Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Java and East Indies, Singapore and Straits Settlements - Trade, Development, Shipping Facilities for Australian Produce, &c. - Report of Commissioner (Senator the Hon. J. J. Long)


Download PDF Download PDF

1917-18.

THE P ARLllifENT OF THE OF -AUSTRALIA. ' .._ - . -

REPORT · OF THE COMMISSIONER " . _l

,< SENATOR' THE J. J. ;LONG)

. "' ' ON

JAVA AND ·· THE ·EAST · INDIES, SINGAPORE

I AND . THE . STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

, J

- I

EXISTING CONDITIONS TRADE ': _ -/

, PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT: - , /

METHODS OF IMPROVING- SHIPPING FACILITIES WITH A VIE'W TO THE OPENING - UP OF NEW MARKETS FOR -AUSTRALIAN PRODUCE: -I TRADE MA'J1TERS GENERALLY.

Presented by Command-; ordered to be printed, l Oth May,' 1918.

/

lCost of Pape?·.-Preparation, not given; 837 copies; approximate cost of printing and publishing, £32. ]

' P r inted and P ublished for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMO WEALTH of AUSTRALIA b y ALBERT J. MULLETT, G overnment Printer f or the State _of Vict oria.

No. 79.-F.6108.- PRIOE Is .. 6d.

GREETING: -

OF AUSTRALIA.

GEORGE THE .FIFTH, by the Grace of_ God, of the United Kingdom bf Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas; King, Defender of the-Faith, Emperor of

TO t:rusty and well-beloved tne HoNORABLE JAMES JosEPH LoNG.

KNOW YE that we do, by these our I;etters Patent, is8ued in our name by O?Jr Governor-General of our of Australia, acting with the advice of our Federal Executi've Counf

- (a)' Existing conditions of such -Trade ; (b) Prospects of development ; (c) Method7 of improving shipping facilitie_s with a view to the opening up of new markets for Australian

produce; _

( d )_Trade-matters-gene?'all'!J.

AND we require you, with as lijtle delay as pos§ible, to report to our in and ove1· our said Common-- the result of your inqu1:ries 'mto the 'f!l'atters intrusted to you by these ou1· Letters Patent. -

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF we have caused these our Letters to be made Patent and the Seal of our 6aid­ Commonwealtk to be affixed.

(SEAL OF THE

COMMONWEALTH.) \ /

WfTNE$S our right trusty and-well-beloved SIR RoNALD CRAUFURD MuNRO FERGUSON, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, Knight Grand Cross the .11{ ost Distinguished Order of Saint Michael q,nd Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the CQ_mmonwealth of A ust;·alia, this sev_enth day of February in the year of our Lord One thousand - -nine hup,dred and .seventeen, and in the seventh year of Our Reign.

R. C. M. FERGUSON, Governor-General.

1_ By His Excellency's Command, (Sgd. L_ W. M. HUGHES.

Entered on rewrd by me in R egister of Paf.ents, No. 6, page 211, this twelfth day of February, One nine

hundred and

(Sgd.) ·w. H. CLARKE.

1z

/

..

.I

. >

< ... "' '

INTROD:rTCTION.

In compliance instructions of His ExceTiency the Governor-General, I have prepared_ a R eport upon the matter ' p·f Trade between the Commonwealth the D:utch East Indies and Australia and the Straits Settlements, and other rna tters relating thereto.

· During the ea_ rly of this year I visited ":those countries and· made investigations , in pursuance of the commission that was intrusted to me. ,' A great ofmy .time ,bet.ween and April the respective

Batavia and Singapo-re; but I also sojourned in the principal inland towns of Java· and and visited the greater through?ut the Archipelago and in the Straits

- Settlements The conclusions that are here set forth have been reached

after mature-considera ti.on. '\

The .Yery has it almost obligatory upon_ me _

to make occasio!lal incursions comparative I have only done so, however, when l have such a course in clearer setting forth of t_ he position.

My main object throughout this Report, i:t?-deed, has been to describe the trade relations of the two . countries under consideration and the Common'Yealth as clearly; and withal· as concisely, as possible, and to furnish such as comes the scope of

my commission. /

· .· I have endeavoured to preserve the strictest accuracy throughout my Report.­ It has no little time and thought in ti:,e matter of production and compilation- ; out if the infor:rp.ation which it contains should prove of benefit to the Commonwealth, and 'of value to our merchants· and manufacturers, I shall feel amply rewarded for the

effort I expended in this direction.

· (Signed) JAMES JOSEPH LONG.

.The_ Senate, Melbourne, 15th September, 1917.

-.

I

..., ·

:::

To His SIR RoNALD_ 0RAUFURD MuNRO FERGUSON, a- Member of ... _- ]lis M.a:J·esty's -Most Rrivy Council, Knight G1'and Cross of the

Order of Sa__int Michae[ and Saint 'George, -

Gene_ral Oommdnder-i_ n-:Qhief of Ooinm(Jnwealth of Australia:·_

MAY IT PLEASE You:R ExcELLENCY--.- ·I, a ppointecl. by Patent dated the tweifth day bruary,

1917, . to Inquire and report upon the matter of Trade between Australia and - Singapore, and the East Indies, _and particularly in reference · / . . ....... _(a) Existing conditions of such Trade; - _ .

(b) Prospects _ of development ; - _ _

(c) Methods of ii?J-proving shippi!lg·facilities with a view tD the opening up of new markets.Jor Australian produce; ·-

generally ; - - _ --

.have the honour to report as follows:::-= \ . niy -commission to into existing conditions of

.trade betwee:J;l_A ustralia .and· Java, Sing a pore, and the -East Indies, -and cognate rna tters, I found it €X:pedient to deaL with and the East Indies under one heading, because .-they are under the one- aitministration, w1th Batavia-the c.apital· of Java­ as the seat -of Government.- From this centre· .the' w:hole of Dutch East Indian affairs -are ·managed and directed. With the exception of North _ Borneo, ·which is British "territory, _one::half of Island of Timor, which. belongs .to the and the

-1069

OJ;_ Cocoanut Islands, 'also· British territory, the whole Qf the Malay of

_belon-gs to the Dutch. Witl! these exceptions, however, the Dutch' Indies

are comprised_ of the larger Sunda Sumatra, Borneo, and the Celebes;

the'- smalle£ Sunda Islands, which. include the-'long -chain of 'islands to the east of Java, · - from Bali to Ti_mor; the.Moluccoes, or Spiee, Ishtnds-from Balmahei-ra to Banda; and, finally, Western New Guinea. It is not without interest, in-view of the -nature of my -note- that the the the fauna, and the •

geologwal £_ ormation all support the theory that these Islands, large- and small, are really but_ highlan.d of vast and ex.tensive which for:merly

Austraha to Asia. Tlie' corollary, of course, IS that they constitute a qutlet for Australian trade, the volume of which-once that it has attained the possible tralle. -of normal times-should _ advance automatically with the increasing pro-sperity and population of the ,islands. _ /

" ·- An aggregate of 736,40Q square miles is covered by the Dutch possessions- in the -and a census that was taken in 1905- gives the population as -37,700,000.

A of the present population, therefore, would set · it 9-own at P op uta.t iun.

upwards of 40,000,000. In Java and Madura,-the principal islands, there were 30,09_8 ,008 people; and of _ these .64,917 were Europeans. In the remg,inder of the Archipelago there 'Yere 15;993 Europeans, making a total ot 80,910. These figures, however, are exclusive oi the regiments of Dutch soldiery who are quartered at Batavia and elsewhere.

Colonial Army is constituteP, ·of about one-quarter Europeans to three-quarters

natives. In considering this aspect of trade potentialities it should no t be that· all .the i_mports are absorbed by the purely European demand. Such is not entirely th.0 case, although the assumption may be broadly applied as regards perishable products. -Hitherto·, for the natives have not included boots or shoes in their attire, but a mi

of late years they have shown an increasing appreciation of the use of therrf In this it_ em alone, and in the supply ·of clothing and uniforms for the Dutch troo:rs , I am _ constrained to express the opinion at this point, that the future contains considerable possibilities of trade '7

' - /

t.. --

/

I -

' I __.,. - - . -

From an aJ]ministrative yiew tl1e-Dutch -East Indies- are divided into

two large departments. The-first, as I haYe already mdicated, Java- and

Madura; _ the ,second; the OY.ter ,division is far superior to Java

as area of territory, but inferioT in-- popftlation and yv-ealth,- So_ me

interest may attach to a passing notice_ -of the grouping of the -population. - it is divided, into two sections. __ ...- The first is _ comp0seq- of European and those -holding the same rights, including Japanese and naturalize4 foreigners, al).d the group is constituted of natiyes, Moors, Qhinese, Mahommedans, and non-Christians.

Separate regulations apply to ·native Christians. A large percentage of the European$ -are employed in or have retired from -the-Government .Service ;-and next, n11merically, are' th.e pla:Q.ters, traders, and engaged' in occupations; It_ is worthy

- Foreign of note that tlie Arabs, Chinese, and other .Orientals -are mostly tradesmen -and-' _

shop .. keepers. , - - -

The Civil Service is divided -into ·s-even Agriculture, Industry

Civilservi9e. and Commerce, Justice, Interior, Finance, Government Industries, Education and

/

- CuJts and Wo_ !'ks, and in view ofthe,re_ markable prosperity of the.Archipelago--· with. t9 which I propose to furnish an iHusfr_ a tion 'as this report progresses-and. in considera,twn of the fact that Australia:Q. trade pre-supposes sorrie sort _ of reci.p­ rocity of .carrtage on· the return journey, while there are·a variety of tropical products in the Dutch Indies tha't are required in brief divagation -with regard

to- the nature I and extent of industries in the East -Indies may be ,permissible. The -_ budget for for -example, sho_wed tliap the_ total ' expenditure was

estima,tes. 159,339,850 g11ilders (£13,278,321). In 1916, the expenditure was 365;722_ ,168 guilders

(£30,47§,848). It true that the revenue for -this year 323,67 4-,848 guilders, leaving a -on figures, ,of 42,047,320 guilders; _ but -as the expenditure was- due construction, pQrts and port accommodation, irrigation works,-and extension

of telegraph and_ telephone services, it will be seen that it was really in the nature of " invested capital. Agricult-ure i:Q. genera l pas been up to the present time the nlost __ imp_Qrtant facto:r in,the economic developn1ent this Dutch Colony, and the .intention·

of the administration is it shall support the wealth of the export trade 'for many years to com,e. The planting industry is well represented in East Indies, ·

-- especially so in the islands of Java and Sumatra, by a considerable number of plantations

Poppy cultivation - prohibited.

of sugar-cane, c.affee, rubber, tea, einchqna, tobacco, and . many other crops-. The cultivation of the poppy is prohibited. . The develo.pment of the agri­

cultural iD:dustry is mainly attributable to the legislation. I s4a)l deal with it briefly in view of the fa-ct that it inay suggest some course of action

with regard to certain'of out own tropical appendencies; and in this connexion it may not be to mentjon Rabaul. Cultivation is possible -in the Dutch East Indies

- appendencies. of ·land OIJ. here:ditary ;, land on hire ; -land acquired _from the population ; land ,

granted on agr:eemep.t by native rinces a_nd rulers. . Hereditary leases may be granted to subjects oJ the Netherlands and the Dutch Ea'st and,to CompaiJ.ies est.ablished Hereditary lease.

Title for 75 in the Netherlands and in -the Dutch, East Indies. -The title is issued for 75 years or years. _ less, b:ut ·extension is possible, and fo:r; differe-nt areas: . As regards l&nd acquired from the population, Europeans- well as natiyes, or those enjoying the same legal rights, can be the tenants. · Lands on hereditary leases . are for the most part planted with tea, coffee, rubber, and sugar-cane, tobacco, &c. ; are grown -on land rented from "the _ population. The old culture system was not used on the Government estates, which is in fact only a different form of private agriculture, as far a-s -capital is concerned. ­

compauies. -The capital required for the Government estates is provided out ,of the Government

and the profits in return are received by it. Nearly all the estates,, however,

belong Jo _private companies, which have been capitalized abroad, or in the Dutch Colony - ·

In view of our own industry in regard to su.gar-cane production, a glance at the activities of Java in this direction will be of jnterest if only ' by reason of infQrming ourselves the extent of the busines_s of neighbouring competition. It is the largest of all the products of the ,agricultural industries, and occupies about 375,000 acres, and 'there are 190 producing-factories. In 1906 there were 273,600 acres under sugar-cane, and in 1915 the acreage had increased to 373,500. It col),tended that the

quality of the product has materially in1proved also. Du:r:_ing 1913 the exp.orts 'of superior

Java sugar aggregated 1,238,738 tons, in 1914 they had increased · to 1,261,154 tons, _ and in there were 1,240,603 tons exported, the reason for the comparative being obvious. ·

9

" I should this juncture, to raise the as to whether the Common- ,

wealth has given sufficient consideration hitherto to tl}_e question of tobacco cultivation. Mj own impression is that in certain tropical territory ·under our control there are great Tob_ace? potenti"alities in this direction, in view of the nature of the soil, climatic conditions,

rainfall, &c. It is -true t4at ex-Senator Stanifor-d Smith. some years ago expressed opini9n that the time wa·s not theri ripe for the establishment of the industry in Papua; but, as the old saw has it, the times are changing, we are changing with the times: _ and I may state in passing that -I _am inform-ed that there are certain of the_Northern

Territory that are admirably suited to the cultivation of the' tobacco plant, and that leaf of,the very highest has been produced there. - Ho-v,:ever this may be, in less . than half-a-century commercial fan1e has been :;tcquired by the Dutch East Indies through th,e topa_cco cult_ivation of -Java and Sumatra: In the number-of bales exported . from Java amo-unted to 515,-610, and the total value received was '£44,666,660. h1 ·

1912, the exports 'of tobacco totalled 693,279 bales ; in 1913, 586,093 bales ; in .1914, 490,784 bales. ·The production of 1914· was, -of course,- sold in 1915. __ The reduced volume of-the exported article is; of course, attributable the war and the difficulties

regard to freight; but prices were obtained: The price received · for the

export of tobacco in· 1914 (586,09·3 bales), for instance, was 24,000,000 . guilders -(£2,000,000), in '1914 the receipts for about 100,000 bales less amounted to 28,500,000 guilders (£2 ,375,000). -The _ output of tobacce' and scrubs in the Dutch East Indies is entirely marketed in Holland, especially at Another matter upon wliich general-Australian attention ·might-be focussed without disadvantage-is the cultivation. of rubber in the Duteh East Indies. Since 1905 this industry has progressed by leaps _ and bounds./. The-H·evia brasiliensis (the Pa:(a rubber tree) has proved itself to be hardy, _

t

being attacked by many pests. It is the heavje$t yielder of rubber, and is easily propagated. In vie\v .of the reasonable assumption that Australian capital may _further investment in tropi_ clll territ0ry, I am o;ffering these _

pro tanto. ; T4_ere were -67 4 rubber plantations in the Dutch East Indies in -1914, and 408 -_of. these on the island of -Java. ·?re also plantations

cc,mprising 21,828 acres. Of the successful mountain cultivations, tea is undoubtedly t];le :rp.ost in1portant one. At 'Present there ·are on the island of Java 290 ptaritations, with a planted-area of about 184,560 aeres, and' in Sumatra 22 plantations, with about 14,629 acres planted with tea. --In 1915 the 'production of Java tea amounted to Tea 101,866,600-lbs . .(4,54$ tons) ; Sumatra, 1,488,200 lbs. (664 tons). · Rice is by far the Rice. most 1mportant of .alL the pr_oducts cultivated by the natives. . The total production b.f the islands-of Java in 1915 was piculs. (The pic-ul measure is

equal t -6 about 135 lbs.) Maize is also grown som_.ewhat extensively by the natives. fn 1914 the total value of the overseas trade of the Dutch East Indies amounted to 1,114,108,0QO guilderi? (£92,842,333) ; imports representing 429,453,000 guilders (£35;7-87,750) ; and the exports amounting to 684,655,000 guilders (£57,054,583). Foodstuffs and, beverages aggregating 100,400,000 guilders (£8,366,666) were importeq during the same year, -rice representing nearly -one-half and the remainder being

constituted of exotic foodstuffs-flour, milk, ht:ttter, biscuits, fruits, wines, jam, beer, ham, bacon,-:. meat (frozen and canned), cJteese, &c. All of these commodities, and of -the very b,est quality, can be supplied by Australian merchants. The total value of the trade between the Dutch East Indies and Australia for 1916 was £2,409,190. In

1913 the total value of such trade 'was £1,895,841. In Appendix "A" will be found a return showing tJw itemized value of trade between Australia and the Dutch East Indies, versa. An exarr:ination of _ two items flour-will

Illuminative. The Australian export of meat fell from ·949 kilos In 1913 to 137 kilos In ... 1915-16; flour from 42,931 (1913) to 12,967_ tons (1915-16). This marked decrease was no doubt due to the action found necessary by the -Commonwealth Government in prohibiting the exportation these commodities. This trade has been· secured by Effect of war.

