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Australian Institute of Criminology—Report for 2019-20


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Promoting evidence-informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia

www.aic.gov.au

ANNUAL REPORT 2019-20

Promoting evidence-informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia

ANNUAL REPORT 2019-20 AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF CRIMINOLOGY

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ANNUAL REPORT CONTACT DETAILS ANNUAL REPORT CONTACT DETAILS For enquiries about this annual report and general information requests, please contact:

JV Barry Library Manager

Australian Institute of Criminology GPO Box 1936, Canberra ACT 2601

Tel: +61 2 6243 6969

Email: front.desk@aic.gov.au

Website: www.aic.gov.au

ALTERNATIVE VERSION ALTERNATIVE VERSION An electronic version of this report, along with further information about the AIC and our work, is available on our website: www.aic.gov.au.

FEEDBACK FEEDBACK We welcome feedback on our annual report, particularly about its readability and usefulness. Please send your feedback to front.desk@aic.gov.au.

SOCIAL MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/australianinstituteofcriminology/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/AICriminology

YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/CriminologyTV

© Commonwealth of Australia 2020

With the exception of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms and all photographs and where otherwise noted, all material in this document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Australia licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0).

The details of the relevant licence conditions are available on the Creative Commons website, accessible using the link provided, as is the full legal code for the CC BY 4.0 AU licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode).

The document must be attributed as the Australian Institute of Criminology Annual report 2019-20.

ISSN 2204-6755 (Print) ISSN 2204-6763 (Online) ISBN 978 1 925304 83 1 (Print) ISBN 978 1 925304 84 8 (Online)

 

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Australian Institute of Criminology Annual report 2019-20

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18 September 2020

The Hon Peter Dutton MP Minister for Home Affairs Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600

Dear Minister

I am pleased to present the annual report of the Australian Institute of Criminology for the year ended 30 June 2020, prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014.

The report outlines the AIC’s performance for 2019-20 and includes audited financial statements.

Subsection 46(1) of the Act requires me to provide you with a report for presentation to the Parliament.

In addition, I certify that I am satisfied the AIC has undertaken all appropriate fraud control measures as set out in Part 2-2 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014.

Yours faithfully

Michael Phelan APM Director Australian Institute of Criminology

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

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GUIDE TO THE REPORT The annual report of the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) is produced to meet parliamentary reporting requirements and to provide information to stakeholders and the community about the Institute’s work.

The information contained in this report is provided to inform the Australian Government, members of parliament, state and territory agencies, grant recipients, award winners, consultants, students of crime and criminal justice, potential employees and the public.

The report is designed as follows:

Director’s review

In this section, the Director (Chief Executive) reviews the year’s significant issues and achievements.

Overview

This section describes the purpose and role of the AIC and its organisational structure. It also includes the AIC’s functions and outcome.

Performance

This section summarises the AIC’s performance in relation to the criteria set out in its corporate plan. It then details the Institute’s performance in the areas of research, grants management, dissemination and events.

Management and accountability

This section reviews the AIC’s governance arrangements and external scrutiny, including the operation of the Criminology Research Advisory Council, which advises the Director on a range of matters. It also outlines the AIC’s corporate services, procurement and consultancy arrangements.

Our people

This section details workforce matters such as staffing numbers and classifications, remuneration, employment arrangements, and work health and safety.

Financial performance

This section presents the AIC’s financial statements and describes the Institute’s resources and expenditure.

Appendices

The appendices list AIC publications and events and contain mandatory material not included elsewhere.

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CONTENTS Letter of transmittal ............................................................................................................................... 1

Guide to the report ................................................................................................................................ 2

Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................ 4

2019-20 at a glance ............................................................................................................................... 5

Director's review .................................................................................................................................... 6

Section 01: Overview ......................................................................... 9

Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 10

Organisational structure ....................................................................................................................... 12

Section 02: Performance ................................................................. 14

Annual performance statements .......................................................................................................... 15

Performance criteria............................................................................................................................. 16

Research performance ......................................................................................................................... 17

Grant program performance ................................................................................................................ 26

Dissemination performance ................................................................................................................. 29

Events ................................................................................................................................................... 35

Library and information services .......................................................................................................... 37

SECTION 03: Management and accountability .............................44 Corporate governance .......................................................................................................................... 45

External scrutiny ................................................................................................................................... 48

Procurement ........................................................................................................................... 49

SECTION 04: Our people ................................................................. 62

Staffing profile ...................................................................................................................................... 63

Remuneration ....................................................................................................................................... 70

Employment arrangements .................................................................................................................. 72

Learning and development................................................................................................................... 72

Work heath and safety ......................................................................................................................... 73

SECTION 05: Financial performance ..............................................76

Financial overview ................................................................................................................................ 77

Audited financial statements................................................................................................................ 80

SECTION 06: Appendices ................................................................. 99

Appendix 1: Peer-reviewed publications ............................................................................................100

Appendix 2: Other publications ..........................................................................................................103

Appendix 3: Events ............................................................................................................................. 107

Appendix 4: Statutory reporting .........................................................................................................109

Appendix 5: Compliance index ........................................................................................................... 111

Appendix 6: Alphabetical index .......................................................................................................... 118

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ACRONYMS ACIC Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission

ACVPA Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards

AIC Australian Institute of Criminology

ANZSEBP Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing

CEM child exploitation material

CRG Criminology Research Grant

DUMA Drug Use Monitoring in Australia

FOI Act Freedom of Information Act 1982

HREC Human Research Ethics Committee

NHMP National Homicide Monitoring Program

PGPA Act Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013

PoCA Proceeds of Crime Act 2002

SOCR-Lab Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory

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PUBLICATIONS

EVENTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA

23,747 FACEBOOK FOLLOWERS

8,288 TWITTER FOLLOWERS

4,777 EMAIL SUBSCRIBERS

1,632 CRIMINOLOGY TV SUBSCRIBERS

13 EVENTS

65 RESEARCH PRODUCTS

CITATIONS  Government publications (22%)

 Peer-reviewed journal articles (25%)

 Parliamentary documents (14%)

 Other publications (39%)

26 PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS

2019-20 AT A GLANCE

22%

25%

14%

39%

5

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DIRECTOR’S REVIEW

I am pleased to present the 2019-20 annual report of the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC), outlining the Institute’s achievements and outcomes for the year.

At the start of the year, I could not have predicted how the work undertaken by the Institute and, indeed, the way in which that work is undertaken, would change over the following 12 months. As with elsewhere in the Public Service and beyond, the COVID-19 pandemic has required new ways of thinking and new approaches to conducting day-to-day business. As outlined in this report, the staff of the AIC have met this challenge in a professional manner, continuing to deliver on the Institute’s objectives.

As agreed in consultation with the Criminology Research Advisory Council, the AIC continued to focus on the six priority themes chosen in 2018-19, recognising that research programs take time to deliver. These themes were:

ƒ criminal justice responses to family and domestic violence;

ƒ child exploitation material;

ƒ Indigenous over-representation in the criminal justice system;

ƒ youth crime;

ƒ transnational serious and organised crime; and

ƒ illicit drugs.

Working largely within these themes, the AIC was still able to respond to emerging issues associated with COVID-19, with studies conducted on the impact on drug markets, online gambling, the sale of COVID-19 related medical products on the darknet, fraud and domestic violence. These studies were developed in consultation with policymakers in the Home Affairs portfolio, as well as other Australian Government departments and agencies, ensuring that the AIC’s research was used as widely as possible.

Beyond COVID-19 related work, the AIC has continued to support policymaking by delivering research on a wide range of topics and disseminating our work as widely as possible through the Institute’s information services. In recognition of the AIC’s continued international reputation, we hosted a meeting of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network, which brought together institutes from around the world, including from Canada, China, Costa Rica, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, Thailand and the United States, as well as representatives from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

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RESEARCH During 2019-20, the AIC continued to undertake and fund applied crime and justice research on a wide range of topics. The Institute’s work on child exploitation material (CEM) continued, with some projects delayed until later in 2020 due to COVID-19, while others produced reports that are currently working their way through the publications process. Topics included Australians who view live-streamed child sexual abuse, crime scripting of CEM offending on the darknet, a treatment program for CEM offenders and the role of parents in CEM production.

Research on family and domestic violence focused on approaches to improving police responses. This included the use of focused deterrence as a multi-agency response to the problem, analysis of repeat offending and the development of a risk assessment tool for predicting repeat domestic violence. Other related work examined the relationship between methamphetamine dependence and domestic violence and female perpetrated domestic violence.

In relation to transnational serious and organised crime, the AIC’s Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory grew in reputation, working on projects with a range of departments and agencies, including Home Affairs, the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC), the Australian Federal Police, the Australian Taxation Office and AUSTRAC. Completed research in this area included a systematic review of factors that influence recruitment into organised crime, an analysis of violent and organised crime offending by outlaw motorcycle gang members and a study of the availability of fentanyl on the darknet.

Statistical programs continue to be a core aspect of the Institute’s work, undertaken under the auspices of the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program, the National Deaths in Custody Program, the National Homicide Monitoring Program, the Identity Crime and Misuse in Australia program and the Fraud Against the Commonwealth census. These programs have proven invaluable in informing debates and supporting policy development. For example, our homicide monitoring program was used as a key source of information on intimate partner homicide, while our deaths in custody statistics informed contemporary public debates on Indigenous incarceration. (Deaths in custody reports accounted for three of the top five publications downloaded from the AIC website this year.) In addition, our identity crime statistics have supported the Commonwealth’s National Identity Security Strategy.

Apart from in Perth, COVID-19 related public health measures prevented us from collecting Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program data in the second quarter of 2020. Analysis of the Perth data showed the significant impact the restrictions had on local drug markets, with increased prices and reduced quality and availability.

Where the funding of criminological research was concerned, the AIC continued to manage a thriving Criminology Research Grants program, with 33 projects valued at over $1.7 million being funded by the end of the financial year. Working closely with the Criminology Research Advisory Council ensures that these projects are on issues of concern to policymakers, both in the Commonwealth and in the states and territories.

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DISSEMINATION Disseminating crime and justice research remains a core function of the AIC, ensuring that those charged with developing policy and practice are armed with the latest thinking and knowledge. The AIC’s website is a key resource for disseminating AIC research and now holds over 1,700 publications. This year, website page views increased by 19 percent, with almost 2.5 million views, while the number of social media followers (on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube) also increased.

The JV Barry Library continues to play an instrumental role in the dissemination of research material to policymakers and practitioners. It has been responsive to the needs of stakeholders through its ‘front desk’ service, as well as by disseminating emerging evidence produced by the AIC and other crime and justice researchers. This is in addition to the library’s key task of supporting AIC researchers with systematic literature searches.

Events held by the AIC have responded to changing circumstances during the year. Pre-pandemic, the Institute held a number of face-to-face events, including co-hosting the Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing Conference in late 2019 and holding occasional seminars on prevention of radicalisation, counterterrorism at train stations, firearm use and crime prevention.

Social distancing requirements from March 2020 made it difficult to hold face-to-face events and we took the decision to cancel this year’s Organised Crime Research Forum. Instead, we moved to an online approach, with four presentations filmed and uploaded to our CriminologyTV channel on YouTube. Moving forward, we will continue to seek innovative and effective ways to disseminate the latest research.

As a result of all of this activity, I am pleased to report that the AIC has once again achieved all of its performance criteria for the year and, more importantly, helped to inform crime and justice policy in Australia.

Michael Phelan APM

Director Australian Institute of Criminology

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Overview 10 INTRODUCTION

12 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

01

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INTRODUCTION The AIC has served successive Australian governments and the criminal justice system for over 45 years as the nation’s research and knowledge centre on crime and justice— undertaking and disseminating research, compiling trend data and providing policy advice.

The Institute was established in 1973 by the Commonwealth Criminology Research Act 1971, to centrally collect and analyse national criminological data and provide evidence-based research to government and policing agencies. In late 2010 the Australian Government passed the Financial Framework Legislation Amendment Act 2010, amending the Criminology Research Act.

Following a machinery-of-government change in October 2015, staff from the AIC were transferred to the ACIC, with the ACIC Chief Executive Officer becoming Director of the AIC. Legislative amendments to combine the functions of the AIC and the ACIC are pending parliamentary approval.

Throughout the year, the Institute maintained strong links and partnerships with Commonwealth, state and territory government agencies, police agencies, universities and other research organisations by providing research, analysis and advice. The AIC also frequently undertook research projects in partnership or under contract to meet its partner agencies’ needs.

MINISTER, PORTFOLIO AND DIRECTOR The AIC is part of the Home Affairs portfolio. The Minister for Home Affairs, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, has ministerial responsibility for the AIC. Mr Michael Phelan is the Director of the AIC.

PURPOSE AND ROLE The AIC is Australia’s national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice. We undertake and disseminate research and provide policy advice.

FUNCTIONS The AIC undertakes its functions as set out in the Criminology Research Act 1971, which are:

(a) to promote justice and reduce crime by:

(i) conducting criminologic al research; and

(ii) communic ating the results of that research to the Commonwealth, the States, the Austr alian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and the community;

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(b) t o assist the Director in performing the Director’s functions;

(c) t o administer programs for awarding grants, and engaging specialists, for:

(i) criminologic al research that is relevant to the public policy of the States, the Aus tralian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; and

(ii) activities r elated to that research (including the publication of that r esearch, for example).

The functions of the Director include:

ƒ conducting criminological research, including the collection of information and statistics on crime and justice matters;

ƒ communicating the results of that research, including through the publication of research material and seminars and courses of training or instruction;

ƒ providing information and advice on the administration of criminal justice to the Australian Government and state and territory governments; and

ƒ collaborating both within and outside Australia with governments, institutions and authorities, and with bodies and persons, on research and training in connection with the administration of criminal justice.

OUTCOMES The AIC’s outcome, as stated in the Portfolio Budget Statement, is to inform crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre.

This outcome is achieved by:

ƒ undertaking impartial and policy-relevant research of the highest standard on crime and criminal justice;

ƒ working cooperatively with the Home Affairs portfolio, other federal agencies and state and territory government agencies in the AIC’s role as the Australian Government’s national research centre on crime and justice;

ƒ administering an effective and efficient annual Criminology Research Grants program that results in policy-relevant research; and

ƒ actively disseminating research findings to policymakers, practitioners and the general public, across Australia and internationally, in a timely manner.

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ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Figure 1 illustrates the AIC’s structure during 2019-20. The AIC’s research and information services reported through the Deputy Director to the AIC Director, who is also the Chief Executive Officer of the ACIC.

In 2019-20, the AIC’s research teams were aligned with six priority themes:

ƒ criminal justice responses to family and domestic violence;

ƒ child exploitation material;

ƒ Indigenous over-representation in the criminal justice system;

ƒ youth crime;

ƒ transnational serious and organised crime; and

ƒ illicit drugs.

Another team focused on crime and justice statistical monitoring.

In addition, the AIC’s small grants management team administered the Criminology Research Grants (CRG) and the Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards.

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AIC Director*

Youth crime

Child

exploitaon material

Indigenous over-representaon in the criminal jusce system

Crime & jusce stascal monitoring

Transnaonal serious & organised crime

Illicit drugs

Family & domesc violence

FIGURE 1: ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AS AT 30 JUNE 2020

* The AIC Director is also the Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission.

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Performance 15 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE STATEMENTS

16 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

17 RESEARCH PERFORMANCE

26 GRANT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE

29 DISSEMINATION PERFORMANCE

35 EVENTS

37 LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

02

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I, as the accountable authority of the Australian Institute of Criminology, present the 2019-20 annual performance statements of the AIC, as required under paragraphs 39(1)(a) and (b) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act) and associated rules.

In my opinion, in accordance with section 37 of the PGPA Act, these annual performance statements are based on properly maintained records and, in accordance with section 38 and subsection 39(2), appropriately measure, assess and provide information about the AIC’s performance in achieving its purposes. I am satisfied that the statements comply with the requirements of the relevant PGPA rules.

Michael Phelan APM Director Australian Institute of Criminology

ANNUAL PERFORMANCE STATEMENTS

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA The AIC’s Corporate plan 2019-20 and the Portfolio Budget Statement for 2019-20 include the criteria used to measure the Institute’s performance. These are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Achievement against performance criteria, 2019-20

Performance criteria Target Actual Comment

100 percent of publications in the Trends & issues (T&I) and Research Report series are peer reviewed. This ensures the quality of the Institute’s research output

100% 100% Achieved

Reports produced for each of the monitoring programs are issued according to schedule, annually or biennially

9 reports scheduled

9 reports published Achieved

Peer-reviewed T&I and Research Report papers are prepared for publication 25 26 Achieved

Other publications—including Statistical Reports, Statistical Bulletins, briefs, journal articles, consultancy reports et cetera—to be published each year

25 39 Achieved

Roundtables, workshops and other forums to be held annually 10 13 Achieved

The AIC achieved or exceeded its targets for all five of its performance criteria. During the year, all Trends & issues and Research Reports were subject to rigorous peer review, ensuring that the Institute’s research stands up to external scrutiny. In total, 26 peer-reviewed papers were released, against a target of 25 for the year. See Appendix 1 for details of these publications.

The AIC also intended to release nine Statistical Reports during the year and all were released as planned, thereby helping to exceed the target of producing 25 other publications. For details of the non-peer reviewed publications released in 2019-20, see Appendix 2.

Recognising the importance of disseminating research findings through face-to-face events, as well as through publication, the AIC also has a target of holding 10 roundtables, workshops and other forums each year. In 2019-20, 13 such events were held on a range of topics, including evidence-based policing, preventing radicalisation, domestic violence, homicide, and live streaming of child sexual abuse. See Appendix 3 for further details.

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RESEARCH PERFORMANCE The AIC’s research priorities are set annually by the Director, in consultation with the Criminology Research Advisory Council. The research priorities for 2019-20 were:

ƒ criminal justice responses to family and domestic violence;

ƒ child exploitation material;

ƒ Indigenous over-representation in the criminal justice system;

ƒ youth crime;

ƒ transnational serious and organised crime; and

ƒ illicit drugs.

CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSES TO FAMILY AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Several publications on family and domestic violence were released in 2019-20, including the results of our research with ACT Policing exploring the predictive validity of their Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool. We developed a revised risk assessment tool with improved predictive accuracy that was significantly shorter and therefore faster for frontline police to complete, and which can flag indicators of escalating violence. This new instrument has been rolled out across the ACT.

