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Papua (British New Guinea) - Royal Commission of Inquiry into the present conditions, including the method of Government, of Territory of Papua, and the best means for their improvement - Report of ; together with Minutes of Evidence, Appendices, and Map [Part 1 of 2]

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The Commission

The Commissioners' Report

Index to Report

Index to Witnesses

Minutes of Evidence

Subject Index to Evidence

Index to A ppen



Page V










EDWARD VII., by the Grace of God of the U11ited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of tke British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.


KNOW you that we do, by these our Letters Patent, appoint yoii to be Commissioners to inquire into and report upon the present conditions, including the methods of government, of the tlrritory now known as British New Guinea, and the best means for the improvement: And we appoint you, the said J .AMES ALEXANDER KENNETH MACKAY, to be the Chairman qf the said Commissioners: And we direct that at any meeting of the said Commissioners two Commissioners shall be sufficient to constitiite a qiiorum: And we further direct that in the event of the absence of the Chairman from any meeting of the

said Commissioners the Commissioners present may appoint one of their nitmber to act as Chairman during such absence: And we fiirther direct that in the event of the votes gii:en on any question at any meeting of the said Commissioners being equal, the Chairman, if present, and if the Chairman is not present, then the Commissioner appoirtted to act as Chairman in his absence, shall have a second or casting vote: And we require yoti, with as little delay as possible, to report to our Governor-Geneml in and over our said Commonwealth of Australia the result of your inquiry.

IN TESTIMQNY WHEREOF we have caiised these our letters to be made patent, and the seal of our said Common­ wealth of Australia to be affixed thereto.

WITNESS our right trusty and well-beloved HENRY STAFFORD, BARON NORTHCOTE, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Seal of the Saint George, Kni'ght Grand Commander of oi1r Most Eminent Order of the Indian Commonwealth Empire, Companion of our .J.11 ost Honorable Order of the Bath, Governor-General and

of Australia. Commander-in-Chief in and over our Comr.:onwealth of Australia, this twenty-seventh day of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and six, and in the sixth 11ear of our reign.


L'y His Excellency's Command,


EN'rERED on record by me in Register of Patents, No. 2. page 236, this twenty-eighth day of August, One thousand

rimr lJ,1.i11drnd and si+,




REPORT. To His Excellency HENRY STAFFORD, BARON NORTHCOTE, Kniqltt Grand Cross of the Most Distinqitished Order of Saint Micliael and Saint George, Kniglit Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Orrler of

the Indian Empire, Companion of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Governor-General arnd Commander-in-Chief in and over the Commonwealth of Australia.


We, having been appointed by Y 0ur Excellency, on the 27th day of August, 1906, to be a Royal Commission to "inquire into and report upon the present conditions, including the methods of government, of the Territory," vvhich was at that time known as British New Guinea, but is now designated Papua,

".and the best means for their improv0ment," have the honour to submit our Report, as follows :-ITINERARY.

Upon receipt of Your Excellency's commission, immediate steps were taken to carry into effect the instructions therein contained, and arrangements were at once made to visit the Territory. The Chairman .and the Secretary left Sydney by the s.s. Guthrie, on the 1st September, 1906; Mr. Parry-Oke

s.s. Malaita, Cairns was left on the 10th September, and Your Commissioners eventually arrived at Port Moresby on Thursday, the 13th September, 1906. It ~rrival at Port was there found that the Administrator had left Port Moresby two days pre- Moresby. viously for the eastern end of the Territory, in order to attend a meeting of the

newly constituted Legislative Council. Upon arrival in the Territory, it was learnt that the Administrat ion had taken all steps that were possible to make knovvn to the white residents the ap- . pointrnent of the Commission, and persons desirous of giving evidence had been r:ekm!pp;;:run

d . f h S t f th C . . A . ·1 "fj . ment of t1i e requeste to 1n orm t e ecre .ary o e omm1ss10n. s1m1 ar not1 1cat10n commiss iut,. was published in the . local Government Gazette, which is circulated among manv of the principal residents, and instructions were issued that notices f.' holiid also be posted up at the Government offic~s and stores throughout the country.

Upon visiting the various parts of the Territory, Your Commissioners wer:~ pleased to find t~at the appointme1:,t of th~ Cornmis?ion h~d been so '.vell adver-tised, and no d1fficu1ty was experienced m procurmg evidence relatmg to the administration generally. Special messengers were sent overland to the miners

on the gold-fields of the Northern Division, and, with a view to economize the

Port Mores by.

The Southern Coast.


Tl>e Admin­ ·trator.

Woodlark I1land. .


limited time at the disposal of Your Commissioners, a messen~er was sent ~o the miners of t he Gira and Aikora field s, asking them to appomt two of the!r number t o wait upon the Commission at Mambare Beach, and represent th~ir views. In response to this invitation, two delegates waited upon the Commis­ sion at Mambare Beach and made representations on behalf of the men who had appointed them.

The Commission held its first meeting, for the purpose of taking evidence, in Port Moreeby, on the .14th September, 1906, and continued on the 17th, 18~h, 19th, 20th, and 22nd, upon which latter day all the witnesses who we~e ~vail­ able at Port Moresby had been examined. On the 15th, Your Comm1ss10ners visited the gaol at -Port Moresby, and several of the native villages in the neigh-bourhood.

The Government steam yacht Merrie England, upon which Your Co~mis­ sioners were depending in order to visit the various Divisions o~ th~ Territo!y; arrived in Port Moresby on the 22nd September, 1906, and, after ISsumg a not10e to the public of the intention of Your Commissioners to leave for other parts of the Territory, and that they would be returning to Port Moresfiy early in Novem­ ber, when any further evidence which offered would be taken, the Commission left Port Moresby the following morning, the 23rd September.

Kapa Kapa, lying to the south-east of Port Mores,by, was reached that day, and Vatorata, a station of the London Missionary Society, was visited, as well as the plantations of Mr. English, consisting principally of rubber trees and sisal hemp.

On the following day, 24th September, a call was made at Kerepuna (at which place the London Missionary Society has a station), and the native plan­ tations of cocoa-nuts were inspected. Cloudy Bay was reached the next day, and a cocoa-nut plantation there, belonging ti0 Mr. Whitten, ,0f Samarai, was viewed.

Fyfe Bay, where another station of the London Missionary Society is situate, was visited on the 26th September, and Samarai was reached on the even-~ng of the same day. · ·

. T?e 4;dmi~istrator was then. _ a~ Samar_ai, at!,end~ng t~e meeting of the Legislative Council, and the Comm1;:,s10n advised him of their proposed move-ments. -_ Evide_ nce was taken at s~,marai on th~ 27th and 28th September, and the 2nd and 3rd October,. and at K wato, a e.tat10n of the London Missionary Society opposite Samarai, on the 29th September. On the 1st October, the "Chairma~ and Mr. J ustice Herbert made a short visit to Milne Bay, at which place it was stated t here was a large area of good agricultural land.

The Merrie England, in the meantime, had left Samarai on the 28th Sep­ tember fo r administr ative purposes, and on her return, on the 3rd October no further witnesses offering for examination, the Commissi6n embarked and 'left Samarai the following day. .,

. From Samarai, Your Commissi~ners pr~eeded to Woodlark Island, a call bemg ~a?-e en r_oute at Dobu, a stat10n of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. The m.iss10nary m ?harge was, ~owever, absent from his station at the annual gather mg of his society. Bonagai! t~e port for W oodlark Island, was reached on t he 5th Ocdtober, and_ Youhr CA ,om~issionRers.dat onMce P!Oceeded to visit the mines

at Kulama au, examme t _e ss1stant esi ent agistrate and make ar

ment ~. for. taking _evidence o!1 the following day. The whol~ of the next d:;~:; occuried m hea~mg th~ evider~ce, of mmers and other~> at Woodiark I;land. Th'! Trobriands. Leav1~g Bonagai .°~ the morn!n~ ?f the 7th _Oc~ober, Kitava, an island of the

Trobriands, was risited, and Kinwma, the prmcipal island of the gro reached on the 8th. The next day, Your Commissioners inspected th uGp, was

The D' Entre­ casteau:c I lands.

. d h . t 1 th . l cl Tr . - e overn - ment stat 10~ an osp1 a on e 1s anr, at n .. avataria, and examined the G _ verment officials. o

Leaving Kiriwina on the morninff of the 9th October a call d

Hughes BRy, Fergu on Island: and Mud Bay, Goodenouah Islana wAatsthmal e at h M l a

. M' · h · · 5 · e atter place, t _e et 10 1st 1ss1on as a stat10n at Bwaidoga and the e · d f h missionary was taken. ' vi ence o t e

The head station of the Anglican Mission is situate at Dogura, Bartle Th~ north- t Bay, and a visit was made there on the 10th October! when the clergyman in eas ern coas · charge placed his views before Your Commissioners. The Government station at Cape Nelson was inspected on the 11t h, and on the following day Your Com­

missioners arrived at Buna Bay, and received further evidence. Mambare Beach, the most nort hern point on the east coast visited by Your Commissioners, and within a few miles of the boundary bet,veen the British Territory and German New Guinea, was reached on the 12th, and on the following day the evidence of the delegates who had arrived from the Gira and Aikora gold-fields was t aken.

1'he Merri e England then returned to Buna Bay and, on the morning of the 15th, the Chairman and Mr. Justice Herbert left for their overland march to Port Moresby. Mr. Parry-Okeden and the Secretary continued in the Merrie · England, arriving back in Port Moresby on the 19th October, and were engaged in inspecting Departmental papers and the Government offices until the return of the other Commissioners on the 6th November, 1906.

Tne overland p arty consist ed of the Chairman and Mr. Just ice The overland

C. E. Herbert, Geor o--e Belford, a small escort of Armed Native Con- march.

stabulary, and a number of carriers, with Mr. Resident Magistrate C.

A. vV. 1{onckto11 in charge. The first camp was pitched on the banks

of the Giriwu River, and on the following day t he village of Kanderita

was reached. Although within one day's march of the coast , this was

only the second occasion on which the village had been visited by Europeans. The party arrived at the Government station of Kokoda on Sunday, the 21st October, 1906., and the mining centre of Yodda on the following day. Evidence was taken here, and a return made to Kokoda on the 24th, where further wit-nesses were examined.. Leaving Kokoda on the 26th, an elevation of 3,200 feet was reached; on the 27th, 4,272 feet; and the day following, 8,689 feet-at which height the main range was topped, the party arriving at K agi on Wednesday, the 31st October. At this nlace, the Commandant of the A rmed Native Constabu-lary, Mr. W. C. Bruce, wa·s met, and took charge, Mr. Monckto~ returning to his divisional duties. On the 1st November, camp was pitched at Maneri; on the 3rd, at the village of Iorobaiva; on the 4t~, at I rutapuna; an~ on the 5th, at

Sogeri, where the coffee plantations were mspected. Horses had been sent from Port Moresby to this place for the party, and the following day was occupied in riding to Port Moresby. The taking of evidence was resumed at Port Moresoy on t he 8th November , Port Moresby. and was continued on the 9th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 21st,

and 22nd. On the following day, Your Commissioners left Port Moresby oh the Merrie England, and arrived at Yule Island, Hall Sound, on the same even-ing. Yule Island is the head station of the Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Mis- Yule Island. sion, and the evidence of the missionaries and Assistant Resident Magist rate was received. Leaving Yule Island early an the morning of Saturday, the 24th Novem-ber, Kerema, a Government station, was reached that afternoon, and t he Assist- Kerema. ant R.eeident Magistrate in charge examined. After a call at Bramble Cay, a

small island within Queensland waters, Your Commissioners arrived at Daru, Daru. the principal station and port of entry for the Western Division, on the 26t h November. The Government station was inspected, and Resiaent Magistrate examined, and, on the same day, Your Commissioners left for Australia, arriving at Thursday Island on the 27th. There 1being two New Guinea trader!s at T hur 8rl11,y Thursday Island at the time of Your Commissioners' visit, their evidence was I sland. taken on the 28th, and the Merrie Eng land afterwards proceeded on her voyage southward. The evidence of the master of Merrie England was taken on the 4th December, and Brisbane was reached on Thursday, 6t h December, 1906. The B risbane. fin al evidence was taken at Brisbane On the 7th and 8th December. A few

days were spent in Sydney to. e~able the Secretary t~ fin1sh the transcription of Sydney. ·the- evidence and Your Comm1ss10ners event ually arrived at Melbourne on the ' Melbo ttrne. 19th December, 1906. In a1L evidence was taken on 40 days, and 71 witnesses were examined. T h e evidenc/J Your Commissioners desire to point out that only in the case of t wo or three

Government officials was it necessary to request their attendance before the Com-~ission for the purnose of gi':ing evidence, and that the evidence of the members of the general public was entirely of a voluntary character.


Historical references to Papua have so frequently in official papers that Your Commissioners forbear from loading a necessarily long re:fort with what must, at best, be but a repetition of facts already well. ~now~1. . 1 hef feel, however, that for the better understanding of existing condit10ns it is weil to point out that a study of the official uorrespondence which passed between t~e

Imperial authorities and the Australian Governments of the day shows un~is-Proczaiming a takably that the proclamation in 1884 of ,a Prot~ctorate over pa!~ of New Gmnea

i;;;_ectorate, was, in the first instanoo, most reluct:(j,ntly undertaken by the British Government,

in tardy acknowledgment of Sir Thomas Mcilwraith's far-seeing and statesman­ The strategic like attempt to secure the whole island for strategic and other reasons. ~nd the

advantage lost. history of Imperial administration since points to the fact that, while they

largely lost (by allowing Germany a foothold) the strategic advantage the _Queens­ Imperiaz policy. land Premier saw was so essential for Australia's future safety, they contmued to -Protecting the regard the Posses.si0n chjefly from this stand-point, and the laudable one of pro­

natives. tecting the native population, and consequently never seriously faoed the problem

of White Settlement. Indeed, there seems to have been an impress10n that the

White settlement inevitable.


The white population. Miners.


Rich soil.



latter policy would prove inimical to the safety of the aboriginal inhabitants. It would not be fair to bold successive Administrators responsible for thi.s policy, and the fact that in spite of it white settlement ha:s gradually, if

slowly, taken place, points to the fact that they have in the main realized the im­ practicability of governing Papua as. a British Possession, and at the same time making of it a close preserve for the native r.aces. Even admitting that this policy was rendered to a certain extent necessary in the early days of the Protectorate, by reason of the fact that the persons and lands\ of the natives had to be guarded against "lawless and evil-disposed per­ sons," that time in its original sense· is past, and in the opinion of Your Commis­ sioners the hour has struck for the commencement of a vigorous, forward policy, so far as white settlement is concerned.


The area of Papua consists of 57,945,600 acres, of which 1,127,802 acres are owned by the Crown. Of the latter area, 876,443 acres were taken posses­ sion of by the Government as unoccupied land, . and 251,359 acres were purchased from the natives. The area under occupation by white settlers represents an infinitesimal proportion, and one of the largest blocks alienated is held by a · com­ pany which is making no present use of it, while other portions will, we fear, never be fit for successful occupation. The white population at present consists of miners, the major part of whom are settled in three centres, namely, W oodlark Island, and the Y odda and the Gira fields. Digging to a small extent is also carried on at Milne Bay, and on the Island of Sudest, and there are doubtless odd pro.spectors in othe_ r parts of the Territory. Approxirn~tely, the digging populat10n may be put down at 200. The rest of the populat10n consists of Go­ vernment officials, missionaries, storekeepers, traders, labour recruiters, and planters, but Your Commissioners regret to state that the latter class are in a distinct minority, nor do they believe that there are at present more than ten plantations in the whole Territory, and of these only four or five at the most are being worked on lines which make for ultimate· success. · This state of affairs is in no sense due to a want of proner natural advan­

tages, for the soil of Papua is rich, virgin, and easily worked, while its infinite va:iety. makes _the successfu~ cu~tivation of. almost all tropical products possible. Climatically, it may unhes1tatmgly be said that the country has been much malig1;1ed,. and Your Commissioners hav~ no hesitation in stating that in this re­ sp~c~ 1t ~ill _compare_ not unfavorably with any other tropical Possession of the British Emp1re ... r~ is true there. are very ~ad patches, and that, particularly in the Northern· Divrn10n, an alar_mmg mortality has prevailed in the nast: b1;t it :nust not be forgotten that th~f, took place 3:mong· 9fficials whose duties led them mt? the worst parts, and digge~s, wh?, 111 search . for gold, accepted risks wluch need never be taken by. agriculturists. We believe that even the worst

a.reas, :¥hen c!eared of mosqmto harbors and opened to the sunlig·ht by cultiva­ tion, will, as. m Northern Queensland, become at least comparatively healthy. But

. XI

at the present moment there is no necessity for settlers to risk their health in creating better conditions for a later generation. Papua possesses thousands of acres where a man who exercises ordinary care may live with no serious risk to his health. Thanks to the Owen Stanley Range, which runs through practically the ,whole length of the is1and, easily accessible altitudes suitable for hill stations are

always available for dwellers on the coast from Port Moresby to Samarai. It is on the rich lands lying between these points, and running back beyond the Astro­ labe Range, and along the course of the Kemp Welch River, and on the land ~ehind Fyfe Bay, and stretching to Milne Harbor, that Your Commissioners hope to see the first concentration of white settlement.

Save in the immediate vicinity of Port Moresby and along a narrow strip of the coast line on either side of it, the rainfall of Papua is regular and

generous, while as a _ naturally-watered country it stands almost without a rival. Streams, ever flowing, and pure as the sources from which they come, are to be met with every few miles, and, unlike those of most tropical countries, their _ waters can be usea. with perfect safety in their natural state. On the lower lands, the atmosphere is somewhat humid, but in the hills it is both invigorating and health giving. On those parts of the coast and river-mouths where mangrove swamps exist, malaria is undoubtedly prevalent, but now that it has been proved that it can only be contracted from the anopheles mosquito, the clearing away

of the mangroves and tlie filling in of the swamps will render this disease a thing _ of the past, even 'in such spots. · A practical illustration of the truth of this asser­ tion was furnished to Your Commissioners at Samarai. This place, a few years ago, was a hot-bed of malaria, but now that a swamp then existing has been filled in, the island, according to the evidence of the Resident Medical Officer, is absolutely free from fever.

Apart from tropical agriculture, Your Comm:rssio.ners see no reason why the breeding of cattle and horses should not be carried ·on successfully, either as a separate industry or in conjunction with the The land behind Port Moresby, and thousands of acres at the back of Rigo Station, are excellently

grassed and watered, and lightly timbered, while Your Commissioners have no reason to doubt ~hat there are large tracts in the ·western ana other Divisions which would be well suited for big stock. The Sacred Heart Missioners, at Yule Island, have proved that good cattle and horses can be bred in Papua, and they are now experimenting with sheep. About these latter, however, Your Commis­ sioners feel unable to express .a decided opinion, as they fear that the humidity of the lower lanas and the excessive rainfall in the higher altitudes must militate against anything in the shape of extensive wool raising. On quite another part of the coast, the Church of England Mission has also shown the practicability of breeding cattle, while the same may be said with regard to Messrs. Burns, Philp, and Company, at Port Moresby. At the latter place, the Government horses, though showing evident signs of inbreeding, have splendid hoofs and good enough bone to prove that if properly cared for they should be

quite up to the standard of the average Australian "waler."

Having in view the fact that Papua is within easy distance of India, and in the line of the smooth-water passage, Your Commissioners can ·see no reason why the breeding of polo ponies and remounts could not he carried on at a profit, particularly when consider.atinn is given to the nominal rent at which ample country should soon be made available.

Hlll station,.

The rainfall.


Samarai free from fever .

Live stocJ:.

Suitable country.

Cattle and horses in Papua.

Horse and pony breedin(J pro­ b(l.'hly profit­ able.

Mule breeding is another industry which must have a big future in Papua should settlement become general, for, thanks to its geographical features, trans­ port other than wheeled will always be largely used, ana both on the score of economy and humanity, mule and horse transport must largely take the plaoo of native carrying. For this particular class of work mules, if procurable (being easily superior to horses), will naturally command a ready sale. Climatically, there is no reason why they should not be successfully raised, not only to supply a local market, but also several now exploited by America.

Mule breeding.

So far, the gold discovered in Papua has been almost all alluvial, but 0014• there is every reason to believe that in the ranges whence this gold must have



Nativ~ labour . plentiful.

Class of aettler nec11-aarv.

A i1 stra lians.

The East should lie exploited for settler,.


come, reefs will yet fie discovered. Indeed, Mr. Monckton, the _Resident Magis .. trate of the Northern Division, who lately ascended Mount Albert Edward, has pointed out, in his evidence, that he saw well-defined reefs on its slopes. T?e geological formations give promise that other valuable minerals will yet be dis­ covered, and Your Commissioners have every hope that, given proper encourage­ ment, mining will yet provide employment for a large number of men. ~ut? no

matter how fruitful thje soil of Papua may be, or how rich the depos1ts be­ neath its surface, Y otfr Commissioners recognise that, owing to its tropical climate, it would be idle to ask white men to attempt its development if an ample and suitable unskilled labour supply was non-existent. Fortunately, this problem has not to be faced, for here the question of importing coloured labour need never arise, owing to the plentiful local supply, and mines and plantations can conse­ quently be worked under natural conditions in no 'way antagonistic to the policy of the Australian Commonwealth.

vVhile Your Commissioners have no doubt as to the practicability cf convert­ ing Papua into an agricultural and pastoral asset of great value to the Common­ wealth, they recognise that all its natural advantages and exceptional labour supply are alike useless unless the right type of white man can be "induced to settle there and wake its dormant possibilities into fruitful life. How settle­ ment, in our opinion, can be best encouraged is dealt with under the various sub­ headings of this Report but here Your Commissioners think it is opportune to point out the class of settlers most likely to be successful, and to suggest where they may possibly be obtained. From our point of view, the average English­ man, unused to dealing with native races, and totally ignorant of tropical agri­ culture, apart from having to take the risk of acclimatization, is not the ideal pioneer. Furthermore, Your Commissioners recognise that this type of man is wanted for Australia. For similar reasons, the southern Australian should not, in our opinion, be sp~cially encouraged to leave his own country, even to develop the Commonwealth's first-born child. But, at any rate, as regards similarity of conditions, there is no reason why our northern Australians should not do admir­ ably as colonists. Indeed, in our opinion) · any Australian wouid be more likely to sucaeed than a settler fresh from the Old Country, and while we would regret to see any man contented with his lot here leave for Papua, still we recognise that there are a number of Australians who, rightly or wrongly, are dissatisfied with existing conditions, and who, as a consequence, are leaving for various parts of South America, where thev are practically loet to their own country forever.

These, we think, should be, if possible, induced to settle in Papua, where they will still be citizens of the Commonwealth, and under possibly more congenial conditions can do good work, not only for themselves, but for their Motherland. There are other ~~ustralians who might he induced to settle in Papua, but who are at present drifting away to South America. Your Commissioners refer to men who either remained 111 South Africa after the war, or, having gone there

since, are now realizing that it is not the El Dorado they anticipated. While in no sense suggesting that anything but encouragement should be offered to suitable colonists from any part of the Western W orlcl, Your Commis­ sioners would naturally like to see the future guiders of Papua's destiny British in blood and sympathies, and it appears to them that such could be -obtained in India if Papua's possibilities were judiciously and generally advertised in that country. Men are con~tanty retirin~ from the Army and the Civil Service, in the latter case, usually with good pens10ns. Already many of them are turning their eyes towards Australi_a as a futu1:e home 11 Ve think that they would probably find an outlet for th~uL small capital u11de~~ more C?nge:1-ial conditions in Papua than here. and, ev~n 1£ 1.,hey themseJ':es decided to hye. m Australia, they would probably gladly seize the opportumties offered for g1v111g their sons a start in a cou~try close. to home: and yet having more in. common with .their life-long point of vie,y t!rnn ustraha can ever offer. Speakmg generally, 1t appears to your Comn11ss1qners that th . East shm ld ~e. exploited for colonists,- and we believe, ·when they clearly understand the cond1t10ns about to obtain in Papua that a fair nun:iher of British will be found ~ith S_!)~e knowledge of fropical agriculture and ~ativo manac:rem nt ready to help. m bmldmg u_) a country under their own flag,

111 preference to that of ~ome foreign power. ' · ·



. ~ our Commissioners recognise diat the question of European settlement is vitally mterwoven with the native problem in all its aspects. Indeed, it cannot be too empha~ically laid down that its :::;ucce~sful future depends on tne preservation of the native races, for tne native is one of the best assets that Papua possesses. The aboriginal population of the island consi~ts approximately of from 300,000

to 400,000, split up into innumerable tri es, and speaking many languages. They are to a greater or lesser extent agnculturists and traders. ·1 11ose inhabiting the sea coast and islands, and certain of the inland tribes in the Centrat Eastern, North-eastern, and Northern Divisions may be said to be under Government con­ trol, to au extent which varies from perfect safety for white settlement on the South-east coast, to practically the mere shadow of magisterial authority in parts of the Gulf and nearly the whole of the v·\lestern Division. Speaking gene-rally, if the area dominated by Kokoda Station and the narrow belt through which the over land track passes from Port Moresby to Buna Bay be exceoted, the centre of Papua and the inland portion of the Western Division is a- terra in­ cognita inhabited by natives livmg under primal conditions. From the physical stand-point, the natives of the North-east, North, and West are, in general, far superior to those of tlie other Divisions, and if we except the somewhat gross and sensual Vvestern tribes, the same remark holds good in almost every other sense. Unlike the coastal tribes longest in ~ouch with white men, whose villages are only kept in any degree sanitary by magisterial insistence, Your Commis-sioners found in tp.e north and centre of Papua villages, ·practically unknown to white men, scrupulously clean, while as manly men the comparison was wholly in

favour of the tribes as yet uncivilized. Nor could this well be otherwise. Hav­ ing taken over New Guinea, the Imperial authorities, through successive Ad­ ministrators, have devoted practically all the powers of Government to giving the coastal tribes security for their lives and lands. This has meant inter-tribal

peace, and so the native has had no longer to build war canoes and make weapons with primitive tools, nor to cultivate, not only for food supplies, but also for expeditions and for feasts held prior to and after his forays. All this in the past made work a necessity, and so kept up the national stamina. At present, the coastal native need only work to eat, and his wife does most of the little labour that suffices foli his food supply. Government protection has plunged him into a condition of peaceful sloth. To-day, thanks to imported implements, the Papuan can do what little labour he still finds necessary with less exertion and in half the time formerly demanded; so, not by_ t he path of gradual and natural develop­ ment, but as a consequence of trade tomahawks and knives, the native has stepped-in the short space of twenty years-from the stone. into the ir?n age.

This transition would have been too sudden, the gap to be bridged too wide, for beings of far more advanced mentali~y to haye faced successfully. Naturally, the Papuan has failed. He can now obtam su~cient food at the. cost of much lesSJ personal exertion than formerly, and h~vmg no fear o~ hosti.le _ at~ack, need not attend to his physical development; while, at the same time, his desires an?- wa~ts have remained those of the stone age. Consequently, the n~t result of hurlrng him

int the iron period has been to render him mo~e effeminate, and correspondingly ,indolent and wanting in proper manly self-reliance. To awake the Paouan from this lotus-eaters' dream is an imperative and immediate necessity if he is to be saved from the fate of most aboriginal races.

·White settlement has created new wants and aspirations among the black races ef South Africa· Your Commissioners believe it will in Papua. To satisfy the wants so created, money will be required. Money can only be obt~ined .either by working for others or for himself; ergo~ t~e nati~e must, by an rnfi~xible law, either become more industrious, or remam. imperv10us to. t~e temptat10ns of .the

The 11atire- one of Papua's most valuable assets.

N ati'i:es i,,nder Government control.

'l'heir con­ dition.

Intm·-tribal fighting stopped.

Transition from the "stone aye" to the "iron


The civilised


;white man's stores. The history of a!l _native peoples of similar developm~n~ gives a direct negative to this last supposition. Consequently, Your Commiss10ners The ?·emedy-· suggest the encouragement of white settlement as one of t~~ sur~st. and m?st whitesettlement. practical methods ~f a!re~ti~g the present in~olent, apathetic state rnto which "Government protection 1s smkmg a race capable of a more useful and worthy 'destiny:.


Native taza. As a further means of forcing the native to recognise the obligations he

~~~:ee;_ 0 m- owes to Government, and his own personal responsibil1ties, Your Commissioners

are strongly of opinion that the time has arrived for the imposition of s?me system of taxation, so far as those natives are concerned who are under recogmsed Government control, the system to be.,applied (in a manner to best meet local c?ndi­ tions) to other tribes as they are brought w~thin the sphere of Governl?-ent mflu­ ence, ancl so become partakers of its protective advantages. The quest10n of the method or methods to be adopted for raising this tax will be more fully dealt with under an indepen

~:ti[:C::a owner on the Yoada field and at Woodlark, and who, to his infinite credit be it ozac1c. said, hears a splendid character as a considerate employer, stated in a letter to

Your Commissioners-.-" Under my. own 5upervision I have had up to about 80 natives working for me here, and, with the exception of one gang of Orokolos, I have never had occasion to lay a complaint against the boys; neither has any boy had a complaint against me during my working on the gold-fields, nor have I ever had a single boy desert me." The reasons which Mr. Rochfort gives for bringing about these most desirable relations between himself and his employes are, Your Commissioners think, sufficiently sound to stand the test of general application. He says-

"In working boys there are three principal rules I work on­ lst. I see that they are well fed, and have a good camp. 2nd. I don't nag, am not brutal, nor do I expect them to work like machines. 3rd. I allow no familiarities. Let the boys respect you, and when

you give an order see that it is earned out." ~

With these remarks Your Commissioners are entirely in accord,_ and fully believe that if the two races share a useful dependence upon each other, the development of tlie country must be the ine_vita.ble result, but that to bring this about the white race must recognise its obhgat10ns to the black, when we believe the primitive race will realize its true posit10n, and, in return for receiving a

fullest measure or justi~e, will graduallY ow:1 towards the higher race an affec-Lac1c 01 respect tionate respect. Your Commissioners noted with regret among those natives under for white men. Government control a certain want of this feeli1:1g towards white men which ap­

pears, as far as they could learn, to ·be on the mcrease. In how far the whites themselves are responsilile for this attitude of the natives is a somewhat difficult The remedy. question to answer. T,hat, however, some among them are to blame in this matter

is undo1:1-bted, an~ it cannot be t_oo str~mgly .laid down as th~ true basic principle underlyrng and mdeed permeatmg this all-important quest10n, that to win and hold the respect of the native. each white ~an must respect himself, and show by the honesty and cleanness of his every-day hfe that he is worthy of the claim to superiority which he now too often advances on grounds so ludicrous as to be

The Papuan cu a soldier.

self-evidently false to the intelligence of the most degraded savage. ·

There is an?th~r reas.on quite ~part f~om agric1:1-ltural development, yet closely bound up with its ultimate destrny, which. makes it a necessity on the part of the Gover.n1r1:ent not only to :preserve. the native rac~s but also to cultivate by every means 11: i~s power the racial stamm~, and t~at 1s the question of future def~nce. It rn ~dle to hope that for all time we wilJ be lef~ in undisturbed pos­ sess10n of so frmtful, and from an Ea;;;tern stand-pomt, desirable a Territory as Papua. Years must elapse before it can be hoped that the white population wiU supply more than leaders, or at best, the nucleus of a defence force, but Your

Commi~"ion~rs, havi?-g ~ee~ ~he splendi~ physique of the Berinderi, Kiwai, and m~untam tribes,. thei~ d1sciplme and qmckness to conform to the requirements of d!1ll (as e.x~~phfied m the case ?f the Armed Native Constabulary), their splen­ did capab1ht1es as transport ar~i rs (as s~own by the fact that women can carry 50 to 70 lbs. slung on a pole, restmg on their shoulders, over practically trackless


and, in many cases, nearly inaccessible mountains, while si1~gle carriers_ casi~y perform similar work with from 35 to 45 lbs. strapped on their backs), all rn their opinion point to the fact that, if required, Papua can produce from 20,000 to 30,000 black troops equal to any at present serving in the Imperial Army. They wish it to be distinctly understood that their remarks particularly apply to the

natives of the Northern, North-Eastern, and Western Divisions. Doubtless good men are to be found among other tribes, but in their opinion those represent the pick and flower of Papuan manhood, and are as superior as fighters, to the Motuan tribes, as are the Rajputs to the weak and effeminate natives o_ f Bengal and Madras. Your Commissioners would point out in this connexion that Ger­ many has already recognised the possibility of utilizing her coloured subjects in

German New Guinea in her native wars, having sent an experimental corps c,f 150 to take part in the campaign she has been waging in German South Africa. In making this suggestion, Your Commissioners wish it to be distinctly under­ stood that they have no desire to see the natives so used, and that their only ob­

ject is to point out that should the Commonwealth ever have to defend herself against Eastern aggression, she has some of the best raw material in the world for native troops among the tribes we have specified.

In dealing with the whole question of native and European settlement side by side, Your Commissioners feel that an unique opportunity presents itself to the Common-wealth. Sir vVilliam MacGregor took up his first appointment in Papua largely because he felt it was the one spot left where the British had an opportunity to p:rove to the world that it was possible to rule a native race with­ out destroying it. It is left for Australia to make of this splendid dream a noble reality, and in doing so Yout' Commissioners are certain that she will serve

not only the dictates of humanity but her own best material interests.


"\,Vhile Your Commissioners desire in no way to detract from the import­ ance of mining as a factor in the future development of Papua, they yet feel that to agriculture the Government must chiefly look as a means of providing a sta­ tionary and steadily revenue-producing population. In the past, for reasons

already lightly touched on, this branch of development has received scant en­ couragement. Various reasons were put forward to account to Your Commis­ sioners for this undesirable state of affairs, among them being ta,rdiness on the part of various Administrations in granting titles, delays both in the Land Office and on the part of local Resident Magistratesj and consequent inability to give intending settlers reliable information as to available or suitable spots for settle­ ment. Your Commissioners are of opinion that all these causes have seriously operated against agricultural expansion, but in fairness to the present Admini s­ trati on, they feel it their duty to point out that since the taking over of Papua by the Commonwealth Authorities, the whole question of land tenure has been hung up with the exception of the granting of leases, which might or might not be later on confirmed. Your Commissioners are glad to find that there is a prospect of this hopeless condition of things being brought to an end by the passing of the Papua Act 1905, and the introduction of a new, and, in the main, exceedingly liberal and reasonable Laud Ordinance, always assuming that the Administration

becomes fully seized of its duties and responsibilities as regards agricultural de­ velopment.

But while freely admitting that up to the present the intending settler has had to struggle against disabilities oiten inexcusable, and under any eircum­ stances · certain to prove fatal to general development, Your Commfasioners could not fail to note that another cause has been at work, which would have rendered

failure almost a certainty even had other conditions been in every sense .favor­ able, and they would like to point out most emphatically that this cause must he removed if tropical agriculture is to be .successful. The old adage that what is worth doing is worth doing weJl has n,pparently had little application, so far as

plantations are concerned in Papua. Men have been picked to create or manage

A f a-vorable comparison.

The preserva­ tion of the natives.

The importanc, of agriculture.

Scant en. couragement in the past.

Delay in land matters.

Delay caused by passing of Papua .Act.

Cause of f ailure in plantation work.

".Amateur" manauement of plantations.

Copra, rubber, and sugar safe investments.

Quantity exported.

Good prospects.

On the Conflict Group.

Papua not sub­ ject to hurri­


Mr. English's plantation.


plantations for apparently every other ~ .-cason than the one that they could reason­ ably be upposed to know anything about the. w?rk they were called ~n to su~er: vise. It ·was found that t he destiny of a maJontr of the f~w plantat10ns started had been handed over at diffe rent times to a private soldier, a pearl sheller,_ ;;1, storeman, a saddler, and a valet. Under these circumstances, Your Commis­ sioner s have no hesitation in aying that they consider_ the poor results so far ob­ tained inevitable and in no sense indicat ive of anythmg more than a want of ordinary commoi~ sense. To sum up the whole position, in pl~nti~g as i!1 most ot her t hings, amateurism has been the curse of Pap ua, ~nd until_ this fact ~s fully r ealized, no effort on the part of the Government can brmg out its potential na-tural possi bilities.

The pr oducts which, in the opinion of Your Con~missioners, have ~tood t he t est of experiment, and may now be regarded as safe mvestments when mtel­ ligently ·worked, and the word " intelligently " is used advisedly, are copra, rub­ ber, and coffoo.

Copra. - Cocoanut trees grow in many parts of Papua, but, judging from their observat ions and the evidence given, Your Commissioners have little doubt that the eastern and western portions of the southern coast-line contain the pick of the copra producing country. Asked how much copra was exported last year, the Treasurer replied, "Eight hundred and twenty-eight tons," and in answer to

the question, {' Do you think that industry is going to increase 1 " said, " I think so, more part icularly as the value has gone up quite recently;· it now fetches £14 per ton, while a few years ago it was only £7." Mr. William Whitten also stated that he considered there was a good future ahead of this industry, and as a practical proof of his belief has lately purchased a cocoanut plantation between Port Moresby and Samarai.

Mr. Carpenter, Manager for Burns, Philp, and Co., in the course 0£ his examination, gave the following evidence:-" There can be no doubt- about cocoa­ nut and rubber plantations going ahead. I was at Herbertshohe some years ago, and saw the land there, and I think the land is better here."

The most systematic attempt at cocoanut planting has been made on an island of the Conflict Group, distant about 70 miles from Samarai; on this island -which is named Panassesa-:i 0,000 cocoanuts have been planted in pits about 3 feet deep, into which leaves and rubbish generally are swept. The rin'g barking

and fire grubbing of the indigenous timber are done about the time of planting and as this timber falls it is heaped up clear .of the lines to decay, and thus add manure as time goes on. Some of this begins to fall in the first year, and from thence on till it is all down; the loss of young cocoanut trees during this process is inappreciable.

When in full bearing it is estimated that an aver.age of about 80 nuts per tree per annum will be obtained; a good yield might produce 100 nuts per tree, The 10,000 _cocoanut tr~es referred to as producing an average of 80 nuts per tree are estimated to yield about 100 tons of copra per annum, in betvveen seven

and eight years; that is, assuming they ·will then be in full bearing. Many, how-ever, will begin to bear at five years. .

Your Commissioners can see .no reason why numbers of such plantations sho:uld not be started and worked. with pr?fit and success on many parts of the mamland_ of Papua, an~ they wish particularly to_ point out a fact which must have an ill?-portant beanng on ~he value of planta~10ns as r~liable assets, namely, that trees m Papua a!e not subJect to the devastatmg hurncanes which prevail

on most of the other islands.

Rubber.-Rubber i_s indige~no_ us to the co~m~ry, and when imported from othe~~ place_s grows e~ceedmg~y vYell. Your Commiss10ners visited a plantation be­ longmg to Mr. En~hsh, a.t Rigo, ,vher~ th~y found about 70 acres planted with l 2,000 t:ees, the F_wus R1go a rubber rndigenous to the district. About 50 trees of the Ficus Elastica have aJso been planted, and are g·rowing most vigoro 1 is there any doubt that the ·whole of the surroundiiw \list;ict is well d ust yd, nfor

. d . R f . h F' . ·.) a ape or its pro uct1on.. e errmg tot e Cf icus Riqo Mr Enali"sh sa,:-s . "Th" ·· · . .. ' ·, o J • - IS IS a- ve:r;y


hardy tree, thrives well and is easily grown from cuttings, which can be obtained from the surrounding scrubs. It is qtLite easy after a few acres of this valuable tree is planted to extend the area of them. The lower limbs usually grow ariel roots, and in favorable ·weather we have cut off these, limbs 3 or 4 inches in dia­ meter, and planted them out, with the result that they soon became of like dimen-­ sions to trees 3 and 4 years old raised from ordinary cuttings. I would strongly recommend the would-be settler to pay some attention to this hardy tree, which seems to be able to survive the severest drought that I have known for the last 24 years. It grows ·well in the different soils from high water mark, on the edges of salt and clay pans, open country and scrub land, and may be found growing on almost bare rock, ·\ivhile it gives a reasonable return after six years i0f about 3 lbs. of rubber per tree. The rubber from the Fiws Rigo, ,vhich I first brought under notice, and placed on the market in London some l 2 years ago, was reported on

by Messrs. Silver and Co. as being equal to Para rubber, which class of rubber has been sold in Sydney this year at 4s. 4d. per lb." Having seen Mr. English's plantation, Your Commissioners entertain no doubt as to the possibility of successful rubber growing in this, and indeed. many other parts of Papua, but, in their opinion, the trees on this plantation were

planted much too close together. This, however, is a fault often committed, but easy of avoidance by future planters. The fol1owing is an estimate compiled on the figures given by a practical planter of what a rubber plantation of 250 acres should cost to plant and main­

tain in Papua :-Estimate of Cost of Rubber Plantation in Payna.

250 acres. Trees planted 16 feet x 16° feet. 1. Felling, clearing, and holing, at £1 an acre 2. Lining . ..

3. Nursery expenses 4. Seed, 16 feet x 16 feet; 20 per cent. failure; 5s. 10d. per thousana, say 5. Planting

6. Roads and drains 7. House for owner or superintendent (of native materials) 8. Huts for boys 9. Tools 10. Contingencies

Annual Cost.

Interest, 6 per cent. on £710 ... Survey fees ~~ Rent of land for first ten years

Recruiting-100 boys at, say, £4 per boy, equal to £400 every three years Labour-100 boys at £3 per annum Supervision

Total cost per annum

Or excluding supervision

~ s. d.

250 0 0

30 0 0

10 0 0

10 0 0

20 0 0

40 0 0

50 0 0

100 0 0

50 0 0

150 0 0

£710 0 0

.£ s. d .

42 12 0

nil nil

133 6 8

300 0 0

300 ·o 0

£775 18 8

£475 18 8

*Rent, first 10 years, nil; second 10 years, not more than 6cl. per acre; afterwards, 5 per cent. of

unimproYed value to be appraised every 20 years.

The estimate of £1 per acre for clearing scrub land appears to Your Com­ missioners to be under-stated, but in support of it, consideration has to be given F.14262. b

Return from rubber.

What rubber costs to plant.

Not beyond experimental stage,

but will yet prove profit­ able.

Suitable land.

Sugar grown by natives.

Compared with Queensland.

Plantations at Sogeri.

A successful plantation.

Suitable cnun­ try for planta­ tions.


to the fact that the natives ·are adepts in.this cl'.1s:::; of cleari_ng, and that the wage they ask i::, infinitesimal as compared ,, 1th rulmg Australian rates.

Sugar.- s sugar has not yet been cultivated by whit~ me~ in P~pua,_Y.our Commission has not included it amongst those products wluch, m theu opm10n, have passed beyond the stage o.t experiment .... .\ .. t the same time, both by reason of the character of much of the soil, and the fact that it is indigenous to the country

and largely used as an article of food by the natives, they feel justiiied in ex-· pressing tne opinion that sugar production will yet be one of the mo~t :Jrohtable and extensive mdustries earned un iu Papua. 1v1r. lioran, when g1vmg evidence at the Yodda, suggested that a, sugar i:1il1 should be erected at Burnt b.ay, and a tram liiw thence to the Kurnuai River, \\'hich, to quote bis own words, .. 1s the best sugar land I ever looked at.' .. Vhile Your Gomnussioners consider that the ex­ penditure suggested would not at the present time be justified, yet having go110 over the country themselves, they entertain little doubt as to tne suitability 0£ many thousands of acres in this part of _!Yapua for sugar growing, and believe that Mr. Horan's suggestion will later be found to be a necessary and profitable undertaking. Your Gommissioners, in their overland journey from Buna Bay to Port Moresby, foun1.-.l that the natives along the whole route (excepting the higher altitudes of the main 1 range itself where no villages were met with) cultivated sugar cane of varying degrees of excellence, and between Kagi and bogeri, at an altitude of about 4,500 feet, they saw cane 11 ft. 6 in. hign, 5 to 6 inches in

circumference, and of great density. Your Commissioners, on the evidence be­ fore them, have come to the conclusion that at some future date when the Western Division has been opened up, and satisfactory relations established with tribes at present practically ,out of all touch with Governmei1t authority, sugar of excel­ lent quality will be successfully grown. Mr. Henry Luff, who stated that he had experience in sugar country in Queensland, and was manager for Nolans Ltd., at

Geraldton, for twelve months, said that he has seen country in the Westerm Divi­ sion that compared very favorably with the famous Johnston River, in Queens­ land, and in reply to the question, " Then do you consider that sugar plant'ing will be successful in the Western Division? -- answered '' I think it will be more suc­ cessful than any ?t~~r venture." It is true that Mr. Jiear, Resident Magistrate of the Wester~ D1v1s10n, _ha~ expressed a ~0:11-trary opinion as regards

both the quality of the md1genous cane and smtab1hty of the soil, but ~ our Commissioners are of opinion that the weight of evidence is in favour of Mr. Luff's contention, and that parts· of the \'Vest will yet produce excellent sugar cane. ·

Coffee.-The only part of Papua where coffee growing has been seriouslv attempted is at Sogeri, situated about 35 miles from Port Moresby, and at aii altitude of about 1,800 feet above sea level. In this neighbourhood there are three plantations, that of Warirata (some 16 miles nearer Port Moresby), which has been so neglected as to be useless for f~rther remark so far as this report is concerned, and the other two belong respectively to the Hon. D. Ballantine and

Mr. Henry Greene. The former, while excellently situated, is at present only recove~in~ from a want of continuou.s and s,rstematic management, so that Your Comm1ss10ners, for the purposes of 11lustrat1on, propose to deal with that over­ looked by Mr. Henry Greene.

This plantation gives ample evidence of what can be done in the way o.f coffee raising in this district if intelligence and industry be used. The whole 3:rea consists of 129 acres, of which 55 are under coffee. !his ~1as heen planted for 3t years, and the present crop of from 9 to 10 tons 1s estimated to .realize about £600, while the total outlay up to date has been about £900.

Mr. Greene is also growing rubber successfully, and indeed the whole plan­ tation is a model one. Your Commissioners, having travelled over the coun­ try which' lies between Kagi and Sogeri, are convinced that with the opening of this country by proper roads there is no xeason why soores of such plantations should not ?over the. fertile slopes. th:1it everywhere met their eyes as they marched through this splendid tract of v1rgm country, do·wered alike with fertile soil health giving cfrrnate, and great natural beauty. '

The following estimate of the cost of planting 100 acres of coffee in this part of Papua may be taken as substantially cor:rect, the figures having been care­ fully checked by a man ,vho is himself the only successful planter in the whole ·of Papua:-

What coffee costs to plant.

Estiniate of Cost of Coffee Planting in Papua.

100 Acres. Bushes planted 8 feet x 8 feet.

1. J ursery expenses, seed, &c. 2. Felling, clearing, and holing (8 feet x 8 feet) at £1 per acre (including pegs for lining) . .. .. . . ..

3. Lining ...

4. Planting out 5. Tools 6. House for owner or superintendent 7. Huts for boys 8. *Machinery-Pulper, 30 or 40 tons ... £26

Pulping house 15

2 boxes for fermenting, 1 box

for washing 10

9. *Drying shed £20, Trays (40) £25 10. Contingencies

1 ' ·* \V ould not be required until trees were in bearing.

Annual Cost.

Interest, 6 per cent. on £411 Survey fees *Rent of land for first 10 years Recruiting 40 boys at £4-£ 160 every 3 years ... Labour, 110 boys at £3 per annum Supervision

Total cost per annum

or excluding supervision Nil. Not more than 6<.1. per acre.

13 s. d.

10 0 0

100 0 0

10 0 0

50 0 0

15 0 0

50 0 0

30 0 0

51 0 0

45 0 0

50 0 0

£411 0 0

13 s. d.

24 13 3

nil. nil.

53 6 8

120 0 0

250 0 0

£447 19 11

£197 19 11

* Rent-First ten Second ten years Afterwards 5 per cent. of unimproved Yalne, to be appraised every 20 years.

Being convinced that much of the country is peculiarly adapted to the growth of coffee, Your Commissioners 0onsider that every effort should be made to foster this industry, and in view nf the fact that fhe Commonwealth uses 1,000 tons of coffee per annum, ,of \vhich all but 34: tons was last year imported from abroad, they think that the Common-w,~aJth Government should give this industry the advantage of a certain Tariff pre:tei'ence as against the outside wo'rld, an

hulling, grading, and branding of the product for the griower, as is now dcne, they understand, in Queensland.

Tobacco.-Tobacco is another product indigenous to Papua, to which, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, the attention of growers should be directed. So far, it has only been cultivated in a most primitive fashion by the natives them­ selves, but, at any rate on the Fly ~iver, its :11-atural quality seems to be of a highly

satisfactory order. In proof of this as::sert1011, Mr. Bruce, a man of long experi­ ence in the West, when under examination, was asked this question-" Have you any personal knowledge of the class of tobacco grown on the :Fly by the natives?" and replied as follows :-" I can only tell you my experience. I shipped some

away to manufacturers in England, Ireland, and Scotland. I shipped the leaf as b 2

A Tari!/ preference recommended.

Tobacco is indigenous.

Opinion of manufacturers.

Sisal hem,.

Return, from 1iBal hemp.

Its cultivation may prove successful.

Locally­ grown maize as a substitute /or imported rice.

it is preserved by the natives to different manufacturers in various parts of t?e world, and they said it was first-class tobacco, but badly cured, and more smt-able for cigar tobacco than for pipe tobacco." Tobacco also grows in some of the o~her Divis!ons,_ ~ut Your Commis­ sioners were informed that in many cases tlus has been imported from the Islands.

¥ our Commisioners, for instance, came across exceedingly healthy-looking plants between Kagi and Sogeri, and they see no reason why skilled cultivation should not produce good results in many parts of this fertile tract of country. Sisal hemp.-Mr. English has also exp~ri.mented ~ith sisal he~p, the _re­ sults obtained being excellent, and Your Comm1ss10ners, alter personal mspect10n of the plants, feel that, at any rate in this part of Papua, it can be grown with both success and profit. To quote Mr. English--'' The polmg of the plants . takes place much sooner here than other places I made my first experiment with six plants, about three years old; from these, 380 leaves were cut, being an average of 64 leaves per plant. The average weignt of each leaf was 2-! lbs., or 872 lbs. for the 380 leaves. From 40 of th0se leaves, 3 lbs. of dressed hemp can be obtained. An acre planted with hemp 8 feet apart gives 680 plants; when three years old, these will give an average of 64 leaves per plant, or 43,520 leaves in all, which will

return 3,664 lbs. of marketable fibre. I made a second experiment with two plants just three years old, and which had suffered a good deal from the drough~. '\Vhen they were eighteen months planted, I cut off all the suitable leaves and ob­ tained 3 lbs. 13 ozs. of fibre from them. In the third year, I again cut off the leaves, and obtained 4 lbs. 4 ozs. These plants were a fair average from

l}· acres of crop. Sisal hemp appears to grow well all along the coast line of this Division, and for about 10 miles inland, and it is also being tried about 21 miles inland, but, so far, is found to grow slowly." Your Commissioners would point out that hemp can find a market in al­ most any part of the world, and that, b3ing practically imperishable, it can be stored for almost any period, while its manufacture is an easy process. Speaking

of its cultivation in Queensland, Mr. ·wells, a gentleman who ha_ s evidently given a good deal of thought and attention to the matter, states :-"It does not follow that sisal hemp is the only kind of hemp that we are going to grow; other kinds may be more suitable under ,given conditions. The great advantage of the hemp­ yielding plants is that nearly all of them are drought-resistant, and are thus suitable for dry districts." As a result of his investigations, Mr. "\Vells has come to the conclusion that ""the plant requires a reasonably good soil, and, although

it grows very well indeed in rich soil, it is there apt to get too gross, and the fibre, though greater in quantity, is less in quality." "\Vhile it has been proved that hemp will withstand the driest of tropic weather, excessive rains, on the other hand, are; not very injurious to it if the land is naturally drained.

From the foregoing, Your Commissioners have come to the conclusion that this is a plant which, from its hardy and apparently cosmopolitan nature, can be grown in climates of wide diversity, and should, therefore, have a commercial future in Papua. •

Cotton.-In view of the cheap labour supply available, cotton growing should prove a remunerative industry if the climatic conditions are sufficiently favorable. Your Commissioners fear that in many parts of Papua these will be adverse, but, on the other hand, there are tracts with sufficiently defined drv seasons to permit of its successful cultivation and gathering. ., ,J

Maize.-Maize is another P!:oduct which can only fail as a marketable succe s through the hostile. Tariff which is at present against its introduction into Australia. Mr. J. Clunn, jun., stated, in evidence given at Samarai :-I haYe xperimented in maize for the la t three years, and there is no time when we cannot

grow it.

He further said, and this seems to Your Commissioners interesting as showino' a possible local market for this grain-0

. We j1:1P?rt at ~he pr. se:1t tim~ £6,000 worth ?f native food into Samarni i,n the shape of nee. In this immediate d1str_1ct maize gi-?ws splendidly, two and a half crops a year, and J would s,ugge. t that. as som time elapses m th case of plantation before anv return is cleriy cl,


that something should be used as a catch cror·. and that the Government should buy this maize from the planters a food for the natives in gaol and other places. I have already offered to

suppl$· maize meal at a much lower price than they can import rice for, and if I can get suffi­ cient encouragement I will be prepared to put up steam machinery for the maize.

He was then asked-" Do you know whether the natives would readily take to As food for natives. maize meal as a food instead ·of rice ('-to which he replied-" My experience is only of my own boys on the plantations. I have given them this food and they cat it greedily."

In view of the fact that catch crops are absolutely essential to carry the Recqrnrnen· settler over the period which must elapse between the planting of his main pro- datwn. duct and the time when it becomes a paying asset, Your Commissioners consider that this suggestion should have the fullest consideration ,at the hands of the local Administration, and that if it is proved that maize meal is a satisfactory

substitute for rice as a native food, every effort should be made to use it for that purpose in the interests of planters, at any rate, until such time as locally-grown rice asserts its claim to a share of consideration as an article of. native food. Other Economic Plants.-Naturally, there are many other tropical plants of a certain commercial value for which the soil and climate of Papua are suit­ able, and which could be grown as valuable adjuncts in connexion with coffee, rubber, or sugar plantations, but Your Commissioners do not consider that it is

necessary to go into their possibilities in detail. ·

It may, however, be pointed out that Arabian and Liberian coffee and ~if::. ana cocoa have also been tried on Mr. English's plantation at Kapa Kapa, but owing to an insufficient rainfall those plants were not a success. Cotton, cotton. on the other hand, has done remarkably well, the varieties known as Kidnev,

Sea Island, China, and India, as well as American, all thriving. Your C'oni­ missioners also saw kapok trees grown from seed imported from Java, which 1rapok, &c. had attained a heiglit of over 60 feet in nine years, while the product obtained from them has been reported upon as first-class. Turmeric, arrowroot, ginger, and pea-nuts also grow Vlell, as does a very fine specimen of China tea. Needless to say, most of the tropical fruits are to be found on the plantation. But, apart

from these, and Your Commissioners consider that this is a question of great in-terest as regards European settlement, vegetables such as tomatoes, beans of all regetabzcs. kinds, cucumbers, cabbages, radishes, lettuce, beetroot, and turnips, all flourish, while, in our opinion, most European vegetables will grow well on any of the

river banks or inland ranges of Papua.


For many reasons Your Commissioners are strongly of opinion that every effort should be made, at any rate at this stage, to concentrate white agricultural settlement w,here the natives are best under control, the climate most healthy, and communication both with the outside world and the main centres of population in Panua most reliable and direct. ·

It is impossible to ignore the great potentialities at present lying dor­ mant in the Western Division. It possesses a river which, according to the evidence of a practical witness who had had long experience of its waters, is navigable, to use his own words, " for a steamer of 500 tons shallow draft for

from 300 to 400 miles," and on which, at 90 miles from its mouth, he measured 17 ft. 6 in. of black loam down to the clay; and further stated that, in his

opinion, the character of. the soil was ::;imilar for the whole distance he travelled, viz., 350 miles. We have further evidence of the Resident Magistrate with re­ gard to the feeling of the natives to~ards white men, which is that "generally they are particularly friendly"; and in reply to the question-" Then do you .not

think the natives would be any bar to white settlement?" His reply was-" No, it takes very little to bring the natives under Government influence in this Divi­ sion." Again, Daru, its port, is only 3-- few hours' steam from Thursday Island. \Vhile Your Commissioners have fully recognised all these 'factors, and have no doubt in their own minds that the West must have a future, and' while they in no sen wish it to be understood that even now this part of Papua sh uld be

H'hite agricu;­ tural settle· ment should be concentrated.

The poten· tialities of the West. The Fly Rfrer.

Natives not a bar to settle· ment.


neglected, they yet feel that the prospects for. i:11!11ediate closer se~tlement are Other Dicisions better under existing conditions in the other D1v1s10ns of t~e !err1torr Th~y

g5;;,/;~ 0 ;:s. contain the best harbors and the most conveniences for sh1ppmg, while their coasts are less dangerous for navigation at all p~riods of the year. Over the!ll

and the islands the main bulk of white settlement 1s already scattered, and m them the only two towns worthy of the name, Port MoresbJ:, the official. capital, and Samarai the commercial centre are situated, and while not denymg that The natii,es many oi the \Vestern tribes may be f;iendly to white men (a co~te:3-tion some'Yhat

under contrul. discountenanced by comparatively re.cent events), Your Comm1ss10ners are Ill a

position to state, not only from evidence heard, but also by reason of personal observation, that practically the whole of the coastal natives, from Yule Island to Samarai, are under actual control, while those in that part of the Northern Division which borders the road from Buna Bay to Kokoda Station, and thenca over the main range, via Kagi and Sogeri, to Port Moresby, are rapidly being The parts not brought into a similar condition. On the other hand, tne North-eastern Division,

~~~~/°,. 8ewe and that part of the Central Division which extends from ·Cape Yule to the

western boundary, as well as much of the country which abuts either flank of the Owen Stanley Range, is, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, as yet unsafr District.~ .~ate for immediate isolated white occupation. Still, putting these areas aside alto-/or settlement. gether, th-ere are thousands of acres on the coast and inland wihere white men can