American millers and meaJ_ packers, who have taken time by the _ fo relock, and have. established a large eastern depot at Hong Kong. I am of the .opinion, however, that · the they ·have thus acquired on this trade will prove to be of short duration; that it will, in fact, persist only during the currency of the war. Flour was exported from

Australia to the Dutch East Indies in 1913 to the value of £416,302 ; the value of that exported in 1915- 16 was £182,958. But the table, as I have suggested, is altogether an interesting indication of normal, as against abnormal-or war-trade Merchants at Sourabaya, Semarang, Cheribon, and Batavia haye been in the practice

r !

_, ;

10

- -,

,- . /

of importing of. flour from Australia py every poat that· traded

• Flour trade ;ua; to the .East Indies from Australia ; and when it becomes prudent to remove the embargo

_ be extended. that at present applies irr the Commonwealth, there can be no· doubt that that branch

of trade can be conserved an

In·all European is to say, the Dutch ;East Indies ­

must of necessity continue- 0 import heavily. , This observation applies to , flour , which is already by far the largest item in the Austlalian-Java trade . . The native Growing use nopulation, mor_ eover., are beginning to show ;:tppreciation of it as a food commodity. of flour by .t: •

uau"es . Imports of flour by the Dutch East Iridies hav_ e, indeed, shown such steady augmentatiOJ).

for some ·time past that the -fact may be as a direct evid-ence of. the' extension of use by the natives from year to year. _It will thus-·be ,seen that the prospects of further expansion of Australian trade in this connexion-given a return to normal / _ times for _overseas · commerce-=-are very enc.ouraging. How great is the native

p-reponderance of population over that of Europeans has already been noted. The _ _ Government -has to meet a!l -ever-increasing_ demand for education on the part .of the native's. It was only the higher classes of them who had to be considered a few years _ ago ; - but, even among the masses, of late : years'- .a . strong desire for education on

European lines, and more especially of acquiting a knowledge of the Dutch language, is noticeable. And the re-organization of t he elementary education has been energetically taken in hand iii order to satisfy this desire. A law school for natives . was established .in 1909, and in1913 a second medical college was built.

-_ Hitherto, on account of its superior development, I have referred principally to -th..!l island of J ava, posSibly to the obscuration of Sumatra . . I venture to think, however, that there are many bounties .in the lap of time for this 'island also. One eum atm" might venture the opinion, indeed, that it will eventually _§upersede Java in trade and ' comin g field

ror-.Australian productiveness.- It is by far the 'most important · of Dutch East Indian outer

trade. posse:ssions, as a glance at the map will show- scarcely smaller than the immense island -of Borneo, and four times larger than J ava, from ·which it is sepa'rated by the narrow Straits of Sunda, whence it curves gently away in a direction. It has an

area of 180,000 ·squai·e miles, and. its soil is equal in every respect to that of. Java. - The tobacco of Sumatra is of excellent' colour and quality, ana the Java planters have never­ been able to equal it. Yet_the population of this grea,t islana is comparatively_ small-=-4,029,503, or and of this total but 3,000 are Europeans. This mean

Interes t, in Australia,

" density_ " of _ population borders upon the absurd,_ when the fertility and spaciousness of the island are taken into consideration. · Sumatra might, in short, _support 100,000,000 - people: - _ . · · . · - · - - .

_ The Dutch administration has acquired a more complete knowledge ofthe of the ·island and its po_tential wealth of late years ; the position has also

been considered, and the result is tha;t the task of development has oeen embarkeQ. upon ·with tenacious energy. Briefly, in fact, all characteristics of Sumatra-its area, soil, •climate, and position-justify the assumption that within the next qecade markets in this territory will be opened to Australian produCts and manufacturers, and that the trade will be second to J.+One in this part of the East. Medan, on the North-east Coast, is regarded as the commercial capital. ·

I found an intelligent and lively interest in Australian affairs in the- principal centres in the Dutch East ·Indies. · For th:e most part the -commodities we have been wont to export are much -appreciated as to quality, although- I shall' have some._ remarks to offer in this regard as_ my report approaches a conclusion. I have no doubt but that it -will be noted with interest by ·those who are not already -aware of the· fact,. t]lat a knowledge of the English-language is a condition precedent to employment in the -Dutch East Indian Civil And, as a rule, remarkably good En-glish is But.

this is not only noticeable in the official world, but in commercial circles also ; and this fact alone is surely indicative ·of the facility with which om; trade rriay be expanded when the. opportunity arrives. _ ·

. The European .Civil Servants are trained at the University of 'Leiden, and for their further training an institution: was founded- in 1901 at .The Hague. · _This is called the N.I. Civil Service Academy .(Nederlandsc'h-Indische Bestuurs-academie). To those officials who have already served se:veral years, and who are considered to be capable of being employed in the higher ranks, an opportunity is given at this academy to continue their studies. The course occupies two years and the cv,rriculum consists of: the various systems of Colonial Government, the Indian Civil and Criffiinal Law, Political Economy,

1073·

11

and the Science of Statistics and modern English, and German._

The is a continuation course, necessitating the of a higher

standard than that which is :r;eached by the previous training. . Borneo is the Jargest, but the least exploited of the Dutcll as well Boruco.

as .the least unknown or. civilized. Notwithstanding its area o£ 285 ,000 square , miles it has a population o£ but of which about 2,500 are Europeans. From: a

of _view it can scarcely be cmisidered seriously at the present time ; albeit

its possibilities in this direction ·should not be disregarded·. _For a ·similar reason the smaller islands forming part of the Dutch possessions in the Archipelago, are not seriously considered. ·' ·

- I now pass on to a consideration of the conditions of the Straits Settlements. StraitS They_ constitute a Crown Colony, and comprise Singapore, Penang, Mala cca, and Labuan, principally. Ch!istinas Island was annexed to .the Settlement in 1900, and the Cocos Islands in 1903. '.fhe seat of Government is situated at Singapore, at the south-eastern - portion of the island of that name. . The island of Penang has an area of 108 square

miles, and is situated at .the northern entrance of the Straits of Malacca. Province Wellesley, on the mainland, -Fith an _ area of 280 square miles, forms part of the, Settle­ ments of Penang. Malacca is a strip· of territory 42 miles in length, and fro+U 8 to 24 miles in breadth. The _population for _1915, including British soldiery, was

778,160-Singapore (including Christmas, Cocos-Keeling and Labuan Island,s), 349,007_; Penang, J91,365; Malacca 137,788. - Of the total t]:1e Europeans were estimated at about 8,000: and the Eurasians ·at' upwards of 9,000. · -

Although the States may import and trade independently of each· other, the bulk of imports and pass into or from Singapore, where statistics of a much more complete character than those COJilpiled by the Government of the Dutch East Indies are ayailable. The total value of trade for the Straits Settlements for the year 1915 was -£98,162,000, and _the total value of the share of it to and from amounted to £1,501,692. A perusal of the total value of imports by the Commonwealth from the .Bnl a. nceof

Straits Settlements and from the Commonwealth thereto provides suggestive reading t ra de. of the disastrous effects of the war. For the years 1913, 1914-15, and 1915-16; _ our imports aggregated £2,467,968, and our exports £2,036.,815-an adverse balance of trade amou_riting to upwards of £431,000. The balanc.e was in our favour in 1913, when we imported to the value of · £715,232 and exported to the value of £958,761 ; and the balance was more marked in 1912, when the imports from the Straits Settle-

ments to the' Commonwealth amounted to £690,875, and the exports thereto aggregated · £1,017,335. By reference to the B" it will be seen that our imports from Btrectofwar. the Settlements in 1914-15 amounted to. £787,284, and that our exports thereto were £541,714; while · for 1915-16 the respective figures for imports and exports were

£965,352 and £536,340. Our principal export trade with _the Straits Settlements is in butter and cheese, bread and sheep, leather goods, soap, fruits, flour ,_ bacon and ham, fresh and frozen ineat, &c. Butter and substitutes to the value of £35,914 were exported by the Commonwealth in 1912, and in t]:te year 1915-16 the trade in this direction had declined to £26,234. Cheese, on _ the other hal).d, shows

m.._!l>rked appreciation in the export value. The Commonwealth exported it to the value of £501 in 1913, and for the pe:tiod 1915- 16, the export value liad increased .to £1 ,916, the -respective being 16,312 lbs. in 1913, and 38,503 lbs. for 1915-16. as in the Dutc!J. possessions, there be a opening for all

of Australian produce. The European populatiOn of the vanous States must contmue produce. · to be dependent upon imports for all its food requirements, and the relative proximity of Singapore and the Straits should give a distinct advantage to Australia over those endeavouring to do business from a greater distance. That apart from this _ aspect, the established popularity and 1]_uality of Australian goods is another factor

that should help most materially to increas e the volume of our trade in the colonies under consideration. It is worthy of note that a large section of the Chinese population are also traders in 'and cq,n.sumers of such goods, of which, in normal times, Australia should have a big surplus for export. . _

The most formidable competition in all food commodities-comes from the United T eo 'rade--:t _ S f A • J ·a . 1 d s d hi h • mpetl IOU tates o merwa, apan, an , to a esser egree , we en and Denmark, w c countnes, fro7'/ l.meri ca since the cessation of German competition, are making a bold attempt to capture the an< · apan. whole of the trade of these colonies. This is a matter 'i·vhich demands prompt action on the part of the Commonwealth, in view of the proximity of the Settlements, inasmuch

-as.L-like the Dutch Indies-they_ y -be . y, as part this _

continent; and there can be but little aoubt the requisite-finesse steadily

expanding commerce ·will trend in that direc.tion. - - - __ .

It is roy deliberate indeed: that the oply obst_acle in. the way .of acquiring

merch ants. the whole of the trade 0f - the -Dutch East· Il_ldies k:q.d the S,traits Settlements' is -the

of Australian merchants- and manufacturers. There are difficulties in the

of_ course, ana these have been ac-centuated during the recent-- y-ears 'Of warfare;

a shrewd business nation has made mucJi 0f its and it requires much

/ ,. effort 'to oust a firmly established c9mpetition_:_especially it has manifested a -

- relatively high standard of 'commercial morclity and supplies to

' But l am relying principally upon the_ proximity of the Settlements, and the exce!lent . ' our c01nmodities. . Ol!r alone is_ high the pul?,lic estimatio!l, a fact

/. · , that Is evidenced by the. depreCiatiOn In the volume per _annum from about 26,000 / / - to 14,000 tons while the war has be.en raging. _ The difference in this branch of trade, a s expressed -by the figu reS, was deviat ed of course to However, I shalL

have so:rpething to say in this r_ egard as this report progresses. According to _ cm;npu­ tations made -at Singapore, the annual volume or our- to the Straits Settlements is mainly comprised -of butter and cheese, dollars ;- bread a_ nd biscuits, 40',000

dollars ; sheep, 3_ 6,622 dollars ; leather-- googs, 134 __,000 dollars ; soap, 114,000 d,ollars ;

ttacto. fruits, 24,000 dollars·; flour, 30,000 dollars; _ bacon . and ham, - 39,500 dollars; fresh

' and frozen meat , '662,739 'dollars. T.lie equivalent of the dollar in our ' coin is 2s. 4d . cau l. Then there is a large export trade in coal .froin' to -the 'There

should be :ro om for expansion in this also. Accotding to locar computations, the average annual value of c_oal imported. from Australia, prior __ to the }Var of ·course, -·wa s _. 580,000 ' dollars (£67 ,6{?6). For the y ears- 1911, 1912, and 1913, the importations -- in this direction amo t!:_nted to £62 ,655.,.£62,005, and £81,771.- For the period 1914-15

the value of imported Ay.stralian coal had to and-ther e was a ) urther

decline for 1915-16 to £25,206. -Coke -has been ... by Australia in almost negligible ·quantities. It is a -remarkable fa ct, and one suggestive of the old proverb of carrying coals to Newcastle, when one notes that tin was, until recently, ·exported from Aus­ tralia in no inconsider_ able to the Straits The reason, of

is that of the largest refineries in .the world are sitp.ated there. Tin concentrates arnounting to 180 t ons were thus exported in 1911 ; 156 tons were exported in 1912 ; and 307, tons in 1913. - For the 1914-15, however, the total of exports .

in tin -amounted to 22 tons; and none was exported during 1915-16. The

returns compiled on Appendix "C," and which are incHi_d-ed for the information. of 4ustralian tradeJS , disclose:- .,

1. The· value of foreign imports into and exports from the colony of the Straits Settlements for _ _ "

2. The value of the imports and exports according to classes of each of; the Settlements into and from the United Ki:n,gdmn, British Possessions _ and Protectorates, and foreign countries respectivel y in 1915, and the total for the colony for 1914-.,)5. _ . , .

3. The average gross .annual value of Singapore and exports

to each country - including . the other , Settlements during the _ five years 1908 _to and the gross value of the same in 1913, 1914, and 1915. y ' ' - ' ' . • '

An examination of the _ figures indicative of the _annual vohime of trade between Australia ·and the two countries mentioned_ in this Report furnishes a somewhat remarkable contrast on the important issue of the balance of trade. The oft-quoted / commercial -verity that " money talks " may surely_ be applied here, the admitted object

of course being the stimulation of Australian .enterprise. Ta-king the trade returns for 1911, and for the ensuing years to 1915- 16 inclusive, we find that, as regards the Straits Settlements, a substantial balance is consistently in our favour. In 1911 the total value

of trade in this direction was £1 ,37 4,242, and of this aggregate Australia's exports

amounted to £1 ,184,899, .the sum of our imports being but £189,343. In 1912 our exports amounted £980 ,020, as against imports of an aggregate value of · In 1913 ·the respegti:ve trade returns were-Imports of Straits Settlements produce, -£256,457; Australian thereto, £954;007. In 1914-15 imports by Australia

were set down £190,721, and our amounted to £534,869 ; and in 1915-16 we exported to the value of £527,378, while our imports amoun_ted to· £265,657. The diminished vqlume of the aggregate trade in 1915-16 needs ?o comment. If we turn

13 \_

\ --- _ ,...

to the, Dutch in _the East Indies, howeJT_er, -there is a disconcerting array _ figures on the opposite side of _the ledger.- _Thus we find that the totar trade in 1911 amounted· to and of this sp.m the value of Austra:lian exports was - but

£562,132. In 19J2 to-the value of and the sun1 of our exports

was. £667,747. In 1913 the total value of trade between the Commonwealth and- the in J?utch East Dutch -colony -was £1,883,354, and -the -sum of our exports was £812,520; and in Incl!es. -1914-15 we impoJ,'ted to th,e value of £1,275,196, while oti.r exports amounted to £427,671. It was only to be expected that the balance of trade should have been against us in

£1,842- ,1-1_6 -;-- exports, £5_ 07,,888)-but the_, figures show that-it

been consistently adverse for past. Talnng.the total volu1ne oJ trade ,between to Australi a .. the Dutch East Indies and the Straits Settlements and the Cmnmonwealth of Australia -f;rom -1911 'to 1915-16 in'clusive, firid _that our imports amounted to £7 ,840,716, and our exports to £7,159.,131-an _adverse -bala!).ce of a1nounting to £681 ;585, or about three.:quarters of a n1illion st_ erling. The deduction i1;! that Australian trading enterprise should be concentrated on the Dutch colony, and that. we should make still o better .use of our opportunities in the Straits Settlmnents. - _ _

If we examine the trade -returns of the Federated- Malay States-and it is F ederated . imp-ortant that we should do so in view 0f the -fact that they may in the one Mal ay "" great A!chipelago-we find th-at for upwards of years they have -been progressing

steadily in financial prosperity. -Like the Straits Settlen1ents, the balance of trade is . substantially in their favo-ur. In 1885 the total value of imports was 8,667 ,425 dollars Growth of (£1,911',19.9), and the aggregate volume of exports was valued at 9,691 ,786 dollars trade. (£1,130,708) ; in 1895 the ·imports were 22,653,271 dollars (£2,642,881) ; in. 1905, _ Imports, ·50,575,455 'dollars (£5,90(!,469), and exports 80,057,654 dollars (£9,340,059); and in 1915, imports 61,343,089 dollars (£7,1-56,693), and exports 162,429,254 dollars - (£18,950,079). Surely then the l\Ialay States should ·also offer a splendid field fqr the

extension of Australian trade enterpris_ e. A table showing the variety and value of the goods imported by them will be found on Appendix " D." - - .

