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Commonwealth Schools Commission - Recommendations for 1983, March 1982

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The Parliament of the Commonwealth o f Australia


Recommendations for 1983

Presented by Command 18 March 1982 Ordered to be printed 25 March 1982

Parliamentary Paper No. 63/1982




All financial recommendations in this report are expressed in the following price levels:

Recu r r e n t : estimated December quarter 1981 -Schools Price Index = 317.3 (estimated)

C a p i t a l : estimated December 1980 - Schools Price Index = 192.1 (estimated)

ISSN 0727-0836 Copyright Commonwealth Schools Commission 1982 Printed by Canberra Publishing and Printing, Canberra


PO Box 34, Woden

CHAIRMAN Australian Capital Territory 2606

Telephone (062) 89 7124

18 February 1982

The H o n . W a l . Fife MP

Minister for Education Parliament House CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Mr Fife

This report contains the Commission's unanimous advice with respect to the funding of Commonwealth programs for schools in 1983.

Yours sincerely

P.D. Tannock (Chairman)

M.D. Miland

R.J. Andrews

J .S . Brown

D. B. Clarke

E. G. Dunne

W.L. Hamilton

A.G. Marriage

D. Mossenson

M.J. Norst

J.M. Williams

I. Hossack (Secretary)















13. SUMMARY 23




1. Students in Australian Schools 1972 to 1981 27

2. Student Retention Rates 1969 to 1981 28

3. Estimated Cost of General Recurrent Grants to Non-Government Schools by Funding L e v e l , 1982 29

4. Commonwealth Schools Commission Programs 1976 and 1980 to 1983 (Recommended) 30

5. Commonwealth and State Government Expenditure on Schools in the S t a t e s , 1975/76 to 1979/80 32

6. Recurrent Expenditure Per Student in N o n ­ Government Schools Compared with Government School Operating C o s t s , Australia, 1974, 1976, 19 7*7 and 19 7 9 By Source of Funding ■ 34

7. Recurrent Expenditure Per Student in Government School S ystems, States and Territories 1975/76 and 1979/80 37


1. Costs Per Student of Government School Education by Category by Item 1978/79 38

2. Publicly Funded Costs Per Student of Non-Government School Education by Source of Funding by Item 1978/79 39


1. This short report contains the Commonwealth Schools

Commission's recommendations to the Government for the funding of its programs in 1983. These recommendations are set out in estimated December 1981 prices. Under the 'prospective' cost supplementation arrangements for Commission programs, final allocations will be made in 1983 'outturn' prices.

2. The Commission is providing this advice to the

Government in advance of its determination of the Commission's Guidelines. This advice is not a substitute for the general analysis, policy development and comprehensive recommendations which are and will continue to be found in its triennial

reports. However, the Commission believes that it is appropriate to issue supplementary advice as contained in this report in order to have regard to such factors as changed circum­ stances and information, the emergence of needs which should not await consideration in the next triennial report, the responses of the Government to the triennial report, and representations which have been made to the Commission in the course of its normal consultation processes. This pre-guidelines report should be read in conjunction with the Commission's Report for the Triennium 1982-84, its Report for 1982, and its Program Guidelines 1982, for a

fuller explanation of the thrust of its recommendations and the context in which they are m a d e .

3. The Commission is recommending that the Government

provide a total of $1,016,803,000 in estimated December 1981 prices for its school programs in 1983 . This represents an increase of 4.7 per cent on 1982 levels. Most of this

increase - 3.05 per cent - is required by commitments already made by the Government to improving the recurrent resource position of non-government schools. The balance is made up of small increases recommended by the Commission to

the recurrent grants to government schools and some special purpose programs. There are two major new developments recommended by the Commission: the extension of special education funding to pre-school age children who require early intervention education services, and the development, on a pilot basis in the first instance, of a School Improvement Program.

4. In 1981 there were 2,987,824 students (1,523,602

males and 1,464,222 females) enrolled in Australian schools, an increase of 3,262 on 1980 enrolments. The 3,262 increase comprised a 12,536 decrease in primary enrolments and a 15,798 increase in secondary enrolments. The number of

students enrolled in government schools declined by 18,249 (0.8 per cent) from 1980 while non-government schools increased by 21,511 (3.2 per c e n t ) from 1980.

5. Given the relatively static total enrolment situ a t i o n ,

the significant increase in the more expensive secondary students, the commitment to increasing Commonwealth per capita grants to the low resource non-government Group 3 schools in 1983, the diseconomies associated with enrolment decline in some States and increases in others, the Commission believes that its funding recommendations are moderate and consistent with the needs of Australian schools.


Government Schools

1.1 All State Governments are experiencing difficulties in providing the recurrent resources required to maintain standards in and services to government schools. Between the 1980/81 and 1981/82 financial y e a r s , all States at least maintained the real value of their own recurrent expenditure on government schools. The Australia-wide average real increase was approximately 3.0 per cent. Despite thi s , and a slight decline in government school enrolments between 1980 and 1981 (18,249 or 0.8 per cent), there has been a slippage in student-teacher ratios in some States and reductions in provision for ancillary and specialist staff. Table 1.1 shows the enrolment and student-teacher ratio position.

1.2 The recurrent resource pressures which are being

experienced by State education systems at present result from a combination of escalating costs (particularly staff salaries and superannuation), the dislocatory effects of overall enrolment

declines, internal migration, and growth in the numbers of secondary relative to primary students. Queensland is experiencing strong enrolment growth at both primary and secondary levels

and has allocated increased recurrent resources accordingly.

1.3 For those State systems with static or declining enrol­

ments , there appear to be relatively few short-term savings if standards are to be maintained. The major enrolment downturns that will occur by the middle of the 1980's, particularly at the secondary level, may enable some resources to be freed for redeployment if governments decide simply to maintain present standards. However, the dislocatory effects and diseconomies of enrolment decline should not be underestimated. The evidence before the Commission is that present enrolment declines which

are mainly at the primary level do not produce swift or automatic savings and may indeed, in the absence of actual school closures, produce higher costs associated with the need to maintain unecon­ omic class sizes and to phase in the application of staffing

formulae which dictate redeployment. They also result in higher per student maintenance costs and more expensive support services. The diseconomies associated with maintaining the standard of educational services to rural areas in the face of a shrinking

rural population are long-standing examples of this problem. Diseconomies in large areas of urban schooling - for example, Sydney's eastern suburbs - are a more recent phenomenon.