Another paper presented the results from a systematic review of 39 quantitative Australian studies spanning nearly three decades of research into domestic violence offenders, prior offending and repeat offending. A presentation on this research was the first in our revamped occasional seminar series to be launched on our YouTube channel, CriminologyTV, as part of the move to online events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Based on research originally developed in consultation with the Office for Women in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, we published two papers on female perpetrators of domestic violence. One study used data from the AIC’s National Homicide Monitoring Program to explore intimate partner homicide by Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, while the other analysed more than 150 detailed police narratives of domestic violence incidents involving female persons of interest. This study produced Australian-first estimates of the extent of self-defensive and retaliatory violence by female perpetrators of domestic violence.

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Also released in 2019-20 was a study titled Policing repeat domestic violence: Would focused deterrence work in Australia? This paper was the culmination of three years of research by the AIC, consultation with a wide range of stakeholders and collaboration with the US National Network for Safe Communities, led by David Kennedy. We recommended trialling focused deterrence to reduce domestic violence reoffending in an Australian pilot to improve offender accountability and victim safety. AIC researchers are now working with government to explore how this model might be delivered.

Finally, in response to growing concern about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on safety in the home, we began work on a large-scale survey of women’s experiences of domestic violence during the early months of the pandemic. For more information on the survey, see page 25.

CHILD EXPLOITATION MATERIAL The AIC has continued its research into the problem of child exploitation material (CEM), in collaboration with the Australian Centre to Counter Child Exploitation and the Australian Federal Police. The Child Sexual Abuse Material Reduction Research Program, funded under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, seeks to reduce the production, distribution, storage and viewing of CEM.

In the previous financial year, eight research teams were awarded funding for projects looking at ways of reducing CEM offending. These projects are now well underway. While some have been slightly delayed by the effects of the coronavirus pandemic, most of the research teams have submitted draft reports. The proposed conference, to be co-hosted by the AIC and the Australian Centre to Counter Child Exploitation in Brisbane, had to be postponed due to the pandemic-related restrictions on travel and large gatherings, but video-conferencing with stakeholders has continued.

In addition, the AIC has carried out other research in this area. A project undertaken in collaboration with AUSTRAC and the ACIC involved analysing data on overseas payments made for live-streamed child sexual abuse. The resulting Trends & issues paper was published in February 2020 following presentations on the topic at the National Press Club in Canberra by the Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police and the CEOs of AUSTRAC and the ACIC.

The Department of Home Affairs has provided additional funding for further research on the problem of live streaming of child sexual abuse, particularly focusing on how sessions are identified, negotiated and paid for, and whether participation leads to contact offending.

The AIC is also supporting an Australian Research Council-funded Linkage Project being conducted by Swinburne University and Monash University called ‘Online child sexual exploitation: Understanding and responding to internet sexual offenders’.

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INDIGENOUS OVER-REPRESENTATION IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM The over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the criminal justice system remains a pressing concern for policymakers, practitioners and Indigenous communities. Two papers were published in 2019-20 addressing individual, community and systemic consequences of this over-representation. A paper by Griffith University published in the Trends & issues series calculated the costs of offender trajectories for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people born in Queensland in 1983 and 1984. Indigenous offenders were on average more costly due to high levels of repeated contact and sanction seriousness and length. The second paper examined the needs of Indigenous men and women following release from prison. This study used interviews conducted in Western Australia and the Northern Territory to illustrate the cultural and practical needs of people returning to their community from prison, and the importance of family and community in the establishment and delivery of services.

YOUTH CRIME In 2019-20 the AIC published two landmark papers on young people’s involvement with the criminal justice system. The first looked at ‘crossover kids’—children and adolescents who have had contact with both the child protection and juvenile justice systems. The findings from this paper indicated that young people with a history of contact with the child protection system are more likely to have multiple contacts with the juvenile justice system, and to be involved in more serious forms of offending. The other study looked at the reoffending patterns of adolescents reported to the police for domestic and family violence offending. This study identified that the reoffending patterns of young people are almost identical to those of adult domestic violence offenders, indicating the need for additional support targeted at young offenders to disrupt emerging patterns of abusive behaviours.

We also commenced a number of projects aimed at understanding young people’s involvement with the criminal justice system and identifying effective responses. These projects include:

ƒ a review of the online safety risks experienced by young people and adolescents;

ƒ a study examining the links between adolescent domestic and family violence offending and subsequent adult domestic violence offending; and

ƒ a systematic review of youth focused crime prevention projects to understand the implementation factors associated with effectiveness.

The AIC has also been commissioned to conduct a meta-evaluation of early intervention programs targeted at at-risk young people undertaken as part of the Safer Communities grants program, administered by the Department of Home Affairs.

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TRANSNATIONAL SERIOUS AND ORGANISED CRIME The Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory (SOCR-Lab) has continued to work closely with partners from across government to help inform efforts to target and disrupt organised crime groups. In 2019-20 we collaborated with the Australian Gangs Intelligence Coordination Centre, National Task Force Morpheus, Queensland Police Service, NSW Police Force, the Australian Taxation Office, AUSTRAC and the Department of Home Affairs.

A highlight of 2019-20 was the publication of research into the involvement in violent and organised crime of nearly 6,000 members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). This was the first output using linked data from the ACIC’s National Gangs List and National Police Reference System. This represents the single largest sample of OMCG members’ criminal histories anywhere in the world, and the release attracted considerable media attention. We are now using these data to explore patterns of criminal mobility among OMCG members, to examine the changing offending profile of OMCG members, and as part of an international comparative study of OMCGs.

Continuing the focus on OMCGs, work exploring factors related to the recruitment of individuals into OMCGs and the reasons for leaving gangs is now well underway, in partnership with Queensland Police Service. Involving interviews with former OMCG members, this research will directly inform the development of new prevention strategies to discourage individuals from joining OMCGs and support members who wish to leave. More than 50 former OMCG members have participated in interviews and several papers that draw on this information are currently in production.

We published the first of several organised crime studies by leading academics from Australia and around the world commissioned by the SOCR-Lab. Academics from Transcrime and the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, were commissioned to prepare a paper summarising the results of a systematic review of the social, psychological and economic factors leading to recruitment into organised crime.

Finally, we worked with the Australian National University Cybercrime Observatory to assess the availability of COVID-19 related medical products on the darknet. This study, completed during April 2020, found a range of personal protective equipment, purported medicines and fake vaccines available for purchase. For more information, see page 25.

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ILLICIT DRUGS Several projects by leading academics commissioned by the SOCR-Lab, involving systematic reviews of research into the dynamics of illicit drug markets, were completed in 2019-20. Two of these focused on the relationship between drug price, purity and demand and associated harms. Another two involved systematic reviews and meta-analyses of research into the impact of street-level drug law enforcement and supplier arrests and drug seizures. These are important foundation pieces for a larger of body of primary research. Researchers from the SOCR-Lab are now working closely with researchers from the AIC’s Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program to analyse long-term trends in methamphetamine market indicators of supply, demand and harm.

Work was also completed on two studies funded by the SOCR-Lab and conducted by the Australian National University’s Cybercrime Observatory focused on the availability of synthetic opioids on cryptomarkets. This included the final paper from a study tracking fentanyl listings across six prominent cryptomarkets, published in February 2020, and research into the impact of law enforcement seizures on the availability of fentanyl and other opioids on Tor darknet markets. This is part of a wider body of SOCR-Lab work focused on the availability of illicit products on darknet markets, and effective countermeasures, in response to growing concern about the role of darknet markets in organised crime.

STATISTICAL MONITORING In addition to undertaking projects on each of the research priorities, the AIC administers five long-term statistical collections on crime and justice: the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program, the Fraud Against the Commonwealth census, the Identity Crime and Misuse Survey, the National Homicide Monitoring Program and the National Deaths in Custody Program.

DRUG USE MONITORING IN AUSTRALIA PROGRAM

The Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program has been operating since 1999 and collects drug and alcohol use and criminal justice information quarterly from police detainees at multiple sites across Australia. During 2019-20, a total of 1,929 adult police detainees were interviewed at five sites in Adelaide, Brisbane, Sydney and Perth. DUMA interviews in quarter 4 were limited to Perth due to COVID-19 restrictions. Quarterly addenda administered with the core questionnaire asked detainees about the use of fentanyl, price elasticity and drug purchasing behaviour, and domestic and family violence.

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In 2019-20 the DUMA program’s Statistical Report for 2018 was released. It showed that the proportion of detainees testing positive to any one drug or to multiple drugs was the highest recorded since 2002. Over half of detainees tested positive to methamphetamine. Two Statistical Bulletins released during the year examined non-medical fentanyl use among police detainees. Just three percent of detainees tested positive to fentanyl but all stated they had not used fentanyl in the previous 12 months, suggesting fentanyl contamination in the Australian illicit drug market. Another two Statistical Bulletins revealed the prevalence of social supply (the sharing or swapping of drugs among family and friends) as a source of pharmaceutical opioids and methamphetamine among police detainees. A fifth Statistical Bulletin described the use and subsequent abandonment of mobile phone technology to buy and sell illicit drugs.

FRAUD AGAINST THE COMMONWEALTH

The AIC continued to conduct the annual Fraud Against the Commonwealth census, examining Australian Government entities’ experience of and response to fraud. Reports on the 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 fraud censuses were released in 2019-20. Another report, also published during the reporting period, focused on the most harmful incidents of fraud investigated by Commonwealth agencies in 2018-19.

IDENTITY CRIME AND MISUSE SURVEY

The AIC also continued its work for the Identity Security Branch of the Department of Home Affairs, conducting regular surveys of the public and undertaking national data collection from the public and private sectors concerning identity crime and misuse.

The most recent Identity Crime and Misuse Survey was undertaken in December 2019 and January 2020 and three reports were prepared for publication. As in previous years, the survey asked a sample of 10,000 Australians about their experience of identity crime or misuse, both in their lifetimes and in the last 12 months. The findings indicate the extent of identity crime and help policymakers to reduce its impact throughout Australia.

NATIONAL HOMICIDE MONITORING PROGRAM

The National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) is Australia’s only national collection on homicide incidents, victims and offenders. Four reports were released in 2019-20, covering the years 2014-15 to 2017-18. The number of homicide incidents in 2017-18 fell to the lowest recorded since 1989-90. The decrease in homicide was driven by decreases in acquaintance and domestic homicides and, significantly, a decrease in intimate partner homicide.

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The NHMP contributed to a report commissioned by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet on female-perpetrated intimate partner homicide, which found that offenders were characterised by histories of domestic violence victimisation and backgrounds of criminal activity, unemployment and substance misuse. The NHMP is also contributing to the Pathways to Intimate Partner Homicide project commissioned by Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety and funded by the Department of Social Services. This project is describing the sequence of events, interactions and relationship dynamics preceding and coinciding with the murder of a woman by her male intimate partner.

NATIONAL DEATHS IN CUSTODY PROGRAM

Established following a recommendation of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, the National Deaths in Custody Program is responsible for monitoring the extent and nature of deaths that have occurred in prison, police custody and youth detention in Australia since 1980. The program made a significant contribution to recent national discussion of deaths in custody, through its collation of comprehensive longitudinal data on the rates and characteristics of Indigenous deaths in prison and police custody.

During 2019-20 we released the report Deaths in custody in Australia 2017-18, which describes the 16 Indigenous and 56 non-Indigenous deaths in prison custody and three Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous deaths in police custody occurring in that year. We also published a Statistical Bulletin on the 82 shooting deaths in police custody between 2006-07 and 2016-17. Shooting deaths in police custody were most likely to affect non-Indigenous men, and to occur after the commission of a violent act and while the decedent was in possession of a weapon.

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OTHER RESEARCH Not all of the research undertaken in 2019-20 can be categorised into one of the priority themes. Some research relates to priorities from prior years, while some relates to fee-for-service research commissioned by Commonwealth, state or territory agencies. Topics covered by this research included:

ƒ online gambling during the COVID-19 pandemic;

ƒ organisational and consumer fraud;

ƒ public sector corruption;

ƒ videoconference technology in court proceedings;

ƒ social network analysis of co-offending networks;

ƒ firearm theft;

ƒ the costs of offending among different cohorts;

ƒ identity theft;

ƒ combating human trafficking and slavery;

ƒ risk factors associated with phishing victimisation;

ƒ regulation of high denomination banknotes to reduce economic crime;

ƒ pure cybercrime; and

ƒ evidence-based policing.

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CRIME IN THE TIME OF COVID-19

The AIC was responsive to the emerging COVID-19 pandemic and launched a number of projects to examine its impact on crime. In early April 2020, in collaboration with the Australian National University Cybercrime Observatory, we explored the availability of COVID-19 related medical products on the darknet. Commissioned by the AIC’s SOCR-Lab and completed in just two weeks, the research found 645 COVID-19 related products, including 222 unique listings. Nearly half were personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves. Another third were medicines, including repurposed antivirals and antibiotics. Also for sale were test kits, industrial thermometers, and purported antidotes and vaccines. This paper received attention around the world, with print, online and television media reaching an estimated audience of nearly 15 million people.

Another project examined trends in online gambling during March and April 2020. While gambling is legal, it is associated with fraud, theft and domestic violence, and can cause financial stress that in turn increases the risk of crime. Two identical online surveys conducted a month apart found a growing proportion of gamblers increasing the amount they were spending on gambling between March and April. Men aged under 40 were the most likely to have spent more on gambling, but in April the strongest predictor of increased spending was living as a couple with children.

In response to growing concern about the impact of COVID-19 on women’s safety, we also embarked on Australian’s largest primary data collection on women’s experiences of domestic violence, and barriers to help seeking, in the early months of the pandemic. Working closely with the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Department of Social Services, Department of Home Affairs, Attorney-General’s Department, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety, we surveyed 15,000 women from around Australia. These data are vital in informing our understanding of the impact of the pandemic on violence in the home, and what measures might be necessary to protect women from further harm while public health measures are in place.

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GRANT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH GRANTS The Criminology Research Grants program provides funding for criminological research relevant to crime and justice policy at either the national or state and territory level. The program promotes the value and usefulness of such research by publishing and disseminating the findings of the funded work.

The CRG program is administered by the AIC and funded by the Commonwealth and state and territory governments (see Table 2). Taking into account the recommendations of the Criminology Research Advisory Council, the Director of the AIC approves a number of research grants and other funded research projects each year. The program is currently funding 33 criminology research projects with a total value of $1,713,140.63 (including GST).

The Criminology Research Advisory Council comprises representatives from the Australian government and each state and territory. Until July 2019, the Advisory Council was chaired by Ms Julia Griffith, Deputy Secretary Corrections in the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation. At a meeting on 26 July 2019, Dr Adam Tomison, Director General of the Western Australian Department of Justice, was unanimously elected as chair. Advisory Council membership is listed in the Management and accountability section of this report. The AIC provides secretariat services to the Advisory Council.

FUNDING GRANTS AND PROJECTS

The Advisory Council takes into account the following criteria when considering research grant applications:

ƒ public policy relevance;

ƒ the extent to which the proposed research will have practical application and contribute to the understanding, prevention or correction of criminal behaviour;

ƒ the likelihood of the proposed research making a substantial and original contribution to criminological knowledge;

ƒ the cost-effectiveness of the research;

ƒ the soundness of the design and methodology, and the feasibility of the research;

ƒ the competence of the applicant(s) or principal investigator(s) to undertake the proposed research;

ƒ ethics committee approval, where appropriate;

ƒ availability of data, where required; and

ƒ the extent of funding or in-kind support obtained from relevant agencies.

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GRANT ASSESSMENT PANEL

A panel of two independent expert criminologists reviews grant applications each year. The panellists are selected by the Criminology Research Advisory Council from recommendations made by the President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology. Each panel member usually serves for two years.

Panel members assess all grant applications independently of each other and complete an assessment sheet for each application. They then meet to discuss the assessments with the AIC’s Deputy Director, who submits final recommendations to the Director and the Advisory Council for consideration at its November meeting.

2019-20 FUNDING

In 2019-20, the AIC contributed $223,380 (2018-19: $219,000) from the Commonwealth appropriation to fund CRG grants. The AIC also contributed $76,500 (2018-19: $75,000) to administer the grants program (see Tables 3 and 4).

State and territory governments collectively contributed $223,380 (2018-19: $219,000) to the AIC to fund grants. State and territory contributions were calculated on a pro rata population basis, as shown in Table 2. Table 3 summarises CRG program income and expenditure for 2019-20.

Table 2: State and territory contributions to the Criminology Research Grants program, 2019-20

State/territory $

New South Wales 71,392

Victoria 57,908

Queensland 44,833

Western Australia 23,126

South Australia 15,463

Tasmania 4,716

Australian Capital Territory 3,760

Northern Territory 2,182

Total 223,380

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Table 3: Criminology Research Grants program financial data, 2019-20

Total income for CRG program $

Commonwealth funding 223,380

State and territory funding 28,989a

Total income for purpose of making grants 252,369

Expenditure for CRG program

Grants 179,692

Direct administration expenditure 72,677

Total expenditure 252,369

a: The total 2019-20 state/territory contribution is $223,380. The unused portion is reported as unearned revenue in the statement of financial position

Table 4: Criminology Research Grants program indirect administration financial data, 2019-20

Total income for CRG program administration $

Commonwealth funding 76,500

Total income 76,500

Expenditure for CRG administration

Administration expenditure 76,500

Total administration expenditure 76,500

NEW PROJECTS

Information on projects awarded funding during 2019-20 is available on the CRG website: https://www.aic.gov.au/crg/research-grants/successful.

Two projects commenced in 2019-20, based on when their contracts were executed.

Does the involvement of family and friends improve probation and parole outcomes? A quantitative evaluation of Triple-S: Social Supports in Supervision

Dr Lacey Schaefer, Associate Professor Michael Townsley (Griffith University)

Total funding: $39,370

Developing innovation for behavioural change programs with men who perpetrate domestic and family violence: Piloting a restorative, environmental project within an integrated program

Dr Jennifer Boddy, Professor Patrick O’Leary, Professor Paul Mazerolle (Griffith University)

Total funding: $74,493

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DISSEMINATION PERFORMANCE PUBLICATIONS One of the AIC’s critical functions is disseminating new research findings, recognising that applied criminological research should inform policy, practice and community debate on issues of concern. The dissemination function ensures the AIC’s research is publicly available and easily understood, so that it informs policy and practice.

The AIC communicates new knowledge developed by both AIC researchers and external authors. The AIC’s regular publications are the foundation of this. Research Reports and Trends & issues papers are subject to a rigorous review process before they are accepted for publication. Drafts are also reviewed by senior research staff. All publications are then reviewed by the Deputy Director and edited to conform to AIC publishing style, promoting clear and understandable research. Due to the large volume of publications the AIC produces, these are generally designed, edited and typeset in-house.

A summary of reports produced by the AIC in 2019-20 is presented in Table 5. Details of the publications are listed in appendices 1 and 2.