be at once settled without any fear or apprehension of trouble from the natives. Furthermore, the few plantations already existing are situated at this end of Papua, and, on the principle that "like attracts like," Your Commissioners be­ lieve that the presence of white men will naturally more easily attract others than the at-present unexplored, and from a wliite stand-po~nt, uninhabited Closer settle- vastnesses of the West. -The possibility of having neighbours will, in their

~~~~~.advo- . opinion also, more readily justify fl!en in bringing their wives and families, and

the fact that their children will have a better chance both of religious and scholastic training will, Your Commissi are sure, all prove potent factors in inducing women to settle and make tlieir homes on their husbands' planta­ tions. For these reasons, Your Commissioners are of opinion that the Erst effort in the direction of close agricultural settlement should take place in the areas already named, but, at the same time, they ?,re so impressed with the many natural advantages of the Western Division that they feel every encouragement should be offered to men of larger means to develop its resources, and so render it suitable for closer settlement when the time is rfoe. The derelop- your Commissioners recommend this method of dealing with the west

ment of the l f · · h h · 1 ·d ·

west. on y a ter g1vmg t e matter t e1r c osest cons1 erat10n, and after assuring them.!

selves that there need be no danger of locking up large areas of fertile country until such time as the Government can be induced to buy it back again. This is an impossibility, ~rs~ly, because perpetual leasing is now the universal and only land tenure recogmsea fiy Government, and, secondly, for the reason that the im­

provement conditions which must be carried out in order to retain any lease are such as to render the mere holding of land for a future possible rise in value an impossibility. Under these conditions, and taking into consideration the further fact that the Government of the day can grant leases for just so Iona within the limit of 99 years as in their opinion may be expedient, Your Commissioners see no reason against, and many reasons in favour of, granting areas for reasonable periods to men ~!:o ar~ w5I1ing !o put mopey into developing country which, in its :presen~ cond1t10n,. 1s h~ely ~1ther to he idle for many years, or if occupied by settlers without capital, to brmg about probable loss and disaster and conse-

Ir,1111ra11ct• of tropical agri­ r11lt1rrr en use.~ f,1il11re.

Tlte remedy.

quent discouragement to systematic settlement. '


Your ~ommissioners. have aJre3;,dy po!nted out tha~ want of knowledge has been a self-ev1de?,t factor m the partial fa11ure of tropical aO'riculture so far as it. has b~en attempted up to .the J)resent. That the people themselves have re­ cognised ~his, ana a~e most anx1on~ to be placed in a position to avoid the mis­ takrs of ignorance m tne future, 1s amply proved by the fact that every witness


exan ine.d on the subject has strongly advocated the appointment of an Agricul­ tural Expert, and the creation of a Government nursery or garden. Your Com­ missioners hasten to state that they are perfectly in accord with the wishes of the people in this direction, and that both from the stand-point of their educa­ tional advantages, and also of their revenue-producing possib-ilities, they strongly recommend the formation of at least four Government plantations and the ap­ pointment of a first-class expert in tropical agriculture. Recognising that purely experimental nurseries are often little better than expensive toys, and that the

revenue of the Territory is not in a condition to stand any but absolutely neces­ sary expenditure, Your Commissioners prc1pose that, wliilst experiments will naturally be carried on in the Government nurseries, the principal object of their establishment will be to act as object lessons, and to show how plantations should be worked on commercial lines. The plants grown in them must be the

best of their kind procurable in any part of the world, and as soon as possible it will be the duty of the Director of Agriculture to see that adequate quantities are available for sale to intending planters. At the same time, the developing of these plantations as commercial assets must still be his first care.

Your Commissioners recommend that the four first plantations should con­ sist respectively of coffee, rubber, sugar, and products suitable for the 'West; that the coffee plantation oe formed somewhere in the vicinity of Sogeri, first, because it is within easy distance of an excellent port; and, secondly, for the reason

that it is considered that a hill station in this district, and which would be reached by the same road, must be formed in connexion with Port Moresby; and, thirdly, because ft will be situated in the centre of a splendidly fertile tract of country, without a superior as a home for coffee growing. Your Commissioners would -further recom:rriend that all the long-~entence prisoners at present confined

at Port Moresby shohld be removed to the vicinity of this plantation, and used as labourers. Indeed, they would keep no prisoners at Port -Moresby, save those absolutely required for local work, if only because of the ever-recurring epidemics of dvsentery which attack the prisoners in the existing gaol. Should our pro­

posal for taxing the natives under Government control in one form or another be adopted, men not able to pay in money rould meet their liability by giving the Government a certain amount of labour in lieu thereof on the Government planta­ tion, and should both tliese sources prove inadequate, there is no reason why the

Government should not employ paid labour, as it would all mean converting un­ skilled into skillea labourers for future planters. Your Commissioners recommend that a rubber plantation be formed at a spot found to be most suitable between Fyfe and llilne bays, and that all The available orisoners now confined on the island of Samarai be used as labourers upon it, the extra labour required, if any, to be made up in the same way as already suggested for the Sogeri plantation.

In Your Commissioners' opinion, the third olantation should be formed in the most suitable locality in the-rich sugar land which lies between. Euna Bay and the Kumusi River. They further recommend that any prisoners not re­ quired to work the Government garden rtt Kokoda be used to help in the work of this sugar plantation, all other labour required to be obtainea as already su~­

gested with regard to the other two plantations. It is recommended that tlie fourth plantation be i:>laced in the Western Division, and that cocoanuts, tobacco, and other marketable -nroducts suitable to the soil and climate be there grown, and that aH the long-sentence prisoners at present at Daru be removed tot.his planta­ tion and utilized in its cultivation, and that the extra help which may be required be recruited locally by similar methods to those already outlined above.

your Commissioners further desire to point out that in the event of their recommendations with regard to Government recruiting being given effect to, these plantations will be used either as receiving or distributing centres, accord­ ino- to their situation, and that as the recruited natives may have to be kept for so~e time, either during process of collection, or pending their absorption by_ settlers, and in some instances ~Y. reR. so n of the fact th_ a~ an over-supply may be on hand, their labour can be utilized, and the cost of tlieu upkeep met by em-

ploying them on the Government plantations. ·

Government plantations and Agricul­ tural Expert.

Four planta­ tions recornr mended.

Coffee-at Sogeri.

The labom· to

be used.

Rubbe1·-be­ tween Fyfe and Milne bays.

Sugar-between Buna Bay and Kumusi River.

Cocoa-nuts, tobacco, &c.­ lV estern Divi­ sion.

.Agricultural Ezpert.

Native em­ ployes to be paid in "trade,"

l'rol1abl11 markett.

'Ihe quantity available.

Papuan tim­ bers.

X · 1v

The duties of the Agricultural Expert would be not only to supervise th~se plantation , but also to give information to intending settlers as ~o the quality and suitability of land for the particular class of industry they wish to em?ark on, and, further, to advise planters already at work on any and all s1:bJects necessary to the successful cultivation of their farms. To be a success, this ma?­ must be not only scientific, but prac"tical, and well equipped by .pers01_1al ~xper~­ ence for dealing with the conditions of a tropjcal country van~d alike m .soil and climate as Papua is. Should such a man, however, be obtained, and given a free hand Your -Commissioners entertain no doubt that within a reasonable

' .

time he will not only pay for himself, but that the plantations under ~1s charge ~ill be directly more than self supporting; while that indirectly ~e will gr~atly enhance both the assets and the revenue of the Territory through his educational influence on planters and their plantations.

Your Commissioners further recommend that in the event of the non­ existence of a pr-ivate store in the vicinity of any Government plantation the Government keep a supply of articles generally in use by the natives, in additi.on to tobacco, so that men who may be employed by them may have an opportumty of obtaining "trade" articles other than tobacco in return for their earnings if they so desire. This, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, will fulfil two pur­ poses-First, it will ensure that the natives get absolute value in return for their work, and so will tend to keep them contented; secondly, it will obviate the neces­ sity for local natives having to leave their own immediate district in order to turn the money they have received into articles of trade at private stores.


The fact that in consequence of the gradual but sure depletion of their own forests the Indian railways are being forced to look abroad to supply their large annual consumption of sleepers; that Manila is also likely to become a profitable market :£or hardwood: that an awakening China will probably soon req~1ire immense quantities of railway sleepers; and that at the present

time the auestion of where to get suitable blocks for street paving is

exercising the minds of the governing bodies in many large cities of the

world, naturally induced Your Commissioners to make special inquiries as to the possibilities ahead of Papua, as a timber-producing country. They were still further induced to do this as th0y realize that, from the causes already in

operation and likely to occur. ~ A. ustralia is in danger within a few years of being; denuded of that class of timber which will be some day urgently required for her own development. A number of witnesses gave evidence as to the pre­ sence of suitable timber for export in various parts of the Territory, but when

pressed as to the quantity available in ,·WY one spot, and as to the practicabilitv an.d cost of ?utt~ng it on .sh.ip-board, they in 1~o~t cases were ~na?le to give evidence which m the 0µ1111011 of Your Gomm1ss10ners would Justify them in stating that the timber trade has a profitable commercial future; nor did Your Commjssioners personally see in the oourse of their travels any particular class of timber in sufficient quantity to warrant them in coming to this conclusicm At the same time, they are not prepared to say that it does not exist. Mr. John

Richmond, late Chief Government Surveyor, and a man ,of knovvledge and tib­ servation. stated wben pointing out the f~lly of allowing settlers to destroy tjmber, that "the land suitable for the cultivation of rubber, cocoanut and other plants is in some cases coven~J at pl'esent with most useful timber, both hard and soft wood, excellent in quality and easily available." Further that

"within 40 miles of Port Moresby are forests of valuable ti~ber "

while that "the Papuan timbers most. useful and common are hardwo~d Melilla or Madagascar teak; cedar, both red and white; Meranti or Singapor~ cedar; Eli mo, canoe wood, a light. close grained, good joinery timber· Pudo an excellent pine-like timber. and -Arst-cla~;s ti-trre; while there" are other' timber~ .such as rose~ood. ebony, &c." · while ~r. J. Ma~Donald, ~t present Superinten­

de~t. ·of ;publ c Works, .and a man. of j .Jng· prartlcal exp.enence in timbers, says : - Durmg my travel~ rn the TPrritmv I have taken notice of large forests of us -ful a.1 d rnam ,ntc 1 tI 1b~r. I 1 v c 1' h a v r go d ] ortnnity of testin g


the various timber , and through being connected with the timber line I ha V8 taken deep interest in all British New Guinea timbers. I consider that we have timber suitable for fancy, cabinet, joinery, or anything in the building line; also wood suitable for both carriage or waggon construction. The Melilla we use for wharf building is similar to the East Iudia and ...-\.f~ican teak; it is a very close grained hardwood, most durable and, 0n r~ecount of its greasy nature, easily

worked. vVe have another timber, which the natives use for house piles, which is a very hard, straight, tough, close grained hardwood, not unlike English or North American elm. I once got a piece of wood from Sir William MacGregor in the South-East Division; it was similar to the South 1-vnerican rosewood, being_ very hard, with a beautiful dark bright colour, nicely scented, and took a high polish.

I am of opinion that all timber found in Australia also grows in this Territory. The Western cedar, if from the hills on the Fly River, is like mahogany-a dark reddish brown in colour, and breaks with a long wire fracture." ~fr. MacDonald showed Your Commissioners a pile.head which had been driven 9 feet into a hard blue clay bottom, receiving 84 blows from r one-ton monkey, with a fall at the finish of about 16 feet, making the falling weight of the blow about 30 tons. The toughness of this wood was amply proved by th0 small mechanical injury sustained as a result of the impact.

Mr. D. Horan, examined on the Yodda Gold-field, was asked the question, "Do you think there are pa,yable quantities of timber here?" (that is in the Nortn­ ern Division). He replied, "I do; there is a fortune for any man starting a saw­ mill at Buna Bay. There is splendid cedar, pine and pencil cedars, silky oak,

and a lot of other hardwood timber which I do not know the name of, and is strange to me"; while Mr. Bruce, who stated he was a yacht builder by trade, when under examinatiion as to the possibilities of the Western Division, repliecl in answer to the question, "What is your opinion of the timber possibilities on the Fly and other rivers in the West?"-'' Great possibilities. I think a steamer of, say, 500 tons shallow 'draft can go up tl1e Fly River 300 or 400 miles, and for 300

miles of that 400 there is any amount of good hardwood, splendid timber. There is enough labour there in the way of natives to do the hauling and cutting. Port­ able saw mills would be required to be moved from place to place as they are in America. Steamers can go alongside the river bank and load timber. This hard­

w1ood includes one timber which is ant resisting, and should be very suitable for railway sleepers. It is a teak wood, and is known as 'besi' in Fiji. There are also excellent cabinet woods, showing beautiful flowers." He was then asked, " Is there good timber on any other of the rivers in the Western Division? " and

replied, "I think that I can say that all the rivers I have been on carry good

timber." The next questiion, "When yon speak of the timber are we to under­ stand that there are large quantities of it close together?" was answered as fol­ lows :-" Yes, there are forests more or Jess. You can get any amount of timber in one locality. and in this connexion I would like to add that labour is very cheap

and most easily obtainable." He further added that, in his opinion, if a thor­ oughly competent timber expert was sent to report on the possjbilities of New Guinea generally it would mean a big future for the country in timber alone. · Within a few m::iles of Bun a l3ay Your Commissioners passed through large quantiti,2.s of timber too soft for general use, but which could possibly, as i s

done with similar wood in America, be utilized for the manufacture of paper pulp. Your Commissioners saw excellent timber, in every way suitable for house building and furniture making, turned out from the Rev. E. W. Abel's sawmills

on the island of K wato, and inspvcted the piles of a jetty just completed at Port Moresby which are ant-resisting, and so hard that they were driven into a hard fiottom ~ithout showing any noticeable sign of the impact. This timber is locally known as Malilla, and is undoubtedly commercially valuable if it can be found

in sufficient quantity and accessible enough to stand the cost of transport. The two most serious problems to be got over from an exporting point of view are, firstly, the scarcity of good anchorages on most of the coast, a nd the fact that in certain cases the timber would have to be lightered or floated

out to the ships; and, secondly,' the difficulty ,vhere timber- is inland of gettino· it t t 1w O(\ f a all. In this onn xiop h wcver Your ommis ioner" think i~

S aw-mills at Kwato.

1.'r(}.nRport diffi culties.

Cheap labour.

A timber e:r­ prrt r~com­ mended.

The area.

Purchasing "native" land.

uand claimed l.iy natives.

i.:i right to point out that steamers which they -con~ider would be admira~ly

suited for this class of work are procurable, one bemg _no~v used on _the Nile, 9"5 feet long, with 18 feet beam, and 2 ft. 6 in. draught, havmg a carrymg capa­

city of 100 tons, and a speed of 14.5 __ knots. We cannot speak of personal know­ ledge as to the navigation of the Fiy River, and we have no reason ~o doubt ~he honesty of Mr. Bruce's statement in that regard, but, at the. same time, our ~n­ quiries lead us to believe that the Fly, owing to the changmg character of its channels, can never be regarded as a perfectly ·safe waterway in its natural con­ dition, and we feel it our duty to mention this when dealing with the possi­ bilities of the timber trade on the river referred to. On the other hand, there is no doubt that if the natives can be properly utilized for the unskilled work, the cost of labour can be written down as exceedingly low as co~pared with that obtaining in a similar industry in, say, Australia. In new o:fl the

evidence given and the opinions expressed by many men met with during the stav of Your Commissioners in Papua (and while admitting that many ·of the statements are somewhat contradictory), they have come to · the conclusion that they have heard enough in support of tI1e argument that good timber does exist to justify them in strongly recommending that a skilled expert be sent to Papua to thoroughly investigate and report on the whole question of native timbers, and also as to whether certain timbers now rapidly becoming extinct, such, for instance, as sandalwood, should be replanted, and further to go into the question of the possible necessity of protecting timbers at present in danger of wholesale · destruction through clearing the land for cultivation, should settlement attain to

the proportions we believe it yet will. Your Commissioners desire particularly to point out this latter danger, in view of the fact that millions of acres of snlendid marketable timbers have been ruthlessly destroyed in Australia through the neg­ lect of the various Governments to enact protecting legislation when alienating the public lands. '·


The area of Papua is 57,945,600 acres. Of this whole area not one acre is held at the disposal of the Crown until it has been formally declared "waste and vacant," or has been purchased by the Crown from the natives. About 876,443 acres have been declared "waste and vacant." About 251,359 acres have been purchased by the Crown from the natives. Of these waste and vacant and purchased lands a considerable area has been alienated to private owners.

Eliminati~g the land already de_clared · waste and vacant and land pur­ ?ha~ed fro~ natives. (1,127,802 a?re~ m all), ~he balance of all the land in Papua 1s, mferentially, native lands until either (a) 1t has been proclaimed waste and vacant, or (b) has, been purchased from the natives.

A native has no power to sell land without the Governor's permission. The Government, however, may purchase laIJ.d from a native provided-(a) that the land is not required by him, and (b) that he is willing to sell. There is no ~ower i~ the Gover~ment t? compulsorily purchase native­ owned land, except m certam comparatively unimportant instances set out in the existing Land Ordinance.

Inf?rmation ?btained by the Com:11ission indica~es a tendency on the part of ~he natives to claim ~arge areas to which the_v certamly have no right~ and o.f which ~hey _cannot possibly make full_ use. This tendencv to take advantage of a nrom1se (itself not too well authenticated or authorized) of confirmation in thP title to. their _land by trumpe~-up claims to a larger ~rea than that to which the; are entitled, 1s calculated to mcre_ase. and when considered in coniunction with the. small. area of Crown land available at the 1?rese~t time, is likely to becor. 18 a serious hmdrance to Et:ropea~ settleI?-ent. and 1s qmte unjustifiable.· Its increase should be prevented by 1mmed1ate act10n. The assumption that all Panuan lands (except those already proclaimed wasdte and_1 vahcant, an~ tthhos.e atlready purc1 h~sed from natives) are - now native lan s, unt1 t ey are m eir urn so proc aimed of nnrchased and th'.:\ · t · Jegi lation giving that assumntion practical effect. seem to hp. a· 11 e e'th e texis 1~g · · f h · · . .., 1 er o a m1 s- concept10n o t e proper pos1t10n or a Eomewhat Quixotic fulfilment · , upon an

X.X. Yll

erroneou con truction of a prnmise made to the Papuan native in the past. It effect in reality an absolute inver ion 1..1f the proper position, which would appear to be that all unalienated Papuan land "hould be Crovvn land, out of which the land u ed and owned by natives ... .houlcl be delimited and allotted.

An examination into the promise by the Crown to the natives, in reference 'l'he 1ss1, . to their lands, above alluded to, reveal , in the opinion of Your Commissioners, Proctamatwn. only one authoritative inst:::wce, th;-1 t 1 :eing the Proclamation of Commodore Erskine in 1884. In that Proclamation there is reference, in the preamble, to the nece ... ity of preventing the occupation of the country by certain evilly-dispos_ ed persons; and the operative part of the Proclamation declares that no acquisition of land, whensover or howsoever acquired, within the Protectorate would b0

recognised by the Crown. The construction placed upon this Proclamation has been strongly i ~ 1 favour of the native, and strained to such an extent that the Land Lav-.. s them­ selves wonld seem to infer that all Papuan lands are native lands till pro­ claimed (subject to serious limitations) to be Crown lands; and in the same lav,·s there is an absence of any power in the Crown to compulsorily purchase native­ owned lands (except for specified public purposes), even though they may uot be required by the o ;vner.

The Land Ordinance Bill recently submitted for approval to the Com- compulsory moff\Yealth contained such a compulsory power of purchase, but the clause was purchase. disa.llo,ved, and does not now ap:r:;ear in the more recently passed and approved measure.

It would seem to Your Commissioners to be no breach of the letter or spirit of the Proclamation of 1884: if the disallowed, and, therefore, eliminated, clause of t he Land Ordinance seeking to give the power of compulsory purchase of land not required by the natives were enacted. Even conceding that the Pro­

clamation purports to confirm the native in the ownership of his land, as against the Crown, it is quite a different matter to give (as is practically now the case) the whole of Papua up to their choice. All that was ever pro:rnised the native .Attwiauenated can be faithfully carried out, and much future trouble avoided by declaring all ~a:ia;:Ziul:10~?n

unalienated Papuan land to be Crown land, and subsequently delimiting and Zand allotting the various native-owned lands under a Statutory provision for that purpose, and by giving the Government power to compulsorily J!Urcharn from the native suc.h of his land as is not reasonably required by him. We are firmly con-vinced that these two principles should be given effect to by necessary legislation, ·which, so far as it relates to compulsory- purchase, should be passed at once.

As, however, the work of surveying and describing various native-owned TTie wor1c of lands (consequent upon the declaration of all una1ienafad Papuan land a'3 survey. Crown land) would be a ,York of considerable magnitude, and would not, except by a somewhat slow proc,2 ss of exclusion, identify the Crovm lands, and as it is of special importa,nco drnt the Government should be prepared to meet at once a greatly increas,2 d demand for l~nd by European settlers, the legislation dealing ,Yith the declaration of all unahenated land in Papua to h3 Crown 'lands would lx~ properly deferred until a sufficient area of country is purchased and de-clared waste and vacant, and by means of rapid surveys mad,3 available for such

a demand As a :further check upon the growing practice of natives to claim ar.,3as Native zand 11 exce s of their rights. Your Commissioners recommend legislation requiring tJ~~~ 1

:C,,_ 11 e de­

the n atives in the settled rlistricts to mark. off their land within, say, six month:J from the date of a notification being made to them to do so, and providing that all land thereafter unmarked in any such district shaH become Crovm land.3 . 811ch legishtion should be made t? apply only to_ such settled districts as a re

from time to time hroug·ht under . 1t bv Proclamat10n, and these Proclamations should be made ,vith as great a rapidity as a materially increased surv0y staff can cone ·with the work of survey. In addition to prosecuting the work of ascertaining and identifyin ;~ ,,-a t e lands, it is necessary that prompt and vigorous steps be taken to acquire

by purchase the lands which th~ na:tives may be willing to sell. The nece. sity for re-orgamzation and mcrease of the Survey D(:' partment is alluded to elsewhere in this Report. -

The l)eople of the _Te_rritory gene_ral_ly express ap_ orova_ 1 of_ the_ ne,v _J., and The 111'1c r.m ul Orclina nCI' . Ordinance. Your Comm1ss10ners, too, neheve that of its krnd 1t 1s a liberal measure, even generous in some of its terms. It is possible that at the outset th~


inability to obtain fee-simple estates will tend to <:Iiscourage ~n~estm~nt of large capital in a concentrated form; but a wise and eqmtable admmistrat10n of the mea ure, coupled with the undoubted capabilities of the co1:1ntr;r., shou!d ?efore long remove any such feeling, and prove too strong a temptation ror capitalists to

re i t.

One particular provi ion of the 11ew Ordinance is pe~haps OJ?e!-1 to ques­ tion. It js that relating to pastoral improveme1~ts. .A prov1s10!1 reqmn!1g twenty head of great cattle, or 100 sheep per square mile, as ~ stockmg ?ondit10n can­ not be aid to err on the side of liberality. The stockmg clauses m the pastoral law of the Northern Territory, where the stock raising industry is assured, are infinitely more liberal in theh terms. Your Commissioners recomme_nd that a considerable decrease should be made in the numbers of stock reqmred as a

compliance with the stocking provisions in Papua. Your Commissioners are also of opinion that Section xxxrx. of the Land Ordinance,. providing that ." land shall Le measured to the ~ardinal poir1;ts un~es)~ the measurmg surveyor decides that the natural features will not permi~ ~f it, may, if too slavishly followed, lead to some disadvantages. Your Comm1ss10ners . are advised that the true cardinal directions should, as a rule, be adopted, but only then ·when there is no reason to the contrary dependent upon the natural conformation of the land. The physical configuration, and considerabons of access, must often be regarded as indicating the best direction to adopt. When there js no such indication, then the true cardinal directions should be adopted.


'J.'Tte Queen-~lana Mining in the Territory is regulated by Ordinance V. of 1899, which

law adopted. adopts (v17ith exceptions) Tlie Mining Act 1898 of Queensland. There is, appa-rently, a formidable difficulty facin;..; the mining industry by reason of the Affecffd by the present disposition of the lands of Papua. .As pointed out under the heading

Zand laws. of Land Laws, only 1,127,802 acres in Pa.pua are Crown lands, or, it may be

better expressed by saying that on i y that area is lands now ascertained a;:3 belonging to, and capable of disposition by, the Crown. Of that, some has been alienated in fee. The balance of the lands of Papua are native lands, or at the best open to the· choice of natives, until they are proclaimed " waste and vacant,'' or are purchased from the natives, whereupon, they too become, and are deemed to be, Crown lands.

As all the privileges and powers attached to the ownership of a miner's right, and to the ownership of all mining tenements under the existing Mining Laws, are absolutely confined to Crown lands (there is no Ordinance regulating or permitting mining on private property), it will be seen that there can be only the unalienated portion of the above-mentioned area of 1,127,802 acres to-day

legally ?pen. for _the miner; and of this :~rea it is well to. a~sume that a very small propor~}on 1s mmer~l ~and, for, accordmg to,, the Admm1strator's statement (Q. 2453), the bulk of it 1s of first-rate quality (for settlem2nt). Therefore if

the Mining Ordinance is applicable to mjnjng on these "waste and vacant" ~nd purchased lands, it will be seen how limited is the area for its application. We use the phrase "if it is applicable" advisedly, because, since there is no defini­ tion of the term " Crown lands " in .the Mining Ordinance, the matter may be open to some doubt. When that Ordmance was passed, the definition of " Crown lands " given in the adopted Queensland A-\_ct of 1898 was expressly excluded from adoption, .and., notwithstandi?g that, n~ d.efinition supplied- its p·lace.

It 1s difficult to concmve how thJS important matter was over looked. J;-, may be that it. was not overlooked, but that the difficulty was appreciated and not faccd-n. 1t undoubtedly should have been-at the time the adoptina Or­ dinance was passed. ·whatev0 r the exphwation may be, the omission is a s~rio1~3 one, f~r the. a~opted la:V deals only witl~ "Crovvn lands," and no leo·islation regardmP,· mrnmg on private property exists. 5 \ . If th~ 1 rm " (?rov;n lands,' so .repea~edly used in the adopted OueensJand A ~ct, 1s anph able to the lands l)rocla1med waste and vacant " and to lands purcha ed hy_ the Government from the natives under the La~d Ordinance, the area over ,Yh1c_h the law prop .rly operates. t -dav is absurdly smalJ. And to' s cur cvnn tlns . me 11 ar [). :or th "onerat10n of, th~ Minirn:?,' Ordinance, it is D~c arr t~ r.cad th . lefim1.1011 of . Crmvn land~ ' given in the Land Ordinance with the 1:mmg Ordmance, or to give th term '· rown lanas.,'' when used in the


l\Iining Act, a liberal construction. The law should be amended and place

as the necessity for deferring that action, hold good when applied to mining. In the meantime, laws should b~ passed declaring all minerals on native­ owned lands to be the property of the Crown, and such legislation should provide for regulations being made for the due protection of native rights and 01~stows, and for compensation to the natives for damages sustained hy them at the hamfo of those who mine upon their larnl.

. In order to prevent or rnirjrnise collisions between European miners and the natives of entirely unsettled districts, and to enable the GOivernment to place some reasonable check upon the actions of those for whose lives it is in some degree responsible, it is advisable that power should be given to limit by proclamation tI1e districts within vvhich such legislation shall be applicable from time to time.



On the whole, the condition of the gold-mining industry in the Territory

R1;,commen­ dation.

is of an encouraging nature. During the la~.t six years the gold exports have Gold exported. steadily increased from £32,926 in 1900, to £58,496 in 1905-6, and this result has been attained notwithstanding the fact that but comparatively little of the country has been even roughly prospected. .

,·with the exception of the mining carried on on Woodlark Island, the gold-mining of the Territory is almost solely confined to alluvial work, and the Alluvial. present developments, upon the alluvial iields do not indicate their capability of supporting a greater number of men than are now engaged upon them. This

suggests the necessity for discovering and opening up new fields if the industry is to be fostered and encouraged. Gold is found and worked for. along the North-eastern portion of the Where gold,; foun;d. Territory from Milne Bay in the .south, to Mambare River in the north; and the more recent reported discovery of gold on the W aria River further north, and close to the German boundary, points to the conclusion that the trend of this known gold-bearing belt is towards German Territory. In some minds, indeed, there appears to be a doubt wh~ther the ,varia discovery is in our Terri­ tory or in that of Kaiser Wilhelm land. Already some of the best miners in the Northern Division of Papua are on the Waria field prospecting. It is, therefore, important that t.11e country generally should be examined, A Gover_ nmer,t d h ld . T . 1 . d " d h d . G prospecting an t e go m our · erntory ocate rn or er to prevent t e exo us int'.) _"lerman party. territory of our miners, which would otherwise inevitably result from the dis-covery of payable gold-fields in the latter country. Existing circumstances plainly require that the necessary search and examination of the country should be made by the Government by means of a well-equipped party comprising a Geologist and practical miner 2, This method ( of Government prospecting) would recommend itself to Your Commissioners above all others under any cir­cumstances, but more particularly so in the present instance, for the reason that there is great danger attending prospecting by small private parties in districts not under-or only partially under-Government control, by reason of the hostility of the natives; whilst prospecting by large private parties, on the other hand, is a menace to the natives themselves if collisions should, as they almoet certainly ,vould, take place. NATIVE LABOUR. Recruiting. The recruiting of native labour for all purposes is regulated by the Native Labour Ordinance of 1900. Such labour is obtained through the medium of licensed recruiters. The number of natives recruited last year was-for miners 1,000; for others, 783; and probably if recruits had been available another 400 boys could have been engage_d for miners. It is thus safe to compute the present labour supply at 2,000 recruits. The pre&ene system.

ObjN t io ,rn to it.

The co st to employers.


There obj ction to the present system of private recr~1i~e~~s,. and all the evidence taken favour the removal of the middleman and the imtiatrng of a Government y tern, and with this evidence we agree. . An:iong the objecti?ns to the pre --.ent y tem may be mentioned the a~use of. their licence b:y certam re- . cruiter ; boys have been threatened by recrmtors with th~ wrath of th~ Govern­ ment if they did not recruit. Village constable~,, too, whilst they are mstructed to hold aloof, and remain entirely neutral between the recruiter and th~ rtatives ~f the villages, seem to be unable to comprehend or realise th_e real m~amng of th~u instruction·, and there appears to be a tendency on theff part either. to_ adv:s~ the natives agaimt offering themselves as recruits generally, or they_ di~t~ngmsli between recruiters who are, and who are not, persona grata to them mdividually, and assist or prevent recruiting accordingly.

Tltr cost to U,e Gurernment.

The cost of recruiting a boy has been stated to be in some instances as high as £6. The average cost would appear to be about £4 to the employer for a recruit and another 10s. for returning each boy to his home. In addition to this, there are the Government fees of ls. for signing on, and ls. for paying off the boy. The total average cost to the employer is thus £4 12s. The cost to the Govern­ ment under the pre~ent system is most inadequately compensated for by the small

A Government syst em.

Estimated cost.

total fees of 2s. for signing on and off. This small sum is the only return the Government gets for supervision of the boys during their term of engagement. Amongi:t the advantag,3s accruing under a Government system of recruit­ ing are the following :-Government otlicers would, we think, more readily obtain recruits. The natives would place greater reliance, and we think, properly so, upon receiving fair treatment from their employers if the Government were the go-between; the Government, by monopolising the right to recruit, and desiring to make no profit thereby, could afford to do so at a less cost to the employer, who

\vould consequently be benefited; the Government would be in more constant touch with coastal native tribes; the decreased cost of recruits would enable the imposition of a fee fur supervision and thus provide more effective supervision of native employes, for which the present fee is inadequate. The foregoing and other minor advantages seem to Your Commissioners to be apparent. The system recommended is one which could do away with the holders of recruiting

licences, and sub~titute for them the Government. Your Commissioners also recommend the issue of licences to individual employers at a small fee, entitling them, ·without the intervention of Government to recruit labour within a radius of, say, ten miles from the locality where th~ labour i~ to_ b_e empl~y:'d, subje?t,. of course, to t~1e sanction of the proper officer to eac_h mdividual hirmg. ThH:',. ~s a_ system which we partjcularly desire to sea esta~hshed, fur the reason that it will tend to encourage the ernrngement of natives for work: in their own district. u

Coming now to the question of the fees which the Government could, with advantage both to itself and the emp~oyers, charge for this recruiting service:­ The total average cost for each recrmt under the present svstem has been stated above at £4 12s., ~nd the number of recruits actually obtaine"tl and required for last year wa~ approxunately 2,000. For the p~rposes of

1 this question we estimate

there will be 1,000 labourers to· be recrmted by Government for P,mployers annually. Under present demands that will make an allow.ance of 1 000 for the te!llporary decrease in number of recrui~s, by- reason of the fact that employers will probably, under the proposed leg1:,lat10n, be a]fo·wed to engage labour for an extended t?rm, ~nd secondly, by reason of the decrease owing to the probable advantage which will be t~ke:°- und~r the abo_ve !ecommendation that employers s?all be allowed to ~~ecrmt m their o':'7n districts. These figures concede a liberal, per~aps too lib ral, allowance of 50 ·per cent. to meet these possib1e con-tingencies. '

. . We suggest the following fee :~::For re~ruiting each native, £2 10s.; for ~1gnmg 0:1 and off_ and general superv1s10n durmg employment, 10s.; for return­ mg recrmt to ~heir home , 10 "' .; or a total cost of £3 10s. per head, as against £4:. 12 . no:V paid. There ca~1, therefore, be no question that, from a monetary pomt of vrnw,. th~ sy _tern will advantage the employer. ,v e have given our reasons for thmkrn~· 1t would ben~fit the employer. Now, how will it affect the

Government 1 . Takrng 1,.000 recnuts as the basis, the gross income to Govern­ ment from this source will be £3,000. A witness (Honorable W. J. Little,



.M.L.C., paragraph 1763) e timates that, in all probability, it would be necessary to have two steamers for this service in conjunction with other Government ser­ vices. But he forms his opinion in the absence of any assumption that an altera­ tion in the law as to permitting private recruiting would be made, and,

therefore, does not allmY for any reduction in numbers, and he suggests the pur­ chase of one, or if needful, two steamer~. for this purpose. This would entail the expenditure of £6,000 additional capit:11, which could be avoided if the Merria England, could be made available for this service. The retention of the M erric England would avoid this large expenditure, and would also render unnecessary the great sacrifice of capital which her sale at a possibly ridiculously low price would entail. It may be that this service, added to the other Government work

of the Territory, will ultimately render another, or even two, new steamers necessary to replace the n1 errie England, but until the work of Government recruiting has passed, what may be termed the experimental stage, Your Commis­ sioners think that the Merrie England should perform it. That she is capable of

doing the work in conjunction ·with her other Government services, Your Com­ missioners are assured by her Commander, Captain Hunter, ,vho says:-As it is likely that the Government may undertake the recruilting of all native labour, this is work where the 111 errie England could be of the greatest use. Say that the GoYernment meant

to use the enormous population resident on the rivers of tl11e Gulf. Depots conlct be fcrm c- d, the labour collected, the steamer could call at any fixed date and take away and land 500 or 600 natives at a time- all this without interfering ,Yith the usual work.

To so use the M erri°e England! to advantage it will be necessary to arrange, as far as possible, that permanent employers shall notify, at least, several months ahead, their requirements to the Government, and that such notification shall be given for a fixed period in the year, otherwise voyages will have to be made which could be avoided. Encouragement could be given to employers to do this by either allowing a rebate of part of the proposed charge ot £;j 10s. for so doing, or increasing the rate if it were not done.

As a further safeguard against imposing needless trips by the Merrie England to labour centres, advantage could. be taken of the existence of the Government plantations recommended in this report, by making them the ultimate centres for distribution of native labour in their neighbourhood, care being taken to fix the plantations in such centres as those recommended by Your Commissioners, which would .in every respect be convenient for such distribution, and should any unforeseen delay occur therein the labour of the recruits could be utilized by the Government during that time in the respective Government plan­ tations. Similarly, a central depot could be formed at or near the main recruiting point, which would probably be in the Western Division, and the work of thr:~ recruits, between the time of their engagement and embarkation for their des­ tination, could be utilized by the Government upon plantation or other reproduc­ tive work.

A necessity is apparent for insistence that a Government officer be present ,vhen natives, who have been paid off, are purchasing goods with their wages at the various stores. This seems necessary to insure the natives receiving reason­ able value for the money they spend. ln the minds of some storekeepers, by no means in all, there seems to be an impression that the native can fairly be charged a higher rate than Europeans for the same commodity. One witness, himself a storekeeper, states (2952), in ans·wer to the quesbon "Is it the practice for store­ keepers to charge natives more than they charge Europeans?" "Yes, I will admit that. There is so little bought by Europeans that we only look upon it as doing them a favour. YVe look upon it as fonding them the arhcles." It is no wonder that the Papuan, keen trader as he is, is quick to note this method, and to be unfavorab]y impressed with the strange reasoning ·which prompts it.

It has been pointed out to Your Commissioners that miners and settlers generally, "'."ho are without capit~l, are handicapped. at the outset of their opera­ tions by bemg compelled to become under obhgat10n to the storekeepers, who become sureties for them under this system of guaranteeing the wages of recruits for the whole period of their engagement. There is great force in this contention. Your Commis ioners suggest, as a 11ieans of overcoming the difficulty, that eniployers may, instead of furnishing such guarantee, pay to the proper Govern­ ment officers to be appointed for the purpose, the wages of their emp1oyes monthly

The "Merrie England" could be utilized.

Paying-off boys.

Further SU(J(Jestions.

.ddverse criticism s .

. The vessel unsuitable,

but cannot 71e dispensed with,

unless re­ placed.

The necessity of a Govern­ ment steamer.

Cost of main­ tenance.

Her earnings.

or quarterly in a dvance. 1-.'. houlcl thi~ he clone) hov.T cver, every care should be taken to inforce prompt payment, and non-compliance should be made and treated as an offence.


Thi vessel has of late been the subject of much adverse comment by the .. .i.m,Lralian public bv reason of her alleged unsuitableness and great cost ot up­ keep. Some peopleo/have gone the length of urging that the vess~l should_ be dis­ pensed with entuely, and that the work which she performs might be done by the privately owned vessels on the coast, ·with a resultmg saving o± many thousand pounds annually. This contention, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, is t_hc outcome of want of knowledge, or at best the existence of only a superficial knowledge, of the true circumstances of the uase.

Several witnesses were examined before Your Commissioners, but only one of them went to the length alluded to above; but whatever value which might otherwise have been attached to his opiuion was greatly discounted by reason of the errors into which he fell in his statements regarding the vessel, and concern­ ing which, on his errors being pointed out, he is stated to have subsequently expressed regret.

Your Commissioners desire to say at once that the Me1'rie England is not, by any means, the most suitable vessel fur carrying out the work she is called upon to perform, and this mainly by reason of her excessive draught. At the same time, after considerable practical experience of, and personal inquiry into, the varied work which exists for a Government vessel in the Territory, and after hearing the evidence of those best able to .iudge, Y 01.1r Commissioners are firmly of opinion that the Merrie England should not, and cannot, with any expectation of efficiency in the Government service, be dispensed with unless it is for the purpose of sub­ stituting for her a wooden vessel of the same power and coal capacity of less draught and more cargo space. The cost of such a vessel would probably be about £8,000. In addition to such a large expenditure, there would be a possibly great sacrifice of capital in disposing of the Merrie England. The latter has proved herself to be, and admittedly is, a strongly built vessel, and is stated to be still sound in every respect. For the present, therefore, having in view the fact that if Your Commissioners' further recommendations are acted upon, the Merrie England will be made pay for herself, they do not recommend that she be dispensed with, if on a strict examination to be made immediately of her hull and boilers by the recognised expert of the Commonwealth Government) she is proved to be sound

in every respect. It has furthermore been brought home to Your Commissioners that the moral effect upon the natives occasioned by the fact that the Government possess a sea-going vessel, which in a few days can land an armed party at any part of the coastline, is very great. It has been stated, with truth, that "Traders are scattered more or less over the coastline and islands, and many live solitary lives among natives who a few years ago thought nothing of taking human life. The constant round of visits of the Government is the principal reason for the infre­ quency of murder and serious crime in ma.ny islands and districts." To depart from this position would, in the_ face of that opinion, be unsafe; indeed it would be almost criminal, inasmuch. as the absence of the vessel ":ould .be a retrograde movement, and as such, an evidence ?f weakness to the native mmd, entailing a consequent loss of Government prestige.

The cost ?f the Merrie England ~s nndoubtedlr great. In former years it has been even higher, but by the exerc1~e of economies_ the net expenditure has been brought gradually down to £5,907 m 1905-6. It 1s, we think, evident that by no further economies can this amo~nt be reduced, without sacrificing effici­ ei1cy. The objective s~ould now °?e to increase the ear1:1-ings of the vessel as an offset to the present high expenditure. Before proceedmg to show how this mav be done, Your Commissioner . desire to refer to certain facts not generally knmvi1 which indicate that the Merrie England has not been the unproductive burden to the Territory sue~ as she has been regard~d by many of her critics. Taking the year 1905-6, for example, the gross expenditure was £6,029. The only credit placed

against that has been that of £122 for. refunds and cash earnings, making net


expenditure £5,907. Your Commissioners think that it would be fair to take into consideration what amount the services performed would have cost the Go­ vernment had there been no Government steamer. With a view of asctrtainirni this, Your Commissioners obtained the necessary information and figures from th~

Government. These establish the fact that at a reasonable computation the Merrie England should be credited with having earned £2,04.6, made up of pas­ sages and freights which would otherwise have been paid to privately owned ve_ ssels for ne~essary services. The passage money is computed at amounts which might h~ve fairly been charged by vessels regularly running to the ports where the services were performed; but, in many cases, since such vessels do not so run to all ports, the services could not have been obtained without special charter of vessels at a much higher cost. The computation of the Merrie England's earnings

at the above stated sum, therefore, errs greatly on the side of caution, and is a proper credit which, if allo,ved, reduces her cost to £3,861. As a means o! increasing the earnings of .the. vessel, Your ~ommissione~s Increasing the recommend that all Government cargo sent coastw1se m Papua, and from Australia earnings. to Papua, be reserved for carriage by the Merrie England. Captain Hunter (her

Commander) estimates (2658-29tH) that all this additional work could be per-formed by that vessel without inter:fori:p_g with her other work, and that a saving of £2,00u would be thereby effected. '1'his would reduce her cost to the Territory . to £1,861.

Then, again, the Merrie England can be utilized in connexion with the scheme for Government recruiting recommended in another portion of this Report. The income accruing to the Government from this service is there estimated at £3,000. The fair apportionment of this sum to th~ various services w1.u.w will have to be performed can only be approximately estimated at this stage; but Your Commissioners believe that,_ after allowing for the cost of actual recruiting, of rationing, and of gistribution, the sum of cBl,500 for conveying and returning

recruits (reckoned at 30s. per recruit) will be properly available for those services to be performed by the Merrie England. The performance of that service, there­ fore, would reduce the net cost of the vessel to £360 annually. All the amounts, except one, respectively computed above, as the probable returns from the various services referred to are necessarily only estimated, and may be over-stated. Your

Commissioners are convinced, however, that they are not seriously so, and, in any event, a very large margin may be allowed for over-statement, and still sufficient returns can be shown to very materially reduce the present cost of the vessel or her substitute.

It has been suggested that £1,000 annua,lly might be Sa.Ved in the direction A Papuan cr ew of the employment of Papuans as part of the crew. Your Commissioners see no suggested. objection to this course being followed in the event of the nece~sity arising, but, assuming that their recommendation concer:p_ing the utilization of the vessel for

Government recruiting may be adopted, they do not think it will be desirable to have other than Europeans to man the vessel. Your Commissioners have made no reference, when dealing with the ser -vices performed by the Merrie England, which would have to be paid for if performed by other vessels, to the important service of carriage of mails to out- carriage of of-the-way stations, nor has _ the still more important subject of buoying and mails. beaco:p_ing, surveying and charting the coast and harbors, been yet referred t o. coast sur·

This latter work has been performed, and so f~r as Your Commissioners are able veys, &c. to judge, well performed by the officers of the Merrie England. There is still a great deal to be done in this direction to render the coast safe. For all t hi2. highly necessary and important work the Government , vessel has received n_o

credit. If it is to be continued (and Your Commissioners cannot believe that 1t will be seriously contended otherwise for one moment), the ~Merrie England, or a ves~.el of her capacity on improved lines, must be at the disposal of Government. To render the Merrie England' more suitable for the performance of the Alterations new services suggested, it will be necessary to effect certain alterations with a recommended. • view to more cargo space and space for housing recruits. As she is H-t present

in Australia undergoing her usual over haul and repair, Your Commissioners think it would be wise to take advantage of the occasion presenting itself for effecting the alterations necessary,, and for the examination of her hull and boilers, as above recommended.

F.14262 C

The advan­ tages of launches.

Recommen­ dation.


In addition to the ill er1rie England, the Government poesesse~ .o?e steam launch (Ruby), used by the Resident Magistrate of the Eastern D1v1s10n; and five ketche" and one lugger are stationed in the Central, South-Eastern, ,Vestern and North-Eastern Divi ions. The Northern Division possesses' only a whale boat. The launch Ruby has given great satisfactio~1, . owing to the . f~cilities which it has afforded for patrol work. Your Comm1ss10ners are of opm10n that the work of the Resident Magistrate and the police would be rendered much ea ier, and that much time would be saved and greater efficiency result, if launches ·were substituted for the present sailing craft available for this .w?~k. Especi­ ally doe this hold good in the instance of the South-Eastern D1v1s10nJ where, owing to the slow and unreliable nature of the present service, the Resident Magistrate (whose headquarters are at Woodlark Island) is able to spend only twelve weeks at this place on the average, and last year spent only 60 days there out of the 365. There .are other Divisions also where launches could be supplied with almost equal advantage.

In the event of telephonic communication being established betvveen Port Moresby and the.North-east coast, it would be of undoubted advantage if a launch were stationed on the latter coast in order to form, with the telephone, another direct means of communication between Port Moresbv and Samarai. In addi­ tion, the same launch would be availabL~ for magister1al work on the coastline of the Northern and North-Easteru Divieions, and for the distribution of recruits under the Government system :recommended. The cost of a 40-ton 16 horse-po~er launch suitable for this service is estimated at £1,500, and maintenance at £450.

Your Commissioners recommend the immediate purchase of two such boats, one for the use of the South-Eastern, and one for the Northern and North-Eastern Divisions. They, further, are of opinion that the substitution of launches for sailing vessels in the other Divisions would make for increased efficiency, and that the cost would be very little more than the present comparatively heavy expendi­ ture upon the present inefficient system.


Your Commissioners naturally regard the question of freight as insepar­ ably bound up with the successful agricultural development of .Papua. . For some time, owing to the fact that many parts of the Territory are not in ·the direct line of any main trade route, Your Comrnissior'iers realise that somewhat higher freights than would ordinarily be charged must be expected; on the other hand they feel that settlers-where pJssible-should be protected from the dangers of either a monopoly or a possible shipping combination. The Treasurer. The following evidence, given by the Treasurer, bears on the point thev

Recommen­ dation.

wish to emphasize in this particular :~ - "

(420) Q. With regard to the contract steamers you have at present, do you thirk it would be in tbe i1nterests of the Territory if it were insisted that they had to name a maximum freight and passage?-A. Undoubtedly. T strongry recommend that that should be done. (421) Q. The charge for freight to Australia on tlw local product almost takes away tbe whole profits ?- A. Yes.

(422) Q. What is the present charge per ton lietween Port ~foresby and Sydr.ey ?-A. sos., and "!.Os. for the Go\'ernment. ' (423) Q. The people might have the benefit of the special rate charged to the Govern-

ment ?-A. Yes. (424) Q. Do you. think the present rate ;s too high from the stand-point of the successful de,·elopment of the Territory ?-A. Yes. -

The Treasurer, in making suggestions in another part of his ev1dence for the future development of the Territory, recommends, among other things, "An attractive mail sen~ic~ with stipulated. rates of pa~sage .and freight." Your Comm1ss10ners are fully Ill accord with both these suggestions and in the interests alike of present arid future settlers they recommend that the closest attention be given i1~ the fu~urc ~o improving exi ting postal facilities between Papua and Australia, and m domg so would draw special attention to the disability under which men on the coast-line from Hall Sound along the

vVestern coast) at present labour in this respect. '


They further recommend that in all future mail contr~cts a_ clause be inserted definitely laying down the maximum charge that can be nnposed both for freight and passenger traffic to and from Australia and Papua.


The extra-Territorial waters of Queensland extend to within a very short distance of the shores of Western Papua, and as a result there is little scope for extension of the industry in that region. The periodical discolouration or the water and its great depth also render th~se waters . less hkely to be the centre of considerable pearl-shell fishery. No locally-owned boats, and. only six Queens­ land boats, were engaged at all in Papuan waters in the West last season. But

it is in connexion with its demand for la?our that pearl fishing has an important bearing upon this end of the Territory. Between '/0 and 80 _Queensland boats were licensed to employ Papuan natives to be removed from the Territory for the purpose of fishing in the Gulf of Papua or in Torres Straits, and upon these boats from 300 to 400 natives are said to have been engaged last year. The utilization of Papuans in this direction was objected to by the Revet.. Mr. Riley in his evidence (2895). He sees no redeeming feature in the whole system. Your

Commissioners, however, after considering the whole evidence on the subject, do not think that the system will operate harshly against the natives under a system of Government recruiting. They recommend that for this special work the em­ ployer should be permitted to pay the employe a proportion not exceeding 25 per

cent. of his wages during the term of his employment, provided that the pay­ ment is made in the presence of, and v:ouchect tor by, a Magistrate or Police Officer of Papua or Queensland. This is recommended for the reason that infor­ mation obtained by Your Commissioners in Thursday Island from Mr. T. · J.

Farquhar and the principal employers of Papuans in Torres Straits points to the fact that the natives are dissatisfied with the existing arrangement. The experience of the employers referred to is that the Papuan is acquisitive, and when he is unable to buy what he requires he steals.

Before an employer is able to engage Papuans for the fishery he must have a residence or place of business within the Territory of Papua, which must be continuously occupied and used by him or by his representative. The Thursday Island employers suggest that a direct tax payable to the Government would be better than such a provision. Your Commissioners understand that the require­ ments of the present law are complied with by the employers · engaging one re-­ P!~sentative in common. There can, therefore, 1 be little hards~ip in the :pro­ v1s1on.

In connexion with this industry, Mr. Herschtel, agent for Mr. Leonard Rosenthal, pear 1 merchant, Paris, placed before Your Commissioners, when at Samarai,_ a proposal that the Gov~rnment should give him the sole right to trade for pearls with the natives of the Trobriand Islands. Mr. Herschtel stated he

desired only to trade with the natives for pearls obtained by them from the oysters procured by them for food, and that for that limited conoession he was prepared to offer £400 per annum to the Government. Your Commissioners, quite apart from the question of the possibility of

injustice to exi~ting licensees which might accrue if such a request were granted, are not prepared to recommend the creation of a monopoly such as an acquiescence in the proposition would entail.


Rer.om11iencla. tion

The question of the provision of roaus by the Government is of the utmost The import:111ce practical importance to the Territory of Papua. Wh3ther the roads should be 01 i·oads. for vehicle traffic, bridle tracks, or footways, depende, upon the nature of the country to be traversed and the means J,t tho disposal of the Government. The only roads at present existing in the Territory fit for vehicles is the one now under

construction between Port Moresby and Sogeri, and a short road at Kapa Kapa. C 2

The present 1·oads.



'l'ra11 .~ port by carriers.

Roads for vehicles.

Horses for Resident Magistrate,:.

A11 active road policy recom­ mended.

Expenditure on roads.

Euna Bn,11 anrl Ora Ba,11,


It is, therefore, not a matter of surprise that the only. vehicles seen by .the Com­ mis ion in Papua vrnre one buggy and a bullock van,. mtended for cartmg cocoa­ nuts in a plantation at Dedele. ·fhe present method . of ~ransport of locally­ grown coftee from Sogeri to Port Moresby (about 35 mile~) is by. mule and hor~e pack at £7 per ton-a rate prohibitive of signal success, 111 the mdustry at this place. . . . .

We believe we are right in saying that the only other mstances m which horses and mules have been used, are in the transport of copper ore, by ·means of packs, on the first-named road, the hauling of timber by sandalwood-getters, and. by the Roman Catholic Mission in their Mission work from the coast to Mounc Yule. In almost every other case . the transport is effected by means o_f native carriers. This latter method1 objectionable as it is in itself from a humam­ tarian poii1t of view, is also in some cases the real, and in others the .alleged, reason for the high prices charged by storekeepers for stores on the gold-field~. The s,ooner, therefore, that it is discarded on roads of general traffic, the better 1t will be for those most concerned.

Wherever practicable the roads now or hereafter to be constructed should he made capable of supporting vehicle traffic, failing that they should be made practicable for horses or mules; and only when neither of those objects can be attained owing to the nature of the country should the Administration rest satis­ fied with tracks for foot travellers only.

Resident Magistrates on the mamland should be supplied with horses or mules, and be required and encouraged to make use of them in their work to the utmost extent. The extent to which transport animals could be used will vary very much at different stations, but even on those stations on which they could, under present circumstances, be of limited use the fact that they were available would be a great incentive towards the discovery and clearing of tracks so as to extend their field of usefulness. The result will tend towards the speedier and more efficient carrying out of the duties of the Magistrates, and will also bring home to them, by the medium of personal experience, the great necessity of open­

jng up the country by means of roads for transport animals. An active, vigorous, and systematic policy of road-making should be pur­ sued, embracing a road system (1) to connect settlements with the coast, (2) to open up existing Crown lands fit for settlement, (3) to connect Port Moresby with the North-East Coast, (4) to give land communication along the South Coast from Port Moresby to Fyfe Bay, and (5) to pierce the country in such other directions as Crown lands may be procured in the future fit for settlement.

The qualifications of a Chief Surveyor for directing this is referred to else·where (under the head of Reorganization). For each of the financial years ending ,June, 1903, 1904, and 1905, only the paltry sum of £500 was voted for ro-2 .. ds and water ways, and of these

small sums an average only of 50 per cei2t. ·was expen~ed.. . In the year ending June, 1906, £1,250 was voted, and £1,2D0 was spent. flus increased expenditure for 1905-6 was for the mo3t part appli~d t?wards t?e completion and improve­ ment o:f the Bu~a Bay-Yodda~:r~ad, which 1s :11ow, with the ex?eption of two points at the Rocky River and the Divide, fit for ammal pack traffic m normal conditions.

Having in view the fact that the :,eaport for the country tapped and served by this road will, in the future, become the commercial capital for the rich North­ ern Division, Your Commissioners made inquiries as to whether ·a more suifable and healthy spot existed than Buna Ba,y v,.rithin reasonable distance of the pre­ sent road's terminal point. On this matter, Captain Hunter gave the following evidence:-

2996. Q. H ow, in your opinion, does O ra Bay compare ,Yith Bun a Ba\. as an anchoraae ?­ A. I think Ora Bay far ahe~d of Euna ~ay. The approach to Buna Bay is very bad. bit is.

nearly an open roadstead, wlule Ora Bay iS ffUCh more . protected from the prevailing ,vinds. Again, there is no fresh water at Buna, Bay, and [ beli eve there is at Ora Bay . 2997. Q. How far is Buna. Bay from Ora Bay? A. About 30 miles so~th. Ora Bay is

the healthier for a settlement, as it has high ground all round it. J

In face of this expert opinion as to its harbor advantages, and being per­ sonally a,i\-R~re. of the low-lying and nnhealtiw po~ition o~ the present port, Your Co~miss10ners recommend ~hat fnll considerat10n be given to the question of removmg· the Government stat10n to Ora Bay and of connecting that port with

the BunD, Bay-Yodda-road.



Too great importance cannot be attached to road-making in Papua, owing to the dense forest and hilly nature of the country rendering, it inaccessible with­ out a good road system. Nothing should be allowed to check the forward policy in this direction. Many parts of the country (and in large tracts) are second to none in Australia, and only require an energetic European population of settlers to successfully work it. This cannot be done without roads.

Almost all the work of road construction, exclusive of bridges, can be per­ formed by natives at a comparatively small cost. To the native villagers also should be allotted the task of keeping sections of constructed Government roads in the vicinity of their villages in repair. Some small remuneration should be given them for work done by them over rmd above the work due from them under the taxation to be imposed in accordance with our taxation recomm:=mdations.

· An existing Regulation of the Native Regulation Board requires villagers to keep clear the native roads and to make roads- when required by the Magis­ trate. This useful Regulation has been permitted, in some parts of the Territory, to become a dead letter. In some of them it is insisted upon with most beneficial results. It is a wise regulation, and should be put into full force throughout the entire portion of the Golmtry under Government control.


Natives should keep 11ections in order.

The naUve Regulation.

Sir William MacGregor, fully realizing towards the close of his adminis- ;,!fi~~~i171 ~1te tration the many unanswerable reasons in favour of teaching the English lan.., English zan- yuage. guage to the natives, made every effort towards the furtherance of this end. Your Commissioners regret that up to the present it appears to them that successive Administrators have done little or notning towards the carrying out of his wishes, nor can they hold the various Missionary Societies, which have had the whole matte~ largely ~n thei~~ hands, bl~meless in ~his regard. !t appe'ars to us .that they ~ffi~f!f;e:nJv have, Ill the mam, been more anXIOUS to cu]t1vate local dialects than to mtroduce missionaries.

one common language, and that the one . spoken by the Empire to which they belong. Nor can we hold many Government officials individually blameless in this connexion. It is evident that a majority of them have taken little trouble in the , ,,. ,, past to teach either police or prisoners the English language, and our experience in Papua leads us to the conclusion that most of them still attach small import-ance to this matter.

Motuan, possibly because it is of itself a well-defined language, probably Mot11an--t1te for the reason that it was the tongue spoken by the natives round Port Moresby, ;!f1i~~~ zan­ has practically been constituted the official language, and Your Commissioners understand that Government officials are supposed · to be proficient in its use.

Considering that the natives outside a moderate radius of Port Moresby speak an infinite variety of tongues totally apart from Motuan, and that, as a matter of fact, the official who wishes to make himself understood in any other Division, save in parts of the Central, must learn the dialect or dialects spoken in that particular Division, Your Commissioners can see little virtue in giving official significance to any particular native language. In their opinion, it would be

wiser for officials to make themseh_::es acquainted with the particular dialect which obtains where they may happen to stationed, but at the same time to, on every occasion, accustom the natives to tlie use of English words which, it is felt Englis h re­ sure, would at least result in their obtaining a sufficient smattering to enable commended. them to understand ana to be understood by white men. .

Your Commissioners understand the principal argument in favour of teaching outside natives, such as prisoners and police, Motuan, is that they will, when they return to their paticular tribe, act as clisseminators of this language, so that in time it may become universal. Surely the same argument applies with equal, and indeed greater for~e, in favour of teaching these men En~Jish. This, instead of being the tongue of a people held in contempt by most of the other tribes, is the language of Government itself, and Government means much in the eyes of a Papuan. Consequently' Your Commissioners oelieve that when The v alue uf men so taught return · to their own particular districts, their comrades would be English. much more likely to picli up a language which, from its newness, would excite their curiosity, and from the fact of its being · that of their masters. a certain


respect. That the more intelligent of tbe present generati?n _of nath:es are realiz­ ing the value of English was brought before Your Cornm1ss10ners ~n rather . a marked way during their visit to Woodlark Island, ;where Mr. Gtll ,stated m evidence that 'Boys at the mission station at Mudau would not go there because

they would not teach them the English language," and that, "owing t? the boys refusing to go to the mission station, they had_, in consequ_ ence, to move 1t." the native stand-point, it would mean that, instead of the hopel.ess confus10n now caused at trials by two, and sometimes three, interpreters havmg to be used, and which, Your Commissioners fear, must occasion miscarriages of justice, the native could explain his case to the Judge or JHagistrate, and understand the charge if one was preferred against him. Again, it would make for much better relations between white employers and their boys. To-day, a man of ?asty temper, unable to clearly explain to his native employe what he wants .him to do, is apt to lose his temper, and possibly ill-use the boy, because he thmks he is wilfully neglecting to carry out his order, when, as a matter of fact, he does not understand it. The most elementary knowledge of English on the part of the boy would obviate this. Viewed from the stand-point of the white occupa·· ;~~~,:,~ t 'f 1t to tion of Papua, it is also a question of the first importance. Even assuming that

a majority of the natives understand Motuan (and Your Commissioners do not helieve this for a moment), the average settler can hardly be expected to arrive in Papua armed viTith a knowledge of this language, and, as a result, he is incon­ venienced at once, and, should he happen to have occasion to travel inland, he ma.y find himself in a serious, if not dangerous, position.

On the other hand, in such a. situation, should even one native be pos­ sessed of a smattering of English, his danger and difficulty would probably alike vanish. That the native can both master the English language and apply his know­ ledge of it was brought home to Your Commissioners at Kokoda Station, where they saw a Kiwai Sergeant 'drill a squad of Northern and North-eastern police, using English words of command only. ;f;~a:_ri;~ea;:is- In fairness to the missionaries, Your Commissioners desire to point out

doing. that they were informed, while in Papua, that the Wesleyan Conference then

sitting had carried a resolution to the effect that English was . in future to be taught in their schools; that at the Ch1~rch of England, London Missionary Society, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic head-quarters, mandated children are so taught at present, and that Mr. and Mrs. Riley, of the London Missionary Society, stationed at Daru, are giving any native children they can induce to attend school purely secular English teaching, and that possibly individual mis­ sjonaries of all sects may-in a perfunctory way-give· native children certain instruction in our national language.

The net result, however, even after crediting the various missions as above, is w~olly unsatis~ac~ory and disappointing. Conve~ts we were shown in plenty, but 1n a vast maJonty of cases we had-through ignorance of their various tongues-to take the faith that was said to be in them on trust. If we had asked for bread they could only have given us the stone of some native dialect. Nor do we hope for much more under existing conditions (in spite of resolutions passed or favorable opinions expresse~) from those missions who employ native teachers, for these men are themselves ignorant of the English language. The teriching Having in view all that successive Governments have done for missions in

tfci:Xi~!~ecz. Papua, and the large sums of money that men, women, and children of the British race are constantly subscribing towards their sunport Your Commis­ sioners are strongly of opinion that the least they can -do i~ return is to see that all their native teac~ers become I?roficient enough in English to impart an elementary knowledge of 1t to the nat1vAs, and, further, that the teaching of English ,b the first objective in all mission schools.

It is impossible to visit ~apua an~ fail to realize that in the main Govern ment has handed over many of its best_ sites for mission settlement nor do we cavil at this. Missionaries were practically ~he first-com~~s, and their objects such as to command the symp:1thy and h~lp of the authorities. Your Commis­ sioners, further, gladly admit that their presence has materially helped the


Government in its work by bringing the coastal natives into touch with healthy moral conditions, and are glad to be able to state that, particularly in the case of the Sacred Heart Mission, this influence is being pushed info the interior of the island.

Still, while admttting the good done in the past and being continued at present, it is, we think, beyond the range of argument that, but for Government protection, this labour would have been well nigh impossible, and that, were the Commonwealth to withdraw from Papua, mission work would, for all practical purposes, cease in the Territory. Your Commissioners further believe that every

loyal citizen of Pa:)ua should do all that in him lies to teach the natives English, so, in no spirit of a~1tagonism to missionary effort, and while readily admitting the civilizing work they have done, and are doing, they recommend, in the best in­ terests of natives and whites alike, that in future the teaching of English in all mission schools be made compulsory by law; and, further, that English be de­

clared to be the official language of Papua. It has been suggested by the Rev. E. B. Riley that the Government should pay a subsidy towards the upkeep of teachers where English is taught, and that these Government-aided Mission Schools should be secular; and, further, that

land for school gardens be set apart where agricultural work could be taught and carried on, and that all school materials and tools used in any industrial school either be supplied by the Government or admitted duty free. - vVhile sympathiz-ing with Mr. Riley's un_doubted enthusiasm in this matter, Your Commissioners

can see so many difficulties ahead of State aid to mission schools that they feel unable to recommend its adoption. If only one form of Christianity was being taught in Papua it might be_ possible, but, ELS this is far from being the case, Your Commissioners realize that to hope for uniform secularity would be futile,

and only on this basis could the scheme be satisfactorily worked. On the other hand, they see no objection, and indeed a possibility of good results from grant-ing land for school gardens, and are of the opinion that the Government should supply, or at least admit duty free, materials and tools which are satisfactorily

proved to be used for educational purposes.

Government assistance requested.

The question of providing schools for white children is one that has also schoozs for had Your Commissioners' earnest attention. With increasing white settlement, a white children. comprehensive scheme of education to suit local requirements will have to be evolved', but for the present Your Commissioners are of opinion that three

State schools, one at Port Moresby, and the other two at Samarai and W oodlark Islano, would prove sufficient. Mr. Baldwin, examined at Port Moresby, gave the following evidence:-With regard to education, I thi1~k people hei-e should be gi,-en an opportunity of haYing their

children educated. There has not eYen a piece of ground been gilven for a school. At one time, there were thirteen children here fit for school, and they haYe had to be ser.t away. At present, there is only one child. If a school were established, it would be made' use of.

Your Commissioners, ful]y believjng that Papua can never hope for per­ manent white settlement until men can be induced to bring their wives and fami­ lies and form uermanent homes upon its shores, are of opinion that one of the .,, first essentials· in this direction is to reasonable educational advantages.

They further consider, in view of the small salaries at present paid to Govern­ ment officials, that they should not be forced to incur the expense of sending their children elsewhere for education. The argument which may be raised, that at the present time there. a!e not sufficient chi1 dr~n in PaJ:?m.l, to. warrant the expendi­

ture, is, in our op1mon, not worthy of serious cons1derat10n, for we have n0 doubt that should the schools we suggest be started, their very presence will soo11 get over this difficulty. Your Commissioners are aware that the Church of Eng-­ land Mission, helpe~ to so1t;~ sm~ll ex~nt by ~overnment, has already establi~hed

a school at Samara1, for wmch, m then· opm1011, the whrte residents have cause to be thankful; but, for self-evident reasons, a State school would be more satisfac­ tory to the people at lll:rge) an~ Your. Commissi?ners have,. therefore, no hesitation m strono'ly recommendmg the 1mrned1ate establishment of Government schools in

the thre~ centres already indicated. ·

Titree .school11 recom1nendecl.'



It may not be inopportune to here point out tha_t !llission ~t~tions are naturally centres of spheres of influence . So long as this _mflue~ce is only used over the natives in the direction of spiri'tual control, there is. admittedly r:o ~ause for objection, but Your Commissioners are not absolutely satisfied that .this is al­

ways the case. The fact that the various religious bodies are located m .. ~efined areas, wherein they exercise undivided authority, all points, in the _opm10n ?f Your Commissioners, to the growth of spiritual . vested interests which ·may rn the hands of fanatical or obstinate men develop into a form of. tem:poral J?O~er

impatient with, and possibly resentful of secular -authority, while," vie':ed m its most favorable aspect, it is liable to set itself up, in the eyes of the natives, as a force-even if friendly-still co-equal with, if not superior to t!iat of the .~o­ vernment. Your Commissioners are perfectly well aware that these various

divisions are not now, nor have they ever been, defined or allotted by ar:y ~overn­ ment Ordinance, and they merely wish to emphasize the fact that while it may be convenient for purposes of organization that each sect should occupy a particular portion of Papua, .it must be clearly understood that this is a pure~y private arrangement among the various Missionary Societies themselves, and 1s in no way stampea with the regis of Govarnment authority. Tlt e rl'8triction To avoid the possibility of future difficultes arising through possible cleri­

;tc ;;;;,;;e1:S~1r cal insistence of a right to interfere as between the native and the Government, Your Commissioners recommend that it be clearly laid down as the principle on which missions continue their w@rk in Papua that their sphere is entirely re­ stricted to matters spiritual and (subject to mutual arrangement) educational,

and that the Government be recognised as the paramount and only ruling power_

T/1e Constabu­ lary.

Should always be held in control.


The present Armed Native Constabulary consist of a force 0£ 160 men­ divided up amongst the different Divisions, the Resident Magistrate of each Division being the local officer in charge, while an officer styled the Commandant, stationed at Port Mo,resby, is in Hominal command of the whole. In

past tim_es it was the custom to-recruit. the Arm~d Constabulary largely from prisoners, but to-day they are chiefly obtamed direct from the various tribes. Those that came under the notice of Your Commissioners were well set up, soldierly men, and in the case of the Northern squad, and one under the im­

mediate command of Mr. ·w. C. Bruce (the Commandant), remarkably well drilled. While doubtless possessing the weaknesses and ·faults common to black troops, and not a).together unknown to white ones, the men generally most favor­ ably impressed Your Commissioners. In the minds of a ±ew whIGe settlers there seems to be a fixeu and somewhat illogical prejudice against the Native Constabu­

lary, and certain statements reflecting on it were brought under the notice of Your Commissioners. The evidence, however, of Dr. Jones, Government Medical Officer at. Samarai, completely clears _the 9olioe of the more serious imputations made agamst them, and Your Commissioners are perfectly satisned that if com­ manded by men they can respect they will always give a good account of them­ selves both as regards conduct and courage. On the other hand the evidence placed before Your Commissioners reveals. the unmistakable da~ger of lettin/J'

these men get out of hand, and we are certam that regrettable incidents ar~ always likely to fake place if they are a11owed to attack hostile ·villages in the absence of a white ?~cer. Cons~quently, in our o-pinion, no man should be ap­ pointed to the posit~on of M~gistrate unless. he 1s ~onst~tutionally fit to stand long and severe physical exertion. _The.experience gamed by Your Commissioners in travelling through tne mountam districts of Papua has proved to· them that fo,~ wl~ite men even of the suggested _ ty~e are c~~able o~- -~eeping up wit~ the p~h~e m the la_st ~hases of some of th~ir.expecht10ns. Tliis being so, Your Com­ m1s. 10ners realize that they can only rnsist on the general principle that native p_ohce must never ?e .allm,ve~ to attack. unless r:ersonally in charge of a respon­ ?1ble offic er, where it is physi?ally possible for him to be present without endao.qer·-

mg the success of the operat10n.



Considering the area and native population of Papua and, in parts, the almost unsurmountable geographical difficulties attendant on the quick trans­ port of men from one part to another, all movements having to be effected either oy sea or on foot, Your \..Jommissioners are of opinion that the present force is

inadequate to meet the requirements of reasonable safety, and that should set-tlement increase this fact will be doubly accentuated. In our opmion a reserve should certainly be kept in unsettled Di visions to meet sudden and unexpected contingencies, for at the present should such a case arise, patrols would have to be withdrawn from places where their presence might be essential, and station

garrisons so weakened as to be easily cut off in detail should any serious rising develop. As a matter of fact, at the present time Papua is held more by the personal influence of a few white officials than by the totally inadequate force at their command. Personally, Your Commissioners do not consider that there is

any likelihood of an organized native rising. The spread of a serious epidemic, attributed, as it probably would be by the local sorcerers, to the machinations o-f white men, coup]ed ·vvith the fact that the destruction of tribal distinctions by the Government is tending towards a fusion in the past impossible, might, however.

bring about such an outbreak. Should such a rising take place the whites would have no fortified stations to retire to, and the massacre at and destruction of Tamata station in 1896 proves conclusively that white men, undisciplined and without a safe rallying centre, may become a panic-stricken and easily slaugh-tered mob. At the present moment, in the Northern Division, there are only about

50, Native Police to hold a local population estimated at about 50,000. In view of this admittedly improbable, but yet possible, contingency, and feeling that the smallest disaster would do infinite damage to white prestige, Your Commissioners recommend that those stations remote from any base· should

The present force inade­ quate.

Papua held ~y the influence of the whites.

be put in a position to effectively resist hostile night attack. ~

Having in view the evidence given with regard to what is called the A "patrol sys­ " Sogeri scare," and which is more fully dealt with in another part of this . ~!;e?com­ Report, Your Commispioners recommend that a properly organized system of patrols, commanded by white non-commissioned officers, sliould be established, as they believe that by this means a far larger area of country can be pacified and

kept under observation than by the present system of waiting until a district had got out of hand and then sending up a patrol to quieten it. There seems to be an impression in the minds of many Government officials, in one instance, at least, we regret to say, backed up by the Adminis­ trator's own views, that settlers should be men without nerves: ·· ana because the officials, armed with all the prestige of their office, can wander about the country safely, that settlers with their lives and property at stake should be prepared to take similar risks without the same moral safeguaro. Your Commissioners need hardly say that with this mistaken view they have no sympathy. What Papua wants are hard-working, industrious men, not "fire-eaters," and it cannot be too

strongly laid down, if onlv for the nurpose of inducing such men to p:o to Papua, that not only sliould settlers' lives be protected, but that they should be made to feel that they are being protected.


Your Commissioners believe that the system of Village Constables intro­ duced by Sir William MacGregor· is the best available under existing conditions, particularly in view of the fact that the local Chiefs, as already pointed ou t, exercise no real authority in their vilhges. Some vvitnesses have criticised th·is force adverselv, but Your Commissioners believe that in the main the system is giving general satisfaction. On the other hand, the charges made that some of them are untrustworthy and guilty of levying blackmail and screening their

friends and re]ations, are, we believe, borne out by facts. We recommend that even more care than at present be exercised jn their appointment; that their orders be of a more explicit character, and that they be brought into touch more fr c~ . quently "'ith the Magistrates of their Division, for at l)resent they are at times (for reasons doubtless good enough in themselves) left without supervision for several months at a time, and so, as a not unnatural result, are apt to become careles.s

and possibly corrupt.

T he sy stem the bes t available.

Recommenda­ t ions .

Their pay.

No while police in Papua.

Recommenda­ tions.

The importance of correct interpretation.-

The opinions of witnesses.

The Chief Judicial Officer.


... ir. Buchanan, in giving evidence in regard to these ~en, said: ". I also

vYi h to refer to the system of village constables. There ar~ villages to which the

Government do not come for twelve months at a time, as m the w~st. The pay he receives from the Government is not sufficient to keep him. He 1s not allowed to engage himself for any white man, and the

urge consideration of this recommendation on the ground that 1£ these men. are to be shouldered with extra duties (and they will be if all our recommendations are carried out) th0y should receive mo're pay than at present as a natural and reasonable return for the added responsibilities ~1laced upon them.


There are at present no white police in the service of the Papuan Govern-­ ment, nor in the main are they required, but Your Commissioners could not fail to notice the strong feeling of resentment with which a majo_rity of the whjte; population regarded possible arrest by one of the Armed N at.~ve Co~stabulary. 'fhis objection on their part has been respected wherever possible; st1~l: on tl~8 gold-fields, there have been occasions when Magistrates have had to utilize their native constables for the guarding of white prisoners, and Your Commissioners have no reason to doubt that in any of these cases the native police behaved ofoer than weJl. Still they do not believe that the practice, where it can be avoided, is a sound one, and there is always this objection that, no matter how little a particu­

lar white man may deserve the respect of the native, it is still necessary in the interests of all white men that the natives should not be put in a position where respect for the ruling race wi,11 be jeopardized. A Magistrate to-day may be placed in the extraordinary position of being

the arresting Constable, the Prosecutor, and the Judge. · Your Commissioners, believing that this state of affairs is in no way conducive either to the dignity of the law or the personal prestige of the Magistrate himself, strongly recom­ mend that, at least on the principal gold-fields, one white policeman be stationed,

he to also act as Chief Gaoler, and on occasions to take command of patrols in the absence of the Resident and Assistant Resident Magistrate, or when they are fully engaged in other or similar work.


The question of native interpreters bound up, as it is, with the whole Ad­ min~stration

. The following evidence b.v: t~e R~ght Reverend A. de Boismenu, Coadjutor Bishop of the Sacred Heart M1ss10n, is a summing up of the present system whicH Your Commissioners believe to be in the main amply borne out by facts:~ !he plague of int~rpreters of a bad charac~er has long since been the object of many

complamts and sad expenence on the part of white people and nati\·es. Yet the choice -of

inteq'.reters h~s not imprm·ed fo1: alJ_ that. Accorcli.r:g to a rather singular policy the d.elilcate functions of rnterpreters are easily mtrustecl to old offenders and returned convicts "·ho thanks to several years' imprisonment for some serious offence, have picked up a Iiaht bao-a~ge 0 / P:dain­ Engli~h words, together with a certain liberty of mar:.ners in dealing wifh wh~: people.



~ype 1 1 s we_ll known here of these h~ughty fellows fresh _from h~rd labour, back in their villages, 11we~tecl w~th the Govern.11:ent Ag~t s c?nfidenc~, accredited as mterpreters in various trials and deal:.tngs "·1t? the ~uthonties! and m th1_s capacity shamefully abusir:g natives and Government Agents, s.owmg br01l and misunderstandmg_ between natives, white residents, and Government ?fficer~. We ha\:e seen s?me s?ch fin"' SJ)~cim~ns for y~ars tyrar:.nize over whole districts, frighten-

11~g witn~sses, ~1sc~nstrumg evidence, 1ms1ead1'ng ".\lagistrates, and bending as thev please the d1spensat1011 of Justice. -

On the same subject, His Honor the Chief Judicial Officer was asked ·­ " Do rou think it 'Youl1c help the c~mrse ot .iustice to ~ave several white­ ters 1 and he replied, The question of mterpreters 1s an extremely diifficult one.


