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Migrant services and programs - Report (Mr F. E. Galbally) of review of post-arrival programs and services for migrants - Report, May 1978


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The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia

M IGRANT SERVICES AN D PROGRAM S

Report of the Review of Post-arrival Programs and Services for Migrants

M ay 1978

Presented by Command 30 M ay 1978

Ordered to be printed 9 June 1978

Parliamentary Paper No. 164/1978

MIGRANT SERVICES

AND PROGRAMS

Report of the Review of Post-arrival

Programs and Services for Migrants

May 1978

A u s t r a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i s h i n g Service

C a n b e r r a 1978

This Report is also available in the following languages:

Arabic Serbo-Croatian

Dutch Spanish

German Turkish

Greek Vietnamese

Italian

It was translated by the Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs.

Appendixes to the Report are available in English only.

ISBN 0 642 03609 8

(c)Commonwealth of Australia 1978

Printed by C.J. Thompson, Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra

REVIEW O F POST ARRIVAL PROGRAMS AN D SERVICES T O MIGRANTS

Chairman Mr F.E. Galbally, C.B.E. Ph. 03-679804 Members Miss F. Merenda, M.B.E. Mr N. Polites Mr C. Stransky

P.O. Box E194 Canberra, A.C.T. 2600 Secretary

Mr B. Tymms Ph.(062) 72 3537

2 7 APR 137G

My d ear P r i m e M i n i s t e r ,

I h a v e the h o n o u r to p r e s e n t w i t h this l etter

the R e p o r t of the R e v i e w of P o s t - A r r i v a l P r o g r a m s and

S ervices to M i g r a n t s w h i c h y ou a p p o i n t e d on 1 S e p t e m b e r 1977.

Our w o r k has c o v e r e d a w i d e field and we have

had to c a l l on m a n y o r g a n i s a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s for

a s s i s t a n c e . T his has b e e n m ost l i b e r a l l y p r o v i d e d and

we are e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l to a ll c o n c e r n e d for the help

they h a v e given.

YoiHts sincerely,

(Fraple^Gfalbally) /

(Ni<£k/Fo l i n e s )

(Carlo StranskΪ ,

CiVrancesca Merenda)

The Rt. Hon. M a l c o l m Fraser, C.H., M.P.,

Prime M i nister, P a r l i a m e n t House, C A N B E R R A A.C.T. 2600

The R e v i e w G r o u p g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e s

the c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e of a ll the i n d i v i d u a l s

o r g a n i s a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s

w h o a s s i s t e d it. It is p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to those

w h o u n d e r t o o k s p e c i a l w o r k on its behalf.

We also thank the m e m b e r s of our S e c r e t a r i a t

and in p a r t i c u l a r our S e c r e t a r y , Mr B r i a n T y m m s .

CONTENTS

Terms of r e f e r e n c e .................................................. 1

1. Summary of themes and recommendations .................. 3

2. Initial settlement........................... 29

3- Teaching English ........................................ 37

4. C o m m u n i c a t i o n ............................................ ^9

5. I n f o r m a t i o n .............................................. 56

6. Voluntary, self-help and Good Neighbour Council

services to migrants ................................... 64

7. Areas of special n e e d ................................... 80

. The legal s y s t e m ..................................... 80

. Income security ....................................... 82

. E m p l o y m e n t ........................................... 88

. H e a l t h ................................................ 92

8. Special g r o u p s ........................................... 95

. Young children ....................................... 95

. W o m e n .................................................. 97

. The handicapped....................................... 98

. The a g e d ................................................ 100

9. Multieulturalism ......................................... 104

10. Ethnic m e d i a ................................................ 112

11. Co-ordination and consultation ........................... 117

List of A p p e n d i x e s .................................................... 122

Index................................................................ 126

Preamble

In the light of the Government's concern to ensure that the

changing needs of migrants are being met as effectively as possible within

the limits of available resources, it has been decided to establish a Review

of existing post-arrival programs and services. The Review is to be

conducted with regard to the Government's Federalism policy and its

objective of encouraging self-help and supporting the enterprise and

dedication of community groups and individuals in the provision of such

programs and services.

Terms of Reference

1. The Review shall examine and report on the effectiveness of the

Commonwealth's programs and services for those who have migrated to

Australia, including programs and services provided by non-government

organisations which receive Commonwealth assistance, and shall identify any

areas of need or duplication of programs or services. In doing so, the

Review shall -(a) examine welfare and other programs and services (including

in the fields of health, housing, education and employment

insofar as these bear on the social welfare of migrants);

(b) take account of the extent to which programs and services are

being provided by other levels of government and other

non-government organisations.

2. In particular the Review shall consider:

(a) the roles and functions of government and non-government

organisations respectively, and the appropriate relationship

between them which would ensure the most effective planning

and provision of programs and services to migrants;

(b) which programs and services available to the general

community could be better designed to ensure that migrants

(especially non-English speaking migrants) are as well served

as others;

1

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

3 -inquiries,

which special programs for migrants could be better integrated

with, or absorbed into, those for the general community;

the extent to which migrants may be disadvantaged through

lack of awareness of programs and services and the

difficulties experienced in gaining access to them;

the appropriateness of the role and organisation, and the

effectiveness of the operations of the Good Neighbour

Councils, having regard to the changing needs and

composition of the migrant community;

the roles of other non-government organisations providing

significant services to migrants, and their inter-relationships

including with Good Neighbour Councils;

the role of the Commonwealth in funding non-government

organisations providing services to migrants and the most

appropriate arrangements for any such funding.

The Review is to take account of current or recent relevant

including in particular:

the Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health;

the Inquiry into Education and Training;

the Review of the Commonwealth Employment Service;

the Report of the Interdepartmental Working Party on

Interpreters and Translators.

I

2

1. SUMMARY OF THEMES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction

1.1 We believe Australia is at a critical stage in the development of

a cohesive, united, multicultural nation. This has come about because of

a number of significant changes in recent years - changes in the pattern

of migration and in the structure of our population, changes in attitudes

to migration and to our responsibilities for international refugees, changes

in the needs of the large and growing numbers of ethnic groups in our

community, and changes in the roles of governments and the community generally

in responding to those needs.

1.2 The pattern of migration has altered in the past six years,

with the proportion of migrants from Britain and the other European countries

falling from 70 per cent to less than 40 per cent. Meanwhile there has been

a significantly increased migration from the Middle East and Asia (including

refugees) and more recently from South America.

1.3 Australia's population consists of many ethnic groups with varied

cultural backgrounds. There are about one hundred different languages and

dialects spoken within our community. As a result of the post-war migration

program, over 20 per cent of Australia's current population was born overseas -

and over half of these people came here from countries with very different

languages and cultures. This structure and diversity makes Australia unique.

1.4 No doubt the Government had these circumstances in mind when it

commissioned this Review, referring to its 'concern to ensure that the

changing needs of migrants are being met as effectively as possible within

the limits of available resources'.

1.5 That Australia is at a critical stage in relation to migrant

services and the need to encourage multiculturalism was brought home to us

also in the many submissions we have received and the many discussions we

have been privileged to have during the past eight months. We believe that

the commissioning of this Review was timely.

1.6 We have concluded that it is now necessary for the Commonwealth

Government to change the direction of its involvement in the provision of

3

programs and services for migrants and to take further steps to encourage

multiculturalism. In taking these new directions, we stress at the outset

that the closer involvement of ethnic communities themselves, and of other

levels of government, is essential.

Guiding principles

1.7 In developing our recommendations, we have adopted the following

guiding principles:

(a) all members of our society must have equal opportunity to

realise their full potential and must have equal access to

programs and services;

(b) every person should be able to maintain his or her culture

without prejudice or disadvantage and should be encouraged to

understand and embrace other cultures;

(c) needs of migrants should, in general, be met by programs and

services available to the whole community but special services

and programs are necessary at present to ensure equality of

access and provision;

(d) services and programs should be designed and operated in full

consultation with clients, and self-help should be encouraged

as much as possible with a view to helping migrants to become

self-reliant quickly.

Needs of migrants

1.8 In conducting our review we have considered the needs of those

born overseas now resident in Australia and their children. It is difficult,

if not impossible, to assess fully and accurately the needs of any particular

group in the community. We have therefore sought to identify areas of

need which seem the most critical and to determine whether present services

and programs meet those needs adequately.

1.9 We have concluded that the migrants who have the greatest

difficulties are those who arrive here with little or no understanding of the

English language and who remain at a disadvantage because of that.

Difficulties are greatest immediately after arrival, particularly for

migrants who come from countries without a long established tradition of

migration to Australia or for those who are refugees.

4

1.10 But those who do not learn adequate English continue to be at

a disadvantage and often suffer considerably in employment, through isolation

from social contact and in many other ways. Moreover, it is these same

people who are often not effectively reached, and sometimes not reached

at all, by present services and programs. There is evidence quoted elsewhere

in this Report and in other reports to suggest that nearly half a million of

our population face these problems and that many suffer severe hardship

because of them.

1.11 This group includes particularly large numbers of those who are

isolated at home (especially women), elderly migrants (whose numbers are

expected to increase dramatically in the course of the next decade), migrant

women at work, those from smaller ethnic groups whose own support services

are limited, and the children of migrants.

1.12 These areas of special need were brought to our attention in

submissions and other evidence documented in more detail elsewhere. Equally

they have been highlighted and documented in other reports including those

of the Poverty Inquiry.

; Current programs and services j !

| ; i . 1.13 It should be noted that the great bulk of Commonwealth government

; ! expenditure which reaches migrants is through general programs designed for

| the whole Australian community. About 20 per cent of that community are

h currently 'migrants'. Of Commonwealth expenditure on education (about :!!

$2400m in 1977-78), health ($2800m), social security and welfare ($7300m)

and other areas (for example, housing) up to 20 per cent should be being used

i i for the benefit of migrants.

1.14 We endorse the view that services to migrants should as far as

j possible be through general programs directed at the whole community.

Consistent with our terms of reference, we have not sought to assess the

. j . effectiveness of these general programs as such, but have concentrated

; rather on establishing whether migrants are placed at any disadvantage

i through ignorance of available services or through difficulties with access,

communication and so on.

1.15 There are, of course, current programs and services directed

specifically to migrants. The Commonwealth government has programs directed

at migrant education ($39m), migrant welfare ($4m), interpreting and

5

translation ($2m) and other programs and services for migrants ($9m). We

consider most of the programs of this kind are valuable and effective,

but believe there are important gaps and deficiencies (including some

duplication of effort) to which our recommendations are addressed.

Proposed major initiatives

1.16 One of the difficulties we have found in drawing up our

recommendations is the interrelationship between problems in different

areas and between proposals for their solution. For example, the main

areas of need (such as for fluency in English and for better communication

and information) are common to virtually all areas of program and service

delivery, such as health, welfare, education, employment and law. Accordingly

the majority of the initiatives proposed are directed at these general

areas of need rather than at specific services or programs. Moreover, a

balance must also be struck between those services and programs directed

at the newly arrived (which can be costly at the time but can save .

significantly in the longer term because they reduce the need for later

special programs) and those directed at the established community of migrants

where there is a backlog of needs.

1.17 Accordingly we have developed what we believe is an appropriately

integrated package of measures for introduction over a period of three

years. This package, and suggested additional financial allocations, is

shown in summary table form at the end of this chapter (para 1.43)·

1.18 In making our proposals for Commonwealth government initiatives

we have been conscious both of the requirement for us to recommend changes

possible 'within the limits of available resources' and of the Government's

commitment late last year to some new programs. Overall we believe the

package we recommend gives the necessary balance and is as restrained as

possible in its demands on the Government's budget, especially in 1978-79­

1.19 We have been conscious of the increasing emphasis on meeting

the needs of migrants in State government programs and of the growing

awareness of cultural differences which has led to the development of State

ethnic affairs units. There has likewise been increasing interest and

participation by local governments. Similarly, the welfare and cultural

activities of the non-government sector have grown considerably in recent

years, through agencies representing particular ethnic groups as well as

6

J j through some redirection of effort within the more traditional broad-based

I agencies.

1.20 It is essential that the new measures we are proposing are

implemented in full consultation with all these interested bodies: State

and local governments, non-government agencies and the ethnic communities.

Summary of major recommendations

1.21 Many of the problems encountered by migrants arise from inadequate

arrangements for their initial settlement here. We recommend a comprehensive

initial settlement program (paras 2.7-2.21) which would include classes in

English and formal orientation courses including advice and assistance in

housing, education, employment and other areas of need. It would be an

expensive program, but should also enable savings to be made by preventing

later settlement difficulty. The program would be available to all migrants,

either in residential hostels or by attendance at new community centres, and

a living allowance would be paid during a specified initial settlement

period. Management of the program would be through new bodies known as

migrant settlement councils (paras 2.13-2.14), representing Commonwealth and (1)

State governments, the ethnic communities and voluntary organisations.

1.22 Because we recognise that migrants' knowledge of the English

language is a critical factor in enabling successful settlement in Australia

we give special attention to the teaching of English both to children and

to adults. For children, we found compelling evidence that there are many

who need special instruction in English but who do not receive it. We also

found room for significant improvements in teaching methods and materials

and in the distribution of funds for teaching English to children. We

recommend extra funding of $10m over the next three years, to be distributed

so as to reflect the needs of children in different areas who do not speak

adequate English (paras 3·9-3· 10). We also saw a need to have better

information available for planning programs and assessing their effectiveness,

both in the teaching of English and in multicultural education, and we

recommend the establishment of a Commonwealth-State working party to advise

on arrangements for collecting and analysing such information (paras 3-11-3.13·

(1) Our detailed estimates of the costs of our recommendations are given in the table at para. 1.43, and in Appendix 1.

7

1.23 For adults, while we see our initial settlement proposals as an

important part of the program for teaching them English, there will be a

continuing need for special programs for certain groups and for the 'backlog'

of migrants in the community whose English is not adequate. We recommend

extensions to the availability of and coverage of full-time courses of

instruction, the replacement of the current continuation classes by

certificate courses at different levels of difficulty, an extension of the

range of advanced courses available, and wider use both of 'on-the-job'

English instruction and the home tutor scheme (para. 3.19). We also

recommend better education for teachers of adult migrants, additional funds

for conferences and seminars to enable such teachers to keep abreast of the

latest developments and additional funds for the provision of teaching

materials (paras 3.23-3-24).

1.24 Again recognising the importance of planning and monitoring

programs, we recommend the establishment of the adult migrant education

program as a rolling three-year program and an extensive survey by the

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs of the needs for English

of the various migrant groups (paras 3.26 and 3.27-3-28).

1.25 Even though we have emphasised so heavily the value of teaching

English to migrants we accept that there will always be a substantial number

in the community who do not understand English, and we have formulated

recommendations designed to ease the difficulties in communication faced by

these people. These include financial incentives for bilingual staff

occupying public contact positions whose duties involve substantial contact

with migrants; intensive English courses to enable migrants with overseas

professional and sub-professional qualifications to have them recognised

here and help to relevant professionals in obtaining or upgrading knowledge

of other cultures and languages (para. 4.6). '

1.26 We have also recommended, since it is not possible to solve

every communication problem by the use of bilingual staff that existing

Commonwealth government translating and interpreting services be extended

and brought together (paras 4.13-4.14) and that the Commonwealth should

share with the States the costs of providing additional services operated

by the States in areas of State responsibility (para. 4.15).

1.27 Migrants are often placed at a disadvantage by their ignorance

of their rights, entitlements and obligations in Australian society. We

8

have examined the question of information for migrants and have recommended

an extensive survey by the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs of

migrants' needs in information and its dissemination (para. 5.14). Because

we feel that this is an area where resources are not necessarily inadequate,

but where they are wastefully used through inadequate consultation and

co-ordination, we recommend a strengthening of the Information Branch of

the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs to provide a focus for

co-ordination of advice in this important field (para. 5.14). We also

recommend improvements to the ways in which migrants get information in areas

of special need, including information relevant to employment (paras 5.17­

5.18), health (paras 5-19-5.20), consumer protection (para. 5.22), bail

procedures (para. 5.23), the Commonwealth Ombudsman (para. 5.24) and legal

aid (para. 5.25).

1.28 One of our guiding principles set out in para. 1.7 above was

support for self-help activities by ethnic groups. In Chapter 6 we consider

the best means of providing such support, and the place of voluntary agencies

and the Good Neighbour Councils in delivering services to migrants. We

believe that the ethnic communities themselves and the voluntary agencies can

meet the welfare needs of migrants more effectively than government agencies

and we recommend a special program of multicultural resource centres phased

in over a three-year period, involving the local communities to the greatest

possible extent in their management and operation (paras 6.2-6.9). We also

recommend an increase in the numbers of ethnic welfare workers through an

extension of the grant-in-aid scheme (paras 6.10-6.17) and increasing

flexibility in its operation, including a change in the method of funding

under the scheme from one-year to three-year grants (paras 6.18-6.19). We

believe that as these recommendations take effect the demands for direct

services from the Commonwealth migrant services units will be reduced and

we recommend a reduction in their overall direct service delivery role and

a strengthening of their capacity to provide a consultancy, community

development and co-ordination service while retaining only a small direct

service capacity (paras 6.20-6.23).

1.29 Another initiative which seems to us to provide the sort of

flexible government support needed by voluntary groups is the introduction

of a special program to provide 'once only' grants of up to $5000 to assist

with special projects, particularly with the introduction of new approaches

9

or the restructuring of existing welfare services (paras 6.24-6.27).

1.30 Our terms of reference required us specifically to examine the

effectiveness of the Good Neighbour Councils, their relations with other

non-government bodies working in this area and the arrangements for government

funding. We have concluded that because of the many changes in the needs

and the methods of approach to the problems of migrants since the councils

were established, and because we do not believe that it is possible to

recommend a revision of the councils' functions that would neither duplicate

our other proposals nor inhibit the role of the ethnic communities in the

provision of services, there is no justification for continued Commonwealth

government funding of the councils. We therefore recommend that funds

previously allocated to them be redirected over two years to other

community programs, and that they be given special assistance by a Department

of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs working party in the administrative

problems associated with this, including assistance in the redeployment of

staff and the placement of volunteers (paras 6.28-6.43).

1.31 In the course of our inquiries we identified both some special

areas of need and some groups in need of special assistance. The areas of

special need were the law, income security, employment and health. Our

recommendations in the area of the law include protection of migrants'

rights in criminal investigations (para. 7.4) and in voting (para. 7-9) and

we suggest improved information on such aspects as the legal system

generally (paras 7.2-7.3) and family law (para. 7.5). We also note the

confusion caused by the proliferation of antidiscrimination machinery in

Australia and suggest a remedy (paras 7.6-7.7).

1.32 On income security we felt that specific recommendations would

take us beyond our terms of reference and would encroach on the

responsibilities of the new Social Welfare Policy Secretariat. We-outline

problems encountered by migrants, present options for change and recommend

that the Government give high priority to resolving anomalies affecting

migrants (paras 7-10-7.32).

1.33 We found the main areas of concern in relation to employment

were in industrial safety, where we support action currently being taken

to have better information more easily available to migrants (paras

7-35-7.37), and in under-use of migrants' skills and capabilities. Here we

recommend an extension to the responsibilities of the Committee on Overseas

10

Professional Qualifications, to allow it to advise on sub-professional

qualifications (para. 7-40), and make suggestions for improving both the

access to recognition of overseas qualifications and occupational retraining.

We also recommend that trade unions be eligible for special project grants

to improve migrants' knowledge of and participation in union affairs

(paras 7.44-7-46).

1.34 There are significant cultural and communication problems in the

health area and in addition to the Government1s recently announced program

for funding interpreters we recommend increased funds for the use of ethnic

health workers (paras 7.47-7-52).

1.35 We see migrant women as a group with special needs and have

formulated our general recommendations with particular regard for their

problems (paras 8.10-8.13). For these women and for their young children

we recommend government funding, with some contribution by employers, of

child-care facilities at places of work and assistance with development

of more general appropriate community child-care and pre-school services

for migrants (paras 8.3-8.4). We also outline the particular advantages

of the family day care scheme for migrant communities (paras 8.5-8.6) and

recommend special provisions for workers to be employed by ethnic communities

to work in child-care centres and pre-schools to foster a multicultural

approach and to help bridge the gap between school and home (paras 8.7-8.9).

1.36 To overcome the problems of access to rehabilitation services

experienced by handicapped migrants we recommend greater use of ethnic

workers in rehabilitation centres (para. 8.15) and special provisions in

such centres to enable them to deal with the different needs of migrant

clients (para. 8.16).

1.37 We see two complementary lines of approach to the problems of

older migrants: greater support should be given to migrants who we found

are more willing to care for their elderly relatives at home; and

institutions accommodating old people should specialise more in providing

an environment acceptable to ethnic groups. We recommend also an increase

in funds for· the employment of ethnic workers for the aged to work in this

area (para. 8.24).

1.38 In the course of the Review we became convinced that it was

essential for the Government to encourage a multicultural attitude in

Australian society by fostering the1 retention of the cultural heritage of

11

different ethnic groups and promoting intercultural understanding. We

feel that the schools are the key element in achieving such a goal and we

have proposed an allocation of $5m over the next three years to develop

multicultural education programs (para. 9.14), and a co-ordination of effort

by the Commonwealth (para. 9.16). For students training in professions we

also recommend components of courses on cultural backgrounds of the

ethnic groups (para. 9-17).

1.39 Because of the lack of information on multicultural developments

in Australia and overseas we recommend an Institute of Multicultural Affairs,

which among other activities would engage in and commission research and

advise government bodies on multicultural issues (para. 9.18). We also

recommend that the Australia Council reassess its financial assistance to

the arts of ethnic communities, to ensure that such arts are given more

equitable support (paras 9-22-9.25).

1.40 The ethnic media play an important part in fostering multi-

culturalism and we support the Government's decision to extend ethnic radio

through the Special Broadcasting Service to all States. We recommend also "

an upgrading of the Sydney and Melbourne services (para. 10.5). We feel

that there would be advantages in the Special Broadcasting Service having

available extensive information on migrants' views of and expectations

from ethnic radio and we recommend that the National Ethnic Broadcasting

Advisory Council be given funds to carry out the necessary research

(para. 10.8). For ethnic television we recommend the establishment of a

pilot station drawing on existing technical resources which would assist

in the assessment of public reaction and in working out the details of

programming and administration of the permanent service which we consider

should be developed over the next three years (paras 10.12-10.14).

1.41 Although we have tried in. our recommendations to outline a -

balance of responsibility between governments, voluntary agencies and ethnic

groups we realise that effective channels of communication and co-ordination

between all these groups are essential and that present arrangements are

inadequate. We therefore recommend improvements to existing mechanisms of

communication and co-ordination and special attention to encouraging

consultation with, and between, local agencies (para. 11.3). At the

Commonwealth level we recommend co-ordination of advisory bodies by

secretarial support through the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

12

(para. 11.12) and we also recommend a strengthening of that department's

policy planning role to include responsibility for monitoring all

Commonwealth programs and services in so far as they are used by

migrants (para. 11.18).

Implementation

1.42 Finally we believe that there should be a small group established

to supervise the implementation of our recommendations over the three-year

period we have suggested. Since our recommendations have implications for

all government departments, an independent evaluation of the progress and

effectiveness of the programs over the three-year period should be arranged

by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, with a regular - at

least annual - report to the Prime Minister and other ministers concerned.

Table of recommendations

1.43 A summary of our recommendations in tabular form, with costing

where appropriate, follows. The figures given are the annual extra costs

to the Commonwealth above the current (1977-78) base year. All proposed (2) increases are in April 1978 prices.

(2) A further breakdown of the basis of costing is given in Appendix 1.

13

Summary of costing for all ______________ Cost $m

recommendations Year 1 Year , 2 Year 3 Total

Settlement 1.92 3.45 6.63 12.00

English language instruction

- child 1.00 3.00 6.00 10.00

- adult 0.66 1.28 1.35 3-29

Communication^ 0.83 1.13 1.58 3-54

Information 0.23 0.15 0.15 0.53

Voluntary and self-help services 0.64 1.25 1.57 3.46

Areas of special need 0.11 0.21 0.41 0.73

Special groups 0.18 0.23 0.36 0.77

Multiculturalism 0.55 1.80 4.45 6 .8 0

Ethnic media 1.96 3.37 5.44 10.77

Co-ordination and consultation 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.60

Items total expenditure 8.28 16.07 28.14 52.49

Less Good Neighbour Council net saving 0.40 1.06 1.35 2.81

7.88 15.01 26.79 49.68

(a) Note that health interpreters are not included in the cost.

14

We recommend

_______ Cost $m_______________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

1. A new initial settlement program should

be established at an additional cost

of $ 12.0m over three years involving a

reorganisation of existing resources,

as well as the allocation of new ones,

to set up sixteen migrant settlement

centres throughout Australia. It should

be organised on the principles outlined

in paras 2.13-2.19 (para. 2.7). 1.92 3-45 6.63

2. The Commonwealth should negotiate with

the States about its assuming full

responsibility for State hostels

(para. 2.22).

