i m e s a t age 65) . Any

p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p e n s i o n may be so commuted, e xc e p t

t h a t a r em a i n i n g p e n s i o n a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h e t hen

c u r r e n t amount o f t h e Age P e n s io n o f f s e t (see 7 ( v i i i ) )

must be r e t a i n e d . Commutation by a member (or former

Member) o f p a r t o f h i s p e n s i o n does n o t i n t e r f e r e wi t h

t h e amount of any c o n t i n g e n t s p o u s e ' s o r c h i l d r e n ' s

p e n s i o n which may s u b s e q u e n t l y a r i s e .

The T r u s t e e a l s o has a d i s c r e t i o n t o p e r m i t s u b s eq u e nt

commutation o f p e n s i o n s , b u t t h e t erms a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d ,

and t h e T r u s t e e i s n o t bound t o a g r e e t o f u r t h e r commutation.

9. Updat ing o f Pe n s io n s

P e n s i o n s i n t h e c o u r s e o f payment, and d e f e r r e d p e n s i o n s

i n t h e d e f e r r e d p e r i o d , a r e s u b j e c t t o y e a r l y u p d a t i n g

i n l i n e w i t h movements i n t h e Consumer P r i c e Index.

15 8

ANNEX G

CD NT IDE NT I AL

CAfi-2

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEU SOUTH DALES

STATEMENT OF A C TIV ITIES BY ACADEMIC STAFF MEMBER

NAME OF STAFF MEMBER:

SCHOOL:

( P l e a s e r e a d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e a t t a c h e d d o c u m e n t CAAA1 -

" I n f o r m a t i o n f o r n e u S t a f f " - b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g t h i s f o r m CAA-2]

D e g r e e s , d i p l o m a s - u h e n a n d u h e r e o b t a i n e d , h o n o u r s :

P r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : 1

1. T e a c h i n g A c t i v i t i e s ( g r a d u a t e a n d u n d e r g r a d u a t e , l e c t u r i n g ,

t u t o r i n g , p r a c t i c a l a n d f i e l d u o r k , c o u r s e o r q n a i z a t i o n ,

e x a m i n i n g , h i g h e r d e g r e e s u p e r v i s i o n e t c . )

I 59

G-2

2. Research A c t i v i t i e s

3 . School/Facul ty/Uni versi ty P a r t i c i p a t i o n

4. Academically Related Extra-Mural A c t i v i t i e s

Signature

Date

Head of School discussed r e po r t and work of s t a f f member on ........................

Signature of Head of School........................

1. Dean, Faculty o f ....................................... Seen by Dean ( please i n i t i a l )

2. Vice-Chancellor

160

I s s u e d 5 / 7 6

ANNEX H

ASSOCIATES PAPER NO. 19

(See Items C .38

A. 9 . 3 . 1 2 and A. 10. 3. 12

o f t he Guide)

674/1976 4 .3 .7 6

(Retype o f 3917A/1973)

FORI"! FOR REPORTING ON RE-APPOINTMENTS

PART A

( t o be c o mp l e t e d by t h e Academic R e g i s t r a r )

Name ______ _____________________________________________________ T i t l e

D e p a r t m e n t

D a t e o f t a k i n g up d u t y i n i n i t i a l a p p o i n t m e n t

Da te o f e x p i r y o f i n i t i a l a p p o i n t m e n t

D a t e by which t h i s form must be r e t u r n e d t o t h e Academic R e g i s t r a r

PART 8

( t o be c o mp l e te d by t h e member o f s t a f f c o n c e r n e d )

The p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e r e v i ew o f yo u r a p p o i n t m e n t a r e i n c l u d e d i n p a p e r

6 7 3 / 1 9 7 6 . I f t h e R e - Appoi ntme nts Committee d e c i d e s n o t to recommend your

r e - a p p o i n t m e n t t o age 65, you w i l l be i nf or me d and i n v i t e d t o p u t your c as e

t o t h e Review Commi tte e. At t h i s t i m e , you may p r o d u c e any e v i d e n c e to

s u p p o r t y our c a s e i n c l u d i n g t e s t i m o n i e s by p e o p l e w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e t h e

u n i v e r s i t y on your t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s or your

c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e work o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y .

The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e Re­

A p p o i n t m e n t s Committee.

1. A c a d e m i c / p r o f e a s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( P l e a s e g i v e d a t e s )

I 6 l

Issue'. r '75

H -2

ASSOCIATED PAPER No. 19

6 7 4 / 1 9 7 6

2 . T ea c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s

( a ) P l e a s e i n d i c a t e Tor t h e l a s t ' f u l l a c a d e m i c y e a r t o t a l number

o f h o u r s p e r week o f l e c t u r s s , t u t o r i a l s , s e m i n a r s , p r a c t i c a l

s u p e r v i s i o n , f i e l d s u p e r v i s i o n , and o t h e r c l a s s e s , t o g e t h e r

w i t h y e a r o r l e v e l and s i z e o f c l a s s e s t a u g h t .

Type o f C l jss Year

Hour s p e r u e e k ( l e c t u r e , t u t o r i a l , e t c . ) ( 1s t , 2 n d , 3 r d , p . q . ) N o . o f s t u d e n t s

( b ) P l e e s e add any u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s o f y o u r t e a c h i n g wh i c h you wi s h

t o b r i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e ( e . g . e x c e p t i o n a l

d i f f i c u l t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r t y p e o f s t u d e n t , e x c e p t i o n a l

l o a d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f y e a r o r i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s o f t h e

a p p o i n t m e n t ) .

3. A c t i v i t y i n r e s e a r c h o r s c h o l a r s h i p

( a ) P l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y y o u r c u r r e n t l i n e ( s ) o f s c h o l a r l y work

o r r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y , and t h e i r e x p e c t e d out come ( t h e s i s ,

p u b l i c a t i o n o f p a p e r ( s ) , b o o k ( s ) , e t c . ) .