In the case I tried last ,veek, the case of the murder of Weaver, I was entirely misled by a native interpreter. He was the 1

Koetapuan inteq:~reter; he .d~posed

to all sorts of statements having been made oy Koetapuan prisoners to him. I afterwards found I could not rely on him." Q. That being so would you favour a white interpreter at Port Moresby ?-A. But there is not a white man who un­ derstands Koetapuan. Q. But if a white man could be found ?-A. Oh, yes."

In the opinion of Your Commissioners, could white men of reliable charac­ ter and sufficient ability be found to master the numerous native dialects, a system of white interpreters would be an excellent one, but as such men cannot be found now, nor are ever likely to be, Your Commissioners dismiss the suggestion ad

being 011tside the realm of the practical. Bishop de Boismenu, following up his indictment of th~ type of native at present often picked as interpretors, states:-" Men other than the old offenders may be found to fill this office," but Your Commissioners, realizing that one na­

tive could hardly he exp0cted to obtain command of the many native languages any more than a white man, and that jf they are to judge from his own state­ ment, wp.ich is that "most of the natives have not yet realized the true concep­ tion of truthfulness, much less have they come to appreciate its moral value,

and with some due exceptions one must confess at least that their word and evidence must not be received without careful reserve and caution," have come to the conclusion that to rely upon natlVe interpreters of any class would, in the main, be to little improv0 the existing condition of things.

The Chief Judicial Officer's summing up of the position, given in evidence, was as follows:-" A way out of the difficulty would be that the Missionaries should teach English in their schools, and that the Government should compel the children to attend."

Your Commissioners, having carefully gone into the question, are pre­ pared to give an even more definite opinion in favour of the suggested course, and to state that teaching English is i"he only practical solution of this most important problem. 1, • •

There is a Native Board Regulation at present in existence which gives Magistrates the power to compel every child that is over five years of age and is not over thirteen years of age, to attend the school that is nearest to his home, or some other school, at least three days in the week when such school is open,

but it falls short in not insisting that in this school English shall .be taught Your Commissioners ·strongly recommend that in all cases this Ordjnance be strictly carried out, but only when it is as firmly insisted on that English is taught in that particular school, and that no child be compelled to attend a school ·where_ this is not the case. Indeed, they go further and recommend. as a.1ready indicated. in another part of their Report, that the teaching of English be made a compulsory subject in every Mission School throughout the Territory, ·whether presided over by a white, South Sea island, or native teacher.

Feeling, from the character of his evidence, that Bishop de Boismenu is fully alive to the present unsatisfactory state of affairs, and that he is most anxious to help towards its improvement, a desire which we believe is held in common by missionaries of whatever faith in Papua, Your Commissioners appeal to them to centre all their energies on teaching the natives English, being con­

fident that by so doing they will solve this and many ot~er nroblems at present giving cause for grave apprehension to all those who wish alike for the good of both the white and the native population.


The question, alike of the justice and advisability, of taxing, in some form or other, the native population of Papua at present under control, has had the earnest consideration of Your Commissioners. They have been impelled there­ to by reasons widely different in themselves, yet they believe all working towards

on3 common end, and that the ultimate c:ood of the natives themselves. Revenue is urgently required for. the proper developr.1ent of the country, and so from that stand-point alone the crnestion of asking men who have ~ received so much from the Government, to in their turn make some reasonable return, is in it 21£ sufficient to command serious investigation.

White inter­ preters im­ possible.

Native inter· preters unre­ liable.

The solittion.

Teaching natives Eng· lish.

R ei;enue reg_uired.

The natireB i;hould contri­ but P t oU'ardB cost of


Ta.ration will i mprore t he natives .

1r it11es ses favorable to taxation.

'l'Tie mission· aries .

The .Admin· istrator.

TIie form of taxation.


It may be argued that the natives are already, in .an indirect way, paying a certain amom1t of taxation in return for benefits ,received through the trade \Yhich they buy from Europeans, but in the opinion of Your C~mmissioners _ th~s is a totally inadequate quid pro quo for the money spe~t ~-wd bemg spent .on theu behalf, and therefore from the stand-pcJint of payment .m return for se_rvices. re~­ dered, Your Commis ioners consider it would be only fair to ask the natives w1t~rn. the sphere of official influence to subscribe directly towards the upkeep of Go-vernment.

But there is another, and frorn the stand-point of Your Com!llis~ioner~, f~r more important aspect of the question than that of revenue, which. is, ~111 _ it operate towards the improvement of the natives themselves? We believe ~t will, for its tendency must be in the direction of making them work. If Papua 1s only to be considered as a natives' country, in the sense that they _are to be allowed to

work out their own destiny in their own way, then we have already gone too far, for in giving the coastal tribes a guarantee of peace we have removed the ne~es­ sity for their being constantly prepared for war, and as a result ~hey are r:ap1dly fallina into slothful and evil habits, sure twin companions of idleness m any count~y. That in the opinion of almost every witness, this picture is not over­

drawn, is amply proved by the evi_ dence given before Your Commissioners. "\Vith one or two exceptions, every white man examined in Papua has ex­ pressed himself as in favour of taxing the native in one form or another, and while many advocated it as a reasonable means of obtaining more revenue, all

agreed that it was the proper thing to do from the stand-point of native regene­ ration. Among the witnesses will be found officials of every grade, from the Administrator downwards; settlers representing each phase of industrial lifo, and missionaries representing different faiths. In this connexion, it is interest­

ing to note that Messrs. Pearce and Turner, representing in their length of ser­ vice the old and new order of missionary, both supported the suggested tax in the interests of the natives; while the Rev. C. W. Abel, after 16 years' experience·in mission work, in reply to the question, "Do you think it would be practicable

and in the interests of the natives if some form oif taxation were imposed upon those tribes within the sphere of Government influence?" answered "Yes, I have always held the opinion that taxation should be applied to the natives under the influence of the Government> such as those about Port Moresby and Samarai. You would have to begin very cautiously, and extend it :ts the influence of the Go­ vernmen~ extended. It would be almost impossible to apply the same rule to n:

place like Tufi, where the Government has not been settled so long as it has here." Further on he stated, "The prime idea of taxing the natives would be, not to in­ crease the revenue, but to induce the natives to be industrious, but as time went on it would, of course, increase the r evenue."

l\Ir. Herbert.- Q. That would hardly be taxation, would it ?- A. :Ko, but it wrmld tend to make the natives ir.dustrious. .

Q. Is your scheme to form Go-..-ernm:> nt planta tions, the natives to \York in them "·ithout payment ?- A. Yes. Q. Then your form of .t axation would be a p ~riod . of compulsory labour to the Govern-ment each year ?-A. Exactly. · ·

Q. Pref erabl y on plantations and agricultural work ?- A .. Yes, something they could copy themselves for their own benefit and the benefit of the country ger:erally. ·

The fact that the natives can copy for themselves has been amply proved by Mr. Abel himself in connexion with the sawmill which he has in- full work on the island of Kwato .. Here Your Oommissioners saw natives carrying on all the skilled work necessary m the sawing nf timber and construction of furniture in

a way which reflected the highest credit, not only on their intelligence, but also on the patience and perseverance of their teacher, and there is no doubt that, being naturally agriculturists, they would take even more kindly to instruction in this direction.

His Excellency the Administrator, in a statement made to the Commission, details of which will be found in an Appendix to this Report, stated :-" I am strongly in favour of the introduction of the system of taxation which is in the nature of forced labour."

Many other witnesses expressed r on siderab]e diversity of opinion as to ·the form the tax should take, some being in favour of money, others of kind, and others again of forced labour, but all were in agreement as to the necessity of only


taxing those natives ,vho are under direct Government control, and that no singie system would be applicable even to them, while that under all circumstances, tne greatest care and tact would have to be used in introducing the tax at all. While, however, all the witnesses examined upon this point, with one exception, were in

accord as to the fairness of, and necessity for, the immediate imposition of taxa­ tion in one form or another, and even givmg full weight to this overwhelming force of local opinion, Your Commiss10ners, unless fully assured from their own observation that the proposal was worthy of approval, both on the grounds of

justice to the Government and fairness to the native, would not give it their sup­ port. Feeling, however, that it is alike equitable and more than expedient, they strongly recommend that it be brought into force with as little d,3lay as possible. The taxing of native peoples has ample precedent in other British posses- Taxation in

sions. For obvious reasons _1_nctrn, is not quoted as a case in poiut, but ~outh other countrie3• Africa and Fiji may well serve as illustrations of the enforcement of the prin-ciple that even primitive races must expect to directly contribute towards the ur~-keep of a Government, which in return guarantees them the peaceable possession

ot' their lands and defence against predatory tribes of their own race. In South Africa, the principle is enforced by means oi a hut tax, but this has been proved, . in many cases, to work out inequitably, with the natural result of discontent and consequent risings. Having in view these facts, Your Commissioners do not re-

commend its aaoption in Papua. In :Fiji, on the other hand, a tax which

amounted in 1904 to £14,723 3s. 10d. was collected in kind, the produce so col-lected being sold by public tender, but as Your Commissioners see great difficul-ties ahead in collecting taxation in this form, owing both to local conditions and the present unmarketable character of much that the native produces, they cannot

recommend this system as a solution ·of the problem. The difficulty of suggesting any practical scheme is greatly increased by The chiefs. the peculiar social condit10ns which obtain among the natives of Papua. ln South Africa and Fiji1~ t ribes are ruled over by chiefs wielding real authority and power, and consequently it is easy for the authorities to hold them respon-

sible for the payment of taxation by the particular tribes or tribe over which they exercise control. In Papua, however, where the communal system is almost universal, the so-called chiefs possess practica1ly no authority, save possibly over their own immediate relations. An exception may possibly be made in regard to the Trobriand islands, where, at any rate to a limited extent, the chiefs exercise

authonuy over their people; but for all p r actical purposes it may be stated that the Papuan chiefs will be no help in the collection of a tax, and it would, there-fore, be idle to saddle men with responsibilities which they could in no sense carry out.

The existing chiefs being useless through their want of authority, the Go­ varnment might get over t he difficulty by creating new ones, and vesting them with sufficient power to collect the tax from their tribes, but so many possibilities for extortion at tne hands of the so-created chiefs lurk in this suggestion, that Your Commissioners cannot entertain it.

It appears to them that the best and tairest way will be to insist that The syst em each man is made responsible to the Resident Magistrate direct, or to an officer recommended. appointed for that special purpose, and that l;iis failure . to meet his obligations be punished by forced labour on Government works in districts other than his own.

The several methods suggested to Your Commissioners were­

(1) Cash payment; (2) Payment in kind; and (3) Payment by forced labour.

Now, we think it will be universally admitted that any law enforcing taxation should be as uniform as possible, but jn Papua tlie circumstances are such that all natives are not alike able to pay in any one of these methods. For instance-

(1) Cash.- Natives in settled European Districts in some instances can, whilst those in outside districts cannot, pay cash.

Methods of payment.

Rec01nmen­ dation.

The .Adminis­ trator's pro­ posals.

Duicretion recommended.


(2) Kind.- ~ ati v s in fertile districts possessing an even rainfall are ,Yell able to pay in kind. Tho e in parts less dowere?- by ~ ature either could not do so, or ·would be unJustly penalized if com­ pelled to pay as much in produce as the former. (3) Labour.- ... atives in European centres in employment cannot well

pay a labour tax, though all natives in or out of European

centres who are out of employment can do so. It will tnus be seen that in all of these methods there is, therefore, more or less inequity if any one of them were to be rigorously imposed. It therefore appears to Your Commissioners that the best and fairest way will be to m~ke

choice either of one, or of an alternative scheme possessing the least possible inequity and departure from uniformity, and after the most earnest considera­ tion they recommend an alternative scheme, having enforced labour for its pri­ mary object as a tax, but allowing cash payments in lieu thereof in all dis­

tricts, on the ground that while all natives cannot find cash or kind even

with inconvenience to themselves, they can all supply their labour without or with very little inconvenience. We, therefore, recommend that labour be made the primary method of taxation, but that the alternative be allowed of redeeming that labour (when it is so desired by the natives) by cash payment. _,We do not

consider that an alternative should be accepted in kind, because of the difficulty of realization upon the commodities likely to be tendered, and which, in many instances, would not be marketable either in Papua or beyond its boundaries. It may be argued that under our suggested scheme great difficulty would

be found by the Government in utilizing the labour thus placed at their com­ mand, but Your Commissioners feel assured that if the vigorous Roads and Works policy, the creation of Government plantations, and the Government Recruiting scheme (with its necessary receiving and distributing depots), be put

into active operation, this at present reasonable objection will lose most, if not all, its force, nor must it ever be forgotten in this connexion that it is only

proposed to apply taxation to those districts under direct Government control, and that its further enforcement must be a slow and gradual process, only to be undertaken when Government has justified its imposition by conferring peace and security of life and property on the tribes asked to pay it, so that the labour

rendered available by the tax will now and always be restricted to the districts under control. It will be noticed that Your Commissioners have not seen fit to recommend the proposal put forward by His _Excellency ~he A_dm_inistrator in its entirety,

although they are in agreement with. the basic _Prmci ple therein enunciated, namely, forced labour, and in a restricted sense (i.e., the creation of Government plantations) :with the resG of ~is scheme. Your Commissione~~s .at once ~dmit that any proposit10n on such a subJect :rut ~orward ?Y Ghe Actmmistrator 1s entitled to be treated with every respect, m view _of his. undou~t~d knowledge of, and

sympathy with, the natives ~f rapua. Still, whi~e reahzmg and fully appre­ ciating all this, Your Commiss10ners do no~ consider (~part from other objec­ tions) that the proposed meth?d would be m th~ be~t mterests of white settle­ ment, for, from their stand-pomt, the first es~entia] 111 that ctirecuon is to open up Papua by means of ro3:ds and ~racks, an~ m their opi?ion,. the natives will be more profitably employed ~n carrymg out this_ work than m. bemg used· exclusively

in the way suggested by His Excellency. !twill ?e seen that Your Commissioners are in agreement with ~ome of the obJect10ns His Excell~ncy has raised against other methods of taxat10n. On the other hand, they do not attach sufficient weight to other~ to induce them to al~~r their opmion as to the feasibility and financial advantage of the scheme which they have suggested

Realizing that th_is new d~parture, to be successful, must be carried out with as little harclslup as possible to those most concerned, Your Commis­ sioners strongly recommend that povrnr should be given to the Administrator to remit the whole or any par_t of. the forced lab.our conditions in any district should he consider such a course Justified by local circumstances.

It appears to Your Commission~rs that all f~1rthe~ details can better be left to be worked out by the loca~ Legislature, and m this connexion they wish to point out that they do not consider the proposed scheme in any way infallible,


nor do they wish it to be understood that they are desirous of placing their three months' experience against that of men who have spent a lifetime amid local conditions. For t his reason Your Commissioners merely put forward their proposi­ tion as the best which has suggested itself to their minds, leaving 1t to the local Legislature to adopt it as a whole or in part, or to substitute for it a better one in its entirety. All they wish to lay down definitely as being m their opinion practicable, necessary, and just, is that the time has arrived for the natives under control to be taxed in some form or another.


The existing war of tariffs between the Commonwealth and Papua is Tari ff s of such a glaring inversion of one of the Constitution's basic principles that Your t~~~::ia and Commissioners would feel no hesitation in recommending its immediate cessa-tion were it not for the fact that the carrying out of a theoretical right might

in this instance have the effect of inflicting a practical wrong. The problem, they recogn_ ise, has, to be solved, not on rtbstract principles, but along tbe lines of what may be most expedient alike in 'the interests of Australia and of Papua. The Commonwealth having taken over the country, and created it into a Australia's - re.~ponsibility. Territory, we presume that this is the first constitutional step towards admitting

it as a State. Meanwhile, Australia has made itself responsible for Papua's in­ ternal integrity and outside defence i and, further, now appoints its Lieutenant­ Governor and all the officials necessary for its proper government, and towards the upkeep of the Administration it has every year since it accepted these re­

sponsibilities paid £20,000 out of the general revenue. . Should our recommenda~ions be given effect ~o,_ it will be nec~ssary, in t~e ~i~t~a1af;t by mterests of development, and m order to later receive a correspondmg return, to Ai,strazia. spend further large suuis of Australian money. Yet, in face of this fact, the

Commonwealth is retarding, if not kilfing, the development of Papua bv placing its· products on the same footing (from a Customs stand-point) as those of the outside world. It may be argued that, owing to the supply of cheap labour, the Papuan s,ettler will be in a position to face this handicap. The evidence of men on the spot does not, however, in the main support this contention, nor must it be for­ gotten that the cost of pioneering, and the risks inseparable from opening up tropical country, both from a health stand-poi~1t and the presence of a large and in many cases as yet uncivilized native populatjon, haye to be put against this

argument of chea1-J labour. Further, it has, to be remembered that other nations are doing all in their power to push settlement in the islands under their control, and that they, so far from discouraging their colonists by hostile tariffs_, are in many cases paying them heavy bonuses.. Consequently, we cannot hope to tempt men from purely patriotic motives to ruin themselves, or at best make a bare living, while it is possible under another flag to meet with more favorable treat­ ment.

Three of the industries to which, in our opinion, every encouragement should be given, on the ground that they can be successfully carried on jn Papua, viz., coffee, tobacco, and sugar, are all weighted with an import duty, while a num­ ber of other articles peculiarly adapted -to its soil and climate are · placed atl a similar disadvantage; while other products, such as sandal wood (which is practi-cally worked out), mangrove bark, and Natural History specimens, which are not likely in themselves to awaken enthusiasm in the minds of intending settlers, have generously been put on the free list.

Mr. D. Ballantine, the Treasurer 0£ Papua, was asked this question: "Do you consider that there are in this country areas of land sufficiently -large and fertile to profitably grow coffee, rubber, and sugar?" He replied : "Yes, and nearly every other tropical plant.'' Re was then asked : "Would not the success of these ventures largely depend on the making of roads?" his answer being : "Yes; and the removal of the hostile tariff in Australia.." This question was then put : " If it were impossible to get the duties completely removed, would it.

stimulate the local industries if a preference was made in their favour?" H e

Industries which should be encourag ed.

The opinions of witnesses.

TT1e Admiit· ist1·ator.


replied, "Ye "; and in an wer to the question, "If cond~tions remain as they are, vrnuld the re ult be that the encouragement was so slight that it 1woul~ be difficult to get men to go into these industries here 1" said, ·'Yes; no p antat10ns have paid o far." Mr. J. Clunn, junior, examined at Samarai, who gave his occ11;pation ~~ that of a "planter and property-owner," stated in giving evidence on the Tanfl

question:-" Although we are part and parcel of Australia, we are treated as a 1oreign country. I nave experimented m maize for the last three y~ars, and there is no time when we cannot grow it. '1he maize crop · comes m m New South Wales in March .and April, and Queensland a month later. From _Novembe! to

the enJ of March there 1s a scarcity of .corn in Australia, and the price goes high. I would like the present Tariff to remam as it is, but for ~hem to give ~s a show during the time corn is scarce in Australia-that is, to give us a certam prefer­ ence over other outside places. In this way we would not be pitting our black

labour against the white labour of Australia." Mr. Greene, a coffee-phwter, favoured a bonus as the preferable means of encouraging this industry. Mr. Robert Hunter, trader and sandal-wood getter, said, on _ the other

hand, "We want to send our products to Australia without any Tariff being against us"; while Mr. W. S. Brown, manager for Burns, Philp, and Company, at Port Moresby, and who stated that during a ten years' residence in the Tern-­ tory he had been employed in commercial pursuits, gave the following evidence:-

Q. What is your opinion as a commercial man on the questibn of the existing Tariff,

which is against ~ ew Guinea products going into Australia. Do you believe that the existence of that barrier works seriously against the development of Kew Guir:.ea ?-A. I believe it does in. the coffee industry. lt will be harmless in the case of rubber, as that goes into Sydney free. The market in Sydney is better than that in London at the present time. The Tariff would work

against maize and sugar. Q. Speaking ger.erally, I take it that you wish to convey to the Commi 1 ssion that in the

case of any product which may have to pay duty, that the existence of the present Tariff is detri­ mental to the growing of that product here, even although it would be grown with much cheaper labour than in Australia?-A. Yes. Q. Do you consider that -i_.f the duties were removed, or a preference given, it would

yery largely help to develop them here ?-A. I firmly believe it would. /

Q. If the duties are not removed, and no preference given, are tJbe chances. against

people iir:.vesting money jn plantations in Papua ?-A. To a certain extent they are. We have other markets, but the cost of getting the products there would be greater. People would

t:ike up land here if a preference were shown in Australia to our products.

Your Commissioners further find, in the last Annual Report on British New Guinea, the following statement by His Excellency the Administrator:-" A general survey of the statistical tables would appear to denote that, given liberal land laws and other favorable conditions, the

development and prosperity of the country wilI surely follow. It is, however, essential to agricultural development in the Territory that there should be a preferential Tariff in Australia for our products. When a plantation of rubber or cocoa-nut is started,

the planter has to depend on catch crops for some years, until, in fact, his trees yi~ld any return. Such catch crops would consist, probably, of maize, bananas, sweet potatoes, cotton, coffee, &c., and our natural market for these products is in the Common-wealth." . Your Comm~ssioners fo:3nd tha~ all witnesses examined, and other persons with whom they discussed this question, were practically unanimous as to the

necessity ~ither tor the remo-yal of the pre:3ent tariff or for bonuses or preferences of some kmd bemg granted if. settlement 1~. to be made successful in Papua, and here they cannot help remarkmg on the smgularly reasonable attitude taken up by all these men with regard to this ext,remely difficult problem.

Rea~izin~ that to tre~t in det~il the many aspects 'of this question would have occupied (m the collect10n_of ~v1dence on which to base a definite finding) far more time than they had at then disposal, Your Commissioners have decided to recommend a compromise, which, in their opinion, is most likely to give the best

results with the least dislocation to the existing sources of Papua's revenue.



Your Commissioners' reasons for not recommending the immediate intrd­ duction of free-trade between the Commonwealth and Papua are, shortly-That it would have the effect of seriously depleting the local revenue2 and that fo'r pro­ bably ten years Papua would be unabie to make this up from other sources.

The total revenue for 1905-6 amounted to £20,2a6 3s. Imports, valued at £79,761, passed through the Customs, on which the duties collected amounted to £15,990. Of these, foodstuffs represented £26,176; drapery and clothing, £8,577; tobacco, &c., £7,615; wines, spirits, and beer, £2,853; hardware and ironmongery, £8,426; building material, £5,168; other articles, £20,946. From

this, it will be seen that foodstuffs account for by far the largest individual amount, and Your Commissioners would point out. that in the event of internal free-trade, most, if not all, of this source of revenue would be lost, while it 1s almost certain that the same would take place with regard to many of the other items at present paying duty, for, upon the removal of the duties, Australian

products would naturally be used wherever possible in preference to those on which duties had to be oaid. The following quotation from the latest Report submitted by the Resident of the Northern Territory of South Australia is a good case in point. Speaking of "Customs Returns," he says:-

" The gross revenue actually collected was £20,6i7 Os. 5d., as against £26,290 Os. 8d. for 1904, or a decrease for the past year of

£5,734 4s. 4d. The Sub-Collecto_· indicates that while some of the shrinkage is due to decreasing p" pulation and depression, it is also due to the increased quantity of products of the States brought into the Territory. In no year since F ederation l1as the Customs revenue been as high as

in any one year for the fifteen years immediately preceding Fede­ ration, making an allowance for a corresponding decrease of revenue,, for a decreased population-stiil the shortage in revenue is not accounted for. One cause is the gradually increasing introduction of the produce of the States, uoon which no debits or Inter-State transfer certificates can be claimed against therri by the Northern Territory. This produce of th~ States is increas­ ing at the expense-and naturally so-of the imports from other


The same results must obtain in an even more marked degree in Papua if Australian products be admitted free, and, while Your Commissioners gladly admit that this is a most healthy and desirable state of affairs if conditions be only equal, they do not admit that such is at present the case with regard to the latter country. ·

At present, for reasons already fully gone into in this Report, settlement in Papua is almost a negligible quantity, s0 that she has no indirect means of making up the revenue which she would undoubtedly lose. Nor can she hope to do this for at least ten years, as this time must in fairness be given before the hoped-for development will become a paying asset, and this time must also elapse before one payment will he received in rent for the lands which Your Commis­ sioners hope to see taken up.

Consequently, the net results of free-trade at the present moment would be (if we except the cases of a very few planters) wholly in favour of Australia, while, on the other hand, owing to a shrinkage of existing import duties, the Commonwealth would have to make up for the so-created deficit in local revenue.

Jlr ee-lrade with the Com. monwealth not advisable.

The revenue.

The experience of the Nor­ thern Terri­ tory of South Australia.

A system of bonuses has been advocated, but this method of stimulating local industries seems to Your Commissioners to present so many difficulties in connexion with a fair and satisfactory apportionment, that they do not feel justi­ fied in recommending its adoption, at any rate so far as ~ general application of the principle is concerned.

The bonus system not recommended.

For the reasons already given, and while admitting that (to be of any practical use) it must be somewhat one-sided as regards the Commonwealth, Your Commissioners recommend the introduction of a nre£ rence Tariff in favour of Papuan products as against those of the outside_ world, not as a permanent

F.14262. d

.& preferential Tariff recom­ mended.


::;elution of the difficulty, but as a present means 0£ encouraging and fostedng settlement until such time as agricultural uccess and the payment of the rents of Crown lands open up new sources of revenue, and so make it financially sound, to substitute for it freedom of trade between Australia a,nd Papua. The result on Your Commissioners are aware that the weak spot in this recommenda-;;;J;~"'" tion is that the preference must of necessity be one-sided, and that, while Papuan

products will benefit thereby, the same will not apply to Australian goods im­ ported into the Territory, but after all, our proposal will place Australia in no worse a position as regards exports than at present, and surely she should be

willing to treat the imports from her mvn Territory with more liberality than those from abroad, especially when it is remembered that at worst she will not have fo pay Papua higlier duties than she is now called upon to pay by foreign

Fural,s nece.~sary for development.

The Common­ wealth's responsibility.

Australia's contribution.

Not sufficient.

nations. Should Australia demand a preference in return for giving one, the result will still be that she will have to make up to Papua the revenue thus lost, which will practically amount on her part to paying a bonus to her own exporters; while, on the other hand, if, with no correspondip.g advantage, she gives Papua a

preference, it will, for the reasons already stated, be only for a few years, and even during that time will inflict little harm on her local growers.


In the opinion of Your Commissioners, it is absolutely necessary for the successful development of Papua, and the eventual removal of it from the cate­ gory of a burden on the resources of the Commonwealth to that of a self-sup­ porting and prosperous Territory, that a considerable sum of money be made available as required towards the furtherance of this end. ·

I't may be argued that, in view of Papua's large native population, it is not fair to further tax the white ratepayers of Australi~, even to bring about such a condition of affairs, but apart from the purely financial aspect of the ques­ tion already touched on when dealing with the Tariff, Your Commissioners would

point out that other considerations have to be faced separated altogether from mere monetary loss or gain. The Commonwealth, having undertaken the respon­ sibility of governing Papua, admittedly under possibly premature pre3sure from the Imperial Government, it is nevertheles~1 its bounden duty to rule its first and

only Territory in such a way as to prove that it is not unworthy of the trust so accepted. In a sense the Commonwealth is on its trial as a governing po,ver, and on the verdict which must soon be pronounced in this connexion will depend issues of the gravest import as regards her own future; for should she give prac­

tical assurance to the Imperial Government that she is capable of ruling Papua wisely and well, it is not unreasonable to suppose that other island possessions at present held by Great Britain may be handed over to her charge. Your Commissioners, feeling that the true destiny of the Common wealth

is to be the paramount power in the Southern Seas, feel that this is not only a consummation to be earnestly sought after, but also that should it become_?, reality it must inevitably increase the respect jn which Australia will be held by out­ side nations, and will also cause her voice to be listened to with deeper attention

in the councils of the Empire. The present method of l?roviding funds to supplement, when necessary, the local revenue is based on the second clause of a resolution of the Commonwealth Parliament, dated 1901, which reads as follows :-

" That towards the expenses 11f the Administration of the Possession this House is willing when called upon to vote a sum not exceed­ ing £20,000 per annum as from the l st July, 1901, subject to revi-sion at the end of five years." It will be seen that, the five years having elapsed, this amount now de­ pends on annual appropriations. No arrangement has been made as to repay­ ment, and the amount of any future votes will have to be settled each year by Parliament, when dealing with the Estimates. ·

In the opinion Cf/ Your Commissioners, the snm at pre ent authorized to b paid by th Commoirwealth Treasurer in any one year, viz., £20,000, will not


he sufficient, even 1n con,iunctloh with local revenue, to meet ali the extra in1tia1 cost of administration and development if their recommendations be carried into effect; nor is the present method sufficiently guarded against Parliamentary caprice to lift any systematic attempt at development beyond the realm of possible wreck­

age. The fact that there is no provision for eventual repayment by the Adminis­ tration of Papua to the Commonwealth Treasury for sums advanced by it, is also, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, ooth financially unsound and calculated to encourage non-reproductive expenditure and want of a proper sense of responsi­

bility on the part of the Papua Administration. In vie\Y of the impossibility of even approximately forecasting the amount of revenue which may be obtained from agriculture, mining, timber, and other as yet undeveloped industries, until such time as the report of experts have been

obtained as to existing realities and future possibilities, Your Commissioners feel it would be idle to suggest the apportionment of any fixed sum, ,vith its natural corollary of the period over which it should be spread, and the amount of it which should be spent in each or any year.

Your Commissioners, therefore, content themselves with recommending that statutory provision be made under which the Commonwealth will advance without interest to the Territory funds sufficient to cover the expenditure insep­ arable from the initial stages of its development, such advances to remain a credit to the Commonwealth and a debit against the revenue of the Territory, until such

time as the latter may be in a position to extinguish the liability. It is further recommended that such advances be distributed as required over a number of years, and that full details of the expenditure in each year he returned to the Commonwealth so that its Treasurer may be in a position to review

all important proposals, and so exercise a proper supervision over the money found by his Department. An important factor, which has had considerable weight with Your Com­ missioners in making the foregoing recommendations, is the necessity for provid­

ing deserving settlers with the means of bringing their land under cultivation, an~ thereby encouraging the development of the public estate by private enter­ prise. For the satisfactory carrying out of this scheme, Your Commissioners

recommend the creation of a Board consisting of officers at present in the local Service, having power to advance to bona .fide settlers a reasonable amount of money at a fair rate of interest to enable them to carry out improvenients for other than mining purpo~es, 3uch advances, and the interest thereon, to be repay­ able by half-yearly instalments~ extending over a period of 73 half-years, as in New Zealand, where a similar scheme is working well, vide New Zealand Official

Year-Book, 1906, pp. 564, 573. The amount advanced to any settler to be not less than £25, or more than £500, and to be secured on first mortgage of land and improvements. No advance to _be grant~d. unless the lease has bee_n in existence for at least- twelve months, and, rn the oprn10n of the Board, a satisfactory pro­ portion of the improvement conditions imposed by t~e Land Ordinance have been complied with.

Your Commissioners, further realizing that the possibilities of the future of Papua in regard to mining are good, provid~d the report of the pr0posed l\!ining Expert be favorable, _recommend, m the mtere,,sts of the early and effec­ tive de,1clopment of the Territory, that grants to bona ,fide prospectors be made in cases where actual prospecting work has been carried out in suitable country, but where the prospectors find themselves unable to proceed from want of money.

In instances such as these, Your Co1:Ilmissioners recommend that arrangements be made whereby the men may obtarn an advance from the . Crown, with the clear understanding that the money so provided be expended under the advice and supervision of the mining officia]s.

Your Commissioners, after careful consideration, are of opinion that the time has arrived for discontinuing the practice of authorizing private firms to jssue note : and they recommend, in liou thereof, and pending the establishment in the Territory of branches of some of the Australian banking institutions, that a system be at once introduced under which each Post Office will receive moneys on deposit, and is ue money orde_rs and postal notes as. on the mainland;


An unsound system.

Recommenda­ tion.

Advances to settlers.

Assistance to prospectors.

The 11 ryf e iss1,e.


and, furth r that the erritory be empow red to issue not~s up to an amou~t

ufficient to meet requirements, and that such reserve of bullion as ~ay be reqm-1te to corer the i ue be maint ained locall y, or be ma de r eadily available.


The system in Your Commissio~ers are in no sense satisfied with the system, or perhaps

"'"'· , it v.ould be more correct to m y want of system, followed in the purchase of

Government stores. With the object of discovering the method employed, Your Commissioners sent ·the following list of questions to the Government Secre-

'/.'he Govern­ ment ag ents.

Unsuitable gouda.

tary:- 1. A s a general practice, are Government supplies and stores pur-chased in the ordinary course, or .are tenders first called ? 2. Are tenilers called for in respect of any, and, if so, what, stores? 3. How, and in what places, are such calls for tenders published? 4. How much was expended upon stores in the last financial year? .

5. What proportio1,1 of that sum represents purchases under contract pursuant to tenders ? 6. What proportion of that sum (question 4) was paid to Burns, Philp, and Co. Ltd., as vendors? To which the Treasurer replied as follows :-

1. As a general rule, stores are purchased in the ordinary course. 2. In the last financial year tenders were called for a quantity of tim­ ber, 500 tons coal for the Merrie England, and for the supply of rice to the Government for the year.

3. The two former tenders, atppeared in the Commonwealth Gazette_ ; the notices of the one for rice were posted up in Samarai and Port Moresby. 4. Amount expended was £11,934.

5. Value of purchases under contract, £2,188. 6. Amount paid to all branches of Burns, Philp, and Co., £3,390. 7. Value of coal is not included in the above three amounts; it was all supplied by Burns, Philp, and Co., and amounted to £704.

Your Commissioners further asked, through the Government Secretary, the rate of commissi?n paid to Messrs. Burns, Philp, a,nd Co. for purchasing stores, or for other services rendered to the Government, and the amount paid to that firm for commission since they were appointed agents for tbe Government of

Papua in Sydney, to which the Treasury replied-1. The rate of commission for purchasing stores is 5 per cent. on in­ voic~s v:7"hen the a1?ount does not exceed £25, and 2-k per cent. on mvo1ces exceedmg £25, . but on goods supplied by Burns,

Philp, and Co. themselves, no commiss.ion is charged. 2. The amount of commission to Burns, Philp, and Co., from 8th Oc­ tober, 1904, the date they were appointed agents for the Govern­ ment, to 31st October, 1906, is £217 Os. lld. It will be seen on the figures supplied that while £11,934 was expended in the last financial year, only £2,18.8 iepresent pur?hases under contract, and

£3,390 amount paid to ;Burns, Philp,_ and Co., ~eavmg a sum of £5,578, which, we presume, represents goods purchased m the ordmary w_ay f~om other sources, :ind apparently not through the Gove~nment agents, if one 1s to Judge from the amount of commission put down ~s havmg. bee~ charged by them for t~e whole period

since they have been appomted. This. p~ece-meal way of I?urchasmg Government stores doP-s not appeal to Your .comm1s~ 10ners as bemg either financially sound or likely to result in th? pr~c1;1rmg of the best . value ~or the money expended, and their observations and mgmnes gave them ample evidence that their contentions

are correct in both particulars. "Some of the canvas supplied for tents was not of that quality which is absolutely necessary in a tropical climate, while time


and again we discovered that work was interfered with o-,ving to the exact class of tools requi itioned for by vari9us officers not being supplied, others being sent apparent! because they were the nearest in type and quality in stock._ The following quotations from official minutes dealing with Road Inspector Seymour's report for ... pril, May, and, complaining of the inferior qualit_y of certain stores, &c., supplied from the Government Stores, bear eloquent testi­ mony to the unsatisfactory state of affairs obtaining in this Department. The

Government Secretary states:-" Complaints appear to be tecoming more and more frequent as to the articles supplied through the Government Stores." Following up this, the Superintendent for Works writes :-

" I have endeavoured to point out the necessity of obtaining good tools for Public Works, but very little notice has ever been taken of my suggestions. I consider the Government Storekeeper should have a practical storeman who understands that line of business, who knows steel from iron and good tools from inferior. I con­ sider Mr. Seymour's remarks regarding t~e tools to be correct."

The remarks about the tools are as follows:-" The axes are 5 lbs. too heavy for the natives, the adzes are made of iron and bend up first blow, two crowbars weigh fully 50 lbs. each." (This, by the way, so far as it refers to the weight of crowbars, Your Commissioners are not prepared to accept as strictly accurate.)

While the Government Storekeeper states that there "has never been a crowbar in stock of greater weight than 26 lbs." Mr. Sey­ mour adds-" They might suit Sandow; the picks have no steel in them, and the duck for the flies is absolutely useless to keep out


In forwarding this report, Mr. Monckton, Resident Magistrate of the Northern Division, makes the following comments:-" I concur with Mr. Seymour's remarks concerning the tools supplied by the Government Stores. . . . . . I have no time to

waste writing to the Government Storekeeper that crowbars weighing 50 lbs. are useless, or that to supply picks without steel and adzes of a similar nature is a thorough waste of money." His Exceriency the Administrator begins a minute on the same subject in these words :-

" Mr. Seymour saw me at Buna with reference to the poor class of tools supplied to him,. and I referred the matter to the Treasurer at Samarai." And in another part of the file, apparently in the handwriting of the Ad­ ministrator, the following remarks occur :-

" 1. Seymour's requisition not complied with. 2. Quality exceedingly bad, -- adzes. 3. Axes, 2 lbs. too heavy, should be 5 lbs. 4. Crowbars useless."

The matter is the~ dealt wit~ b:f the Treasurer,. Government Storekeeper, and other officers, but Your Comm1ss10ners are of opmion that the Government Secretary is well within the mark when, in a minute to the Administrator on the subject, he concludes by saying "there is not a single word in the remarks of the

Superintendent of Public ,Works with ·wh:ich I do not absolutely agree and am not prepared to support.' Your Commissioners consider that th foregoing amply proves the neces­ sity for a complete change in present methods, which are apparently of such an irregular character that it "\Yould be in no sense fair, or indeed poss


ible, to hold

the present Government agents responsible for th_ e class of goods complained of,

Not recom­ mended at present.

Opinions of witnesses.

Class repre­ sentation.


a they evidently only purchase a portion of the _goods supplied, but under any ircum tan es we do not consider that work of this character should be done by any commercial firm. It is therefore recommended that in future a~ arrangement be~ ntered into with the Government of Queensland whereby their Government

tores Department will purchase all supplies for the ~overnment of Papua, and to avoid all possibility of the wrong class of _ goods bemg sent, that ,sealed pat­ terns be kept both at Port Moresby and Brisbane, and that the Stores Depart­ ment be instruciea to supply in accordance with those patterns only. .

Your Commissioners further recommend that once or twice a year the JI errie England convey the goods so supplied from Bri~bane to P~pua, only excepting such articles as may be required at short notice and which can lbe ent in the ordinary way by privately-owned vessels. ·

Under the system which is recommended, no commiseion would have "to be paid; nor are we prepared to admit that the figures placed befor~ us as com­ mission charges, while doubtless correct in themselves, represent a tithe of what can be saved by systematic and skilful buying by a big Department able to take advantage of the keen competition which at present obtains among commercial houses.


The question of Electoral Representation received the fullest considera­ tion at the hands of Your Commissioners, and, while they readily admit that the present nominee system must inevitably make way for the more direct "govern­ ment of the people by the people," when the number and steadiness of Papua's popuk~ion warrant popular election, they are not prepared, under exi~ting con­ ditions, to recommend a change from the present method. It is quite true that of the ten witnesses examined on the question, six expressed themselves directl:; in favour of an elective Legislative Council, while of the others, one declared himself as against it on the grounds of present impracticability, another favored it, but considered "it was hardly possible at present"; a third stated that speaking personally, "for the time the nominee system will do," but that both he and all the diggers he repres<:mted were in favour of elected representation; while the last witness examined, the Chief Judicial Officer, in reply to the question, "Do you think tho time has arrived for elective representation to the Legislative Council?" replied, " Yes, I think so. At the same time I do not feel keenly about it. I think the present system of non-official members will work

well." Apart from questions put to witnesses on oath, Your Commissioners dis­ cussed .t~is matter with various persons met during their travels in Papua, and the opm10ns they expressed have confirmed them in their view that, whi]e all

recognise. that electoral !eprese~tatio~ :¥ill come just so soon as the time is ripe, they are m no sense anx10us to imperil its usefulness by premature insistence of a 1~rinciple which would inevitably, at the present time, tend towards class Icgisla­ t10n.

It is also worthy of remark that, of the seventy-one witnesses who came before You~ Commissioners, only .ten were sufficiently interested in the matter to refer to 1t at all, and of these, m nearly every case, only when asked a direct question. In this connexion it is, however, only fair to state that Mr. O'Toole when giving evidence in :favour of electoral reoresentation stated-" That is. the id~a of the p~ople . ( ten fa number) which I represent "-while

Mr.- Patchmg declared m ev1de_nce that three-quarters of the white popu­ lat10n had exp~essed the:nselves m favour o! electoral representation, giving as t~e proof of l11s COJ_ltent10n. ~he fact that si:gnatures representing this propor­ t10n had been placed to petit10n on the P~l~Ject. Your Commissioners, how­ ever, arc not prepared to ace pt the. e l?etlt1011s as conclusive evidence, nor have t~1ey been ahle to _vvork out from their signatures the same overwhelmina propor-tion as Mr. Patchmg. 0

In the opinion of r our ~omrni;:; -. ion rs, it is on1v fair that each class should be r presentrd, and. at tlus stag of Papua's development, this can only be broug:ht about by a nommee ystem, for tbe. sim~)Je, but very pertinent, reasoi1 that agncultural settlers and traders won1d be mevitab1y out-voted by the miners


if MT. Horan's suggestion that the whole island s.hould vote as one constituency, were adopted, or even if the elections were confined to divisions, for in the latter case a rush into any division would at once swamp the chances of a candidate other than that of the diggers. As it is, of the three men nominated to the Legislative Council, two are miners pure and simple, proving that the Administration ha~ clearly recognised the fairness of giving full recognition to the numbers engaged in and importance of this industry. Another point worthy of notice is the fact

that all the advocates of electoral representation who touched on the personnel of the present Council stated that, in their opinion, had an election taken place, Mes~-rs. Weekley and Whitten would have been elected, while even those who strongly protested against the method of Mr. Little's election, all admitted that

they had nothing to say against that gentleman personally. An attempt, and, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, a very proper attempt, was made by the Administration to get an expression of opinion from miners and others as to the men who would be agreeable to them as representa­ tives, but in the case of Mr. Little, Your Commissioners, judging by the evi­

dence given, have no doubt that this intention failed, with the result that a regrettable feeling of soreness has been left in the minds of some of the miners. A reference to the evidence given by Mr. Monckton on this subject, paragraphs 1853 and 1854, will, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, absolve the

authorities from intentional di.scourtesy to the miners, and Mr. Little, from any knowledge of, or complicity in, any action tending to favour his own nomina­ tion. Your Commissioners are fully in accord with the view that every oppor­

tunity should be given to the people of Papua to expre~s an opinion as to who should represent them in the Legislative Council, and, further, that the Ad­ ministrator should-while not binding himself to nominate a man, who in his opinion is unworthy of the position-give full weight to ,vishes so expressed.

If this be conscientiou~ly done, Your Commissioners see no sufficient reason for recommending a change in the existing system until an increased popu­ lation and greater facilities in the way of postal and road communication make electoral representation alike necessary and practicable.


The present Council.

Obtaining an opinion f rbm the settlers.

A chanye not recornrnended at present.

This important question was also considered by Your Commissioners, and OJ.?inions of ten witnesses practically gave evidence in favour of its introduction. These included wttnesses. Mr. Musgrave (the Government Secretary), His Honor Judge Murray, and Co-adjutor Bishop de Boismenu. Of these Mr. Musgrave stated, "Yes, I think on

the gold-fields it might be tried." His Honor the Chief Judicial Officer, in answer to to the question, " Do you think the system of trial by jury should b0 introduced into the Territory at the present time?" replied "I think it would k~ a good thing if it were feasible, and I think it could be done at certain centres, such as Samarai, Woodlark, Port Moresby, and possibly on the gold-fields. I do

not think any man should be trusted with the power of life and death without the assistance of a jury; but, of course, in cases of a trivial nature I would not advise it. I consider that trial by jury is practicable in the places I have men-tioned, and would advi~e t1;;1t c~arp:e~ ~1gainst wh~te men and all capital charges should come before a Jury, while Bishop de Bo1smenu, when giving evidence on the administration of law by Resident Magistrates, said "I did not suggest the jury as I am afraid it would be very difficult in some parts of New Guinea,

although it would be very desirable if 1t could be done." .

It is true th::1.t only about the same number of witnesses gave evidence in The danger of favour of trial by jury as of Electoral Representation, but Your Commissioners f}M .,yst ern. have come to the conclusion that there is a much larger concensus of opinion in favour of its introdu.ct~on, and in t~is ~om,1e~ion they feel ~hat great weight must be attached to the opmrnn of the Chief J ud1cial Officer, seerng that trial by iury

is so intimately interwoven with his own special duties. The danger to thei'r minds of introducing it at th present time into Papua lies in the possible race-aversion which seems unfortunately to be world-wide. Still they do not consider. this is as mfLrked there a in many other countries, and possibly the throwing of

Recommenda­ tion,.

The nwnbcr af licences re­ stricted.

A monopoly probable.

Illicit stills probable.


the r

1 11

·ibili y 11 ·whit me~ of_ personally deciding between. their o'Yn race . an l anoth r \Y uld result in brrngmg out all those e~ements_ of fa_ 1rness w~1ch they h


at lea t, lie dormant in all humanity. ~ut. while not 1gnon1:1g ?er.tam P?SSI­ bilitie orn of colour prejudice, .Your Co~m1~s10ners. feel that 1t 1s 1mposs11?l~, "·ith ju tice, to refuse men on trial for their. hyes a nght possessed by every e1t1-z 11 f the ommonwealth. Your Comm1ss1oners, the~efore, recomm~nd that

very white man or native charged with a capital offence m Papua be_ tried ?Y a jury of Europeans, and they further recommend that the syste!ll of tna] by Jury be re tricted wholly to murder cases, and that courts so constituted be held for the pre ent only at Port Moresby and S amarai.


"\Vhile Your Commissioners are in hearty sympathy ~with the spirit which prompted the framers of the Papua A ct to insert a provision that-After the commencement of this Act licer:ces shall not be granted in the T erritory in exce s of the number of licences in existence at the commencement of tl:iis Act.

they feel it to be their duty to point out the which may be created by the retention of this provision. The following evidence, given by Mr. Monckton, Resident Magistrate of

the Northern Division, will illustrate in part what Your Commissioners mean:-(1966) Q. Are you likely to get an application for' a liquor li cence at the Waria ?-A. 1 ha\'e already been applied to for one. I cannot gra1r.t it, as it 1Yould increase the numLer of licences in the Territory.

(1967) Q. What is the practical res ult of the law regula6ng the sale of intoxicating liquor in the Territory? - A. It places the ,rhole liquor trade of t:he country in t he hands of

present licensees, and so creates a monopoly which extends to wnolesale ar:d retail trade. I be­ lieve about twenty licences exist in the wh ole Territory, of wliich n :lt1e are in the hands of three firms. (1968) Q. What, in your opinion, is like[:,, to happen on tb e Waria if a licer:ce i1s not

granted or removed there ?-A. Illicit sale of ]i fJuor, probably smuggled from Germ an New Guinea. The cost of whisky at Euna Bay is 7s. j in German l\' ew Guinea it is from J s. to

rs. 6d. If licences are not grar.ted, the stores and miners will get it from German territory.

If the stores have a lice nce, they would certainly ,rntch their own interests and, incidentally, therefore, that of the Government. ·

It will be seen from this evidence that a monopoly in the liquor trade has already begun, and Your Commis~.ioner s can see no reason why this should not extend until the whole of the liquor traffic of Papua is actually, if not nominally, in the hands of one man, for, after all, to gain a controlling influence in, say, twenty licences, would not be a very Napoleonic operation. But in the minds of Your Commissioners this is only a small matter as compared to what may happen on new rushes if no power be given the Administration to grant extra licences to meet such cases as are illustrated by Mr. ~fonckton with regard to the Waria. This, Your Commissioners might point out, is the new gold-field, which has been discovered close to the German bomidary. Here the chief trouble

seems to be that liquor will be smuggled over the border, with a consequent loss to Government revenue and a more serious danger in the fact that it will be sold without any Government supervision. Bad as all this must inevitably be, there i s a still graver danger to be feared in the future, and that is the erection ,)f illicit stills, as the rugged character and natural products of the interior offer unbounded possibilities alike for the successful erection and working of them.

Unlike most native races, the Papuan has never evolved an intoxicating drink, alt~ough sugar cane and other plants suitable for its manufacture are indigenous to Papua. This, in the minds of Your Commissioners, amply proves that he has no natural craving or desire for stimulants, if we except betel-nut chewing, which obtains on the coast and islands. The whites, in their own interests, will not only not encourage ~he _natives to drink liquor, but will, for the same reason, support the Government m its efforts to prevent the introduction of intoxicants among the native population, but should the impossibility of obtain­ ing a licence to sell liquor on a new rush induce men to trv and evade the 1a w either by smuggling or the erection of i1}jcit stills. it is hardly reasonable to sup~

posP thn,t. men so engagecl, and who are prepared to brr[tk tho b"T in on rarti ular


will be likely to help the Government to preserve it in another. Consequently, quite as much in the interests of the natives as of the white men, Your Commis­ sioner s recommend that in exceptional cases such a f:, those brought into being by the breaking out of new gold-fields, power should be given the A~mini_strator to grant, for the time being, licences in excess of the twenty already m existence, these licences to be only applicable to the field for which they were grnnted, and not to have any rights of transference.


Your CommisE: ioners have not been unmindful of this importa1-1t matter, but, having regard to existing circumstances and conditions, they do not feel justified in making any recommendation which would entail cost without a com­ pensating return. In their opinion, money spent at the present time on purely coastal defence would be worse than wasted; nor, were fortifications erected, could

enough men be found to man the guns; while the introduction of permanent garrif:ons would be a costly farce totally unwarranted, and in any case futile from the stand-point of preventing a serious occupation of the country. Your Commissioners fully realise that, should Port Moresby be converted

into a coaling station, it must necessarily be protected, but until such time arrives they consider the erection of a fort there would be alike a costly and useless toy. Put plainly, Papua to-day would only be attacked by a Power who in­

tended to occupy it permanently, for it offers no looting attractions for mere raiders. If seriously menaced with the object above stated, it has at present no white population sufficiently numerous to be capable either of offering a serious re~jstence, or of acting as a nucleus round which its undoubtedly useful, but

absolutely raw, native levies could be rallied. For the reasons above stated, Your Commissioners have come to the conclusion that, for some time to come, Papua must depend for its defence on the British fleet, helped (when con­ structed) by the Commonwealth Destroyers.

For its future safety Your Commissioners cannot too strongly urge that the best method to be adopted if:, to spend money freely and wisely in general development, and so, by covering its at pref:ent empty acres with a white population, give i. ~ ~he best and only means of effective national defence.


When under examination, the Chief Postmaster of Papua gave the follow­ ing evidence :-. As regards telegrnphic comm~mication, . I am _of opinion if_ any considerable deve lo p ­ ment 1s to take place here telegraphic connexion vnth sorne pomt m North is

imperative. Systems of wireless telegraphy ,rnu1d probably not earn much for wme time but after the initial expense the system is. inexpensive to work, and the advantages from an ' Ad­ ministrative point of vi ew would be material. If funds are available I recommend the ins titu ­ tion of the · system.

Your Commissioners entirely concur with the view above expressed as to the advantages of the system suggested. They also would go furlher than Mr. -Ballantine, and say that, not only is such connexion imoerative if any consider­ able development is to be looked for, but also that the- absence of t elegraphic

communication with Australia ·will tend t o retard develooment. The knowledo·e that speedy means of communication exists will be, in- Your Commissionet:-' minds, a no small factor in deciding intending settlers to migrate to Panua, and this is so more by reason of domestic ties than business relationshi us.- Your

Commissioners think that no steps which may be reasonablv adooted to render administration more thorough or tend to induce settlement and develoument should be postponed until such time as those steps are justified, merely from a financi al uoint o-F view. For t hat reason , ther ,2fore. th ey st rongly recomme11d that an ins t ::tl­

lation of t he wireless s st em of communication b 0 effe cted b2:t wecn P ort Mores bv an

R ecommen­ dation.

Expenditure not reaoin· mended.

Dependence upon the British Fl eet.

The advantages.

R ecn1111111·n !lci­ tion.


with Port Moresby, the first cost to Papua of a single station ,vould, it is

believed, not exceed £6,000. The annual cost of the station is estimaed at £1,450, made up as follows :-Interest and Sinking Fund, 71 per cent. Maintenance, 5 per cent.

Operating­ Salaries Stores

£600 100

£450 300



It is impossible to calculate what the immediate returns for such an expenditure would be, but it is r easonable to expect that the very moderate annual expenditure now recommended will be, even at ·the outset, materially reduced by receipts, and that in a comparatively short space of time the system will become self supporting.

In this connexion, Your Commissioners desire to point out that telegraphic communication with Australia would greatly assist in perfecting the Australasian Meteorological scheme which they understand is now being prepared.


From Port Your Commissioners believe it will be of great advantage to the Adminis-JJLores bu to B una Bav. tration, and of considerable public benefit, if a line of telephone communication

T h e op in io n of

il'itnesses .

were run from Port Moresby to Euna Bay, 'Diet Sogeri and Kokoda. Communica­ tion at present is effected with the Northern Division by means of ship mails round the coast and by foot messenger across the Main Range. It is in this Division where nearly all the mining industry on the mainland is centred. and

jt has been, perh.~ps, the most difficult Division in the Terrjtory to administer. The advantages of telephonic communication would, therefore, be great. It would ::-tlso form another means of comrnnnication between Port Moresby and Samarai by the connexion which the latter place has with Bun.a Bay by steamer.

The teleohone system is preferable to telegraphic, owing to the inexnensive method of working, and to the fact that any stations could be attended to by unskilled operators. Your Commissioners recommend the construction of a line of wire ·slung on trees, where practicablP,. with "barrel" insulators. The cost of construction, in­ c~ Iusive of material and labour, under the suoervjsion of a line renairer, with good knowlerhre of telephorie inst.rurnent fitting. shonld not 0-xceed £2.fiOO.

We are assured by the Commonwealth Post and Telegranh Denartmental officers that t.ree -lines have been lonP' and successfully in operation in Au~t.ralia, in roup·h and uncleared country such as the line we now recommend would pass through.


This is a question which will have. to be faced by the Administration at no very distant date, owing to the very pertinent reason that the island on which the present Headquarters is built has an area of only 59 acres. The following evidence given by the Resident Magistrate for the Eastern Division places the position very clearly :-

(). With the a dvance of sett le ment, d0 you thjnk that the I sland of S ,vm a rni wi ll be large enough to contain the C apita l of the E aste rn Divisj on ?-A. N o; th P fact of it 1:--ein g a n island

militates \'Pr\' much against jts use fulness. It ·has a n a rea of 59 acres, a nd is Ye r v h;2a lthv. Q. HaYe you conside re d Fyfe B a y as the site of a pm si ble sui table Capital ?-A. Yes . The a nc ho rage during the south-ea st sea on is good, but during r.h e north- west it is bad. Q. Is it as good an anchorage as Samarai ?- A. Yes ; and there is a l.:i.r rre a re a of yen·

good b nd nt t he hac k of F,·f B a :,. :::, ·

Q. Wo u Id it cost a ve ry brge amoun t to open ronnr xi on by road hctwr<' n t he por t a nd

th a t l and ?- A . No.

() . C'ons1<>r1u r nth· ft\ rr 11 :i. ,· wn11ld t an :i. la r~r ~re;i o f g00d hncl? :1. Y('s; 'ln cl it would

cnst ,·e ry litt le to rut a roar1 from fh r hE'ad of l\fullin s H :1rho r to F~ fc R ay.

- - - - ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - ~ - - - - ~ - - ~ - -


Q. You have not good land at the back of Samarai ?-A. Ko. Q. Do you knO\r any better localit y than Fyfe Bay for the future Capital site for the Ea tem Division ?-it. ~ ·o; the di.~ad ,·antage is that it is so much furt'her away from the northern gold-fieids but th re is no other suitable haroor near. It is only 42 miles further than Samarai.

Your Commissioners put the following que~tions to Captain Hunter, as an expert navigator, with a large local experience of Papuan waters :-Q. What is your opinion of Fyfe Bay as an anchorage ?-A. It is a. good anchorage. There is a good approach to Fyfe Bay. There i a good shelter from all prevailing winds, and good

anchorage at 10 fathoms. Jetties could be built, but they would have to be long, as, so far as I kn°'Y, there is all fringe reef there. Q. Can you tell us anything about Bay ?-A. Yes it is a ,·ery fine bay, but it is

exposed to the south-east; still, there is a good anchorage and shielter off Wagga. Wagga at 7 fathoms. A good jetty could be built there, and fresh water is available. Q. How do tho~ two harbors compare from your stand-point with Samarai ?-A. I put Fyfe Bay first, :.I.iln e Bay next, then Samarai-that is, considered purely and simply as h::irbors. One disadvantage about Samarai is that there is no fres'h water, e~cept "·hat is caught in tanks.

Another witness, the Honorable William Whitten, M.L.C., put the case for Samarai as follows :-Q.. In. the event of much developrrient taking place, do you rhink the Island of Samarai would be large enough for the site of the Capital of this end of the Territory ?- A. I do not

think it would b~ necessary to consider that matter for sortie years_ to come. There is a good deal of room for buildings in Samarai yet. You can get rid of the mala,rial mosquitoes 1here, and you cannot do that in the mainland. Q. I understood thiat the anchorage is not good here ?-A. It is very good indeed. You can makie this port da y or night. The ha.rbor is rather small if there was much more work

~ing on. Q. W1hat is your opinion of Fde Bay as the site for a new Capital ?-A~ It is a bad

place for sailing vessels to get into in certain winds, owing to the reef. Samarai is ,,ery central for its purpose, and most convenient] y situated for . the trade routes.

In the opinion of Your Commissioners, the whole weight of the foregoing evidence is in favor o~ Fyfe Bay, for even Mr. Whitten :admits that later the question of a change must be considered, and that the harbor " is rather small if there was much more work going on. '' The evidence of the three witnessess is somewhat divided as to which harbor is actually the best, but even so, it appears to Your Commissioners that in the main it favors Fyfe Bay, though: there is little doubt that neither of these harbors can be considered first-class.

Mr. Campbell has spoken of Samarai as being very healthy, and M-r. "'\Vhitten has pointed out that there they have got rid of the malarial mosquitoes! a condition of things ,vhich he maintains to be impossible on the mainland. Your Commissioners hold that Samarai's present healthy conditie;::1, and the fact that it is centrally and conveniently situated as regards trade routes, are the two material points in its favour, but they cannot agree with Mr. Whitten when he states "that malarial mosquitoes cannot be banished on the mainland." In their opinion, backed up by med{cal evidence, th'is can be ;accomplished by filling in swamps and getting rid of the mangrove scrub, in which the mosquitoes germi­ nate; and Mr. Rich, the London Missionary Society's Missionary at Fyfe Bay, has already gone far to prove, by taking this course with regard to some of the

foreshore there, that this is possible of attainment. Realising the importance of a central situation, Your Commisioners gave serious consideration to the claims of Milne Bay, but, having regard to the fact that Fyfe Bay is only forty­ two miles from Samara( and that its other advantages outweigh those of the

former site, they have decided to reduce the question to a choice between it and the present Headquarters. Apart from the fact that if this, part of Papua is to go ahead, Samarai will soon be overcrowded, it has the added irreparable disadvantage of being an island. This means that every settler wishing to transact Government, or indeed nrivate, business must suffer the expense, inconvenience, and loss of time entailed by travelling by boat; and. further, as there is no good land immediately at the back of it, settlers would be cut off from their Headquarters by a considerable area of broken and barren c01mtry. On the other hand, Fyfe Bay-being on th mainland- wou]d be readily accessible to planters and settlers, and as there

i~ a large area of excellent lan

E ,vidence in favo1tr of Fyfe Bay.

Healthy condf. tion of


Milne Bay.

Samarai a small island.

Good land behind Fyfe Bay.

Rcc nnimen­ dation.

'l'he im-11ort1111r r' Oj II /1i/l


Th e Astrolabe Ranqe CO/l l'Cllilntt.

Rrrnmmcn­ dation.


true that for a time health conditions would probably not be as good ::is those on the island of Samarai, but it ::nust not be forgotten that a few years ago the latter pot was practically a death trap, and the rnme methods which have purified it can be adopted with regard to the proposed new Eastern capital. The argu­ ment may be used that, as Samarai is already in being, why destroy it and spend a considerable sum of money in creating a new ca.pital? Our answer is that Samarai will still remain, and by reason of its beauty, mmt always have a future, both as a sanatorium, and from its situation as a trade centre; while, if money is expended at Fyfe Bay, it means decentralization, and the giving of D port to one of the most fertile tracts in Papua_ . quite apart from the fact that want of space and insanitary congestion must, if development come ... , force the Adminis­ tration to look elsewhere for a capital for the Eastern part of Papua.

For the reasons given above, and because they feel that every penny of Government money to be h~rea:fter expended on public buildings at Sa.marai is an unjustifiable waste, they recommend that, with as little delay as possible, the question of removing the Headquarters of the Eastern Division to Fyfe Bay be gone into, and the necessary action taken to carry it into effect.


In the interests both of the officials anp. white settlers of Papua, the ques­ tion of forming a Hill Station has had the ·serious consideration of Your Commis­ sioners. In their opinion such a station is necessary, not only for officials and settlers suffering from ill-health o:r in want of rest, and whose means may not allow of their leaving Papua, but in even a greater degree for the pre$ervation of the health of women and children. Realising that domestic life is an absolute neces­ sity in that country, Your Commissioners feel that every effort should be made towards its encouragement. Naturally) the spot to be fixed must not only contain all the climatic conditions required, but also must be of access from all parts of the Territory. To our minds, the Astrolabe Range possesses both these quali­ ties in a greater degree than any other situation. It is high enough to poss-ess a bracing climate, and being only a few miles from Port Moresby and connected therewith by a good road, has the further advantage of being in close touch with the best harbor in Papua, and one of the most central as regards the other Divisions.

Dr. Beaumont, Chief Medical Officer, states in his report-" The proposition to form a hill rnnatorium is, to my mind, an excel­ lent one; it has a]ways been a matter of surprise to me that this has not been already done. Formerly, when there was a Manager

living up at the W arirata Coffee Plantation, the people living here used occasionally go up there for a change of climate; there­ fore, still more would they make use of the facilities offered them if they knew there was a properly built house to which they could

go on payment of some purely nominal sum, and thus not have to be under an obligation to any private person."

Sir "\¥illiam MacGregor, fully .realizing not only as a medical rnan but also as a wise Administrator, the importance of a healthy staff, seriously contemplated the formation of a Government Station in this locality, and several married offi­ cers pointed out to Your Commissioners that if even the simplest native houses , ~ere built they would be only too glad to pay a reasonable rent for their use, and to send their wives to them during the summer months.

F eling that this is a matter which has already been too long neglected, your Commissioners strongly recommend that steps should be at once taken for the formation of such a Station. Should our suggestion with regard to th reation of a Government Plantation in the same di trict be carried into effect, the extra

0 --- t 0 F building t h natiye h~use_s which (at an. rate fo~ a time) should me0 t all r qnir m :n.t woukl be mfimtes1mal whe~ compared ,nth the arlvantages whicfl 1,yonld h cl riv cl from such an undertakrng.



Having in vimv the fact that gold rushes, for obvious reasons, are apt to become centres- of disease in any country, and that, further, in the case of Papua these may occur in places peculiarly unhealthy in themselves, Your Commis-­ sioners are of opinion that every effort should be made to afford minen reason­

able means- alike of preserving their health and restoring it when struck down by illness or accident. In their opinion the erection of an expensive hospital in any one part of, say, the Northern Division, would be a waste of money, for the reason that only a tithe of the white population could make use of it. In lieu

of such a building, they recommend that inexpensive native be erected on the field s themselves. Such hospital buildings would cost next to nothing, and could be destroyed and replaced at will, in accordance with modern hygienic prin­ ciples, while they would meet s11 reasonable requirements .as well as more pre­

tentious structures. They further recommend that a Medical Officer be permanently stationed in the Northern Division, so as to be available when the health conditions are such as to justify his presence at any gold mining centre.

The question of water supply for Port Moresby was, brought before Your Commissioners by Mr. Baldwin, who gave the following evidence on the subject:-At t he present time most of the peopl e here are drinking ,rnter t aken from t:h e well in

t he gaol ya.rd. We h ave had diarrhcea and d ysentery from. it. Q. Have you any suggestions to make in regard to the inatter?- A. For some time after I came here t:h ere was a spring behind Governm.ient House which supplied this place in case of need. Pipes were laid down from it to the wharf facing Government House. All the ]e\' els were taken to bring the water into P ort :Mor esby, but sorr..:ehow thJe money was never found to

do it. Since then I h a!Ve never been there to see if th e spring is failing. We ;h1ye had two

ver y dry years. The nie arest supply I know of is lhe Laloki River. Q. What would, it cost to bring the water here ?- A. Thiere would be 23 miles of pipes. There is a fall from the Falls of 2,000 feet. If no onle brings it forward it will remain on

the shelf.

Your Commisioners called on the Chief Medical Officer for a general re­ port while at Port M'oresby, but they fail to find in it any criticism on the present water supply, or indeed any mention of it at all, while in dealing with the ques­ tiol). of the health of the white people he says, of dysentery : "This disease is

practically non-existent in Port Moresby amongst 1the white people, there having been only one case to my knowledge. It occurs, however, to a great extent amongst the native population, and in the gaol particularly, and during the time of the year at which the seasons change from south-east to north-'west. The only

serious illnesses which prevail amongst the Europeans here are the same as may be met with in any other part of the world." Your Commissioners having visited the well referred to by Mr. Baldwin, which is, as he stated, in the gaol yard, feel that ~here is sound reason for his

contention that a more satisfactory water supply should b~ provided for Port Moresby. In their opinion the cost of bringing water from the Laloki River ,vould not at present be justified by the white populatio1_1, which only numbers (includ­ ing men, women, and children) 69, but they recommend that a report be obtained

as to the feasibility of bringing water from the spring behind Government House, and that, if it be satisfactorily proved that the supply to be obtained there is sufficient, and pure in quality, the work of conveying it to a central re::ervoi r in the Township be proceeded with witliout delay.


Dr. Jones, Government Medical Officer at Samarai, when questioned as to the heavy death-rate obtaining among the native carriers in the Northern Divi­ sion, gave the following evidence:-

R ecommen­ dation.

Medical officer for North ern Divisio1i

H' ater R1.1pply f or Port

M or es by.

Recommen­ dation.

This deathi rate occ urs, I think, in the neighbourhood of T arnata. I have had excep- DT. Jones. tional opportunity of receiving reliabl e information. from Europeans in that district , from wih ich I concl ude th at the cause of the deaths is a ve ry loca.l one. It is more dangerou s to engage as

a. carrier for this portion of the district tha n to be engaged in the Russian-J apanese war.

Recommen­ dation.



Undesirable immigrants.

The existing Ordinance.




. . Q. What is the bet out e to determin2 the cause and remedy it ?-A. The on1y W[y irt

vhich it can be accomplished is to send a medical man ,rith tropical perience into th.c ;\ orthern D.i,·ision for a sufficienl length of tirr:ie to determine what the cau e of this alarming rate is. This could be don , perhaps, in t,rn or bhree months. I be1ien~ the de.1th rat e could be

stopped. Q. Have you given your views to the Administra.tor?-A. Yes, at hi. request.

With this opinion Dr. Beaumont, the Chief Medical Officer for Papua, concurs in a report submitted to Your Commissioners. In view of this evidence, and the fact that it is of the utmost importance, both from a humanitarian stand-point and also to prevent the difficulty jn obtain­ ing native carriers, which must inevitably grow more and more acute if something is not done to allay the natives' very reasonable fears for signing on for work in this part of Papua, Your Commissioners. recommend that a medical man, quali­ fied as Dr. Jones has suggested, be at once sent to this Di vision for the purpose of locating the cause of the present death-rate, and possibly suggesting means for its prevention.

Your Commissioners further cannot too strongly point out the appalling results which may accrue should venereal be allowed to get a foothold on the mainland. The evidence of Dr. Jones and a confidential report he has submitted on this subject, but which report has not been included in the Appendices, convey in themselves the strongest possible warning, and while Your

Commissioners have nothing but praise for the way in which he and Mr. Bellamy, Assistant Resident Magistrate for the South-Eastern Division, have fought, and are fighting, to stamp out this loathsome disease, they still are of opinion that every care will have to be taken, and that no question of expense must be allowed to stand in the way, if the natives are to be saved from its in­ sidious and far-reaching effects.

In this connexion, Dr. Jones made the following suggestion :-" I should like to add to my former evidence that I think that the percentage proposed to be applied towards the relief of aged and infirm natives under the Land Ordinance would be better applied to the establishment and upkeep of general, as well as Lock, hospitals, which, in course of time, would also give good opportunities for research work in connexion with tropical medicine."

With this suggestion, and particularly having in view the fact that there is practically no present necessity for the fund for the purposes for which it is established, Your Commissioners are in accord, and strongly recommend, that it be carried . into effect.

While in sympathy with many of the reasons urged for passing an Unde­ sirable Immigrant Restriction Act, Your Commissioners fear that its successful enforcement would be impossible; but they are strongly of opinion that the Go­ vernment should be given power to deport from Papua any man proved to be suffering from venereal disease, and to oe interfering for immoral purposes with native women.


The Ordinance, which reads as follows:-The sheep, when landed, shall be enclosed in a pen, to be <"reefed aml superdsed by the GoYernment, whiJle waiting their withdrawal for butchering purposes.

is not only, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, inhumane and unnecessary. but also most inadvisable from a health standpoint, as regards the white popula­ tion, for the more fresh meat used in Papua, the b tter, vYhilc the enfur em nt of this Ordinance naturally restricts its use in ever pos ·ibl way.

To quote from Dr. Beaumont's report:-I believ that Burns, Pbilp and Co. would be ready and willing to import she p in mode­ rate quantity if it were not for the laws at pr sent in force, "·hi h deal with the importation of

th s animals. Under the pr sent regulations, anybody importing sh0f'p i1~to the countn· has to place them into an enclosed space, decided upon by the GoYernmcnt. Th 'Y are kept in this place




A 111

ttntii such time a they ai'e wanted for killing. The owners of the anintais may be caile

The Doctor goes on to say-In my opin}:m, it ,rnuld he much better if the O\rner were to be ::dlmYed to put the sheep in some place suitable to himself, and also fr. a place where there is better grazing country; e.g., turning again to the ca e of Burns, Ph~1lp and Co., in the eYent of their importing sheep they

should be allowed, if they so desired, to place them out in their stockyard at Badele, where there is certainly much better grass than there is in P ort. The ac.imals could still be kept in a proper enclosed place, or i-f the present enclosure ,rere not such as the Inspector approved of, it could no doubt be altered. They could he examined by the Inspector \Yh enewr necessary, and they would

be properly looked after by the natives who attend to the rest of the stock there. Considering the small amour.t of fresh food here, I think the p ople get on exceed :lngly well; still, I cannot but think that things would be greatly improved if a larger supply of fresh meat ,rere obtainable.

Your Commiss10ners consider that the foregoing remarks are dictated by the most ordinary suggest10ns of common sense. They have examined the pen where sheep are at present confined, and consider that the existing system reflects little credit on whoever .1S directly responsible for it. They would further point

out that when development takes place, this absurd regulation will effectually retard tne importation of stock mto Papua, and while they assume that certain reasonable quarantine regulations may have to be enforced, they have no hesitation in stating that the present method is alike unnecessarily severe, and calculated to

inflict cruelty on the animals and hardships on the people importing T ,nem, as well as on those who wish to use them for food. For these reasons, Your Com­ missioners strongly recommend that steps be at once taken to place the law on a more common-sense footing.


The existing system obtaining with regard to traders' licence fees was brought before Your Commissioners by Mr. Buchanan, who stated in evidence-(2004) There is an Ordinance which calls upon the trader for £1 per year for every house he has. Traders have very extended districts, and natives do not ·wish to live ir. their houses

or we in theirs, and when we go to a village they ask if we are going there again, and if we

say yes, the1y build us a house, and then the Gove rnme nt come along and charge us. £1 for

that house. I have five freehold statior..s, and, in a ddition, I have twenty-four houses in various districts-places where I simply go and sleep when I am visiting there, and £24 a year is a

big tax. If another man comes down in a boat and trades he pa.ys no tax. I th:1r..k every

trader should pay a tax from, say, £10 a year, and that tax :should be for each magisterial

district. It should be optional with the magistrate whether he grants a licence or not, and by that means have a check uoon men of a known bad character-men who should not be here. At the preser.t time you have ~o control over traders. (2005) Q. What do you get in return for the £ 1 ?-A. We do not get any occupation

licence. The ground is not p urchased, and if he likes the native could put us off his ground.

I paid under protest. It does not giYe me any right over men who may come alor::g after.

It appears to Your Commissioners tl:at Mr. Buchanan has a good deal of right in his contention that the present system bears somewhat heavily on bona fide traders who wish to extend their operations, and we think that the suggestion of charging each trader a fixed sum for trading in any single Division is worthy of favorable consideration. It appears to Your Commissioners that such a tax

would be more easily collected than the present one, as it would not entail jnquiry as to the number of native houses any one trader might use. The power to refuse licences should also, in our opinion, be given to Magistrates, subject, of course, to confirmation or otherwise by the Administrator. This, as a means of

preventing men of bad or immoral character from mixing with the natives, would be of the greatest use to the administration in getting rid of certain men who, in the past, and we fear in some cases even now, have helped to spread disease in Papua.

For these reasons Your Commissioners recommend that a fixed sum-the amount to be settled by the local authorities-be charged to all traders for the right to pursue their calling in any single Division, the Government to have· po\,-er to refuse to grant a,ny licence when in their opinion the man asking for it is not a desirable settler.

Recommenda­ tion.

The present system.

Recommenda­ tion.

No official collection .



Your Commissioners notice with regr et that at present no official attempt i being made to collect in Papua specimens of it s varied fauna, minerals, zoo­ logical. treasures, or specimens of native ·weapons and implements now fast dis­ appearing. r:1~~7Jl~~~/n It is true that Sir William MacGregor, fully realizing (as a scientist him-

self) the importance of preserving these records, laid the foundation of a Papuan collection in Brisbane, where we understand it still exists, waiting the time when P apua's growing importance will justify its return to that island. speciml'11.~ .~en t Were everything of this, character likely to prove of interest and educa­

t o En gland . tional value still s

tion to the matter, hut their observations have led them to the conclusion that Government officials are in the habit of forwarding direct to England speci­ mens which, in their opinion, should never leave the Commonwealth, and, feel­ ing strongly that Australians should not be forced to go to London to learn facts of interest about their own country, they recommend that all Papuan Govern­ ment officials be specifically instructed not to send any object of educational in­ t erest out of Australia unless they forward, or have forwarded, an eqaally good

German eutervrise.

Iyno1·ance regardinu Papua.

A "Hand­ boo k " recom­ mended.

specimen for the Papuan Court in the Brisbane Museum. In this connexion Your Commissioners note with regret that if the best information with regard to, or specimens of, the zoology and fauna of Papua be wanted, the inquirer must seek, not in the Museums and among the collections . of Australasian directors of botanical gardens, but in the books published, and

collections preserved, in Berlin .and other German cities. They. wish it to be clearly understood, however, that they do not attach any blame to Australian scientists in this matter, as w.a.nt of financial help from their various Govern­ ments has effectually crippled them, and allowed German savants, backed up with ample funds, to exploit Papua and take away its choicest treasures.


Your Commissioners, feeling convinced that the outside wor Id generally possesses only the vaguest knowledge with regard to Papua, and this often 0£ the most misleading character, consider that in the interests of the Territory every means should be adopted for placing its great natural possibilities before the public, so that inaccuracies as 'to climate and the nature of the native popu­ lation be swept aside, and the fact brought out that neither the one nor yet the other is half as bad as it has been painted, while further, that its beauties and its potentialities in the way of immediate and profitable white settlement should

be put forward in an attractive and authentic form. ·

'\A! ith this object in view, they recommend that the whole of this informa­ tion be incorporated in book form, to include vital statistics and full particulars as to the accessibility and quantity of all land at present open for settlement, the nature of its various soils, and the class of products possible of successful cultivation thereon, as well as every other matter likely to prove of interest to, and to attract, the right class of settlers.