3. An extra $10m should be provided over

the next three years to government and

non-government school systems for the

teaching of English as a second

language, and the funds be distributed

so as to reflect the needs of children

of non-English speaking background in

different areas (para. 3.9). 1.00 3.00 6.00

4. The allocation of the additional funds

proposed for the teaching of English

as a second language (and

'multicultural1 education) should be

accompanied by the establishment

of a Commonwealth-State working

party to advise governments on

arrangements for the collection and

analysis of financial and educational

information for planning and

evaluation purposes; and consideration

should be given to the inclusion in the

12.00

10.00

15

__________ Cost $m____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

States Grants (Schools)

legislation of such arrangements

(para. 3 -13).

5. In addition to the English language

provisions in the initial settlement

program the following improvements

to some activities within the current

adult education program should be made

through reallocation of existing

resources and an additional expenditure

of $2.4m over the next three years: 0.35 0.85 1.15 2.35

(a) extending the availability and

coverage of full-time courses,

(b) changing the concept and

presentation of continuation classes,

(c) extending the range of advanced

courses,

(d) extending the provision of courses

in industry,

(e) extending the home tutor scheme

(para. 3-19).

6. The Government should refer the need

for appropriate pre-service education

of all adult migrant education teachers

to the Inquiry into Teacher Education,

with special consideration being made '

for flexible entry requirements to any

proposed education programs (para.

3.23(a)).

7. $0.2m should be allocated over three

years for in-service conferences and

seminars for all teachers, including

instruction on the use and development

16

Cost $m

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

of existing and new materials, and

feedback into the program for

production of materials (para. 3 .23(b))- 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.24

8. $0.3m should be allocated over

three years to provide the materials

assessed by the Commonwealth, in

consultation with the States and

teachers themselves, as being urgently

needed for the adult migrant education

program. The funds may be directed to

Commonwealth or State bodies for the

production or purchase of materials 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.30

(para. 3-24).

9. The permanent nature of the adult

migrant education program should be

given practical recognition by

establishing for it a rolling three

year program (para. 3-26).

10. An additional sum of $0.4m over

eighteen months should be used by

the Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs to survey the needs of

migrants for English language teaching

and to collect information from which

future program development can

proceed (para. 3.28). 0.15 0.25 - 0.40

11. The Commonwealth, in consultation with

the States, should assess the need for

a formal agreement under the Immigration

(Education) Act to recognise the

separate Commonwealth and State

responsibilities for teaching English to

migrants and to provide for the collection

17

_________ Cost $m_____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

and analysis by all governments of

information necessary for planning

and evaluation (para. 3·30).

12. All Commonwealth departments and

authorities should identify positions

where a significant proportion of the

working time could be spent dealing with

clients who speak a language other than

English; and these positions

should be staffed by officers proficient

in the designated community language

who would receive a language

allowance (para. 4.6(a)). 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.54

13· As a trial, a special intensive English

course (maximum six months) should be

introduced for people who have

qualified overseas in professional and

sub-professional occupations which have

substantial public contact, but whose

limited command of English is an

obstacle to the recognition of their

qualifications and their employment in

this country in the occupations for which

they are qualified. Course members should

receive an appropriate living allowance

equivalent to the unemployment '

benefit (para. 4.6(b)). 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.24

14. Professionals, including those

studying and those currently in

practices in areas with large migrant

clienteles, should receive assistance

in obtaining, or upgrading, language

skills and understanding cultural

differences (para. 4.6(c)). 0 .0 6 0.13 0 .1 3 0.32

18

____________ Cost $m__________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

15. The Telephone Interpreter Service

should be extended to Hobart and

Canberra during 1978-79, Newcastle,

Whyalla and Geelong during 1979-80, and

Darwin and Latrobe Valley during

1980-81 (para. 4.13). 0.18 0.35 0.45 0.98

16. The Telephone Interpreter Service

and the translation unit should be

combined into one unit within the

Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs and the translation function of

the translation units in New South Wales

and Victoria be extended to those other

areas where TIS operates (para. 4.14).

17. The Commonwealth should introduce a new

program to share equally with the States

the cost of providing additional State-

operated translation and interpreter

services to meet the needs in areas of

prime State responsibility and an extra

$1.5m should be allocated for this

purpose over the next three years.

In the first year the Commonwealth

should provide 100 per cent of the

funds and thereafter funding should

be equally shared with the States 0.39 0.39 0.68 1.46

(para. 4.15).

18. The Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs should commission an

extensive survey of the information most

needed by migrants, the forms in which it

is most accessible to them, what use they

make of the media and their attitudes

towards different methods of receiving

19

_________ Cost $m_____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

information. The Department of

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs should

also be responsible for ensuring that

all Commonwealth agencies through their

ethnic liaison officers are aware of

and where appropriate make use of the

results of the information

survey (para. 5.10). 0.15 - -

19- The role of the Information Branch of

the Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs should be

expanded (para. 5.14). 0.05 0.10 0.10

20. The Departments of Productivity and

Employment and Industrial Relations

taking into account the results of the

survey recommended in para. 5.10 should

approach unions and employer bodies

with a view to developing and

distributing information relating to

employment and the role of

unions (para. 5.17).

21. Unions and small employers and others

responsible for the well-being of

workers should be permitted to apply

to the Departments of Employment and

Industrial Relations and Productivity

for approval of essentia], material on

safety etc. to be translated and printed

using government facilities at

nominal cost to the applicant 0 .0 3 0.05 0.05

(para. 5.18).

0.15

0.25

0.13

20

__________ Cost $m____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

22. The Commonwealth Department of Health

should be responsible for:

(a) the development of information on all

aspects of health care, including

preventive care, in the main

community languages and its

distribution to all organisations

which play a part in spreading

information,

(b) the development, with the producers

of ethnic radio programs, of short

information segments on health care

to be broadcast on ethnic radio in

community languages (para. 5.20).

23. The Commonwealth Ombudsman should ensure

that multilingual information about his

role is widely available to migrants and

ethnic communities particularly with

the decentralisation to capital cities

of the Ombudsman’s Office (para. 5.24).

24. The Commonwealth Legal Aid Commission

should pass the results of the proposed

information survey (para. 5.10) to State

departments and to the legal aid schemes

and services that operate throughout

Australia (para. 5.25).

25. The Commonwealth Government should

establish on the principles outlined in

paras. 6.2-6.9 a special program for the

funding of multicultural resource

centres in areas of need (para. 6.3)· 0.04 0.50

26. The number of grants allocated under

the grant-in-aid program should be

0.80 1.34

21

____________ Cost $m__________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

determined by the funds available,

which should -be increased by $ 1.7m

over the next three years (para. 6.13). 0.30 0.60 0.75 1.65

27. The method of funding under the

grant-in-aid program should be

changed from one year to three

years (para. 6.19)·

28. An extensive revision of the functions

of migrant services units should take

place to enable them also to undertake:

(a) consultancy for general community

welfare services, both government

and voluntary, on technical welfare

aspects of migrant settlement and

integration, ;

(b) community development both in

areas where there are large

numbers of migrants and where

services are inadequate and in

relation to the establishment

of the resource centre program,

(c) co-ordination, profession support

and training for grant-in-aid

workers,

(d ) a greatly reduced direct welfare o . 15 - - 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 2

service load (para. 6.21).

29. The Public Service Board, in

consultation with the Department of

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, should

carefully monitor the staff levels of

migrant services units to ensure that

duplication between government and

voluntary sectors is avoided and that the .

22

_________ Cost $m_____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

department's case-work function does

decrease as the other programs become

effective (para. 6 .2 3)·

30. A continuing government program of

part-funding for specific 'once only'

projects initiated by ethnic and

voluntary organisations should be

established (para. 6.24). 0.15

31. Funds previously allocated to the Good

Neighbour Councils, and certain staff

and volunteers, should be directed to

other community programs over a two

year period (para. 6.43). -0.40

32. A working party should be set up by

the Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs to assist with the administrative

problems associated with cessation of

the Good Neighbour Councils' funding,

including assistance with the

appropriate placement of staff (para. 6.43).

33· Clauses particularly relevant to the

rights of migrants should be retained in

the Criminal Investigation Bill

(para. 7-4).

34. Anomalies in voting rights should be

resolved and all migrants should be

placed on equal footing in their voting

rights (para. 7.9).

35- The Government should give high priority

to resolving the income security

anomalies affecting migrants (para. 7.13).

36. When completed, the results of industrial

safety programs being developed by the

Department of Productivity and the

0.15 0,15 0.45

-1.06 -1.35 -2.81

23

_________ Cost $m_____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

Productivity Promotion Council of

Australia should be made widely

available and employers be

encouraged to use them (para. 7-36).

37. The Committee on Overseas Professional

Qualifications' functions should be

extended to enable it to investigate and

advise on sub-professional

qualifications (para. 7.40).

38. Unions, State Trades and Labour Councils

and the Australian Trade Union Training

Authority should be eligible for grants

under the project funding program

proposed in para. 6.24 (para. 7.46).

39· Additional funds of $0.7m should be

provided under the Commonwealth's

community health program to employ

ethnic health workers over the next

three years on a range of special

services for migrants. In the first

year the Commonwealth should contribute

100 per cent of the funds and thereafter

funding should be under the usual

cost-sharing arrangements with the

States (para. 7-49)· 0.11 0.21 0.41

40. The current child-care policy should

be reviewed and the Government should

give priority to funding child-care

facilities at places of work, jointly

managed by the employers and the employees

or unions. The employer should meet

part or all of the capital cost with

the Commonwealth providing assistance for

equipment and recurrent costs (para. 8.3).

0.73

24

__________ Cost $m____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

41. The community development officers

proposed, in conjunction with the Office

of Child Care, should advise on the need

for and assist in the development of

appropriate child-care services in areas

where there are large numbers of working

mothers (para. 8.4).

42. An extra $0,4 m should be provided through

the Office of Child Care to enable the

ethnic communities to employ up to 25

ethnic children's services workers over the

next three years. In the first year the

Commonwealth should provide 100 per cent

of the funds and thereafter funding

should be under the usual cost-sharing

arrangements with the States (para. 8.7). 0.07 0.12 0.21 0.40

43. The implementation of the general

recommendations of the Report, which

have been framed in recognition of

the special problems of migrant women,

should take particular account of

their needs (para. 8 .13).

44. Funds under the States Grants (Home

Care) Act should be increased by $0.4m

over three years to enable ethnic

groups to employ ethnic workers for

the aged to work with elderly migrants

and their families. In the first year

the Coirmonwealth should provide 100 per

cent of funds and thereafter funding

should be under the usual cost-sharing

arrangements with the States (para.8.24). 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.37

45. The Commonwealth should allocate $5m

specifically for multicultural education

25

__________ Cost $m____________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

over the next three years (para. 9.14). 0.50 1.50 3-00

46. A small committee of educators

experienced in areas of cultural and

racial differences should be appointed

to consult with State, Commonwealth and

non-government authorities and to draw up

within three months proposals as to how

the recommended $5m for multicultural

education can be used most effectively

in the three years ahead (para. 9·15).

47. Formal machinery should be established

at Commonwealth level to co-ordinate

Commonwealth policies and programs, and

relationships with schools and school

systems, in relation to multicultural

education (para. 9.16).

48. The Tertiary Education Commission should

approach all tertiary institutions with

a view to having components on the

cultural background of the ethnic

groups included in appropriate

professional courses; such components

should also include segments on the need

for and use of interpreters (para. 9.17).

49- The Commonwealth should provide $1.8m

over the next three years to establish

an Institute of Multicultural Affairs

to be directed by a small council of

experts in multicultural developments

and migrant issues (para. 9.18). 0.05 0.30 1.45

50. The Australia Council should develop

closer links with ethnic communities

and reassess its budgetary

allocation in order to ensure that

5 .0 0

1.80

26

______ Cost $m________________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

ethnic arts receive a more /

equitable amount (para. 9-24).

51. The extension of ethnic radio should be

phased over the next three years to cover

all capital cities and provincial centres

with large numbers of migrants. The

Sydney and Melbourne services should

also be upgraded to provide wider

coverage in these centres (para. 10.5)'. 0.83 0.90 1.50 3·23

52. The Government should provide NEBAC

with specific funds to survey the views

of a wide cross-section of migrants on

their expectations and requirements

from ethnic radio (para. 10.8 ). 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.13

53- A small task force should be

authorised to proceed with the

establishment of a pilot ethnic television

station drawing on existing technical

resources, which would be in operation

within twelve months (para. 10.13). 1.00 2.42 3·89 7-31

54. NEBAC, consulting the Department of

Post and Telecommunications on technical

issues as appropriate, should undertake

public consultations on the basis of

the pilot station to find out what

migrants and the community in general

think about the format, content and

administration of ethnic

television (para. 10.14). 0 .1 0 - - 0.10

55. Existing mechanisms for consultation

at Commonwealth and State levels should

be made more effective and greater

emphasis should be given to encouraging

consultation with, and between, agencies

24463 /78-2 27

____________ Cost $m__________

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

working at the local level (para. 11.3 )·

56. Better co-ordination of Commonwealth

ethnic affairs activities should be

achieved through co-ordinated secretarial

support and exchanges of minutes of

meetings in the Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs (para. 11.12).

57. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs' policy planning role should be

strengthened to include responsibility for

monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness

of all Commonwealth programs and services

in so far as they are used by migrants

(para. 11.18). 0 .2 0 0 .2 0 0 .2 0 0 .6 0

28

2. INITIAL SETTLEMENT

2.1 Settlement is the complex process of adjusting to a new

environment following migration. It is a long-term process affecting all

immigrants and particularly those coming from cultures different from that

dominant in Australia or without a well established ethnic group here. Its

end point is the acceptance by and the feeling of belonging to the

receiving society. It implies change both in the individual migrant and

the host society.

2.2 We believe that it is not possible to say how long settlement

generally takes. Some people take only a few months to settle here, others

take many years. Many, approximately 25 per cent of those who arrive, fail (1 )

to settle and return to their home country.

2.3 There is extensive evidence that newly arrived migrants are at (2 )

a disadvantage in almost every aspect of life in Australia. They are

more likely to be unemployed, often move from job to job, and are frequently

employed below their skills and capacities. They pay higher than average

rents and often have extensive debts, particularly when they have to borrow

to raise their fare to Australia and to buy furniture and basic household

goods after they have arrived. There is often considerable pressure on

married migrant women to work to help meet these costs. If the new arrival

does not speak English, problems such as finding a job, doing the shopping

and travelling to work or school are magnified, often into major

difficulties. We believe adequate accommodation, English tuition, help in

finding employment and information about Australia and support and

assistance in settling into the community are vital for successful

settlement.

2.4 We found, however, that because arrangements have developed over

a number of years against a background of changing policies and conditions (q)

of migration, existing help in settlement is fragmentary and inadequate.

(1) See Appendix 3

(2) See Appendix 4

(3) See Appendix 5

29

Of the 71,000 new arrivals in 1976-77 only 13,000 (19 per cent) were

provided with accommodation in hostels, yet the hostels can accommodate

approximately 23,000 people each year. (We are advised that with increased

numbers of refugees the hostels are expected to approach higher levels of

use. In addition to accommodation, hostels have the capacity to offer

resident migrants help with housing, employment and welfare and other

general advice and assistance). In the same year about 3500 of those who

specially needed tuition in the English language completed a full-time course

of instruction, while some others received a smaller amount of tuition. Some

of the new arrivals were also welcomed to Australia by a volunteer working

with the local Good Neighbour Council, but only 1862 (3 per cent of all

immigrants) received formal orientation and settlement training (and these

were mainly refugees). Many migrants experiencing serious problems, such as

the Lebanese, Cypriots and some South Americans received very little

initial help with settlement.

2.5 In this chapter we propose a new program to reduce difficulties

following arrival. It is a preventive program designed to lessen the later

problems migrants experience in settling here, and to lower the departure

rate. We believe a balanced program to help with initial settlement, while

expensive, is an essential and integral part of our immigration program. In

the long term it should pay for itself through reduced need for welfare

services. In terms of reducing social costs, the benefits will be

substantial.

2.6 We have found a great deal of support for the development of an

adequate program for· initial settlement in submissions from and discussions

with migrants, ethnic groups, voluntary agencies, social workers, employers,

unions and professional bodies. Many reports and studies in recent years

have recommended increased help for the migrant who has just a r r i v e d . ^

We do not agree with some of the alternative suggestions put f o r w a r d . ^

However, it is beyond dispute that a concerted effort is required to meet

the initial settlement needs of migrants.

(4) See Appendix 6

(5) See Appendix 7

30

Scope and objectives of the proposed program

2.7 We recommend that a new initial settlement program be established

at an additional cost of $ 12.0m over three years involving a reorganisation

of existing resources, as well as the allocation of new ones, to set up

sixteen migrant settlement centres throughout Australia. It should be

organised on the principles outlined in paras 2 .8-2 .1 2 and with the

management structure described in paras 2.13-2.19· Based on the 1976-77

figures of around 71,000 new arrivals, we estimate that about 2 0 ,0 0 0 adults

each year - mainly people who do not speak English - are likely to be in

particular need of help with settlement.^ While we recognise that

children will undoubtedly receive some orientation particularly in hostels

we believe that children's settlement needs can best be met through the

education system and this is dealt with in Chapters 3 and 9·

2.8 We favour two types of centres:

(a) Hostel settlement centres will be based on the present migrant

hostels, catering mainly for migrants and refugees who have no

links with Australia and need orientation and settlement

assistance in a residential setting. At present hostel

accommodation is reserved for those migrants who arrive by

assisted passage, but we consider that any available space

should be fully used and that priority for entry should be

given to migrants in need, under criteria to be developed by

the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. These

centres would also have facilities to enable migrants not

living in hostels to participate by daily attendance.

(b) Community settlement centres will be set up in areas where there

are many newly arrived migrants. They will for the first time

provide community-based services for those with families, or

other sponsors here, who wish to participate in orientation (7 )

and settlement programs by daily attendance.

2.9 The objectives of the program are:

(a) to provide initial accommodation for incoming migrants, whether

sponsored or unsponsored, who do not have suitable accommodation

(6 ) See Appendix 22

(7) See Appendix 8

31

arranged before arrival; .

(b) to provide an initial intensive course in English for the

majority of incoming migrants who do not speak English. (The

link between initial and longer-term English instruction is

taken up in Chapter 3);

(c) to provide information about Australia, its institutions and

services;

(d) to provide assistance and counselling for migrants, especially

for those with no links with Australia, in finding suitable

employment and housing, and generally in establishing

themselves in the community.

2.10 To meet these objectives we see these centres providing a focus

for orientation and settlement activities that will make possible a gradual

transition into the new community. In addition to English language classes zo\ these activities'· would include:

(a) talks and discussion groups about life in Australia, especially

on such subjects as health, child care, finance and hire purchase,

employment opportunities, unions, citizenship and housing, and

rights and obligations under the law;

(b) visits where appropriate to schools, banks, post offices,

supermarkets etc. to provide practical experience of Australia's

institutions;

(c) counselling and advice on housing, employment, recognition of

overseas qualifications and educational opportunities;

(d) practical assistance in job interviews, moving into the community,

establishing links with ethnic and other groups and developing

contacts within the community.

2.11 For this program to be successful it must be recognised that

migrants who have just arrived require a period of adjustment and that

financial support should be provided during this period. There should be

no pressure to enter the workforce until the initial orientation and

settlement program has been completed. A living allowance (in the form of

a special benefit at the unemployment benefit rate, but without the work

test) should be paid until individual initial settlement periods are

complete.

(8) See Appendix 9

32

2.12 The period we have in mind will vary with the needs of individual

migrants, ranging from two to four weeks for those with cultures similar

to the Anglo-Australian and some facility in English, to twelve weeks for

refugees, which should be the maximum. We estimate that the average would

be six weeks. At the end of each individual's orientation period special

benefit should be terminated and normal unemployment benefit, with the full (o)

work test, should be available if necessary.

Management of the program

2.13 The task of planning, managing and putting into effect the

settlement programs in each State and Territory should be given to new

bodies to be known as migrant settlement councils. They should supervise

the development of orientation and settlement programs.

2.14 As the Commonwealth has sole responsibility for recruiting and

selecting migrants for Australia, the main responsibility for providing

initial settlement assistance must lie with it. Nevertheless, the State

governments, the ethnic communities and voluntary organisations also have

a responsibility for settlement and should be closely associated with these

programs. For this reason we see the migrant settlement councils in each

State being made up of eight members selected from those bodies.

2.15 In each State there should be a settlement co-ordinator attached

to the appropriate Migrant Services Section in the State office of the (11)

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. He will be the executive

officer for the State migrant settlement council and direct settlement (12) officers. These officers will work full-time at individual centres and

will carry the main responsibility for putting the programs into effect at

that level. They will also co-ordinate other resources at each centre (for

example, full-time teachers of English).

2.16 Settlement committees should also be established at each centre

to develop a specific local settlement program in accordance with the State

(9) See Appendix 10

(10) See Appendix 11

(11) See Appendix 12

(12) See Appendix 13

33

( Ή)

settlement council's overall plans. J Each settlement committee should

be convened by the settlement officer and include the hostel manager (in

the case of residential centres) and representatives of local voluntary

agencies, local government and other appropriate bodies. It is most

important that the voluntary sector, including the ethnic groups, which

plays a large role in Australian welfare services should establish links

with the incoming migrants as soon as possible. 'Hosting' schemes run

by voluntary and ethnic agencies provide opportunities for migrant families

to join in social activity with other families and the community. The

provision of clothing and basic necessities by the voluntary agencies

(currently undertaken with the Commonwealth reimbursing the costs) should

be another responsibility of the local settlement committees.

2.17 Refugee resettlement committees, operating in the States, have

been most imaginative in developing programs for assisting settlement. We

have used them as a model for our proposals and would see them being absorbed

into the proposed broader management structure.

2.18 With respect to the settlement programs to be run in hostels we

believe that the task of managing the accommodation should remain with

Commonwealth Hostels Ltd. We envisage no changes in their current control

of such activities as welfare, housing and child-care services within the

hostel, but the officers providing these services should participate in

activities as part of the new program.

2.19 The responsibility for setting up, staffing and managing the

community settlement centres would lie with the Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs.

Implementation

2.20 There are currently settlement activities for refugees In several

hostel centres and the first stage in the development of the new program

would be:

(a) an extension of these programs to cater for all migrants

in hostels; and at the same time,

(13) See Appendix 11

34

(b) the, setting up of at least one community settlement centre

in an area where there are many newly arrived migrants.

This centre's siting (and that of subsequent community

settlement centres) should be co-ordinated with the proposed

resource centres (discussed in Chapter 6 ) and existing

migrant education centres.

2.21 Our costing has been based on future phased developments

using the two types of centres as outlined in Table 1. While this is our

current best prescription for future developments, we recognise that

-flexibility in approaches and plans must exist to take account of:

(a) the future migration program and changes in numbers and

composition of arriving migrants;

(b) the relative appeal of each type of settlement centre to

migrants who have just arrived; .

(c) experience gained from the early developments.

Table 1

Implementation of the initial settlement program

1978-79 1979-80 1980-81

Number of centres

Hostel settlement centres 9 9 11

Community settlement centres 1 3 5

10 12 16

Number of adult migrants

Daily attenders 1 000 3 000 5 000

In residence 7 000 8 000 13 000

8 000 11 000 18 000

Estimated extra cost of

program ($m) 1.92 3.^5 6.63

State hostels

(15)

2.22 Hostels run by State governments are currently mainly used for·

British migrants and are also under -used. We recommend that the Commonwealth

(14) See Appendix 14

(15) See Appendix 5, paras 10, 11

35

negotiate with the States about its assuming full responsibility for State

hostels. ^ At least some of them are in very convenient positions and,

irrespective of the outcome of any negotiations, the Commonwealth could

still consider asking for the use of these facilities in the settlement

program. This would provide greater flexibility in future and it would be

possible to use them for all aspects of settlement programs (for

accommodation, as day attendance centres for orientation etc.).

Promotion of the program

2.23 We also see a need to make the existence and the purpose of the

program widely known, both overseas and within the ethnic communities in

Australia, and to inform future migrants, particularly those who do not

speak English, of the benefits of participating in initial settlement

activities whether as residents of a hostel or by attending a community

centre. Selection and counselling processes before migration, which are

beyond our terms of reference, are none the less relevant to future

successful settlement.

(16) See Appendix 6, para 1(d)

36

3. TEACHING ENGLISH

3.1 We have already noted the critical role the English language

plays in enabling migrants to have access to Australian society and its

institutions. In this section we recommend initiatives in the teaching

of English language to migrant adults and the children of migrants which

will mean an extra expenditure of $ 13-3m over the next three years.

Teaching English to children

3.2 The Commonwealth has funded government and non-government schools

| since 1970 for the specific purpose of teaching the English language to

> migrant children who need it. Between 1970 and the end of 1975 under the

I ; program the number of special English teachers (equivalent to full-time)

ii rose from 164 to 1970 and the number of children learning English in special iu / Λ \

1 1 classes rose from about 9000 to 91»000.' However, it is estimated that

1 at June 1976, there were resident in Australia up to 400,000 children

I f . aged five to fourteen years who came from a background where English was not s p o k e n . ^

3-3 In 1975 the Schools Commission reported that in non-government

schools only one-third of the children in need of special help with the

English language were receiving it. Commonwealth sponsored surveys in

1973 and 1975 showed similar proportions of children in need not receiving

special English teaching and listed other inadequacies in provisions under (3) the child migrant education program. Since 1976 Commonwealth (4) expenditure has remained fairly constant in real terms. We note that the

few surveys of the situation, which have been confined to the larger States, (5)

confirm that there are significant needs unmet. This is true even in

(1) See Appendix 15

(2 ) See Appendix 16

(3) See Appendix 18

(4) See Appendix 17

(5) See Appendix 18

37

Victoria which appears from our estimates to be already receiving a

relatively higher proportion of funds per p u p i l ^ than some other States

for the teaching of English as a second language. We believe the evidence

from such studies, and from our discussions and the submissions we received,

shows there are many children recognised as needing special help with the

English language who are not receiving it. We also draw attention to the

body of evidence pointing to inadequate accommodation, equipment and (7) numbers of teachers.

