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Basic Wage Royal Commission - Report, together with Memoranda by Commissioners Piddington, Keep and Gilfillan


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i920.

THE P.ARLIAJfENT _ OF TfiE C01 VlNfONWE1\L'fH-OF

J '

·-

. OJ<' THE

;'

ROYAL COMMISSION

ON THE

BASIC WAGE; \ '

,ALSO A MEMORANDUM BY MR. PIDDINGTON, AND ·A

I l\iEl\1:0RANDUM BY .MR. COMMISSIONER KEEP. AND MR.

GILFILLAN I.N CONNEXION

WITH THE MATTER.

P1·es_ ented by Command, 23rd November, 1920 ; ordered to be printed, 26th N.ovemJ berr, 1920 .

. \ !Co st of Paper :-Preparation not given ; 1, 925 copies ; approximate ·cost of printing and pttblls.hlng, £1'00 .]

.h•inted and .Published for the GOVERNMENT of the · CoMMONWEALTH of .Au STl:tALIA h :¥ ALBERT j. MuttE'l'1', Government Printer for the State of Victoria. ·

No. 80.-F.17723.-PRICE, 2s. 3n.

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RoYAL CoMlV!ISSION-LETTERfl PATENT (3)

INTRODUCTORY-Origin of the Commission Previous History of the Subject

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Origin and Method of Adjustment of the Basic VVage .. The Need for a Review of the Position Analysis of the Harvester Decision .. Adjustment of the (Harvester) Basic Wage Criticism of the Fairness of the Basic Wage Sittings of the Commission

Questions as to the Humblest Worker and as to' Separate Findings for the component mem-bers of the Typical '

Decision as to Class of Worker What are Reasonable Standards of ..

Household Budgets The Cities visited Basic Wage for Country Towns The Claims of the Federated Uniop.s Counter Claim

DivisiON I.-THE PRESENT CosT oF LiviNG To REAsoNABLE STANDARDs oF AND THE BASIC WAGE-

SECTION I.-RENT­

General Owner Occupiers Rent of the Commission's Finding Melbourne Evidence Personal Inspection Evidence as to other Cities Housing Problem and the Stabilization of Rent

SECTION !I.-CLOTHING-General Ages of the Three Children Nature of the Evidence Interwoven Questions Trade Witnesses Household Witnesses

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Sydney Brisbane ..

Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart .. Men's and Boys' Clothing Women's and Girls' Clothing Method adopted for ascertaining the Cost of necessary Clothing, Tentative Regimen

The. Standard Total and Detailed Cost of Clothing in Melbourne Indicator' List of Clothing Sales and Saving by &c.

The Counter Claim in Melbourne

SECTION III._:_ Foon- , Method of Determining Cost of Food for the Typical Family , Factors in Betermining the Food Total r

Calories for the Man-unit /

' Standards ascertaineq by Investigators Pre-war \Investigators · . .

. . . . . .

Opinions of Scientific Writers as to Calories per Man-unit Oral Evidence for the new Standard suggested by the Unions Physiological Balance Finding as to Calories per man ' Co-efficients Finding as to Co-efficients . . . . . . . . . .

Indicator List used to ascertain the Cost of Living with regard to Food Indicator List-Food-Weekly Consumption ,

Cost of Food in Indicator List Indicator List-Food1

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btvtstoN . I.-THE PRESENT CosT OF L i viNG AccoRDING To REASONABLE STANDAR:bs o:F CoMFORT ' AND THE BAsiC WAGE-continued. ·

SECTION

Life Assurance Unemployment Insurance Old-age Annuity .

Variation of Basic Wage according to the World's Production 'Church and Charity Alcoholic and " Soft " Beverages Domestic Assistance

Tuition in Music and Art Miscellaneous Items included-( I) Fuel -and Lighting (2) Groceries, other than Food ..

(3) Renewal of Brush ware, &c. · (4) Renewal o'f Household Drapery (5) Renewal of Crockery, Glassware, &c. (6) Union and Lodge Dues (7) Medicine and (8) Recreation, and Library

(9) Fares (lD) Scho9l Requisites ' Indicator List-Miscellaneous Items Weekl.Y Cost ,, ,

·DIVISION II.- THE CoRRESPONDING CosT. oF LIVING IN 1914-1920-Rent · Clothing Food and Groceries

Miscellaneous Items Total Cost of Living, 1914 .. Conclusion Observations as to the Basic Wage in 1914

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Drvrs!ON IlL-Au ToMATIC · ADJUSTMENT o:F THE . BAsiC WAdE

Method of Adjustment Length of Intervaf for of the Basic Wage . .

SuMMARY

FINDINGS ...

. WoRl<: OF SEcRETARY AND STATISTICIAN

MINORITY . •

PROTEST BY CHAIRMAN

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, ; Appendix _I.-Claims of Federated Unions Appendix !I.-Employers' Counter Claim ..

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Appendix by Commission on Professor Osborne's Evidence

by Professor Osborne . . ·

MEMORA_NDUM by MR. CoMMISSIONER PIDDINGTON

, by MR. CoMMISSIONER KEEP and MR. CoMMISSIONER GILFILLAN

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and Rejoinder

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GREETING:

tJOMMONWEALTJi OF AUSTRALIA. I

dEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great l3ritaiwand Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.

· TO Our Trusty and Well.-beloved GEORGE ALr:ARD, Esquirt?-; RtrDOLPii: CHENEY, Esquire; HARRY COLLINS GIBSON, Esquire; JosEPH ANTHONY HARPER, ERNEST EDWARD

KEEP, Esquire; THOMAS CLETUS MAHER; Esquire; and AL;ERT BA'i'H:thisT PIDDINGTON,

E_squire, K. C.

KNOW Y_ E that We do by t1bese 1 0ur Letters Patent, issued in Our name b'!) Our Governor-General of Our Commonwealth of AU8t'ralia, acting with the advice of Our Federal Executive Council and in pursuance 'of the donstitution of Our said Commonwealth, the Royal Commissions Act 1902-1912, and all other powers him thereunto enabling, appoint you tO be

Commissi'Oners to inquire into the following matters :-

I. The actual cost of living at the present time, according to reasonable standards of comfort, including all matter& in the ordinary expenditure of a lJ,ousehold, for a man with a wife and three children under fourteen

years of age, and the several items and amounts which malce up that cost ;•

2. The actual corresponding cost of living during each of the last five years:

3. How the basic wage may be automaticaZly adjusted to d'nd fall from time to tinie 'of the purchasing power of the sovereign :

AND WE APPOINT you the said ALBERT BATHURST PIDDINGTON to be the Chairman of the said : And We direct that at any meeting of the said. Commissioners four Commissioners shall be sufficient to constitute a quorum, ana may proceea with the inquiry under these Our Letters Patent, notwith8tanding absence af the other Qommissioners: And We further direct that in the . event of the absence of the Chairman from any meeting of the Commissioners, the Commissioners present may appoint one of their number to act as Chairman Q,uring such absence: And We further direct that in the event of the given on question .at any meeting of lhe said Commissioners being equal, the 'Chairman, if present, and, if the Chairman is not p'i'esimt, then 'the Commiss,oner appointed to act as in his absence, shall have a second or casting vote: And We require you, with as delay as possible, to report to Our Governor-General in a11-d over Our said Commonwealth the result of yout· into the matters entrusted to you by these our Lettet·s Patent.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent, and the Seal of Our said Commonwealth to be thereunto affixed.

'(L.s.)

WITNESS Our Trusty and WeF-9elovedSmRoNALD CRAUFURD MuNRO FERGUSoN, a Member of Our Most Honora:ble Privy Couneil, Knighl Grand Otpss 'qj the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; Knighi Com)rjl,ander of the Royal Order,, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth oj A11stralia, this sixth day of December, in ; the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and nineteen, .and in the tenth year of Our

reign. '

R. M. FERGUSON,

By His Excellency's Command, W. M. -HUGHES.

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Entered on Record by me in Register of Patents, No. 6, page 462, this eighth day of December, One thousand nine , hundred and ni'ncteen. ·

M. L. SHEPHERD.

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GREETING:

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COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

GEORGE THE FI.FTli, by the Grace of God, of the United H.ingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, pefimder of the Faith, !Jlmperor 6f India.

' TO Our Well-beloved ALBAN CYRIL MORLEY, Esquire, LL.B., Barrister-at-Law.

'fHEREAS by Letters Pq,tent, issued fn Our py Qy,r Governor-General of Our Commonwep,lth of A ustralfa, actinq with, the advice of O'lfr Executiv-e an4 ·pursuance of the Opnstitution of Our said Commonwealth, the !toY_ !l-1 Commissions Act 1902-:-1912, and all powers him thereunto enabling, We did on the sixth of December, in year 11Jf our l:r;rrd One nine hundred. a"nd nineteen, appoint GEORGE MASON ALLARD, Esquire; RuDOLPH CHEN!iJY,

Esq'll;ire; HARRY CoLLINS Esquir_ e; JOSEPH ANTHONY E8quire; ERNEST EDw ARp KEEP, Esquire; . 0LETUS .MAHER, Esquire; arJl ALBERT BATHURST PIDDINGTON, Esquire, K.C., to be Commissioners to inquire the. following rru:-tters :-1

1. The actual cost !iving a_t the present according to reasonaqle of eomfort, . including all

comprised in the ordinarY, e;;pen

2. The actual corresponding cost of living during each of the last five years : ' . I

3. Hoiv the basic wage may be a_utomatically adjusted to the rise r:nd fall from time to time of the purghasirfg power · of the : ·

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AND said GEORGE MASON ALLARD, Esquire, resigned his as such. Commissio'l'l-er

and such resignation has been accepted :

NOW KNQW YE JV e by these Our Letters iss11:ed in Our name by Pur Governor-Genr-ra!

o:fOur Commonwealth of Australia, .acting U?ith the advice of Our F.edera;l Executive Council, and in gf the Constitution of Our said the Royal Commissions Act and qll other him thereunto

appoint you ' to be one of the for purposes pf the sefid first-mentioned Lette1·s Patent as f'lf-llY and ejjectuall'!! to all intents and purposes as if your name had been inserted therein in the place of that of the said GEORGE MASON Esquire.

WITNESS Our Trusty and · SIR RoNALD CRAuimRD MuNRO FERGusoN; a Member of . Ou; if ost H. Privy 'council, .Knight Grand Ct·;s {J the Most Distinguished Order of' {L.s.) Saint and Georqe, Knight Commander of Roydl -Victorl:an Order, -.Governor­

General and Commander-in-Chief Commonwealth of Australia, this twenty-fourth day of December, in of L'ord One thousand nine hundred and nineteen, and.in the tenth year of Our reign.