Ful]y realizing that this publication to be of any use must be not only abso­ lutely reliable, but a]so placed before the public of Australasia and of the out­ side world, they recommend that the information be incorporated m the Official Y ear-Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, and in such other publications issued by the Commonwealth Statistician, as may be considered desirable, and that as a further guarantee of accuracy, Mr. Knibbs be intrusted with its com-pilation.

Your Commissioners desire to point out that by this means the suggested information would go forth to the world stamped with the authority of the Commonwealth itself. As a means of reachin·g persons who may not have an opportunity of seeing the 1arger volume, they would further suggest that the

Government of Papua should, at its own expense (and t1iis we may say in pass­ inO' would be the only liability it would be called upon to meet), be supplied with an} number of copies they might consider advisable of the section dealing purely


\Yith Papua, bound in a uitable manner, for distribution through those countries whose people would be most likely to be rL ttracted by the information given. In this connexion Your Commissioners have no doubt, that the different f;tate Infornmhon Bureaux, both in An~tralia and in London, would gjve valu­

able help.


The neces ity for dealing at length with this case has been removed by the attitude now adopted by the miners in reference to it. In the presence of the miners mostly concerned in the representations made concerning the actions of officials regarding O'Brien, and, therefore, presumably, with the approval of those

miners, Mr. Dan Horan stated in evidence before the Commission (paragraph 1900), "vVe (the mi~1ers) never rnid a word about the O'Brien affair until the man was outlawed by a notice posted by 1vir. Griffin, A.RM., at the store, on May 18th, 1905," and (paragraph 1901), "I don't wish to go into the O'Brien affair now

it has been settled, and it is not necessary to bring it up further, the Chief

Judicial Officer having ruled that there· is no law on the Statute Book to uphold the Proclamation issued bv Mr. Griffin at the Yodda store." We des;ire, however, to acquaint Your Excellency that we find not the slightest foundation for the allegations made that ill-treatment and injustices were imposed by the officials or O'Brien'.~

police upon O'Brien, between the time of his arrest and subsequent escape from treatment. gaol. . We wish, also, to express our surprise that persistent effort has not been made to secure the re-arrest of O'Brien. No effort at all seems to have been made No efforts at to ascertain whether he has lefc the country, and, if that be so, to follow him up. t'ecapture.

Such inaction is not calculated to inspire res,pect for authority ~n lawless minds, or to maintain the prestige of the administration for prompt and persistent endeavour to bring evildoers to justice.


This matter was under discussion in the House of RE:prese,ntatives on the 26th September, 1906, in connexion with the Estimates, when the Prime Minister informed Parliament that the whole of the papers would be available to the Commission. The official papers were immediately forwarded to Your

Commissioners, who received them in Port Moresby, but as shortly afterwards a letter came to hand from Captain Strahan to the effect that for the reasons stated therein, he thought it advisable that the matter remain in abeyance, Your Commissioners did not take any further action in regard to it.


Very shortly after Your Cmnrnissioners opened proceedings at Port Moresby it became apparent that there was a cleavage between officers in the Public Service of so serious a character as to prove destructive of proper inter­ department al relations and of all-round efficiency. A strong under-current of

disaffection was found to be running through the Service, which, traced back along the channels opened up for inquiry through public records, and other evi­ dence, disclosed its source to be mainly at the head of the administration, where signs were manifested of a lack of administrative ability, want of know­

ledge of or disregard for such well established service rules as, by securing discipline and united working, make for successful government; but, . above all, signs of a want of the true sense of justice and fair play, which is

essential to the winning of trust and confidence,_ and without which it were hope­ less to look for loyalty, unity, or efficiency. The Administrator is, apparently, so constituted that he cannot deal always impersonally with public matters inci­ dentally vitally affecting the rights, privileges, and prospects of those under him,

and herein lies the cause of much of the " disaffection" referred to. That the Administrator has allowed his likes and dislikes to· dominate many of his minutes and decisions, scattered t hrough the .Public Service records, is 3: conclus.ion thcl:t bas been forced upon Your Qommission~rs, not only by obser­

va t1011 of his varymg methods of treatment of cases affectmg different officers, F.14262. e

A cleavage in the Public Service.



\Yhose relative positions in all other respects, involved in the matters dealt with, ,vere identical; but also by notmg his peculiarly varied and unsystematic manner of treating papers forming port10ns or important public recoras. So markedly has tbe personal element been imported at the head of affairs int) the conduct o.i public work in .Papua, that it is evident the Administrator classes his officers under two heads, viz. :-(1) Those who are in favour; (2) Those who are not.

The two senior Executive officials in the Territory-the Government Secre­ tary, Mr. Musgrave; and the Treasurer, Mr. Ballantine-form notable examples of this classification. The former (in Class 2) has been so systematically and unfairly snubbed and repre8sed as to subvert discipline and almost completely to destroy his authority and prestige in the service. He has been humiliated per 1nedia of his juniors, whose defiant bearing towards him has, doubtless, been the outcome of a feeling of security derived ±rom the reflection that they a,nd their chief in the Service were in different classes. No opportunity was apparently lost of administering snubs and rebukes, frequently unmerited, to the head of the Public Service.

Looking to the relative positions of the Administrator and his subordinate, and remembermg the unfair methods resorted to of making frequent undignified attacks, often so covert as to present difficulties to the shaping of effec-­ tive replies, it is evidept that the Government Secretary has been kept, as it were, with his back to a wall, and has been forced to betake himself to the only means open to him, as likely to afford some measure of protection, namely, by seeking re­ fuge in the Public Service records, where he has parried, as best he could-having regard to due official decorum-with his pen, the persistent pricks of that wielded by his superior.

While the Government Secretary's special training and long official ex­ perience have enabled him to more than hold his own in this manner, there is evidence in his office that he has developed to an inordinate degree the habit of reducing to writing almost every subject he has had to deal with.

To such .an extent is this noticeable that at times it bordered on the realms of absurdity. In this connexion, however, it has to fie borne in mind that, as Your Commissioners view the matter, the Government Secretary, realiz­ ing his difficulties and insecurity, was driven into the position in which they found him, and it matters not, in judging between him and the Administrator, whether he was "capable" or "incapable" before being relegated to Class 2, of rendering efficient service to those above him, or of controlling those under him, it is a fact that now he dare not step over the line of what might almost be termed passive resistance into the arena of responsibility, without certainly being, in some manner, humiliatingly repressed.

On the other hand, Your Commissioners have found the Treasurer, Mr. Ballantine, prime favorite in Class 1. He has certainly been guilty of many official and other acts deserving of severe censure at the hands of the Adminis­ trator. From those that were official, he has escaped scathless through minutes worded by the Administrator so as, generally, to throw the onus of responsi­ bility, with implied or direct censure, on the Government Secretary. Other acts reflecting on his position in the Service have been excused.

Whenever any difference between the Treasury and the Government Secretary's Department arose, Mr. Ballantine had an almost stereotyped formula of request that the matter might be '' referred to the Administrator." The effect of this state of affairs has been to contract the sohere of use­ fulness of the Goverment Secretary to very limited dimensions, and propor­ tionately to extend disorganization and misrule. ·

Your Commissioners would here point out, with respect to the foregoing remarks-on the subject of Captain Barton's lack of many of the leading quali­ fications required for wise and effective control and general successful fulfil­ ment of the responsibilities devolving upon an Administratnr of the Govern­ ment of such a Territory-that consideration must be given to the asso­ ciations, influences, and conditions that surround him. The better can this be given due. weight to when the difficulties experienced by successive representa­ tives of the Imperial Government in establishing control in British New

Guinea are remembered.


The piece-meal fashion in which the Public Service had to be constructed) from time to time, by different Administrators, from such local supply as, in the early days, had, at short notice, to be availed of, will largely explain how such a "home-made" service now embraces untrained, and .. incompetent officers,"

some of ,vhom have attained to important positions; and it is easy to

gather how, in these circumstances, a man possessed of the characteristics men­ tioned, and lacking training and experience in proper methods of Gov.ernment, might unconscfously fall within insidious influences much to the detriment of his conduct of public affairs, without fuily realizing the unwisdom of his actions,

which, to use his own words, might have "more far-reaching effects than can be imagined." (Vide Appendix R.) In order to illustrate the service conditions described in the foregoing para­ graph, a short historical sketch of Mr. Ballantine's career, so far as it is known,

will prove useful. If it is not quite correct the fault lies with Mr. Ballantine, for he was, in common with every officer in the Service in Papua, called upon by cir­ cular from the Government Secretary's Department, to supply for the information of the Commission, among other things) ·' all details of his service under following

sub-divisions :-(a) The lmperial Government; (b) a State Government; (c) the Commonwealth Government; ( d) any other official experience. Mr. Ballantine replied stating the work he performed, but in the respects set out, ignored the request. It is, however, known that before he went to

New Guinea he was a member of a pilot boat's crew under vVater Police at Thurs­ day Island, Queensland, and that his conduct was good. He resigned to go to New Guinea, and was next an assistant in a store kept by a Mrs. Mahoney in 1888-9 at Sudest Island. The late Mr. Bingham tlely, then Resident Magis­

trate for the Eastern Division of British New Guinea, which included

Sudest Island, there met and interested himself in Mr. .Ballantine, . so

that, in July, 1889, he induced Sir William MacGregor to appoint him to be Sub-Collector of Custo±ns at Samarai. lVlr. Ballantine was not then 21 years of age. In 1892, during the absence in England of the then Treasurer, Mr. Ballan­ tine was gazetted as Acting Treasurer, and on the 29th December, 1893, on the resignation of the Treasurer, Mr. Ballantine was confirmed in the appointment of

Treasurer. He is a member of the Legislative Council and Second ~enior member of the Executive Council, is a member of the Native Regulation Board and of the Government Stores Board, is also Collector of Customs, Shipping Master, Chief Postmaster, Registrar-General, Curator of Intestate Estates, and ,holds many other minor appointments. Towards his seniors in the Service he has shown him­

self to be impatient and resentful of control, even to insubordination, which when brought to the notice of the Administrator, as it was in the "Bunting case," only brought clown censure upon his senior, the Government Secretary, and which drew from that officer an outspoken memorandum, dated the 9th December,

1904 (vide "Ruby case" bdow). In his attitude towards some of his junior officers he has been overbearing. Mr. Ballantine supplies a prominent example of an officer, who was recruited locally to the Service in the "early days," and who, without having had any special training or experience in such proper methods

of working as would fit him for the important offices he holds, has nevertheless (to his credit be it said) by natural ability and the possession of forceful

characteristics, denoting strong will power, worked himself to the front, and it is to be deplored that he has been unable, in his later years, to withstand the growth of arrogance and of a habit of indulgence in other directions that coupled with a mischievous misuse of the influence he has attained to, have marred his more recent career.


Dealing further with administration in its relation to individuals in the Government service, and adverting to the manner of classing his officers, which Your Commissioners have ascribed to the Administrator, it would seem from his evidence quoted below, that he desires it to be understood that those headings should be "Loyal" and "Disloyal." He says-

( 2 60 5). I desire to invite the attention of the Commissioners to the great difficulties I

have experienced during the last two years in administering the affairs of this Territory, simply owing to the rank disloyalty and unscrupulous character·of certain Government officers, including e 2

The Public Service.

'fhe " Bunting r.ase."

lx viii

the hrn officers next to me in seniority. But, thanks to ha,·ing kept my health, and thanks jet

more to all those loyal, straightfonvarcl offic ers wbo ha Ye supported me unwaseringly, I have been enabled, not only to keep things together, but to make con idernble progress in advancing the welfare of the Territory. ·

The two officers referred to are His Honor ,Judge Murray an

Your Commissioners at once absolutely and entirely dismiss the Chief Judicial Officer from these grave charges against ffim, and they are quoted in full as indicating the estimation in which the Administrator ho1ds Mr. Musgrave. It is well to bear that fact in mind (and also the fact that His Excellency

brackets Mr. Ballantine unde.r the more favorab]e heading) when examining the Administrator's treatment of matters . arising from time to time between the Government Secretary and Treasurer since the commencement of his adminis-tration.

The Administrator has said of Mr. Musgrave-(2605). I have never reprimanded Mr. )1usgraYe without good reason. It is for him to show othenvise.

And, again-(2602) Mr. Musgrave states that I have supported Mr. Ballantine in opposition to himself. Whenever I have done so I have done it regardless of persons. But it is all on record. Let i\lr.

Musgrave, if he can, produce papers that I have unfairly opposed him.

·Your Commissioners beg to submit for Your Excellency's consideration cer­ tain conclusions they have come to on some of these matters

The "Bunting case " is the first matter under the present administration brought to Your Commissioners' notice in which the Government Secretary and the Treasurer were at variance. I'he facts are snortly these-A Mr. Bunt.­ ing had been suspended from recruiting natives by the Resident Magistrate of the Eastern Division. That suspension was approved by the Administrator .in

September, 1904. Later in September, the Dawn arrived ju Port Moresby with a number of natives on board recruited under }J::r. Bunting,.s licence. The Ad­ ministrator was then absent. Apparently, Mr. Musgrave received an impression that the natives were to be despatched to Samarai under circumstances not al­

lowable under the Native Labour Ordinance, namely, without being accom­ panied by a licensed recruiter. He accordingly minuted his opinion of the illegality of such proceedings on the papers relating to Bunting's case, and forwarded it to the Treasury Department (by which Department shipping mat­ ters were administered), on the 30th of September. Mr. Musgrave, the next day, submitted the facts and his opinion to the Chief Judicial Officer, asking his advice thereon. On the 3rd October, the latter . gave his opinion, which confirmed that of Mr. Musgrave. On the 6th October, this later opinion was

forwarded by Mr. Musgrave to the Treasurer. On the 11th October, Mr. Bal­ lantine returned the papers to the Government Secretary with a minute which, after giving certain reasons creating a different opinion in his mind, con­ cluded-" I see no objection to them (the boys) being sent to Samarai in the Dawn." On the same day, Mr. Musgrave placed the matter again before the

Chief Judicial Officer, who immediately returned it with the following minute:-" I regret that I can see no reason for altering the opinion I have already expressed." Mr. Ballantine then minuted on the same day, to the Go­ vernment Secretary-" Could I get papers re Bunting? Boat goes at day­ break." The papers were. immediately forwarded to Mr. Ballantine. The same. evening, Mr. Ballantine had an interview with His Honor, who, ho-wever, would not altP.r his decision. The Treasurer and His Honor then together saw Mr. Musgrave, who, on the strength of His Honor's opinion, confirming, as it did. his own, declined to recede from the position he had taken up. In face of

these facts, Mr. Ballantine instructed that the vessel was to be cleared with the recruits as passengers the next morning. Mr. Musgrave accidentally noticed the Dawn leaving with the natives, and sent to the Treasury to ask by whose autho­ rity he was leaving. The Chief Clerk sent back "a scrawled scrap of paper,, from the Treasurer ordering him to clear her for Samarai. The Administrator

returned to Port Moresby on 28th October then instant. quent minute appears on the papers :-The following subse-The Hon. the Government Secretary .-As these boys were all signed on, I di1d not think

it just to their employer, nor to ~Ir. Bunting, that they should be debarred from sailing in the Daw n, so I allowed the Yessel to clear ,Yith them as passengers. J. I haYe since realized that, no matter what my mm ideas on the subject were, I ought to ha,·e oueyeu the c..lirection of my senior officers. l can only now apologi'ze for not haYing done so.-D. J3. (T.), 31 II/04.

Learning that his advice had been entir Elly disregarded by the Treasurer, the Chief Judicial Officer wrote the Government Secretary as follows, on 1st Novem­ ber, 1904 :-I should be much obliged if you would assist me to a more precise understanding

of the position which I am considered to occupy in giving advice on legal rr,atters submitted to me. . It is not clear to me whether I am to be regarded as acting officially, and as legal adviser to His Excellency, or whether heads of Departments are at liberty, without consulting His Ex­ cellency, to act i'J.1 opposition to my opinion.

In the latter case-that is, if my opinions are to be regarded as unofficial, to be acted

upon or not, according to the judgment of the Department concerned-I would Yenture to sug­ gest that no good end could be served by asking for advice which no one need follow, and that it ,rnuld be fairer to me and more consonant with my position if I were allowed in future to

confine myself strictly to my judicial duties. If, on the other hand, I, am regarded as acting as legal adviser to His Excellency, I submit that my ach-ice should be follo,Yed in all cases, unless disapproved by H i's, Excellency, an

The whole of the papers, with the preceding letter, were submitted, on the 7th November, to the Administrator, who had in the meantime returned to Port Moresbyl- and on the same day he eDdorsed the following minute on the papers:-.

G. / S.-1 ::i m soay that these papers ,,·ere not put before me four days ago. Mr. Bal-

lantine was very indiscre~t to act directly in opposition to the C.J.O.'s expressed opinion. He has, however, admitted his fault in his last minute, and apologized. w·i'th reg:ud to the complaint made by His Honour in his letter to you of 1st Kovember, I entirely concur with his views. It was not necessary, in the first place, to haYe asked for his legal advice; but, having done so, it ,ms dearly your right course to hase inststed that his

:1dvice should 'be followed. In the case of ~[ag1strates responsible for administering the laws, and who are

Please forward these papers to the C.J.O ., and then to 3,J:r. Ballantine.-F. R. B'., Ad-ministrator, 7th Xm·ember, 1904.

The above minute rebukes Mr. Musgrave, first. for having asked the Chief Judicial Officer's advice, and, secondly, having done so, for not insistrng that that advice was followed. Your Commissioners cannot follow the reasoning by ·which tne Admimstrator arrives at the conclusion that the Government Secretary · (his Chief Executive Officer, and acting in an important matter arising in the

Administrator's absence, where it was necessary to give effect to a decision arrived at by the Administrator, and communicated in his absence to the Government Secretary) was not justified in every sense in the course which he took in sub­ mitting; this questjon to His Honor. Your Commissioners are further at a loss to understand what more Mr. Musgrave could have done to insist upon the

Treasurer's obedience to his orders. The action of the Treasurer, in the face of official notifications, backed by judicial opinion, such as those given to him, seems to Your Commissioners to be inexcusable. The Treasurer himself subse­ quently realized and anolog·ized for it. His action is passed over in the Adminis­ trator's minute as "indiscreet." The Administrator's whole minute was one cal­

culated to engender a feelin~ of injustice on the part of Mr. Musgrave. That it did have that effect unon him is evident upon further examination of what occurred in subsequent 1natters in which he and the Treasurer were connected. The Administrator gave the following evidence in this case:-

(26r8) Q. Referring to the Bunfrr;g case, what more could ~Ir. ~fusgraYe have done to insist upon the Treasurer's obedience to his orders ?- A .. To my mind it was not a question so much as to "·hat he might h:1ve clone, as to what he did do. He, in my opinion, ought to have insisted upon the Judge's ad,·ire heing carrjed out; hut. as far as my recol1ertior: of the papers goes, he did

not, as GoYernment Secretary 1n charge at Port -;\for sby at the time, exercise his authority in the wa,· he should haYe done.

The "Ruby·· case.

,lppendix D.

"Mr. Oel­ rich'8" cnse.

Appc11cli.t E.

" The Damaycci Postage tamp " ca e.

He also, after referring to the papers agam, made, later, the following written statement to Your Commissioners : -Go,·ernment Secretary·s ~LP. :\'o. 412 / 04. - I maintain that my minute of 7th

1 · o, ember, 1904, was fully justified. ln reproaching the Go-re rnment Secretary for not ins:sting

that His H onour's ad,·ice ,yas follo,red, I considered that I " ·as supporting the contention put forward by His Hono"Jr , in his lietter to t he GoYe rnment Se.:: reta ry dated 1st ~ ToYember, 1904. I read that letter as a protest against the Government Secre tary·. action in resubmitting the q uestion to him a Chief Judjcial Officer after he had already giYen his opin· on, and I concurred with

His Honour's views. Having taken that opinion. the GO\·ernment Secretary, I submit, should h ave insisted that it ,ms carried out. I was in th e East End of the Possession ,,·hen the eyents

or-curre d, and the Go\:ernment Secretary ,ms therefore in c:barge at Port ~lores by. I returned to Port ~Ioresby on 27th October, wbere I met ~ r. :iiurray f or th0 first time, he haYing arrived

during my absence.

Your Commissioners think that not even a most careless perusal of the minutes would justify the Administrator's views as above expressed. It was Mr. Bal­ lantine's obstinate minute, refusing to see the matter in the same light as. Mr. Musgrave and the Judge, that led Mr. l\fusgrave to resubmit the question to His

Honor, and jn so doing he expressly stated that he did so without in any way altering his own views as already expres:;ed by him to His Honor. Furthermore, in Mr. Ballantine's minute of 3.11.04, he stated that he had since realized that, no matter what his own ideas on the subject were, he ought to have obeyed the

diirections of his senior officers, thereby admitting that he had received direc­ tions from the Government Secretary, and that he liad disobevea them. In no sense can the letter of the Chief J udlcial Officer be read with the rest of the papers on the subject as a protest against the the Government Secretary.

" The Ruby case " is the next matter in order of date in which the Govern­ ment Secretary and Treasurer are together concerned, and the facts in regard to jt are set out in Appendix D. It is annarent to Your Commissioners that the criticism of the Govern­

ment Secre'taiy of the Treasurer's minute in the Rub1.J case was justified. · But the terms in which he expressed himself were objectionable, and deserved the re-buke he received at the hands of the Administrator. There is little doubt, however, that Mr. Musgrave, when penning the

minute of 8.12.04, was labouring under strong feeling owing to the insubordinate conduct of the Treasurer in the Bunting case above cited, and the consequent unjust censure bestowed uoon him by the Administrator only one month before; whilst the Treasurer's act10n was casually dismissed as '' indiscreet." It is evi­

dent, also, £1iat it was this strong sense of injustice suffered which led Mr. Musgrave to write privately to His Excellency the frank, emphatic, and yet withal courteous letter of 9th December, dealing principally v.-ith the "Bunting case."

"Mr. Oelrich's case" is the next in order of time. The manner in which it arose, and the various minutes bearing upon it, with the exception of some which are unnecessary to consider in arriving at a conclusion, are ~et out in .A.ppendix E.

This case is included here because it is one upon which the Administrator founded his decision in the "Survey Loan Case" (infra) that Mr. Musgrav0 was actuated by a "spirit of animositv" agai11st the Treasurer. If such a spirit is shown at all it is in the minute of 14.10.05, which Mr. Musgrave immediately cancelled in deference to the Administrator's rebuke of 26.10.05. Assuming tha,t the facts stated by Mr. Musgrave in this portion of his minute obiected to ar , correct, Your Commissioners have some doubt whether 1\fr. Musgrave's minute exceeded the limits of fair comment bv a. Senior Ex,2cutive Officer and an ~ uditor upon the actjon of a Treasurer. In any case, the whole minute is open to no more objection than is the purposelv evasive minute of the Treasurer of 30.9.05 to his superior officer. whose request was entitled to respect of proper a.ttention, which it did not receive.

"The Darnaged Postare Sta1n77s case" is the next instance in ,,;,rhic-h the Go­ vernrn-2nt Recretary and the Treasurer were Rt variancP. Rr1d is one ,,,hich prirn­ :nilv aro. e o"ving to tbP rirtim1 of the Acc01n1t~nt in thC" Trea 11rv. d11r1na thP Trea irer' abs ,nee, refusinp- the Government Secr?hnv. 1,nti11g as Local .I 11ditor. thP riftht to ca11s2 an c_ -amination to be ma


The Treasurer was also Chief Postmaster. The full text of the minutes and pro-ceedings in. this case will be found in Appendix F. Your Commissioners make Appendix F. the following observations with reference to this case:-The fact that the Government Secretarv, who is also local Auditor, referred

in his letter of the 25.5.05 to the" suspicion ""jn his mind, caused by Mr. Cham­ pion's "unprecedented conduct" (a suspicion natural, perhaps, in the circum­ stances, as evidently Mr. Champion himself concluded when he apologized and admitted his wrong doing) has beeu selected by His Excellency, at the invita­

tion of Mr. Ballantine five months aft0t the incident was closed by Mr. Cham.­ pion's apology, as affording sufficient reason for administering a severe rebuke to the Government Secretary (who, as senior member of the Executive Council and of the Public Service, has added L~sponsibilities during His Excellency's

absence) for action he took to sustain his authority, in his capacity as local auditor. His Excellency has ordered that his rebuke shall be "permanently" stamped on the Public Service records. Thus he lowered the prestige of his Chief Officer, contracted his sphere of usefulness, and, by his condonation of

Mr. Champion's conduct, destroyed respect for constituted authority in his ser­ vice. · If Mr. Champion's conduct was not "calculated to excite suspicion"­ surely it was fitly described as "unprecedented" in its defiance of his superior officer. It certainly would have been better had the Government Secretary taken

a shorter cut to deal effectively with his recalcitrant subordinate and not given expression to his doubts as he did; but, his slip (having due regard to all cir­ cumstances) was nothing compared with Mr. Champion's offence against all bearing and rule, which, by his manner of rebuke, His Excellency condoned

(and so far as made known to_ Mr. Champion, practically approved) five months after the incident had been closed by Mr. Champion's apology and admission that he was ·wrong. · ,·.· ··-:- ,,,..7:'·~~"7"-~·~t~'(.W-s,~ . , . .,,. · ; ,, .. ,, , , t;:'""i u -·1*· .... · ., It should be remembered that Mr. Ballantjne's charge in this matter

against Mr. Musgrave ;was that he believed the Jatter had .. suppressed these napers "which should have gone before the head of the Government." The only foundation for this charge was the request contained in Mr. Chamnion's letter of 29th May, wherein he asked "that the matter be put before His Excellency." Mr. Champion did not ask thi~. by reason of any insinuation which Mr. Musgrave may have made, but to use his own words, " so that if it is possible matters may be placed on a more satisfactory basis."

Subsequent to this, however, on 30th May, Mr. Champion seeing his 0rror, amplv aoolo2:ized to Mr. Mnsgrave and expressed regret for any annoyance ca.used to him bv his rudeness and hasty action. After this apology the inspection deRired, at once proceeded. and no fur­ ther unpleasantness occurred between that office:r and his superior. Mr. M11sQTave.

In the opinion of Your Commissioners. Mr. Musgrave acted riP"ht]v jn taking no further action with the napers. Mr. Chamnion's apo]og-v and admis­ sion of his error nulli:fiP.d hi2. nr-evjons rPquest that the matter sho11ld be n:~ferr,~rl to the Administrator. Indeed liad Mr. Musgrave placed the papers before His Ex­

cellency after Mr. Champion's apologv· had been tendered that action would have laid him open, and pronerly so, to an n,ccusation that he was seeking to do Mr. Champion an in iury. The Government Secretary treated the whole matter 83 ended bv the aoologv. His af'tion, there fore, was not ::i, s11nnrAssion of do011ments

The Administrator's finding- in tbe minute of 17th November. 1905, is against Mr. Mus2.Tave. He savs the papers should have been placed before the Treasurer upon his return. The answer to this is the same as that to the Trea­ curer's contention that thev should havA been n1a.ced before the Administrator. Your Commissioners think that this portion of the minute (17.11.05) is unfair to Mr. Musgrave. c>" , • •

Nor did this minute end the r. .-1rdter. In the minute of 21st NovemrX'r, 1905, the Administrator saw fit to exnrc"s and to repeat his belief that a seriom: imputation had been maJe affainst :Mr Champion, a,nd to instruct that the bttcr be informed of his (tho Administrator's) confidence in hj s integritv. This :·mll"SP

would have been a naturnl one. nerhcJ.ns. had Mr. Chamnion comnlainc.,<1. He had not done so, however. It was Mr. Ballantjne who complained. The whole r1tirrntP is as severe a rehnke from ::in ,..\clrnfric.;hnfor to his Chief Execntive Officer :-'1,S ccrnkl well be imagined. In tho opinion of Your Commissioners, it was unnecessD.rv

The "Survey Loan" case.



and unmerited. The Administrator instructed that the Treasurer should "in­ form" Mr. Champion of that portion of its conten_ ts relating to I:iim. ~r. Ballantine however seems to have been unable to miss an opportumty of still further lo;Yering M~. Musgrave in the eyes of his subordinates, and minuted it on to the Accountant, Mr. Champion, with the laconic "Please note." And Your

ommissioners do not hesitate to say that it had that immediate result in the case of Mr. Champion, for we find him on the 31st of the next month (J?ece!Ilber) impertinently criticizing an approval of the Government Secretary, actmg m the absence of the Administrator, to a requisition for stores for constables to be de­ spatched for service to Sogeri Tano, on the ground that the "expenditure is unnecessary.':

The " Survey Loan case " is the. next instance dieclosed by official records to Your Commissioners, in which the same officers were at variance, and in which the Administrator was appealed to by the Treasurer. This occurrerl. in Oc­ tober, 1905. It had its rise in a minute written by Mr. Musgrave upon a

docket bearing upon the repayment of a Survey Loan account. A di:ffe!ence of opinion, apparently, had ensued between Mr. Musgrave and Mr. Ballantme as to the treatment of this matter. When it was concluded, Mr. Musgrave endorsed a minute upon the papers. To this minute the Treasurer took exception, fLnd thereupon correspondence passed, and is set 1out in Appendix G.

The A.dministrator, in referring to this matter, when giving evidence, said-(2602) :i\Ir. :i\Iusgra\·e states that I bave supported ::\Ir. Ballantine in opposition to himself. Whenever I have dor:e so I have done it regardless of persons. But it :Is all on record. Let :i\fr. l\Iusgrase, if he can, produce papers that I have unfairly opposed him. (2603) I wish to place before the Commissioners copy of a letter which I wrote to ::\Ir. ::\f usgraYe on the 17th :.\"" ovemb€r,

1905, on the occasion of my final confidential minute concern~r:.g the Treasurer's charges against Mr. Musgrave.

The letter produced by His Excellency reads as follows:-Government House, Port Moresby, British Ne·w Guinea, 17th November, 1905. Dear :i\Jr. l\Iusgrave,-I have thi!s evening written my minute in regard to the charges brought against you by the Treasurer. Judging by your previous correspondence, in which the Treasurer's actions

have been under your notice, you will, I expect, feel sore at the tenour of my minute, and I can even guess that you will conceive that I am not impartial. I am perfectly well aware-indeed, you ha,·e taken no pa:'ns to hide it from me----,-that you believe me ever-ready to take sides with Mr. Ballantine against you. My position in this affair is consequently very liable to misappre­

hension on your part. It is, perhaps, futile to try and a:ssure you that I have gilven my opinion on the matters now in question purely on their merits. In all official matters~despite what you may think-that have been Sefore me, I am .not conscious of ever having allowed my personal feelings to sway my official judgment.

I do not write this note in the sense of an apology, but rather in the hope that, whatever our personal opiniion of each otber may be, I trust that it may deflect any official friction- fric­ tion which cannot 'but ce injurious to the serYice at large.-Yours very truly, F. R. BARTON.

It will be observed that the Treasurer has gone wide of the subject which gave rise to his minute, and levels several charges against Mr. Musgrave. Firstly­ That he had treated the Treasury Department with animosity for several years. Secondly-That he wa3 unscrupulous in using his official position for his

private ends. Thirdly-That he was suppressing official documents which ought to go before the head of Government. The Treasurer twice requesteJ. in hi-; minute, that it should be brought before the Administrator. As to the third charge concerning the suppression of official documents.

Your Commissioners have already, namely, in the "Damaged Postage Stamps" case, dealt with one of the cases cited by Mr. Ballantine, and have wholly ab­ solved Mr. Musgrave from the accusation. Your Commissioners regret that thev a_re unable. to give an.r opinfon on the second (b) minute quoted by Mr. Ballan'­ tme on this head, owmg to the fact that, from insufficient data obtained, ther cannot identify the docket to which it refers. ·

~ s to the charge that the Government Secretary had treated the Trea­

sury with animosity for years-The Treasurer advances nothing but the bare . harge. No ~nstances are given by him. The Administrator, however, recalled 111 tances which he referred to, and which enabled him to find the charg-e proved .

.He refer to tvrn particular instance~,---one, a minute of eleven months befor , namel. , on J? comber, 1904, writt n by the Government Se retary on the suhi r-1 f transf rnng accounts from one vote io another (vide "Ruby" case abov cited)


and the other, apparently, one (in Mr. Oelrich's case) written by the Govern­ ment Secretary one month before, namely, on 14th October, 1905, again, on the subject of payment of accounts out of votes other than these to which they were properly chargeable.

Your Commissioners do not approve of the manner adopted by Mr. Mns­ grave in his minute criticising these two matters. The tone in the earlier of the · two cases is not one which an officer on friendly terms with another would use concerning him. Mr. Musgrave was not on friendly terms with Mr. Ballantine.

A perusal of his letter to the Administrator, dated 9th December, 1904, would satisfy any mind upon that point. Doubtless he 'allowed his feelings towards Mr. Ballantine to colour his minutes, ·with a result that they were couched in terms not to be always defended. For that, and that alone, he was deserving of

rebuke. But whilst that feeling coloured the manner of his minutes concerning Mr. Ballantine, it cannot be said that it led him into making wrong criticisms, with the exception of that which is the basis of the matter now under notice, and for which he apologized. The matter of his two minutes referred to by the

Administrator, when stripped of its otjectionable manner, is, in the opinion of ¥ our Commissioners, correct and proper comment. It is further, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, fully justified by the instructions for the guidance of Financial and Accountancy Officers in the Colonial Service (No. 204, re Audit

of Accounts of Expenditure). "He will see that on every charge against a Head, the money expended has been applied to the purpose or purposes for which such Head was intended to provide, and that it be charg·ed to the proper said Head~"

Your Commissioners point this out more particularly because their re­ searches and inquiries went to show that Mr. Musgrave has had for a long time past anything but a favorable opinion of Mr. Ballantine's capacity as a Trea­ surer; and they believe that it was because be held this opinion, and desired that the Administrator should know it, that he so frequently called attention to the methods of the Treasurer's work, and not because of any feeling which he

had against Mr. Ballantine, though the wording of the minutes sometimes lai1l him open to that charge. That Mr. Musg·rave held a seriously bad opinion of the Treasurer's capa­ city is markedly shown in his letter to His Excellency of 28th March, 1905, on subject of inspection of Public Departments referred to hereafter. The evidence of Mr. Kinmond, the Commonwealth Auditor, recently in Papua, confirms that opinion (2557-2571). .

Coming to the remaining charge against Mr. Musgrave contained in the Treasurer's minute under notice, that he is unscrupulous in using his official position to obtain his private ends, Your Commis~ioners have, in view of the publication of this report, omitted the instance which Mr. Ballantine proceeds i·:i. his minute to cite in proof of l1i s acc11::,ation. The instance. given is utterly and

entirely beside the question at issue, even asmming it to be true,

and constitutes merely a bitter and venomous, and, at the same time, irrelevant attack upon Mr. Musgrave. It is made, too, by Mr. Ballantine in the breath following that in which he complains of the "spirit of animosity" extended by Mr. Musgrave to the Treasury Department concerning which he makes a twice-·repeated appeal to the Administrator, demanding that the minute shaJl be for­

warded to him. His Excellency's manner of dealing with this charge does not commend itself to Your Commissioners. The cI1arge could not rightly be dismissed as being "semi-official" or "quasi-personal." It was either official or it was per­ sonal. If it was official, the Administrator should have forced an inquiry, and not left it to Mr. Musgrave to decide whether he should demand one or not. If,

on the other hand, it was personal, it should not have been imported into the Treasurer's minute, and the Admmistrator should have insisted on a withdrawal and apology by Mr. Ballantine. Your Commis~ioners feel obliged to advise that the treatment meted out. by the Administrator to the two officers concerned in this special matter was uneven and prejudiced. They cannot express surprise that Mr. Musgrave, under the circum tances. did not avail him~elf of the invitation extended to him, ancl demand an inquiry.


Your Commissioners gave the letter of the Administrator to Mr. Mus­ grave of 17th November-cited above-every consideration before arriving at the foregoing decision. Tamata Stores


The "Tamata Stores Shortage" presents the next difficulty between the Government Secretary and the Treasurer, to which Your Commissioners desire to refer. The Administrator was, as usual, appealed to by the Treasurer in this matter, which has relation to an alleged shortage in the Government stores at Tamata. The history of the case will be found in Appendix H. A ppen di.i; II.

The "Pothier pt1otograph c~.,·c ''

Appendix 1.

It is somewhat difficult . to fix the " accusations " that the Administrator is so "satisfied" are "unfounded." Mr. Ballantine only took exception to one statement by the Government Secretary, viz.:-" The Possession was paying the extra expense of his visit to Tamata for nothing." With regard to this, see Judge Murray's evidence at end of paragraph 2,099 and at 2,100; also Mr. Ballantine's evidence, 2291-2301.

From this evidence it would seem that Mr. Musgrave's contention that the Possession did pay was correct, inasmuch as J\fr. Ballantine admits that the Government paid the carriers. This. would be a comparatively small item of ex­ pense, but it is sufficient to bear out the point Mr. Musgrave was making in his letter of 14/12/05 to the Administrator. That disposes of the only portion of Mr. Musgrave's letter that Mr. Ballan6ne took exception to as being "quite incorrect." But apparently the Adminis.trator read the letter as having a wider significance, viz. :-Paragraphs 3 and 4 as constituting direct accusations of in­ competency against the Treasurer, and paragraph 5, with sub-heads a, b, c, d, as having strong inferential bearjng in the same direction.

He was undoubtedly correct in this. Mr. Ballantine, however, apparently felt himself safe in gliding over all direct or j ndi rect accusations and pursuing his stereotyped course of requesting that the matter "be placed before the Administrator."

Although Mt. Ballantine, in paragraph 3 of his minute of 15 /10 /06, said that "the question of the Tamata stores is settled/' he added, "I would suggest that the Local Auditor (Mr. Musgrave), as being the most competent officer, be sent to the Northern Division at an early date to report generally on the system of expenditure of stores in that Division."

Were it not that Your Commissioners have had before them in recorded official documents, numerous instances of Mr. Ballantine's sense of his immunity from risk of reproof by the Administrator, they would have had difficulty in believing-as, however, tney do-that the portion of the minute quoted above, and written by the responsible h.ead of a public Department, with a special view to its being "placed before His Excellency,'' could have been intended to have a sarcastic reference to the " competency" of his senior, the Chief Executive Officer of the Government.

When Mr. Ballantine left for England, the "Tamata Stores Shortage" engaged the attention of the Administrator and the staffs of the Government Secretary's Department and the Treasury, and was then regardea by Mr. Ballan­ tme and others as "serious.'' The matter cropped up ten months after the Treasurer's departure, and co-incident with his return tio the Territory, through the Commonwealth auditor's insoection of Treasury affairs.

Mr. Ballantine found in this an opportunity-to lav before the Administra­ tor. the Government Secretary's letter of the 14th Dec.ember, 1905, containing strictures on the Treasurer's perfunctory inspection of stores and books at Tama.ta in J11ne previous.

Your Commissioners entirely disaQ'ree with the Administrator's decision that any "accusations" contained in Mr. Muse-rave's letter anent the Treasurer' ,vork were "unfounded." On the contrarv. thev ascribe all the confusion tbat, occurred, involving much anxiety. work of investigation. waste of time. loss of monev and inconvenience to the Administrator, as entirely due to the laches of the Treasurer. "

The "Pothier Photograph case," particulars of whfrh. dea Jed from offi ­ cial records filed in the Lands Department, anent the incidenf referred fo in paragraoh 2085 of Judge Murray's eviden0e. are rtiv0n in A nnendi .,. T. It i:::: Another instance of the unvarving- personal as onnose(l to official atfrtude adopted h~T th Administrator toward his Governmf'nt Recretary.


In the view of Your Commissioners, Mr. Drummond in this case availed himself of the paltry incident of the photographing of an alleged convict for the use of the Government, · to demonstrate his mvn unfitness for the respon­ sible position, as Head of an important Public Department, to which he

had so recently been appointed. Independent of any shortcomings in his pro­ fessional attainments, he has sho,,1n, 11ot only by the attitude he adopted towards the Chief Executive Officer of the Government, but, by h:i_s presumption in asking that his action should "come before His Excellency the Administrator," his own complete 'ignorance of those relative official rights, ob11gations, and cour­

tesies that should have guided him in his relations with those cl;bove him, ~nd which are understood by and observed between the humblest officers many deoently regulated service. That the Administrator failed to view the matter in this light, and

should have found in it reason for administering an undeserved reproof to the Government Secretary, affords, to the minds of Your Commissioners, corrobora­ tion of their statement, elsewhere in this report. that he is not always able to deal impersonally-with matters brought before him.

Charges against the Commandant of Armed Native Constabulary.-The papers regarding these matters . disclose to Your Commissioners quite a different. aspect of treatment of Government officers by the Administrator from that dealt out by him to the Government Secretary. A resume of the contents of the papers is given in Apnepdix J-.

From a perusal of such Appendix, it will be seen that the Administrator, from the outset, showed a strong desire to shield the Commandant, who was not slow to avail himself of the "opportunity of replying" afforded him by the Ad­ ministrator's minute of the 15th April, 1905, to practically fasten on the Govern­

ment Secretary the onus of all the charges, other than those made by Mrs. , and he assailed that officer for being so "unfair " and " biased_,

as to have put forward charges that had been reported to him, and which the Commandant alleged were as "unfounded" as the "tissue of falsehoods" 'f abri­ c:tted by Mrs. --. Partly by these tactics of bluff, not only did Mr. Bruce get himself "fully exonerated by the Adrninistrat,ort but Mrs. ---- wholly dis­ credited.

Fortunately, however, the Government Secretary-in his persistent efforts to uphold the honour and purity of the service of which he is the permanent offi­ cial head, and to estaolish, beyond the risk of adverse criticism, its relations with the public-induced the .. Administrator to cancel his first finding jn favour

of Mr. Bruce, and to convict the latter, not only of having in a "loathsome ,; manner insulted one of the clergymen of a large and influential mission, but, also, practically of having misconducted himself in the respects charged bv Mrs.--.

But though the Government Secrt'tary was successful to this extent, he did not receive that redress due to his official position for the insubor-­

dinate and insolent bearing towards hjm by his subordinate, as shown in his correspondence, and in the rea~ons the Commandant personally gave to the Ad­ ministrator against the Government eecretary holding an inquiry into }.iis conduct.

Nor did the Government Secret::iry receive any acknowledgment from the Administrator for the good service he had rendered the Government in relievino· it of the responsibility that the Administrator, in his haste to assist Mr. Brue; had unquestionably incurred, as shown by his minute of 27.4.05 to the Govern­ ment Secretary, wherein he says-" I have since consulted His Honor in regard to the whole affair, and decided as follows :-That Mr. Bruce should be advised to proceed aga.inst Mrs. --, in accordance with his request to do so." And,

further on, in the same minute, he adds'--" I have, this morning, seen Mr. Bruce and I advised Mr. Bruce to take proceedings against Mrs. --. and this he gladly resolved to do." Had an action been instituted, failure woulrl inevitably have followed, with all the scandal attendant on exposure, and the Go­ vernment \You1d have been ultimately held responsible, notwithstanding thP

guarded terms in which the Administrator first directed that permission should be accorded Mr. Bruce to proceed. T,hj s aspect ·of the case evidently presented

Chdrge.~ against Com manclant of ~.N.C.

Appendix J.


itself to the mind of the Chief Judicial Officer, when he informed the Adminis­ trator that, 'in his opinion, Mr. Bruce should not now proceed against Mrs. "

In this connexion, Your Commissioners desire to say that were it not £o-­ thc purpose of helping the Administratcr out of a difficult position, they woul. ha e been at a ioss to find any reasonable explanation for His Honor havin~ been prevailed upon to draft the letter -which was subsequently written by the Go­ vernment Secretary and sent to Mrs. --, in reply to her complaints.

Unhappily, the good effect that should have supervened as a result of the inquiry into, and final decision on, Mr. Bruce's conduct has been rendered nugatory by the secrecy observed by tbe Administrator in regard to these matters.

The short history given of the cases shows that, up to a certain point, the correspondence was conducted through its proper official channel-the Govern­ ment Secretary's Department-where, so far as the Administrator was concerned, 1t commenced. Then it was taken by the Administrator entirely into his own

hands, .and, fro·n that time, no official knowledge of what had been done reached the Government Secretary's Department. The evidence taken at the inquiry into the clergyman's case had been fo.rwarded direct by the magistrate to the Adminis­ trator These papers, forming records of the Government Secretary's Depart­

ment, were never returned, and all that was known by the Government Secretary, the service, or the public, was that Mr. Bruce was still head of the police. In this connexion it will be well here to refer to the mention

that has already been made by Your Commissioners elsewhere in this Report as to their observation of the Administrator's "manner of treating papers forming portions of important public recorde .. " A striking example of this is afforded in the Bruce-clergyman case, as the following circumstances will show :-Within

three days of the arrival of Your Commissioners in Papua, search among the re­ corde in the Government Secretary's Department brought to their knowledge the circumstances of the case of Mrs. --- v. Bruce. The last paragraph of the

Administrator's minute of 4/5 /05, addressed to the Government Secre­ tary, showed that there were papers: relating to a "s·Acond inquiry." It

was ascerta.ined that these had not been sent to the Government Secretary's office, and were supposed to be still at Government House. Your Commissioners wrote to the Government Secretary on the 21st of September, asking that type

charges against Commandant Bruce. and the letter also said that typed copies would be required of all papers relating to the second charge relating to the Rev. - , and ·which, it was understood, were at. Government House. Another

letter was written, 3rd October, 1906, at, and sent from, Sarnarai by

the Commission to the .Government Secretary, to "be s11re and have

tvoed copies of all these uapers readv by ·· the middle of this month"

(October). On the 10th Or.tober, 1906, the Government Secretary wrot0 to thP, Administrator, who had iw~t returned to Port Moresby, askirnr

for the 11apers for the Royal Commjssion, and saving he was c, directed to have them at hand by t.he middle of the month." The Administrator

repliPd. "the papers are here, and will be sent forward to the Secretary of the Roval Commission by the Private Secretarv when the .Commissioners r-eturn to Port Moresbv." As .. R, conseauence of the Administ.rator's refnsal to comnly with the reouest of Your Commissioners. conveyed to him in writing bv the Govern­

ment Secretarv. the latter was unable to have the typed copies remiired readv hv the 19th October. on whjch date one of Your Commissioners and the Secretar-.:,­ returned and asked for them. The Government Secretary was again requested to procure th~ .papers, R,lld three days a ftenvard~ they were sent direct from

GovernmP-nt House to Your Commissioners' Secretary, under cover marked "con­ fidential" Tbes0 were immediately fonvarded by him to the Government Secr8-tary, noted thus-" Please treat these papers ~s 'confidential' (see envelope from . Private SecrAtary) as between Government Hou e, the Commis ion and you··

office, and get them typed at once." Tt is a1moQt b0 yond belief that the dministrator could have found pallin.-tion of Mr. 13ruce's offenc s again t order and decen y in the fact that he beli rer1 they happened when the Commandant was "under the influen..ce of liquor."


. Although the Administrator's a(.;tion in this is compatible with his con­ donation of the Treasurer's lapses from sobriety, it is entirely opposed to we pronouncement laid before the Executive Council, 8th November, 1904, that he was "resolved to uphold by every mean · the good name of the Government, with-­

out favour or affection." This formed the concluding paragraph of a written com­ muni?a~ion addressed to a Resident Magistrate of long service, and in which the Admm1strator formulated charges against the officer, which are sufficiently indi­

cated by the following extracts, viz.:-" From reports which have reached me, it would appear you were, on mure than one occasion recently, disgracefully in­ capacitated by excessive drinking" . . . . "and that while in this condition you were seen by natives, and, possibly, by Europeans. It should be manifest

that, in your position, it is impossible, while you give way to this habit, that you can carry out your duties to the Government, or, indeed, without causing dis­ reputable scandal. As Administrator of this Po~session, I feel bound-painful as in this instance, in view of your long service, it is to me-to take steps which

may very seriously affect your positiun as a public officer. I require, in fact, that you furnish the Government Secretary with an explanation, in writing! of the accusation w.hich I now make against you; or, as an alternative, that you should send in your resignation. I may add that, in the event of your pleading

that I have been misinformed touching the misbehaviour with which I charge you, I may consider it necessary to cause an official investigation to be held in the matter." Then follows the paragraph first above quoted. Copy of this communication was laid befon~ the Executive Council, as stated, four days before the original reached the officer concerned, who immediately replied to the

Government Secretary by saying-" I most emphatically deny the charge made agaimt me that I was 'on one or more occasions recently disgracefully inca­ pacitated by excessive drinking/ and I shall, most certainly, not shirk any official investigation that His Excellency may consider necesrnry m the matter." Tho whole matter was again brought before the Executive Council on the 24th of

January, 1905, and the next day the Government Secretary, under instruction, wrote to the officer that, " in view of his emphatic denial of the charge, Hi:3 · Excellency had decided not to proceed further in the matter."

Taking into consideration all the: circumstances that have come to th0 knowledge of Your Commissioners, they do not hesitate to say that Mr. Bruce should not have been retained in his position in the service after his serious offences.

The case of Mr. Charles Owen Turner, Assistant Resident Magistrate for The ease 01 the Eastern Dim"sion, stationed at Samarai.-Your Commissioners desire to bring :{;~. c. o. 7'ur­ under your ExcelJency's notice the complaints laid before the Commis-sion by Mr. C. 0. Turner: His evidence, set out in paragraphs 1153

to 1176 inclusive, discloses the fact that he has sri .. ffered jnjustice,

which, it is hoped, may be set right with as litt.le delay as pos-

sible. Your Commissioners. while in Papua, assured themselves that Mr. Turner is, in every respect, a good officer, and this is corroborated by the 71\dminis­ trator (paragraph 24:99). Notwithstanding the evidence given by the Adminis-trator (paragraphs 2499 to 2503 inclusive), Your Commissioners unhesitatingly

say that in passing over Mr. Turner by promoting two junior officers - Messrs. Manning and Griffin-to higher positions, each carrying pay of £75 a year more than Mr. Turner receives, the Administrator did the latter officer a manifest injustice.

It is true t hat Mr. Manning is only junior to Mr. Turner in the service by four months, but, in the vievv of Your Commissioners, his youth and lack of ex­ perience in independent and responsibl-.~ work should have been a bar to his ap­ pointment ove:r Mr. Turner's head. Mr. Griffin, who, though three and a half years junior in service to Mr. Turner, has-outside the consideration of the in­

justice to the latter officer involved in his appointment-completely justified it m Ril] other respects. He served for some :iime as an Assistant Resident Magistrat,~

in the Northern Division, and is niow doing energetic and valuable work in a new locality-" The Gulf Division." He is reported to_ be one of the most cap~b]c and conscientious Magistrates in the Territory.. . 1 • J

I .

Official charge;; against the Got·ermnent Secretary.

Govel'nment Secretary'/. cha1·ges again11t the Admini­


Ix xviii

Before I assing to the other matter of Mr. Turner's complaint, Your Commis ioners desire to say that they have elsewhere, in thi Report, ... pecially dealt with the matter set out in paragraphs 1161 and 2622 of the evidence given b. Mr. Turner and the \.dministrator respectively.

Your Cornmissioner:3 beg leave to hop'"' that Your Excellency will regard "\Yhat has been written above as a recommendation that Your Excellency will cause such effect to be gi.yen thereto as will enable early redress t0 be made t,) Mr. Turner.

Official Charges against the Government Secretary, co;ltained hi Desvatches.-In a despatch written on the 12th September, 1905, to His Excel­ lency the Governor-General, the Administrator made the gravest charges agai11st his Chief Executive Officer, the Government Secretary, Mr. Musgrave, ·who is,

tdso, senior member of the Executive Council. The following is an extract from the despatch :-3· I regret to state that the fifteen months' experience I ha ,·e had in administering th ·s

Go\·ernment has conrinced me that the Administration cannot be carried on successfully so Jong as ::\Jr. ::\Iusgrave is the Administrator's Chief Executi,·e Officer. ::\[r. :\[usgraYe has eYidently so great an :n.1clination, and so many opportunities to foster grie,·ainces, and to impede progress and ,rnrk, and he is ap,parenth- so ready to encumber my administration, that his retirement is, -in the interests of the ser\'ice, 1-iighly desirable, :tf not absolutely 1wcessary. ·

Reference to the evjdence (paragraph 2506, et seq.) will disclose the fact that, until informed by the Chairman of the Commission, when taking Mr. Mus­ grave's evidence-on the 17th November, 1906-that officer was in complete ignor­ ttnce of any havii1g been made. True, m paragraph 5 of the same despatch, the

Administrator wrote as follows:-I informe 1 :\Jr. MusgraYe to-da\' that a copy of the :\Iinutf's of Exe~utive Council would be transmitted to Your Excellencv, urider co,·er of a confi(_len!"ial despatch, ancl offered to inclose therewith any statement he might wish to make in regard to the mi~rntes. To this be replied

" that he has no statement he ,Yisbes to presrnt. "

The matter referred to in this paragraph had no relation whatever _to any charge or charges then made or afterwards made by the Administrator against Mr. Musgrave, except one which bore upon a protest which the latter had desired to make in Executive Council ·when the matter of Mr. Richmond's rnspension

,vR.s before that body, and with regard to the wording of \ the Administra-tor had taken exception. ·

The Administrator gave lengthy evidence before the Commission, on the 16th November, 1906, but gave no indication of the condition of affairs that he had confidentially reported to have existed. Your Commissioners, therefore, decided to take the course they did on the 17th November, 1906, and, as the evi­

dence previously indicated shows, force i1iq uiry by bringing to the know ledge of Mr. Musgrave, for the first time, the "existing charges and grievances" made against him. This had the effect of bringing Ol1 t-

T he Government Se.cretary's Charges against the Adm1·m·strator :-When Mr. Musgrave was brought before Your Commissioners on the 17th .1 lovember, as stated, and faoed for the first time with the fact that serious charges had been made against him by the Administrator, he referred to them as consistent with a

process, which I believe is called " heckling" in the Army, and whichl is to make a man so dis-

contented with his nositian that he is driven out of it. . Beside the oainful treatment

which I was subjected to, I consider Captaic B8.rton made tbree unjus~ efforts - to oust me from

the service.

Mr. Musgrave continued-The first was in the case of the Richmond charges against him (tbe Administrator),

" ·hen he appeared to be most anxiou to imolve me in them as well, although. I wrote to tell

him I knew absolutely n thing at all about the charg s that Mr. Richmond ir.tended to make.

Your Commissioners understand by this that Mr. Musgrave accuses the Adminis· trator of endeavouring to fix upon him the blame of being partly responsible for the Richmond charges having been made. If this be Mr. Musgrave's meaning, Your Commissioners say at once that the charge is unsupportea by the evidence given

or the papers produced. Your Cominissioners al o think the charge is unfounded, for, nJthongh the Administrator, in his vidence (2594), says" that Mr. Musgrave


had an inclination to foster grievances ·was also evident in the attitude he took hp m the 'Richmond Case,'" Your Commissioners think that that statement is clearly meant by the :\.dministrator to a ppl ' to his vimv of Mr. Musgrave's atti­ tude after the charges \Yere made.

Mr. Musgrave proceeds:-The second occ:i.sion was when, a.5 I ha,·e pointed out (2512), I could not help believing that Captain Barton desired to overweight me by adding those heavy responsibilities to the work I had already to perform.

This charge has reference to the instructions of the Administrator to Mr. Mus -grave as to the inspection of two Government Departments, and is dealt with later on in this Report. Mr. Musgrave's third charge is made in the foJlowing ,vords :-

The th~rd occasion was in regard to the pension questior:, when he insisted on the age limit being made fifty-five years instead of sixty, as is., I think, most usual in Pension Acts. The Commonwealth Government rejected the suggestion of allowing pensions to officers of the Territory, ar:d that effort also failed for the time being.

The clear inference drawn by Mr. Musgrave is that the age limit of the pension scheme was specially directed at him. In his reply to this charge, the Administrator said :-(2600) The third charge is that the age Lmit of the pension scheme proposed " ·as spe­

cially directed at him. This is not so, and it only shows how ready 1[r. Musgrave is to assume that · I allo\\·ed what he considers to ce my personal inclinations to influence my ac1 ions. The fifty-five years age limit was carried by a majority in Cour.cil, and I stated my :eason for sup­ porting it in Despatch Ko. 43 of 30th Aprjl, 1906. If there was no officer in the servi ce of

over forty years of age to-day, I should be of the same opinion with regard to the fifty -fl\ e

years age limit.

Your Commissioners fear that the Admjnistrator's memory is at fault when he states that the 55 years· age limit was carried by a majority in Council. It is evident from his Despatch No. 63 of 18th August, 1905, that this 1s not so. The Despatch comprises an enclosure of a set of draft regulations for a proposed pension scneme. The s1xw Regulation reads:-

It shall be compulsory on an officer who has at'tained the age of sixty years to retire.

Commenting upon the draft, the Administrator says in his hst-mentioned Despatch:-The rough Draft Regulat:ons forming an enclosure to this Despatch were framed in Executive Com-:cil on r 7th instant, and, with two exceptions, I am in favour of them. In the

first place it is, in my op:1nion, inadvisable that tb.e compulsory retiring age should be more than fifty-five years, and, secondly, I suggest-thait a clause to the following effect be added to the Regulations: " Public servants ha,·e 110 absolute right to any pension or gratuity."

It is evident, therefore, L1iat not 55 years but 60 years was the limit carried by a majority in Council, and that it was so carried in face of the Administrator's opinion, and not with his support. Furthermore, tne Despatch of 30th April, 1906, referred to by the Admmistrator, does not give his reasons for supporting the decision of Executive Council, but incidentally refers to his own recommenda­ tion as to 55 years being the retiring age given in the above cited Despatch of August, 1905. Your Conuniss!oners accept . the Ad~imst!ator's statement in denial of the cnarge that his act10n (whether m Council or rn Despatch of 18th August, 1905, in relation to the pension scheme) was specially directed at Mr. Musgrave.

In connexion with this matter, however, Your Commissioners desire to make a reference to the following circumstance : -Mr. H. Owen Turner, Assistant Resident Magistrate at Samarai, had reason to complain of opportunities for promot10n being withheld from him on two occa­

sions. The second occasion occurred after the time (12th April, 1906) when Mr. Griffin was promoted to be a Resident Magistrate. The ·following evidence was given by Mr. Turner before Your Commissioners:-(rr6r) Q. Did you make any protest agai'nst Mr. Griffin's appointment not haYing b<:en

offered to vou ?-A . ... To. I was then Acting Resident )Iagistrate here. I went to tne Adminis­ trator and explained the matter to him, ar.d he said I was s611 to keep the position of Assi~tant Resident fagistrate. He said the head of the channel had been closed, and I would have t.o keep my position. I understand that, in referring to the _ head of the channel, he meant Mr. 'MusgraYe, anrl there was no other chance.

The Adrni ni8-trator' s charges again st the GovermMnt



' hen 0·1v11w evidence ubseqnent1y (2622), the Administr ator wa a ke

Admini t r ator's assurauce t hat he h a

made subsequently to Mr. Turner displays._ It is n~t unnatural_ t~at Mr., Mu~­ grave shou1d have formed t he opinion he did concerning the Admmistrator s atti-tude in regard to him. The Administrator's charges against the Government Secretary. - The evidence which contained Mr. Musgrave's charges against the Admini~trator 'Yas given before Your Commissioners on the 17th November, 1906. This was im­

mediately transcribed, and a copy sent to the Admin~strato~ o)l the l~th idem with a request that the Administrator would appomt a time upon wh~ch to again appear before the Commission. Upon the same morning a letter (which had

strator stating that, "I desire to give evidence in the Richmond case rehearing inquiry, and also with regard to the lack of assistance I have experienced, as Administrator, from my Chief Executive Officer," and asking when it would be convenient for him to appear before us. ;_ , . . ' ::.:_ ·:.i , • ,, .: • ~ _ ... : , : .: .! ;

His Excellency accordingly gave further evidence on the 21st November, 1906, and several charges were then made against the Government Secretary. The Administrator's first charge against his Chief Executive Officer is contained in the words following : -

( 2594) That his demeanour was hostile to my administration throughout the Richmond affair I maintaitn is obvious. In the very beginning he ir..formed me that I was in the position of a def endant, &c., &c. ·

No other evidence directly bearing upon this charge was given by _ the Admini­ strator before Your Commissioners except that contained in the evidence (para­ graph 3173) taken in the Richmond ca:.,e proper. They, however, have carefully perused and considered the whole of the papers in connexion with the Richmond

case, including the desl}atches from the Administrator, dated 29th A ugust, 31st August, and 12th September, 1905, with their enclosures, wherein the actions of the Government Secretary were fully disc_ ussed by him. As a result of such consideration, Your Commissioners find that there was

nothing in Mr. Musgrave's demeanour or actions in this case inconsistent with a natural and proper attitude under the circumstances. It must be remembered that Mr. Musgrave believed "throughout the Richmond case," and has since sworn positively, that the Administrator had been guilty of the charge made

against him by Mr. Richmond. That he was conscientious in stating that belief, Your Commissioners have no· doubt. His position, therefore, was one of much difficulty and a consequent hesitancy, and what is alluded to by the Administrator as "agitation" in the circumstances was likely to be noticeable in his demeanour.

The Administrator particularly instances the fact that the Government Secretary informed him from the very first that he was in the position of a defendant. Mr. Musgrave did tell the Administrator so on 21st August, two days after the charges were made, but he did so after being informed by His

Exce1lency that he intended to suspend Mr. Richmond, and knowing that such suspension would have to come before Executive Council whereat the Adminis­ trator would preside. The letter wherein these words complained of were used by Mr. Musgrave was a private one to His Excellency in an wer to a request to attend

at Government House, peruse the Gabriel papers, and give an opinion upon the charge made by Mr. Richmond. Mr: Musgrave's reply was void of any trace of hostility. Mr. Musgrave's reasons for referring to the Administrator "from the

very beginning" as being in the position of a defendant are clearly set out


in his prdtest against his dwn vote in Executive Council on 29th .August, 1905. They contain no indications of hostility, but temperate expressions of a well­ ordered mind, and should not be offensive to an unprejudiced one. This charge of hostility seems to arise from the fact that the Admini­

strator, well knowing his mYn innocence of offence, credited all who conscientiously believed the contrary (and therefore desired to be relieved from a position which they felt to be acute) with hostility to his administration. Another charge by the Administrator against Mr. Musgrave is that he

had an inclination to foster grievances. The Administrator says (2594) that this "was evident in the attitude he took up in the Richmond case." Your Com­ missioners do not find that anything in Mr. Musgrave's attitude on this occasion can be taken as evidence in support of the general charge alleged against him.

The Administrator further says in support of this charge :-(2594) It was a surreptitious, burrowing kind of antagonism. He (Mr. Musgrave) men­ tions, for instance, the case of two officers ,vho complained to him in regard to Mr. Ballantine. Reference to this is made in the evidence given by him (Mr. Musgrave).

. This refers to an occasion first spoken of by Judge Murray in his evi­ dence:-(2082) Mr. Symons, for instance, a clerk in Mr. Ballantine's office, came up here and com­ plained to Mr. Musgrave about the way. Mr. Ballantine talked to him. Mr. Musgrave said, " You

had better complai\n to the Governor; I cannot do an: thing." Symons saia: there was no use complaining to the Governor about Mr. Ballantine, anJ I (Judge Murray) have heard other officers express the same thing. ·

A reference to Mr. Musgrave's letter of 9Lh December, 1904, to the Ad­ ministrator regarding Mr. Ballan tine's ~-wtion in th) "Bunting case," cited in the "Ruby case," shows that Mr. Musgrave there mentioned this episode to him in these words-

Apart from this statement as to 1fr. B's. assumption where his vanity and self­

sufficiency cause him to, think that he is essential to Your in all public matters, I may mention the case of two entirely outside officers, well up in the service, who complained of Mr. Ballamtine's insulting and domineering conduct. I reco-nmended them both-they con­ sulted me quite separately ard at different time&--to have an ir.terviiew with Your Excellency,

or to send me a written memo. to put before you. . Both, hor.'ever, preferred to drop the

matter of an appeal, as I suggested, considering that you were so strong a personal friend of Mr. Ballantine's.

His Excellency says-(2594) If the officexs really felt aggrieved, why did not Mr. Musgrave at the time inquir~ into them, which was his duty as Government Secretary to do, and then, if he found thait they were well founded, why did he not inform me about them? No; he preferred to let those offi­ cers go away under the impression, if I read his letter aright, that they were not likely to

obtain justice if they carr1e to me. He disliked me, and ·he disliked l\ilr. Ballantine, and he used this opportunity to foster a grievance.

Your Commissioners think if fostering a grievance had been Mr. Mus­ grave's object he would not have informed His Excellency of the matter in his letter. His so informing him at least completely answers the Administrator'.3 suggestion that the antagonism was of the "surreptitious, burrowing," kind. His Excellency seeks to blame Mr. Musgrave for not making an inquiry into

these matters. Your Commissioners agree with that, but they do not believe his ·neglect to insist on formal complaints from these officers arose in any way from a desire to foster a grievance. Your Commissioners are further of opinion that it was clearly the duty of the Administrator, on receipt of the letter of 9th

December, 1904, from Mr. Musgrave, informing him of those facts to insist on a full, complete, and immediate inquiry into the cases. This he should ·have done in any event, but more particularly so if the Administrator believed, as he states, that Mr. Musgrave preferred "to let those officers go away under the impression,

if I read his letter aright, that they were not likely to obtain justice if they came to me" (the Administrator.) The Administrator further charges Mr. Musgrave in the following words.:-

I y work ar..d responsibility have been even greater than if I had no Government Secre­ tary, because of fr. 1usgrave's incompetence or his obstructiveness - it is difficult to know which to call it. I produce palpers o. 730 / 05 as an instance of the extra trouble and extra

responsibility thrown upon me through this incompeten~e or obstrnctiv ness on Mr. Musgrave's part. F.14262 f

I nspection of Government Depar_ t"jentt.

Appendix K.


· ' ie paper~ pto

the Government Secr e ary m a draft pro.;la1J.muo11. lour Lomrni.::s ioner s con­ siuer IL only an mstance 01 clencal care,u ·.,~11c::-s rn tm::; special case. It is, perhaps, notewor t hy that tlie ... ~urnrn1s n;_1,tm· nimselr also made an error m uie same set o:t p a.pen;-a clerical one. .llie dra1L proclamat1011 dealt with prnlnuu10n o± reuru.1t rng nat ives of certt rn i:,lanu.s for labour in the .i. T orthern Division. Mr. Musgrave's error consisted (wnen drawing the proclamation in uie absence of t he Gnief J udicial Offi ce.._·) 1.n 01mt mg the reference to the _ ort11ern 1Ji v1s10n after its, omission was pornt,:;J out by the Administrator. His b_rco1le11cy1s error was the omission of the name of one o± t he islands from the draft

proclamation until it was pointed out by t11e Government Secretary. H ad the .lcttter been guilty of obst ruct10n he would not have pointed out H is .Excellency's error. ·1 he incident i s. illustrative of carelc .::s11ess, not o± incompetence. Inspection of Government Departments.-Y our Commissioners now come t o the specific charges made by the Administrator against Mr. Musgrave, and would hrst refer to the " one instance " cited by t he A dministrator in his

despatch of 12th September, 1905, as indicative or Mr. Musgrave's " animosity," and mentioned in the Administrator's evidence (2595) as an instance of Mr. Mus­ grave's " i.nclination to impede work "-no direct evidence was at any time ad­ duced to show that such a feeling of animosity existed, or: that the desire to im­ pede work had aught to do with Mr. Musgrave's delay in undertaking the work of the Departments.

The correspondence upon this subject is contained in Appendix K. It is true that .the evidence shows that Mr. Musgrave did delay the inspection of the Departments contrary to instructions. It is also, we think, true that he was perfunctory in the performance of the work when he ought to have endeavoured to carry it out thoroughly.

Any failure to satisfactorily perform it would probably have been more than accounted for by the conditions.that he well knew, and t·hat the Adminis­ trator also well knew, existed in the Departments of the Treasury and of Lands and Survey, and which conditions were fully set out in the strongly-worded protest which Mr. Musgrave made to the Administrator against being forced to assume, in addition to those of his own Department, the responsibilifies that should rest on others for the condition in, and proper conduct of, their Departments. Mr. Musgrave in his protest urged that the Heads of tne Departments he was called upon to ·supervise, in addition to his own, had failed m the administration of some, if not all the branches of the service intrusted to them; he urged, with force and with instances, "the utterly confused state of the service " ; he also urged his own Department's calls upon himself, also that the Head of a third Department was being provided to lessen t he obligations of the two Heads of Departments in fault, thus allowing them a further opportunity to cast the onus of omissions upon himself as special inspector for "lack of instruction." In fact-though the protest gave credit when credit was due-it constituted the strongest possible denunciation of the state of affairs then existing in the two Departments jn question.

That the denunciation was justifi ed, the following brief summary will suffi­ ciently indicate:~ Treasury.-During January or February, 1905, the Treasurer had been utterly incapacitated by drink, absented himself from his office, and remained in his cottage, where His Excellency not only saw him in a helpless condition hjmself, but t ook the medical officer to attend him. E arly in the very next month, dur ing the absence of the Administrator, the Treasurer had another drinking bout. Of t his, H is Excellency was informed upon his return to Port Moresby early in March, 1905.

Land and .Sitrvey Office.-On 30th J anuary, 1905, the Chief Judicial Offi­ cer and Government Secretary, in p ursuR.nce of a r equest from the Administrator, inspect ed this office, and made certain .recommendations. These were approved by t he A dminist r ator, and made known to the Chief Government Surveyor by t h Government Secretary at the A dministrator's command. The Administrator subsequent ly was absent for some time from P ort Moresby. During his absence, the Chief Government Rurv yo r took a most obstinate stand, on what he took to be

the effect of the Administrator's instructions upon these tecdmmehdat:tons, and defied the Government Secretary, who urged his own view upon him. His Excel­ lency, on hjs return, had the papers in tne matter placed before him on lot March, 1905, but made no comment in his minutes upon the defiant attitude of the Chief Government Surveyor towards the Government Secretary and Chiei

Executive Officer, and His Excellency's last minute, endorsed upon those papers on 22nd March, consists of the single word ·· Seen," nor can it be urged that tne Administrator had failed to notice the serious nature :of the insubordinate spirit on the part of the Chief Government Surveyor, for, in a confidential despatch, under date 29th August, 1905, to His Excellency the Governor-General, the Ad­

ministrator showed his belated appreciation of that conduct. He says-I feel it my duty to inform Your Excellency that this is not the first occas~on upon which I have had cause to doubt )fr. Richmond's loyalty to the Administration. In January last the Resident Magistrate, Eastern Division, wrote to the Government Secretary complaining that for two years or more he had been unsuccessfully endeavouring to procure from the Lands Office certain

deeds of lease for allotments in Samara:'. Mr. Richmond urged pressure of work as an excuse for the delay. In course of a comersation which I held with Mr. Murray and Mr. ~1usgrave on 28th January, they, at my suggestion, agreed to inquire into the serious matter of arrears of work in the Lands Department, and in t'heir joint minute of 30th January (vide p. 2 of papers 62 / o 5) they made certain recommendations, and these I directed were to be followed. From

4th February to 9th March I was absent £rem Port Moresby, and on my reh1m I fow1d t:hat Mr. Richmond had been acting in such a manner as to leave no doubt in my mind that he had endeavoured to obstruct, rather than further, the end in view. This will, I think, be evident if the papers inclosed in jackets Kos. 61 and 67 are carefully perused."

Having seen so clearly the conduct of the Chief Government Surveyor, the ques­ tion naturally arises why did not the Administrator make known his strong dis­ approval to him through the Government Secretary, or take even stronger steps in regard to it. He did neither.

Notwithstanding 1' these circumf::ttances surrounding the affairs at that time in the Treasury and Land Offices, the Administrator, on 22nd March (the very day 1

of his last minute in the Land Office matters already referred to and within a few days of the Treasurer's reprehensible act.ions) wrote his minute to Mr. Mus­ grave directing him to pay periodical visits of inspection to the offices mentioned, thereby penalizing his already harassed Chief Execµtive Officer, instead of saddling, as he should have done, the responsibility of the failings and faults of the two Heads of Departments, so conspicuously displayed at this very period,

upon their own shoulders. ·

In the despatch of 12th September to the Governor-General before alluded to, the Administrator refers specially to what he therein terms Mr. Musgrave's "animosity" in regard to the Admjnistrator's instructions to make periodical visits to these Departments. The Administrator in that despatch says :-

When the Adrnin~strator is absent from Port Moresby it is, more than at other times, necessary that the Government Secretary should pay frequent visits to Government offices, to see that work is being properly performed, and subsequently to bring to the Administrator's notice any unnecessary delays which may have come under his observation.

Your Commissioners entirely agree with this view, but they submit that the failure of the Administrator to take any, even the slightest, notice of Mr. Rich­ mond's defiance of the Government Secretary in the Administrator's absence en­ tirely defeated and rendered nugatory any good work which Mr. Musgrave was trying to accomplish. Mr. Musgrave wa,s unsuccessful, but that is little to be wondered at in view of the non-support his attempts afterwards in this case re­ ceived at the hands of the Administrator. Your Commissioners, indeed, are forced ,regretfully to the conclusion that not only in this matter of Mr. Richmond, but

throughout the whole scope of Mr. Musgrave's duties, there was a cold and con­ temptuous indifference shown: by the Administrator towards any rebuffs that the Government Secretary might receive; and act upon act of insubordination and disrespect followed in na,tural sequence. Under all these circumstances, it is not ft, matter of surprisP. that the Government Secretary was disinclined to undertake the additional supervision and responsibility sought to be thrust upon him.

Your Commissioners have said that Mr. Musgrave should have made fur­ ther endeavour than he did to comply with the instructions of the Administrator however unreasonab]P. he may have thought them to be. _ In doing so, they say all they think is to be aid a,gainst Mr. Musgrave in this connexion. They do not


Appointment of the Chief Government Surveyor.


agree with the Administrator when he says to Mr. Musgrave in reference to the latter's protest now under notice, "in my opinion you have much exceeded the limits oi your obligations as my adviser, ancl urg the impropriety of such criti­ cisms," or when he refers to such criticism as " lack of allegiance."

Appointment of Present Chief Government Surveyor.-Under this head­ ing of Administration, in relation to individuals, it is necessary to refer to the action of the Administrator in appointing the present Chief Government Sur­ veyor (Mr. Drummond) to that position.

This took place in August, 1905. At that time the Land Survey Office was under Mr. Richmond as Chief Government Surveyor, and the next senior officer ,vas Mr. Matthews, the Chief Draughtsman. Mr. Drummond was a junior Field Surveyor, appointed as recently as seven months previously. Mr. Richmond was suspended from his office by the Administrator in August, 19051 and His Excel­ lency instructed that Mr. Matthews should take control of the office, which he accordingly did. At the same time, hovrnver, Mr. Drummond, who was at that time in the Field, :was recalled and appointed Acting Government Surveyor. This appointment had the effect of passing over any claim which Mr. Matthews, a senior officer, had to the position. Mr. Matthews feeling, as he says, "naturally indignant at being passed over," wrote the following letter to the Government Secretary on 25th August, 1905 :-_

I ha,ve the honour to request that you will kindly lay the following information before His Exoellency the Administrator in coID1exion wi.J: h Mr. R. M. Drummond)s appointment as (r) Acting Chief Government Surveyor, (2) Acting Registrar of Titles and :Commissioner for l\li.nes. I have served the Queensland Government in both the Departments of Railways and Lands for fifteen

years, and during t'he whole of that time have had an unblemished record, as my certificates wili show. I have also served under the British ~ew Guinea. Government in my present position for three years, and during that time have on three occasions acted as head of the Depa.rtrr,.ent to the satisfaction, I believe, of the Government.

I would therefore respectfully ask if there is any reason for His Excellency to have overlooke d my past services.

The Government Secretary minuted the above letter to His Excellency a,:; follows :-" Letter within for Y .E.'s consideration. A.M. 26.8.05." The Administrator minuted as follows :-" Inform Mr. Matthews that I have acted on what I believe to be the best interests of the service."

Your Commissioners exp:tess their opinion. regarding Mr. Drummond's experience and capacity in another portion of this report. They have fur­ thermore formed the opinion that the qualifications for the office, possessed in such small degree by Mr.' Drummond, were _ held by Mr, Matthews to a far greater extent, quite apart from any claim which the latter undoubtedly had by reason of longer service in the Territory.

For these reasons Your Commissioners regret that they cannot agree with the Administrator when he states that he had acted "in the best

interests of the service" when he appointed Mr. Drummond in preference to and over the head of Mr. Matthews, if the question is confined to the degree of quali­ fication possessed by the two gentlemen ,referred to. Nor do they think that the Administrator acted wisely in confirming Mr. Drummond in his position, as was

done on 24th March, 1906, even though Lhat confirmation was made subject to the approval of Your Excellency. There were, however, it is apparent other grounds than those of mere qualification operating on His K T cellency's mind in taking the action, and they were (1) that Mr. Matthews had not obeyed an order to attend the Administrator at Government House on Sunday, 20th August, 1905, and (2) that there ,vere indi­ cations that Mr. Matthews was supporting Mr. Richmond in a false imputation against the Administrator.

Dealing with the former of these grounds, Your Commi sioners draw at­ tention first to the minute desiring Mr. Matthews' attendance at Government House on Sunday, 20th August. The Administrator directed the following minute to Mr. Musgrave, the Government Secretary:-

Th Hon. the Governm n t S cretary. - Please corn to Gm·ernm nt Hou t!tis moming, and bring ~[essrs. Richmond and )fatthews with you.- F. R. B. , Admini trator, 101 8/ 05. Mr. Musgrave minuted on to Mr. Richmond as follows :-The Hon. th~ C.G.S. , &r.- Pray note and forward to ~fr. Matthews as soon as pos. ibl , who will r turn to me.- A. i\f. (G.S.) , 20/ 8/ 05.



Mr. Richmond returned the docket to Mr. Musgrave, with the following minutes indorsed :--oted and fomarded.-J. R. I personally took this memo. to )Ir. )f atthe"·::/ horise, 2.nd found he was out of port. I

not wish to go myself to-day.-J. Richmond, C.G.S., Sunday, 20th Aug., 1905.

Mr. Musgrave indorsed and forwarded the following minute to the Ad­ rnjnistrator :-His Excellency the Admnislrator.- 1\Iinute paper now returned herewith, for Your Excellency's information. I have since seen l\Ir. )1atthews, who thinks it of little use for hiff1 to

coff,e over without Mr. R. If I can get a horse I will ride over a little later.-A. M. (G.S.),


The impression made upon the Administrator by the above minutes and from ~he fact of Mr. Matthews' non-attendance may be gathered from a con­ fidential despatch on the 29th August, 1905, from the Administrator to Your Excellency, wherein he states:- ·

At 9 a.ff,. on Sunday (20th August, 1905), an official communication was addressed by me to the GoYernment Secretary, directing him to come to Government H9use during the morning and bring l\Iessrs. Richmond and l\Jatthews with him. l\Iv minute was forwarded to l\Ir. Richmond bY the Government Secretary, and the forrr,er noted thereon that he had personally taken it to" Mr.

i\ [atthews' house, but had found th'at he was '' out of port.'' He concluded by stating that he did not wi h to go to Government House on that clay. A subsequent minute on the same pa.per by the GoYernment Secretary stated that he had seen l\Ir. l\Iatthews,- and that the latter officer thought it "of little use" to go to Government House without 3fr. Richmond. The Government Secretarv, in

forwarding these minutes, stated that he would try and procure a horse and ride over a little later. Along with these minutes was enclosed another from Mr. Richmond, in which he directly charged the Administrator ,vith " dishonourable conduct," &c., and on the back of this document the Government Secretary stated that he had a horse in waiting and could be at Government House

in half an hour, but awaited further instructions before leaving. To this I :replied that I desired that he would oome to Gm'emment House as soon a.s possible. This message left Government House at 12.30, and must ha,·e reached 11r. :Musgrave about I p.m.

The foregoing are the circumstances, as conveyed to the Administrator's mind, surrounding Mr. Matthevvs' summons and neglect to proceed to Govern­ ment House. The following evidence was given before Your Commissioners by Mr. Matthews on this point :-

3270. Mr. H erbert.- Did you receiw a re

with, I think, l\fr. Richmond and Mr. ~[usgrave. It w.a,s on a Sunday morning. I had left the port in company with 1\fr. Garrioch on a photographing expedition on the Sunday morning, and I did not come back until pretty late. 3271. Q. Did YOU make any explanation to His Exctellency regarding your non-attendance? -A. After receiving the message on my return, I verbally explained to l\Ir. :i\Iusgrave that I had

been absent from Port i\Ioresby, and that 1 had ascertained tha,t Mr. Richmond had declined to attend at Government House. I .therefore presumed that my attendance there was not necessary. 3272. Q. Did you receive any further intimation or request that your attendance was neces­ sary ?-A. 1one whatever.

3273. Q. Would you have attended had you been required?-A. Certainly, I should have gone over.