3.4 Further there is significant e v i d e n c e ^ to suggest that many

migrant students do badly in reading and literacy tests and have difficulty

with normal classroom lessons - attributable in most cases to difficulties

in coping with the English language. The implications of difficulties with

English remain with some students throughout their lives and limit their

ability to participate in more advanced s t u d i e s , subsequent employment

and community activities. To help overcome these problems the Schools

Commission has encouraged school systems to make more flexible use in

normal classrooms both of teachers of English as a second language and of:

ordinary classroom teachers, in addition to the withdrawal of students from

normal classrooms into special English classes.

3.5 We believe it is important to allocate more funds urgently to the

teaching of English to children of non-English speaking background:

(a) to improve equality of access and opportunity;

(b) to reduce the risk of future settlement difficulties;

(c) to reduce future demands for and expenditure on interpreting

and translating services and the need for bilingual

assistance to migrants.

Commonwealth funds

3.6 The Schools Commission has advised us that of the $26.1m allocated

to the education of migrant children for 1978 (both for teaching English

and for multicultural education), approximately 95 per cent ($25m) is

(6 ) See Appendix 19

(7) See Appendix 18

(8) See Appendix 20

(9) See Appendix 21

38

likely to be spent on the teaching of English as a second language.

3.7 Our estimates also suggest that the distribution among the States

of funds under this program is not proportionate to the distribution of

children of non-English speaking background.

3.8 The existing level of funding is insufficient to meet the need

even in States with high per capita expenditure and we propose over the

next three years a significant increase in funding in addition to funds

currently being provided to the Schools Commission for this program. On the

evidence presented the funds might need to be doubled if all existing needs

were to be met. However, as we are unable precisely to assess the extent

of the need or locate the most needy groups and because we believe the

program may not responsibly sustain such a dramatic increase in the short

term, we propose a phased increase over current levels of expenditure by

1980-81. As more precise information becomes available the Government may

see the need to increase expenditure even further (see para. 3 .13)·

3-9 We recommend that the Commonwealth provide an extra $10m over the

next three years to government and non-government school systems for the

teaching of English as a second language, the funds to be distributed so as

to reflect the needs of children of non-English speaking background in

different areas.

3.10 As a means of increasing the number of children of migrants

receiving special English instruction and improving its quality, we see the

extra funds being used in several ways including:

(a) increasing the numbers of special teachers;

(b) improving the training of special teachers of English,

and training classroom teachers in meeting the special

needs of children of non-English speaking backgrounds;

(c) improving the production and distribution of teaching

materials, particularly to encourage further use of

'normal class’ methods (as well as withdrawal into special

classes) in meeting language needs.

(10) See Appendix 19

39

Information for planning and evaluation

3.11 No judgment on the effectiveness of programs funded by government

can be made nor can the development of programs in future be adequately

carried out unless relevant, accurate and up-to-date information is made

available to the bodies responsible for policy and action. Such information

is not readily and consistently available to the Commonwealth co-ordinating

body (the Schools Commission) from the various government and non-government

school authorities. This applies both to the teaching of English as a second

language and to 'multicultural' education (discussed in Chapter 9).

3.12 We note that the Schools Commission has no statutory power in

relation to such information required of the school systems and it

currently uses persuasion and encouragement in influencing them on

expenditure of funds and feedback of information. We recognise the need

for sensitivity in Commonwealth-State relationships but believe this

arrangement to be quite unsatisfactory. We have identified in general terms

needs which we believe additional funds should be used to meet, both in the

teaching of English as a second language and in 'multicultural' education.

But the dearth of information prevents us from specifying exactly where

additional funds are needed and what activities already carried out in the

school systems may be worthy of support. We believe the burdens of

collecting and analysing financial and educational information are far

outweighed by the potential benefits in improvements to and increased

effectiveness of programs and efficiency in administration.

3.13 We recommend that arrangements for the allocation of the additional

funds proposed for the teaching of English as a second language (and

'multicultural' education) be accompanied by the establishment of a

Commonwealth-State working party to advise governments on arrangements for

the collection and analysis of financial and educational information for

planning and evaluation purposes; and that consideration be given to the

inclusion in the States Grants (Schools) legislation of such arrangements.

Teaching English to adults

3.14 Over the ten-year period from 1967-68 to 1976-77, we estimate

that a gross total of about 400,000 new adult settlers from countries

40

Of this

(11)

where English is not the native language arrived in Australia,

group, about 25 per cent would have known enough of the English language

to need little or no special English instruction; and of the remaining

75 per cent, those who attended English language classes would have had

instruction ranging from 320 hours or more down to only a few hours in total.

From the time full-time courses (300-320 hours) were introduced in 1969,

until 1976-77, they had catered for a total of only 21,035 students/12^

We believe there is a considerable backlog of migrants who do not speak

adequate English, who have had no English language instruction, or who have

had only a limited amount of instruction by no means equivalent to that

received on full-time courses.

3.15 Among both new arrivals and those in the backlog, there are some

special groups with particular need for the English language. These

include people intending to enter the workforce (in particular newly arrived

adolescents); men and women already in the workforce; and people (mainly

women) not in the workforce but for whom a knowledge of English may be

critical in the maintenance of family relationships and family stability.

We recognise also that different levels of education among migrant groups

and individual migrants require flexibility in the range of educational

provision. We believe the number of hours of English language instruction

for each student should be directly related to what is required to equip

the migrant to understand and make use of social institutions, including

those educational institutions through which the migrant may wish to

pursue educational advancement.

Adult migrant education program

3.16 The adult migrant education program is funded by the Commonwealth

and delivered by the State Adult Migrant Education Services and some

tertiary institutions. Commonwealth expenditure on the program rose from

$8.8m in 1976-77 to $11.7m (estimated) in 1977-7 8 .(13) In 1976-77 the (14)

total expenditure was allocated as indicated in Table 2.

(11) See Appendix 22

(12) See Appendix 23

(13) See Appendix 24

(14) For full details see Appendixes 24 and 25

41

Table 2

Adult migrant education program

Expenditure 1976-77: proportion and allocations by broad program groupings

% $'000

Full-time courses (including living allowances) 34.2 3 020

Part-time courses and classes 39-2 3 452

Non-attendance courses 14.1 1 245

Other costs 12.5 1 104

Total 100 8 821

3.17 We have already proposed a major English teaching program for

newly arrived migrants as part of an overall initial settlement program

and have included the incremental component costs of English teaching in (15)

the estimates for that program in Chapter 2, Initial Settlement. We ;

estimate that eventually some 30 to 50 per cent of students, who under

existing arrangements would receive instruction through the adult migrant

education program, will receive some English teaching in the initial

settlement program. As the settlement program comes into full operation

over the next three years it should relieve pressure on the demands for

some courses and classes under the current program. Notwithstanding this,

we see a need for additional funds to provide higher level courses for those

completing the settlement program, to promote further program initiatives

aimed at reducing the backlog and to upgrade the quality of courses. This

increase in funds for improvements to the existing program, together with

the new funds for the settlement program's English language component, means

a significant overall increase in the total level of funds and resources

directed to the adult migrant education program.

3.18 We have heard criticism of many aspects of the adult English

program (including teaching methods, teacher training, materials, location

of courses etc.) and in later paragraphs we refer to the necessity for a

(15) See also Appendix 14

42

ι ! : ί longer-term approach to program development. This would include in the early

stages a survey of migrants' needs for English language instruction.

However, we believe there are urgent short-term changes which should be

made now to the existing program, affecting courses, teachers and materials.

Courses

3.19 We recommend that in addition to the English language provisions

in the initial settlement program the following improvements to some

activities within the current adult education program be made through

reallocation of existing resources and an additional expenditure of $2.4m

over the next three years.

(a) Extending the availability and coverage of full-time c o u r s e s ^ ) ;

In 1976-77 3521 students (about 90 per cent of initial enrolments)

completed full-time courses of about 300 hours instruction and

were paid living allowances. We believe full-time courses

are clearly the most effective activities in the program.

There is an urgent need for them to be adapted both in the

initial settlement program and in the revised broader program

to cater for the need of migrants for English language

instruction at education levels both below and above those

currently offered. For example to meet demand in Australia

for certain bilingual professionals we have recommended a

trial full-time course (up to six months) as a means of

enabling migrants trained in the relevant professions to be (17) recognised and employed. We also see opportunities for

using language teaching facilities in tertiary institutions

during vacation periods for a range of courses. We

recommend increased allocations within the program for

these courses.

(b) Changing the concept and presentation of continuation c l a s s e s ^ ^ :

These classes have been in operation since 1948 and we believe

their value for many migrants is doubtful. In recent years

(16) See Appendix 26

(17) See Appendix 27

(18) See Appendix 28

43

drop-out rates have been about 50 per cent and average

monthly enrolments have been only 25 per cent of total

annual enrolments. The average period of English language

instruction (part-time) is less than fifty hours for each

student. We believe the classes in their current form

should be curtailed and replaced with restructured certificate

courses of defined length at different levels of difficulty

and with clear goals against which students can assess

their progress; these courses must also take account of

other needs of migrants (e.g. written English). (19)

(c) Extending the range of advanced courses :

In 1976-77, the special needs of about 2300 students were met,

through part-time advanced courses and we believe such

provisions should be extended to meet the special

communication needs of migrant groups^2®'1 which go beyond

the standard English language provisions (e.g. business and

written English and English for technical studies).

It may be appropriate to consider the use of TAPE institutions

in developing and delivering such programs. ( 2 1)

(d) Extending the provision of courses in industry :

In 1976-77 about thirty-six hours of English instruction

were provided for 2088 worker-students in fifty-three

employing organisations. We have received wide support for

increased provisions for 1 English-on-the-job1 - particularly

from ethnic communities. We recognise that the period of

instruction is very short; that courses in industry are

not always held at the best times (for example at the

beginning of a shift when the worker is fresh); and that -

both workers and employers (particularly those with small

businesses) are reluctant to have courses in their own time.

Currently there Is little promotion of these classes

among employers and we have been informed that if the scheme

were so promoted the number of migrants receiving instruction

(19) See Appendix 30

(20) See Appendix 29

(21) See Appendix 31

44

could increase to 6000-9000 by 1980-81. To meet this

projected demand fully would mean an increase to perhaps

four times the present amount of resources allocated to

this activity. Special allocations should be made to

employ appropriate people to promote the scheme with

employers and unions and to devise ways in which employers

in small businesses could be encouraged to participate in

the program without disadvantage to their business. (??)

(e) Extending the home tutor scheme : In 1976-77 an average

of 3391 students each month were participating in this

scheme. It is directed mainly to migrant women who are

unable or unwilling to attend English classes and it is

recognised that one of its main functions is to provide

social contact, but it is important also in encouraging

attendance at formal courses. Better co-ordination and

training of volunteers by Commonwealth and State adult

migrant education service workers will be needed and ethnic

communities and tutors must be encouraged to participate to

overcome in particular problems of matching tutors and students.

3.20 There are other courses in the current program which have not

been covered above. Decisions about any modifications to them should be

made in the light of the results of the survey recommended in para. 3.28

and bearing in mind evaluations currently in progress. In particular

the Migrant Education Television and radio courses will need to be

reviewed in relation to the proposed major initiatives in ethnic radio

and television. While we believe that the potential of these media

for teaching should be exploited we have been told by some migrants that

they regard the Migrant Education Television program 'You say the word'

as being of little or no help to them, inadequate in design and unattractive

in presentation.

Education of teachers and production of materials

3.21 The proposed inclusion of English teaching in the initial

settlement program, together with our suggestions on restructuring the

(22) See Appendix 32

45

remainder of the teaching program, will have implications for the

education of teachers and for the production of materials. We believe

these have not been flexible enough in the past to keep up with changes

in course requirements or with developments in the theory and practice of the

teaching of English as a second language.

3.22 We found little attention being given to the employment of

appropriately trained teachers (including part-time teachers) for adult

English language instruction. If the teaching force is to develop the

professionalism necessary to manage a significant joint-governments program,

urgent improvements are needed in the provision of training to teachers,

both before and during their active teaching careers.

3.23 We recommend:

(a) that the Government refer the need for appropriate

pre-service education of all adult migrant education

teachers to the Inquiry into Teacher Education, with

special consideration being made for flexible entry

requirements to any proposed education programs; '

(b) that $0.2m be allocated over three years for in-service

conferences and seminars for all teachers, including

instruction on the use and development of existing and

new materials, and feedback into the program for

production of materials.

3.24 Production of materials by the Language Teaching Branch of the

Department of Education has suffered from limited skilled resources and

certain technical problems in printing and distribution. It is only recently

that the branch - which also prepares materials for teaching English to

children - has begun to develop new materials for the adult program.

Difficulties such as quality of production and delays through the -

Australian Government Publishing Service need urgent consideration and

solution. The Commonwealth's central production of materials also needs to

be complemented by other production of materials (e.g. by support for State

materials units and for individual teachers) and by buying overseas materials.

Distribution of all materials should be accompanied by seminars on their

use for all teachers. We recommend that $0.3m be allocated over three years

to provide the materials assessed by the Commonwealth, in consultation with

the States and teachers themselves, as being urgently needed for the adult

46

migrant education program. The funds may be directed to Commonwealth or

State bodies for the production or purchase of materials.

Information for planning and evaluation

3.25 Commonwealth and State governments have co-operated with the

Review in providing information on the program. We are not satisfied that

the information at present available on expenditure and costs, numbers of

students and teachers, or on English language skills, is sufficiently

accurate or up to-date for planning and evaluation purposes. To provide a

reliable estimate of the cost per student for each activity is impossible.

We note that the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs is moving

slowly towards the development of relevant information in consultation

with the States. The Commonwealth should have strengthened authority in

this field and we have made suggestions for achieving this in the context

of our long-term approach.

3.26 We note that many aspects of the program, such as its funding

and its organisation in the States, have a temporary flavour and this

point has been made to us in several submissions. While in 1948 it may

have seemed possible to achieve the objectives of the program in a

short, defined period, this has not in fact been, nor will it be,

possible. We therefore recommend that the permanent nature of the adult

migrant education program be given practical recognition by establishing

for it a rolling three year program. This would considerably improve the

planning of courses and would make possible adjustments necessary to meet

changes in need (such as the increased concentration of a particular ethnic

group in an area), as well as enabling better co-ordination with new

settlement and resource centres as they are set up. While we emphasise

the permanency of the program, we would see its staffing making maximum

efficient use of part-time teachers.

The long-term approach

3.27 In recommending the establishment of an initial settlement program

and other urgent changes to the remainder of the English teaching program,

we have:

(a) taken account of the criticisms made during the Review;

(b) made judgments on the nature and distribution of needs for

47

English language in the non-English speaking community.

In the process we have found no mechanism by which the needs of migrants

for learning English may be continuously assessed or by which methods

and schemes to meet the existing and changing needs of migrants may be

developed, co-ordinated and implemented. In the past, judgments on needs

for English language teaching appear to have been made on the basis of

demand for largely unadvertised existing courses and other imperfect

information. We believe such information provides only a partial picture,

and an unsatisfactory one once it is accepted that a regular and

comprehensive statement of the needs for English language teaching provides

the only sound basis from which a consistent approach to the whole program

and the detailed content of the courses can be developed.

3.28 In order that the needs in this area may be adequately assessed

and that the impact of past and proposed programs may be evaluated,

we recommend an additional sum of $0.4m over eighteen months to be used

by the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs to survey the needs

of migrants for English language teaching and to collect information from ;

which future program development can proceed.

3.29 We have already referred to the relationship between the special

programs we propose for new arrivals and the strategies for dealing with

the backlog that has accumulated. At about the same time as the results of

the survey are known the first indications of the impact for the initial

settlement program should be available, indicating a possible revision

of the estimated expenditure.

3.30 In addition, in developing programs in future we recommend that

the Commonwealth, in consultation with the States, assess the need for· a

formal agreement under the Immigration (Education) Act to recognise the

separate Commonwealth and State responsibilities for teaching English to

migrants and to provide for the collection and analysis by all governments

of information necessary for planning and evaluation.

4. COMMUNICATION

4.1 We estimate that there could be as many as 400,000 permanent (1 )

residents of Australia who have little or no fluency in English. They

speak approximately sixty languages. While most live in densely populated (2 )

urban areas, a signifleant number live in smaller cities and rural areas.

Because of their inadequate grasp of English and because of fundamental

differences in approach between some cultural groups to certain situations

they are unable to communicate with the majority of Australians,

particularly service organisations, government and other institutions, and

they are consequently at a significant disadvantage. We noted that in such

1 important areas as health, the law and education adequate means of (1 )

communication have not been developed and an inability to communicate

; in these areas can have serious and sometimes disastrous consequences. Even

' those with some knowledge of English may temporarily lose it in moments of

strong emotion or stress, for example when called upon to give evidence

in court or explain symptoms of an illness.

4.2 While the teaching of English is and must remain our highest

priority, there will always be a significant proportion of people in the

community who do not speak English well, including the newly arrived, those

too old or for other reasons unable to learn English and those whose limited

English is inadequate under stress. These people must not be placed at a

disadvantage in gaining access to programs and services and in this chapter

we recommend initiatives to protect their position by encouraging the use of

bilingual personnel and extending the coverage provided by the present

interpreter and translator services, which will together involve extra

expenditure of $ 3 -5m over the next three years.

4.3 The extent of any future expenditure needed in these areas will be

related to the effectiveness of the proposed initial settlement program and

extended English language programs and changes in the annual immigration

program.

(1) See Appendix 33

(2) See Appendix 2, Table E

(3 ) See Appendix 34

49

4.4 There is also a close relationship between the numbers of bilingual

people recruited and the need, for interpreters or translators. We believe

the use of bilingual people is the better of the two arrangements in terms of

time (it takes roughly twice as long to use an interpreter as to provide a

service directly in the language of the client), money (the cost of the

'middleman' is avoided) and effectiveness (direct communication reduces the

risk of distortion). Most migrants also prefer not to use an interpreter.

However, to encourage sufficient bilingual people to take up positions where

their language abilities are needed is necessarily a long-term aim and

will never in any case provide a complete solution to the problem of meeting

the needs of the non-English speaking migrant. Bilingual staff cannot be

provided everywhere to cover all the sixty or so languages spoken in

Australia. Because of this and because of the immediate shortage of people

who are bilingual the present interpreter and translator services must be

extended.

4.5 During the course of the Review we received a number of suggestions

for improvements in this critical area of language and cultural communication,

particularly by attracting more migrants into areas where their knowledge of

language and cultural backgrounds could be more effectively used, such as

health, family law or welfare work. We also found considerable demand for a (4)

general increase in interpreting and translating services. In addition to

our specific recommendations we see a need for standardised symbols to be

used in hospitals, factories, public buildings, shopping centres etc.

Use of bilingual staff

4.6 There are currently no programs to encourage greater use of

bilingual people in areas of need. Indeed we have found some factors, for

example the low value placed on language skills, which work against'it. We

believe there are three initiatives the Commonwealth could take to improve

the position. We recommend:

(a) that all Commonwealth departments and authorities identify

positions where a significant proportion of the working time

could be spent dealing with clients who speak a language other

than English; and that these positions should be staffed by

(4) See Appendix 34

50

officers proficient in the designated community language who

would receive a language allowance. (This initiative appears

to us to be the most effective means of increasing the use of

language skills where they are needed in Commonwealth government

departments. It gives recognition to these skills within the

Commonwealth service, will attract suitably qualified people

to work in these areas and may provide a precedent for other

government and private sector employment. Further it will

improve migrants' direct access to services and should lead (c)

to more effective use of personnel.)

(b) that, as a trial, a special intensive English course (maximum

six months) be introduced for people who have qualified

overseas in professional and sub-professional occupations

which have substantial public contact, but whose limited

command of English is an obstacle to the recognition of their

qualifications and their employment in this country in the

occupations for which they are qualified. Course members

should receive an appropriate living allowance equivalent to

the unemployment benefit. (We see this recommendation as

being particularly important for general and psychiatric

medicine, nursing, social work, teaching etc. It is directed

to those whose inadequate English is the only impediment to

the recognition of their qualifications. This course should

be seen in the context of bridging courses for the recognition

of overseas qualifications. See paras 7.40-7.43-)

(c) that professionals, including those studying and those

currently in practices in areas with large migrant clienteles,

receive assistance in obtaining, or upgrading, language skills

and understanding cultural differences. Consideration should

be given to providing vocation-oriented language and cultural

courses for these professionals (e.g. in the areas of education,

health, welfare and the law) who are willing to undertake them,

with appropriate living allowances. Full-time courses could be (1 )

provided during university vacation periods.

Tbl See Appendix 34 "

(6 ) See Appendix 27

(7) See Appendix 35

51

4.7 We further suggest that relevant registration board, tertiary

institutions and professional bodies develop 'pre- and in-service' training

opportunities in addition to, or instead of, bridging courses to enable

professionally qualified migrants to become recognised and employed.

4.8 Ethnic organisations should also work with parents and teachers in

encouraging adolescents and young adults from migrant families to undertake

tertiary courses, particularly those leading to qualifications in professions

with large numbers of migrant clients. There may also be scope for tertiary

institutions to consider modifications to entrance requirements for migrants

for some courses.

Interpreting and translating services

4.9 At present interpreting and translating services are provided by

different spheres of government and by the non-government sector, sometimes

by volunteers. There are still many occasions when migrants may have to bring

a friend or relative to act as interpreter for them. The major Commonwealth

and State government services of which we are aware are listed in Appendixes

36-38. Several banks, ethnic organisations and Good Neighbour Councils also

undertake interpreting and translating.

4.10 In addition to the services provided, the Commonwealth established

a National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI)

in September 1977 to accredit interpreters and translators, to encourage the

development of a professional body and to advise tertiary institutions on

the need for and content of courses. We are encouraged by the development

of interpreting and translating in Australia in recent years. We see the

emergence of a profession of interpreters and translators with high

standards of competence in these difficult skills and increasing opportunity

for employment of appropriately qualified and experienced people. However,

the effectiveness of interpreting and translating in Australia will depend

to a large extent on the development of adequate standards and the

recruitment and training of people to meet them. NAATI is responsible for

setting standards and we see it as essential that the employment of

interpreters and translators be in accordance with its emerging standards,

with the Commonwealth Government taking the lead in ensuring this.

4.11 We are concerned that there should be adequate courses and training

facilities to ensure that enough qualified interpreters are available to meet

52

present and future needs. Both the number of languages covered and the length

of courses are inadequate. For example, one or two-year courses are

available in only four languages - Italian, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian and

Greek. NAATI has established a subcommittee on courses which will be

: : ( reviewing present training facilities and drawing attention to the areas where >1 | new courses are needed.

I 4.12 We have noted the large demand for interpreting and translating,

particularly where there is an extensive need for 'on-the-spot' interpreters

Ϊ such as at courts and hospitals and we see a need to extend both the

! Telephone Interpreter Service and State-based services through the additional

■ expenditure of $2.4m over three years. Our detailed recommendations are

Γ given below.

i 1 Extension of Telephone Interpreter Service

; i 4.13 We found much enthusiasm and support from service providers and

f migrants for the operation of the Telephone Interpreter Service (TIS) and

there is a definite desire to see it extended in view of the tremendous /ON

demand for, and use of, the service since its introduction in 1973·

We believe the Commonwealth through a combined Telephone Interpreter

Service and Translation Unit should provide a nationwide network covering

services for which it has direct responsibility. It should also cover all

services in areas where the total population is small or scattered. A

phased approach to expansion is necessary to enable appropriate staff,

including contract interpreters, to be recruited and necessary equipment -

land lines, three-way telephones etc. - to be bought. We therefore

recommend the extension of the Telephone Interpreter Service to Hobart and

Canberra during 1978-79, Newcastle, Whyalla and Geelong during 1979-80, and

Darwin and Latrobe Valley during 1980-81. This will require extra

expenditure of approximately $1.0m over the three year period. We are

concerned that many migrants in country areas may not be receiving

adequate interpreting and translating services. We believe consideration

should be given to the extension of TIS to country areas through, for

example, the use of tie lines, or automatic switching.

4.14 While we recognise that interpreting and translating require

JE) See Appendix 36

(9) See Appendix 39

53

some different s k i l l s w e are aware that TIS staff are already called

upon to provide some translation services, and since their amalgamation with

existing translation units would improve overall efficiency in the

Commonwealth service area we recommend that the Telephone Interpreter

Service and the translation unit be combined into one unit within the

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs and the translation function of

the translation units in New South Wales and Victoria be extended to those

other areas where TIS operates. We have made a number of recommendations,

such as that relating to the translation of basic employment information in

para. 5.18 , which will have some impact on the translation workload and this

may require additional expenditure.