By His Excellency's Command, P. McM. GLYNN, for the Pri'fYI,e

R. #· FERGf]SON,

Entered on by me in, Ref!ister of Patents, No. 6, page 463, this thirty-first day of December, One h;u'fl,drr;,d ana . -·

Jr[. L. SHEPHERD.

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COMMONWEALTH OF .AUSTRALIA. '

GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King; J)efender of the Faith, Emperor of India.

TO Our Truaty and Well-beloved WILLIAM DuNCAN G:_ILFILLAN, Esquire.

GREETING:

WHEREAS by Letters Patent issued in Our name by Our Governor-General of Our Commonwealth of Australia, .acting with the advice of (!ur Federal Executive Council and in pursuance of the Constitution of Our said Commonwealth, the Royal Commissions 1902-1912, and all other powers him thereun.to enabling, We did on the sixth day of December, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and nineteen, appoint 'GEORGE MASON ALLARD, Esquire; ; RuDOLPH CHENEY, • Esquire; HARRY GIBSON, Esquire; JosEPH ANTHONY HARPER, Esquire; ERNEST KEEP, Esquire;

THOMAS CLETUS MAHER, Esquire; and ALBERT BATHURST PIDDINGTON, Esquire, K.C., to be Commissioners to inquire into ·

the following matters :-

I. The actual cost of living at the present time, according to reasonable standards of comfort, including all matter6 in the ordinary expenditure of a household, for a man with a wife and three children under fourteen

years of age, and the several items and amounts which make up that cost :

2. The actual corresponding cost of living during each of the last five years :

3. How the basic wage ma'!f. be automatically adjusted to the rise and fall from time to time of the purchasing power of the sovereign:

AND WHEREAS the said JosEPH ANTHONY HARPER, Esquire, has resigned his appointment as such Commissioner and such resignation has been accepted:

NOW THEREFORE KNOW YE that We do by Our Letters Patent issued in Our name by Our Governor-General of Our Commonwealth of Australia, acting with the advice of Qur Federal Executive Council a'nd in pursuance of the Constitution of Our Commonwealth, the Royal Commissions Act 1902-1912, arJt all other powers him thereunto enabling, appoint you to be one of the Commissioners for the purposes of the said first-mentioned Letters Patent as fully and effectually to all intents and purposes as if your name bad been i-Merted therein in the place of that of the said JOSEPH ANTHONY HARPER, Esquire.

WITNESS Our Right Trusty and RoNALD CRAUFURD MuNRO FERGUSON, a Member of Our Moat Honorable Privy Council, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Dis(inguished Order of (L.s.f Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and , Commander-in-Chief of the Common­

wealth of A ustratia, this twenty-sixth day of May, i!" the !year of our Lord One thousand nine hundredtand twenty, and in the eleventh year of Our reign.

By His Excellency's Command, E. J. RUSSELL, for the Prime Mini&ter.

r

R. M. FERGUSON, Governor-General.

Entered on Record by me in Register of Patent&, No. 6, page 495, this jir&t day of June, One thousand nine hundred . / and twenty. M. L. SHEPHERD .

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[CONFIDENTIAL.

'ro His Excellency the Right Honorable HENRY WILLIAM, FoRSTER, a Member of His Majesty's Most . Privy Council, Knight Grand Gross of the

M.o$t Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General ' and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Commonwealth of Australia.

MAY IT PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY:

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· We, your were appointed by Let.ters Patent dateq the 6th Decemher, 1919,

to inquire into and upon the following matters _ · · ' . . ,

1. The actual cost of living at the present time, to reasonable standards of comfort, including all matters comprised in the ordinary expenditure of a 'house­ hold, for a man with a wife, and three children under fourteen years of age, and the several items and amounts which make up that cost. 2. T4e actual corresponding cost of living during each of the last five years. 3. How the basic wage may be automatically adjusted to the rise and fall from time to '

time of the purchasing power-of the sovereign.

The Report is divided as follows :-Introductory. · .

Division The Present Cost of Living according to reasonable standards of comfort and the Basic Wage. I.-Rent.

Section Section III.-Food. Section IV.-Miscellan€ou·s. Division. II.-The Correspo;nding Cost ·of Living in 1914-1920. Division Ill.-The Automatic Adjustment of the Basic Wage._

Summary. '

INTRODUCTORY.

ORIGIN OF THE CoMMISSION.

The intention of appointing this Commission was first announced by the Prime Minister the Right Hon. W. M. Hughes, P.C., in delivering the policy speech of the Government at Bendigo on the 30th October, 1919; for the General Election of that year. The announcement was thus 1

:reported:- . · · - · .

"If we are to have industrial peace we must be prepared· tG pay the price, and . · that price is justice to the worker. Nothing less will serve. We have long ago adopted in Australia the J?rinciples of comp11lsory arbitration for the settlement of industrial dis-. piltes and of the minimum wage. The cause of much of the industrial unrest, which is like

fuel to the :fires of Bolshevism and direct action, arises with the real wage of the that is to say, the things he can buy with the_money he receives. This real wage decreases with an increase in the cost of living. Now, once it is admitted that it is in the interests of the community that such a wage should be paid as will enable a man to marry and

bring up children in decent, wholesome conditions-and that point has been settled long ago-it seems obvious that we must devise better machinery for insuring the payment of such a wage than at present exists. Means must be found which will insure that the minimum wage shall be adjusted automatically, or almost automatically, with

the·cost of living, so that within·the limits of the minimum wage at least the sovereign shall always purchase the same amount of the necessaries of life. The Government is, therefore, appointing a Royal Commission to inquire into the cost of living in relation to the or basic wage. The Commission will be fully clothed with power to

what is a fair basic wage and how much the purchasing power of the sovere-ign

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has been depreciated during the war; also how the basic may be adjusted to the present purchasing power ·of the sovereign, and the best .means when once so adjusted of automatical.ly itself to the rise and fall of the sovereign. The Government will at the earliest date possible create effective machinery t o give effect to these _ - principles. Labour is entitled to fair share of the wealth it produces. The fundamental

question of the basic wage having been thus satisfa<;;torily-bycause pe:vmanently-· settled, there remain other causes of industrial unrest which must be dealt with if we are to have industrial peace. . - (Age , 31st October, 1919.)

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It was later on arranged that three represent atives of employers and three representatives of employees should be appointed, and that, if they should agree upon a Chairman, the Govern­ ment would make the appointment. Accordingly Mr. G. M. Allard, of Sydney, was ,appointed o:p. the of the Associated Chambers of Commerce of Austr:alia; Mr. J. A. Harper, of

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Adelaide, on the of the Asso piftted Chambers of ManuJactures of Australia; and Mr. · E. E. Keep, of Melbourne, on the nomin&tion of the Central Council of Employers of The employees' appointed on t he noinination of the Conference of Federated - ·

Unions of Australia, were :- Mr. R. Cheney, of the Federat ed Carters and Drivers' Industrial · Union; Mr. H. C. Gibson, of 'the Federated Engine-drivers a;nd Associati

Inter-State CommissiQn, as Chairman, he .was so appointed.

Mr. G. M. Allard and:- Mr. J. A. members of the Commission as originally

cpnstituted, but Mr. Allard having resigned on 16th December, 1919,. and Mr. H arper having resigned on 24th February, 1920, their . places were taken by Mr. A. C. Morley and Mr. W. D. · Gilfillan l'espectively. · J I •

Mr. J. T. Sutcliffe was appointed as Secretary and Statist ician. Mr. Sutcliffe has been the officer in charge of the Labour and Industrial Branch- of Commonwealth Statistician's Office for many years, and in .that capacity has had unique experience of c_ost of living statistics, and also in the preparation and submission qf evidence fo r the Con1rnonwealth Arbitration Court. The Commission has been greatly. helped by Mr. Sutcliffe 's knowledge, which is unrivalled in the

Commonwealth sphere. This help has been especially valuable, on the side of statistics.

Mr. Jelley, who has acted as accountant on the staff of the llllter-State Commission, ·was appointed Assistant S.ecretary. -. . ,/ · .

The Commonwealth Statistician's Department courteously supplied all tables and other information asked for, and officers of this gave valuable evidence on certain aspects of the inquiry . ·

PREVIous HisTORY oF THE SuBJECT. Origin and M ethod of A djustment of the B asic ·. Wage. In 1906 the then President of the Comn1onwealth Arbitration Court, the lat e Mr. Justice O'Connor; pointed out, in the follo wing passage, that wages 1nust have reference to existing standards of social conditions :- · '

I '' • • • • there r.aust also be added something fo r the increased cost of

living in not only by reason of the lJ-igher cost of sorrte of

but by reason of con1fort of living the lfigher of social

col19.itions ·which the generf1l sense qf the con1munity in Australia allows to those who live by labour." Service Guild v. Commonwealth Ste::tmship Owners' Association,.

· l C . page 2'7. · ' ' .

. In the following year I-Iis I-Ionour M:r. Justice l-Iiggins, in what is known as" The I-Iarvester Oase," laid down .as -a liv]ng wage' the sum of 7s. per day, and stated with regarq to the standard of "fair and reasonable conditions of remuneration" under the E xcise T ariff Act 1906 he "could not think of any other standard appropriate than the normal needs of the average employee regarded as a human being living in a civilizeq community," and to the necessity for "a condition of, frugal comfort by current human standards" (ex parte H. V. Mci{ay, 2 C.A.R., p'ages 3-4). '

The wage so defined came to be known later OJl the" basic wage," and in the years this wage had been raised f:ron1 time tq tirpe. by the Comn1onwealth Arbitration Court according to the following process:- · T-he arnount ·of 7s. per day consif3ted of a rent of 7s. per we_ek, an average expenditure

amongst nine households of £1 5s. 5d. per week for food and grocenes, and t he balance,_9s. 7d. -was to cover clothing and miscellan eous requirements.

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Since ,1912 it has been the practice of the Commonwealth Statistician to ascertain by . such inquiries were deemed the fluctuations in the cost of rent, food, an,d groceries all taken t ogether. such fluctuations. wyr:e assessed in the case of clothing or of miscellaneous re

purl? ose .of fixing the basic wage ?r any but t hey were ut ilized by the Commonwealth Arb1tratwn Court (being the only means readily available for such a purpose) to variations .in the basic wage corresponqing v0,th variations in the cost ot living . . It was thus taken granted, firs t , that the proportion of clothing and mis9ellaneousrequirements to total of the

basic wage as fixed in, the Harvester · Case (about 23 per cent.) was the normal ratio for workers' households, and secoJ1-d, that the sections of expenditure in question,· viz., clothing and requirements, always pari passu- wit4 the cost of rent, food , and

gro cenes taken t oget her, the Comn1onwealth Statistician. -

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THE NE ED FOR A R E VIEW o F THE Pos iTION.