It is frequently very unsafe to rely upon evidence bearing upon time. The Administrator required through the Government Secretary the attendance of Mr. Richmond and Mr. Matthews in the morninz . It is abundantly clear that Mr. Matthews was out of Port Moresby \vhen that message was first taken to his house. The Administrator's recollection of the circumstances, as detailed in the

ext,ract from his desnatch of 29th August seems to indicate that Mr. Matthews had returned home before midday, whilst Mr. Matthews' recollection is that he did not return until "some hours after the time at which the Administrator reT auirecl (his) attendance" at Government House, with M·r. Musgrave and Mr.

Richmond. However that may be, Mr. Matthews gives his reasons for non-attend­ ance very clearlv: "After receiving- the message on my return, I verbally ex­ nlained to Mr. Musgrave that I had been absent from Port Moresby, and that I Jrnd ascertained that Mr. Richmond hail declined to attend at Government Honse.

I, therefore, presumed that mv attendance there was not necessary." Your Commissioners think that that was a fair assumption to make, and that even if not, it was not a sufficient justification of the Administrator's act in


passing Mr. Matthews over in s~lecting' a c_hief Government Surveyor, and thereby depriving him of an opportumty which m all respects he seems to have been worthy. . .

The Administrator's opinion that Mr. Matthews "ha~ disc1?sed a spiri t, of defiance " is based, Your Commissioners think, on v:holly msufficient grou~ds. Furthermore, the fact that he held that opinion was valid reason. for noth~nf more than that he should have called upon Mr. Matthews to explam that wh!c .. 1 seemed reprehensible in his conduct to His Excellency, whereupon the exrla!lat10!l now given to Your Commissioners would doubtle s have been made and, it is sub-mitted, should have been approved.

In a later despatch from the Administrator to Your Ex?ellency, dated 31st August, 1905, His Excellency refers to .a letter received by him from Mr. Mus­ grave, dated 21st August, 1905, and proceeds :-I may be permitted to point out here that from Mr. Musgray(s minute (? letter) it seerris

the " several Government offioers " mentioned by him have now apparently been narrmred dmrn to two officers---ihimself and Mr. Matthews.

The full text of Mr. Musgrave's letter is as follows .-G.S.D., 21st August, 1905:

Dear Captain Barton,-I beg to thank Your Excellency for your note of thi1s morning as to Gabriell's land papers, a:nd the :statement of the C.G. S. on the subjects inYoh-ed. As you are having the papers copied, I beg to return you the latest minute by 1\Ir. Rich­ mond, whicfi was before you yesterday, and upon which we had an intervie ,Y. I fear I cannot

well leave the office this morning, as there is correspondence for the West and the East, but will be at Government House early tnis p.m. My review of the pap rs wi,ll not be of much use

after all, from what I learn, aJnd for the present I would certainly not advi~e any steps to be taken for the suspension of ::\Ir. R. The situation is one of the grayest concern to several Go­ vernment officers, especiallv Your Excellency, and, in so far as my humble judgment goes, cannot properly Le settled here by Your Excellency or any 01·he1· loca l authority. - I remain, Your Ex­

cellency's faithful servant, A. MusGRAV:E. His Excellency Captain F. R. Barton.

Mr. Musgrave, in that letter, it will be seen, jn alluding to the situation being one of the gravest concern, does so in reference, not only to "several Go­ vernment officers," but also especially to His Excellency. Your Commissioners have referred to this letter of Mr. Musgravo's because

it was made a subject of special remark by His Excellency in his despatch, and apparently he has given undue weight to it in coming to a conclusion regarding Mr. Matthews. In the aespatch of 29th August, above alluded to, His Excellency goes on to say-

Indications pointed to the fact that one of l\Ir. Richmornl 's supporters in the false impu­ tation made by him was Mr. Matthews, Chief Draughtsman in the Survey Office. ::\Ir. Matthe,rs, moreover, had disclosed what I could not but re gard as. a spirit of defiance by declining to accompany Mr. Musgrave to Government House on the previous Sunclay. It seems, therefore, highly inexpedient to appoint him to be Acting Chief GoYernment Surveyor and Acting Regis­ trar of Titles. I accordingly despatched a Government sailing n~ssel imm diately to K ap.'l-Kapa, in which district ::\Ir. Survevor Drummond was at work, with instruct'ons to that officer to

return to Por1: Mores_by ,vithout delay , and upon his arrival I appointed him to act in the above­ named offices, but without giving him any increase of salary.

Your Commjssioners cannot agree with the Administrator's statement that "indications pointed to the fact that one of Mr. Richmond's supporters in the false imputation made by him was Mr. Matthews," if by that statement it is meant to infer that Mr. Richmond's imputation was false, and that Mr. Matthews

knew it, and was yet supporting it. They, furthermore, are unable to see that the_ fact that. Mr. Matthews might hav~ honestlv believ,2cl that the facts upon wluch Mr. Rwhmond based his charge against the Administrator were true was an~ justification for his being passed ov~r :in the appointment to the office .)f Chief Government Surveyor. That Mr. Matthews did so honestly believe is evi­ dent .f~o~ the sworn statements he has subsequently made, but there js no groun,-l for behevmg that he unduly obtruded his l elief prior to 23rd ....:\..ugust (the date of M1:, Drummond'. being s nt for), or at any subsequent period. Th r i aLn no evidence that Mr. Matthews was a "supporter" of l\1r. Ri hmond' charge in

h nse thrit h encouraged him. In fact, the evidenc is all th oth r way.


Your Commissioners, on this head, refer to the following evidence of His Honour Mr. Justice Murray:-314r. lllr. Okeden.-You referred to t he fact that you had a reason for noticing the

conversation YOU ha:re just stated?- A . Yes. :i.\Iy reason ,ms this: Shortly before this-I think it was on the pre·ious Saturday-)Ir. )fattbews came out to " Hill worth," ,rhere I was living, and said that he wanted to ask mv ad"ice. I s1id, " All right ; what is it ?" And he said,

" Richmond is going to write ~ letter to ?\Ir.Atlee Hunt (who was here at the time), complain­ jng about thi111gs generally, aITTd about Ballantine getting drunk, and about his influence m~er the Governor." And he said, " There :,s also an alteration which the GoYernor has made 111 one of the papers." Then he explained wbat the alteration ,v as . Not having the papers before me,

I could not follow bis explanation e, actly, but I h10\Y "·bat His Excellency was said to ha Ye clone was to write " For Ex; Co. " i ' tllP minute soff,e time after the minute had been

written, and the advice he wanted to ask me ,ms this: He said, " I have advised )fr. Ri:::-h­

mond not to do anything \Yithout consultin«:; you or )fr. ).Iusgra,·e.- He says that he ,vishes to do the thing absolutely by himself, and not to drag anybcdy else into it. " I said, " Does he

understand that it is neck or nothing-that, if he does not prove his case, he is pretty certain to be dismissed?" Mr. l\Iatthews said, "Ob, yes, he quite understands that." I said, "Then, if that ils so, let him taJ-e what course seems to him." Of course, I do not say that these are the exact words.

And, on the same head, Your Commissioners refer to the following evidence of Mr. Matthews :-327 4. Q. Did you t ake any actirn part with )Ir. Richmond in making the charge against the Administrator, or in advising or in inducing :Mr . R:chmond to do so?-A. None whate,·er. On

the contrary, I endea:voured to restrain him from acting hastil v . I did not even see a copy

of the charge until it was in the Administrator's hands, when it was shown me by Mr. Rich­ mond, and I made no comment.

This is a matter of administration, with which Your Commissioners regret they are unable to express their approval.

The Pr,ocedure in the Richmond Case.-I-Iis Honor Mr. Justice Murray drew attention (2065) , to the procedure adopted in the Richmond case, and said, " I consider Ca-ptain Barton is naturally a, vrnak man, and that he has no very strong idea of fair play. I will illuetrate his want of fair play by the circum­ stances jn the Richmond case, i.e., the procedure." His Honor's broad conten­ tions in nroof of the Administrator's "want of fair play" in this case, as Your

Commis~ioners understand his evidence; are-· no ( r) That the Admrinistrator. having b€en act vised that he had no power to suspend Mr. Richmond without reference to the Executive Council, nevertheless did so the day followir.g such advice.

Your Commissioners think that, if he was restricted absolutely to the pcnrnrs conferred by t he Regulations then in force, the Administrator had no :i.1,thnritv to do more without reference to the E_ ecutive Council than to notify Mr. Richmond of an intended suspension, with t he grounds thereof, and to call

upon him for his grounds of exculpation. The Administrator, nevertheless, did fully susnend him, contrary to the J ridge's expressed view, and afterwards sub­ mitted that suspension to Executive Council for confirmation. Nor. taking into consideration the peculiar circumetances of this case, do Your Commis­

sioners see anything blameworthy in that proceeding. It was an exceptional case, which required exceptional measures. Your Commiesioners are of opinion that clear powers of temporary suspension of any officer, pending a submission to Executive Council, should be given in future to the Administrator.

The next contention of His Honor is- · (2) That, having been advised that Regulation 85, as to interdiction. did not apply to l\fr. Richmond's ease, the- rlministrator, ne,·ertheles , on the day following his a'dvice, so

applied it.

Your Commissioners agree that, this Regulation had no proper application to the case under notice. The .,_ dministra.tor had fully suspended Mr. Richmond. Any interdiction, therefore, wa unnecessary. They can only suppose that this proceeding wa::. adopted in the belief that it might give greater effectivenese to a doubtful suspension. His Honor's next contentions are-

(3) Tba.t the ease should haH' been dealt \\"ith apart from Colon i•al Office Rul<"s, and should not haw· been brought 1 1efore thr Exeeutin' C'ouncil. (4) That, even if the Colonial Office Rules "·ere follo,Yrd, Mr. Ricbmoncl shmilcl k m · heen allowen. to appear 'bf-fore th Council and r1 fend himself oralh·, ,rhich right \\as

The Pi·oce.dtlre in the '' Rich•

mon:l Case."


If Your Commissioners are right in the view they take of he ... dminis-­ trator's action in suspending Mr. Richmond, it follows that the bringmg of the matter of that suspension before Executive Council was a proper proceeding, which disposes of contention (3) . As to contention ( 4), what actually happened in Executive Council was this: The Administrator informed the Council that he had suspended Mr. Richmond for disloyalty to the Administration, and indi­ cated wherein that disloyalty existed. He also stated he had placed J\fr. Rich­ mond on half salary for disregarding an order of the Administrator, and gave his reasons therefor. He also stated that the charges made by Mr. Richmond against him could not be considered in Executive Council, that Mr.

Richmond had been afforded every opportunity of stating his case, and that his statement and the Administrator's report thereon would be forwarded to His Excellency for his decision as to any further action to be taken. He further stated that Mr. Richmond had been asked to be present to state his defence, and that the questions to be decided by the Council were, whether they confirmed his action in suspending Mr. Richmond or not, and if yes, whether the Council recommended that Mr. Richmond should continue to receive any portion of his salary until his suspension was confirmed or otherwise by the Governor .. General.

Mr. Richmond then entered the Council Chamber. The Clerk of Council read over all documents bearing upon Mr. Richmond's alleged offence and his subsequent suspension. The Administrator then asked Mr. Richmond to state his defence, explaining to him that he was charged with disloyalty to the Ad­ ministration, which was apparent in the original minute sent to him. Mr. Richmond made a short statement in reply, and repudiated the charge of dis­ loyalty, and asked that his original statements and charges might receive proper investigation. The Administrator then invited any member who wished to do so to ask Mr. Richmond any question with regard to the statements he had made. No question was put by any member. Mr. Richmond then retired. The Ad­ ministrator then put the question to the Council whether they confirmed his action in suspending Mr. Richmond or not. The suspension was confirmed in the following words :-" That the action taken by His Excellency the Adminis­ trator, in suspending Mr. Richmond, is nonfirmed." By a subsequent order, Mr. Richmond was allowed to receive half salary pending a reply from His Excel­ lency the Governor-General.

His Honor Judge Murray, in voting against the question, recorded his protest as follows :-His H onour.-~o, sir. I object to }Ir. Richmond's suspension on the follo,ring grounds: -The question involved is not of such :i nature as is cont mplated by the rules of the Colonial

Office or the Royal Instructions, and, beic.g peculiarly personal to Your Excellency, should not be brought before the Council. If, however, the Council must consider the question, they should consider both sides of it, and should under no circumstances advise the suspension of an officer without hearing him in defence.

(2) As i\f r. Richmond made the statement in question to Mr. Atlee Hunt \Yhen that officer was, inquiring into the working of' Mr. Richmond's Department, and made it-to quote Mr. Hunt's letter-" for the purpose of illustratir.g the difficulties he exp rienced in carrying out hi1s duties," he should not be suspended without haYing an opportunity of C3.lling eYidence to justify his action, by showing that the statement was made in good faith, a1~d is, in fact, true.

(3) The fact thaJt the defence put fonrnrcl lrv Mr. Richmond inrnlves a personal reflec­ tion upon Your Excellency is no reason why the Council should advise the suspension of ~ fr. Richmond without hearir.g that defence, though it is a reason why c1uestion . houl

The question before the Council was whether they confirmed the Administrator's action in suspending Mr. Richmond. The charge against him, and the evidence (it was all documentary), were read. Mr. Richmond ,vas present. He was i1sked to state his defence. After hearing all that Mr. Richmond had to say, the Council confirmed the action of the Administrator. How can it be said, then, that the Council advised the suspen ion "without hearing him in defence" 1

His Honor wou]d seem really to mean by liis protest that, in his view, Mr. l(ichmond should not have been suspended at all until his charae of'' di honorable 0011duct," made against the Admini trator, had been derided by ome one in ~ US·­ tralia. _Your Commis ioners cannot agree with this. Mr. Ilichrnond s retention

m active office under His Excellenc 's .A.dministration, under su h cir umstances wa i1 mossible. The whole protest ·woul I seem to Your Commi sion r t be aimed :1t tlw pr c dure ,Yhich the J\. rlministrator four davs befor had jntend d to follo ,;_ and


of which he had informed His Honor. The following is the account given by His Honor (2065) of what the Administrator's expressed intentions were :-He said . . . . that he did not intend to allow the Council to hear eridence at all.

H e said " I shall be there. No e\'idence will be taken. Richmond will be suspended, and the papers sent to Melbourne.' ' I said, " Whatever Yiew you take, whether it comes under the Colonial Office Rules or not, you cann•Jt suspend a man or punish a man without allowing him to defend himself. " He said, " I am perfectly convinced 1 am right in the view I take."

It is clear that the Admm1strator's intention at that time was to ask the Council to indorse his acfion in suspending Mr. H,ichmoncl without hearing any evidence in support, or Mr. Richmond in defence or explanation. That would have been imprope~, and Hi_ s Honor's whole protest would have properly applied. ·

. . His Honor


s next contention in support of the general charge under discus -s10n 1s :-(s) That leave was refused Mr. Richmond ,rhilst uGder suspension.

Your Commissioners think that this is no indication of '' want of fair play." Leave was a privilege l\ Richmond could not reasonably expect under the cir­ cumstances. The next point taken by His Honor is:-(6) That the presence of two extraordinary rr,embers, Mlessrs. Monckton and Bramell, prac-

tically rendered it a packed Council. '

His Honor argues that there was a quorum without these gentlemen, that there was no ·necessity for their presence, and that the practice is only to appoint extra­ ordinary members when they have some special knowledge of the matters which to coll1;e before the Council, and that he gentlemen named had no such qualifica­ ~10n. His Honor then expresses his strong opinion of the appointment being an mterested one on the part of the Admmistrator, inasmuch as one of the extraordi­ nary members was afraid to vote against him, and the other would support him blindly.

Your Commissioners have no evidence, other than that opinion, as to the alleged motive underlying the appointment of the two extraordinary members. They decline to believe that either of them would be false to his oath as Executive Councillor. \ "=)_ .,:,~,~ - f~11,:-i:·ib~..F\f'· ·T -- .. ·' - ·~1,.-·j..,,-:,.~~;i~~

Irrespective of the personal aspect, Your Commissioners are not prepared to say that the appointment of two extraordinary members was in any sense im­ proper. Mr. Richmond had been rightly or wrongly interdicted from the office of Executive Councillor; in anv case, he could not have sat in Council. Then the

Council was already one belo~ its wonted number, owing to the absence of a per­ manent Chief Medical omcer. It seems to Your Commissioners that this was a case calling for a full Council, and the appointment of two extraordmary mem­ bers was therefore j ustifiea.

His Honor1s last pomt in support of the charge of "want of fair play" is, in e:ff ect : -(7) That His Excellency should not have required Mr. Musgrave, to convert his protes t , made in Executive Council, into an official mir.ute.

The circumstances arising out of the Richmond suspension case, so far as t hey relate to this contention, may be gatbered from the following short history:­ When the question of the confirmatiJn of His Excellency's action in suspending lvt:r. Richmond came before the Executive Council on 29th August, 1905, Mr. Musgrave's vote supported the Administrator in his action, and in recording his vote, Mr. Musgrave said, "As an Executive Councillor, I am bound to support Your Excellencis action in this matter, but I am sending in a written nrot'est." Mr. Musgrave's protest was then read by the Clerk of Council. It is as follows:--

I offer this my respectful protest as having to sit in judgment on this case, for the fol­ lowing reasons, viz. : -(2) It is an extraordinary case, with which, I think, there is no proper or competent autho­ ritv to deal ir.- the Possession.

, (2) The Letters Patent and Royal Instructions of 1888, and the latest Coloni al Office

Rules and Regulations, do not appear fo me to contemplate or provide for any such case as the present one. the Administrator being placed ir~ the difficult position of a defendant. . (:,) If this view be cc rrect, it follows that the Colonial Office Rules as to susp ension anrl "interdiction" cannot prq: erly be applied in the case before us , but that it sh oul


(4) The question then anses: Can the Administrator deal with the case in poir.t? In

my Yiew he cannot do so according to ,his " Oath of Office." [Oath follou:s . J Holding these vie\rs, I ventured to advise His Excellency not to " suspend " l\Ir. Richmond. It seems con­ trary to the most elementary principles of justice for any individual to act as judge in a cause where he is really the defendant.

(5) A further reason which influenced me in giring the above advice wais that I foresaw that " suspens:on" ,rnuld certainly lead to greater publicity 'being given to the charge, and I wished to avoid this as far as possible. The '' Crown is the fom:tain of honour,'' and an

accusation that th::s doctrine has not been strictl r .uoheld is a verv serious one. (6) His Excellency did not, however, adopt my advice, and " .suspended" l\Ir. Rich~ond. His Excellency may have thought that my advice wa:s in l\Ir. Richmond's ir.terest. This 1s not so, however, for it was tendered on His Exce llency's own account, and consistently with my oath as an Executive Councillor. I further considered that it ,muld tend more to the digr.ity of his position as the person charged if he re frained from dealing with the matter at all

decisively. _

(7) The suspens;ion having been made without consulting this Cow1cil, I understar.d that, as a member, all I am require d to do is to aid in confirming the sentence, and accordingly do so j but I also request that the preceding remarks may be embod:ied in to-day's minutes, ar..d copy thereof included with other papers sent to ~Ielbourne in the case.

(8) I would finally state that I am unaw;ire of the object of adding t"·o " extraor~iinary members " to this meetir..g, there already being a quorum of permanent and more. exper;enced members. In making this remark, I do not for one moment object person~lly to either of the gentlemen selected.-A. MUSGRAVE, Gm·ernmect Secretary, and Senior Member of Executive


Mr. Ballantine objected to the protest being received, arguing that although a member of Executive Council was empowered to require that his objection ~o a decision of Council should be recorded, he was not entitled to vote for and protest against the motion at one and the same time, that if Mr. Musgrave voted that His J~xcellency's suspension of Mr. Richmond should be upheld, he could not record any protest.

To this objection of Mr. Ballantine, His Excellency, vvho presided, said he had no objection to the protest being included in the minutes. Mr. Ballantine, however, persisted in his objection, and urged that if a protest under such conditions were made, it would be irregular to record it on the minutes, and that it should be made the . subject of an official minute to His Excellencv.

Hi; Excellency then concurred in Mr. Ballantine's objection, declined to receive Mr. Musgrave's written protest, ordered it to be handed back to him by the Clerk of the Council, and directed Mr. Musgrave to send him (His Excellency) the protest in the form of an Official Minute.

The foregoing occurred in Council on the 29th August, mos. The following correspondence, commencing on 31st August, was then ex­ changed between the Administrator and Mr. Musgrave in regard to th..., latter's protest :-


The Hon. the Government Secretary,-It is recorded in the minutes of ExecutiYe Council of 29th instant that \Yhen your written protest "·as O'i'erruled, as not being in accordar.ce with the rules guiding such matters, the Administrator directed you to forn·ard fr to him subsequent!.'. ;i.s an extra-official m:lnute. All papers bearing on the matter of ~Ir. Richmond' s suspension and

his charges against · the Administrator are being sent to l\Ielbourne. Be so good, therefore, as to send me the protest referred to without delay.-F. R. B., Administrator. 31.8.05. His Excellency the Administrator,-This is the protes.t I brought forward in the last mee ting of Counc], but as it was rejected I had not proposed troubling Your Excellencv further in the matter.-A. M. (G.S.). 31.8.05. -

G. S.,-It is 'not clear from your minute of 3r.8.05 whether you wish the attached pro­ test to be recorded as an official minute, or whether YOU do not so ,Yish to record it. Please state defini'telv to-day.-F. R. B., Admicistrator. 2.9 .05. -His Excellency the Administrator,-)Iy" protest" was only intended to show the Yiews

that I held on a most exceptional case in a plain official light, and, although I conceived it to be my bounden duty 10 support Your Excellency's suspension of Mr. Richmond since it had become an accomplished fact, I proposed to place m\· riews on record in the minutes of Exe u-tive Council. · ·· ·,,.-i,,Tn.

My "protes~" was, however, challenged. and exc1udea from the' micutes at the meeting, and so I regarded the matter as virtually settl ed for the time being, and I am prepared to leaYe the "protest" in Your Excellency's hands to deal "·ith as YOU choo e for the- pre. ent.-A. :\IusGRAVE, Gm·ernment Secretary-. 2.9.05.

In the meeting of the Executive Council of th 12th of the follovYin()' month, Excellencv made the fo1Iowino' statement :-0 • L') There is ~nother important m:i.ti r upon which I desire to h;n-e th e opicion of members o[ the Council. Wh 11 the ca e of Mr. Richmond's suspension was ing dPalt ".; th, at the last


meeting of Council, the Hon. A. Musgrn\'e wished to record a protest a~ainst the .Administ~ator's action ir. the matter. As )Ir. Iusgrave voted in favour of the suspension, I decided that it was not necessary to record his reasons against it, but I instructed Mr. Musgrave to pass the protest on to me in the form of an official minute. The orotest reads as follows:-His Excellency the Administrator then read the protest printed above, and con­ tinued:-

The following minutes "·ere exchanged between Mr. -;\1usgrave and myselfi in ~egard to the matter. [The foregoing correspondence Was ltere read.] A question arose in my mmd as to whether the expression of Mr. 1\IusgraYe's views, as made in Executive Council, was to be r~­ garded as privileged. It was therefore necessary that I should ascertain definitely from Mr.

Musgrave whether he wished hrs " protest " t0 be reaarded as an official minute or not. To this he replied that I could deal with it as I chose bfor tlze present, and that he regarded the matter as virtuallv settlect for the time bei11 a. T:he use of these exnressions, vi.z., "for the present" and "for the time being," leads m~ to un

test to be recorded as an official mir.ute . . As the members of Council "·ill ha Ye obserYed, the Hon. A. Musgrave has made a very grave imputation against the Administrator, and I desire to haTe the views of ffie members of the Council as to whati in your opin:bn, is the proper action to be taken.

It is a serious matter wher. the Chief Executive Officer of a Government officially records his opinion that the Administrator has violated his Oath of Office. It is, doubtful if an officer who . expresses such an opinion should remain a member of the present Administration. The questi·on therefore before Council iSr-

Do you recommend that any action be taken against 1Ir. Musgrave in this matter, and, if so, wha;t action? I desire vou to understand that vou are merely asked to teri'der me your advice. In fhe event of my decidir:g hereafter to gi'Ve Mr. Musgrave notice of .suspension, the usual procedure will be followed.

Your Commissioners thjnk that Mr. M1t1sgrave's protest was properly rejected in Council. As, however, it was brought forward with the object of being recorded in the minutes of Council, its subsequent rejection did not take away any privileg~ which would have properly been attached to it had it been

in order, and, therefore, receivable. It was intended as a nrotest in Council, and as such it was, Your Commission think, unobjectioable. It was an explanation of the whole difficulty of the then situation, and also of the apparent inconsis­ tency of Mr. Musgrave's vote for susnension of Mr. Richmond with his previous

advice against that suspension. Had, however, the protest been originally an official minute. voluntarily and spontaneously made, it might perhaps have been considered objectionable, though not on the grounds that the Administrator so considers it. • .

When rejecting the protest, the Administrator took the indefensible course of directing Mr. Musgrave to send him the protest in the form of an official minute (which behest Mr. Musgrave subsequently complied with), and then prac­ tically bringing him up for punishment for having done so. The majority of the Council, who on 12th · September were asked to advise His Excellency. did not

think fit to advise him that any action should be taken against Mr. Musgrave, and the matter was allowed to rest. Your Commissioners believe that the Ad­ ministrator was influenced in taking this step bv a too-ready acquiescence in the gratuitous advice given by M!'. Ballantine in Council on 29th August, to the effect that-in addition to rejecting the protest-it should be made the subject ·

of an official minute to His E-x:cellency. Such a course Your Commissioners believe would not have occurred to His Excellency's mind had it not been so sug­ gested. Having been suggested, the Administrator promptly acted upon it, and persisted in following it.



It is impossible, within the limits of reason, to deal fu]ly and comprehensively with all the charges and counter-charges which have been on the course of the evi­ dence laid hefore Your Commissioners. They propose, therefore, to deal only with those which are among the most important, and ·with those as shortly as a due con­ sideration of the interests of all parties will permit.

1. That the Ad1ninistration was inrlined to pursue a pnlic_l/ ratbrr opposed to white settlement. ThiR chnrgc is one of those mad(' against the Administrator hy the Chief .Judicial OfTicPr in his C'vi

the part of Resi

.A d,ninistration generally.


It is unncces ary to fo1lo,v the whole of His Honor's contentions in support of this eharge. In making it, he ~mys that the mainspring of the policy objected to is due largely to the Administrator's keen sympathy for the natives, and also largely to , ... want of sympathy for Enropean settlement and democratic ideas. Your Commis­ sioners agree with His Honor that the Administrator holds ,·ery strong sympathetic views in regard to the natives. Your Commissioners highly commend these views, an

Your Commissioners do not find that the Administrator's policy has been opposed to or in the main unsympathetic towards white settlement so far as it relates to agriculture. They are not in a position to express an opinion on the abstract question of the Administrator's sympathy with or against democratic ideas.

Reverting to the charge of want of sympathy with white settlement so far as it relates to the mining industry, Your Commissioners desire to observe that whiht on all hands the miners generally expressed their satisfaction with the mining laws of the country and the administration thereof on the whole, some of them apparently had the impression that the administration is unsympathetic towards miners and the mining­ industry. Those who hold this view are unable, when pressed, to state any specific and material acts or omissions of the Administration which are or have been detri­ mental to miners, nor do they advance any clear proof to warrant this impressioJ1 of ,vant of sympathy alleged, but still maintained their contention. This general con­ tention of the miners, however, has since been reduced to the direct allegation against the Administrator by His Honor Judge Murray, now under consideration. Your Commissioners feel bound to refor to the statement made by His Honor in paragraph 204li of the evidence, and to the Administrator's answer in paragraph 24-48.

11 is Excellency in this part of his evidence clearly acknowledges his want of sympathy with the mining industry as it now obtains in Papua, and the miners have apparently been quick to notice it and form the impression they expressed to the Commission.

In justice to the Administeator, it must be said that Your Commissioners were unable to find any circumstantial evidence indicating that he had in any way allowed his opinions to retard or prejudice the mining industry. Your Commissioners desire to add here that every possible opportunity was given to the minen; in the Territory to represent their present wants and their opinions regarding future improvement. The most important items of their evidence hear upon Government prospecting, Government recruiting of native labour, road construction and improvements, and better police protection, each of which 1-ve have dealt with in otl1er portions of our Report.

There were also other minor matters in the nature of grievances and sugges­ tions, which were well founded and are easily capable of 1·ernedy. And here we desire to emphasize the importance of the .Administration making all reasonable efforts to meet the wishes and to cater for the safety and comfort of pioneer miners in new mining centres. The men as a whole are not unreasonable, and many of their

requirements ·would entail little expenditure, and tbe result of granting them ·would tend to make the miners' life more easy ; to make them more contented in their isolated ai1d, at times, trying circumstances ; and, furthermore, would, in establishing amoug the miners a greater contentment with their surroundings, bring about even better relationships between the European on the one hand and the native employe and native villager on the other. Resident magistrates should be encouraged to make every settler understand by their actions that they are working ,vith them in all things making for settlement of the country and progress of its industries, as well as for protection of the natives ; to remoYe the feeling which is apparent in the minds of some individuals that they ( the magistrates) exi ·t solely or more particularly for the policing of tho country for the benefit of, and as champions for, the natives.

Referrin.g to that portion of Judge Murray' evidence which deals with the "interminable delay in denling with land applications" :-It i a fact that there has been delay, in many cases avoidable, in dealing with applications for land hy intending settler and others .

. Your Commi~sioncrs propo c to g·o :is 1 ittle ,ls po sihl he. ond the period of the present ad mini. trntion in dealing with these dclaY, and the arrear: of the work in the Land Department, but iu fairnc.:s a r ferenc hould he mad to the

delays and arrear.· which e~·isted prior to th pr nt admini tration.



pon the a tt111ption of office by the Administl'ator in Jutte, 1904, h~ found that applications for lnnd in fee simple ·were bei11g postponed, and ~. was informed that the late acting Administrator bu.1 stated that he would . not consider :-rny such applieations.n As no autl10rity for l1is aetion could be found, the present

Administrator thought it possible tliat he had received rerbal instructions to pursue tba.t course, and aceordingly telegraphed to Your Excellency on the 19th July, 1904, as follows :-During my predecessor's administration, consideration of all applications to buy land .have

Leen put off till passing of Papua Bill. ~o trace can°be found of instructions to that effect here. Large accumulations 0f applic.:itions for small a-reas for missions and private individuals. Should be glad to knmr whether I can deal \Yith them. To this telegram the \..dmiuistrntor received by mail in September the follow­ ing instructions, dated 18th August, 1804 :-

Referring to Your Excell ency~s telegram date d 19th July respecting applications for areas of Land in the Possession, I have the honour to inform you that action in this matter may be de­ ferred until after the passing of the Papua Bill, now before the House of Representati,,es. With the passing of the Bill, the will of Parliament will be declared in respect of the method of deal­ ing with the lands of the Possession, ,yhle n a further communication will be addressed to Your Ex­ cellency upon the subject.

All applications for freeholds were, therefore, refused or deferred pending the passa~e of the Act referred to, and matters concerning land acquisition were conse­ quently in a very unsettled condition. The only titles obtainable were those of leasehold under the existing Ordinance. The evidence· indicates that, in most cases

where applications for freeholds were deferred or refused, the applic::ints were offered a lease of the land in question, and that in some instances, notably by Missions, they were accepted, ,vhilst in other cases leases were declined by the apµlic:mts. The expense in connexion with leases under the old Ordinance is stated to have been

the reason for refusal, and applicants apparently preferred to await the passage of a more reasoDable measure, under the new constitution. Considering the circumstances of the Territory, we do not find any un

tration. The present administration, furthermore, has made very considerable effort to cope with the extraordinary accumulation of arrears of dealings with land applica­ tions. In July, 1904, there existed no less than 32 approved applications for freehold for which grants had not been issued. The applications were dated over periods ranging from 1892 to 19(J2. They ,vere approved at Executive Council at various

dates, ranging from. 1894 to 1904. Taking nineteen representative cases in which particulars sufficient to furnish an average havP- been supplied to Your Commissioners, they indicate that the pe:riod between application and approval varies from on.e day to two-and-a-half years, and avernged eight months for each application. The periods

elapsing hetween application nncl purclrnse from the natives, where such purchase wa.s necessary, vnry from a day to ten years, and averaged one year and ten months. The periods hetween purcha::;c and survey vary from one

vary from three months to five years~ and averaged two years nine months. These figures are sufficient to give a correct impression of the delays which have occurred, and to indicate where the delay is occasioned. To again refer to th e circumstances of the Territory during the period under review, they were sufficient in themselYes to account for considerable delays in the execution of this work. but in no sense can they be considered the only factor. The blame for delay has been attributed variously to the Resident Magistrates, the Lands Department, and the

Administration generally. Concerning the present Administration, on this point we have already expressed our opinion. ,ye allot the responsibility between th e Resident Magistrates concerned and the Lands Department, but more particularly to the latter. That Hesident Magistrates should take a period, averaging oue year

and ten months between application and purchase is inexcusable, even after givin g due allo\vance for communication to them of instructions to purchase, and the difficul­ ties and delays inseparable from dealing with the natives for their lands. Far greater and less excusable was the delay of the Lands Department. It has taken them, in the cases referred to, an average of over 1 hree years to survey purchased hlocks, and after survey another three years to issue titles. No country

in the world c;:n1 expect ettlemcnt under such conditions. We make every allowance

~ civ

f ·i: the want of: Surv 1y ors ,-nc1 clerica l as8i 'tance, and other matters ·et up in exp1ai1&· tion, and are ueverthele . , unable to eomc to any other conclusion than that the Lands and Survey Dep: rtment was principally to blame for the lcplorable state of afhtirs till recently existing on land matters .

The same comments are ey_ually applicable to the

cations dating from 1891 to 1802. Of the remainina- o4 several were "surre mlere

that after such treatment and such long delays there should remain even so many as seveu applicants in Papua who at this time coul

have been unfortunate for the purpose inten

Judge Murray was appointed in September, 19 04. H is E xcelle ncy shows that the principle was ~ 1dopted by general agreement in Executive Council early in 1905. He al so shows that the prin­ ciple was suggested and approved by Sir George Le Hunte, in 1899. But that, of course, does not touch the present Administration.

(b) The instances giv en as illustrations of the non-encouragement or discouragement of native labour by Government are two--one concerning a man at K euru, one concerning a man and woman at Opau (2059). His Excellency satisfi ed Your Corr.missioners that these instances had no bearing upon the point at issue.

(c) That even under the present system cf discouraging white settlement (for purposes of protecting the natives a large number of nati n:s are shot, and the two men who shot nearly all of them are the two personal friends of His Exce llency-}l r. Monckton and }Ir. Bruce) (2063). It is a fact that a considerable number of na frr es a re shot. As Judge Murray did not challenge the justice of that proceeding, Your Commissione rs did not closely inqui11e into it. It is true that

the 0flicers mentioned have been responsible offi cers in charge of the police who have shot natives, perhaps more in number than has been the case wi th any othe r offi cers. But the facts that l\I r. Bruce is Commandant of Police, and more of kri brought into confli ct with opposing natives by virtue of his office and that Mr. l\fonckton is in charge of the :.\" orthern Division, wher e, perhaps. more trouble has been given by natives than in any other place where white men p enetrate into the ba1ck countrv, are sufficient to account for lhis circumstance . Your Commissioners cannot fol­ low His Hono; in the infer~nce which he apparently invites them to draw.

(d) In referring to the Mount Albert Edward Expedition made by Mr. R esident l\Iagistrate l\Ion ckton His Honor says, " He left the station insufficiently defended, with the result t hat two of Mr. l\Ieek ' s carrie rs were murdered. It is described, I belie\-e, offi cially, as a p at rol to look afte r the interests of thie miners on t he U pper Gira. As a rr, atter of fact, it was an exp loring

e xpedition for the express purpose of going to see the top of Mount Albert Edward .... " ( 206 4) . ·whatever may have been the original object of this expedition, your Commissioners believe that one of the objects (subsequently decided u pon, it may be) w,as to locate the tribes who were robbing the Aikora miners' camps. It had other and useful results (not contemplated) of ascer­ taining a probable route to the new Waria River district, and of proving to the l\Iagistrate's satis­

f artion thrat the Waria gold-field was in British territory. Your Commissioners find that Mr. "\[0nckton did not leave the Kokoda station in suffici ently de:fended. He took his usual p ersonal e scort .o~ ten men, and the~ ':·ere recruits. The mu~der of l\I r. }I eek' s carriers was as likel Y", in th e opm10n of Your Commissioners, to haYe been eff ected had )Ir. Monckton and his ten men been

at Kokoda.

As a. corollary to the foregoing charge of lack of cncouragf'ment of ·white sett1ement, His Honor Judge Murray alleges agn.inst the Administration :-That when the settleTs are on the land the Gorermnent does not protect tliem.­ His Honor instances the case of Mr. Greene at Sogeri Tano, upon ·which evidence had already heen given. He was unahle to ite other instanrcs. ThC' case of Mr.

Gr ene, however, is of sufficient importance in itse1f, npart from the o·eneral appli­ c~ tion of it hy His Honor, to ju. ti(y more than a pa sing r forcncc. Ml'. Greene is n, p1anter whose propert. r is situated at Soo·eri Tano ahout 30 mile. i1:land from Port Moresb.v. He lives ·with his hired ' hoys;? on the J;lantation.

ThC'r 1 another plantation near him, ,vher }on one whit" man with "hov " r idcd in ' m h r, 1905. Som time prior to that time a rai

tribe living at_ Hag;ari, about 40 miies further inland than Sogeri Taho, upoh a viliage about 16 miles nearer to Port More ·by than Sogeri 'l'ano, and massacred all except two of the villagers. The Commandant of Police had been despatched on a punitiye expedition to Hagari. He was there, or in that neighbourhood, in December,

1905. ln that month a rumour ,Yas abroad among the natives that the natives of Hagari intended after the departure of the police to raid Sogeri Tano an

visit to Mr. Greene, rode to Port .Moresby. Mr. Greene especially ·was anxious that the plantation should he afforded protection. The news created considerable ex­ citement in Port Moresby, where, at the time, there were insufficient police. A force of police was recruited and despatched. It is impossible within reasonable limit to

give a history of the ·whole transaction, hut Your Commissioners have come to the conclusion that prompt mea1:mrcs ,vcre taken to relieve the situation which Mr. Greene and those with him believed to be approaching the

critical. The papers in the case, and the evidence, however, disclose a spirit of insubordination and defiance on the part of Mr. Resident Magistrate Bramell towards the Government Secretary, then in charge at Port Moresby 1n the absence of the Administrator, and they also disclose an unreasonable and apparently intentional

delay by the magistrate in informing Mr. Greene what had been done towards the pro­ tection of the plantations, thus keepmg him in Port Moresby unnecessarily at the busy time of crop gathering. No notice was taken of either of these matters by the Ad­ ministrator when the papers were later on referred to him by the Magistrate at fault.

Not only was this so, but the Administrator himself subsequently acted in a most unaccountable manner when addressed by Mr. Greene on the subject, a.s the corres-. pondence below will show. On Uth January, 190G, the papers in this case were placed before His

Excellency. On 18th J aqua.ry Mr. Greene wrote, complaining to the Administrator, as follows:-Sogeri Tano Plantation, Sogeri, 18th January, 1906.


Your Excellency ,-I ha Ye the honour to submit the following for your earnest considera­ tion, and hope that you will view my direct appeal to Your Excellency as a cause for urgent assist­ ance, with a view to check the possibility o.f an:· murderous attack from the bush tribes in and about the vicinity of the Sageri District, on t b.e coffee plantations.

A threat was made by the Hagari tribe or tribes that the two white men of the· Sogeri pl:in­ tations will ha Ye to pay for ( die) the death of their felh,Ymen shot by the police, after the de­ parture of the Cornmanchnt from the locality. I have no doubt that, if given a chance, they will carry out their designs. I taken my a.bode here as a boNct fide settler, and all my energies have been devoted for thie last three years to the development of the coff~ industry.

I am in crop tiqi.e, and in a precarious y;osition under the present circumstances, so that I beg of Your Excellency to accede to my legitimate 1·equest. I was informed by the Commandant that he was proceeding to Port foresby, and that he had left a picket of A.N.C. to patrol the district. The danger here really lies at night, and if the police be away on patrol how are they

to come to the assistance of the planters when requi1·ed? Where are they to be found? The request I now formubte, the justice of which Your Excellency will no doubt see, is that a force consistjng of, say, four men each or rriore, be permanently located for some time on the hY.::> plantations, their principal duty being to .keep watch at night. They may at times, i.e., in a month or so hence, do some patrolling within strike of the plantations, but one party at a time,

so that the other can be called upon for seni.ce in case of danger at either place. The patrol would then be de,·olving on alternate companies. The idea of the above sub-division is respectfully suggested owing to the fact that easy access can be effected to either plantation without the knowledge of the neighbouring one.

Xews in this district travels fast, and thf' Commandant's departure might already be known. I have the honour to be Your E·xcellency's obedient sen'.a.nt-H. GREENE.- His Ex­ cell nrv the Administrator of British :\"ew Guinea, Port ~Ioresbv. ·P.S.- Since writing the above I have harl to come to Port ·on business. I would, therefore,

reriuest your Excellency to kind I y grant me an interview at anv' time that would be most convenient to you.· l should like to leave Port on Saturday, if possible.-H. GREENE.

On 19th January the following acknowledgment was sent to Mr. Greene:­ Government House, British _ Tew Guinea. r9th January, r906. Sir ,-I am directed bv His Excellency the Administrator to acknowledge the receipt of your communication date d 18th Janu.ary, r906 j and 1<1 state that if you will rnme to Government House

tr,-IY.orro,Y, the 201h inst., at TO o'clock ri.m .. His Excellenr,· wilI gt"::i ,nt you the intervif'w ,·ou desire. - l am, sir, your obedient serrnnt- ARTHUR JEWELL, Private S cretarv. H. Greene, Esq.,· Port fore by. -


On the 20th ~January Mt. n-reene had an interview accordiDgly with His Excellency. Subsequent to that interview, and on the same day, Mr, Greene wrote to His Excellency as follow~ :- Port ::\loresby, Britis.b Ke w GuiIYca:

20th January, 1 906.

Your Exce ll ern.: y, - R ef e rrjng to our inten ·ic\\· at Gon~ rnment House , ,rhich you we re pl eased t o gr.ant me 10-dav with regard to the Sogeri trouble, you requested me then to write offi cially on certain points which were discusse d, and that you would reply accordingly. I con­ se;i uently have the honour now to Tespectfully comply ,Yith your suggestion.

r. Do you consider the R esident Magistrate' s action \Yhen l approached him on matters re-lating to the recent disturbances in the district n mpatible to a person holding such a position? 2. When I met Ahuia, the Yillage constable of Hanuabada, \\ ·ith the despatches for ::\Ir. Bruce , I took the initiative and advised him to remain at Sogeri, and to keep a watch on both planta­ tions until he received further advices from th e GoYernment, and to send Ba.baka, t he V.C. o-f Sogeri, with the despatches. ::\J y reasons for doing so were-

Ahuia did not know the country and the Commandant's \Yhereabout;;, and being arri0ngst hostile natives without food or means of protection, ,voulcl inevitably have failed in his errand. The despatches consequently arrived safely. I 11 what ,my does Your Excellency justify your re­ mark that I have countermanded the orders of the Resident ::\1agistrate ? On the contrary, I helped

to hasten the means of communication. 3. You have been pleased to blame me and all my visitors of cowardice! As you say, you have all the correspondence, I would ther efore be glad to know in what way you consider we ha Ye been culpable of cowardice? Perhaps y ou may be in possession of correspondence of which

I am in ignorance. 4. You made the ren-,ark to me "tlnt I would ,have to leave the country, that so long

as I remained at Sogeri things would always be unsettled." Such a remark calls for justifica-tion, and I would be pleased to ·have your unbiased explanation. 5. You were pleased to inform me that if I wrote to you official! y in r~f erence to the action

of the Resident Magistr.ate .that you would ref use to consider the matter. I now give Yom Ex­ cellency an opportunity of carrying it into effect.-! have ·the honour to be, Your Excellency ' s obedient Servant- H. GREENE. His Excellency t:he Administrator of British X ew Guinea, Port Moresby.

On 22nd January Mr. Greene received the following reply:-Government House, British New Guinea, 22nd January, 1906.

Dear Sir,-I am directed to acknowlecig e your letter to the Administr,ator dated 20th instant, and to inform you in reply that in all but one r espect His Excellency has nothing to add to or de­ tract from what he told you verbally on the 20 ~lt inst. In stating that His Excellency made use of the words " that you would have to leave th e country, that s0 long as you remained at Sogeri

things would always be unsettled," you are unde r a misapprehension. His Excellency told you that, as it was evident rou believed yorur life to be in constant danger, he advised you, both for your own sake and for that of the prestige of the white men in the country, to leave British New Guinea.- Yours very truly- ARTHUR JEWELL, PriYate Secretary.

On 1 Gth November the Administrator, in giving evidence, was asked if he had read Mr. Greene's evidence, and whether it was correct as to circumstances. His Excellency replied thnt he ha

21st Kovember His Excellency vras asked- . Q. I will · ask Your Excellency to read this letter from Your Excellency's PriYate Secretary of 22nd January last to H. Greene, and ask whether Your Excellency desires to make any state­ ment it ?- A. No, I have no further statement to make with regard to it.

His Exce1lency has urged, in reply to His Honor the Chief J u

The evidence l~st referred to, however, c:msed them to pause before finally arriving at that conclus10n. The necessity for protection to be extended to settlers, and the necessity that they should be ahle to feel that they are protected, differ only in degree. · Mr.

Greene vrns supplied with protection with reasonable promptnc;-;s u~-der all the circumstances of the case. He should have been, hut was not, informed of the protection afforded him, with equal promptness. That omission in itself wRs bad enough, and should have met its merited rebuke at the hands of the Administrator on his return ; so, a1so, should the

insubordinate spirit which, apparently, gave rise to it. The oceasion which gave rise to Mr. Greene's first letter to t11c Administrator was the receipt of a letter dated at Sogeri on 11th January from the Commandant of Police, stating that he was proceeding to Port Moresby then xt day "in consequence


of tL~ qt!ietude of the district,i' but that he was leaving a party of po1ice "to j)atrol the d1stnct for a period." Against this statement as to the

Your Commissioners have to draw particular notice to paragraphs 3 and 4 ?f Mr. Greene's letter of 20th January, 1906, and to His Excellency's reply of the 22nd idem. That His Excellency accused Mr. Greene of cowardice in conversation, and still persisted on being asked fol' an explanation is, Your Commissioners regret to say, proved. No _ comment, they think, is required. The correction given by His Excel­ lency in his last letter to Mr. Greene concerning the matter complained of in paragraph

4 of the latter's communication of 20th Januarv, 1806, is couched in terms more objectionable than the original statement it c~rrects. A more direct charge of cowardice it is impossible to conceive. It was also deliberately persisted in by His E.x? t~n months later, when he declined the opportunity afforded him, when givmg his evidence, to make any statement n~garding it. .

Your Commissioners would deprecate this treatment of any man by another, but when they consider the relative positions of the Administrator, as the Head of Government of Papua, and of Mr. Greene, one of the few experienced planters possessed by the Territory (and on that account alone, if for no other reason, deserv­ ing of and entitled to encouragement) they find it difficult to adequately express the

measure of their disapproval of the statemed made and persisted in by Il is Excellency. In giving evidence before Your Comm;:-;sioners on 17th N ove::1ber die Administrator, iD. referring to the matter now unde.:: notice, said-

2454. _ With reference to the so-called Sogeri scare, :--. nd to l\Ir. Greene' s complaint that he is not protected by the Government, I am not aw a.r e that he has shown that there was ever any_ reason for his nervous apprehension. It is now, and always will be, impossible for the Government to supply police detachments to protect the prop ertv of nervous planters from enemies.

Your Commissioners J1ave only to ad

cant fact that a permanent patrol was established in and about the unsettled districts around Ha.g:ui on 2nd February ( only a fortnight after Mr. Greene's interview with the Administrator), and Your Commissioners found them still there iu November, 1906, when they accompanied Your Commissioners to Port Moresby. This patrol was, no doubt, necessary, or it would not have been established. In fact, all through this unfortunate matter the right course seems to have been taken, but taken with such bad grace and insulting references by some of the officers concerned, as repre­ hensible marginal notes on the minute papers and the minutes themsehes shoYr, which had their culmination in the inexcusable letter of His Excellency's Private

Secretary to Mr. Greene on 22nd January, 1906. V

Your Commissioners desire here to express their surprise that they should have had occasion to peruse in official papers running commentaries of the tenor they found in the margin of the minutes in the docket in question. Such remarks as "Whoever heard of such a thing ! " '' Funk-Rot," "More Rot," have no place in the vocabulary of Departmental officials who hold their offices and duties in proper high appreciation. Yet such were the comments foun


It appears to Your Commissioners that, while Captain Barton cannot be charged with by direct action discouraging agricultural or mining development, he has yet failed to do all a sympathetic Administrator-untrammelled by personal pr~jt1dice for and against certain members of the Public Service-might have accomplished. In their opinion, the di vision of his staff into two classes, one, from his point of view, for, the other always against, his policy has been the key-note of his comparative failure as an Administrator.

Personal prejudice towards those he counted as friends or enemies, in the main unwarranted by the action of either, has so clouded the broader question of outside interests, that Your Commissioners rather wonder he has accomplished what he has in the direction of general development. At the same time, they fully recognise

F .14262. g

The Adminis­ trator.


., cvm

that a enice di·dd ~cl twain t itself b,· tlH' fad that t11e Adm111i trator, ~n tead of meting out to all alike ;n equal 111p:1 1i.r e of praise or hlamc, d10~e to ide1~ti(r him 'CH: ·with on ) hodv of offi cials a s again. t tl1 e otlH·r, nm t of n ecessity he rncapable of effectively ea~Tying out any policy, no matter how good it 1~1ight he in it. elf. For this r ea on alone tl1ey have devoted space ·which otherwise they would have regarde

The r esult of their close investi o·ation and personal obserrnt1on m tlns dll'ec­ tion has more than satisfied them that Captain Barton's conclusions as to the dis­ loyalty of some of his offi cers, apart altog ether from their incorrectness, has ha.~ a most paralysing effoet on his general admin_ istration, with th~ natural that tnne

most urgently needed in the public interests lrns been often wasted rn person~l squabbles and mutual recrimination betweeu officials, and that futther, in their efforts to prove each other in the ·wrong, both the Administrator and certain of his officers have not infrc

The net result of this state of affairs lias been a weakening of all discipline and an inclination on the part of officials to pull :1.gain st othc1~, with its natural corollary of delay and indifference in dealing with public matters, and while, as Your Commissioners have already stated, they believe the .Administrator has been per­ sonally anxious to clear up arrears of one sort and another, he has been nrn-tble through, we fear, a set of circumstances of his owa making, either to sntisfy him­ self or many of the people of Papua.

But, apart from all these considerations, Your Commissioners are of opinion that, in his undoubted desire to promote native interests, he has not kept before him as firmly as is desirable the question of white development. A glance at the expendi­ ture will show that apparently the former question has overshadowed the latter in his view of local administration. .Fa!' too little money has been set aside for road con­ struction and the improvement of internal communications generally, and he seems to have failed in infu sing into the minds of his officers that keen desire to welcome and help white settlers which1 in the opinion of Your Commissioners, should he one

of the first objects of a successful Administrator. Sympathy with and defence of native rigl1ts is alike commendable and neces­ sary, but the fear tl1at such will be imperilled by the introduction of mining settle­ ment of whatever kind is a weakness alike unnecessnry and fatal to the future of

Papua. Tl1e Administrator who, even by inference or opinion, allows such a view to clog his policy must fail. Indeed, Y oul' Commissioners go further, and state that to be successful he must not only .not entc-tain this fear, but must be quite sure in his own mind that he is strong enough to render it impossible that native rights shall he in any way assailed, and he determineJ that every officer un

In the opinion of Your Commissioners, any man to successfully administer Papua in the future must put behind him most of the late Crown Colony traditions, and full y realize that -changed conditions have to be faeed, involving not only the presence of a large number of white settlers of every class, but also their active en­

couragement and speedy and sntisfactory bestowment. To bring about this state of industrial progression, he must not only be per­ sonally sympathetic, but also possessed of sufficient administrative ability and im­ personal fairness to command not only the individual respeet, but also the hearty co­ operation of his service, not only with each other, but also as a whole with him ·elf.

·while admitting that the qualifications so demanded are not readily found combined in :my one man, Your Commissioners, deeming them to be absolutely ncee. sary, and unfortunately in essential respects lacking in the prrsent Administrator~ cannot in justire, Pith er to the Commomvealth or to Papua, recommend hi.' permanent retention in his pr<'S<'nt ofiire.


A charge wa . nrnde (2139) h fore Yonr Commi sioners by Mr. Ru ~ 11, Record Cl 1+ of the Land and 'urvey D 'partment, :wain. t )fr. Drummond. th Chief

Government urrnyor to the effe ·t that th • latter had torn up n can ]I

nnmh r 1G5, in hi .' pre ... em·e. )fr. Drnmmond wn . •.·amine

ie was. sai(t to imve toi·n i1i_). As a further precaution Y ottr Con1mission€frS requested fr. Kmrnoud ( Commonwealth Auditor) to cl1ecl~ alHl examine all origiual deeds nn

In conclusion, Your Commissioners have to state that upcn their return to Port Moresby, in November, they were for the first time met 'vi itl~ t~-:.c long array of charges and recriminations which will be found in the evidence. vVitl). some of these Your Commissioners have dealt, and mad,3 known their findings in this

Report. "'Nith others, they have found :it impossible in the time and circum~ stances to inquire into. Included among the latter were some of which the ground work and apparent prompting motive did not commend themselves. Your Com­ missioners, therefore, wherever they have thought that the retention of such .a

charge, unanswered (in some instances not even communicated to the person con­ cerned), in the evidence would be calculated to work injustice, ,have eliminated it from the published evidence. Your Commissioners feel sure that this course will commend -itself to all right thinking persons.



Government Secrelary.-The Government Secretary is a member of the Re-01·ganization Legislative and Executive Council, member of the Native Regulation Board, °le,1;/tc~'.ic Chairman of the Government Stores Board, au

Your Commissioners recommend that his Department should be the one through which all Territorial affairs should pass for submission to the Administrator, and the channel through which His Excellency's instructions shoul

Territorial correspondence-confidential despatches only excepted. The Government 8ecretary has, during the absence from head-quarters of the Ad111inistrator, much ad

trator, and who could, therefore, be relied on always to be thoroughly informed upon all matters of administration. He should represent the official memory of the service, and in order to secure complete reliability his Department should be so organized as to O'ive him absolute control of all the eyes and ears of the Government, and to render

hii~ familiar with every detail of matters affecting the affairs of the Territory. In addition to the general administrative responsibility that rests upon the holder of the position of Government Secretary as head of the Public Service,. he should be held to be solely responsible for the ~ork of. all .the officers gro11;ped

immediately under ~is _Dep~rtmc>nt, ~nd who are subJect to l11s

rie England (control of). Referring to the above grouping of offices, recommendations follow for the hetter control of Native Affairs. vVith regard to " Supervision of Audit \Vork,'' this is recommended to provide

a. check over the audit work and reports of auy officer appointed to do the actual

scrutiny and au

be justified, and as regular a~1d1trng an

or required, through the Adrmn!s.trator or the Government Secretary s Department to the Department of External Affairs. Jndependent of working recordr.;, the records of all the officers in the Public Service should be kept at the Government Secretary's Department, under an approved

system for recording official paper . Your Commissioners found the records in the I( 2


rnm nt ·r tar)' oftir in much onfu ion, and xperi n l c nsiderable delaY

in th pro ecuti n of their inve tigation in on equen e. For thi tate of thino' ·

how v r, th taff con1d n t be held entirely a ·cotrntable. In tance came under the observation of Your Commis ioner · where the dministrator had procured file of official papers from the Government ecretary' ffice concerning matters then in action, and ev n when action had been initiated and onlv partly dealt with in the Department had himself taken up and carried on th official correspondence direct vTith officials subordinate to the Government

er tary. He had gone farther and dealt finally ·with cases and retained the papers at Government House, leaving the Government Secretary in complete ignorance of the whole proceedings subsequent to the time when his records ·were taken out of his office.

Your Commissioners recommend that an experienced officer should be appointed as Chief Clerk in the Department. It is considered, looking to the amount of corres­ pondence and recording work that must be done in the Government Secretary's office, that a cadet clerk should also be added to the staff.

The present Government Secretary has had good official training and long service under various Administrators. In addition to eighteen years in other colonies under Imperial Crown and responsible Governments ( the latter includiug four years in South Australia, and nearly two yenrs in Queensland) he has been 21-l years in the British New Guinea service, and they feel assured that he could for another year, and would faithfully and well perform any duties that might be required of him, and that should important changes or re-or.ganization be decided on, his experience of territorial affairs would prove most useful to the Administration, while for the purpose of impart­ ing knowledge in the _ proper conduct of official affairs, to any capable officer in the service who might be placed in his office as his prospective successor, he would

be most valnablP. In this connexion and having regard to the later recommendations of Your Commissioners as to the establishment of a sub-department for '• Native Affairs and Control" under the Government Secretary's Department, and the appointment of Mr. Campbell as its bead, Your Commissioners desire to say that the closer association of Mr. Campbell with his present chief that would be thus brought about,

cannot fail, in their opinion, to prove beneficial in another direction, for Your Commis­ sioners consider tl1at )fr. Campbell is the best officer that could be selected in the service to succeed Mr. Musgra,ve as Government Secretary. In Your Commissioners' recommendation for the grouping of work to he controlled by the Government Secretary's Department, reference is made to better control of Native Affairs. Your Commissioners are impressed with the desirability of establishing a sub-department of "Native Affairs and Control" under the Government

Secretary. Although the existing "Native Regulation Board " have issued many regulations for the purpose of securing improvement in native customs and habits, neither the Boa1'd nor any Government Department is responsible for seeing that Regulations are enforced when necessary; and, consequently, many have fallen almost into disuse. It is recommended- that the powers of the Board should be trans­ ferred to the new sub-department, and any regulations required could, from time to time, be passed through Executive Council.

At present too much is left to the individual judgment and inclination of magistrates in tespect of their native charges. So far no fixed policy regarding the latter has ever been enunciated by the Government, nor have any general instruc­ tions been issued to Government officers, so as to define an absolutely united course to be pursued. It is, of course, understood that the Government deprecates violence and harshness, and desires improved conditions among the natives ; therefore, in the absence of specific directions, some Government officers instinctively treat natives with consideration and sympathy, and some with comparative indifference.

fn connexion tvith recruiting and inspection, much good work could be done by the sub-department, while the proper adjustment of labour relations hetween employers and natives wou]cl be secured. In the matter of recruiting, whether carried on by private licensed recruiters or by the Government, the supervision and

control that would be exercised would be equally beneficial. The sub-department could, in many ways, assist in any measures laid down or obseryance by the Public Service officers in their efforts to extend among the



native · n, knowle

He.sident Magistrates and Government offic rs throughout the Territory-say, perhaps, £1,000 per annum, including the salary of the Commissioner or Controller. Should the foregoing recommendation be approve

char2;e of the Eastern Division, and whose head-quarters are at Samarai. Mr. Cam1Jbell has contro1led his Division greatly to the increased good order thereof: and has manifested a keen interest and competency in dealing with the native popula­ tion. He is a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils, and has been over ten and a half years in the service, having joined on the 16th April, 1896. Since that date he has capably filled many responsible positions in the Territory. Under his present one he exercises supervision over both European and uative a:ffiairs in the Eastern Division, and controls native labour traffic. He is a "distributor " under the

" Native R·egulatiou Board," and is a Magistrate for Native Affairs. Should it be decided, in pursuance of the recommendations of Your Commis­ sioners, to transfer Mr. Campbell to the Government Secreta-ty's head office for the purpose mentioned, the follo,-ving promotions and transfers are recommended:-

( 1) Mr. C. A. "\V. Monckton, Resident Magistrate, Northern Division, to be Hesident Magistrate, Eastern Division, on same salary as Mr. Campbell received, namely, £450 per annum. This would be an increase of £50 per annum on Mr. Monckton's present pay. Mr.

Monckton is a good officer, and has nearly ten years' service iu Papua. (2) Mr. H. L. Griffin, Resident Magistrate, Gulf Division, to be Resident Magistrate, Northern Division, with salary at £350 per annum.

This would give Mr. Griffin an increase of £50 on his present pay, and yet would leave his salary £50 below that drawn by Mr. Monckton in the Northern Division. Mr. Griffin's service and other qualifications have been referred to in another part of this Report. Your Commissioners believe that he is specially qualified for the performance of the ardtrnus duties that would devolve upon

him if trausf~rred to the north. ( ~) In order to complete the consequential changes involved in approval of Your Commissioners' recommendations, Mr. G. 0. Manning should be transferred from the North-Ea.stern Division, where he

is Resident Magistrate, to the Gulf Division, on the same salary he now receives, namely, £300 per annum.

In the opinion of Your Connnissioners the North-Eastern Di vision should he temporarily abolished and joined for administrative purposes to the Northern Division. It would not then be necessary to fill Mr. M~uL~ng's position at Cape Nelson, North-Eastern Division, as the Assistant Resident Magistrate there could do all the work that is required, under the supervision of the Resident Magistrate of the Northern Division.

In view of the difficult and expensive living conditions that prevail inland in the Northern Division, Your Commissioners recommend that consideration should be given to the question of granting to all officers stationed inland in that Division-say over 25 miles from the coast-:m adequate living allowance.

Your Commissioners have not found auy good reason why the Resident Magistrate, Mr. Brame11, in clrnrge of the Central Division, stationed at Port Moresby, should not personally romrnaud the poliec in hi own DiYision, :1s is done by everv other ~c~i


evidence said if he were ca1le


take his order from the Resident Magistrate, and ~ ' all the police in the Territory do not go through a regular course with him hefore being drrrfted to· the differ 1 nt l )ivi­ . ion , many of them being recruited nud drilled locally by the Resident and A._sistnnt Resident Magistrates, and as his only HI ecific duties appear to he to oceasionally inspect the different squads, escort Juty, and in the Central Division to perform

duties in connexion with the punishment and pacification ot th~ nafrres, which Your Commissioners think could and should he undertaken by the Resident Magistrate of that Division, they fail to see any sufficiently good reason why he should he retained, and, consequently, recommend that the office of Comnuindant of Armed Native

Constabulary be abolished, and that the salary now attached to that position he utilized towards the payment of white police for duty on the gold-fields and other centres of European population. If it is decided to establish a gaol at Sogeri, it vrnnl

to that place as Assistant Resident Magistrate the present head-quarter's

officer ( Mr. C. H. Boucher) with a detachment of poliee. This would secure better supervision and patrolling of the districts inland from Port Morcshy, and directly the gaol is completed Mr. Boucher could be appointed to take control. The Resident Magistrate for the South-Ea$tern Division, tbe Hon. :M. I-I.

Moreton, has served in British New Guinea for nearly eighteen years. His head-quarters are at Bonagai, Woodlark lsland. He· is now in his · sixtieth year, and should

he retireq. Mr. A. C. English, Assistant Resident :Magistrnite, Rigo District, Cen.tral Division, has private interests in his district that, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, conOict with the proper perforrnnnce of his public duties. No public officer should be permitted to have private interests of the kind in the district or pla.ce in which he is stationed.

In accordance with the scheme out.lined uuder the heading '' Government Secretary," all the Department~, viz. ;-Treasury~ Lands, Justice, Meclicrrl, and Government Printer, will work independently in the conduct of their olrn special affairs ; but, in the manner indicated at. the outset and clearl.r shown in table

following, through the main official head, the Government Secretary. The TreasU1:y.-Your Commissioners are impressed l\'ith the necessity that exists for securing proper control of the Treasury Department, ·with all its important branches, and, therefore, recommend that the present Treasurer should be superseded by the appointm~nt of a thorough! y competent man in his place, vd10 should possess

not only a sound knowledge of finance, hut who has had good training and experience in approved methods of Treasury bookkeeping and Customs work. As Chief Postmaster he would control postal matters, which will shortly emhrnce the introduc­ tion of new work under the Federal Postal Act, in co11nexion with the establishment

of a Money Order system, new Postage Stamp issue, and, possibly. the. establishment of a Government Savings Bank. Nearly all the small (c0.rtainly all the incongruous) subsidiary appointments held by the present Treasurer should be distributed else­ where in the service. With regard to this, it is fitting that the Treasurer should co11-

tinue to act as Port and Shipping ]\foster. 1n these capacities he could always com­ mand the expert knowledge· and advice of the master and c.hief engineer of the 1Uerrie England for the ]!Urposes of ship and coastal survey work an

economic reasons, and in the best interests of the Government, that the control of boat-building work and repairs should be transferred from the Treasury to the Lands Department under the present Superintendent of Work;;, who would be a sub-head

of the Public Works Branch of the Lands Department. lt may be weJl to point out that this would secure professional supervision and direction in the conduct of all public work in connesion with buildings, roa

The present Superintendent of Work , Mr. J. :MacDonald, 110-w holds a dual posit~on by being also Head Gaoler. He is a reliable, good all-round man but cannot be saiJ to pos ess such special know le lgc a a qualified ei viL en gin er

might · have. Therefore, Your Comrni ion er:-. have rca .- on to he1i 'V that und r the control and professional dire ·tion . ·uggest ·d ~fr. 1\facDouald woul


In this conne~riqn it has to be remembered that even now l1is "C of the functions appertaining to his pos1t10n as Superintendent of Public ·works, hut vd1en (if the recommendations of Your Commis8ioners in this reo-ard are carried out) Port Moresby Gnol ii removed to

S . d LJ . oger1, an Mr. Boucher placed in charge, this hindrance will be removed, and will .free Mr. MacDonald entirely for his duties under the Public vVorks Department. Until the Gaol is so removed, Mr. Boucher should be placed jn charge under the supervi8ion of Mr. 1\facDonald, who has been very successful in his eontrol of this

institution. ·

In order that better provision may be made for the regular auciiting of

public territorial accounts, it is rccommen

and inspection to the Government Secretary ( the present " Local Auditor:'), who should, however, be relieved of tl1c duties of actual in~pection and audit, but who might be empowered to scrutinize and chP,ck all reports, and to act as a medium through ·which mattei-s appertaining to audits should be submitted to the Adminis­ trator or to the Department of External Affairs, as the case may be.

The present Accountant in the Treasury, Mr. Champion, is a competent officer, and~ it is believed, is capable of undertaking all local audit work. Upon this point the opinion of Federal Andit Inspector Kinmond might be obtained, :u1d nlso as to the propriety of such work beiog intrusted to a Treasury official, even if safeguarded

as suggested. The principal work under the Treasurer may he grouped as follows :­ Finance (Treasury), Customs, Shipping, Postal Matters, Government Stores, Jmmigration, Public Auditor.

Your Commissioners arc unable to recommend that the services of the present Treasurer should he availed of in auy other capacity. .

Lands.-Tbe pr'est'nt Chief Government Surveyor, who is ali.:,) a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils. nn

Your Commissioners do not think, ho"vever, that the Land and Suney work and genernl control of the Department can be efficiently continued under present con­ ditions. Much of tlie sm.:cessful development of Papua depends on this work being placed in exceptionally competent hands, and if the recommendations made hy Your

Commissioners regarding a progressive road policy and speedy acquisition nnd survey of Crown hnds are to be given effect to, it will . be immedintely necessary for

re-organization of and addition to the staff of the L:mds and Survey Department. Your Conunissioners believe that, to carry t~1is out, a policy of liberality ·would be fully justified. The present Chief Government Surveyor . qualified in K cw Soµth Wales in

1904. The only appointment he had held prior to going to Papua was that of

Field .Assistant to the Staff Sun-eyor at Bathurst, N. S. W. He arrived in Papua in January, 190.5, having been engaged as a Field Surveyor. On 25th August of the same yenr he vvas, ronseq uent upon the suspension of the Chief Surveyor, appointed Acting Chief Governme_nt Snr~eyor, a~d the app_ointment was subsequen~ly

made permanent. But, even setting entirely aside the cll'cumstances under which this speedy promotion of the present Chief Government Surveyor wns made, Your Commissioners believe it to have been in every· sense inadvisable, and tl1at he js neither by experience or administrative ability qualified for tl1c positions to

which be was ,1ppointed, :md whid1 are as f0llows :- Chief Gon~ rnment Surveyor, Commissioner for )fines, Registrar of Titles, .Mem her of Executive Council, ).Iember of the Legislative Couuc:il. He also lacks by nature what experience may later give him, and that is the qualification so necessary to his position of commanding without

claiming the respect and confidence of his subordinates. · Your Commissioners, for these reasons, cannot recommend that this officer be retained in his pre. ent position. At the same time they believe he will do good work for the Territory as a suhor

capacity ·with a little 1;10netnry loss to liirn as possibl e:> . It won1d appear opportune here to s 1 . .2;g;est that the streugtli of tlie Field Survey staff ~honld lw innensed to four~ ·


Your Commissioners recommend that the office of Chief Government Survevor be filled by a well known, tried, and reliable officer, to be cho en on the qualificati~us of his ripe experience and administrative ability. He should, as well as a surveyor, be an engineer well able to direct the Roads policy recommended in this report. Your Commis ioners appreciate the difficulties which may stand in the way of securing the permanent service of such an officer, and they therefore sugg~st that, if those

difficulties prove insuperable, an officer with the necessary qualifications might be temporarily borrowed from one of the States and seconded to the Papuan service for a term, and who would carry to his work a conviction of the paramount importance of initiating and establishing the best sys~em possible in this Department.

An inspection of the Lands and Survey Office revealed to Your Commissioners the vvant of an officer having full experience in the working of the Real Property Acts under which the lands are dealt with. Amongst other defects it was noticed that documents dealing with land arc received and registered without due and proper authentication of the signature of the persons who execute them.

Your Commissioners recommend that the temporary services of an officer from Queensland, well versed in aU branches of Lands-Titles work, should be secured, in order to bring about in the office at Port Moresby a perfect and

systematic method. Your Commissioners consider yet another addition to the Lands Department as of importance in carrying out the measures that should nt once be taken for such effective working of the Land laws as would assist speedy settlement and development of the country, viz. :-The appointment of au officer possessing a knowledge of surveying and who has hnd good experience of tlrn Territory generally, its conditions, natives, &c.; whose sole duty would be to inspect, mark off, report on and acquire land for thn Government. In this connexion it is well to point out that Resident Magistrates and selected Government officers, acting under standing instructions, are always, within the districts respectively assigned to them, purchasing land for the Government, arnJ, therefore, it vvill be necessary (in the event of the special appointment recommended being made), that precautions should be taken to prevent, whenever the special officer entered a district, any po3sibility of overlapping of land acquired by double purchase. To guard against this a system of regular and special interchange of reports and advices should be organized between the resident officers empowered to purchase lands and the special officer. It is suggested that when the special officer entered a district he should noti(y the fact to the Hesident or other Government officer, whose power to acquire la1Jd should not be exercised while the special officer remained in the district.

Through this Department should be conducted all expert inspectorial investi­ gations that may be arranged for the purpose of gathering reliable data anent Agriculture, Forestry, Mining, such as would enable the Government to take prompt measures for development of the resources of the Territory a~ might be considered best.

Adverting to the recommendation of Your Commissioners that a Board should be constituted, to be called the "Advances to Settlers Board," they further recommend it should be composed of the Government Sec;retary, the Chief Government Surveyor, and the Treasurer.

With special reference to agricultural development in Papu:i, Your Commis­ sioners are so impressed with the necessity that exists for immediate vigorous aetion being taken to start plantation worU as recommended that they hope to see some eminent expert seconded from the service of one of the States, or procured else­ where, and sent over, accompanied by a suitable man specially selected to work with him, understudying the while the most approved methods, with a view to qualifying for the permanent directorship and conduct of this most important work.

'l'he principal matters to be dealt with by this Department may be stated as follows :-Survey , Acquisition of Land, Mining, Agriculture, Advance to Settlers, vVaterworks and Con ervation, Forestry, ·works Branch, Hoads and Bridges, Boat Building and Repairs, Registration of Titles.

Justice.-The Chief Judicial Officer is not merely :, Chief Magi trate 1 ' in the Central (Supreme) Court, but he is virtually a "Minister of Ju -tic " and legislative draftsman, &c. In the first · he ha , of com· e, to

ment Departm nts and He ident l\fao·i trate con ult him as to interpretation of


difficult, obscure, or involved clauses in Acts, and the Resident Magistrates transmit to him quarterly returns of magisterial cases. ( Vide page 31, Oorernment Gazette No. 8, 1905.) .As legislative draftsman all measures for introduction to the Council have to be critically reviewed and requisite alterations have, of course, to be

properly embodied in adopting or

that the Chief Judicial Officer has bad to get liis rnpidly-increasing work carried on by borrowing aid from other Departments. It is therefore recommended that an officer familiar with Supreme Court procedure should be appointed. Mr. Gnrrioch, Chief Clerk in the Government Secretary's Department, is the present acting

Registrar of the Central Court. Tliis new officer could act also as Curator of Intestate Estdcs, Curator in Insanity, Insohency, and Associate to His Honor. The Chief J u

· Having regard to the fact that long service under hard an



Avpoint1nents to tlie Public Service. - The method of appointment of officers to the Public Service of Panua is a matter which, in the ooinion of Your Commissioners, is of the first importance, being the basic princ{ple which will make either for good or bad internal administration. Judging from some of the

instances of incapacity, and even worse faults, whicli have come under thei1~ notice when seeking for causes to account for past blunders and present official ·ineptitude, Your Commissioners have come to the conclusion that in the past Papua has, at times, been regarded as a convenient place in which to lose certain

men ,,rho ,vere not wanted elsewhere, and they can only express their relief that owing to a strong leaven of conscientious and capable officers, the condition of things is, in many ways, better to-day than migbt be exoected. . .

Your Commissioners readily admit that in making pure1y local appomt­ ments, various Administrators have been, unfortunately, limited as to choice, but while making all a.l]owance for this nndoubted restriction, it is still hard to understand why some men were placed in positions for which they not only had no qualifications, but in which they could, and did, work incalculable harm to white prestige. ,

Your Commissioners are aware that many arguments may be put forward to explain, or at least condone, these appointments, among them being paucity of choice, the difficulty of inducing men to bury their careers in a tropical and un-. developed cotintry, and the poor remuneration offered in return for s:uch sacrifice;

but while they admit that there is a great deal of force in all these contentions, they still are of oninion that better men could. and should in many instances 1 have been obtained. Your Commisioners also fe!l,r that social influence has not bee4 an 1.+nknown quantity when making apnointmentfl to the Public Service.

To avoid all such possibilites in the future, and to put it beyond the power of any man to use the often unfounded, yet at times possibly true, charge of political patronage, and to absolutely insure that men are appointed, not on per-sonal ~rrounds. but on the higher ones that they are fitted physically, mor~lly, and mentally for the strenous work that lies ahead if Papua is to fulfill the high

destiny nature marked out for her, Y 011r Commissioners recommend that all f~ture appointments be placed strictT:r i.n th.P hands of the Pulilic · Service Com­ missioner for the Commonwealth of Australla. They further recommend that the Public Service of Pan11a be kept abso­

lutely distinct from that of the Common,.vvealth, that the fu11es-t limit with regard to age be allowed, and t.hat all candid::it

service. In this connexion, Yom Commissioners cannot too strongly point out thr~ necessity for the Public Service Corn:rnissioner giving the fullesf con~ideration to the recommendations and suggestions of the Administrator for tlie time beine-.

They would further noint out that. even an elementarv knowledge of Iav.r, chill, and medicine, shonld be considered as factors when deciaing- between th:~ claims of candidates (oth er r eanirements being equal), as these are all subjects whic:h . if possessed, would tend to increase the sphere of usefulness of a Papuan

official. ·

The appoint. men ts in tl1 e past.

Social influence.

Recommenda­ tion.

The Service to be kept dis- ·


Desirable qualifications.

In view of the f::t,ct tb::i .t. Papua is 11.0-\V a TPrritorv rif the OommonwPa]th, 1'!~[:Zt~ns and that its llpkeep, and P0SSibly, SOffie d~.V. jt~ defPnCC. wjll have to be paid for appointed. with Australian monev and .A.11str::t,lian live~. Voiir ronsider that it is ,only right that Austr.'1li[l shonld. other things being equal, Ee given an oppor--

t.unity to man its service ::t,nd direct its 'ldn1inic:t:r::i ,tion . Tn th0ir opinion. if thP- sons of t.hP, Commonwealth arP- new~r g·ivP-n :tn on­ nortnnitv of facing responsibilities, they cannot be exoected to effectively heln in hearing the burdens of :b:mpire. An 1miquA ooportunity is here given for their education in this n~spect. a.nd Yonr Commis~ioners ~+.ronp-lv rPr,omnrn11rl. t h:1,t jt he taken advant::t,ge of. nnt on]v as a matter of nersonal instice. but also in its nobler aspect, as fitting them for the greater work of .Empire building.

Apart from these considerations, V 011r Commisc:ioners bA1-ieve that Am;­ trn lian offici~1s would he n1orl~ in touch with 1oc>::tl Rtanihucls of thomrht than t.hc average newlv-importen can hone t0 be. In tn~atment. ~f the native populatiott they also should be at least hi:;; equals, and won1d, we believe 1 be better

Low salaries.

No pensiona.

A minimurn salary.

The warden at 1Voodlark.


equipped for the work demanded through having been born and brought u~ in_ a climate, and under conditions, more comparable to Papua than can obtam m Eu gland. . . .

Your Commissioners, in all they have said on this subJect, wish it to c0 clearly understood that they do not use the word · Australian" m the restr~c~ecl sense of natives of the Commonwealtb, but as signifying all men of the Bntis!1 race ,vho, by length of sojourn in Australia, are children of the Commonweal: h as truly as those who may be born beneath her flag.

For the reasons given above · (an

Annuities to Public Officers. - Your Commissioners could not fail to notice among officials a considerable amount of dissatisfaction in re­ gard to present. remuneration, and a very real feeling that the longer

they remained in the Public Service the more hopeless their future was

likely to become. They now propose to deal with, jn their opinion, one

of the reasons why this is so, and why unless some alterations are made the same state of things must inevitably continue. Existing salaries are, in the opinion of Your Commissioners, on such a low scale as to preclude any hope of the men re­ ceiving them saving money against the period of their retirement; on the other hand, when that time arrives, no provision is made to permit of them going out on a pension. This, Your Commissioners would point out, is in direct opposition to

the policy adopted towards officers emoloyed in tropical countries in, we believe, any other part of the world; it certainly is so as regards British Possessions. Giving evidence as to the hardships of the present system,' Mr. English. an Assistant Resident Magistrate of many years service, at present receiving a salary of £275, states:- ·

"There is one point I would like to mention, and that is there jg no pension for the officers when they .retire. In my own case, I have spent the best of my life here, and done my best to serve the Go­ vernment, and not spared myself in the slightest. and have abso­ lutelv nothing to look forward to, and I am getting up in years now." He was then asked, "As a matter of iustice to the officers do you consider that a pension scheme should be formulated?" and replied, " Yes," and in answer to the question, " And it would bring a better type of men into the Service ?" gave

a similar reply. Your Commissioners admit that, in Mr. English's case, he is fortunate enou~h to own a plantation; but this does not affect the general principle, and they have no hesitation in stating that his opening remarks are absolutely true as regards many men in the Service.

