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Australian Institute of Criminology—Report for 2016-17


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ANNUAL REPORT 2016-2017

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ISSN 2204-6755 (Print) ISSN 2204-6763 (Online)

Australian Institute of Criminology Annual Report 2016-17

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5 October 2017

Michael Keenan MP Minister for Justice Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Counter-Terrorism Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600

Dear Minister

I am pleased to present the annual report of the Australian Institute of Criminology for the year ended 30 June 2017, prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014.

The report outlines the AIC’s performance for 2016-17 and includes audited financial statements.

Subsection 46(1) of the Act requires me to provide you with a report for presentation to the Parliament.

In addition, I certify that I am satisfied the AIC has prepared fraud risk assessments and fraud control plans, that we have in place appropriate fraud prevention, detection, investigation and reporting mechanisms, and that we have taken all reasonable measures to appropriately deal with fraud relating to our agency.

Yours sincerely

Nicole Rose PSM Acting Director Australian Institute of Criminology

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

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GUIDE TO THE REPORT The annual report of the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) is produced to meet parliamentary reporting requirements and to provide information to stakeholders and the community about the Institute’s work.

The information contained in this report is provided to inform the Australian Government, Members of Parliament, state and territory agencies, grants recipients, award winners, consultants, students of crime and criminal justice, potential employees and the public.

The report is designed as follows:

Director’s introduction In this section, the Director (Chief Executive) reviews the year’s significant issues and achievements.

Agency overview This section describes the role and functions of the AIC and its organisational structure.

Performance statement This section details the Institute’s performance against its outcomes. It begins with a performance statement summarising the AIC’s performance in relation to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) set out in its corporate plan. It then documents the Institute’s performance in relation to its key activities, including research, grants management, communication and information services.

Governance and accountability In this section the AIC’s governance and accountability arrangements are reviewed, including the operations of the Criminology Research Advisory Council (Advisory Council), which provides advice to the Director on a range of matters. Internal governance, including staffing, finance, information and communications technology, and office services, is discussed.

Financial performance This section presents the AIC’s financial statements.

Appendices The appendices list AIC publications, roundtables and other forums.

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ACRONYMS ACIC Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission

ACVPA Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards

AIC Australian Institute of Criminology

ANAO Australian National Audit Office

CRG Criminology Research Grant

DUMA Drug Use Monitoring in Australia

HREC Human Research Ethics Committee

KPI Key performance indicator

MR Monitoring Report

NDICP National Deaths in Custody Program

NDLERF National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund

NHMP National Homicide Monitoring Program

RIP Research in Practice

RPP Research and Public Policy

T&I Trends & issues

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CONTENTS Letter of transmittal ...............................................................................................................1

Guide to the report ................................................................................................................2

Acronyms ................................................................................................................................3

2016-17 at a glance ...............................................................................................................5

Director's review ....................................................................................................................6

Section 01: Agency overview .......................................................9

Introduction..........................................................................................................................10

Organisational structure as at 30 June 2017 ........................................................................13

Section 02: Performance statement ..........................................15

Statement of preparation .....................................................................................................16

Key performance indicators .................................................................................................17

Commentary on performance ..............................................................................................18

Research performance .........................................................................................................18

Research grants programs performance ..............................................................................27

Communication and information services performance ......................................................43

SECTION 03: Governance and accountability .............................57

External scrutiny and review ................................................................................................58

Information and communications technology services ........................................................68

Statutory reporting requirements ........................................................................................69

SECTION 04: Financial performance ...........................................75

Financial overview ................................................................................................................76

Audited financial statements................................................................................................78

SECTION 05: Appendices ............................................................99

Appendix 1: 2016-17 peer-reviewed publications ............................................................ 100

Appendix 2: Other publications ......................................................................................... 102

Appendix 3: Conferences, roundtables, workshops and forums ....................................... 106

Appendix 4: Compliance index .......................................................................................... 108

Appendix 5: Advertising and market research .................................................................. 114

Appendix 6: Freedom of information report ..................................................................... 115

Appendix 7: Alphabetical index ......................................................................................... 117

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PUBLICATIONS

EVENTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA

19,584 FACEBOOK FOLLOWERS

5,137 TWITTER FOLLOWERS

4,281 EMAIL ALERT SUBSCRIBERS

1,473 LINKEDIN SUBSCRIBERS

1,132 CRIMINOLOGY TV SUBSCRIBERS

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CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS

71 RESEARCH PRODUCTS

GOVERNMENT (34%) PEER REVIEWS (34%) PARLIAMENTARY DOCUMENTS (16%) NGO PUBLICATIONS (12%) OTHER PUBLICATIONS (4%)

4%

12%

16%

34%

34%

2016-17 AT A GLANCE

RESEARCH  Government publications (34%)

 Peer reviewed journal articles (34%)

 Parliamentary (Commonwealth, state and territory) documents (16%)

 NGO publications (12%)

 Other publications (4)

25 PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS PUBLISHED

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DIRECTOR’S REVIEW

Following a year of transition in 2015-16, this year has seen the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) go from strength to strength. Working closely with the Criminology Research Advisory Council (Advisory Council), the AIC established four key priorities for its research program that ensure the Institute remains focused on its mission of informing crime and justice policy and practice by conducting, funding and disseminating research of national significance. These priorities are:

1. improving criminal justice responses to family and domestic violence;

2. exploring the futures of crime and justice;

3. examining the links between volume crime and organised crime; and

4. reducing demand for prison.

In 2016-17, each of these topics has been the subject of an AIC research program that both fills gaps in current knowledge and is focused on issues of concern to policymakers. As research programs take time to develop and deliver, these same priorities have been rolled over into 2017-18 with the expectation of publishing a considerable number of research products focused on these issues over the next 12 months.

Recognising the closer ties with the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC), the AIC has worked closely with the ACIC on a range of projects associated with organised crime. One important development has been the use of National Police Reference System data for research purposes, which highlights one of the advantages of closer cooperation between the two entities.

RESEARCH In addition to developing research programs against the four priority areas, the research team has also published papers on a wide range of topics including violent extremism, methamphetamine use, cannabis use, armed robbery, fraud, child exploitation material, human trafficking and slavery, homicide, bail support and procedural justice. Over the course of the year, AIC researchers produced 71 research products, 32 of which are available on the AIC’s website, further adding to the Institute’s collection of crime and justice research reports.

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The release of the Crime Statistics Australia (CSA) website marked a significant achievement for the AIC. This site aims to bring together statistics from a range of government sources to create a comprehensive picture of crime and criminal justice in Australia. Launched in June 2017 with Australian Crime: Facts and Figures and the National Homicide Monitoring Program, the site will grow to include data from all of AIC’s statistical monitoring programs, as well as data from other key crime statistics providers.

As well as undertaking its own research, the AIC, in collaboration with the Advisory Council, funds academics to undertake criminological research through the Criminology Research Grants (CRG) program. In December 2016, the CRG program funded 16 new projects with a total value of almost $900,000. By June 2017, the program was funding 48 projects with a total value of over $2.2 million.

DISSEMINATION The dissemination of research findings is an equally important part of the Institute’s activity. Findings are disseminated through a range of channels, including library and information services, events and media.

The AIC held a number of events on issues including scams, denial of service attacks and terrorist attacks. During the year, the Institute teamed up with the Queensland Police Service to host the Crime Prevention and Communities conference in Brisbane, attracting almost 300 delegates to hear keynote speakers from Australia, Canada and the UK. The AIC also co-hosted the second Organised Crime Research Forum in collaboration with the Australian National University, which included 28 presentations on organised crime from academics from across Australia.

Looking ahead to the next financial year, the AIC will host a further three international conferences and is working hard to deliver a new website that will make the Institute’s back-catalogue of over 4,000 crime and justice reports even more discoverable.

As a result of the activity outlined in this report, I am pleased to report that the AIC has successfully achieved all of its key performance indicators. This outcome is testament to the hard work and dedication of staff involved in delivering AIC’s research and dissemination programs.

This is my last report as Acting Director of the AIC. I look forward to continuing to support the work of the AIC in my new capacity as Commissioner of Police in Western Australia. Ms Nicole Rose PSM was appointed Acting Director in August 2017.

Chris Dawson APM Acting Director (July 2015 to August 2017) Australian Institute of Criminology

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10 Introduction

10 Minister, portfolio and Director

11 Objectives

11 Functions

12 Organisational structure

Section 01 Agency overview

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INTRODUCTION The AIC has served successive Australian governments and the criminal justice system for more than four decades as the nation’s research and knowledge centre on crime and justice—promulgating and disseminating research studies, compiling trend data and providing policy advice.

The Institute was established in 1973 following the passage of the Criminology Research Act 1971, to centrally collect and analyse national criminological data and provide evidence-based research to government and policing agencies. In late 2010 the Australian Government passed the Financial Framework Legislation Amendment Act 2010, amending the Criminology Research Act.

Following a machinery-of-government change in October 2015, staff from the AIC were transferred to the Australian Crime Commission (which became the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission, or ACIC, on 1 July 2016), with Mr Chris Dawson APM, ACIC Chief Executive Officer, as Acting Director of the AIC.

Throughout the year, the Institute maintained strong links and partnerships with Commonwealth, state and territory government agencies, police jurisdictions, universities and other research organisations by providing research, analysis and advice, and frequently undertaking research projects in partnership or under contract to meet its partner agencies’ needs.

MINISTER, PORTFOLIO AND DIRECTOR The AIC is part of the Attorney-General’s portfolio. The Minister for Justice and the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Counter-Terrorism, the Hon. Michael Keenan MP, has ministerial responsibility for the AIC.

Mr Chris Dawson APM was appointed Acting Director of the AIC in July 2015 and continued in this role throughout 2016-17. As Acting Director at the time of report production, Ms Nicole Rose PSM presents this annual report.

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OBJECTIVES The AIC’s outcome, as stated in the 2017-18 Portfolio Budget Statement, is to inform crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre.

This outcome is achieved by the following objectives:

ƒ undertaking impartial, policy-relevant research to inform policy and practice in the crime and criminal justice sectors;

ƒ working cooperatively with the Attorney-General’s Department, portfolio and other federal agencies, state and territory governments and policing agencies as the Australian Government’s national research centre on crime and justice;

ƒ administering an effective and efficient annual CRG program that results in policy-relevant research of value to the nation; and

ƒ actively disseminating research findings to policymakers, practitioners and the general public, across Australia and internationally, in a timely manner.

FUNCTIONS The AIC undertakes its functions as set out in the Criminology Research Act 1971, which are:

(a) to promote justice and reduce crime by:

(i) conducting criminological research; and

(ii) communicating the results of that research to the Commonwealth, states and territories, and the community;

(b) to assist the Director in performing the Director’s functions;

(c) to administer programs for awarding grants, and engaging specialists, for:

(i) criminological research that is relevant to the public policy of the states and territories; and

(ii) activities related to that research (including the publication of that research, for example).

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The functions of the Director include:

ƒ conducting criminological research, including the collection of information and statistics on crime and justice matters;

ƒ communicating the results of that research, including through the publication of research material and seminars and courses of training or instruction;

ƒ providing information and advice on the administration of criminal justice to the Australian Government and state and territory governments; and

ƒ collaborating both within and outside Australia with governments, institutions and authorities, and with bodies and persons, on research and training in connection with the administration of criminal justice.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE The AIC’s research and information services reported through the Deputy Director to the ACIC’s Deputy Chief Executive Officer, who in turn reported to the ACIC Chief Executive Officer/AIC Director.

In 2016-17, the AIC’s research teams were aligned with priority areas and addressed issues associated with:

ƒ improving criminal justice responses to family and domestic violence;

ƒ examining the links between volume crime and organised crime;

ƒ exploring the futures of crime and justice; and

ƒ reducing demand for prison.

One team also focused on crime and justice statistical monitoring.

In addition, the AIC’s small grants management team administered the CRG, the Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards (ACVPA) and the National Drugs Law Enforcement Research Fund (NDLERF).

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ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AS AT 30 JUNE 2017

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Section 02 Performance statement

16 Statement of preparation

17 Key performance indicators

18 Commentary on performance

18 Research performance

27 Research grants programs performance

43 Communication and information services performance

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I, as the accountable authority of the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC), present the 2016-17 annual performance statements of the AIC, as required under paragraph 39(1)(a) and (b) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act) and associated rules.

In my opinion, in accordance with section 37 of the PGPA Act, these annual performance statements are based on properly maintained records and, in accordance with section 38 and subsection 39(2), appropriately measure, assess and provide information about the AIC’s performance in achieving its purposes.

Yours sincerely

Nicole Rose PSM Acting Director Australian Institute of Criminology

STATEMENT OF PREPARATION

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KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS The AIC’s Corporate Plan 2016-20 includes a number of key performance indicators (KPIs) which can be used to measure the Institute’s performance. These are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE AGAINST KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 2016-17

Key performance indicator Target Actual Comment

100 percent of publications in the Trends & issues (T&I) and Research Report series are peer reviewed. This ensures the quality of the Institute’s research outputs.

100% 100% Achieved

Reports produced for each of the monitoring programs are issued according to schedule, annually or biennially.

Facts & figures and Fraud against the Commonwealth reports expected in 2016-17

Facts & figures and Fraud against the Commonwealth reports published in 2016-17

Achieved

23 peer-reviewed T&I and Research Report papers are prepared for publication.

23 peer-reviewed publications published 25 peer-reviewed publications published

Achieved

38 other publications— including statistical reports, statistical bulletins, briefs, journal articles, consultancy reports—are produced each year.

38 other publications 46 other publications produced Achieved

At least 10 roundtables, workshops and other forums are held annually

10 events 11 events Achieved

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COMMENTARY ON PERFORMANCE The Institute achieved or exceeded its targets for all five KPIs. These included undertaking peer review of 100 percent of Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice papers and Research Reports and publishing planned monitoring reports. Importantly, the AIC exceeded its targets for publications. Twenty-five peer reviewed publications were produced, against a target of 23, and these covered a wide range of policy-relevant issues including (among others) drugs, cybercrime, child sexual exploitation, human trafficking and fraud (see Appendix 1 for further details). A further 46 reports were produced by AIC researchers (against a target of 38). They were largely the result of consultancy activities for state and Commonwealth agency clients (see Appendix 2 for further details).

Eleven events were held during the year, covering topics such as cybercrime, preventing terrorist attacks, organised crime and crime prevention. These events also included a national conference on crime prevention, in collaboration with the Queensland Police Service, and a roundtable in Bangkok, Thailand to help with the development of a national youth crime prevention strategy (see Appendix 3 for further details).

The remainder of this report documents the AIC’s performance in relation to its research, grants programs, communication and information services and library services and presents its financial statements.

RESEARCH PERFORMANCE The focus of AIC resources on four key priorities this year provided the research team with an opportunity to rethink the way in which the research is undertaken, with the intention of ensuring policy relevance. With this in mind, the studies that were undertaken over the last year were developed to address key questions of national concern, including family and domestic violence, prison overcrowding, futures of crime and justice and the links between organised crime and volume crime. These themes are in addition to AIC’s core research and statistical collection activities, which include the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program, the National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP), the National Deaths in Custody Program (NDICP), the Fraud Against the Commonwealth survey and identity crime surveys.

During the year, the AIC worked closely with the Attorney-General’s Department on a number of projects, including those related to identity crime and misuse, Commonwealth fraud and human trafficking and slavery. At the state and territory level, the AIC undertook research on a fee-for-service basis for agencies and government departments in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Internationally, the AIC assisted with the development of a national youth crime prevention strategy for Thailand, which built on the Institute’s international reputation through its membership of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Network of Program Institutes.

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An important milestone for the AIC was the launch of the new website, Crime Statistics Australia (CSA). This new site aims to bring together data on Australian crime and justice from both AIC’s archives and other government entities to tell the story of crime in Australia. It will provide information in an accessible form that will allow users to explore and analyse the data themselves. In future, this will shape the way in which the AIC thinks about statistical data, with the intention of making as much information as possible available to the public in an accessible form.

The following sections outline the activities undertaken in relation to each of the AIC’s four current research programs and its statistical monitoring programs.

STATISTICAL MONITORING The AIC continued the administration of its three long-term crime monitoring programs— the DUMA program, NHMP and NDICP.

DRUG USE MONITORING IN AUSTRALIA PROGRAM

The DUMA program has been operating since 1999 and collects drug use and criminal justice information quarterly from police detainees at multiple sites across Australia. In 2016-17, 2,233 adult and juvenile police detainees were interviewed at four sites across Australia—Adelaide, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. Seventy-five percent of eligible detainees provided a urine sample in the first and third quarters of 2016-17. Quarterly addenda administered with the core questionnaire during the financial year gathered detainees’ responses to questions about methamphetamine production, the use of alcohol and energy drinks, the stolen goods market and predictions about the 2018 illicit drug market.

The DUMA program published a series of papers examining methamphetamine use and acquisitive crime, readiness to change drug use and help-seeking behaviour and, in collaboration with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, a comparison of employment, education, housing and health outcomes of methamphetamine and other illicit drug users. In addition, DUMA finalised the 2015-16 biennial statistical report, which describes national and site-specific drug use and offending among police detainees interviewed in 2015 and 2016. Four supplementary bulletins on the 2015-16 heroin, ecstasy, methamphetamine and cannabis markets were prepared to complement the statistical report. A paper examining the non-medical use of prescription drugs, and changes in the illegal acquisition of prescription drugs since 2011, was also finalised.

DUMA continued to consolidate stakeholder relationships through the provision of timely data to key agencies. This included dissemination of site-based trend data on drug use and in-confidence reports to selected police representatives, as well as the facilitation of data requests.

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NATIONAL HOMICIDE MONITORING PROGRAM

The Statistical Report Homicide in Australia 2012-13 to 2013-14: National Homicide Monitoring Program report was published in June 2017. The report showed that the homicide rate in Australia has decreased again. Domestic and acquaintance homicides decreased by 13 and 38 percent respectively between 1989-90 and 2013-14, while stranger homicides increased by nine percent. Family and domestic homicide remains the most prevalent homicide type committed in Australia.

Statistics on trends in family and domestic homicide, and in particular intimate partner homicide, continue to be widely cited as part of the response to family and domestic violence in Australia. To improve the collection of data on family and domestic violence, the NHMP revised its data collection practices to include a more detailed question on the nature of the homicide offender’s previous history of domestic violence. A second question was added about known history of violence or abuse of another family member, including children in the offender’s care. These additions were finalised for the 2014-15 and 2015- 16 homicide data collection.

The AIC partnered with Monash University on a CRG-funded project on filicide. The study, which used 12 years of NHMP data from 2000-01 to 2011-12, is the first national study on filicide that examines child and adult victims killed by their parents and the relationship between the custodial status of the parental offender and the characteristics of the homicide. The AIC also contributed NHMP data to an Australian Research Council-funded project identifying points of intervention to prevent intimate partner homicide.

NATIONAL DEATHS IN CUSTODY PROGRAM

The NDICP is a leading contributor to criminal justice monitoring. Established in 1992, data from the NDICP is regularly sought by Commonwealth, state and territory government agencies for policy and performance reporting purposes. The AIC received over 10 requests for NDICP data in 2016-17 from a range of government, media and academic organisations.

During 2016-17 the AIC compiled data on all deaths in custody that occurred in 2013-14 and 2014-15 and commenced the compilation of 2015-16 and 2016-17 data. A Statistical Report presenting trend data on deaths in prison custody (from 1979-80) and police custody and custody-related operations (from 1989-90) was finalised.