( b) I f you h a v e a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d a t h e s i s , p u b l i s h e d any b o o k ( s )

or P a p e r ( s ) , o r had them a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , p l e a s e l i s t

t h e t i t l e ( s ) , u n i v e r s i t y o r p u b l i s h e r ( s ) and d a t e ( s ) b e l o u .

1 6 2

I crnied 6/7?

H-3

ASSOCIATED PAPER NO. 19

6 7 4 /1 9 7 6

( c ) I f you h a v e no p u b l i c a t i o n s , o r y o u r p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e n o f ' y e t

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f y o u r mai n r e s e a r c h o r s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y ,

p l e a s e g i v e t h e name and a d d r e s s o f one o r more r e f e r e e s who

a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h y o u r u n p u b l i s h e d work and would be w i l l i n g

t o g i v e a c o n f i d e n t i a l o p i n i o n on i t .

( d ) P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g y o u r

r e s e a r c h o r s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y ( e . g . c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c o n f e r e n c e s

o r l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s , r e v i e w s i n l e a r n e d j o u r n a l s , r e s e a r c h

g r a n t s a wa r d e d , e t c . )

( e) I s t h e r e any o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n you would l i k e t o make on t h e

i m p o r t a n c e o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f y o u r r e s e a r c h o r s c h o l a r l y work

o r on i t s s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t y o r o t h e r r e a s o n s f o r d e l a y i n

c o m p l e t i o n ?

163

y / i u H -4 ASSOCIATED PAPER N O . 19

6 7 4 /1 9 7 6

4 . G e n e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e work o f t h8 D e p a r t m a n t , f a c u l t y a n d / o r

U n i v e r s i t y

P l e a s e l i s t b e l o w any s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( o t h e r

t h a n t e a c h i n g o r r e s e a r c h ) wh i c h you u n d e r t a k e f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t ,

Boar d o f t h e S c h o o l , U n i v e r s i t y , o r c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e

U n i v e r s i t y ( e . g . F a c u l t y a d m i s s i o n s c o m m i t t e e , member o f C o u n c i l )

w i t h , i f p o s s i b l e , some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e o f y o u r c o n t r i b u t i o n s

( e . g . a v e r a g e number o f h o u s s p e r week f o r e a c h a c t i v i t y , number o f

s t u d e n t s a c c o m p a n i e d on o u t s i d e v i s i t s and f o r how l o n g , e t c . ) .

5 . O t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n

P l e a s e add h e r e any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r o b s e r v a t i o n ( e . g . e x t r a ­

mu r a l a c t i v i t i e s ) r e l e v a n t t o y o u r o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o r c o n t r i b u t i o n

a s a u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r whi ch you woul d l i k e t h e c o mm i t t e e t o c o n s i d e r .

S i g n e d

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( t o be c o m p l e t e d by t h e Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t )

1. P l e a s e g l u e ( w i t h c o mme n t s , wher e a p p r o p r i a t e , on t h e memo<·: 1s

a n s w e r s a b o v e ) y o u r a s s e s s m e n t o f :

1 . 1 T e a c h i n g a b i l i t y . (On wha t b a s i s i s y o u r j u d g me n t made?)

1 . 2 A b i l i t y a n d / o r p o t e n t i a l i n s u b j e c t .

1 . 3 Compet e nce i n s c h o l a r s h i p o r r e s e a r c h .

165

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6 7 4 /1 9 7 6

1 . 4 Compet ence i n d a p a r t m o n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s .

1 . 5 C o n t r i b u t i o n t o f a c u l t y and U n i v e r s i t y ( e . g . t h r o u g h c a r e o f s t u d e n t s

o r s e r v i c e on c o m m i t t e e s ) .

1 . 5 Se n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o become i n v o l v e d

1 . 7 I n i t i a t i v e

1 6 6

5 / 7 6 H-7 ASSOCIATED PAPBH HO. V)

674/ 1976

2 . Are - t h e r e any o t h e r comments or o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o t he member's

s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a pe r ma n en t U n i v e r s i t y p o s t ?

3. Have you had any o c c a s i o n t o warn t h e member o f s t a f f a bo ut u n s a t i s f a c t o r y

p e r f o r m a n c e , and i f so was i t i n w r i t i n g and on what d a t e ?

4, I f you f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r h e l p o r t r a i n i n g would make t he member s u i t a b l e

f o r a p er ma nen t U n i v e r s i t y p o s t , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e what form i t sh oul d t a k e .

167

H - 8 ASSOCIATED PAPER NO. 19

6 7 4 /1 9 7 6

S . C e n a r a l A s s e s s m e n t ( t o be s u b m i t t e d t o . t h e Academi c R e g i s t r a r s e p a r a t a ! / )

P l e a s e i n d i c a t e yo u r a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e member o f s t a f f i n r e l a t i o n " t o

t h e c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d b e l o w by p l a c i n g a t i c k i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l u mn .

( I f a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y i s n o t r e l e v a n t ( e . g . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) , w r i t e 1 n / a ' ) .

A i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e i s o u t s t a n d i n g

8 i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e i s good and t h a t t h e s t a f f member

I i s a b l e , a f f e c t i v e , and a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e .

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J i

ANNEX I

EVALUATION FORM SIDE 1 L E C T U R E R S N A M E ....................................................................................... ......... C O U R S E .......................................................................................................... ............... DIRECTIONS; I n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h

S U B J E C T ......................................... .............................................................................. t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b y b l a c k e n i n g t h e a p p T o p r i a t e c i r c l e w i t h a r

Y E A R ........................................ ..................... F U L L / P A R T T IM E o r d i n a r y p * e n c il . If y o u f e e l t h a t a s t a t e m e n t i s N o t A p p l i c a b l e t o the

p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , m a r k t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n . ·

r

W ith r e s p e c t to t h e s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s g i v e n b y t h i s particular lecturer.

i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e

f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s .