The history, since 190'7, will now be considered.

The outst anding fact of that history is that t he Commonwealth Arbitration Court nor · any other Arbitration t ribunal in the Commonwealt h has ever conducted an inquiry into the cost · Df living untrammelled by dependence t o a great er or less ext ent upon t he decision in the 'Harvest er Case. ,

That decision WftS not given in an arbitration hearing but in proceedings by an •employer to obtain a declarat ion (under the Excise Tariff Act) t4at' his' conditions 9t remuneration were fair and reasonable. Such a declaration would obtain for t he applica:p.t exemption from the Excise provisions of the Act. His Honour refused t he declarat ion asked for, but .laid down as t he " Excise Tariff Standard " for all manufactures referred t o in t he Act the minimum

wage of 7s. per day. A year later bot p_ the doct rine of a living wage the finding of 7s. a day were t rq,:p.slated into the body of arbitration law by the same Judge's decision in the Marine Cooks' Case (2 C.A.R: 53r .His H;

finding in the Case, in t he present circumstances of Au!Stralia, 7s . per day, or £2 2s. per week, is the, least wage t hat can meet :p.orn1al needs of ,the average e:q1ployee :regarded as a human qei:r:g living in a , civilized: com111unit y ' " .

, ANALYSI S OF THE , F1; ARVESTER DECISION.

· It,now becomes necessary to pqint out that while t he :flarvest er laid down thedoctriq.e ' that a basic wage should be at adequate to 'cover the qf living according to reasonable the in t he 'given without that cost of living having been ascertained

. by e4pept t o a partial ext ent . {\.t page 2 of the decision His Hqnbur says :-/ '

" The Act left me free to inform my mind as best I could and I was at full liberty to limit t he evidence or even act without eviqence ." .

The whole , of the before His in the pioneer days of t he new system is set

out in t he following passage fro+n page 5 to page 7_ of the decision · ·

I 9ome now to consider t he ren1uneratio:r o£ t he employees mentioned in this

11pplicat iqn. I propose to take unskined labourers ,first. The wage- the

wage paid t o most of t he labop.rers by the 6s. per day of eight hours, with

no extra allowance for overtime ; but there is man receivjng only 5s. · 6d. There is .no const ancy of' e1nployment, as the employer has to put a considerable of men 'off in t he int ervals between the seasons. The seed-drill and plough season, I am told, . is in t he earlier part of t he year, ,about April ; but t he busiest time is the

season, .about August to November. But even if t he cmploy1nent were const ant and is a wage of 36s. per and reasonable, in view of the C9flt of living

in Victoria I 4ave tried to the cost of living- the amount which has to _ be

paid for food, clothing, for average labourer with normal wants, a:p.d normal S.ome very int erest,ing evidence has been given, by working men's wiyes and others ; and t he\ evidence has been absolutely undisput ed. l allowed Mr. Schutt , the counsel, an opporturiity to call evidence -q.pon this subject evep after his case had been but not withsta:p.ding t he fo rtnight or m9re allowed him fo :c investigation, adrnitted he could produce no specific ev1dence in contr!1diction.

He also that t }le by a land agent, Mr. Ap.mont , as to the rents,

an9, by a 'bntcher as to meat, oould not be cont radict ed. 'fhere is no doupt that there has been, during the last year or two, a progressive rise in rents, and in the price of meat,

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and in the price o£ many of the modest requirements o£ the worker's household. The usual rent paid by a labourer, as distinguished from an artisan, appears to be 7s. ; and, taking the rent at 7s., the necessary average weekly expenditure for a labourer's home of about five persons would seem to be about £1 12s. 5d. The .lists of expenditure , submitted

1 to me vary not only in, a.mounts, but in_ of ?amputation. But I ha:ve confined the figures _ to rent, grocenes, bread, meat, nplk, fuel, vegetables, and· fruit ; and the average of the list of nine housekeeping women is £1 12s. 5d. This expenditure does not cover light (some of the lists omitted Jight), clothes, boots, furniture, utensils

(being casual, notweekly expenditure), rates, life insurance, savings, accident or benefit , societies, loss of employment, union pay, books and newspapers, tram and train fares, sewing machine, mangle, school requisites, amusements and holidays, intoxicating liquors, / tobacco, sickness and death, domestic help, or any expenditure for unusual contingencies,

religion, or charity. If the wages are 36s. per week, the an1ount left to ·pay for all these things is only 3s. 7d. ; and the area is ' rather large for 3s. 7d. to cover-even in the case of total abstainers and case of most of the men in question. One

witness, the wife of one who was formerly a vatman in c3tndle works, says that in the . · days when her husband was working at the vat at 36s. per week, she was unable to provide meat for him on about three days· in t he week. This inability to procure sustaining food-whatever kind rnay be certainly not conducive to the

maintenance of the worker in industrial efficiency. Then, on looking at-the rates ruling elsewhere, I find that the public bodies which do not ain1 at profit, hq.t which are responsible to electors or others for economy, very generally pay 7s . The Metropolitan Board has 7s. for a Ininimum; the Melbourne City Council also. Of seventeen municipal councils in Victoria, thirteen pay 7s. as a n1inimun1; and only two pay a man so low as 6s. 6d. The Woodworkers Wages Board, 24th July, 1907, fixed 7s. In the agreement made in Adelaide between employers and employees, in this very il).dustry, the minimum is 7s. 6d. On the other hand, the rate in the Victorian Railway is 6s. 6d. But the Victorian Railways Comrnissioners, do, I presun1e, aim at a profit, and as we were told in the evidence, the -officials keep fingers on the pulse of external labour conditions, and endeavour to pay not more than the external trade minimum

(page 388). My hesitation has been chiefly bet ween 7s. and 7s. 6d. ; but I put the minin1um at 7s. as I do not think that I could-refuse t o declare. an employer's remunera­ tion to be fair and reasonable, if I find him paying 7s. Under the circumstances, I cannot declare that the applicant's ·conditions of remuneration are fair and reasonable as to

his labourers.'' · .- · '

I The material thus available to His Honour was not challenged by the employer-applicant.

It will now be pointed out how the specific finqing of 7s. was and how far the cost of living was ascertained and entered into that specific finding. - _

It is clear that there was no concrete evidence that 7s. per day would in 1907 meet the cost Qf living, and that the only evidence as to that concrete figure being a reasonable remuneration was that public bodies "mot aiming at profits but . - · for economy " were

paying this wage, which was also that awarded by the Woodworkers' Further, this rate of 7s., lies between the rate of 6s. 6d. in the Victorian Railway Workshops and· an agreement n1ade in Adelaide in the Harvester industry. So far as the cost of living was ascertained by evidence and entered into the wage then deterJ?lined, it was lill).ited to the amount of £1 12s. 5d., the average of the budgets of nine housewives for rent, ,food and groceries combined. With regard to rent, the 7s. per week was apparently determined on the e:vidence of one )and agent, Mr. Aumont, together, probably, with that of the housewives called, and it cannot be gathered from the judgment how n1any rooms a house 'at such rental \ contained, or in v\\hat other respects such a house afforded reasonable comfort for '"a home of about five persons" for whom (vide page 6 of the Judgment) the living wage was to be provided. . .

With regard to food and groceries, there was presumably evidence from the nine house­ wives examined that the amount of £1 5s. 5d. (-left after deducting 7s. for rent from t_ he average , £1 12s. 5d. for rent with food' and groceries) did afford a sufficient supply of food. . · But when the now recognised · sections of the cost of living- Clothing and Miscellaneous

requirements- came to be provided for, no evidence as to the cost of living was taken . in the Harvester Case. It was evidently thought that if the wage ·fixed were 6s. per day-the amount then being paid by th_ e applicant- the residuum of 3s. 7 d. left a:fter providing £1 12s. 5d. out of a weekly rate of 36s. would be insufficient for clothing and Iniscellaneous requirements, b)lt the

effect of the decision in favour of 7s. a day was that for clothing and miscellaneous requirements the residuum was 9s. 7d. instead of 3s. 7d. · '

No evidence was given to determine whether or not · 9s. 7 d. would meet-the cost of living in 'respect of the sections-Clothing and Miscellaneous requirements-but it may be inferred that the fact that employers who were :public bodies paid 7s. a day to suggest to His Honour's

11 ·'

mind that that amount was enough to cover the total cost of living and' that, therefore, 9s. 7d. was sufficient for the unascertained items next enun1erated. This amount of 9s. 7d. was deemed to cover light, .. clothes, · boots, furniture, utensils (being casual, not weekly ex:genditure), rates, life insurance, savings, accident or benefit societies, loss of 11nion pay, books and

newspapers, tram/ and· train fares, sewing machine, mangle, school requisites, amusements and holidays, intoxicating liq-uors, tobacco, sickness and death, dorp.estic help , or any expenditure for unusual contingencies,. religion, or charity. .

ADJUSTMENT OF THE (HARVESTER) BASIC wAGE.

· The judgi.nent in the Harvester did not expressly state that the rent. of 7s. per week was for houses in Sunshine (then a small ), about 8 miles from Melbourne, but t his appears to have been the_ case from a statement of l\Ir. Justice Powers in the PubliQ Service Clerical , v :.the Public ·service Commissioner (1918) as follows :- .