Extension of State-based services

4.15 We think that State governments should provide interpreting and

translating services for areas in which they have direct responsibility

(e.g. health, law, education and general demands placed on State departments).

Currently the services provided vary between the States, ranging from 1

virtually no service in some areas to well developed services in others.

We believe the Commonwealth, since it has overall responsibility for migrants,

should encourage the States to upgrade their services through the offer of

financial assistance. We recommend that the Commonwealth introduce a new

program to share equally with the States the cost of providing additional

State-operated translation and interpreter services to meet the needs in

areas of prime State responsibility and that an extra $ 1.5m be allocated for (11)

this purpose over the next three years. Furthermore, to promote rapid

action, we recommend that in the first year the Commonwealth should provide

100 per cent of the funds and thereafter funding should be equally shared

with the States. .

4.16 The future cost of interpreting cover which needs to be provided

by the States is difficult to estimate. It will be affected by several

factors including:

(a) the organisational arrangements States select (for example,

whether a large central 1 pool' or smaller regional pools of

interpreters are used);

(10~) See Appendix 40

(11) See Appendix 41

54

(b) the degree of specialisation considered necessary - for

example we believe Victoria and New South Wales could provide

specialised services for health, law and education, and a

'general1 service for the remaining State areas of responsibility.

In the other States the demand may not be great enough to

warrant specialisation and a general service could be sufficient

for all areas with outposting (and some specialisation) if needed.

4.17 These issues should be resolved through the Commonwealth/State

working parties on interpreting and translating which have been established

in each State and Territory to identify local needs and make recommendations

in their respective areas. We envisage that each State government will

determine its own priorities before approaching the Commonwealth for

cost-sharing funding.

4.18 Further we see the need for regular monitoring of the extent to

which interpreting and translating needs are satisfied by the results of

our other recommendations affecting communication (e.g. English instruction,

bilingual staff) and again this should be taken up by the Commonwealth/State

working parties in consultation with the Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs.

55

5. INFORMATION

5.1 Information is essential if individuals are to take their place

in society, partake of its benefits, exercise their rights and discharge

their duties. We have noted in the course of our inquiry that some problems

experienced by migrants can be attributed to their ignorance of their rights,

duties and entitlements in Australia - particularly in such vital areas as

health, employment, the legal systems and income security. We were also

informed that this sometimes resulted in misunderstandings, frustration

and bitterness. This has the effect of placing some migrants, particularly

those coming to Australia with markedly different cultural backgrounds,

at a disadvantage in some areas through lack of the right information.

5.2 We recognise that it is the task of each service provider, both

in the government and private sectors, to ensure that information on

particular programs is available to all Australian residents. However, we;

believe the Commonwealth, through the Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs, has a major responsibility to ensure that the information needs

of migrants are met, by providing basic general information in the pre­

embarkation and initial settlement periods, acting as a ready source of

advice on where information is available and encouraging all service

providers to meet their obligations to provide information for migrants.

Findings of the Review

5.3 In general, we found existing Commonwealth government information

programs for migrants fragmentary and inadequate. Although some Commonwealth

agencies such as the Department of Social Security and the Department of

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs produce an extensive range of material aimed

at migrants, most are not fully aware of the information needs of migrants

and there are gaps in several important areas. With few exceptions

techniques for spreading information are unimaginative and in particular

there is too much reliance on printed information.

5.4 Many agencies make little provision in their information

activities for migrants who do not speak English, even on topics of

56

particular significance to migrants. Notable omissions include:

. availability of legal aid (Attorney-General's ) .

. citizenship requirements (Immigration and Ethnic Affairs)

. student assistance schemes (Education)

. home savings grant (Environment, Housing and Community

Development)

. consular, travel and passport advice (Foreign Affairs)

. road and small boat safety (Transport)

. drug education, nutrition, immunisation, hygiene and

occupational health, anti-smoking information, and

some areas of quarantine (Health)

. what to do in floods, bushfires, cyclones etc.

(Natural Disasters Organisation)

. travel and tourism in Australia (Industry and Commerce).

5.5 We also noted a number of topics on which departments appear to

produce no information at all for the community _ and which would be of

particular interest to the newly arrived or those who do not speak English.

These included:

. the meaning and operation of federal awards and workers'

compensation (Employment and Industrial Relations)

. consumer education (Business and Consumer Affairs)

. bail provisions in court (Attorney-General's).

5.6 Even within the small number of specific information programs

for migrants we found a tendency to rely on the use of printed information

which led to delays and waste in the translation and printing of

multilingual pamphlets. We heard for instance of a case in one department

where, because of such delays, a series of multilingual pamphlets

produced at a cost of $20,000 was not available until it was already a

year out of date. We also saw evidence that the great bulk of such

pamphlets languish in offices and other formalised distribution points

rather than actually reaching the people they are designed for.

5.7 It appears that the special campaign of advertising in the ethnic

press, initiated in November 1977, is another example of the ineffectiveness

of printed information. The campaign, involving 397 announcements in

57 ethnic newspapers at a cost of $78,000 was meant to publicise the

availability of government programs and services. We understand that

57

response to the advertisements, which invited migrants to seek further

information, has been disappointing.

5 .8 Poor co-ordination between Commonwealth agencies and between the

Commonwealth and other service providers, has also meant that there

are gaps in the information available and that what is available is

insufficiently used. Few attempts have been made to assess coverage and

effectiveness of information programs.

5.9 On the basis of these findings, we have concluded that migrants'

problems with information are not generally caused by any major shortage

of resources for producing information material, but rather that faults

in planning, implementation and co-ordination of the activities of service

providers have led to poor distribution and unacceptably high levels of

waste. We have therefore concentrated on examining the means by which

current practices might be improved and we make recommendations consisting

both of specific initiatives and general principles which could be adopted.

Identifying the needs

5-10 Our findings suggest that in the long run, if migrants are to

get better and more useful information, it will be necessary to find out

more than we now know about what they most need and how to provide it.

Consequently we recommend that the Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs commission an extensive survey of the information most needed by

migrants, the forms in which it is most accessible to them, what use they

make of the media and their attitudes towards different methods of receiving

information. Further we recommend that the Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs be responsible for ensuring that all Commonwealth agencies ; * ΓΤ)

through their ethnic liaison officers are aware of and where appropriate

make use of the results of the information survey. This information will

give service providers a means of ensuring that what is provided is what

is needed and of choosing the most effective means of dissemination.

Improving methods of giving information on programs and services

5.11 This survey might also provide the incentive to replace the

present emphasis on printed information (particularly on multilingual

(1) See Appendix 93

58

pamphlets), and on information services provided in offices, with

dissemination of information through a variety of media and 'aggressive'

delivery, where information is carried out to migrants, as far as possible,

through their own informal network of friends, relatives, community leaders

and ethnic groups. We anticipate that our recommendations concerning

resource centres, the Telephone Interpreter Service, ethnic radio, ethnic

television and ethnic liaison officers will make this approach easier.

5.12 The Medibank publicity campaign impressed us as the most

innovative and successful Commonwealth information program for migrants.

It was based on the use of ethnic liaison workers to work with major ethnic

communities. Each liaison worker was responsible for developing an

individual program, tailored to the needs and cultural background of the

community in question and using a range of methods for giving information,

including personal contact with individual migrants and ethnic, welfare and

local organisations, ethnic radio and press and multilingual written

material. Although we recognise that the relatively high cost is a limiting

factor in widespread use of such campaigns, from Medibank's experience we

have concluded that dissemination techniques should be based on the following

general principles:

(a) the views of ethnic communities should be sought, for

example through surveys and through the Australian Ethnic

Affairs Council;

(b) programs should be tailored to take account of the

cultural or language background and requirements of

individual communities;

(c) each information program should be reviewed regularly

to ensure it is working effectively.

5.13 We recognise that full-scale adoption of such dissemination

techniques and principles will lead to higher costs in the future.

Nevertheless at this stage we are reluctant to recommend any increased

expenditure for information. We believe that these techniques and the

results of the survey recommended in para. 5.10 should first be used to

reallocate existing funds and to evaluate existing programs.

24463 /78-3 59

Better co-ordination

5.14 A mechanism is needed to ensure that the provision of information

services to migrants is more co-ordinated and systematic. For this

purpose at the Commonwealth level we recommend an expansion of the role

of the Information Branch of the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.

It should include:

(a) supervision of media and information surveys;

(b) development of links with the information areas of

functional departments and the Australian Government

Publishing and Information Services to ensure that

Commonwealth information programs are more attuned to

the needs of migrants, particularly in their design and

methods of dissemination;

(c) overall planning and co-ordination of policy on

information for migrants, covering the whole migration

process, but specifically related to information for

migrants already in Australia.

5.15 We anticipate that the co-ordination and consultation arrangements

suggested in Chapter 11 will enable all service providers to make better use

of each other's information material and reduce overlap and omissions.

We support initiatives already taken to improve the co-ordination of

information, such as migrant resources directories in New South Wales and

Victoria, and the working group of Commonwealth and State immigration

officials on multilingual information material which was established in

August 197,7.

Immediate needs for information

5.16 During the course of the Review we became aware of several areas

where needs for information are particularly critical and where action

could be taken immediately. These are in employment, health and the

law (see Chapter 7).

Employment '

5.17 It has been brought to our attention that many migrants,

particularly the newly arrived and women, are unaware of their rights in

60

employment. We see a need for simple explanatory multilingual information

outlining such things as the concepts of awards, the role of unions, rights

under workers' compensation, long service leave entitlements and so on, and

we believe dissemination of such information could best be achieved through

the unions, the employer organisations and the proposed initial settlement

program. We therefore recommend that the Departments of Productivity and

Employment and Industrial Relations taking into account the results of the

survey recommended in para. 5-10 approach unions and employer bodies with

a view to developing and distributing information relating to employment and

the role of unions including, where appropriate, summarised award information.

5.18 There are further areas where employers, unions and others

responsible for the well-being of workers must carry the major responsibility

for the distribution of multilingual information (about safety and induction

matters and concise operating instructions specific to one factory,

explanation of the role of a specific union etc.). The cost to the single

organisation of providing such multilingual information could often prove

prohibitive and we therefore recommend that unions and small employers and

others responsible for the well-being of workers be permitted to apply to

the Departments of Employment and Industrial Relations and Productivity for

approval of essential material on safety etc, to be translated and printed

using government facilities at nominal cost to the applicant. Approval for

translation should be given at the discretion of the departments.

Health

5.19 General information on the range of health and medical services,

including means of access and insurance will be provided within the initial

settlement program drawing on the results of the survey recommended in

para. 5.10. More specialised information on health services for children,

the elderly and the handicapped would also be available in this program

for those who required it.

5.20 To provide for needs for- information on health services arising

after the initial settlement period, we recommend that the Commonwealth

Department of Health be responsible for:

(a) the development of information on all aspects of health

care, including preventive care, in the main community

61

languages and its distribution to all organisations which

play a part in spreading information, for instance

ethnic radio, resource centres, community health centres,

hospitals, ethnic organisations, the ethnic press, the

Telephone Interpreter Service, hostel and community

settlement centres;

(b) the development, with the producers of ethnic radio

programs, of short information segments on health care to

be broadcast on ethnic radio in community languages.

The law

5.21 General information on residents' and citizens' rights and

obligations under the law will be provided within the initial settlement

program. The need for more detailed information will vary according to the

circumstances in which individual migrants later find themselves. The

following paragraphs give an indication of some areas related to the law

where the provision of information for migrants needs to be improved. "

5.22 Consumer protection: From comments received by the Review Group

and instances outlined in other reports it is obvious that information

intended to protect consumers is not reaching many migrants, particularly

those who do not speak English. Some State departments are making efforts

to overcome this lack of information, and we note that the South Australian

Government has commissioned a survey into consumer education needs. We

believe the Commonwealth should also take action and that the Commonwealth

Department of Business and Consumer Affairs should be responsible for

ensuring that the extensive survey of the information requirements of

migrants recommended in para. 5.10 takes special note of their consumer

education needs. The department should also pass the results of this survey

to State departments responsible for consumer protection and education.

5-23 Bail procedures: Bail procedures in Australia are unfamiliar to

many migrants who do not speak English. Simple and short explanations

and summaries-.are needed in the language(s) of the principal and surety

to assist migrants through bail procedures.

5.24 Ombudsman: The number of migrants who use the Commonwealth

Ombudsman is disproportionately small considering their numbers in the

community, yet we heard that migrants often suffer particular disadvantage

62

when dealing with government departments. We recognise that the

Ombudsman's role is a relatively new one, but we recommend that the

Commonwealth Ombudsman should ensure that multilingual information about

his role is widely available to migrants and ethnic communities -

particularly with the decentralisation to capital cities of the Ombudsman's

Office.

5.25 Legal aid: We found that migrants were not aware of the services

offered by the various legal aid schemes and legal aid services in Australia.

Such schemes and services should make their services more widely known and

available to migrants„in need of legal assistance and we recommend that the

Commonwealth Legal Aid Commission should pass the results of the proposed

information survey (para. 5.10) to State departments and to the legal aid

schemes and services that operate throughout Australia.

63

6. VOLUNTARY, SELF-HELP AND GOOD NEIGHBOUR COUNCIL SERVICES FOR MIGRANTS

Introduction

6.1 In this chapter we propose several changes in the Government's

present arrangements for supporting voluntary and self-help services for

migrants, including phasing out of the funding for Good Neighbour Councils.

We recommend that increased funds amounting to $3-5m be channelled into the

voluntary area over the next three years, as part of an overall program of

increased support for ethnic and community organisations to enable them to

take a major role in welfare services for migrants. Our recommendations in

this area are directed to the encouragement and development of self-help

among the ethnic communities, because we believe that they can meet the

welfare needs of migrants more effectively than government agencies. At .

the same time we propose a reduction in the Commonwealth's direct involvement

in the delivery of welfare services to migrants and an extension of its

capacity to provide support and consultancy services.

Migrant resource centres

6.2 In a number of areas, the Review identified needs which were

evidently not being met by existing programs of support for self-help

and voluntary organisations. The most important of these is the lack of

services in areas where large numbers of migrants live. Typically these

are outside the metropolitan and inner suburban areas. While the overall

migrant population in these areas is large, individual ethnic groups are

too thinly spread to enable them to provide their own services where they

are needed - at the local level.

6.3 In order to meet such needs, and to stimulate efforts at self-help

within the local ethnic communities, we recommend that the Commonwealth

Government establish on the principles outlined in this chapter a special ( 1)

program for the funding of multicultural resource centres in areas of need.

(1) See Appendix 42

64

Funding would provide mainly for the employment of a co-ordinator and a (2)

receptionist and for the rent of suitable accommodation. We envisage

that the centres would provide a base from which ethnic groups could work

locally and provide some or all of the following:

(a) multilingual welfare counselling services through officers

seconded from ethnic or other community organisations or

from government agencies;

(b) facilities for meetings of ethnic groups;

(c) facilities for English language classes, orientation programs etc.;

(d) facilities for cultural activities;

(e) general information and referral;

(f) promotion of greater awareness of the needs and problems of

migrants among the local service providers; .

(g) promotion of greater appreciation of the cultural backgrounds

of migrants among the local community;

(h) co-ordination of services and multicultural activities in the

local area;

(i) assistance to emerging ethnic groups.

We envisage that, like the centres recommended in our proposals for an

initial settlement program (para. 2.7), these resource centres would be

phased in gradually with a monitoring of their progress to ensure that

services provided reflect the needs of the clients. We estimate that about (3)

eighteen such centres could be warranted over the next three years.

6.4 It will be essential that the operation of the centres allows

for community involvement and encourages volunteers, especially from the

ethnic communities, for a range of different self-help activities. We

are convinced that such a localised development is a practical and effective

way to meet the needs of migrants and we have seen in operation several

organisations similar to the ones we are proposing. For example, the

Prahran Multicultural Centre and the Springvale Community Aid and Advice

Bureau, while they have different objectives and structure, have elements

of the resource centre concept.

6.5 Another example is provided by some of the regional offices of

the Good Neighbour Councils and the smaller councils (e.g. Darwin). Indeed

(2) See Appendix 43

(3) See Appendix 42

65

we found that the operations of some of these offices corresponded very

closely to the model we have in mind.

6.6 There are also two existing resource centres at Richmond,

Victoria, and Parramatta, New South Wales. These are experimental centres

funded by the Commonwealth which have broadly similar objectives to those

we are proposing. The evaluation of these centres will not be completed

until 1979 when they each will have been in operation for two years. We

have taken their experience into account in developing our recommendations

for a general program of resource centres. The question of incorporating

these centres into the proposed program should be considered when the

evaluation has run its course.

6.7 The centres we envisage should be locally based, in areas where

large numbers of migrants live, and multicultural. While we support the

concept of ethnic communities providing services for their own members

and recommend, later in this chapter, specific measures to help them to

do this, we believe resource centres should generally be multicultural and

available to all groups. This will enable a more effective use of ■

resources, but more importantly, will help to improve co-ordination and

communication between the various migrant communities, and between service

providers at the local level. Nevertheless a single ethnic group, such

as that which runs the Richmond Centre in Victoria would not be precluded

from being funded under the scheme, provided it offered services to groups

of other cultures.

6.8 Although the centres will be part of a program with cohesive

overall aims and objectives, each one would have to be run according

to the needs and priorities of the local community. We therefore propose

that the centres be operated by incorporated bodies consisting of

representatives drawn principally from local ethnic and community

organisations but including, where appropriate, representatives of local

government and the local offices of State and Commonwealth departments

providing welfare services in the area. Funding would be directed to

these bodies for a three-year period, with provision for continuous

evaluation through the Department of Immigration and Ethnic A f f a i r s . ^

We see decided benefits in the centres being relatively small and independent

of direct government control. .

(4) See Appendix 44

66

6.9 We are aware that the success of such a program will be influenced

by such factors as the physical location of the centres, the level of

community support, and the careful selection of a co-ordinator. The

establishment of these new centres will require some preparatory work to

ensure that the centres are properly based and care will be needed in

selecting the first locations. Applications from community groups will be

called for but where strong community development networks are lacking

we would envisage that officers of the Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs, with experience in community development work, could be sent to

areas with an apparent need for a resource centre, for a period of up to

six months, to assess this need and recommend on the services necessary, (5)

including whether a resource centre should be established. Because of

the value of the resource centre role presently filled by some offices of

the Good Neighbour Councils the introduction of this new program is closely

related to the future of the Good Neighbour Councils which we discuss

further in paras 6.28-6.43.

Ethnic social welfare workers (Extension of the grant-in-aid scheme)

6.10 The Commonwealth uses two major means of ensuring specific

welfare services to migrants:

(a) through its migrant community services;

(b) by funding voluntary organisations through the

grant-in-aid scheme.

The grant-in-aid scheme provides funding for ethnic and other voluntary

agencies to employ an appropriately qualified welfare officer or social

worker. A small loading for ancillary cost is included. At present one

part-time and forty-nine full-time workers are funded of whom eleven are

employed with ethnic groups. The balance is allocated to voluntary

organisations providing a specific service for migrants. ^

6.11 During the course of the Review, we found an urgent need for more

specific welfare assistance for migrants with problems in relationships

between parents and children, employment, tenancy and family crisis in their

(5) See Appendix 45

(6) See Appendix 46

67

homeland, since at present cultural and language difficulties prevent

many migrants with problems from using general community services. Whereas

some of the more developed ethnic and community organisations and the

churches and clergy have been able to provide some general welfare assistance

often by employing professional workers, other groups without such resources

have been limited to providing what assistance they could through part-time

volunteers. Without training and professional support, however, such

assistance is necessarily limited. Further evidence of the community demand

for assistance is provided by the fact that there are over eighty outstanding

applications for grants - many of which are from ethnic organisations.

6.12 From our own observations during the course of the Review, and

from evidence contained in a number of submissions which we received, we

are convinced that in general the grant-in-aid scheme offers one of the

most effective means of meeting migrants' needs, especially where

multilingual workers are employed. Because the scheme enables services to be

provided through non-government organisations, it may lead to a more

flexible and personal response to changing needs. Especially where such ;

services are provided by ethnic organisations, we found that needs are

catered for against a background of cultural understanding which is difficult

for a government agency to achieve to the same degree.

6.13 Expenditure on the grant-in-aid program is limited by a ceiling

both on the number of grants allowed and the total funding allocation.

At present there is a ceiling of 49.5 grants which was imposed as part of

general budgetary restraints in 1975. We believe a ceiling on the level

of funds is sufficient to meet the Government's expenditure constraints.

Abolition of the ceiling on the number of grants would increase flexibility

in the program's administration and more migrants would benefit. It is

therefore recommended that the number of grants allocated under the

grant-in-aid program be determined by the funds available, which should

be increased by $ 1.7m over the next three years■ This would represent an

increase equivalent to approximately fifty full-time grants.

6.14 We note that the employment of welfare officers under the scheme

is a fairly recent development, and that previously only funds for social

workers were available. Their role has been mainly to provide a traditional

case-work service. It is our view that a broader interpretation of

appropriate tasks for grant-in-aid workers, particularly in community

68

development, has greatly improved their capacity to meet particular needs.

We have observed that the possibility of employing welfare officers is

particularly welcomed by ethnic organisations, since bilingual welfare

officers are more suitable to their clients' needs.

6.15 We support this increased flexibility in the Government's

approach to funding of non-government organisations, and suggest that the

trend be continued. This would allow other valuable tasks to be carried out

by specialised workers in areas which we believe are inadequately served by

the existing community development provisions of the scheme. In particular,

there is room for much more 'preventive' work to be carried out among

migrants and we would see this being done by skilled community development

workers. Such workers would probably be more appropriately placed with the

larger ethnic groups or community organisations. Their task would be to

work with groups, or in areas, where there were special needs. We would for

example see a worker employed under the grant-in-aid scheme in an area with

a high concentration of industry to help migrant women in industry with

problems such as child-care and relations with their employers, or located

in a residential area where there are special needs, to encourage self-help

and local community initiatives and activities.

6.16 Naturally with a broader range of activities permissible under

the scheme, careful attention would need to be given to its co-ordination,

evaluation and management.

6.17 Although the present scheme has been in operation for nine years,

very little attention has in fact been given to the need for co-ordination

and to the professional development and support of welfare workers under

the scheme. In some States the directors of grant-in-aid agencies and

their grant-in-aid workers have been meeting in recent years to co-ordinate

their activities. The increased effectiveness provided by shared

experiences, mutual support and co-ordination has been very beneficial to

the scheme. In Victoria the Department of Social Security, which until

December 1977 had administrative responsibility for the scheme, appointed

a professional social worker as co-ordinator of grant-in-ald workers in

that State. We have been impressed with the effectiveness of these

arrangements and strongly urge their extension to other areas. In

particular we believe that the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

69

(which now has responsibility for the scheme) should appoint more (7) grant-in-aid co-ordinators. For the purposes of costing we have

estimated one full-time co-ordinator for every twelve grants. We note that

one grant-in-aid co-ordinator has recently been appointed in New South Wales.

6.18 At present grants-in-aid are approved by the minister for one

year and are then renewed annually by departmental officers. However,

withdrawal of the grant can only be approved by the minister. In practice,

the Review has been told, one year is too short a period for agencies to

plan and develop effective programs. On the other hand, if a grant is not

effectively used it is extremely difficult for it to be cancelled and given

to a more effective organisation. These difficulties, of course, would also

arise with other programs which provide annual funding to non-government

organisations.

6.19 We therefore recommend a change in the method of funding under

the grant-in-aid program from one year to three years. Grants should end

after three years with no provision for automatic renewal. Instead,

organisations receiving grants could apply for a new grant after two years .

and their application could be assessed alongside others made at that

time, taking into account existing needs and the effectiveness of the

organisations under consideration. The details of our proposed funding

arrangements are in Appendix 48. .

A new emphasis for migrant services units

6.20 The Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

administers a migrant services unit in each State and Territory. The

total staff of these units is approximately thirty-six social workers and

sixty-eight welfare officers. Their principal task has been the provision

of a direct personal case-work service. However, in the longer term the

demand for such case-work is likely to lessen, due to the extension of

the grant-in-aid scheme, the resource centre program, the increased use

made by migrants of general community services when they are provided

with multilingual staff and interpreters, and the new initial settlement

program. We believe that such a development is to be welcomed since it

will both reflect a shift in responsibility for the provision of direct

(7) See Appendix 47

70

welfare services from government agencies to the voluntary sector - a role

Which we think the voluntary agencies, with their greater responsiveness

and sensitivity to local needs are better equipped to fill - and give the

migrant services units an opportunity of developing the greater consultancy

and community development service which they are under increasing pressure

to provide.

6.21 We therefore recommend an extensive revision of the functions

of migrant services units to enable them also to undertake:

(a) consultancy for general community welfare services, both

government and voluntary, on technical welfare aspects

of migrant settlement and integration;

(b) community development both in areas where there are large

numbers of migrants and where services are inadequate and

in relation to the establishment of the resource centre program;

(c) co-ordination, professional support and training for

grant-in-aid workers;

(Q\

(d) a greatly reduced direct welfare service load.^ J

6.22 We are aware that there will be some migrants who will prefer

for one reason or another, to use a service provided by the Government.

We would therefore suggest that a small social and welfare work service

should continue to operate within the migrant services units to ensure

that this option is kept open for such people.