1.4 Quite apart from short-term budgetary pressures

associated with enrolment changes currently taking place in government schools, the Commission wishes to minimise



e nrolments




Teachers FTE* S/T Ratio


1981 (P) Teachers FTE* S/T

Ratio Increase in Ratio

NSW Primary Secondary

515,618 283,686 23,359 22,604

22.07 12.55

506,887 283,516 22,930 22,318

22.11 12.70 + 0.04 + 0. 15

VIC Primary Secondary

374,676 231,471 19,996 20,596

18.74 11.24

362,273 232,769 20,021 20,439

18.09 11.39 + 0.15

QLD Primary Secondary

247,351 106,050 11,934 7,578

20.73 13.99

251,819 108,605 12,185 7,794

20.67 13.93

SA Primary Secondary

142,290 76,392 8,057 6,571

17.66 11.63

137,860 75,173

7,918 6,554

17.41 11.47

WA Primary Secondary

141,701 64,933

6,666 5,002 21.26 12.98

141,123 66,003

6,568 5,119

21.49 12.89 + 0.23

TAS Primary Secondary

44,820 27,512

2,502 2,406

17.91 11.43

43,621 27,736

2,480 2,468

17.59 11.24

NT Primary Secondary

16,782 5,527

911 502

18.42 11.01

17,472 5,799

937 549

18.65 10.56 + 0.23

ACT Primary Secondary

24,801 14,467

1,273 1,250

19.48 11.57

24,480 14,702

1,247 1,253

19.63 11.73 + 0.15 + 0.16

TOTAL Primary Secondary 1,508,039

810,038 74,698 66,508 20. 19


1,485,525 814,303 74,286 66,494

20.00 12.25 + 0.07

(p) Preliminary

* The full-time equivalent (FTE) of part-time teachers is calculated on the basis of the amount of time worked by part-time teachers expressed as a fraction of the time worked by normal full-time teachers.

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 'Schools' Bulletins


associated disruption to school programs. The loss of a teacher from a primary s c hool, or a librarian or teacher aide or the

services of a curriculum adv i s e r , the forced grouping of c l a s s e s , or transfer of an established principal can have an unsettling effect on the quality of instruction, the morale of staff and parents, and the confidence of the local community in the school. While rationalisations of this sort may be inevitable and a

necessary element of resource redistribution, the Commission believes that there is a strong educational case for cushioning their effects with some additional resources. Of c o u r s e , it is important that such additional resources be used judiciously by education authorities, and be accompanied by forward planning

and local consultation such that rationalisation of resource distribution, including redeployment to other needed areas, can be phased in with minimum disruption to the education of many children.

1.5 Accordingly, the Commission is recommending a 2 per

cent increase in the general recurrent grants for government schools. This will cost an estimated additional $5.066m. Because the Commonwealth's general recurrent grants constitute approxi­

mately 7 per cent of government school recurrent costs, they would need to be accompanied by at least an equivalent increase in State allocations to maintain s tandards. Such an increase will contribute to the maintenance of standards and levels of service, and to the stabilisation of the recurrent resource position of government schools. It will also contribute to

improved morale in government school sy s t e m s .

1.6 The Commission recommends that these recurrent grants

should not be earmarked for specific Commonwealth-determined purposes. The States depend on these grants for the maintenance of essential s e r vices. In the present tight budgetary situation, the Commission believes that there is no capacity in the States

for the use of these funds for purposes other than those for

which they are currently committed.

1.7 The Commission recommends:

(i) That recurrent grants for government schools be

increased in 1983 by 2 per cent in real te r m s .

That these grants not be earmarked for specific Commonwealth-determined p u r p o s e s .

Estimated cost: $258.367m.

Non-government Schools

1.8 Enrolments in non-government schools rose at both

primary and secondary levels in every State and Territory between 1980 and 1981. Table 1.2 shows this movement in detail.




1980 1981(P)

Students Teachers S/T Students Teachers S/T Increase FTE* Ratio FTE* Ratio in Ratio

NSW Primary 133,277 5,756 23.15 136,918 5,963 22.96

Secondary 97,107 6,255 15.52 100,935 6,700 15.06

VIC Primary 117,313 5,323 22.04 119,141 5,582 21.34

Secondary 98,812 6,427 15.37 102,470 6,829 15.00

QLD Primary 55,478 2,266 24.48 56,989 2,340 24.35

Secondary 41,696 2,483 16.79 43,514 2,613 16.65

SA Primary 23,347 1,128 20.70 24,729 1,200 20.61

Secondary 17,769 1,265 14.05 18,583 1,32 7 14.00

WA Primary 25,855 1,189 21.75 26,998 1,191 22.67 + 0.92

Secondary 20,740 1,447 14.33 21,509 1,516 14.19

TAS Primary 8,227 375 21.94 8,319 379 21.95 + 0.01

Secondary 6,393 456 14.02 6,598 475 13.89

NT Primary 3,152 141 22.35 3,161 145 21.80

Secondary 953 63 15.13 1,054 77 13.69

ACT Primary 9,406 403 23. 34 9, 765 420 23.25

Secondary 6,960 435 16.00 7, 313 45 8 15. 97

TOTAL Primary 376,055 16,582 22.68 386,020 17,220 22.42

Secondary 290,430 18,832 15.42 301,976 19,995 15. 10

(p) Preliminary

* The full-time equivalent (FTE) of part-time teachers is calculated on the basis of the amount of time worked by part-time teachers expressed as a fraction of the time worked by normal full-time teachers.

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 'Schools' Bulletins


1.9 The Commonwealth provides per capita recurrent grants

to non-government schools. These grants are a fixed percentage of the Standard Cost ^ of educating a primary or secondary

student in a government school. There are three funding levels for non-government s c h o o l s . In 1982 Commonwealth per capita grants were as follows:

Group 1 schools : 20 per cent of Standard Cost

Group 2 schools : 30 per cent of Standard Cost

Group 3 schools : 38 per cent of Standard Cost

For 1983, as a result of commitments made in relation to the 1981 Federal election, grants to Group 3 schools will rise to 40 per cent of Standard Cost. The intention of this increase

is to assist these schools to move their relatively low resource standards toward what the Commission regards as acceptable l e v e l s .

1.10 Commonwealth recurrent grants to non-government schools will increase significantly in 1983. This will be partly as a result of enrolment growth and partly because of anticipated real increases in the Standard Cost of educating a student

in a government school. The Commission estimates that the latter will grow by 3 per cent. It will also be caused by the increased

commitments to Group 3 s c h o o l s , which the Commission estimates will cost $19m. in 1983.

1.11 The Commission recommends that there be no change

in 1983 to the real value of per capita grants to Group 1 and

Group 2 schools beyond present c o m m i t m e n t s . While the decision to improve the operating standards of low resource Group 3 non-government schools is consistent with the recommendations in the Report for the Triennium 1 982-84, the Commission emphasises again the importance of maintenance of effort from other sources

if the underlying objective of this policy is to succeed. Unless Group 3 schools maintain their recurrent commitments, and the States maintain the real value of their own per capita grants, increased Commonwealth support will be merely a substitute

for other efforts. The Commission will be monitoring this situation and reporting in detail in its next triennial report.