CODE

SA — Strongly agree A — Agree UD — Undecided D - Disagree

SD — Strongly disagree NA — Not applicable

1. I s w e 1 1 - p r e p a r e d f o r c l a s s e s ...................................................................................... . . © Θ Θ 0 9 © 1.

2 . I n s p i r e s c l a s s c o n f i d e n c e w i t h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t . . . . . . Θ Θ © Θ Θ 9 2.

3.D i s c u s s e s t o p i c s f r o m s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f v i e w ............................................................... . . © 0 0 © © 9 3 .

4 . I f e e l w e l c o m e t o s e e k e x t r a h e l p f r o m t h e l e c t u r e r a s o f t e n a s n e e d e d . . . Θ Θ Θ © © 9 4.

5 . S t r e s s e s i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s d u r i n g l e c t u r e s . . · .................................................. . . Θ Θ 0 © © © 5.

6 . I d o u b t if I w i l l r e m e m b e r m u c h o f t h e s e c l a s s e s .................................................. . . © © 0 © © 9 6.

7 . G i v e s w e l l - o r g a n i s e d l e c t u r e s ................................................................................................. • ■ Θ © 0 © @ © 7.

8 . W e l c o m e s s t u d e n t c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e c l a s s e s .............................................................. . . © © © © 0 8 .

9 . E x p l a i n s c l e a r l y a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e t o t h e p o i n t . . . . . . Θ Θ 0 ® © Θ 9 .

1 0 . W e l c o m e s s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s a n d o p i n i o n s .......................................................................... . . 8 © Θ © 0 " Θ 1 0 .

1 1 . S h o w s i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h i s s u b j e c t .............................................................. . . Θ Θ 0 © Θ © 11

1 2 . E n c o u r a g e s m y i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s ........................................................................... . . Θ © Θ © Θ 9 1 2 .

1 3 . T h e l e c t u r e n o t e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s u m m a r y o f t h e c o u r s e . . . . . Θ

0

Θ © © 9 1 3 .

1 4 . A d e q u a t e l y c o v e r s t h e g r o u n d i n t h e l e c t u r e c o u r s e .................................................. . . Θ Θ 0 ) © 9 9 14 .

1 5 . i s i n t e r e s t e d in s t u d e n t s ............................................................................................................. . . 9 © © ®

0 0 1 5.

1 6 . S t i m u l a t e s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y o f s t u d e n t s ................................................... . · Θ © 0 0 0 0 16.

1 7 . L e c t u r e s a t t h e r i g h t s p e e d ............................................................................. . . Θ Θ 9 9 ' 9 Θ 17.

1 8 . I r e s e n t h a v i n g to d o t h i s s u b j e c t ......................................................................................... . . 6

0

3 9 0 18

1 9 . M a i n t a i n s c o n t i n u i t y in t h e l e c t u r e c o u r s e .................................................................

0 9 0 r? 9 19.

2 0 . W a n t s to k n o w h o w s t u d e n t s a r e c o p i n g w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t . . . . . 9 0 > 3 3 1 • 0 2 0

2 1 . S t i m u l a t e s m e t o d o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c l a s s e s . . . . . · . . 5 · 2) -

0 9 9 2 i

2 2 . A s k s f o r m o r e t h a n s t u d e n t s c a n g e t d o n e ................................................................. . . 9 1) 9 © 0

0 2 2 .

2 3 . I n c r e a s e s t h e i n t e r e s t o f s t u d e n t s in h i s / h e r s u b j e c t . . . .

0

3 9 ' 3 0 9 2 3

2 4 . A t t e n d i n g t h e s e c l a s s e s i s a w a s t e o f t i m e .................................................................

0 ,

S 5 3 9

9 ' 2 4

2 5 . I s f r i e n d l y a n d s y m p a t h e t i c in n a t u r e .............................................................................. • · 0 0

Γί 0 Ta 0 2 5

SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR 25 ONWARDS

171

1-2

EVALUATION FORM SIDE 2

CODE

SA — Strongly agree A — Agree

UD — U ndecided D — D isagree SD — Strongly d isag re e NA — Not ap p licab le

2 6 . E n c o u r a g e s q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g c l a s s e s ........................................................................................... © & ® Θ 9 2 6 .

2 7 . I h a v e n e v e r r e a l l y g r a s p e d t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d in t h e s e c l a s s e s . . . Θ © 3 3 © Θ 2 7 .

28. M a k e s g o o d u s e o f e x a m p l e s a n d i l l u s t r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . G> © 0 3 © Θ 2 8 .

29. G i v e s s t u d e n t s a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e i r p r o g r e s s w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t . - . Θ Θ & Θ © © 2 9 .

3 0 . L e c t u r e s c o n f i d e n t l y ................................................................................................................................................. . © Θ © Θ © © 3 0

3 1 . R e f e r s t o t h e l a t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n h i s / h e r s u b j e c t ..................................................... . Θ Θ © & © © 31

32. I n s p i r e s m e t o d o e x t r a w o r k b e y o n d c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . . . . . © Q © G 0 © 3 2

3 3 . I s o n e o f t h e b e s t l e c t u r e r s I h a v e h a d ............................................................................................ . © G © 3 0 0 3 3 .

3 4 . T h e c l a s s e s a r e d u l l ..................................................................................................................................... . Θ Θ © Θ © © 3 4

35. L i s t e n s t o w h a t s t u d e n t s h a v e t o s a y ............................................................................................ . Θ Θ © ® © © 3 5 .

3 6 . P r e s e n t s m a n y t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g i d e a s ............................................................................................ . © Θ © Θ ©

© 3 6 .

3 7 . P r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e c t u r e s L c o n f u s i n g ............................................................................................ . © ©

© © © © 37

38. A l l in a l l , t h i s s u b j e c t h a s b e e n a w o r t h w h i l e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r m e . . © © © © © 0 38.