6.23 The recommendations in this chapter and elsewhere in this Report

will have the effect of reducing the direct welfare services and therefore

the numbers of staff required by the migrant services units. It is

difficult to estimate how great this reduction will be, as it will depend

on how quickly the proposed new or extended programs are introduced

and become effective. The reduction should be achieved by a policy of not

replacing staff who leave but it is essential that migrant clients and

the staff of these units are not adversely affected in the process.

Therefore we recommend that the Public Service Board in consultation with

the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs carefully monitor the

staff levels of migrant services units to ensure that duplication

between government and voluntary sectors is avoided and that the department's

case-work function does decrease as the other programs become effective.

T5) See Appendix 47 " ' ~ ~

71

For the purposes of estimating savings we have assumed a reduction of

thirty case-work staff.

Funding of special impetus projects

6.24 To provide further encouragement for self-help among the ethnic

communities and to improve their ability to respond to existing and future

needs, we recommend a continuing government program of part-funding for

specific ’once only1 projects initiated by ethnic and voluntary organisations.

The type of projects we have in mind are similar to some of those funded by

the Government under the impetus funding initiatives this financial year

(1977-78) but they would be part of an annual program.

6.25 On the basis of our assessment of the need for such a program

we believe funds should be available for 'once only' grants of up to $5000

to contribute to the cost of specific projects. We consider that a

total amount of $150,000 should be set aside annually for meeting this

need. Ethnic groups and voluntary organisations could apply for financial

assistance under this program in addition to their own contribution to *

the projects. We suggest that successful applications should be announced

quarterly.

6.26 Funding should be granted when there is a demonstrated need

which could successfully be met by the applicant organisation under the

terms of the program. Priority should be given to pilot programs for

initiatives or for changes in direction of existing services in welfare-

related areas. Welfare in this context should be interpreted broadly

to cover preventive as well as remedial activities. Care would need to

be taken to ensure the program was not used for deficit funding or general

agency support.

6.27 The benefits of such a program would be to make use of the

greater capacity of the voluntary sector to adapt its services to meet

existing and changing needs. It would encourage innovation yet ensure

careful planning and development of initiatives to attract possible

financial support. Some projects which illustrate the types of innovations

we have in mind are set out in Appendix 49- It is envisaged that this

new program would also provide funds for the projects related to employment

which are proposed in Chapter 7·

72

Good Neighbour Councils

6.28 The Review was required by its terms of reference specifically

to examine the effectiveness of the Good Neighbour Councils, including

the appropriateness of their role and organisation, their relationship with

other bodies, especially ethnic organisations, and the appropriateness of

funding arrangements for the councils. There have been criticisms of the

councils from various sections of the community, notably from ethnic groups

and individual migrants. The 1977 Conference of Presidents and Directors

of the Good Neighbour Councils supported, and hailed as long overdue, the

recommendation of the Bailey Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and

Health that the aims and functions of the Good Neighbour Councils should be

reviewed.

6.29 We have considered the councils' possible role in the light of

the changing network of bodies involved with migrant welfare, of unmet

needs of migrants, and of our recommendations for an integrated initial

settlement program. We have concluded that the funds directed to the

Good Neighbour Councils (currently $1.4m per year) would be more

effectively used in providing much-needed resources for emerging ethnic

organisations, to enable them to provide their own services wherever possible.

History and development

6.30 There are eight Good Neighbour Councils, one in each State and

Territory. They grew up out of the New Settlers' Leagues, which were

social clubs formed in the 1920s and catering mainly for British migrants.

Some councils retain the old constitutions of the leagues as a basis for

their own. The first Good Neighbour Council was formed as the result of

a public meeting convened in 1949 by the South Australian Council of Social

Service. The Federal Minister for Immigration recognised a need at that

time for a non-government body to welcome and assist new settlers, and (q)

decided to sponsor a nation-wide movement with this aim.

6.31 The councils have been almost wholly funded by the Commonwealth

but with some minor funding from State governments and private sources.

Co-ordination between councils was at first achieved through the appointment

(9) See Appendix 50

73

of an independent full-time co-ordinator, whose salary was met by the

department. In 1964 the position became a permanent public service position.

Regular conferences of presidents and directors, where migration issues are

discussed, have provided another means of co-ordination.

6.32 In the early years, the councils were mainly involved in welcoming

new migrants to Australia and assisting with their assimilation into the

community. They had a small full-time staff, who co-ordinated the efforts

of voluntary organisations which were affiliated with the councils. It was

not until the 1960s that their functions were significantly changed from

co-ordination to the direct provision of long-term services for migrants in

Australia, including welfare services in special cases. This coincided with

a general change in government policy from 'assimilation' to 'integration1.

Subsequently, when the grant-in-aid scheme was introduced in 1968, some

councils applied for grant-in-aid social workers. Four grants for such

workers are currently provided.

6.33 In the late 1960s and 1970s some councils attempted to decentralise

their operations and a number of regional offices were established. This ;

was accompanied by an increase in staff and resources. At the same time,

the councils began to take on additional functions such as the home tutor

scheme. In 1975, uncertainty about the councils' role prompted the

Government, in consultation with the councils, to draw up a new statement

of functions which included additional responsibility for providing advocacy

and preserving and fostering ethnic cultures.

Current operation

6.34 The councils have a central office manned by full-time staff in

the capital city of each State and Territory. The bulk of their work

involves activities which have little direct benefit for migrants, such as

servicing the councils themselves, liaison with other organisations,

organisation of volunteers and running conferences and seminars. Five of

the councils have regional offices which are manned by one or two full-time

staff. Direct services to migrants, such as welfare counselling, tend

to be provided locally through the regional offices and through the (11) volunteer system.

(10) See Appendix 51 " " " ~ " ' '

(11) See Appendix 53

74

6.35 Each council is technically autonomous, but all subscribe to the

pqmp basic aims and philosophy: integration of migrants into the Australian

community, co-operation with governments and non-government agencies, and

the cultivation of good neighbourly relations with migrants. The methods of

achieving these aims vary widely from council to council, and may include

such diverse activities as research, provision of direct welfare services,

assisting with the formation of ethnic groups, encouraging migrants to take

out Australian citizenship, provision of material aid, organising volunteers

to contact new arrivals, and marshalling interpreting and translating

resources. .

Findings of the Review

6.36 The formal functions of the councils have changed since their

formation nearly thirty years ago. (A full statement of the councils'

present charter is in Appendix 52). During this period government policy,

the needs of migrants, and the means of meeting these needs have also changed.

We assessed the aims of the Good Neighbour movement and the activities

engaged in by each of the councils in the light of the changes which have

occurred and concluded that, while they fulfilled a useful purpose in the

early days, they are now largely irrelevant to the needs of migrants with

the exception of some services provided by some regional offices and one of

the smaller councils. We found that most migrants agreed with this.

6.37 We found that the councils have not adapted to changing needs, both

because of the cumbersome structure of their own organisation and the nature

of their relationship with the Commonwealth Government. In particular, the

following factors appear to us to have contributed to their loss of

effectiveness:

(a) Funding: Since their establishment, the councils have been

almost completely dependent on the Commonwealth Government (1?) for their funding. The funds, which cover all

administrative expenses and the costs of various activities

engaged in by the councils, have been provided regularly,

without any systematic assessment of the councils'

effectiveness and they have been protected from a need to

(12) See Appendix 5^

75

compete for funds with other non-government organisations

which in recent years have provided some similar services.

More importantly the very rigid conditions attached to the

funding arrangements have generally precluded quick

response to important or changing needs of migrants. This

has reduced the councils' value as a voluntary body, which

ought to have been able to respond more quickly than the

Government to the changing needs of migrants.

(b) Structure: This is a legacy of the initial establishment of

the councils, when there were no ethnic organisations, and

the Commonwealth Government wanted Good Neighbour Councils

to co-ordinate the efforts of existing voluntary agencies.

Membership still comprises mainly the delegates from affiliated

traditional voluntary and community organisations, many of

which joined the councils in those early days. This has

resulted in a structure in which the recently formed ethnic ■

organisations are in a minority. Their size (larger councils

have a membership of between 250 and 300), the minority status

of the ethnic groups on the councils and the open-ended terms

of the executive membership in most councils have prevented

migrant views from influencing the direction taken by the

councils and have also militated against changes of policy and

direction which might have improved their structure.

(c) Organisation: Most of the resources which are provided through

the Commonwealth government funds are concentrated in the

central offices of the organisation, which as we have indicated

are less likely to be involved in the provision of direct

services to migrants. Indeed we found that these resources

were disproportionately employed in servicing the self-generated

needs of the organisation itself e.g. in organising and

servicing council and committee meetings, and that such

activities have prevented staff from concentrating on the

more pressing problems of migrants in the community. We

acknowledge that central offices have been involved in

activities such as organising conferences and seminars and in

some cases assisting emerging ethnic organisations. However,

76

for an organisation whose objective is assisting migrants to

settle into the Community, we believe that insufficient

emphasis has been given to decentralising operations po areas

where there are large numbers of migrants.

(d) Functions: We found that some of the functions engaged in by

the councils, for example, the welcoming function, had become (-n)

largely irrelevant to the needs of migrants. Others,

such as the organisation of the home tutor scheme, had become

too large and complex for the councils to administer successfully,

and in our view now require professional expertise and support

(see para. 3.19(e)). We found also that many of the functions

traditionally engaged in by Good Neighbour, such as interpreting

and translating, welfare and counselling and support for migrant

cultural activities, have gradually been taken on by other

organisations, both government and non-government. However,

there appears to have been no attempt to rationalise Good

Neighbour’s functions and funding accordingly.

(e) Role of ethnic organisations: We consider that more serious

than the failure to rationalise Good Neighbour’s role and

functions in relation to those of other government and

non-government bodies, has been its inability to take account

of the growing capacity and desire of ethnic organisations to

provide their own services. We are aware that the Commonwealth

Government did provide some guidelines for the councils' (14) operations in 1975 but we found these did not clarify their

relationship to the ethnic organisations or to the overall

thrust of government policy on migrant services and other

activity in this area. We believe that some tasks which were

allocated to Good Neighbour at that time, such as advocacy

and support for ethnic cultures, are much more appropriate

for the ethnic groups themselves.

6.38 Although the above comments are made about the councils in

general, they do not apply to every aspect of their operation. We found that

some of the regional offices, and one of the smaller councils, were quite

different in their focus and activities, and appeared to be more attuned

(13) See Appendix 55 ~ ' ~ '

(14) See Appendix 51

77

to the immediate needs of migrants. We have already noted that they

provide more direct welfare and counselling services; however, we believe

the most important factor in their success is the links which they have

been able to form with local ethnic and community organisations. With only

a small amount of funds filtering through from the larger centralised

councils, they have been obliged to use existing community resources to meet

the needs of their clients and this has often produced imaginative and

effective results, such as procuring unused buildings from the local

government councils for use by emerging ethnic groups and co-ordinating

local service clubs to provide an orientation program for refugees in a

nearby hostel. Such activities may broadly be described as community

development, which will become an essential feature of the proposed new

resource centres, particularly in their work with smaller and less well

organised ethnic groups. .

6.39 In summary, when the Good Neighbour Councils were first funded

there were no other non-government or major ethnic organisations active

in migrant settlement; we acknowledge that Good Neighbour Councils were ; -

set a difficult, perhaps an impossible task, which they carried out with

energy and enthusiasm. Over the years essential guidance and evaluation

by government has not been forthcoming. The councils themselves, for· the

reasons we have outlined, have been unable to adapt to changing needs,

conditions, policies and recent new welfare programs which provide support

for migrants. Although the councils and others put the view that the

main value of Good Neighbour movement lies in the concept of a 'bridging1

organisation between the host community and incoming migrants, we feel

that while this may have been appropriate in the past, the notion of one

body providing.such a bridge is inconsistent with the multicultural

nature of our present society. We found considerable evidence that many

ethnic communities prefer to (and are now in a position to) help

themselves rather than to receive help from a single organisation. Ethnic

groups' desire to provide their own services has led to dissatisfaction

at continued major funding of an organisation whose objectives are not

always consistent with their own. They feel, and we agree, that the funds

can be more effectively used in other ways.

6.40 With the introduction of our interrelated recommendations for

the provision of post-arrival services, particularly the initial settlement,

78

communication, information and welfare programs, many of the|traditional

functions of the Good Neighbour Councils will now be carried out as part

of these programs, with direct participation by ethnic community groups.

We gave careful consideration to the possibility of recommending the

restructuring of the Good Neighbour Councils, and a revision of their

functions but we believe that it is not possible to envisage a suitable

role which would neither duplicate our other proposals nor inhibit the

role which we believe the ethnic communities must have. We could therefore

find no reason to justify continued funding of Good Neighbour Councils

by the Commonwealth Government.

The future

6.41 Ultimately ethnic groups themselves must take on the task of

advising governments of the needs and priorities of migrants, and

ensuring that ethnic cultures are fostered and preserved. We believe

direct services to meet these needs must be provided locally and with

this in view certain resources of Good Neighbour Councils could be absorbed

into support for resource centres and welfare work at the local level.

6.42 At State and national levels, the responsibility for functions

such as seminars, conferences and research on migrant issues will be more

appropriately co-ordinated by the proposed Institute of Multicultural

Affairs (see para. 9.18) with proper involvement of ethnic groups and

community and professional bodies, such as we have suggested in our

proposals for consultation and co-ordination (Chapter 11).

6.43 We recommend therefore that funds previously allocated to the

Good Neighbour Councils, and certain staff and volunteers, be directed to

other community programs over a two-year period. The redirection of this

funding will present a number of difficulties for the councils and we are

concerned that the transition should be as smooth as possible. In view

of the special relationship that the Commonwealth Government has had with

the councils, it should assist with this operation and accordingly,

we recommend that a working party be set up by the Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs to assist with the administrative problems associated

with cessation o f ,the Good Neighbour Councils' funding, including

assistance with the appropriate placement of staff.

79

7. AREAS OF SPECIAL NEED

7.1 Our attention has been drawn to certain areas where migrants

experience special difficulty. These include:

. some aspects of the law;

. income security;

. employment

. health.

The law

7.2 Migrants face difficulties in adjusting to what for many of them is

a very different legal system. Many are confused by the differences between

the Commonwealth and State systems. To ensure that all migrants are equal

before the law with all other members of our society and have equal access to

its services we have made recommendations concerning bilingual personnel and

accredited interpreters for use by police and in the courts. We have

observed that some official court documents are already printed in several

languages and we urge that this practice be extended. We see the need for

short explanatory information about bail, probation etc. to be printed in the

major community languages.

7.3 We regard our proposed initial settlement program as affording an

excellent opportunity for migrants to be taught their basic legal rights

and obligations.

Criminal investigation

7.4 We see a special need for non-English speaking migrants to have

adequate protection in criminal investigation. In 1977 the Criminal

Investigation Bill was introduced into Parliament. It includes provision

especially relevant to the welfare of migrants and in particular to the

communication and understanding of their rights, for example, Cl. 18(2),

Cl. 19(2), Cl. 27, Cl. 33(5) and Cl. 49(2).^ We recommend the retention

of clauses particularly relevant to the rights of migrants in the Criminal

(1) See Appendix 56

80

Investigation Bill which we suggest ought to become law. We hope that the

States will adopt similar legislation to avoid different standards applying

in criminal investigation.

Family law

7.5 The unity of the family is crucial to successful settlement. We

are concerned that different attitudes of migrants towards the family,

marriage, divorce and the care and custody of children be understood and we

suggest that Family Courts consult with our proposed multicultural institute

(9.78) on how to provide basic education and information to all court

personnel, including Judges and Counsellors, on the social customs of ethnic

communities, and that marriage guidance counsellors be provided with similar

information.

Discrimination

7.6 The Review has noted the proliferation of antidiscriminatory

machinery in Australia. There are several instrumentalities in existence in

most of the States relating to discrimination and these cause confusion and

are in our view unnecessarily numerous. The Human Rights Commission

Bill 1977 proposed the establishment of a Human Rights Commission which we

believe should assume responsibility for administering the Racial

Discrimination Act. We see much merit in the Human Rights Commission

subsuming all the various processes of discrimination machinery presently in

operation, so as to achieve equality and uniformity throughout Australia.

7.7 However, we believe that the ultimate solution to any general

problem of discrimination lies with the community itself and hence our (2) emphasis elsewhere in this Report on the need to educate the entire

community about the multicultural nature of our society.

Electoral rights

7.8 We received complaints that some non-English speaking and British

Commonwealth migrants were denied voting rights at the last federal

elections. This we believe was due to a mistake on the part of the

(2) See especially Chapter 9

81

electoral staff at the divisional offices and the migrants' ignorance of

their rights. The Acting Chief Electoral Officer informed us that research

was being undertaken to determine the best means of making known the rights

and obligations of Australian citizens and British subjects eligible to vote

and that steps had already been taken to assist migrants in this area.

7.9 We observe that while migrants who are British subjects are

eligible to vote after residence in Australia for six months non-British

migrants must become citizens by naturalisation before they are eligible to

vote in federal elections. We recommend that anomalies in voting rights be

resolved and that all migrants be placed on equal footing in their voting

rights.

Income security

7.10 Australia's income security system, which is designed mainly to

provide a basic minimum income for those in need, has important implications

for the welfare of migrants.

7.11 In this section we outline the problems migrants encounter in the

income security system and present suggestions for change which the

Government may wish to consider in the context of their broader implications

outside post-arrival policy. With one exception, we make no specific

recommendations for two reasons:

(a) income security has been referred to the newly formed

Social Welfare Policy Secretariat, which has taken over

this responsibility from the former Income Security Review;

(b) in so complex and wide-ranging an area any recommendations

we made would inevitably have implications far beyond our

terms of reference including on overall immigration entry

policy.

7.12 The system works in two ways: cash pensions, allowances and

benefits are paid (under the Social Services Act) and deduction from income

tax is allowed, for example for dependants (Income Tax Assessment Act).

While these mechanisms are administratively independent, entitlements under

each are closely related.

7.13 We have identified five aspects of the income security system

three of which place some migrants at a significant disadvantage and two

of which give some an advantage. These are:

82

(a) disadvantaging some -• residence qualifications,

. maintenance guarantees,

• administration of special benefits;

(b) advantaging some -• availability of pensions and benefits from overseas,

• tax rebates for overseas dependants.

We recommend that the Government give high priority to resolving the income

security anomalies affecting migrants.

Residence qualifications

7.14 Residence qualifications are the requirements that people live in

Australia for specific periods before they are entitled to certain pensions

and benefits - for example generally ten years in the case of age pensions.

The Department of Social Security estimates that some 26,000 people of

pensionable age are excluded from receiving an age pension on residence

grounds, but this exclusion has no effect on 15,500 of these from Britain

and New Zealand because of the comprehensive reciprocal pension agreements

with those countries. To many non-British migrants these qualifications

appear anomalous, if not discriminatory, and are cited as an example of

Australia's favouritism to British migrants over those from other countries.

To others they seem justifiable since they apply to all Australians

(including, for example an Australian citizen who has lived most of his life

overseas). In practice, however, it is only migrants from countries other

than Britain and New Zealand who are ineligible for Australian pensions

until residence requirements are m e t .

7.15 We have received several submissions from migrants and ethnic

groups strongly supporting the reduction and, in some cases, the abolition

of residence qualifications.

7.16 The central issue is how far the Australian Government sees itself

as responsible for the income support of people permanently resident in

Australia. Responsibility for those living in Australia is currently met by

the Australian Government primarily through social security pensions and

benefits for those with disabilities such as age, invalidity, sole

parenthood and unemployment. Residence qualifications generally only apply

83

where the disability was predictable or known before the person came to

Australia (e.g. age, or invalidity or widowhood that occurred overseas).

7-17 A closely related issue is how far the Australian Government

is responsible for the income support of some people living outside

Australia. Under general portability arrangements introduced in 1973, people

granted a pension in Australia can continue to receive it if they move

overseas.

7.18 Residence qualifications may be considered inconsistent with the

principle of an income security system based purely on need, which aims to

provide a minimum income to everyone living in Australia who needs support;

but the abolition or reduction of residence qualifications would be

expensive and could have serious implications for immigration entry control.

Without simultaneous restrictions on the payment of pensions to those

living overseas the implications for immigration entry would be greater

and the Australian Government would be paying pensions for all those in

Australia and paying pensions for those who choose to leave.

Maintenance guarantees

7.19 Under the Migration Regulations the Commonwealth can require a

sponsor to enter into a maintenance guarantee as a condition of a migrant's

entry. Under the guarantee the sponsor undertakes to 'maintain' the migrant

so that he will not become a charge on the State. The reason for

maintenance guarantees is to provide a means of permitting the migration

of family members who, for reasons of age, widowhood, invalidity or other

handicap, would be ineligible under normal immigration criteria for entry

for settlement. They are an integral part of our immigration policies and

have been in use since 1912.

7.20 We do not know precisely how many migrants are at present under

maintenance guarantees. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

estimates that between 2000 and 2500 non-British people enter Australia each

year under these guarantees and that there are now about 10,500 living

here under a guarantee. Maintenance guarantees are required for elderly

people and those not in the workforce, but not, for humanitarian reasons,

for refugees.

7.21 We have heard extensive criticisms of the effect of maintenance

guarantees on the welfare of migrants. Unforeseen difficulties for migrants

84

under guarantee frequently arise as a result of changes in the guarantor's

financial circumstances (due, for example, to additions to the family, loss

of employment either by the sponsor or his wife, or a breakdown in relations

between the guarantor and the guaranteed). Because the guarantor is liable

for costs, those under guarantee who may be in real need may be dissuaded

from seeking benefits and services which they require and to which they

are entitled. We have also heard criticisms of the way maintenance

guarantees are administered. Because of inadequate counselling on the

nature of these guarantees and the emotional pressure associated with

reuniting families many migrants who sign the guarantees often do not

realise the full consequences of their undertaking.

7-22 We believe that because of the adverse effects on the welfare of

some migrants the entire system of maintenance guarantees, including their

role in immigration policy, should be thoroughly reviewed.

Administration of special benefit

7.23 Special benefit is a discretionary payment that can be paid to

people in need who are not receiving other pensions or benefits. It could

therefore be used for migrants in need who do not meet residence

qualifications for pensions. However, migrants in financial difficulty and

under maintenance guarantee are rarely paid special benefit. Of about

10,500 elderly non-British migrants who receive no regular pension (mainly

because they are excluded by residence qualifications) about one thousand

receive special benefit.

7.24 It seems that so few receive special benefit because of the

criteria used to establish eligibility and the existence of maintenance

guarantees. We recognise the moral force supporting the Government's efforts

to have a guarantor honour his pledge. However, the agreement is between

the guarantor and the Commonwealth and while legitimate efforts are made to

have the guarantor meet the commitment the guaranteed migrant frequently

suffers hardship. Before the Commonwealth grants the guaranteed migrant

special benefits, its efforts to have the guarantee enforced may be

protracted by investigation of, for example, the guarantor's current

financial situation. In the meantime, the guaranteed migrant may be

without adequate maintenance support. ,

85

7.25 We believe consideration should be given to paying special

benefit on a more humane basis. The financial hardship of the migrant

under guarantee should not be used as a weapon to enforce the agreement

against the guarantor. Our suggestion that the maintenance guarantee

system be reviewed should encompass these considerations.

The availability of overseas pensions

7.26 Many migrants receive pensions from overseas. Some result from

contributions made by the migrants to overseas pension funds before coming

to Australia (and sometimes continued here). Such funds are contributory

in much the same way as Australian superannuation schemes. Others however

are non-contributory (as is the Australian system) and some are partially

contributory.

7.27 Many migrants have pension or part-pension entitlement overseas

which they are not allowed to bring to Australia by the country concerned

and some migrants come from countries where there is no income security

system. Under enabling legislation of 1972 Australia completed agreements

for portability of pensions with Malta, Italy, Turkey and Greece. These

agreements were limited to providing for continued payment of pensions,

granted in Australia, to certain pensioners going to live temporarily or

permanently in one of the four named countries; in turn, those countries

undertook to pay their corresponding pensions in Australia under certain

conditions.

7.28 British and New Zealand migrants under the reciprocal agreements

with those countries also have overseas pensions paid here from the date of

their arrival. The New Zealand pension ceases when a New Zealander is

accepted as permanently resident in Australia (after six months) and is

replaced by an Australian pension. British pensions are a direct deduction

from the Australian pension until residence qualifications are met, after

which the British pension is seen as income for pension purposes. Where

the payments from overseas result from non-contributory schemes, it may be

argued that migrants in Australia meeting residence qualifications receive

1 double pensions'. The overseas pension is treated as income for pension

purposes here until the income test cuts out at age seventy. When the

overseas payments result from contributory schemes, it may be argued that

migrants are in a similar position to other Australian residents who receive

86

superannuation and hence there is no 'double payment'.

Tax rebates

7.29 Many migrants claim tax rebates in respect of dependent spouses,

parents, parents-in-law and invalid relatives living overseas. The majority

of people for whom claims are made are said to be dependent parents and

parents-in-law and are not Australian citizens. They may never have been to

Australia and many may not wish to come here.

7.30 While it is recognised that many migrants feel a strong obligation

to give financial help-to family members left behind in their home country,

the present provisions enabling migrants to send money out of Australia are

generous by international standards and are generally adequate to meet any

family obligations a migrant in Australia may feel. We believe it is an

unreasonable burden on the Australian taxpayer to allow tax rebates for some

of these overseas payments. Many Australians, including migrants, believe

these people should be the responsibility of the government of the country

in which they live and not of the Australian Government and the Review group

concurs in this opinion. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to check

claims that these people exist and, more importantly, to take into account

their income in calculating the allowable rebate.