Table 5: AIC publications, 2019-20

Publication series n

Research Reports 1

Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 20

Statistical Reports 12

Statistical Bulletins 9

Reports to the Criminology Research Advisory Council 10

Other 13

Total 65

WEBSITE The AIC website continues to attract a strong following and a high number of page views, as demonstrated in Table 6.

Table 6: Web sessions and page views, 2017-18 to 2019-20

Sessions Users Page views

2017-18 1,013,918 705,522 2,015,344

2018-19 1,149,412 801,765 2,054,410

2019-20 1,382,733 998,626 2,499,692

Source: Google analytics

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Figure 2: Top five referrals to AIC website from social media by session, 2018-19 to 2019-20 (n)

0

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

50,000

60,000

Facebook Twi�er Reddit YouTube LinkedIn

2018-19 2019-20

Source: Google analytics

Figure 3: Devices used to access website by session, 2018-19 to 2019-20 (%)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Desktop Mobile Tablet

2018-19 2019-20

Source: Google analytics

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Table 7 shows the AIC’s most popular publications based on page views. This table demonstrates the importance and relevance of the AIC’s work both recent and historic. The latest Deaths in custody in Australia publication attracted a large number of views, meeting a high demand for this information, while the AIC’s extensive back catalogue of research continued to have a strong following.

Table 7: Most popular AIC publications, 2019-20

Title Year of

publication Page views

Deaths in custody in Australia 2017-18 (Statistical Report no. 21)

2020 85,867

Effective crime prevention interventions for implementation by local government (Research and Public Policy no. 120)

2012 42,237

Deaths in custody in Australia 1990-2004 (Trends & issues no. 309)

2006 33,777

Indigenous deaths in custody: 25 years since the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (Statistical Bulletin no. 17)

2019 33,651

Key issues in domestic violence (Research in Practice no. 7)

2009 28,084

Deaths in custody in Australia: National Deaths in Custody Program 2011-12 and 2012-13 (Monitoring Report no. 26)

2015 20,358

Migrant sex workers (Research and Public Policy no. 131)

2015 20,038

What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders? (Trends & issues no. 409) 2011 19,784

Trends in violent crime (Trends & issues no. 359)

2008 19,668

Source: Google analytics

MEDIA The AIC’s media engagement is both proactive (relating to publications and events) and reactive, when journalists request information or interviews on criminal justice topics. During 2019-20 there were 167 media contacts and 24 interviews.

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SOCIAL MEDIA At 30 June 2020 the AIC had an online subscriber network of 38,444 people:

ƒ 23,747 Facebook followers;

ƒ 8,288 Twitter followers;

ƒ 4,777 email alert subscribers; and

ƒ 1,632 CriminologyTV YouTube subscribers.

CriminologyTV makes 344 AIC video files publicly available to both subscribers and non-subscribers worldwide, substantially expanding access to AIC products. These videos include lectures, keynote conference presentations, seminars and award ceremonies.

Figure 4: Social media followers by financial year

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

Twi�er Facebook Email YouTube

2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

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TOP FIVE TWEETS FOR 2019-20

1

Research from our Serious and Organised Crime Research Lab reveals high offending rates among outlaw motorcycle #gangs. Violent & organised crime were common, but harm was concentrated among members. Many gangs met the criteria for criminal organisations bit.ly/2mv90Pz

2

Who comes into contact with police for #DV offending? Our new research reviews 39 quantitative studies of #DV offenders in #Australia and shows that 75-94% of all offenders are men #FDV #VAW #IPV: https://aic.gov.au/ publications/tandi/tandi580

3

We released ground breaking research paper ‘Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions’ http://bit.ly/2SHlJ2u The paper gains insight into Australians live streaming child sexual abuse, their criminal history & demographic data

4

How often do #DV offenders reported to the police reoffend? Our new review of 39 quantitative studies of #DV in #Australia examines rates, concentration, timing and diversity of reoffending #FDV #VAW #IPV: https://aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi580

5

Our Serious and #OrganisedCrime Research Lab just released a systematic review of the social, psychological and economic factors leading to recruitment into organised crime. Important research by @FraCalderoni and colleagues from @Unicatt and @Transcrime: http://bit.ly/37jGXs8

10,777 impressions (25 September 2019)

10,308 impressions (21 January 2020)

18,988 impressions (11 February 2020)

17,794 impressions (25 September 2019)

11,847 impressions (19 February 2020)

SOCIAL MEDIA

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TOP FIVE FACEBOOK POSTS 2019-20

1

Today we released the first of its kind research paper ‘Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions’ bit.ly/2SHlJ2u. This study analyses data on payments that were likely to be made for child sexual abuse streaming by Australians to the Philippines, gaining insight into Australians live streaming child sexual abuse, their criminal history and demographic data.

2

Today we released a study on the availability of COVID-19 related products on the darknet. Results showed 222 unique listings across 12 different markets, indicating that profit-motivated criminal groups are seizing the opportunity to sell fake vaccines and other compromised medical items on the darknet. Learn more: bit.ly/2SknSAs

3

Latest research from the National Homicide Monitoring Program shows that intimate partner homicide accounts for a third of all female-perpetrated homicide http://bit.ly/2RAuomB]

4

Today is World Day against trafficking in persons. Our Estimating the dark figure of human trafficking and slavery victimisation in Australia report revealed there were between 1,300 and 1,900 victims from 2015-16 to 2016-17. Find out more by reading: http://bit.ly/2TRbPJw #EndHumanTrafficking

5

When was the last time you checked your social media privacy settings? Don’t leave yourself open to cybercriminals. Complete your privacy check-up today, go to www.staysmartonline.gov.au/reversethethreat #ReverseTheThreat #StaySmartOnline

27,232 impressions (19 February 2020)

5,226 impressions (30 July 2019)

5,125 impressions (8 October 2019)

18,274 impressions (29 April 2020)

14,591 impressions (29 January 2020)

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EVENTS The AIC’s program of events was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A conference scheduled for mid-2020, the Organised Crime Research Forum, had to be cancelled. This forum had been held annually since 2016. Despite this, the Institute held 13 events during the reporting period, including online seminars broadcast via our YouTube channel, CriminologyTV.

CONFERENCES The AIC co-hosted one conference in 2019-20.

Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence-Based Policing Conference

Canberra, 31 October - 1 November 2019

The Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing and Australian Institute of Criminology co-hosted a conference held at Old Parliament House in Canberra. The theme of the conference was ‘New frontiers: How the evidence base can inform policing and law enforcement’. Sub-themes included counterterrorism and countering violent extremism, responses to serious and organised crime, reducing child sexual exploitation, targeting high-risk offenders, preventing volume crime, improving police practice and leadership, and law enforcement training and education. For more information, see page 42.

OCCASIONAL SEMINARS In 2019-20, the AIC hosted 10 occasional seminars.

The prevention of radicalisation leading to violence: An international study of front-line workers and intervention issues

Cateline Autixier (International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, Montreal), Canberra, 16 September 2019

Anti-violence strategies, suicide reduction policies, and the effects of firearms use in Australia

Professor Stuart Gilmour (St Luke’s International University, Tokyo), Canberra, 1 October 2019

Can we eliminate crime?

Professor Gloria Laycock OBE (Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, London), Sydney, 4 November 2019

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Future crime problems and security solutions: How to anticipate them and what to do about them

Professor Paul Ekblom (University of the Arts, London), Sydney, 25 November 2019

Tackling new and emerging crime problems: The Eco, Devo, Evo Framework

Professor Paul Ekblom (University of the Arts, London), Canberra, 27 November 2019

Toolkit for counterterrorism and crime prevention at complex train stations

Professor Paul Ekblom (University of the Arts, London), Melbourne, 29 November 2019

Domestic violence offending and reoffending in Australia

Hayley Boxall (Australian Institute of Criminology), CriminologyTV, 20 April 2020

Policing repeat domestic violence: Would focused deterrence work in Australia?

Hayley Boxall and Anthony Morgan (Australian Institute of Criminology), CriminologyTV, 20 April 2020

Homicide in Australia

Dr Samantha Bricknell (Australian Institute of Criminology), CriminologyTV, 6 May 2020

Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse

Dr Rick Brown (Australian Institute of Criminology), CriminologyTV, 18 May 2020

OTHER EVENTS

Autumn Coordination Meeting of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network, Canberra, 30 October 2019

The UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network is a group of criminology, law and justice institutes who work together to share information on crime prevention and criminal justice. Its members include the AIC, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, and many others from around the world. For more information about the coordination meeting, see page 75.

Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards ceremony, Canberra, 26 November 2019

The AIC manages the annual Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards, with the Director of the AIC chairing the selection board. The Hon Peter Dutton MP, Minister for Home Affairs, announced the 2019 winners at a ceremony held in Parliament House, Canberra. For details of the award-winning projects, see pages 51-61.

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LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES The Institute’s information services, centred around the JV Barry Library, are essential to our role as the national knowledge centre on crime and criminal justice. The library provides information to practitioners, policymakers, academics, students and the general public. The Information Services team also offers fundamental support to AIC researchers, particularly by anticipating their research requirements and proactively sourcing new and authoritative material. Table 8 summarises the key outputs associated with information services.

Table 8: Library services activity, 2017-18 to 2019-20

2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

Inquiry responses <15 minutes 597 631 619

Hours spent on complex queries 438 511 692

Records added to CINCH 939 821 889

Journal articles supplied by other libraries 381 258 466

Journal articles supplied to other libraries 276 229 268

Items loaned to other libraries 77 50 60

Items borrowed from other libraries 34 17 9

SERVICES FOR STAKEHOLDERS The library maintains and promotes a significant specialist criminological information collection and provides a range of services to inform the sector. These services include:

ƒ maintaining and developing the CINCH database—the largest single source of Australian criminological resources in Australia;

ƒ alerting subscribers, by email and RSS feed, to new resources in their subject areas;

ƒ responding to enquiries from an array of stakeholders including law enforcement and justice personnel, researchers, students and members of the public; and

ƒ providing hard-copy and electronic materials through national and networked interlibrary loan schemes.

In addition to assisting AIC researchers with literature searches and the provision of resources, library staff also monitor the distribution, reach and influence of AIC publications.

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LIBRARY COLLECTION The library collection is made up of electronic and print material. The physical collection can be divided into three distinct categories: books, serials or journal articles, and the AIC archive. Although additions to the collection are predominantly in electronic format, hard-copy books are still popular. The print collection currently contains 11,772 books.

CINCH: AUSTRALIAN CRIMINOLOGY DATABASE The AIC has developed and maintained the CINCH database of Australasian literature on crime and criminal justice for over 45 years. In addition to providing free, open access to resources from the AIC library catalogue, CINCH is also part of the suite of Australian databases provided by Informit (RMIT). RMIT delivers this content to libraries in universities, government departments, non-government organisations and private companies, predominantly in Australia but with some overseas subscribers too. AIC librarians constantly scan available crime and justice resources to source literature and add it to the CINCH database. The database currently holds over 62,000 records.

CRIME AND JUSTICE EMAIL ALERTS The monthly Crime and Justice Alerts provide subscribers with relevant and timely crime and justice resources from Australia and overseas. Some of the newly added CINCH items are used for the alerts, along with material from overseas. This free service provides information on 10 topics to 4,486 individual subscribers.

STAKEHOLDER AND PUBLIC ENQUIRIES The library is the AIC’s first point of contact for telephone and email enquiries from external stakeholders and the public. Every day a diverse range of information requests are received by the library team, and they are generally answered within 24 hours. Approximately 50 queries are received each month from clients such as government officers, law enforcement and criminal justice officials, academics, students and members of the public from Australia and overseas.

NETWORKING ACROSS SECTORS In 2019-20, over 800 items were exchanged through the interlibrary loans service. The JV Barry Library partners with other libraries from agencies in the law enforcement, university, government, health and community sectors to maintain strong reciprocal networks. The library is also a member of Libraries Australia Document Delivery service. This service minimises duplication of resources while maximising the effectiveness and specialisation of library collections across the nation.

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The library gives notice of new AIC publications and events to its own Alert subscribers and also to other networks such as the CrimNet email discussion list for criminal justice researchers, practitioners and policymakers; to the Analysis and Policy Observatory for the general research community and policymakers; to library networks both local and international for inclusion in their own databases and to circulate to their users; and to other related professional networks and commercial databases such as EBSCO and ProQuest.

The library also contributes to most of the Institute’s conferences, forums, visiting delegations and seminars.

DISTRIBUTION, REACH AND INFLUENCE OF AIC PUBLICATIONS The AIC has a significant influence on criminological research and policy development across multiple jurisdictions, nationally and internationally. Crime and justice researchers and practitioners, international organisations and parliaments continue to use AIC publications—both the most recent papers and those produced in the 1980s. In addition to the numerous journal articles which cite AIC publications, citation analysis shows AIC material being used by all levels of government. In 2019-20, AIC publications were cited by:

ƒ Parliament of Australia;

ƒ parliaments of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia;

ƒ Department of Home Affairs;

ƒ Australian Institute of Health and Welfare;

ƒ Australian Institute of Family Studies;

ƒ Australian National Audit Office;

ƒ Australian Law Reform Commission;

ƒ New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research;

ƒ New South Wales Corrective Services;

ƒ Victoria’s Sentencing Advisory Council;

ƒ Queensland Productivity Commission; and

ƒ Western Australian Commission for Children and Young People.

The various materials which cite our publications can be classified by type. As shown in Figure 5 for a sample of 525 publications, citations appeared in a variety of contexts, with over a third occurring in government and parliamentary documents.

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Figure 5: Where AIC material is used (%)

Government publicati ons

Parliamentary documents

Books

Peer-reviewed journals

Australian publicati ons

22% 22%

14%

17%

25%

Figure 6 shows the broad topic areas of the AIC publications cited.

Figure 6: Topics of AIC publications cited (%)

Criminal justi ce

Domesti c violence

Drugs

Correcti ons

Child related

Indigenous

Fraud

Homicide

Other

8%

7%

6%

14%

22%

12%

12%

10%

9%

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DATABASE PROVIDERS ProQuest, GALE and EBSCO are database providers that host a large range of information products for universities, schools and corporate and government agencies around the world. Their distribution of AIC material indicates its reach. EBSCO statistics show that Trends & issues papers were downloaded 13,715 times during 2019-20. Table 9 indicates the most popular publications in this series.

Table 9: Most popular Trends & issues papers downloaded from EBSCO, 2019-20

Title Downloads

Predicting repeat domestic violence: Improving police risk assessment (no. 581) 495

The opioid epidemic in North America: Implications for Australia (no. 578) 458

Domestic violence offenders, prior offending and reoffending in Australia (no. 580) 421

Policing repeat domestic violence: Would focused deterrence work in Australia? (no. 593) 342

Benevolent harm: Orphanages, voluntourism and child sexual exploitation in South East Asia (no. 574) 271

What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders? (no. 409) 260

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The AIC co-hosted the 2019 Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing Conference, held on 31 October and 1 November at Old Parliament House in Canberra. The theme of the conference was ‘New frontiers: How the evidence base can inform policing and law enforcement’.

The conference brought together sworn and unsworn officers from state, territory and Commonwealth law enforcement agencies, researchers and others who work with law enforcement to reduce crime and improve community safety. Other delegates represented international organisations including the US National Institute of Justice, the Thailand Institute of Justice, the Korean Institute of Criminology and several United Nations bodies.

The keynote speakers were Sergeant Renée Mitchell from the American Society of Evidence Based Policing, Dr Geoffrey Barnes of the Western Australia Police Force, Professor Lorraine Mazerolle from the University of Queensland, and Professor Gloria Laycock of University College London. Major sponsors for the conference included the Department of Home Affairs, AUSTRAC, and the Western Australia Police Force.

AIC Deputy Director Rick Brown gave the opening address, while Anthony Morgan presented findings from research into outlaw motorcycle gangs, Christopher Dowling presented on the accuracy of and improvements to ACT Policing’s Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool and Hayley Boxall led a discussion about focused deterrence approaches to domestic violence in the United States and recommended a pilot in Australia.

The AIC worked with ANZSEBP to promote evidence-based policing to a wider audience, resulting in more than 180 people attending the conference, more than double the previous year’s figure. Feedback on the conference was very positive. Three-quarters of those who completed the evaluation survey said the conference was useful to their current role, and more than nine in 10 said they would recommend it to others.

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND SOCIETY OF EVIDENCE BASED POLICING CONFERENCE

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Management and accountability

03 45 CORPORA TE GOVERNANCE

48 EXTERN AL SCRUTINY

49 PROCUREMENT

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DIRECTOR Mr Michael Phelan, the CEO of the ACIC, is the Director of the AIC. He was appointed to both roles on 13 November 2017.

AUDIT COMMITTEE In accordance with responsibilities under section 45 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013, the Director has established and maintains an independent Audit Committee. The Audit Committee’s authority is established under its Charter, which sets out the committee’s functions and responsibilities.

The Audit Committee functions as a joint audit committee for the AIC and the ACIC and endorses the Internal Audit Charter, approves the annual audit plan, reviews progress against the plan and considers all audit reports. It also monitors implementation of all internal and external audit recommendations and takes a keen interest in the implementation of recommendations arising from other reviews, including those of the Australian National Audit Office and Commonwealth Ombudsman.

The Audit Committee provides advice on matters of concern raised by internal auditors or the Auditor-General and advises the Director on the preparation and review of the AIC’s financial statements and certificate of compliance.

The Audit Committee includes an independent external chair and three members as well as an observer from the Australian National Audit Office. The committee meets quarterly to review internal and external audit reports, consider findings and recommendations, and oversee the internal audit program. The committee also holds an additional meeting once a year to review the financial statements. In addition, the committee monitors risk, internal controls, fraud and corruption prevention activities, and performance reporting.

MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES

RESEARCH MANAGERS COMMITTEE

The Research Managers Committee meets every two weeks to consider both strategic and operational aspects of the AIC’s research program and provides advice to the Executive Committee on research priorities and risks. The meetings are regularly attended by other senior management staff to discuss specific management topics. Its members at 30 June 2020 were:

ƒ Dr Rick Brown, Deputy Director (Chair);

ƒ Dr Russell Smith, Principal Criminologist;

ƒ Dr Samantha Bricknell, Research Manager;

ƒ Mr Anthony Morgan, Research Manager; and

ƒ Ms Jane Shelling, JV Barry Library Manager.

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HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE

The AIC’s Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) has been operating since 1992. Its eight members have backgrounds in law, religion, social work and research, as stipulated in the National Health and Medical Research Council’s guidelines for ethics committees.

The HREC’s role is to advise the Director (or Deputy Director) whether approval to proceed should be granted for proposed research involving human subjects. The HREC regularly reviews proposed projects to ensure that appropriate safeguards exist to ensure the conduct of the research is consistent with ethical standards.