"The P-OTtS of the Straits Settlements are free from duties, and their trade, which is centred at is really of the transit order. - W1nes and p_ etroleum, however, are subje-ct to -Excise duties. The revenue for 1914 was £1,635,302, and the expenditure was £1,187,688,_ il).cluding an extraordinary outlay on public works. The Colon administered by a Governor (Sir Henderson Young, K.C.M.G.) , and he is aided by a;n Executive Council, constituted of .the General ; Officer comri1anding the troops: , -the Colonial ·secretary, the Resident Councillor of Penang, the- Attorne y-Ge neral, the Treasurer, and ' the Colonial Engineer. His Excellency also presides· ove r a -Legislative Council, _which is constitu-ted of ten official and eight unofficial members, nominated l]y the Crown. The railways have a gauge of 1 metre, Railways.

and they connect 'with the Federated Malay States Rail-w-ay System. In both Singapore and Penang there are electric tramway systems. The standard coin of the Colony is c urrency. the-dollar, the value of which is 2s. 4d., and with the half-dollar and the British sovereign it is -legal tender for the payment of any amount.

. The principal importers and exporters at Singapore include the following:---- _ M_ essrs. Lane, Crawford and Co., Bradley and Co. Ltd., Gilman and Co., Hannibal and Co., Singayore. Jardine, Matheson and Co .. Ltd., Ale:{C. Ross and Co., \V. G. Humphreys and Co., Harry . Wicking and Co., John Little and Co., Whiteaway, Laidlaw and Co., Guthrie and Co.

Ltd., Harrisons and Crossfield Ltd., W. Alister and Co. Ltd., Prichard and Co. Ltd., J. D. Hutchison and Co., Dodwill and Co. Ltd., W. R. and Co., The Hong Kong Mercantile Co. Ltd., Holland-China Trading Co., Tung On -Lee Ltd., and the Sttaite Trading Co. Ltd. Details as to the volume_ of trade will be found on reference to Appendix" B." _.

Information with regard to importing _and exporting firms in the Dutch East Indies will be found in a table preceding the other Appendices.

PROSPECT OF DEVELOPMENT.

_ ·Addressing myself to the question of the pro of the of the a

between the Commonwealth and the Dutch East Indies and the Straits Settlements, possible t rade. I have no hesitation in espressing the opinion, after careful investjgations over a period of t'Q.ree months, that they are distinctly favorable. I will go as far as to assert, indeed,. that the. trade carried from Australia-and, of course, I am referring to normal tiii]-es-is but a small proportion of the possible. All that the Dutch East-Indies require in the way of foodstuffs is available in abundance in Australia, and the

L I I ,f l

I

-I

· . F:ertllizers.

--djs}ia!lce, as I have preyiotisly: intJicat~<}, siiould gfv,~·the-Co~mon~e~lth -~ con;ideFable ,advantage over all competi_ tors--given~ of'cour~e; _ the --stimulus ,of ,awalw:ned interest on _ t the, pait of our merchants_ and manufacturers. ··, Apart-froin_ foods,tu- :ffs, :... how~ve:r:, there are other r~quiremetits /~th~t ·_ should -~ be _ supplie4· Ny_ Au,~tralia,_ or,,,. traded in larger -

quant1ti,es. fo this conne; iop. ,it_i~ re.f.reshfrig -to . note .the incre~sed' _ VQ}Ume:~ of tr~de·

i

~ ·· that has been done in sulphate ofamn:1oni~. -It will appear to.1~:.somewhat of aif ~nomaly_

· that an island like Java should, he in need of thisJertiiizer. G~iier~lly sp.ea~ing, h9wever, there.is through\mt the islands:of the Archipelago a rfoh._ soil whefeve(the~e -are volca-noes­ of compar" atively- recel_lt _ ·orig-in, - as. is th,e cas~ pra,ctically al( ov:er Java· ;· ~ut wher-e _ . - the ·soil_isc omposed of.oth~r and- older: -- rock,_i€ is as poor as in _'similar regions in Central

- · Afric-a and in South America'., . The f~rtility of the soil, moreover, is not s~ o great in regions - where it ha§ he~n und'er c_ uJtivation for a lpng_ time· .as in thaf·or the :Q,ewly_-cultivated ..:: sulphate of are.as, or' of_~-~ yet up.touched la.rid~ Much att~ntion has ·.been given to -the · question of

ammonia. t]ie utilizatio~ of manu~e in Java, during -the 4 pasf-£ew .deciade~. The_ use __ of , artificial

m_ anure is ~teadily becoming more popula:r; and, while- sulph~te of- ammonia- is · the ~ ... ,, _ greatest, demand, superphospha~es take the second place. And th~ ex3:mple . of tge­

' Europeaµ agric:ulturist in this regard· is being followed by the natives: Holland -exports fertilizers to ~e~ _ Dutch ·Ea-st .Indi~n , Colonies. -~ The - aggregate ~ value · of -fertilizer ·imported annually by Java-as tlie aistributing centre~ is .: ~bout 15;000,000 guilders ; and _ by.Jar the greater ·part is ·constituted· of',sulphate· of ammoni_ a. This fertilize_ r was

exporte~ d Eo _the Dutch :East Indies _ by Australia-to -the . extent _of 885 t~n~ iii 191_ 1. In · 1913 the .quantity exported- was ·only -·2.fi -pons-. · In_ H)l,t-15, however; --the _-quan~ity -had_ in·cre_ ased- to. 1?69 tons, and '.in: ' 1915-1:6 to - 2,996 -. tons. 'fhe talue of exported · sulphate _ of ammonia for )914:-15 ~as £24,549, and for _ HH5-16 it wa~ £47,545~ _... ~ . . . ..... . ' - - ' .,..

. - My- decfoctions . resulting from -a Cijreful c~n~sideration of -t~e -conditions both "in the Dutch Ea,st Indies"~n_ d. in -~he' Brit'ish Colony of the'Str.aits .S\~ttlementsforced-the · . conclusion -upon me _ t hat Australian manufacturers a;ud ' me~chants: had _hitl}.erto, paid · little :: attep.ticm ·to . trade matter$ there. ~- - Wjtlr the exception of _ one or tw,q- p_rogres_ sive

fi:i;-ms, _whqse annual turnover in- the.Se countries , :must be, -abolft . a' qu~rter of .~ Jnillion _ -po1:nd13 sterling, _ t:q.<:Y h~v~ left: t:rade_:_during tlre w~r,_ at i~f!at¢:-J?-fac~ic~lly, to the -Austra.lfan Vrnted· States of Amenqa, ' Japan, No.rway, and ~to_· ~wederr: . _ Bot_h th~ Dutch Ecyst

inqifference.: -c - Indies and the Straits--Settleme:n t _ s are ftooded with t}Je a ttractiv~ly prepared. CQJPJP~rcial

· literature from American me{chants, (1_nd t]1e~e pamphlets ~dvanq~ tb.e;:p1ost r'persua.sive '·reasons " .as to why- trade .should be condµcteq. - with· the~ Up.ited St~tes. Trading pamphlets, moreover, _invariably -bear_ the _:ca-ble an.d"·postaJ . addresses ;Of -the · .L\p:i,efica,n merchant(who are anxious ·te. secure business. _ Surely, there£9re, it is _a l~flecition upop. the p:fethod$ of-Australiaii merchants, and mari11-facturers, -an"tl. -substantiation of the 9onclusion I nave _ e_ xpressed abov~ ~, -that. proU1inent bu~i;ness people ju Java ap.d in - Absence of Singap~re with w~om. I. ca_ me. into contact should ~av~ c01;np~ained Qf the . abse~ce of

~ustralian trnr1 e Austrahan. trade and busmess hterature, and of the .d1ffiqulty whrnh they had experienced _

literature. in obtaining addresses of Australian I!_lerchants, Chamber of Commerce publica~iop.s,

Loyalty to Dutch - , indu~tri es.

catalo·gues, price lists·,. &c. · - · ; . · .\

l found ' that the ,~utc~ people in. the- East Inilies were Gq~men(lably loy~l in their preference for Dutch products. and their_ support of Dutch- indu.stries. Hotels and steamers alike-utilize as far as practicable Dutch products.· .Beyond7 this_ character­ istic-which it must be conceded is an admirable one, and which.should.suggest much'to c.ertain A-llstralians -:--I .am' conv!nced th.at the Dutch people are favorably . disposed tDwards our products, -and are desirous of extending _ existing-trade- relations. I repeat emphatically that-there is nothing in th~ way-of foodstuff-.5 tliat are exported to Java and the Strait~ Settlements from other parts of the world jn which Australian traders could not engage in effective cgmpetition. · · If Australian nierchants .would only- make - an attempt to develop the existing small and totally _ in~dequate ;trade conn~xion, I

am confident that -the bulk of the Dutch East Indian and the ~ Straits Settlements trade awaits-them. The gr_ eater part of it i;, and must continue to be, in tp.e nature of food­ stuffs ; but surely Austral_ia is not likely to retrogress m manufacture-rather do the times in which , we live seem to postulate an early advancement and expansion in this dire9tion; and other potentialities with regard to the augment~tion of the trading

connexion· have been indicated in the c·ourse· of this report. · .

' ' ~

co1c1 storage. .., Nowhere is the absence of Australia~ enterprise more noticeable than in th~ lack

of cold storage accommodation in the two countries under consideration. There are but three such establishments, one at Batavia,·· one. at Sourabaya--'-0ach of a very

- ~ ----

15

limited c~pacity-and the other at Si~gapore. The last-mentioned is in the hands of a company. · It cannot but-be regarded as a complete monopoly, inasmuch as the share­ holders are importers of foodstuffs to Singapore. But-here is the rub as far as Australian

1077

interests are concerned _: the company's list of imports includes Australian meat and Lack or space. butter, a~d I am informed that they let just as much coltl storage as suits them, and at prices, moreover, th~t have, the effect of limiting the consumption of Australian food supplies. In the face of such a state of affairs, is it a matter for wonderment that I am -constrained to comment upon the lack of enterprise on t};Jg part of Australia? A - consider.artion of the climatic co'nditions alone-the heat at Sil)-gapore-the oppre1:1sive

humidity in both countries, apart _ altogether from apparent prejudicial action by a self-centred monopoly-should constitute sufficient argument, without further Local monopoly. efa~oration, to-eoflfirm my contention that a sufficiency of ~uch accommodation would_ be of immense advantage to Australian trade. But when it is pointed out that it is only a question o1 hours before butter · of the best quality becomes rancid, and that _ meat deteriorates with equal rapidity, it will be seen that in the best interests of Australian trade further- provision in the way of cold storage i,s imperative. Lack of such space, indeed, has resulted in the destruction of large-quantities of meat and butter on more than one occasion.' The quality of our butter stands-in high favour in both of the countries

under considerati<;m. _ In 1914-15 we exported £102,894 worth, and in 1915 -::16 the valu!;l of our exports in this direction had increased to £133,379 to Java. -It is my deliberate opinion that if there were proper- cold storage facilities - at Batavia, Singapore, aud :;;;~t~ 1;;:)ght ·certain coastal towns, such as Cheribon ang Samarang, and inland centres, viz., beaoubiea.

Bandoeng, Soekaboemi; -Garoet, and Djokja, · in Java, and Medan -in Sumatra, the 1 volume of trade in butter alone would be doubled. And the same conclusion applie s to

1 fro~en meats, and nearl)'.' all perishab~e products -that are exported .. -. The ~onopoly, to which I .l?,ave -referred, of course, deprives us of th~t .healthy competit10n without which it , is impossible for trade controlled by -private enterprise to expand to its utmost capacity. I was informed during the course of my investigations in Singapore- that

Australian lamb, which could not -be obtained otherwise than through this cool store, was being sold up- to 2s, per lb. ; the probability is that it was imported at a cost of _ about 9d. per lb. I do not consid_er that it_ is within my province to state how the Effect or establishment of such accommodation should be brought about, but I feel bound to monopoly. suggest that interested Australian exporters would undoubtedly find it to their a_ dvantage

to co-operate in this direction ; or, as an alternative, that other capital might find a less promising outlook for investment. Australian interests would undoubtedly be further safeguarded and advanced by the creation, either at Batavia- the. capital of Java, and really the di,stributing centr_ e of the Dutch East In.dies- or at Singapore, the capital of the Straits Settlements,

of a commercial agency, tlie duty of which would be to foster and extend trade relations between the merchants of the two countries and the Commonwealth. The desire for the establishment of such-an ~gency was earnestly expressed to me by a number of promiD:_ent people in Java and Singapore. · It was urged that if it were only of a temporary character it would remove many of the di:f;ficulties that are now experienced in getting

in touch with Australian merchants. . -

SHIPPING.

Provided .that the. general and local regulations are observed, ~he ports of ~he ;ii!;S~,~ ~J;_r Dutch East Ind~an Archipelago are open for general trade and accessible to the ships _ of all flags with whom the Dutch hold friendly relations. Only native vessels and those_ q11alified for co,11sting are admitted in some ports ; out-those so-called native ports are

accessible to all ships without distinction. Shipping conditions throughout the world have of course, been abnormal since the close of the year 1914. A reliable reflex of the extent of the shipping in the Dutch East Indies will therefore be found on an examination ,of the figures for 1912, 1913, and 1914. The number of mercantile vessels that entered

the various ports of the Dutch East Indies during 1912 was 6,758, and the aggregate tonnage was 13,268,835. British vessels numbered 3,847 ;- Dutch 2,285 ; and the next in point of numbers were German7 457. The amount of British tonnage was 5,427,799; . Duteh 5 293 328 · German 1795540. The clearances for the same year were also Nonn_ a1 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . sh1ppmg tra.1l c in that order-British vessels 4 005 · Dutch, 2,539 ,· German, 463 ; and the respective or e aorm o11 s , , , volume. amounts of tonnage were 5,946,061 ; 5,648,467 ; and 1,820,604. In 1913, the number of vessels that entered the various ports was 6,252, and in 1914 there were 6,146. vessels. The amount)£ British tonnage that entered the ports in 1913 was 5,731,508; m 1914,

Service to Australi a.

' 5,190,826 ;· vesiels 'of -an aggregate- -of 5,583,770; _ 1914-

2,010, of an tonnage-of 5,587,661 ; 426 of an aggregate

tonnage of 1,798,994; 1914-282 vessels uf an aggreg!tte tonnage of 1,301,246. It will -thus be seen that the trade _to and from Ar:chipelago

is enormous. By far the greater part of the passengers _a:g.d cargo inwards,_ anq outwards is carried by four large companies ; /and -the local traffic ' of the• Archipelago is carried on by -them also. :. The Royal Packet Company of Batavia (Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij) provides services to Penang,-Singapore, Bangl«>k, and Australia.

This_ is known as the Java-Australian line. , By- means of the Singapore _ service of the company, connexion made with the -great English French

and -a intercourse between Europe ai}.d--the Far East IS thus :tnaintained. This _ compa11y--Iike the Java-China-Japan ill: the of. a Government

subsidy. As regards the route to be follo "vved by the the company

has the rightto replace one of the thirteen obligatory to Europe by two

voyages direct from Java to China and from Java to: Japan. Direct connexion with Japan is also maintained ... by means of the ,Nanyo Kaisha, a steamship- line that is. sub­ sidized by the Japanese Govern.ment. ; also by the newly opened -Osaka Shosen -Ka1sha ; which is also subsidized by the Government at Fqrmosa, and has Keeling as its starting - point. . Mention should also be made of the Java:-New York .Line,, by there is

of shipping. , monthly traffic from Java by cargo steamers; the Jaya-J?amfic _Line, wrth monthly

K .P.M. Llne _ subsi diz ed .

_ t:raffic ·between Batavia, Samerang; Sourabaya, and Maqassar to Manila, Hong Kong, and Ffancisco ;', and the Java-Bengal Line; by which -there-is regular traffic between Java, _ Rangoon, and Calcutta. - -. . -

The Line, to which I have already refe:rred, was

in 1911, and will be subsidized by the Dutch East Indian Government until. the year When the enterprise .begins to return profits, however, subs1dy, which amounts to one-half of whatever _ the ann-q.al deficit may be, must be gradually refunded. It is Boat s must be interesting to note that it is mandatory - Upon the CO:nipany to have all bo_ats U _ Sed Oll this built in Dutch -

yards. · service built in Dutch yards, although exemption, may be_ granted j n exoeptional cases.