7.31 We were informed by the Commissioner for Taxation that the rebate

for dependent parents, parents-in-law and invalid relatives results in an

estimated loss of revenue to the Australian Government of about $20m per

annum. If the Government wished to take steps to end it, we believe it could

be done independently of other changes to the income security system.

However we would like to ensure that families selected to migrate to

Australia, whose breadwinner chooses to come in advance, could continue to

claim the rebate in respect of those being supported overseas until their

arrival here.

Options for consideration

7.32 In addition to reviewing maintenance guarantees and considering

removal of the tax rebate for overseas dependants, the Government may wish to

consider any or all of the following additional options.

87

1. Negotiation of further reciprocal agreements: This would

result in a sharing of responsibilities between the Australian

and overseas governments and could remove some of the anomalies

we have encountered. It would be a long-term approach, with

some uncertainty in timing, success rate and cost, and would

depend upon the other country's desire for such an agreement and

the sophistication of that country's own income security system.

It would improve Australia's bargaining position if general

portability rights were tightened up before negotiations began.

2. Easing the administrative restrictions on special benefit: Under

this option special benefit would be made more freely available

to migrants excluded from pensions on residence grounds.

A stringent income test could be applied. It would mean that

migrants who do not meet residence qualifications are excluded

from pension fringe benefits (travel concessions, free

pharmaceuticals etc.) but would ensure basic income support.

3 . Reduction or abolition of residence qualifications: Under "

this option the Government would choose a phased reduction

over several years.

Employment

7 .3 3 Migrants make up approximately one quarter of the workforce.

Proportionately more participate in the workforce (particularly married (3)

women) than do Australian born people , and a large proportion are trades

and process w o r k e r s . ^ The major problems, particularly for migrants who

do not speak English, are in the areas of communication, safety and

under-employment of skills.

7.34 Our recommendations for improving communication with migrants are

particularly important in relation to employment. English classes on the job,

use of bilingual staff in public contact areas, ethnic welfare workers in

industry and better multilingual information are all directed towards

alleviating communication difficulties. The need for more services in these

areas is supported by the results of a survey conducted for us by the Metal (5) Trades Industry Association.

TSl See Appendix 57 "

(4) See Appendix 58

(5) See Appendix 59

88

Industrial safety

7-35 There are indications that migrant workers overall may have a

higher rate of injury at work than Australian workers. We have received a

number of submissions supporting this view and proportionately more migrants

than Australian workers are employed in areas where the possibility of

accidents is greatest(e.g. manufacturing and construction). A higher rate

would not be surprising in the case of migrants who do not speak English and

who may be unfamiliar with the machinery and unable to read safety notices.

They may also misunderstand instructions or not receive them at all because

of communication problems. In the longer term, better communication should

reduce the number of accidents, but in the short term, we believe emphasis

should be on more adequate multilingual safety training and instructions,

both oral and w r i t t e n . ^

7.36 We support the various actions currently being taken by the

Department of Productivity (e.g. in international symbol design) and the

Productivity Promotion Council of Australia (e.g. in producing a pilot

multilingual audio-visual program on industrial safety). We recommend

that, when completed, the results of industrial safety programs being

developed by the Department of Productivity and the Productivity Promotion

Council of Australia be made widely available and that employers be

encouraged to use them.

7.37 If a migrant is injured, entitlement to workers' compensation is

often complicated by procedural problems which arise because migrants

(particularly migrants who do not speak English) do not know who to contact,

the time limits in which the injury should be reported and the grounds for

further legal action against the employer. We have made recommendations on

how migrants might be made more aware of their entitlements and we see both (7)

employers and unions helping them to use such information.

Under-employment of skills and recognition of qualifications

7 .3 8 Although migrants bring with them to Australia work qualifications

and experience they obtained overseas, it is estimated that approximately

(6 ) See Appendix 64

(7 ) See paras 5·17-5.18

89

20 per cent of the heads of migrant families work in occupations needing

lower levels of skill than those for which their overseas training has

prepared t h e m . ^ Investigation of employment below workers' real

capabilities and the relationship between the supply and demand of skills

is within the terms of reference of the Committee of Inquiry into Education

and Training and we suggest that the Inquiry take note of special problems

of migrants in this area.

7 .3 9 Lack of demand for their skills is only one reason for migrants

being employed below their capacity. Inadequate English is another reason

(and our recommendations about teaching English to adult migrants will help

here) as is the fact that in some cases migrants cannot have their overseas (o)

qualifications recognised in Australia.

7.40 The greatest gaps in the recognition of qualifications are in the

sub-professional and technical areas. The Committee on Overseas

Professional Qualifications (COPQ) advises on recognition of professional

qualifications and committees set up under the Tradesman's Rights

Regulation Act determine the status of many trade qualifications, but no ;

organisation exists to advise on the middle range of qualifications.

We believe this deficiency should immediately be made good and we recommend

that the Committee on Overseas Professional Qualifications' functions be

extended to enable it to investigate and advise on sub-professional

qualifications.

7-41 Our attention has been drawn to a further problem in the

recognition of qualifications: in many areas there are inadequate

arrangements for bridging courses which would enable migrants to undertake

the additional study necessary to have their qualifications accepted. Even

when a qualification has been assessed and specific study prescribed, the

bridging course or the necessary segments of the whole training course may

not be available or the migrant may be excluded from them.

7.42 We believe that the Tertiary Education Commission should emphasise

to colleges and universities that migrants need to have access to various

stages of their courses and that colleges and universities should make it

easier for migrants to have access to these courses whenever possible.

Similarly the committees under the Tradesman's Rights Regulation Act

(8 ) See Appendix 61

(9) See Appendix 62, 63

90

should look carefully at means of overcoming the special problems of

migrants attempting to have their qualifications recognised.

Retraining for migrants

7.43 In February 1978 the rate of unemployment among workers born

overseas was 8.1 per cent (compared with 7-2 per cent for Australian-born

workers)/"^ While we believe the main causes of unemployment among

migrants are the same as for Australian-born workers, inadequate English (11)

certainly makes things more difficult for migrants in many cases.

Problems with English also make it difficult to retrain migrants who have

skills which are no longer in demand. Under the National Employment and

Training Scheme, during 1977, 183 migrants attended English courses and

28 migrants attended a course comprising 50 per cent English language

and 50 per cent on-the-job training. We understand the latter course has

been most successful. Undoubtedly a demand exists for similar courses and

we support the idea of combining language teaching with occupational

retraining. The Department of Employment and Industrial Relations should

consider the special needs of migrants in the operation of the NEAT program.

Trade unions

7-44 Unions covering unskilled and semi-skilled workers have large

numbers of members who are migrants. Numbers are as high as 70 per cent to

80 per cent of the total membership in the Clothing Trades and Vehicle

Builders Unions and rarely below 25 per cent even in unions covering skilled

occupations such as carpentry and clerical work. Very few migrants, however,

take an active part in union leadership.

7.45 Some unions have recognised that migrant workers have special needs

in employment and have responded to these needs by establishing migrant

workers' centres and committees, appointing migrant officials, translating

safety and workers' compensation procedures for their members and obtaining

agreements with companies to have English classes conducted on the job.

However, despite these measures, many migrants who do not speak English

are confused about the role of the union and few migrant members of unions

(10) See Appendix 57

(11) See Appendix 65

24463/78-4 91

take an active part in union affairs. This is particularly true of migrant

women.

7.46 We believe that migrants should have the opportunity to learn more

about union matters, that union officials and shop stewards should be more

aware of migrants' needs, and that information put out by unions should be

more accessible to migrants. We recommend that unions, States Trades and

Labour Councils and the Australian Trade Union Training Authority be

eligible for grants under the project funding program proposed in para. 6.24.

These grants (up to the maximum of $5000 each) might be used to:

(a) inform migrants (particularly migrant women) about unions

and involve them in union affairs;

(b) make union officials more aware of the problems of migrants,

of how best the union can serve its members who are migrants,

and of how to involve migrants more in union affairs.

Health

7.47 The physical health of migrants, particularly among those who have

just arrived and for some years after arrival, is as good as or better than (12) that of the rest of the community. However, when migrants need health

care they have difficulty in understanding the complexity of our medical

and health services and need special assistance to make full use of available

services, particularly of such community-based support services as infant (io)

health, domiciliary care and counselling. J

7.48 For some groups of migrants there is a high risk of mental illness,

emotional breakdown and alcoholism, and despite a general awareness of this

among health administrators and professionals there has been little

specific action to prevent these problems or to devise specific treatment

and rehabilitation programs for m i g r a n t s . ^ O u r proposals on initial

settlement, information, communication and self-help welfare services will

help to reduce problems in the mental health area, but we feel more

specific action is also required. The health needs of migrants, unlike most

other areas of post-arrival services, have so far been the subject of little

specific action by the Commonwealth. We think that the greatest need is

(12) See Appendix 66

(13) See Appendix 67

(14) See Appendix 68

92

probably for more bilingual professionals and interpreters in medical

services and hospitals (and the Government's recent commitment of $2.4m for

interpreters will do much to improve the situation). There are however

some preventive and health support services which we believe are needed and

which could be provided by ethnic health workers trained to work with their

own communities.

7.49 Undoubtedly, people prefer to keep personal health problems as

private as possible by direct communication with a professional health

worker who not only speaks their language but also understands their

attitude to-illness and its treatment. Unfortunately, as with many other

professions, it will be many years before adequate numbers of bilingual

professionals are available in health services to meet the needs of migrants.

We therefore recoranend that additional funds of $0.7m be provided under the

Commonwealth's community health program to employ ethnic health workers

over the next three years on a range of special services for migrants.

We envisage the equivalent of up to fifty full-time additional workers,

many of whom would be employed part-time or by sessions. To promote rapid

action we recommend that in the first year the Commonwealth should

contribute 100 per cent of the funds and thereafter funding should be under

the usual cost-sharing arrangements with the States. Training and

co-ordination of these new workers should be the responsibility of the States

in consultation with the Commonwealth.

7.50 We have no doubt that many migrants need help and encouragement to

use available community health services particularly those aimed at

preventive care, care and rehabilitation of mental illness and health care

and preventive services for women and children. One way of providing this

help is through a member of their own community.

7.51 Some States already have small projects to provide such health

workers, including the New South Wales health education program for migrant Mb)

women and the South Australian mental health visitors.' There is

evidence that the use of such sub-professional health workers has been

successful and welcomed by migrants. In addition, through a survey we

conducted of the sixty-seven community health projects in areas where large

numbers of migrants live, we found that some do employ bilingual staff in

(15) See Appendix 69

93

various c a p a c i t i e s . M a n y respondents highlighted the need for more

bilingual workers and we recognise that such workers attract members of the

community who might not otherwise make use of health education programs and

preventive and support services.

7.52 Such workers would need to be carefully selected and trained and

their employment co-ordinated and supervised by a relevant authority or

professional body. We have in mind that they might be employed in hospitals,

rehabilitation, community health and mental health projects, and by ethnic

groups and voluntary bodies and that they would be more directly involved

in providing actual health services than are interpreters. They would be

under the general supervision of specific health professionals such as

doctors, community and infant health sisters and domiciliary care nurses and

would in most instances deal directly with individuals or groups. As a

member of the local health team they would need to work with a range of

medical and paramedical professionals helping them particularly to understand

the cultural factors involved in developing prevention and treatment (17)

procedures appropriate to migrants' needs.

(16) See Appendix 67

(17) See Appendix 70

94

8. SPECIAL GROUPS

8.1 In addition to the areas of special need discussed in Chapter 7

we have identified several groups of migrants who need special consideration:

. young children

. migrant women

. the handicapped

. the aged.

Young children

8.2 As a result of the greater proportion of married migrant women who (1) work , many children who are not of school age need child-care facilities.

However a smaller proportion of non-English speaking migrant women use

child-care centres and pre-schools than the Australian population as a (2) whole. We note that the Office of Child Care has special provision for (8)

migrants, but we feel more should be done. Many migrant women feel they

should, and some must, work to supplement the family income, particularly in

the first years after arrival. They share with all working mothers

difficulties in finding adequate child-care arrangements, concern for their

children, and the high cost of child care. We heard also of instances of

unsatisfactory care.

8.8 It was put to us that migrants want child-care facilities located (4) at or close to their place of work. We agree that this could be in the

interests of many migrant women who work, but note that the current child­

care program precludes funding of child-care facilities operated by (5) employers. We believe that employers of significant numbers of women

should share the child-care responsibility of their employees and indeed

could benefit from such arrangements by reduced absenteeism. There is

(1) See Appendix 4, Table E

(2) See Appendix 73

(3) See Appendix 74

(4) See Appendix 76

(5) See Appendix 75

95

an argument that child-care facilities provided by employers may tie women

to a particular employer. We believe this problem can be avoided through

joint employer-union management of such facilities.^ Accordingly,

we recommend that the current child-care policy be reviewed and that the

Government give priority to funding child-care facilities at places of work,

jointly managed by the employers and the employees or unions. The employer

should meet part or all of the capital cost with the Commonwealth providing

assistance for equipment and recurrent costs.

8.4 It is unlikely that employers with small businesses, who employ

many migrant women, could afford to contribute to the establishment of

adequate child-care facilities for their employees. To meet the needs for

child-care services in.these cases we recommend the community development

officers proposed in Chapter 6 (para. 6.15) should, in conjunction with

the Office of Child Care, advise on the need for and assist in the

development of appropriate child-care services in areas where there are

large numbers of working mothers.

8.5 The community development officers referred to above will need to

give urgent attention to informal child-care arrangements at home among the

ethnic communities. We heard of many migrant women (often relatives) who

take care of the children of working mothers in their own homes. These

women can become very isolated and the children are given little contact

with the wider community. We believe that the Commonwealth's family day care (7) scheme could help meet the special needs of these women and the children. The scheme provides funds for co-ordination, professional advice and other

support of the women caring for children, and for equipment. Subsidies for

the cost of the child's care are also available for needy families.

8.6 Some parents would prefer their children to be minded in someone’s

home and others will see child-minding as a means of obtaining additional

income. As the ethnic groups are well placed to assist women and children of

similar ethnic background the family day care program seems particularly

suited to their needs.

8.7 A special children's service is needed to help migrant children

reaching school age to make the transition from home to school - a process

considerably more difficult for a child of non-English speaking background.

T6) See Appendix 76 ~~ ‘ " ~ ;

(7) See Appendix 74

96

Our recommendation concerning multicultural education in schools (9.14) will

help in the long term. In the meantime we propose an extension of the child­

care program to make this transition easier. We recommend that an extra

$0.4m be provided through the Office of Child Care to enable the ethnic

communities to employ up to twenty-five ethnic children's services workers

over the next three years. To promote rapid action we recommend that in the

first year the Commonwealth should provide 100 per cent of the funds and

thereafter funding should be under the usual cost-sharing arrangements with

the States. Training and co-ordination of these new workers should be

provided by the States in consultation with the Commonwealth.

8.8 We have in mind that these workers would be employed by the ethnic

groups to work among their own communities in child-care centres and pre­

schools to provide a bridge between the culture of the home and that of

the centre or pre-school. Their aim would be to foster multicultural

activities in child-care centres and pre-schools; to see that young migrant

children are better prepared for school; to encourage participation by

individual parents and ethnic groups in the services; to encourage migrant

parents in need to seek advice and help on matters relating to young

children by encouraging attendance at child education and parenting courses,

playgroups etc.; to assist mothers seeking care for their children; and to

support migrants caring for children.

8.9 We feel migrants should be encouraged to help develop and to make

use of child-care and pre-school services, so that the multicultural

approach can begin as early as possible. We believe this is particularly

important in the early settlement stage and see both hostel and community

child-care centres having considerable potential in this area. Furthermore,

pre-schools should involve migrant mothers in the community through day-to­

day pre-school activities.

Migrant women

8.10 We believe migrant women experience particular difficulties at

work, at home and with their health. Other studies have indicated that

migrant women often work long hours in unpleasant conditions, doing

dangerous jobs. Many, in addition to their job, must look after the house

and family and find satisfactory child-care arrangements. Conflict between

work and home is particularly severe for women brought up to accept a very

97

traditional view of their place in s o c i e t y . ^

8.11 Migrant women remaining at home may suffer from isolation and

loneliness, particularly if they are without the accustomed support of the

extended family. They may also be prevented by language difficulties from

participating in community activities. There may be conflict if children

raised in Australia reject the parents' traditional culture and the mother

may feel isolated and sometimes rejected when the children leave home. A

greater proportion of women from some groups of migrants, particularly

those women whose children are no longer at home, are admitted to mental

hospitals.^

8.12 In the treatment of migrant women's illnesses, different

cultural practices and expectations may cause problems, particularly with

childbirth and family planning where traditional attitudes are strong. In

addition to medical problems, social and psychological problems (discussed in

paras 7.47-7.52) may result from the difficulties migrant women have in making

full use of health services and their reluctance to do so.

8.13 Programs and services must be designed and put into effect in a ;

manner which recognises the particular disadvantages of migrant women and

meets their special needs for information, communication and access to

services. We recommend that the implementation of the general

recommendations of our Report, which have been framed in recognition of

the special problems of migrant women, should take particular account of

their needs. For example, in addition to the recommendations on child care

in paras 8.3 and 8.7 above we have suggested special new programs for

health, care of the aged and community resource centres, as well as expanded

English and welfare services and improved information, communication and

media services. These should all assist migrant women in settling here.

The handicapped '

8.14 The handicapped are those people who through heredity, disease

or injury suffer physical or mental disability. Immigration selection

screens out many people with handicaps, but the greater risk of industrial

injury to which migrants are exposed , coupled with the fact that some

T5) See Appendix 71

(9) See Appendix 72

(10) See Appendix 77

98

children born here to migrants will inevitably have disabilities, results

in significant numbers of handicapped people in migrant families in the

community. Australia's present refugee policy also allows for the

admission of some handicapped people.

8.15 We have been told that there is a general shortage of

rehabilitation services for the handicapped, but we believe that migrants who

do not speak English and who suffer from disabilities as a result of

accidents or serious illness are at a double disadvantage as a result both of

language difficulties and of very different cultural attitudes to disability.

First, they are less likely to receive rehabilitation than Australian-born

people with similar disabilities. Secondly, we have received many comments

that suggest a general lack of understanding of the cultural backgrounds of (11) migrants and their psycho-social problems when injured. To help overcome the problems we believe that they must have better advice on

rehabilitation and compensation issues and that there must be improvements

in rehabilitation centres to cater more effectively for migrants. We have

specifically recommended in Chapter 7 that ethnic health workers be employed

in rehabilitation (along the lines proposed for the Royal South Sydney

Hospital Rehabilitation Centre, see Appendix 69), to promote a better

appreciation of cultural backgrounds by professionals and to help migrants

understand the rehabilitation process better.

8.16 We also suggest that:

(a) rehabilitation centres should consult with each other

regarding their ethnic clients and be encouraged to

specialise in providing services for particular ethnic

groups, to enable these services to attract appropriate

multilingual staff and to become fully aware of distinctive

features in the cultural backgrounds of the particular groups;

(b) to develop further familiarity with the cultural backgrounds

of migrants, the Commonwealth's migrant services staff should

participate in in-service training of rehabilitation staff.

Initiatives have already been taken in relation to the

Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service and these could be

extended to other areas, particularly the Commonwealth's

(11) See Appendix 78

99

may be needed for new or modified services to meet the special needs of

elderly migrants. But in view of many ethnic groups' strong traditions of

caring for their elderly at home and desires to do so we believe priority

should be given to maintaining and fostering this approach to the needs of

elderly compatriots and relatives.

Sponsorship of elderly relatives

8.22 We have already noted the problems and difficulties with

maintenance guarantees of older migrants (Chapter 7). We believe migrants

wishing to sponsor elderly relatives would benefit from advice on the

difficulties of migrating late in life, the implications of maintenance

guarantees and what services are available for old people. We feel such

advice would be better received and acted on if it came from within the ethnic

community, preferably from a worker known to be familiar with and to

understand the strong emotional, traditional and cultural elements involved.

8.23 These workers should also have the task of keeping in touch

with elderly migrants and their families and of advising them on and ;

helping them to obtain appropriate services.

8.24 We recommend that funds under the States Grants (Home Care) Act

be increased by $0.4m over three years to enable ethnic groups to employ

ethnic workers for the aged to work with elderly migrants and their families.

We believe twenty workers would be needed to help those ethnic groups with a

high proportion of older people in the community and with a high number of

sponsors of elderly relatives. Subject to the success of the scheme, the

allocation may need to be increased in future years to allow for increasing

numbers of older migrants in the community. To promote rapid action

we recommend that in the first year the Commonwealth contribute 100 per cent

of funds and thereafter funding be under the usual cost-sharing arrangements

with the States. Training and co-ordination of these workers should be

provided by the States in consultation with the Commonwealth.

Summary

8.25 Many migrants in need can be helped by an understanding person,

particularly one drawn from their own community who also has access to, or

102

knows how to obtain access to, specialised workers and services where they

are needed. We have proposed a range of ethnic workers to overcome specific

problems and shortcomings in existing services which were drawn to our

attention. We are aware of the difficulties that can arise where more

than one worker handles a range of problems in one family. Our proposed

workers should not compete with each other, and over time we would see

them working on a range of problems which might arise within a family

or community. Our resource centres should provide an ideal local base

for such workers in the future.

103

9. MULTICULTURALISM

9.1 We recognise the extensive cultural and racial diversity

existing in Australia and we are conscious of the problems and the

advantages to the nation such diversity presents.

9.2 Our ethnic groups are distinguishable by various factors.

For our purposes we need only identify the two major relevant varying

attributes of ethnicity as culture and race.

9.3 It is desirable to define our concept of culture. We believe

it is a way of life, that 'complex whole which includes knowledge, belief,

art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired (1) by man as a member of Society'. The concept of race is clear.

9.4 It is obvious that a society which has multilingual,

multireligious and multicultural groups will encounter problems in

solving the inevitable friction and tension and perhaps divisiveness

between groups. We are firmly of the opinion that these problems

can be overcome. We have carefully considered how best they can be

solved in the interests of the community generally.

9-5 Before dealing with our recommendations, we should state

that many migrants and migrant representatives argued strongly that

they had a right to retain their cultural identity and heritage. They

argued that our society should recognise this right and actively support

and promote the various cultural affiliations.

9.6 We are convinced that migrants have the right to maintain

their cultural and racial identity and that it is clearly in the best

interests of our nation that they should be encouraged and assisted .

to do so if they wish. Provided that ethnic identity is not stressed at

the expense of society at large, but is interwoven into the fabric of

our nationhood by the process of multicultural interaction, then the

community as a whole will benefit substantially and its democratic

nature will be reinforced. The knowledge that people are identified with

their cultural background and ethnic group enables them to take their

(1) Taylor, Primitive Culture, London 1891

104

place in their new society with confidence and a sense of purpose if

their ethnicity has been accepted by the community.

9.7 We reject the argument that cultural diversity necessarily

creates divisiveness. Rather, we believe that hostility and bitterness

between groups are often the result of cultural repression. We were

informed, and observed for ourselves, that some parents and their children

had drifted apart because of what is referred to as the 'cultural gap'.

In these cases the children at school or work observed that the way of life

of their parents was quite foreign to their associates and was sometimes

the object of ridicule. Rather than be seen as someone odd or different

the children had rejected their parents' culture and attempted to take on

another identity. They lost their native language and much of their culture

in this process and became alienated from their parents. We observed that

the trauma occasioned by the cultural gap has other effects. It is

damaging psychologically and is an impediment to education thus preventing

individuals from achieving their full potential.

9.8 We perceive many benefits arising from a multicultural society.

Already our nation has been enriched by the artistic, intellectual and other

attributes of migrant cultures. It seems clear to us that if our society

develops multiculturalism through the broad concept of community education

it will gain much which has been lost to other nations. It will avoid the

social dangers inherent in any policy designed to repress cultural diversity

and enforce assimilation.

9-9 We have stated or at least implied that the development of a

multicultural society will benefit all Australians, for example it will make

it easier for native born Australians to learn languages other than English.

It will lead them to a greater understanding of social problems, history,

art etc. It will enable the children of migrants born here or overseas

to learn the language of their parents. It will give them security in the

difficult process of entering a different education system and comfort in

the knowledge they are not seen as foreigners but as part of the community.

It will reinforce the unity of the family. We are of the opinion therefore

that the cultural and racial differences which exist among us must be

reflected in educational programs designed to foster intercultural and

interracial understanding.

105

Education for a multicultural society

9.10 We believe there should be a delineation of what multicultural

education ought to be and that there is a need to clarify related concepts.

Multiculturalism is a broad concept and there are issues associated with the

content, design and structure of multicultural education covering the whole

spectrum of educational institutions which require expert attention. We are

aware of the approaches already being made but are concerned that they are

unco-ordinated and inadequate. There is still apathy if not obstruction

among some educators to the development of multicultural education despite

the fact that since 1975 the Schools Commission has encouraged the government

and non-government school systems to direct additional funds to multicultural

education.