During 2019-20, the HREC reviewed and approved 18 new proposals. The HREC met on three occasions: 8 August 2019, 25 November 2019 and 28 February 2020.

The committee chair in 2019-20 was Professor Nicolas Peterson PhD, Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. The committee’s other members at 30 June 2020 were:

ƒ Mr Derek Jory (layman);

ƒ Ms Christine Freudenstein (laywoman);

ƒ Professor Debra Rickwood PhD, MAPS (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, the care, counselling or treatment of people);

ƒ Miss Dolores Schneider LLB (lawyer);

ƒ Reverend Martin Christensen (person who performs a pastoral care role in a community);

ƒ Associate Professor Tony Krone PhD (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, research regularly considered by the HREC); and

ƒ Ms Isabella Voce BPsySc (person with knowledge of, and current experience in, research regularly considered by the HREC).

RISK MANAGEMENT

FRAUD AND CORRUPTION CONTROL

As required by the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework, the Director certifies he is confident that:

ƒ a fraud and corruption risk assessment and fraud and corruption control plan has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework;

ƒ appropriate fraud prevention, detection, investigation and reporting procedures and processes are in place; and

ƒ annual fraud data that complies with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework has been collected and reported.

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Fraud and corruption risks were assessed as part of the ACIC’s fraud and corruption risk assessment process. The inclusion of corruption control in the fraud control plan recognises the ACIC’s organisational environment as a target for infiltration and corruption. No fraud or corruption relating to the AIC was reported or identified in 2019-20.

PROTECTIVE SECURITY

As an Australian Government agency, the AIC is required to follow the Commonwealth Government Protective Security Policy Framework and the Commonwealth Government Information Security Manual. The AIC’s protective security requirements are managed by the ACIC.

The AIC runs a stable and secure ICT network in accordance with Commonwealth Government Protective Security Policy Framework and related information security requirements. The AIC continues to enhance the performance of its systems and reduce the overheads associated with its ICT service.

Backup and disaster recovery systems have been upgraded and improved to strengthen the protection of AIC systems and data.

In collaboration with Australian Survey Research, the AIC has developed a data collection system for the DUMA program. The system allows offline survey data collection to be integrated into the online survey environment. The process enables the offline collection of data and significantly reduces costs and processing time by eliminating hard copy survey instruments and the labour-intensive data entry and validation process. An improved version has been developed and is currently in use.

STAFF CONSULTATION All-staff meetings give managers an opportunity to discuss recent achievements or events. These meetings also provide an open forum for staff to discuss any relevant issues.

The AIC’s intranet is its main vehicle for sharing and developing knowledge. It provides links to information in the JV Barry Library catalogue, the external databases to which the library subscribes and the public domain. By providing access to research projects, datasets and presentations, the intranet encourages researchers to build on and extend previous AIC research.

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EXTERNAL SCRUTINY In 2019-20, no judicial decisions or decisions of administrative tribunals affected the Institute, nor were there any relevant parliamentary committee reports or Ombudsman reports.

The AIC undertakes a risk assessment annually and reviews risks on a regular basis. The Institute is subject to an annual statutory audit performed by the Australian National Audit Office. In addition, regular internal audit reviews are undertaken by an independent consultant. The outcomes of all audits are presented to the AIC’s Audit Committee.

CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COUNCIL The Criminology Research Advisory Council was established under 2011 amendments to the Criminology Research Act 1971. This council and its members have no legal, management or financial responsibility for the AIC. The role of the council and its members is to advise the Director in relation to:

ƒ strategic priorities for criminological research;

ƒ priorities for communicating the results of that research; and

ƒ applications for research grants made under the CRG program.

The Criminology Research Advisory Council consists of nine members representing the Australian Government and state and territory governments. This composition ensures that areas targeted for research funding reflect national, state and territory priorities.

In 2019-20 the council met on the following occasions:

ƒ 26 July 2019, via teleconference;

ƒ 15 November 2019, in Canberra; and

ƒ 20 March 2020, via teleconference.

COUNCIL MEMBERS AT 30 JUNE 2020

Commonwealth

Mr Anthony Coles, First Assistant Secretary, Law Enforcement and Intelligence Policy Division, Department of Home Affairs

New South Wales

Mr Paul McKnight, Acting Deputy Secretary, Law Reform and Legal Services, New South Wales Department of Justice

Victoria

Ms Fiona Dowsley, Executive Director, Evidence and Insights, Chief Statistician, Crime Statistics Agency, Victoria

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Queensland

Ms Jennifer Lang, Deputy Director-General, Queensland Department of Justice and Attorney-General (Deputy Chair)

Western Australia

Dr Adam Tomison, Director General, Western Australian Department of Justice (Chair)

South Australia

Mr Adam Kilvert, Chief Executive, Policy and Community, South Australian Attorney-General’s Department

Tasmania

Ms Ginna Webster, Secretary, Tasmanian Department of Justice

Australian Capital Territory

Mr Richard Glenn, Director-General, ACT Justice and Community Safety Directorate

Northern Territory

Mr Greg Shanahan, Chief Executive, NT Department of the Attorney-General and Justice

PROCUREMENT The AIC’s approach to procuring property and services, including consultancies, is consistent with the Australian Government’s procurement policy and legislation. The Commonwealth Procurement Rules are applied to activities through the Accountable Authority Instructions and supporting operational policies and procedures, which are reviewed for consistency with the Commonwealth Procurement Framework. The procurement framework reflects the core principle governing Australian Government procurement—value for money. The Institute’s policies and procedures also focus on:

ƒ encouraging competitive, non-discriminatory procurement processes;

ƒ efficient, effective, economical and ethical use of resources; and

ƒ accountability and transparency.

During 2019-20 the AIC continued to participate in whole-of-government, coordinated procurement initiatives and sought opportunities to lower tendering costs and provide savings through economies of scale.

PROPERTY AND CORPORATE SERVICES Functions relating to finance, human resources, ICT and property are provided to the AIC by the ACIC. The AIC currently occupies space leased by the ACIC.

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LEGAL SERVICES The AIC engages legal services from the Legal Services Multi-Use List framework, in accordance with the Legal Services Directions 2005. Legal services include both contract and consultancy services relating to legislation, governance, contracting and human resource matters.

During 2019-20, the AIC made no expenditure on legal services (2018-19: $0).

CONSULTANTS Consultants are engaged where particular specialist expertise is necessary, sufficiently skilled expertise is not immediately available in-house, or independent advice on a matter is required.

We make decisions to engage consultants in accordance with the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 and related regulations, including the Commonwealth Procurement Rules and relevant internal policies.

During 2019-20, no new consultancy contracts were entered into. In addition, no ongoing consultancy contracts were active during the period. During the previous reporting period, no consultancy contracts were entered into.

Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website: www.tenders.gov.au. Contracts in excess of $100,000 are reported in accordance with the requirements of Senate Order 192 and detailed on the AIC website: www.aic.gov.au.

SUPPORTING SMALL BUSINESS The AIC supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and medium enterprise and small enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance’s website.

The AIC recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. We support the use of small and medium enterprises through various means, including the use of template contracts for both low risk and higher risk procurements and compliance with the Australian Government’s Supplier Pay on Time or Pay Interest Policy.

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE ACCESS The AIC’s contract templates contain standard clauses to provide for the Auditor-General to have access to the contractor’s premises. All contracts entered into during the reporting period contained these standard clauses.

EXEMPT CONTRACTS The AIC has not entered into any contracts or standing offers that have been exempted from publication on AusTender.

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AUSTRALIAN CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION AWARDS 2019

The AIC manages the annual Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards, with the Director of the AIC chairing the selection board. On 26 November 2019, 13 projects were recognised at an award ceremony at Parliament House in Canberra. Five of these projects were led by police and eight by community groups.

The Hon Peter Dutton MP, Minister for Home Affairs, announced the winners. There were five gold winners, two silver winners and six bronze winners. The award-winning projects played a crucial role in preventing and protecting against crime and violence, and in reducing the impact of crime on people’s lives.

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POLICE-LED WINNERS

FIRST DRINKS: FIRST IMPRESSIONS. HARM REDUCTION THROUGH POLICE ENGAGEMENT, QUEENSLAND

Gold award winner

The First Drinks project started in March 2017 and was the world’s first randomised controlled trial of police and researcher led engagement with patrons entering the night-time entertainment district of Surfer’s Paradise, Queensland. The project’s aim was to test whether engaging with patrons could increase police legitimacy and reduce assaults.

On certain Friday and Saturday nights between March and September 2017, either police officers or researchers breathalysed 1,421 participants in the Surfer’s Paradise Safe Night Precinct and gave them feedback on their intoxication levels. The number of assaults and good order offences for these nights were compared with those of other nights.

The project was assessed by Griffith University researchers, who found that having police engage with patrons at the beginning of the night reduced assault rates by 58 percent. This engagement also made people 28 percent more likely to interact with the police before trouble began later in the evening.

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HUME CRIME INVESTIGATION UNIT CRIME REDUCTION TEAM (BURGLARY CREW), VICTORIA

Silver award winner

In December 2017, burglary offences in the Hume Police Service Area were at a five-year high and still increasing. Through innovative thinking, the team developed new strategies, enhanced internal relationships and forged strong community bonds to target and reduce burglaries in the Hume area. The multi-faceted approach included targeting recidivism through proactive investigations, daily triaging of burglary incidents and engagement with victims, recidivist offenders and the community. These strategies resulted in a 42 percent reduction in residential burglaries. This equated to 680 fewer burglaries being committed in 2018 compared to 2017.

PROJECT CASM—COMMUNITY AGAINST SUBSTANCE MISUSE, QUEENSLAND

Bronze award winner

Project CASM was developed by the Queensland Police Service and the Brisbane City Child Protection and Investigation Unit. It seeks to protect and divert young people from volatile substance misuse in Brisbane City. This involves retailer engagement and education, street outreach with at-risk youth, police upskilling, and family support.

A short-term evaluation demonstrated that, collectively, the retailer engagement, street outreach and officer training reduced the number of volatile substance misuse incidents in Brisbane while increasing retailer understanding and police skills.

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INTENSIVE REFERRAL OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE RESPONDENTS, QUEENSLAND

Bronze award winner

This project involved following up with domestic violence respondents following police attendance to a call for service or at court before sentencing. Specially assigned police officers in the Sunshine Coast District’s Vulnerable Persons Unit contacted respondents to ascertain their suitability for referral to a support service and/or a police-led intervention aiming to prevent further domestic violence.

The project has been independently evaluated by researchers with the Queensland Police Service’s Intelligence and Covert Services Command using a quasi-experimental design. The evaluation found a decrease in repeat incidents of domestic and family violence compared with a control district which continued its ‘business as usual’ referrals.

ASSAULT FREE ZONE, QUEENSLAND

Bronze award winner

The Assault Free Zone was launched in October 2017 in the Mackay district of North Queensland with the goal of using a simple but prominent message to promote the idea that assaults will not be tolerated. Media such as signs, bags, water bottles and wristbands were used to spread the distinctive message throughout the community.

The project led to a reduction in assaults in the Mackay district, as well as in a neighbouring area where the approach was also adopted. This simple and cost-effective strategy could easily be rolled out in other areas.

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COMMUNITY-LED WINNERS

WOMEN OF WORTH, NORTHERN TERRITORY

Gold award winner

Women of Worth is a voluntary program that supports women integrating back into Northern Territory communities on release from prison. It provides support six months pre-release and 12 months post-release to women involved in the justice system, predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. The program aims to empower women involved in the justice system to make positive lifestyle changes. Women of Worth focuses on giving clients strength-based case management support, learning opportunities to develop skills and capacity to reduce reoffending as well as practical assistance to re-engage with the community.

Since its inception in August 2015, the Women of Worth program has:

ƒ supported 120 clients;

ƒ provided 1,664 hours of individual case management;

ƒ delivered education sessions to 107 women in Darwin Correctional Centre; and

ƒ provided $16,192 worth of client brokerage to clients.

Women of Worth has more than halved recidivism rates for program participants. Correctional data show more than three-quarters of clients have successfully remained in the community after release from prison. The program has used evidence to shape a strength-based, client focused, inclusive and trauma-informed approach. It is flexible and responsive to the needs of its unique cohort of clients.

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R4RESPECT, QUEENSLAND

Gold award winner

R4Respect is a unique youth-led violence prevention program in which young people challenge violence-supportive attitudes and promote respectful relationships among their peers. The aim is to prevent antisocial behaviour and violence, including violence in personal or intimate relationships. R4Respect features four pillars in which young people are program leaders and the agents of change:

ƒ a unique peer-to-peer educational model;

ƒ a social media strategy;

ƒ community awareness activities; and

ƒ law reform and advocacy.

The program members are young people from diverse cultural backgrounds and identities, aged 17 to 24 years. R4Respect has reached over 2,000 young people online and over 5,000 face to face, spreading positive messages about respect and what crosses the line into harm. Its use of peer-to-peer education on respectful relationships is innovative and effective. An independent evaluation found it had a very positive impact on young people’s attitudes towards respect in relationships and gender equality.

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ENCOUNTER YOUTH HINDLEY STREET PROGRAM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Gold award winner

The Hindley Street Program responds to the complex issues of alcohol-fuelled violence, drug offences, sexual assault, antisocial behaviour and community safety concerns among young people in the night-time entertainment district in Hindley Street, Adelaide. This program uses evidence-based situational and social crime prevention theories to reduce and prevent crime. Trained Encounter Youth volunteers patrol Hindley Street in teams of four every Saturday night between 11 pm and 5 am, providing responsible supervision on a peer-level to young people. Volunteers assess, refer, support and report patrons in their moment of need or vulnerability.

The program is targeted at 18 to 24 year olds who are at risk of being victims or perpetrators of crime. It provides a zone of safety and support, with practical assistance to keep people safe at a time when they are vulnerable to becoming victims or perpetrators of crime. Among its various forms of support, the program provides an important service to isolated and intoxicated patrons who have become separated from friends and are at particular risk of becoming victims.

The program has been running for more than eight years and has demonstrated its success through independent evaluation. Police, the ambulance service and the city council also attest to its role in preventing alcohol-related physical and sexual assault.

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SAFE AT HOME PROGRAM, TASMANIA

Gold award winner

Safe at Home is Tasmania’s integrated criminal justice response to family violence, underpinned by the state’s Family Violence Act 2004. It involves a range of services working together to address the safety needs of victims and children, and to hold perpetrators accountable. It uses a pro-arrest, pro-prosecution policy to address family violence, complemented by a human services approach to support recovery and change. Safe at Home was implemented in 2004, making Tasmania one of the first jurisdictions in Australia to develop an integrated whole-of-government response to family violence.

Safe at Home aims to improve the safety and security of adult and child victims of family violence in the short and long term. It also aims to ensure that offenders are held accountable for family violence as a crime, to change their offending behaviour, to reduce the incidence and severity of family violence in the longer term, and to minimise the negative impacts of contact with the criminal justice system on adult and child victims.

Reviews of Safe at Home have shown its effectiveness in improving safety for victims of family violence, increasing public awareness and legal recognition of family violence as a crime, improving police responses to violence and facilitating information sharing between different agencies to manage risk.

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BUILDING SOCIAL CAPITAL HUBS, QUEENSLAND

Silver award winner

The Building Social Capital Hubs project is a unique partnership between the local council and the Logan and Beenleigh offices of Queensland Corrective Services Probation and Parole. It takes a developmental crime prevention approach, focused on reducing reoffending among Probation and Parole clients. The project commenced in June 2017 and is delivered in an expo-style format in community settings, bringing together a range of pro-social support services including employment, financial and health services to assist attendees.

The well-attended hubs are a one stop shop, bringing the support services available in Logan to the individuals most in need. The long-term goal of this project is to reduce the likelihood of at-risk individuals engaging in violence or other crime by addressing underlying factors that influence their decision to offend. Stable housing, health, education and employment have been identified as protective factors that decrease the likelihood of a person engaging in or becoming a victim of crime.

DOORS WIDE OPEN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Bronze award winner

Doors Wide Open is an established community-based centre that provides support, advocacy and information to methamphetamine and other drug users and their family and friends. Doors Wide Open has significant experience in mentoring drug users at risk of being incarcerated. The centre has built positive connections with the Bunbury Regional Prison, resulting in increasing numbers of former prisoners visiting the centre upon release and thereafter.

Doors Wide Open provides a mentor with lived experience to drug users at risk of being incarcerated. Peer mentors accompany mentees to help them identify and develop the inherent strengths needed to engage in economically and socially normative activities. The centre also connects users with doctors, mental health agencies, rehabilitation facilities, housing services and employment agencies. The initiative builds a peer-to-peer mentoring program that aims to prevent offending and reduce recidivism, leading to a safer community.

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READY STEADY TOGETHER PARTNERSHIP, VICTORIA

Bronze award winner

The Ready Steady Together Partnership aims to prevent family violence in the Wyndham City area of Melbourne by improving access to information and support for expecting and new parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The program addresses risk factors for family violence through the use of trained and paid bi-cultural facilitators who deliver culturally appropriate and respectful parenting education. Relationships established through the program increase the capacity and cultural inclusiveness of the local family support service system to better support those at risk of family violence, and create employment and training pathways for local women from the identified communities.

The project has given new and expecting parents improved support and access to information, along with a better understanding of the ways in which cultural values influence notions of parenthood, gender, relationships and the health and wellbeing of families. It has led to a stronger collaboration between health, family and children’s services in Wyndham, which can now help families to access a broad range of culturally appropriate support.

STREAT (MAIN COURSE PROGRAM), VICTORIA

Bronze award winner

STREAT is an integrated hospitality-based social enterprise working directly with Victoria’s most marginalised young people—16 to 24 year olds who need a hand to find and retain work. STREAT operates six cafes, a bakery, catering and events businesses and a coffee roastery. Through its Main Course program, STREAT provides vocational training, work experience in real businesses, and a group program about work readiness. The Youth Programs team provides significant individual wraparound support and specialist referral. It supports disadvantaged youth with various types of education, employment and legal advice as well as other services.

Since its inception, the Main Course program has helped hundreds of vulnerable young people, providing tens of thousands of hours of training and support. It has achieved high levels of retention and markedly reduced unemployment among participants.

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Our people 63 ST AFFING PROFILE

70 REMUNERATION

72 EMPL OYMENT ARRANGEMENTS

72 LEARNING AND DEVEL OPMENT

73 WORK HEA TH AND SAFETY

04

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As at 30 June 2020, the AIC had 25 employees. Most of the staff are located at the AIC’s head office in Canberra. Three employees are located elsewhere: one in New South Wales, one in Victoria and one in South Australia.