CRIME STATISTICS AUSTRALIA

In 2016-17 the AIC launched CSA, an interactive website for users to view current and trend crime and justice data drawn from the AIC’s and other government statistical collections. The purpose of the site is to provide stakeholders with accessible and straightforward crime statistics. The website will be revised as more recent data are released. The version launched in June 2017 comprises two portals—Homicide in Australia, showcasing data from the NHMP, and an online version of the Australian crime: Facts and Figures series, which collates national data on victims of crime, offenders, corrections and courts. DUMA and NDICP portals are being prepared for release in 2017-18.

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The CSA website was launched by the Minister for Justice and the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Counter-Terrorism, the Hon. Michael Keenan MP, in June 2017. Developed by the AIC, CSA is an interactive gateway to statistics and information on Australian crime and justice issues. The website http://crimestats.aic.gov.au/ is designed for the general public, journalists and other groups who require fast access to reliable crime statistics in Australia.

CSA provides current and trend data on crime and justice datasets including victims of crime, offenders, corrections, courts, and recent statistical findings from the AIC’s Monitoring Program series. Data from Homicide in Australia and Australian Crime: Facts and figures are the first statistical series to be released on the new website. The website will continually evolve to include a broader range of datasets including Drug Use Monitoring in Australia, the National Deaths in Custody Program, and the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program.

CRIME STATISTICS AUSTRALIA

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IMPROVING CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSES TO FAMILY AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Family and domestic violence have been high on the agenda for Commonwealth and state and territory governments in recent years and there has been a strong push towards an evidence-based approach. Despite the significant investment in research and evaluation, gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of how the criminal justice system, and in particular police, can best support victims and reduce repeat offending. The recent growth of evidence-based policing in Australia has reaffirmed the need for national efforts to increase the availability of high-quality, applied empirical research for police agencies.

The AIC’s research program has built an understanding of policing responses to family and domestic violence—recognising this research also has broader implications for other criminal justice agencies and frontline services. Projects have also sought to develop a better understanding of the characteristics of domestic violence incidents and the opportunities for intervention.

As an important first step in the development of the research program, the first project was a large-scale review of empirical studies into the implementation and effectiveness of policing responses to domestic violence. Using a systematic literature search process, the review examined police-led responses across six key domains: training and development, reporting to police, first response to incidents, preventing repeat victimisation, investigation methods and prosecution. Over 300 studies from Australia, the US, UK, Canada and New Zealand were reviewed. The findings will be published as a Research Report, while a number of shorter papers have also been prepared.

Two additional projects were undertaken on the basis of the outcomes of this review. The first was a systematic review of high-quality studies examining the impact of protection orders on domestic violence reoffending. The AIC partnered with academics from the Australian National University to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the overall effectiveness of protection orders, while a methodology developed by international experts was used to understand the circumstances in which protection orders are most effective.

The second project was a systematic review of studies that identify predictors of domestic violence reporting to police. More than 20 studies met the criteria for inclusion. By collating results across multiple studies, this research aimed to identify those variables that appear to influence reporting rates. As well as helping to explain the increased reporting by victims, this research will help to identify those victims who may be less likely to report to police. The findings from this research may help to inform efforts to address under-reporting by certain sections of the community.

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A separate systematic review was undertaken to develop a comprehensive understanding of what is known about domestic violence offenders, incidents and reoffending in Australia. More than 60 studies were included. This research highlighted what is known about domestic violence based on Australian research. By providing a detailed picture of domestic violence offenders, incident characteristics, and the prevalence and risk factors for reoffending, this research can help to inform effective prevention and policing strategies.

Two other projects adopted a crime science approach in an attempt to better understand domestic violence incidents and the potential for situational prevention. Drawing on repeat victimisation studies, and using analysis of police data on domestic violence incidents, the first study examined the prevalence and correlates of short-term reoffending. Offering new insights into short-term risk, the findings have important implications for police and other frontline agencies responding to domestic violence, demonstrating the importance of timely, targeted and graduated responses. In the second project, the AIC used crime scripts analysis of police narratives to develop a more detailed understanding of the sequence of events in domestic violence incidents and the potential intervention points at which the violence may be interrupted. This represents the first time crime scripts analysis has been applied in this way to domestic violence cases.

In support of this work, the AIC collaborated with the Australian and New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency, which also identified family and domestic violence as a priority for 2016-17, while the Australian and New Zealand Society of Evidence-Based Policing Executive Committee—comprising senior representatives from each policing agency— was engaged to act in an advisory role. Further, the AIC developed a new collaborative project with ACT Policing to examine the predictive validity of the new Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool (FVRAT) and, specifically, the degree to which FVRAT scores accurately predict the recurrence of intimate partner violence. Finally, on the back of work completed in 2016-17, the AIC also engaged with Commonwealth agencies with responsibility for the national response to family and domestic violence, with the aim of informing the research program for 2017-18.

REDUCING DEMAND FOR PRISON Australian prison populations have substantially increased in recent years, with particularly marked rises among unsentenced prisoners, women, and Indigenous prisoners. Increasing prison populations come at a substantial cost, with pressures on facilities, infrastructure and staffing resources, and impacts on prisoners through potential problems such as overcrowding and reduced access to programs and services.

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The AIC commenced two main projects under this strategic priority during 2016-17. The first asks the fundamental question: what is driving the growth in Australian prison populations? While there is a body of literature on the reasons behind the growth in imprisonment, it is not comprehensive in its coverage of all jurisdictions or all contributing factors. For some jurisdictions there is a good body of evidence available, but not for others. There is no efficient way for policymakers and other interested parties to gain a clear picture of what has been driving the growth in imprisonment across Australia.

This project examines prison growth by reviewing the available information, supplemented with additional quantitative analysis of published statistics. The research also gathered new information to expand the evidence base through consultation with key stakeholders in the criminal justice system. Researchers conducted interviews in most Australian states and territories, consulting with staff of corrective services agencies, representatives of parole release authorities, senior police officers and members of the judiciary. The interviews canvassed stakeholders’ views on changes in the demographic and offending profiles of prisoner populations, factors contributing to the growth in these populations, and the impacts of these changes on correctional systems and on prisoners. The findings from this research will help policymakers and practitioners throughout the criminal justice system and related areas better understand the societal and political factors that have influenced prison growth, helping in the planning of ongoing responses to reduce the demand for imprisonment.

The second project is investigating increases in the imprisonment of women and how this impacts on community-based support services. For this project, the researchers are drawing on available literature as well as interviews with staff of services that work with women in prison and after release. These interviews provide information on changes in the profile of women entering prison, a national understanding of the services available to assist them, and an understanding of how the increasing imprisonment of women is impacting on these services and on the women and their children.

EXAMINING THE LINKS BETWEEN VOLUME CRIME AND ORGANISED CRIME This priority is intended to examine the intersection between organised crime and volume crime. It is based on the understanding that organised crime does not exist in a vacuum, but rather has implications for non-organised volume crime (such as property crime, violence, fraud etc) in both direct and indirect ways. This program currently consists of two projects. The first examined the conceptual relationship between organised crime and volume crime. This resulted in a typology that classified the different facets of this relationship and identified a range of ways in which organised crime may be associated with volume crime.

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The second study examined the criminal histories of organised crime offenders. It analysed data on organised crime and volume crime collected by the ACIC, allowing for criminal histories of known organised crime offenders to be constructed.

EXPLORING THE FUTURES OF CRIME AND JUSTICE During 2016-17, research was developed for the AIC’s strategic priority theme of exploring the futures of crime and justice. This research aims to identify critical future policy questions and issues affecting law enforcement, the courts and corrections for the ensuing five years, to document the nature and extent of the problems identified, to canvass the views of stakeholders in the relevant sectors concerning the problems identified, to forecast how agencies in these sectors might respond to the changes identified and to develop best practice solutions to the problems examined.

In connection with law enforcement, research was undertaken to explore the future of investigative capabilities, particularly involving covert operations, such as human source cultivation. Research was undertaken for the ACIC that examined current recruitment and management techniques employed in human source management. The AIC also embarked on a novel research program to forecast the nature of the illicit drug market at the start of 2018. Factors likely to influence the Australian illicit drug market were identified based on police detainee opinions, obtained as part of the AIC’s DUMA program. A comprehensive snapshot of the current and future Victorian illicit drug market was developed in a separate study, commissioned by Victoria Police. This study combined Victoria Police members and police detainee perspectives on likely influences on the Victorian illicit drug market to support the development of an illicit drug strategy. The AIC also completed work commenced in 2015-16 for Victoria Police to re-align operational safety principles. The findings have directly influenced recruit training objectives and the organisational approach to operational safety.

In relation to the future of the criminal courts, a national study was developed to assess the nature and extent of video conferencing in the criminal courts throughout Australia. The use of technology in the courts is now extensive, with benefits involving increased access to justice, efficient use of court time and effective presentation of evidence during hearings. Audio-visual systems, in particular, provide substantial cost savings for the courts as well as for corrections departments and legal practitioners. Consultations were undertaken with court administrators and IT personnel throughout Australia to gain a complete assessment of these issues, and selected courtrooms were inspected and actual proceedings using video conferencing observed. Data on usage and costs were also sourced from each jurisdiction. An extensive literature review was compiled and a draft report prepared.

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With respect to the future of correctional programs, a national roundtable discussion was held to canvass the views of correctional managers on the issues most likely to affect the sector in the ensuing five years. The roundtable identified innovations in technology as one of the key issues facing correctional managers, as appropriate use of available and emerging information and communications technologies has the potential to improve prisoners’ use of time and to achieve positive rehabilitation and wellbeing outcomes. A review of prior research was conducted that examined recent innovations in the use of information and communications technologies in correctional settings in Australia and overseas and considered benefits and risks associated with the deployment of technology from the perspectives of prisoners and correctional personnel. The use of video conferencing between prisons and the courts is one example of this, as is the use of electronic monitoring of offenders. The AIC’s previous research on electronic monitoring is being updated to include the latest data and information.

OTHER RESEARCH ACTIVITY In addition to research undertaken on each of the priorities, the research team undertook research on a range of other topics, some of which commenced in previous years. Topics covered by this research included:

ƒ child protection;

ƒ community development in a high-density housing area;

ƒ drug courts;

ƒ family investment models;

ƒ identity crime;

ƒ local government crime prevention;

ƒ police detainees’ perceptions of the use of closed-circuit television and police body-worn video cameras;

ƒ police information systems;

ƒ restorative justice; and

ƒ youth crime.

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RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAMS PERFORMANCE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH GRANTS The Criminology Research Grants (CRG) program provides funding for criminological research relevant to public policy at both the national and state or territory level. The program promotes the value and usefulness of such research by publishing and disseminating the findings of the funded work.

The CRG program is administered by the AIC and funded by the Commonwealth and state and territory governments. Taking into account the recommendations of the Advisory Council, the Director of the AIC approves a number of research grants and other funded research projects each year.

The Advisory Council comprises representatives from the Australian government and each state and territory. In 2016-17, the Advisory Council was chaired by Ms Julia Griffith, Deputy Secretary Corrections in the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation. Advisory Council membership is listed in the Governance and accountability section of this report. The AIC provides secretariat services for the council.

FUNDING GRANTS AND PROJECTS

While the AIC allocates the majority of CRG program funding through an annual research grants round, the Advisory Council also considers and makes recommendations to the Director on funding for other research projects in priority research areas that have not been addressed or identified in the annual grants process.

The Advisory Council may allocate funding for research projects undertaken solely by AIC research staff, AIC collaborations with other agencies or projects in support of grant applications. The Director allocates funding on the council’s recommendation.

Any potential conflicts of interest, particularly where AIC staff are involved, are clearly identified and managed throughout the application and funding allocation processes. All CRG applications are assessed by an independent expert assessment panel.

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The Advisory Council considers the following criteria when approving research grant applications and other research project options:

ƒ public policy relevance;

ƒ the extent to which the proposed research will have practical application and contribute to the understanding, prevention or correction of criminal behaviour;

ƒ the likelihood of the proposed research making a substantial and original contribution to criminological knowledge;

ƒ the cost-effectiveness of the research;

ƒ the soundness of the design and methodology, and the feasibility of the research;

ƒ the competence of the applicant(s) or principal investigator(s) to undertake the proposed research;

ƒ ethics committee approval, where appropriate;

ƒ availability of data, where required; and

ƒ the extent of funding or in-kind support obtained from relevant agencies.

GRANT ASSESSMENT PANEL

A panel of two independent expert criminologists reviews applications for general grants each year. The panellists are selected by the Advisory Council from recommendations made by the President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology. In 2016-17 the panel members were Dr James Martin and Dr Asher Flynn. Each panel member usually serves for two years.

Panel members assess all applications for research funding submitted to the Advisory Council independently of each other and complete an assessment sheet for each application. They then meet to discuss the assessments with the AIC’s Academic Adviser to the Advisory Council, currently Mr Matthew Willis, who submits final recommendations to the Director and the Advisory Council for consideration at its November meeting.

2016-17 FUNDING

In the 2016-17 financial year, the AIC contributed $219,000 (2015-16: $219,000) from the Commonwealth appropriation to fund CRG grants. The AIC also contributed $65,930 (2015-16: $75,257) to administer the grants program (see Tables 3 and 4).

State and territory governments collectively contributed $214,266 (2015-16: $214,242) to the AIC to fund grants. State and territory contributions were calculated on a pro rata population basis, as shown in Table 2.

Table 3 summarises CRG program income and expenditure for 2016-17.

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TABLE 2: STATE AND TERRITORY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM FOR 2016-17

State/territory $

New South Wales 70,179.35

Victoria 54,861.15

Queensland 43,995.80

Western Australia 23,823.15

South Australia 15,578.95

Tasmania NIL

Australian Capital Territory 3,595.55

Northern Territory 2,232.35

Total 214,266.30

TABLE 3: CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM FINANCIAL DATA 2016-17

Total income for CRG program $

Commonwealth funding 219,000

State and territory fundinga 163,827

Total income for purpose of making grants 382,827

Expenditure for CRG program

Grants 438,501

Other research projectsb 29,662

Direct administration expenditure 49,164

Total expenditurec 517,326

a: The contribution from the state and territory totals $214,266 with $163,827 recognised as income and the balance as unearned revenue. b: ‘Other research projects’ covers projects undertaken by AIC research staff as recommended to the Director by the Advisory Council. c: Total expenditure is $134,499 higher than income recognised as a result of the program drawing down its

equity injection.

TABLE 4: CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM INDIRECT ADMINISTRATION FINANCIAL DATA 2016-17

Total income for CRG program administration $

Commonwealth funding 65,930

Total income 65,930

Expenditure for CRG administration

Administration expenditure 65,930

Total administration expenditure 65,930

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NEW PROJECTS 2016-17

CRG 03/15-16: ‘Cross-over kids’: Effective responses to children and young people in the youth justice and statutory child protection systems

Professor Rosemary Sheehan, Professor Chris Trotter, Magistrate Jennifer Bowles

Monash University

Total funding: $104,000

CRG 34/15-16: ‘Filling in the gaps’: Using a big data approach and text mining to enrich COPS data to inform prevention strategies in domestic and family violence

Professor Tony Butler, Professor David Greenberg, Associate Professor Handan Wand, Dr Stephen Anthony, Dr Azar Kariminia, Dr Armita Adily, Associate Professor Peter Schofield, Dr Stephen Allnutt, Professor Louisa Jorm

University of New South Wales

Total funding: $87,766

CRG 07/16-17: Research impact and dissemination in policing: Advancing an evidence-based policing agenda

Associate Professor Adrian Cherney, Dr Sarah Bennett, Dr Emma Antrobus, Detective Inspector Mike Newman

The University of Queensland

Total funding: $57,109

CRG 11/16-17: Intimate partner femicide in Australia: A victim-centred exploration

Professor Paul Mazerolle, Dr Samara McPhedran, Dr Li Eriksson, Associate Professor Holly Johnson

Griffith University

Total funding: $72,682

CRG 23/16-17: Responding to cybercrime crime: Perceptions and needs of Australian police and the general community

Dr Cassandra Cross, Dr Anastasia Powell, Professor Thomas Holt

Queensland University of Technology

Total funding: $79,904

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CRG 24/16-17: Understanding crime and justice in Torres Strait Islander communities

Professor John Scott, Mr James Morton

Queensland University of Technology

Total funding: $30,665

CRG 27/16-17: Pocketing the proceeds of crime: The legislation, criminological perspectives and experiences

Associate Professor Natalie Skead, Associate Professor Hilde Tubex, Associate Professor Sarah Murray, Dr Tamara Tulich

The University of Western Australia

Total funding: $53,768

CRG 32/16-17: Predictive policing in an Australian context: Assessing viability and utility

Dr Daniel Birks, Associate Professor Michael Townsley, Dr Timonthy Hart

Griffith University

Total funding: $44,699

CRG 34/16-17: Bail decision-making and pretrial services: A comparative study of magistrates courts in four Australian states

Dr Max Travers, Professor Rick Sarre, Dr Isabelle Bartkowiak-Theron, Professor Andrew Day, Dr Christine Bond, Dr Emma Colvin

University of Tasmania

Total funding: $39,370

CRG 42/16-17: The nature of illicit drug supply/suppliers and the appropriateness of current Australian criminal justice responses: ‘Social supply’ and sentencing

Professor Ross Coomber, Associate Professor Melissa Bull

Griffith University

Total funding: $57,675

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NEW PROJECTS 2016-17 (CONTINUED)

CRG 44/16-17: Corporate offending in Australia: A descriptive study of the extent and dimensions of the problem

Mr David Bartlett, Professor Janet Ransley

Griffith University

Total funding: $31,990

CRG 47/16-17: The use of ambulance data to inform patterns and trends of alcohol, substance misuse, self-harm and mental health in different forms of interpersonal violence

Dr Debbie Scott, Associate Professor Belinda Lloyd, Professor Dan Lubman, Professor Peter Miller, Associate Professor Karen Smith, Alex Wilson, Dr Gennady Baksheev

Monash University

Total funding: $92,804

CRG 49/16-17: Understanding the structure and composition of co-offending networks in Australia

Dr David Bright, Dr Chad Whelan, Professor Carlo Morselli

Flinders University

Total funding: $74,255

CRG 50/16-17: Darknet drug traders: A qualitative exploration of the career trajectories, activities and perceptions of risk and reward of online drug dealers

Dr James Martin, Dr Monica Barratt, Professor Ross Coomber, Associate Professor Jakob Demant, Mr Rasmus Munksgaard

Macquarie University

Total funding: $24,303

CRG 51/16-17: Cybercrime risks and spam deception experiments

Professor Roderic Broadhurst, Dr Mamoun Alazab

Australian National University

Total funding: $47,088

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NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT RESEARCH FUND

MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOMES

NDLERF was funded by the Australian Government Department of Health as part of its commitment to the National Drug Strategy. The Institute administered the NDLERF program from June 2010. The funding ceased on 30 June 2015 and all work associated with NDLERF will be completed in 2017-18.

NDLERF contributes to the prevention and reduction of the harmful effects of licit and illicit drug use in Australian society by:

ƒ enabling research that leads to high-quality, evidence-based drug law enforcement practice;

ƒ facilitating experimentation and innovation; and

ƒ enhancing strategic alliances and linkages between law enforcement personnel, human services providers and research agencies.

The NDLERF advisory board set the strategic priorities for funding and allocated funds for research projects that offered practical contributions to operational or policy-level drug law enforcement activities in Australia. The advisory board also reviewed and approved the progress and finalisation of funded research.