9.11 In broad terms, however, it can be said that our schools and

school systems should be encouraged to develop more rapidly various

initiatives aimed at improving the understanding of the different histories,

cultures, languages and attitudes of those who make up our society. This

greater understanding can be achieved in a range of ways - for example through

greater allocation of resources to the teaching of histories, cultures and

languages (both English and other languages), through development of

bilingual teaching, through better teacher education in these fields, both

before and during teachers’ active careers, through development of

curriculums and essential materials and through greater involvement of

parents and the community. .

(2)

9·12 We describe in an Appendix some of the initiatives already

being undertaken at Commonwealth government level and in the government

and non-government school systems. There are, for example:

(a) various programs promoting the teaching of community

languages and cultures - though there are claims that -

limitations on resources severely restrict their

quality and coverage, and most are confined to

primary schools;

(b) a few examples of bilingual approaches to education -. some introduced as experiments;

(2) See Appendix 80

106

(c) some programs directed at encouraging a multicultural

perspective (most notably the Ten Schools Project in

South Australia);

(d) training and seminars for potential and fully qualified

teachers, though this is generally limited in scope

(on teacher development we note the recent initiative in

New South Wales to encourage exchanges of teachers with

countries from which migrants come to Australia);

(e) some special projects for developing curriculums and

materials in both government and non-government school

systems - some limited in scope for lack of resources;

(f) encouragement in various ways of involvement by parents

and the community;

(g) some effort by Commonwealth agencies in development of

curriculums and materials, and in research (we note with

approval the priority given to multicultural education

in the forward research program of the Education Research

and Development Committee and within the Schools Commission

and the Curriculum Development Centre).

9.13 Altogether, however, the resources devoted to such experiments

and developments are, in our judgment and generally in the judgment of those

we consulted, inadequate. The total level of Commonwealth funding used by

school systems for multicultural education (excluding English language

teaching) is currently around $1m per year and is intended to encourage

greater activity in the schools. In addition the Commonwealth allocates in

excess of $0.5m to the development of curriculums and materials and to

research. The school systems are also applying some resources of their own,

and engaging in some imaginative experiments. But the impact of the total

resources currently allocated is extremely limited.

9.14 Accordingly, we believe a major Commonwealth initiative is

needed to ensure that greater priority is given to multicultural education

for all children in all schools. We recommend that the Commonwealth

allocate $5m specifically for multicultural education over the next

three years.

9.15 We envisage that these funds could usefully be applied in

the range of fields referred to in paragraph 9-12 and that a large

107

part of these funds should be applied to initiatives in schools (such as

pilot projects in the teaching of community languages and cultures and

bilingual approaches to education). It is, however, impossible for us

to determine on the evidence before us how such funds should be allocated

between Commonwealth bodies and government and non-government schools.

Accordingly, we recommend that a small committee of educators experienced

in areas of cultural and racial differences be appointed to consult with

State, Commonwealth and non-government authorities and to draw up within

three months proposals as to how the recommended $5m for multicultural

education can be used most effectively in the three years ahead.

9.16 We believe the schools and school systems should participate

directly in this developmental phase with co-ordination of activities

through Commonwealth bodies. The Commonwealth itself has at least five

bodies - the Department of Education, the Schools Commission, the Tertiary

Education Commission, the Curriculum Development Centre, and the Education

Research and Development Committee - whose responsibilities cover most

aspects of general policy and funding, curriculum and materials production

research, and teacher education. Some overlap in the work of these bodies

seems inevitable, particularly in their contacts with government and

non-government school systems. We believe the Commonwealth's activities in

encouraging multicultural education require that its continuing contacts

with schools and systems be co-ordinated and well understood. We recommend

that formal machinery be established at Commonwealth level to co-ordinate

Commonwealth policies and programs, and relationships with schools and

school systems, in relation to multicultural education.

9.17 We have referred previously to the need for professional people

likely to be dealing with migrants to have some knowledge of their cultural

backgrounds. We recommend that the Tertiary Education Commission approach

all tertiary institutions with a view to having components on the cultural

background of the major ethnic groups included in appropriate professional

courses; such components should also include segments on the need for and

use of interpreters.

Institute of Multicultural Affairs

9-18 There is very little information available on multicultural

developments in Australia and overseas. We stress the need to have

108

available the material and skilled research to guide its overall development.

If we are to achieve the real benefits of a multicultural society, its

development must be guided, supported and given direction by independent

experts of high calibre. We therefore recommend that the Commonwealth

provide $T.8m over the next three years to establish an Institute of

Multicultural Affairs to be directed by a small council of experts in

multicultural developments and migrant issues. The functions of such an

institute must include at least the following:

(a) the commissioning of research into multiculturalism

and related issues;

(b) the dissemination of information to Commonwealth, State

and local governments, to non-government organisations,

and to the community as a whole, on all aspects of

multiculturalism and related issues;

(c) the preparation of material on cultural and racial

backgrounds, and other factors affecting migrant settlement,

for use in training courses for professional people, schools,

tertiary institutions etc.;

(d) the provision of advice on multicultural and migrant

issues to government departments and other bodies to assist

them in developing programs and policies appropriate to a

multicultural society;

(e) the education of the community in all aspects of

multiculturalism through such methods as seminars,

lectures, conferences etc.

9.19 The institute should be developed over three years. In the first

year an interim council to set guidelines for the institute's future

operations and a director should be appointed. Over the following two years

a small but highly skilled research and administrative staff and a permanent

council would be appointed to enable the institute to operate fully by the

third year, including the commissioning of some research projects.

9.20 We believe such an institute should be responsible for providing

high level technical advice to government on multicultural development and

information about multiculturalism in Australia, aspects of migrant

settlement, ethnicity and the maintenance of the cultural heritages of ethnic

groups. The information would be directed towards tertiary education

109

institutions and schools, to provide material about ethnicity and its

implications for incorporation in courses, particularly medicine, education,

social work and school programs. Technical information about multiculturalism

should also be made available to the media, unions, and employer groups

and non-government organisations, to develop a better understanding of

migration and ethnic groups and encourage the development of a harmonious

multicultural society in Australia.

9.21 As the institute should provide a resource for all sections of

the community, and indeed would be expected to form links with local

organisations, particularly ethnic organisations, we believe that it may be

desirable for it to be located in either Melbourne or Sydney and to make

use of existing organisations and key resource centres in other States

to collect and disseminate information by contract arrangements.

Means of preserving and fostering ethnic cultures

9.22 We believe that the most significant and appropriate bodies to be

involved in the preservation and fostering of cultures are the ethnic

organisations themselves. As some of the smaller ethnic groups are not

yet sufficiently organised to fulfil such a role, the larger ethnic Π )

organisations through the emerging ethnic communities councils should

play a major role in supporting the smaller groups and helping them to

maintain their cultural heritage. We note that some councils have made this

one of their objectives.

9.23 It is evident, however, that although the ethnic groups are the

most appropriate bodies to maintain and foster their own cultures, they

will need to use community resources to enable them to do this as

effectively as possible. We believe that municipal libraries could provide

a valuable source of support in the form of facilities for meetings of

ethnic groups and for developing collections of books, slides, tapes etc.

on aspects of various migrants' cultures, especially those relevant to the

local area. We would expect libraries in areas where there are large

numbers of migrants to have close links with and obtain material from our

proposed Institute of Multicultural Affairs.

(3) See Appendix 91

110

9.24 More specifically, the Australia Council has already been

providing support for ethnic festivals, singing, dancing and drama groups

through its community arts program. However, we note that in comparison

with its overall program budget for 1976-77 (approx. $20m) and even

within the community arts budget ($1.5m) the amount allocated specifically

for ethnic arts is very small ($75,000). Although ethnic arts may also be

funded under other council programs, such as drama and visual arts, we

believe that the amount allocated is insufficient considering the important

contribution which ethnic traditions have to make to the artistic life of

Australia. We therefore recommend that the Australia Council develop

closer links with ethnic communities and that it reassess its budgetary

allocation in order to ensure that ethnic arts receive a more equitable

amount. We believe that part of any increase should be devoted to

building up links with ethnic organisations, for example through the

appointment of a liaison or field officer.

9.25 Cultural agreements between Australian and foreign governments

provide a framework for promotion of mutual understanding and the

maintenance of ethnic cultures. Currently fourteen countries have signed (4)

such agreements and two are under negotiation. These have resulted,

for example, in artistic and craft exhibitions, tours by visiting artists

and craftsmen, and performances by overseas cultural groups. We believe

such activities provide opportunities for people in Australia to

experience the artistic traditions of other countries. Additional

agreements should be negotiated, if possible, particularly with countries

from which large numbers of migrants come to Australia. Such agreements

have important potential in stimulating multicultural understanding and

should be acted on, once established, by the provision of adequate funds.

(4) See Appendix 81

111

10. ETHNIC MEDIA

10.1 The media play an ever increasing role in the transmittal of

information and ideas. Their news services, information and educational

programs are available to the community regularly. They provide entertainment

and are important in the quality of social life. We have examined the media

from the point of view of the welfare of migrants and we believe the ethnic

media can also be very important in the settlement of migrants and the

development of multiculturalism.

Ethnic press

10.2 About sixty foreign language newspapers are printed in Australia,

and there are a number of imported foreign language newspapers, magazines (1) and periodicals with a substantial readership. The ethnic press has ; in the past served its clients well and could be expected to do so in the

future. However, we believe that the contribution of the ethnic press

should now be complemented by the development of ethnic radio and television.

Ethnic radio

10.3 Ethnic radio is in its formative stage. During our inquiries

we observed that there was a great demand for ethnic radio in all areas

visited. We were impressed by the way the ethnic communities were

involved in attempts to establish ethnic radio and to increase the

inclusion of ethnic segments on other radio stations throughout Australia.

10.4 In June 1975, the Commonwealth Government introduced ethnic

radio in 2EA in Sydney and 3EA in Melbourne as a twelve-week experiment.

These stations received immediate and overwhelming support from listeners.

Following extensions of the experimental period, 2EA and 3EA were

permanently established in June 1977 and now operate through a separate

authority, the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), with an appropriation (η,λ

of nearly $2 million for 1977-78.

(1) See Appendix 82

(2) See Appendix 84

112

Surveys conducted in August 1975 amongst the Greek, Turkish and Italian

communities found exceptional success in reaching a wide audience. This

finding has since been confirmed by the continuing volume of mail which the

stations receive. ^

10.5 Me support the Government's decision to extend ethnic radio

through the SBS. We recommend that the extension of ethnic radio be phased

over the next three years to cover all capital cities and provincial centres

with large numbers of migrants. The Sydney and Melbourne services should

also be upgraded to provide wider coverage in these centres. We believe the

enthusiasm shown, for the existing Sydney and Melbourne stations and the

importance of an effective channel of communication, particularly for the

non-English speaking migrant, in providing entertainment, news and

information, and helping in settlement, warrant high priority being given to

this extension.

10.6 We agree with the SBS that this extension should be progressive.

To enable it to discuss with other ethnic broadcasters at present providing (4) limited services in some centres how its own services might be integrated

with existing programs, SBS is also examining the feasibility of making its

programs available to broadcasters in,, or commissioning the production of

special programs for, centres and country areas where a separate ethnic

station may not be practicable. We see this as a realistic way of quickly

increasing coverage.

10.7 We estimate the additional cost of introducing new services,

upgrading the existing services and developing relay arrangements as

approximately $3 million over the next three y e a r s . ^

10.8 Ethnic communities and individual migrants must have the

opportunity to participate in the development and operation of ethnic

radio. The National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council (NEBAC) and

the State Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Councils (SEBACs) provide such /r\ an opportunity. So that the wishes of migrants, particularly the

smaller or new groups, may be taken fully into account, we recommend that

the Government provide NEBAC with specific funds to survey the views of a

T3l See Appendix 83 * ' ~~

(4) See Appendix 87

(5) See Appendix 1

(6) See Appendix 85

113

wide cross-section of migrants on their expectations and requirements from

ethnic radio. These findings would form part of the basis for advice to

SBS and complement their findings from their general consultations with the

ethnic communities.

Ethnic television

10.9 The Government has indicated its commitment to ethnic television.

Given the substantial issues involved, we believe development should be

phased over the next three years during which there will be widespread

consultation with ethnic communities and other interested parties. We are

anxious that it should be of value to the community as a whole by promoting

tolerance and appreciation of cultural diversity. For this reason, even

though ethnic television will naturally involve the production and

broadcasting of programs of interest to specific groups of migrants, the

aim should be to present such programs so as to attract a multilingual

audience, and the community generally. This approach might have the

additional advantage of placing ethnic television on a more secure footing.

10.10 We are conscious of the many difficulties associated with the

establishment of ethnic television, including such considerations as the

number of languages to be catered for, the amount of time to be given to

service and information material and the need for balance in program

presentation and news, how far the ethnic communities should be involved

in shaping and developing the service and in producing local programs,

and how many of the programs should be in English.

10.11 Also, from our consultations with the Department of Post and

Telecommunications, it is apparent that if ethnic television is to be

introduced a number of technical issues must first be resolved,

particularly finding a suitable frequency for transmission. These are

largely questions for experts. However, if difficulties with a new VHF

station in Sydney or Melbourne were to result in the choice of a UHF

station, we believe this would result in the service reaching fewer people,

since currently relatively few televisions are equipped to receive a UHF

signal. Furthermore there would be considerable personal expense in

adapting existing equipment.

10.12 We are concerned that the Government act quickly to introduce

some ethnic programs which would provide a focus for public consideration,

provide experience with various styles of programming and encourage public

comment, in much the same way as ethnic radio has developed. A pilot

ethnic station appears to be a practicable way of meeting these objectives,

provided it is of a sufficiently high standard and coverage to provide a

reasonable basis on which public reaction can be judged. We understand

that this is technically feasible and that it could be operating within

twelve months by making use as far as possible of existing facilities for

transmission, presentation, production and administration. In addition,

costs could be contained if substantial use were made of imported programs

(with subtitling) and services were limited to a few hours each day.

We understand that if a pilot scheme were established in, say, Sydney

it would be relatively inexpensive to relay the programs to Melbourne so

that both cities could be served.

10.13 We are strongly attracted to this proposal and we recommend that

a small task force be authorised to proceed with the establishment of a

pilot ethnic television station drawing on existing technical resources, Μ which would be in operation within twelve months. We recognise SBS is

somewhat inexperienced in this field and we believe that the task force should

include experts from appropriate bodies such as the ABC and the Department

of Post and Telecommunications.

10.14 In view of the important considerations of technical

requirements, policy and costs we recommend that NEBAC, consulting the

Department of Post and Telecommunications on technical issues as appropriate,

undertake public consultations on the basis of this pilot station to find out

what migrants and the community in general think about the format, content

and administration of ethnic television.

10.15 The results of this consultation will enable decisions to be made

on a permanent service. However, we understand that even after a go-ahead

is given, up to two years will be required before full services can be

established.

10.16 We see SBS as being the appropriate body to operate ethnic

television both in the pilot stages and when it comes into full operation.

Pilot programming might involve services of only a few hours a week at first,

but they could be built up as experience with ethnic programming was developed

(7) See Appendix 86

115

At this stage it is not possible to obtain firm estimates of cost for a

pilot station, but we understand that our proposal would involve sums in

the order of $0.6m capital expenditure and $4.3m annual operating costs

without taking account of commercial involvement. A full-scale station

might cost as much as $20m.

10.17 We recognise that one important issue in ethnic television is

whether there should be any commercial involvement. It is clear that

by inviting commercial interests to provide some programming, it would

be possible to spread the costs of operation, reduce the time needed

to introduce the service and provide a greater variety of programs.

We are strongly in favour of some commercial participation in the later

stages of the pilot project so that interested parties can assess its

potential benefits and the best form for any commercial involvement in

permanent services.

116

11. CO-ORDINATION AND CONSULTATION

11.1 Throughout this Report we have tried to outline a balance of

responsibility between the various spheres of government, voluntary agencies

and ethnic groups in meeting the special needs of migrants in areas such as

health, welfare and education. Continuing communication between the planners,

the service providers and the community they serve is essential, if needs

are to be effectively met and gaps and duplication are to be avoided.

11.2 Although a number of consultative and co-ordinating mechanisms

already exist, we have heard, and agree, that the present system as a whole

is inadequate. We have found a need for closer consultation between the

Commonwealth government, State and local government and non-government

sectors, and for more clearly defined channels of communication through

which migrant groups and voluntary service providers can make government

more aware of the changing needs and priorities of migrants, and through

which government can, in turn, keep migrants informed and involved in policy

and program initiatives.

11.3 We do not believe that this requires the establishment of more

formal consultative bodies, rather we recommend that existing mechanisms

for consultation at Commonwealth and State levels be made more effective

and greater emphasis be given to encouraging consultation with, and between,

agencies working at the local level. In the remainder of this chapter we

outline how we believe this can best be achieved.

Consultation

11.4 At the Commonwealth level , major responsibility for consultation

lies with the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs and the Australian

Ethnic Affairs Council (ABAC). Migrants told us that consultation was in

fact inadequate and we believe those areas of the department with

responsibility for ethnic affairs and for post-arrival services to migrants

must consult frequently with ethnic communities in order to familiarise

themselves with needs and developments and to keep the communities informed

(1) See Appendix 88

117

of government activities. The department should also give consideration to

improving means of consultation, including by the secondment of workers

between the Commonwealth and ethnic or voluntary organisations to increase

knowledge and understanding of the respective roles.

11.5 The co-ordinating functions of the Australian Ethnic Affairs

Council should also be strengthened by ensuring that its members have strong

connections with ethnic groups in the community and by giving greater emphasis

to regular and systematic consultation particularly at the local level in

all States. Its value as an advisory body should lie in its ability to

inform the Government of basic needs of migrants and of the reactions of (2)

migrant communities to government proposals and initiatives.

11.6 At the State level, we note that recently two State governments (o)

have established their own ethnic affairs advisory bodies and that other

State governments have taken steps to ensure that they are in touch with (4) ethnic groups. In the interests of ensuring a regular exchange of

information and to avoid wasteful use of resources we suggest that ministers

give consideration to introducing a system of representation of the State ;

bodies on the ABAC. Meetings of chairmen of ethnic affairs advisory bodies

would have an added advantage.

11.7 We believe that effective consultation has been hampered by the

lack of effective and representative migrant bodies which are independent

of government. The recent formation in some States of ethnic communities

councils which bring together different ethnic groups is an important (5) development , and, while we believe such developments must come from ethnic

groups themselves, they can be supported and fostered by governments

encouraging them to develop as a forum for the views of migrants and as a

focus for consultation on the needs of migrants by all levels of government.

Their role should be to promote not only ethnic matters in general but also

the interests of individual member groups, particularly the smaller less

cohesive ones.

11.8 At the local level, some State governments have established

mechanisms for consulting with communities in local government areas, which

(2) See Appendix 90

(3) See Appendix 90, part B

(4) See Appendix 88, part B

(5) See Appendix 91

118

provide information on the needs and priorities of these communities including

migrants.^ In addition, some local government councils have well-developed

consultative mechanisms of their own, which include provision for liaison

with ethnic communities. We strongly support such initiatives and believe

that they will be compatible with the administrative arrangements we have

recommended for the grant-in-aid, resource centre and initial settlement

programs.

11.9 We feel that stronger links should be formed between the general

welfare bodies and the major ethnic organisations to enable non-government

service deliverers to cater more adequately for migrant needs, particularly

for special groups such as the handicapped, women and the aged. To this end

we suggest that the ABAC, and the State advisory bodies, in view of their

channels of communication with ethnic groups, would be a useful source of

advice. More specific information and research services could be provided

by the proposed Institute of Multicultural Affairs (para. 9.18).

Co-ordination

11.10 Many individuals and organisations stressed the need for

clarification of roles and responsibilities to overcome confusion and to

avoid duplication. We believe that more effective consultation will help

but there is also a need for better co-ordination in the planning and

delivery of services provided at all levels.

11.11 Co-ordination is particularly needed at Commonwealth government

level because to date it appears that many welfare programs affecting

migrants have been developed and delivered in the absence of any clear

knowledge or real understanding of, or concern for, migrants' needs. The

Government's recent initiative in appointing ethnic liaison officers in all

Commonwealth government departments should greatly help in overcoming this

problem. We believe that it will lead to the improvement of many general

programs and, where appropriate, the introduction within them of special

initiatives for migrants. It should also have a major effect in inproving

overall co-ordination at the Commonwealth level, once the role of the ethnic

liaison officers and their relationship with the Ethnic Affairs Branch of (7 )

the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs is properly established.

(6) See Appendix 92 ’

(7) See Appendix 93

119

11.12 We also found that there was a need for improved co-ordination

between the activities of bodies established by the Minister for Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs, such as the Committee on Overseas Professional

Qualifications and the National Accreditation Authority on Translating

and Interpreting, and those of the ABAC and the department itself. We

therefore recommend better co-ordination of Commonwealth ethnic affairs

activities through co-ordinated secretarial support and exchanges of

minutes of meetings in the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.

11.13 Traditionally, formal co-ordination between State and Commonwealth

governments has been achieved through bi-annual meetings between ministers

and officials'· , and in view of recent and encouraging initiatives by some

State governments it is essential that full use is made of this machinery.

We also see the recent formation in most States of Commonwealth/State

co-ordinating committees (following a decision by Commonwealth and State

ministers responsible for immigration and ethnic affairs in 1976) as an

important step towards greater co-operation between the two spheres of

government in the areas of policy and actual service delivery at the State. (q) and local levels. Their role could possibly be extended to provide for

input from the non-government sector in each State in an attempt to achieve

greater overall co-ordination and co-operation at State level.

11.14 A further means of achieving Commonwealth/State integration of

programs and services would be for the Commonwealth to make greater use of

funding of shared programs through the States with appropriate arrangements

for consultation, decision making and evaluation. We have suggested this in

interpreting and translation services and it could be extended to other

areas. Such action requires careful consideration of Commonwealth/State

funding arrangements to ensure that the Commonwealth's objectives are fully

met and that necessary information on the effectiveness of programs is

forthcoming. Irrespective of whether funding is through the States, we

strongly support the use of specific purpose working parties of Commonwealth

and State officers to advise their respective ministers on migrant matters.

The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

11.15 During the course of this Review the Commonwealth Government

T9) See Appendix 89

(9) See Appendix 8 9 , part C

120

transferred the Migrant Community Services Branch of the Department of

Social Security, and the Migrant Education Branch of the Department of

Education, to the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Ethnic

liaison officers were also introduced in all government departments. We

believe there were very strong arguments for these moves and that most

migrants supported them.*

11.16 We believe the moves should be used to bring about more effective

use of resources by enabling better co-ordination of the relocated service

delivery functions with the policy, planning and consultative functions of

the Ethnic Affairs Branch and better communication with other departments

providing services to migrants. However, it will be essential for all

elements to work closely together if our proposed new comprehensive approach

to post-arrival services for migrants is to be effective.

11.17 We have recommended an expansion of the Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs' activities in the following areas:

(a) initial settlement;

(b) information services;

(c) interpreting and translating services;

(d) adult education (both in initial settlement and in

extension of other course provisions);

(e) migrant community services (including a revision of its role);

(f) recognition of qualifications;

(g) co-ordination and consultation.

11.18 We also recommend that the Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs' policy planning role be strengthened to include responsibility for

monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of all Commonwealth programs

and services in so far as they are used by migrants. To make this possible,

departments will need to maintain comprehensive data on how many migrants

are participating in all relevant programs. The Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs will also need to build up a strong statistical, survey

and research capacity to provide adequate information for the monitoring

of existing programs and planning for changing needs.

* Mr N. Polites dissents

(10) These branches are now known as Settlement Branch and Education Branch

respectively.