1.12 The Commission also wishes to comment on the relation­

ship between Commonwealth recurrent grants to government and non-government schools. For reasons which have been well

(a) When the Commission refers to Standard Cost it is using a figure based on the average recurrent cost per student in government schools. In 1982, for example, the Standard Cost is based on the recurrent cost per student of services funded from State Government sources in 1979/80

(the last year for which actual expenditure figures were available) adjusted for price movements up to the time of the payment of grants, together with Commonwealth general recurrent per capita grants to the States for government schools for 1982. Standard Costs for other years are calculated in similar fashion.


documented in previous Commission and other Commonwealth publi­ cations, the relative financial responsibilities of State and Commonwealth Governments for government and non-government schools are disproportionate. Government schools receive approxi­ mately 93 per cent of general recurrent funds from State sources and 7 per cent from the Commonwealth. Non-government schools, on average, receive 35 per cent of general recurrent funds from the Commonwealth, 22 per pent from State sources and 43 per cent from private sources. Of course, these proportions vary considerably from school to school, and it remains a fact

that the great majority of non-government schools have per capita recurrent expenditure levels well below the Standard Cost of educating a student in a government school. However, in the light of the very significant resource problems of govern­ ment schools to which attention has been drawn earlier in this chapter, the Commission believes it is particularly important that the increased recurrent grants to non-government schools to which the Government is committed should be financed by additional funds and not by re-distribution from government school allocations.

1.13 Although enrolments in non-government schools are generally buoyant and most will receive increased Commonwealth recurrent grants, the Commission wishes to draw attention to budgetary pressures which may cause major difficulties for

some of these schools in 1983. Enrolment declines in some urban areas are impacting upon non-government school costs. Current examples in New South Wales are found in the Newcastle region and the eastern suburbs of Sydney. The decline in the number of members of religious orders has reduced their capacity to provide contributed services to Catholic schools and growth

in costs associated with the decisions of industrial tribunals in relation to teacher salaries and conditions pose major budgetary problems for most non-government schools. An additional

factor which is of concern to the Commission is the sharp increase in debt servicing costs borne by most schools. Interest rate increases and the demand by lending institutions for shorter repayment periods on capital debts are significant threats to the maintenance of recurrent resource standards in many non-government schools.

1.14 The Commission has a capacity to provide short-term emergency assistance for non-government schools catering mainly for country children which experience sudden losses of enrolments and related difficulties usually associated with seasonal economic changes. This program, which has been a vital factor

in sustaining and providing the conditions for improving a

(a) If total recurrent expenditure is considered (i.e. including Commission special purpose programs), non-government schools receive 36 per cent of recurrent funds from the Commonwealth, 22 per cent from State and 42 per cent from private sources.


large number of such schools, has not required in recent years the level of funds currently provided in legislation. The Commission believes that eligibility for access to these funds should be extended to any non-government school which is subject to sudden disaster (e.g. fire). Nevertheless,

it is also proposing that there be a reduction in the overall level of available short-term emergency assistance in line with anticipated demand.

1.15 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That there be no change in 1983 to the proposed percent­

age relationship of non-government school recurrent grants to the Standard Cost of educating a student in a government school beyond the present commitment to increase funds for Group 3 schools. That is,

the per capita grants for 1983 should be:

Group 1 20 per cent of Standard Cost

Group 2 30 per cent of Standard Cost

Group 3 40 per cent of Standard C o s t .

(i i ) That the provision for Short-Term Emergency Assistance for non-government schools be reduced from $ 0 ,749m. in 1982 to $0.5m. in 1983 and that eligibility for the program be extended to schools suffering from natural disasters.

Estimated cost: $438.224m.



Government Schools

2.1 Commonwealth capital grants represent some 30 per cent

of expenditure on government school building programs each year. In its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 the Commission set out in detail its assessment of school building needs. It pointed out that there were substantial deficiencies in the existing

stock of school buildings in Australia which could be remedied only by a sustained program involving increased financial commit­ ments from Commonwealth and State governments. The Commission also drew attention to the pressure for new student places associated with enrolment increases in some States and with the development of new suburbs and towns even in States with relatively static enrolments.

2.2 The Commission believes that enrolment decline will

provide little immediate relief for the States from school building pressures. Most of the decline is in primary schools and there is a lack of flexibility in the redeployment of student: between areas which makes for limited cost savings. How e v e r , there ought to be some capacity for rationalisation between secondary school and TAPE building needs. Recent developments in Western Australia and Tasmania are pointers in this direction. The Commission believes that it is time to mount a major review of the possibilities of rationalising school building provisions

in A u stralia. It is proposing to undertake this review during the next year in conjunction with State and non-government school authorities and in consultation with the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.

2.3 The Commission has noted that in recent Commonwealth

and State budgets there was a significant decline in commitment to government school building p r o g r a m s . Commonwealth allocations declined by 4.8 per cent in real terms in 1982. State allocations declined by approximately 12 per cent in real terms between 1980/81 and 1981/82 with one S t a t e , South A ustralia, reducing its capital program for government schools by over one-third. Only Queensland is likely to increase the real value of allocation

to school buildings . Although there are explanations for such decreases - the most obvious one being the reductions in Loan Council allocations to the States for capital works by nearly 10 per cent in real terms - the Commission believes that they are cause for c o n c e r n . There is no doubt that pressure on capital funds for new student places remains very high, and that many children are being educated in sub-standard facilities. Notwithstanding the needs documented in its triennial repo r t , the Commission recommends, therefore, that the Commonwealth

(a) These expenditure figures are approximations based upon State budget projections for each of the financial years involved. Actual expenditures may vary upwards or downwards from budget figures.


retain its capital grants program at the same real level in 1983, and that these allocations be subject to the condition that the States at least maintain their own efforts up to a level negotiated with the Commonwealth.

2.4 The Commission considers that a new notional element

should be introduced into this program, with an appropriate loading, to provide for the additional needs of those States with increases in enrolments. This new enrolments element will provide a more equitable base for the distribution of capital funds than prsesently operates.

2.5 The Commission also wishes to ensure that the

States have greater stability for funding their school building programs. It believes that if the States had more certainty about the level of Commonwealth support and the matching efforts required of them, better planning of school buildings would ensue and there would be greater capacity

for achieving economic use of resources within agreed standards. It may also be possible to achieve greater rationalisation between the provision for education facilities for TAFE and the non-government school sector. Accordingly, the Commission is proposing that the capital program for government schools be given the same forward commitment arrangements that apply at present to non-government schools, i.e. 90 per cent of 1983 allocations for 1984 and 1985.

The Commission recommends:

That capital grants for government schools be maintained at the same real level in 1983 as for

1982, and that these be subject to the condition that the States at least maintain their own efforts up to a level to be negotiated with the


That the States be given the same forward commitment arrangements for government schools that apply at present to non-government schools, i.e. 90 per cent of 1983 allocations for 1984 and 1985.

That a new places element be introduced into the capital program, weighted toward those States with enrolment increases or shifts, and that this new element comprise 10 per cent of total available capital funds.

Estimated cost: $124.749m.






Non-Government Schools

2.7 Commonwealth grants represent some 30 per cent

of annual capital expenditure on non-government schools, with the bulk of funds coming from loans or private fund

raising. The level of private debt being carried by non­ government schools in Australia is very la r g e . In 1979 it amounted to $230m. or an average of $354 per student.

Although no State government provides capital funds for non-government schools, all but South Australia provide limited interest subsidies on debts incurred.

2.8 The capital grants program for new non-government

schools has been a major factor in improving facilities and providing for new student places in recent y e a r s . It has been significant in increasing enrolments in such schools, although it is important to understand that the great majority of the new schools that have commenced recently have done so without access to Commonwealth capital funds. The Commission is of the view that there remain deficiencies in the physical standards of many non-government schools on a scale comparable to that which exists in the government school sector. As with government schools there is no doubt that these deficiencies in standards will take many years to alleviate even if the capital program continues at its present level.