The program continued to fund two projects from previous years, with total expenditure of $343,000.

The AIC performed the following functions for the NDLERF program:

ƒ administering the allocation of grants money and the grants delegation;

ƒ coordinating open funding application rounds;

ƒ monitoring the progress of individual research projects by establishing project reference groups;

ƒ editing support and publishing reports presenting the outcomes of NDLERF-funded research;

ƒ administering and supporting the NDLERF Advisory Board through the services of a Research Officer and an NDLERF Scientific Adviser; and

ƒ facilitating and coordinating advisory board activities and communication.

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CLOUD AUTHENTICATION AND FORENSICS Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Jill Slay. Monograph 69

ALCOHOL/DRUG-INVOLVED FAMILY VIOLENCE IN AUSTRALIA Peter Miller, Elise Cox, Beth Costa, Richelle Mayshak, Arlene Walker, Shannon Hyder, Lorraine Tonner, Andrew Day. Monograph 68

DRUG AND ALCOHOL INTOXICATION AND SUBSEQUENT HARM IN NIGHT-TIME ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICTS Peter Miller, Raimondo Bruno, Anthony Morgan, Richelle Mayshak, Elise Cox, Kerri Coomber, Nicolas Droste, Nicholas Taylor, Nicolette Dimitrovski, Amy Peacock, Hayley Boxall, Isabella Voce. Monograph 67

AUSTRALIAN POLICE DIVERSION FOR CANNABIS OFFENCES: ASSESSING PROGRAM OUTCOMES AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS Marian Shanahan, Caitlin Hughes, Tim McSweeney. Monograph 66

MANAGING INTOXICATED OFFENDERS Georgina Fuller, Susan Goldsmid, Rick Brown. Monograph 65

POLICING AND PATHWAYS TO DIVERSION AND CARE AMONG VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE WHO USE ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS Rachael Green, Joanne Bryant, Rebecca Gray, David Best, Jake Rance, Sarah MacLean, Rebecca Brown. Monograph 64

STIMULANT USE TRANSITIONS AND HARM MITIGATION RESPONSES: ANALYSIS OF A QUALITATIVE DATASET Ellen Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Jake Najman, John Scott. Monograph 63

TRAFFICKING IN MULTIPLE COMMODITIES: EXPOSING AUSTRALIA’S POLY-DRUG AND POLY-CRIMINAL NETWORKS Caitlin Hughes, Jenny Chalmers, David Bright, Michael McFadden. Monograph 62

THE ONLINE ENVIRONMENT: A PRECURSOR TO ILLICIT SYNTHETIC DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT Nigel Phair. Monograph 70

THE NATURE OF RISK DURING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE POLICE AND INTOXICATED OFFENDERS Georgina Fuller, Susan Goldsmid. T&I 525

PUBLICATIONS RELEASED UNDER THE NDLERF PROGRAM IN 2016-17

34

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ALCOHOL USE AND MOTIVATIONS FOR DRINKING AMONG TYPES OF YOUNG ADULT ILLICIT STIMULANT USERS Ellen Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Jake Najman, John Scott. T&I 515

DIGITAL FORENSICS IN THE CLOUD ERA: THE DECLINE OF PASSWORDS AND THE NEED FOR LEGAL REFORM Ben Martini, Quang Do, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo. T&I 512

DRUG AND ALCOHOL INTOXICATION AND SUBSEQUENT HARM IN NIGHT-TIME ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICTS (DASHED) Richelle Mayshak, Anthony Morgan, Amy Peacock, Nicholas Taylor, Nicolas Droste, Kerri Coomber, Elise Cox, Raimondo Bruno, Peter Miller. Research Bulletin 6

POLICING AND PATHWAYS TO DIVERSION AND CARE AMONG VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE WHO USE ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS Rachael Green, Joanne Bryant, Rebecca Gray, David Best, Jake Rance, Sarah MacLean, Rebecca Brown. Research Bulletin 5

TRAFFICKING IN MULTIPLE COMMODITIES: EXPOSING AUSTRALIA’S POLY-DRUG AND POLY-CRIMINAL NETWORKS Caitlin Hughes, Jenny Chalmers, David Bright, Michael McFadden. Research Bulletin 4

35

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AUSTRALIAN CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION AWARDS 2016

36

ACVPA 2016 award winners

Acting Director Mr Chris Dawson, Ms Michelle Barton, Ms Teena Ryder—BRONZE COMMUNITY Acting Director Mr Chris Dawson with Senior Constable Sandra Atkinson—BRONZE POLICE

Dr Mark Collis, Ms Emma Robertson, Dr Sarah Anderson— GOLD COMMUNITY Superintendent Luke Freudenstein, Mr Shane Phillips, Acting Director Mr Chris Dawson—GOLD POLICE

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AUSTRALIAN CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION AWARDS 2016 The AIC manages the annual Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards (ACVPA) every year, with the Director of the AIC chairing the Selection Board. On 23 November 2016, 15 projects were recognised at an award ceremony at Parliament House in Canberra.

The Hon. Michael Keenan, Minister for Justice and Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Counter-Terrorism, announced the winners. There were four gold winners, four silver winners and seven bronze winners (seven police-led and eight community-led). The award-winning projects focused on providing specialised mediation for individual and extended family and workplace disputes, diversionary victim-offender mediation, assisting young people in detention to reintegrate into the community, and preventing and reducing victimisation from online fraud activity impacting on the community.

ACVPA POLICE-LED WINNERS

Project Booyah, Queensland—Gold award winner Project Booyah is a Queensland Police Service led early intervention program, targeting criminogenic behaviours and attitudes of at-risk young people. Project Booyah represents an integrated program embracing a community inclusive approach which is delivering real change for young people at risk in Queensland. This is achieved by promoting seamless service delivery across the whole-of-government and establishing effective strategic and operational partnerships with private enterprises which can sustain change for these young people. Aligned with evidence-based best practice, it aims to holistically address a young person’s disengagement from their family, their community and education.

Project Booyah incorporates adventure-based learning principles, social and skill development training, community interventions, mentoring, youth support, education and vocational scholarships to support young people and their families to build careers and vocational pathways as well as bridging their disconnect with society. Over the past four years, 308 young people have graduated from the program.

Clean Slate Without Prejudice and Never Going Back programs, New South Wales— Gold award winner The Clean Slate Without Prejudice program is a police-community engagement program based within the Redfern Local Area Command. The program is designed to reduce crime by developing strong working relationships between community members and police. The program is based on routine and discipline, targeting vulnerable and influential young Aboriginal people.

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Clean Slate has been running since 2009 and consists of a boxing and fitness program at the National Indigenous Centre of Excellence gymnasium in Redfern. It also involves the active participation of community leaders and police officers from the Redfern Local Area Command. The Never Going Back program targets Aboriginal inmates who are nearing the completion of their custodial sentences. They are collected from Long Bay Correctional Centre three times a week to attend boxing with Clean Slate Without Prejudice and receive training for employment.

Policing Indigenous Youth: Achieving through adversity, Queensland—Silver award winner The project aims to create a culture of trust between police and Indigenous youth with a view to diverting them from crime and reducing the risk of recidivism among the groups of offenders. The children range from as young as nine to 16 years old.

The youth and police are encouraged to interact daily through schooling, recreation and their day-to-day activities. Issues such as minor traffic interceptions were changed from negative contact with police to an opportunity to recognise, reward and acknowledge young people doing the right thing. Awards for youth are then presented in front of their peers or large community events to reinforce their standing within their community.

Revitalising Hamilton South: An integrated service delivery project, New South Wales— Silver award winner Newcastle City Police initiated Operation Revitalising Hamilton South in response to many years of antisocial behaviour and crime in and around the Hamilton South housing estate. The area houses approximately 1,000 residents and makes up less than one percent of the city’s population. However, it accounts for approximately six percent of the city’s total crime. Police initially set out to bring back harmony in support of the good people who were attempting to make the most of their life living on the estate. While police had a heavy focus on proactively reducing crime, they also worked very closely with the NSW Department of Family and Community Services and Housing NSW to target unauthorised tenants who were believed to be causing much of the trouble on the estate.

The NSW Department of Premier and Cabinet assisted by bringing a number of other government agencies to the table. Their combined efforts under an integrated service delivery model have seen significant improvement in the residents’ overall wellbeing through reduced crime, increased safety and increased community confidence.

Beach Watch, Queensland—Bronze award winner Beach Watch aimed to harness the resources of local government, Neighbourhood Watch, Surf Life Saving Queensland, businesses, the local community and police in a partnership to reduce the incidence of crime at local beaches and surrounding car parks.

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The project involved formation of a steering committee with major stakeholders, design of a unique and suitable logo that represented the program’s objectives and placement of signage along the entrance and carparks of Mooloolaba Beach. Safety audits on car parks that service the beach focused on natural surveillance enhancements and lighting. Ongoing public awareness campaigns in car parks reminded car owners to secure their vehicles. The project also involved proactive beach patrols at high-risk times by local police and promotion of the objectives of Beach Watch to the community via radio, print, television and social media.

Outcomes included lifting the profile of the Neighbourhood Watch program in the surrounding area, significantly decreasing property crime at the beach and raising community awareness of how to reduce opportunities for crime by securing vehicles and property.

Operation NOMAD, South Australia—Bronze award winner Operation NOMAD is South Australia Police’s response to the threat of bushfires. It commenced in 2004 as part of the corporate planning framework and is a statewide policing operation that supports the Country Fire Service.

The key focus is to ensure:

ƒ a highly visible policing presence in high-risk fire areas;

ƒ zero tolerance of breaches of fire laws;

ƒ targeting and disrupting persons of interest; and

ƒ coordinated investigations of fires.

The 1800 Police Duress Alarm Register, Western Australia—Bronze award winner The 1800 Police Duress Alarm Register is a web-based application which manages and maintains a database of persons issued with a 1800 domestic violence duress alarm for use on their mobile phone. The application allows Western Australia Police’s Solidus telephony system to prioritise duress alarms over 000 calls, including for alarm activations that have been abruptly terminated (abandoned) before being received by a 000 call taker.

1800 police duress alarms can be set up and activated for use in less than five minutes, regardless of the user’s location. On activation, email alerts are immediately sent to the Police Communications Duty Inspector, State Family Violence Coordination Unit and the Victim Support Unit managing the duress alarm. The application also allows up to three SMS alerts to be sent to nominated recipients.

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ACVPA COMMUNITY-LED WINNERS

Court Integrated Services Program, Victoria—Gold award winner The Court Integrated Services Program (CISP) was established by the Magistrates’ Court of Victoria and the Victorian Department of Justice to ensure accused people can access support and services to reduce reoffending and make communities safer.

The CISP provides an immediate and comprehensive assessment, and assists participants to engage with treatment and support services aimed at stabilising them while they are on bail. The CISP links participants with support such as drug and alcohol treatment, crisis and long-term accommodation, and mental health, acquired brain injury and disability services. It also provides regular feedback to magistrates on the progress of each participant.

Participation in the CISP helps magistrates and the accused better understand the issues that underpin the accused’s offending and how to address those behaviours effectively. Issues associated with mental health, cognitive impairment and alcohol and other drug use are stabilised through case management-facilitated access to support. This in turn reduces the likelihood of reoffending and helps stop the ‘revolving door’ of offending.

Blueprint for Youth Justice, Australian Capital Territory—Gold award winner The Blueprint for Youth Justice in the ACT 2012-22 is a whole-of-government and community plan to reduce youth crime by better supporting young people. It recognises that by reducing risk factors and strengthening protective factors, the ACT community will be better equipped to keep young people safe, strong and connected. In the long term, the blueprint seeks to achieve a community where fewer children and young people are at risk of or engaged in offending, and the ACT is a safer place to live.

The blueprint was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary task force and specialists in child and adolescent psychology, trauma, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engagement, youth justice, education and health.

Evidence from the blueprint’s implementation shows sustained reductions in the number of young people coming into contact with, or being further involved in, the ACT youth justice system. This suggests that youth crime is being prevented, the impact of youth crime is reduced and community safety is improved.

South Asian Men’s Behaviour Change Program, Victoria—Silver award winner Due to an increasing number of referrals of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) men, and with significant rates of family violence occurring within South Asian communities in Melbourne, the provision of culturally specific services was seen as critical by Kildonan Uniting Care, law enforcement agencies and other service providers.

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Following consultation with the South Asian community and other service providers, Kildonan Uniting Care established the program with support from the Victorian Government Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and Department of Justice.

The program commenced in September 2013 and continues to be delivered to groups weekly at Kildonan’s Heidelberg office. Men can be referred to Kildonan through the court system, by DHHS or through self-referral. Kildonan provides counselling and group activities to female partners and/or former partners; and also monitors risk, addresses safety concerns and provides advice, support and referral.

Smart Start, Queensland—Silver award winner The Smart Start project began in June 2014 and grew to become one of the world’s largest studies on preloading and one of the first research and engagement projects of its kind to include frontline police and a focus on operational outcomes. Funded by the National Drug Strategy Law Enforcement Funding Committee, frontline police and researchers from Griffith University surveyed more than 3,200 people as they entered entertainment precincts in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Mackay and the Gold Coast.

The study was continued and funded again in 2015 to carry out the ‘Last Drinks’ phase— surveying patrons at the end of the night. Linking the two projects together resulted in more than 7,500 patrons being surveyed. The project resulted in high levels of positive engagement with the community, substantially changing the police/public conversation around alcohol preloading and harm.

WESNET Telstra Safe Connections, Australian Capital Territory—Bronze award winner The WESNET Telstra Safe Connections project aims to prevent technology facilitated abuse of women experiencing family violence, sexual abuse, stalking and threats. WESNET and Telstra formed a partnership and created this national project.

It is important for victims of family violence to be empowered to have access to safe technology to help them stay connected to those who can assist them, such as supportive family, friends and support organisations.

Telstra provides new smartphones, prepaid credit and a small information card on the safe use of technology to WESNET, which provides training and advice on technology abuse. Specialist family violence workers are trained to help a woman experiencing abuse assess whether her current phone may have been compromised and to show her how she can set up the new one so that her privacy, security and safety are maintained.

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Youth Justice Education and Training, Queensland—Bronze award winner Youth Justice Education and Training (YJET) is a vital education and crime prevention program in the Moreton Bay region of South-East Queensland. YJET is primarily an alternative education program which produces crime prevention outcomes as a by-product. Approximately 15 to 20 young people attend YJET each day to complete their school work and learn valuable social and life skills to prepare them to become contributing citizens in their local community. Their classroom is very youth-friendly and includes a pool table, ping-pong table, couches, a kitchen and laundry, tables, computers and artwork.

YJET Moreton Bay has been effectively and efficiently delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Lutheran Community Care Intercept Youth and Family Service (Intercept), as lead agency; Caboolture Youth Justice Centre; Charters Towers School of Distance Education; and three local state high schools.

Schoolies Education Program, Queensland—Bronze award winner The Schoolies Education Program is part of the Queensland Government’s Safer Schoolies Initiative, which aims to minimise harm and community disruption. It also encourages youth to engage in safe and responsible behaviour during schoolies celebrations. The Schoolies Education Program is delivered by the Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services in partnership with the Queensland Police Service, with the support of the Department of Justice and Attorney-General, the Department of Education and Training, Queensland Health and the Queensland Ambulance Service.

The Schoolies Education Program prepares thousands of young people to safely navigate the risks that may arise during the schoolies holiday period. It promotes safe and responsible behaviour, raises awareness of rights and responsibilities and aims to prevent and reduce antisocial and risky behaviour.

Rise Above the Pack, South Australia—Bronze award winner Rise Above the Pack is a community safety campaign delivered by YWCA Adelaide, initially funded through a Crime Prevention Grant from the South Australian Attorney-General’s Department. The aim of the campaign is to increase awareness of the role that everyone can play in preventing violence against women and creating safer public spaces.

Fundamental to this campaign is the need to shift the public conversation from victim blaming to perpetrator behaviour. It also encourages men and women to challenge attitudes and behaviours that underpin violence against women, such as sexist jokes in the workplace or street harassment, through a positive bystander approach.

YWCA Adelaide engaged with community, government and business stakeholders in the development and delivery of Rise Above the Pack, and had support from key organisations such as South Australia Police and the Adelaide City Council in the rollout of the campaign.

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COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION SERVICES PERFORMANCE COMMUNICATION One of the AIC’s critical functions is disseminating new research findings, recognising that applied criminological research should inform policy, practice and the wider community debate on issues of concern. The communication function ensures the AIC’s research is disseminated and widely understood, is targeted at those who will use the findings, and informs policy and practice.

The AIC website is the Institute’s core communication tool, providing access to approximately 4,000 AIC publications as well as 321 video seminars and multiple links to relevant external databases.

PUBLICATIONS

The AIC communicates new knowledge developed by both AIC researchers and external authors. The AIC’s regular publications are the foundation of this. Due to the large volume of publications the AIC produces, these are generally edited and typeset in-house.

In 2016-17 the AIC streamlined its publications into four series:

ƒ Research Reports—reports up to 30,000 words in length that explore a particular topic in detail;

ƒ Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice—papers of up to 6,000 words that provide a summary of research findings;

ƒ Statistical Reports—regular reports from AIC monitoring programs that capture data across Australia on a range of crime and justice issues;

ƒ Statistical Bulletins—short reports that present statistical information on crime and justice in a concise way.

Reports published in 2016-17 by the AIC are listed in appendices 1 and 2.

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TABLE 5: AIC PUBLICATIONS 2016-17

Publication type n

Research Reports 3

Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 22

Statistical Reports 2

Statistical Bulletins 3

Other 41

Total 71

PEER REVIEW AND PUBLICATIONS PROCESS

Research Reports and Trends & issues papers are subject to a rigorous review process before they are accepted for publication. Drafts are reviewed by senior research staff and also undergo external review. All publications are then reviewed by the Deputy Director and edited to conform to AIC publishing style, promoting clear and understandable research.

WEB USE

The AIC has been a significant criminal justice publisher since the mid-1970s. Publications cover a broad range of subject areas and there are approximately 4,000 AIC publications on the website.

During 2016-17, the number of people who used the AIC website decreased by 19 percent. Page views also decreased by 19 percent (see Table 6).

TABLE 6: WEB SESSIONS AND PAGE VIEWS, 2015-16 AND 2016-17 COMPARISON (N)

Sessions Users Page views

2015-16 1,427,823 1,020,428 2,900,914

2016-17 1,200,881 830,277 2,368,282

Source: Google analytics

Referrals from social networking sites to the AIC website decreased in 2016-17, after peaking in the previous financial year.

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FIGURE 1: TOP 5 REFERRALS TO AIC WEBSITE FROM SOCIAL MEDIA BY SESSIONS (N)

Source: Google analytics

While desktop computers remain the most common way of accessing the AIC website, traffic from mobile phones represents one in five website sessions.

FIGURE 2: DEVICES USED TO ACCESS WEBSITE BY SESSION (%)

Source: Google analytics

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Table 7 shows AIC’s most popular publications based on page views. These demonstrate the importance and continuing relevance of the AIC’s extensive back catalogue of research, with a number of these reports published over five years ago.