© © 0 Θ 0 © 3 9

Θ © 0 0 8 © 4 0

Θ Θ © 0 8 © 41

. © 0 Θ Θ © © 42.

© 0 9 © © © 43.

© ® © Θ @ .© 44

0 0 © Θ 0 0 45

s3 0 0 0 0 y 45

S ' 0 · ° ] 0 0 0 47

G Gj % Θ 0 0 48

© Θ 9 2- Θ 5 43

is*) (T‘ fja '_oj · isq 0 50

THANK YOU

1 7 2

L I S T OF WITNFSSFS

ANNEX J

p r i v a t e c a p a c i t y , a r e l i s t e d below ΐ ϊ a l S h a b ? ? ° re t he Committee in a

appeared on b e h a l f o f an organ® a t i o n a i e t o \ tlCaJ °!;d e r · Witnesses who

l i s t i n g o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i s a t i o n Τ Η ^ ΐ ί 0^ · Und! r the a l Phabet ical

the w i t n e s s e s ' dates o f appe ar anc e. ) " h dat es l i s t e d below r e f e r to

Armidale Col lege of Advanced E d u c a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Page(s)

Mr P. Lamb, P r i n c i p a l ( 8 . 2 . 82 )

1051

A u s t r a l i a n Conference o f P r i n c i p a l s of

Col leges o f Advanced Education (ACPCAE) r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Dr D.A. decks , Chairman o f ACPCAE, Di r ec t o r Church!ands Co l l eg e , W.A. (4. 12. 81) 704

Dr G. Ramsey, Pas t Chairman and Member of Executive ACPCAE ( 4.12. 81) 704

Mr J . R. S c u t t , S e c r e t a r y o f ACPCAE ( 4. 12. 81) 704

A u s t r a l i a n Fed er a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y Women ( South A u s t r a l i a ) r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Dr J.M. Barker , Immediate P a s t - P r e s i d e n t and p a r t - t i m e Research A s s i s t a n t in the

Department o f Biochemistry ( 11. 2. 82) 1865

Dr D.C. E l l i o t t , P a s t - P r e s i d e n t and

S e n i o r Demonstrator, School o f Bi ol ogi cal S c i e nc e s , F l i n d e r s U n i v e r s i t y , South A u s t r a l i a

( 1 1 . 2 . 82 ) A u s t r a l i a n National U n i v e r s i t y , Canberra, A u s t r a l i a n Capi t al T e r r i t o r y , r ep r es e n t e d by:

1865

P r o f e s s o r D.A. Low, Vi ce- Chancel l or (12. 3. 82) 1958

P r o f e s s o r L.W. Nichol, Chairman o f t he Board of the I n s t i t u t e o f Advanced St udi es and

P r o f e s s o r o f Physical Biochemistry in the

John Cur tin School o f Medical Research ( 12. 3. 82) 1958

A u s t r a l i a n Vi ce - Ch an c el l o r s ' Committee (AVCC) r e p r e s e n t e d by:

P r o f e s s o r J . F . S c o t t , Vi ce- Chancel l or,

La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y , V i c t o r i a (3. 12. 81) 57

P r o f e s s o r D.R. S t r a n k s , Vi ce- Chancel l or, U n i v e r s i t y o f Adelaide ( 3 . 1 2 . 81 ) 57,

P r o f e s s o r B.G. Wilson, Vi ce- Chancel l or, U n i v er s i t y of Queensland ( 3 . 1 2 . 8 1 , 30.4.82) 57, 2155

Mr F.S. Hambly, Se c r e t a r y o f AVCC ( 3 . 1 2 . 81 , 30.4.82) 57, 2155

Mr A.H.G. Conolly, Executive O f f i c e r of AVCC ( 3.12. 81) 57

173

J - 2

Baxt , P r o f e s s o r R . , Dean, F a c u l t y o f Law,

Monash U n i v e r s i t y , Cl a y t o n , V i c t o r i a ( 1 0 . 2 . 8 2 ) 1554

Bor t nwi c k, Mr C . J . , f o r me r l y A s s i s t a n t t o S e c r e t a r y ,

U n i v e r s i t y Assembl y, U n i v e r s i t y o f Mel bour ne, P a r k v i l l e , V i c t o r i a ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 ) 1248

Commonwealth Depar t ment o f Ed u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Mr K.N. J o n e s , C . B . E . , S e c r e t a r y ( 3 . 1 2 . 8 1 ) 6

Mr R. F. Smi t h , D i r e c t o r , Educa t i on

P l a n n i n g Group ( 3 . 1 2 . 8 1 ) 6

Commonwealth Depart ment o f S c i e n c e and Technol ogy r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Dr J . D. B e l l , A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y , S c i e n c e

and Technol ogy P o l i c y Branch ( 1 2 . 3 . 8 2 ) 1923

Dr H.S. P r e s t o n , D i r e c t o r , Sci e n c e

P o l i c y S e c t i o n ( 1 2 . 3 . 8 2 ) 1923

Commonwealth S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Resear ch O r g a n i s a t i o n (CSIRO) r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Mr L.G. Wi l son, Ex e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y ( 1 2 . 3 . 8 2 ) 2005

Mr K. J . T h r i f t , S e c r e t a r y , P e r s o n n e l ( 1 2 . 3 . 8 2 ) 2005

Mr I . D. Wh i t i n g , Deputy S e c r e t a r y , Per s onnel

( 1 2 . 3 . 8 2 ) 2005

Commonwealth T e r t i a r y Ed u c a t i o n Commission r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Emer i t us P r o f e s s o r P.H. Karmel, A. C . , C. B. E . ,

Chairman ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 ) 1341

Emer i t us P r o f e s s o r D.N. F. Dunbar, Commi ssi oner ( U n i v e r s i t i e s ) and Chairman o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s Council ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 ) 1341

Dr H.S. Houst on, Commissi oner (Advanced Ed uca t i on) and Chairman o f t h e Advanced Educat i on Council ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 )