Batavia is the port of arid annual voyages are_ obligatory . .. The

regular ports of call are-Samarang, Sourabaya, Thursgay Island; . Brisbane, Sydney - and 1}_1elbourne. ·, The only othe:r lin-e that is trading between Australia and -the Dutch East Indies and the Straits Settlements is that of Messrs. Burns, Philp, and Co. , whose service is- a monthly one. - It is so arrap:ged as ,to ·with tnat-ofthe Dutch _

(K.P.M.) Company, and thus bring about a fortnightly run. ---The course of the voyage is from Australia to Batavia, thence to Singapore, a return to""Batavia, and thence hack to Australia. I -understand that yet line th'at useq t o ply _ t9 the Dutch East

Eastern and Australian (E. & A.)-::-has gone out of commission during the

currency of the war. However this may be, /my study of t,he of the

P resent steamer situati?n have forced the ,conClusion :rr:pon me that the service has been inadequate

t . some time past. - To meet present requrr-ements· and to ·encourage-trade, a weekly service

m acl cqua e. at the very lea.st s:Q.ould be established. To what extent the existing lines hav-e been

remunerated during the past three years is best known to the two companies that are trading. lt may be safely assumed, however, that their profits have been the reverse of insignificant. ,It is but logical to conclude, then; that the Commonwealth Government

me advoca ed, might, with excellent advantage t_ o itself, establish a line of stea:m:ers to the Dutch

East, Indies and the Straits Settlements. An'd I have ·no hesitation in advocating the adoption of such a course. J doubt 'if a steamer ever leaves Melbourne on this route without being laden to the Plimsollline. Arguing from personal observ-ations, I should say that steamers ar e invariably freighted to their -utmost capacity. , The same remarks apply to the return journey. And it must be a·ssumed that augmentatiOn of trade will be accompanied by increased traffic to the "Garden of the East," as Java

has been ·appropriately termed. The calm, easily navigable seas ap.d the long coast lines with their many bays, and the quiet· roadsteads of the Dut ch East Indies, together the novel scenes · and conditions of the Far East and . their proximity to Tourist t ramc. Australia, have already attracted considerable tourist traffic ; and it -is but reasonable

to assume that it wiJI be augmented in the near future. . But if the Commonwealth is unable to see its way clear to establish a line of its

own steamers, then I w:ould suggest ·as an . alternative that the praetice of certain progressive countries in subsidizing shipping companies should be followed in conriexion with this trade route conditionally upon a ·weekly service being established between Australia and the Dutch East Indies and the Straits Settlements. -

I -

' .

17

CONCLUDING ·REMARI\.S.

- The capital, the capacity for organization, and the energy of the European have rendered the Dutch East Indies of the best producing countries in the world. influence of the possessors upon the native population is far-seeing and beneficent in sense of the term. So prosperous a-re the affairs of this Dutch colony that the

increase in the -ordinary expenditure is , as a rule, vastly exceeded by the in the ordinary, revenue ; and the surplus thus acquired enables Government to take · measur,es for the promotion of the material and intellectual welfare of the population. An occasional increase of the ordinary expenditure has been due to the introduction of

direct government in districts that were previously under native rule, to a more far reachirig and thorough administration 9i the out.lying possessions, improven1ent and re-organization of the police and prison systm11, the building of schools, sanitation, the _ promotion· of agriculture, cattle breeding, and the improvement of the fisheries , the

erection of public buildjngs, a widening application of irTigation, and measures taken in the interest-of navigation. Naturally, all this enterp_ rise has -resulted in an increase .in the nu111ber of civil servants. Under the sway of the Dutch, a higher spirit of industry -has been inculcated, and this lias resulted in a gain to the J}ative of greater independence.

The -healthy economic condition of the colony postulates a steady advance in prosperity jn the future in dir ect ratio with past increments plus the sum of judicious expenditure. No stone is being left unturned to achieve a consummation that is so earnestly desiderated

. 1079

by :Holland, and the field for trading offers widening increments. But it should not be . overlooked that all the ·JJutch settlements are in the tropical zone. Owing to the prevailing atmospheric eonditions the disintegra-tion even of the soil is very rapid. Of what vast importance is it, then, that local conditions with regard to the exportation

of perishable products should be studied ? That steps should be taken to prevent a stultification of tra_ ding enterprise by. the influence of climatic conditions alone, to say nothing of the hindrance of a self-centred mono2oly or -two . And in this connexion I can only emphasize:the desirability-or even the nec_ essi,ty- for the provision of cold -storage accmnmodation commensurate with Australia's requirm11ents. Let it be remem-bered that the population of the Dutch East Indies increased during the period between

the_ years 1865. and 1905 from 14,000,000 to 37,000,000; that it now be assumed to be weJl over 40,000,000 ; that the hardened roads now have a length of 18,000 miles, -or an equivalent of about two-thirds of the circumference of the globe ; that as a result of -the growth of education, indus.try, and commerce in Java and elsewhere, a marked tendency is notiQeable on the· part of natives to rise ab.ove the status of the labouring

classes to Europeanizatio"n ; in fact, let all this be remembered, and it will be seen how great are the trading potentialities as far as this Commonwealth is concerned. The export of Australian apples-a matter I have no . yet touched upon-increased in value fro111 £2,129 in 1911 to £5,171 in 1915- 16, as compared _with £2,515 for 1914- 15. Surely this is but a fragment of the t rade that might be effected in this direction expecially when· it is remembered that the Commonwealth Government found it Export ort . necessary to place an embargo on the export of apples fro111 Australia to London on apples.

account of the shortage of freight space. I am. recording but a simple fact when I state that during the course of my investigations I heard the complaint again and again that people could not get a" decent apple'' between Java and Japan. Yet, at the same time, householders in parts of Australia vvere being enjoined to purchase apples by the case in order to prevent a glut of that fruit in the market. Owing to the lack of refrigerating

space, I have seeri cases of pears tli.at have become over-ripe on the voyage jettisoned, or given to the natives, who were satisfied if they found one here there that was . -partly sound. I recollect reading in the public press so111e time before the war of successful shipments, per the stean1er and other vessels, of this particular fruit

to distant parts of the world. I have only to suggest that, given the necessary insulated space and propitious conditions at the ports of landing, there should be an excellent market for pears, apples, and oranges in the East Indies and the Straits

Settlements. Jn this connexion it is worthy of note that the aggregate value of our fresh fruits ot!J.er than apples that were exported to the countries under consideration was but £3,077 for 1911, 1912, and 1913. I enture to think that there are also opportunities for a vast expansion of the· Au tralian wine trade. ·It is rather an ironical commentary on Australian enterpri e- or lack of it-in this direction to note that the general opinion was that o-q.r light wine \-\ere of first class quality, and that the supply . has not yet overtaken the demand. Bu pos ibly 1nore of our wine is consumed there than we wot of ; and it is an equal po ibility that it finds its way there from abroad,

F. 61 .-2

18

' . -

bearing a foreign seal. - I ventt re to . tp.inli, _ that with energy and

forethought Australia should directly comlnand "Qy far the greater part of wine trade in the Dutch East Indies. aj es., bottled and draught, -are o'Qtaining a

wider vogue from year to year, and. there are possibilities of :a · vast- in this . direction also. Keen <:ompetition in this direction - _from America and _Japan. _Denmark is a thhd, but relatively unimportant, competitor. The two light lagers that are exported from Japan, however, !lave secured a somewhat considerable· portion of

Comment by Director of Commerce.

P amphlets dealing wi t h tropical . .subjects.

the trade. - ' -

-

Reverting to the dearth of Australian commercial literature in the Dutch East Indies, I should remark that Mr. E. /De Kruijff, Director of the Division of I!!dustry and Buitenzorg, Java·, informed me that he had -frequently -been asked to supply lists of · Australian merchants and 1nanufac_ turers, but had been unable to do so ; _ whereas American trade pamphlets were available in abundance. Mr. De Kruijff has issued a large nun1ber of pamphlets dealing with the origin and culture -and the marketing of the various tropical products. Each subject is dealt -vvith in concise, fashion , and as the palnphlets are replete with valuable scientific

have deemed it advisable to suggest that they be retained· in the Parliamentary

-Library, in order that, when enterprises .of this character are undertaken, as they assuredly will be in the northern ·part of Australia, the nation may reap the benefit of the experiei1ce and knowledge that they_ contain. In -conclusion, I may state that I a m of opinion that the · prinGipal desiderata for encouraging existing relations and for bringing about an expansion of the volume · of trade that is already done, are:- - _ ·

(a) Greater---activity on the part of Australian merchants anq manufacturers. (b) Provision of additional cold stor age. (c) The establishment of a commercial, agency, (d) Increased shipping- facilities, equipped with - a:dequate refrigerating

space.

Your Comn?)ssioner would like to place on record his sincere appreciation of the _ kindly that he received at-the _ hands of His Excellency Sir Arthur K.C .M.G., the Governor of the Straits Settlements, and of the help and courtesy extended to him by Mr. De Kruijff, Director of Industry and Commerce, in Java.

JAS. J. LONG.

15th September,

\ ---

.-

/ " 1081

The following table indicates the principal importing firms in the Dutch East ]ndies, incomplete, but compiled with regard to Australian trade :-

_Beverages and l;.Gomesti bJes Atj ehche Handel-M:aatscha ppij N. V. Ned-Indische Im-ell Export 1\'laat-

schappif " - _

Bandasche Perkeniers-en Handelsvereeniging Crediet-en Handelsver.eeniging " Banda " -.. W. Biedermann and Co. . . S. and W. Birnhaum Borpeo Maatschappij

Burns, Philp, and Co. Ltd. Handelmaatscha ppij, Campbell, MacColl,,__ and Co. Cornfields Magaxijen A. H. Dewald

Handelscolnpa.gnie, v / h Dircks and Co. Handeln1aat schappij " Deli Atjeh_ "

N. V. Van Deutekom and Waal -G. Dittrich .

Dja!llbi Maatschappij E., Dunlop and. Co .

Nederlandsche Export lVIaatsc-happij , Van Emmerick and Co. -N. V. Fles, de Vries and Do . Galestih and Co . ·

Galstaun and Co. J.-Garreau Hagemeyer and Co., Harmsen, Verwey, and Co. H. V. Handel Maat s_chappij , vj h Hoedt

and Co. and Co.

Hinlopen and Co. IndiscJi·e Handels Compagnie H. V. In-en Doorvoerhandel in lndi&che Handels Maatschappij 1 Jacobson, Van den Berg, and Co.

Handelsvereeniging " Java " Java Import Ltd. J. C. Jordan and Co. A. Joseph Handelmaatschappij, Kerho:ff, and Co.

N. V. R. Klaasesz Co.

Handel Maatschappij Th. Konow Soeberg

P. Lang berg and Zoon Exportmaatschappij B. van Leeuwen and Co . W. B. Leder boer -and Co.

Liebrnschultz and Co . . Manders, Seemann, and Co. Menadosche-Handelsvereeniging Handelsvereeniging, v / h R eiss and Co .

-Interna tionale Crediet-en Handelsvereenigin g " Rotterdam " . Handel .Maatschappij J. Schaier Schnitzler and Co.

N. V. Handelmaatscha ppij, G. H. lot and Co. N. V. Smabers and Co.

Koeta Radja (Sumatra) Sourabaya (Java)

(Moluccas)

Ternate (Moluccas) Semarang (Java) Batavia (Java) ,

Pontianak (Borneo) _

Sour a ba ya (Java}, Semarang (Java) Batavia (Java)

Medan (Sumatra), Si Antar (Sumatra) Bandjermasin (Borneo) · -

Menado (Sumatra), Belewan (Sumatra),

Tandjong Balei (Sumatra), Segli - (Sumatra) Bandoong (Java), Batavia (Java) Sourabaya (Java)

Palembang (Sumatra), Djambi (Sumatra) - Batavia (Java), (Java), Soura­

baya (Java), Bandoeng (Java),

Padang (Sumatra) (Java)

Sourabaya (Java), Batavia (Java) Batavia (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java) Medan (Sumatra), Batavia (Java)

Sourabaya (Java)

Pad.ang (Sumatra), Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java), Cheribon (Java), Semarang (Java) Som·abaya (Java)

Batavia (Java ); Semarang (Java') Semarang (Java) · Sourabaya (Java) Semarang (Java), Sourabaya (Java),

Cheribon '(Java), Batavia (Java) Semarang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Pekalongan (Java) - Medan

Semarang (Java} Medan (Sumatra), Tandjong Poera (Su-matra), Kwala Simpang (Sumatra) Batavia (Java) Batavia (Java) Makasser (Celebes), Menado (Celebes),

Gorontalo (Qe lebes) Soura ba ya (Java), Semarang (Java) Makasser (Celebes) Menado (Celebes) Den Pasar (Bali), Batavia (Java), Soura­

baya (Java) Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java)

:!\Iakasser (Celebes)

Batavia (Java), Samarang (Java), Sou­ rabaya (Java) 'Jledan (Sumatra) Semarang (Java) -

·20

importing firms in the Dutch East Indies, &c.- continued. -

.

Importers.

Article. . -

. I

/

Kame. Address.

Beverages and Comestibles­ continued.

Socij"Jta Commisionaria Orientale • •

1

Batavia Semarang (Java),

Sourabaya (Java), Padang (Su· matra)

Building Mate­ rials

Machinery, § Agricultural Implements /

•

Coloniale Indo Beige

Staab and Co's Handelmaatschappij Gebroeders Sutorius and _ Co. Handel Maatschappij" Tania " N.V.L.E. Tels and Co. , Handelsvereeniging

Batavia (Java), Tangerang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java) Batavia (Java) Batavia (Java); P adang (Sumatra) Padang (Sumatrar Tuinenburg (J. Boon Jzn) Maatschappij voor Uitvoeren

pan del

Commosiie- Batavia (Java) , 8emarang (Java), Sou­ rabaya (Java), Cheribon (Java), Tji-latjap (Java) ·

Ned-Ind.ische Im-en Export-Maatschappij Sourabaya (Java) " Atlantic " Barmer E xport Gese llschaft N. V. Handelmaatschappij De Bas and Co . .. Bouwkundig Bureau Bennick Riphagen Biedermann and Co . Borneo Sumatra fl andel Maatschappij

Cementwarenfabriek " Gang Thibault " Deli Estates· Engine_ ering and General Union Ltd. N. V. Van Deutekom and Waal Handelscompa:gnie, voorheen Dircks and Co. N. V. Cultur-enHandel-Maatschappij "Excel-

sior, " v / h Cementtegelfabriek Pontjol " Galstaun and Co. ·

N. V. Nederlandsche-Indische fabrieken van bouwmeterialen " Gembong en Bentar " , Guthrie and Co. Handelmaatschappij Guntzel and Schumacher

Harri ons and Crosfield Ltd. Hollandsche tot het maken van

werken in gewa pend beton Hovens, Greve, and Co. . . Indische Handels Compagnie N. V. In-en Doorvoerhandel in Ned-Indie Exportmaatschappij "Jacatra" .. Jacobson , Van den Berg, and Co . ..

Javasche Machinchandel en Gasl'naatschappij J ava Stores Ltd.. •

J. C. Gordon and Co. Handelsvereeniging F. Kedhing Kolff, Van der Hoeven, and Broekman Handelmaatschappij Th. Konow Soeberg and

Co.

W. B. Lederboer and Co. Lindeteves-Stokvis Cemen1Jtegelfabriek J . S. Maul Erste Medansche Tegelfabriek en Handel in

Bouwmaterialen Mulder and Co . Medandosche Handelsvereeniging .. N. V. De Nederlandsche-Indische Industrie .. Niederer and Co. Industrieele Maatschappij "Palembang " .. HandelsvereeiJiginp , voorheen Reiss and Co .

Internationale Credite-en Handelsvereeniging " Rotterdam ". N. V. Tegelfabriek, " Semoet " ' ..