"The original living wage of 7s. a day was fixed ·in 1907 on, I understand, 9 household budgets of persons residing at Sunshine." (12 C.A.R. at p. 567.) -· · ' ·

In all subsequent adjustments of the basic wage, however, both in the Commonwealth sphere and by State arbitration'tribunals, it has. been assumed, because the Harvest er judgment was delivered in Melbourne, that the rent of 7s. per week adopted in that judgment was the rent for a · worker's house in Melbourne, not' in Sunshine. But t he Comn1onwealth" Stat istician's figures

(published five years after the }larvester Case) show that the rent of a four-rqon1ed house in Melbourne in the year 1907 was 8s. lid., nearly 2s: per week more than was laid down in the Harvest er Case. It would to be a' fair inference t hat the rent of 7s. included in the Harvester wage was that ·· of a four-roomed house in Sunshine in As this Qommission has determined rent upon the basis of a five-roomed house being necessary for the typical family, the cost of living hereinafter determined must be higher on this consideration alone. On the other hand, in 1914, Mr. Justice . after a very exhaustive il).vestigation, came to the conclusion that the amount-

. £1 5s. 5d. for Food and Groceries, ·in 1907-was too large. ,

- Th,e :q.ext point that arises is the _method by. which the basic wage of 7s. a day (adopted in , the Marip.e Cooks', &c. ; Case from t he judgment in the Harvester Case) has been from time to time _ adjusted in intended accordance with the doctrine that th,e cost--of living should "determine the basic wage. It has been mentioned (page 9 of this Report) that since 1912the Commonwealth--­

Statistician, _ statistical pUTposes only, and originally. with no intention of having his figures made applicable either to determining or to adjusting the living wage, has published index­ numbers which compare the cost otrent, food and groceries, all taken together, from year to year, taking their cost in 1911 as a basis and calling its index number 1,000. The practice in the . Oommonwealth Arbitration Court, followed with minor modifications by State Arbitration. Courts, has been to utilize these index-ilumbers as prima facie evidence for the purpose of obtaining a factor by which to multiply (and in an epoch of continuously rising cost of living since 1907 it has always· been a question of !llultiplying) the basic wage of 7s. a day fixed in the Harvester Case so as to bring that wage up to date. Thus if the· index-number for the year 1914 in Melbourne was 1105 as with 875 in the year then the 7s. per day would be

multiplied by in order to fix the basic wage in 1915, the 1914 index-numbers being only

available early in 1915. It will at once be seen that assuming 7s. a day in 1907 to have been enough to cover the cost of the four sections, R en,t, Food, Clothing and Miscellaneous, then to multiply the sum which included all four component sectiorrs by the factor by con1bining two of them, viz., Rent and Fooq in a comparative figure for, two relevant years, can only be a correct method if the remaining components, Clothing and Miscellaneous t aken together or separately, also vary in a ratio expressed by the same factor.

At this point another matter acutely debated before the Commonwealth Arbitration Court comes into tlie history of the decisions. In 1914 the Commonwealth Statistician found that Rent and Food together constituted (speaking approximately) 60 per cent. of the ordinary expendit,ure of a household, leaving 40 per cent. for Clothing and Miscellaneous. These percen­ tages were ·ascertained as a result of analyzing certain household budgets collected in 1913.

Since 1914· it has been assun1ed that the percentage for Clothing and Miscellaneous (40 per cent .. ) out of the total cost of living remained constant year after year. This, again, can only be the case if people need year after. year exactly the same proportion of money for each component part of the necessary cost of living. It was, however, strongly contended ·in t he years of the War that clothing in particular had increased in price at a greater ratio a·ny other section of the .

cost of living, and this contention the figures now ascertained by this Commission fully justify. The inevitable result of the cost of necessary clothing increasing at a greater ra_ tio than necessary rent and food was 'that the standard of clothing could not be maintained at t he same level by using the factor derived from rent and food to det ermine what should be inclusively prpvjded, · in the basic wage, for clothing. . - . ·

CRITiCISM OF T:ijE F OF THE BASIC WAGE.

· .It will t:Q.us be seen that decisions' as to the' basic wage have depended upon two elements-first, the basic wage laid down in the Harvester Case ; and second, the methods above describeq . for adjusting this to later figures of the cost of Jtiving. Such decisions, therefore, were open to any criticism that could be based upon error in either or both of the elements mentioned above. It ought, however, t<;> 'be pointed out that while the second of these elements, viz., the principle of applying the Statistician's figures to Harvester wage, was very frequently the subject of I qbjeptions strongly yet, it was not 1+ntil 1917, ten years after the Case, that the·

decision itself of 7s. a day or the grounds upon which such decision was based . were in any way challe!lged. This might. indicate that, at the time t he decision was given, whatever its grol!nds were, it conformed. fairly to. what employees believed to be fair and remuneration, though it be remembered that) f1S the basic wage for a family" of about five persons," all with a less num.ber of dependants would be receiving a wage more .than enough for

their needs on the footing of-the Harvester Case. A_nd Mr . Justice_ Higgins says (lV.feat Industry Case, 10 C.A.R. at p. 479) " Employers and employers' representatives have sjnce that time [1907] . ofte:q me that the figure of 7s. a day was not a penny too much at the time."

The suggestion that the Harvester· Case, the itself of all the decisions, should be re-opened, came from the Commonwealth Arbitration Court as · will appear from the quotations:- '

In the Storemen a:t;1d Packers' Case (19'16, 10 C.A.R., p. 644), Mr. Justice said-" I think that an inquiry should be made as soon as we get back to normal tirp.es to ascertain · aE; nearly as possible what a fair living wage for a Commonwealth award should be, based/ on the ordinary regimen of a working man and 1?-is family and

on the cost of all the items taken into .consideration.; not· on food and groceries only, . suppose(J. rightly or wrongly to he 40 per cent. of the expenditure. Rent, it is true, is incluqed, but it is admitted, has been stationary for some time past. The estin1ated increase in cost of at 40 per cent. of the supposed expenditure at the present time . is based on the rise and fall of food and groceries, assun1ing that the regimen is the same in 1916 as in 1911. · · ·

The Statistician inforn1s n1e that it would be possible in normal times to ascer:tain 1

wb.at it does in fact cqst an average working man and his wife and family of two or three to live in reasonable comfort in the Cmp.monwealth, and i£ that inquiry was made it would be cop.ducted on a different basis although possibly unless the 1911 regimen is altered materially the inquiry 'the may prove the correctness of the mass ·

units adopted Ilf 1911, 'taking into consideration the decreased purchasing power of a sovereign.'' ·

\ "

This suggestion was repeated in :March of the following year by thePresident of the Court, Mr. 'Justice Higgins (Glass Manufacturers' ·Case, 1917, 11 C.A.R., p. 34)..:_ " Nor does any in this case bring any. evidence to show1

- of the fm.ding of 1907 an0. of the Statistician's estimate of change,' what is the cost of, living at the present ' time. . . . An inquiry on this subject is eminently

desirable, now that the finding of 1907 has stood for nearly ten yea:J;s, but I ca:q.not force parties to an arbitration: to undertake the labour .of such an inquiry. I hope, however, that soine party will exercise his undoubted.:tight to challenge the figures as to the cost of living. The matter is one of extreip.e importance to the industries of the Common­ wealth." The Deputy-President again alluded to the Presidenrs'reoonlmendation in the Engine Drivers' and Firemen's (1917, 11 C.A.R., p. 217)-

. "I may say that I .have previously recon1mended the appointment of a to inquire into the question of a Fe'derallivi:n.g wage. The Presiqent of this Court in the Glass lVla:p.ufacturers' Case, in March, 1917 . . '· suggested a . . '' Inquiry. 'The invitation extended to re-open the Harvester Case was accepted by the ·Federated Carters and Drivers' Union in their case, begun jn Ap:ril, 1917. During the heari11g, t:J;te representative of the Union submitted, in a written address, staten1ents and w4y

the Court should no longer derive its basic wage frmn the, basic wage. The DeplJ.ty / President, of that Court refused to re-open the matter upon the grolJ.nd, an1ongst that it would ·involve his departing_ the practice of the Court since its inception, a:p.d

H!s .Honor that I the of Union should offer .. !1s a witness

"when the CommlSSJon or Board IS appmnted t o n1ake the m.uch-needed Ing_uuy Lt1to the post of living.''

' 541

i3 I

.. Amongst utterances of the President and Deputy-President in the same sense was that

o£ . Deputy-President, 'Mr. Justice Powers, who in 1918 spoke as follows (A11stralian Common­ wealth .Public Service Association, 121 C.A. R. at p. 543) :- · .

"At ·the close of the evidence the ,reBresentative qf the Acting Public Service Commissioner, 'the , representative of the · -Employers' Federation of Victoria and New South Wales? and the representative ' Of the seven unions nqw b.efore the Court, joined in urging that the Federal Government should a Commission or s·ome body to take evidence with ·a view to ,fixing a Federal living wage for a man, his wife, and family of three, on a scientific and humane basis; or to authorize the Commonwealth ·Statistician to do so.

,

1

"The President' of this Court and I have, on bne occasion, recommended that course t o the :federaL Government, because .we know that men, although they obey awards, feel that they are not getting more than a wage on .which they can exist, and because we were not satisfied in adopting the Statistician's tables of 1913, tables and ·percentages which admittedly were not obtained for the purp_ ose of fixing a living wage,

we doing justice to those who applied to the .Court. ; The 9f the Employers' Federations, of t he employees, and of the Pubhc Comm.1sswner; and the facts which will be submitted to Parliament with the award o£ this case, will, I hope, show that the necessity for such an inquiry or commission is urgent in the interests of the _ employers, and the employees. ,

It will thus be seen that the present inquiry was inaugurated in response to repeated requests by the and Deputy-President o£ the Commonwealth Arbitration Court, and that .the · a:(lnblincement df ,the Goverhment' s intention to make effective the finding of the Commission, coupled with the t wo definitions- that of basic wage by Mr. Justice 'Higgins, and that of-" the

actual cost of living according to standards of ,comfort " irl. clause 1 of the Letters · Patent-indicates that the purpose of the Government in appointing this Commidsion was to obtain authentic materials upon which a charter of comfort for employees in the Commonwealth might be framed, and framed in a -way that . the reasopable standards of liying, to

determine which has been the crucial task in this inquiry, should be permanently secured by a provision for the automatic adjustment of the basic wage to fl.uc.tuations in the cost of living. · In the course of t he present invest igation it has beoome clear that, had the decision been re-opened, it would have been found that while up t o a certain point it proQeeded upon the

principle of ascertaining by evidence what amount was necessary t o cover t he cost of living, yet at that point a serious hiat us occurred. hiatus was due to the · absence of 'evidence as to t:p_e ·amount necessary fo r the two sections of t he cost of .living, Clothing and Miscelianeous. So far as the· section of Rent is concerned, the' comments made ab ove relate not to_ the absence of · ,

evidence, but to the_ sufficiency or othe-rwise of the evidence for a determiiiation as to Rent which, iii the sequel, has affected practically every worker in -the Commonwealth. If the basic wage of 7s. provided in 1907 the cost of living the then.standard of coinfort, it would be due to one error (namely that in ·Fqod) balancing another (namely that in Rent), or possibly two others, since the amount for Clothing and (9s. 7d.) in 1907 may have been too little as was that for Rent. ,

Throughout, the course of tne Commission has been-first , to regard t he as entir.ely clear, and then to · ascertain, section by section and item by item, what are reasonable standards of comfort in the Comn1onwealth to-day, what each of these it ems cost to provide, and lastly, how a means may be

SITTINGS oF' THE CoMMISSION . 1

'· The Commission first met on 11th December, 1919, and held its first sittings for the taking

of evidence 10n that date. In all, the Commission held sittings and examined witnesses .as appears in the following. table:-' I

-- City. Opening Date. Closing Date. · No. of ·Public Sittings. I l No. of Witnesses. No. of Exhibits.