TABLE 7: AIC PUBLICATIONS PERFORMANCE 2016-17 (N)

Title Page views

Key issues in domestic violence (RIP 7) 40,195

Effective crime prevention interventions for implementation by local government (RPP120) 34,720

Key issues in alcohol-related violence (RIP 4) 27,472

Misperceptions about child sex offenders (T&I 429) 19,179

Australian crime: Facts and figures 2014 19,093

Australian threshold quantities for drug trafficking: Are they placing drug users at risk of unjustified sanction (T&I 467) 17,658

What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders? (T&I 409) 17,450

Domestic/family homicide in Australia (RIP 38) 13,296

Children’s exposure to domestic violence in Australia (T&I 419) 12,092

Homicide in Australia: 2010-11 to 2011-12 (MR 23) 11,889

Source: Google analytics

MEDIA

The AIC’s media engagement is both proactive, triggered by publications and events, and reactive, when journalists request information or interviews on general criminal justice topics. Over the year there were 196 media contacts and 20 interviews.

SOCIAL MEDIA

At June 2017 the AIC had an online subscriber network of 31,607 people:

ƒ 19,584 Facebook followers;

ƒ 5,137 Twitter followers;

ƒ 4,281 Email Alert subscribers;

ƒ 1,473 LinkedIn subscribers; and

ƒ 1,132 CriminologyTV YouTube subscribers.

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CriminologyTV makes 321 AIC video files—lectures, keynote conference presentations, seminars and ACVPA award ceremonies—publicly available to both subscribers and non-subscribers worldwide, substantially expanding access to AIC products.

FIGURE 3: SOCIAL MEDIA FOLLOWERS BY YEAR (N)

OCCASIONAL SEMINARS

Three occasional seminars were hosted by the AIC this year.

What is CPTED? Reconnecting theory with application in the words of users and abusers Dr Leanne Monchuk, 28 October 2016

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a multi-faceted approach to crime reduction that draws upon theories from environmental criminology, architecture and urban design. It requires the commitment of agencies as diverse as police, planners and housing developers. The importance of CPTED as a crime reduction approach has been formalised through strategy, policy and regulation. This presentation was based on findings from interviews with incarcerated adult male burglars and 10 Designing out Crime Officers in England and Wales. The findings reveal key similarities between the users and abusers of CPTED, confirming and elevating the significance of features such as surveillance. However, other features of design traditionally considered critical to burglary risk are given less importance.

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SOCIAL MEDIA

TOP FIVE TWEETS FOR 2016-17



Last call for nominations: Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards closing today bit.ly/2agpacZ



.@MichaelKeenanMP has launched our new and interactive website Crime Statistics Australia bit.ly/2sF7kXT



The most cited Trends and Issues paper in 2015-16 was 'Children's exposure to domestic violence in Australia' bit.ly/2jSOohx



Nominations for the 2017 Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards are now open aic.gov.au/acvpa #ACVPA



Project Booyah is delivering real change for young people at risk in QLD #CrimePrevention2016 @QPSmedia

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TOP FIVE FACEBOOK POSTS 2016-17



Congratulations to all winners from the #ACVPA. The awards recognise Australia’s best crime and violence prevention programs. View a snapshot of some of the national winners. Photos coming soon. bit.ly/2fA6YZl



Are you involved in a project that's working towards a safer community? The 2017 Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards recognise and reward good practice... www.aic.gov.au/acvpa



The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) have 12 internship openings in Rome and Turin, Italy, to commence from January 2017... http://unicri.it/institute/join_us/jobs…



The Minister for Justice, the Hon. Michael Keenan has launched our new website Crime Statistics Australia www.crimestats.aic.gov.au which provides an interactive gateway to Australian crime and justice research...



Have you registered to attend the International Conference on Cybercrime and Computer Forensics? Early bird tickets close 30 May. bit.ly/2jP88mF

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OCCASIONAL SEMINARS (CONTINUED)

Denial of service attacks for a fee: Understanding ‘booter’ operators Dr Alice Hutchings, 5 December 2016

The most frequent users of ‘booter’ or ‘stresser’ services are online gamers. These services are used to gain an advantage over an opponent by ‘booting’ them off the game with a denial of service attack. Booter services have customer-facing websites, whereby payments are taken for subscriptions, and attacks are requested.

In order to understand this black market resource, the University of Cambridge asked those providing the services about themselves and their activities. The operation of booter services requires not just technical expertise but also information about the market for denial of service attacks and how to monetise them. The presentation discussed how this knowledge is obtained, exposure to these services, and the escalation from using to operating booter services and to other forms of cybercrime.

There’s a scam out there for everyone: An examination of tricks employed by scammers in work-at-home and romance scams Professor Monica Whitty, 15 December 2016

This presentation discussed work from the Detecting and Preventing MMF (mass-marketing fraud) project, including findings from interviews conducted with work-at-home and romance scam victims. Comparisons were made between the anatomy of these scams and the persuasive strategies employed by the criminals. It was argued that internet communication technologies play an important role in the success of these scams and are used to build trusting relationships to push victims into parting with their money. The findings have implications for crime prevention as well as insights into the most appropriate support for these victims.

CONFERENCES

The AIC hosted two conferences in 2016-17.

Organised Crime Research Forum

The AIC, in collaboration with the Australian National University, hosted the Organised Crime Research Forum on 6 and 7 June 2017. The forum brought together researchers in the fields of corruption, security, transnational crime and illicit drug networks to discuss issues relating to intelligence sharing, cybercrime, policing approaches and the relationship between organised crime and terrorism.

Crime Prevention and Communities

The AIC hosted its third Crime Prevention and Communities conference on 3 and 4 November 2016. Co-hosted with the Queensland Police Service at the Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, the conference brought together local government, urban planners, policymakers, police, criminologists, non-government community organisations, researchers and students to discuss best practice, policy, evaluation and research.

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Keynote speakers included Rosie Batty, 2015 Australian of the Year; Professor Kate Bowers from the University College London; Chief Robert Davis of the Lethbridge Police Service in Canada; Professor Anna Stewart from Griffith University; and Commissioner Ian Stewart and Deputy Commissioner Peter Martin of the Queensland Police Service.

The conference was a great success with almost 300 attendees, making it the most popular Crime Prevention and Communities conference yet.

INFORMATION SERVICES AND LIBRARY PERFORMANCE The Institute’s information services, centred around the JV Barry Library, are essential to our role as the national knowledge centre on crime and criminal justice. The library provides information to practitioners, policymakers, academics, students and the general public. The Information Services team also offers fundamental support to AIC researchers, particularly by anticipating their research requirements and proactively sourcing new and authoritative material.

SERVICES FOR STAKEHOLDERS

The library maintains and promotes a significant, specialist criminology information collection and provides a range of services that inform the sector (see table 8). These services include:

ƒ maintaining and developing the CINCH database;

ƒ alerting subscribers, by email and RSS feed, to developments in their subject areas;

ƒ responding to enquiries from an array of law enforcement and justice personnel, researchers, other practitioners, students and the public; and

ƒ providing hard copy and electronic materials through national and networked interlibrary loan schemes.

In addition to assisting AIC researchers with literature searches and the provision of resources, library staff also monitor the distribution, reach and influence of AIC publications.

Crime Prevention and Communities conference 2016

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LIBRARY COLLECTION

The library collection consists of 11,359 hard copy book titles, 137 individual serial subscriptions and access to more than 1,780 serial titles through subscribed databases. All of the Institute’s publications are also held in the library. Library holdings can be viewed using the online catalogue: http://library.aic.gov.au

CINCH: AUSTRALIAN CRIMINOLOGY DATABASE

CINCH has been established for over 40 years and is very well known among university students and academics in particular, as the key compendium for Australian criminology and criminal justice literature. CINCH records have coverage from 1968 to the present and include two subsets: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and Health Issues in Criminal Justice. CINCH subscribers are located in Australia, Canada and New Zealand, with the majority from academic institutions, followed by government (state and federal), TAFE and state libraries and finally corporate organisational subscribers.

The CINCH bibliographic database is compiled and maintained by the AIC’s library team. The database is one of a family of index databases that can be accessed via Informit (see http://informit.com.au for more information). The intention is for CINCH to include all new material about crime and criminal justice in Australasia—books, reports, journal articles, websites, conference proceedings and papers—while including high-quality subject indexing and abstracts. CINCH records are also included in the JV Barry Library’s catalogue.

CRIME AND JUSTICE ALERTS

Contemporary evidence-based information is disseminated to practitioners and policymakers worldwide via the Institute’s monthly email Crime and Justice Alerts. This free service provides information on 17 topics to 2,406 individual subscribers, an increase of eight percent over last year. The alerts also provide an opportunity for the library to highlight new AIC publications to a subscribed audience.

STAKEHOLDER AND PUBLIC ENQUIRIES

The JV Barry Library is the first point of contact for telephone and email enquiries from external stakeholders and the public. The team responded to a diverse range of requests, providing literature searches, guidance on AIC web-based statistics and information sources, referrals to supporting agencies and responses to questions.

The approximately 50 queries received each month are generally answered within 24 hours and come from diverse clients including government officers, members of the public, solicitors, students, researchers, law enforcement and justice personnel, and academics.

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Examples of the types of external enquiries in 2016-17 included:

ƒ an officer from South Australia’s Independent Commissioner Against Corruption requested information on particular crime related management systems;

ƒ the Victorian Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders requested additional information related to an AIC report;

ƒ a tertiary student was looking for information related to crime statistics by religion/ ethnicity;

ƒ an officer from the Queensland Crime and Corruption Commission sought information from the Future Investigations Capabilities Project;

ƒ an officer of Civil Liberties Australia requested information regarding recalled evidence; and

ƒ an Australian Army officer requested information on legislative controls over Queensland motorcycle gangs.

NETWORKING ACROSS SECTORS

In 2016-17, over 764 books and article copies were exchanged through the interlibrary loans service. This is an increase in activity of 17 percent. The JV Barry Library partners with libraries from agencies in the law enforcement, university, government, health and community sectors to maintain strong reciprocal networks, and is a member of the Libraries Australia Document Delivery service. This service minimises duplication of resources while maximising the effectiveness and specialisation of library collections across the nation.

The library contributes news from Australia and overseas to the CrimNet email discussion list for criminal justice researchers, practitioners and policymakers in Australia. It also gives notice of new AIC publications and events to Australian Policy Online, library networks both local and international (eg the World Criminal Justice Library Network) and other related professional networks.

The library also makes contributions to most of the Institute’s conferences, forums, visiting delegations and seminars.

DISTRIBUTION, REACH AND INFLUENCE OF AIC PUBLICATIONS

The AIC has a profound influence on criminological research and policy development across multiple jurisdictions, nationally and internationally. Crime and justice researchers and practitioners, international organisations and parliaments continue to use AIC publications from the 1970s right through to the most recent publications.

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In addition to the numerous instances of individual journal articles which cite AIC publications, citation analysis has revealed the significant use of AIC material by all levels of government. Prominent government organisations that have cited AIC papers include:

ƒ Parliament of Australia;

ƒ Attorney-General’s Department (Commonwealth);

ƒ Australian Institute of Family Studies;

ƒ Australian Institute of Health and Welfare;

ƒ Australian Law Reform Commission;

ƒ Australian National Audit Office;

ƒ Productivity Commission;

ƒ Parliament of New South Wales;

ƒ Audit Office of New South Wales;

ƒ New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research;

ƒ New South Wales Ombudsman;

ƒ Parliament of Queensland;

ƒ Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Queensland;

ƒ Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Queensland;

ƒ Parliament of Victoria;

ƒ Department of Health and Human Services, Victoria;

ƒ Sentencing Advisory Council, Victoria;

ƒ Commission for Children and Young People, Victoria;

ƒ Parliament of Western Australia; and

ƒ Attorney-General’s Department, South Australia.

The various materials which cite our publications can be classified by type. As shown in the chart below, a third of the 407 AIC citations identified appeared in government documents and another third in peer reviewed journals. Another prominent source of citations is parliamentary documents.

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FIGURE 4: WHERE AIC MATERIAL IS USED

Publications cover a broad range of subject areas and are available for download from the AIC website and from database providers.

TRENDS & ISSUES SERIES

Since 1986 the Trends & issues series has offered more than 520 concise, peer-reviewed papers on criminological topics for policymakers and practitioners.

ƒ 18 percent of all Trends & issues papers were cited in 2016-17; the earliest paper was from 1999. The most cited paper was Non-disclosure of violence in Australian Indigenous communities, published in 2011.

RESEARCH AND PUBLIC POLICY SERIES

This series of over 130 publications is a diverse set of original research papers, shorter conference proceedings and statistical works. The series was discontinued in 2016 and replaced with the Research Reports series.

ƒ 22 percent of the Research and Public Policy series were cited this year. Police drug diversion: A study of criminal offending outcomes, published in 2008, was the most cited paper in this series.

AUSTRALIAN CRIME: FACTS AND FIGURES

The Facts and Figures series began in 1998 and presents annual statistics on the numbers and types of recorded crime, their place of occurrence, victim details, responses of criminal justice agencies and government resources to deal with crime and corrections. The series was moved to the new CSA website in 2017.

ƒ 23 percent of Facts and Figures papers were cited this year and the latest edition, from 2014, was the most popular.

4%

12%

16%

34%

34%

 Government publications (34%)

 Peer reviewed journal articles (34%)

 Parliamentary (Commonwealth, state and territory) documents (16%)

 NGO publications (12%)

 Other publications (4)

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MONITORING REPORTS

Monitoring Reports capture data from AIC monitoring programs across Australia for a range of crime and justice issues. The series was discontinued in 2016 and replaced with the Statistical Reports series.

ƒ 48 percent of these publications were cited in the last 12 months and the most popular monitoring report was Homicide in Australia: 2010-11 to 2011-12: National Homicide Monitoring Program.

DATABASE PROVIDERS

In addition to producing timely and relevant research for the law and justice sector, the AIC facilitates understanding by transferring knowledge across a range of legal and criminological areas. ProQuest, GALE and Ebsco are database providers that host a large range of information products for academic, school, public, corporate and government agencies around the world, and their distribution of AIC material gives an indication of its reach. ProQuest statistics show that:

ƒ 27,579 Trends & issues papers were downloaded by academic and government sectors in Australasia (73.5 percent) and beyond (26.5 percent).

TABLE 8: LIBRARY SERVICES ACTIVITY 2014-15 TO 2016-2017

Activity 2014-15

Activity 2015-16

Activity 2016-17

Inquiry responses <15 mins 870 492 478

Hours spent on complex queries 749 242 281

Records added to CINCH 1,434 1,110 1,174

Monographs added to collection 454 497 654

Journal articles supplied by other libraries 138 143 304

Journal articles supplied to other libraries 398 372 302

Items loaned to other libraries 108 103 109

Items borrowed from other libraries 54 35 24

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Section 03 Governance and accountability

58 External scrutiny and review

68 Information and communications technology services

69 Statutory reporting requirements

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EXTERNAL SCRUTINY AND REVIEW In 2016-17, no judicial decisions or decisions of administrative tribunals affected the Institute, nor were there any Ombudsman reports.

The AIC undertakes a risk assessment annually and reviews risks on a regular basis. The Institute is subject to an annual statutory audit performed by the Australian National Audit Office. In addition, regular internal audit reviews are undertaken by an independent consultant. The outcomes of all audits are presented to the AIC Audit Committee, and plans for the implementation of recommendations and ongoing monitoring of actions for improving processes are developed.

PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES In 2016-17, the AIC contributed to four parliamentary inquires.

Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee—the AIC, in conjunction with the Attorney-General’s Department and ACIC, provided a joint submission to inform consideration of the Australian Crime Commission Amendment (Criminology Research) Bill 2016.

Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade—the AIC provided a submission to the inquiry into establishing a Modern Slavery Act in Australia.

Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee—the AIC appeared before the inquiry into Department of Defence’s management of credit and other transaction cards.

NSW Legislative Council Select Committee on Human Trafficking—the AIC provided a submission to the inquiry into human trafficking in NSW.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE In 2016-17, the AIC continued to enhance its accountability and governance practices and implement changes in Commonwealth legislation and policy to ensure its corporate integrity.

DIRECTOR (CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF THE ACIC)

Mr Chris Dawson APM, the CEO of the ACIC, was appointed Acting Director from 13 July 2015. He continued in this role throughout 2016-17. Ms Nicole Rose PSM was appointed Acting Director in August 2017, following the departure of Mr Dawson.

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CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COUNCIL

The Advisory Council was established under 2011 amendments to the Criminology Research Act 1971. This council and its members have no legal, management or financial responsibility for the AIC. The role of the council and its members is to advise the Director in relation to:

ƒ strategic priorities for criminological research;

ƒ priorities for communicating the results of that research; and

ƒ applications for research grants made under the CRG program.

The Advisory Council consists of eight members representing the Commonwealth Government and state and territory governments, with Tasmania choosing not to participate directly at the present time. This composition ensures that areas targeted for research funding reflect national, state and territory priorities.

In 2016-17 the council met on the following occasions:

ƒ 29 July 2016, by teleconference;

ƒ 2 December 2016 in Canberra; and

ƒ 17 March 2017 in Canberra.

COUNCIL MEMBERS AS AT 30 JUNE 2017

Commonwealth Ms Catherine Hawkins, First Assistant Secretary, Criminal Justice Policy and Programmes Division, Attorney-General’s Department

New South Wales Mr Brendan Thomas, Deputy Secretary, NSW Department of Justice

Victoria Ms Julia Griffith, Deputy Secretary, Corrections, Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation (Chair)

Queensland Ms Jennifer Lang, Acting Deputy Director General, Queensland Department of Justice and Attorney-General (Deputy Chair)

Western Australia Dr Adam Tomison, Director General, WA Department of Justice

South Australia Ms Ingrid Haythorpe, Chief Executive, Attorney-General’s Department

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Australian Capital Territory Ms Alison Playford, Director-General, ACT Justice and Community Safety Directorate

Northern Territory Mr Greg Shanahan, Chief Executive, NT Department of the Attorney-General and Justice

AUDIT COMMITTEE

In accordance with responsibilities under section 45 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013, the Director has established and maintains an independent Audit Committee. The Audit Committee’s authority is established under its Charter, which sets out the committee’s functions and responsibilities.

The Audit Committee functions as a joint audit committee for the AIC and the ACIC and endorses the Internal Audit Charter, approves the annual audit plan, reviews progress against the plan and considers all audit reports. It also monitors implementation of all internal and external audit recommendations and takes a keen interest in the implementation of recommendations arising from other review activity, including from the Australian National Audit Office and Commonwealth Ombudsman.

The Audit Committee provides advice on matters of concern raised by internal auditors or the Auditor-General and advises the Director on the preparation and review of the AIC’s financial statements and certificate of compliance.

As at 30 June 2017, the Audit Committee comprised four independent external members, including the Chair, and one member of the ACIC Executive, with the AIC Deputy Director attending as an observer. The four independent audit committee members have held a range of senior roles in law enforcement, national security and financial crime, and are experienced in managing risk in these contexts. The Audit Committee met five times during the year.

MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES

Human Research Ethics Committee The AIC Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) has been operating since 1992. Its eight members have backgrounds in law, religion, social work and research, as stipulated in the National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for ethics committees.

The HREC’s role is to advise the Director (or Deputy Director) whether approval to proceed should be granted for proposed research involving human subjects. The HREC regularly reviews proposed projects to ensure that appropriate safeguards exist for the conduct of the research to be consistent with ethical standards.

During the reporting period, the HREC reviewed and approved 13 new proposals. The HREC met on two occasions: 17 November 2016 and 29 March 2017.