Amsterdamsch Kantoor voor Indische Zakei:t The Anglo Dutch Estates Agency Ltd. De Bandasche Perkeniers-en Handelsvereenig-ing

1

Barmar Export Gesellschaft

Sourabaya (Java) ,.Batavia (Java) · Weltevreden (Java), Sourabaya (Java) lVIedan (Sumatra)

Semarang (Java) Bandjermasin (Borneo), Pon"tianak (Borneo) Batavia (Java) Medan (Sumatra)

Bandoong (Java) Menado (Celebesf Semarang (Java)

Somabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java), Semarang (Java)

Medan (Sumatra) Medan_ (Sumatra) Medan (Sumatra) · Weltevreden (Java)

Tegal (Java) Ba tavia (Java ), Semarang (Java) . Semarang (Java) . Benkoelen (Sumatra)

Semarang. (Java), Somabaya (Java),. Cheribon (Java ), Batavia (Java) Semarang (Java), Makasser (Celebes) Semarang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Medan (Sumatra) Sourabaya (Java) Medan (Sumatra)

Makasser (Celebes), lVIenado (Celebes) Semarang (Java) Weltevreden (Java) lVIedan (Sumatra)

Menado (Celebes) Sourahaya (Java ) Batavia (Java) Palcmbang (Sumatra) Makasser (Celebes), Den Pasar (Bali) ,. · Sourabaya (Java), Batavia (Java)

Batavia (Java), Semara.!!g (Java),. - Sourabaya (Java) Seinarang (Java), Sourabaya (Java)

Sourabaya (Java) Medan (Sumatra) Banda (Moluccas)

Batavifl. (Java), Sourabaya · (Java), Medan (Sumatra)

'Article.

Machiner-y, Agricultural Implements­ . continued.

Manures (arti­ ficial)

Paints

F.6108.-3

21

Principal importing firms in the Dutch East Indies, &c.-continued . .

. Importers.

Name. Address.

N. V. Soerabajasche Machinerhandel, v jh · Semarang (Java), Sourabaya (Java) Becker and Co. N. V. Machienfabriek "Braat " Deli-Estates Engineering and General Union

Sourabaya (Java), Tegal (Java) (Sumatra)

Co. Ltd. ,.

Handelscompagnie, voorheen Dircks and Co. Menado (Celebes) N. V. Handel Maatschappij, 0. Dunkerbeck Sourabaya (Java) and Co. N. V. Fles de Vnes arld Co. , . . Batavia (Java)", Sourabaya (Java)

Rijuig-en Automobiel Maatschappij, v fh -F. Batavia (Java) J .. Fuchs ·

:Geveke and Co. Sourabaya (Java)

Handel Maatschappij Guntzel and Schu- Medan (Sumatra) macher Harrisons and Crosfields Ltd. Batavia (Java), Mtldan (Sumatra)

;N. V. Techni.sch Brueau, vjh J. F. R. Hellen- Sourabaya (Java) doorn _ _-

Handel Maatschappij , voorheen Hoedt and Sourabaya (Java) ·

J a vasche Machinenh'a:ndel en Gasmaa tscha ppi j Semarang (Java) Machinenefabrieken, "Kalimus," "Amster- Sourabaya (Java) dam" ·

Handelsvereeniging, F. Kehding .. Handel Maatschappij, Kerhoff and Co. Kolff, Van der Hoeven, and Broekman Y an Lelyveld a.nd Co. Lindeteves-Stokvis

Maatschappij voor Smalspoorwegen De Nederlandsche-Indische Industrie N. V. Nederlandsche-Indi; che In-en Uitvoer-handel Maatschappij -

Office Appliances Co. Lt d. /

Ohl and Terlaak (Technisch Bureau) Chrenstein and Koppel (Arthur Koppel) Frances ;peek and Co. Ltd. Handels-en Industriecompagnie, van A.

Resink and Co. N. V. Twnetsche Handelmaatschappij, vjh , De Rooy and Co. Maatschappij t. v. d . z., Ruhaak and Co.

Carl Schpieper and Co.

Schnitzler and Co.

Siemens-Schuckert Werke-,- G.m.c.H. Herman E. Smalhout J. Boon, Jnz. United States Steel Products Co . United Ltd.

C; van Vliet and Zonen . . · ·

N. V. Fabriek, "De Volharding "· .. N. V. Technisch Bureau, C. Verhoop · Importhuis en Technisch Bureau, E. G. Th. Werner

Worthington .Pump Co . Ltd.

Handel Maatschappij Guntzel and Schu­ . macher Indische Handels Compagnie Van Lelyveld and Co.

Handel Maatschappij, vjh Hoedt and Co. G. Hoppenstedt

Medan (Sumatra) Medan (Sumatra) Sourabaya (Java) Souraoaya (Java) Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java),

Semarang (Java) , Tegal (Java), Djokjakarta (Java), Medan (Sumatra), Makasser (Celebes) Semarang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Benkoelen (Sumaira)

Batavia (Java) Batavia (Java) Sourabaya (Java), Semarang (Java) ,Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java )

Semarang (Java)

Souraba;ya (Java)

· Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java), _ Semarang (Java), Bandoeng (Java), Garoet (Java), Medan (Sumatra) ,

Makasser (Celebes) · Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java ), Semarang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java) Padang (Sumatra) Batavia (Java) Medan (Sumatra)

Sourabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java) Semarang (Java)

Spurabaya (Java)

Medan (Sumatra)

Batavia (Java) Sourabaya (Java)

Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java), Semarang (Java), Cheribon (Java), (Sumatra)

1083

l

Article.

Pa:lnts-- continued.

/ Soaps

Textile fa brjcs

- -

importing .firms in-the Dutch East l:p.dies;

Indische Handels Compag-nie - - -N ..- V. In en Doorvoerhandel in Nederlaiidsche Indie _

Jfl,eobson Vander and Co . .

Batavia Semarang (Java)

Javasche Machinenhandel en Hasmaatschappij

Semarang (Jav.a), SolJ,fabaya '(Java), Cneri bo:n (Java), Ba tl! ( J av&) Semarang Djokjakarta (Java),

Makasser (Celebes) - - ·

l{a:p.delsvereeniging, ".Java " J oakim and Co.

1 Java-} /

Sourabaya (Java)

J. C. Jordan and Co. _ .. ;,. _Soorahaya (Java)

Handelsvereeniging, F. Kehding" .• Handel Maa tscha ppij, Kerkh-of{ a11d Co. Van and Co. , .. ·

Lindeteves-Stokvis

.. . - Medan (Su,matra)

- Cementtegelfabriek J. S.Maul 1 .Mulder and -Co. ·"·

Van Nie and Co. Handelsvereeniging, " N ederJand '' · N. V .. Ijsfabriek Olie and Co. Industriee!e Maayschappij, Francis Peek and Co. Ltd. · ..

Randelsvere.eniging voorheen, and Co, Handels en Industriecompa,gnie van, A. and Co.

en

- - -

Rowley, Davies, and CQ. Staab and Co.'s Han

Ma.atschappij, voor Uitvcrer a:Q.d Commissie-handel ·

N. - .v. Djttri.bi• Maatschappij-K. Hii,.lopen - /

Handel Maatscllappij, Kerkolt and Co. ... Handel Maatschappij, Th. Konow Soeberg and ·

Menadosche Handelsveteeniging .. Handelmaatschappij, A. van Ravensberg and -co. Hand,elsvereeniging', v jh and Co. --- .. .

H.V. Handel Maatsch:;tppij, G. H. Slot and Co. Societe Coloniale Jij.do Beige· Geo. ·w ehry and Co.

Atjehsche Handel Maatschappij . . . .

Bandasche .Perkeniers en Handelsvereeniging Crediet en Handelsvereeniging, "Banda ': Borneo Sa.matra Handel Maatschappij

W. Biedermann and Co. L. W. Brandon and Co. Burns, Philp, and Co. Van Nie and Co. Burl, Mytrle, and Co. -HandelMaatschappij, Compbel], Ma.cColl, and

Co.

Toko a Coutant Cornfields 1\{agazijen ' --..

N. V. Van Deutekom and Waal · v jh Dircks and Co.

N.V. Djambi Maatschappij

Maatschappij, "Deli Atjeh"

Winkel Maatschappij, "Eigen Hulp" . N.ederlal}.dsche Maatschappij vjh Van Emmeri.ck Oo. . · ·

Medan (Sumatra) Sourabaya {Java) Batl;l.via (Java) Weltevreden (Java) l\'iedan (Sumatra) Medan

/

Sourabayii (Java), Ampenan (Bali) (Java)-

Palembang (Sumatr.a) Batavia (Java), Soqrabaya (Java) Makasser (Ceiebes) '(Java)

Batavia -_(Java), Sernerang (Java),­ - ·Sourabaya (Java) ---. Batavia· (Java) · Solirabaya

Medan (Sumatra) . . Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java), §emarang (Java); (Java)

Djambi (Sumatla), Palembang (Suma-tra) -

- Sou.rabaya (Java) M.edan (Sumatra) .

Medan (Sumatra), Tandjong Poera . Simpang (Sumatra)

Menado-(Celebes) · ·-Semarang

Sourabaya (Java)., Batavia - (Java), Makasser (Celebes), Den Pasar (Bali) Medan ·(Sumatra) - '

B5ttavia (Java)' _.

Batavia (Java)

Koeiia Radja (Sumatra) -Banda (Moluccas) --

Amboina- (MolucGas), Banda (Moluccas) Pontianak (Borneo), Palembang.(Suma-.

Semerang (Java) Sourabaya (Java) (Java)

Meda;n (Sumatra) Sourabaya (Java) Batavia (Java)

- Medan (Sumatra) Medan (Sumatra), Si An,_tar (Sumatra) Bandoeng (Java) · Menado· (Celebes)

Palembang (Sumatra), Djambi tra). Medan (Sumatra), Belawan (Sumatra), Sibolga (Sumatra), _ Tandjong Balei

(Sillnatra) Batavia (Java) Sourabaya (Java)

Importers.

N. -v. Fles de and 'co:

continued. -; and Co.- ,

----.

Catpfe food

::Y _Maatschappij' van Ind1,1strie

-..., Ha,rmsen, Verwey, and Co.

liapuelsvereeniging, v jh and-Co.

Ha'udels;-en lndustriecompagnie, A. Resink -Interna.tionale Oredit.:en Handelsvereetijging, · '' ,., · · } -

_Maatschappij t.v.d.z., Ruhaak and Co. ; - -Apotheek, " De Salman_ der" Scl}.'nitzle! and Co.

A. S.chpijd N.y. G. H. Slot and Do.

Toe and Co. ' r

_ ·Chemicalienbandel W. F. V odegal Apotb.eek Vriendschap" , W&ttil=l .&:ud Co.

p-eo. W ehry and Co: . . .

:Su,rns, Philp, and·Co. _ . . _ _.

Rijuig-en Automobiel Maatschappij v jh :F. J. - ' lfl!.chs · - - - ' ·

Java Cold Storage EJo. -. . . .

Emil Ott ,

,. N. :v. G. H. Slot Co.

! . • -- · A . . :a. Dewald _

Do_ rdtsche Maatschappij

.Guthrie ::tnd Co. Ltd. ' Hellfach Co . . -

.-.

Ha-JJ,del .Mattschappij, v/ h Co.' . ·.

G. Hoppenstedt _

_ Hap.dels Compagnie

J. C. Gordol}. and Co. N. V. Klaasesz -and Co. Exportmaatschappij vjh B. van Leeuwen and Co. Van Lelyveld and qo. Hal}.Q.elsvereeniging J . A. Lind -Mai)J.bz and Co. · ..

Menadosche Handelsvereeniging . .. -

,. Aubo-S:Rort-(j)n Wapenhandel H . O'Herne N. V. Ijsfabriek Olie and Co. . .

Francis Peek and Co. Ltd. Handelmaa tscha ppij, voorheen A. VanTa v_ ens-berg and Co. · I

-Handelsvereeniging v jh Reiss &nd Co.

Address.

Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java); B.a.tavia - (J&va), - _

Padang (.Sumatra), Sourabaya {Java) Batavia Semarang · (Java),

Sourabaya (Java) _

&:mra-baya (Java), Makasser (Celebes), Den Pase:r; (Bali) -Semaran_g-( .Java) Batavia (Java)_ , Sourabaya (Javah

,, Semarang (Java} - _

S,ourabaya (Java) Sourabaya (Java), Ba-tavia (Java), Scmrabaya (Jav&), - Semarang (Java) Batavia ( J a;v;1) Medan (Suniatra)

Medan (Sumatra) . S!=lmarang (.:[a va) Souraoaya ·(Java) Sourabaya (Java)

Batavia (Java), Semar.ang .(Java), Sourabaya (Java), Cheribon (Ja-va), Tjilatjitp (Java) s .; urabaya (Java) -

Bat&.via (Java), Semara-ng Sorirabaya (Java) Batavia (Java) Medan (Sumatra) 1\iedan (Sumatra)

Bandjermasin (Borneo) Sourabaya_-(Ja-va), Pada!!g (Suma1mi) . Medan (Su;matra) Padang (Sumat:r;a)

Sour a ba (Java) ·Padang (Sumatra) ,

Batavia (Java), Semarang (Java) S!'ura baya (Java) · Semarl),ng ·(Java) Batavia (Java), Sourabaya (Java)

ba ya-(Java)

Med;1n (Sumatra) Sourabaya -(Java) Menado (Celebes) Semarang (Java) Sourabaya '(Java) Batavia (Ja:va) · Semarang (Java)

(Java)'

/

FooDSTUFFS oF VEGETABLE ORIGIN. Fruits, fresh . . cntls.

191L _ 1912. -

APPENDIX A. I

EAST INDIES. IMPORTS BY AusTRALIA.

1-913. 1915-1&

14,705

1911.

42

1912. . ; HH3.

36 3 581

1914-15. 1915-16;

£

- 8,094 , 16,008

Grain and Pulse-Maize.. . . ,

113

156,783 20,389 189

18,732 4,690 -

3,030

51,891 28,452 375

7,689

568,118 14,008 - 451

605,286 1- . . . 49,240 - 16,137 196,533

8,087. 9;-986 10,744 14,682 6,702

201,676 4,282

Rice .. - . . ,

O,ther ·- . . ,

'Z34 65 1,325 - 169 198

199 2,436 492 78

/ 656

102 2,583 616,396 4,416

Nuts-Edible . . . .

Sago.a:g.d Tapioca lbs.

..

6,980 7;178

233,762 - 708,821

136,310 164,090 902,973 1,667 59 - 44 421'

8$4,414 '144,331 989,212 382,542 100,980

Sugar aij.d Syrups, &c. . . . Vegetable Foodst uffs

Total

BEVERAGES (NON-ALCOHOLIC), , AND SUBSTANCES USED I N MAKING. Coffee and Chicory Tea . . _ ..

Other :- . - ..

Total

TOBACCO

lbs.

VEGETABLE SuBSTANCES (NOT FooDsTUFFS}. -

Copra . . cwt.

Fibres-Cot.ton, raw . . lbs.

Kapok . . ,

Other.. . . . .

Other Vegetable Substances .

Total

f..PP AREL·, TEXTILES, ETc. Hats and Bonnets and Minor - Articles thereof Other Apparel and Attire, &c.

Total

OILS, FATS, AND wAXES.

..

296,956 632,201- 663)331 916,476 214,966 4,'t99.,762 4,055,()56 6,564,062

.. '

.. 450 434 840

20,766 ' 203,633 187,133 _24,038 10,5q7

'5,105,894 4,352,611 4,262-;231 3,658,622 4,555,776 767 328 26 . 207 563

Oils- , , .. / , ,

Benzine, Gasoline, Mineral , -

Naphtha, &c. . . 3,486,348 6,949,903 4,869,337 7,957,341 7,578,796 Kerosene/ . . gal. · 2,378,916 -2,431,411 2,168,187 1,250,910 173,819 Lubricating Mineral - . . 12,020 21,344 19,303 ,3'7,869 63,418

Mineral, beillg Pentane, -

&c.. . _ . : . . 314,106 79,270 46,096 74,500

R esidual .. - . . 2,008,825 2,578,018 3,473,561 6,069,071 3,537,042

Other Oils . . . . 1,516 416 6,225 60 1,602

Waxes . . . . lbs. 288,635 151,270 15,075 418,358 846,642

Greases, &c. . . . . . . . . . . - . . . .

Total

METALS (UNMANUFACTURED) AND ORES • • • .,

INDIA-RUBBER AND LEATHER. I' India-rubber, crude ..

Other . . . . . .

Total

WooD AND W ICKER, RAw AND MANUFACTURED •.

DRUGS, CHEMICALS, AND FER­ TILIZERS. Manures­ Bonedust

Other ..

Total '

MISCELLANEOUS.

cwt.