121

LIST OF APPENDIXES

1. Costing of recommendations incurring extra expenditure 1

2. Demographic appendix 21

3. Departures of former settlers 30

4. Disadvantages experienced by newly arrived migrants 32

5. Existing settlement arrangements 36

6. Support for the provision of settlement assistance 40

7. Resettlement loans and compulsory six months initial

settlement programs 41

8. Community settlement centres 42

9. Activities to be included in initial settlement program 43

10. Duration of initial settlement programs 46

11. Migrant settlement councils 47

12. Settlement co-ordinators 49'

13· Settlement officers and assistants 50

14. Costing of the initial settlement program 51

15. The teaching of English as a second language (Child

migrant education program) 56

16. Young people of non-English speaking origin 57

17. Child migrant education program: grants 59

18. Comments on existing provisions for teaching English to

children 60

19- Trends in expenditure per pupil on child migrant and

multicultural education 65

20. Education performance of migrant children - 67

21. Participation in post-secondary education by overseas-born

students, 1971 70

22. Estimated fluency in English of migrants on arrival in

Australia 71

23. Number of students enrolled in full-time English courses

1969-70 to 1976-77 75

24. Adult migrant education program: expenditure 76

25. Adult migrant education program: distribution of funds 78

122

26. Description of adult migrant education full-time courses 79

27. Intensive English courses for professionals trained overseas 82

28. Description of adult migrant education continuation classes 83

29. Needs for English for special purposes 86

30. Description of adult migrant education advanced courses 88

31. Description of adult migrant education courses in industry 89

32. Description of adult migrant education home tutor scheme 91

33. Estimated fluency in English of all migrants resident in

Australia 93

34. Comments on the adequacy of existing translation and

interpreting services 96

35. Courses in community languages and cultures 101

36. The Telephone Interpreter Service (TIS) 102

37. Translation units 109

38. Some existing and proposed State government interpreting

and translating services 110

39- Proposed extensions to the Telephone Interpreter Service 113

40. Definition of interpreters and translators 114

41. Proposed extensions in the State government interpreter

and translation services 115

42. Implementation of the migrant resource centre program 117

43. The migrant resource centre co-ordinators and receptionists 118

44. Funding and evaluation of the migrant resource centre

program 119

45. Initiators of the migrant resource centre program 120

46. Present grant-in-aid scheme for migrant welfare activities 121

47. Proposed functions for migrant services units 124

48. Proposed funding arrangements for grant-in-aid scheme 126

49. Examples for possible 'project funding' 128

50. Good Neighbour Councils: Summary of development 129

51. Functional statement of the Good Neighbour Councils 130

52. Charter of the Good Neighbour Councils 131

53- Organisation and structure of the Good Neighbour Councils 132

54. Funding of Good Neighbour Councils 136

55. Functions of the Good Neighbour Councils 138

24463/78-5 123

56. Criminal Investigation Bill 140

57. Labour force participation 142

58. Occupational distribution of migrants, February 1978 143

59. Metal Trades Industry Association survey of services for

migrants in industry, February 1978 144

60. Industry of employment of migrants, February 1978 147

61. Heads of migrant families with regressive employment histories 148

62. Recognition of overseas qualifications of heads of

migrant families 149

63· Existing machinery for recognition of professional and trade

qualifications 150

64. Prevention of back injury in industry 153

65. Difficulties experienced by migrants looking for work 154

66. Physical health of migrants 156

67. Use of health services by migrants 162

68. Mental health characteristics 164

69- Ethnic health worker projects in the States 166

70. Ethnic health workers 169

71. Problems of migrant women in the workforce 171

72. Incidence of mental breakdown among migrant women 173

73· Child-care arrangements 174

74. Office of Child Care: arrangements for migrant children 176

75. Organisations eligible for funding under the children's

services program 178

76. Work based community child care 179

77· Accidental injury among migrants 180

7 8 . Problems experienced by migrants in rehabilitation 181

79· Numbers of aged migrants 183

80. Developments in multicultural education 185

81. Cultural agreements 196

82. The ethnic press in Australia 197

8 3 . McNair Anderson survey on ethnic radio 198

84. Government-financed ethnic radio 199

85· National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council and State

Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Councils 200

124

202 86. Pilot ethnic television station 87. Ethnic programs on public broadcasting stations,

31 March 1978 205

88. Government departments and divisions in the ethnic

affairs area 206

89. Commonwealth/State government co-ordinating machinery

in ethnic affairs 208

90. Government consultative and advisory bodies in ethnic

affairs 209

91. Ethnic communities councils

92. Local consultative arrangements in the welfare field

established by State governments 211

93· Ethnic liaison officers 212

125

INDEX

accidents. See safety

accommodation, initial, 2.8-2.9 .

Acting Chief Electoral Officer, 7-8

adolescents, 3·15

adult migrant education program, 1.24, 3-16-3.20, 3-26; advanced

courses, 3.19(c); continuation courses, 1.2 3 , 3-19(b); full-time

courses, 3.19(a); home tutor scheme, 1.2 3 , 3·19(e), 6.33, 6.37(d);

intensive courses, 4.6

advocacy, Good Neighbour Councils role in, 6.33

aged people, 1.11, 1.37, 5.19, 7.10-7.32, 8.17-8.24, 11.9

alcoholism, 7.48

arts, the, 1.39, 9-24. See also cultural activities

Attorney-General's Department, 5-4, 5.5

Australia Council, 1.39, 9-24

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 10.13

Australian Ethnic Affairs Council, 5.12, 11.4-11.5, 11.6, 11.12

Australian Government Publishing Service, 3.24, 5.14

Australian Information Service, 5-14

Australian Trade Union Training Authority, 7.46

bail, 5.5, 5.23, 7.2

Bailey, P.H. See Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health

banks, 4.9

bilingualism, 1.25, 3-19, 4.2-4.4, 4.6-4.8, 7-34, 7.51; in courts, 7-2;

in education, 9.11-9.12; among professional people, 7.48-7.49

boat safety, 5.4

bridging courses, 4.6(b), 4.7

British migrants, 6.30, 7.8, 7.14, 7.28

British subjects, 7-8-7-9

bushfires, 5.4

Business and Consumer Affairs, Department of, 5.5, 5.22

126

Canberra, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

child care, 1.35, 6.15, 8.2-8.9; employer's responsibility for, 8.3;

in initial settlement program, 2.10

children, 1.11; adjustment to school of, 8.7; care and custody of, 7.5;

educational performance of, 3.4; health services for, 5.19;

multicultural education for, 9-10-9.17; needs for English of, 3-2-3·3;

relations with parents, 6.11, 8.11, 9.7; teaching English to, 1.22,

3.2-3.13; young, 8.2-8.9. See also child care

children's services workers, 8.7-8.9

citizenship, 2.10, 5.4, 6.35

Clothing Trades Union, 7-44

Commissioner for Taxation, 7-30

Committee of Inquiry into Education and Training, 7-38

Committee on Overseas Professional Qualifications, 1.33, 7.40, 11.12

Commonwealth Hostels Ltd., 2.18

Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service, 8.16(b)

Commonwealth/State co-ordinating committees on ethnic affairs, 11.13

Commonwealth/State working parties on interpreting and translating, 4.17

communication, 4.1-4.18, 6.11, 6.40, 7.48, 11.1

community based services. See local services

community development: by ethnic groups, 6 .38; by migrant services

units, 6.20, 6.21; officers, and child care, 8.4-8.5; workers, 6.15

community health centres, 5.20

community health projects, 7.51

community settlement centres, 2.8, 5.20

consular advice, 5.4

consultancy on welfare services, 6.1

consultation, 11.1-11.18; inter-government, 11.3-11-9; local, 11.8-11.9

consumer education, 5.5

consumer protection, 5.22

co-ordination, 11.1-11.18; of advisory bodies in ethnic affairs, 1.41;

between Commonwealth agencies, 5.8; by Department of Immigration and

Ethnic Affairs, 5.10, 5.14-5.15, 11.17; of ethnic children's services

workers, 8.7; between ethnic communities, 6.7; of ethnic health

workers, 7-49; of ethnic workers for the aged, 8.24; as role of Good

Neighbour Councils, 6.32; of grant-in-aid scheme, 6.16-6.17;

127

of grant-in-aid workers, 6.21; of local services, 6.3; of

multicultural activities, 6.3; of multicultural education, 9.16

continuation courses, 1.23, 3.19(b)

courts, 5.5, 5.23, 7.2

criminal investigations, 1.31, 7.4

Criminal Investigation Bill, 7.4

cultural agreements, 9-25

cultural: activities, 6.3, 6.33; diversity, 9.1, 9.7, 9.22-9-25;

identity, 9-5-9.6; problems, 6.11; understanding, 6.12

culture, definition of, 9.3

Curriculum Development Centre, 9.12(g), 9-16

cyclones, 5.4

Cypriots, 2.4

Darwin, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

dependants, 7.13(b), 7.29, 7-31

disabled people. See handicapped people

discrimination, 1.31, 7.6-7.7

divorce, 7.5

drug education, 5.4

education: adult, 3-14-3.30, 11.17, see also adult migrant education

program; Commonwealth expenditure on, 1.13, 1.15; communication

problems in, 4.1; community, 9.18(e); in English, 3.1-3-30;

information on in initial settlement program, 2.10; interpreter service

for, 4.16; media's role in, 10.1; multicultural, 1-38, 9.10-9.17;

tertiary,9.17

Education, Department of, 5-4, 9-15; Language Teaching Branch, 3.24;

Migrant Education Branch, 11.15

Education Research and Development Committee, 9.12(g), 9.16

elderly people. See aged people

electoral rights, 7.8-7.9

employer organisations, 5.17, 9.20

employment, 1.31, 1.33, 1.35, 7-1, 7.33-7.46; English classes and, 1.23,

3.19, 7.34; English needed for, 3.15, 7.39; information on in initial

settlement program, 2.10; information needs, 5.1, 5.16, 5.17-5.18; .

128

rights, 5.17; wage awards, 5.5, 5.17; welfare assistance and, 6.11;

workers' compensation, 5.5, 5.17, 7·37, 7.46. See also safety; women

Employment and Industrial Relations, Department of, 5.5, 5.17, 5.18, 7.43

English, 1.22; courses, advanced, '3.19(c); courses, full-time, 3.19(a);

courses, intensive, 4.6; fluency in, 4.1; needed for employment, 7.39;

needed for recognition of qualifications, 4.6; teaching, 1.23, 2.9;

teaching for adults, 3.14-3.30; teaching for children, 3.2-3.13;

teaching, funds for, 3.6-3.9; teaching in migrant resource centres, 6.3;

teaching at rehabilitation centres, 8.16; teaching at work, 3.19(d),

7.45

entertainment, role of media in, 10.1, 10.5

Environment, Housing and Community Development, Department of, 5.4

ethnic affairs advisory bodies, 11.4-11.9

ethnic children's services workers, 8.7-8.9

ethnic communities councils, 9·22, 11.7

ethnic health workers, 1.34, 7.49, 8.15

ethnic liaison officers, 5.10, 5.11, 11.11, 11.15-11.16; in Medibank, 5.12

ethnic organisations, 5.20, 6.37(e), 6.38, 6.41

ethnic radio. See radio

ethnic social welfare workers, 6.10-6.19, 7.34

ethnic television. See television

ethnic workers, 8.25

ethnic workers for the aged, 1.37, 8.22-8.24

evaluation: of all programs used by migrants, 11.18; of grant-in-aid

scheme, 6.16; of information programs, 5.8, 5.12; of migrant resource

centres, 6.8; of Richmond and Parramatta migrant resource centres, 6.6

Family Courts, 7.5

family day care scheme, 1.35, 8.5

family law, 1.31, 7.5

finance, information on in initial settlement program, 2.10

financial support for newly arrived migrants, 2.11-2.12

floods, 5.4

Foreign Affairs, Department of, 5.4

129

Geelong, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

Good Neighbour Council, 1.28, 1.30, 2.4, 6.5, 6.19, 6.28-6.43; Charter

of, 6.36; current operations of, 6.34-6.35; Darwin, 6.5; funding to

be phased out, 6.43; government guidelines to, 6.37(e); history

of, 6.30-6.33; interpreting and translation services, 4.9;

membership of, 6 .3 7 (b)

grant-in-aid scheme, 1.2 8 , 6 .10—6 .19? 6 .2 0 , 11.8 ; ceiling on grants, 6.13;

flexibility of, 6.12; funding methods, 6.18-6.19; and Good Neighbour

Councils, 6.32; workers under, 6.17, 6.21

grants, for special projects, 1.29, 6.24-6.27; 7.46

Greece, 7-27, 8 .19

Greek, courses in interpreting, 4.11; survey of community, 10.4

handicapped people, 1.3 6 , 5.19, 8.14-8.16, 11.9

health, 1.31, 1.34, 7.1, 7-47-7.52; information on in initial settlement

program, 2.10; information needs, 5.1, 5.16, 5-19-20; insurance, 5.19;

mental, 4.6(b), 7.48, 8.11; of newly arrived migrants, 7.47;

occupational, 5-4; preventive care, 5 .2 0 ; problems in communication,

4.1; recognition of professional qualifications, 4.6(b); services,

1.13; services special interpreting needs, 4.16; services, women's

use of, 8 .12; of women, 8 .11, 8 .12; workers, ethnic, 7.49, 8.15

Health, Department of, 5.4, 5.20

hire purchase, 2 .1 0

Hobart, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

home savings grant, 5.4

home tutor scheme, 1.23, 3.19(e), 6.33, 6 .3 7 (d)

hospitals, 5.20

hostels, 2.4, 2.18, 2.20, 5.20; State, 2.22

hostel settlement centres, 2 .8 . -

Human Rights Commission, 7.6

Human Rights Commission Bill, 7-6

hygiene,5-4

Immigration (Education) Act, 3 .30

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Department of, 11.15; citizenship role, 5.4;

community settlement centres and, 2.19; consultative role, 11.4;

co-ordinating role, 1.41, 11.12; Education Branch, 11.15(n);

130

! English needs and, 1.24, 3-28; Ethnic Affairs Branch, 11.11, 11.16;

: i and Good Neighbour Council, 1.30, 6.43; and grant-in-aid co-ordinators,

v j 6.17; hostel settlement criteria, 2.8; Information Branch, 1.27, 5.14;

;j information responsibilities, 1.27, 3·25, 5.2, 5.10; interpreting

: services to be monitored by, 4.18; maintenance guarantees, 7.20;

; migrant resource centres and, 6.8, 6.9; migrant services, 2.15,

: 6.20-6.23; Settlement Branch, 11.15(n); Telephone Interpreter

7 Service, 4.14; translation units, 4.14

: Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Minister for, 11.12

Immigration, Minister for, 6.30

[ ; immunisation, 5.4

r implementation, 1.42

l income security, 1.31, 1.32, 5-1, 7.1, 7.10-7-32

: Income Security Review, 7-11

i; Income Tax Assessment Act, 7.12

industrial safety. See safety

Industry and Commerce, Department of, 5.4

information, 1.27, 5.1-5-25; on employment, 5.17-5.18; gaps in provisions,

5.8; on health care, 5.19-5.20; informal networks, 5.11; lack of, 5.1;

media's role, 10.1, 10.5; printed, 5.6; responsibilities of service

providers, 5.1; services, 5.3-5.9, 6.3, 6.40, 7·48, 11.17; survey of

needs and use, 5.17, 5.19, 5.22, 5.25; techniques for spreading, 5.3

initial settlement program, 1.21, 2.7-2.21, 3.27, 5.17, 5.19-5.20, 5.21,

6.3, 6.20, 6.29, 6.40, 7.2, 7.48, 11.8; costing, 2.21; and English

teaching, 3-17, 4.3; implementation of, 2.20, Table 1

injury. See safety

Inquiry into Teacher Education, 3.23(a)

Institute of Multicultural Affairs, 1.39, 6.42, 7.5, 9.18-9.21, 9.23, 11.9

integration, 6.35

international symbol design, 7-36

interpreters, 1.34, 6.20; courses for, 4.11; in courts, 7-2; in health

services, 7.48-7.49; use of by professionals, 9.17

interpreting services, 1.15, 1.26, 4.9-4.18; 11.17; ad hoc arrangements,

4.9; Good Neighbour Councils role, 6.35; need for extension, 4.2-4.5;

need for specialisation in, 4.16; professional standards in, 4.10;

in State areas of responsibility, 4.15

131

Italian, 4.11, 10.4

Italy, 7.27, 8.19

job interviews, 2.10

judges, 7-5

languages: allowances for, 4.6; low value placed on ability in, 4.6;

skills needed by professional workers in, 4.6(c); teaching of, 9-11­

9.12; variety spoken in Australia, 4.1. See also English; Greek;

Italian; Serbo-Croatian; Spanish; Turkish

Latrobe Valley, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

law, 1.31, 4.1, 4.16, 5.1, 5.16, 5.21-5.25, 7.1, 7.2-7.9

Lebanese, 2.4

legal aid, 5.4, 5.25

Legal Aid Commission, Commonwealth, 5.25

legal rights and obligations, 5.21, 7-3

libraries, municipal, 9.23

local services, 6.4, 6.7, 6.41 · .

long service leave, 5.17

maintenance guarantees, 7 .13(a), 7.19-7.25, 8.22

Malta, 7.27

marriage, 7.5

marriage guidance counsellors, 7.5

meals on wheels, 8.21

media, the, 1.40, 9-20, 10.1-10.17. See also newspapers; radio; television

Medibank, 5.12

medical services. See health

meetings, facilities for, 6.3

mental health, 7.48, 8.11 '

Metals Trades Industry Association, 7.34

migrant community services (Commonwealth), 6.10, 11.17

migrant education centres, 2.20

Migrant Education Television, 3.20

migrant resource centres, 5.11, 5.20, 6.2-6.9, 6.20, 6.21, 8.25, 11.8;

co-ordinators, 6.3, 6.9; existing, 6.6; functions of, 6.3;

initiators, 6.9; phasing in of, 6.3; receptionists, 6.3

132

migrant resources directories, 5.15

migrant services units (Commonwealth), 1.28, 6.20-6.23, 8.16

migrant settlement centres, 2.7-2.8

migrant settlement councils, 1.21, 2.13, 2.14

migration, patterns of, 1.2

multiculturalism, 1 .3 8 , 6.39, 7.7, 9.1-9.25; at child-care centres and

pre-schools, 8.8-8.9; in education, 8.7, 9.10-9.17; in local

activities, 6.3; media's role in, 10.1; in resource centres, 6.7

multilingual information, 5.6, 5.12, 5.17, 5 .18, 7.34, 7.35; in courts,

5.23, 7.2; on the Ombudsman, 5.24; on radio, 5.20

multilingual welfare counselling, 6.3

multilingual workers, 1.34, 1.37, 6.12, 6.20, 7-49, 8.7-8.9, 8.15,

8.22-8.24, 8.25

National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters, 4.10,

11.12

National Employment and Training (NEAT) Scheme, 7.43

National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council, 1.40, 10.8, 10.14

Natural Disasters Organisation, 5.4

naturalisation, 7.9

Newcastle, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

newly arrived migrants, 2.1-2.23; financial support for, 2.11-2.12;

fluency in English, 3.14; special problem of, 2.3, 2.4, 5.17

New Settlers' Leagues, 6.30

New South Wales: grant-in-aid co-ordinators, 6.17; health education

program for migrant women, 7.51; migrant resources directories, 5.15;

need for specialised interpreter services, 4.16; Parramatta migrant

resource centre, 6.6; teacher exchanges, 9.12(d); translation units,

4.14

newspapers, 5.7, 10.2. See also media; press

New Zealand migrants, 7.14, 7.28

non-English speaking migrants, 1.9-1.10, 1.25, 2.3, 2.7, 4.2, 5.22, 5.23,

7.4, 7-8, 7.35, 8.2-8.9, 8.15, 8.19, 10.5

nursing, 4.6(d)

nursing homes, 8.20

nutrition, 5.4

133

occupational health, 5.4

occupational retraining, 1.33

Office of Child Care, 8.2, 8.4, 8.7

old people. See aged people

Ombudsman, Commonwealth, 5.24

pamphlets,5.6,5.11

Parramatta migrant resource centre,6.6

parents: dependent, 7.29, 7.31; in multicultural education, 9.12(f);

relations with children, 6.11, 8.11, 9.7. See also aged people

passport advice, 5.4

pensions, 7-12; from overseas, 7.13(b), 7.26-7.28; portability rights, 7·17,

7.27, 7 .3 2 ; residence qualifications, 7.13(a), 7.14-7.18, 7-32.

See also special benefit

Post and Telecommunications, Department of, 10.11, 10.13, 10.14

Poverty Inquiry, 1.12

Prahran Multicultural Centre, 6.4

pre-school services, 1.35, 8.8-8.9. See also child care

press, the, 5.7, 5.20, 10.2. See also media; newspapers

preventive care, 5.20, 6.15

Prime Minister and Cabinet, Department of the, 1.42

probation, 7.2

Productivity, Department of, 5.17, 5.18, 7 .3 6

Productivity Promotion Council of Australia, 7.36

professional bodies, 4.7

professionally qualified people: bilingual, 3.19; language training

for, 1.25, 4.6(c); multiculturalism in education of, 1.38, 4.8, 9.17;

recognition of qualifications, 1.25, 2.10, 4.6, 4.7, 7.38-7.42, 11.17;

under-use of, 1.33 '

psychiatric medicine. See health, mental

public contact positions, 4.6

Public Service Board, 6.23

qualifications: bridging courses for, 4.6(b), 4.7, 7.41; recognition of,

1.25, 2.10, 4.6, 4.7, 7.38-7.42, 11.17; technical, 7-40; under-use

of, 1.33

quarantine, 5.4

Racial Discrimination Act, 7.6

racial diversity, 9.1

radio, 1.40, 5.11, 5.20, 10.3-10.8; English teaching by, 3-20;

ethnic stations (2EA, 3EA), 10.4; survey of listeners, 10.4

refugee resettlement committees, 2.17

refugees, 1.1, 2.4, 2.8, 2.12, 2.17, 6.38, 7.20, 8.14

registration boards, 4.7

rehabilitation, 1.36, 8.14-8.16

research, 1.39, 9.18-9.21, 11.9

residence qualifications for pensions, 7.13(a), 7.14-7.18, 7.32

retraining, 7.43. See also rehabilitation

Richmond migrant resource centre, 6.6

rights and obligations, 5.1, 5.17, 5.21, 7.3, 7.8-7.9

road safety, 5.4

Royal South Sydney Hospital Rehabilitation Centre, 8.15

safety, 1.33, 5.4, 5.18, 7.35-7-37, 7-45, 8.14

Schools Commission, 3-3, 3-4, 3.6, 3.8, 3.12, 9.10, 9.12(g), 9.16

self-help, 1.7, 1.2 8 , 6.1, 6.4, 6.15, 6.24, 6.39, 7.48

senior citizens groups, 8.21. See also aged people

Serbo-Croatian, 4.11

settlement: definition of, 2.1; Department of Immigration and Ethnic

Affairs and, 11.17; process of, 2.1-2.2, 2.7, 2.12; role of media

in, 10.1, 10.5

settlement committees, 2.16

settlement co-ordinators, 2.15

settlement officers, 2.15

skills, under-employment of, 7.38-7.42. See also professionally

qualified people; qualifications

smoking, 5.4

social customs, 7.5

Social Security, Department of, 6.17, 7.14; Migrant Community Services

Branch, 11.15

Social Services Act, 7-12

Social Welfare Policy Secretariat, 1.32, 7.11

social work, 4.6(b), 6.10-6.19- See also welfare

South Americans, 2.4

135

South Australia: consumer education, 5.22; Council of Social Service, 6.30

mental health visitors, 7-51; Ten Schools Project, 9-12

Spanish, 4.11

special benefit, 2.12, 7.13(a), 7.14-7-18, 7.23-7.25, 7-32

Special Broadcasting Service, 1.40, 10.4, 10.13, 10.16

special impetus projects, 6.24-6.27

Springvale Community Aid and Advice Bureau, 6.4

State/Commonwealth co-ordinating committees on ethnic affairs, 11.13

State/Commonwealth working parties on interpreting and translating, 4.17

State Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Councils, 10.8

States Grants (Home Care) Act, 8.24

States Grants (Schools) legislation, 3-13

student assistance schemes, 5.4

Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health, 6.28

tax rebates, 7.13, 7.29-7-32

teachers, 4.6(b); of English, 1.23, 3·10, 3.21-3.26; training of, 3.23(b),

9.11

teaching materials, 3.10, 3*21-3.26

Technical and Further Education Colleges, 3.19(c)

Telephone Interpreter Service, 4.12, 4.13-4.14, 5.11, 5-20

television, 1.40, 5.11, 10.9-10.17; for English teaching, 3-20; pilot

ethnic station, 10.13-10.17; pilot ethnic station, commercial

involvement, 10.17; pilot ethnic station, frequency of transmission,

10.11

tenancy, 6.11

Ten Schools Project, South Australia, 9.12

Tertiary Education Commission, 7.42, 9.16, 9.17

tertiary institutions, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10 '

tourism, 5.4

Trades and Labour Councils, 7.46

Tradesman's Rights Regulation Act, 7.40, 7.42

training: of children's services workers, 8.7; Department of Immigration

and Ethnic Affairs and, 9.18(c); of health workers, 7.49;

occupational retraining, 7.43; for recognition of overseas

qualifications, 7.41-7.42; of teachers, 3.23(b), 9.11; of workers

for the aged, 8.24

136

! j translation, 1.15, 1.26, 4.2-4.5, 4.9-4.18, 5 .18, 6.35, 7.45, 11.17

| travel, 5.4

j i Transport, Department of, 5.4

i i Turkish, 10.4

Turkey, 7.27, 8.19

C unemployment, 7.43

i j; unemployment benefit, 2.12

I unions, 1.33, 2.10, 5.17-5.18, 7.44-7.46, 8.3, 9.20

j j ; Vehicle Builders Union, 7.44

| Victoria: English teaching for children in, 3-3; grant-in-aid scheme in,

' 6.17; migrant resources directories in, 5.15; Richmond migrant

resource centre, 6.6; translation services in, 4.14, 4.16

voluntary sector, 1.28, 6.1-6.27; and grant-in-aid scheme, 6.10; shift

in responsibility to, 6.20, 6.27. See also Good Neighbour Councils

volunteers, 3.19(e), 6.4, 6.35

voting, 1.31, 7.8-7 .9

welfare: preventive work, 6.15; role of media in, 10.1; services, 1.13,

1.15, 6.1, 6.40; special projects, 6.24-6.27; workers, ethnic, 6.10­

6.19, 7.34, 8.25

Whyalla, extension of Telephone Interpreter Service to, 4.13

withdrawal classes, 3*4

women, 1.11, 1.35, 2.3, 3.15, 3.19(e), 5.17, 6.15, 7.33, 7.45,

7-46, 8.2, 8.10-8.13, 11.9

work. See employment

Yugoslavia, 8.19

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