STAFFING PROFILE The following tables present staffing numbers for 2019-20 and the previous year, broken down by gender, location, full-time/part-time status, ongoing/non-ongoing status and classification.

Table 10: All ongoing employees, current reporting period (2019-20)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

NSW - - - - 1 1 - - - 1

Qld - - - - - - - - - -

SA - 1 1 - - - - - - 1

Tas - - - - - - - - - -

Vic 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1

WA - - - - - - - - - -

ACT 3 - 3 8 3 11 - - - 14

NT - - - - - - - - - -

Overseas - - - - - - - - - -

Total 4 1 5 8 4 12 - - - 17

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Table 11: All non-ongoing employees, current reporting period (2019-20)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

NSW - - - - - - - - - -

Qld - - - - - - - - - -

SA - - - - - - - - - -

Tas - - - - - - - - - -

Vic - - - - - - - - - -

WA - - - - - - - - - -

ACT 3 - 3 5 - 5 - - - 8

NT - - - - - - - - - -

Overseas - - - - - - - - - -

Total 3 - 3 5 - 5 - - - 8

Table 12: All ongoing employees, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

NSW - - - - 1 1 - - - 1

Qld - - - - - - - - - -

SA - 1 1 - - - - - - 1

Tas - - - - - - - - - -

Vic 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1

WA - - - - - - - - - -

ACT 4 - 4 7 4 11 - - - 15

NT - - - - - - - - - -

Overseas - - - - - - - - - -

Total 5 1 6 7 5 12 - - - 18

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Table 13: All non-ongoing employees, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

NSW - - - - - - - - - -

Qld - - - - - - - - - -

SA - - - - - - - - - -

Tas - - - - - - - - - -

Vic - - - - - - - - - -

WA - - - - - - - - - -

ACT - - - 3 - 3 - - - 3

NT - - - - - - - - - -

Overseas - - - - - - - - - -

Total - - - 3 - 3 - - - 3

Table 14: Ongoing employees by classification, current reporting period (2019-20)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

SES 3 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1

EL 2 2 - 2 1 - 1 - - - 3

EL 1 - - - 2 2 4 - - - 4

APS 6 1 1 2 - 2 2 - - - 4

APS 5 - - - 3 - 3 - - - 3

APS 4 - - - 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 3 - - - 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 2 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - - - - -

Total 4 1 5 8 4 12 - - - 17

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Table 15: Non-ongoing employees by classification, current reporting period (2019-20)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

SES 3 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 1 - - - - - - - - - -

EL 2 - - - - - - - - - -

EL 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1

APS 6 - - - 2 - 2 - - - 2

APS 5 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - - 2

APS 4 1 - 1 2 - 2 - - - 3

APS 3 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 2 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - - - - -

Total 3 - 3 5 - 5 - - - 8

Table 16: Ongoing employees by classification, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

SES 3 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1

EL 2 3 - 3 1 - 1 - - - 4

EL 1 - - - 1 3 4 - - - 4

APS 6 1 1 2 - 2 2 - - - 4

APS 5 - - - 4 - 4 - - - 4

APS 4 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 3 - - - 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 2 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - - - - -

Total 5 1 6 7 5 12 - - - 18

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Table 17: Non-ongoing employees by classification, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Male Female Indeterminate Total

Full time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total Full

time

Part time

Total

SES 3 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - - - - -

SES 1 - - - - - - - - - -

EL 2 - - - - - - - - - -

EL 1 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 6 - - - 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 5 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 4 - - - 2 - 2 - - - 2

APS 3 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 2 - - - - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - - - - -

Total - - - 3 - 3 - - - 3

Table 18: Employees by full-time/part-time status, current reporting period (2019-20)

Ongoing Non-ongoing Total

Full time Part time Total Full time Part time Total

SES 3 - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - -

SES 1 1 - 1 - - - 1

EL 2 3 - 3 - - - 3

EL 1 2 2 4 1 - 1 5

APS 6 1 3 4 2 - 2 6

APS 5 3 - 3 2 - 2 5

APS 4 1 - 1 3 - 3 4

APS 3 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 2 - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - -

Total 12 5 17 8 - 8 25

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Table 19: Employees by full-time/part-time status, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Ongoing Non-ongoing Total

Full time Part time Total Full time Part time Total

SES 3 - - - - - - -

SES 2 - - - - - - -

SES 1 1 - 1 - - - 1

EL 2 4 - 4 - - - 4

EL 1 1 3 4 - - - 4

APS 6 1 3 4 1 - 1 5

APS 5 4 - 4 - - - 4

APS 4 - - - 2 - 2 2

APS 3 1 - 1 - - - 1

APS 2 - - - - - - -

APS 1 - - - - - - -

Other - - - - - - -

Total 12 6 18 3 - 3 21

Table 20: Employment type by location, current reporting period (2019-20)

Ongoing Non-ongoing Total

NSW 1 - 1

Qld - - -

SA 1 - 1

Tas - - -

Vic 1 - 1

WA - - -

ACT 14 8 22

NT - - -

Overseas - - -

Total 17 8 25

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Table 21: Employment type by location, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Ongoing Non-ongoing Total

NSW 1 - 1

Qld - - -

SA 1 - 1

Tas - - -

Vic 1 - 1

WA - - -

ACT 15 3 18

NT - - -

Overseas - - -

Total 18 3 21

DIVERSITY The AIC is committed to creating an environment that respects and values the expertise, experiences and abilities of all employees. In doing so, we are able to build an inclusive and diverse workforce that allows us to better serve the community as Australia’s national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice.

In partnership with the ACIC, the ACIC Diversity and Inclusion Sub-committee of the Operations Management Committee oversees our Workplace Diversity Program and provides support for and input into the development, maintenance and implementation of our action plans. The agency has four diversity action plans for 2017-2020, focusing on:

ƒ gender equality;

ƒ Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples;

ƒ people with disability; and

ƒ people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

The Diversity and Inclusion Sub-committee meets quarterly and consists of Senior Executive level Diversity Champions and Deputy Champions as well as diversity working group members. They actively promote, participate in and support initiatives to improve diversity awareness, access and inclusion within the agency.

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INDIGENOUS EMPLOYMENT

Table 22: Indigenous employment, current reporting period (2019-20)

Total

Ongoing -

Non-ongoing -

Total -

Table 23: Indigenous employment, previous reporting period (2018-19)

Total

Ongoing -

Non-ongoing -

Total -

REMUNERATION SALARY The salary ranges for APS 1-6 and Executive Level staff are set out in the Section 24(1) Determination signed by the ACIC’s Chief Executive Officer on 8 November 2019 under the Public Service Act 1999. The terms and conditions of the Enterprise agreement 2016-2019 remain.

The Assistant Minister to the Prime Minister and Cabinet, the Hon Ben Morton MP, signed a Section 24(3) Determination on 14 April 2020, pausing general wage increases and salary related allowances in Commonwealth agencies for six months.

The ranges for 2019-20 are presented in Table 24.

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Table 24: Salary ranges by classification level, current reporting period (2019-20)

Minimum salary Maximum salary

SES 3 - -

SES 2 - -

SES 1 - -

EL 2 127,077 143,176

EL 1 101,711 122,623

APS 6 80,675 91,295

APS 5 73,939 78,404

APS 4 66,778 72,507

APS 3 60,752 65,570

APS 2 52,513 58,230

APS 1 45,711 50,522

EXECUTIVE REMUNERATION The nature and amount of remuneration for SES officers is determined through the ACIC Senior Executive Service Remuneration and Benefits Policy. SES salary increases take into account the complexity of the role, current and previous performance, contribution to corporate goals and values, the financial position of the ACIC, comparisons with other SES officers and the quantum of remuneration relative to other ACIC staff. The ACIC uses common-law contracts for all SES employees to govern remuneration and entitlements.

Table 25: Remuneration of key management personnel, 2019-20

Short term benefits Post employment benefits

Other long term benefits Termination benefits

Total

remuneration

Name

Position title

Base salary

Bonuses

Other benefits and allowances

Superannuation contributions

Long service leave

Other long term benefits

Dr Rick Brown Deputy Director

$217,982 - $5,396 $32,265 $5,225 - - $260,868

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PERFORMANCE PAY The agency does not have a system of performance payments. Rather, incremental advancement is available to eligible staff as part of our performance development system.

NON-SALARY BENEFITS Under the Enterprise agreement 2016-2019, non-salary benefits include flexible working arrangements for APS 1-6 officers, time-off-in-lieu arrangements for Executive Level staff, tertiary studies assistance and a comprehensive performance development system. Staff are also offered free influenza vaccinations, and an employee assistance program is available to provide counselling and support to staff members and their families.

EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENTS The Institute’s employment arrangements are outlined in Table 26.

Table 26: Employment arrangements, current reporting period (2019-20)

SES Non-SES Total

Enterprise agreement - 24 24

Common-law contract 1 - 1

Individual flexibility arrangement - - -

Total - - 25

LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT Our learning and development strategies support capability development in identified priority areas. The objective is to develop a responsive and high performing workforce so that we can deliver on our role as Australia’s national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice. We adopt a blended learning and development philosophy which recognises that experience within the workplace provides for the most effective learning. This on-the-job training is complemented by coaching and mentoring as well as formal learning opportunities.

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WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY We take a proactive approach to work health and safety and injury prevention for all employees. We continue to identify and assess hazards within the workplace and ensure that risk control strategies are in place. In 2019-20, we:

ƒ provided advice and guidance to the ACIC and AIC Executives and staff in relation to COVID-19 and began developing a COVIDSafe transition plan for the agency;

ƒ strengthened our existing work health and safety systems by improving relevant policies, processes and planned risk assessments;

ƒ provided access to an employee assistance program which includes 24/7 emergency counselling, employee and manager assistance, mediation services and other information and support services;

ƒ provided staff with access to early intervention support, ergonomic assessments and health/injury advice and support;

ƒ continued to undertake targeted and random unannounced drug and alcohol testing of employees;

ƒ conducted regular workplace inspections to identify hazards and determine appropriate controls; and

ƒ continued to provide early intervention training to give managers tools and strategies to support employees.

NATIONAL WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE The National Work Health and Safety Committee is responsible for:

ƒ supporting the ACIC and AIC Executive to identify, develop, review and implement measures to protect and actively manage the health and safety of employees;

ƒ promoting and monitoring measures to ensure safe work practices;

ƒ facilitating consultation and communication with employees about work health and safety matters; and

ƒ undertaking functions prescribed in the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 and associated regulations.

The National Work Health and Safety Committee is the conduit for consultation with employees on all work health and safety issues. Local Work Health and Safety Committees also meet regularly and provide input to the National Committee. The National Work Health and Safety Committee generally meets quarterly. However, meetings were delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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HEALTH AND WELLBEING PROGRAM Our Health and Wellbeing Program continues to evolve with staff input, reviews of better practice and new initiatives. The program aims to:

ƒ help staff make positive health and behaviour changes;

ƒ promote a culture that supports healthy and positive lifestyles;

ƒ provide a central source of health and wellbeing information and resources, including the Wellbeing Calendar of Events;

ƒ inspire staff to take ownership of health and wellbeing initiatives in their offices;

ƒ encompass a broad view of health including physical, mental and social aspects; and

ƒ demonstrate our commitment to the health and wellbeing of employees and their families.

WORKERS COMPENSATION An agency’s workers compensation insurance premium is driven by its performance in managing workers compensation claims and supporting injured employees to return to work. As a direct result of the unprecedented events associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, the premium fund will be impacted by deteriorating economic conditions, variations in the numbers and types of claims employees make, and potential changes relating to the rehabilitation and return-to-work of injured employees.

The AIC is committed to preventing injury and illness and helping employees return to work as quickly and safely as possible. Our commitment is demonstrated by our rehabilitation and injury management practices, early intervention systems and wellbeing support programs. There were no workers compensation claims submitted by AIC employees during 2019-20.

INCIDENTS AND INVESTIGATIONS There was one incident reported during 2019-20. The mechanism of injury was biological/ chemical factors.

Under section 38 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, the agency is required to notify Comcare immediately after becoming aware of any death, serious personal injury or dangerous incident.

There were no notifiable incidents during 2019-20 involving AIC employees. Nor was the AIC subject to any external work health and safety investigations in 2019-20.

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AIC HOSTS UNITED NATIONS MEETING

The AIC is one of the Institutes of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network (known as the PNI). In October 2019 we hosted the 2019 Autumn Coordination Meeting of the PNI in Canberra. We welcomed colleagues from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, Thailand and the United States.

The Autumn Coordination Meeting focused on updating PNI colleagues on research currently being undertaken, and creating opportunities for member institutes to collaborate on future research projects. The PNI members also discussed preparations for the 14th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Japan, which had been scheduled for April 2020 but which has since been postponed until 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Members discussed collaborations for workshops to be held throughout the congress.

Following the meeting, PNI members attended the Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing Conference, co-hosted by the AIC. Hosting the PNI Autumn Coordination Meeting strengthened our ties to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and to our PNI colleagues.

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Financial performance 77 FIN ANCIAL OVERVIEW

80 A UDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

05

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FINANCIAL OVERVIEW The AIC’s operating result for the year ended 30 June 2020 was a surplus of $0.073 million. Excluding depreciation expenses, the operating surplus is $0.112 million for the 2019-20 financial year. The surplus is due to reductions in employee expenditure and project-related supplier expenses.

The AIC received an unmodified audit opinion from the Australian National Audit Office.

During 2019-20 there were no instances of significant non-compliance with the finance law.

The AIC’s revenue totalled $6.478 million in 2019-20 (2018-19: $6.803 million). Revenue included $4.595 million appropriation for operating budget and $1.883 million own source income. Own source income includes:

ƒ $1.401 million from the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (PoCA) to fund research activities;

ƒ $0.051 million from jurisdictions’ contribution for Criminology Research Grants (CRG) and Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards (ACVPA);

ƒ $0.303 million from research activities; and

ƒ $0.129 million for other minor sources including royalties and audit services received free of charge.

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Figure 7: Own source income, 2019-20

POCA, $1.401m

Jurisdictions’ contribution for CRG and ACVPA, $0.051m

Research activities, $0.303m

Other, $0.129m

3%

16%

7%

74%

The AIC’s operating expenses totalled $6.405 million in 2019-20 (2018-19: $6.336 million).

Employee expenditure rose during the year, consistent with the increase in average staffing levels from 18 ASL in 2018-19 to 22 ASL in the current year.

The AIC’s net asset position has improved to $2.098 million (2018-19: $2.003 million). This improvement is mainly due to the operating surplus.

The closing balance of the Criminology Research Special Account as at 30 June 2020 was $3.172 million (2018-19: $1.883 million).

The following tables report actual appropriation, payments, budgets and actual expenses against the outcome.

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Table 27: Agency resource statement 2019-20

Actual available appropriations for 2019-20 $’000

Payments made 2019-20 $’000

Balance remaining $’000

Ordinary annual services

Departmental appropriations 1 4,617 4,598 19

Total 4,617 4,598 19

Opening balance 1,883 - -

Receipts to special accounts 2,681 - -

Payments made - 1,392 -

Closing balance - - 3,172

Total 4,564 2,127 3,172

Total resourcing and payments 9,181 5,990 3,191

1: Includes an amount of $0.022m in 2019-20 for the Departmental Capital Budget. For accounting purposes this amount has been designated as ‘contributions by owners’

Table 28: Expenditure and staffing by outcome

Outcome 1: Informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre

Budget 2019-20 $’000

Actual expenses 2019-20 $’000

Variation $’000

Outcome 1: Departmental expenses

Departmental Appropriations 4,595 4,595 0

Special Accounts 2,063 1,732 331

Expenses not requiring appropriation in the Budget year 101 78 23

Total for Outcome 1 6,759 6,405 354

Total expenses for Outcome 1 6,759 6,405 354

Budget 2019-20

Actual 2019-20

Average staffing level (number) 35 22

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AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

GPO Box 707 CANBERRA ACT 2601 38 Sydney Avenue FORREST ACT 2603 Phone (02) 6203 7300 Fax (02) 6203 7777

INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT

To the Minister for Home Affairs

Opinion

In my opinion, the financial statements of the Australian Institute of Criminology (the Entity) for the year ended 30 June 2020:

(a) comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015; and

(b) present fairly the financial position of the Entity as at 30 June 2020 and its financial performance and cash flows for the year then ended.

The financial statements of the Entity, which I have audited, comprise the following as at 30 June 2020 and for the year then ended:

• Statement by the Accountable Authority and Chief Financial Officer; • Statement of Comprehensive Income; • Statement of Financial Position; • Statement of Changes in Equity; • Cash Flow Statement; and • Notes to the financial statements, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other

explanatory information.

Basis for opinion

I conducted my audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, which incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards. My responsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of my report. I am independent of the Entity in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements for financial statement audits conducted by the Auditor-General and his delegates. These include the relevant independence requirements of the Accounting Professional and Ethical Standards Board’s APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (including Independence Standards) (the Code) to the extent that they are not in conflict with the Auditor-General Act 1997. I have also fulfilled my other responsibilities in accordance with the Code. I believe that the audit evidence I have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion.

Accountable Authority’s responsibility for the financial statements

As the Accountable Authority of the Entity, the Director is responsible under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (the Act) for the preparation and fair presentation of annual financial statements that comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the rules made under the Act. The Director is also responsible for such internal control as the Director determines is necessary to enable the preparation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.

In preparing the financial statements, the Director is responsible for assessing the ability of the Entity to continue as a going concern, taking into account whether the Entity’s operations will cease as a result of an administrative restructure or for any other reason. The Director is also responsible for disclosing, as applicable, matters related to going concern and using the going concern basis of accounting unless the assessment indicates that it is not appropriate.

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Auditor’s responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements

My objective is to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditor’s report that includes my opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards will always detect a material misstatement when it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.

As part of an audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, I exercise professional judgement and maintain professional scepticism throughout the audit. I also:

• identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control; • obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are

appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Entity’s internal control; • evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by the Accountable Authority; • conclude on the appropriateness of the Accountable Authority’s use of the going concern basis of accounting

and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the Entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. If I conclude that a material uncertainty exists, I am required to draw attention in my auditor’s report to the related disclosures in the financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify my opinion. My conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of my auditor’s report. However, future events or conditions may cause the Entity to cease to continue as a going concern; and • evaluate the overall presentation, structure and content of the financial statements, including the

disclosures, and whether the financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

I communicate with the Accountable Authority regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that I identify during my audit.