Mr L. F. Hennessy, F i r s t A s s i s t a n t Commissioner ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 )

Council o f A u s t r a l i a n P o s t g r a d u a t e A s s o c i a t i o n s

(CAPA.) r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Mr A. F a r r a r , T r e a s u r e r of CAPA, P a r t - t i m e

T u t o r , General P h i l o s o p h y , Sydney U n i v e r s i t y , New South Wales ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 )

Emy, P r o f e s s o r H. V. , Depart ment o f P o l i t i c s ,

Monash U n i v e r s i t y , Cl a y t o n , V i c t o r i a ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 )

1341

1341

1212

1162

174

J-3

Feder ation o f A u st r al i an Uni ver si t y S t a f f Assoc iat i on s (FAUSA) r ep re se nt ed by:

Dr A.J. Ryan, P r e s i d e n t , FAUSA, Reader in Pharmacy, Univer sit y o f Sydnev, New South Wales ( 3 .1 2 .8 1 , 30.4.82) 414, 2095

Dr I. Lowe, Vi ce - Pr es i de nt , FAUSA, Senior L e c t u r e r , School of Science, G r i f f i t h

U n i v e r s i t y , Queensland ( 3 .1 2 . 8 1 , 30.4.82) 414, 2095

Dr P.L. D a r v a l l , Immediate P ast P re s i d e n t , FAUSA, Senior Lectur er in Civil Engineering, Monash U ni ver s it y, V ic t o r i a ( 3.12.82) 414

Mr I.M. Oostermeyer, Acting General S e c r e t a r y , FAUSA (3.12. 81) 414

Mr L.B. Wa ll i s, General S ec r e t a r y , FAUSA ( 30.4. 82) 2095

Feder ation of College Academics ( FCA) r ep rese nt ed by:

Mr J.D. Williamson, P r e s i d e n t , FCA, Head of the Department of Music, Nedlands College of Advanced Education,

Western A u s t r a l i a ( 4.12.81) 560

Mr P.C.M. Kendal, Vice- P re s i d e n t , (FCA), Senior Lectur er in E ngl is h, Department o f Liberal S t ud i e s , North Brisbane College o f Advanced Education ( 4 .1 2. 8 1, 30.4.82) 560, 2050

Mr N.R. Homes, General S e c r e t a r y , FCA, ( 4 .1 2 . 8 1 , 30.4.82) 560, 2050

Mr S.F. T r e g i l l i s , I n d u s t r i a l Research O ff i ce r,

FCA, ( 4.12.81) 560

Hancock, P ro fess or K . J . , Vice-Chancellor, F li nd er s U ni ver s it y, Adelaide, South A u s t r a l i a (11.2.82) 1834

Harcourt, Prof ess or G.C., Department of Economics U ni ver s it y of Adelaide, South A u s tr al i a (11.2.82) 1674

Hausfeld, Mr S.R. , Senior Tutor, School of Behavioural Sciences (Psychology), Macquarie U n i v e r s i t y , Broadway, New South Wales (8.2.82) 921

La Trobe Univer sit y S t a f f Association r ep re se n te d by:

Mr T. Oakley, Immediate Past P re si den t of the Associati on and Chairman of Philosophy Department ( 10.2.82) 1517

Laver, Dr W.G., Senior Fellow, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Austr ali an National U n i ve rs i t y , Canberra, Austr ali an Capital T e r r i t o r y (12.3.82) 1902

175

J - 4

L e c t u r e r s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e New South Wales

T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Dr J . E . G a l l a g h e r , P r e s i d e n t , L e c t u r e r s 1

A s s o c i a t i o n , L e c t u r e r i n H i s t o r y ,

No r t h e r n Ri v e r s Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Li s mor e , New South Wales ( 4 . 1 2 . 8 1 )

Mr A.C. Murphy, Honorary S e c r e t a r y , L e c t u r e r s '

A s s o c i a t i o n , L e c t u r e r i n t h e Depart ment

o f E n g l i s h and Languages, Newcast l e

Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Wa r a t a h , New South Wales ( 4 . 1 2 . 8 1 )

Mr P. R. Woods, S t a t e O r g a n i s e r , L e c t u r e r s '

A s s o c i a t i o n , Sydney, New South Wales ( 4 . 1 2 . 8 1 )

M a r i s t B r o t h e r s , r e p r e s e n t e d by:

B r o t h e r B . J . Sweeney, F.M. S. ,

P r o v i n c e S e c r e t a r y , Drummoyne, New South Wales ( 8 . 2 . 8 2 )

B r o t h e r J . A . d ' Ar b o n , F. M. S. ,

D i r e c t o r , C a s t l e Hi l l Campus,

C a t h o l i c Co l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , Sydney,

New Sout h Wales ( 8 . 2 . 8 2 )

Mathew, Dr A.M. , S e n i o r C o n s u l t a n t w i t h t he

Bu s i n e s s Advi s or y S e r v i c e , Commercial Bank o f A u s t r a l i a L t d , f o r me r l y a S e n i o r

L e c t u r e r wi t h Royal" Melbourne I n s t i t u t e o f

Technol ogy ( 9 . 2 . 8 2 )

Medl i n, Dr E . H. , Reader i n P h y s i c s , Deputy

C h a n c e l l o r , U n i v e r s i t y o f A d e l a i d e , Ad e l a i d e ,

South A u s t r a l i a ( 1 1 . 2 . 8 2 )

Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n ,

r e p r e s e n t e d by:

Dr D.G. Wood, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n

and Chairman and S e n i o r L e c t u r e r i n t he

Depar t ment o f Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g ( 1 0 . 2 . 8 2 )

Dr D. D a k t e r n i e k s , L e c t u r e r i n t h e Depart ment

o f Che mi s t r y ( 1 0 . 2 . 8 2 )

814

814

1146

1146

1317

1739

1581

1581

8 1 4

1 7 6

J-5

O f f i c e r , P ro fe ss or R . R. , Department of Accounting and Finance, Monash U n iv er s it y , Clayton, V i c t or i a ( 10.2. 82) 1646