..

All _ other Articles, including Classes too small for special enumeration . . . .

Total Imports of Produce or Manufacture of Indies

Total Imports Direct from East Indies without regard _to of Origin ..

3,643 8,568 14,641 10,795

,

1 .•

- .. ) '

I ,-

91'6 ' - 914 2,103

-- · ______ -J _ - 846,119

91336 195,353 6

23,100 r: 162,678 39

20,684 120,101

21,765 225,369

5,861 297,544 118

-----

204,695 185,817 140,785 247,134 303:523 .__ --------------·

13,612 15,952 15,902 10,740 - 20,319

____ J:::. _____ ----

495 1,251 475 1,020

/ 504 5,100 - ·2,757

138,099 . 130,738 128;148 463 383 - 52 -:.

641 27 940

616 - 265

95,365 125-,011 216 . 976

6,453 17,207

·------------- .-- -·----"-1------

139,707 136,_ 743 . 133,148 103,125 c 144,479 ---------l---------------

1,001 · 105

2,372 87

4,092 -32 . 2,086 191

836 468

---------------------1,116 2,459 4,124 2,277 - 1,304 ------1------------------

164,368 30,600 676 -4,449 18,443

89 -

3,841 304

311;352 -30,12f 1,097 -16,983

25,762 72 1,801 ' 361

251 ,256 30,857 947

4,269 38,00-1 150 218

309

467,860 22,417 2,337

' 3,803 71,273 2

4,963 . 108

427 ,538 4,316 ' 4,596

5,333 38,599 179 12,197

412

- ----·1----r---1---------------

222,410 390,549 326,007 572,862 493,170

- ----1·----- -----·----------

414

31 ,526 16

1,843

1,528

236

7,600 5

6,516 14,143

-------------·----- -- -- ---31,542 1,528 7,605 -6,516 14,143 - ---------- -------·- ---6,833 1,446 3,239 2,895 7,'719 - ------- -----------·----956 524. 2,224

651

3,901 589

3,026 2,543 6,645

-------- ---1-----1---=---1-----1,480 4,490 _5, 569 6,645 - ---,. ---1·----- -------------- 1,176 1,485 6,737 8,969 4,792

------------- -------- -

780,816 1,794,665 1,070,834 1,275,196 1,842,116 --- ------------·1----1-----

6_55,101 1,613,564 920,473 1,019,521 1,608,688

191l.j 1912.

APPENDIX A-continued.

EAST INDIES-continued. •" EXPORTS THERETO.

1913. 1914-15. 1915-16. 19ll:- 1912. 1913. 1914-15. 1915-16.

__ .,::..._ ____ --------------------------- · - -----------

FooDsTUFFS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN. Butter . . '

Meats-'-

lbi!.

._ · Bacon and Hams ,

Preserved by cold prvcess-Beef . . lbs.

-Other _ . . . .

- -Preserved in tins - ..

Other .. - . . . .

Milk, Preserved ..

Other Animal Foodstuffs ..

Total

FOODSTUFFS 0]' I ORIGIN . ' .

Biscuits lbs.

Coiifectionery ..

- " Fodders cwt. Fruits, Fresh-' Apples· .. cntls. Other .. Grain and Pulse-Oats . . , -Bran, Pollard, &c. , Flour (Wheaten) , Other· . . . . Jams and Jellies . ·- lbs. Other Vegetable Foodstuffs Total LIVING ANIMALS. Cattle . . . . No. Horses- Ordinary .. 'For stud purposes Other .. Total APPAREL, TEXTILES, AND MANUFACT,URED FIBRES .. OILS, FATS, AND WAXES. Lard and Refined Animal Fats . . lbs. Tallo'!, Unrefined cwt. Other Oils, Fats, &c. . . Total STONES AND MINERALS USED INDUSTRIALLY. Coal .. .. tons Other Stones, &c. . . Total SPECIE, GoLD MACHINERY AND OTHER MANUFA'CT URES OF METAL INDIA-RUBBER, LEATHER, AND MANUFACTURES THEREOF' Leather Other _ Total " DRUGS, CHEMICALS, AND FERTILIZERS. Ammonia Sulphate Other Drugs, &c. Total MISCELLANEOUS. Soap .. _ . . lbs. All other Articles, including Classes too small for specific enumeration .. Australian Produce o -ther Produce .. Total 1,548,057 1,537,_958 810,344 1,813,645 1,378,384

129,739 162,590 203,324 233,852 133,347

I

187,250 35,079 499,559 489,64'/

• 166,818 178,595 100,012 3,769

- 69,515

777,085 24,052 7,820 '

2,935 608 ,

69,710 85,787

742,378 943,850 13,851 14,431

6,060 3,727

' 4;230 - 4,310

730 1,025_ '

65,485

6:)0,724 22,223 3,059

2,419 505

4,475

669,095 31,660 2,260

6,229 921

£

80,579

0,335

2,276 1,280 ;3,856 2,304

1,336 493

£

87,439

8,601

408 542 4,375 3,473

1,352 1,181

£

10)307

5,480 638 . 6,436 3,529

1,691 1,008

£

102,894

12,3ll

8,557 318 2,943 1,425 1,342

481

133,379

8,465

21 236 559 ll4 581

98,459 107,371 120,454 130,271 143,355

ll,823 1,074 1,688

2,129 717

10,792 585 1,634

3,221 998

13,047 605 920

3,500 ,1,362

ll,818 765 920

2,515 . 1,051

16,543 1,287 702-5, 171 1,237

1,922 2,528 736,490

1,375 2,304

2,959 2,978

734,098 . 9-61,664

1,060 1,350 145,162

2,096 -1,399 290,465

747 677

291,681 120 593 2,167

603 862

326,093 " 174

833 1,543

845 _ 718

416,302 66 677 1,498

482 488

67,560 163·

778 414

182,958 t28 855 1,514

.

35,645

4,947

875 5

35,762 652

49,886

4,319

578 6

39,165 ' 642

'39,604 43,860

5,491 5,054

799 65

123,941 618

72,223 2,042

137,199 213,022 267,437 169,073

1 17,705 18,300 500 35,3 91

1,003,300 l,l42,93P 1,688,659 2,183,265

.

44,()25

4,626

280

27;776 164

98,625

59,930

760,371

-

768 2,179

------ - ---------------313,415 347,338 439,540 89,009 211,587 ------- - ----:"""" ------------21,516 .18,910 325 394 19,282 13,369 90 371 23,033 21,465 188 22,325 1,243 18 20,735 5,342 118 --------41,141:) 33,112 44,686 26,205 ----- ·- ------------------2,686 3,417 2,609 2,929 3,359 ----------------------826 1,003 589 2,418 1,196 920 863 2,979 3,960 1,149 392 5,501 _ 67,1. 73 106,844 144,185 389 12 278 2,732 2,048 501 5,281 90,453 1,083 1,461 318 637 2,4_16 50,727 327 1----1----- 67,562 106,856 144,463 91,536 51,054 1,000 25,900 7,020 4,450 10,486 9,353 9,309 ----- 8,640 311 15,149 186 25,060 282 25,0ll 626 I 40,460 611 ----__ ., ______ --------8,951 15,335 25,342 25,637 41,071 -----1---- - 1-------- - - - - - - • ll,95l 257 12,208 12,243 353 12,596 350 879 1,229 24,545 4 7,545 3,784 7,998 28,329 55,543 1----1-----1-----1----- ------7,406 8,078 12,423 15,857 6,019 8,476 10,862 12,3 87 ll_ ,737 10,922 ------ - ------1-----1------1------562,132 667,747 812,520 427,671 507,888 7,600 16,583 ] 2,487 10,260 59,186 -----1-----1------1----- - ---569,n2 684.,330 8· .J,O 7 437,93 1 567,074

. . '

- FooDSTUFFS .oF ANIMAL ORIGIN. Fish .... _ •.

Isinglass - . . . .

Meats; Poultry , &c. . .

Other Animal FoQdstu ffs ..

Tot.al

FoODSTUFFS OF VEGETABLE ORIGIN. Fodders .. Fruits=---

Dried ..

Fresh - ..

cntls.

Fruits and Vegeta blef!:-Preserved . • - ..

Gtain and Pulse-Unprep ared . .

Prepared-Rice Other.. . .

Pickles and Sauces - ..

Sago and Tapioca Spices-Ground . - ..

Ungrouna - ---

Starch Flours .

Vegetables ..

Other Vegetable J!.,oo cl_stuffs

(NON-ALCom)LICJ

AND SUBSTANCES USED IN MAKING • • . •

LIVE ANIMALS ..

•VEGETABLE Str:Bs'i'ANCEs AND FIBRES. - Kapok:. · . . _ lbs.

Other Vegetable Substances

total

APPAREL, TEXTILES, AND MANUFACTURED FIBRES. Apparel - . . . .

Textiles • • • •

Manufactured Fibres ..

Total

OILS, FATS, AND wAXES. Oils-Lubricating and Miheral gals.

R esid11al . . ;;

Wax-PMaffih . . los.

Other Oils, Fats, and Waxesf

Total

INDIA • RUBBER, LEATHER, AND MANUFACT URES

THEREOF, ETC •. i

WooD AND WICKER. Bam boo, clouded . .

Furniture . . . ..

Timber. . . . . .

Other Wood, &c., Manufa-c-factures . . . .

Total

D RUGS, CHEMIElAIJS, FERTILIZERS •.

- -MISCELLANEOUS.

AND

Miscellaneous Articles, includ­ ing Classes too small for specific enumeration . . .

Total Imports of _ Produc.e and ManUfactures of

Straits Settlements ..

'l'otal Imports direct from . Straits Settlements without regard to Country of Origin

1911.

564

2,856 - 617

115 911

82,698

/

ia ­

APPENDIX :a: -- · ,

STRAi-TS SETTLEMENTS. IMPORTS BY AUSTRALIA.-

1912. 1913. 1914-15.

199

2,133 - 1,888

-- 558 "- 608 I

48,053

2,407 223

. . . . / -42 329

85,571

179 9;821

790 931

19 .. 2,892

97,523 . , 84,6B8

25,158

843 417

270 995 152

97,478

T-

1912. .. 1914-:15. l!H5- 16.

£

246

-: 1,416 22 229

1,913

136 -

35 3541 - _ /

6,278

35 481

339

- - 67,919

£

102 2,058 4;

258

2,422

72

20 -

270

36 171

21-9

£

-. 95

1,584 20 304

2,003 _..

..

23 2·76

4,9791 < -90 407 19 . 396 57,284

£ £

39 - 44

1,789 - 1,689

3tl l2

. 155 153

2,003

.L

14,232 7,663

25 -' 12

124 197

.

938

3,840 631 1,345 -260 44,626

811

169 609 117 264

77,170

109 ' 5,583 - .. - 4,570 10,4p5 6

1,763,157 1,543 ,159 _1,833,049 i,737,906 1,761,758 "-. 49,099 153 49;447 389

59,670 201 1,137 3,283

329

6i,518 2,553 381 327 ,

1,073 - 1,234 -

46,347 61 ,635 38,248 68,992 . 432,430 308

. . . . . .• .. ' . . 851

. . . • . . . . . . 490

126,331 127,855 . 123,488 152,120

. . (-

199,8717

620 650

144,854

. . '

554

37,040

•

59,417

2,804 4,520

nl. I•

-

'··

193,453

.. '

7,257 275

.. '

'

I•

38,048

' ..

16,140 . 275

- ..

551

143

2,191

. 1,3751'- --2,971 863

5,209

17 16

1,613 155

1,801

_-

-626

28

49 612

661

1,398 995 167

2,560

15 400 /

182

597

1,083

42

1,824 1,829 '

3,653

1,286 1,439 911

3,636

712

1-5

4,999 149

5,148

979 1,287 996 --

3,262

151 423

104 16

747 356

1,002 795

241

27

1,006 1,635

2,641

1,473 1,694 729

3,896

1,173 16 .

24:556

25,745

28,113 21,720 -95,901 55,837 35,796 ..

11,111 410 1,658

449

13,628

81

3,897

9,224 458 2,785

104

12,571

216

·-

6,878

13,298 1,114 1,794

395

16,601

211

10,434 268 1,188

144

12,034

380

1- .

11,563 272 1,216

37

13,088

136

41470 7,069 10,028

189,343 . 174,911 256,457 190,721 265,657

6'41,202 690,875 715,232 787,384 965,352

' - - - - -

FooDSTUFFs ·oF ANIMAL

Butter and Substitutes lbs. Cheese . . . .

Fish-- .. ..

Meats-Bacon and Karns lbs. Preserved by cold process-Beef . . lbs.

Lamb -'-- . ,

Mutton ..

Pork .- ..

, Poultry and Game ..

.Rabbits and Hares ..

Other . . lbs.

Other ... _,_

Other Animal Foodstuffs

Total

/

:FooDSTUFFS oF V:EG.ETABLE - PRIQIN.

Biscuits .Fodders-

- lbs .._

Hay and Chaff cwt.

·other . . ,

Fruits-Fresh and Preserved Grain and Pulse- Oats . . . . cntls.

Bran, Pollard, and Sharps Flour- .. -

Jams and Jellies . . lbs.

Other Vegetable Foodstuffs

Total

ANIMALS, LiviNG.

Cattle . , -

Horses .• Sheep . ,

Other . ,

Total

No.

SPIRITS AND ALOOifOLIC LIQUORS

lrEGETABLE SQBSTANCES AND FIBRES.

Sandalwood cwt.

Otheir Vegetable Substances

Total

APPAREL, TEXTILEs, AND MANUFACTURED FIBRES

OILS, FATS, :AND w •.

STONES AND MINERALS UsED INDUSTRIALLY.

Coal ..

Coke . . ..

Other Stone, &c.

Total

SPECIE, GOLD

tons

..

-

27

APPENDIX

STRAIXS SETTLEMENTS-cQntinued.

ExPoRTS FROM AusTRALIA.

1911_ . 1912. 1913. 1914-15. 1915- 16. 1911.

569,865 - 645,680 699,604 435,275 386,788 8,604 16,524 16,312 38,392 38,503

-114,261 88,-102 111,358 141,352 88,456

1,646,590 1,781,187 2,053,514 2,260,578 1,411,876 158,074 tl93,493 222,422 320,012 212,150

687,005 799,338 - 706,361 748,152 - 537,733 105,399 143,693 57,896 11,536 ..

6,746 8,528 12,030 - 9,408 10,020

156,274 2f9,975 204,585 . 2f0,626 140,083

.. /

29,047 255 455 .

4,930

21,065 2,313 7,468 2,316 "1,656

555 2,220 1,859

..

35, 914 611 31§

3,881

20,141 3,238 10,149 3,295

2,342 7'32 3,556 2,404 1,150

•

,.. .

1913. 1914-15. 1915-16.

£

33,850 - 501

299

5,410

25,576 3,942 7,899 1,531 2,605 1,047

7;761 657

25,131 "1,337 185

7,290

33,447 6,651 11,902 252

1,582 826 4,093 3,725 36,693

£ .

26,234 1,916 422

5,233

28,040 5,413 13,300

961 727 3,682 996

578

77,701 -87,729 94,313 133,120

60,176 . 135,631

22,140 19,764

- 2,481 1,489

uno

440,716 13,116 19,519 .

176,661

- 1,180

. 891

432,492 H,505

- 88 133 - 42

481

14;09-9

13,783

131,029 10

410 436

22,495 29,171

2,390

113,376 23

17,835

155,393 111

122,057 - 179,583

10;277

_906 1,001 67,047 16,781

24

9,860

15,985

84,100

4,865 -

440 575

100,463 43,919

6

174 . 4,710

10,620

.47,272

932

4,169 1,971 1,949

788 677

179,001 243 599

2,097

5,016 . 923 2,895

623 422

133,054 315 1,414

2,664

3,500 430 '3,071

488 253

187,499 202 1,257

190,329 146,723 ·199,364

818

12,939

178

22,219

281

5,967 123

6,090

389

1,781

69,655 17

69,672

501,997

1,799 11,322 ll,082 106

344

11,614 11,082 589

24,309 . 29,341

74

1,034

1,097

- 882

1,989

62,005 23 50

62 ,078

227,292

263

5,931 27

5,958

1,197

2,934

81,771 109

81,880

100

2,323

707 2,707

. 348 310

32,998 ' 297

1,789

4,194

1,396 333 1,835

206 175

63,780 852 3,897

44,090 - 76,668

555

16,794 -- 8

6,422

77

9,854 - 8

9,862

449

2,425

44,751

-

100

5,895 16

6,299

244

6,410 42

6,452

575

1,795

25,206

4'4,751 25,206

..