Australian National Audit Office

Jodi George

Executive Director

Delegate of the Auditor-General

Canberra

24 September 2020

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STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2020

Budget

2020 2020 2019

Notes $ $ $

NET COST OF SERVICES Expenses Employee benefits 1.1A 2,657,728 3,373,000 2,167,030

Suppliers 1.1B 3,708,766 3,325,000 4,139,791

Depreciation and amortisation 2.2A 38,898 61,000 29,403

Total expenses 6,405,391 6,759,000 6,336,223

Own-Source revenue Contracts with customers 1.2A 1,797,451 2,013,000 2,133,556

Royalties 44,518 50,000 37,837

Other revenue 1.2B 41,501 40,000 41,549

Total own-source revenue 1,883,469 2,103,000 2,212,942

Net cost of services (4,521,922) (4,656,000) (4,123,281)

Revenue from Government - Departmental Appropriations 1.2C 4,595,000 4,595,000 4,590,000

Surplus/(Deficit) attributable to the Australian Government

73,078 (61,000) 466,719

OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME Items not subject to subsequent reclassification to net cost of services Changes in asset revaluation surplus - - -

Total other comprehensive income - - -

Total comprehensive income/(loss) attributable to the Australian Government 73,078 (61,000) 466,719

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Budget to actual variance commentary: see Note 7 for major variance explanations.

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STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION as at 30 June 2020

Budget

2020 2020 2019

Notes $ $ $

ASSETS Financial assets Cash and cash equivalents 2.1, 2.4 3,172,055 1,275,000 1,882,684

Trade and other receivables 2.1B 68,722 330,000 529,894

Total financial assets 3,240,777 1,605,000 2,412,578

Non-financial assets Furniture and office equipment 2.2A 72,242 75,699 95,620

Library collection 2.2A 746,581 782,301 755,791

Intangibles 2.2A - 21,000 -

Prepayments 70,338 70,000 78,151

Total non-financial assets 889,161 949,000 929,562

Total assets 4,129,938 2,554,000 3,342,140

LIABILITIES Payables Suppliers 2.3A 614,934 175,000 352,989

Other payables 2.3B 1,416,546 459,000 985,771

Total payables 2,031,480 634,000 1,338,759

Total liabilities 2,031,480 634,000 1,338,759

Net assets 2,098,458 1,920,000 2,003,380

EQUITY Contributed equity 1,247,294 1,229,000 1,225,294

Reserves 861,254 861,000 861,254

Accumulated Deficit (10,089) (170,000) (83,168)

Total equity 2,098,458 1,920,000 2,003,380

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Budget to actual variance commentary: see Note 7 for major variance explanations.

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STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY for the period ended 30 June 2020 Retained earnings Asset revaluation surplus Contributed equity/capital Total equity

Budget Budget Budget Budget

2020 $

2020 $

2019 $

2020 $

2020 $

2019 $

2020 $

2020 $

2019 $

2020 $

2020 $

2019 $

Balance carried forward from previous period (83,168) (109,000)

(549,887)

861,254

861,000 861,254

1,225,294

1,207,000

1,185,294 2,003,381

1,959,000

1,496,661

Opening balance (83,168) (109,000) (549,887) 861,254 861,000 861,254 1,225,294 1,207,000 1,185,294 2,003,381 1,959,000 1,496,661

Comprehensive income

Surplus (Deficit) for the period 73,078 (61,000) 466,719 - - - - - - 73,078 (61,000) 466,719

Total comprehensive income 73,078 (61,000) 466,719 - - - - - - 73,078 (61,000) 466,719

Transactions with owners

Contributions by owners

Departmental capital budget1 - - - - - - 22,000 22,000 40,000 22,000 22,000 40,000

Total transactions with owners - - - - - - 22,000 22,000

40,000 22,000 22,000 40,000

Closing balance as at 30 June (10,090) (170,000) (83,168) 861,254 861,000 861,254 1,247,294 1,229,000 1,225,294 2,098,458 1,920,000 2,003,380

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Budget to actual variance commentary: see Note 7 for major variance explanations.

1. Amounts appropriated which are designated as 'Departmental capital budgets' are recognised directly in transactions with owners in that year.

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CASH FLOW STATEMENT

for the period ended 30 June 2020

Budget

2020 2020 2019

$ $ $

OPERATING ACTIVITIES

Cash received Appropriations1 4,705,711 4,595,000 4,590,000

Contracts with customers 2,631,570 2,013,000 2,427,003

Net GST received 236,287 - 110,711

Other 44,518 50,000 37,837

Total cash received 7,618,086 6,658,000 7,165,551

Cash used Employees 2,657,728 3,373,000 2,167,030

Suppliers 3,667,441 3,285,000 3,895,223

Section 74 receipts transferred to Official Public Account - - 110,711

Total cash used 6,325,170 6,658,000 6,172,964

Net cash from operating activities 1,292,916 - 992,587

INVESTING ACTIVITIES Cash used Purchase of property, plant and equipment and intangibles 6,310 22,000 86,760

Total cash used 6,310 22,000 86,760

Net cash (used by) investing activities (6,310) (22,000) (86,760)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES Cash received Contributed equity 2,765 22,000 40,000

Total cash received 2,765 22,000 40,000

Net cash from financing activities 2,765 22,000 40,000

Net Increase in cash held 1,289,371 - 945,828

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period 1,882,684 1,275,000 936,856 Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period 3,172,055 1,275,000 1,882,684

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Budget to actual variance commentary: see note 7 for major variance explanations. 1 Appropriation amount in 2019-20 includes the receipt of $110,711 appropriation receivable in 2018-19. See Note 3.1B.

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OVERVIEW Objectives of the Australian Institute of Criminology

The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) is an Australian Government controlled entity. The objective of the AIC is to inform crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre.

The continued existence of the AIC in its present form is dependent on Government policy and on continuing funding by Parliament. The AIC’s activities contributing toward this outcome are classified as departmental. Departmental activities involve the use of assets and income controlled, or liabilities and expenses incurred by the AIC in its own right.

Basis of Preparation of the Financial Statements

The financial statements are general purpose financial statements and are required by section 42 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

The financial statements and notes have been prepared in accordance with:

a) Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015 (FRR); and

b) Aus tralian Accounting Standards and Interpretations - Reduced Disclosure Requirements issued by the Aus tralian Accounting Standards Board that apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain assets and liabilities which are carried at fair value. Except where stated, no allowance is made for the effect of changing prices on the results or the financial position.

The financial statements are presented in Australian dollars and values are rounded to the nearest dollar.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard or the FRR, assets and liabilities are recognised in the statement of financial position when and only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity or a future sacrifice of economic benefits will be required and the amounts of the assets or liabilities can be reliably measured. However, assets and liabilities arising under executory contracts are not recognised unless required by an accounting standard.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard, income and expenses are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income when and only when the flow, consumption or loss of economic benefits has occurred and can be reliably measured.

New accounting standards

There were a number of new and amending standards and/or interpretations applicable to the current financial year. A summary of the impacts of the new standards for the AIC are as follows:

Application of AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and AASB 1058 Income of Not-For-Profit Entities

The AIC applied the core principle of AASB 15 in measuring and recognising revenue at an amount that reflects the consideration entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to customers.

The ACIC adopted AASB15 using the modified retrospective approach, under which the cumulative effect of initial application is recognised in retained earnings at 1 July 2019. AASB 1058 applies to the recognition and measurement of income where it is not within the scope of AASB 15.

The ACIC applied AASB1058 to recognise income for volunteer services, where the fair value of the services can be reliably measured, and the services would have been purchased if they had not been donated.

• The impact of AASB 15 is assessed as nil for AIC, as no change will occur to the amount of revenue recognised.

• The im pact of AASB 1058 is assessed as nil for the AIC as these items are already being recognised on the same basis .

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Application of AASB 16 Leases

The AIC is not required to apply AASB 16 as it does not have any leases.

Taxation

The AIC is exempt from all forms of taxation except fringe benefits tax (FBT) and the goods and services tax (GST).

Revenues, expenses and assets are recognised net of GST except:

a) wher e the amount of GST incurred is not recoverable from the Australian Taxation Office; and

b) f or receivables and payables.

Comparative figures

Comparative figures for 2019-20 reflect the figures reported in the AIC’s 2018-19 financial statements unless otherwise indicated.

Contingent assets and liabilities

The AIC did not have any quantifiable or unquantifiable contingencies to report for the financial year ended 30 June 2020 (2018-19: Nil).

Events after the reporting period

No subsequent events to report after the balance date.

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Note 1.1: Expenses

2020 2019

$ $

Note 1.1A: Employee benefits Wages and salaries 1,976,839 1,593,417

Superannuation Defined contribution plans 229,100 176,928

Defined benefit plans 137,875 143,074

Leave and other entitlements 313,914 253,611

Total employee benefits 2,657,728 2,167,030

AIC staff were primarily employed by ACIC for the duration of the year and seconded to the AIC to resource AIC’s ongoing operations. The ACIC initially met all the employee expenses, and claimed reimbursement from the AIC on a monthly basis. Therefore, whilst the employee benefits costs are reflected in the AIC statement of comprehensive income, the AIC does not hold any liabilities or provision in respect to employees in the statement of financial position.

Accounting Policy

Superannuation

The ACIC staff seconded to AIC were members of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS), the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS) or the PSS accumulation plan (PSSap) or other superannuation funds held outside the Australian Government.The PSSap is a defined contribution scheme. The CSS and PSS are defined benefit schemes for the Australian Government. The liability for defined benefit schemes is recognised in the financial statements of the Australian Government and is settled by the Australian Government in due course. This liability is reported by the Department of Finance as an administered item.

The ACIC makes employer contributions to the employees' defined benefit superannuation schemes in respect to the staff seconded to AIC at rates determined by an actuary to be sufficient to meet the current cost to the Government. The ACIC and AIC accounts for the contributions as if they were contributions to defined contribution plans.

Note 1.1B: Suppliers Goods and services Contractors and consultants 1,460,294 1,384,047

Research Services 288,913 426,775

Travel 90,203 156,493

Information technology 113,022 112,881

Outsourced corporate expenses1 1,535,350 1,644,621

Conferences and meetings 101,262 276,412

Other 119,722 138,562

Total goods and services 3,708,766 4,139,791

1 Outsourced corporate expenses includes costs of services provided by the ACIC to the AIC.

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Note 1.2: Own Source Revenue

2020 2019

$ $

Own-Source Revenue

Note 1.2A: Revenue from Contracts with Customers Revenue - proceeds of crime and memoranda of understanding 1,401,008 1,298,702

Research contract income 302,842 326,673

Conference income 3,881 282,212

Other income and contributions 89,720 225,969

Total Revenue from Contracts with Customers 1,797,451 2,133,556

Accounting Policy Revenue from Contracts with Customers Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised when the customer obtains control of the services provided. For research projects this is by reference to the stage of completion of services at the reporting date. The revenue is recognised when:

a) the amoun t of revenue, stage of completion and transaction costs incurred can be reliably measured; and

b) the pr obable economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to AIC.

The stage of completion of services at the reporting date is determined by reference to the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated total costs of the transaction.

Receivables for goods and services, which have 30 day terms, are recognised at the nominal amounts due less any impairment allowance account. Collectability of debts is reviewed at end of the reporting period. Allowances are made when collectability of the debt is no longer probable.

Note 1.2B: Other Revenue Resources received free of charge - audit services 39,000 39,000

Inter-library loans and miscellaneous revenue 2,501 2,549

Total other revenue 41,501 41,549

Accounting Policy Resources Received Free of Charge Resources received free of charge are recognised as revenue when, and only when a fair value can be reliably measured and the services or transferred assets would have been purchased if they had not been provided free of charge. Use of those resources is recognised as appropriate as an expense.

Note 1.2C: Revenue from Government Appropriations Departmental appropriations 4,595,000 4,590,000

Total revenue from Government 4,595,000 4,590,000

Accounting Policy Revenue from Government

Amounts appropriated for departmental appropriations for the year (adjusted for any formal additions and reductions) are recognised as Revenue from Government when the AIC gains control of the appropriation, except for certain amounts that relate to activities that are reciprocal in nature, in which case revenue is recognised only when it has been earned. Appropriations receivable are recognised at their nominal amounts.

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Note 2.1: Financial Assets

2020 2019

Notes $ $

Note 2.1A: Cash and cash equivalents Special account cash held in Official Public Account 2.4 2,607,707 1,690,664

Cash at bank and on hand 564,348 192,020

Total Cash and cash equivalents 3,172,055 1,882,684

Note 2.1B: Trade and other receivables Debtors 5.1 - 370,382

Accrued Revenue 5.1 19,988 -

Appropriation Receivable 3.1B 19,235 110,711

GST receivable 5.1 29,499 48,801

Total trade and other receivables 68,722 529,894

Accounting Policy Trade and Other Receivables Trade receivables and other receivables are held for the purpose of collecting the contractual cash flows. They are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, adjusted for any loss allowance.

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Note 2.2: Non-Financial Assets Note 2.2A: Reconciliation of the Opening and Closing Balances of Non-Financial Assets

Furniture and office equipment

Library collection Intangibles Total

$ $ $ $

As at 1 July 2019 Gross book value 107,582 771,127 70,450 949,159

Accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment (11,962) (15,336) (70,450) (97,748)

Total as at 1 July 2019 95,620 755,791 - 851,411

Additions Purchase - 6,310 - 6,310

Depreciation/amortisation (23,377) (15,520) - (38,898)

Total as at 30 June 2020 72,242 746,581 - 818,823

Total as at 30 June 2020 represented by Gross book value 104,882 777,437 - 882,319

Accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment (32,640) (30,856) - (63,496)

Total as at 30 June 2020 72,242 746,581 - 818,823

Revaluations of non-financial assets All revaluations were conducted in accordance with the revaluation policy stated in note 2.2A. The last full valuation was carried out in June 2018.

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Note 2.2: Non-Financial Assets (continued)

Accounting Policy

Asset Recognition Furniture and office equipment costing greater than $5,000, intangible assets purchased externally costing greater than $5,000 and intangible assets purchased and modified or developed internally costing greater than $20,000 are capitalised. All Library items are accumulated as a single asset on a financial year basis and recognised irrespective of the value. Items costing less than these thresholds are expensed in the year of acquisition.

Revaluations Following initial recognition at cost, furniture and office equipment and library are carried at fair value. Carrying values of the assets are reviewed every third year to determine if an independent valuation is required. The regularity of independent valuations depends on the volatility of movements in the market values for the relevant assets. Revaluation adjustments are made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment is credited to equity under the heading of asset revaluation reserve except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that is previously recognised in the surplus/deficit. Revaluation decrements for a class of assets are recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reverse a previous revaluation increment for that class. Upon revaluation, any accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.

Depreciation Depreciable furniture and office equipment assets are written-off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful life using the straight-line method of depreciation. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the life of the lease term. Depreciation rates (useful lives), residual values and methods are reviewed at each reporting date and necessary adjustments are recognised in the current, or current and future reporting periods, as appropriate.

Depreciation rates applying to each class of depreciable asset are based on the following expected useful lives, unless an individual asset is assessed as having a different useful life.

2020 2019

Furniture and Office Equipment 3-10 years 3-10 years

Intangibles - Software purchased 3-5 years 3-5 years

Library 50 years 50 years

Intangibles Intangibles assets comprise internally developed software and externally purchased software. These assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Software licences with the renewable term ending beyond 30 June 2020 are treated as prepayments at the time of purchase and expensed over the term of the prepayment.

Impairment All assets were assessed for impairment at 30 June 2020. Where indications of impairment exist, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment adjustment made if the asset’s recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount.

Derecognition An item of furniture and office equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

Significant Accounting Judgements and Estimates In the process of applying the accounting policies listed in this note, the AIC has made assumptions or estimates in measuring the fair value of the assets that have the most significant impact on the amounts recorded in the financial statements. The fair value of the AIC’s furniture and office equipment and library has been taken to be the market value or current replacement costs as determined by an independent valuer.

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Note 2.3: Payables

2020 2019

$ $

Note 2.3A: Suppliers

Trade creditors and accruals 614,934 352,989

Total supplier payables 614,934 352,989

Note 2.3B: Other payables Unearned income 1,414,728 948,182

GST Payable 1,818 1,156

Other - 36,432

Total other payables 1,416,546 985,771

Accounting Policy Financial Liabilities Supplier and other payables are classified as ‘other financial liabilities’ and are recognised at cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced). Supplier and other payables are derecognised on payment.

Note 2.4: Special Accounts

Notes 2020 2019

$ $

Note 2.4: Criminology Research Special Account

Balance brought forward from previous period 1,882,684 936,856

Total increases 2,681,373 2,464,840

Available for payments 4,564,057 3,401,696

Total decreases (1,392,002) (1,519,012)

Total balance carried to the next period 3,172,055 1,882,684

Balance represented by:

Cash held in entity bank accounts 3.1B 564,348 192,020

Cash held in the Official Public Account 2,607,707 1,690,664

Total balance carried to the next period 3,172,055 1,882,684

Increases and decreases exclude the impacts of GST and 2019 figures have been adjusted to make them

comparable in this regard.

Appropriation: Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 section 80.

The Criminology Research Special Account is established under Section 46 of the Criminology Research Act 1971 as amended through the Financial Framework Legislative Amendment Act 2010 with effect from 1 July 2011.

Purpose: Conduct criminology research to promote justice, crime reduction and communicating results to Commonwealth, State & Territory, including administering programs to award grants, engage specialists for research and publication of that research.

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Note 3.1: Appropriations Note 3.1A: Annual Appropriation (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

Annual Appropriations for 2020

Annual

Appropriation

Adjustments to appropriation

Total

appropriation

Appropriation applied in 2020 (current and prior years) Variance

$ $ $ $ $

Departmental

Ordinary annual services1 4,595,000 - 4,595,000 (4,705,711) (110,711)

Capital budget2 22,000 - 22,000 (2,765) 19,235

Total departmental 4,617,000 - 4,617,000 (4,708,476) (91,476)

Annual Appropriations for 2019

Annual

Appropriation

Adjustments to appropriation

Total

appropriation

Appropriation applied in 2019 (current and prior years) Variance

$ $ $ $ $

Departmental Ordinary annual services 4,590,000 - 4,590,000 (4,590,000) -

Capital Budget3 22,000 - 22,000 (40,000) (18,000)

Total departmental 4,612,000 - 4,612,000 (4,630,000) (18,000)

Departmental Capital Budgets are appropriated through the Appropriation Act (No. 1). They form part of ordinary annual services, and are not separately identified in the Appropriation Act.

1 Variance in ordinary annual appropriation represents fully drawn 2018-19 GST refund held in OPA at 30 June 2019 and spent in the 2020 financial year.