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The committee chair in 2016-17 was Professor Nicolas Peterson PhD, Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. The committee’s other members as at 30 June 2017 were:

ƒ Mr Derek Jory MA (layman);

ƒ Ms Christine Freudenstein (laywoman);

ƒ Professor Debra Rickwood PhD, MAPS (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, the care, counselling or treatment of people);

ƒ Ms Ruth Treyde BA/LLB (lawyer);

ƒ Reverend Christopher Nelson (person who performs a pastoral care role in a community);

ƒ Dr Tony Krone PhD (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, research regularly considered by the HREC); and

ƒ Ms Samantha Lyneham BSocSc, PGDip Crim, PhD candidate (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, research regularly considered by the HREC).

Research Managers Committee The Research Managers Committee meets every two weeks to consider both strategic and operational aspects of the AIC research program and provides advice to the Executive Committee on research priorities and risks. The meetings are regularly attended by other senior management staff to discuss specific management topics. Its members as at 30 June 2017 were:

ƒ Dr Rick Brown, Deputy Director (Chair);

ƒ Dr Russell Smith, Principal Criminologist and Research Manager;

ƒ Matthew Willis, Research Manager;

ƒ Anthony Morgan, Research Manager;

ƒ Dr Samantha Bricknell, Research Manager; and

ƒ Jane Shelling, JV Barry Library Manager.

RISK MANAGEMENT

The AIC’s risk management framework provides the mechanism to prevent or minimise the impact of adverse events on the Institute’s ability to achieve its outcomes. The framework aims to provide a systematic process for making informed decisions and ensure that risks have been identified, managed and appropriately treated. The AIC’s risk management process encapsulates fraud control planning and processes in accordance with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines.

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The primary components of the AIC’s risk management strategy are as follows:

ƒ risk management policy and framework;

ƒ risk management plan and risk assessment registers;

ƒ protective security management framework;

ƒ business continuity management plan;

ƒ Accountable Authority Instructions;

ƒ finance policy and procedures;

ƒ project management framework; and

ƒ internal audit program.

The AIC also participates in the annual Comcover risk management survey, which seeks to benchmark agencies’ risk management frameworks, programs and systems against those of all participating agencies and peer group agencies. The majority of the Institute’s risk management practices have achieved average or above average ratings.

FRAUD AND CORRUPTION CONTROL

As required by the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework, the Director certifies they are confident that:

ƒ a fraud and corruption risk assessment and fraud and corruption control plan has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework;

ƒ appropriate fraud prevention, detection, investigation and reporting procedures and processes are in place; and

ƒ annual fraud data that complies with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework has been collected and reported.

Fraud and corruption risks were assessed as part of the ACIC’s fraud and corruption risk assessment process. The inclusion of corruption control in the fraud control plan recognises the ACIC’s organisational environment as a target for infiltration and corruption. No fraud or corruption was identified in 2016-17.

PROTECTIVE SECURITY

The AIC, as an Australian Government agency, is required to follow the Commonwealth Government Protective Security Policy Framework (PSPF) and the Commonwealth Government Information Security Manual (ISM). The AIC’s protective security requirements are provided by the ACIC.

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HUMAN RESOURCES Staff were informed of the AIC’s strategic and corporate direction throughout the reporting year at meetings and via the intranet, email and internal blogs informing and updating staff on research projects and corporate issues.

The AIC’s human resource framework was designed to maintain a workforce with the skills, flexibility and diversity needed to meet the AIC’s current and future research needs.

The AIC continued to provide staff access to learning and development opportunities, including effective performance development and staff management.

The Institute’s security, payroll and reporting functions were provided by the ACIC.

WORKFORCE PLANNING

The AIC continually monitors workforce requirements. Staff are employed on the basis of requirements arising from both appropriation-funded and fee-for-service research and support activities. The AIC takes into account outsourcing opportunities in the university research and corporate sectors. Flexible staff arrangements are essential to meet research outputs through a collaborative approach. This includes engaging leading national and international research organisations and individuals from within these organisations.

The Institute undertakes workforce planning on an ongoing basis due to its constantly changing operational environment. Structured planning occurs as part of the strategic planning and development process. This includes the consideration of budget priorities for the upcoming year and the resources required to meet those priorities.

Next year, the agency will undertake an active and continuous workforce planning approach that will encompass the following initiatives:

ƒ gathering business intelligence to inform the organisation about the current and future impact of the external and internal environment at an enterprise level; and

ƒ supporting and enabling the AIC to become more resilient to structural and cultural changes as they occur, ensuring the AIC will be better positioned for the future.

To achieve this, the workforce planning team will undertake two separate but interrelated tasks:

ƒ operational workforce planning, aligning with the organisation’s annual planning cycle; and

ƒ strategic workforce planning, aligning with the Strategic Plan.

Both approaches will ensure that workforce planning is future focused and based on identifying and exploring a range of possible future scenarios.

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PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

Under the Public Service Act 1999 (Cth), the AIC is required to manage staff performance. Our Performance Development System incorporates career planning, individual and team-based learning and development, capability and skills enhancement and regular performance feedback. This system guides our performance management process and assists staff to make strategic links between business goals and key result areas when identifying opportunities for development.

In 2016-17, our Performance Development System completion rate was 87 percent.

Our Performance Development System enables incremental salary advancement. Staff are rated on a three-point scale (high performing, performing well and requires development) and are eligible for an incremental increase if they receive a rating of high performing or performing well.

Managers are supported with guidance on the more formal aspects of the performance management process, including managing underperformance. Managers and staff are supported through coaching to maintain an appropriate focus on the issues at hand.

RECOGNITION

The Institute recognises staff who make a significant contribution to achieving its goals through a formal rewards and recognition program which includes an award for Excellence in the field of Research.

In 2016-17 this was awarded to Christopher Dowling, Senior Research Analyst, for his work on the evaluation of the Australian Cybercrime Online Reporting Network and his work on family and domestic violence research.

Individuals are also recognised for their service to the AIC through service awards for 10, 15 and 20 years of service.

STAFF COMMUNICATION

The AIC contributed to the 2016-17 Australian Public Service State of the Service employee census. This survey gave staff the opportunity to communicate issues and perceived weaknesses and strengths to management anonymously. The results of the survey showed continuing improvement across a range of areas.

All-staff meetings are scheduled on a bi-monthly basis and provide an opportunity for managers to advise staff of achievements or events over the past two months. These meetings also provide an open forum for discussing any issues impacting staff.

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The AIC’s intranet is its main vehicle for sharing and developing knowledge. It provides links to information in the JV Barry Library catalogue, the external databases to which the library subscribes and the public domain. By providing access to research projects, datasets and presentations, the intranet encourages researchers to build on and extend previous AIC research.

AIC STAFFING

TABLE 9: ALL STAFF BY CLASSIFICATION LEVEL (ACTUALS)

Classification 30 Jun 2015 30 Jun 2016 30 Jun 2017

SES Band 1 (equivalent) 2 1 1

Executive Level 2 6 4 4

Executive Level 1 7 6 6

APS 6 7 5 4

APS 5 10 7 10

APS 4 6 6 5

APS 3 9 4 7

APS 2 1 0 0

APS 1 1 1 0

Total 49 34 37

Note: Staffing figures do not include the Director or staff on temporary transfer to another agency, and figures show staff at their actual classification.

TABLE 10: AVERAGE STAFFING LEVEL BY FINANCIAL YEAR

Financial year Average staffing level

2012-13 48.5

2013-14 45.2

2014-15 49.9

2015-16 38.6

2016-17 33.3

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TABLE 11: ALL STAFF BY EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY, EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND GENDER

Male (n) Female (n) Total (n) Females as %

of total

2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017

Ongoing

Full time 8 5 7 13 17 13 21 22 20 62 77 65

Part time - - 1 - 3 3 - 3 4 - 100 75

Subtotal 8 5 8 13 20 16 21 25 24 62 80 67

Non-ongoing

Full time 6 2 3 20 6 8 26 8 11 77 75 73

Part time - - - 2 1 2 2 1 2 100 100 100

Subtotal 6 2 3 22 7 10 28 9 13 79 78 77

Total 14 7 11 35 27 26 49 34 37 71 79 71

TABLE 12: ALL STAFF BY CLASSIFICATION LEVEL AND GENDER

Male (n) Female (n) Total (n) Females as %

of total

2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017

SES Band 1 2 1 1 - - - 2 1 1 - - -

Executive Level 2

5 3 3 1 1 1 6 4 4 17 25 25

Executive Level 1

3 1 1 4 5 5 7 6 6 57 83 83

APS 6 1 1 2 6 4 2 7 5 4 86 80 50

APS 5 1 - 1 9 7 9 10 7 10 90 100 90

APS 4 1 1 - 5 5 5 6 6 5 83 83 100

APS 3 1 - 3 8 4 4 9 4 7 89 100 58

APS 2 - - - 1 - - 1 - - 100 - -

APS 1 - - - 1 1 - 1 1 - 100 100 -

Total 14 7 11 35 27 26 49 34 37 71 79 71

Note: Staffing figures do not include the Director or staff on temporary transfer to another agency and figures show staff at their actual classification

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TABLE 13: EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENTS COVERING STAFF (N)

Employment arrangement Staff 2015 2016 2017

AIC agency agreement (or ACIC agency agreement) SES (equivalent) 0 0 0

Non-SES 47 33 34

Common Law contracts SES (equivalent) 2 1 1

Non-SES 0 0 0

Individual flexibility arrangements SES (equivalent) 0 0 0

Non-SES 2 0 2

TABLE 14: STAFF SEPARATIONS BY CLASSIFICATION LEVEL AND EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY (N)

Ongoing Non-ongoing Total

2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17

Chief Executive

- - - - 1 - - 1 -

SES Band 1 (equivalent)

- 1 - - - - - 1 -

Executive Level 2

- 1 1 - 1 - - 2 1

Executive Level 1

2 1 1 - 2 1 2 3 2

APS 6 2 1 2 1 - - 3 1 2

APS 5 1 1 - 1 2 1 - 3 1

APS 4 - 1 2 - 1 1 - 2 3

APS 3 - - - 7 4 2 7 4 2

APS 2 - - - - 1 - - 1 -

APS 1 - - - - - - - - -

Total 5 6 6 9 12 5 14 18 11

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TABLE 15: SALARY RANGES BY CLASSIFICATION LEVEL AS AT 30 JUNE 2017

Position Salary range

APS 1 Trainee $43,287-47,842

APS 2 Admin assistant $49,728-55,142

APS 3 Research Officer 1/Admin Officer 1 $57,530-62,092

APS 4 Research Officer 2/Admin Officer 2 $63,236-68,662

APS 5 Research Analyst/Senior Admin Officer $70,018-74,246

APS 6 Senior Research Analyst/Senior Admin Officer 2 $76,396-86,454

Executive level 1 Principal Research Analyst/Admin Specialist $96,317-116,120

Executive level 2 Research Manager/Admin Executive $120,337-135,583

SES SES Band 1 $152,697+

INTERNSHIP PROGRAM

During the year there were no interns hosted by the AIC, although four interns were selected through the Australian National Internship Program to commence in 2017-18.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES NETWORK AND INFRASTRUCTURE The AIC runs a stable and secure ICT network in accordance with Commonwealth Government Protective Security Policy Framework and related information security requirements. The AIC continues to enhance the performance of its systems and reduce the overheads associated with its ICT service.

Backup and disaster-recovery systems have been upgraded and improved to strengthen the protection of AIC systems and data.

In collaboration with Australian Survey Research, the AIC has developed a data collection system for the DUMA program. The system allows offline survey data collection to be integrated into the online survey environment. The process enables the offline collection of data and significantly reduces costs and processing time by eliminating hard copy survey instruments and the labour-intensive data entry and validation process. An improved version has been developed and is currently in use.

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ICT SECURITY The AIC continues to monitor and review its ICT security. A review of the AIC’s compliance with the Australian Signals Directorate’s Information Security Manual was completed during 2015-16 and additional controls were implemented on the Protected and DMZ networks. Compliance with the Australian Signals Directorate’s mandatory Top 4 security requirements has been completed and work is underway to ensure full compliance with the Essential Eight.

STATUTORY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY PRIORITIES FOR 2016-17 This year the AIC:

ƒ strengthened its risk management arrangements with a focus on field work;

ƒ strengthened its existing work health and safety (WHS) system to ensure effective and innovative WHS support for the AIC; and

ƒ implemented tailored early intervention strategies and rehabilitation case management, leading to improved injury prevention and workers compensation performance.

WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS

The National Work Health and Safety Committee meets quarterly and is responsible for:

ƒ supporting the Executive by helping to identify, develop, review and implement measures to protect and actively manage the health and safety of workers;

ƒ promoting and monitoring measures to ensure safe work practices;

ƒ facilitating consultation and communication with workers about work health and safety matters; and

ƒ undertaking functions as prescribed in the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 and associated regulations.

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

The National Work Health and Safety Committee is the conduit for consultation with employees on all work health and safety issues.

Local Work Health and Safety Committees meet regularly and provide input to the national committee.

We continue to use our communication strategy to support and enhance communication across the agency.

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HEALTH AND WELLBEING PROGRAM

The Health and Wellbeing Program continues to evolve with staff input, reviews of better practice and new initiatives. The program aims to:

ƒ help staff make positive health and behaviour changes;

ƒ promote a culture that supports healthy and positive lifestyles;

ƒ provide a central source for health and wellbeing information and resources;

ƒ inspire staff to take ownership of health and wellbeing initiatives in their offices;

ƒ encompass a broad view of health including physical, mental and social aspects; and

ƒ demonstrate our commitment to the health and wellbeing of employees and their families.

PREVENTION PROGRAMS

The AIC takes a proactive approach to identifying and controlling hazards in the workplace and to preventing injury. We continue to identify and assess hazards within work areas and ensure that risk control strategies are in place. This year the Institute:

ƒ provided access to an Employee Assistance Program which includes manager assistance, mediation services and other employee information/support services;

ƒ conducted regular workplace inspections to identify hazards and determine appropriate controls;

ƒ refreshed the Health Officer roles agency wide; and

ƒ coordinated a number of awareness sessions on WHS topics including mental health in the workplace, positive work relationships and resilience.

WORKERS COMPENSATION

The agency premium rate provides an indication of the employer’s effectiveness in preventing injury or illness and in helping its employees to return to work quickly and safely after a work-related injury or illness. The agency is committed to supporting employees with work-related injuries or illness and, as outlined in our Rehabilitation Management System, early intervention is a key strategy.

There were no workers compensation claims submitted during the 2016-17 financial year.

INCIDENT AND INJURY

There was one incident reported during the 2016-17 financial year. The mechanism of injury was body stressing.

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NOTIFIABLE INCIDENTS

Under section 38 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, the agency is required to notify Comcare immediately after becoming aware of any death, serious personal injury or dangerous incident. There was one notifiable incident during 2016-17. The matter was reviewed and corrective actions were implemented to reduce the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future.

WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY INVESTIGATIONS

The AIC was not subject to any external work health and safety investigations in 2016-17.

DISABILITY REPORTING The Diversity and Inclusion Sub-Committee have commenced development of diversity action plans for 2017-19. The intention is to develop a culture within the agency that embraces the diversity of the existing workforce, be it on the basis of gender, age, culture, religion, language or personal circumstances.

The AIC has Senior Executive Diversity Champions who advocate equal access and inclusion for employees from diversity groups. The champions provide leadership to drive diversity-related employment initiatives and organisational change to create workplaces that value and support all staff.

TABLE 15: DIVERSITY DEMOGRAPHICS

Staff by gender-women People with disability Staff who do not have English as a first language

72 percent 2.7 percent 6 percent

CARER RECOGNITION ACT The Institute is compliant with its obligations under the Carer Recognition Act 2010.

ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE This report on ecologically sustainable development and environmental matters is provided in accordance with section 516(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Institute’s Executive and staff are committed to the principles of ecologically sustainable development.

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Initiatives to reduce the Institute’s environmental impacts include the following:

ƒ staff are encouraged to use web-based and teleconference facilities where possible rather than undertaking air travel, which has adverse effects;

ƒ selected seminar presentations are made available electronically so people do not have to travel to the Institute to hear them;

ƒ the majority of Institute publications are produced in an e-book format, reducing the need for printing and paper use; and

ƒ waste generation (resource waste and emissions into the air) is reduced by recycling paper, cardboard, glass, plastics and metals.

The AIC continues to look for ways to reduce its impact on the environment when undertaking new procurements.

PROCUREMENT The AIC’s approach to procuring property and services, including consultancies, is consistent with the Australian Government’s procurement policy and legislation. The Commonwealth Procurement Rules are applied to activities through the Accountable Authority Instructions and supporting operational policies and procedures, which are reviewed for consistency with the Commonwealth Procurement Framework. The procurement framework reflects the core principle governing Australian Government procurement—value for money. The Institute’s policies and procedures also focus on:

ƒ encouraging competitive, non-discriminatory procurement processes;

ƒ efficient, effective, economical and ethical use of resources; and

ƒ accountability and transparency.

During 2016-17 the AIC continued to participate in whole-of-government, coordinated procurement initiatives and sought opportunities to lower tendering costs and provide savings through economies of scale.

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE ACCESS CLAUSES The AIC’s contract templates contain standard clauses to provide for the Auditor-General to have access to the contractor’s premises. All contracts entered into during the reporting period contained these standard clauses.

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EXEMPT CONTRACTS The AIC has not entered into any contracts or standing offers that have been exempted from publication on AusTender.

CONSULTANCY SERVICES Consultants are engaged where particular specialist expertise is necessary, sufficiently skilled expertise is not immediately available in-house, or independent advice on a matter is required. The services provided by new and continuing consultants over the reporting period included internal audit services, legal advice, counselling services and independent IT assessment.

During 2016-17, one new consultancy contract was entered into, involving total actual expenditure of $750 excluding GST. In addition, two ongoing consultancies were active during the year, involving a total actual expenditure of $51,182 (excluding GST). Expenditure for the year totalled $55,933 excluding GST (2015-16: $48,959).

Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website: www.tenders.gov.au Contracts in excess of $100,000 are reported in accordance with the requirements of Senate Order 192 and detailed on the AIC website: www.aic.gov.au

PROPERTY AND SHARED CORPORATE SERVICES Since the machinery-of-government changes came into effect, the support services of the AIC have been subsumed into the support services of the ACIC. As such, functions relating to finance, human resources, ICT and property are now provided to the AIC by the ACIC. The AIC currently occupies space leased by the ACIC, and the lease of the former AIC premises, currently vacant, will terminate in December 2017.

LEGAL SERVICES The AIC engages legal services from the Legal Services Multi-Use List framework, in accordance with the Legal Services Directions 2005. Legal services include both contract and consultancy services relating to legislation, governance, contracting and human resource matters.

During 2016-17, the AIC made no expenditure on legal services (2015-16: $4,539).

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PROCUREMENT INITIATIVE TO SUPPORT SMALL BUSINESS The AIC supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Small Enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance’s website: http://www. finance.gov.au/procurement/statistics-on-commonwealth-purchasing-contracts/

The AIC recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. We support the use of SMEs through various means including the use of template contracts for both low risk and higher risk procurements and compliance with the Government’s Supplier Pay on Time or Pay Interest Policy.