The Treasurer, when being examined, gave the following evidence with regard to the inadequate salaries paid to officers:-" Q. Then you are of opinion that any European taking up a position here should not be asked to take less than £200 ?-A. Yes."

" Q. That is based on your long experience in the service ?-A. Yes; the Vv arden at W oodlark i~. uaid less than the vYorking miners at the same place. He gets £250, and the miners, I think, get £5 or £6 a week. The Warden is uaid better than the Gaoler, and will probably be paid better than the Sub-Col­ lector, who is to be appointed."

The ... Warden referred to holds the following offices :-Resident Magistrate for the Possession; Assistant Resident Magistrate for the South-Eastern Division; "\Varden for the South-Eastern Division; Magistrate for Native Affairs, District No. 3; European Officer of the Armed Native Constabulary; ~l istant Gaoler for the South-Eastern Divi ion; Inspector ~ md r the Inclj~enou Tjmber Ordinance of 1 93; Inspector under th Pearl Shell and Becbe-d -mer Fi hing Ordinance:

Postma_ster, ,voodlark I land; and Inspector of Min , for which, as is tated, he receive a sRlary of ;£,~[5Q l er annum, whil~ the 1 ro1°ld11g miner "\Yho~e offi ial


head .he is, gets a little over £4 a reek a ordinary wages, which he makes up by overtime to between £5 and £6 per week. . R:eferring to this strange anomaly, the Hon. Fredk. Weekley, M.L.C., him­ self a mmer on VVoodlark Island, stated in evidence:-

" The onerous duty carried out by the Assistant J\,fagistrate and War­ den of this Island are not sufficiently well paid. No labouring man on this Island gets less than £5 a week. The salary of the Magistrate and Warden hardly comes up to that." Your Commissioners find that at the present time, four European Officers are receiving salaries of under £200 per annum, viz. :-J. C. :Fitzgerald, Clerk in the Treasury, £175; A. P. Lyons, ~nd Clerk in the Government Secretary's De­ partment, and L. P. B. Armit, Clerk, Samarai, £150; while F. MacDonell, Junior

Clerk, Sarnarai, is paid £100 per annum. In a country whete it is possible for juniors to live with their own people these low salaries are possibly justified by the · amount of work performed, but in Papua under existing conditions Your Commissioners are firmly of opinion that no white clerk should be paid a less sum than £200; and in this connexion they consider that Sir William MacGregor'.:; idea of training picked natives for junior positions in the Public Service is worthy of serious consideration. It has been found to work well in India, and while we

admit that the mental calibre of the two races is far apart, still we see no reason ,vhy certan work (not of sufficient importance to command a salary on which a white man can live) should not eventually be performed by educated natives. In proof of this contention, Tein11, Materua, a native of Papua, born on the

24th October, 1880, is at present Cadet Clerk in the Treasury, and has charge of the Post Office work at Port Moresby; while Erua, also a native of Papua, 25 years of age, is Cadet Clerk in the Government Store. These clerks receive re­ spectively £100 and £;48 per annum.

The salaries paid to Senior Officers will also, Your Commissioners feel sure, have to be raised if the best class of man is to be attracted, and no other type will be of use as Heads of Departments, if our recommendations for the development of the country are put into operation.

The present remunerati6n offered to officials is, on the whole, below the average paid to competent men serving in tropical climates, and as it will be necessary in the public interest to debar many of them from investing in local enterprises, their prospects on retirement are far from encouraging.

In the opinion of Your Commissioners the only possible way to induce capable young men to accept service in Papua is to offer them reasonable induce­ ment-(a) Fair remuneration.

(b) Reasonable promotion. (c) Recognition of special merit and zeal. (cl) Extended periodical furlough. (e) Some definite provision, such as an annuity on completion of


(a), (b ), ( c ), and ( d) are capable of ready solution, but ( e) is not so easy of satisfactory settlement. In a Service small and isolated as that of Papua (for reasons that are self-evident), it would be idle to suggest the creation of a pension list. Your Commissioners, therefore, recommend that the Government arrange

with an Australian Life Assurance Company of undoubted stability for the issue of a policy to each officer on appoi~1tment under which the Company will undertake to pay to the assured officer on retirement, after he shall have served for 15 years,

an annual sum equal to the amount o.f .quarter o! his t~en salary, to be increased by l-60th of that salary for each addit10nal years service, the Government to be responsible only for the payment of ~he premrnm, and to reserve the power of can­ celling the policy at any time f.or misconduct or other sufficient reasons; the officer to have no rights whatever until he shall · have served for at least 15 years, when he may retire.

Every officer having attained the age of 5? years to be entitled to retire, but if desired by the Government, to have the optmn of continuing in the Service until he has attained the age of 60 years, beyond · which age no extension to be permitted.

Salaries mider £f!JO.

Native clerks.

Sa.laries of ~PnlOr o ((leers.

Recommen­ dations . .

Annuities recommended.

Age of ret i rement.

An 1111satis­ f actory arranyement.

Recommen­ dation.

Quarters for 1!'0rkmen.

Barracks for single men.


our mini ione s \ ould like to point out that the a I tion of th~

ch .me, whil entailing no great monctal'_v exp rn.litnrc, ,Youlcl v t 0nsnro at lea t the nucleu of a. living for oi-Iicers retiring from the ~ervicc a ftcr g·oocl ·work d ne, and would further ensure that all men a·ppointecl arc physi ally fi t, as t hey would have to run the gauntlet of the \.ssura.nce Company' medical inspection.

Government Officers' (J,uarters.-Your Commi ·s ioners are in no sense satis­ fied with the present method of allotting quarters to ome officers, while others have to find tliem for themselves. In questioning Mr. Ballantine on this matter, the question was put­ " Having regard to the harmony which should prevail in the Service, is it yom

opinion that one or other principle should obtain ?" He replied, '' Yes," which suggests to Your Commissioners that a fixed rule is necessary in this matter. The treatment of both unmarried and married junior officers appears to be more unequal and unfair than that meted out to senior officers who are married.

for some of these at least, according to the Treasurer, in the absence of quarters have the discrepancy made up by increased salary. This in no sense obtams in the case of junior officers, as the following evidence by the Treasurer will show:-

Q. With regard to the unmarried officers in Port Moresby, how do they manage for

qu:uters ?-A. None of the Treasury offic ers are allowed quarters. Q. Consequently all these young f elimrs have to provide their own ?-A. Yes. During the last few months I find that the Government bas rente

Estimates to provide for quarters for officers, but it has always been struck out to provide for some more pressing expenditure. Q. And consequently some of the officers are provided with quarters, while others ha\'C to provide for themse lves ?-A. Yes . I am strongly in favour of quarters being proricled for-eve ry

offi cer in Port Moresby. Q. Does not thie: present arrangement gi \·e rise to a good deal of jealousy among the officers?

A. Yes. Q. Is the re any fixed arrangement about the distributi on of the quarters ?- A. ::\" o. Q. ,What is the position of the married officers as regards quarter. ?- .4 . . Th<:>\· have to rent private houses, and sometimes they :we not available. ·

Q. Do they ri:iYe to pay the rent themselves ?- .4 .. The Treasury offic ers c1o. Some Office rs' appointments carry quarters, such as the Commandant, the R esident ::\bgistra te's, and H c etd

Gaoler. In the opinion of Your Commiss sioners, the evidence given shows that this matter it at present on a most unequal b.'.1 sis. They recommend that in future all officers in the service be provided with quarters, the Government charging them just so much rent as will meet the interest on cost of construction

and up-keep of the various buildings; that in the case of married officers, suitable cottages be built, and that for the unmarried officers barracks be provided. We further recommend that quarters on similar terms be provided for the Government workmen. Their case was put before Your Commi~sioners, as

follows, by John vVright, who stated he was a carpenter and joiner, and that he represented the whole of the workmen of the Works Department:--The workmen suggest that quarters be provided for them as it is impos ible to get sleep at night at the ,hotel. Late hours and noise, such as strangers coming in and drinking at the hotel

where the men have to Jive, make it sometimes 2 or 3 o'cloc-k in the morning before the men get to sleep, and a man is not fi t to do a, day ' s work when he does not ~et proper rest. I t is al. o a

great inducement to drink. It is also asked that quarters l e provided for rr,arried men ,Yho ,rnuld bring their wives here . At present , there are no Ya ant hous s to bring them to. It is d~sired

that medical attendance be allowed free, as fever is Yery prevalent here, and we hav to pay for a certificate in case of sickness . We ask that an extra allo,rnn"e h' paid to workmen sent to

places outside Port l\f ore-shy. I ,,-ould suggest something ahout 3s. per

fixe d wage at present. O. How many men do you represent ?-A. Eight. Q. Are they permanent 1 y e ngaged ?-,4 . Yes. Q. How many are married ?-A. I think four, but none ha,· their ,rin•s here.

The question was then put-" Would you consider it a fair conces ion if the Government provided suitable quarter and charged a low rental for them { -· to which he replied-" Ye ." Your Commissioner con ider that the e men demand are m the main

reasonable, and they believe that the old Printing Office could, at a mall ex­ penditure, be made available as a barracks for the single men.

'the futthet recommend that in places whei'e a Go er111uent Medical PtlJe tnedicat atte/l!la nee. Officer is tationod, free medical advice and attendance be given to all Govern-ment otliciaJs and workmen, and that in ca ~cs ·when ·workmen are ordered to parts o:t' the Territory where living is uearer than at Port Moresby, a reasonable allow­ance be granted to cover the extra cost imposed upon them. In a letter dated 11th December, 1906, Hie. Excellency; among other sug- The Adminis­ gestions to Your Commissioners, recommends the erection of quarters for junior trator. officers not entitled to quarter. , Government carpenters and artisans, while the Government Medical Officer, in his report to Your Commissioners, makes the fol- ;,f~~it ~;;Jr:;t lov;T ing pertinent remarks on the housing question:- Officer. " It is extremely urgent that more houses be put up; the difficulty of where to put new comers is beginning to make itself felt. At the present time, the hotel 1 s hopeleesly over-crowded, the sleeping apartments being mostly used by the Goverrunent carpenters. Some of the officers have to sleep in the hotel annex, which again is over-crowded, to say nothing of the fact that the place is not very suitable for any one to have to permanently inhabit. Of course, nothing can be done on the spur of the moment, but I would s-uggest thaJt, as soon as they can, the Government should erect some suitable place for officers, and, if possible, for the carpenters. This is necessary from a health point of view." From this statement it will be seen that, not only are Government officials !lier:r0fez and workmen forced to herd in a manner neither conducive to discipline not yet Mrn·esbv. to health, but that (owing to the existing want of accommodation and com.squent over-crowding of the only hotel) the outside public are liable to be put to great inconvenience. For these reasons, Your Commissioners cannot too strongly urge the necessity for carrying out their recommendations, and so putting an end to the present unsatisfactory state o:f affairs. THE " RICHMOND CASE.'' In August, 1905, Mr. John Richmond was Chief Government Surveyor of British New Guinea. In that month Mr. Atlee Hunt, Secretary to the Depart­ment of External Affairs, was in the Possession, and at his request Mr. Richmond made an official report to him indicating (1) where the delays occurred in ths Lands Department, and the reasons therefor; (2) his recommendations for altera­tion of the system. Mr. Hunt's request concluded as follows:-If the first memo. can be illustrated b y dates taken from actual cases Mr. Hunt will be obliged. ' In one of the illustrations given by Mr. Richmond in his Written reply to Mr. Hunt's request, he referred to the case of Anthony Gabriel as follows:-LP. 139 / 1900 A. GABRIEL. Purchase uf Allotment in Port Moresby. Allotment applied for; deposit £1-25 l\Iay, 1900. Executive Council Order to sell for £ro, with co11tlitions that £50 of improYements to be made ,,;ithin 2 years.-2 .5 June, 1900. Applicant lived on allot. , and carried an bn.ker and washi1ng business for some years. The improvements-house, ga rden, fence, &c. -were reasonably worth £50. Applicant then went a,rny to work for a time, leaYing house and goods in it locked up. Deed had not been made because of pressure of other work and too few hands in the offi ce. Then another person applied for the allotment-r8 April, 1905. Some little inquiry was then made by the Govt. Secretary, and the Administrator ordere


In another illustration in the same reply, Mr. Richmond referred to what 1s nov.r known as " The Awaiama Case," as follows :-i\I. P. 62/1901 and rr2d/r898 . . Anglican :\fission asking to have their lands made Freehold.

Bishop --- to C. G. Sur., asking that land be made freehold-29 D ec., ' oo.

R es . _ \fa g. tran mitting above-31st .iJ ec ., 1900 Bishop reminding of same-7th Jan., 1904. Chief Govt. Sur., reply to Bishop-14th Jan., 1904. Executive Council Order to Report upon all such lands- 9th Jan., 1904.

Bishop to C. G. Sur., agal'n asking for freeholds-25th July, 1904. C. G. Sur. to Bishop, giving Ex. Cl. Order-ro Aug., 1904. Bishop to R es. )fag., about purchase of land~30 Aug., 1904. Administrator l\Iinute: Has Order been carried out ?-2 Kov., 1904.

Then, following upon the above, comes the action on case Awaiama land; Ex. Cl. Order to issue Grant for Relig. July, 1894. Appn. for additional area-18 Dec., 1898. Ex. Cl. Order-24 Dec., 1898.

Res. )fag. informed-21 February, 1899. Surveyor instructed to survey- 4 Dec., r9or. SurYey made---2 1 Jan., 1902. Ex. Cl. Order, Grant for Relig. purposes-29 :\lay, 1903.

Application for Grant absolute-7 Jan., 1904. Ex. Cl. Order, Res. Mag. to Report-9 Jan. , 1904. Bishop' s applicat. replied to by C. G. Sur.--1 4 Jan., 1904. Res. \fag. referred to for report- 15 J an., 1904. Res. :Mag. reports to Ex. Cl. at Samarai- 30 Aug., 1904.

Ex. Cl. action at Samarai (not known here) - 6 Sep., 1904. Reminder to Res. i\1ag. on letter of 15 Jan., '04--12 April, 1905. Res. Mag. reply written, but not sent-24 April, 1905. Minute from Administrator with charge against the Lands Department-13 April; 1905. Reply of Actg-. C. G. Sur., in defence-14 April, 1905.

Minute of Administrator, partly withdrawi1ng charge-14 April, 1905. Minute of Administrator, directing Govt. Sec retary to destroy these papers-14 April, 1905. Papers returned to Govt. Secretary for destruction-rs April, 1905, Certified copy of papers kept in thi:s office-r 5 April, 1905.

This case is quoted to sho,y the ordinary roundabout way of dealing with land matters in different places in the Possession, and also the indiscriminate manner in which the present Admin­ istrator makes charges and attacks on the Lands D epartment, and then, when he fin.Js he is wrong, directs all the evidence of his mistakes, to be destroyed, leaving the papers incomplete, and this at some future time will appear as carelessness of th e Lands Department.

Mr. Richmond's letter enclosing the above illustrations is dated 13th August, 1905. On 18th August, Mr. Atlee Hunt interviewed Mr. Richmond, who produced the file of papers dealing with Gabriel's case, and the papers re­ lating to the application of one McCrann, and, in confirmation of the concluding

paragraph of the first illustration above _ referred to, gave Mr. Atlee Hunt to understand that a minute of 28th April, 1905, had been altered by the Adminis­ trator by the addition of the words, "For Ex. Co.," when the papers were berore him at a later date.

Mr. Hunt, on 19th August, wrote and informed the Admmistrator, who, ,on that same day, by a minute sent through the Government Secretary, required Mr. Richmond to · reiterate the imputation he had made, or withdraw it. Mr. Richmond, in a minute of the same day, replied, reiteratmg the state­

ment, that he was prepared to swear and prove that the words referred to were added. On the same day, Mr. Richmond wrote the following letter to the Govern-ment Secretary :-

Department of Lands, Port Moresby, B.N.G., :r-9th August, 1905.

The Honorable the Government Secretary. S1R, -

Followinp; your Minute of to-day's 'date, asking me either to reiterate or withdraw certain assertions made by me to Mr. Atlee Hunt. I now charge His Excellency the Administrator with dishonorable conduct, in wilfullv nltering a certain Officilal Document, by adding w0r

I further charge His E!xcellency the Administrator with' unlawful use of the powers con-ferred upon him, jn ordering the destruction of certain offi ial papers and minutes, with the object of removing all evitlence of his own incapacity in this particular case. T hav , &c. ,

J. RICHMOND, Chief Govt. Surveyor.


On 20th August (Sunday), th .. .'.ulministrator required the attendance of Mr. Richmond at Government .tlouse. The latter, however, declrned to go. On 21st August, the Administrator wrote Mr. Richmond as follows:-The Honble. J. Richmond, Chief Government Surveyor,

You are to be suspended from the exercise of your offices. The grounds of suspensibn are apparent in the enclosed statements:-( 1) Your reiteration in writing of the imputation said to have been made by you :iJn_ conversa­ tion, and which is contained in a letter ±rom the Secretary for External Affairs, dated

19th August, 1905. ( 2) \ our own statement contained in your letter to the Government Secretary, dated 19th August, 1905. . .

2. i now call upon you to state i.'.n writing the grounds upon wluch you des1re to exculpate yourself. ·

_ F. R. BARTON, Admr. 21 August, 190 5.

On 22nd ;~ugust, Mr. Richmond wrote the Government Secretary that he had no desire to exculpate himself, or to clear himself from any aHegea fault or guilt, that he had officially charged the Administrator with serious onences, and natl to ask a proper mq uuy imo those cl1arges.

. On 2~rd .L-iUgust 1_ the Administrator wrote Mr. Richmond through the Go-vernment Secretary as :follows:-Mr. Richmond, - This is to inform you that you are interdicted from the exercise of the powers and functions of your offices, such suspension to take immedrate effect.-F. R. BARTON, 0Admr. 23/8/05.

On the same date, the Administrator put Mr. Richmond on half-pay. Un ~Uth August, the matter or lVlr . .tuchmond's suspension was orought before the Executive Council of .British .New Uuinea, when the Administrator stated that he had. suspended lVlr. H,ichmond for disloyalty to the Administration . . lYlr. H,ichmond attended, pursuant to notice, and was asKed to state his defence.

He repudiated tl1e charge ot' disloyalty, and again asked that his original state­ ments and charges agamst the Aomimstrator might receive proper investiga­ tion. The Executive Gouncil confirmed the action taken by tne Administrator in suspending Mr. Richmond. The Administrator, in aespatches of 25th, 29th

and 81st August, 1905, with enclosures, reported the matter of the suspension to Your Excellency. The matter was referred to Messieurs McLachlan, Allen and Garran, of the · Commonwealth Public Service, and on 5th October, 1905, they reported that

before Mr. Richmond's suspension was dealt with by Your Excellency, Mr. Rich­ mond :should be allowed an opportunity to call evidence in ·his own defence. Mr. Richmond, on bemg advised, accordingly forwarded to the above~ named gentlemen statutory declarations by himself, Mr. C. E. G-arrioch (Chief

Clerk in the Gov§rnment Secretary's Department), Mr. Matthews (Chief Drafts­ man), and Mr. Musgrave ( Government t,ecretary), and a statement by Mr. J. R. Stuart Russell (Record Clerk, Land and Survey vepartment). With those papers before them, Messieurs McLachlan, Allen and Garran

found that the charges by Mr. Richmond against the Administrator were not justified, and, further, that the Administrator had no alternative but to suspend Mr. kichrriond, and that ne was justified. in doing so. Upon these findings being made known to Mr. Richmond, he, on 2-nh ivrnrch, 1906, wrote to the Secretary of the Department of External Affairs, stating that he had been appointed to the subordinate office of a field surveyor, at £4u0 per annum, requesting reconsideration of the severe punishment inflicted upon him, and urging the absence of oral examinat10n of himself and witnesses,

and his conviction that the Board would have arrived at a different conclu·sion h~d the evidence been taken orally, as contemplated by Colonial Service Regula­ t10ns. Upon the appointment of Your Commissioners, the letter of instructions

from the Minister of State for External Affairs to the Chairman made reference to this matter, and all the papers concerning it were forwarded to the Commis­ sion., as it was considered that in all probability the matter would be brought before them.

On the arrival of the Commission in Papua, Mr. Richmond applied for an oral re-hearing of the case, and, accordingly, arrangements were made for him to be bro-µ.ght in from the field and to attend before Your Commission P.r~ at Port Moresby.

F.14262. h


The fir t chatge made l:iy Mr. Richmond. against the Administrator i -1. The charge of Jishonorable conduct in wilfully altering a certain official document by adding ·words intended to deceive, and with the object of concealing his own blunders. In May, 1900, Gabriel h,pplied to purchase an allotment of land at or near Port Moresby. The application was granted by Executive Council in June, 1900, at a price of £10, with conditions for improvements to the value of £50 to be made within two years. Gabriel was notified, and subsequently lived on the land, and made certain improvements. He afterward~, left the property,

with its improvements, and went to work in another part of the Possession. On 18th April, 1905, J. M. McCrann made application for a lease of the same land. · On 27th April, Mr. E. J Matthews, acting as Chief Government Sur­

veyor in the absence, on leave, of Mr. Richmond, submitted the application of McCrarn1 to the Government Secretary, with the following minute:-The Hon. the Govt. Secretary ,-Case submitted for consideration. This allot. was granted to Antony Gabriel in June, 1900, for the sum of .£ ro, with improvements to the value of .£50

within two years. Gabriel h:is only paid the sum of .£T, being deposit on applitation. A house has been partially erected on the land, the materials of ,rhich might originally have cost .£.25 or .£30. The build:!ng, hmyever, is now in a state of great disrepair, and in some places very rotten. The house is, unoccupied, and has been so for some considerable time. Original application papers attachec.1.-E. J. 1L, A.C.G.S. 27 / 4/ 05.

Gabriel's paper~ were attached to McCrann's application for the Government Secretary's information. On the same date the Government Secretary submitted both sets of papers, ,vith Mr. Matthews' minute, to the Administrator.

On McCrann's papers there appears the following minute by the Ad­ ministrator :-G/S. Gabriel has clearly forfeited all claim to the land. The place is an eyesore, and Gabriel

should be instructed to take away the partially completed building. .

In the e,·ent of J. McCrann being granted a lease of this allotment it must be specially stipulated that the place is not to be used as a store or bakery. For Ex. Co.,

F. R. B.,

Admr., 28-4-05.

Below this, appears the following minute from the Government Secretary to the Acting Chief Government Surveyor, Mr. Matthews:-The Aeling C.G.S.,-A'bO\·e Milr:ute for your guidance. A. 1\1. (G.S.). 28-4-05.

Mr. Matthews, on 5tl1 May, wrote to Gabriel as follows:-Referring to your application for Allotment II of Section II I, Granville East, of which you ,rere in occupation for some considerable t ~me, I have the honour to inform you that, through non-fulfilment of conditiocs, you have forfeited all claim to the Allotment in question. You are requested to remove the partially completed building at your earliest convenience.

GabrieL who lived fourteen days) journey away, received the notice, and his employer, Mr. Buchanan, came to Port Moresby during June, and took up his case, and saw Mr. Musgrave concerning it. Mr. Richmond was still absent. In June the Government Secretary appears to have instructed the Super-~ intendent of Works to value the building erected by Gabriel. The latter, on 22nd June, valued it at £10 10s.

On receipt of the valuation, Mr. Musgrave asked, on 24th June, for the papers relating to the allotment, and they were forwarded to him on the same day by Mr. Matthews from the Lands Office. On 26th June the Government Secretary wrote Messrs. Burns, Philp, and Co.-

I have the honour to inquire if you are aware of any persor.. here intrusted with the care of the building erected by Antony Gabriel at East Granville? If not removed, as he has been permitted and directed to do, it will reYert to the Government probably by the nd of the finan-cial year, i.e., on the 30th ir.stant.

_ fr. W. E. Buchanan spoke to me on the subject some days ago, but I 'do not know if he has any authority to act for Gabriel, who is, however, I believe, in Mr. Buchanan's service.


Messrs. urn , hilp · Co. replie~ that th~y understood from Mr. Buchanan that Gabriel believed he had complied with all conditions. On 1st July Mr. Richmond, having returned from leave, took over charge of the Land and Survey office.

. On 6th July the Government Secretary, with the Superintendent of Works, mspected the building, and on 10th July the former minuted the latter as follows:- · ·

. Referring to our inspection on 6th July of the buildir.g formerly occupied by Antony Gal.mel, on allotment 11, Sec. III, of Granville East, I consider that any tools, furniture, uten­ sils, &c., in the building should ha:re a list made of them, and be removed to the Gaol Stores (or other convenient " lock-up") pending the removal or repair of the house, which will be decided on so soon as I can submit the papers to H. E., on his return. In the meantime you had better keep

the keys of the building until you get further instructions.

On 20th July the Chief Government Surveyor, Mr. Richmond, r~ceived a letter from Mr. Buchanan, Mr. Gabriel's employer (dated 6th J uly)J and reading as follows : -I have in my employ a coloured man r,amed Antony Gabriel. This man has a house at Port

Moresby, and notices have been given that the Govtemment purpose forfeiting the land. Gabriel tells me that he asked fr. Wearne, wher. he was in d1arge of the Lands Depart­ ment at Port Moresby, if sufficient improvements had been placed on the ground to enable him to hold the property, and he was assured it was safe.

Gabriel lived on the property for some years, and no complaint was ever made to him, and he came away thoroughly believieg that all he had to do would be to pay the balance due when­ ever it might be demanded. This he is prepared to pay at any time now. I would respectfully request that this man's case be taken into your kindly consideration

again, and, itf possible, that he be allowed to carry out such matters as may enable him to hold his property. Ar!y further improvements you may wish he is prepared to carry out, or, failing the possibility of this, that at any rate he be allowed a fair and reasonable time to reach Port Moresby from here, and be allowed to remove the building.

The boat that britngs you this will be returning to V ailala at once, and on behalf of Gabriel I should esteem it a great favour if you would endeavour to communicate with me by her.

Mr. Richmond, on 21st July, through Mr. Russell (Record Clerk) requested the return of the papers, as follows:-The A.C., Govt. Sec. Dept.-Please forward to this office Papers A. Gabriel 139 / 1900 t1; All. 2, Sec. 111; they are attached to Papers J. M. McCrann 252/1905, and were forwarded W

you 24.6.05.-John R. Stuart-Russell, Rec. C.

The papers were forwarded by the Government Secretary the same day, with the following minute:-T,he Hon. tJ:re C.G.S.-I shall probably write to Antony Gabriel by the Rebecca, so please let me have back the papers at your convenience.-A. M. (G.S.), 21.7.05.

The Chief Government Surveyor, apparently on the same day (although hi;; minute is dated 20th July\ returned the papers to the Government Secretary with the following minute:-The Hon. the Govt. Secretary.-Papers returned herewith with a submission for further

consideration of the case.-J. Richmond, C.G.S.-2oth July, 1905.

The submission which accompanied the above minute also was apparent1y misdated 20th for 21st July, and reads :-The Honorable the Government Secretary.-Submitting the case of allotment II of Sec. 111 East Granville, at present in the occupation of Antony Gabriel.

In ~iew of a letter received by me this morning from M. E. Buchanan, as agent for A. Gabriel, I have to ask that proceedings in this case may be stayed until an opinion has been obtained from His Honour the Chief Judicial Officer. I would point out that this land was sold to A. Gabriel in 1900, and there does not appear

anything to show that the conditions were no~ fulfi!led in 19?2. It would s~em that if the .condi ~ tions were fulfilled in 1902, then the owner 1s entitled to his deed at any tur,e ,he may tlunk :fit to ask for it, and quite regardless of whether improvements of any stated value are on the land in 1905. _

, I rr,ight state that from my own knowledgie and recollection, the applicant did have im-provements to the value of £50 on the land in 1~3.-J. Richmond, Chief Government Surveyor, 20th July, 1905. ·

On 26th July the Government Secretary minuted to the Treasurer as fol­ lows:-.Pray let me know if Gabriel ever paid the £10 charged for the site in question.-A. :M ,, 26. 7 .05.





• Vl

On the same day the papers v re returned by the Treasurer with a

minute:-The Hon. the Govt. Sec) .-Only £r depo.,it ha~ bt."'en paid.-D. B.-T., 26. 7 .05.

The Government ecretary, on the same date, forwarded £he papers to the ~\.dministrator, with a minute reading:-H.E. the Admr.-All papers subm.itteu herewith, for Y.E. ·s consideration.-A. :iL (G.S.), 26. 7 .05.

On 28th July the Government Secretary addressed the following memo­ • rand um on the subject to the Administrator:-Government Secretary's Department, Port l\Ioresby.

Iemo. on allotn,ent II Sec. 3 Granville East, for~rly occupied by Antony Gabriel. A few days before Your Excellency's r turn to Port, together with the Superintendent of .Public Works, &c., I made a careful inspection of this building, and it seemied to me desirable to invite Your Excellency to consider the ad\'antage of repairing and improving the house for some

Government object, such as quarters for a l\.C. Officer, &c. It is in a good situation also at the fork of the tracks to Ela and Port Moresby for a police station, guard room, or cottage for strange natives, witnesses, &c. )Ir. MacDonald values the present nucleus of the house at £10 rns., but I think it is worth rather more, and sugge t that it be assessed rr~ore closely, and Gabriel allowed the amount as '' an act of grace.''

2. J\lr. Buchanan has no power of attorney or authority to act for Gabriel, nor did the

latter apparently attempt to show the Government that he had complied with the conditions or ask for an extension of time to do so. J!e does not seem either to have paid the price fixed for the allotment. I therefore think, as Your Excellency previously decided, that Gabriel has certainly for- · feited :his claim to the premises, and that it only remains with Your Excellency to decide what to

do with them.-A. Musgrave, GoYemment Secretar_v. 28.7.05.

The Administrator, having apparently read the foregoing papers on Gabriel's file, and referred to his minute of 28th April on McCrann's file, which was attached, minuted Gabriel's papers as follows:-G/S.-I intended that this matter should be laid before . Ex. Co., but my Mi:nute of 28,4.05

-not being quite clear-has been misread. Let it go before next Ex. Co.

F. R. R, Admr. 28.7.05.

The Government Secretary minuted to the Chief Government Surveyor on the 29th July:-The Hon. the C.G.S.-Papers referred back for the present accordingly.-A. M. (G.S.). 2 9.7.o5.

The Chief Government Surveyor then wrote at the foot of the paper con­ taining his request for submission of the matter to the Chief Judicial Officer the following memorandum:--Copy of the Minute of His Excellency the Admir.istrator iITT reference to this case is· an the

back of this paper.-J. R. 3r.7 .05.

Upon the back of the same paper Mr. Richmond indorsed an exact copy of the Admmistrator's minute of 28th April, 1905, with the sole exception that the copy omits the words "For Ex. Co." Mr. Richmond took no further action at this time in reference to the .. A.d­ . ministrator's alleged action in adding the words, "For Ex. Co." to the original

minute, his reason being that "the object of the Administratoi in making the alteration was not yet clear." On 9th August, one Silva wrote the Government Secretary offering to pur­ chase the house on the land in question, and on 10th August the Government Secretary forwarded Silva's letter to the Administrator.

On 11th August Gabriel's matter came before tne Executive Louncil, and an order was made, a mmute of which was indorsed upon the papers by the Adrnimstrator as follows :-In Ex. Co. r r.8.05.

rdered that A. Gabriel be written to and called upon to pay the sum due on account of pur hase and survey, &c., of the Allotment in question (viz., allot. 2, section 3 Granville Ea.1). . In the evect of Gabriel failing to compl) within reasonable time, the matter to be re-sub-m ttcJ to Ex. Co.

F. R. B., Admr.


Mr. Richmond, in l 1s tntutor leclaration laid before the Board, de­ clares-In dealing with the case the Administrator referred to the falsified Minute of 28th April , 1905, and reprimanded the Government Secretary for not having correctly carried out the ir.struc­

tio~s on the Minute of 28th April, 1905, which had been falsified by himself on 28th July, 1905. This appeared to me to be the consummation of a dishonorable action on the part of the Adminis­ trator.

The reprimand was alleged to have been given in Council on 11th August. Two days after that meeting, namely, on 13th August, Mr. Richmond wrote his letter to Mr. Atlee Hunt, before alluded to, in an inclosure to ·which he first gave expression to the charge now under notice. This letter was handed to Mr. Hunt on the same day, 13th August.

Your Commissioners took evidence on oath on this charge in Port Moresby on 13th, 17th, 21st, and 22nd November, 1906, when the following witnesses were orally examined, namely :-Mr. John Richmond, Mr. John R. Stuart kussell (Record Clerk, Land and Survey Office), His Honor Johri Hubert Plunkett Murray (Chief Judicial Officer), the Hon. Anthony Musgrave (Government

Secretary), His Excellency Captain Francis Rickman Barton (Administrator), Mr. Herbert William Champion (Treasury Accountant), and Mr. Arthur Jewell (Private Secretary). Further evidence was taken in Brisbane on 7th and 8th December, 1906, when Mr. Edgar James Matthews, late Chief Draftsman and Deputy Registrar of Titles, British New Guinea, was orally examined on oath.

Your Commissioners, in arriving at their decision upon this charge, have referred to and taken into tlieir consideration the evidence previouslv given bv some of the witnesses on statutory declaration and placea before the Board. and the documents included in official papers relating to the cases of Gabriel and McCrann.

Your Commissioners have had mor~ than ordinary difficulty in considering t.he weight attachable to the con:Aictfo<.1: evidence in this case. for the reason that they have been much imnressed with tlw belief that each ~.nd every witnPss eX!1:mined has Sbtted "\Vhat he ~.bsolutely heliP.verJ tn he the truth jn rP~arrl to thf'

substantiaLouestion of fact in dispute, which is " Whether the woros 'For Ex. Co.' now appearing in the Administrator's minnte of 28.4.05 were written on that date. or were ::tdded subsequently. on or ahout 2R.7.05." ·

The onlv witnBss examined. who <'011 ld not noc:siblv be deceived hv a tricJi of mP.mory. is the Administrator himsAlf ,;vbo wrote the minute, and ·wbo is accused of subseouentlv adding the words men+iow,d tbP,r~to . When the mR++er c~,mA before thA Bo}l.rd in l\ff plbonrne the 011 lv informa­

tion thAv had from the Administrator ·y,v~c:; ::J . h::ue deni . -::i,l oft.he trnth of the charl!e. When under examination 011 ()~th j11 Now:,mhAr last. t.hB Administrator gave the follo iVing evidence, in answer to it before the Commission :-Q. Your Exce llency now propcst:s to deal with the Ric.hlmond case ?- A. Yes. I desire

to make the following st atement: I solemnly sv,·ear that the words " For Ex. Co." appearing on the Lands, Survey anJ Works Department ~I. P. Ko. 252 of 1905, were written by me on 28th April, 1905. Q. To what rriatter did your Excellency intend those words to refer? Was it to Gabriel's

or to i\IcCrann's apphcation, or to both ?-A. To both. Q. If Your Excellency intended them to apply to Gabriel's case, why did Your Excel­ lency giYe a definite opinion as. to ,J1e state of the matter and directions as to th e course ,\·hich should be pursued ?-A. The circumstance. ') connected with lhe writing of this mi nute was probabl_\"

as follows : T.he papers were sent to me by the Gm·ernment Secretary on the z 7th April. It has often been my custom after dinner to sit clown and go through the last batch of p1pers \Yhi cb reached me that e-vening . That is probablY " ·hat occurred in regard to tbe present papers. I may haYe been cal lec1 away when I got to the \\·ord "bakery," or, at any rat'e, the minute appea1s

to have been concluded on the night of the 27th April. On the following morning I should, under those circumstances, have found the paper on my office table, and glancing through the minute haYe seen that the order given was beyond my power, ancl have written the "·ords " For Ex . . Co." and my init ials and date. That has been my impress ion from the time that those papers were

brought to my notice in August, 1905, through )Ir. Richmond' charges.

Mr. Champion, Accountant in the Treasury at Port Moresby, who then gave evidence for the first time, was examined on oath, before Your Commis­ sioners, as follows:-Q. I understann that mu wish to giYe some cvidenc in rega rd to what is known as th~

Richmond casp?-A. VC's. -Tt was somP time' after t h Ri rbn,ond cas<' had gon{' south I



heard what ca c it wa in connexion wjth, a1:d rcn-,embcred that the papers had come Jmrn to th Trea ury to look up the d p it paid on Gabrie l's land. As [ar as I remembered the infor­

mation from th Trea. ur) wa requir d for the Council. I ment10ned the m3:tter to :\lr. Dr~m­

mond and :\Ir. Bran-,ell, and I went . pecia!h· over to see the GoYernor about 1t, and asked h1m, tho. e pap r. had n to th TreJsmy, ·why the que tion had not been ref~rred to the Trea·

. un· a. to wh ther th word. ' For Ex. o." were on the papers or not. He said that .he had not

looked for any particular evidence, as he thought the case was clear enough· without eYidence, as h had no motiY for altering any ,rnrrls. He said that in effect. I forget \\·hat the exact ,rnrds

u eel were. Q. On what date was those papers referred to the Treasury ?-A. I have no recollection. It

should be on the papers. . Q. There ar th papers, refresh your m~mory ?-A. I refer to Gabriel's papers, and fi~d a mmute fr m the Government Sern=tan·. dated 26th July, 1905, to the Treasurer, and a rep,y of the sarce date by the Tr asurer regarding the deposit paid. As far as I recollect, this infor ·

mation was required for th Council. In that case I sa,v somewhere on the papers that t'hey were to go to the Council. There are none here, but thiey will be on :\1cCrann's papers, which would com to hand at the same time. I as~ume tlnt they would be on McCrann's pape-rs, as T do not s e them on Gabriel's papers, and thev both came to us a.t t:he sarrie time.

0. You fi ncl no r f erience to th~ Council on Gabriel's p:1pers ?-A. Ko. Q. There was no reference on Gabriel's papers on the 26th July, 1905 ?- A. No. Q. But your memory is clear that there was a referenC"e before you on Gabriel's papers to the Council on the 26th July ?- A. Yes.

Q. And that you are equally clear that }kCrann's papers accompanied Gabriel's to you on that date ?-A. Absolute] v so. Q. Will YOU lrok at i\IcCrann's papers. How many references are there on i\f.cCrann's papers to the Executi,T e Council ?-A. One: on the 28th April, 190.5.

Q. Can you sav to-clay that that is the one you noticed in reference to Gabri.el 's matter?-A. No, 1 cannot sav that. I assuml2 that it is so.

Q. And you' assume tha,t bemuse there is no other reference prior to the 26th. July with either set of papers ?- A. Yes. O. Your memon· is clear that you saw a. reference to the Exe-rutiw Counril ?- A. Yes: absoluteh· clear. - ·

Q. Have you anything further you wish to state ?-A. No. Mr. Stuart Russell, being examined, gave the following evidence :-Q. Will you tell the COITT1mission what you know of the state of the minute of the 28th April, 1905, on the McCrann papers made by His Excellenc,· prior to the 28th July ?-A. When

the minute first came into the office, there were instructions under that minute from the Goverrnr.ent Secretary to Mr. l\Iatthews to take further action. Mr. Matthews brought tho~e papers to me and made a remark that it was very irregular of His E:xicellency to declare a man' s land forfeited, and before taking action he thought he had better see Mr. Musgrave in thie matter. I replied-" This

seems to rrLe a direct instruction, and I should act upon it," which I believe he did. I did not see any order "For E'X. Co." on t:hat paper whatever-not before l\Ir. Richmond's return. Q. Would it have been possible for "For Ex. Co." to haYe been on that minute without your having noticed it ?- A. It may haYe been possible.

Q. At the time you speak of, did you closely examine that minute ?-A. Yes; I read the minute and the order of the Government Secretary. Q. (At Mr. Richmond's J'equest.)-Can you state definitely whether the words W{'re or were not on thie minute at the time you speak of ?-A. I can conscientiously S\H: 1Z1r that I c.litl not see

the words " For Ex. Co." on the minute. Mr. i\Iatthe,Ys showed it to me. Q. Can you swear that the words were not there?-A. 1o, I cannot. Q. When did l\Ir. Richmond first shew you the minute ?-A. I am not a.ware that l\lr. Richmond showed me tbe minute until after the matter had been dealt with in Executive Council

after the 29th July. Q. (,1t Mr. Riclvmond's request.)-What was the state of nhe minute when l\Ir. Richmon

Mr. Musgrave, whilst under examination, gave the following evidence on 13th November, 1906 :- .

_Q. You remember a minute on tbe :\IcCrann case dated the 28th April, r905, and ,nitten bY His Excellency ?-A. Yes. - 0 .. When that minute came before you on the 28th, when you wrote your following minute to the Chief Government Surveyor, were tbe words " For Ex. Co." on it or not ?-A. :\' o; cer-tainly no~. It "·as impossible that I could haYe taken thie action I did if they were there.

On 17th November, when being again examined, Mr. Musgrave gave the following evidence:-Q. Before this Commission, ,Yhen asked whether the words " For Ex. Co." w re on the minu~e of t? 28th April, 1905, \\·hen it rame before you, you replied, " :\'o. certainly not. · It

wa.. 1mposs1ble that I could have taken the action I did if the,· \\·ere ther~. ' In a -declaration m'ld ln- yo :1 on th 28th October, 1905, yo,u ay, "I can hereby state that to the be. t of mv

know_l clg and belief no Sll\.~ "·ords were included in the said original minute .. , I ,rnnt to knm,~, as thi. . eems lw yo~r dec-larahon of Octob0 r last year that you were speaking to t:-ie be. t of your knowledge, and belief, "·hether YOU positiYelY state now that th words ,Yere not there on the 28th April ?- A .. Yes; I do positiv ly state that they were not th r . I ha.Ye thougi1t o,-er the

s~bject a go8d d eal, a.n d 1 not o n t he original minute. action on the minute.


h a,·e become much rr,ore a sured in my own mind tl1at those ,Yords were A second offi cer a l o, e ,·en if I had by chance overlooked t hem, took

Q. So that you a re basing your statemen t now mainly upon the fact that you took the

action YO U did, a nd· that anothe r offi cer took that action also ,rithout q uestion ?- A. I paril y base it upori' the fact of the action take n l>r anotlwr offi c"r, b 'Ca use t hat confirms m,· own r r ol I ction that t:he ,rnrds we re not there. · ·

And again on 22nd November:-. _Q. You sa.y that you tcok o-ve r a rTa gnifying- glass to examine the minute which is under

d1s cuss1on ?-A. Yes . Q. Why did Y OU do so if you ,Y ere cert ain at that time that 6e ,rnrds " F or Ex. Co. " had

not been inserte d in t hnt minute when ori g nially written ?- A. I was not certain :it that time, nor until I h a d sei..~n the p apers on that occasion. A lon g inte rrnl between the 28 th April and the 2Tst August had t aken p lace. Q. D iel you exa mine t he minute there " ·ith the magnifying-glass ?- A . ~ o, I did not reriuire

to use it. A s soo n a s I glanced at the minute I came to the co nr lusion that t he words lucl been

aclclecl. Q. Frorr, t he appearnnce of the ink ?- A . :\"ot that; but on a rcoun t of the action which

had been t 1k en on the minute as it existed on the 28t h April. Q. You say: " On t he minute as it e xiste d on the 28th April. " You assume , then, that

from the action that was taken the wo rds " For Ex. Co." we re not on the minute of the 28th

April ?- A. K o. I was assured of t h at mainh- from m,· own recollection.

. Q. Then why t ak e orer a magnifying-glass ?- A .' I wishle d to an examination of the

d1fferent of th i nk. Q. You f elt it ne C'essa.n- to con firm your recoll ection b,· an examination of the ink?- A. No ; I felt it nece ssar y to e xa m-j.n e into ::\fr. Ric:h:rno n

His Honor, Mr. Justice Murray, gave evidence before the Commission, and stated that he had particular cause to examine the minute of 28th April, closely. And when asked what was the impression formed in his mind then as to the words " For Ex. Co." forming an original part of the minute, replied, " I could see they were lighter in colour than the rest of the minute." His Honor

proceeding, gave the following evidence:-Q. What did you deduce from that ?-A .. I did not draw any strong inference. It sug­

geste d the infe rence that the words had been adde d later. Q. \V a:s there any difference in the hue of the ink between the words " For Ex. Co.,"

and the signature and d ate which imme diatel v followed it ?- A. Ye s. Q. W.hat was t be difference ?- A. The· wo rds " .For Ex. Co. " were noticeablx lighter than any other part of the minute . Whether the initials " F .R.B." were lighte r I cannot remember. I ine:rn to say tha.t the ,rnrds "For Ex. Co." were lighter than a ny part of the minute, including the 1initials and date .

The following is an extract from Mr. Matthews' evidence:-• Q. I would like you to state to the Commission what you know about tihis case ?-A. The minute written by the Adminisit rator on the 28t h ,of A pdl, 190'5, was handed to me by the

messenger , a, black boy, from the Government s ·ecret ary's offi ce. I read the minute and noticed at the time that it ,ms peculiar that the Administrator had not ref erre d the matter for Executive Council. I dre w l\Ir. Russell ' s (the R ecord Cl erk) attention to it, \Yho was sitting- at hi s tabl e .

I then went into my own office and wrote 011t n draft of the letter, ,rhich was a1terwards s.ent on 5th ::\fay , 1905,, to 4ntony Ga briel, practically quoting the instructions I had received in the minute o f t he Administrator. H ad the minute of the Administrator been ref errecl for consider::t­ tion of the E xecutive Council I should n°ot h ave t ak en tihe action I did. At this particula r t ime

Mr. Richmond, the C hief Goye rnment S urve yor , was away on lea,·e . On l\Ir. Richmond's return he ·look ed throug h these papers and appa re ntly noticed the Administrator' s; minutes of the 28th A p ril , 1905, a nd spoke to me about it, stating tbat he considered the whole action i llega.1_, or

words t o that effect. Mr. Richmond submitted the case again to the Government 'Secretarv on t he 20th July, 1905, asking that the proceedings may be stayed in this case. It wa s somewherC" about this d ate that ::\fr. Richmond wrot e t his th at J\1r. Richmond ·brought the p a·pers to me and pointed out the ,.-or ds " For Ex. Co. " ,rritien underneath the Administrator' s minute of the 28th

A p ri l, r905. Mr. Rii: hmond, pointing this out, aske d n,e why I bad t aken the action I h a d. I

1n forrr.ed him that the ,rnrds " F or Ex. Co . " " ·ere not on t he minute as originall,· received by

me on t he 28tih April. i\Ir. R ichmond simp ly said, " Yes, I thought so," or words t o that effec t. " The ,rnrds ,re re no t on the ori ir inal minute w hPn I fir s:t: dealt \vit h t hem ,vhen I came back from my leave of absence . " The ca ~ was r esubmitted to the Council, a n d Gabriel was allm.-ed to

hol d bis land.

O. When did you first see the words "For E x. Co. " on tthe minute ?- A. When Mr. Rich­ mond shmre d me the pap rs. I cannot say t h e exact d::i.t e at this time .

Q. Diel a ny o ne draw your attention t o t hem ?-A. Mr. Richmond drew mv attention to them. Q.. Did you notice am· peculiari.t v in the writing of the words " F or Ex. Co." ?- A.

Ve. , they we re much li ghter in hue of ink th a n the otlh er part of the minute . b,ut that did not

;i_ff ect my opinion in regard to the matter in the slightest.


Q. Did you at this time fully belieye that the .words " For Ex. Co." were added about the end of July to the original minute of the 28th Apnl ?-A. I do. Q. Were you always of that orinion ?-A.. V:es. .

Q. The Administrator's minute of the 28th Apnl as regarding Gabriel 's case is endorsed on ~1cCrann's papers, is it not ?-A. Yes, on ~IcCrann's application. Q. Regarding tilie same land ?;-A. Yes. Q. Do you know that in land matters it is proper for the Administrator to refer them to

the Executive Council ?-A. Yes. Q. As there was no reference to the Executive Council, why did you on the 28th April not refer it back for a reference ?- A. I considered it better to act on the instructions of the

Administrator, in accordance with his minute, because I should probably have been snubbed if I had returned it again. >

Q. Look at the minute of 28th April. To what matter would you sav the worrds "For Ex. Co." as they now appear, refer ?-A. I would. say in regard to McCrann's lease. The first

part appears to be an instruction. O. Does the first part ref er to Gabriel's application ?-A. Yes. Q. So you would have taken exactly the same action as you did even had the words "For Ex. Co.," been there ?-A. No, I would ha Ye referred it to the Executive Council.

Q. Which matter would vou have sent to the Executive Council ?-A. I would have sent the whole minute over to the Council, with McCrann's statement. Q. But you would not have sent Gabriel's papers ?- A. Yes. I think so, herause they

would nave had to be consulted in regard to the who1e case. Q. But why would vou :h:we done that, as there was n,n express instruction in Ga briers case ?-A. That wns the action I should have taken. It is simply my opinirn1. I cannot give any other answer. They would have had to part them the best way thev could at the

Council. Mr. Richmond, examined as to the condition of the minute, gave the fol-lowing evidence : -Q. When did you first notice tfue omission of any reference to the Executive Council m

that minute ?--A. It was on the day I received a letter from i\ 1lr. Buchanan in reference to

Gabriel's allotment. I received that on the 2·Jth July, 1905: Q. Do you positively state that the words "For E'x. Co.," as they now appear on the minute of the 28th April, were not there on tibc 20th Julv, 1905 ?~A. They were not there on the 20th July, 1905. That I am perfectly certaiu. I read the minute carefullv throngh for the

purpose of finding 01.1t what action had been taken. I wanted to see why the action taken had

been taken. Q. Do you mean the action taken of which Mr. Budhanan complained ?-A. Yes. When I .got Buchanan's letter I asked for the papers in Gab1:1el's case, and McCrann's rapers were with them. Then I very carefullv read those papers, because I wanted to find a reason for the

action taken. I critically read them. They certainly had not the words " For Ex. Co." on on that d1y. Q. What did you do tlhen ?-A. I wrote a submission to the Chief Judicial Officer dated the 20th July, 1905. That submission was written beca.use the instructions given were perfectly

definite as to the action taken, and I did not think they were correct, and I saw no ether course but to ask the Chief Judicial Officer if it was legal to dCJ such, a thing. If there had been any

remark about Executive Council I should not submitted or referred to the Chief J U:dicial Officer. If there had been " For Ex. Co." written on ·the minute, I would have said, " This is for the Council," and I would have submitted it or taken it to Council at a meeting which took place between tlhe 20th Julv and the date upon which the alteration was made.

Q. Was this a matter which should have been referred to the Executive Council ?-A.


Q. That being so, whv did you not ref er it back, pointing out that that was so, and that it should lhave been referred to the Executive Council ?-A. Beca.uSe I knew that tl1e Administrator had power if he wi·shed to act without the ad vice of the Executive Council. Q. Had he ever done so ·previously in other matters ?-A. I can recollect one case, in the

matter of signing a deed which should have been referred to the Executive Counoil, in the Awaiama case. Q. Assuming-, for the ·sake of argument, that the words " For Ex. Co." were originally on tihe minute and had come before you, what would bin·e been your action in the Gabriel case?-­

A. If the words had been on as they now appear, I would have taken it to the Council. · Q. Why ?-A. To get an order. Q. Why wouJ d YOU have done that ?-:1. If a matter is referred to the Executive Council it cannot be acted unon except bv order from the Executive Council.

Q. Then you ,~-ouJd ha;·e read that minute as if the words " For Ex. Co." were referable hoth to the Gabriel and l\fcCrann cases ?-A. Yes, the whole matter. Q. Did you on the 20th Tuly, r905, npressly call anv one's attention to the omission of anv reference to the Executi\'e Council in the minute of 28th Aoril 1905 ?-A. Yes. I drew

::\[r. Uatthews' attention to it. - '

9. Are you absolutelv sure of tha't?-A. Absolutelv sure. 0. ~an you remember wlhat was said on that occasion ?-A. Yes, I remember in general terms. I took the case to ::\Iatthews aml c1sked him, " Whv did vou earn- this out without an order of Executive Council? This is all wrong." I think. I said "You have a mess of i'..'' ~t a IT events I told h1m that tlhe action was all ,nong. I discussed it with him for some

little t1me. H told me "·!:v l:P could not c1o otherwise. He said that he was not in charg-e of th Department, he was actrng for me and did not care to dispute tihe Administq1.tor's orders1


Q. You say that ,~hat you asked him was, "Why dia you ad in this without an order from the Executive Council'' ?-A. Yes . . Q · That question ,rnuld haYe be n a con istent one, although the words then appeared on the ~mute, wo_uld it not ?-A. Yes. I wish to explain that I ma.y have misundhstood your two

prev10~1s questions about my inquiry from :.\Ir. ~fatthews as to his acting without an Executive Council's order. I wish to pojnt out that when I referred to an Executfre Council's order I meant an order from the Executi,·e Council. . Q · Then at that interview with :.\Ir. :.\Jatthews what was your question? Why did you tell ~m that he had made a mess of jt ?-A. Be-ca u e he had acted in what appeared to rr..e to be .an

Irregular manner. He should not hlave acted without an order from the Executive ouncil. Q. Thf words "For Ex. Co." ,vere not on the document on the 20th July ?--A. 1 ~o. Q. Then why, on the 20th! July, did you tell Iatthews he had made a mess of it ?-A. Mr. Matthews should ha Ye referred it back to get an order, because the words" For Ex. Co." were not there. There was an order to do an action which shbuld not have been done without an order for the Executive Council, and I considered that :.\fr. Matthews had made a mess of it because he had

not referred it back to get that order. He explained then that the instructions were definite. He could not refer it bac k to Executfre Council because he was not told so. He could not

go a~ainst the instructions, "·hich were definite. I told him that the instructions were perfectly definite, but they were ,vrong in the way they " ·ere put, that the matter should have been referred to the Executive Counci.l, that if there were· not an order he should haYe got an order. He should have referred it back. That is all I ,-rish to explain. I cannot rerriember the whole of the

c~mversation, as quite a considerable time has elapsed since. There is one other thing I would like to say. I remember distinctly dra.wing Mr. Matthews' attention to the fact tbat the Adminis­ !ra.tor had taken a rr'-ost extraordinarv action in giving such an instruction as this without referring 1t m any way to the Executive Council.

Q. When did you first see the words" For Ex. Co." on the minute of the 28th April, . 1905 ?-A. It would be the same d::i.y, or the day following-28th July-almost immediately. Q. I believe you did draw attention to the freshness of the ink with which these words were written ?-A. Yes.

Q. WiJl you look at that document ?- A.. Yes [ Document ltanded to i 1itn·ess ]. Q. Can you see any difference there bet"·een the shade of the ink in which the body of tl1~ minute is written, and that of the ink in which the words " For Ex. Co." are written ?- A. ThcrP is a verv little difference, but not rriuch.

Q. · Can you see any difference between the hue of the ink with w,hich the words " For Ex. Co.'' is written, and the hue of the ink with which the Administrator's initials and the date following are writte.i;i ?-A. Yes, there fa a little difference, not a. great deal. Q. Is then:> :1s much difference tlhere as between the body of the document and the words

" For Ex. Co.'' ? - A. There is more difference between the body of the document and the words " For Ex. Co." than there 'is between the words " For Ex. Co." and the initials. Q. You have stated that vour particular attention was a.gain drawn to. t'his minute of the 28th April by the fact that vou1 received a minute of the 28th July, 1905, from the Adminis­ trator which refers to the want of clearnesis of the minute of the 28th April ?-A. Yes.

O. And that you then turned to the or,iginal minute of 28th April. What did you then find ?- A. I found that the words " For Ex. Co." had been added.

O. Since ~vhen ?-A. Since I saw it hs~. Q. What was the. appearance of the ink in which those words were written as compared with the ink in which the initials and date following were written ?---:-A. It was entirely different. Tt a pale fresh blue, not as it is now.

The opinion of all the witnesses, w110 refer to the hue of the ink, is that the words "For Ex. Co.," and the initials and date were, on 28th July (whBn they were without question in the minute), lighter in colour than the rest of the minute. Two witnesses, Judge Murray and Mr. Richmond, saw a differen.ce between the hue of the ink in "For Ex. Co." and the initials and date. When he first saw

them Mr. Richmond says the difference was most marked, and apparently he drew an equally marked conclusion from that circumstance. Judge Murray and Mr. Matthews, on the other hand, do not so. The former says he "did not

draw any strong inference" from th:1,t circumstance, "it s1:1-gg~sted the .inference that it h:ul been added later." Mr. Matthews s'lys that this difference m hue of the ink did not affect his opinion in rep:ar_cl to the matter in the s1ig11test. your Commis~_ ioners think that any difference_m hue between ~he W?rds alleged to have heen added, and t.he initials and date, which may have existed m July, 1905 (there :i" Do apnq,rent difference to-day), is as naturally accounted for by uneven pressu~e

rif the hlotti11g naper om. equally wet ink, and on that account do not take it further into consideration. Mr. Russell declines to positivelv state that the words "For Ex. Co." were not in the minute of 28.4.05, when it fi.rst_ came into the Land Office, that. is on 28th or 29th April; and, further, he admits that they may have been there w1t~out his having noticed them. At the same time, too, he says that h~ closely exammed the minute.

Mr. Musgrave's evidence convinces Your Com11:1issioner.s that his positi-ye tatement of November last, as to the words not b ing m the mmute of 28th April,


'-Yhen they reached and left his hand that day for the Land Office, was based upon impre .. ions he formed later as to the hl:e of the ink (which ha already been dealt with), and the belief that it was not possible for him, and a second officer al o, if he b chance overlooked them," to have taken the action which followed had the word been originally in the minute.

Mr. Matthews' evidence denotes the doubt which existed in his mind from the fir t regarding the action he ought +.o take in Gabriel's case under the in­ struction given in the minute of 28th April. He noticed that it was peculiar that the Administrator had not referred "the matter " to Executive Council.

He drew Mr. Russell's attention to it, then went into his nwn office, and wrote to Gabriel "practically quoting the instructions " he had received in the Adminis­ trator's minute. Mr. Russell remembers this circumstance and the advice which he gave Mr. Matthews, which was "This seems to be a direct instruction, and I should act upon it." And yet Mr. Russell will not say that the reference to Execu­ tive Council was not in the minute, and admits that it may have been there. We are convinced that Mr. Matthews is a fair and truthful witness, and fully believc,s that the words " 'For Ex. Co.' were added about the end of July to the original minute of 28th April." At the same time, a careful consideration of the cir­ cumstances narrated in his evidence tend to indicate that they are not inconsistent

with the fact that the words "'For Ex. Co." were actually in the minute on 28th April, that he did not read them as referring to Gabriel's case. and not having dealt with McCrann's case, to which they certainly referred, he forgot their exist­ ence, and subsequently, when they were referred to inferentiaUy by the Adminis­ trator's minute of 28th July, 1905, formed the conclusion that they did not exist in the ,original minute, but had been since added; and the hue of the ink, althornzh he brushes that aside now, may have involuntarily assisted him to that conclusion.

Coming now to Mr. Richmond's evidence-This .witness was away from the office on leave when the minute of 28th April . was written and sent to tht\ Lands Office. He did not return till 1st July. He apparently knew nothing of the circumstances till the receipt of Mr. Buchanan's letter on 20th July, 1905. He then sent to the Government Secretary for the papers in the case, and received both Gabriel's and McCrann's papers. He says, "I critically read them. They certainly had not the words 'For Ex. Co.' on them that day." Your Commissioners think that Mr. Richmond, too, was at first misled by the direct instructions regarding Gabriel in the origina1l minute. His actions in

referring the matter back asking for opinion of the Chief Judicial Officer. and in telling Mr. Matthews he had "made a mess of it," were perfectly con­ sistent with the minute as it now stands with the words "For Ex. Co." following the McCrann paragraph. That Mr. Richmond had paid little or no attention to that last paragraph, and therefore to its concluding words, when considering the action taken in Gabriel's case, is suggested by the conversation which Mr. Matthews states took place on 28th July, when Mr. Richmond pointed to the ,vords " For Ex. Co." and asked why Mr. Matthews had taken the action he had. J\1r. Matthews states that he told Mr. Richmond, in rer:,lv, "that the words 'For Ex. Co.' were not in the minute as originallv r8ceived by me on 28th A nr11 .» Mr. Richmond simply said, "Yes, I thought., so," or words to that effect. "The

words were not in the original minute when I first dealt with them when I came back from my leave of absence." The words then used by Mr. Richmond suggest to Your Commissioners that at that interview he had a doubt as to whether he I!light not have missed considering the words in the' first instance, and had there­

fore gone to Mr. Matthews to reassure himself on the point. During the course of his evidence the Administrator produced Minute rapers No. 207 /1904 "to show that Mr. Richmond is either extremely careless m noting instructions contained in minutes or that 1he is incompetent." Your

·Ommissioners desire to say that they have purposely refrained from taking the e papers into consideration in coming to their decision in the "Richmond a e" ~ the? are not satisfied that th<;y prove either of the d:ministrator's rnntent10ns with regard to Mr. Richmond .

. If the Administrator's explanation as to the circumstances under which the mmute wa~ written by him be correct, it accounts in a great measure for the u.bs_ qu nt act10~ taken by the officers in regard to the Gabriel case. The d­ muu trator admit that wh n he wrote the portion of the minut on 27th April,



he wrote it as a definite instruction tha,t the action which was taken in Gabriel's case should M taken, and that the reference to Executive Council was an after­ thought. The result is that the whole of the minute is contradictory and incon­ sistent in its terms. The minute of 28.4.05 was indorsed on McCrann's papers.

It deals with both Gabriel's and McCrarm's applications in separate paragraphs. The words "For Ex. Co. " following J,s they do that part of the minute dealint6 v,1i th McCrann's application, can be readily admitted to govern the paragraph relating to that special application. They cannot so readily be taken to govern or

refer to the portion of the minute dealing with Gabriel's matter. The only just ifica.­ tion for taking such a view is that the words form portion of the same T!'1jnutc as the direction regarding Gabriel's forfeiture, but even then they are wholly incon­ sistent and opposed to each other. Assuming that the words " For Ex. Co." were

originally in the minute, careful nind analytical examination of the whole minute might have led the officials to believe that both Gabriel's and MicCrann's cases were meant to go before Executive Council, whilst it is equally true that a similarly close examination would satisfy them that it was not Gabriers. but

McCrann's, matter only which was t·J be placed before the Council when Gabr:ers case was disposed of in· the manner expressly instructed in the first paragraph of the minute. Under these circumstances (still assuming that the. Administrator's ex­

planation js correct, and that the words formed an original part of the minute), what was more natural than that the various officers should have taken the latter view and acted as if the words "For Ex. Co." did not refer to Gabriel's case~ No action was taken on the McCrann case to which the words clearly may be taken

to refer, and therefore no later occasion arose to call the officers' special atten­ tion to the existence of those words until Gabriel's case was again referred on 26th tT uly to the Administrator, who, being the author of the minute which caused the whole confusion, naturally in his minute of 28th J nly referred inci­

dentally to their existence. It is not a very remarkable feat of imagination on the part of the officers concerned that they should, after Gabriel's case had been in action for three months, and McCrann's necessarily not even touched upon during that time, come to the conclusion that the words did not originally

form any part of the minute of 28th April, 1905. · Your Commissioners have come to the conclusion that that is what actuallv occurred. They find that the words "For Ex. Co." did form portion of the orf­ ginal minute, and were written by the Administrator on 28th April, 1905. The evidence of Mr. Champion, supporting as it does the evidence of the Admini­

strator, confirms that view. Your Commissioners are further of opinion that the whole action taken on Gabriel's case, though not intended by the Administrator, was the natural result of the want of clear expression by him of that intention. The like looseness of expression in the Administr~tor's . minutes has elsewhere been noticed in the

course of examination of documents by Your Commissioners. As an instance may be quoted his minute (among the unpublished papers on the Richmond case) relating to the instructions that "three senior Executive Officers" should meet Mr. Richmond at the Land Office subsequent to the ch.·-u~es in this case being made by that gentleman. Another instance is the Administrator's postscript

to an Executive Council minute indorsecl on· minute paper No. 730 / 05 (Rossel Island Native Recruiting for Mambare l. It is this minute paper which the Ad­ ministrator produced durin'; his evidence (2599) to prove Mr:. Musgr ave's "incom­ petence or obstructiveness."

As to the second charge, that of-The unlawful use of the powers conferred on the . .Adipinistratnr in orcl ering the- destru c­ tion of certain official papers and minutes "·ith the object .. of r emoving a ll evidence of his ow n incapacity in tihis particular case, ·

Your Commissioners had no further evidence placed before them in relation to this charge. After a perusal of the papers and evidence placed before the Mel­ bourne 1 Board, however, they have come to the conclusion that the fi nding of the Board, that "there is nothing in this matter to support or justify the char ge

made by Mr. Richmond" is correct. At the same time. Your Commissioners think that the instruction given by the Admi~istrator for the destruction of




























minutes, even to remove an unfonn

destroyed. In the instance under notice, the undeserved censure of Mr.

Matthews was removed by a subsequent minute, the retention of which in the records would have served all required purpo. e and, at the same time, kept the recocds intact. ·

Having regard, therefore, to their findings that neither of Mr. Richmon~\ charges were justified, and having regard also to the intemperate language m which those charges -were made, Your Commissioners are of opinion that the Administrator was justified in the course he took in suspending Mr. Richmond

from the duties of his various offices, and in referring the matter to Your Excel-lency.


The fol1owing is a list of the priucjpal recommendations ·which have been made in this Report, with marginal references to the pages on which they arc made:-That settlement in its earlier stages should be concentrated in the most

suitable districts. That encourageme11t be given to men of larger means to develop the West. ·

That an expert in tropical n,griculture be appointed. That £our Government plantations be established, and that the pri­ sons be removed thereto, and prison labour ut ilized thereon. That an expert in timber be appointed to inspect and report upon the

timber possibilities of the country. That all unalienated Papuan land be declared Crown land. that · the Government be given power to compulsorily purchase land from the natives, ·which is not required by them. That the natives in settled districts, as shall be proclaimed, be com­

pelled to mairk off their land-all unmarked land to be declared Crown land. That all hnd which tho natives are willing to sell should be at once purchased.

That the stocking conditions relating t.o pastoral leases be amended. That the true carclinn.l directions be followed in the measurement of land, wherever possible. That the term "Crow1~ Lands" used in the Mining Ordinances be


That minerals on native-owned fond be declared th8 DropArty of th(~ Crown, and legislation passed to urovide for mining therefor. 1 hat a Geologist be appointed to exp]ore-with a party of miners--­ the country for minerals.

That a Government system L)f fo,bour-recrniting; be estabfo~hed. That alterations be effected to the Government steamer llf Prr1·e Enrr­ land to enable her to be ntili7ed for the Government recruitina . b schem , a11d to 0c1 rry cargo for the Governrnent.

That at least two launches be nurchased for Divis· 0nnl work. That improved postal facilities ·between Australia ana Papua be estab-lished, with stipulated rates of passage a.nd frejq:ht. ·

That a vigorous policy of road construction be carried out. That police and prisoners be tauaht English. That the teaching of English be ~ad comnulsorv i.n Mission Rchools. That. native children be compelled to attend schools at which English

1s taught. ,_ ,. -, - ,.. -

That State schools for white rhildren be established at Port Moresbv. Samarai, and '\'Voodlark Island. ·

That the number of Armed N n,6vr Consta,bularv be increased. That a patrol system be instifoted. ·

That white constables be appointed to the nrjnrin~ l g-old-ne1ds. That the native.; enjoyin~· Go"{Tf'T'nrnPnt nrot~0tion· 1 Ii' hr'( .. d. That a Tariff Jreference be given bv A nstr::i lfa to Pa nnan produd~1

That the Commonwealth ad·{c1,n e a loan to the Territory, free of 111- u terest, for development; 1 purposes. That advances be made to "ett1ers and mining prospectors. u

That the issue of notes by private firm be ct1sallowed; that Govern- u ment notes be issued; and that the Post Offices Teceive money on · deposit and issue. Money Orders and Postal Notes. That all Government stores be purchased through the Queensland uv

Government Stores D.epa.rtment. That Criminal Courts for 'frial by Jury of murder cases be established Ivi at Port Moresby and Samarai. That in exceptional cases po,ver be given to the .c1.dministrator to rvn

grant licences for the sale of liquor in excess of those already in existence. That a system of wireless telegr.1,phy be installed between Thursday Ivii Island and Port Moresby.

That a telephone line be erected from Port Moresby, via Sogeri and rvm Kokoda, to Buna Bay. That the head-quarters of the Eastern Division be removed from ix Samarai tctFyfe Bay.

That a "hill" station be established. rx

That houses of native construction be erected on the gold-fields for rxi hospital purposes, when and as required; and that a Medical Officer be stationed in the Northern Division. That a Medical Officer be sent to the Northern Division to report rxii

upon the cause of deaths of native employes, and to suggest means of nrevention. That the Ordin~nce relating to the importation of stock be amended. Ixiii That the Ordinance dealing with licence-fees for traders be amended. 1xiii That info1-:mation concerning the Territory be compiled and published rxiv

in a handbook, and also incorporated in the Official Year-Book of the Commonwealth of A -ustralia and other publications. That the following officers be retired:-The Treasurer. cii

The Resident -"fagistrate, South-Eastern Division cii

(and after the expiration of twelve months) The Government S:3cretary. c

That on the retirement of the present Government Secretary, Mr ..... \.. c M. Campbell be appointed to the position. That the position of Commandant of Armed Native Constabulary bv cii abolished. That an officer, possessing sound knovvledge of finance, and who has cii

had training and experiencee in approved methods of Treasury book-keeping and Customs work, be appointed as Treasurer. That an officer of ripe experience in Survey and Engineering work b0 civ appointed Chief Government Surveyor to supersede the present

occupant of that position. That special attention be given in other directions to the reorganiza- xix tion of the Departments of the Public Service in the manner indi­ cated in this Report. That the salaries of all officer.s should be revised with a view to in- cix

crease, particularly in regard to Assistant Resident Magistrates, ~\V ardens, and Senior Clerks. That no European Clerk should be paid less salary than £200. cix That all appointments be made through the Public Service Commis- cvii


That the claims of Australians (i.e., persons domici]ed in A11stralia) cvm be given first oonsideration in connexion with appointments to the Pub1ic Service. That arrangements be made for the granting of annuities to officers on cLx

retirement. That quarters be provided for officer$ and Government workmen, and ex rent charged for same.

~ I

('., i


That action be taken, in conjunctio11 with the dertnai1 ew Guinea, authorities, with a view to permanently mark the boundary be­ tween that Possession and the ~erritory of Papua. That in nlaces where Government Medical Officers are stationed free

medi"cal advice and attendance be granted to officers and Govern-ment workmen~ That a more suitable printing press be supplied for the Government Printing Office, and that the Government Printer be given an


A quantity of correspondence and official papers were produced in Evi­ dence, some of which have been printed as Appendices. The remainder, however, it was considered unnecessary to print, and are forwarded in their original state with this Report.

In concluding this Report, Your Commissioners desire to place on record their appreciation of l:11e services rendered by their Secretary, Mr. Edward Harris. He ha.s been called upon to perform his responsible duties_ under singularly excep­ tional circumstances and conditions, and has succeeded in carrymg them qut in

such a manner as to give Your Commissioners every satisfaction. To him we desire to express our thanks. 1

We have the honor to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

Melbourne, 5th February, 1907 .







, ' 11bjcl:t.

---hlmiuistration in Relation t:::> IncliYilluals "The Bunting Case ' ' '• The 'Ruby' Case" '' .i\J r. Oelrich's Case" "The Damaged Postage Stamps Case" '' The Survey L , an Case" "The Taina ta Stores Shortage" ... '' The Pothier r110tograph Case" Charges against t.he C0mmanLlant of the Armed NatiYe Constabulary The Case of l\Ir. C. 0. Turner Official Charges against the Government 8ecretitry in Despatches Charges by the Go\·ernment Secretary against the Administrator Charges by the Administrator against the Government Secretary Inspection of Government Departments ... Appointment of Chief Government Snrrnyor The '' Richmond Case" procedure Au ministration, Generally ... Administration, Other charges Administrator, The Advertising Papua

Agriculture Copra. Rubber Sugar

Coffee Tobacco Sisal hemp Cotton Maize Other economic plants ... Agricultural Settlement, Proposed Concentration of Armed Native Constabulary

Constabulary­ ArmeLl Na,tive Village White

Defence, The question of Local Diseases among Natives

Eastern Division Head-quarters, Proposed removal of .. , Education Electoral Representation

Fauna of Papua, Zoology and Financial suggestions Freights on steamers under contract to the Government for carriage of mails

Hill sanatorittm on the Astrolahc Range, The formation of a Historical ...

Interpreters, Native Itinerary . ..

Labour, Native (Recruiting) Lands, Crown Liquor Ordinance

Pag-e . lxv lxviii lxx

lxx lxx lxxii lxxiv lxxiv

lxxv lxxvii lxxviii lxxviii

lxxx lxxxii lxxxiv lx:xxvii


xcviii xcvii lxiv xv

xvi xvi xviii xviii

xix xx xx xx xxi xxi



xli xlii

lvii lxi

I viii

xxxvii liv

lxiv 1


lx X

xlii vii

xxix xxvi lvi



!xDEX TO REPORT-continued.

Subjec t.

~ leJical at.tcuclan ce on GoH-fielJs •

.,_'J,fcrric England and other GoYernmcnt Yessels

Mining Laws )lining, Prospecting Mii,sions, The influen <.:e of the

N,d,ive Questi11n, The

O'Brien case, The

Pearl shelling Plantations, GoYernmcnt Police, White Port Moresby Water Supply

Public Service, Reorganization of Appointments to the Public Service Annuities to Government Officers Quarters for Government Officers

Recommendations, The principal

Recruiting "Richmond Case," The Roads and land transport

Settlement, White Settlement, ,Vhite, proposed concentration of Stock, Ordinance relating to the importation of Stores, Purchase of GoYernment

Strachan, Claim by Captain

Tariff question, The Taxation, Native ... Telegraphic connexion with Australia Telephonic communication between Port Moresby aml Euna Bay

Timber Traders' Licence Fees Trial by Jury

Zoology and Fauna

Page. bci

xxxii, xxxiv xx viii xxix X l




xxii xlii lxi xcix

cvii cviii ex

cxxiv xxix cxi XXXV


xxi }xii Iii lxv

xlvii xliii lvii 1 viii xxiv

lxiii lv





Abel, Rever end Cha rles William

As!>mann, Max . .. Baldwin, Charles Robert Ba llantine, M.L. C. , The Hon.

David Ballentine, Reverend Andrew

Barton, C.M.G., His Excellency Captain F. R. Bellamy, Rayner Laming

Boismenu, Right Reverend A. de

Boucher, Cyril H a slewood

Bowler, Michael Boylan, Thomas Bramell, Bertram William

Bridle, Arthur ...

Brown, William Stewart

Bruce, Robert ...

Bruce, William Cunningham

Buchanan, William Edwin Johnson Burnett, Thomas Arthur ... Campbell, M.L.C., The Hon.

Alexander Malcolm Carpenter, John Alexander Champion, Herbert William

Clunn, John, jun. Cummins, John Drummond, M.L.C., The Hon. Ralph Melmoth Durietz, William John

Elliott, Alexander English, Alfred Charles

Ezard, Arthur ...

Fillodeau, Reverend Alexander Ford, Henry E . Fowler, James Grant Garrioch, Charles Grant

Gill, Francis

Greene, Henry Greentree, Paul Griffin, Henry Lysaght Haughton, Samuel Pierson

Herschtel, Isadore Horan, Daniel ...

Hunter, Archibald Alexander

H islop Hunter, Robert .. . J ewe 11, Arthur .. .

Jiear, Army Henry Jones, Robert Fleming Joubert, Allan Leslie K ing, Reverend Copland

Kinmond, J ames Little, M.L.C., The Hon. William John Luff, William Henry Matthews, Edgar James

Monckton, M.L.C., The Hon.

Charles Arthur Whitmore Moreton, The Hon. Matthew

Henry Murray , His Honour John Hubert Plunkett Musgrave, C.M.G., M.L.C., The

Hon. Anthony

N elsson, John Gusth



Missiona ry, London Missionary · Kwato Tra der, Port Moresby Storekeeper, Port Moresby



Missionary, · Methodist Missionary Society, Bwa idoga, Goodenough Island Administrator of the Territory of Papua

Assistant Resident Magistrate and Government Medica l Officer, Losuia Co adjutor Bishop, Mission of the Sacred

Hea rt, Yule Island Hea dquarters Officer, Armed N ative Constabu-lary, and Assistant Resident Magistrate Miner, Yodda Gold-field Cyanider, Woodlark Island ... Resident Magistrate, Centra l Division

Mine Man.:i.ger, Kulamadau Manager, Burns, Philp, and Co. Ld., Port

Moresby Trader, Thursday Island Commandant, Armed Native Constabulary, and Assistant Resident Magistrate

Tra der, Port Moresby Miner, Kulamadau Resident Magistrate, Eastern Division

Manager, Burns, Philp, and Co. Ld., Samarai Treasury Accountant and Government Store-keeper Planter and Property Owner, Samaraj

Storekeeper, Tamata Chief Government Surveyor

Digger, Gira Gold-field H~ad Gaoler and Overseer, Woodlark Island Assi~a.nt Resi:ient Mag~··a.te, Rigo, Central Division

Carpenter, Port Moresby Priest, Sacred Hea rt Mission, Yule Island Mining Lea seholder, Kula madau Trader, Port Moresby Chief Clerk, Government Secretary's Depart­

ment Mining Warden and Assistant Resident Magis-trate, Woodlark Isl and Coffee Planter, Sogeri Ama lgamator, Kula ma d'lu

R esident Magistrate, Gulf Division Sub-C ollector 0£ Customs, &c., Samarai Agent for Pearl M·erchant, S amarai Min er, Yodda and Gira Gold-fields ... Master, Government Steam Yacht Merrie

England T rader, Port Moresby Privn te Secretar y to the Administrator Resident Magistr~ te, Western Division

Government Medica l Offi cer, Samarai Store Manager, Buna B ay Missionary, Anglican Mission, Dogura, Bartle Bay Inspector, Commonwealth Audit Office Miner, Yod.i a Gold-field

Tra der, Thursday Island Licensed Surveyor, Brisbane Resident Magistrate, Northern D1vis1on

Resident Magistrate, South-Eastern Division

Chief Judicial Officer

Government Secretary

Storekeeper, Kulamadau





2033-2036. 834-886. 6-23, 400-569, 2183-2346.


2438-2505, 2590-2630, 2654-2657, 3172-3176. 1574-1599.


751-769, 812-813, 2176-2182. 1890-1894. 1400-1416. 312·399, 701-75o,

814-820. 1349-1359. 637-670.

2902-2926. 2384-2416.

2002-2018. 1433-1449.


979-1040, u77-1181, 1289-1297.

1125-1154. 2417-2434, 2631-2647, 3188-3199.

1251-126q 1758-1762. 570-620, 2353-2354, 2362-2375, 2689-2708, 2712-2715.

1209-1250. 1528-1534. 24-101.

2019-2021. 27.51 -2758. 1450-1482. 1971-2001. 2160-2175, 2710-2711

1312-1348, 1495-1527.

672-700. 1483-1488. 2820A-2820J. 1272-1288, 1298-1302. 1046-1059, 1270-1271. 1895-1902, 19u-1916. 2958-3001.

212-311. 2650-2653, 2709, 321 7-3224. 2821-2891. 887-913, 1303-1311.

1651-1687. 1621-1650.

2557-2571. 1763-1 764.

2927-2957. 3032-305 9, 3225-3275. 1800-1870, 1917-1970.


2037-2122, 2532-2556, 2648-2649, 3129-3154. 3·5, I02-2II, 832-833, 2'.lA.7-2352, 2506-2531, 2658-2679, 3155-

3163, 3167-3171, 31 77-3185, 3200-3211. 1417-1423.

• Name .

0 Toole, John Patching, William Benjamin Reilley, John Richmond, John

Riley, Reverend Edward B axter ... Rochfort, Francis Augustus Rothwell, Edward ...

Royal, Mark Russell, John R. Stuart

Seymour, John Thompson Strong, Walter Mersh ...

Trotter, Wil.liam Turner, Charles Owen Weekley, M.L.C., The Hon. Whitten, M.L.C., The

William Wright, John

Fred Hon.

Barton, C.M.G., His Excellency Captain Francis Rickman Champion, Rerbert William

Jewell, Arthur ...

Matthews, Edgar James Murray, His Honour John Hubert

I DEX TO WITNESSBs-cont1'.nued.


Miner, Gira Gold-field Aerated \Vater Manufacturer, &c., Samarai Miner, Kulamadau ... Surveyor, Lands Department

Missionary, London Missionary Society, Daru Miner, Yodda Gold-fiel.d Master Mariner, Brisbane Digger, Yodda Gold-field

Record Clerk, Lands .Office

Superintendent of Roads, Northern Division .. Assistant Resid·ent Magistrate, Mekeo District, Central Division Miner, Kulamadau ...

Assistant Resident Magistrate, Eastern Division Miner and Leaseholder, Woodlark Island Storekeeper, &c., Samarai ...

Carpenter and Joiner, Public Works Department


Administrator of Papua

Treasury Accountant and Government Store-keeper Private Secretary to the Admmistrator Licensed Surveyor, Brisbane Chief Judicial Officer

Plunkett Musgrave, C.M.G., The Hon. Government Secretary Anthony Richmond, John Surveyor, Lands Department

Russell, John R. Stuart Record Clerk, Lands Office ...


1688-1757. 914-978. 1489-1494. 2589, 2680-2688, 3060-3115.

3164-3166, 3186-3187, 3212-3216. 2892-2901. 1871-1889, 1903. 3002-3031.

1904-1910. 621-636, 2123-2159, 235.5-2361, 2376-2381, 2435-2437, 2572-2588, 3116-3128.

1765-1799. 2759-2820.

1424-1432. 1153-1176. 1360-1399. 1060-1124.


3172-3176, 3185.


;217-3224. 322 5-3 275· 31 29-3154.

3155-3163, 3167-3171, 3177-318.5, 3200-3211. 3060-3115, 3164-3166, 3186-3187, 3212-3216.


















Colonel the Honorable J. A. K. MACKAY, C.B., M.L.C. (Chairman); W. E. Parry-Okeden, Esq., I.S.O., Mr, Justice C. E. Herbert. Mr. E. Harri,s11 Secretary to the Commission.

The Secretary took shorthand notes of the eyi. dence and proceedings.

r. Mr. Harris read the instrument, dated 27th August, 1906, appointing the Commissicn.

2. The Chaz'rman.-You have heard the Com­ mission read, and realize what its objects and powers are. We .are desirous of receiving the fullest in­ formation. We do not wish that we should depart from the Tenitory leaving it in the power of any one to say that they did not have an opportunity of

placing their views before the Commission, and, as the Commission is, among other things, to inquire into the existing administration, I wish to point out that the Commission will protect to the utmost of its power any official or private individual who wishes to make any statement on oath. The Com­ mission is also to inquire in~o the possibilities of this Territory, and suggestions which may be made by any one at present in the Territory backed up by local experience will receive full consideration at our hands. If there is any one present now who would like to give evidence, we will hear him. We trust that those who have heard what I have said will convey the information to as many persons as


possible, so that when the Commission resumes on Monday every one in Port Moresby will have an op­ portunity1 of giving evidence; and so as not to lengthen the proceedings, we hope people will come forward with as little delay as possible. We will be gla

Monday, will supply the Commission with the Or­ dinances dealing with their different Departments. . We will als_o expect from the Heads of Depart­ ments the fullest information, so I trust the offioers

present will bear that in mind, and when they come before us that they will be prepared to give us

any information we may require. Mr. Musgrave, you might be able this morning_ to give us some in , formation regarding your particular Department, or would you pref er waiting until Monday?

3. Mr. Musgrave.-! would like to think it over. 4. The Ohairman.-Then I understand you prefer to wait over until Monday. Would. you please give the names of the Heads of Depart -ments who are at present in Port Moresby?

5. Mr. Musgrave.-ln addition to myself, there are, in order of seniority, the Honorable D. Bal­ lantine, the Treas.urer; the Honorable Ralph Mel­ moth Drummond, Chief Government Surveyor; and I think the Chief Medical Officer should be con­ sidered one, as he corresponds with officers at the other end. Noel Charles Beaumont is the Chief Medical Officer, and Bertram William Bramell the Resident Magistrate of the Central Division.

6. The Chai'rman.-WouJd vou, Mr. Ballantine, like to make a statement before the Commission now, or would you prefer to make it on Monday? 7. Mr. Ballan•tine.-l can do it 110\\..

8. Tlte Cltaz'rman.-Very well, and as we do riot wish to disorganize the work of the offices in any way, the -Government officers are at liberty to with-draw, if they wish to do so. .

The Government officers, other than Mr. B'\llan­ tine, then withdrew.

2 David Ballantine, 14th Sept., 1006. THE HO,' ORABLE DAVID BALLANTlr E, M.L.C., ,ras worn and examined, as follows:-also like to express an opinion on the ca;rier trans­

port in the Korthern Division. ~o. Q. Yes, and also state your opinion as to

mail tr~nsport. You might also give us, as nearly as possible, the number of natives at present under labour agreements ?-A. I could giYe an estimate for the Central Division, but not for the Eastern or Western. Returns for those divisions are pro-

9· Tlte Clwinnan.-Your name is ?-A. David

Ballantine. 10. Q. What position do you occupy in the Ter-

bably in the Government Secretary's office. -2 r. Q. Is any 1ee ,paid by the employler of

la1?o~r ?-A. Ye~, a shilling on signing on, and a shilling on paymg off. That is only sufficient to

ritory ?-A. I am a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils ; member of the Native Regu­ lation Board; Treasurer and Collector of Customs · Chief Postmaster; and Registrar General. Thos~

are the principal offices I hold. I hold some sub­ sidiary ones, which need not be mentioned. rr. Q. How long have you been m the New

G1:inea service ?-A. 1 was originally appointed in July, 1889, as Sub-Collector at Samarai.

· defray the expenses. 22. Q. You might go into that from a revenue

r 2. Q. When did you receive the appointment as _ Trea;s.urer ?-A. I was appointed Actmg Trea­ surer in December, 1892, and Treasurer about

twelv,e months after that. . 13. Q. You have just been away on leave?-A. I have been absent on leave for nine months. 14. Q. Who carried on your duties durina vour absence ?-A. Mr. Champion, the Acting Tre:surer.

15. Q. If vou think, bv waiting until Mondav, you could make your statement more concise, it \Yould be preferable, and we could examine you on that statement ?-A. I think, with the papers that

I have sent for, I can go straight ahead.

r 6. Q. We quite understand your readiness and appreciate it, but, after consultation, we have come· to the conclusion that perhaps it would make for conciseness and clearness if you made a written

statement, and we could then examine you on it. In the s~atement, you might give the personnel of your sta'if, expressing your individual opinion of every offioer on your staff. Let us know the source of your revenue. Has your revenue been fluctuat­ Jng1 or is it fairly steady ?-A. It fluctuates.

. 1 7 ·: Q. We would like you to tell us how you

dispose of your revenue, and to have your criticism and comments on the expenditure. Also the pro­ bable sources of revenue. Have you ever gone into the question. of the raising of revenue from the

nativie :population ?-A .1 The question has been raised once or twice, but no Administrator we have pad has been in favour of it, and it has not gone

.further. , 18. Q. That is .a ·question that should have your ~cr.sideration, and ·we would like your suggestions ,111 regard to the ~act that the Goverfu"'Il.ent have given

peace and security to a large number of natives, and your ideas as to raising revenue from them. You will, of course, as Treasurer, realize the im­ _port;mce of the Territory being able to ·pay its way

m t~e near future. At the present time, you have a Tadff ag:ainst your products entering AUiStralia, ~nd we would' like !o have your ideas on that ques­ tion. We do not wish to rush ygu, and if you can­