• 28 -

STRAITS

ExPoRTS FROM AusTRALIA--continued. -

1913. 1914_ -15. 1915-16. 1 911. 1912. 1913. 1914-15. 1915-16.

1912. 1911.

£ _ £ £ £

METALS, UNMANUFACTURED, AND ORES.

Concentrates-Tin cwt. Ores-Copper . . ,

Tin .. ,:

Other 1\;(anufactured Metals

Total

MACHINERY AND OTHER - MANUFACTURES OF METAL.

Implel!lents, AgriQulturaJ, &c ... .;

Machinery-Mining ..

·other - ..

Metals-Manufactures of ..

Total

AND WIOKER, RAw

AND MANUFACT,URED.

Timber-Dressed - sup. ft.

Undressed; m-

cluding Logs ...- ,

Other Wood and Wicker ..

Total

JEWELLERY, TIME PIECES, ANh F A,..NCY Goons ..

AND CHEMICALS .•

MISCELLANEOUS.

Leather . . . . .

Soap . . -.. lbs.

Other Articles, including Classes too small for

r·_ -special enu_ meration ..

Australian Produce Other Prgd11ce ..

Total ... ..

r

3,617

49,590

87,829

51 ,586

.. '

3,124

60,556 .

80,947

I·,

r

6,141

932 .

71 ,443

447

38,808

2,259

16;748

'

1 ....

43,540

9,510

714;951 1,247,783 - 1,063,677 2,028,435 1,040,688

£

19,327

277,961 129

18;602

387,524 793

37,172

6,990 447,875 1,766 179,962

36,709 239,457 1,705

' 297,417 40!),919 493,803 218,496 2.41,162

(

2-,553 12,053 2,243

349 - 851 590

11,445 35,131

11,633 / 9,961 14,178

3,419 3,932 ' 4,665

337

45,366 6,480 6,483

-------1--------1--------

18.,529 15,401 26,189 54,564

1,122

380 222

1,724 .

159

2,385

506 13

'519

25

1,551

4;888 ' - 10,903 5,005

4,692 21,412

1,184,899 20,359 980,020 37,315

478 2

480

621

1,668

- 8,914

7,553

4,183

954,007 4,754

.. <-

19

129 42

190

26

2,084

7,919 13,764

3,475

534,869 6,845

58,666

100 35

135

12

2,230

17,432 7,892

4,070

527,378 8,962

1,205,258 1,017;335 958,761 541,714 536,340

1 091

APPENDIX C.

TRADE.

OF _Y ALUE OF FoREIGN IMPORTS INT o AND ExPORTS FROM THE CoLONY oF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTs

IN 1914 AND 1915 (COMPILED AT SINGAPORE.)

Imports. -

Singapore. Penang.

I'

dollars., · dollars.

A:-Live Animals, Food, brinks, and Narcotics-Total . . . . { 1914 ll6,109,993

- 1915 !29,688,744

35,673;639 34,082,725

B.-Raw Ma.terial8--­ (aTextile

(b) Me'tal -

(c) Other

Total

C.-Manufactured Articles- " (a) Textile

(b) Metal ·

(cJ Other

Total

and Partly

{

1914. 1915

{

1914

{

1914 -1915

797,060 67·3,864

40,388,951 54,852,800

59,342,512 80,285,982

10,200 41,476

41,177,956 33,514,216

ll,410,071 19,270,419

{

1914 100,528,523 52,598,227 1915 135,812,646 . . 52,826,111

Manufactured

/

{

1914 1915

{ . 1914 1915

{

1914 1915

{

1914 1915

27,203,036 27,314,024

9,911,492 10,329,610

14,118,83.5 16,868,110

51,233,362 54,5ll,744

7,265,370 7,837,558

3,289,2ll 2,555,703

5,017,998 5,334,392

15,572,579 15,727,653

Total Value of { 1914 267,871,879 103,844,445-

-' 1915 320,013,134 102,636,489

D.-Cointa.ndi.Bullion-.::...

{

1914 1915

12,558,122 7,104,828 2,895,081 . 3,594,726

Grand Total Value of Imports { 1914 280,430,001 106,739,526 1915 327,117,962 106,231,215

Malacca.

dollars.

348,5j0 325,678

:-- 120

45

2,732,649 2,457,710

2,732,769 2,457,755

24,346 8,099

189,359 154,410

138,347 215,953

352,052 378,462

3,433,381 3,161,895

3,433,381 3,161,895

Gross Imports.

Dollars.

Total Value of Imports into the Colony 6f the Straits { 1914 391,373,123 Settlements- 1915 437,460,157

Increase 46,087,634

£

45,660,197 51,037,088

5,376,891

Labuan.

dollars.

ll7,MO 140,717

130 500

_505,136 604,057

505,266 604,557

690 217

Christmas · Island.

dollars.

685

91

792

160

Total.

dollars.

152,249,752

807,510 715,976

81,566,907 88,367,016

73,990,368 102,618,960

156,364,785 191,701,952

34,693,442 35,160,058

430 105

131,000 - 13,521,492 176,536 13,216,364

2,913 4,955

5,033 5,277

626,859 750,551

12,356 18,013

639,215 768,564

2,857

131,000 179,5l53

131,000 181,121

131,000 181,121

19,287,093 22,426,267

67,293,027 70,802,689

375,907,564 426,743,190

15,465,559 10,717,567

391,373,123 437,460,757

Merchandise.

Dollars. 375,907,564 426,743,190

50,835,626

£

43,855,882 49,786,706

5,930,824

·so 7

-

TRAD E--:-continued.

STATEMENTS o ·l!., V AT .. UE OF FoREJGN IMP ORTS INTO. AND ExPORTS THE CoLONY OF THE STRAITS E1:C.'--60ntinuefl - -

-

A_.-Liv:e At1imals, Food, Drinks, and Narcotics.

. . , • . .

B.-Raw MateriuJs­ (a) Textile

{ .

1914 1915

Sin gapore,

dollars.

86,264,530

. 664,937 586,213

Expryrts.

Pcnang. I• · 1\:t:alacca.

>

I

-

dollars.

30,771,001 29,320,468

'-

1,724 3,S97

. '

do )Jars.

447,372 -592,830

410

• . { ' 41 ,344,224 44,857,281

- 1915 55,_?77,624 ' 36,763,210

(c) Otl?-er

-

Tqtal

{

1914 1915 '

.. . { 1914

1915

C.-Manufactured and Partly Manufactuted ' ArticJles- -

(a) Textiles . . , •

(b/ Metal

(cJ, Other

Tota.1 ..

{

1914 1915

{

1914 1915

{

1914 1915

. . - {1914

1915

Total Vahte of Merchandise {

1914 1915

60,112,396 12,642,436 I 0, 780,909 89,903,089 · 1 6,132,930 - 15,291,230

102,121,557 146,166,926

1.Q ,407,948' 19,262-;546

4,380,968 6,473,90S

7,806,910 10,8715,804 .

25,5{)5,S26 36,612,258 .

213,9$1,913 287,398,274

57,50(441 52,900,0'37

3,244,2l5 4,6S3,820 /

1,27S,498

5,!J01,1i1 /),636,240

9,GOO,M7 11,598,558

97,873,089 93,819,063

10,781,319 15,291,230 '

11;290 - '23,477

85;191 95,115

202,296 215,668

11,430,987_ 1 f?,099,

·-

•

dollars.

151,985

314,453 342,614

314,453 342,614

53,403 58,909

6,834 10,454

14,222 29,800

74,459 99,163

540,897 630,596

' j-

Christmas Island .

dollars.

2,162,000 584,617

.

1'otal.

dollars.

1,634,888 134,721,207

667,071 590,110

86;201,505 92,440,834

86,012,194 122,254,480

2,162,000 172,880,770 584,617 ' 2_15,285,424

r.·

-

2,162,000 584,617

-;·

16,717,856 24,028,752

5,542,338 7,859,936

13,214,034 16,636,959

35,473,228 48;525,647

325,988,886 398,532,278

___ ·_-_ .. _ . _ . __ , _________

r -

Bullion

Grand Total Value of Exports

{

1914 1915

{

1914 1-915

6,S53,947 -1,282,727 4,373,865 - 1,021,679

220,S35,S60 291,712,139 99,155,816 94,840,742

/ .

460

ll 1431,447 16,0{}9,728 l

Gross Imports.

Totai Value of from the Colony of the Straits

in _ ... ' . . : . _ ..

...... '

Dollars.

{

HH4 334,126,020 1915 403,927,822

89,801,802

£

38,981,369 47,124,913

8,143,544

540,897 630,596

'

2,162,000 584,617

8,137,134 5,395,544

334,126,020 403,927,822

Merchandise.

Dollars. 325,9S8,S86 398,532,278

72,543,392

£

38,032,037 46,495,433

8,463,396

1093.

31 '

APPENDIX 0-continued ..

TRADE.

STATEMENT SHOWING :!REVALUE OF THE IMPORTS AND ExPORTs , ACCORDING To CLASSES oF EACH oF THE SETTLEMENTS, INTO AND FROM THE UNITE:Q KiNGDOM, BRITISH PossESSIONS, AND PROTECTORATES AND FoREIGN CouNTRIES RESPECTIVELY IN 1915, 'AND THE TOTAL OF THE CoLONY FOR 1914 AND 1915. ' - . .

-

-

'

-

A."-Live Animals, ' Food, Di'inks, and Narcotios­ pnited Kingdom . . British Possessions Foraign Countries

'

. ' ·singapore. -dollars.

5,275,516

93,307_,669

,

Penailg. 1\'fali\cca.

dollars. --

. Imports Into. -- .

'

1,886,254 16,922

_?3,108,424 122,661

9,008,047 186,095

- .. -·-· - - - ·-

Total of A ...

;B.-=-Raw Materials (Textile, "Metal, . and Other)-Ynited Kingdom .. .

British Possessio:as Foreign Gountries

Total of B ..

c.-'-Manufactuted and PaTtly

Manufactured Articles· . and Other ) ...2.

· Umted . . . .

British Possessions Fbreign Coufitties

Total of C ..

D.-Coin and :Bullion-'-'­ lJnited Kingdo:tn .. :British Possessions Foreign Courltties . - __

T

A, :B, C, D-United Kingdom . . British Possessions Foreign Countries ..

Grand Total .in Sterling £

Animals, Food, Di·inks,

and Narcotics- -

United Kingdom -----: . -· .. British Possessions .. Foreign Countries .. / J Total of A .. .. B.-Raw Matetialsi (Textile, Met al, _ and Other)-United Kingdom .. ,/ .. British Possessions .. ...._ Foreign Countries .. _Total of B / .. .. -C.-Miinufactuted and Partly Manufactured - ·Articles (Te:ttil_ e, Meta.I, and United Kingdom . . . . British PosseSsions .. Foreign Countries . , ' Tbtai df C ... .. - / D.-Coin and ;Bullion-United Kingdom .. .. British Possessions ... Foreign Countries .. Total of D .. .. A, B, C, D- _ United Kingdom -. .. .. British Possessions .. Foreign Copntries .. '. Grand Total in Dollars .. Grand Total in £

129,688,744 - - "..._ -

- ' 455,894_ 90,798,739 44,558,013 135,812,646 - - --22,134:333 11,431,001 20,946,410 54,51] '7_44 283,963 5,(J29,214 -1,191,651 - --7,104,828/ 28)49,700 - 160,003,743 ·- 38,163,762 8,761,879 50,432,358 --104,619,090 - . I 27,886,549 9,526,893 108,753,484 -146,166,926 807;519 12,75$,426 .. -- - -37,895 2,090,650 2,245,320 4,37'3,865 / 37,493,842 74,808,327 179,469,970 291,772,139 34,040,083 34,082,725 325,678

-

-

-

-

166,194 2,994

38,214,583 - 2,000,7"48 14,445,334 454,Q13 .

52,826,111 2,457,755

6;463,780 108,351

- 4,718,498 44,577 4,5f5,375 225,534 15,727,653 378,462

•. .. -

- 75,436 ..

3,519,240 ..

50 ..

- -- .- . . .

3,594,726 -

..

· 8;M1,664 128,267 -

. 69,560,745 2;167,9.86 28,078,806 865_,_642

12,393,64J 368;888

.. . --

Exports Prom. /

15,987

' 534,158

9,92(}_,448 42,685

..

29,320,468 592,830

J

24,982,066 ).2,160,838 4,285,149 206,091

23,632,822 2,924,301

52,900,037 15,291,230

-

62,086 1,276

6,849,927 135,420

4,868,545

11,598,558 215,668

---

. .. .. 732,841 .. 288,838 .. i,021,679 .. 26,718,549 12,178,101 29,590,540 - 875,669 38,531,653 3,045,958 - -· - .. 94,840,742 16,099,728• ll,064,753 1,878,302

'

Christmas _ Labuan. ·Total 1915. Tp tal 1914 . Isl and. - . d'ollars. dollars. dollars. dollars. 651 685 7,180,022 _6,848,952

137,914 - .. 54;474,564 54·,437,213

' 2,152 .. 102,583 ,587 - 90,963,587

140,717 - 685 164,238,549

- ··

'

152;249, 7 52

-

.. 792 625,874 1,037,249

603,752 .. 131 ,617,822 102,235,842

805 91 . 59,458,256 53,091,694

604,557 -883 191,701,952 146,166,926

/

...

402 27,373 28,734,239 31,643,961

4,804 . lli 16,198,880 13,638,549

71 152,180 25,869,570 - 22,010,517

-

5,277 179,553 70,802,689 67,293,027

-

.. .. 359,399 - 2,240,258

18,013 -

.. 9,166,467 I 11,213,202

.. . . 1,191,701 2,012,099

·-

18,013 ..

-10,717,567 15,465,559

-

1,053 28,850 36,899,534 41,901,420

764,483_ 211,457,733 181,393,806

3,028 ' 152,271 189,103,490 168,077,897

89,666 21,131 51,037,088 45,660,198

.. . . 10,452,263 7,248,162

188,819 .. 68,877,958 64,1524,385

.. . . 55,390,986 45,862,341

188!819 .. 134,721,207 117,634,888

.. -

. -

] 77,506 65,206,959 77,854,909

36,742 584,617 14,639,492 12,083,300

128,366 .. 135;438,973 82-,942,561

. ..

342,614 584,617 215,285,424 172,880,770

.. .. 870,881 398,518

99,163 .. 19,842,936 16,187,532

.. .. 27,811,830 18,187,178

-

99,163 .. 48,525,647 35,473,228

. . .. 37,895 3,405

.. . . 2,823,491 4,609,798

. . . . 2,534,158 3,523,931

. . .. 5,395,544

177,506 .. 76,979,008 85,504,994

324,724 584,617 106,183,877 97,157,015

128,366 .. 221 ,175,947 151 ,464,0ll

630,596 584,617 403,927,822 334,126,020

73,570 68,205 47,124,,913 I 38,981,369

'

32 '

APPENDIX 0----cotttinu;_a,,

TRADE-

AvERAGE GRoss ANNUAL VAI.UE oF SINGAPORE IMPORTS FROM AND ExPORTS TO EACH CouNTRY, INCLUDING THE OTHER. SETTLEMENTS DURING THE FIVE YEARS 1908 TO 1912, AND THE GROSS VALUE OF SAME IN 1913, 1914,

AND 1915.

Countrlee.

-,

I

BRITISH EMPIRE AND \ PROTECTORATES.

Europe.

United Kingdom Gibraltar ..

Malta

Asia.

Aden

Borneo.

British North Borneo Brunei ..

Sarawak ..

British India.

' Bombay and Malabar Coast -.. Calcutta . . . . . .

Burma - . . . .

Madras and Coromandel Coast .. Ceylon . . . .. . .

Hong Kong . . .. ..

Malay Penins ula. Kedah . .

Johore ..

Kelantan .. / ..

• Negri Sembilan Pahang .. - ..

Perak ..

Selangor ..

Trengganu -.. Canada ..

Australia ..

New Zealand Mauritius . . . .

Union of South Africa

Imports.

ADnual Average 1908-1912 (,000

omitted).

1913. 1914. 1915.

Annual Average 1908-1912 (,000

omitted). ---------1--------1---------1 ----

dollars. dollars. dollars. dollars. dollars.

Exporte.

_1913. 19U. 1916.

dollars. ' dollars. dollars.