GRANTS Information on grants awarded by the AIC during 2016-17 is available at www.crg.aic.gov.au

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION To find out how to make a FOI request to the AIC go to the Freedom of information page on our website www.aic.gov.au

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Section 04 Financial performance

76 Financial overview

78 Audited financial statements

81 Statement of comprehensive income

82 Statement of financial position

83 Statement of changes in equity

84 Cash flow statement

85 Overview

86 Notes to the financial statements

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FINANCIAL OVERVIEW The AIC’s operating result for the year ended 30 June 2017 was a deficit of $0.521 million. Excluding depreciation expenses the deficit is $0.378 million and is due to drawing down cash reserves for Criminology Research Grants and an unanticipated and unavoidable increase in property rates. In the 2015-16 financial year the AIC reported an operating deficit of $0.957 million.

The AIC received an unmodified audit opinion from the Australian National Audit Office.

During 2016-17 there were no instances of significant non-compliance with the finance law.

Total own source revenue in 2016-17 totalled $1.340 million, less than the $1.906 million reported in 2015-16. The reduction in own source revenue is attributable to the National Drug and Law Enforcement Research Fund program ending, combined with a fall in consultancy revenue resulting from changes in market conditions and deliberate actions taken by the AIC to reposition itself in the market. Appropriations from Government at $5.077 million were substantially unchanged from the previous year.

The AIC’s operating expenses totalled $6.938 million in 2016-17 (2015-16: $8.063 million). Employee expenditure fell during this year, consistent with the fall in average staffing levels from 39 in 2015-16 to 33 in the current year. Supplier expenses decreased by $0.666 million from 2015-16 to $3.253 million. This decrease can be attributed to:

ƒ the one-off recognition in the 2015-16 financial year of an onerous rent provision on premises vacated in co-locating with the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission in December 2015; and

ƒ the finalisation of the National Drug and Law Enforcement Research program leading to a fall in research services.

The decrease is offset in part by the transition to shared services arrangements for corporate services previously provided by AIC staff.

The AIC’s asset holdings as at 30 June 2017 totalled $1.811 million, down from $3.052 million as at 30 June 2016. The decrease is attributable to a reduction in cash held to cover research revenue received in advance from third parties and onerous lease obligations.

Total liabilities as at 30 June 2017 were $1.454 million compared to $2.197 million as at 30 June 2016. The movement can be attributed to a decrease in supplier payables and a reduction in the onerous rent provision on the vacated premise ($0.495 million).

The closing balance of the Criminology Research Special Account as at 30 June 2017 was $1.281 million (2015-16: $2.011 million).

The following tables report actual appropriation, payments, budgets and actual expenses against the outcome.

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TABLE 16: AGENCY RESOURCE STATEMENT 2016-17

Actual available appropriations for 2016-17 $’000

Payments made 2016-17 $’000

Balance remaining $’000

Ordinary annual services

Departmental appropriations1 5,100 5,100 -

Total 5,100 5,100 -

Special accounts

Opening balance 2,011

Receipts to special accounts 1,888

Payments made 2,618

Closing balance 1,281

Total 3,899 2,618 1,281

Total resourcing and payments 8,999 7,718 1,281

1 Includes an amount of $0.023m in 2016-17 for the Departmental Capital Budget. For accounting purposes this amount has been designated as ‘contributions by owners’.

TABLE 17: EXPENDITURE AND STAFFING BY OUTCOME

Outcome 1: Informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre

Budget 2016-17 $’000

Actual Expenses 2016-17 $’000

Variation $’000

Outcome 1: Departmental expenses

Departmental Appropriations 5,077 5,077 -

Special Accounts 1,991 1,703 288

Expenses not requiring appropriation in the Budget year 174 158 (16)

Total for Outcome 1 7,242 6,938 262

Total expenses for Outcome 1 7,242 6,938 263

Budget

2016-17

Actual 2016-17

Average staffing level (number) 35 33

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AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT

To the Minister for Justice

Opinion

In my opinion, the financial statements of the Australian Institute of Criminology for the year ended 30 June 2017:

(a) comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015; and

(b) present fairly the financial position of the Australian Institute of Criminology as at 30 June 2017 and its financial performance and cash flows for the year then ended.

The financial statements of the Australian Institute of Criminology, which I have audited, comprise the following statements as at 30 June 2017 and for the year then ended:

• Statement by the Chief Executive and Chief Financial Officer; • Statement of Comprehensive Income; • Statement of Financial Position; • Statement of Changes in Equity; • Cash Flow Statement; and • Notes to the financial statements, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other

explanatory information.

Basis for Opinion

I conducted my audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, which incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards. My responsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of my report. I am independent of the Australian Institute of Criminology in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements for financial statement audits conducted by the Auditor-General and his delegates. These include the relevant independence requirements of the Accounting Professional and Ethical Standards Board’s APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (the Code) to the extent that they are not in conflict with the Auditor-General Act 1997. I have also fulfilled my other responsibilities in accordance with the Code. I believe that the audit evidence I have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion.

Accountable Authority’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements

As the Accountable Authority of the Australian Institute of Criminology the Director is responsible under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 for the preparation and fair presentation of annual financial statements that comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the rules made under that Act. The Director is also responsible for such internal control as the Director determines is necessary to enable the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.

In preparing the financial statements, the Director is responsible for assessing the Australian Institute of Criminology’s ability to continue as a going concern, taking into account whether the entity’s operations will cease as a result of an administrative restructure or for any other reason. The Director is also responsible for disclosing matters related to going concern as applicable and using the going concern basis of accounting unless the assessment indicates that it is not appropriate.

Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements

My objective is to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditor’s report that includes my opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards will always detect a material misstatement when

GPO Box 707 CANBERRA ACT 2601 19 National Circuit BARTON ACT Phone (02) 6203 7300 Fax (02) 6203 7777

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it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.

As part of an audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, I exercise professional judgement and maintain professional scepticism throughout the audit. I also:

• identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control;

• obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control; • evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and

related disclosures made by the Accountable Authority; • conclude on the appropriateness of the Accountable Authority’s use of the going concern basis of accounting and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. If I conclude

that a material uncertainty exists, I am required to draw attention in my auditor’s report to the related disclosures in the financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify my opinion. My conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of my auditor’s report. However, future events or conditions may cause the entity to cease to continue as a going concern; and • evaluate the overall presentation, structure and content of the financial statements, including the disclosures,

and whether the financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

I communicate with those charged with governance regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that I identify during my audit.

Australian National Audit Office

Lesa Craswell Acting Executive Director

Delegate of the Auditor-General

Canberra 20 September 2017

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STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2017

Budget

2017 2017 2016

Notes $ $ $

NET COST OF SERVICES Expenses Employee benefits 1.1A 3,527,336 - 4,008,957

Supplier 1.1B 3,252,717 7,807,000 3,918,241

Grants - 500,000 -

Depreciation and amortisation 2.2A 143,420 105,000 135,429

Write-down and impairment of assets 2.2A 14,766 - -

Total expenses 6,938,239 8,412,000 8,062,627

-

Own-source Income Own-source revenue Rendering of services 1.2A 1,225,287 2,696,000 1,790,185

Royalties 57,625 50,000 58,681

Other revenue 1.2B 56,839 400,000 56,877

Total own-source revenue 1,339,751 3,146,000 1,905,743

Net cost of services 5,598,488 5,266,000 6,156,884

Revenue from Government 1.2C 5,077,347 5,081,000 5,200,000

Deficit attributable to the Australian Government (521,141) (185,000) (956,884)

Total comprehensive loss attributable to the Australian Government (521,141) (185,000) (956,884)

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes. Budget Variances Commentary: Refer Note 6 for major variance explanations.

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STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION as at 30 June 2017

Budget

2017 2017 2016

Notes $ $ $

ASSETS Financial Assets Cash and cash equivalents 2.5 1,281,417 1,067,000 2,011,494

Trade and other receivables 2.1A 281,754 794,000 716,153

Total financial assets 1,563,171 1,861,000 2,727,647

Non-Financial Assets Property, plant & equipment 2.2A 98,818 281,000 209,030

Intangibles 2.2A 17,779 61,000 29,997

Prepayments 131,348 122,000 84,845

Total non-financial assets 247,945 464,000 323,872

Total assets 1,811,116 2,325,000 3,051,519

LIABILITIES Payables Suppliers 2.3A 544,658 461,000 471,125

Other payables 2.3B 670,787 1,328,000 991,520

Total payables 1,215,445 1,789,000 1,462,645

Provisions Provision for onerous lease obligations 2.4A 238,801 223,000 733,863

Total provisions 238,801 223,000 733,863

Total liabilities 1,454,246 2,012,000 2,196,508

Net assets 356,870 313,000 855,011

EQUITY Contributed equity 1,180,294 1,180,000 1,157,294

Reserves 144,483 144,000 144,483

Accumulated deficit (967,907) (1,011,000) (446,766)

Total equity 356,870 313,000 855,011

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes. Budget Variances Commentary: Refer Note 6 for major variance explanations.

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STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

for the period ended 30 June 2017 Notes Retained earnings Asset revaluation surplus Contributed equity/capital Total equity

2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

Opening balance Balance carried forward from previous period (446,766) 510,118 144,483 144,483 1,157,294 1,134,294 855,011 1,788,895 Adjusted opening balance (446,766) 510,118 144,483 144,483 1,157,294 1,134,294 855,011 1,788,895

Comprehensive income Deficit for the period (521,141) (956,884) - - - - (521,141) (956,884)

Total comprehensive income (521,141) (956,884) - - - - (521,141) (956,884)

Total comprehensive income attributable to:

Australian Government (521,141) (956,884) - - - - (521,141) (956,884)

Transactions with owners Departmental capital budget

1

- - - - 23,000 23,000 23,000 23,000

Sub-total transactions with owners - - - - 23,000 23,000 23,000 23,000

Closing balance as at 30 June (967,907) (446,766) 144,483 144,483 1,180,294 1,157,294 356,870 855,011

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

1. Amounts appropriated which are designated as Departmental capital budgets are recognised directly in transactions with owners in that year.

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CASH FLOW STATEMENT for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 2016

Notes $ $

OPERATING ACTIVITIES Cash received Appropriations 3.1A 5,077,347 5,200,000

Rendering of services 1,669,309 1,420,235

Net GST received 141,965 204,695

Other 76,964 76,558

Total cash received 6,965,585 6,901,488

Cash used Employees 3,776,356 4,939,225

Suppliers 3,906,550 3,474,048

Total cash used 7,682,906 8,413,273

Net cash from (used by) operating activities (717,321) (1,511,785)

INVESTING ACTIVITIES Cash used Purchase of property, plant and equipment 4,406 32,661

Purchase of intangibles 31,350 -

Total cash used 35,756 32,661

Net cash from (used by) investing activities (35,756) (32,661)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES Cash received Contributed equity 23,000 23,000

Total cash received 23,000 23,000

Net cash from (used by) financing activities 23,000 23,000

Net increase (decrease) in cash held (730,077) (1,521,446)

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period 2,011,494 3,532,940 Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period 2.5 1,281,417 2,011,494

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

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OVERVIEW Objectives of the Australian Institute of Criminology The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) is an Australian Government controlled entity. The objective of the AIC is to inform crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre.

The continued existence of the AIC in its present form is dependent on Government policy and on continuing funding by Parliament. The AIC’s activities contributing toward this outcome are classified as departmental. Departmental activities involve the use of assets and income controlled, or liabilities and expenses incurred by the AIC in its own right.

Basis of Preparation of the Financial Statements The financial statements are general purpose financial statements and are required by section 42 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

The financial statements and notes have been prepared in accordance with:

a) Financial Reporting Rule 2015 (FRR) for reporting periods ending on or after 1 July 2015; and

b) Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations - Reduced Disclosure Requirements issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board that apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain assets and liabilities which are carried at fair value. Except where stated, no allowance is made for the effect of changing prices on the results or the financial position.

The financial statements are presented in Australian dollars and values are rounded to the nearest dollar.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard or the FRR, assets and liabilities are recognised in the statement of financial position when and only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity or a future sacrifice of economic benefits will be required and the amounts of the assets or liabilities can be reliably measured. However, assets and liabilities arising under executory contracts are not recognised unless required by an accounting standard.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard, income and expenses are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income when and only when the flow, consumption or loss of economic benefits has occurred and can be reliably measured.

Taxation The AIC is exempt from all forms of taxation except fringe benefits tax (FBT) and the goods and services tax (GST).

Revenues, expenses and assets are recognised net of GST except:

a) where the amount of GST incurred is not recoverable from the Australian Taxation Office; and

b) for receivables and payables.

Comparative Figures Comparative figures for 2016-17 reflect the figures reported in the AIC’s 2015-16 financial statements. Comparative figures have been adjusted to conform with changes in presentation to these financial statements where required.

Contingent assets and liabilities The AIC did not have any quantifiable contingencies to report for the financial year ended 30 June 2017 (2015-16: Nil).

Events after the reporting period On 18 July 2017 the Prime Minister announced the establishment of the Home Affairs Portfolio and enhance the Attorney-General’s oversight of Australia’s intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies. However, at the date of this report, the administrative arrangements to give effect to this decision have not been settled. The AIC is therefore unable to reliably measure the financial outcome of the Government’s decision and reflect these in the 30 June 2017 financial statements.

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NOTE 1.1: EXPENSES

2017 2016

$ $

Note 1.1A: Employee benefits Wages and salaries 2,655,007 2,976,093

Superannuation Defined contribution plans 320,367 300,751

Defined benefit plans 180,238 227,249

Leave and other entitlements 371,724 319,925

Separation and redundancies - 184,939

Total employee benefits 3,527,336 4,008,957

Accounting Policy Liabilities for ‘short-term employee benefits’ (as defined in AASB 119 Employee Benefits) and termination benefits due within twelve months of the end of reporting period are measured at their nominal amounts.

The nominal amount is calculated with regard to the rates expected to be paid on settlement of the liability. Other long-term employee benefits are measured as the net total of the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period minus the fair value at the end of the reporting period of plan assets (if any) out of which the obligations are to be settled directly.

Leave The liability for employee benefits includes provision for annual leave and long service leave. No provision has been made for sick leave as all sick leave is non-vesting and the average sick leave taken in future years by employees of the AIC is estimated to be less than the annual entitlement for sick leave.

The leave liabilities are calculated on the basis of employees’ remuneration at the estimated salary rates that will be applied at the time the leave is taken, including the AIC’s employer superannuation contribution rates to the extent that the leave is likely to be taken during service rather than paid out on termination.

Separation and Redundancy Provision is made for separation and redundancy benefit payments. The AIC recognises a provision for termination when it has developed a detailed formal plan for the terminations and has informed those employees affected that it will carry out the terminations.

Superannuation The AIC’s staff are members of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS), the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS) or the PSS accumulation plan (PSSap) or other superannuation funds held outside the Australian Government.

The PSSap is a defined contribution scheme. The CSS and PSS are defined benefit schemes for the Australian Government. The liability for defined benefit schemes is recognised in the financial statements of the Australian Government and is settled by the Australian Government in due course. This liability is reported by the Department of Finance as an administered item.

The AIC makes employer contributions to the employees’ defined benefit superannuation schemes at rates determined by an actuary to be sufficient to meet the current cost to the Government. The AIC accounts for the contributions as if they were contributions to defined contribution plans.

The liability for superannuation recognised as at 30 June represents outstanding contributions for the final fortnight of the year.

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NOTE 1.1: EXPENSES (CONTINUED)

2017 2016

$ $

Note 1.1B: Suppliers Goods and services Contractors and consultants 730,194 768,402

Research services 479,302 878,915

Travel 119,014 169,814

Information technology 133,282 189,855

Property operating expenses 474,121 69,130

Outsourced corporate services 545,000 -

Conferences and meetings 150,320 37,650

Other 288,647 298,513

Total goods and services 2,919,880 2,412,279

Other supplier expenses Operating lease rentals 332,837 1,444,523

Workers compensation expenses - 61,439

Total other supplier expenses 332,837 1,505,962

Total suppliers 3,252,717 3,918,241

Leasing commitments The lease for the former headquarters expires in December 2017.

Commitments for minimum lease payments in relation to non-cancellable operating leases are payable as follows:

Within 1 year 238,779 538,348

Between 1 to 5 years - 238,779

Total operating lease commitments 1 238,779 777,127

1. Total operating lease commitments excludes GST.

Accounting Policy Operating lease payments are expensed on a straight line basis which is representative of the pattern of benefits derived from the leased asset. The AIC leases office accommodation and minor office equipment under operating lease agreements.

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NOTE 1.2: OWN SOURCE REVENUE

2017 2016

$ $

Note 1.2A: Rendering of Services Rendering of services 1,225,287 1,790,185

Total rendering of services 1,225,287 1,790,185

Accounting Policy Rendering of Services Revenue from rendering of services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of services at the reporting date. The revenue is recognised when:

a) the amount of revenue, stage of completion and transaction costs incurred can be reliably measured; and b) the probable economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to AIC.

The stage of completion of services at the reporting date is determined by reference to the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated total costs of the transaction.

Receivables for goods and services, which have 30 day terms, are recognised at the nominal amounts due less any impairment allowance account. Collectability of debts is reviewed at the end of the reporting period. Allowances are made when collectability of the debt is no longer probable.

Note 1.2B: Other Revenue Resources received free of charge - audit services 39,000 39,000

Other Revenue 17,839 17,877

Total other revenue 56,839 56,877

Accounting Policy Resources Received Free of Charge Resources received free of charge are recognised as revenue when, and only when a fair value can be reliably measured and the services would have been purchased if they had not been donated. Use of those resources is recognised as an expense.

Revenue from Government Note 1.2C: Revenue from Government Appropriations Departmental appropriations 5,077,347 5,200,000

Total revenue from Government 5,077,347 5,200,000

Accounting Policy Amounts appropriated for departmental appropriations for the year are recognised as Revenue from Government when the AIC gains control of the appropriation, except for certain amounts that relate to activities that are reciprocal in nature, in which case revenue is recognised only when it has been earned. Appropriations receivable are recognised at their nominal amounts.

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NOTE 2.1: FINANCIAL ASSETS

2017 2016

$ $

Note 2.1A: Trade and Other Receivables Trade receivables 257,766 695,396

GST receivable 18,988 14,257

Royalties receivable 5,000 6,500

Total trade and other receivables 281,754 716,153

Accounting Policy Trade and Other Receivables Trade and other receivables are recorded at fair value less any impairment. Trade and other receivables are recognised when the AIC becomes party to a contract and has a legal right to receive cash. Trade and other receivables are derecognised on payment and are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period. Allowances are made when collectability of the debt is no longer probable.

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NOTE 2.2: NON-FINANCIAL ASSETS Note 2.2A: Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangibles (2016-17)

Furniture and Office Equipment Leasehold Improvements

Library Collection Intangibles Total

$ $ $ $ $

As at 1 July 2016 Gross book value 389,635 451,000 677,117 70,619 1,588,371

Accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment (291,232) (399,146) (618,344) (40,622) (1,349,344)

Total as at 1 July 2016 98,403 51,854 58,773 29,997 239,027

Additions:

Purchase - - 4,406 31,350 35,756

Revaluations and impairments recognised in Other Comprehensive Income - - - - -

Depreciation and amortisation expense (42,661) (51,854) (5,367) (43,538) (143,420)

Write-down and impairment of assets (14,736) - - (30) (14,766)

Total as at 30 June 2017 41,006 - 57,812 17,779 116,597

Total as at 30 June 2017 represented by:

Gross book value 366,091 451,000 681,523 70,450 1,569,064

Accumulated depreciation and impairment (325,085) (451,000) (623,711) (52,671) (1,452,467)

Total as at 30 June 2017 41,006 - 57,812 17,779 116,597

The AIC uses depreciated replacement costs to measure the fair value of property, plant & equipment.