Melbourne .. {11th Dec., 1919 . . 26th lt!far., 1920 .. 47

} 254 172 24th Aug., 1920 . . 24th Sept., 1920 .. 4 Sydney " .. April 6th, 1920 .. 14th May, 1920 .. 28 144 82 Brisbane .. 24,th May, 1020 8th June, 1920 .. 12 95 107 Neweal!tll3 .. 14th June, 1920 .. 14th June, 1920 . . I io 13 Adelaide .. 29th June, 1920 .. 9th July, 1920 . . 7 104 80 f'erth .. 14th July, 1920 .. 25th July, 1920 .. 8 103 73 Hoba.tt . ; .. 116t h Aug., 1920 .. 25th Aug., 1920 .. \ 8 -86 53 Total ... ... '" 115 796 . 580 "

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. In . addition to public sittings, the consultations of the Commission occupied 69 sittings in all, 55 of which took place after the Commission's final return to Melbourne, on August 28th, 1920, and were occupied in preparing this Report. 1 .

In order to shorten the inquiry, elaborate written lists and returns prepared in advance or during the taking of evidence .by State, municipal, and other o:fficirls, as well as by lay witnesses and retail traders, and, in view of the numerous demands nowadays made for statistical information, the Commission cannot but ,express its appreciation of the colirtesy shown in giving so much time and labour to facilitate its work. Samples were supplied upon request. The

lists and other exhibits thus collected constitute a valuable body of evidence both as to prices and as to the customs of the people in the present year.

In every city visited the general public took an active interest in the . inquiry, though ' naturally the task of presenting evidence was left almost exclusively to the counsel and investigators representing the respective interests of employer and employee.

Mr. Foster, of counsel, appeared throughout for the Federated Unions.

/ Mr. Ferguson, of counsel, appeared in Melbourne for the Victorian Employers' Federation; the Victorian Chamber of Manufactures, 'Employers' Federation of New South Wales; Chamber of Commerce, New South Wales, and Chamber of Manufactures, New South Wales, until 9th March, when his retainer for the New South Wales employers was withdrawn. Subsequently

Mr. Russell' Martin, of counsel, appeared for Victorian employers throughout the inquiry.

The Commission acknowledge with pleasure the ability and courtesy shown throughout by counsel and thei:t" staffs, including the investigators :-Miss Muriel Heagney and Mr. F. J. Riley, ' throughout the inquiry, for the Federated Unions; and Miss Janet Down, in Melbourne, and Mr. Pennefather, throughout, for the Employers' Associations represented.

QuESTIONS AS TO THE HUMBLEST WoRKER AND AS TO SEPARATE FINDINGS FOR THE COMPONENT MEMBERS OF THE TYPICAL FAMILY. '

Throughout this Report the term " family " will be used to denote " a man, wife, and three children under fourteen years of age," as described in the Letters Patent. . \ '

Early in the Melbourne sittings an application was made on behfl.lf of the employers to adjourn the taking of evidence so as to· permit of the Government effecting two alterations of the Letters Patent:-(1) so as to li:i:nit the inquiry to the case of " the humblest worker " ; (2) so as to direct .the Commission to return separate findings for the man, the wife, and each of the

three children. The Commission refused this application on the ground that its only duty was to carry out the inquiry as directed. (The reasons are set out in the remarks of the Chairman at page 13 o,f the. Evidence.) Subsequently, a deputation of employers waited on the Prime Minister to urge these alterations, but the Commission received n9 further or other directions.

With regard to limiting the cost of living to that of the humblest worker, the Commission judged it wiser to gather evidence freely from all classes of employees who have access to the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, and to postpone, .till the conclusion of evidence, the determination of this point.

DECISION AS TO THE CLASS oF WoRKER. )

' In the addresses at the of the inquiry, two views were put forward as to the proper basis on which the Commission should proceed in determining the stan4ard of comfort. On behalf of the Federated Unions, Mr. Foster suggested that the Commission should not select any special . occupation, whether skilled or unskilled, and ascertain the cost of living of the family of an employee in the occupation so selected, but should endeavour to picture the "typical Australian man" and determine what is his "reasonable standard of comfort."

Mr. Russell for the Employers' Federation, contended, on the other hand, that the Commission should (as he put it) "first catch its man" or in other words select a man in some definite calling, which, he maintained, should be that of " an unskilled labourer " or " the humblest worker" or the" lowest-paid employee" or " basic-wage earner," and ascertain for that employee's

family the reasonable standard of comfort.

I•

The exact terms of the Letters Patent which bear on this are 'as follow :­ From Clause 1.- " The actual cost of livi:r:g at the present time, according to reasonable · standards of comfort, including all matters comprised in the ordinary expenditure of a household for a man with a wife and three children under fourteen vears of

age. " . -'

From Clause 3.-" How the basic wage may be automatically adjusted."

543

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' .

While Clause 1 does not in terms limit the scope of the inquiry to any individu,a1 occupation, or even to the wage-earning classes as distinguished from the professional and employer classes and people. of independent means, yet Clause 3 cannot be treated as if "the basic wage" meant something not related to the "actual cost of living" defined in Clause 1. On the contrary, the history of the inauguration of this inquiry (vide supra) , the announcement with regard to making the

Commission's .findings effective, the generally accepted view throughout the inquiry, and finally the obvious consideration that in Australia wh?otever is found to be "the actual cost of living according to reasonable standards of comfort" will by one legal method or another become the basic wage- all these considerations left no doubt in the minds of -the Commission that its task was to

ascertain what the actual cost of living is in order that the amount so ascertained might be made the basic wage by the direct or indirect action of Parliament, or by its adoption in the Common:w:ealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, or in other industrial arbitration trihqna]s of Australia.

In its answer to Clause.T, therefore, the Commission is bound to remember tbat the standard of reasonable comfort is to be limited to employees. If ·this is done, the amount of money necessary to provide" such a standard can be taken by Parliament or the Courts as the basic wage, from which a scale of wages may be derived, allowing for skill. or special hardship or difficulty or any other consideration. · ·

Nor is it necessary that the Commission should select one particular occupation known under existing awards to he that of a basic-wage earner, e.g., ·that of a street-sweeper Qr a lamplighter, or a porter, and ascertain wh,at it costs to keep that selected employee his family according to reasonable standards of comfort. In this connexion it may be well to review the definitions which are to be found either in Statutes or in decisions or other pronouncements which

bear on the meaning of a " living " or a " basic' " wage.

1907, HIGGINS, J.; 2 C.A.R., page 3-" The standard of 'fair and reasonable' must, therefore., be something else ; and I canno.t think of any other standard appropriate than the normal needs of . the average employee, regarded as a human being living in a civilized community."

1907, HIGGINS, J., 2 C.A.R., page 4-·" Surely the State, in stipulating for fair and reasonable remuneration for the employees, means that the wages shall be sufficient to provide these things [food and shelter J and clothing and a condition of frugal comfort estimated by current human

standa;rds." ·

1907, HIGGINS, J., 2 C.A.R., page 4..:__ '"I cannot think . -. . . . that the agreement is reasonable if it not

carry l} wage' sufficient to insure the workmen food, shelter, clothing, frugal comfort, provision for evil days, &c., as well as reward. for the special skill of an artisan if he is one." ·

1907, HIGGINS, J., 2 C.A.R., page 6-" The us.mil rent paid by a labourer, as distinguished from an artisan, appears to be 7s.; and, taking the rent at 7s. the necessary average weekly expenditure [for food, groceries and rent] for a labourer's home of about five persons \Y"Ould seem to be about £1 12s. 5d."

1916, Meat Industry Case, 20th September, 10 C.A.R., page 477 (HIGGINS, J.)-" It is also reassuring to see a consensus of opinion as to the need for finding a basic wage, based on the cost of living, as distinguished from the secondary wage, based on skill or other exceptional qualifications ; to find also agreement as to the fundamental principles and methods for ascertaining the basic wage ."

South Australian Act 1912, No. 1110, s. 22-" The Court shall not have power to order or prescribe wages which do not secure to the employee affected a living wage. ' Living wage ' means a ·sum sufficient for the normal and reasonable needs of the average employee living in the locality where

work under consideration is done or is to be done." '

1916, The Industrial Court of South Australia (per Mr. President Jethro Brown)-" Custom has prescribed, Australian Courts have approved, and many reasons of expediency have sanctioned, a higher rate of wage than the living or minimum wage, where the work is of a skilled character involving, it may be, long years of apprenticeship or training." (Tinsmiths' Case, page 2.) ·

, .

i I;

16

West Australian Act 1912, No. 57, s. 84 (2)- , I "No minimum rate of wages or other remuneration shall be prescribed which is not sufficient to enable the average worker to whom it to live in reasonable comfort, having regard to any domestic obligations to which such average worker would be ordinarily subject." ·

1915, HIGGINS, J.,_'' New Province of Law and Order," page 5.-''In the .first true arbitration case,_that relating to ship's cooks, bakers, the standard of 7s. per day was attacked by employers,_ but I do not think that it has · been attacked since, probably because the cost of living hasl been rising. The Court

announced that it would ascertain first the necessary living. wage for the unskilled labourer, and then the secondary wage due to skill or other exceptional qualifications necessary. Treating marriage as the usuali_fate of adult men, a wage which does not allow -of the matrimonial condition and the maintendnce of about·five persons in a home :would not be treated as a living wage. · As for the secondary wage, it seemed to be the

safest course, for an· arbitrator not initiated into the mysteries of the several crafts, to follow the distinctions in grade between employees, as expressed in wages for many I •

"The distinction between the basic or primary or living wage the secondary wage, attributable to exceptional qualifications necessary for the performance of the function, is not fanciful; · it was forced on the Court by the pr9blems presented and by the facts of industrial life.

HEYDbN, J. (Bulletin', N.S. W. Board of Trade, page 1),_ .

"THe fixation of the living 'wage in New South Wales is, by section 79 of the Industrial Arbitration Act 1912, as amended, committed to the New South Wales Board . ) ' of Trade. .

" The terms of the section are as follows . "79.-(1.) The- Board of Trade shail, from ye,ar to year; after public inquiry as to the increase. or in the average cost of living, declare what shall be the living wage, to be paid to adult male employees and to adult female employees in the State or · any defined area thereof. In declaring such living .wages, the Board of Trade shall make a separate public inquiry into the cost

of living of employees engagea in rural occupations, and shall make a se.parate declaration as to the living wages to be paid to such employees, and shall declare what Inay be made from such wages for board or residence or board and residence, and for any customary privileges or payments in kind conceded to or made to such employees.