Penwill, Mr J . L . , former Tutor, Uni ver si t y of

Tasmania, now completing a PhD a t Monash U n i v e r s i t y , Clayton, V i c t o r i a (10.2.82) 1452

P eir son, Prof ess or C. G. , Department of Accounting and Finance, Monash U ni ver s it y, Clayton, V i ct o ri a (10.2. 82) 1646

Powell, Dr J . P . , Acting D i r e c t o r , T e r t i a r y

Education Research Centre, Uni ver s it y of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales ( 8.2. 82) 1110

Preston I n s t i t u t e of Technology, now amalgamated with P h i l l i p I n s t i t u t e of Technology, r epr ese nted by:

Mr D.W. L et cher .for mer ly Pri nc ipa l now Pri nc ip al of P h i l l i p I n s t i t u t e of

Technology ( 9 .2 . 82 ) 1288

Mr S. Sanderson, Manager, Employee R e l a t i o n s , Kodak (A1 a s i a ) Pty Ltd and former Chairman of the Academic and -Administrative A f f a i r s Committee of the Council of

Preston I n s t i t u t e of Technology ( 9.2. 82) 1288

Renwick, Prof ess or C.C., D ir e c t o r , Hunter Valley Research Foundation, Tighes H i l l , New South Wales (8.2. 82) 1071

Sandover, Dr J . , Deputy Chairman, T e r t i a r y Education Authority of South A u s t r al i a (11.2. 82) 1801

Selwood, Dr L . , Par t -t i me L e c t u r e r , Department of Zoology, La Trobe Uni ver si t y, Bundoora, V i ct o ri a ( 10.2.82) 1475

Sheldon, Dr J . C . , Senior Lectur er in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Univer sit y of Adelaide, Adelaide, South A u s t r al i a (11.2. 82) 1674

Smith, M s J . E . , Senior Tutor, School of

Behavioural Sciences (Psychology), Macquarie U n iv er s it y , Broadway, New South Wales (8.2. 82) 921

Snedden, Mr R . J . , Dean, School of Social and Behavioural S t ud i e s , Chisholm I n s t i t u t e of Technology ( formerly Ca ulf iel d I n s t i t u t e of Technology) , V ic t o r i a ( 30.4.82) 2244

177

Sydney U n i v er si t y St udent s ' Repr e se nt at i ve Council, r epr es e nt e d by:

Mr P.G. Rickard, P r e s i d e n t ( 8. 2. 82) 887

Mr C.A. Latimer, Honorary S ec r e t a r y / T r e a s u r e r ( 8 . 2. 82) 887

Tronson, Dr K.C. , Econometrician, Clutha Development ( pr ev i ou sl y Post doct ora l Fellow, CSIRO), N a r el l an , New South Wales ( 8 . 2. 82) 1097

Uni ver si t y o f Adelaide, r epr es e nt ed by:

P r of es s or D.R. S t r an ks , Vice-Chancellor (11. 2. 82) 1703

The Hon. Mr J u s t i c e S . J . Ja cobs, M.C., Chairman of the Finance Committee and Member of the Uni ver si t y Council ( 11.2. 82) 1703

Univer sit y o f New South Wales, r epr es e nt ed by:

P r of es s or L.M. B i r t , C.B.E., Vice­ Chancellor (8. 2. 82) 963

P r of es s or D.E. Harding, Dean o f the Facul ty of Law ( 8. 2. 82) 963

Mr T . J . Daly, Bursar ( 8 . 2. 82) 963

Uren, Dr N.C., Senior L e c t u re r in Soil

Science, School o f A gr i cu l t ur e , La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y , Bundoora, V i c t o r i a ( 10.2. 82) 1494

Western A us t r al i an I n s t i t u t e of

Technology, r epr es e nt ed by:

Mr J . E. Dolin, A s s i s t a n t D i r ec t o r ,

Administration ( 11.2.82) 1764

J-6

17 8

J - 7

WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS ( w i t h o u t t e s t i m o n y )

A i r , Dr G. M. , Depa r t ment o f Mi c r o b i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama,

Bi rmi ngham, Alabama, USA A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , A u s t r a l i a n Na t i o n a l

U n i v e r s i t y , C a n b e r r a , ACT

B e n n e t t , J . , School o f Bu s i n e s s S t u d i e s , Da r l i n g Downs I n s t i t u t e o f

Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Toowoomba, Qld Board o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Toowong, Qld B o g n e r , P r o f e s s o r R . E . , Dean, F a c u l t y o f E n g i n e e r i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f

A d e l a i d e , SA B o t t o m! e y , G. A. , Head o f t h e Depar t ment o f P h y s i c a l and I n o r g a n i c

Ch e mi s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Wes t e r n A u s t r a l i a , Ne d l a n d s , W A

B r i s b a n e Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Kel vi n Grove, Qld

Browni ng, P r o f e s s o r T . O . , Wai t e P r o f e s s o r o f Entomol ogy, Wai t e

A g r i c u l t u r a l Resear ch I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f A d e l a i d e , SA

Bui b e c k , C . , T u t o r , School o f S o c i a l I n q u i r y , Murdoch U n i v e r s i t y ,

Murdoch, W A Bu r k e , E . J . , V i s i t i n g F e l l o w, Depar t ment o f S o c i o l o g y , A u s t r a l i a n

N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , Ca n b e r r a , ACT

C a p r i c o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Rockhampton, Qld

Chapman, Dr R . E . , Depar t ment o f Geology and Mi n e r a l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Qu ee n s l a n d , S t L u c i a , Qld

C l a r k , I . A . , Rei d, ACT

C o g g i n s , R . S . , D i r e c t o r , S a l i s b u r y Co l l e g e of Advanced E d u c a t i o n ,