not get the statement ready for Monday, we will be here all the week ?-/L I might also make a

note about the mail service to New Guinea. 19. Q. Yes, and also the possibilities of wireless telegraphy, not from a technical stand-point, but a-; to what extent it would be made use of, and what ·revenue might be received from it. Then there is

the question of a State :Nursery. That, of course, 11:ay n(?t come under your Department, but you can gn--e us the information as a man of experience in the Territory. We understand that you have a very

fair climate \\'ithin a reasonable distance of Port Moresby, and ,Ye would like to have your views as to the establishment of a Hill Station. similar to th?-e they have in India. and the encouragement it might te to settlement hv enabling \YhitE' men to

take their wiv s here. You ,rnulci haw' to ao into

the question of how to g<'t thf'r<', anc.1 that' might µe done by means of a light railway ?- A. I would

poi~t of view. Then, over and above making the natives plant_ trees for the purpose of supplying themselves with food, the question should be con­ sidered of making them plant a certain number of

trees for the Government, to pay for the protection they receive from the Government ?-A. We already have a regulation in force compelling the natives to plant trees of economic value. '

23. Mr. H erbert.-But the question should

be considered of compelling the natives to plant trees for the Government, as well as for themselves? -A. Yes.



was sworn and examined, as follows:-24. The Chairman.-What is your name?­

A. Albert Charles English . 25. Q. And what position do you hold ?-A. I am Assistant Resident Magistrate at Rigo, in the Central Division.

26. Q. What are your duties ?-A. Principallv in connexion with the natives, the administration of justice, and keeping law and order among the

11..atives. 27. Q . .What are yo_ur duties in regard to white people ?-A. I am Gold Warden for the Territory. There is only one small fi.etd in my division.

28. Q. How long have you held your present po-· sition ?~A. I was GoYernment Aaent for ten years in Sir W. :MacGregor's time. After that I was ap­ pointed Assistant Resident l\Iagistrate in Sir George

Le Hunte's time. I am not certain I did not get

my appointment as warden before Le Hunte came. 29. Q. Have you had much experience with the natives ?-A. Yes, among the natives from Dutch New Guinea round to the German boundarY. I

have done a deal of pioneer work, and assist~d in opening up the 'Mekeo and ~fambare districts. 30. Q. HaYe you found that the natives ha.Ye de­ generated of late years-that is that thev are not so

energetic as they \\·ere at first, and haYe become slothful ?-A. I have neYer known them to be sloth­ ful until of late year and this is. particularly

noticeable along the coastline. During the last fae or six years they hav gradually become more and more slothful. 31. Q. Do ,·ou attribute that to there now beincr

no necessity for them to keep in form for fi. (l' htin~ owing to tile protection they receive from th~ Go~ nrnmrnt ?- .4.. That is . o. The,· have not nmr

am fear of club law. \YIP n I first arrived in Port

. I~resby the pt't,ple \\ re diffi cul[ to de1l ,, ith. and t.lW\' \\·<'r' pra:'l ic~t l h gnn'rn1 d 1)\ cl uh Ll\r. The\ w<'re practical!) rrm·crncu h;, thl' natiws al the b:ick - lh K.oitabo and Kaiari people.

32. Q. So that your experience, which extends from the time the Territon- ,ms first taken over, is that tb.e policing of the -country and added se­ cua-ity to life has made the nati,·es more slothful and -less inclined to work, and, ,generally, they

have deteriorated ?-A. Yes, and are still deterio­ ating, and are becoming a lazy, useless, lot of

people. 33. Q. On the other hand, have they become more truthful and moral ?-A .. On the other hand, they have become more untruthful and unreliable, and the gross discourte;;;y to Europeans is more marked than ·when I first arrived.

34. Q. The police have been introduced, and they stand, to a certain extent! for the reYerse. Why

is this disrespect to Europeans growing ?-A. A good deal of it is due to the Europeans in the country.

The missionaries allow the natives to enter their houses and · sit with them, take blossoms from ,their trees, and no check is placed on their movements at all. Our native laws, I find, are too lenient,

although I found them to answer when they were first brought out. 35. Q. Then your opinion is that, although they were excellent a,t the time, they have now become obsolete ?-A. Yes, some of them. Petty thefts are

increasing among the boys, and thev have not the slightest respect for private belongings. They will not show any care for the articles belonging to their em plovers. ·

36. · Q. Are the natives not treated stringently enough ?-A. '-That is my film opinion. I have

written to the Governor several times on the subject. 37. Q. If a boy gets, caught for theft, what is

his punishment ?-A. He is 'put in prison for seven days; and fed on rice and bee( and when he comes out he is rather looked up to by his people. ' The

Queensland criminal code applies to New Guinea, but most of the cases are dealt with under the

native regulations. 38. Q. Have you thought out how the present

condition of things could be improved ?-_ A. That is a subiect I would like time to think out. I have

made m'any suggestions to the Governor. I could write to the Commission. 39. Q. Can you remember, offhand, any of the suggestions you have made to the Governor ?-A. There is one thing. The natives cannot think for

themselves. Any stringent law which may be

passed may appear to outsiders to be very hard. The native makes no provision for the morrow. All he thinks of is to-day. They have got into a groove for many years, and are likely to stick in it. Last

year the Governor criticised my report ra,ther un­ fairly, I thought, on this subject. The result of

dealing so leniently with the natives is that murder is increasing. In the vicinity of Port l\loresby,

with a population of 3,500, more crime has been committed during the last eighteen months than has happened in ,that portion of my district under con­ trol in the vicinity of the Government station,~ which portion has a population of at least 8,000. I refer to a similar time.

40. Q. To what do you attribute that? At Port

~foresby you have the head of the Administration, with a very much larger force, to keep law and

order, than in you,y division.-A. I should say that dealing with firmness with them is the re~son. I know the natiYe langua,ge so well, talking three or four dialects, that I am able to explain better than officers here the difference between right and wrong.

Here thev haYe been rather slack and too lenient with the people. 4r. Q. In your district, you deal with them with a firmer hand ?- A. Yes, and am kind at the same time.

- -'! ~


3 .A.. C. English,

14th Sept., 1906.

42. Q. You make the natives respect you ?-A. Yes, and those in my district. 43. Q. While, on the other hand, the officials

here ha,·e been some,Yhat lax ?-A. That is so. 44. Q. Haye you enforced the Ordinance in re­ gard to making the natives. plant cocoanut trees?­ A. Yes, ::i.nd perhaps I am the only one, and even

I have not enforced it as much as I might have

and "·est p.arts of Kew Guinea are more suitable for planting cocoanut trees than mY. district. ·

45. Q. Yqu recognised tha,t it was necessary to carry out the ordinance ?-A. Yes, and the natives are reaping the benefit of my having carried it out. 46. Q. I believe that Sir W. MacGregor held the view that in making such an ordinance he was, in addition to providing food, inducing certain habits of thrift and industry -A. Yes.

4 7. Q. Has it increased the natives' desire for

work ?-A. It has not increased their desire for

work. The planting of the .trees is not a big oc­

cupation. There is only the collection of the nuts and planting them out. 48. Mr. Okeden.-How many trees have they to plant ?-A. In several of the villages this year, where they have suitable ground, I have made them plant up to fifty trees a head for each adult.

49. Q. Is that laid down in the regulation ?-A. Ko, the number is left to the magistra.te. 50. Mr. H erbert.-And do you enforce a

number only sufficient to keep them in food ?-A. Yes. I have gone down to as few as five or ten,

and in villages nearer the coast, where there is not so much land, I have brought it down to five. 5c Q. In addition to the trees which they have to plant for their own benefit, supposing they were further instructed to plant a number for the Go­ vernment, and keep them in order-in other words, bv wav of taxation ?-A. I think it would work

very well. We had a regulation to enforce that the natives plant economic trees, such as rubber, and I enforced that. , 52. Q. Would .the gathering of the 1extra nuts and the preparation of the copra from them in­

culcate habits of ind us.try · among the native5: ?-A. Yes. 5 3. Q. It would be better "than, merely growing trees ?-A. Yes. Care must be taken in regard to the kind of plants introduced. The natives ~re

very careless, and unless they are compelled by law to look after the trees, I would not rcommend their introduction. 54. Q. Would they do it if compelled by law?-A. Yes. ,

5 5. Q Then in the past your experience has been that while the natives have been told to do certain things, the Government has not €nforced its own law ?-A. That is so in regard to the native regula~ tions.

56. Q. But you have no doubt, if strictly en­

forced, they would be carried out -A. Yes. 57. Mr. Okeden.-And you ha,.ve made them carry out the regulation in y,our own case ?-A. Yes, I have used moral persuasion.

58. The Cltairman.-Have you any sugges­ tions, based on ,general experience, for the development and benefit of the Territory ?-A. I think it is time some attention should be paid to

agriculture, that a Department of Agriculture

should be formed, and that nurseries in the differ~ ent centres and out-stations formed. A certain

amount of skilled labour should be kept for the purpose. 59. Q~ Could you employ the natives for that

purpose ?-A. Yes, the natives could be taught to, look after the trees.

. ,

.A.. 0. English, 14th Sept., 1906.

60. Q. If you had one good nursery in some

central place, it would be po sible 10 send the plants to various places ?-A. At Rigo, where I know e,,erybody, it ,vould be easy for me to distribute the plants and tell them the benefits they would be

likely to derive from them. 61. Q. What about the white men as agricultu­ rists in the Territory ?-A. There are plenty of

worse places they could go to. 62 . ..1/r. Herbert.-Could a white man under­ take manual labour in the fields ?-A. A certain an1ount of it. In early morning and evening he could. He could not work day in and day out.

He could do better if he had a proper food

supply. 63. Q. Would it not be possible to have cattle in your district ?-A. Yes, cattle do remarkably well in my district.

64. Q. What about sheep?-A. I Have had sheep in my division. There is spear and burr grass,

and sheep have been bred. Goats also do splen-didly. 65. Q. There should, then, be no difficulty in

white men getting a food supply ?-A. The sheep and cattle would have to be imported first, and

after that they would go on breeding, and do well. 66. Q. Supposing white men went in for plan­ tations in your district, would they h:ave any dif­ ficulty in getting a supply of Papuan labour for that class of work ?-A. No.

67. Q. That labour would be cheap ?-A. Yes. 68. Q. What would it cost ?-A. For rubber

planting, from 5s. to 10s. per month would be

given for a few years. After that, more would be asked, say, £1, and keep, r2s. 6d., per month. 69. The Chairman.-You say these men become more lazy and slothful every year, and now you say that there would be very little difficulty in getting

labour tor plantations. How do you reconcile

those two statements ?-A. The explanation is this. The native is more addicted to agricultural worK, and would take t,hat more readily than, say, carry­ ing for miners. The natives in my division are

more intelligent than the western natives, and num­ bers have been employed carrying for the mines. Owing to their experiences, many having died from sickness and numbers having ran away, they now very shy. That is the result of evil-doing in the

past. To-day they do not eng,age. Not many

boys have been taken from my division for the last eight or nine . years. .

70. Q. Then you think if they could be to agriculture it would greatly impro\'e them ?-A.

Yes. 71. Mr. Herbert.-Froml what you rw1ember, was Sir William McGregor's treatment of the na­ tives more strict and rigorous than is at present the

case ?-A. In those times the natives were coming out of the savage state, and he ha:d to be strict. 72. Q. In Sir William's days he had ~o!. the

experience of dealing with the partly civilized natives that you have now ?-A. Except round about Port Moresby. . ..

, 73. Tlie Cltairman.-Then, m your op1mon, t~e natives are not dealt with as severely as in Sir

William's time ?-A. No. 74. Mr. Okeden.-He was. here about eleven



. 75. Q. Since when have you noticed the deteno­ :ration ?-A. 1Certainl v since he left. I have not been in Port 11oresby for some months, and do not come here often, but I cannot help noticing the

lazy, lolloping way of the nafrres. They will not even get out of ·your way. 76. i1!r. H erbert.-You do not think the country can be properly developed unless the whites are

given an opportunity of going freely into the in-terior ?-A. No._

7 7. Q. And if given that opportunity, it will be at some personal risk to those going inland ?-A. I do not anticipate any collision with the natives. 7 8. Q. Which do you think the proper course-­ keep the countr) as it is, undeveloped, and the

natives untouched, or let deyelopment go on, and risk the danger of deterioration of the natives ?-A. I think the development should go on. There is no good reason why they should deteriorate.

7 9. Q. All due care should be taken of the na­ tives, but some harm may happen to them ?-A. I do not think so. I would not like settlers to

rush into unknown parts. We should deYelop what we hold. The mistake is not to develop

what we have. 8_ o. Q. Have you plenty of roads for develop-ment purposes ?-A. No, but there is no trouble in getting them.

81. Q. But there would be oost?-A. Yes, but not a great deal. The native paths are all kept

open in my district. I have a road ninety miles

long. 82. Q. Is it not one of the native regulations of

to-dav that the paths are to be kept open ?-A.

Yes. -83. Q. Do you have any trouble in enforcing it? -A. No. 84. Mr. Okeden.-Do you to give the re-

sults of your own observations as to the work of the missionaries in helping to develop the country? -A. We have Dr. Lawes, Mr. Stack, and Mr.

Pierce near me, and I would really not like to

interfere withl the mission work. I have left it

severelv alone and could not say where their work begins· or end~. There are instances where a na­ tive :has been taken in hand, an:d partly educate~. 85. Q. Did he learn habits of obedience and m­

dustry ?-A. No. As regards the question ?f na­ tive taxation, I have referred to the matter m my last annual report, and a copy of it could no doubt be obtained from the Government Secretary. I

think it is time the natives should contribute some­ thiner towards thie revenue by way of taxation. The peo;ie along the coast-line have received the bene­ fit of the Government's protection.

86. Mr. Herbert.-And w:hat do you think they should give ?-A. Cash or labour, not kind. 87. Q. Why ?-A. It would be very difficult to collect. Cash would not be so :difficult to collect.

I do not say tax the whole of the people, only those who are able to give. 88. Q. Do you believe in compulsory servic.e. to the Government ?-A. Yes. If you get the native to work for his tax, he also creates a want.

89. Q. You would permit this enforced work onl v for the Government ?-A. Y' es. 90. Q. What proportion of his labour sh?Dld he aive to the Government ?-A. Say the tax 1s half­ :-crown per adult. He would give a week's

labour or ten days as he has his food given him. 91. Mr. Okeden'.-You would appraise different n1en at different rates ?-A. No, all the same up to a certain age. After that they should be relieved of it.

92. Witness.-Ther~ is one_ point I ~vould like to mention, and that 1s there 1s no pension for the officers when they retire. In my own case, I have spent the best of my life here, and done my h:st to

serve the Government, and not spared myself m the slightest, and have abso~utely n_othing to look for­ ward to, and I am getting up m years now.

93. Tlte Cltairman.-An.d you feel that when ,ou are past good work, you will be put aside like a sucked orange ?-A. Yes. 94. Q. As a matter of justice to the officers, _)__2U consider that a pension scheme should be formu­lated ?--A. Yes!.

. 95. Q. An? it would bring a better type of men

mto the service ?-A. Yes. 96. Q. And the fact of an official knowing that tl:ere was some provision for him if he was incapa­ citated for any reason would make him keener in carrying out his duties ?-A. Yes.

97: Mr. H e.rbert.-Had you the right to any

pension under the old administration ?-A. In my own case, I could not say. I was always led to

believe by Sir William that I had, and if I had

been told I had not I would have left the •service years ago, 98. Q. And you consider that the taking over of the Territory by the Commonwealth defeats what claim you might have ha:d ?-A. Yes. I have no­ thing to look for,vard to now.

99. The Chairman.-Do you think that in tropi­ cal countries, such as here, a man s:hould retire at 55?-A. Yes. 100. Q. After that age he is not of mucl1 use?­ A. No.

ror. Mr. Herbert.-lf they did not give him a pension, do you think it fair to retire him at tha.t

age ?-A. He should have a pension if retired com­ pulsorily, and he should have a pension if forced to retire from any cause not arising from his own indiscretion.





Colonel the Hon. J. A. K. MAC¥AY, C.B., M . .L.C. (Chairman); W. E. Parry-Okeden, E:sq., I.S.O., 1- fr. Justice C. E. !ferbert.

Mr. E. Harris, Secretary to the Commission.


was sworn and examined, as folJows :-102. 'T!ze 1Cltairmla:n.--;What, is JO\Ut name?­ A. Anthony Mus.grave. 103. Q.-You are the Chief Executive Officer in

the Territory ?-A. Yes, and the senior officer. 104. Q. How long haYe you been in New

Guinea?-A. Since the 18th of June, 1885. I

came here two or three months before Sir Peter Scratchley. 10 5. Q. What was your position when you first entered the service ?-A. Assistant Deputy Commi~­

sioner. 106 .. Q. Since · when have you been Gm·ernment Secretary ?-A. Since the 4th September, 1888, and Treasurer for a little over two years from that time.

107. Q. Are you the official channel of comm uni.: cation bet·,ye en tfie different Departments and the Administrator ?-A.. Yes. 108. Q. E,·erything passes through you, either from or to the Administrator ?- A. Everything- of an important character. There is, ot course, so:ne direct correspondence between the different Depart­


Antkon::ri Mu1graTe; 17th Sept., 1906 .

109. Q. The Administrator for the time being would look to you largely in technical matters?­ A. Yes; and would largely hold me responsible during his absence.

110. Q. With regard to local officers, have the Resident Magistrates to refer eveirything to the Administrator? - A. They submit current corre­ spondence to him, and regular Monthly Reports.

111. Q. But supposing ai ma:n iis Resident Magis­ trate ioo miles away, and something happens sud­ denly, would he be allowed to act on his own

initiative ?-A. Yes, he would act on his pwn dis­ cretion. 1 r 2. Q. So they have considerable power ? -A. Yes, in their own clistrict. They also deal with land nia:tter.s.

113. Q. Then a Resident Magistrate in his dis­ trict practically represents all Departments? -A. Yes; and perhaps the Medical Officer's Depart­ ment to some extent.

114. Q. Speaking from your long experience of the administration of New Gui'neru, would you give the local officers greater power:s than they already possess, and, if so, in what direction ?-A. I do not think so. They have all the powers they should

exercise without -reference to head-quarters. There has been slow evolution to .some extent in the Ter­ ritory, owi:ng to the small number of white officers a:nd the large amount of work to 'be done.

I 1 5. Q. Has there been an increase of work ?­ A. Yes. 116. Q. Would you, then, suggest that the staff of white officers be increased ?-A. Yes, if funds

would allow of it. 117. Q. Would it improve the efficiency of the Government ?-A. Certainly. Our area is between 90,000 and 95,000 square miles. The largest por­

tion of our area i's. practically unknown-that about the Flv River and westward of Hall Sound. n8., Q. 'With regard to your· recommendation that the staff should be increased, I take it that

it would apply to those districts at a distance from the seat of government, ·where the influence of the Government is slight; but, as regards the seat of government, do you think the present staff is suffi­ cient ?- A. Not in one or two offices. Another

officer could be utilized in the Treasu'ry. An ac­ counting officer .should aJ so be added to the Lands and Surveys. I would be ,glad to have a third

cadet officer in my own Department, but that is not so pressing, especially as I understand that the

local Audit Branch is likely to come to an end. I think the Superintendent of Public Works should have an assistant. He is also Head Gaoler, and he works a good deal of time at night and on Sundays.

119. Q. You recognise that the revenue of the Territory is very small, and that for future develop­ ment a great deal more will ha'Ve to be done in

opening up tbe country than has been done in the past ?-A. Yes. 120. Q. And you believe that an increase in the staff within the limits of the revenue would be

efficacious ?-A. Our revenue is increasing year by year, and I think the officers I ha're mentioned

could be provided for out of local revenue. A new set of stamps might also be issued. 121. Q. Would that lead to an increase m reve­ nue ?.,..._A, Yes, by a few hundred pounds.

122. Q. Do you think that any saving could l·e made in salar:'es in any of the Departments ? -A. I do not think so. I do not think the officers

are overpaid. 123. Q. As the senior Executive Officer and the head of the Civil Service, I would like to ask vou if the Departments are working harmonioµsly ix;ge­

ther -?-A. I think so; verv mucb as most official. Departments work. ·

Anthony Musgrave, 17th ept., 1906.

124. Q. There is no serious friction between

them ?-A. _ · o, as far a this Department is con­ cerned. 125. Q. With all papers going through your

hands, you should be a,rnre of what is going on in other Departments ?-A. Iinutes may sometimes be a little tart, but nothing more. 126. Q. Nothing to impair the administration of

the Territory ?-A. I do not think so. 127. Q. Are the Departments harmoniously car­ rying out the policy of the Administrator ?-A. Yes, I think so. They are anxious to give effect to his

wishes and instructions. There may not always be absolute agreement with the views of the Ad­ ministrator, but that would not, to my mind, inter­ fere with the Joyal execution of the instructions of

what the Administrator requirea to be done. Some officers may not entirely agree with the views of their own chief, but they are absolutely bound to carry them out loyally and faithfolly.

128. Q. Do you consider that the various officers are carrying out the orders of the Admini'strator loyally and faithfully ?-A. I think so. 129. Q. From your knowledge of what has passed through your hands, do you think that the depart-· mental heads are carrying out the orders of the

Administrator loyally ?-A. I have never had any ~pecial reasons to think otherwise. .

130. Q. In your opinion there has been no at­

tempt to frustrate .any of his orders ?-A. Certainly not. 131. Q. Have you had any personal cause for friction, so far as the Administration is concerned?

-A. I have felt sometimes that I was not dealt

with quite fairly and justly, but I have tried to set my feelings aside without expressing them. 132. Mr. Dkeden.-Do you regard yourself as the permanent head of all the Depa1rtments ?­

A. I did to a great extent while Sir W. MacGregor was here, but since then the authority has, been

somewhat weakened, as far as the central authority is concerned. 133. Q. You said the Administrator would hold you largely responsible during hi 1s absence, . and at the present time you are in that position ?-A. Yes;

I would be held responsible if anything went wrong, I understand. 134. Q. Supposing anything were to happen

among the heads which you consi'dered would dis­ locate the work, would you take action yourself?­ A. Yes. 135. Q. What would be your action? - A. I

would write a letter insisting that that officer should carry out the action I thought best. He could

afterwards write to the Administrator explaining his conduct. · 136. Q. Suppose a breach of discipline occurred. What would be the strongest action you ,You] d take ? -A. I could not in'terfere witb the status of an

officer ; that would rest with the Admin:strator. I would insist upon his taking a certain line of action. That is the strongest course I could ta,ke. I haYe no power to do anvthing more than that. There

was a case some years ago, when an officer, the

late fr. Giulianetti, offered to send in his resirrna­ tion owing to my censure, and I told him to ]~aYe it until the Administrator returned. The Adminis­ trator told me I should have accepted it. Had I

taken the opposite course, I might -have been repri­ manded for doing more than I had power to do. 137. Q. Would you accept the r~signafion now? -A. Yes, certainly, if in the interests of the ser-vice. ,

138. llfr. Herbert. - Suppo ing that the per on

referred to bv fr. Okeden was a clerk in your own Department, and the Administrator was to be absent for a considerable time, would you take any further


course than writing to him and directing him to

carry out your directions? Ha,;-e you no pmYer? Is it al 1 ,rith the Administrator ?-A. Practically jt is, but I might decline further official relations ,,·ith him for the time being.

139. Tlte Cltairman. - Has onl\1 the Adminis­ trator the power to suspend ?-A. Yes, under the Royal Letter of Instructions, and former Letters Patent.

140. Mr. Okeden.-Do not the Commomrealth Service Instructions and the Letter of In­ structions run together ?-A. The -Governor now has · only the power of susper.ding, I believe. The power

of dismissal seems to have been tak~n away lately. He can only suspend an officer with the advic.e of the Executive. Council, I understand. 141. Mr. H erbert.-Are there any Qfficial annual reports by the Admir.istrator to the Home Govern­ ment as t0 the efficiency and conduct o'f officers in the service ?-A .. They used to be required under instructions from Downing-street, but I cannot say if any reports have ever been sent by the Adminis-trator.

142. Q. Such reports would not go through you? -A. No. Unless they have be~n confidential, I am unaware of anything of the ;kind.

143. Q. To give the Commission some idea of the volume Qf work passing through your particular Department, could you give us a.r.y information as to the number of papers dealt with by you ?-A.

Yes, I will have a statement prepared. J44· Q. You said just now that an accounting

officer in the Lands office would be necessary ?--A. I think it would be very desirable. 145. Q. Have you seen the proposed Land Ordi­ nance ?-A. Yes.

146. Q. You will have seen in it a clause maki1~g provision for surveys of Crown Lands f.rom time to time ?-A. Yes. 147. Q. How many surveyors are there at pre-sent ir. the Territory ?-A. There is only one at

work, 1\Ir. Richmond, in the Korthern Division, and ·he has Mr. Haviland as assistant. Mr. Ardlie has just arrived from Melbourne. 148. Q. Can those two surveyors cope with the

work in the foture ?-A. 1 do not think so. 149. Q. Will r:ot the srtiff oJ sur\'eyors have to be increased ?-A. Yes, I think so. 1.50. Q. As head of the Civil Service, what is

vour opinion as to the efficiency of the members of the Service under you ?-A. Considering the salaries that are given, and varied and difficult duties de­

manded, I think, or;. the whole, the Service is fairly efficient. There are some alterations and reforms I would like to see made. 15r. O. In what direction ?-A. I would like to

see the Treasury relie,·ed of some of its work. The Intestate Estates' offi·'e should be placed more under the control of the Chief Judicial Officer. 152. Q. The Supreme Court Judges in ru~y of

the States do not control the Intestate Estates ?-A. In some of the States he is · housed in the same

building; in Queensland, I think. Here, in the

c:ise of anv difficultv. he has to refer to the Chief Judicial Officer, ar;d the Curat-or hould be under his control. 153. Q. For what purpose?-A .. For the admin­

i tration of his Department. I look at it from a

business point of view a· relieving the Treasurer of a c rtain amount of ,rnrk, and I woulcl appoint

another officer and make him re por:sible t6 the

Judge. r 54. Q. Apart from legal question , are not in­

sta"\' matters purely tho e of accountancy ?-A. Yrs very largely.

. -. . ... (.::\

155. Q. And the legal part of it is a very minute part of the business ?-A. Yes, that is so to a great extent. 156. Q. You "·ere saying just now that at times mu have felt that the Admir..istrator had n:)t treated ;-ou quite justlv, but you tried to put that feeling

aside. Can you giYe any instances ?-A. Ko, un-1ess there is some special reason to do so. I do not care to enter into the matter. The situation has im­ proved a little lately.

15 7. Q. 1 do not ,Yish to press you, but "·ere the

affairs serious en0ugh to impair the admir:istration of foe Territory ?-A. I do not think so. It was

, irritating to myself, considering my age and experi­ ence, and 1 did think at certain times that Captain Barton might have beer.. a little more considerate. 158. Q. But you do not think these instances of

sufficient importance to now bring them before the Commission ?-A. Ko. I do not think so. 159. The Clzairman.-Having regard to the future development and prosperity of the Territory, do yo;u think that every encouragement should be given to white women comir..g here, to both officials

and private people to make homes for themselves in New Guinea, and establish domestic relations, such as they have done in other places ?-A. In some

cases, but not generally. I could not say it would

be ad...-isable Oli the whole. Officers have to move about a good deal, and it might check their activity. It would be practically impossible in the Northern, South-Eastern, and Western Divisions.

160. Q. Admitting that to be so, do you not

think that in centres such as Port Moresby and

Samarai it would be a good thing for the officials to have their wives in the country ?-A. Yes, I think so, if the climate proved suitable for them. The

ladies do not seem to get on so well in this dimate as do the men.

161. Q. But supposing a hill station were

', as is done in India, say, within easy dis­ tar..ce of Port Moresbv, where women could be sent durina the worst mon,ths of the vear ?-A. I doubt if offi~ers, with the small salaries given here, could

afford that sort of expense in a Government sana­ torium. 162. Mr. Herbert.-Do you think New Guinea will ever make any progress unless you have a mar­

ried population ?-A. Yes, wher.: the gold-fields are, more developed than at present. I have great con­ fidence in the future gold output for the Territory. 163. Q. By single .men?-A. Yes.

164. Tlze Clzairman.-Do you think the presence· of a large number of single mer.. in a country such as this would have any deteriorating effect on the native population ?-A. · It has not appeiued to have

had a bad effect on that part of the population. The miners have taken some concubines from the natives, but not to a great extent. It is the custom of the

nafo·es to sell their womer... 165. Herbert.-But it is not the custom of tbe ·whites to purchase them or take concubines?­ A. In some cases it is.

· 166. The Cltairma11.-Do you not think it a cus­ tom ,Yhich, if followed to any large extent, woutd have a demoralizing effect upon the inhabitar:ts of both races ?-A .. Wherever you have a large native

nopulation YOU will have a certain amount of misge­ genation going on. It is beyond the _power of man tD pi:-P.ver:t it. 167. Q. But would you not minimize it bv g1vmg

ind11cements to men to form homes in _ Tew Guinea? --A. Both the climate and food are against the

women coming here. And then in the out-stations it "·ou1d be Yery trying to their nen·es when left alone. 168. Q. I am not dealing with the question of

the out-statior.s. I am speaking of places which arc

Anthony Musgrave, 17th Sept., 1906.

,Yell under control, and where it should be possible to get proper diet ?-A. Things have impwred Yery much of late here. ~ o discouragement is shown lo men with wives and families. The External Affairs

Department ha,·e selected young men to fill positions here wbo are, and this is certainly an adnn­ ta o-e. We have got good carpenters from Brisbane, a~d they did not bring their wives with them,

although no difficulties were put in their way. ,:69. Q. And if any of those young men from

the Department of External Affairs wished to marry or brir.g their wives here, ,rnuld there be any objec­ tion ?-A. Thev are not in a position to marry.

There ,ms an , order issued some years ago to all officers in the Service that the keeping of a native woman would constitute, in itself, a cau_se for dis- · missal from the Service. I do not think the· Go­

verr.ment officers can do better than set a good ·

example. qo. Q. You quoted the inability to get suitable diet as one of the reasons why New Guinea is not suitable for white women. Now, this country has

been in British occupation for a long time. Port

~Ioresbv is an old-established centre. Why is it that th~ inhabitants even to-dav seem to. be living on tinned meats and vegetables ?-A .. It is prac­ tically all imported focd, for the miners and

others. qr. Q. But why?-A. The country has been

occupied only a quarter of a centurv. That is

not verv long. Port Moresby has existed for only twenty-five years. t /2. Q. Surely that is long enough to grow :

some vegetables ?-A. The last case of murder was 011 the Laloki River, when Richard Weaver was

murdered, and he was, our market gardener. He ,vas fairly successful. He grew small garden stuff, lettuces, shalots, cabbages, and fruit, &c. 17 3. Q. Then it seems to me that they are not

grown because there is no one anxious to grc.w them ?-A. People get used to eating native food, such as yams, sweet potatoes, taro, bananas, and so on.

17 4. Q. Then there is no good reason why

vegetables should not be grown ?-A. There is one disadvantage, and that is a water supply in the

dry season. \Veaver was ne::i.r a stream, and could 'get water. The violent winds we have are a gr€at source of damage. The wells are slightly brackish, and not very good for plant life.

17 5. Q. Weaver went to a ohce where there w~rs \Yater. Others, I take it, could do the same, and

get cheap labour from the natives ?-A. You can get cheap labour, but it is not very reliable. 17 6. Q. We find there are ho sheep, and very

few cattle in the Terri.tory. We have seen a few

cattle close to Port ~loresby. Is it possible for

cattle to do well ?-A. Certainly. 177. Q. Then whv is no,thin?: done in that direc-' tion ?--A. Burns, Philp, and Co. own the cattle,

and tl1ev explain that there are not sufficient people for thedi to butcher regularly. When a ship .arrives, ,or a man-of-war, they kill a beast weighing, sa y, _soo or 600 lbs., and when the crews and people

here have been supplied, the Government often takes over the remainder for the gaoi, A. I • Con­ stabulary, &c. 178. Q. If there was a larger population, there is no reason ,Yhv beef should not be grown to supply their needs ?-A. Absolutely none. The herd was oriainalh· a Government one, but was sold bv Sir

William ·~lacGregor to stimulate private' enterpris€'. 179. 0. Is any attempt being made to teach the natiYes English ?- A. X ot a systematic one.

'Antll~J'i MufrH~. 17th Sept., I996.

180. Q.. Do you think it would be a good thing

to do it ?-A. Y , it would be a wis,e thing, 1ut we cannot do much more without establishing schools and colleges. I 8 r .. Q. Are the mi ionarie5 in thefr schools

teaching the children Engli h ?-A. Yes, to a cer­ extent. 182. Q. I understand they principally beach the ~Iotu ?-A. I believ they do, but they have Enihsh classes as well.

183. (,!_. Is no attempt made to teach English to the prisoners in your gaols ?-A. No systematic system. 184. Q. Do you not think it wise to do sq,_ so

that when they go ba:ck to their tribes they could teach their fellow tribesmen ?-A. Thev do learn a number of words, but it would be difficult unless they had a special teacher. Besides, they have to

work from seven to five, and would be too tired to learn when they came back. They learn Motu which is spoken · in the gaol. '

i85. Q. Do you consider the influence of the mis­ siona;ries is in the direction of strengthening re­ spect for the Government ?-A. Yes. 186. Q. I . dare say it came under your notke

that a memonal was presented to the Prime Minister from certain residents of New Guinea praying for el~croral ~pre~ent~tion and trial by jury. Do you thmk the time is npe for electoral repres.entation ?­

A. No. 187. Q. Do you think it would be a wise thiner or a practical one to institute trial by jurv at th~

present time in certain districts ?-A. Yes, I think in the gold-fields it might be tried. 188. Q. I understand that a number of Malays and other persons are coming into the Territory, a1_1·d that>, largely owing W their coming~ venereal

diseases have spread, and the natives have become more demoralized. Would you favour an Unaesir­ able Immigrants Act for New Guinea ?-A. I think we ought to have some legislation on the subiect. i an Ordinance to control Chinese immi~ra­ t101;. About two or three coloured aliens 01111, I believe, come annually to the Territory. 189. Q. Consideri?g your Jong coast line, would

you be able to exercise the power if you had, it ?­ A:. Yes. The nativesL are fairly quick at detecting strange boats and crews. 190. Q. And as large numbers may icome in

un~er conditions which are about to begin ;in New Gumea, it would be wise to have some provision?­ A Yes·. I will produce a return of all the coloured aliens in the Territory1 at present.

19 I. Q. I understand the natives are short of

food, and, in fact, some are near starvation at the present time near Port Moresbv ?-A. I have heard that the gardens have been nearly a failure from the ~xisting drought, but thev have had a good

huntmg season near the coast, and if thev only take out their canoes, the fishing grouncls -inside out Barrier Reef are inexhaustible. r9z. Q. Have you any sug-gestion to make to prevent the ishortage of food?-A . .rro, it arisPs from the drought, and you cannot prevent that.

193. Q. Does it not arise from the laziness of the natives ?-A . . No, the native is anything out a lazv person. He does not work according to the white man's ideas, especiall v if he is workincr for tfie w~ite man. When passing through a village, YOU will always find them engaged at some handicraft.

194. Q. Then you consider the natives are plant­ ing as much as can be expected from them at the

present time ?-A. The native has a goon deal of .astuteness in regard to getting the best return from lhis labour on the land, and will plant on lv rroorl 1and. _.The la!1d about here is Yery rockv and steE'p, -the JP..)11 nmmng off nearly as fast as it falls.


195. Q. Do you think the natives are making

use of the land that is suitable ?-A. Yes. r96. Q. Who was Resident Magistrate in this

DiYi ion before l\Ir. Rrmnell ?--A. :\[r. Ballantine was acting, and Captain Barton before him. 197. Q. How long was Mr. Ballantine acting?­ A. July to October, 1904.

198. iJfr. Okeden.-In regard to the case you quoted, where strict obedience to instructions had not been carried out, I suppose there are records dealing with it ?~A. I think I only instanced t~e case of Mr. Giulianetti, but any other cases will

be in the ·records. 199. Q. Would you cause the Commission to be supplied with the papers of all cases within the

last two or three vears where there has been trouble with officers ?--A . ., Very well. 200. Mr. Herbert.-What are the names, of the goldfields where trial by jury might be granted?­

A. I think on the Yodda, including the Gira and Aikora, and. at Woodlark lsland, certainly. zor. Q. What is the population of the Yoada?­ A. By last account, I think, about 90.

202. Q . .And a.t Woodlark ?-A. About the same1 or perhaps rather more. ·

203. Q. Is it a fairly steadv or floating popula-tion ?-A. Fairly steady. _

204. Q. Would there be any difficulty about com­ :piling .and maintaining official jury lists ?--A. I have had no experience of the fields or the people on them. His Honour could give you more infor-mation.

205. Q: Have you any suggestions in regar·d to making the Ten-itory self-supporting in the near future ?-A. We cannot do much more without developing the gold industry. Our population is exoe,edingly small. We ought to devote more atten­

tion to extending our roadways, particularly _bridle tracks, instead of having the almost fatal system of carriers. I also recommend a svstem of rest j similar to those in Ceylon. There might al~o be :i

large development in agri~ulture . .., 1:he count1:r can produce practically :mythmg that will gro_:v _ m the tropics. The forests are full of excellent timber. We have never had an expert here to advise us on tbat sub;.ect. We ought also to have a bota~ic gar..,

den and nursery, under a qualified instructor. 206 . Tlze Clzairman.- 1As regards· timber, do you it would be a wise thmg and lead to good

results to get an expert forester to go thoroughly into the nuestion of New Guinea timber, and re­ port ?-A.' Yes. 207. Q. You think it would well pay the ex­

penditure ?-A. That would be di~cult to say .. I think eventually it would pay. I thmk the publica­ tion of a report of that kind would arrest the atten­ tion of timber dealers in other parts of the world, and lead to development here. -

2o8. Q. Referring to mining, do you think it

would be a sound thing to get an expert mineralo­ crist and send him through _ rew Guinea with the ~bj~t of defining the area where minerals are likely to be discovered ?-A. Yes, I think so.

209. Q. Do you think it would b "·ise to make

such a man a permanent officer in 1'° ew Guinea?­ A. Yes, he might be made Commis ioner for Mines here. Possibh':" it is not the best combination. The sen·ices of a ~1ineralogist to define certain mineral . would be mo. t valuable h re, a at pre nt \Ye ha.Ye

to send them to Australia for definition. '.?Io. Q. And he would be able to explore _ -ew Guinea from a miners stand-point and a pro pector would know in \Yhat di. trirt he could hope to find gold, ,Yhereas now he has to· earch for the mineral­ h{'aring country ?-A. Ye .

211. Q. Do you think it would be a sound thing to offer some inducement by way of reward for find­ ing new fields, or would you recommend a reward in the ,rn Y of an increased area ?-.4.. Thi is done

in our regulations. vVe could not pay in cash, and a miner is allmYed to haYe an increa,sed area of pro­ bably profitable ground.


was sworn and examined, as follows :~

z 1 z. T lze C It airman .-1What i your name ?-A. Robert Hunter. 213. Q. HmY Jong ha Ye yon been in the Terri­ tor;· ?-A. About 23 years.

z14. Q. Have you eyer been in the GoYernment employ ?-A. Yes, I was seven years in the Go­ vernment service. 215. Q. In what capacity?-A. As, Superinten­

dent of J ative Affairs in Sir Peter Scratchley's

time, and as Government A~ent in 1\lr. Le Hunte's and Sir W. MacGregor's time. I travelled with

the latter for several months round the coast. 216. Q. What is your present occupation ?-A. Trader and sandal wood getter. 217. Q. How long have you been so engaged?­

A. About nine or ten years. 218. Q. What about the possibilities of ,sandal wood in New Guinea ?-A. It is at an end. Only

very small quantities can now be got in patches. As an industry it is not worth working. z 19. Q. Does that mean that all sandal wood

within easy reach has been worked out, or is it

possible to get it in the interior ?-A. The country js too high in the interior for sandal wood, and the coaistal wood is all cut out. 220. Q. Do you know anything about hardwood timber?~A. Yes.

221. Q. What do you thi11k of hardwood prosM pects in Kew Guinea ?-A. There is better hard wood to be got here than in any other part of the

world. You can iret cedar and other timber. 222. Q. Is that· cedar of good quality ?-:--A· V:es, but it has been found to be rather too free-grnwmg in the rich alluYial soil on the banks of the rivers,

and it splits on that account. 223. Q. It is. not so .good as on the main land

of Australia ?-A. :No, unless found on the higher country, where it grows in small quantities. .

224. Q. Then we can dismiss cedar as an 111-

dustry ?- A. Yes. 2 2 5. Q. Then as to hard wood for sleepers ?-A. The malilJa is very good. The Government wharf is built of it.

226. Q. How ,rnuld it compare with 1ronbark ?­ A. It would be better, because it lasts in the ground better. It is closer grained, and does not absorb

the mois.ture so much. 227 . Q. Would it be adapted for sleepers in climates ?-A. Yes, for any part where the ground is wet. .

228. Q. How does it resist the white ant ?-A.

It resists it well, because it contains an acid dis­ ta,stefu l to the ant. 229 . Q. Is this timber procurable within easy distance of the coast ?-A. It Jines the risers, and

is inland as well. 2:,0. Q. Then it could be obtained on the riYer hanks, and _ _ punted to vess ls,?-A. Yes, and it i also along the coast near the sea frontage.

231. Q. How would you get the timber from

the sea coast to the steamer 1 ying out at some dis­ tance to asoid the reef?-A. It would have to be pl'.mted out, as it would not float itself. 232. Q. Would it be possihle to use mtiYe

labour to get the timber?-A. Yes.

'Robert Ranter, 17th Sept., 1906.

233. Q. Do you employ natiYe labour in your trade ?-d. Ye , and find it very satisfactory 1n a ,ray. It requires about two natiYes to do the \York of one white man.

234. Q. What wages are paid ?-A. Just now the pay is exces ive. A few years ago the pay was 6d. per day and food. They/ now ask rs. a day

and find themselves. 235. Q. You think from your local tfiat it would be possible to get large quantities

0£ sleepers, running into hundreds of thousands, within reasonable distance of the coast ?-A. Yes, from a mile to 2 to 4 miles of the coast, and the

timber is accessible up to 20 or 30 miles up the

large rivers. 236. Q. On what part of the coast is this tim­

ber ?-11. I should say from Kerapuna to Mount ::\J utumutu on the west coast.

237. Q. Do you belieYe there are other good

timbers inland ?-A. Yes, mulave, teak, and small quantities of ebony which have not been properly tested. 238. Q. The question of urriage would be a

Yerv serious one ?-A . TI1ev are on the river

fro~tage. ,

239. Q. What applies to the carriage of the

malill2. wou1cl also apply to those timber:s ?-A. Yes, but they would get hardwood, which has been tested. 240. Q. ·would you consider it a sOlmd thing to have an expert forester sent here to report on the timbers ?-A. Yes, and he would find more tjm. bers worth cutting than is thought.

241. Q. And you ·speak as a man having fairly practical knowledge of timber?-A. Yes. .

242. Q. I take it that all you have said jg from

personal knowledge, and not hearsav?-A. Yes, from ·personal knowledge. ·

243. (). What tropical produrts do you think

would do well here ?-A. Cocoanuts, sugar, sago, pepper, tapioca, and all kinds of tropical plants. Rubber is indigenous. 244. Q. Is it a fact that near the FIY River

there are large forests of rubber practicalf,. intact at the present time ?-A. Yes, and they are of good quality. 2 4 5. Q. Why are those forests not worked ?-­ A. Because o( the natives. The country would re­ quire to be settled by some force before they could be worked. It would not be safe ta go there now.

246. Q. And a force would be required to be

maintained there for a time ?-A.. Yes. 2~ 7. Q. WhaL sized area of rubber country would be a fair thing to give a man ?- A. I cannot say,

the rubber is so scattered. You might find five

trees at one spot and go half-a-mile for a f ew

more. In some places you would find 100 good trees, and if judiciously worked, thev would be valuable. I have obtained 9 lbs. from one tree

near Port Moresb,·. 248. Q. I pres~e if a man went into the nibber industry on the Fly RiYer and worked t he forest trees, he could follow it up and plant trees him­ self ?-A.. Yes, if the countn· belonged to him.

2 49. Q. If a man \Yere gi ,·e n an area where

tiees arc now growing, it would help him to tide over the time until the trees he plani:ed himself

,,ere bearing?- A. Yes. If given1 5 ~quare miles c{ rnuntn· the native trees would tide him over

the time ~ntil the trees he planted were hearing. Thousands of trees have been destroyed by :\Ialays and half-bred Chinamen. 2 50. Q. Ha Ye the Government made no attempt

tJ pre\'ent this ?-.4. They did not in the firs t in ­ ~1 ance,- but thev l1ave now. They haYe now closed

tfie industry' and it was in con-sequence of a re­ port from ~yself.

Robert Hnnter, 1ah ept., 1906.


25r. Q. H ow long ago is that?-A. T"·o yea1s. 252. Q. t;p to two years ago the GoYernment

made no attempt t o protect the rubber trees?-­ d. _ ·o.

2 53. Q. What a re the po sibilities of coffee?­

A.. So far as I haYe seen the two plantations in

the ~ountains are thriving. 254. Q. H ow is it there are no sugar planta-

tions, only7 one or t\\·o coffee plantations, and only two or three rubber plantations, when the country is so suitable for their growing ?--A. It is owing

to the ,rnnt of advertising. Ko one knows the

countn·. 255: Q. Does tbe GoYernment give any en-couragement to people to settle here ?- A. I have not seen ::my. People have to send miles and miles here for the labour. The natives on the spot will

not work. 256. Q. Why not ?-A. They are independent. There are several thousands of natives in this part, and it is difficult to even get a boat crew, unrless it

is men like myself-well known. 257. Q. Are the natives who have been brought under the influenoe of civilization becoming more lazy and slothful ?- A. Yes, thev do not compare favorably with the natives at a distance. Round

here they get a lot of trade and small jobs, while

the other reople get nothing ,Yhatever for a time, and will accept ,vork when thev, get an oppor­

tunity. They .will not then work for a time.

258. Q. That must be a great stumbling block

to development. What remedv would you suggest? -A. My idea is that it is for the benefit of them­ selves and of the country that they should work, and to make it necessary for them to do so, a tax

should be put on them, of say, IS. a quarter, to

be paid by every male native over twelve years of age. .

259. Q. How would ,·ou propose to collect that tax ?-A. There would be no difficulty. If they

knew they 1Yere taxed they would know they would have to work for the tax. A shilling should be

imposed at first, but it could be increased after.

I: should be paid in monev, not kind, and th;-it

would cause the natives to \YOrk. 260. i1Jr. H erb.ert.-If it is a cash tax, and

there is no work offering for the native, how is he going to get it ?--A. Instead of spending their

money at the store ini smal 1 articles and rubbish they would have to save it and pa,· their tax. 26r. 0- SLtpposing there were rubber plantations on the Fly. The natives were called upon to work,

and all the vlanters .required did work, and there was no ·work for the balance of the nati\·es in that district. How are vou to collect the tax from those to whom no work is a,·ailable ?- A. If plantatjons were started a number would be reciuired to work on Government buildings and such like.

262. Q. ·would you make them worl< for their tax ?- A. Yes. 1lany of the natives come here un ­ clothed, \Yithout a rami. The natives round the mis­ sions, are compelled to " ·ear a rami. The Gow"rn ­

ment should compel them to ,,ear a rami, and if

they did they would have to work to get IS. for

one. 26.1. Tlte Chairman. - What is your opinion, based on your experience, as to the work the mis­ sionaries have done in improving the condition of

the nati,·es ?-A. Very little. 264. Q. Have thev made any serious attempt to inculcate habits. of thrift and industry in them?­ A. Verv little, considerina the time they have been

here. -



265. Q. Have they taught the native to respect the white man ?-A. Yes. 266. Q. Do you think that the mis ioparies ob

tain any unfair advantage o-rer traders with regard

to lauuur, having so many boys about them ?-A. They du not interfere with the trader, although

they used to at one time. 267. Q. So that the trader has no legitimate

cause of complaint against the missionan· in that r,2spect ?-A. None. 268. Q. You know there is a hostile tariff in Aus-tralia against most things coming from Papua?- , A. Yes.

269. Q. Do you think that while that tariff re-

mains as at present, it will be possible to develop to any large extent the industries of Papua ?-;I.. Yes. 270. Q. In spite of that tariff ?-A. Yes, be-

cause we have the labour. 271. Q. But do you think it would induce men

to come and develop those industries if a pref er­ ence were given in Australia ?-A. Yes, that would be better. I think that if experts were to report

as to the fitness of the country for growing sugar, coffee, and rubber, and a preference "·ere given in Australia, it would be well. 272. Q .· In most of the industries some years

must elapse before any returns are received. In

such cases would it be a sound thing to offer a

bounty ?-A. If the land could be got reasonably cheap, no bounty would be required. 27 3. (z. You do not think that a bounty would

encouragie the right class of settlers ?-A. _Jo. 274. O. Could catch crops be grown during the time rubber or cocoanut trees were coming to matu­ rity ?-A. Yes, provided there is the lab,our. Thev

could grow sweet potatoes and yams for their mYn labour, and corn would give a return. 275. Q. I understand that corn grown here and sent to Australia has not paid the cost of tl,e car­ riage ?-A. That is because of the heavy freight

and the dutv on the other side. 276. Q. That is th:e hostile tariff ?-A. We ,rnnt to send our products, to Australia without any tariff being against us.

2 77. O. Supposing the freight were reasonable,

do you think you would be able to make the corn pav with the tariff against vou ?-A. Yes, with thP ch~aper labour. We shall have to be assist~d

with that labour. · The natives will have to be

made _ to work, and that is whv I have mentioned taxation. If we could get the labour, \Ye could

compete against the tariff. 278. (). What have you to. say about the ques-tion of freight ?-A. If encouragement "·ere given in connexion with the labour, and we had much to export, we could charter vessels, and not be rom­

pelled to go to one firm. which practically has ::i.

monopoly. 279 . O. Do vou consider the present arrange-ments fair ?-A. To; one particular firm has be('n the Government, the trader, and everything.

280. Q. Have you had any experience to enable vou to speak as to the possibilities of the gold­

fields of Papua?-A. Ko. 281. Q. With regard to the pearl shell fishing in the western division, are there' any possibilities there ?- A.. Yes. but the depth of water is against


282. Q. Could the native boy be utilized as

divers ?- A. Yes, in the shallow water. Dressed

cfo·ers could .f!O down 30 fathoms. The depth

would b e against the ordinary wimming diver. Shell has been found in this harbor at fi-re or ix

fathoms . but it has not been properh· develop cl. 28.). Q. Then the question of enrnuraging th e pearl shell industry in the we tern divi ion is

,rnrtlw of consideration ?- .4 .. Decidedh-. 284. Q. Spe::i.king generally, are ,·ou sati fi ed with the present admini tration and it methods?­ .4 .. _ rot at all.


Robert Httnter, 17th Sept., 1906.

285. <;].. Why not ?- A. Simply from what I

haY~ said. There are no laws controlling the

na.hYes. When you come here there are , e,·eral

thmgs you requi!e. to know, and " -e cannot get in­ format10n. For mstance, the rubber indu tr\' wu.s closed al together. ·

286 .. Q. Was there no discretion shown in clo incr that industry ?-A. T one whateYer. There ar~

some districts which should be left open. For the faults of a few people, the whole industn· was

closed, and even then the Yen' men who had

brought about the trouble quietly went on with

their ':ork. The Government ha·d no opportunih· of lettmg them know that the industn· was closed. -287. Q. Then the Government could hardly be held to blame ?-A. That is so. ·

288. Q. Do you consider that the Government should .have taken steps earlier to have protected the trees ?-A. They were not aware of what was going on.

289. Q. When you have .had direct communica­ tion with Government officers, how have you been treated ?-A. Very well. I have no fa;lt.

290. Q. You have no fault to find with the indi­ viduals, but vou do find considerable fault with the policy of th; Government in general ?-A. Yes. 291. O. Is that policy not vigorous enough ?-A.

No. They do not push the industries. 292. Q. Do they _iust appear to be content with looking after the natives, and policing the countrv? -A. They look after the natives, and keep a lot

of useless police. 293. Q. Have they ·too many police?-A. Yes., 294. Q. Do you consider that the idea of the

village police to be good ?-A. No. The chief of the village is bemeaned by the Village Constable be-­ ing placed over :him, and takes no interest whatever in the working of his village. If four principal

men of the village were held responsible for the cleanliness and . good conduct of the villagJe, it would be all that was necessary. 295. Q. Have the loc8l chiefs any control over

their men ?-A. They had before the Con­ stable came. 296. Q. Supposin~ the Government the chief the Village Constable, ,vould that meet the case ?-A. No. There is a good deal of jealousv

among the natives, and I think the best idea would be to make the four principal men responsible

without giving them anv pay. 297. Q. Supposing these men were appointed and anything were , to happen'? Would you hold them responsible and punish them ?-A. yes. If thev did not keep their village under conffol they

sho'uld be punished. 298. Mr. Herbert.-You think that in connexion with the timber industry the present forests ' would provide the means- of a large and profitable indus­ try ?--A. I could not say. It could only be ascer­

tained bv .a careful investigation. 299. Q. You cannot say to what exfent the in­

dustrv would be possible ?-A. No. There are

large· quantities of timber, buf the Government should ascertain first what quantifies there really are. I would like my opinion verified. 300. O. Protection would have to be provided to

anyone taking up land on the Fly River, in the

first place?-A. Yes. 30 r. Q. Have you been there ?-4. 1\Iany years ago. 302. 0. The natives mav be better now ?-A. I

do not think so. ·

303. Q. Did you at tne time or •since protest

against the . wholesale closing of the forests of

rubber ?-A Not officially.

3-4· J!r. · Okcden .--But you ,vrote ?-A. Yes, I wro~ e two years ago. When I complained, it was not my intention to clo e the whole indu try. 305. Vr. Herbert. - In regard to the taxation of

native , would it not be better if a tax is to be made to allow it to be either in ca h or kind ?-A. I think it would be a mistake to take kind. 306. Q. Would not cash be difficult for the

natiYe to get ?--A. _ T o, he could work for it. 307. Q. Woul

308. Q. What has prevented the development of the pearl-shell industry in the west ?-A. I cannot say.

309. Q. There are no extraordinarv fetters to the industry being gone on with ?-A. None whatever. 3 ro. Q. Would it be a wise thing to place one

or more European police in each division of the Territory with a small following of native police to assist them. Would thar be an improvement on the present arrangements ?-A. I think so. There should be a patrol of police. They could leave

Port Moresby and be absent for a month or six

weeks. 311. The Chairman.-From what you have said, you believe there is a good future for Papua; but oefore we can hope for any material improvement,

the methods of administration must be materiallv altered ?-A. That is so, and the policy in every



was s.worn and exami:~e.d, as follows :-312. Tlze Chairman.-What is your name?-A. Bertram William Bramell. 313. Q. How long have you been in the Terri­ tory ?-A. I came in February, 1893.

314. Q. What positions. have you occupied ?-A. I was in Burns, Philp and Company's store for two or three years, and was then Government Agent at :i\fekeo for about eighteen months or two years.

I afterwards \Yent· to l\ [orua as Assistant l\Iagistrate and Assistant Warden. I left l\Iorua about Novem­ ber, 1904, and took up my present position of Resi­ dent :\lagi·s,trate in the Central Division since then.

315. Q. Do you 1 speak any of the native dia­

lects ?-A. I have a knowledge of ~Iotu. 316. Q. What are your powers as Resident

)Iagistrate? What are you allowed to do on your own intitiati ve ?- A. I ha ye practically the powers of a Police .:\lagistrate in Australia. 317. Q. Do you consider you should be given a

freer hand in dealing with the natives ?- A. I

would like a freer hand. I suppose I am just as

free as other )lagistrates. There are some cases which arise at times, and there is hardl y a la " · to

meet them. 318. Q. And you think you should be allowect to use your own discre tion in dealing with those cases? - A. Yes.

319. Q. I understand that a man, Richard

Weaver; \Y3.S murdered close to here a short time · ago, and a reward ,ras offered for the arrest of the murderer ?-A. Ye!,. 320. Q. Was the reward offered at- your sugges­

tion ?-A. I offered a reward in the fir st place of

trade to the value of about £5. It has. now been

increased to £50. 32 1. Q. Is it a wise thing to offer this large

reward_?- A. I do not think it unwise. 322. Q. Diel yo:.i suggest the large rewarn :>--A. Xo.

B. Y{, Bramell, 17th Sept., 1906.

323. Q. Who offered it then ?-A .. The Govern­ ment. I wa called up and a. ked to say what I

knew about the matter, and later on I go. instruc­ tion that the re,rard was offered. 1 then got

. notice. printed and po. ted up. The tribes. to which the man belonged were going west,\ ard for sago, and before the reward was offered I instruc-- tions that they were not to go until I got the man.

There was no law which allowed me to do this, and the natfres might have disobeyed me. I was then told to coun"i.ermand the order and offer the reward instead.

324. Q. What effect " ·ould that have on the

native mind ?-A. Both orders came through me. I countermanded the first order and issued the

reward. 325. Q. Do you think the natives have deterior-ated of late ?-A. The Port Moresby natives have got a little more cheeky, but perhaps the public notice that more. They obey me. Of course, the more they come into contact with the white men they become more cheeky.

326. Q. You find that when the villagers, recog-nise you as a Government officer they obey yon ?~ A. Yes. 3 z 7. Q. That being so, it stands that any in-

structions i•ssued by the Government will be obeyed ? -A .. Yes. 328. Q. So if they were ordered by Go­

vernment officers to do certain things they would do them ?-A. Yes. The case I have quoted is one

in point. It might not haYe been legal for me to

have given this order, but I considered I had enough authority for my order to be obeyed. 329. Q. And this was an important mission they were on, going for food, and yet when you told them to :stop they stopped?- A. Yes.

· 330. Q. Do you think that the time has .arrived for taxing the natiYes ?-A. Some of them. 331. Q. Do you mean those that are within the sphere of British influence, who, thanks to GO\·ern­ ment expenditure, are rendered safe in their vil­ lages ?-A. Yes, the people from Table Point along the to Cape Possession in my Division. They

should be taxed all along the coast, and possibly the 2\Ieke.o people, some 8,000 or 9,000. 332. Q. Why the :Mekeo people and not others? -A. There used to be a Government station there,

and I think, from my knowledge of them, they should be taxed. 333 . Q. Folluwing up what you said that the

natives obey the orders issued by Gm-ernment, would there be .any difficulty in getting them to pay such a tax ?-ii.. Xo, I think it could be collected, and

they would pay. 334. Q. Two suggestions have been considered bv the Commission. One is that, in addition to

tl;e cocoanut trees whirh the natives are ordered to plant for food, they should be ordered to plant so man\' for the Government, the product of which ,rouf d be used as, a, tax, the Go\·ernment to own those and take their tax from them . AnoLher is that the natives should be made to pay in cash,

that is, one shilling ,per quarter; and anocher

witness suggested half-.a.-rrown per quarter. What do } ou recommend ?-A. I have not thought of the pa} ment of a shilling per quarter, but I have

thought of nTe shilling per year, paid once a ) ear. Some people could pay that, but perhaps a half-a­ crmYn woul

rrown without difficult\· ?-A. Yes, it would be hette-r for it to be paid· once a year. It would be

Jess trouble to collect. -

336. Q. And you pref er the cash sy tern to the idea of taking it out in kind -A. Yes.


337. Q. How many · people are there in the vi14 Jage of Kila Yila1 ,rhich the Commi ion visited last Saturda} ?-A .. About 150. 338. Q. That would be a liberal e timate ?-A. There would be not le than 150.

339. Q. Is that village fairly typical of the vil· lages in the district as regards prosperity ?-A. That is the best single Y oitapuan village.

340. Q. We heard the natiYe teachers s.a.y that the people had paid down £90 towards the cost of erecting a church there, and had still more to pay ?-A. I am 11ot quite clear it wa in that

village alone or that other vilJages joined in. The amount mentioned ,ms collected. 341. Q. If they paid that, I suppose they could very well afford to pay the Governm~nt 2s. 6d. per

head for the protection they ireceive ?-A. Yes ; you could s(art it at that, and increase it. 342. Q. 1''he Government practically insures them in the peaceable occupation of their land?­ A. Yes.

343. Q. And that is another reason why they

should pay taxation ?-A. Yes. 344. Q. You have had experience in other dis­ tricts besides this one, and know the natives of

Papua very well ?-A. Yes. 345. Q. Dou you think that the missi'onaries have done much practical good to the natives 'in the direction of · making them more industrious, and useful? - A. ~ot as a whole. Tliey have, of

course, their ow1} students ap.d parficular people whom they have taught, but I cannot say that the villagers are more industrious. 346. Q. Speaking generally, have you found that their influence has been exerted in backing up_ your

authmity and increasing the respect of the natives for your ?-A. I have not found it so. 347. Q. In what way have you found the reverse to be the case ?~A. I have not fo\md them against rn.e. I ha.Ye not found them either way particu-

larly. ·

348 . Q. Ha,·e you found them interfering be­ t\reen yourself and the natives ?-A. Sometimes I haYe thought somt: of the native teachers have, but I cannot saY definitelv whether it was so or not.

349. Q. '.I understand that tfie missionaries an have mission schools. Do thev teach the natiYes English in tfiose schools ?-A. -There is one place at Kabadi where the teacher could speak English

fairly "·ell. He said he would like to teach the

children English, and I s~id I would help him

and make the chi r dren go to school. 350. Q. Do you not think it should be made com­ pulsory in those schools that Engfish should be taught?-A. Yes,

35r. Q. Do you enforce cocoanut planting in your Dfrision ?-A. Yes, except in these dry times; and, in fact; I have not enforced the regulation

at pres,ent because of the drought. It was enforced before the last tweh'e months. It is c>nforced in other places fairly well. 352. Q. Is there much agricultural land in your Division suitable for rubber ?-A. Yes.

353. Q. In the e,·ent of that land being used

by settlers, "·ou)d it be possible to get a supply of nati,-e labour ?-A. I could n t sa.Y. Tf the native has plenty of food he ,rill not work. 354. Q. Do YOU not think that the imposition of a tax would make th m work ?-A. He ,Yould haYe to ,rnrk a little to get the tax, but he would u:uallY get that amount in selling food, and in other wa, .-.

3~5. Q. Suppo.-ing the Government were to ~ay that they woulo ha,· to work on plantations?-A. Then they "·ould "·ork. ·

356. Q. But i'n the e,·ent of the natiYes not doing it of their mm Yolition, could the Government fore him to work for a wage?-A. Yes.

13 B. W. Bramell, 17th Sept., 1906.

357 · Q. Are there many gold-fields in your Divi­ sion ?-A. There is . the K::n-eara gold-field, but I have not been up there yet. There may be some­ thing good there.

358. Q. In the new land Ordinance there ,ms

in the draft a pm,·er for the Gm·ernm·ent to resume lands which natiYes refused to sell at a reasonable price, and which was surrounded 1-n rea onable

precautions. Do you belie,·e that is a ·useful clause to . have in the Ordinance ?- A. I should like to

consider the question further before giving an

answer. 359. Q. What would you suggest as a practical remedy i·n regard to the nafr.·es "·ho appear to haYe grown slothful and lazy ?- A. The only way is to

tax them and make them work. \Ve haYe stopped them fighting now, and they were a far better race when they always had to be on the qui vive. 360. Q. We noticed, on going through the vil­ lages on Saturday, that the one that ,vas most un­ tidy, and the people most uselx::ss, was the one

under the shadow of Government House and the 1\1ission Station ?-A. I think that nllage is cleaner and better now than it h,.1s ever been. It is cer­

tainly no worse. 36 r. Q. What condition were the villages in

when you first came here ?-A. I tbink there has been some improvement, although not much. 36 2. Q. You are insisting thait they shall 'be kept clean ?-A. It is only recently that there has. been

a regulation which enforces upon the natives the keeping clean of their villages. It is dated 8th

April, 1905. 363. Q. But I take it that before that regulation existed you woura 'tell the natives to clean their

villages ?-A. Yes. They ha;ve to keep them clean now, and repair their houses. 364. Q. Would it be well and in the best inte­

rests of the Territory jf a larger number of white ·

women were living Ii.ere-that is, if encouragement were given to men to marry ?-A. Yes. 365. Q. Do you think it is pos_ sible for white

women to live here ?-A. If a man is giYen a rea­ sonable wage, there is no reason why his wife

should not live here. 366. Q. Would it be impossible in the case of

the out-stations ?-A. Na. Most of the mission­ aries have wives, and they seem to get on all right-. i\frs. Lawes· has been living here nearly twenty years.

367. Q. Then, giYen that they liave proper

homes and decent food, there is no reason wh\r they should not fr'i·e here?-A. No. -368. Q. If a man had his wife here, is there

:11wthing to prevent him growing a fair supply of vegetables, say oi;i the river ?- A. It could be done there. 369. Q. Would it be possible to have a certain

number of prisoners there, and grow vegetables to supply the officials in Port Moresby? - A. Yes;

there is a prison garden there now. 370. Q. The prison is supplied with Yegetables now, and the rest of the people haYe to live on

tinned vegetables ?-A. Yes. · 37r. Q. Is there any reason why cattle should

not be kept here, and sold to the people for meat? -A. No; they could be turned out· near the river. 372. Q. Then it would be a good thing for the

Territory to encourage white women to come here ? -A .. Yes. 37 3. Q. And there is no reason why they shoulcl not come ?-A. ~Io.

374. Afr. Hcrbert.-Do you think it " ·oul

37 5. Q. Who uperintends the hired labourers and ee that they get fair treatment ?-A. The

Go,·ernmenL. 376. Q _..\.nd the GoYernment is under expem,e in doing that ?-A. Yes. 3 7 7. Q. And all it gets is a shilling on sjgning

on and a shilling on paying off ?- A. Yes. 378. Q. Does that cm·er the " ·hole expense?-A -

·-· - o.

3 7 9. Q. Would it not be better to charge an

annual fee for each labourer, in addition to the

fees paid , ·hen signing on and paying off, to coYer the cost of supen·ision ?-ii... Yes, I think something might be done in that war. I would like to con-

sider that matter. '

380. Q. Who is the head of the police here?­ A. ::\Jr. Bruce, the Commandant. 38r. Q. To whom is :\Ir. Bruce responsible in this Di \·ision? Is he in anr sense under you?-

A. Xu ,

382. Q. Then to whom is he responsible? -

A. To the Administrator, or Gm·ernment Secretary, [ should sa Y. 383. Q. Are there any other European police in the Territory besides Mr. Bruce ?-A. Mr. Boucher,

the Head-quarters officer. He is my Assistant

Resident Magistrate. 384. Q. Are there any other European con­

stables ?-A. No. 385. Q. Have there been any complaints by the whites that the natives do not assist them when offences are committed ?-A. There was one case.

386. Q. You have heard that Europeans have complained ?-A. Only in this one case. 387. Q. Have the native police power to arrest Europeans ?-A. Not unless thev have a warrant.

388. Q. Would it be advisabl~ to have one Euro­ . pean constable in each Division in charge of the P°:lice there ?-A. I think it would be a very good thmg.

389. Q. Would agriculture more than any other industry employ the natives most profitably? -A. Yes, he is more suited for that. 390. Q. I suppose th:it only males should be

taxed ?- A. Yes. ·

39r. Q. Between what ages?-A. Between fif­ teen and forty or forty-five-forty-five, perhaps. 392. Q. How many between those ages do you estimate there would be in vour Division within control? Would there be 4,~00 eligible for taxa­ tion ?- A. I think there would be that manv.

393. Q. Then, putting the tax at 2s . ., 6d. per

annum, the aggregate would amount to a consider­ able sum, taking all the districts ?- A. Yes. 394. Q. Does not the ease with which ·the

native gets the money to pay the tax unde r the cash system you suggest make it preferable to adopt the plan of planting agricultural products for the Go­ vernment? Would not that course tend· to make him more industrious ?-A. Yes.

395. The Clzairman.-What are the duties, of the Village Constables, ?-A.. He looks after his vil­ lage. 396. Q. Have any complaints been made h)

white people as to their not carn·ing out their

duties ?- A. There has been a complaint in \\ hich a man complained that a Village Constable had not done his dutv by neglecting to arrest one of his

bm·s who h~ said, had stolen from him. The

man orde1'.ed the Village to arrest him. 397. Q. What did you do ?-A. I tol d him t bat

if he \\'Oulc.1 lodge his complaint in the usual way. it would have early attention. I do not allow pri­

nte persons to give instructions to Vill age Con­ stables. 398: Witness.-! can now say that I am not in favour of taxing employers of native labour.

B. W". Brnmell, 17th Sept .• 1906.

399. ffitness.-In regard to the clau e marked '' cancelled ' ' in draft of land ordinance, I am un-9er the impre sion that when this country was tak~n O\'er, the natiYe owners of land wt-: .. L; guaranteed 111

their possession, and if this is so, t? _adopt the

clause referred to would, in my opinion, be ::t

breach of faith.





Colonel the Honorable J. A. K. MACKAY, C.B.: M.L.C. (Chairman). W. E. Parry-Okeden, Esq., I.S.O. Mr. Justice C. E. Herbert. .i\Ir. E. Harris, Secretary to the Commission.

THE HONORABLE DAVID BALLANTINE, M.L.C., was further examined, as follows:~

400. The C ltaiJ"man. - You. have prepared a statement on some of the questions· asked you at the previous meeting of the Commission ?-A_. yes. 401. Q. This you now produce?-A. Yes, 1t 1s as

follows:- .,. .

402. The question of the direct taxation of

natives of the Territory, who have been brought under the influenice of the Government to the ex­ tent that life and property are secure, is, in my

opinion, - well wmthy of ~onsi?er~tion. The cost of the present Administration 1s: m _round figures, £35,000 per an111um. No o~e will d1sp_ute the ~ fact that the greater part of t~ns am_ount 1s expended

with the object of stoppmg cnme . and _murger among native tribes, and generally 1mprovmg the conditions of village life, and the fact that th~re are now at least 100,000 natives living m:.der cu­ cumstances where life and propertv are as safe as

in any civilized comn:iunity, "'.'ould seem to show that the expenditure is not w1th01Ut result. The Customs revenue at present is about J)5,ooo p~r annum. A proportion of this is indirectly ccintn­ buted by natives who are the consumers of trade tobacco and who use a proportion of the hard­ ·vvare a;1d drnpery goods, &c., imported. If .we

assume one-half of the Customs revenue as bemg p;id bv natives, and that the goods are distri­

buted among r 50,000 natives, this would mean that at present the Papuan pays about rs. per head to the reYenue, while the European man, woman, and child, contribute over -(10 each. Before there was any settlement in the TerritorY, there was con­ stant warfare among the -tribes and Yillages. Small huntin

accompanied bv armed men. Ther~ was no secur~ty at any time. Fighting both ~ffe~s1ve and defen?1ve entered largely into everyones hfe. The natives whom it is now suggested might fairly be taxed,

are still living in districts where it may' re~sonably be said there is security from attack; their lands and property are secured to them, and they are

free to hul1lt, plant, trade, or work. One of the

fost dutie of a Government is to make human life safe. In some parts of Papua acts of cannibalism and murder aTe continuall v taking place. The

area of the Territory is as large as that of Vic­

toria, ::wd the Resident l\farzistrates h:we a 1 read v large districts to keep in order. Unless the revenu·e


rnaterialh· increases, it is impossible for any Go­ vernment to ~top inter-tribal ,rarfare, or even in some instances to protect friendh· tribes from the attacks of hostile neighbours. The subjugation of nati\'e tribes is the first step to,Yards opening up the country for settlement. The peopJ.e who liYe in the country are the ones who should first of all cont riliute to establishing order there. The settlers

;rnd miners, as already noted, p:i.y over /",ro per heaJ. The natiYes are almost the sole land-owners, and should, in my opinion, now be called upon to

pay a fair share of the expenses of Government. 1 also belie,·e that the establishment of a tax, apart from any other consideration, will be a benefit to 'the nati{·es. It ,Yill teach them to be industrious,

and to realize the value of property. I estimate

that there are about roo,ooo natives living in the Districts which might be call.ed upon to pay such a tax. If \Ye assume that one-fourth of these are males of an age and responsibility sufficient to en­ rol them as taxpayers, and that the value of the

tax be 5s. per annum, or less than one-fortieth of what every European paYs, this "~ould mean an in­ creased revenue . of £5,000 per annum. In the above I have simply expressed my views on the ad­ of taxing the natives. If the principle is once admitted that the time has arrived when such

tax should be imposed, the Districts to which it might be applied, _ form of tax, methods of collec­ tion, &c., can subsequently be considered and de­ te·rmined upon.

403. The annual report gives particular~ of the officers of the Department. Provision has been made in the Supplementary Estimates to appoint a Sub-Collector of Customs at Bonagai, Woodlark Island. This wbtild add one officer and a

boat's crew of five natives to the establishment. The staff at headquarters is barel v sufficient to carry on the work. There is a considerable amount of overtime work done. The Sub-Collector of Cus­

toms a.t Samarai has requested further ,a.ssisfance to carry on h_ is, but the creation of a Port of Entry at Woodlark will lessen the work to be done at

S'amarai. 404. The following is .the work performed by the Treasury Department : -(a) Payment of all expenses incurred by all

Departments of the Government. _ ( b) Receiving and accounting for all the re­ venues of the Territory. .._ ( c) Ordering and distribution of stores for all

Government stations and Departments. (d) Administra,tion of the Cusfoms Act, and control of Customs ports. (e) Preparation of Import and Export returns

and shipping. (/) Shipping work-engagement of seamen, &c. (g) Engagement and discharge of native

labourers at Port :.\Ioresby and Daru. (lz) Admini,stration of the Postaf Act, and con· duct of postal ousiness. (i) Administration of the Intestacy Act. (j) Registration of Births, Deaths, and Mar­

riages, of Patents, and of Joint Stock Companies. (k) Supervising the repairing and building of Government vessels and boats. At Daru the Sub-Collector is an Assistant

Resident Magistrate, Gaoler, &c., though paid entirely as a Treasury officer.

405. Expenditure.-(a) Before the Estimates of Expenditure for the year are framed, officers submit estimates of the amounts which thev consider neces­ sanT to maintain the stations or · officers m their cha'rge.


(b) When the Estimates are approYed, such offi­ cers are notified of the amounts which the,- are

a~thorized to expend, buf such authorit y onl)- per­ mits them to forward requisitions for stores to the Treasury not exceeding in Yalue the amounts al-lott·ed them. ·

'(c) The requisitions re(}_uire either the approval of Stores Committee, which consists of the Depart­ mental heads, or that of the Gm:ernment Secretary and Treasurer. ·when approYal is giYen the goods

are supplied to the officer by the GoYernment Store­ keeper. Only in cases of urgency is an officer per­ mitted to purchase stores from a local storekeeper. (d) The Resident ~Iagistrate and Sub-Collector of Customs a,, Samarai, the Assistant Resident

r.fagistrate at Bonagai, and the Sub-Collector of Customs at Darn are authorized to pay from their collections the wages of Government. native em­ ployes-such as police and boat boys. When send­

ing their collections to the Treasury, the reoeipted vouchers for any moneys so paid are sent as cash, and cheques are drawn in the Treasury to recoup the revenue.

(e) All other expenses incurred by e-very Depart­ ment of the Government, includin,g salaries, are paid by the TDeasurer, the vouchers being pro­ perly checked beforehand and signed by the officer

responsible. (f) The bulk of the stoDes for the Government are purchased in Sydney, timber and meats from Brisbane, while some goods are purchased from

London direct. The latter consist of uniforms, arms, and ammunition, and paints and oils, which are imported into Australia, so that the Government finds it cheaper to buy them direct from the London

warehouse instiead of from Australia. (g) The details of Expenditure are shown in the Administrator's Annual Report. 406. Revenue.--The details of Revenue collected are shown in the Administrator's Annual Report. The Revenue has increased from £2,679 IIS. rod. in 1889 to .£20,236 3s. in 1906. The only material

alterations in the Tariff during that period "·ere on 28th January, r 897, when the duty 0n spirits was increased from 12s. to 14s. a gallon, ar:d on 17th May, 1902, when the duty on tobacco ·was raised from rs . . to rs. 6d. pe·r )b. There is no export duty

whatever. All revenue is forwarded to the Trea­ sury, Port l\Ioresby, and remitted thenoe to the

Queensland K ational Bank, at Cooktown, for

transfer to Brisbane. 407. Postal.-There are six post offices. in the Territory, Port Moresby, Samarai, Darn, Bonagai, Kokoda, and Tamata. The revenue from sale of stamps for the financial year ended 30th June last

was .£51 r ros. 70. There is no money order or

postal note system established yet, but this is about to be done at the four first-mentioned offices. 1\Iail~ are brouaht to Port Moresby, Samarai and Bonaga1 over fro~ Cairns every six weeks, and once from

Sydney via the Solomons. This service is pro­ vided by the Commonwealth Govern~1ent. An auxiliary oil schooner runs every three or four

weeks between Cooktown, S.amarai, and Wood­ lark carrving mails,, and the Lonc;lon Missiorn So­ ciety subsidize a small sailing vessel, w~ich con­ nects their stations on the south; coast wtrh Cook­

town Port Moresbv and Samarai. North Ger­

man' Lloyd steame;s, running six-weekly between Singapore and Sydney via New B.ritain, call at Samarai irreaularlv and convey marls and passen­ gers when they call. fails from Port foresby

to Daru are sent via Cooktown and Thursday Is­ land. There is comparatively frequent communi­ cation between Daru and the latter port. 408. Jntestacy.- The practice is similar to that

I' I ,


of Queensland. Curator's agents as a rule take

Dnvid Ballantine, 1 th ept., Hl06.

po ession of deceased ' property, and forward in­ venton of estate, ,rith rnluables, to Curator at

Port .\lore by. PmYer is giYen to agents to sell

perishable goods at once to best advantage. ~ext­ of-kin notices are published in Gazette, and suffi­ cirnt time allmYed for Ga:ette to reach the princi­ pa I point in Australia 1::efore order to administer

1~ granted. Time is also given for notices to

t iulitors being seen in Australia.

409. Registrar General.-Registers of births, deaths and marriages are kept. The numbers

of patents and joint stock companies registered are very few'. 410. Boats aH.d T\:sse/.s.-A well equipped slip and boat building shed is maintained Fi.ere for build­

ing and repairing boats. In addition .to the llI errie England there are the follmYing vessels: ---C,entral DiYision- 2 ketches. Eastern Divis.ion-I steam launch.

South-Eastern Division-I ketch. Western Division-r ketch and r lugger. Xorth-Eastern Division-I ketch.

besides about t,rentv whaleboats. The repairing is generally done at Port l\Ioresby. District whale­ Loats are generally conveyed before and after re­ pairs in Merrie England davits.

41 r. Q. With regard to postal mattiers, are you satisfied with the postal arrangements1 with Aus­ tralia ?-A .. It is all a matter of money. We could have a more satisfactorv mail service.

412. Q. Is it as satisfactory as you can hope

for, having in l'egard the amount of money ex­ pended on it ?-A. The local Government doos not pay anything, the Commonwealth Government pay­ ing the cost.

413. Q. Do you not- think it would be better to have a regular service, 1;ia Thursday Island, than in the apparent criss-cross way it is· at present?­ / 1.. The service from Thursday Island is not so

good as that from Cooktown, Ciirns, or Townsville. The Ysabel ran previously from Tnursday Island, but it ,ms found to be of no use for settlers in the

£"astern District. It is all right for Port Moresby and Daru, but the people going to Samarai and Woodlark seldom used it, and the vessel did not often bring mails.

4r4. Q. Was there only one steamer runnin1 g then ?-A. Yes. 415. Q. You have two now ?-A. Yes. The

Papau runs every two or three weeks from Cairns, and miners and the mails come bv her. The miners wishing to go do,rn to Sydney from the eastern part of the Territory would not go to Thursday Islanc~ It generally meant a considerable wait at Thun,t.-- Y Island.

416. Q. Take the case of the people from

Moresby up towards the Fly River. What is _th eir position in regard to the service ?-A. There 1s no s,ubsidizecJ boat running there at present. 417. Q. So they have to depend on traders for their mails ?-A. Yes.

. 418. Q. Would it help settlement if a better

service were instituted round that coast ?-A. It would help development generally, but I cannot say about Dam. 419. Q. So that, until . further settlement t:1kes

place there, you would not suggest any alterat10n? - -A. I would suggest that a small vessel be sub~

sidized to connect Port Moresby with D aru. 420. Q. With regard to the contract steamers , ou have at present, do :::ou think it would be in

the interest of the Territory if it were insisted that the\· h8d to name a maximum freight and passage ? --A .. ·Undoubtedly. I strongly recommend that that should be done.

David Ballantine, 1 th ept., 1906.


42r. Q. The charge for freight to Austra1ia on the local products almost takei; away the \\·hole profit ?-J.. Ye .

422. Q. What is the pr sent charge per ton lJe­

t,Yeen Port )Ioresb,· and S, dn ,. ?-A .. Fifty shil­ ling , and 40s. for· the Gm.-ernn;ent. 423. i11r. Herbert.-The people might haYe the benefit of the special rate charged to the Govern­ ment ?- -A. Yes.

424. T lte C lzairman.-Do YOU think the present rate is. too high, from the stand-point of the suc­ cessful development of the Territory ?---A. Yes. 42s. Q. Do you consider th~t the ti~e has ar­

riYed for the inland postal service to be 1mprm·ed? -A .. The only inland service is in the Korthern

Division. .p6. Q. Ha...-e you considered the possibility of connecting Port )foresh,· andi the gold.fields by means of a.. telegraph line ?-A. No. I do not

think there is sufficient settlement in the Division to justify the expenditure. 42 7. Q. If the expenditure were justified, I sup­ pose you could utilize the natives in putting up

the poles ?-A. They are not sufficiently under in­ fluence there .at present to enable them to be utilized. 428. Q. Have you considered the question of a telegraph line from Port Moresby along the coast to Darn ?-A. It is quite impracticable.

429. Q. What is your opinion as to .the practica­ bility of a telegraph line betw,een Port Moresby and Samarai, built by natives whom you have under control ?-A. I do not think the adrnntages to be gained would be sufficient to justify the expendi­ ture.

430. Q. Are you satisfied with the efficiency of vour officers ?-A. Yes . ., 43r. Q. Having regard to the fact that every

penny that can be saved should go towards the de­ velopment of the country, do you consider that it would be possible to make any savings at present? -A. No.

432. Q. I notice that some of the salaries are

under £ 200 per annum. Do you not think that in a country like Papua there should be a fixed mini­ mum for clerks in~ the Civil Sen·ice, say, of £zoo? -A. I think it is worth £200 for any officer who comes to join this service.

43.3. Q, HaYe you not a cadet clerk at £150 ?­ _A. I except cadet clerks ,rho are not of European descent. 434. Q. Then you are of opinion that any Euro­

pean taking up a position here should not be asked to take less than £200 ?-A. Yes. 435. Q. That is based on your long experience in the service?-A. Yes. The Warden at Wood­

lark js paid less than the working miners at the

same place. He gets £250, and the miners, I

think. get £5 or £6 a week. The Warden is

paid better than the gaoler, and \\·ill y be paid better than the sub-collector, ,rho is to be ap­ pointed there. 436. Q. With regard to the unmarried officers in

Port ~Ioresby, ho,y do the) manage for quarters? --A. :.\'"one of the Treasury officers are allowed quarters. 437. (). Consequently, all tho:::e young fell°'rs

haYe to provide their own ?-A.. Yes. During the last few months I find that the Gm··ernment haYe rented a small cottage, ai1d the, allo,,· the Trea­ sury officers to use it, ancl the, find themselves.

In the past, an amount has !·wen submitted on the draft Estimates to provide for quarters for offioers, but it has alwavs been struck out to prm·ide for

some more pressing expencliture. 438. Q. Is there room in the cottage for ;ill the

junior officer ?-A. No.

439. Q. And, consequently. some of the officers are provided ,rith quarters while others have to

provide for themsel Yes ?-A. Yes. I am strongly in fayour of quarters being proYided for eYery officer in Port ~Ioresb\·. 440. Q. Does not the present arrangement giYe

rise to a good deal of jealousy among the officers ?­ A. Yes. 441. Q. Is there any fixed arrangement about

the distribution of the quarters ?-A. X o. 442. Q. What is the position of the married offi­ cers as regards quarters?-A. They haYe to rent private houses, and sometimes they are · not avail­

able. 443. Q. Do they have to pay the rent them-

selves ?-A. The Treasury officers, do. Some offi­ cers' appointments carry quarters-such as the Com­ mandant, the Resident Magistrates, and Hean

Gaoler. 4-44. Q. Does your appointment, or the Chief Surveyor's, carry quarters ?-A. No. 445. Q. Why is this distinction made ?-A. It

was originally started when the positions were

created. One or two of the Government buildings becai;:ne vacant, and the Resident Magistrate got one and the Commandant got another. There was no Treasurer then, and the Government Secretary occupied a small room in a building ·which has

since been resumed. 446. Q. Is the question of qmirters considered when the salaries are fixed ?-A. Yes, when the Estimates are considered.

447. Q. And is the absence of quarters made up to the officers by giving them larger salaries?--­ A. Yes. 448. Q. Having regard to the harmony which should prevail in the service, iSi it your opinion that one or other principle should obtain ?-A. Yes.

449. Q. Could you give me the aver.age amount paid in rent by married officer,s. in Fort Moresby? --A. A small two-roomed cottage with a 10-ft.

verandah round it, and perhaps a verandah room, would cost about £2 ros. or £3 per month. 450. Q. Take the house the Government Sur· veyor lives i.~ ?-A. £3 per month.

45 r. Q. Do you belie,·e that it would be sound

and for the good of the officers and the Territory generally if the officers were married and had their wives in Port Moresby ?-A. I do not ·think it