(2.) No industrial agreement shall be entered into and no, award made for wages lower than such living wage." ,, · * * * ' * * * * page 9.- _ - · " ·Then the living wage must to the humblest class of worker. It has to recognise a standard, and that standard must clearly be his. Otherwise, there would he as many-living wages as classes, whereas the living wage is the lowest which any male adult worker, not licensed as a slow should receive; and is based, not on the value of his work, but on his as a man in a civilized community which has resolved that, so far as laws can do it, competition shall be no longer allowed to crush him into sweated conditions." · 1919, Declaration N.S. W. Board of Trade ' (8th October).-" The princip,les underlying the judgment of 16th February, 1914, are as follows :r-:­, (1) The average cost of living shoul<;l be calculated upon the basis of the average requirements of the lowest paid , class of workers. * . * * * * * * . \ (3) The standard of living should be such as· to .provide a worker of the said class, and his said dependent family, with the normal requirements of a member of a civilized community." It would appear, therefore, that in every case or Courts and tribunals with the acquiescence of Parliaments, have deemed the first inquir:y to be what is the amount necessary to provide the of comfort for an employee's, having ascertained that - - to that amount s!wuld be the t basiC or hvtng" wage. And, further; In making the Inquiry Into the essentials Gf comfort, no Statute and no decision disctimina.tes between the standard reasonable for one type of employee and that which reasonable for another type._ · · ·

·-545 ·

17

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- It was not- contended at any tin1e during the inquiry that it makes a difference to the amount for

1 a reasonable standard of c0mfort under the section of Rent or of Food or of Miscel­ . laneous Requirements whether the _ employee is a skilled or an unskilled worker; 'Nor was an attempt made to establish any distinction in the section of Clothip_g, as far as the .wife

or his children are concerned. The only point, therefore,. in which a difference is arguable Is as ·to the regiinen of clothing 'for the man. There is no decision to suggest to the Commission the conclusion the skilled 1apourer ought to have a different " reasonable standard ot comfort " in respect of clothing than the unskilled. \Vhat is more important than the absence of decisions

is that there was no evidence before the Commission establishing such a as being found to exist in actual fa,ct. On the contrary, all the showed. that,_ except for special occupational clothing, sensible wage-earners of all occupations dress very alike.

The Commission, therefore, determined, so far as men's clothing is concerned, 'to base its finding upon articles of a descriptioil. and ·quality such as are ingredients; common to all the wage-earning classes, of a reasonable· standard of 9.-ress. So far· as the number of these ' is concerned, that has been determined by excluding all special

occupational clothing, and estimating what ·the duration of an , article of ·selected quality would be according · to the average " severity " on ,_ clothes of all A selection so made will ·confonn to all the statutory or judicial definitions quoted above and also to _the main principle _ of the modern -regulation , of wages :i n Australia,. viz., that ·even humblest worker ought to receive a wage which ·will afford him " •

standards of comfort" in regard to "all matters comprised in the ordinary expenditure of a household." This course will also avoid the pitfall of supposing that, because the humblest worker ought to be paid the "actual cost of living according to reasonable standards of con1fort;" therefore actual cost of living according to reasonable standards of comfort" be ascer,

tained by finding what the humblest· worker does actually expend. That supposition involves ·a preceding assumption that the humblest worker does actually obtain reasonable standards of comfort by what he actually spends. · Whether he does or not can obviously be proved only after first defining the measure of comfort which it is reasonable that he should have. ·

· Nor would it matter ,logically whether the Commission arrived at the in, view of the navvy's requirements or the bank clerk's, as long as with regard to each item under discussion those requirements coincided with what the Commission concluded wo-qld be common to wage-earning classes. The me.th.od suggested by Mr. Martin would.have led the Courts

into the labyrinth of finding a number o.£ different basic wages for different types of worker. To ' be consistent·, each individual of each type would need a basic wage to ,himself, according to his own standards anq habits and those of each ,of his family. . · . .. · .

' From all the cases it is clear that the Courts consider that the true statement is ''the basic . . wage is that which will meet the cost of living," not "the cost of living is what the basic wage-earner spends." The. Commission, therefore, . has determined reasonable standards of' comfort·, not by reference to any one or group of but by 7efe::ence to the are .

common to-all en1ployees, following the accepted pnn01ple that there Is a standard of hv1ng below which no employee should be asked' to . \ I

With the authorities quoted above, which deal with the legal obligation in Australia to / pay a basic wage, may be compared the following extracts -from the Tentative Budget Inquiry conducted in Washington D.C., by Mr. Royal Meeker, Commissioner -of the Bureau of Labour Statistics, U.S. Department of Labour in year 1919 . · · . . .

p. 5-" The minimum of health 'and comfort level..-This represents· a slightly higher level than that of subsistence; providing not only for the material needs of food, shelter, · and body covering, also for certain comforts, f$UCh as clothing sufficient for bodily comfort and to the wearer's instinct of self-respect and decency, sorne in·surance

against the more important disability, and fire..-good education .

for the children, some amusement, and som_ e expenditures for self development.". p. 7 -"Budget of llealth and Decency not intended as an ideal." ..-It neeqs to be emphasized that the budget level adopted in the present study is · in no way intended as an ideal budget. It was intended to establish a bottom level of health and decency below which

a family can not go without danger of physical and moral deterioration. This budget does not include n1any comforts which should be included in a proper ' American standard of living.' Thus no provision is directly made for savings other than insurance, nor ·for vacations, nbr for books and other purposes.

. "On the other hand, a family with the items listed in this budget should be able to maintain itself in health ·a.nd modest comfort. It would have a sufficiency of food, respectable clothing, sanitary housing, and a minimum of the eesential ' sundries ' ". F.17723.-2 ·

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WHAT ARE REASONABLE STANDARDS OF COMFOR,T.

Little need be said as to the standard- of comfort as the measure of the cost of living. The . expression '' current human standards" used in the Harvester Case (2 C.A.R., p. 4) and accepted everywhere in the Commonwealth . as the ground work of ·wage inquiries, s.uch standards of comfort as are attained,. according to 'general usage, in a household whiCh hves

moderately and without ei.ther or extravagance. The term used in the Letters Patent, "reasonable standards of comfort," made it the duty of the Commission to ascertain, by the evidence of temperate-minded witnesses, familiar with our current and by applying its own ledge-representing, as it did, the community gene:r:ally-of Australian to · that evidence; what amount would satisfy the reasonable claims of the employees to enJOY family life in comfort. In the Tentative Budget Inquiry conducted by Mr. Royal Meeker, it is· said that three conceptions distinguished previous Budget studies:..-

1. The pauper or poverty level. . 2. The minimum of subsistence level. 3.' The minimum of health and 'comfort *

In the Tentative Inquiry referred to, the last these conceptl.ons followed, and, Your Excellency's Commissioners have pursued a similar aim and sought to find the amount which will provide real but moderate comfort in each section of this Inquiry. Nothing less than this standard would conform t6 the definitions, and their implications, of the Letters Patent.

In no point has the present investigation more valuable ·than in the public ventilation of ideas as to what is necessary for comfort. Many extravagant claims were put forward in the belief still widely_ cherished that any tribunal will be likely to adjudge somethi:ug near to what is asserted. Experience showed even with regard to matters well within the lifelong experience of every member of the Commission, some witnesses were ready to imitate the litigant who concludes his declaration for damages to a little finger by the pompous assertion "and the plaintiff claims £1,000."_ The evidence of such witnesses the Commission regaTds as, at the best, misdirected propaganda, and, at the futile imposition. · Apart,

however, from witnesses more interested in tactics than in truth, evidence throughout the States as to the currently accepted standards of the main items of family life was copious and trustworthy. · ·

BuDGETS.

In order to get as much light as possible on the current habits and standards of the people, the Commission invited the public to fill up household budget forms during a period of four weeks. A specimen of the budget thus circulated is printed; in an Appendix to the • Though over 9,000 forms were issued, only about 400 w;re returned to · the

Commission, a _ result due, no doubt, to the exacting labour necessary to fill in a multitude of details, every one

An examination of the returns leaves no doubt that this method, though frequently adopted, 'is not effective . even tq discover what is the general level of expenditure. And, of course, the level of expenditure is not per se a criterion of the-level of comfort.

Subject to these the Commission has made use of the Budgets returned,

not as guides to. what the standard of living ought to be, but as · indications of tendency in the. distribution of expenditure, and for related purposes. Even in such respects it has to be borne in mind that the returns are made by persons as a rule unskilled in a matter. which requires ,careful and detailed recording such as one wQuld expect of a competent bookkeeper. ·

Tii:E CITIES VISITED.

. . ' (

The Commission decided that evidence should be ,confined to the six capital cities, chiefly on · the ground of the expense and delay involved in extending the inquiry any further. the application of the Commission's findings to country centres is, to a great extent,

a matter of adapting those findings to country conditions upon material that can be obtained readily without oral evidence.

· To the six capitals, Newcastle added on account of tlie great and industrial

importance of that city, but the evidenc.e was limited to the Section Rent, since in all other Sections, according to the statement put forward by the Federated Unio:qs, and not disputed, cost of living is the same as in Sy_d_n_e_y_._· ____ . ----------------'----"-----

* Page 8 of Tentative Inquiry.

·5 7

19

BA.s1c WAGE FOR CouNTRY TowNs. I .

· With regard to basic wage for the larger country towns, such_ as in the past have been the subject of separate 'adjudication, it is considered that the machinery for the automatic adjust­ ment of the basic wage in the cities which has been suggested under Division III. of this Report. could be utilized just as ·easily to determine what the same standard of comfort would cost i:n the country towns as for determining what the standa.rd of comfort costs at different times in the sa1Jle city. It has not, however, been thought advisable to delay the completion of this Report in' order to enable what is solely a matter of calculation and adjustment upon lines that are already clearly laid down, to be investigated.

It is understood, therefore, that the same standard of comfort as regards the size o(the house, and , other specified conditions relating to it, and also as Clothing, Food, and ·Miscellaneous items ought to be obtainable by workers in country towns as in the cities;· but the · · working out of figures for these sections jn places other than the capitals is left to the Bureau

that is suggested in Division III. , -

THE CLAIMS OF THE FEDERATED UNIONS.

In Appendix . I. will be found the claims put forward . by the Federated in ,

M.ell;>Ourne . . The claims for other capitals differed chiefly in regard to prices, the regimens in each section being substantially the same in .all the States. The total amounts of the claims at the prices ruling. the Commission sat;in the respective States as follows ,.

Melbourne Sydney •. Brisbane Adelaide ..