2 Variance in capital budget represents unspent balance of current year budget held in OPA.

3 The undrawn and unspent capital appropriation ($18,000) from 2017-18 was carried forward and was drawn down and fully spent in 2018-19.

Unspent Annual Appropriations (‘Recoverable GST excusive’)

The AIC has no undrawn and unspent ordinary annual services appropriation as at 30 June 2020 (2018-19: nil).

The AIC has no undrawn capital budget appropriation as at 30 June 2020, and $19,235 of this appropriation remained unspent at 30 June 2020. In 2018-19 the AIC drew $18,000 Capital Budgets not drawn as at 30 June 2018.

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Note 3.1: Appropriations (continued) Notes 2020 2019

$ $

Note 3.1B: Unspent Annual Appropriations ('Recoverable GST exclusive')

Departmental Appropriation Act (No.1) 2018-19 - held in the OPA1 2.1A - 110,711

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2019-20 - held in the OPA2 19,235 -

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2019-20 - cash held at bank1 2.4 564,348 192,020

Total departmental 564,348 302,731

1. The Appropriation Act (No.1) balance for 2018-19 represents unused appropriation for the year.

2. The Appropriation Act (No.1) balance for 2019-20 represents capital budget accrued for the year to be drawn down in 2020-21

Note 4.1: Key Management Personnel Remuneration

Key management personnel are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity. The AIC has determined the key management personnel positions to be the Director and the Deputy Director1. However the Director is also the full-time CEO of the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC) and his remuneration is reported against the ACIC, hence only one KMP position, the Deputy Director, is reported in the remuneration table below.

The key management personnel remuneration table excludes the remuneration and other benefits of the Minister. The Minister's remuneration and other benefits are set by the Remuneration Tribunal and are not paid by the AIC.

2020 2019

$ $

Note 4.1: Key Management Personnel Remuneration Short-term employee benefits 223,378 191,594

Post-employment benefits 32,265 29,406

Other long-term employee benefits 5,225 4,824

Total key management personnel remuneration expenses1 260,868 225,824

Total number of key management personnel1 1 1

1. Includes officers substantively holding or acting for a period exceeding three months in the Deputy Director role.

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Note 4.2: Related Party Disclosure

Related party relationships:

The AIC is an Australian Government controlled entity. Related parties of the AIC comprise the Ministers responsible for the AIC, other Cabinet Ministers, other Australian Government entities, the key management personnel of the AIC, and parties related to the AIC's key management personnel (including close family members and entities controlled by themselves, their close family members or jointly with close family members).

Transactions with related parties:

Given the breadth of Government activities, related parties may transact with the government sector in the same capacity as ordinary citizens. Such transactions include the payment or refund of taxes. These transactions have not been separately disclosed in this note.

Giving consideration to relationships with related entities, and transactions entered into during the reporting period by the entity, it has been determined that there are no related party transactions requiring disclosure.

Note 5.1: Financial Instruments

2020 2019

Notes $ $

Note 5.1A: Categories of Financial Instruments Financial Assets measured at amortised cost Cash and cash equivalents 3,172,055 1,882,684

Trade and other receivables 2.1A 19,988 370,382

Total financial assets 3,192,043 2,253,066

Financial Liabilities Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost Trade creditors and accruals 2.3A 614,934 352,989

Total financial liabilities 614,934 352,989

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Note 6.1 : Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

2020 2019

$ $

Note 6.1: Aggregate Assets and Liabilities Assets expected to be recovered in:

No more than 12 months 3,311,115 2,490,729

More than 12 months 818,823 851,411

Total Assets 4,129,938 3,342,140

Assets expected to be settled in:

No more than 12 months 2,031,480 1,338,759

More than 12 months - -

Total Liabilities 2,031,480 1,338,759

Note 7: Budgetary Variance Reporting

The following are explanations of events that have impacted on the AIC's operations and activities for the year. Budget numbers are sourced from the AIC's Portfolio Budget Statements for 2019-20 and are provided in the primary statements. Budgeted numbers are not audited.

Major variances are those deemed relevant or most significant to an analysis of the AIC's performance by management, not focused merely on numerical differences between the actual and budgeted amounts.

Explanation for major variances Affected line items

(and statement)

Proceeds of Crime Account Research The AIC had continued funding from the Proceeds of Crime Account (PoCA) for research. This funding has had a significant effect on the AIC's financial statements. Providing a significant revenue stream ($1.4m), influencing some supplier expenses, consultants and contractors in particular, and substantially increasing cash at bank, offset by unearned revenue in other payables and creditors. The focus on PoCA funded projects also reduced revenue from other external sources and also resulted in a reduction in Debtors.

Expenses: Supplier expenses (Statement of Comprehensive Income) Own Source Revenue: Contracts with customers (Statement of Comprehensive Income) Financial Assets: Cash and cash equivalents (Statement of Financial Position) Financial Liabilities: Supplier payables, Unearned revenue (Statement of Financial Position)

COVID-19 The AIC had reduced expenditure in supplier expenses compared to the previous year due to COVID-19. Primarily all conference activity was cancelled, training and travel were also curtailed through the last four months of the year. In comparison to the budget however supplier expenses are higher than budgeted mainly because the budget anticipated that all staff positions would be filled, however since these position were not filled this work had to be covered by contractors and consultants.

Expenses: Supplier expenses (Statement of Comprehensive Income)

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Appendices 100 APPENDI X 1: PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS

103 APPENDIX 2: OTHER PUBLICATIONS

107 APPENDIX 3: EVENTS

109 APPENDIX 4: STATUTORY REPORTING

111 APPENDIX 5: COMPLIANCE INDEX

118 APPENDIX 6: ALPHABETICAL INDEX

06

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APPENDIX 1: PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS TRENDS & ISSUES IN CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Brown R & Morgan A 2019. The opioid epidemic in North America: Implications for Australia. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 578. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Cherney A, Antrobus E, Bennett S, Murphy B & Newman M 2019. Evidence-based policing: A survey of police attitudes. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 579. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Hulme S, Morgan A & Boxall H 2019. Domestic violence offenders, prior offending and reoffending in Australia. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 580. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Dowling C & Morgan A 2019. Predicting repeat domestic violence: Improving police risk assessment. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 581. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Baidawi S & Sheehan R 2019. ‘Crossover kids’: Offending by child protection-involved youth. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 582. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Calderoni F, Campedelli G, Comunale T, Marchesi M & Savona E 2020. Recruitment into organised criminal groups: A systematic review. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 583. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Boxall H, Dowling C & Morgan A 2020. Female perpetrated domestic violence: Prevalence of self-defensive and retaliatory violence. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 584. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Tubex H, Rynne J & Blagg H 2020. Throughcare needs of Indigenous people leaving prison in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 585. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Morgan A, Dowling C & Voce I 2020. Australian outlaw motorcycle gang involvement in violent and organised crime. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 586. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Broadhurst R, Skinner K, Sifniotis N, Matamoros-Macias B & Ipsen Y 2020. Phishing risks in a university student community. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 587. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Morgan A & Gannoni A 2020. Methamphetamine dependence and domestic violence among police detainees. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 588. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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Brown R, Napier S & Smith R 2020. Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 589. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Broadhurst R, Ball M & Trivedi H 2020. Fentanyl availability on darknet markets. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 590. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Boxall H & Morgan A 2020. Repeat domestic and family violence among young people. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 591. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Wyre M, Lacey D & Allan K 2020. The identity theft response system. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 592. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Morgan A, Boxall H, Dowling C & Brown R 2020. Policing repeat domestic violence: Would focused deterrence work in Australia? Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 593. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Allard T, McCarthy M & Stewart A 2020. The costs of Indigenous and non-Indigenous offender trajectories. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 594. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Scott D et al 2020. The feasibility and utility of using coded ambulance records for a violence surveillance system: A novel pilot study. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 595. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Andon P & Free C 2020. Strain, coping and sustained fraud offending. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 596. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bright D, Whelan C & Morselli C 2020. Understanding the structure and composition of co-offending networks in Australia. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 597. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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RESEARCH REPORTS Emami C, Smith R & Jorna P 2019. Online fraud victimisation in Australia: Risks and protective factors. Research Report no. 16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

REPORTS TO THE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COUNCIL Reports arising from projects awarded funding under the Criminology Research Grants program from 2016-17 onwards are peer reviewed. Non-peer reviewed reports relating to projects funded in previous grants rounds are listed in Appendix 2.

Allard T, McCarthy M & Stewart A 2020. Establishing better cost estimates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous offender trajectories. CRG 12/16-17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bright D, Whelan C & Morselli C 2020. Understanding the structure and composition of co-offending networks in Australia. CRG 49/16-17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Broadhurst R, Skinner K, Sifniotis N, Matamoros-Macias B & Ipsen Y 2020. Phishing and cybercrime risks in a university student community. CRG 51/16-17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Cherney A, Antrobus E, Bennett S, Murphy B & Newman M 2019. Evidence-based policing: A survey of attitudes in two Australian police agencies. CRG 07/16-17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Scott et al. 2020. The use of ambulance data to inform patterns and trends of alcohol and other drug misuse, self-harm and mental health in different types of violence. CRG 47/16- 17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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APPENDIX 2: OTHER PUBLICATIONS STATISTICAL REPORTS Jorna P & Smith R 2019. Commonwealth fraud investigations 2016-17. Statistical Report no. 15. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bricknell S 2019. Homicide in Australia 2014-15. Statistical Report no. 16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bricknell S 2019. Homicide in Australia 2015-16. Statistical Report no. 17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Voce A & Sullivan T 2019. Drug Use Monitoring in Australia: Drug use among police detainees, 2018. Statistical Report no. 18. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Jorna P, Smith R & Norman K 2020. Identity crime and misuse in Australia: Results of the 2018 online survey. Statistical Report no. 19. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Voce I & Bricknell S 2020. Female perpetrated intimate partner homicide: Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders. Statistical Report no. 20. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Doherty L & Bricknell S 2020. Deaths in custody in Australia 2017-18. Statistical Report no. 21. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bricknell S 2020. Homicide in Australia 2016-17. Statistical Report no. 22. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bricknell S 2020. Homicide in Australia 2017-18. Statistical Report no. 23. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Bricknell S 2020. Firearm theft in Australia 2018. Statistical Report no. 24. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Teunissen C, Smith R & Jorna P 2020. Commonwealth fraud investigations 2017-18 and 2018-19. Statistical Report no. 25. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Teunissen C, Smith R & Jorna P 2020. Fraud within and against the Commonwealth: The most harmful frauds, 2016-17 to 2018-19. Statistical Report no. 26. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

STATISTICAL BULLETINS Doherty L & Bricknell S 2020. Shooting deaths in police custody. Statistical Bulletin no. 19. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Sullivan T & Voce I 2020. The social supply of pharmaceutical opioids. Statistical Bulletin no. 20. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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Voce A & Sullivan T 2020. Is there fentanyl contamination in the Australian illicit drug market? Statistical Bulletin no. 21. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Sullivan T & Voce A 2020. Use of mobile phones to buy and sell illicit drugs. Statistical Bulletin no. 22. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Doherty L & Sullivan T 2020. How and where police detainees obtain methamphetamine. Statistical Bulletin no. 23. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Broadhurst R, Ball M & Jiang C 2020. Availability of COVID-19 related products on Tor darknet markets. Statistical Bulletin no. 24. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Brown R & Hickman A 2020. Changes in online gambling during the COVID-19 pandemic. Statistical Bulletin no. 25. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Voce A & Sullivan T 2020. Why Australian police detainees choose to use (or not use) non-prescribed fentanyl. Statistical Bulletin no. 26. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Brown R & Hickman A 2020. Changes in online gambling during the COVID-19 pandemic: April update. Statistical Bulletin no. 27. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

REPORTS TO THE CRIMINOLOGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COUNCIL Reports arising from projects awarded funding under the Criminology Research Grants program before 2016-17 were not peer reviewed. Peer-reviewed reports relating to projects funded in later grants rounds are listed in Appendix 1.

Andon P & Free C 2020. Coping with fraud offending over time: Offender accounts. CRG 20/15-16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Baidawi S & Sheehan R 2019. Cross-over kids: Effective responses to children and young people in the youth justice and statutory child protection systems. CRG 3/15-16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Loff B, Naylor B & Bishop L 2019. A community-based survivor-victim focussed restorative justice: A pilot. CRG 33/14-15. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Tubex H, Rynne J & Blagg H 2020. Building effective throughcare strategies for Indigenous offenders in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. CRG 23/15-16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Wyre M, Lacey D & Allan K 2020. Australia’s identity theft response system: Addressing the needs of victims. CRG 10/15-16. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

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CONSULTANCY REPORTS Willis M 2019. Evaluation of the national approach to the assessment and management of fixated threats and lone actor grievance-fuelled violence. Report to the Department of Home Affairs

Willis M 2019. The Counter Foreign Interference Strategy and its implementation: Initial evaluation. Report to the Office of the National Counter Foreign Interference Coordinator

JOURNAL ARTICLES Metcalfe L, Morgan A & Clancey G 2020. Local government public space CCTV systems in Australia. Crime Prevention & Community Safety. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41300-020-00093-8

Norman T, Peacock A, Bruno R, Chan G, Morgan A, Voce I, Droste N, Taylor N, Coomber K & Miller PG 2019. Aggression in the Australian night time economy: A comparison of alcohol only versus alcohol and illicit drug consumption. Drug and Alcohol Review 38(7): 744-749

Payne JL & Morgan A 2020. COVID-19 and violent crime: A comparison of recorded offence rates and dynamic forecasts (ARIMA) for March 2020 in Queensland, Australia. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/g4kh7

Payne JL & Morgan A 2020. Property crime during the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparison of recorded offence rates and dynamic forecasts (ARIMA) for March 2020 in Queensland, Australia. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/de9nc

Payne JL, Morgan A & Piquero A 2020. COVID-19 and social distancing measures in Queensland Australia are associated with short-term decreases in recorded violent crime. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/z4m8t

OTHER PUBLICATIONS Australian Institute of Criminology 2019. Annual report 2018-19. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Broadhurst R, Morgan A, Payne J & Maller R 2019. Restorative justice: An observational outcome evaluation of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Program. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3414715

Dowling C & Morgan A 2020. Investigations: Domestic (matrimonial/divorce). In LR Shapiro & MH Maras (eds), Encyclopedia of security and emergency management. New York: Springer International Publishing

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Morgan A & Dowling C 2020. Physical security: Video surveillance, equipment, and training. In LR Shapiro & MH Maras (eds), Encyclopedia of security and emergency management. New York: Springer International Publishing

New Zealand Police Evidence Based Policing Centre 2020. Family harm: Evidence based command information for police leaders. https://www.anzsebp.com/global-collaboration-societies-of-evidence-based-policing/

Smith RG 2019. The Australian Institute of Criminology. In PL Reichel (ed), Global crime: An encyclopedia of cyber theft, weapons sales, and other illegal activities, vol 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO: 30-32

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APPENDIX 3: EVENTS

16 September 2019, Canberra

Occasional seminar: The prevention of radicalisation leading to violence: An international study of front-line workers and intervention issues

Cateline Autixier, International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, Montreal

1 October 2019, Canberra

Occasional seminar: Anti-violence strategies, suicide reduction policies, and the effects of firearm use in Australia

Professor Stuart Gilmour, St Luke’s International University, Tokyo

30 October 2019, Canberra

Autumn Coordination Meeting of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network

31 October - 1 November 2019, Canberra

Conference: Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing Conference 2019

Co-hosted with the Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing

4 November 2019, Sydney

Occasional seminar: Can we eliminate crime?

Professor Gloria Laycock OBE, Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, London

25 November 2019, Sydney

Occasional seminar: Future crime problems and security solutions: How to anticipate them and what to do about them

Professor Paul Ekblom, University of the Arts, London

26 November 2019, Canberra

Award ceremony: Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards

27 November 2019, Canberra

Occasional seminar: Tackling new and emerging crime problems: The Eco, Devo, Evo Framework

Professor Paul Ekblom, University of the Arts, London

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29 November 2019, Melbourne

Occasional seminar: Toolkit for counterterrorism and crime prevention at complex train stations

Professor Paul Ekblom, University of the Arts, London

20 April 2020, Online

Occasional seminar: Policing repeat domestic violence: Would focused deterrence work in Australia?

Hayley Boxall and Anthony Morgan, Australian Institute of Criminology

20 April 2020, Online

Occasional seminar: Domestic violence offending and reoffending in Australia

Hayley Boxall, Australian Institute of Criminology

6 May 2020, Online

Occasional seminar: Homicide in Australia

Dr Samantha Bricknell, Australian Institute of Criminology

6 May 2020, Online

Occasional seminar: Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse

Dr Rick Brown, Australian Institute of Criminology

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APPENDIX 4: STATUTORY REPORTING ADVERTISING AND MARKET RESEARCH During 2019-20, the AIC conducted the following advertising campaign:

ƒ Sign up to the AIC’s new publication alerts.

Further information on this advertising campaign is available on the AIC’s website (aic.gov.au) and in the reports on Australian Government advertising prepared by the Department of Finance. Those reports are available on the Department of Finance’s website: www.finance.gov.au.

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION The AIC is subject to the Commonwealth Freedom of Information Act 1982 (FOI Act). As such, we are required to publish information to the public as part of the Information Publication Scheme (IPS). This requirement is in Part II of the FOI Act and has replaced the former requirement to publish a section 8 statement in an annual report. Each agency must display on its website a plan showing what information it publishes in accordance with the IPS requirements. The Institute’s plan is available at www.aic.gov.au/about-us/freedom-information/information-publication-scheme.

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE This report on ecologically sustainable development and environmental matters is provided in accordance with section 516(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Institute’s executive and staff are committed to the principles of ecologically sustainable development.

Initiatives to reduce the Institute’s environmental impacts include the following:

ƒ staff are encouraged to use web-based and teleconference facilities where possible rather than undertaking air travel, which has adverse effects;

ƒ selected seminars are made available electronically so people do not have to travel to the Institute to hear them;

ƒ all AIC publications are available online, reducing the need for printing and paper use; and

ƒ waste generation (resource waste and greenhouse gas emissions) is reduced by recycling paper, cardboard, glass, plastics and metals.

The AIC continues to look for ways to reduce its impact on the environment when undertaking new procurements.

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DISABILITY REPORTING MECHANISM The National Disability Strategy 2010-2020 is Australia’s overarching framework for disability reform. It acts to ensure the principles underpinning the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities are incorporated into Australia’s policies and programs that affect people with disability, their families and carers.

All levels of government will continue to be held accountable for the implementation of the strategy through biennial progress reporting to the Council of Australian Governments. Progress reports can be found at dss.gov.au.