,rould be an advantage to the Administration. When an officer gets married--more particularly a dis­ trict officer, who has to travel a good deal-and his wife gets sick, she has to be sent to Australia, and he generally goes with her. He perhaps has to be absent from his a.utv a considerable time. Thai

has frequenti,- happ~ned to married officers. About Port ~lores by and most parts of the Territory, with the exception of the tableland, it is not healthy for children.

452. Q. Supposing there was a sanatorium up in the tableland from Port 1Ioresby, do you think \\·omen and children could ]i\'e there during the bad months of the Year ?-A. That would mean

much expense. ·

453. Q. But, speaking generally, a possession is hardly lil-el \. to become permanent and progress as it should unless dome tic life is introduced?­ A. ;,Jo.

454. Q. Officers in some <'a es get married.

"Cnder xisting conditiow th': lean! their wives on the mainland. The fa··t of their h:\\ ing their

wi\'es a,raY from th m i. calculated to cause them anxieh· as· to whether the, ma,· e . ick. and o

distract them from their ~rnrk? - !l. Y f'.. that is

so. Rut the more th ronclitions of th plac are

improved the better it ,rill be for the married men.

455· Q. Kow, Fort Ioresb\ has been e tablisllc cl a considerable time, and \Ye • ar surpri d to find

that the p eople appear to be living on tinned mt:at a:1d vegetables. Would it not be possible on the

rn:e_r, where the gardener was recently murdered, to utilize the f>rison labour, and haYe yegetables

grown for the supply of the settlement ?-A. It is pos~ible, but the prison labour is always fully oc­ cupied on other Government work. 456. Q. I find at the present time that the

prisoners h a \·e ve,rei tables gro\\·n f or them ? - d. The y are nativ wgdables. English vegetaLles do not grow so e.asil y. They could be grown on the

tableland, but not on the river here. 457. Q. Do you consider that stock would flour­ ish h e re ?-A .. they do. The importation of stock from Queensland is a.t present prohibited on ac­ count of the tick, and that prohibition should be

removed. 458. Q. Is it a fact that when fresh beef is

killed here the people hardly trouble to get it ?- A .. In Port Moresby it is a matter of money. The

younger officers ha \·e such small salaries that the question is a serious one to them. 459. Q. Do you not think tha.t, if as an oLject

lesson onh-, the Gove rnment should have a. small he rd at Port l\Ioresby, from \Yhich they could

supply meat to their officers ?- A. The Government bad a herd at one time, but the expense of looking after it made the Administrator order the sale of it. 460. llfr. Herbcrt.-Is there not a small herd

here now ?-A. Yes, belonging to Burns, Philp and Co. 461. Q. Are they doing well ?- A. They are very much inbred, but are doing well.

462. Q. Ha Ye you gqt tick :here ?-/l. X ot the

injurious cattle tick which is in the eastern end and other parts of the Territory. 463. T!te C!tairman,.-Then, in your op1mon, would it be a sound thing to remoye · the regulation

prohibiting the importation of cattle from Queens­ land, in the interests of the settlers generally ?- A. Yes. If precautions are taken, such as are being

taken at present, and a stock inspector's certificat e issued before cattle are shipped from Queens] and, it would be an advantage to :have as many imported as may be desired.

464. Q. Have sheep been tried here ?- A. She.ep have been tried on the Astrolabe, but proved a

failure. In many parts of the Territory cattle

should do ,Yell. 46 5. Q. Should any attempt be made · to encour­ age the breeding of horses in the Tcrri~ory ?- A.

Yes, and the breeding of mules is very important" for transport purposes. The y could be bred on

a considerable portion of the country be yond Port ~Ioresby, extending to the east and west some dis ­ tance. 466. Q. Would the cost of fencing Le grea t jn

this area ?-A. There is plenty of open fores t tim­ ber for providing the posts. 46 7. Q. Would there be any danger of the cattle being interfered with by natives ?-A. Very little.

468. Q. Do you consider that the Government should lead the way in breeding mules ?-A. It

would be an advantage for them to do it, but there are other administrative matters requiring attention. 469. Q. Would it be sound from a financial

stand-point ?-A. Yes, they require transport ani­ mals for themselves. 470. Q. If they ha:d these mules they ,rnulcl de ­ pend Y crr much less on natjve hearers , who ar~ so

unrcli.abl e ?- A.. Yes; but in some parts n atiYeS ,rnuld haYe to Le used. the trar-ks are so bad. -17 T. (). But the mule woulcl be al le to he used

as the country becomes more de veloped ?- il.. Ye s. I am of opinion that the Government should take ;J:,14262.-B


ba•id Ballantine, 18th ept., 1906.

o ·e r the tran port sel'vice in the northern di ·ision rom Buna Bay to the gold-fields. 47 .::. Q. \ ' ho is running that transport now?­ A. Private people. Carriers are recruited from

other parts of the Territory. The people for whom they a1:e w~nking cannot sp~ak to them, although everythmg 1s carefully explamed to them when the agreement is entered into, but they are like sheep~ and say "Yes " to e,·erything. They have to carry

fairly heavy loads, and they are not accustomed to the \\·ork. Many desert, and are never heard of

again . _Others rob nati,·e gardens, and tn· to get back to their homes, and some get speared. 47 3. Q. Do you believe that to get o-rer this dif­ ficulty the right thing would be for the Government to take over the whole work ?-A. Yes.

4 7 4. Q. Would tfiey be able to do it more

cheaply than under existing conditions? I sup­ pose they would take over the transport of goods for eYery one, and charge a fair thing ?-A. Yes. 475. Q. Would that charge be smaller than at

present ?- A. Yes. 476. Q. Would the condition of the native

bearers be improved ?-A. Yes; it would be better for the natfres, for the miners, and for the Go­

vernment. I also believe it would induce many

miners to go prospecting who will not go under

existing conditions. 4 7 7. Q. Do yon think the expenses would be met by the charges made for the transport of goods ?­ A. Y cs ; I do not think the expense would be great.

In any case, the difference would be very small. 478, Q. At what price icould good mules be

landed in Papua ?-A. About /20 or £25 each. 479. · llfr. H erbert.-What is the distance from Port Moresby to the coffee plantations on the

Astrolabe R angie ?- A. About 2 2 miles to the first, and 35 miles to the other two. '

480. Q. What is the nature of the road ?-A.

For the first 20 miles, it is not rough. A bridle

track has been constructed to the table-land, and that is steep. 48 r. Q. What is the cost per ton per mile for

transport ?-A. £7 from the furthest plantation to to coast bv mule. 482. Q ~ What do you think it would cost to make a rough but efficacious road fit for vehicular traffic on that route ?-A. Not less tl1an £5,000.

483. Q. Is there plenty of good coffee country there ?-A .. Yes. 484. Q. Is ther~ not the means of transport

partly by water from Port Moresby to that country? -A. No, except by the Laloki River, and that is

impracticable for transport, owing to falls and in­ suffi ciency of water. 485. Q. Then there is no cheaper mode of trans­ port than the mule traffic used at present ?-A . No.

486. Q. Following on your answers relative to the GoYe rnment providing bearer transport, is there not a certain amount of expense to the Go\ ern­

ment for the supervision of indented labour ?-A. Yes, con ·iderable. 487. Q. Is the only revenue which i s directl 1 de rived the fee of a shilling for signing on anc.l ,

shilling when paying off ?-A. Yes. 488. Q. Would it be a wise thing to charge i,

addition to those fees a small annual foe for a

licence to Europeans to employ natives so as to

cover the cost of their supenision? Would not

such a fee enable the Government to give better supervision ?--A. I am of opinion th at it would

simpl v be blocking settlement to increase t he pre­ s,ent (:barge for employing native Jabour.

489. Q. But are you not taxing the man w

adopts the pri-1:il ege of cheap labour ?-A. Yes. 1 ut I think it would be a serious tax on those \ •jshi1

to open plantations,

0A id l3'111£ntit1t1, 1 th Sept., 1906.

490. Q. The 2s. chnrge c.loe n l co,·er proper

supen-ision ?-A. _ ·o, but the public are taxed al. o through the Customs and in ot11er ways. For re\'e­ nue-producing purposes, I ,rntil<.l suggest the fees be doubled. _.\.nything like 10s. would be too

much. 491. The Clwirman.--Do )OU l.Jelieve that the time has come for imposing some tax on the natives? -A. Yes.

492. Q. You suggest that this tax should be 5s.

per annum in return for the many privileges which the Gm·ernment h3xe given in the way of security to life and property ?-A. Yes. 493. Q. You tlo not think that ,rnuld be exces-siYc ?--A. ~o.

494. Q. What means of taxation \\'ould you sug-gest ?-A. Money and labour. 495. Q. A suggestion has been made that in ad­ dition to JJlanting cocoanut trees for themselves, the

natives should plant for the Government. Do you think that a good idea ?-A. I would have a money· tax put on certain villages \\·here they have money, and in other districts where the\· cannot obtain

money, so many days' service in tl;e ye2..r at a Go­ vernment plantation in the district. 496. Q. In the Yillages ,Yhere the natives cannot supply the money, why should they _not be made to plant a certain amount of trees which the Govern·

ment could convert into money ?-A. That partially comes back to payment in kind, and I see many

difficulties jn this country if p2..yment is made in kind. It would mean entering into competition

with traders. The 11atives can usualh- convert

their produce into money. Fi,·e days' i'abour fer 2s. 6cl., or ten daYs for 5s., should be give11 as an equivalent for cash, as the Resident l\Iagistratc

ma\. direct. 497 . Q. Would you !?X a ll males_?-A. Yes,

over the age of t,r elve. It woulu be difficult to fix the other limit, but I woul d. ba,·e a system t.o enable the Resident Magistrate to declare any native

exempt from taxation. 498. Q. And tben gradually, as you brought

fresh tribes under Go...-ernment influence, and gaw them protection, you would extend the sphere of taxation ?-A. Yes, or the alternati,·e labour scheme. 499. Q. Do you think it is possible to develop a

trade in New Gui.nea hardwood ?-A. Yes, with improved means of transport and placing on the market. 500. Q. Would it be a sound thing to get an

expert forester to make a thorough i1westigat.ion and report on the approximate quantity and q_uality of the _ -ew Guinea timber ?-A .. Yes. 5or. Q. Do you consider th:it there are in this

country areas of land sufficienth· large and fertile to profitably grow coffee, rubbe~ and sugar ?-A. Yes, and nearly every other tropical pr_aduct. 502. Q. Would not the success of these vcn~urc::i

largely depend on the making of roads ?-A. Yes, and the removal of the hostile tariff in Australia. 503. Q. Do you consider that before these pro· ducts can be grown successfully it is necessary that the hostile tariff should be remO\·ed, or at am· rate a preference gfren to Xew Guinea products°?-A. Speaking of coffee growing, it would give a great impetus to it if a reduction were made in the Aus-tralian duty.

504. Q. If it "·ere impossible to get the ciuties

completely remoYed, woulct it stimulate tbe local in­ du try if a preference "·ere made in their favour? -A. Yes. 505 . Q. If conditions remain as they are, would

the result be that the encourag ment is so slight

£hat it will be difficult to g t men to go into tho e

industries here ?---A . Yes, no plantations have paid so far.

506. Q. Ha ·e you gorie into the qt1e tior1 uf

offering bounties to induce planters to come to

Papua r-A. ~o, l think that ,rith the preferential tariff that would be sufficient to encourage the de­ \'elopment of many products. 507. Q. How much copra was exported las~

year ?-A. Eight hundred and twenty-eight tons. 508. Q. Do you think that industry is going to

increase ?-A. I think so, more particularly a the ,·allle bas gone up quite recently. It now fetches

£1'4 per ton, ,rhile a few years ago it ,ras only_.£). 509. Q. Have you considered the adYisability uf erecting a Government plant to deal ,rith copra

here and saYe carriage on a lot of crude material t­ A. ~o. Desiccating machinery \\·as put up at

Torres Straits a few years ago, but it ,ms a failurt:. Every part of the copra that is exported is utilizet.l, so nothing would be gained by erecting such a plant here.


THE HO:XOH.ADLE DAVID BALLANTI E, M.L.C., "·as further examined, as follows:-510. T!te Clzairman.-In clause 48 of the Fapua Act provision is made for the appropriation of 10 per cent. of the Territorial revenue from the lease of

CrO\rn lands for the maintenance and \Yelfare of infirm or destitute aboriginal natives of the Terri­ tcry. I have been given to understand that there

are no destitute rapuans P-A. That is so. 511. Q. Consequently would you have any use for this money for the purpose named ?-A. Very little use \\'ould be made of it. -

512. Q. Can you suggest how it could be better used for the welfare of the natives ?-A. Yes, br 1.Juilcling and maintaining native hospitals . That would Le more practicable, and cou1d be done at any time "·hen funds are a,·ailable, and would be a real benefit to the natives.

5 I 3. Q. I notice that, on your statement of ex­

µenditure, a sum of £2,708 is down for various

s1iling ves~ls and launches and matters generally connected with the upkeep of those boats. In addi­ tion to that the maintenance of the il1 errie England cost prnctically about £6,000 for the year. Alto­

gether was not over £8,000 expended on Govern­ ment vessels during the year ?-A .. Yes. 5 q. Q. In view of the fact that the revenue

from all sources was £19,000, do you not think that "·as a Yery l.arge amount to spend on vessels?­ .1. The largest expenditure "·as on the .M.errie Eng­ land, and she is an expensive vessel.

515. Q. Do you t.h1nk it is impossible, wit.bout impairing efficiency, to reduce the smaller craft?­ A. I do not think so. They are absolutelv neces­

sary. At present the District 1\1,agistrates, ;,,ith the exception of the one in the Eastern Division haYe got s3iling vessels to do their work in. Tl:iis 'means great delays_ owing ~o calms, &c., and the Magis­

trates and h1gh salaned officers ha,·e great distances to cover, and I am of opinion that it "·ould be an

adrnntage to do away with those sailing boats and use launches instead. That would mean fi.,·e

launches, as the K ortb-eastern Divi ion probabl ,. \roulc.l not requirf' one. ·

5r6. Q. Do you not think that one launch ,rnuld be sufficient for two districts ?-A. One ,rnuld be required in each DiYi ion. In the Western Divi­ sion the Resident ::\fagi trate ha a lot of ri,·er work

ty do .. At present the Fly River is untouched, and Daru is a long way from hern. 5I7. Q. What would these vessels cost ?-A.

About £1,500 each, and £450 per annum for



518; (J_. What tonnag · would they be ?-A. I tlunk about forty tons, and 16 horse-power. The Ruby cost £1,200 landed here, and 1 am judging from her.

519. Q. Do you not think oil launches would be better ?-A .. Ko. Out here the\' are not a success. Steam appears to be much mo/e trustworthy.

520. (J_. Is there not an oil launch working be­

tween Cook town and Samarai ?-A. It is more of a sailing boat than a launch, and it has an auxiliary oil engine. 521. Q. So far from reducing the expenditure on the Yessels, you ,rould increase it?- A. Yes;

and the Resident Magistrate would then be able to dD double the ,rnrk that he now does in sailing ves­ sds. The launches would require to be good sea boats, as they would have to go out to sea, and

,rnuld require accommodation for the Resident Magistrate and two or three officers. 52 2. Q. What is the draught of the Merrie Eng­ Land ? "-A. I think it is about 14 foet or 1 5 feet,

loaded. 523. Q. Is she not a very unsuitable boat for a

coast like this ?-A. I do not think any other boat than the Merrie England could have stood the work like the Merrie England. She is very strongly

built of wood, with iron frames. She has been

on the reefs many times, and has got oif again.

Her int,ernal arrangements are not suhable. 524. Q. Do you not think that a _boat consuming less coal and ,rith a lighter draught, would be

more suitable ?-A. Yes. A better and cheaper

boat could be obtained. 525. Q. I presume that as the coast becomes

more known there is less likelihood of the boat

runmng aground ?-A. It ' 1s gradually being

charted. 526. Q. Does the commander of the Merrie

England keep a record of _ _ the coast ?-A. Yes; but the commanders generally keep the charts as their personal property. I know the last com­

mander removed a chart from the Merrie England ii1 Brisbane as his property. 527. Q. Why was he allowed to do th~t?-A. 1'here was no one there to interfere. The Port­

master at Brisbane was afterwards written to on the subject. 528. Q. I presume that any future commander will be given to understand that any charts he

makes will be the property o±: _the_ Governm~nt ?­ A. I do not know. The captam 1s responsible ·to

the Administrator, .and I cannot say if special in­ structions have been given. 529. Q. Is the Merrie England worked bY, a

white crew ?-A. Yes. 530. Q. Would it be possible to utilize Pa~uan~? -A. Yes j and it would mean a great savmg m

money. 531. Q. Why has it not been done ?-A. The

Commonwealth Government have objected. 532. A. Were Papuans used prior to the Com­ monwealth taking the Merrie England over?­ A . I o ; not as a crew.

533. Q. So at no time have they used Pa­

puans ?--A. No j but all other Government vessels are manned by Papuans. __

534· Q. And the reason is that the Common­ wealth GoYernment haYe issued instructions 'that it was not to be done ?- A. It is because they have

objected to it being done. 535. Q. Have you any other suggestions to

make " ·ith regard to increasing the revenue at the present time ?'-A. There a;re one or two minor matters, such as the reconsideration of the Customs Tariff. The adoption of the Commonwealth Cus­

toms Act would mean an increase to our revenue. We are adopting the Customs Act in the Territory

1'1tvid iJaitahtifle, 1Bth Sept., 1906.

now, nnd from the different methods of collecting the ad 'valorem duty, it will mean an increase o.t £1,000. I understand that the Administrator has taken the draft Bill with him to Samarai to place

before the LegislatiYe Council there. 536. Q. ls there anything else you would like to .mention ?-A., The question has been con­ :sidered from time to time as to having a Stamp Act here, and .a, small amount could be collected,

probably about £100. Generally, I am of opinion that the settlers in this Territory are taxed suffi­ ciently. We haye no export duties of any kind

yet. 537. Q. Would your -policy, at the present

time, be to put an export duty on ?-A. No.

538. Mr. H erbert.-Would you put an export duty on gold ?-A .. Ko. It would be difficult to

coliect, and would embitter the feeling of the

miners against the officials. I would suggest that the duty on spirits be brought up to the Austra­

lian ciuty. 539. Q.. Do you not think that one or two ves­

sels, sailing boats with auxiliary oil engines, and of light draught, would meet the requirements of the Territorv at a much less cost than the Merrie England ?-A. All inspection is done by the Ad­ ministrator. He is accompanied by the Comman­

dant, the Private Secretary, probably thirty or

forty police, and a number of prisoners. The

Chief Justice goes around at the same time, and sometimes one or two district officers, so that a vessel of some size is required. ·

540. Q. Would not a 50-ton boat be sufficient? -A. I doubt it. The Government yessel is prac~ ticall y the Administrator's headquarters for weeks, sometimes months, and the vessel should be of fair speed, and of some comfort. A vessel suitable

for the Government of the Territory is one pro­ bably, of 100 tons, to have five cabins, in addition to accommodation for ships' officers and crew, and to have room to carry sixty police and prisoners, and up to 40 tons of cargo. She should have a

speed of 10 knots, and have a coal capacity for

steaming 1,000 miles. She should be able to

carry four good-sized boats and steam launch in davits. I believe such a vessel could be built in

Australia for £10,000, and be manned by white officers and crew for £4,000 per annum. I ga:ve similar information to the Secretary of the De­ partment of External Affairs in Melbourne.

54r. Tlte Cltairman.-Are you a qualifieu ac­ countant ?- A. No. 542. Q. What exper1ience 10 £ \figuires had YOH before vou became Treasurer ?- A. I had been

eighteen., months in a mercantile office, and then I was, Sub-Collector of Customs at Samarai for two and a half years. 543. Q. What mercantile office were you in?­ A. A Customs agency at Thursday Island.

544. Q. Is .there any friction between yourself and anv other senior officer ?--A. No. 545., Q. In your opinion, are the regulation s be­ tween the Administrator and the heads of Depart­ ments such as must exist if good work is to be done? -A. Speaking for myself, I have always given

loyal support to the Administrator. 546. Q. Yes, but I want my question to go a

little further. I can quite understand it is a some ­ what unpleasant question to answer, but you cannot _ be unaware of the fact that we have come ·to in­ quire ino the present administration of the Terri­

ton, and one of the first things to ascertain is

whether the service is ,rnrking in harmony with its head. You probably have he~ nd from outside

sources that such is not the case. It may not be

true, but rumours to that effect have been fhiup: about. I ask _ YOU whether, in your opinion, tho:-:: B Z

David Ballantln~, 1 th opt., 1306.

rumour are without foundatiort, a.n

trator and· his officials. 547. Mr. H erbert.--:--By that last answer, do you mean to say that there is nothing which you feel yourself justified in bringing forward ?-A. I. ?o not see any minutes passing between ~he Adm1ms­ trator and the Government Secretary s office, ex­ cepting those relating to my Department.

548. Q. Then you mean you do n?t kn~w offi­ cially of any want of good relationship. r ou are speaking of your official knowledge ?-A. Yes. 549. Q. Have you any personal knowledg~,. or

ha re you been led to understand that any fnction does exist in the Government Service, such as has been alluded to by the Chairman ?-A. I believ~ at one time frictio.nJ did exist, but that was some time

ago. I have been absent from the Treasury for

some nine months, and I cannot say whether a

similar feeling exists now or not. ,

550. Q. When did you return here ?-A. On the r 4th September. 5 5 r. Was the friction that you believe existed of sufficient seriousness to haYe a tendency to

impair the conduct of the administration ?-A. I consider that the Administrator of Papua has a very difficult task to .fulfil, and if he is not loyally supported by all his officers it makes matters very much mone difficult.

5 5 2. Q. In the instance you refer to, did he have the frank and loyal supp01i of all his officers -A. I formed the impression that he has not always had the loyal support of some of his officers.

553. Q. Have you the impression that that state of things may again happen at any time ?- A. No, I see no reason to think it may happen again. 554. Q. Are you in a position, by reason of your

long absence and recent rieturn, to say what the present attitude of the Deparment is towards the Administrator or towards ,each other ?-A. So far as 'r have judged since my return, there is nothing

to comment on in the present relations of the De­ partments with each other, or with the Adminis­ trator. 555· Q. I have pressed you upon fhis, probably, somewhat delicate question, and ,,,,e will only now

ask you whether you can suggest anything by which the recurrence of s,uch a state of things may be

avoided in the future ?-A. The only thing I can .:;ee is placing more pow~r in the hands of the

Administrator, and give the Administrator power to suspend any officer who disregards his instruc­ tions, without it being neoessary to refer to the

Governor-General. 556. Q. Has he not that power now ?-A. He

has that power in the Executive Council. 557. Q. Has he not power to suspend, and then submit the suspension for the confirmation of the Executive Council ?-A. Yes, that power exis!ts now.

558. Q. Do you think that the power of sus­

pension should be given without the necessity of sul:,mitting it to the Council ?-A. No, I do not

think so, and do not ne essaril y recommend it. I only replied to the question as one means of pre­ venting a recurrence of official friction. 5 59. Q. Then you think that the removal of the intermediate reference to the Legislative Council would give £hat desired effect ?-A. I dCI not ·wish to reccmmend that. I give it as one of two alter­

natives, that greater power should be given into the hands of the Administrator, but do not go so far as to .w that th matter should not go before the

Execufo:e· Council.

560. Tlte Clwirman.-Were ,·ou here during the time of 'ir William :\IacGregoi· ?-A. Yes .. 561. Q. Did any officer in hi time take upon

himself the responsibility of being disloyal ?-A. They seemed to be loyal. 562. Q. In other ,rords, whatever they might

have privately thought. they carried out his behests and g ;1 ,·e him no reason to doubt their loyalty?­ A .. Yes. 563. i1l r. H crbert.-What i the present "·hite popubtion of Papua ?- A. About 700.

56-1-. Q. Have you any suggestions to make for the :ittracting of a larger white population in the -immediate future?- A. For ' the further development of the Territory I would make the following reco~­

mendations :-(a) Appointment of an expert 111 tropical agriculture and the establishment of a Sta~e nursery in the best .agricultural centre in the Tern­ tory. ( b) Distribution of plants and seeds at

nominal rates. (c) Construction and upkeep of dray roads from !Such centre to a point of shipment. (d) Preferential tariff rates for Papuan products in Aus­ tralia. (e) An attractive mail service with stipu­ lated rates of passage and freight. (f) Appoint­

ment of a mineral expert to advise and assist in

mining matters. (g) Further opening up of the

orthern Division goldfields by a system of Go­ Yernment transport. As regards telegraphic com­ munication, I am of opinion that if any consider­ able development is to take place here telegraph~c

co1)nexion with some point in North Queensland 1s imperati\·e. Systems of wireless telegraphy would probably not e.arn much for some time, but after the initial expense the system is inexpensiYe to work,

and the advantage from an administrative point of view would be materiaL If funds are, I recommend the institution of the svstem. 565. Q. What Department adrn'inisters the pearl

shell industry ?- A. The Resident Magistrate's. Licences are issued by the Customs. 566. Is it flourishing at all ?-A. No. 567. Q. Is it carried on in tbe Western Dis­

trict ?-A. Some licences are issued, but as the

Queensland boundary is so near New Guinea, nearly all the work is done in Queensland waters. The ·water here is too deep and could only be

worked when a dress is invented for diving in deep water. 568. Q. Is the prese9t law at all inimical to

shell prospectors -A. ~o. 569. Q. What price does the indigenous rubber fetch·?-,1. Five s,hillings per pound. A short time ago it was only 3s.

THE HONORABLE RALPH MELMOTH DRUMMOND, M.L.C., was s"·orn and ex;amined, as follows :-570. Tlze Clwirman.-What is your 11ame?--­ A. Ralph Melmoth Drummond.

57 r. Q. What is your position in the Territory? -A. Cbief GoYernment SurYeyor. 57 2. Q. How Jong have ;ou held that po ition? -A.. Since the 25th August last year.

57 3. Q. How long have you been in the Terri­ tory ?-A .. Since the 19th January, 1905. 574. Q. On what ,rnrk were you employed before receh·ing ) our present appointment ?-A. I wa.

measuring all the "·a te and Yacant land at the

Rigo Station and conne ting the trav r e ..

5 7 5. Q. What en-ice were mu in pre, iou 1 y ?­ A. I was Field A. i~tant to th . taff . mT , or at

Bathur~t ~Te"· outh "'ale. I \\a not on the

permanent staff.

576. Q. Are you. a :iualified surveyor ?-A_. Yes, I passed my exammation in New South Wale ~n May, 1904-, after eight years' expe~ience in the



577 · Q · How many surveyors ha-re you in your !)e~a:i;tment ?-A. One who has just arrived, and- one m tne field on the north-east coast. 578. Q. Do you think two are suffi cient ?-A. I do not. Under present conditions separate pieces of land are measun~d and not connected, and we :annot therefore put them on the map. Connect­

mg traverses should be made. . 5 7 9 · Q. In the event of ar1 increased a pplic;-i -

t1on for l~nd would those two surveyors be able

to cope with the work ?-A. No. Under the new

ordinance there will be settlement " --ithout sun.-e,-. T~1e. settler can _go to work straight awav after ob­ tammg the Resident Magistrate's permission, and we survey afterwards.

580. Q. Is not the principle of selection before imrvey a cause of trouble ?-A. It is when settle­ ment is thick.

58r. Q. Would your opinion as a surveyor be

against it ?-A. Not for this countn- as settlement is so scattered. , '

582. Q. Yoru realize th~1t survev w~uld have to follow q uickly on selection ?- A. Yes, and it ·wants a fair staff to do it.

583. Q. fo a country ]ike this, I take it that

most of the lane! will be taken up for tropical

plantations, and that serious trouble may occur if a considerable time el apses after selection before the survey is made, as the planter may place his

trees on some one else's l;:md ?-A. The land will have to be tq the cardinal points. If the staff were big enough there would be no trouble. 584. Q. What staff would -vou consider sufficient

to face the new order of things. ?-A. There has not been a land survey made this year, excepting six blccks of land which was me.asured in the

Korth-East Division by Mr. Richmond- one block of Government land ancl five missionarv blocks. The onh· surveyor available has been eng;-iged on mining surveys.

58 5. Q. Why has no land survey been made?

-A. Because I have no staff.

586. 0. And delav bas been caused which, from the public stand-point, must be wry -rexatious ?­ A. Yes, and from mine also.

587. Q. Then through no fault of your own , lmt simply o·iYing to the shortness of your st3.ff, there is cause for the complaint which has been ma.rte th;-it people cannot get their lan

I have given all deeds for land which has been

surveyed, and provisional deeds for land not sur­ veved, prior to the Act corning into force. Some

o{ the blocks are very small, as little as quarter of an acre, and sometimes a trnverse of 12 mil es has to be made in one case.

588. Q. Have you read the new Land Ordinance ? -A .. Yes. 589. Q. Have you observed that the original

clause 6 in the draft has been cancellerl ?- A. I

helped to frame that ordinance. and that is one of the things I believe should be in it. For instance,

the cemetery here has a verv small area, and I de­ signed a, new one around it. The natiYes wo.uld not sell the land to the Government at am- pnc

It is onlv a fevv acres, but -it is a case \\·here the

land may be ultimateh- required. It is just a ques­ tion as to whether this is to be a black man's or a

white man's countrY. an

ond they haYe power to n,sume 1t.

}t. M. Drummond, 18th Sept., 1906.

590. Q. Will the natives 15e inclined to niake

more trouble in this direction e-rery year ?-A. Yes. 591. Q. I there plenty of land in Papua which

the nati,·es are not using and ha,·e not used, and

which, now this clause has been struck out, they will not part with ?-A. Yes, and that is why I

supported that clause. 592. Q. I note you haYe reference to the compilation of a m2.p sho\, ing all surveys which have be.en made in the Territon·, and stating that it is practicall ,. impossible at the present time. I

suppose yoru realize that this must be done?­

A. Yes. 593· Q. W~uld it not be a good thing to classify on maps all land that the Government survey, so that intending settlers could /.!et information as to areas and suitability for agri'culfore or grazing?­

A. The blocks are being shown on a map which is being prepared now. Each block is being dis­

~ussed. now, and the information will be published p1 a handbook which is being written by the Ad­

ministrator. That book will include the· conditions under which land cam be taken up. 594· 0. Have not survey fees been done away " -ith under the new ordinance ?-A. Yes. I cannot

say that the Gm-ernment should ask people to pav for surveying land which belongs to it. The land is only ]eased to them. 595. Q. Whenever there is a tract of good land

do you not think 1.htr:e should be some means of communication to it ?- A. Certa.inh-. Where the Government plantation is going to be made a good road should be made to it.

596. Q. When .this new ordinance is published, and people know exactly where thev are in regard t0 the land, do you think there will be anv increase in settlement ?-A. Yes, I thjnk so. The magis­

trates alwavs have to purchase the lands from the natives, and it may mean delay. 597. Afr H erbert.- Tbat is supposing the native is "·illing to sell ?- A. Yes.

598. Q. Do mu think that is a drawback;>_

A. Yes. , ·

599· Q. Is it a fact that at the inception of set­

tl_ement the natives were promised confirmation of their ownership of H1eir land ?-A. I do not know that any promise was made. 600. Q. If it were a fact, do mu think that it

wou 1 rl be any breach of that assuranre to insert the original section in the ordinance, that is the clause relating to rompnlsory purchase ?- A. I do not

think so, if the owners were rroperh- pa-id for the land. 6or. (). Has the Government the ownership of any lands beyond those "·h-irh it has purchased from the natives ?-A. Yes, the lands they have

declared ,rnste an

A. 876,443 acres. 603. Q. How much land have thev purchased from the natives ?- A. 251,359 acres. , 604. 0. Is it to he hereafter decided what part

of the balance of the lands is Crown lands and

wh;it is n1tive Jands ?-A. Yes. 605. Q. Have you read ori.irinal section 8 in the Land Ordinance rlraft ?- A. Yes. 606. Q. Does -it not assume that all the lands

(E.xcept wk1t mu ha.vp s:1-id is rilread,· Crown lands) are native lands untii it is declared to be other­

" ·i e by the Gm-ernor -in Council ?--A. Yes. 607. Q. Does it not appear to mu to he t.he

better ·,my tc1

608. 0. And it t.heni should be made compulsory liv legislation that the Gm-ernment protect the

ll. :ll. Drummond, 1 th ept., 1906.

I 1·-.,- . .


natire in their occupation of their lands by sur­

,·eying, out of that balance of Papuan Crown land, tne land which really does belong to the

natiye ?- A.:.- That ,rnuld be the better way if you had a taff to sun·e y the boundaries. 609. Q. In the meantime, with that alteration in the 0rdinance, if you were supplied with a fair

staff of surveyors, you· could survey the land be­ long to the natives, beginnirng with the districts under control where there would likely be speedy occupation in the near future ?-A. Yes, that is one of my contentions in regard to that clause, that the

land should be declared Crown land straight off. If that were done the natives could always be pro­ tected. 6ro. Q. Do you think that declaring all Papuan

lands Crown iands with the exception in favour of lands belonging to natives, which latter should be ascertained and proclaimed as soon as possible, would be a breach of faith with the natives, even

although they had been promised confirmation in th.eir ownership ?-A. No, I do not. 6II. T!te Cltairman.-Could you supply the Com­ mission with .a map showing all the roads and Go­

vernment tracks and givir..g their lengths ?-A. I could show the roads, which have been measured. The Euna Bay track has not been measured by survey.

612. Q. Since you have been in your present posi­ tion have your relations with ar..y other officers been in any way strained ?-A. None whatever, to my knowledge. I have never had any strained relations officially.

6!3. Q. Do you consider that the relations which exist betweer.. the Administrator and the heads of the Depa:rtments are satisfactory in the sense that they are working loyally with him ?-A. So far as my Department is concerned they are, since I took

charge. 614. Q. It has been rumoured that the Public

Service o'f the Territory has not been too happy a family ?-A. In the offices they seem to be all right. Officially, they must be. 615. Q. I suppose you know that officially mer.. may be outwardly perfectly friendly, yet working

against the Administrator ?-A. Yes, I think there has been work against the Administrator. 616. Q. Are you prepared to state what makes vou think so ?--A. There ha? been general grumb­

ling. Wher: I first came into the office as a field

surveyor they used to carry the Administrator's minutes round the office and comment on them. I left for the field then. When I first came into the office I w:is told what a terrible place this was to

work in, and they would carry the Administrator's mirutes round and laugh at them, but I soon went to the field, and knew no more until the Adminis­ trator sent for me t0 take charge of the Depart­

ment. 617. Q. Did · there appear to be dissatisfaction? -A. So far as I cou'Jd gather, but they have never said anything to me since I became head of the

D epartment. 618. Q. Are you speakicg only of your Depart­ ment ?-A. Yes. 619. Q. Was there then a considerable amount of

dis~atisfaction in the office toward~ the Adminis­ trator ?- A. Yes. 620. Q. Ha.Ye you any reason to believe there ,ms anv just cause 'for that ?- A. I do not think

there was any· iust cause. I have always put as clearlv as I could to the Aoministrator, and

when that is done you get on with him. Doing

,·our work i.s the principal thing, and when an officer does that he gets on with him.





Colonel the Honorable J. A. K. l\IACKAY, C.B., M.L.C. (Chairman); W. E. Parry-Okeden, Esq., I.S.O., Mr. Justice E. Herbert,

Mr. E. Harris, Secretary to the Commission.

JOHN R. STUART RUSSELL ,ras sworn and examined, as follows :-621. T!te Clwirman.-What is your full name?-A. John R. Stuart Russell. -

6 2 2. Q. What position do you occupy ir. the

Public Service ?- A. At present I am Recording Clerk .a.t the Land& Office. 623. Q. How long have you held position? -A. Two years last February.

62'4. Q. How long have you been in the Service? -A. Five in February nextJ as Assistar.t Re­ sident Magistrate in the Northern Division, at

Kumusi, and Assistant Resident Magistrate at Mekeo. I was then promoted to be Assistant Resi­ dent Magistrate at Mekeo at increased salary. I was afterwards tracsferred to the Lands Office, where I am now.

625. Q. I take it that you have something to

p1ace before the Commission ?-A. Yes. I haYe been left in charge of the Lands Office for three months, during the Chief Surveyor's absence down South. Previous to that I was performing a dra"fts­' s duties until the preser..t draftsman arrived.

These duties included the drafting of deeds, certi­ ficates of title, mining and other leases, meteoro­ logical observations. Ninety-three provisional grants have recently been registered, the whole­ bility for 8 5 rests upon my shoulders. It was not until His Honour Judge Murray asked .me what

purchases were to be availed of by the Crown before . the Papua Bill passed that I wa'SI aware of the num­ ber of purchases. Upon the advice of Judge :Mur­ ray I waited until the 5th June, the last date for

the arrival of a mail, to know if the Papua Bill

had been proclaimed. Presuming that the Papua Bill had passed on the 1st June, the time behreen the last mail- that was 5th June- allowed me

barely three weeks to carry out the duties, and I did it so far as I was able. I got all the papers in

the office, drafted out the prescriptions, and called upon the Government Secretary to support me. He kindlv sent over Mr. Garrioch and ::\Ir. Lrnns,

and the Treasurer also sent over to assist us; and by the ~5th June 8 5 out of 93 grants were ready for registration. I might add that, as I had done

my best in the interest of the Go,·ernment, I thought I was due for some recognition, and p_ ut in a rlaim for 7 5 hours' overtime at th same rate at which I "·as being paid, but it was disallowed. I thought

I was entitled to this, as other officers receiYed re­ cognition for this special work. I mi~ht add that if it had not been for the assistance of the GoYern­ mer.t Secretan ·'s Department and his cl erk I could neYer haYe carried out the duties. Befor: making mv statement I wish to say that when )fr. Atlee

Hunt ,ms here I placed ·before him a . tate­

rner.t in onnexion with an iniu tice hown

to me in transferring me from )f keo, and he

read my complaint. I hand d him the parers, but be declined to look into the matter, This is the

r·-----= -··-- --, ------·

~..._~t~ ... - ::~- ~ -- ·- ·- ~

p[:per (prod~ced) dated roth August, r905, and to 1t \~·as, at_tached a. paper of the same date in con­ nc_xion with a ·whale boat. I wish to state that in

tb1s matter, 1 wrote immediately to Captain Barton w~en he was Resident Magistrate, after I had r~' · ~~1 ved" a letter from_ the Government Secretary in

l\?verr.ber, 1903, askmg why I had been transferreu w1thou~ a reason, and if I ha? done any wrong,

~nd pomted out that I had a. w1f_e_ and family, and the trans.fer would mean a considerable pecuniary Joss. To that letter I got no reply. I then ,note

to the

\\'uuld ~mdly send my letter to Captain Barton, the Re_s1dent Magistrate for reply, and to that letter I received tJhe Secr~tary's letter dated 30th Janu­ a1 Y, 1904. On receipt of that letter I wrote, a.gain on ~he 7th February, 1904, from Mekeo, protesiting

agamst my transfer. I then came down to Port

~loresby to take up my duties in February, 1904, and immediately approached the Chief Justice, who was acting as Administrator, on the subject. I

recei:·ed a letter in reply dated the 5th April, 1904, offenn?" to grant me an opportunity to put my case. I replied to that letter on the 12th April, 1904,

wihich I produce. Then on the return of the Acting Administrator, I met him on the cricket ground, and he called me on one side and he discussed the matter, and at the end, he clenched his fist a.nd

said-" Russell, a grievous mistake has been made. I cert ainly lost my head at Gaaribari, but do not re­ gret anything I did then. This is tlhe greatest blot on my administration." We had gone fully into

a.11 diett'ails )which he thought were necessary to

bring up in regard to , my suppos,ed indiscretion during my term as Resident Magistrate at Mekeo. 626. Q. When you got your instructions for re­ moval, who was Admini,s,trator ?-A. Judge Robin­

son, and I blamed him for my transfer then. He

said immediately on the return of Captain Barton from :Melbourne he would have the matter adjusted, but ·unfortunately Judge Robinson came to an

untimely end, and my matter fell to the ground.

62 7. Q. Subsequently did you again bring this matter officially under the notice of th:e new Ad­ ministrator ?-A. No, I did not. I intervievved

the Administrator, Captain Barton, persona.llv on my return, and stated that I hoped that as. I had

a little ambitic,n I hoped to better myself, and

did not come here to be put in a subordinate posi­ tion. The reason I did not bring the matter up

was that he had previously refused to make any

com~ents. The chief cause of m,- visit to Captain B::i.rton on occasion was in connexion with a very curt reply I rE:C_eived _relating t<; an applica­ tion of my own for tFie Resident MagJStracy of the

Central Division. I asked him if that reply was

a. verbatim one whioh he wished to be sent to me, and he hesitated a littl e time and t hen said-" No, " and I think, said, at least my cons:truction of it

was, that so long as I remained h~1:e it was of ~o

use of mY applying for anY pos1f10n. Captam

Barton th~n stated that while it was rather curt,

there were sieveral applications for the position, and he told tihe Government Secretary to reply to ti 1e effect that he had made previous arrangements. . I spoke to the Government Secretary .af ten;' ards rn

regard to the curt reply, :ind he told me 1t wa:- a

verbatim reph- . You w1ll see attached to the

papers. a staJ~ment of mine in connexion with a whale boat. It ,yas handed to me incomrlete, and I ·personallv spoke to )fr. Ballantin~ on the sub­ iect, to which he gave me an offen_sn:e reph· , the ·1-vordsr of which were, with a !)rehmman· laugh,

"Oh YOU will want a new boat, I supnose." I s::nv Capt~in B·arton after, who told me to n:new my application to the Treasmrer to return the items re-

28 J. R. S. Russell,

19th Sept., 1906.

quired in the boat, including oars, sails, &c. I

Captain Barton himself. On my arrival at :i\Iekeo in that boat, .[ noticed that the sail, masts, and

so on, had not been rut in as reguested. Some of

1 he oars also were not in the boat. I afterwards

receiYed t\rn store receipts for signature from the storekeepe r. I igned only for what I received,

and declined to sign for the other items. I spoke

to Captain Barton on the subject, and he assmed me th~t I was. quite correct in refusing to sign,

and not to sign for Qn:l'thing I did not receive. I was then instructed -by the storekeeper, Mr. Champion, '' As these goods · were handed on to the Honorable the Treasurer, you will be kind enough to !:.ign for them. " Eventua.lly I did so, but under protest.

and I bad to debit m v acco,unt with goods, T had not received. I wrote" fiye letters fo which I got

no reply from the Treasurer. E,·ent uall y the Trea­ surer wrote a letter to me in connexion with a. sum of £369 placed to my credit to cover all the cost of managing the station. He assured me that a.11

, •ates as apportioned must be sdf-sut_Porting, that is, that I must not draw on · other rntes. I then

replied, saying that his appmiionment was ridi­ culous. Only £40 for the twelve moni:hs wa,s ap­ portioned for the na.tive constahulary. I ha.d ten police, which was equivalent to £4 per capita. By

the scale of rations · it takes. neariy £14 per man. Then only I got a reply to my five letters, as I

wished to draw on the whale beat Yote to cover other expenditure, and that reply was from Mr. Champion to this effect, '' I very much regret through !:.ome mis.u,nder,s:tanding that your fi,·e letters were not

previously replied to.'' That was the sum total

of the reply to my correspondence extending over a period of ten months. I wrote to Captain Bar­

ton a semi-official letter reporting the matter, and asking for a. magisterial inquiry. This wais about a month before I received notice of mv transfer, to whic':i. I never got a reply. That is, all I \Yi..c:h

to say. 628. Mr. Okeden.-Did you suffer a reduction by being removed here?-A. Yes. 629. Q. What did it amount to?-A. £25 per

annum. 630. Q. Were there any other disadvantages ?­ A. There was also the extra cost of living. I esti­ mate that it meant a difference of £100 a year to me.

631. Q. In the letter announcing your transfer was there not a passage

6 3 2. Q. Did you consider that flattering ?-A .. It conveye d to me the imoression that I was avail­ able for -the Lands office, ~and no one else was. 633. Mr. H erbert.-Since your transfer has your salarv been increase d from £200 to £225, the same tihat you were getting at Mekeo ?-A. Yes.

634. The Chairman.- How long after the trans­ fer was it before you got the increase ?-A. Five months. In reference to the remark that Judge

Robinson made, that he had made ~ grievousi mis­ take, I did not know to what he referred until Mr. Matthews, in the office, !had made a dispa.raging remark to me about Captain Barton. I stopped

him, an.d said, I did not wmt to hear anytH.., about Captain Barton, as I belieYed him to be

frienrlh·. )[r. ~Iatthews, then threw me those papers (Lands· Office records, marked A.R. J1., :\1ekeo), and said- "Mv dear f ellow, you had better read them." T did so.· and was so annovec1 that I went to fr.

Rirhm0nd, who was then Chief GoYernment Sur­ veyor, ·a:nd requ steel him to bring the matter up

J. R. 8. Russell, 19th ept., 1906.

at the Executive Council. He adYised me not to do o, and said that sooner or later I would have

an oprortunity of producing the papers, and as it was onl) my word against thf' Administrator's .. lw strongly a.dvised me not to take it to the Ex<.,'Cutive. In r pl) I said- ' Mr. Richmond, l will note llw.:; ~

papers in pencil (which you will see in blue pencil), and when occasion offers itself, I request that you will give a statement to the effect that vou are aware I noted these papers." I also wish to state that

:Mr. Symons also stated that he heard Captain Bar­ ton and ).1r. Ballantine discuss matters connected with me~ I stopped him and would not list.en to

him, but what he had told me led me to believe

tlhat ~fr. Ballantine's influence had something to do with rriy transfer. 635. Q. What did Mr. Symons actually tell you before you stopped him ?- A. I do not remember

sufTtciently what he said. He did, however, say distinctly that Mr. Ballantine bad used h1S1 influence oYer CaJ;tain Barton to effect mv transfer. The actual words I forget.

636. Mr. Herbert.-Was Captain Barton then the Resident Magistrate residing at Port Moresby ? ~A. Yes.


sworn and examined .as follows:-637. T!ie Chairman.-Your name is ?-A. William Stewart Brown. 638. Q. What position do you occupy here ?-A. Manager for Burns, Philp, and Co.

639. Q. How long have you been in your present position a.t Port Moresby ?-A. Just a fortnight. 640. Q. How long have yoru been in the Terri-tory ?-A. Ten years.

641. Q. Have you been employed in commercial pursuits during- that time ?-A. Yes. 642. Q. What is your opinion ,as a commercial ma;n on the question of t:the existing tariff which is

aaainsrt New Guinea. products going into Australia. Do you believe tha.t the existence of that barrier works seriously ag-ainst the development of New Guinea ?-A. I believe it does in the coffee · industry. It will be harmless in tne case of rubber, as that

goes into Sydney free. The mark~t in S_r?ney _i_s better than London at the present time. 1 he tanff "ould work .against maize and •sugar. 643. Q. Speaking general~Y,. l take i~ that yon

wish to convey to the Commission that, m the case of any product which may"have to pay duty, that the existence of the present tariff is detrimental to the growinrr of that product here, even althoug-h they

would be grown with much cheaper labour than in Au tralia ?-A. Yes. 644. Q. Do you consider that if the duties were

removed or a preference given, it would v ry

largely help to deYelor them here ?-A. I firmly believe it would. 645. Q. If the duties are not removed and no

prefer nee given, are the c~ance~ against the peop~e im·esting money in plantat10ns m Papua ?-A. 1 o a certain extent thev are. We ha·re other markets, but the cost of getting the products there- would be

greater. People wou~d take up la.nrl here if a

preference were shown in Austra.ha to our product . 646. Q. Speaking from your general .know ledl:Se of Papua, would there be anv great difficulty m rerrard to native labour ?-A. There would le no diilicultv for plantation work.

647. ·o. Do you thinl· it \\'OUld lX'. ne essary for the good lands to be rendered accessible by means of road b fore we can ho1 for an) s ttlenwnt ?-

A.. No

648. Q. Why ?-A. Because some of the land is right on the coast and roads are hardly necessary. It will of course be absolutely necessary to have

roads to the lands in the ihil ls. Th r is a con­

si derabk area on the coast. which could be utilized in the Vanapa district which ,rould be excellent for sugar. 649. Q. Do you think it would be a sound thin~, ancl in the interest of copra growers, if mills

were e rected in tilis countn to extrac~ ibe oil ?-A. _ ·o. The mill \VOnlrl be ' in one district, and the

treatment would cost more than it would on the

other side owing to the expense in carting the stuff. 650. Q. Do you think it would be possible to

introduce mules into the countr\' as a means of

transport ?- A. Yes. We have them, an

thrive very well. They bring coffee from Sogeri: 37 miles. 6 5 r. Q. I understand the cost per ton from

Sogeri is about £7 per ton ?-A. I think it could

he done cheaper. The work was taken on by a man to he done by packing, and it should be done for

£5 ros. if he gets large quantities. '<552. Q. In your opinion, shoulci the Government

undertake the transrortation for private people on the North-east coast, importing mules for the pur­ pose ?-A. J t would be a splendid idea, speaking as ::i. private individual and with no connexion with the Government. I think that is what the miners

want. Tha.t j51 my opinion, and I ,have spoken to

many of the miners about it. Thev require that

some one should have charge of their goods, and the transport would be under proper supervision. 653. Q. lllr. H erbert.-Could the Government undertake that work without making a loss ?-A.

Yes, I think so, and at a reasonable charge. They should be able to earn interest on tihe capital •and working exrenses. I know two persons who would undertake to do it if the roads were made, but it

would be preferable for the Government to do it. 654. Q. Are not the roads made ?-A. They are not very good. There are no bridges1 . 655. Q. Do you think the importance of the

route would justify ffie expense of erecting the ne-crssa rY hride:es ?-A. I do. 6 56~ T lze C ltairman.-Ha,·e you any sugaes,tio·-s to offer ?-A. I think a hut tax on the natives would

not be ::i. bad policy. I mean those under British

influence. 657. Q. What amount wo1uld you suggest?-A. I would make a. boy pay as high as 5s. a year. 658. Q. Could the natives pay suoh a tax in

ca~h ?-A. Yes. 659. Q. Would it not be better if instead of a

hut tax, which in ~ atal is found io press unequally on the natives, the natives between certain ages were t~.xed to the extent of 5 . per annum ?-A. I am not ,yedded to any particular form, but I think the time

has arrived when a tax should be put on the natives, and it would not entail a hardship upon them to

PY it.

660. Q. Is there anything el e ?-A. I would

like to mention about the introduction of sheep. Orders are enforced here in regard to penning the sh p, ,rhich is not done in .... amar.1i. If p2'0p1e

". r. allowed to pen heep we hould ha,·e more

fresh meat in th phi ce.

66 r. Q. Do ) ou think that ould be done without anr danger 7- _ A. Jes. .As far as tick. are con­


663. Q.. Is there suitabl ' grazinrr land up, sa.y,

wh re the coff plantation ar ?-A. es.

r- - . ---


664. Q. S'o that a man mig!ht combine plantation work with cattle raising ?-A. Yes. 665. Q. Would cattle fatten up there ?-A. Yes. 666. Q. Are not the horses about here of a verv

poor type ?-A. The original stock was good, Gut t.hey have been very much inbred during the last ftfteen years, and you cannot expect them to ue

good. There are splendid mare,51 here. 667. Q. Do you think there would be a fair de­ mand for horses if decent ones ,vere bred ?- A. I do not see why we Sihould not compete with Australia

for the India market if the matter was gone intc,, as the climate is very much the same. 668. Q. The country being hilly, would it not

mean that the horses would be a good hoofed lot?­ A_. Yes.

669. Q. Could areas of land be procured to en­ able horise-breeding to be gone into ?-A. I do not know what land is available, but the land is there. 670. Q. Have you had any experience with the

horses ?-A. I have been on several stations in Aus­ tralia, and know the type of horses requjred for the remount market.





Colcnel the Honor:11 ,:e J. A. K. MACKAY, C.n., 1LL.C. (Chairman); W. E. Parry-Okeden, Esq., I.S.O., 1\Jr. Justice·c. E. Herbert,

Mr. E. Harris, Se:retary to the Commission.


was sworrn and examined, as follows :-671. By tlte Chainnan.- What is your name?­ A. Henry Greene. 67 2 . Q. What are you ?-A. A coffe~ planter.

67 3 . Q. Have you any matter to brmg before

the Commission ?-A. Yes, I produce a letter dated the 1st January, which I v~rote to the Hon. J. C.

Watson. This statement 1s a true statement of

affairs so far as they affected me

The correspondence which I _ also put m your hands is that which is 1eferred to 111. tha~ lett~r. . .

67 4 . Q. We will adjourn cons1derat10n of tb1s correspondence till later in the day. In the mean­

time I ,vill put to yciu certain questions on. other

mJ.tters. What is the size of your plantation?-­ A. 129 acres, of which 55 acres are under coffee. ? 6 7 5. Q. How long has the coffee been pl anted . -A. Three years and a half. 676. Q. What has your outlay been, approxi- mateh, up to date ?- A. About £,900. . 67 7. Q. Has it begun to pay ?- A . The third Year it just pai.d expenses. ' 678. Q. What do you expect to get from ~hP ~ A I~ to ro tons wh.1ch present crop r-- . • rom 9 , should realize about £600. ? 679 . Q. What price do you get for your. ~offee. - A. K O definite prices have so far been gn en for New Guine::t coffet. It bas not been properly at­tended to. The aYerage has been fi:om £40 to £ 45 per ton, which could be much mcrra ed by proper attention.

Henry Greene, 2oth Sept., 1906.

630. Q. Can the be t qualit coffee be grown in

_ -ew Guinea ?--A. Excellent coffee could lJe grown in the higher regions. 681. (J. D ) Lm finrl the freight to Australia

rrasonable? - A. ft is r<"a onable so far. 682. Q. CJn an. indu:trr thrive ,Yithout help by ,my of bonu or a preference Tariff with Australia? -- A. I think an) thing planted in Kew Guinea

"·here labour ought to be ol>tained so easily, could ccmpete in Australia if the roac;ls were proper] y made. 683. Q. Do you think a preference or a bonus

would gi,·e an impetus to the industry in Kew

Guinea ?--A. Yes, certainh-; it would mean. that Kew Guinea would go ahead. A bonus would be the preferable course. 684. Q. What other marketable tropical products

,rnul d flourish ?-:1. All tropical products would grmy and flourish. 685. Q_. What :ire:.i. of good plantationi lan

A. From 20 to 40 S

native-owned lancl. 686. Q. Are there many nath·es on that land?--~ A . Yes, from 5,000 to 8,000. They own all but

about one S

No, it is nearly all scrub lands, which is, not in

actual 'Use by natives. 688. Q. So that a much larger white occupation could take place ,rithout h.ardsl1ip to the natives.?­ A. Yes.

689. Q. Would not this also mean that an in­

crease of plantations would give the natives regular employment, and lead to making them less slothful and useless than at present ?-A. Yes, certainly. They are undoubtedly slothful at the present time.

690. Q. Has the time arriYed to tax the nati.Yes? A .. . Certainly they should be taxed. If taxed that

,rnuld bring the labour and make Kew Guinea. So long as they are not taxed so long will the present state of things remain. 691. Q. Do you think the natives could pay a

reasonable tax without hardship ?-A. All the

natives at present under control could do so, and should do so, because they get protection and can get work1 and speaking generally, will not do it. 692. f2_. Have you had experience of tropical countries ?-A. Ko, I come from Mauritius.

. 693. Q. What is }'Our view as to cocoa nut cul­ tivation here ?- A . It would flourish in the west

part of the Territory. 694. Q. How does Papua compare with other tropical countries as regards climate :rnd richness of soil ?-A. As to climate, I consider Papua more

healthy than ~Iauritius, where I resided twent\·­ fiye years. As Tegards soil, there is no compariso~, as ~Iauritius has been ,rnrked for centuries, and _ -ew Guinea is a virgin soil. I ha Ye made experi men ts at Sogeri with vanilla, Para rubber, ficus elasticus, pepper, and tropical fruits. The,· all

did SJ:Jleodid] )', although at I ,800 fe t aboYe sea leYel. ·

695. Q. Do yon consider that the e-sta blishment of a Government Agricultural ~ ursery would he beneficial ?--A.. Yes, and Go\'erpment should strictly overlook the introduction of pl:rnts t o prevent

disea. e from imported plants. 696. Q. Is your district suitable for white women all the year round ?- A. Certainly; it is a beauti­

ful climate. The average temperature is 7 5 de­ grees . The average summer temperature is 80 de­ grees, ancl the average winter temperature 63

degrees. The aYerage rainfall is 125 inches per annu_m. The rains are regularly distributed through­ out the year. You can depend on 6 to 7 inches

ach month.

Henry Greene, 20th Sept., 1906.

697. Q. With regard to the roads, I should ljke you to state clearly your Yiews as to the nece ity

of the e for opening up the goo

of opinion that proper roa

will ever be tempted to settle, o,Ying to present

condition of the track. In other countries roads made by the Government in advance of and for inuucement of settlement. :\' ew Guinea will not go ahead if roads are not made.

The following officers attended at the request of the Commissioners:-The Honorable A. Musgrave, Government Secre­ tary. nir. B. W. Bramell, Resident :Magistrate, Central


l\Ir. C. H. Boucner, Head-Quarters' Officer, Port Moresby.


was further examined, as. follows:-698. Q. Tlte Clwirman.-Mr. Greene, we have read the documents you handed to the Commission this morning, and I gather that your causes of

complaint are that when you applied for police protection in December last you \Yere unable to get any satisfactory intimation from the Government Secretary as to whether that protecticn had been sent or not, and that the Government Secretarv gave it as his reason that he had not received the information from the Resident Magistrate, Mr. Bramell. Secondly, that on your interviewing Mr. Bramell, to explain to him the reason why you gave certain, instructions to two of his police, he re­

ceived you discourteousl Y. and ordered you out of his office. In the third place, that an your apply ing to His Excellency the Administrator and put­ ting your case before him, he refused to hold a1w inquiry, and at any rate, in your opinion, desig­ nated y1 ou coward, and suggested that the best thing for you under the circumstances was to leave New Guinea ?-A. Exactly.

699. Q. And further, that since these occurrences you have not received as much or as adequate police protection as you think the unsettled condition of the country j~stify you in asking ?- A. Exactly.

700. Q. Have YOU anything further to add?­ A. I stand to what I ha~'e said in my statement.


"·as further examined, as follows:-701. Q. Tn. his statement Mr. Greene says:­ " Why is the country in such an unsettled concli­ tion? Whose fault is it, if not the Resident 1fagis­ trate himself? How often has he visited that part of his Division since he has been in charge of it is

a question which he would feel very uneasy to reply to. " The reason whv the officers ha\'e been re­

quested to come here to-day is that you may know c1ny stat ments which may have been made, and may be girn1 an opportunity of explaining them. i\f r. Br:imell, has this statement an.y foundation in

fact? Is it true that YOU have remainecl in Port

:\foreshy and neglected - to Yisit your district ?-A .. I haYe Yisited Sogeri two 0r three times since I h:ise been here. and the place has been Yisited by the A .R.:\L s veral times. :\[r. Bruce went up, and

he is Commandant and A.R. :\L, and be is (]Uite capable of dealing with anything th:it occurs. Mr. Ballantine has be-en there s w·ral times. He is an A.R.1f. I have not been there as often as I woulct

baYe liked, because I haw been otherwise eno-aged


You could refer to my diary and see where I ha.Ye been. 702. Q. I ,rnuld like you to put in that diary?

---A .. It is in th Go\'ernment Secretary s office

now. At the time this occurred I bad instructions from the Admiuistrator to remain in Port :\Ioresb\' during his absence. That ,ms in January or Feb­ ruaff. The instructions ,rere verbal, I think, and did


not go through the GoYernment Secretary's office. I am clear I had instructions, and belieYe he told me YerballY. 703. Q. Are yo~ quite certain you received in­ structions from the Administrator ?--A. Yes.

704. Q. I find that the Government Secretary, on being applied to by :\Ir. Greene for information as to whether police protection had been sent to his plantation or not, replied that he was unable to

give the information, because YOU would not give it him ?- A. It is in. the papers.

705. Q. In a minute from you to the GO\·ern­ ment Secretary, dated 2nd January, 1906, you say:-" In reply to your inquiry of yesterday's

date I beg to inform you tha.t as you declined any responsibility with regard to the protectioo of the plantations in the Astrolabe, and left the matter entirely to me, I have taken " ·bat action I con­

sider necessan", and ha Ye informed ::\Ir . Greene of what has beet{ done. I do not consider it necessary to gi,·e any G.O. information on tbe subject. I will lay the whole matter before H. E. The Admini strator on his return to Port." :\'"ow, I take it tl1:1t the officer who had asked you for the information was acting in the place of the AcJministratc,r at that time ?-A. Did you see the previous minute to that?

706. Q. That I presume is the minute from the Government Secretary to yourself, in \\·hich Mr. Musgrave says, 30.12.05 :-"I am entirely in farnur of its being dane " (that is, the sending of

:i. special party to the Astrolabe), "but I simply

will not assume a responsibility in the present case ; that is wholh· your own." We ha,·e read those

minutes before, but it seems to me YOU hase missed the point. I do not see that thes.e- minutes justify you in refusing information to1 the officer acting in the place of the Administrator. He wished that information for an urgent reason. A man "·ho

thought his property in danger was anxious to get the earliest possible information, and he sent to the officer who was acting for the Administntor at the time. That officer sent to you for the infor­

mation, and a reference to the min.utes does not seem to justify you in refusing it ?-i t. I ,ras in charge

of the district, or not in charge, and was

prepared, as the Government Secretary refused am· responsibi 1 ity, to take all responsibillty . -

707. Q. What objection had you to answer the request from the Government Secretan· ,rhich \\·as made so that he could give information ta the man interested ?--A. It seemed to me it ,rnuld ]earl to

endless minutes and interference, and I w:rnted to get the matter over as soon as pas ible. 708. Q. How could it haY stopped the matter

going on? All YOU ne d baYe done ,ms to haYe

said that you had sent rtain parti s to those plan­ tritions ?- A. Certainly, I might ban· done that.

Was I in ch:uge or not in charrr of th police?

709. Q. You were in charge, hut I take it you

"·ere responsibl to the . enior offirer in charo-e· of the administration during the ab enr of the Ad­ ministrator and he merelv a ked you what you had done? - - ·

7to. Mr. Okeden.-He was the senior head of your office, :rnd he was in communication with the gentleman who had made the complaint, and all your correspon

\..~ .:..

27 B. ·. W. Bramall, 20th Sept., 1906.

7 r I. Mr. H crbert.-What was the date you sent the Head-Quarters' officer to Sogeri ?- A. f cannot r:member. It is shown in the paper.. It was on

Saturday, the 30th December. 712. Q. What date did )Ir. 1Iuso-rave write you asking what had been done ?- A.


It was after­

wards, on the Sunday or Monday. 713. Q. Had you given the Government Secre­ tary any information in the meantime as to what you had done, that is, between the time you sent

up Mr. Boucher and getting his letter?- A. ~o.

7!4· q. Had you given )Ir. Greene any infor­

mat10n m the meantime ?-A. I ,,rote ·to Mr.

Greene on the 2nd January, 1906. 7 1 5 · Q · _Did you not get another letter from Mr. Greene as~111g you what had been done ?- A. No; af te~ I haa se1:t my first letter of the 2nd January, I thmk I received from the Government Secretarv

a copy ~f his letter, and from that I thought he had not received my communication. I therefore wrote him again on the 3rd January, enclosing copv of my first letter. The first letter informed him · that.

I had sent a force up.

, 716. Q. Did you not get another letter from Mr. (Jreene ?- A. I got no communication from him at all. It was from the Government Secretary. 7 I7. Q. Then ~11 the information which you gave as to what }OU! did on the 30th December to am·

one was to inform Mr. Greene on 2nd Januarv i~ reply to the minute from the Government Secret;rv. that you had sent police protection ?- A. Yes. • ,

7 I 8. Q. Did you not give the Government Secre­ tary a reply to his minute ~sking what had been

done so as to enable hi~ to carry out his public

duty, and reply to Mr. Gree11ie ?- A. I considered the matter had been left entirely in my own hands, and I did not think it necessary. The Government Secretary declined any responsibility, and I had to be responsible.

7 r9. Q. You had acted alreadv ?-A. Yes. 720. Q. You were asked bY the.Government Sec­ retary how you had acted. How could your reply to that affect the responsibility ?-A. I cannot say. l had the thing in hand, and wanted to make a

success of it:. 721. Q. Would telling him what you had done have made it a failure ?- A. I do not know what

he would have done:. 722. O. What makes vou have that feeling in re­ gard to l\lr. l\fusgrave ?-A. In the first instance. I understood the matter Wais entirely in my hands,

and I did mv best. Then I got this minute YOU

have seen from the Government Secretary, and it seemed to me he was interfering in the matter. He said he would not wait until the Administrator re­ turned. I came up after the deputation, and saw

him, and washed mv handS1 of it. He would not

-take any responsibility, and I said what I would

do. I could not 1 see what I could do differently. 723. Tlze C!zairman.-You say that the reason whv You did this was that you distrusted the Go­ ve~~ent Secretarv ?-A. I did not say I distrusted the Government Secretary.

724. Mr. Herbert.- If you had no i:eason ~o dis­ trust him, why could you not. h_ave given him t~e information? When the Admimstrator leaves tlrn; part of the country, does he sim~l?. allow his. officers to act each on his own responsibihtv, and 1s .then'

no head for the public to appeal t o ?- A. I should

s:iv the Government Secretary was. . 7 2 s. Q. Consequentl ,·, ~he Government Secret~ry :1t the time was vour supenor officer. :ind was act!ng in the place of His Excellency. Do you not thm k it subservient to all discipline, the action you took? -A. Not mi1der the circumstances.

7 26. Q. Then, under the same circumstances, you think a man may defy hi chief ?-- A . .1. To. 727. Q. You absolutely refu. ed to gi\'e informa-tion that was ask d for. Was not that subversive

of disciplin ?- (Vo reply.) 728. Q. I find that on the 3rd January, 1906,

l\lr. Iusgrave wrote, in reply to i\[r. Greene; as

follows:-" I have the honour to acknowledge re­ ceipt of your letter of yesterday, but I regret t.hat I cannot give you any definite statement regarding p olice protection for the Sogeri plantations beyond

what you may have received indirectly. Under­ standing that a police party had been despatched to Sogeri, in charge of the Head-Quarter's Officer I wrote to ask the Resident Magistrate what actio~

had been taken, so that I might ans,wer your letter of the 28th ultimo, but Mr. Bramell refused to

give me any information on the subject, and had since detained your three letters addres,sed to tbis Department, noting tha.t he would lay the whole matter before the Administrator on his return to

Port. The attitude of the Resident Magistrate is incomprehensible to me, since no other Resident l\Iagistrate whatever has behaved in like manner. ' 1 Kow if that action does not constitute insubordina­ tion, I would like you to define wha.t does. You

not on I y refused the information asked for but

you inform the Government Secretary that vo~ will • hold over everything, and place it before .,the Ad­ ministrator on his return, clearly pointing out that~ so far as you are concerned, you have no inter;ition of regarding the Government Secretarv as his re­

presentative for the time being, and ,;,ho is at all times _:E>erm~nent Head of your Department. Do you still thmk you are jus,tified in the course you took ?-A. Yes.

7 29. Q. Is the justification in your mind the feel­ ing that 1\Ir. Musgrave might have taken some action which you would not approve ?-A. Yes, and tbat the affair would not have been a success,

and I would have had to take the blame.

7 30. Q. Because of what? Of his interference? -A. Yes. 7 3 r. Q. Does this look like the statement of a

man who would interfere? He approves, in his minute of 30.12.05, of a party being recruited to go to the Astrolabe Range, and he says he is en­ tirely in favour of it being done, but simply would

not assume a responsibility in the present case solelv your own. He had done what he could to streng­ then your hands, as every one knew in Port, and

if you took no action the res;.1lt would be at your own door ?- A. No, to you it might appear to be

so, but at the time, and knowing 1\Ir. Musgrave as I do, I felt justified in doing what I did.

732. Q. And refusing to give the information he asked for ?- A. Yes. It was not mv intention to

be insubordinate in that way. It h-ad to be put

through, and I put it through. . 73)· Mr. (!keden.- And rnu refused to give

11im mformation after?- A. It was best to keep it m my own hands. I ·would have been to b lame it it had gone wrong. 734· Tlze Cltairman.- Although you refuf,e d to gi\·e this. information to your Chief, vou had f, re adv given it to 1\fr. Greene?-A. Yes. · ·

7 35. Q. You gave the information to Mr. .. reene after receiving a minute from Mr. Musg rave. In other "·wds, instead of reph·i.n g- to )Ir. ) Iusgrave, you gave the reply direct to Mr. Greene ?-A. Ye s, I think I did.

736. Q. How would you like c,ne of your sub­ ordinate officers to take an action like that? What ,rnuld rnu do to him ?- A. I did not consid E"!· I was subordinate- to the Government Secretary in this matter. He declined responsibility.

'.B. W. Bre.mell, 2oth Sept., 1906,

7 3 7. Q. That has nothing to do with the matter. Suppo ing he did, in an individual case, that does not alter the fact that he "·as practica.11'· the Acting Admini trator ?--.rf. . I think I acted for the be ·,

and I do so now.


7 38. Q. The Commi sion quite agree that, so far as your action wa concerned, it wa prompt. They are not questioning that. In regard to another

matter, :.[r. Greene states in the statement he has made--" On Friday, the 30th, I ,note to the Go­

vernment Secretary reporting certain action of mine, and, later on, bad an inteniew with him. Before, however, sending my communication, I called on the Re iden t :.Iagistra te, :. Ir. B. W. Bramel l. and explained how matters stood in his district and the

act.ion taken by me, and for only answer he turned me out of his office." I think it only fair you

should hear that statement, and would like your version of the affair. Was. ~[r. Bouchier pr sent

on the oc ·asion referreci to ?-A. I think he w:1.s. 7 39. Q. Mr. Boucher had better retire then.

(Mr. Bouclter then le/t tlte room.)

740 . . Tlte Cltairman.- Kow, l\Ir. Bramell.-A. I put this minute, No. 66, in as a correct version

of what occurred. It reads as follows: - " Mr.

Greene came into my office and informed me that in the Sogeri scare be was ·writing to the Govern­ ment Secretary on the matter. When I asked him who had countermanded my orders to V.C. Ahuia,

&c., he would only reply in an offensive manner that that matter ,rnuld be settled later, and would noi give the information I asked for. Apparently,

he only came into my office to show how much he ignored me, and as he did not seem in a hurry

to depart I civil! y pointed out the door to him. I

would .a,sk that )Ir. Boucher's version be- obtained.'' 7 41. Q. You say that )Ir. Gre.~ne' s. manner ''" as offensive ?- A. Yes. 1 asked him several questions at the time, and could get no information or satis­

faction, and really did not know \Yhat he came in for, and as I bad my work to do, I said, " There

is the door, Mr. Greene," and he got up and said, "Boucher, you haYe heard Mr. Bramell order me out of his office.'' 742. Q. You say you gaYe him no reason for

taking up the attitude he did ?- A. ~one at all.

He came into the office, and I shook hands with

him, and he sat down. I hare no recollection of

what he came in for.

743· Mr. Herbert.-HmY did you know that your orders to !he constables had been countermanded?­ il. 1 cannot saY no,r. I'robabh from the- natiYes, but I had som~ reason. ·

7 44. Q. )Jr. Greene sa YS he met Ah uia. on the

road when be was coming· down to see- you. Is it

likeh · that you \Yould haYe obtained anv informa· tion ·from the natives before you saw ir~. Greene? -il. I cannot say now. rt"is quite likely.

745. Q. Do you say ~rr. Greene told you ?-A. No. 746. Q. You were absolutely certain he did

kno,Y ?-A.. I wanted to find out. 7 47. Q. He saYs that he explained to mu the

action taken br l1im ?- .4 .. That is in 'Orrect. Hr

did not. ·

748. The C!tazmzan.-. Jr. Greene. would ,ou like to ask any questions through me? 749· lllr. Greene (tltrouglt the Chairman).- ince Jfr. Bram 11 was appointed Pe-sid Pnt .\fagistrate-, in October. 1904, I ,rould like to know if he has onlY

,·isited the district t,Yic ?- A. :.h· diarv will sho,v

how many time, . I think I haYP been 'ther twice.

750. 11/r. Grcmc (t/;ro1rglr tile Cl1airma12). - -\¥hen I we-nt t.o sft> ~rr. Bramrll mv onh·

inte-ntion wns to C'xplain to hirn how c rtain

m,t tters . toad in his

were the two V.C. s he had ent up with rifle and

ammunition. I told him that that matter would he settled later on, but for the present the t"·o V.C. 's were on the plantation waiting for furthe r order~ from the Government. At this juncture ~Ir. Bramell

showed me the door, and I called on ~Ir. Boucher to witness his action.-A. I have not the slighte t

recollection of ~Ir. Greene's telling me that the

V.c;,. 's were on the plar:tation. I am almost positiYe he did not. Boucher was there, and he would be

able to sn.v . I think I sent up another natiYe to

find out where they were.


was sworn and examined, as follows :-75r. The Clzairman.-What is your name ?-A.. C'nil H aslewood Boucher. 7 32. Q. What positior: do you occupy in the Ser­

vice ?-A. I am Assistant Res,ident Magistrate in l"l1e Central Division, and Head-quarters' Officer to

thf. N ati,·e Constabularv. 753. Q. Do you remember being in Mr. Bramell's office when :.Ir. Gr ene call ed unon him about tbe time you went to Sogeri yourself ?-A. I was there or. one occasion when he came.

7 54. Q. You heard all that passed bet,yeen Mr. Bramell and Mr. Greene.-- A. You refer to the occa­ sion when Bramel] re(]uested him to leave the nffic€' , I was i.D the back office. T did hear even·­ t hing that took place, but I cannot remember it.

7 55. Q. Cannot you remember any of the con­ versatior. ?- A. No. I recollect Mr. Greene coming into the office. I was working in the back office, and did not n.av much attention until Mr. Greene got

much excited. 7 s6. Q. What \Yas Mr. Brarnell's manner like?-A. H e was C1uite cmiet. 7 57. Q. You did nvt hear 1(r. Greene making

,my statement about two V.C. 's being up at bis

plantation waiting for further orders ?-A. I can­ not r ecollect what the conversation was on that

a.fternoor:, but I do recollect that on one occasion~· I do not know whether it was that a'fternoon or n0t - ---Mr. · Greene did mention about detnining two

V.C. 's at Sogeri. 7 58. Q. You cannot say \Yhether it ,ms or: this particular occasion ?- A. ~0. 7 59· Q. Do you not think it \Yas on this

particular occasion ?-A. It probably was. 760. Q. Do you remember any other intervie~,. Mr. Greene had with Mr. Bramell at th;1t particular time at which you were present?-A. I think that

previously to that Mr. Greene had beer. in the office once or twice. 76r. Q. Was not that prior to thi. disturbance

at Sogeri ?-A. Do. you mean when the party came down from Sogeri ? 762. Q. What I would like to a k mu is how

long before th interview at which _ Ir. Bramell

told fr. Greene to leaYe hi office were the e other

interviews ?-A .. I could not say. I do not thir:k he had b en in the offic preYiousl1: for a fortnight. 763. Q. If that be o, his for.mer inter\'ie,ys

\\·ould r ally haYe been before this qu tion of the

V.C.' going to ogeri t.ook plac ?-A .. Ye-s, I . uJ .

po so. I am not in the- office the whole of the

day. )[r. Greene might haYe come to the office \Yhile I wa awaY. 764. Q .' You say, as far a you recollect, iir.

Green did ay som~thing to )Ir. Bramdl. on c­

(JUC'ntl '", if YOU had not l n th re you cou 1 l not

h.a ·r heard it ?-A . T rt'Collert . omething wa .. aid by \fr. Green to )[r. JJramell about V. . '.

7~5· Q._ 1ou sa,· that toward , the end of th, in­ tcr~ew high ,rnrds took place, but as far a. the

exc1lcrnent ,,as concerned it was on )lr. Greene·s iJart?--A. )ir. Greene ,Yas. most excited. )Ir.

Brarr:ell was quite cool aml collected. 766. Q. What did )[r. Bramell sa, to )[r.

Greene?- A. I think )Ir. Bramell reriuested )[r.

Greene to leave the office. 767. ilir. H erbert.- You say omethin rr w::is sa1Ll about tbe V.C.'s. Was that about tb~ c~unter-

rnanding of orders to the V.C. 's ?-A. Yes. 768. Q. _And those ".·C ' s h.'.l.d been sent up to or pa:t Sogen by n,e Resident )J agistrate a da, or so l>cfore this intervie\\·. - A. Yes. I believe Hiat \\·as or: the occasion some rifles and ammunition were

sent up by the V.C.'s. 769. Q. And that would be less than a fortnight before you had heard this reference to the V.C. 's? - A. Yes, less. As far as l can recollect thev were

sert up ,ritb the rifles and ::immunition, and ,rere Je­ tained at Sogeri.


was r u t her ed , a s f o l ic,,·s :- -

770. T lie Cltairman.- Mr. Greene, as you kno\Y, bad just come down from bis plantation, .and he bad expressed himself as afraid that the nafo·es who had been incensed by the shooting of two of their

number, might play haYoc \Yith his plantation. He ha

·send up help, and be states that he went to your

office t0 point out to you that he had taken certain action, and to explain to you why he had giYen in­ structions to two of your mer: to remain at bis plan­ tation until they received orders from you, and, as­

suming his statement to be correct, do you not think tber·°' would h.ave to be very good reasons for turn­ ing a man out of your office ?-A. I do not kc.ow

his reason for coming to see me. I asked him about the V.C.'s, and he would not give me any satisfac­ tory ansvver. I could not form any reason why he came to see me.

77 r. Mr. Greene (through the Ch:1ir.mar:).-I wo uld like to know if. this would be a reason for tlw Resident 1I.agistrate .turning a gent:eman out of his office, because he could not understand me ?-A. I

do not know what he war:ted. He told me he had

\fritten to the Government Secretary, and I asked bim wln, and he ,rould not give me any ans,Yer. I a.sked l1im about the V.C.'s, and he wo'uld gi,·e me no satisfaction. I forget what he s.aid.

772. Tl:e Cltainnan.- Mr. Boucher said tbat, so far as he recollected, 1fr. Greene did m'ention that these two men were up at the plantation ?-A. He did sa ,, that he had met them on the road, and

would "not rrive me any information I war:ted. 773. M/ Okeden.-Did he tell you he met them on the road ?- A. I think so. I am not sure.

774. Q. You said ju~t now that rnu got. the _in­ formation from the natives ?-A. As to their beu:g on the plantation. .

775. Tlte Chairman.-You said that riir. Greene used very offensive language, and I assumed that was tbe reason for you showing him the door ?- A .. Wber: I asked him, he said he had ,nitten to the

Government Secretary, and he simplv ignored me in the matter. I asked him several questions, and he would not giYe me ·a civil answer. . . . _

776. Q. Then his manner was r:.ot c1nl ?- A. - o. 777. O. In his statement he says. that h call ed

on the Resident )J agistrate to explarn how matters stood in his district, anJ the action La.ken l>y him, a r:.c.1 'for on 1 \' answer you turned him out of the

office ?--A. i could not get any explanation from him.

ti. W. Ihnmei1, 20th 8apt., rnoo.

i,8. ). Ha · aJequate protection been affonhl to the e pbntation ince that occasion ?-.4 .. I co:1-ider o.

779. Q. \ 7ould you tell me ,rhat ha, haViPnccl icce the 30th December with regard to protection? --A. 1 think I ent those constables up ,ritb )Ir.

Boucher on the 30th, a Saturday. I belieYe they go~ up the foilO\ring day. They remained at Sogeri until the Commandant came down in about a week. )fr. Boucher and the special mer:. returned to Port

1Ioresby ,rben the Commandant returned, and the Commandant remained there until called d0\n1 by t.he Administrator. 780. Q. Whee did be return ?-A. Shorth· after,

perhaps a week. .,

781. Q. What happened on his return ?-A. I think three or four police, under a sergeant, re­

mained there a little time, about a week or ten days ,,Lfter Commandant Bruce came down. The plic~ \\·as then left ,rithout protectioe until Anthonv went up with a patrol. -

782. Q. Orer ,rhat area of countn· does the

patrol 1110,·e ?- A.. Betm:'en Sogeri and the Gap. I could not. sa r how many miles. Perhaps three or four days march between the two places. 783. Q. So that at times the p.atrol ,rnuld be

three or four clays· march from Sogeri ?- A. Yes. 78 ~ ~- Q. How long did that patrol remain tbere? A .. Cntil about the encl of June. Thee Anthonv

came down and went back, and the patrol was c01{­ tinued until the 30th September, and will L>e con­ tit:ued until further instructions from the Adminis­ trator, \\'ho \\·ill communicate ,rith the Commandant

,rho is there now. '

785. Q. I understand the Commandant is en­ gaged in quietening some tribal disturbance there now ?-A. Yes. 786. Q. And, from the papers, that when the

Commandant came to S0geri sbortlv after Mr. Greene. asked for protection, he had been· quelling some disturbances there ?-A. That ,ras a lon

787. Q. HO\r far ?- A. At Agari, 40 miles at

least. 788. O .. So that from the Commar;dant's letters a~1d statement that six or eight men bad been shot, six of whom were all murderers, and that he had captured several .mo·re, I think mu will admit there w_as ~ very _fair re~son for Hie planters in that

direction bemg anx10us ?-A. Xot while the Com­ mandant was there. 789. Q. But while he was pot there ?-A .. He

had instructjons to remain there until the return of the Administrator. He was between those people aml Sogeri. 790. Q. Do you not think, in view of the fact

that he was then enga~ed in arresting murderers, and that at the present time he is doing similar work on_ly 40 mil_es away fro_m this plantation, it is a fair thm_g to give tbe white people living there pro­

tection ?-A. I do not think there ,ms an\· 1:.eed of protection: At the time I would have gone there mrself with a shot-gun. The idea of my going

with a shot-gun ,vas pooh-poohed at the time. 791. Q. 1 suppose you think that Commandant Bruce' s opir..ion as to the danger of li vincr among those pii>ple would be reliable. There a:'e letters with ~he. papers ,~hich he had written to people in

the_ d1stnct, warmng them of the dange r , in all of ,vhich the Commandant giYes the Commis sion the impression that those natfres ,rere ven · li abl if not clo eh· watche al\\'a,·s fighting among th ms ' h es. It is not a

thir~g ,rhirh ha. just occurred. I conside r th ere is no incr .a. e of crime in this Divisi0n. The people ir.! t.he Rat ge have Leen fighting for centuries. If a raid is made on an adjoining tribe, it is now.

i W. Bra.me1i. 20th Sept., 1906.

known j a few year ago it would ridt h.a\e been hean.l of at Port Moresby. 792. Q. Is it not a fact that their idea is that

when one of their men has beer. killed, to kill the first stranger who comes along, irrespective of ·whe­ ther he had been concerned in the killing or not ?­ .4 .. I do not think so. If a white man went up a.t

the time they might sail into him, because they had been punished b,· white men. 793. Q. Those planters are naturally engaged in the cultivation of their plantations ?-A. Yes.

794. Q. They cannot at night have their boys

·fratching. Consequently, do you not think men in th eir position ,rnuld be far easier prey to natives ":ho took it into their beads to murder them ?-A. It is likely, bl.lit: .at the time I do not think it was.

likel v. 795. Q. Do you not th1nk that the average man com1ng to this country with the idea of becoming a permanrnt settler, will hesitate before doing so,

unles-s he receiYes adequate protect-ion from the au­ thorities ?- A. I suppose .any stranger would. 796. Q. Therefore, reports of this character are net calculated to encourage s,ettlement in Papua­

the fact that within 40 miles of the seat of Govern­ ment .a. planter has had to appeal for protection from the natives ?-A. He has appealed. I do not know if he had to. I do not think it was neces­

sary for him, or that he was in ~ny danger. 797. Mr. H erbert.-The meetmg that tock pl~.ce in regard to what should be done for protect10n was held on the 29th December?-Yes.

798. Q. And :mu despatched your officer and the police on the 30th ?-A. Yes. 7.99, Q. A11d as, showing the situation on that µaiticular da.te, the Commandant writes ti:cm Brown River to a resident of Boura, " I advise you tc

leave the district, and go to Port Moresby via

Gasiri, and not via Uberi and Sogeri "?-A. Boura is a long way out. 800. Q. That shows that the Commandant wa~ clearlv of opinion· that the district aLout Sogen

was u'nsettled"?-A. I do not think so. 80 r. Q. It is, very important settlers' lives should be protected, and it is almost ~quall y im­ port.ant to make them feel they are protected ?-

A. Yes. 802. Q. That being so, then do you not think

that you should have .a.t once, when you sent M:. Boucher awav with his police, made that fact public without bein-;, asked l,v an.;· one ?-A. I did not think about ~. I did not disguise the fact.

8b3. Q. You would do it in futur:. You think.

it important that people should thmk they were protected ?-A. Yes. .

804. (). You agree now that 1t was the pro1_)er way of !coking at it ?-A. Yes,. . .

805. By tlte Cltairman.-Is there anythrng fur­ ther you would like to say, Mr. Greene? M;. Greene.-! would l1ke to know what are the means of protection at present at Sogei:i? If ~1:. Bruce is at Agari, who is left at Sogen? What 1s the size of the Sogeri district? I am nearer Port

Moresbv than Mr. Bruce is tc Sogeri at present. 806., Tlte Clwzrman. - At the pres,ent time the Commandant is four days,' march from Sogeri. Mr. Greene states lie is nearer prctection at Port Moresby

than he is to the Commandant. Ts that the only

protection the people at Sogeri have at present?­ A. I cannot say where Anthcn.y and his patrol are at present. .

807. Q. Have vou had any reports from him?-.4 .. )Jo; the C01~mandant will give him instruc-tions. 8o8. Q. So that at the p_resent mofl;ent there is,

110 protection ?- A. There 1s the police at Port


809. Q. hat 1 . the u e of th m, they are 30 oJci miles a1ray?-A. I can only say that there ar the police at Port }lore by and Anthony' patrol. 81 o. Q. Do rnu not think that the nearer settle­

ments, those so ~ear the seat of Gcvernment, should have more adequate protection ?-A. Yes. 81r. Q. :Not cnly for their own sakes, but as

an advertisement to encourage other people here?­ il. Yes. 812. Q. 1Ir. Boucher, do you know where An­ thony's patrol is?

813. 1/lr. Bouclzer.-It ,rill be at Sogeri to­

morrmr. I cannot sar when it was there last.

It ,rill be mc,·ing up t~ 1Ir. Bruce's, force. The

man commanding the patrol, Anthony, is a Maltese. 814. Mr. Bramell.-Would you get the opinion of all the white residents of Port Moresbv in re­ gard to that Sogeri scare. Mr. Greene thinks one

thing .and I think another. Mr. McDonald kno,rs that ccuntry, and there are others who know it. It would be well to get their opinion. 815. Mr. Herbert.-With the papers there is a

report, No. 58, of a meeting which was held in

connexion with the matter, at w-hich residents of Port }Iores,by ,rere present, and their opinions. 816. Tlze Clzairman.-You consider that the mea­ sures ycu took and are taking at the present time are .ample?-A. Yes. Although I sent the force, I did not consider it necessary to do so. They have more protection now than at any other time. The patrol and the Commandant are there. Sometimes there have been no pcEce and no patrol at all.

There should Ge a number of police in Port }Ioresby to be available when they are called upon. There us,ually are some, but these were awav in this ex-pedition. ·

817. Q. Do you not think it would be . .a sounder thing, while keeping .a:· nucleus in Port, to have men on the spot ?-A. I ·would have them at certain places.

818. lib. Okeden.-Do you not think it ,rnuld be a wise thing to have patrols over the countrv in times d peace ?-A. Yes. 819 . . Mr. Greene (t!trouglz t!te C!tairman).-I would ·like to know when a boy cornrrifrs a theft on a plantation, have we to write to the R. M . .and ask him for a V. C. to arrest a thief, or can we

order the V.C. to make the arrest?-A. If he

lodged his ccmpl.aint and notified me, I would have the native summoned or arrested and brought in. 820. T lte C !tainnan.-Then word would have to be sent to you in Port ~Ioresby, and you would send a constable CT a message to the V. C. to arrest the thief. When settlement, do you think that to meet the aelay, it would be a sound thing wherever possible to have. a non-commissioned officer in charge of the patrol ?-A. I certain Iv think jt

wculd ue a good thing, and that would get oYer the difficulty. 82r. Mr. Bouclter.-Wben l\Ir. Greene was asked to the office, I would like to be asked what my impression ,Yas then, whether he was ·unjus.tly treated or otherwise.

822. Tlte C!tairman.-Very well, Mr. Boucher, you may let us know. 823. Mr. Bouclter.--I considered l\Ir. Bramel! acted fairly. Had I been in his place, I would acted the same. If it had happened in a

private office, I think l\fr. Greene would have be.en thrcwn out. · 824. Tlte Chairman.-Had you the impression that l\Ir. Greene had u ed offensiYe language?

825. ll!r. Bouclter.-I cannot remember the con­ ver5:ation, but at the time I wa of opinion that 1Ir. B1amell ,ras quite justified in ordering Greene to leave the office.