2.9 The Commission has also been made aware of the

very great demand for capital to meet enrolment pressures in many existing schools and in communities in developing areas and towns. For example, in 1981 the New South Wales

Planning and Finance Committee received 143 applications from non-government schools for capital g r a n t s . The appli­ cations involved grants which amounted to $53.lm. Seventy-two of the applications, that is 50.3 per cent, were rejected due to lack of funds, even though 10 of t h e m , involving

grants worth about $4.6m. were given an A rating (top priority) in terms of both educational and financial n e e d .

2.10 In simple t e r m s , it is difficult for many top

priority new schools or major refurbishing projects to receive Commonwealth support. The amount of money provided annually in the program for new enrolments (approximately $12m. in 1981) is sufficient to provide for a maximum of about five new primary schools and two or three new secondary schools at current average subvention levels. Given that there are approximately 1,500 non-government primary schools

and 700 non-government secondary schools in Australia at present, the capital allocation for new schools will not make much impact on d e m a n d . Certainly present funding levels mean long delays and frustrations for many communities

seeking Commonwealth support to develop new schools. The Commission has laid down guidelines for new enrolment grants which give priority to the provision of funds for new schools


in developing areas and t o w n s . Planning and Finance Committees are required to examine proposals and, in addition to the normal assessment of educational and financial need, to apply the criteria of public demand, existing availability of student places and viability. These Committees accept practical responsibility, in making recommendations to

the Commission, for reconciling the need to make reasonable provision for freedom of choice with the need to promote the economic use of resources.

2.11 A new factor has emerged during the past year

which is placing further pressure on this program and the recurrent resources of schools : the escalation in building costs and interest rates. This will lead to a slowing down in school construction programs and an erosion of the capacity of schools and communities to sustain current debt servicing

loads. The Commission is monitoring this closely, and is especially concerned that some schools may face threats to their viability and to their capacity to sustain or enhance their recurrent resource standards.

2.12 Having regard to these and other factors, the

Commission believes that there is a strong case for maintaining the present real level of capital funding for non-government schools into 1983, including the commitment to the new

enrolments element already made by the Government in the context of the 1981 Federal election. The Commission also considers that there is a strong case for continuing the present forward commitment arrangements into 1984 and 1985, with the amount available for such commitment being up

to 90 per cent of that to be provided in 1983. The forward

commitment scheme, which was established in 1977, provides valuable forward planning capacity, although it may involve substantial bridging finance costs for schools.

2.13 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That capital grants be maintained at the same

real level in 1983 (including provision for new places already committed by the Government).

That the present forward commitment arrangements be maintained for 1984 and 1985 and that the funds which can be thus committed be up to 9 0 per cent

of 1983 levels.

Estimated cost: $44.956m.


3.1 The Commission is proposing that this program

receive the same allocation in real terms in 1983 as in 1982, and that the phasing in of the new funding formula and enrolment ceilings as envisaged in its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 be continued. The Commission regards this program as being of vital importance to meeting the educational needs of concentrations of children from circumstances of socio­ economic disadvantage.

3.2 The Commission has considered suggestions for

revision of the present basis for the program to make provision for pockets of disadvantage which are often found in suburbs and towns not characterised by concentrations of children from socio-economically disadvantaged families. On balance, it has decided that, consistent with its position as set out in the triennial report, there should be no change to the current focus of the program.

3.3 The Commission recommends:

(i) That the Disadvantaged Schools Program be maintained

at the same real level in 1983.

(i i ) That the introduction of the new funding formula

and enrolment ceilings for this program, as set out in the Commission's Report for the Triennium 1982-84 be continued.

Estimated cost: $27.889m. (Government schools: $ 2 3 ,616m.) (Non-government schools: $ 4.273m.) (includes provision for ACT schools,

see paragraph 12.2)



Special Education Recurrent Grants

4.1 At p r e s e n t , these grants support educational programs

for handicapped children who are school-aged. The Commission believes that there is extensive demand for the provision of services through this program to children who are below school age and require early intervention classes to maximise

their chances of participating in school. Without such early special education o p p ortunities, the Commission is of the view that many handicapped children will find it difficult or impossible to get the educational start in

life they need and d e s e r v e . It is also the Commission's view that integration funds should be extended to enable such children to attend ordinary pre-primary schools and, where appropriate, gain access to services offered in regular primary schools.

4.2 Approximately 27 per cent of children 16 years

and under are below school age (i.e. 0-4 years). The Commission estimates that to provide for access to the Special Education Program in 1983 will require a 10 per cent increase in

the currently available level of f u n d s . It will also be necessary to relate this initiative to the work and funding of other Commonwealth agencies, especially the Department of Social Security, and to State and non-government school

authorities to ensure co-ordinated effort and avoidance of double funding in the development of services for these needy c h i l d r e n .

4.3 The Commission recommends:

(i) That the eligibility criteria for this program

be altered to enable handicapped children who require early educational intervention to participate in it. Criteria for such participation to be deter-mined by State Ministers following consultation with the Commonwealth Minister.

That the extension of the program in this way be funded by an increase of 10 per cent ini real

terms on 1982 allocations for Special Education recurrent f u n d s .

Estimated c o s t : $22.372 m . (Government schools: $17.696m.) (Non-government schools: $ 4.6 7 6 m . ) (includes provision for ACT schools,

see paragraph 12.2)


(iii) That the funds for the integration of handicapped children into regular schools be increased by 10 per cent in real terms in 1983 to enable parti· cipation of children below school age , and that flexibility continue to be allowed to State and non-government authorities to reallocate other Special Education funds for this purpose.

Estimated cost: $1.307m. (Government schools: $1.014m.)

(Non-government schools: $0.293m.) (includes provision for ACT schools, see paragraph 12.2)

Severely Handicapped Children

4.4 This joint program began on a pilot basis in 1981.

The decision to introduce it followed a Commission sponsored survey of needs and provisions in special education which indicated t h a t , in the 5-18 years age g r o u p , there were many severely handicapped children in residential care

facilities operated by health authorities for whom virtually no educational services were available. The introduction of the program has revealed a much higher incidence of need than was anticipated. In particular, the Commission has been given evidence of significant numbers of severely handicapped children who are living at home and for whom educational services are necessary but unavailable. In addition, the level of support available for institutionalised children through the program is considerably below what is required to meet the top priority projects which have been considered by State committees responsible for its administration.

4.5 The Commission has carefully considered the pressures

on the program and the capacity of the States to use additional funds to meet urgent unmet needs in 1983 . It believes that there is a strong case for increasing the allocation by 25 per cent in 1983 rather than awaiting the new triennium.

4.6 The Commission recommends:

That the funds for the Severely Handicapped Children's Program be increased by 25 per cent in real terms.

Estimated cost: $2.907m.