Disability reporting is included the Australian Public Service Commission’s State of the service reports and the APS Statistical Bulletin. These reports are available at www.apsc.gov.au.

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APPENDIX 5: COMPLIANCE INDEX PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

17AD(g) Letter of transmittal

17AI A copy of the letter of transmittal signed and dated by accountable authority on date final text approved, with statement that the report has been prepared in accordance with section 46 of the Act and any enabling legislation that specifies additional requirements in relation to the annual report.

Mandatory Page 1

17AD(h) Aids to access

17AJ(a) Table of contents Mandatory Page 3

17AJ(b) Alphabetical index Mandatory Page 118-24

17AJ(c) Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms Mandatory Page 4

17AJ(d) List of requirements Mandatory Page 111-17

17AJ(e) Details of contact officer Mandatory inside front

cover

17AJ(f) Entity’s website address Mandatory inside front

cover

17AJ(g) Electronic address of report Mandatory inside front

cover

17AD(a) Review by accountable authority

17AD(a) A review by the accountable authority of the entity Mandatory Page 6-8

17AD(b) Overview of the entity

17AE(1)(a)(i) A description of the role and functions of the entity Mandatory Page 10-11

17AE(1)(a) (ii) A description of the organisational structure of the entity

Mandatory Page 12-13

17AE(1)(a) (iii) A description of the outcomes and programmes administered by the entity

Mandatory Page 11

17AE(1)(a) (iv) A description of the purposes of the entity as included in corporate plan

Mandatory Page 10

17AE(1)(aa) (i) Name of the accountable authority or each member of the accountable authority

Mandatory Page 45

17AE(1)(aa) (ii) Position title of the accountable authority or each member of the accountable authority

Mandatory Page 45

17AE(1)(aa) (iii) Period as the accountable authority or member of the accountable authority within the reporting period

Mandatory Page 45

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

17AE(1)(b) An outline of the structure of the portfolio of the entity Portfolio departments

mandatory

Page 10

17AE(2) Where the outcomes and programs administered by the entity differ from any Portfolio Budget Statement, Portfolio Additional Estimates Statement or other portfolio estimates statement that was prepared for the entity for the period, include details of variation and reasons for change

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AD(c) Report on the Performance of the entity

Annual performance statements

17AD(c)(i); 16F Annual performance statement in accordance with paragraph 39(1)(b) of the Act and section

16F of the Rule

Mandatory Page 15-16

17AD(c)(ii) Report on financial performance

17AF(1)(a) A discussion and analysis of the entity’s financial performance Mandatory Page 77-9

17AF(1)(b) A table summarising the total resources and total payments of the entity Mandatory Page 79

17AF(2) If there may be significant changes in the financial results during or after the previous or current reporting period, information on those changes, including: the cause of any operating loss of the entity; how the entity has responded to the loss and the actions that have been taken in relation to the loss; and any matter or circumstances that it can reasonably be anticipated will have a significant impact on the entity’s future operation or financial results

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AD(d) Management and accountability

Corporate governance

17AG(2)(a) Information on compliance with section 10 (fraud systems) Mandatory Page 45-7

17AG(2)(b) (i) A certification by accountable authority that fraud risk assessments and fraud control plans

have been prepared

Mandatory Page 46

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

17AG(2)(b) (ii) A certification by accountable authority that appropriate mechanisms for preventing, detecting

incidents of, investigating or otherwise dealing with, and recording or reporting fraud that meet the specific needs of the entity are in place

Mandatory Page 46

17AG(2)(b) (iii) A certification by accountable authority that all reasonable measures have been taken to deal

appropriately with fraud relating to the entity

Mandatory Page 46

17AG(2)(c) An outline of structures and processes in place for the entity to implement principles and objectives of corporate governance

Mandatory Page 45-7

17AG(2)(d) - (e) A statement of significant issues reported to Minister under paragraph 19(1)(e) of the Act that

relates to non compliance with Finance law and action taken to remedy non compliance

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

External scrutiny

17AG(3) Information on the most significant developments in external scrutiny and the entity’s response to the scrutiny

Mandatory Page 48-9

17AG(3)(a) Information on judicial decisions and decisions of administrative tribunals and by the Australian Information Commissioner that may have a significant effect on the operations of the entity

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AG(3)(b) Information on any reports on operations of the entity by the Auditor General (other than report under section 43 of the Act), a Parliamentary Committee, or the Commonwealth Ombudsman

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AG(3)(c) Information on any capability reviews on the entity that were released during the period If applicable, mandatory

Not applicable

Management of human resources

17AG(4)(a) An assessment of the entity’s effectiveness in managing and developing employees to achieve entity objectives

Mandatory Page 72

17AG(4)(aa) Statistics on the entity’s employees on an ongoing and non ongoing basis, including the following:

(a) statistics on full time employees;

(b) statistics on part time employees;

(c) statistics on gender

(d) statistics on staff location

Mandatory Page 63-5

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

17AG(4)(b) Statistics on the entity’s APS employees on an ongoing and non ongoing basis; including the following:

ƒ Statistics on staffing classification level;

ƒ Statistics on full time employees;

ƒ Statistics on part time employees;

ƒ Statistics on gender;

ƒ Statistics on staff location;

ƒ Statistics on employees who identify as Indigenous.

Mandatory Page 63-70

17AG(4)(c) Information on any enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements, Australian workplace agreements, common law contracts and determinations under subsection 24(1) of the Public Service Act 1999

Mandatory Page 72

17AG(4)(c) (i) Information on the number of SES and non SES employees covered by agreements etc identified

in paragraph 17AG(4)(c)

Mandatory Page 72

17AG(4)(c) (ii) The salary ranges available for APS employees by classification level

Mandatory Page 71

17AG(4)(c) (iii) A description of non salary benefits provided to employees

Mandatory Page 72

17AG(4)(d) (i) Information on the number of employees at each classification level who received performance

pay

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AG(4)(d) (ii) Information on aggregate amounts of performance pay at each classification level

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AG(4)(d) (iii) Information on the average amount of performance payment, and range of such

payments, at each classification level

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AG(4)(d) (iv) Information on aggregate amount of performance payments

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

Assets management

17AG(5) An assessment of effectiveness of assets management where asset management is a significant part of the entity’s activities

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

Purchasing

17AG(6) An assessment of entity performance against the Commonwealth Procurement Rules Mandatory Page 49

Consultants

17AG(7)(a) A summary statement detailing the number of new contracts engaging consultants entered into during the period; the total actual expenditure on all new consultancy contracts entered into during the period (inclusive of GST); the number of ongoing consultancy contracts that were entered into during a previous reporting period; and the total actual expenditure in the reporting year on the ongoing consultancy contracts (inclusive of GST)

Mandatory Page 50

17AG(7)(b) A statement that “During [reporting period], [specified number] new consultancy contracts were entered into involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million]. In addition, [specified number] ongoing consultancy contracts were active during the period, involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million]”.

Mandatory Page 50

17AG(7)(c) A summary of the policies and procedures for selecting and engaging consultants and the main categories of purposes for which consultants were selected and engaged

Mandatory Page 50

17AG(7)(d) A statement that “Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website.”

Mandatory Page 50

Australian National Audit Office Access clauses

17AG(8) If an entity entered into a contract with a value of more than $100 000 (inclusive of GST) and the contract did not provide the Auditor General with access to the contractor’s premises, the report must include the name of the contractor, purpose and value of the contract, and the reason why a clause allowing access was not included in the contract

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

Exempt contracts

17AG(9) If an entity entered into a contract or there is a standing offer with a value greater than $10 000 (inclusive of GST) which has been exempted from being published in AusTender because it would disclose exempt matters under the FOI Act, the annual report must include a statement that the contract or standing offer has been exempted, and the value of the contract or standing offer, to the extent that doing so does not disclose the exempt matters

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

Small business

17AG(10)(a) A statement that “[Name of entity] supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and Small Enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

Mandatory Page 50

17AG(10) (b)

An outline of the ways in which the procurement practices of the entity support small and medium enterprises

Mandatory Page 50

17AG(10)(c) If the entity is considered by the Department administered by the Finance Minister as material in nature—a statement that “[Name of entity] recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. The results of the Survey of Australian Government Payments to Small Business are available on the Treasury’s website.”

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

Financial statements

17AD(e) Inclusion of the annual financial statements in accordance with subsection 43(4) of the Act Mandatory Page 80-1

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PGPA Rule Reference Description Requirement References

Executive remuneration

17AD(da) Information about executive remuneration in accordance with Subdivision C of Division 3A of Part 2 3 of the Rule

Mandatory Page 71

17AD(f) Other mandatory information

17AH(1)(a) (i) If the entity conducted advertising campaigns, a statement that “During [reporting period], the

[name of entity] conducted the following advertising campaigns: [name of advertising campaigns undertaken]. Further information on those advertising campaigns is available at [address of entity’s website] and in the reports on Australian Government advertising prepared by the Department of Finance. Those reports are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

If applicable, mandatory Page 109

17AH(1)(a) (ii) If the entity did not conduct advertising campaigns, a statement to that effect

If applicable, mandatory Not applicable

17AH(1)(b) A statement that “Information on grants awarded by [name of entity] during [reporting period] is available at [address of entity’s website].”

If applicable, mandatory Page 28

17AH(1)(c) Outline of mechanisms of disability reporting, including reference to website for further information

Mandatory Page 110

17AH(1)(d) Website reference to where the entity’s Information Publication Scheme statement pursuant to Part II of FOI Act can be found

Mandatory Page 109

17AH(1)(e) Correction of material errors in previous annual report If applicable, mandatory

Not applicable

17AH(2) Information required by other legislation Mandatory Not

applicable

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APPENDIX 6: ALPHABETICAL INDEX A acronyms 4 advertising 109 agency resource statement 79 annual performance statements 15-6 Assault Free Zone 54 Attorney-General’s Department 25 Audit Committee 45, 48 audited financial statements 80-1 AUSTRAC 7, 18, 20, 42 Australia and New Zealand Society of Evidence Based Policing Conference 8, 18, 35, 42-3 Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety 23, 25 Australian Capital Territory Policing 17, 42 Australian Centre to Counter Child Exploitation 18 Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards 12, 36, 51-61 Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission 7, 18, 20 Australian Federal Police 7, 18 Australian Institute of Criminology

Director 10 establishment 10 functions 10-11 minister responsible 10 organisational structure 12-13 outcomes 11 overview 9-13 portfolio 7, 10, 11 purpose and role 10 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 25 Australian National Audit Office 45, 48, 50, 77, 80-1 Australian National University 20, 21, 25 Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) 7, 18, 20, 42

B Building Social Capital Hubs project 59 burglary 53

C child exploitation material 7, 18 child sexual abuse 7, 16, 18, 33-6 Child Sexual Abuse Material Reduction Research Program 7, 18 CINCH database 37, 38 citations 5, 39-40 classification of staff 65-8 committees

Audit Committee 45, 48

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Human Research Ethics Committee 46 National Work Health and Safety Committee 73 Research Managers Committee 45 see also Criminology Research Advisory Council common-law contracts 71, 72 conferences 8, 18, 35, 42-3 consultancy reports 105 consultants, use of 50 consultation 47 contact officer inside front cover coronavirus see COVID-19 pandemic corporate governance 45-7 corporate services 49 corruption and fraud control 46-7 COVID-19 pandemic 6, 20, 25

and drug markets 7 and family and domestic violence 6, 18, 25 and medical products on darknet 20, 34 and online gambling 6, 24, 25 crime prevention 19, 35, 36, 51-61 Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network 6, 36, 75 Criminology Research Act 1971 10-11, 48 Criminology Research Advisory Council 7, 26, 48-9

chair 26 meetings 48 membership 48-9 reports to 29, 102, 104 Criminology Research Grants 7, 12, 26-8

reports 29, 102, 104 CriminologyTV 8, 17, 32, 35, 108 crossover kids 19 cryptomarkets 6, 7, 20, 21, 25, 34

D darknet 6, 7, 20, 21, 25, 34 deaths in custody 7, 23, 31 Department of Home Affairs 7, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 42 Department of Social Services 23 Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 17, 23, 25 Director 45

review by 6-8 functions of 11 Director’s review 6-8 disability reporting 110 distribution and reach of publications 39-41 diversity 69-70 domestic violence see family and domestic violence Doors Wide Open 59 drug markets 7, 21-2

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Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program 7, 21-2, 47 drugs, illicit 7, 21-2, 53, 59

E ecologically sustainable development 109 email subscribers 32, 37, 38, 39 employee assistance program 72, 73 employment arrangements 72 employment status of staff 67-9 Encounter Youth 57 enterprise agreement 70, 72 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 109 environmental performance 109 establishment of the AIC 10 ethics committee 26, 46 events 8, 16, 35-6, 107-8

see also conferences; seminars evidence-based policing 24, 35, 42-3 see also law enforcement; police responses to family and domestic violence executive remuneration 71, 96 exempt contracts 50 expenses 77-9, 83, 89, 96, 98 external scrutiny 16, 48-9

F Facebook 5, 30, 32, 34 family and domestic violence 7, 17-8, 21, 33, 60 during COVID-19 pandemic 6, 18, 25

Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool 17, 42 female perpetrators of 17, 23 focused deterrence 18, 36 intimate partner homicide 17, 22-3, 34 offending patterns 17, 19, 36 police responses to 17-8, 54, 58 young offenders 19, 56 Family Violence Risk Assessment Tool 17, 42 female offenders 17, 23, 55 fentanyl 7, 21, 22 financial overview 77-9 financial performance

audited financial statements 80-1 overview 77-9 First Drinks, First Impressions project 52 focused deterrence 7, 18, 36, 42 Fraud Against the Commonwealth census 22 fraud and corruption control 46-7 Freedom of Information Act 1982 109 functions of the AIC 10-11

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G gambling 6, 24, 25 gender balance of staff 63-7 grants see Criminology Research Grants

H Health and Wellbeing Program 74 Hindley Street Program 57 Home Affairs portfolio 7, 10, 11 homicide 17, 22-3, 34, 36

see also intimate partner homicide; National Homicide Monitoring Program Human Research Ethics Committee 46 human resources see staff human trafficking and slavery 34 Hume Crime Investigation Unit 53

I identity crime 7, 22 illicit drugs 7, 21-2, 53, 59 incidents and injuries 74 Indigenous employment 70 Indigenous over-representation 19, 23, 55 individual flexibility arrangements 72 influence and reach of publications 39-41 Information Publication Scheme 109 information security 47 intimate partner homicide 17, 22-3, 34

see also family and domestic violence; homicide intimate partner violence see family and domestic violence; intimate partner homicide

J journal articles 105 judicial decisions 48 JV Barry Library 8, 37-9

L law enforcement 17-8, 21, 52 see also evidence-based policing; police responses to family and domestic violence learning and development 72 legal services 50 legislation

Criminology Research Act 1971 10-11, 48 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 109 Freedom of Information Act 1982 109 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 18 Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 1, 15, 45, 50, 82 Public Service Act 1999 70 Work Health and Safety Act 2011 73, 74

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letter of transmittal 1 library 8, 37-9 live-streamed child sexual abuse 18, 33, 34, 36 location of staff 63-5, 68-9

M machinery-of-government changes 10 Main Course program 60 management committees 45-6 media 31 see also social media medical products on darknet 20, 25, 34 methamphetamines 21, 22 minister responsible 10 mobile phone use in drug market 22

N National Deaths in Custody Program 7, 23, 31 National Homicide Monitoring Program 7, 17, 22-3, 34 National Work Health and Safety Committee 73 non-salary benefits 72 notifiable incidents 74

O occasional seminars 8, 17, 35-6, 107-8 offending patterns of family and domestic violence 17, 19, 36 Ombudsman 48 online events 8, 17, 35-6, 108 online gambling 6, 24, 25 online safety 19, 34 opioids 21, 22 organisational structure 12-13 organised crime 7, 20, 21, 33

see also Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory Organised Crime Research Forum 8, 35 outcomes 11 outlaw motorcycle gangs 7, 20, 33, 42 overview of the AIC 9-13

P pandemic see COVID-19 pandemic parliamentary committees 48 peer review 16, 29 peer-reviewed publications 16, 100-02 performance criteria 16 performance pay 72 performance statements 15-6 pharmaceuticals, misuse of 22 Phelan, Michael 10, 45

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PNI (UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network) 6, 36, 75 police responses to family and domestic violence 17-8, 54, 58 policing see law enforcement portfolio 7, 10, 11 post-prison support 19, 55, 59 priority research themes 6, 12, 17 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 18, 77-8 procurement 49-50 Project CASM 53 property 49 protective security 47 Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 1, 15, 45, 50, 82 Public Service Act 1999 70 publications 29, 31

consultancy reports 29, 105 Criminology Research Grant reports 29, 102, 104 distribution and reach of 39-41 journal articles 105 peer-reviewed 16, 100-02 Research Reports 16, 29, 102 Statistical Bulletins 29, 103-04 Statistical Reports 29, 103 Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 16, 29, 41, 100-01 purpose and role 10

Q Queensland Police Service 20, 53, 54

R R4Respect 56 radicalisation 35 Ready Steady Together Partnership 60 recruitment into criminal groups 7, 20, 33 remuneration 70-2 Research Managers Committee 45 Research Reports (series) 16, 29, 102 research themes 6, 12, 17 risk assessment tools 17, 42 risk management 46-7, 48 role and purpose 10

S Safe at Home program 58 salaries 70-1 seminars 8, 17, 35-6, 107-8 serious and organised crime 7, 20, 21, 33 Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory 7, 20-1, 25, 33 sexual abuse of children 7, 16, 18, 33-6 shooting deaths in police custody 23

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social media 5, 30, 32-4 see also Facebook; Twitter; YouTube social supply of drugs 22 staff 63-70

classifications 65-8 consultation 47 diversity 69-70 employment status 67-9 gender balance 63-7 Indigenous 70 locations 63-5, 68-9 Statistical Bulletins (series) 29, 103-04 statistical monitoring 7, 21-3 Statistical Reports (series) 29, 103 STREAT Main Course program 60

T Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 16, 29, 41, 100-01 Twitter 5, 32-3

U United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network 6, 36, 75

W website 8, 28-31 address: inside front cover Women of Worth 55 work health and safety 73-4 Work Health and Safety Act 2011 73, 74 workers compensation 74

Y young offenders of family and domestic violence 19, 56 youth crime 19, 53, 56, 57 YouTube 5, 8, 17, 32, 35, 108

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Promoting evidence-informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia

www.aic.gov.au

ANNUAL REPORT 2019-20

Promoting evidence-informed crime and justice policy and practice in Australia

ANNUAL REPORT 2019-20 AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF CRIMINOLOGY

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