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NOTE 2.2: NON-FINANCIAL ASSETS (CONTINUED) Accounting Policy Asset Recognition Purchases of property, plant and equipment are recognised initially at cost in the Statement of Financial Position, except for purchases costing less than $2,000 which are expensed in the year of acquisition (other than where they form part of a group of similar items which are significant in total). Where required under the standards the initial cost of an asset includes an estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. Revaluations Fair values for each class of asset are determined as shown below:

Asset class Fair value measured at:

Property, plant & equipment Depreciated replacement cost Leasehold Improvements Depreciated replacement cost Library Collection Depreciated replacement cost

Following initial recognition at cost, property plant and equipment are carried at fair value less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Valuations are conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure that the carrying amounts of assets do not differ materially from the assets’ fair values as at the reporting date. The regularity of independent valuations depends upon the volatility of movements in market values for the relevant assets. Revaluation adjustments are made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment is credited to equity under the heading of asset revaluation reserve except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that was previously recognised in the surplus/deficit. Revaluation decrements for a class of assets are recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reversed a previous revaluation increment for that class. The initial cost of an asset includes an estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. Depreciation Depreciable property, plant and equipment & leasehold improvement assets are written-off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives to the AIC using the straight-line method of depreciation. The library collection is depreciated using the reducing balance method at a rate of 15 percent with a five percent residual value. Depreciation rates applying to infrastructure, plant and equipment are based on a useful life of 2 to 10 years (2015-16: 2 to 10 years). Software licences with the renewable term of one year or longer are treated as prepayments at the time of purchases and expensed over the term.

Depreciation rates (useful lives), residual values and methods are reviewed at each reporting date and necessary adjustments are recognised in the current, or current and future reporting periods, as appropriate.

Impairment All assets were assessed for impairment as at 30 June 2017. Where indications of impairment exist, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment adjustment made if the asset’s recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount.

The recoverable amount of an asset is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset. Where the future economic benefit of an asset is not primarily dependent on the asset’s ability to generate future cash flows, and the asset would be replaced if the AIC were deprived of the asset, its value in use is taken to be its depreciated replacement cost.

Intangibles AIC’s intangibles comprise only purchased software. Software assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Software is amortised on a straight-line basis over its anticipated useful life. The useful lives of the AIC’s software are 2 to 5 years (2015-16: 2-5 years). All software assets were assessed for indications of impairment as at 30 June 2017.

Significant Accounting Judgements and Estimates In the process of applying the accounting policies listed in this note, AIC has made assumptions or estimates in measuring the fair value of the assets that have the most significant impact on the amounts recorded in the financial statements.

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NOTE 2.3: PAYABLES

2017 2016

$ $

Note 2.3A: Suppliers Trade creditors and accruals 544,658 427,861

Operating lease rentals - 43,264

Total suppliers 544,658 471,125

Note 2.3B: Other Payables Wages and salaries - 212,947

Superannuation - 36,073

Unearned income 670,787 742,500

Total other payables 670,787 991,520

Accounting Policy Financial Liabilities Supplier and other payables are classified as ‘other financial liabilities’ and are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced). Supplier and other payables are derecognised on payment.

NOTE 2.4: OTHER PROVISIONS

2017 2016

$ $

Note 2.4A: Provision for Onerous Lease Obligations Onerous lease obligations 238,801 733,863

Total provision for onerous lease obligations 238,801 733,863

The lease for the former headquarters expires in December 2017.

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2.5: SPECIAL ACCOUNTS Special Account: Criminology Research Special Account

2017 2016

$ $

Balance brought forward from previous period 2,011,494 3,532,941

Increases 1,888,239 1,701,487

Available for payments 3,899,733 5,234,428

Decreases 2,618,316 3,222,934

Total balance carried to the next period 1,281,417 2,011,494

Balance represented by:

Cash held in entity bank accounts 68,400 97,869

Cash held in the Official Public Account 1,213,017 1,913,625

Total balance carried to the next period 1,281,417 2,011,494

Appropriation: Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 section 80.

The Criminology Research Special Account is established under Section 46 of the Criminology Research Act 1971 as amended through the Financial Framework Legislative Amendment Act 2010 with effect from 1 July 2011.

Purpose: Conduct criminology research to promote justice, crime reduction and communicating results to Commonwealth, State & Territory, including administering programs to award grants, engage specialists for research and activities related those research such as publication of that research.

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3.1: APPROPRIATIONS Note 3.1A: Annual Appropriation (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

Annual Appropriations for 2017

Annual

Appropriation Adjustments to appropriation

Total

appropriation

Appropriation applied in 2017 (current and prior years) Variance1

$ $ $ $ $

DEPARTMENTAL Ordinary annual services 5,077,347 - 5,077,347 (5,077,347) -

Capital Budgets2 23,000 - 23,000 (23,000) -

Total departmental 5,100,347 - 5,100,347 (5,100,347) -

Annual Appropriations for 2016

Annual

Appropriation Adjustments to appropriation

Total

appropriation

Appropriation applied in 2016 (current and prior years) Variance

$ $ $ $ $

DEPARTMENTAL Ordinary annual services 5,200,000 - 5,200,000 (5,200,000) -

Capital Budgets2 23,000 - 23,000 (23,000) -

Total departmental 5,223,000 - 5,223,000 (5,223,000) -

1. The AIC has no variance to report

2. Departmental Capital Budgets are appropriated through Appropriation Act (No. 1). They form part of ordinary annual service, and are not separately identified in the Appropriation Act.

Unspent Annual Appropriations (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’) The AIC has no undrawn and unspent annual appropriations as at 30 June 2017 (2015-16: nil).

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4.1: KEY MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL REMUNERATION Key management personnel are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity. The AIC has determined the key management personnel positons to be the Director and the Deputy Director. Key management personnel remuneration (excluding the Director: refer note below) is reported in the table below:

2017 2016

$ $

Note 4.1: Key Management Personnel Remuneration Short-term employee benefits 178,585 156,793

Post-employment benefits 28,791 26,438

Other long-term benefits 19,234 19,487

Total key management personnel remuneration expenses1 226,610 202,718

Total number of key management personnel 1 1

1. Includes officers substantively holding or acting for a period exceeding three months in a key management personnel position, for the 2017 financial year the AIC had one key management personnel (2016: one). The ACIC CEO is also the acting Director of the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC). The full cost of the CEO is included in ACIC financial statements. The AIC makes a contribution towards the overheads of the ACIC, including executive oversight, which is shown in “Suppliers” (Refer Note 1.1B).

The above key management personnel remuneration excludes the remuneration and other benefits of the Minister. The Minister’s remuneration and other benefits are set by the Remuneration Tribunal and are not paid by the AIC.

4.2: RELATED PARTY DISCLOSURE Related party relationships:

The AIC is an Australian Government controlled entity. Related parties of the AIC comprise the Ministers responsible for the AIC, other Australian Government entities, the key management personnel of the AIC, and parties related to the AIC’s key management personnel (including close family members and entities controlled by themselves, their close family members or jointly with close family members). Transactions with related parties:

Given the breadth of Government activities, related parties may transact with the government sector in the same capacity as ordinary citizens. Such transactions include the payment or refund of taxes. These transactions have not been separately disclosed in this note.

Giving consideration to relationships with related entities, and transactions entered into during the reporting period by the entity, it has been determined that there are no related party transactions requiring disclosure.

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NOTE 5.1: FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

2017 2016

Notes $ $

Note 5.1A: Categories of Financial Instruments Financial Assets Loans and other receivables:

Cash and cash equivalents 1,281,417 2,011,494

Trade and other receivables 2.1A 257,766 695,396

Royalties receivables 2.1A 5,000 6,500

Total financial assets 1,544,183 2,713,390

Financial Liabilities Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost Trade creditors and accruals 2.3A 544,658 427,861

Total financial liabilities 544,658 427,861

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NOTE 6: EXPLANATIONS OF MAJOR VARIANCES BETWEEN BUDGET AND ACTUAL The following tables provide a comparison of the original budget as presented in the 2016-17 Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) to the 2016-17 final outcome as presented in accordance with Australian Accounting Standards for the entity. The Budget is not audited.

Variances are considered to be ‘major’ based on the following criteria: ƒ the variance between budget and actual is greater than 10%; and ƒ the variance between budget and actual is greater than 1% of the relevant category (Income, Expenses and Equity totals); or an item below this threshold but is considered important for the reader’s

understanding or is relevant to an assessment of the discharge of accountability and to an analysis of performance of an entity.

Explanations of major variances

Budget assumptions The assumption underlying the 2016-17 budget estimates was that the cost of the employees seconded from the ACIC to the AIC would be treated as supplier expenses. This assumption was corrected during the preparation of the 2015-16 financial statements with the seconded staff reflected within employee benefits.

Employee benefits expense (Statement of Comprehensive Income), Supplier expense (Statement of Comprehensive Income)

Change in market conditions and AIC repositioning within the market Due to the development of criminology expertise in the private, public and academic sectors there has been less opportunity than anticipated for consultancy revenue. Furthermore, the AIC has taken deliberate actions to reposition itself in the market to target research projects where it has existing expertise.

Rendering of services (Statement of Comprehensive Income), Supplier expense (Statement of Comprehensive Income), Trade and other receivables (Statement of Financial Position)

Other Revenue The AIC budget includes revenue previously recognised as grant revenue. Following the change of accounting treatment this revenue is now recognised under rendering of services.

Other Revenue (Statement of Comprehensive Income), Trade Other Payables (Statement of Financial Position), Operating cash received— (Cash Flow Statement)

Supplier payments and grants combined The budget includes the previously reported grant expenditure item following a review of the nature of this expenditure this expenditure is now recognised as a supplier expense, and similarly all payables are included with supplier payables.

Suppliers expense (Statement of Comprehensive Income), Grants (Statement of Comprehensive Income)

Timing of supplier payments A significant component of the shared services costs with the ACIC were accrued as at 30 June 2017. Due to the timing of payments for licensing renewals and library subscriptions prepayments were higher than anticipated.

Suppliers (Statement of Financial Position), Prepayments (Statement of Financial Position)

Property plant and equipment and intangibles Due to the timing of the 2016-17 budget process the opening balances for property, plant and equipment and intangibles were based on estimated closing positions as at 30 June 2016 rather than the actual audited closing balances.

Property, plant and equipment (Statement of Financial Position), Intangibles (Statement of Financial Position)

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Section 05 Appendices

100 Appendix 1: 2016-17 peer-reviewed publications

102 Appendix 2: Other publications

106 Appendix 3: Conferences, roundtables, workshops and forums

108 Appendix 4: Compliance index

114 Appendix 5: Advertising and market research

115 Appendix 6: Freedom of information report

117 Appendix 7: Alphabetical index

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APPENDIX 1: 2016-17 PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS TRENDS & ISSUES IN CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Harris-Hogan S 2017. Violent extremism in Australia: An overview. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 491. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Martini B, Do Q and Choo KKR 2016. Digital forensics in the cloud era: The decline of passwords and the need for legal reform. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 512. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Willis M, Baker A, Cussen T and Patterson E 2016. Self-inflicted deaths in Australian prisons. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 513. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Leslie E, Smirnov A, Najman JM & Scott J 2016. Alcohol use and motivations for drinking among types of young adult illicit stimulant users. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 515. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Willis M 2016. Methamphetamine use and acquisitive crime: Evidence of a relationship. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 516. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Lyneham M, Chan A, Willis M & McDonald H 2016. Prisoner-on-prisoner homicides in Australia: 1980 to 2011. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 517. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Cross C, Richards K & Smith RG 2016. The reporting experiences and support needs of victims of online fraud. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 518. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Jorna P 2016. The relationship between age and consumer fraud victimisation. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 519. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Gannoni A & Goldsmid S 2017. Readiness to change drug use and help-seeking intentions of police detainees: findings from the DUMA program. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 520. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Tomsen S & Payne J 2016. Homicide and the nighttime economy. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 521. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Smith M & Smith RG 2016. Procedural impediments to effective unexplained wealth legislation in Australia. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 523. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Krone T & Smith RG 2017. Trajectories in online child sexual exploitation offending in Australia. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 524. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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Fuller G & Goldsmid S 2016. The nature of risk during interactions between the police and intoxicated offenders. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 525. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Alazab M & Broadhurst R 2016. Spam and criminal activity. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 526. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Renshaw L 2016. Migrating for work and study: The role of the migration broker in facilitating workplace exploitation, human trafficking and slavery. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 527. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Young JT, van Dooren K, Claudio F, Cumming C & Lennox N 2016. Transition from prison for people with intellectual disability: A qualitative study of service professionals. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 528. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Fuller G & Ng S 2017. Returning to work after armed robbery in the workplace. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 529. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Fitzgerald R, Cherney A & Heybroek L 2016. Recidivism among prisoners: Who comes back? Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 530. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Hemphill SA, Broderick DJ and Heerde JA 2017. Positive associations between school suspension and student problem behaviour: Recent Australian findings. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 531. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Shanahan M, Hughes C and McSweeney T 2017. Police diversion for cannabis offences: Assessing outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 532. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Leslie E, Smirnov A, Cherney A, Kemp R & Najman J 2017. The role of procedural justice in how young adult stimulant users perceive police and policing. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 533. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Homel P and Brown R 2017. Marijuana legalisation in the United States: An Australian perspective. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 535. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

RESEARCH REPORTS Jorna P 2016. Australasian Consumer Fraud Taskforce: Results of the 2014 online consumer fraud survey. Research Report no. 1. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Hedwards B, Andrevski H & Bricknell S 2017. Labour exploitation in the Australian construction industry: risks and protections for temporary migrant workers. Research Report no. 2. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Willis M 2017. Bail support: A review of the literature. Research Report no. 4. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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APPENDIX 2: OTHER PUBLICATIONS STATISTICAL REPORTS

Smith RG & Jorna P 2017. Fraud against the Commonwealth: Report to Government 2014. Statistical Report no. 1. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bryant W & Bricknell S 2017. Homicide in Australia 2012-13 to 2013-14: National Homicide Monitoring Program report. Statistical Report no. 2. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

STATISTICAL BULLETINS

Bricknell S & Renshaw L 2016. Missing persons in Australia, 2008-2015. Statistical Bulletin no. 1. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Smith RG & Jorna P 2017. Fraud within the Commonwealth: A census of the most costly incidents 2014. Statistical Bulletin no. 2. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S, Johnston I, Kapira M, Claydon C, Petricevic M & Webber K 2017. Australian methamphetamine user outcomes. Statistical Bulletin no. 3. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

REPORTS TO THE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COUNCIL

Cross C, Richards K & Smith RG 2016. Improving responses to online fraud victims: An examination of reporting and support. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Giles M & Whale J 2016. Welfare and recidivism outcomes of in-prison education and training. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Smith M & Smith RG 2016. Exploring the procedural barriers to securing unexplained wealth orders in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Schindeler E & Ransley J 2016. Prosecuting workplace violence: The utility and policy implications of criminalisation. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Tomsen S & Payne J 2016. Homicide and the Night-time Economy. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Krone T, Smith RG, Cartwright J, Hutchings A, Tomison A & Napier S 2016. Online child sexual exploitation offenders: A study of Australian law enforcement data. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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EXTERNAL REPORTS

Fuller G, Goldsmid S & Brown R 2016. Managing intoxicated offenders: Best practice in responding to individuals affected by drugs and alcohol. National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund monograph series no. 65. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Freiberg A, Payne J, Gelb K, Morgan A & Makkai T 2017. Queensland drug and specialist courts review. Brisbane: Queensland Courts. http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/courts/drug-court

Miller P, Bruno R, Morgan A et al. 2016. Drug and alcohol intoxication and subsequent harm in night-time entertainment districts. National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund monograph series no. 67. Canberra: National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund.

CONSULTANCY REPORTS

Australian Institute of Criminology & Griffith University 2017. Best practice crime prevention programs in Latin America and South East Asia. Report to the Thailand Institute of Justice, May 2017

Australian Institute of Criminology & Griffith University 2017. Gap analysis for youth crime prevention: Comparing current resources and capacity in Thailand with the requirements for effective practice. Report to the Thailand Institute of Justice, May 2017

Australian Institute of Criminology & Griffith University 2017. Engaging young people in crime prevention. Report to the Thailand Institute of Justice, May 2017

Australian Institute of Criminology & Griffith University 2017. Evidence-based youth crime prevention: Early intervention, legal responses and responses to drug-related crime. Report to the Thailand Institute of Justice, May 2017

Australian Institute of Criminology & Institute for Child Protection Studies 2016. Evaluation of the Youth Hope Program 2014-16: Interim report. Report to the New South Wales Department of Family and Community Services, September 2016

Australian Institute of Criminology 2017. Crime prevention evaluation toolkit. Prepared for the Victorian Community Crime Prevention Unit, Department of Justice and Regulation, February 2017

Hulme S 2017. Safe City Action Plan. Prepared for the City of Sydney Safe City team, February 2017

Morgan A 2017. Estimating the wider costs and savings of pathways through imprisonment and community corrections. Report to Corrections Victoria, September 2016

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Morgan A, Brown R, Coughlan M, Boxall H & Davy D 2017. Reducing crime in public housing areas through community development. Report to the ACT Justice and Community Safety Directorate, March 2017

Morgan A, Dowling C, Brown R, Mann M, Voce I & Smith M 2016. Evaluation of the Australian Cybercrime Online Reporting Network. Report to CrimTrac, November 2016

Jorna P, Morgan A, Brown C & Smith M 2016. Evaluation of the Australian Ballistic Information Network. Report to CrimTrac, September 2016

Boxall H, Coughlan M & Morgan A 2016. Evaluation of the Adolescent Family Violence Program. Report to the Victorian Department of Human Services, August 2016

Morgan A & Hulme S 2017. Guide to evaluating your public safety infrastructure project. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Lyneham S & Voce I 2017. Evaluation of the ReBoot Intensive Intervention Trial: Interim report. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Prepared for the South Australian Attorney-General’s Department

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. The Victorian illicit drug market: Research summary and appendices. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Alcohol use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 1. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Methamphetamines use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 2. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Heroin use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 3. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Cannabis use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 4. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Ecstasy use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 5. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Cocaine use among detainees. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 6. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Victorian illicit drug market 2016. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 7. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Goldsmid S & Fuller G 2016. Victorian illicit drug market 2018. Victorian illicit drug market factsheet no. 8. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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Australian Institute of Criminology 2016. Evaluation of the Youth Hope Program 2014-16: Interim report. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Prepared for the New South Wales Department of Family and Community Services

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Brown R 2016. Vehicle crime prevention and the co-evolutionary arms race: recent offender countermoves using immobiliser bypass technology. Security Journal 30(1) DOI 10.1057/ s41284-016-0001-1

Griffiths KM, Bennett K, Walker J, Goldsmid S & Bennett A 2016. Effectiveness of MH-Guru, a brief online mental health program for the workplace: A randomised controlled trial. Internet interventions 6C. DOI: 10.1016/j.invent.2016.09.004

BOOK CHAPTERS

Homel P & Brown R 2017. Implementation: Partnership and leverage in crime prevention. In Nick Tilley & Sidebottom A (eds) Handbook of crime prevention and community safety. London: Routledge: 536-559

Smith RG and Grabosky PN. 2017. Cybercrime, in Palmer D, de Lint W & Dalton D (eds), Crime and justice: A guide to criminology (5th ed). Sydney: Thomson Reuters: 243-77

Webb B & Brown R 2017. Preventing vehicle crime. In Nick Tilley & Sidebottom A (eds) Handbook of crime prevention and community safety. London: Routledge: 354-372

SUBMISSIONS

Attorney-General’s Department, Identity crime and misuse 2016—Review Report 7 July 2016

OTHER

Australian Institute of Criminology 2016. Annual report 2015-16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Australian Institute of Criminology 2016. Australian crime: Facts and figures 2014. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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APPENDIX 3: CONFERENCES, ROUNDTABLES, WORKSHOPS AND FORUMS 27 JULY 2016

Roundtable: Towards best practice: Re-evaluation of the Victoria Police Operational Safety Principles and supporting tools. Susan Goldsmid, Australian Institute of Criminology

28 OCTOBER 2016

Occasional seminar: What is CPTED? Reconnecting theory with application in the words of users and abusers. Dr Leanne Monchuk, Secure Societies Institute, University of Huddersfield

3-4 NOVEMBER 2016

Conference: Innovative responses to traditional challenges: Crime prevention and communities conference. In collaboration with the Queensland Police Service

21 NOVEMBER 2016

Workshop: Preventing terrorist attacks at passenger terminals. Sydney. Professor Paul Ekblom, University College London

23 NOVEMBER 2016

Award Ceremony: Australian Crime and Violence Awards Ceremony

23 NOVEMBER 2016

Workshop: Preventing terrorist attacks at passenger terminals. Canberra. Professor Paul Ekblom, University College London

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25 NOVEMBER 2016

Workshop: Preventing terrorist attacks at passenger terminals. Melbourne. Professor Paul Ekblom, University College London

5 DECEMBER 2016

Occasional seminar: Denial of service attacks for a fee: Understanding ‘booter’ operators. Dr Alice Hutchings, University of Cambridge

15 DECEMBER 2016

Occasional seminar: There’s a scam out there for everyone: An examination of tricks employed by scammers in work-at-home and romance scams. Professor Monica Whitty, University of Warwick

18-19 JANUARY 2017

Roundtable: National stakeholder roundtable to develop a National Youth Crime Prevention Strategy for Thailand. Bangkok. In collaboration with Griffith University and Thammasat University. Rick Brown and Anthony Morgan, Australian Institute of Criminology

6-7 JUNE 2016

Forum: Organised crime research forum. In collaboration with the Australian National University

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APPENDIX 4: COMPLIANCE INDEX Part of Report Description Requirement References

Letter of transmittal

A copy of the letter of transmittal signed and dated

by accountable authority on date final text approved, with statement that the report has been prepared in accordance with section 46 of the Act and any enabling legislation that specifies additional requirements in relation to the annual report.