Children in Residential Institutions

4.7 This joint program provides supplementary educational

support for children living in residential institutions for reasons of social and|or psychological problems or disability. Such institutions may be conducted by State educa t i o n a l , health or welfare authorities, or by voluntary or religious agencies. The Commission proposes no changes to the program for 1983.

4.8 The Commission recommends:

That the funds for the Children in Residential Institutions Program be maintained at the same real level in 1983.

Estimated cost: $1.814m. (includes provision for ACT schools, see paragraph 12.2)



General Support

5.1 Following the results of the national survey

of students from non-English-speaking backgrounds in 1980, the Commission, in its Report for the Triennium 1982-84, recommended a new formula for the distribution of ESL funds. This recommendation was accepted by the Government and by the majority of State and non-government authorities. A strict application of the survey results, i.e. a division of the total funds available among systems in accordance with their proportional enrolment of students from non-English

speaking backgrounds would have resulted in immediate substantial decreases in funds to some systems, e.g. Victorian and South Australian Government schools, South Australian and Western Australian Catholic schools. The Commission therefore recommended a two year phasing-in period (1982 and 1983) to minimise to some extent the dislocation in established programs and especially the necessity to retrench ESL teachers.

5.2 Subsequent consultations with education authorities have shown that most systems which are receiving considerably less funds than previously are finding it difficult to tailor their programs to the reduced level of funding and in most cases have not been able to meet the difference from other sources.

5.3 It is therefore proposed by the Commission that

implementation of funding allocations on the basis of the survey proceed as scheduled except that a non-dislocation allowance of $655,000 be provided in 1983 and a smaller amount in 1984 to 'c u s h i o n ' the impact of the funding reductions in the affected systems. All school systems would therefore be receiving funding based fully on survey figures by 1985 at the latest instead of 1983.

5.4 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That the funds for the General Support element

of the ESL program be maintained at the same real level in 1983, and that the implementation of the revised distribution formula be completed as scheduled.

Estimated Cost: $46.916m. (Government schools: $32.950m.) (Non-government schools: $13.966m.)

iii) That a special non-dislocation grant be provided for the government school systems of Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the non-government



school systems of South Australia and Western Australia such that the projected reductions in ESL funding are phased in over a further two year

period. The amount recommended will allow the proposed reductions in funding to be halved in 1983. A further, smaller grant will be recommended for 1984.

Estimated c o s t : $0.655m.

New Arrivals

5.5 The total provision for new arrivals in 1982 is

$ 8 ,531m. This is based upon the payment of $750 to education authorities for each newly arrived student for whom a special program of intensive English language instruction is provided. The Commission estimated initially that there would be

12,000 eligible students. The latter numbers were projected from statistics provided by the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. A recently revised estimate from DIEA for 1 9 8 0 |81 was 13,258. Estimates for 1983 are that there will be 14,000 newly arrived students requiring services under this program. That is, it is estimated that there will be 14,000 students in 1983 undertaking intensive instruc­

tion in classes specially organised for them in government and non-government schools.

5.6 The Commission regards the present per capita

figure for this program - $750 - as being an appropriate level for the provision of six months intensive English language instruction for newly arrived non-English-speaking students. Of course, education authorities are free to

extend this period or contract it according to n e e d . The Commission believes that this flexibility should continue. H owever, the present arrangement whereby potentially surplus

New Arrivals funds (which may materialise if numbers fall short) may be automatically transferred to the ESL General Support program, should be discontinued. The Commission does not believe that this or any other program should be dependent upon accidental supplementation.

5.7 The Commission recommends:

That the New Arrivals element of the ESL Program be increased to a level consistent with Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs projections, and that the present per capita value of the program

be maintained in real t e r m s . Estimated additional funds required for this element in 1983 are 16.6 per cent (to accommodate an increase in eligible students from 12,000 to 14,000) .

Estimated cost: $9.947m. (Government schools: $8.595m.) (Non-government schools: $1.352m.)

(i i ) That the provision for transferring surplus New Arrivals funding to the ESL General Support element be discontinued.



6.1 The Commission considers that this program is

operating successfully at both State and national l e v e l s . The Commission is proposing no change to allocation levels, the division of funds, or the basis of the program for

1983 .

6.2 The Commission is undertaking a review of the

objectives and operations of its programs for ESL, Multicultural Education and Ethnic Schools. It hopes to be in a position to

make recommendations on the development and desirable relation­ ship between these programs in the context of its next triennial report, due for publication in 1984 .

6.3 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That the Multicultural Education Program be

maintained at the same real level in 1983.

(i i ) That the basis for the distribution of the funds

between the States and national projects be the same as for 1982.

Estimated cost: $ 3 ,867m.


7.1 This program commenced in 1981 and provides per

capita grants of up to $30 for students enrolled in part-time ethnic schools. The program has an interim two-year funding commitment pending the outcome of a major survey which is currently being carried out for the Commission and the results of which should be available later in 1982. The object of the survey is to establish in precise terms the needs of ethnic schools and the financial options for meeting those n e e d s .

7.2 Although the Commission does not wish to anticipate

recommendations which may flow from the s u rvey, it believes that as an interim measure and to provide ethnic schools with a basis for planning for 1983, there should be indexation for the present per capita grants in line with that of

other Commonwealth per capita grant payments.

7.3 The Commission recommends:

(i) That the present per capita grant of $30 be continued

in 1983 and be subject to cost adjustment provisions, pending the outcomes of the survey currently in p r o gress.

(i i ) That there be no other changes to the conditions

presently applying to this program.

Estimated cost: $3.0 m .



8.1 This joint program, which helps to underpin the

quality of schooling in Australia by enhancing the p r o ­ fessional competence of staff and the capacity of parents to contribute to the education of their children, has two elements: recurrent support for professional development and the maintenance of Education C e n t r e s . The Commission indicated in its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 that it regarded this program as vital to the maintenance of

educational standards in government and non-government schools. It is also a particularly important means of bringing staff from both sectors together in pursuit of common educational objectives.

8.2 The Commission, with Ministerial endorsement, undertook some rationalisation of its Education Centres Program in 1981. Funding was withdrawn from three of the 34 centres. The Commission intends consolidating and strengthen­

ing centres in 1982 and 1983. To this e n d , it believes that

there is a need for some forward commitment capacity to be provided for individual centres to enable them to engage in forward planning for 1984 and 1985 on the basis of guaranteed levels of recurrent g r a n t s . The Commission is seeking authority

to commit up to 70 per cent of the recurrent allocation to Education Centres in this way.

8.3 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That the allocation for professional development

in 1983 be maintained at the same real level as

in 1982,

Estimated cost: $14.865m. (includes provision for ACT schools, see paragraph 12.2)

(i i ) That the Education Centres Program be provided with the same real level of recurrent funds in 1983 as in 1982, and that the Commission be permitted to enter into forward commitment arrangements with individual centres for 1984 and 1985 to facilitate

stability and forward planning.

Estimated cost: $1.861m.



9.1 In 1982, the Government is providing an increased

level of support for this joint program in accordance with its acceptance of the Commission's recommendations in its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 . The Commission recommended that the p r o g r a m , which was formerly of pilot status and an

element of the Disadvantaged Schools Program, be expanded in 1982 to enable more country areas to be included and

a broader range of services and activities supported. This expansion was to take place over a three year period. The

Commission proposes that for 1983 the Government continue the development commenced this y e a r .