30,576 3

39,431,729 31,990,278 28,149,700 616 40,408,816 100

41,079,716 37,493,842

- 3,613 - 1,267 14,833 - / 510

397

67

675

4,866

3,851 . 14-,315 8,204 2,795

461

21,629

95,594

1,044,657 40

4,018,391

5,294,677 10,333,832 10,135,834 4,348,664

421,816' 28,851,040

55,109

1,054,900

3,694,652

2,878,613 5,278,144 4,181,544 2,757,463

243,535 20,221,498

. 141,307

1,017,207

3,631,889 7,521,277 3,255,185 3,879,845

373,953 20,426,144

125

2,001 1

3,723

2,324 5,409 4,339 1,144 2,127

7,321

204,345

2,527,294 ,5,477 3,243,032

2,564,027 7,903,097 6,858,462 1,568,0ll 3,319,650 7,916,781

' 127,263

5,328

2,883,422

2,838,768 4,094,536 3,423,843 1,184,080

5,614,283 4,813,932 /

6,281 29,932 936 12 - 4,256 3,714

8,805 9,488,196 10,923,744 17,658,406 5,030 5,752,435 5,!534,616

1,610 1,836,759 2,018,365 1,934,128 1,437 2,590,056 2,047,825

4,759 2,790,548 2,442,689 4,472,199 3,239 4,409,889 _3,030,482

2,670 3,618,262 3,877,296 3,864,989 1,800 2,653,483 2,654,652

8,552 19,211,071 16,634,042 30,402,036 7,677 9,989,885 8,045,588

18,081 22,373,939 16,947,514 26,210,117 14,806 16,348,935 13,408,509 1,603 1,970,691 1,962,772 1,989,372 806 1,217 ,692 1,242,410

46 141, 170 . 133,446 181,693 407 742,490 1,102,705

7,791 8,815,467 7,092,063 4,0,99,388 1,669 1,006,499 1,001,757

1 60 358 . . 421 227,281 280,060

3 650 8,702 5,325 81 68,852 142,036

507 3,301,273 2,865,145 2,123;517 19 40,574 29,746

123,613

2,014,754 4,919 2,327,060

3,397,219 5,858,406 2,602,470 2,062,296

6,269,364 6,056,230

11,685 7,097,234 1,296,760 3,689,396 2,545,697 9,644,139 14,326,402

1,266,654 1,865,510 1,303,742 348,322

133,783 85,743 466,022

Egypt .. ..

Other British Possessions

Se e Foreign Co untries. 230,928 - Se e Foreign Con ntries.

..

______ 3_,5_5_0_

1

_______ 9_0_

1

_______ 3_50_

1

_____ 2_7_

1

______ 4,_64_9_ 1 _______ 1_5_0_1 ____ ·_· __ __

.. 142,181 177,537,804 137,293·,161 167,114,219 101,806 121,576,068 106,597,136 112,302,169 Total

FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

Europe.

Austria-Hungary Belgium ..

Denmark ..

France ..

Germany ..

Italy - ..

Netherlands Norway - ..

Russia (eee Russia in Aeia) Spain . . . .

Sweden . . . .

Turkey . . . .

Asia.

Arabia ..

Ohgina ..

1: ypt (Mrica)

French India

French Indo-China. -Colony . . . .

Protectorate ..

German New Guinea .. Japan .. ..

994 1,737 115 1,575 3,93ij 2,056

1,695 See Sweden. 26

95 154 80

114 6,923 578

706

- 8,827 543 5 7,469

1,275,281 2,523,689 436,240 2,093,271 5,333,014 4,223,955

2,719,243 152,922

38,868 82,299 157,807 47,952

•151 ,582 9,898,147 2,944,583

1,026,326

14,059,590 824,916 7,092 11,503,026

674,761 1,356,417 231,871 3,452,068 2,473,541 3,652,278 2,294,787

647,558

82,707 55,498 100,633 13,628

•

54,332 8,421,227 / 477,991

614,811

..--}5,372,428

812,184 7,264

10,670,842

/ 150

11,053 44'6,107 2,431,000 197,908

2,292,821 900,582

92,736 215,644

34,600 9,578,386 See British Empire and Pro tectora tea

1,17Q, 724

17,915,630 584,849

12,753,575

2,137 2,400. 1,012 8,058 8,162 2,099

1,448 See Sweden. 3,920

627 386 15

92

3,339 385

291

1,732 133 69 3,875

2,158,207 1,137,942 1,433,116 10,262,665 12,600,447

2,107,386 683,651 4,718

4,389,616 478,091 11,525 6,589

124,085 2,607,967 297,626

482,404

2,842,405 96,518 110,936 5,005,658

913,460 2,527,243 1,724,747 7,699,032 9,601,391

1,902,884 701,480 12,175

2,277,657 676,637 5,721 2,924

165,056 2,100,293 160,156

467,855

2,106,915 76,212 63,598 3,213,987

1,755,931 12,514,933

3,558,398 125,264 23,170

See 506,783

28,450 2,616,034 See British Empire and ·Protectorat es

650,651

2,778,587 146,518

6,052,426

·1095

33

APPENDIX C-continued.

/ TRADE-continued.

AvERAGE GRoss ANNUAL VALUE - OF SINGAPORE IMPORTS FROM AND ExPORTS TO EACH CouNTRY, ETc. - continued.

Exports.

._ , Annual •

Imports.

Countries.

Netherlands India. Acheen . . . .

Bali and Lombok ..

Borneo . . . .

Celebes . . . .

Java - .. . .

Mol uccas . . . .

Annual AYerage 1908- 1912 (,000

omitted).

dollars.

- 21

2,793 10,425 3,543 12,406

See Celebes

1913.

dollars.

18,258 3,288,58..9 -13,604,488 2,205,034 18,257,472

1,230,681

Natunas and Anambas Islands 1 596 2 047 810

. . { } 3:512:756 Riow and Lingga Archipelago Sumatra, East Coast .. . . Dutch 10,988,880

Islands

Sumatra, West Coast . . 10,877 988,582

Other Dutch I slands . . . . 6,850 4,344,297

Portuguese India . . . . 1 7,160

Persia . . . . . . 27 335,166

Philippine Islands and Sulu Archi-pelago . . . . . .

Russia in Asia . . . .

Siarn.

Siam, Proper ..

East Coast of Peninsula West Coast of Peninsula

Turkey

United States of Am£rica. Atlantic Coast ..

Pacific Coast ..

Other Foreign Countries

Total

1,249 See Russia.

23,646 3,480

25

3,267 415 31

1,837,866 7,520

30,962,009 4,456,219 17

ll ,750

5,502,404 445,901 600

163,553,252

Average

1914. 1915 . 1908-1912 1913. 1914.

dollars.

7,164

2,210,786 10,185,982 1,676,580 13,837,740

795,172

(,000 omitted) . •

·_.dollars. j dollars.

234,043 1,681,439 9,960,911 1,511,889 17,571 ,089

722,912

194 1,126 5,240 3,536 12,357

See

Celebes

2,231 ,810" ' 1,502,471 505

3,496,789 10,073,728

693,50'1 4,786,608 3,017 136,558

1,540,987

32,587,682 2,824,650 6,225,

5,040

4,135,715 342,424 1,850

4,129,632 12,509,529

1,820,4.84 8,425,955 948 61,800

1,547,784 - . 31,700

{

See } other Dutch Islands 8,879

3,849 232 4

1,512 See Russia.

36,441,648 9,658 3,707,391 • 1,068

5,101,490 846,441 600

90

20,592 2,432 22

dollars.

- 82,602

1,146,072 5,764,984 3,038,000 14,708,619.

581,529

604,397

1,544,526 9,394,402

638, 552 2,720,133 35,226 36,109

1,604,000 78,326

7,920,277 1,478,198 255,222

181,162

dollars.

120,133 759,845 277,257 2,451,469 13,252,891

553,902

506,942

1,512,578 9,827,905

535,356 3,125,360 11,958 65,263

1,508,948 390,168

8,17 5,543 ).,137,330 . 18,536

127,441

31,509,449 ' 24,516,100 2,388,476 3,673,000 129,922 201 ,376

143,136,840 160,003,734 U1,470 '132,678,735 114,23 8, 724

1915

dollars.

276,913 646,379 . 6,630,938 3,234,282

18,728,176 820,<174

501,263

1,963,726 13,458,774

779,509 3,638,444 24,867 83,661

1,272,249 .8,620,409

9,910,475 1,356,587 78,945

59,846,249 16,785,998 54,6()7

179,469,970 ll8,280 -- . - - -------1-----1----------- ------1----- 1 - - - --INTER-PORT. Malacca · Penang - . . • Labuan . . Christmas Island Dindings .. Total 4,040 2,744 493 2-4 356 010 3:646:982 570,537 2,397 5,213,586 3,671,339 395,078-2,796 10,273,013 7,290,224 601,376 52,863 4,666 4,847 899 177 7,200,254 9,829,347 855,917 214,267 6,521,606 8,281,390 661,333 199,076 7,716,409 8,071,207 782,810 191,161 503 ·----1-- --- l-----l---;c-----l-----l-----+-- --·1--- -- 7,27 9 8,575,926 9,282,799 18,217,476 ll,589 18,099,785 15,663,405 Grand Total . . 267,740 349,666,982 289,712,800 345,335,438 224,864 272,354,588 236,499,265 Gross increase 55,622,638 Gross increase 72,034,964 Grand Total, excluding Trea·sure . . dollars 252,563 328,267 ,098 277, 11 9,560 338,173,265 211,835 256,153,8431 228,329,980 303,860,454 Grand Tota l, excluding Treasure . . £ 29,465 38,297,828 32,330,615 39,453,547 24,714 29,884,615 26,638,498 35,450,386

/

34

APPENDIX D.

FEDERATED M-;1LAY STAT;Jj)S.

SuM:MAIW OF V .AI;UE OF IMPORTS. - . . -

/ '

(From Manual of-Btatistics, published at Kuala Lumpur, 1916.)

. .

I Negri . - Perak. Sela.n,gor. ·Pahang. --

- (iollars. dollf).rs. dolJars. doj)ars.

Live Animals, Foods, Drinks, and

17,1815 ,372 iiiqs . . . . . . .. 15,782,127 3,127,052 1,223,855

w Materials .. . . - .. 2,853,676 2,434:,341 434,042 216,348

Man)lfactured Articles . . . . 5,098,447 ' 9,590,502 873,610 945,596

Sundries . . . . . . .. 111,7156 15,981 28;692 ' 94,538

- -

Total Value of Merchandise .. 23,846,006 29,226,196 4,463,396 2,480,337 Bullion and Specie ' 165,225 452,444 3,000 706,485 . . . . - .

Gross Total Value of Imports ., 24,0ll,231 29,678,640 4,460,396 3,186,822

- . . -

SuMMARY OF V OF ExPORTS •

.. ..

' - !'lelal)gor. Pahang. - - Perak. Negri Sembilan.

- -' < - - dollars. dollars. - aol!ars. dollars.· Live Arumals, Foods, Drinks, and Narco- , tics . . .. . . . . 610,950 135,739 274,689 Raw Materials .. . . . \ . 73,039,604 59,695 ,628 18,986,123 6,334,033 Manufactured Articles .. . . - 834,944 139,169 15,674 Sundries - -848 llO 8,435 250 ' . . . . . .. - .. - -Total Value of -· 74;802,374 6,624,646 .. 61,,1 :!1,632 19,269,466 Bullion and Specie . . .. 840 . . 4,869 585,427_ Gross Total Valu.e of . . 74,803,214 61 ,141,632 19,274,335 7,210,073 . -. ,..

,

.

Total.

dollars.

37,318,406 5,938,407 - 16,508,155 250,967

60,01'5,935 1,327,154

.61,343,089

Total.

• dollars. -2,316,682 158,055,388

1,456,405 9,643

161,838,l18 - 5'91,136

.

35

APPENDIX D-continued. ' '

· TRADE

QuANTITIES OF _THE PRINCIP AL ARTICLES oF IMPORT. -,, - - / ----- ' - Selangor. Negri -. - How Counted. Perak. Pahang. Total. - - Serpbilan. - -" - - Arrack and Samsu ... GaU_ orfs . . 86,633 8,582 8,300 216,967 Beans and Peas ' Pikuls - 48,040 29,858 8,728 --2,081 - 88,707 . . . . . . Beer and Stout - D_gz. pts. - ' 24,517 296,756 38,816 9,758 369,847 .. . . . . Bran - Pikuls 184,174 250,324 42,681 13,652 490,831 . . . . . . "' · . Brandy ' Cases 7,499 22,719 1,529 1,848 33,595 . . .. - . . . . .. Cement .. . . . . Casks . . . 19,461 40,395 3,381 6,877 70,114 Cattle . . .. - . . No. . . ; 4,364 . 3,352 320 342 8,378 Coal - Tons - 20 ,122 6,868 . . . . . . -? .. . 51 60 27,101 Coconut Oi l / . . . . Pikuls . . 13,076 2,277 1,073 - 807 17,233 Cotton Piece Goods Pieces 293,885 305,359 65 ,227 35,988. 700,459 . . . . ... Dynamite .. . . Cases . . 1,025 1,653 . . 1,260 3,938 - Fish, dried and· salted - Pikuls 26,606 17,777 ' 6,588 939 - -.. 51,880 Flour; Wlle·at .. .. '.;.. Bags . . 183,005 - 151 ,894 9,490 1,051 345,446 Gin . . .. . . Cases - . . 2,668 5,061 429 334 8,492 Ghee . . .. . .. Pikuls - . . 1,965 2,318 408 95 4,786 Ground N uts. - - - 10 ,028 8,691 2,343 1,076 ·22,138 .. . .. , ' . . Hides, tanned - .. . ·- , . .. ' 339 572 131. 88 1,180 Horses and Ponies .. . . No . · ... . . 2 18 . . . . 20 Iron Barand Nail Rod . . Cwts. .. 5,578 6,713 52 26 12,369 Iron, corrugated . . .. , . . 10,860 25,884 545 150 37,439 Iron Nails ' . . . . , - .· . ·12,347 23,826 1,210 721 38,104 Kachang Oil . . . . Pikuls .. . . 28,231 20,656 3,185 1,848 53,893 Lard - - 3,246 2,371 1,140 82 6,839 . . . . . . , Liquid Fuel Tons l 1,332 - 1,236 76 2,124 4,768 - .. . . - '·. Lub.t;icating Oil • . . - .. Gallons . . 195,958 224,934 13,086 25 454,003 Manure, .Oil Cakes ... - . . Pikuls . . . 2,815 . 2,204 49 .. ' !;1,068 Matches -· .. . . . . ·cases 3,_174 1,069 425 9,511 Milk . 7: - . . . . , - . . 62,062 14,184 3,467 130,539 Onions and - )'ikuls 23,311 19,973 5,221 2,113 50 ,618 . . . . .. Opium, chandu . . . . Taels .. . . 1,842,706 . . 47,118 1,889,824 Padi 1 • . . . . Pikuls .. 23,470 12,574 . 2,010 ' 2,622 40 ,676 Petroleum Tins . 628,272 - 428,433 . 62,551 36,878 1,157,134 . . . . .. - Pigs . - No. . 28,903 10,528 2,839 942 43,212 . . . . - Rice - . . . . Pikuls .. 1,382,.525 1,330,524 316,507 97,188 3,126,744 . . Salt . . - .. . . ·" .. 15,975 67 ,742 10,137 30,898 184,752 Soap and Soda --- 10,50] 19,226 1,917 934 32,584 . . , .. S'arongs . . . . . . Corges - .. 10,106 9,538 940 5,530 26 ,114 Ste·el . . . . . . Cwts. . . 14,095 39,572 2 5 53,674 Sugar- - Pikuls 110,212 56,235 15,524 6,326 188,387 . . . . . . . . Sheep and -Goats . . . . No. .. 3,235 10,245 215 3 13,698 . - - Tea - Pikuls 13,551 8,907 1,700 891 25,049 . . . . . . .. Tobacco - . . 21,215 18,091 3,877 1,154 44,337 . . .. . . , Whisky . . . . . . Cases .. 8,293 20,116 903 636 29,948 Wines - 2,097 5,659 111 262 8,129 .. . _, .. , .. Woollen Cloth Pieces - 222 744 . 41 152 1,159 . . . . . . . . - - . .. P r inted and Published for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMON:\VEALTH of AUSTRALI.A by ALBERT J · MULLET!, Government Printer for the - State of Victoria. ;/

1097

' L

/

I "

/

I

'

/

,

'

•

/

•