S a l i s b u r y E a s t , SA

Cr e e d , H . , S e n i o r T u t o r , School o f S o c i a l Work, WAIT, B e n t l e y , W A

D a r l i n g Downs I n s t i t u t e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Toowoomba, Qld Da v i e s , A. , Ar anda, ACT Da v i s , M. , Reader i n Or ga ni c Ch e mi s t r y , La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y , Bundoor a,

Vic Deakin U n i v e r s i t y S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Vic

E n d e r s b e e , P r o f e s s o r L. A. , Dean, F a c u l t y o f E n g i n e e r i n g , Monash

U n i v e r s i t y , Cl a y t o n , Vic

F i s h e r , P r o f e s s o r M. R. , P r o f e s s o r i n Economi cs, A u s t r a l i a n Gr aduat e

School o f Management, U n i v e r s i t y o f New South Wal es, Ke n s i n g t o n , NSW F l i n d e r s U n i v e r s i t y o f Sout h A u s t r a l i a S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Ad e l a i d e , SA

Fox, Dr J . E . D . , School o f Bi o l o g y , WAIT, B e n t l e y , W A

Goodwin, C . S . , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r i n Chemical Mi c r o b i o l o g y , Royal

P e r t h H o s p i t a l , W A G o t t l i e b , Dr H. P. W. , School o f S c i e n c e , G r i f f i t h U n i v e r s i t y , Nat han, Qld

Gr een, Dr D . , Resear ch School o f P a c i f i c S t u d i e s , A u s t r a l i a n Nat i onal

U n i v e r s i t y , C a n b e r r a , ACT Gr egson, P r o f e s s o r R.A.M., Depart ment o f P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f New Engl a nd, A r m i d a l e , NSW G r i f f i t h U n i v e r s i t y F a c u l t y S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Nat han, Qld

G u n a r a t n e , Dr D. S . A. , Rockhampton, Qld

Hami l t on, C . J . , Gl enunga, SA

H a r r i s , G . T . , L e c t u r e r i n Economi cs, Depart ment o f Economics, U n i v e r s i t y

o f New Engl and, Ar mi dal e, NSW H a r t l e y Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Academic S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Magi 11, SA H e r b i s o n - E v a n s , Dr D. S e n i o r L e c t u r e r , B a s s e r Depart ment o f Computer

S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney, NSW 179

J-8

Hersey, J . A . , Sigma I n d u s t r i a l P rof es s or of Pharmaceutics, School of the Pharmaceutical Society of V i c t o r i a , V ict ori an College of Pharmacy, P ar kviTle, Vic Higher Education Research and Development Society of A u s t r a l i a ,

c / - TERC, Uni ver s it y of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW Hunt, N.H. , A i n s l i e , ACT

Jack, S . , Senior Lectur er in H is t o r y , Univer sit y o f Sydney, NSW James Cook Uni ver si t y of North Queensland, Townsville, Qld James Cook U n iv er s it y S t a f f Associati on Union of Employees, James Cook U n i v e r s i t y , Townsville, Qld Juan, Dr S . , Department of Education, Univer sit y o f Sydney, NSW

Kennedy, R., Paddington, NSW King, J . , L ec tur er -i n-Char ge, P o l i t i c s One, Universit y o f Melbourne, P a r k v i l l e , Vic .

La Trobe Univer sit y Academic Board, Bundoora, Vic Lawry, Dr J . R . , Dean of Teacher Education, Burwood S t at e College, Burwood, Vic Lee, W.A., Reader-in-Law, Law School, Uni ver si t y o f Queensland,

St Luci a, Qld Leinster-Mackay, D.P., Department of Education, Univer sit y o f Western A u s t r a l i a , Nedlands, W A Leitmann, S . , Senior Tutor, School o f Social Work, WAIT, Bentley, W A

Mackinolty, J . . Dean, Faculty o f Law, Universit y o f Sydney, NSW Macknight, Dr C.C., Senior Lectur er in H istor y, Aust ral i an National U n iv er s it y , Canberra, ACT Macquarie Univer sit y S t a f f A sso ci at i on , Macquarie U n iv er s i t y , North

Ryde, NSW Maslen, E. N. , Chairman, Society f o r Cr yst al logr aphe rs in A u s t r a l i a 1980-82 Mayer, D.Y., Senior Lecturer in P o l i t i c a l S t ud ie s , Faculty of Art s,

Swinburne I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic Mayo, 0 . , Burnside, SA McMaugh, D.R., Perth Dental H o s p it a l, W A McSweeney, C.L., Subiaco, W A Mediansky, Dr F.A., Senior Le c tur er , School of P o l i t i c a l Science,

University o f New South Wales, Kensington, NSW Melbourne Chamber of Commerce, Melbourne, Vic Milperra College of Advanced Education, Milperra, NSW Mount Lawley College, Mount Lawley, W A Mutton, Dr R.W., Aldgate, SA

Neale, Prof ess or R.S. , Prof essor of Economic H is to r y, Department of Economic Histor y, Univer sit y o f New England, Armidale, NSW Nepean College of Advanced Education, Westhead, NSW Newcastle College of Advanced Education, Westhead, NSW Nunan, E., School o f Education, S alis bury Campus, South Austr ali an

College of Advanced Education, S a l is b ur y, SA

Opat, P ro fess or G . I . , Prof ess or of Experimental Physics, School of Physics, Universit y of Melbourne, P a r k v i l l e , Vic O'Shea, J . A . , Head, Agri cult ura l Engineering, School of Engineering, Darling Downs I n s t i t u t e of Advanced Education, Toowoomba, Qld

1 8 0

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P a r e r , Dr M. S. , A s s i s t a n t Dean, Development Ce n t r e f o r Ed u c a t i o n a l

S e r v i c e s , Deakin U n i v e r s i t y , Vic

P a r r y , Dr G. D. , S e n i o r T u t o r i n Zool ogy, Monash U n i v e r s i t y , Cl a y t o n , Vic