Mandatory Page 1

Aids to access

Table of contents. Mandatory Page 4

Alphabetical index. Mandatory Page 115

Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms. Mandatory Page 3

List of requirements. Mandatory Page 108

Details of contact officer. Mandatory Inside front cover

Entity’s website address. Mandatory Inside front cover

Electronic address of report. Mandatory Inside front cover

Review by accountable authority

A review by the accountable authority of the entity. Mandatory Page 6

Overview of the entity

A description of the role and functions of the entity. Mandatory Page 11

A description of the organisational structure of the entity. Mandatory Pages 12-13

A description of the outcomes and programmes administered by the entity. Mandatory Page 11

A description of the purposes of the entity as included in corporate plan. Mandatory Pages 9-13

An outline of the structure of the portfolio of the entity. Portfolio departments mandatory

Page 10

Where the outcomes and programs administered by the entity differ from any Portfolio Budget Statement, Portfolio Additional Estimates Statement or other portfolio estimates statement that was prepared for the entity for the period, include details of variation and reasons for change.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

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Part of Report Description Requirement References

Report on the Performance of the entity

Annual performance Statements

Annual performance statement in accordance with

paragraph 39(1)(b) of the Act and section 16F of the Rule. Mandatory Page 16

Report on Financial Performance

A discussion and analysis of the entity’s financial performance. Mandatory Page 76

A table summarising the total resources and total payments of the entity. Mandatory Page 77

If there may be significant changes in the financial results during or after the previous or current reporting period, information on those changes, including: the cause of any operating loss of the entity; how the entity has responded to the loss and the actions that have been taken in relation to the loss; and any matter or circumstances that it can reasonably be anticipated will have a significant impact on the entity’s future operation or financial results.

If applicable, Mandatory. Not applicable

Management and Accountability

Corporate Governance

Information on compliance with section 10 (fraud systems) Mandatory Page 62

A certification by accountable authority that fraud risk assessments and fraud control plans have been prepared. Mandatory Page 62

A certification by accountable authority that appropriate mechanisms for preventing, detecting incidents of, investigating or otherwise dealing with, and recording or reporting fraud that meet the specific needs of the entity are in place.

Mandatory Page 62

A certification by accountable authority that all reasonable measures have been taken to deal appropriately with fraud relating to the entity.

Mandatory Pages 1 and 62

An outline of structures and processes in place for the entity to implement principles and objectives of corporate governance.

Mandatory Pages 57-74

A statement of significant issues reported to Minister under paragraph 19(1)(e) of the Act that relates to noncompliance with Finance law and action taken to remedy noncompliance.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

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Part of Report Description Requirement References

External Scrutiny

Information on the most significant developments in external scrutiny and the entity’s response to the scrutiny.

Mandatory Page 57

Information on judicial decisions and decisions of administrative tribunals and by the Australian Information Commissioner that may have a significant effect on the operations of the entity.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

Information on any reports on operations of the entity by the AuditorGeneral (other than report under section 43 of the Act), a Parliamentary Committee, or the Commonwealth Ombudsman.

If applicable, Mandatory Page 58

Information on any capability reviews on the entity that were released during the period. If applicable, Mandatory

Not applicable

Management of Human Resources

An assessment of the entity’s effectiveness in managing and developing employees to achieve entity objectives. Mandatory Pages 63-68

Statistics on the entity’s APS employees on an ongoing and nonongoing basis; including the following:

ƒ Statistics on staffing classification level;

ƒ Statistics on fulltime employees;

ƒ Statistics on parttime employees;

ƒ Statistics on gender;

ƒ Statistics on staff location;

ƒ Statistics on employees who identify as Indigenous.

Mandatory Pages 65-68

Information on any enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements, Australian workplace agreements, common law contracts and determinations under subsection 24(1) of the Public Service Act 1999.

Mandatory Page 67

Information on the number of SES and nonSES employees covered by agreements etc identified in paragraph 17AG(4)(c).

Mandatory Page 67

The salary ranges available for APS employees by classification level. Mandatory Page 68

A description of nonsalary benefits provided to employees. Mandatory Not applicable

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Part of Report Description Requirement References

Information on the number of employees at each classification level who received performance pay. If applicable, Mandatory

Not applicable

Information on aggregate amounts of performance pay at each classification level. If applicable, Mandatory

Not applicable

Information on the average amount of performance payment, and range of such payments, at each classification level.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

Information on aggregate amount of performance payments. If applicable, Mandatory

Not applicable

Assets Management

An assessment of effectiveness of assets management where asset management is a significant part of the entity’s activities.

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

Purchasing

An assessment of entity performance against the Commonwealth Procurement Rules. Mandatory Page 72

Consultants

A summary statement detailing the number of new contracts engaging consultants entered into during the period; the total actual expenditure on all new consultancy contracts entered into during the period (inclusive of GST); the number of ongoing consultancy contracts that were entered into during a previous reporting period; and the total actual expenditure in the reporting year on the ongoing consultancy contracts (inclusive of GST).

Mandatory Page 73

A statement that “During [reporting period], [specified number] new consultancy contracts were entered into involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million]. In addition, [specified number] ongoing consultancy contracts were active during the period, involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million]”.

Mandatory Page 73

A summary of the policies and procedures for selecting and engaging consultants and the main categories of purposes for which consultants were selected and engaged.

Mandatory Page 73

A statement that “Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website.”

Mandatory Page 73

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Part of Report Description Requirement References

Australian National Audit Office Access Clauses

If an entity entered into a contract with a value of more than $100 000 (inclusive of GST) and the contract did not provide the AuditorGeneral with access to the contractor’s premises, the report must include the name of the contractor, purpose and value of the contract, and the reason why a clause allowing access was not included in the contract.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

Exempt contracts

If an entity entered into a contract or there is a standing offer with a value greater than $10 000 (inclusive of GST) which has been exempted from being published in AusTender because it would disclose exempt matters under the FOI Act, the annual report must include a statement that the contract or standing offer has been exempted, and the value of the contract or standing offer, to the extent that doing so does not disclose the exempt matters.

If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

Small business

A statement that “[Name of entity] supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and Small Enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

Mandatory Page 74

An outline of the ways in which the procurement practices of the entity support small and medium enterprises.

Mandatory Page 74

If the entity is considered by the Department administered by the Finance Minister as material in nature—a statement that “[Name of entity] recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. The results of the Survey of Australian Government Payments to Small Business are available on the Treasury’s website.”

If applicable, Mandatory Page 74

Financial Statements

Inclusion of the annual financial statements in accordance with subsection 43(4) of the Act. Mandatory Page 78

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Part of Report Description Requirement References

Other Mandatory Information

If the entity conducted advertising campaigns, a statement that “During [reporting period], the [name of entity] conducted the following advertising campaigns: [name of advertising campaigns undertaken]. Further information on those advertising campaigns is available at [address of entity’s website] and in the reports on Australian Government advertising prepared by the Department of Finance. Those reports are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

If applicable, Mandatory Page 114

If the entity did not conduct advertising campaigns, a statement to that effect. If applicable, Mandatory

Not applicable

A statement that “Information on grants awarded by [name of entity] during [reporting period] is available at [address of entity’s website].”

If applicable, Mandatory Page 74

Outline of mechanisms of disability reporting, including reference to website for further information. Mandatory Page 71

Website reference to where the entity’s Information Publication Scheme statement pursuant to Part II of FOI Act can be found.

Mandatory Page 115

Correction of material errors in previous annual report If applicable, Mandatory Not applicable

Information required by other legislation Mandatory Not applicable

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APPENDIX 5: ADVERTISING AND MARKET RESEARCH During 2016-17, the AIC conducted the following advertising campaigns:

AUSTRALIAN CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION AWARDS

Further information on those advertising campaigns is available at www.aic.gov.au and in the reports on Australian Government advertising prepared by the Department of Finance. Those reports are available on the Department of Finance’s website.

TABLE 18: PAYMENTS TO MEDIA ADVERTISING ORGANISATIONS IN 2016-17

Provider Service provided Amount paid $(incl GST)

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $1,406.91

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $139.64

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $3,071.41

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $1,628.64

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $2,757.48

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $2,785.37

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $10,649.74

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $45.99

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Advertising $1,209.89

Total $23,695.07

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APPENDIX 6: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REPORT During 2016-17, the AIC received 1 request for information under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (FOI Act).

STATEMENT

Prior to reforms that came into effect on 1 May 2011, section 8 of the FOI Act required agencies to publish annually statements containing particulars and information about their organisation, functions, decision-making powers, consultative arrangements, categories of documents maintained and facilities and procedures to enable members of the public to obtain access to documents under the FOI Act. These statements were required by the FOI Act to be included in the annual report of each agency.

From 1 May 2011 agencies subject to the FOI Act are required to publish information to the public as part of the Information Publication Scheme (IPS). This requirement is in Part II of the FOI Act and has replaced the former requirement to publish a section 8 statement in an annual report. Information published under the IPS requirements is accessible from our website.

The following information is correct as at 30 June 2017.

ORGANISATION

As at 30 June 2017 the Australian Institute of Criminology is a Commonwealth statutory authority and was established in 1973 under the Criminology Research Act 1971.

FUNCTIONS

The functions of the Australian Institute of Criminology are listed in section 6 of the Criminology Research Act and are summarised as follows:

ƒ to conduct criminological research on matters specified by the Attorney-General;

ƒ to conduct criminological research which is approved by the Board;

ƒ to communicate to the Commonwealth and the States the results of research conducted by the Institute;

ƒ to conduct seminars and courses of training or instruction for people engaged, or to be engaged, in criminological research or in work related to the prevention or correction of criminal behaviour as specified by the Attorney-General or approved by the Board;

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ƒ to advise the Criminology Research Council on needs for, and programs of, criminological research;

ƒ to provide secretarial and administrative services for the Council;

ƒ to give advice and assistance on any research performed wholly or partly with moneys provided from the Criminology Research Fund;

ƒ to give advice on the compilation of statistics relating to crime;

ƒ to publish such material resulting from or connected with the performance of its functions as is approved by the Board; and

ƒ to do anything incidental or conducive to the performance of any of the foregoing functions.

CATEGORIES OF DOCUMENTS

The following document is available from www.comlaw.gov.au

ƒ Criminology Research Act 1971.

In addition, a number of documents including annual reports, corporate and strategic plans, and research reports, can be obtained through the AIC website.

ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS

All applications for access to documents in the possession of the AIC are handled in our Canberra office.

Requests under the provisions of the FOI Act should be addressed to:

media@aic.gov.au Australian Institute of Criminology GPO Box 1936 CANBERRA ACT 2601

Further information is available on our website www.aic.gov.au under the FOI link.

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A alcohol 19, 32, 34, 35, 40, 41, 46, 100, 103, 104 armed robbery 6, 101 Attorney-General’s Department 10, 11, 18, 42, 54, 58, 59, 85, 105 Audit Committee 58, 60 Australian and New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency 23 Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology 28 Australian and New Zealand Society of Evidence-Based Policing 23 Australian Crime: Facts and figures 7, 20, 21, 46, 55, 105 Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards 12, 36-42, 48, 49, 106 Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission 6, 10, 12, 25, 58, 60, 62, 63, 67, 73, 76, 95, 97 award 12, 36, 37-42, 47-49, 64, 93, 106

B Beach Watch 38-39 Blueprint for Youth Justice 40 book chapters 105

C cannabis 6, 19, 34, 101, 104 CINCH database 51, 52, 56 Clean Slate Without Prejudice and Never Going Back programs 37-38 committee

Audit 58, 60 Human Research Ethics 28, 60 Management 60 Research Managers 61 Work Health and Safety 69 Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines 61, 62 communication 33, 43, 64, 68, 69 conference 5, 7, 18, 47, 49-53, 55, 87, 106 consultancy 17, 18, 73, 76, 97, 103 Corrections Victoria 59, 103 corruption 51, 53, 62 Court Integrated Services Program (CISP) 40

APPENDIX 7: ALPHABETICAL INDEX

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CrimTrac 104 crime prevention 7, 18, 26, 46, 50, 103, 105, 107 campaign 42 program 42, 103

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) 47, 106 Crime Prevention and Communities Conference 7, 50, 51, 106 Crime Statistics Australia 7, 19- 21, 48, 49 Criminology Research Advisory Council 2, 6, 59, 102 Criminology Research Grants 7, 27, 29, 76 cybercrime 18, 30, 32, 49-51, 64, 104, 105

D DASHED 35 database 39, 43, 51, 52, 55, 56, 65 disability 40, 42, 71, 101 dissemination 7, 19, 30 domestic violence see family and domestic violence drug 18, 19, 21, 25, 26, 31-35, 40, 46, 51, 55, 100, 103, 104 Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) 18-21, 25, 68, 100

E Employee Assistance Program 70 events 5, 7, 17, 18, 46, 85

F Facebook 5, 46, 49 family and domestic violence 6, 12, 18, 20, 22, 23, 30, 34, 39-41, 46, 48, 64, 104 Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool (FVRAT) 23 forums 7, 17, 51, 106-107 fraud control 61, 62 functions 11, 43

Audit Committee 60 Director 12 NDLERF program 33 futures of crime and justice 6, 12, 18, 25

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G governance 57-61, 63, 65, 67-69, 71, 73

H homicide 6, 20, 21, 46, 56, 100, 102 National Homicide Monitoring Program 7, 18, 20, 21, 56, 102 Human Research Ethics Committee 28, 60 human resources 63, 73 human trafficking 6, 18, 58, 101

I identity crime 18, 26, 105 income 28, 29, 81, 83, 85, 90, 92, 97 Information Services 2, 4, 7, 12, 18, 43, 51 internship program 68

J JV Barry Library 51-53, 56, 65, 90, 91, 97 journal articles 5, 17, 105

K KPI 2, 17, 18

L learning and development 63, 64 library see JV Barry Library Libraries Australia 53

M machinery of government 10, 73 media 7, 20, 46 social 5, 39, 45-48

mediation 37, 70 methamphetamine 6, 19, 100, 102, 104 methodology 22, 28 monitoring programs 7, 17, 19, 43, 56,

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N National Deaths in Custody Program 18, 20, 21 National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund 12, 33-35, 76, 103 National Drug Strategy 33, 41 National Homicide Monitoring Program 7, 18-20, 56 National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program 21 networking 44, 53

O

objectives 11, 25, 39, 85 occasional seminars 47, 50, 106, 107 Operation NOMAD 39 organised crime 6, 7, 12, 18, 24, 25, 51 Organised Crime Research Forum 7, 51, 107

P Parliamentary committees 58 partnership 10, 37, 38, 41, 42, 105 peer-review 5, 17, 18, 44, 54, 55, 100-101 performance,

commentary 18 communication and information services 43 development system 64 ecologically sustainable development and environmental 71 financial 75 information services and library 51 key indicators 17 publications 46 research 18 research grant programs 27 Policing Indigenous Youth: Achieving through adversity 38 Project Booyah 37, 48 prison 6, 12, 18, 20, 23, 24, 26, 100-103 procurement 72, Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 16, 60, 85, 93

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publications external reports 103 consultancy reports 103-105 NDLERF 34, 35 other 102 peer-reviewed 44, 100-101 popular 46 reports to the Criminology Research Advisory Council 102 Research reports 43, 101 statistical 43, 102

Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 43, 55, 100-101

R recidivism 38, 101, 102 research grants programs 27, 29, 59, 76

performance 18 priorities 6, 18, 61 program 6, 19, 22, 23, 25, 61 Research reports 6, 18, 43, 43, 44, 55, 101 Revitalising Hamilton South 38 risk management 61, 62, 69 Rise Above the Pack 42 roundtables 17, 18, 26, 106, 107

S Schoolies Education Program 42 seminars 5, 12, 43, 47, 50, 53, 72, 106, 107 Smart Start 41 social media see media South Asian Men’s Behavior Change Program 40 staffing 23, 65-68, 76, 77 stakeholder 19, 20, 24, 25, 39, 42, 51, 52 statistical monitoring 19

Drug Use Monitoring in Australia 19 National Homicide Monitoring Program 20 National Deaths in Custody Program 20 Crime Statistics Australia 20, 21 submission 58, 105

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T The 1800 Police Duress Alarm Register 39 Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 17, 18, 43, 44, 55, 56, 100, 101

U United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Network of Program Institutes 18

V Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation 27, 40, 41, 59, 103 Police 25, 106

Victorian illicit drug market 25, 104 volume crime 6, 12, 18, 24, 25

W website 6, 7, 19-21, 43-45, 48, 55, 73 WESNET Telstra Safe Connections 41 workforce planning 63 workshops 17, 106 work health and safety 69, 71

Y youth justice 30, 40, 42 Youth Justice Education and Training 42

Australia's national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice

www.aic.gov.au