Hobart ..

City. Amount pet Week.

£ 8. d. I

ll 3 0

ll lO

10 16 0

ll 1 6 \

ll 9 0

ll 13 . 6

.

. \

. In 'aJl the the amount claimed by the Federated Unions and .the details' of which it was composed have been found to be open to the comments already made upon extravagance in evidence. - It is, than likely that those witnesses who did put forward 1:qflated estimates of requirements had their--cue from the claims they knew were being made.

If this were all, no great har:rn would have · been done other thari waste of time and effort, but it is possible that the knowledge circulated throughout Union circles of the amount of the claim made in their name may have disinclined capable witnesseS;- of a moderate bent of .mind, and imbued with a sense of responsibility, to come forward :with their evidence, when to do @O would

be to incur the odium of undermining contentions made in their behalf. In point of fact a gr4a t number of witnesses were called for ·and most of them had the courage to ignore the claim as put forward, and to give independent evidence as -to their experience, which showed the · 'claim, as presented, to be extravagant.

CouNTER CLAIM.

No general answer to the Unions' claims was put forward on behalf of employers, but in Melbourne a list of suggested clothing and prices, which came to be calleg. "The Counter Claim," was put in. This will be found in Appendix II., and is. the subject of comment 'in the section dealing with Clothing (vide p. 33). . . .

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!liVISION I.

THE PRESENT COST OF LIVIN.G REASONABLE STANDARDS OF • - - I ' . AND THE BASIC WAGE. _

SECTION I.-R·ENT.

GENERAL.

In determining the cost .of living in respect of the item Rent, it became important · to consider the elements of reasonable comfort in a 'house for the typical family. Those elements are-1. An allotment· of sufficient area.

2. A fairly good locality. 3. Suitable arrangement and size of rooms. 4. A sufficient number o£ rooms. . . ... , .

5. conveniences, such as bath, copper, and tubs____.all fixed.

A great deal of interesting and valuable evidence was given by architects who desire to · see a better type. of house f'or working men, with wider space than at present obtains. The C01nmission invited by Mr. Foster, for the Federated Unions, to lay· down an area of appr:oximately 6,000 square feet (e.g., 50 x 120 feet .or. 40 x 150 feet), and It was pointed out that some municipalities insisted on this as · the mini1num allot ment for new buildings. · · ·

While the Commission is' of ·opinion that such an aliotme t is in the highest degree desirable,. it is not prepared, in view of the evidence, and of what was seen during inspections, to lay · down that such an allotment is indispensable for ,comfort, and _ so to reject evidence as to rents of any houses . with a smaller area. The better course is ·not to postulate any specific

minimum area in co·nsidering houses already built, but to include the size of allotment as one of the elements which decide whether a house visited or described in ·evidence is reasonably comfortable. · · ·· · · ·

With regard to locality, it was conceded , on behalf of employers that certain districts in Melbourne might be left out. of consideration, as being congested areas in which but few houses afforded any comfm;t. These districts are mentioned on p. 22. The planning of houses, in many instances-particularly where the houses were old­ that ca·me under . notice, is totally opposed to reasonable standards of comfort. The single­ fronted house,. while not necessarily to be condemned,' is · ahnost always ill-lighted and ill-ventilated, and, as a rule, -is · arranged on what is termed the 'gun-barrel' plan, i.e., , with a long narrow passage frOin the front door, and roqms on one side of jt, till the passage merges in the sitting-room, through which the kitchen is reached. Such an arrangement entails .a great amount of unnecessary work. But, here again, in spite of this and equally serious deficiencies,, the rna tter of room arrangement can only be considered together with other elements ·in · determining whether a· house reaches a fair standard.' And so, too, but within stricter limits, as to the size of rooms

Two points, however, do permit of determination as criterions. Acc-epting current standards, no house for the typical family can be . considered to comply wit h that· family's reasonable unless it has the three elementary household conveniences of bath, fixed . copper, and fixed tubs. In some of the capitals the copper and tubs _frequently belong to the

tenants, and are movable; the houses being, in this respect, below the which should

· be observed .in The Commission and the recommendation of I:r:te!.:.

State Commission, In Its Report on Rents (Prwes Investigation No. 12), at page 49, whwh xs Ill these terms- ' , _

", 9. That the desirability of making compulsory the provision of bath, copper, and tubs in every tenement, _be brought under the notice of the State authorities." More important still is the requirement of at least five rooms. · This appeared so clear to the Commission that, at a certain stage, the Commission' having got the impression that the point would not be disputed, announced its. fntention of confining the evidence for the future to houses of that . size. · In deference, howe:ver, to _ the protest of . Mr. Ferguson, the matter was re-opened. The only consequence was a loss of time in collecting evidence as to sn1aller houses, wliile not one witness-either house agent .or medical authority or archite.ct-was found maintain that a four-roomed house was a proper standard for the typical family. The Commission had learnt from an officer of the Commonwealth Statistician's Department that in 75% of the cases, of a family of three children under fourteen, two would be of one sex, and the third of the,opposite sex. This necessitates two beq-roomk ,at least, apart from that of the husband arid wife, and, as the kitchen is always counted as a room, the four-roomed house leaves the worker without any other or social r oom than the kitchen.

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Speaking in 1914, Justice Heydon, President of .the Arbitration Court of New South Wales, thus spoke of the necessity for a sitting-room (Bulletin of New South Wales Board of. Trade, 1918, pp. 5-6) ·:- · ·

have considered whether a house with t-vvo rooms and a 'kitchen could be fairly taken as

the standarq. ,. but I think that the immense of preserving decency in the home, and the great help which reasonable house accomn1odation gives towards maintaining a good standard of manners and civilization, must require us to reject it. ' With a family of, say, two children there should be, as they begin to grow up, a sitting room, one sleeping room for the parents, a;nd one for the children."

- The United States Department of Labour Statistics· in its Monthly· Labour · Review (Vol. IX. 3, Sep.ternber, 1919) publishes the opinion of Professor Ogburn, that overcrowding begin's when the number of rooms per person falls below one. Strong confirmation of the views ' thus expressed will be found in the evidence of house

agents and housewives in every State, as -vvell as of architects and other observers. It need hardly be pointed o:ut that the New South . Wales decision referred to the housing needs of -a fa1nily containing two, not three, children, so that,. conformably with that decision, a five-roomed house is necessary for the typical fan1ily dealt with in this· R@port. Again, it was proved that modern

builders of working-men's homes provide at least a five-roomed house almost always, thus recognising t1ie popular demand. . 1

. . · , ,

It is true that the amount allowed for· Rent in the Harvester Case was the rent of a house with less than five rooms, and that the Commonwealfh Arbitration Court has, in its later d_ ecisions, brought the wage, which included the· rent Df such a house, up to date with . tp.e hel:g of the Commonwealth Statistician's figures; but evidence has never been as to current st.andards

of comfort in this respect, nor has the present point been argued or a decision given. Now _ that full opportunity has been given for provl.ng that a four-roomed house complies with a reasonable · standard of comfort for the typical family, the entire absence of evidence in support of . such a . conclusion is fatal to its acceptance. , · · ' ·

The Commission gave full eolisideration the co1ltentign advanced by Mr. Ferguson­ that, in view of the fact that ' a large number of 'typical families do actually live in four-roomed houses because of the present shortage.of houses, the Commission's finding as to the '' cost of living'' in regard ·to housing ought to be ba.sed upon the ' rent of a four-roomed, not of a

five-roomed house. It was urged that if" the rent of_ a ·:five-roomed house was included in the Commission's finding, then many fa1nilies would receive in .the basic wage a sum for rent which would not be spent on rent. En1ployers, it was said, ought not to be called upon to provide money except for what is actually · ·

On the other: hand, it was considered by. the Commission that its quest being the · cost of living a9cording t o standards of' com.fort," then, since a five-roomed house is necessary fo r the reasonable comfort of the typical fa1nily, the .present-day rent of such' a house is part of the actual cost of living at the standard described. Though this disposes of the argument

as· to insufficient supply of frve-roon1ed houses, one or two subsidiary points may he mentioned. The most important is that a great nhmber of typical families are actually living in five-roomed houses, and that if the basic wage were lowered by the difference between their rental and the rental of a four-roon1ed house, such families would be penalized to the extent of this reduction, only other are putting up with less thaJ.l ,proper - accommodation. r

It is more in accordance with what is fair that these latter families should receive ·what will procure them the normal standard if or when they can obtain five-roomed houses. The amount over a;nd above their actual rent while living in four-roomed houses may fairly be regarded as - enabling them to obtain other comforts as a balance or compensation for the deficiency in their

housing accomm.odation forced upon them by existing circumstances. Finally, if the Commission adopted. Mr. Ferguson's argument·, it might equally be urged tbat there are -'not.enough four-roomed houses for .the families of our cities, and many are .in fact compelled to live in three-roonled ·, It can hardly be suggested that the hasic wage should be determined as to its 'rent

c9ntent upon the three-room.ed ho,:use. .

OwNER OccuPIERs.

The evidence brought. to light a fact not very generally recognised, that 'in certain suburbs of every city a large of workmen ow , or are in course of purchasing, their

homes. This .. applies cliiefly to. suburbs wh.ere large s-q.bdivisions for .this class bf home have been made in the past. The Commission cannot, however, exclude, by reason of this fact, the item of re:q.t from the actual cost of living, because-, (i) rent is one of the" matters in the ordii:lary expenditure of a household"

(Clause 1 of the Letters Patent).'

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(ii) The basic wage being the_ same for owners, or rent purchasers, reil.ters, the two latter classes-probably by ,far the largest number of the working class -would be exposed to sharp privations if they had to meet rent purchases or rent from the residuum of the ascertained of living. (iii) Where the · home is already for, the owner has, as a rule, purchased future

\ immunity from r,ent by of self denial: and he ought not to be o£ the henefits he ha$ thus .bought. (iv) No _ tribunal has ever omitted rent from the actual cost of living. · The :qgures . of the 1911 Census for houses owned and houses rented in the capital cities and suburbs were 116,308 and 202,135 respectively. The houses owned would include those of the well-to-do those in course_ of rent purchase. , /

RENT BAsis oF THE CoMMISSioN's FINDING.

· Throughout this Report, therefore, the rental found by the Commission as a necessary item jn the actual cost of living; according to a reasonable standard of comf9rt, will be the rental. ordinarily ·paid by the tenant of a five-roomed house in sound tenantable condition ; not actually cramped as to :;tllot1nent; situated in and provided\ with ?ath, copper and

tubs. . . ' ·. · ) -

Further, Commission has taken the rent actually being paid· by tenants, not the rent which _ a house would bring _if re-let to a new tena,nt, the .latter rent being almost universally higher as a result in the main of the shortage of houses. \

MELBOUR.NE EviDENCE.