9.2 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That the second year of the phasing in of this

program, as foreshadowed in the Report for the Triennium 1982-84 and accepted by the Government for 1982, be implemented.

(i i ) That the additional funds for 1983, as recommended

in the Report for the Triennium 1982-84 be provided and distributed on the basis of the established fo r m u l a .

Estimated cost: $9.387m.


10.1 This small program supports a series of policy

development thrusts which the Commission undertakes with Ministerial endorsement and the co-operation of State and non-government school authorities. For 1982 these projects are in the following a r e a s :

- Choice and Diversity in Government School Systems - Gifted and Talented Children - School Evaluation - School and Community - Education of Girls - The Schools Exchange and Travel Scheme

In addition, the program supports a limited number of general projects of national significance which are related to the Commission's responsibilities (e.g. support for Australian Education Council projects).


10.2 The Commission believes that this program is a

major contributor to educational development in Australia. For 1983 it is proposing that there be an increase in the

allocation to allow for expansion of one major project, viz., Choice and Diversity in Government Schools. This project was initiated in 1979 to enable participating systems to

explore and develop the concept of 1 c h o i c e ' within the government school sector as a possible means of achieving educational improvement. In 1982 an amount of $0.282m. has been committed to this end. Four States (New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania) are receiving

support to enable them to mount practical experiments in the development of a range of organisational and educational options within and between government schools. Funds have also been applied at the national level to commission the production of issues papers, case studies and other reading materials for wide distribution to systems and organisations concerned with the relationship of choice between schools

and educational improvement. A National Working Group consisting of representatives of participating systems is convened to monitor and support the initiatives undertaken and to provide the Commission with advice on the conduct of the overall project and the development of policy related to

i t .

10.3 The Education Departments of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and the ACT Schools Authority wish to take part in the project in 1983 . The Commission supports this and estimates that an additional $0.15m. will be required to provide these three systems with the

funds to develop and implement projects of their own.

10.4 The Commission recommends:

(i) That this program continue to operate with the

present special initiatives and general projects of national significance e l e m e n t s .

(ii ) That, subject to the introduction on a pilot basis of the School Improvement Program referred to below, the School Evaluation Project be discontinued and the funds thus released transferred to the

new program.

(iii) That the amount provided for the Choice and Diversity

in Government Schools Project be increased by $0.15m. to enable the inclusion of the Western Australian, Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory education systems. Present parti­ cipants are South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and T a s mania.

(i v ) That the Projects of National Significance Program be

provided with the same real allocation in 1983 as in 1982.

Estimated cost: $1.320m.



11.1 In its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 the Commission

recommended the development of a new program to be called the School Improvement Program. Through this program, the Commission envisaged school communities developing their own improvement plans in such areas as ev a l u a t i o n , parent involvement in

instructional support and school p o l i c y , and the introduction of new elements into specific areas of the curriculum. It was acknowledged that in some cases it would be necessary for school communities to use the advice and expertise of outside personnel from State Education Departments and other sources. The Commission expected that school improvement plans would take two or three years to put into effect. To be successful they would r e q u i r e , especially in the case of large schools, the services of a full-time person for a significant period of time. They would also require voluntary support from p a r e n t s , teachers and administrators.

11.2 Although the Government did not accept this recom­

mendation in 1981, the Commission wishes to put it forward again. There continues to be widespread support from education authorities and interest groups for the proposal. Repre­ sentations to the Commission endorsed its view that such a program has the potential to improve greatly the quality of individual government and non-government schools throughout the community. There was also strong endorsement of the view that such improvement was likely to be maximised by the emphasis in the program on self-help and local e f f o r t .

11.3 In the light of current budgetary constraints,

the Commission is recommending that the School Improvement Program be introduced in 1983 on a two year pilot basis

involving 20 per cent of the initial commitment proposed in the Report for the Triennium 1982-84, This will cost $2.40m. in 1983. Of this a m o u n t , $1.88m. is to support the program in government schools and $0.52m. for non-government schools. The Commission estimates that such a program will enable approximately 190 government schools and 50 non­ government schools to participate in 1983.

11.4 The Commission recommends:

(i ) That a School Improvement Program as described

in the Report for the Triennium 1982-84 be introduced in 1983 on a two year pilot basis.

(i i ) That the sum provided in 1983 be $ 2 .40m. to be

apportioned between government and non-government sectors as set out in the Report for the Triennium



That the pilot School Improvement Program absorb the present allocation of $0.15m. for School E v a l uation.



12.1 In its Report for the Triennium 1982-84 the Commission

recommended that ACT schools be given full access to the Disadvantaged Schools, Special Education and Professional Development Programs. It was the Commission's view that such access would help meet educational needs in ACT schools

and ensure they operated on the same basis of Commonwealth support as schools in the States. The Government accepted this recommendation in prin c i p l e , but has not yet provided the full amount necessary to implement the programs. The Commission recommends that these funds be provided for 1983. Although this will require a net increase in funds for ACT schools, the Commission expects that some offsetting may be possible from other appropriations.

12.2 The Commission recommends:



That, in the light of the Government's decision that schools of the ACT be eligible to participate in an extended range of programs for disadvantaged schools, special education and professional development, the amounts allocated for these programs be commen-

surate with those available to schools in the States.

That the allocation of funds be as set out b e l o w :

G o v t . Non-Govt. Joint

Schools Schools Program:

$m $m $m

(a ) (a ) (a )

Disadvantaged Schools Program 0.027 0.009 -

Special Education Program 0.318 0.050 0.034

Professional Development Program - - 0.221

0.345 0.059 0.255

Estimated Total Cost: $0.65 9 m .

(a) These allocations have been included in program estimates shown in paragraphs 3.3(ii ) , 4.3 ( i ) , 4.3(ii ) , 4.8 and 8.3(i ) of this report.


13.1 The Commission recommends that the Government provide the amounts set out in Table 13.1 in its Guidelines to the

Commission for 1983.