P a r s o n s , P r o f e s s o r R.W., P r o f e s s o r o f Ex p er i e men t al P h y s i c s , U n i v e r s i t y

o f Qu e e n s l a n d , S t Lu c i a , Qld

P e l z , Dr W., Depar t ment o f S o c i o l o g y , La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y , Bundoor a, Vic

P o s t l e , R . , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , School o f T e x t i l e Tec hnol ogy, U n i v e r s i t y

o f New South Wal es, Ke n s i n g t o n , NSW P r a s s e r , S . , Ashgr ove, Qld

P r i c e , R. , Glen Waver l ey, Vic

P r i c e , Dr T. V. , School o f A g r i c u l t u r e , La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y , Bundoor a, Vic

P r o s s e r , Dr A . P . , S e n i o r L e c t u r e r , School o f M e t a l l u r g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f

New South Wal es, Ken s i n g t o n , NSW Pugh, Dr C. , Sout h A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f Te c hnol ogy, A d e l a i d e , SA

Queensl and A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , Lawes, Qld

R a n z e t t a , Dr G . , Ci t y Beach, W A

Reece, B . F . , S e n i o r L e c t u r e r i n Economi cs, Depar t ment o f Economi cs,

U n i v e r s i t y o f New Engl and, Ar mi dal e, NSW R i c h a r d s , D. R. , L e c t u r e r i n Ab o r i g i n a l E d u c a t i o n , A b o r i g i n a l Teacher

C e n t r e , B a t c h e l o r , NT

R u s s e l l , Dr D . , S e n i o r T u t o r , Depart ment o f General P h i l o s o p h y , U n i v e r s i t y

o f Sydney, NSW

Si mons, J . , P r i n c i p a l , Nur s er y School T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , Newton,'NSW

S k u j a , J . , C h i e f P r o j e c t s E n g i n e e r , Coal Mining I n d u s t r y , p r e v i o u s l y

Head, Depar t ment o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g TCAE, N a r e l l a n , NSW Smi t h , B . , D i r e c t o r o f Community Programmes, Depar t ment o f Conmunity Progr ammes, NSW Sout h A u s t r a l i a n Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , Ad e l a i d e , SA

Sout h A u s t r a l i a n Co l l e g e o f Advanced Ed u c a t i o n Academic S t a f f

A s s o c i a t i o n , A d e l a i d e , SA

Sout h A u s t r a l i a n Government ( T e r t i a r y Educa t i on A u t h o r i t y o f South

A u s t r a l i a)

S t e w a r t , R. A. F . , D i r e c t o r , The Co l l e g e o f Law, S t Le o n a r d s , NSW

S t u a r t - F o x , M, , S e n i o r T u t o r i n H i s t o r y , Depart ment o f H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y

o f Qu e e ns l a nd, S t Lu c i a , Qld

Sydney K i n d e r g a r t e n T e a c h e r s ' Co l l e g e (now t h e Waverley Di v i s i o n o f t h e

I n s t i t u t e o f E a r l y Chi l dhood S t u d i e s o f t h e Sydney Col l ege o f Advanced

E d u c a t i o n

Tasmanian Co l l e g e o f Advanced E d u c a t i o n , La u n c e s t o n , Tas T i b b i t s , G. E . , L e c t u r e r , Depar t ment o f Acc ount ancy, U n i v e r s i t y o f

Wol l ongong, NSW Tooher , L.G. , Former S e n i o r T u t o r i n Law, F a c u l t y o f Law, Monash

U n i v e r s i t y , Cl a y t o n , Vic

Uni v e r s i ty

Uni v e r s i t y

U n i v e r s i t y Uni v e r s i ty

Uni v e r s i t y

U n i v e r s i t y Uni v e r s i ty

o f Ad e l a i d e P o s t g r a d u a t e S t u d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , Ad e l a i d e , SA

o f Ad e l a i d e S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Ad e l a i d e , SA

o f Mel bourne, P a r k v i l l e , Vic

o f Melbourne Assembly, P a r k v i l l e , Vic o f Melbourne S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , P a r k v i l l e , Vic

o f New South Wales S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Ke n s i n g t o n , NSW o f Queensl and, ST Lu c i a , Qld

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U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney, NSW U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney Sample Survey C e n t r e , NSW U n i v e r s i t y o f Tasmani a S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , Ho b a r t , Tas

U n i v e r s i t y o f West ern A u s t r a l i a , Ne d l a n d s , W A

Wal ker , J . T . , Foundat i on Dean, School o f B u s i n e s s , Nepean Co l l e g e o f

Advanced E d u c a t i o n , NSW Wa l ke r , Dr M . J . , S e n i o r L e c t u r e r , Depar t ment o f An t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y

o f Sydney, NSW Walshaw, T . J . , C u r t i n , ACT

West , P r o f e s s o r F. , Dean o f S o c i a l 1 S c i e n c e s and P r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y and

Government, School o f S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Deakin U n i v e r s i t y , Vic

West er n A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f Technol ogy, B e n t l e y , W A

West er n A u s t r a l i a n Po s t - Se c o n d a r y Ed u c a t i o n Commission, W A Whi t more, P r o f e s s o r H . , F a c u l t y o f Law, U n i v e r s i t y o f New Sout h Wal es,

Ke n s i n g t o n , NSW Wi cks, P . C . , Toowoomba, Qld

Some names have been o mi t t e d from t h e above l i s t a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e

p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d .

The Committee i s g r a t e f u l t o t h e above i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s

who p r o v i d e d s u b mi s s i o n s a n d / o r documents to t h e Committee b u t d i d

n o t gi ve o r a l e v i d e n c e .

Ot h e r a s s i s t a n c e :

The Committee acknowl edges t h e v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i t has r e c e i v e d from:

. The Commonwealth T e r t i a r y Educa t i on Commission

. The P a r ! i a m e n t a r y L i b r a r y

1 8 2