TABLE 13.1

00 K>


• including ACT

Percentage Variation3'Variation

Government Schools

$'000 $'000 % $'000

General Recurrent 253,301 258,367 + 2.0 + 5,066

ESL . General 32,950 33,342 + 1.2 + 392

. New Arrivals 7,371 8,595 +16.6 + 1,224

Disadvantaged 23,853 23,616 - 1.0 - 237

Special Education . General 15,814 17,696 +11.9 + 1,882

. Integration 905 1,014 +12.0 + 109

School Improvement - 1,880 n.a. + 1,880

Capital 124,749 124,749

Non-government Schools

458,943 469,259 + 2.2 +10,316

General Recurrent 406,584 437,724 + 7.7 +31,140

Emergency Assistance 749 500 -33.2 - 249

ESL . General 13,966 14,229 + 1.9 + 263

. New Arrivals 1,160 1,352 + 16.6 + 192

Disadvantaged 4,000 4,273 + 6.8 + 273

Special Education . General 4,213 4,676 + 11.0 + 463

. Integration 259 293 + 13.1 + 34

School Improvement - 520 n.a. + 520

Capital 44,856 44,956 + 0.2 + 100

Joint Programs

475,787 508,523 + 6.9 +32,736

Multicultural 3,86 7 3,867 - -

Ethnic Schools 2,823 3,000 + 6.3 + 177

Country Areas Children in Residential

7,953 9,387 + 18.0 + 1,434

Institutions 1,780 1,814 + 1.9 + 34

Severely Handicapped 2,326 2,907 +25.0 + 581

Professional Development 14,644 14,865 + 1.5 + 221

Education Centres 1,861 1,861 - -

Projects of National Significance 1,320 1,320

36,574 39,021 + 6.7 + 2,447

TOTAL 971,304 1,016,803 + 4.7 +45,499

(a) Some of the percentage variations listed here appear to be different from the recommendations in the text of the report. The explanation for this is that they include additional provision for the ACT as set out in paragraph 12.2. (b) In addition $0.095m. was provided by the Government in the 1981/82 financia

year for Integration, Disadvantaged Schools, and Professional Development in the ACT. A further $0.095m. will be sought in 1982/83 to complete provisions for 1982 Programs.






Enrolments Proportion NON-GOVERNMENT Enrolments Proportion TOTAL


'000 % '000 % '000


1972 1,450.7 80.0 362.8 20.0 1,813.5

1973 1,447.1 80.2 356.9 19.8 1,804.0

19 74 1,451.5 80.3 356.6 19.7 1,808.1

19 75 1,456.1 80.4 354.2 19.6 1,810.3

19 76 1,475.0 80.6 354.0 19.4 1,828.9

1977 1,502.9 80.8 356.1 19.2 1,859.0

1978 1,517.2 80.8 360.1 19.2 1,877.3

19 79 1,517.3 80.5 36 7.4 19.5 1,884.8

1980 1,508.0 80.0 376.1 20.0 1,884.1

1981(p) 1,485.5 79.4 386.0 20.6 1,871.5


1972 773.3 75.8 247.1 24.2 1,020.4

19 73 788.2 75.6 254.2 24.4 1,042.4

1974 801.8 75.4 261.1 24.6 1,062.9

19 75 834.3 75.9 265.6 24.1 1,099.9

1976 848.2 75.9 269.9 24.1 1,118.1

1977 846.4 75.6 273.8 24.4 1,120.2

1978 837.2 75.1 278. 1 24.9 1,115.4

19 79 819.4 74.3 282.8 25.7 1,102.2

1980 810.0 73.6 290.4 26.4 1,100.5

1981(p) 814.3 72.9 302.0 27. 1 1,116.3


1972 2,223.9 78.5 610.0 21.5 2,833.9

19 73 2,235.4 78.5 611.1 21.5 2,846.4

1974 2,253.3 78.5 617.6 21.5 2,870.9

1975 2,290.4 78.7 619.8 21.3 2,910.3

1976 2,323.2 78.8 623.9 21.2 2,947.1

1977 2,349.3 78.9 629.8 21.1 2,979.2

1978 2,354.4 78.7 638.2 21.3 2,992.6

19 79 2,336.7 78.2 650.2 21.8 2,986.9

1980 2,318.1 77.7 666.5 22.3 2,984.6

1981 (p) 2,299.8 77.0 688.0 23.0 2,987.8

(a) Includes children in special schools.

(p) Preliminary

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 'Schools' Bulletins




Percentage retained to: 1969 1972 19 75 1977 1978 19 79 1980 1981(p)

Year 10 - Persons 77.5 82.7 84.9 87.7 88.8 89.4 90.5 91.4

Males 78.7 83.8 84.8 87.1 88.3 88.5 89.5 90.3

Females 76.2 81.6 85.1 88.3 89.5 90.4 91.5 92.6

Government 75.2 80.6 82.8 86.1 87.1 87.3 88.5 89.2

Non-government 85.2 90.4 92.3 93.6 95.2 96.8 97. 1 98.7

Catholic 77.6 84.4 87.9 89.5 91.5 92.9 93.5 95.3

Other 107.3 107.4 104.7 105.1 105.5 107.9 107.0 107.8

Year 11 - Persons 42.5 48.2 50.5 52.3 53.4 53.0 54.0 55.3

Males 46.0 50.7 50.7 50.3 51.1 50.4 50.8 51.7

Females 38. 7 45.5 50.3 54.4 55.8 55.8 57.3 59.1

Government 38.3 44.2 46.2 48.0 48.8 48.0 48.7 49.8

Non-government 55.9 61.9 65.7 67.5 69.6 70.6 72.2 73.5

Catholic 42.0 48.6 53.5 56.4 58.4 59.4 60.9 62.8

Other 96.5 99.6 99.9 97.8 100.9 102.0 104.2 102.7

Year 12 - Persons 27.5 32.4 34.1 35.3 35.1 34.7 34.5 34.9

Males 31.1 35.7 34.6 34.0 33.1 32.4 31.9 32.1

Females 23.7 28.9 33.6 36.6 37.3 37.2 37.3 38.0

Government 23.0 27.6 28.6 29.7 29.6 28.9 28.4 28.6

Non-gove mment 42.1 48.5 53.4 54.9 54.5 55.4 56.1 56.9

Catholic 29.7 35.2 40.9 43.2 43.1 44.1 44.8 45.6

Other 78.5 86.5 88.2 87.6 85.5 87.1 87.9 89.2

(a) These rates are measures of the tendencies of members of student cohorts to remain in school from the first secondary year to the third last (Year 10), second last (Year 11) and final year (Year 12) of secondary schooling.

The method of calculation of these rates is best shown by an example:

- to calculate the apparent retention rate of students in Year 12 in 1980 in NSW, the number of those students in 1980 was expressed as a proportion of the number of students in the first secondary year in NSW in 1975 (1975 being the year in which the 1980 final year cohort would have enrolled in first year).

The retention rate thus derived is called an apparent retention rate because the method of calculation does not explicitly take account of net changes to the school population due to migration, nor of those students who spend more than one year in the same grade.

(p) Preliminary

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 'Schools' Bulletins




Leve 1


Enrolment^ ^ D „ (c)



Enrolment ^^ Rate ^


Expenditure^ ^

$ $ $'000

1 44,581 296 82,477 480 49,670

2 7,922 444 8,380 721· 8,996

3 326,755 562 202,960 913 347,166

TOTAL 379,258 293,817 406,584(e)

(a) Excludes Australian Capital Territory

(b) Enrolments are as reported for the 1981 Schools Census. The classification of schools by funding level for 1982 has not yet been finalised and the figures shown are, therefore, subject to revision.

(c) Rates are expressed in 1982 1 outturn' prices.

(d) These figures are expressed in estimated December 1981 price levels and are subject to adjustment in respect of

(i) finalisation of funding levels;

(ii) enrolments reported at the 1982 Schools Census.

(e) Includes $752,000 for establishment grants to new non-systemic schools.


COMMONWEALTH SCHOOLS COMMISSION PROGRAMS 1976 AND 1980 TO 1983 (RECOMMENDED) (constant estimated December 1981 price levels)

T A B L E 4

1976 1980(a) 1981(a) 1982(a) 1983(a)(b)

PROGRAM (recommended)

Government Schools

$ Ό00 $ Ό00 $'000 $'000 $'000

General Recurrent 263,446 253,30V ; 253,30V ' 253,301 258,367

English as a Second Language 26,016 28,723 36,199 40,321 41,937

Disadvantaged 23,837 24,116 24,117 23,853 23,616

Special Education (incl. Integration) 14,479 15,732 16,720 16,719 18,710

School Improvement -

131,087^ ' 131,088v ’

- 1,880

Capita1 194,414 124,749 124,749

522,192 452,959 461,425 458,943 469,259

Non-government Schools

General recurrent 227,245 311,255 356,677 406,584 437,724

Emergency Assistance - 750 749 749 500

English as a Second Language 9,673 11,541 13,072 15,126 15,581

Disadvantaged 3,708 3,737 3,737 4,000 4,273

Special Education (incl. Integration) 5,276 4,295 4,472 4,472 4,969

School Improvement - - - - 520

Capita1 40,513 36,857 45,689 44,856 44,956

Variation 1976-1983


- 1.9

+ 61.2

- 0.9

+ 29.2

n . a .


- 10.1


n . a.

+ 61.1

+ 15.2

- 5.8

n . a.

+ 11.0

PROGRAM 1976 1980(a) 1981(a) 1982(a)

Joint Programs

$'000 $ Ό00 $ Ό00 $'000

Multicu1tura1 - 1,800 3,793 3,867

Ethnic Schools - - 3,069 2,823

Country Areas - 6,519 6,519 7,953

Children in Residential Institut ions 1,781 1,781 1,780

Severely Handicapped - - 2,326 2,326

Professional Development 25,697 14,799 14,644 14,644

Education Centres 2,290 1,860 1,861 1,861

Projects of National Significance (incl. Special Projects) 6,334 3,911 4,064 1,320

34,321 30,670 38,057 36,574

TOTAL 842,928 852,064 923,878 971,304

(a) Includes allocations for Northern Territory

(b) Includes extended provision for ACT.

1983(a)(b) (recommended)












Variation 1976-1983


n . a .

n . a.

n . a.

n. a.

n . a .




+ 13.7

+ 20.6

(c) Amounts shown are Guidelines allocations. After the issue of the 1980 and 1981 Guidelines, the equivalent of $7.9 million was transferred, at State request, from capital to recurrent funds.


COMMONWEALTH AND STATE GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON SCHOOLS IN THE STATES, 1975/76 to 1979/80 (constant estimated December 1981 price levels)


1979/80 1975/76 to _____________1979/80

$m % %

3,598.3 91.1 +21.7

349.7(b) 8.9 - 1.3

3,948.0 100.0 + 19.2

336.5 70.2 -36.2

142.7 29.8 -32.5

479.2 100.0 -35.2

Non-Government Schools Recurrent State (c)

C ommonwealth

Capital State Commonwealth

138.2 38.9 159.0 37.5 177.2 39.3 188.6

216.7 61.1 265.0 62.5 273.3 60.7 296.5

354.9 100.0 424.0 100.0 450.5 100.0 485.1

54.6 100.0 33.4 100.0 47.6 100.0 53.5

54.6 100.0 33.4 100.0 47.6 100.0 53.5

38.9 61.1 1 0 0 . 0

100.0 100.0

182.2(d) 36.1 +31.8 323.2(b) 63.9 +49.1 505.5 100.0 +42.4

37.1 100.0 -32.1

37.1 100.0 -32.1



1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 1975/76 to


$m % $m % $m % $m % $m % %

All Schools Recurrent State Commonwealth

Capital State Commonwealth

3,095.0 84.4 571.0 15.6 3,666.0 100.0

527.7 66.5 266.0 33.5 793.7 100.0

3,311.5 83.9 636.5 16.1 3,948.0 100.0

446.0 65.2 237.7 34.8 683.7 100.0

3,514.9 84.7 635.6 15.3 4,150.5 100.0

441.6 62.0 270. 2 38.0 711.8 100.0

3,638.1 84.9 647.7 15.1 4,285.8 100.0

412.6 62.5 247.7 37.5 660.3 100.0

3,780.5 6 72.9 4,453.4

338.5 179.8 518.3

84.9 +22. 1 15. 1 + 17.8 100.0 +21.5

65.2 -36.2 34.8 -32.4 100.0 -35.0

(a) Excludes expenditure on scholarships, preservice teacher education, transport, and repayment of Commonwealth loans. (b) Includes Commonwealth expenditure on school-to-work transition activities in schools in 1979/80. (c) Excludes expenditure on scholarships, preservice teacher education, and transport. (d) Figure is atypical since a change of accounting procedures in Victoria has led to approximately

25 per cent of Victoria's expenditure which would have normally been incurred in 1979/80 being carried forward to 1980/81.

Source: Commonwealth Department of Education and Commonwealth Schools Commission.



Percentage Variation 1974 to 1979


U1r t e r e n c e s b e t w e e n tota l s and sums of c o m p o n e n t s are due to r o u n d i n g



Secondary 1975/76 1979/80 Variation

$ $ $ $

New South Wales 1,143 1,290 + 12.9 1,812

Victoria 1,192 1,472 + 23.5 2,045

Queens land 1,241 1,373 + 10.6 1,788

South Australia 1,216 1,606 +32.1 2,176

Western Australia 1,177 1,469 + 24.8 2,140

Tasmania 1,310 1,535 + 17.2 1,994

( q )

Northern Territory 1,965 2,903 +47.7 3,219

Australian Capital Territory 1,518 1,652 + 8.8 2,628











+ 24.7

+ 22.7

+ 9.1

+ 11.4

+ 16.1

+ 24.3

+ 4.2

+ 4.8


(a) Excludes costs of school transport, scholarships, repayment of Commonwealth loans, preservice teacher education.

(b) Changes in statistical methodology used by Northern Territory authorities have reduced the comparability of statistics for 1975/76 and 1979/80.


83.9% DIRECT SCHOOLS COSTS $1,127 per stu d e n t

3 8 %



$52 per stu d en t



$47 p er stu d e n t

MR S alaries of Executive and P rofessional Staff il S alaries of A dm inistrative. Clerical a n d A ncillary Staff Staff Travel an d Removal E xpenses E quipm ent . Books and M aterials

- Cleaning, G ardening and m aintenance



$48 o er stu d e n t


G rants n.e.i.

T ransportation of S tu d en ts S tu d en t A llow ances and Hostel Expenses Communication and Sundries


$ 7 0 πργ student

Source: Commonwealth Schools Commission, Schools Resources Study -Part One, Canberra, 1981.




S alaries of Executive and Professional Staff In m H l S alaries of A dm inistrative. Clerical Η Η11 ME an d Ancillary Staff Y //A Equipm ent Books an d M aterials

G rants n.e.i T ransportation of S tudents S tudent A llow ances and Hostel E xpenses

Communication and Sundries

Source: Commonwealth Schools Commission, Schools Resources Study Part One, Canberra, 1981.