. The Commission took evidence with regard to the following suburbs :"-Prahran, Hawthorn, Btunswick, Flemington (including Newmarket. and Kensington), Essendon (including Ascot -Vale and Moonee' Ponds), Cpburg, Northcote, Williamstown, and also from ,the group, which r Mr. Ferguson conceded (vide, page 20 of -this Report), be omitted fromconsideration,not as I entirely condemned but as containing undesirable dr congested areas :-Richmond, Footscray,

Nor:th Melbourne, Collingwood, Carlton, Port Melbourne, Fitzroy, South Melbourne. Evidence .was ll also given as to Sandringham; Brighton, Malvern, St. Kilda, and Camberwell, described by Mr.

) 1 11

Ferguson as specially and' therefore (he not a 'fair average of 'residential

· districts. In view of the general character of the standa-rd adopted, the ,Comrr1ission has :p.ot found it necessary either to include or exclude of the areas respectively mentioned' for those · purposes in Mr .. Ferguson's suggestions. .

Leading h'ouse-agents of and the suburbs dealing with this class of property were calle4, the practice being for witnesses to give the aver:age rental of of a stipulated size on their books, and, in many instances, to. produce complete lists of ho:uses and addresses in their hands for letting. _ They were then further in order to sift out from the reckoning,

houses definitely above or definitely below a fair .and reasonable standard of comfort, as this term has been explained above. Finally, in a great number of cases, such witnesses were asked to state what, in their locality, was the rent of a five-roomed house conforming to such require- . merits-as those now summarized above. · . . -

The witnesses of this cla_§s furnished evidence ,as , to the rentals of approxirnately-1,334 ' houses in all, and of 452 five-roomed houses. Another class of e; idence was the rentals shown in municipal books. These comprised about 8,000 houses in all, but it was seldom possible to get the number of five_ -roomed

separately. Twq more . serious drawback_ s to this class of evidence that it does not . contain any information as to the condition of the 4ouses, or the size of allotlnents or any other detail of suitability, nor could witnes.ses-, official as a rule, supplement this deficiency by their own testimony; (2) such evidence was .often as much as two years . out oft dat e since the system of

in ·Melbourne and the suburbs does not need annual collection of data. By actually

yisiting 4ouses suggested to the Commission by municipal officers as being fa-ir samples of the accommodation obtainable at given rentals, the' Commission ;found that in 25 per cent. of the cases, had gone up since last municipal of figures. · .,

Seme employees and _their wives also gave .evidenoe as to rent, but the number of these was small. PERSONAL INSPECTION. . ' '

At the conclusion of the evidence on this part of the inquiry, the Commission visited the suburbs named in order to ascertain the nature of the accommodation and the rental necessary to secure it. The system adopted was to obtain from or municipal officers, or' both, the addresses of houses which, in opinion, were fairly r.epresentative of the class of obtainable

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for the rental which, to their evidence, would be the rental ' actually being paid· by ,persons occupying a house conforn1ing to the reasonable . standard of comfort already described. These houses were then visited and facts with regard. to them noted. Th'e data thus collected· have proved of the greatest assistance to the Commission in forming its opinion as to the

necessary for rent. In no point is statistical evidence more likely to be -misleading, 9r verbal testimony to be unc9p.vincing, than in this·branch of the inquiry-in both cases because the great essential of tlie quality of the housing accommodation cannot _ be readily defined with certitude in , a return.

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:. After examining the data obtained from all the above sources, the Commission find that

the average rental, as on November I, _1920, being paid for a five-roomed house of a reasonable standard of comfort, as .defined on page 22 of this Report, is, for Melbourne, £1 Os·. 6d. per week.

EVIDENCE AS TO OTHER CITIES.

In Sydney, and in other cities, precisely the same methods of · (i11cluding

personal inspection) were followed as those described in the case of Melbourne, and ·it is only necessary,. therefore, to summarize the data collected. In Sydney, evidence was given with regard to the following suburbs :-Annandale, Ashfield, Auburn, · Balmain, ·Bexley,, Bondi, Burwood, Campsie, Canterbury, Chatswood, Coogee, Concord, Croydon, Daceyville, Drummoyne, Enmore, ·Erskineville, Haberfield, Hornsby, Hill, Kogarah, Marriekville, Mosman, Newtown,

North Sydney, Paddington, Petersham, Randwick, Rockdale, St. Leonards, St. Peters, Strath-' field, Summer Hill, Waverle¥, Willoughby. · - , · ·

The number of five-roomed houses in all the cities included in the returns or evidence· of agents, and in returns or evidence of officers is shown in the following Table:- .

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•'

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Agents.

/

Municipal or Govern­ ment Authorities.

Melbourne Syqney ..

tBrisbane Newcastle Adelaide Perth ­ Hobart ..

.. '

452 413 365 32 330 302 134

Not available. 226 8,334 1,847 19,040

1,979 106

2,028 31,532

The finding of the Commission in respect of the item of Rent Jor the cities visited. after Melbourne, the same 1nethods and standards as for l\'Ielbourne is as

Sydney Newcastle , . Brisbane Adelaide Perth ,

Hobart

£ s . . d.

1 2 - 0

1 " 0 6

.. . ,o 17 0

0 19 6

0 19 0

0 19 0

THE HousiNG .PRoBLEM AND THE STABILIZATION oF RENT.

The evidence brought into. prominence the continuous inprease of house repts in the capital cities 'of Australia, res..ulting from the shortage of houses during the last few Personal •contact with tenants during the course -of inquiry has led the Commission to the consideration that inadequate accommodation in houses may be a potent cause in industrial unrest. The family

oppressed by unpleasant surroundings is apt to feel that such grievances as it may have 'against the existing social order are fomented by the chronic discomforts of the space and atmosphere in which it li,ves. Discontent .on this score is increased· by the idea h,eld that the tenant of a home to-day gets less service and little improvement from the landlord for more rent.

For years past Commissions and reformers have denounced these unsatisfactory social conditions, but since little has been done to remedy them, the consequence has only been to draw pointed attention to the unequal situation of tenants when their bargain is being and to the prospect of a. remedy from that competition which, in to•

freely produced, is the sa.fegua.rd a.gainst unfair exacti8ns. Fortunately for the

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community, landlords do not, in general; press to the full the economic advantage they possess under present circumstances. The evidence showed in all the capital cities that it is the practice or _landlords not to or at any rate not to raise to the full market rental, the rents that are paid by tenants who have been in long _ continued possession. Still, of hJ,te years there has been a gradual and general increase in rents, even for tenants of this kind, and when a house does become it is almost invariably the case that the new tenant is called upon to pay a higher rent.

mcreases in rent here spoken of are those 'that take place without any additional service or

Improvement being rendered to the tenant; and indee9- the complaint more generally is that are not even kept up to a pro:PJer of repair and comfort, even though the rents are

raised.

, . . The only effective cure under present circumstances for this state of . thl.ngs is a steady bmldmg programme under some form of governmental or municipal action similar to that being taken under the War Service 1-Iomes Act, whether that takes the form· of assistance to co-operative sc,hemes or is more direct. The Inter-State Commission's Report on Rents in April, 1919, dealt very fully with this matter, and described various schemes in the Commonwealth and elsewhere, including the Government's programme of building . 300,000 homes for England andW.ales, under a system of financial assistance to Local Government Authorities. The Inter-State Commission recommended (pp. 49-50) :-:- ·

"1. That the Federal Government, preferably in conjunction with State and Local Authorities, and "vith \'tpproved co-operatively managed institutions, undertake at once constructional work to meet the existing shortage of houses. It is estimated that this shortage amounts to 25,000 homes in the three eastern States. 10. Tpat action be taken, in co-operation with ' State Governments and

Authorities, for the -re-designing and reconstruction of city and subl.irban areas where the conditions are admittedly below reasonable standards of comfort." ·

O'ther _ ancillary recommendations as to supply of material, &c., be reproduced. In every city visited your Commissioners were deeply impressed with the urgency of the case. In the older parts of the cities the contrast i's striking between the fine streets and buildings on the outside of many blocks and the hovels and slums concealed in the centre. Every year of n!'lgle.ct makes the congestion worse, but.already, as .a consequence of earlier want of fore&ight, Austraha has become a country of wide spaces ·and narrow habitations. ·-

. While, however, the overtaking of supply is the only permanent remedy, another important questiOn which was not raised by either the Federated Unions or the Employers in the course of the enquiry came under observation while the Commission 'vas considering its report. Under the syst.em contemplated by the Letters Patent of adjusting the basic wage according to the purchasmg power of the pound sterling, it would appear that if rents were increased irrespective \ of any additional service rendered . by a lai).dlord to a tenant, the bas· c wage would be adjusted·

meet that increase, and the bu:rden would fall on the employer; beeause he would be paying in

mcreased wages an increased amount for rent. This opens up the question of the stabilization of rents which was one obj ective of the (lmpen:al) Increase of R ent &c. (War R estrictions) Act 1915, the New South Wales Act No. 66 of 1915, and the Queensland Act No . 31 of _ 1920. · These Acts. differ widely in their --methods determining the "standard rent" (as it is called in England), but they have these fea.t.ures

m common-1. are limited to houses· below a defined such as wmking men's

homes. ·

2. They stabilize rents as they were on a date named in the Act. Such rep.ts can only be raised' after equitable reasons, such as expenditure on improvements, are shown to a Court. ·

3. Rents are determined on the application of landlord or tenant by a Court.

The question thus opened up of the stabilization of rents is not directly ;within the s.cope of the Commission, and it is sufficient therefo:te to indicate the position, which may need to be , considered by the Governments of the several States, in view of the fact that the producers and manufacturers of a State which takes no action may be adversely affectoo in Inter-State competition.

The Comm ission desires to make it clear that the matter is dealt with, not as a matter of policy in the general case, but only under the basic wage adjustment if employers are 9ontrolled in their contract with err·ployees in such a way that theirs is the purse from which mcreases of rent must be paid, the case needs special consideration. ·It may be said that somewhat similar considerations ap;ly to otherSectio;ns of the basic wage such as Food, &c., but in no other case is competition at present so entirely absent, or legislative action so simple. · ,

·I

25

SECTION ii.-(fLOTHING. I

NeTE.-(Throughout, " ·Clothing" includes Boots and Shoes.)

GENERAL.

With regard to Clothing, Mr. Foste;, on behalf of the Federated Unions, put forward in State a claim for each member of the typical family, framed so as to show the annual cost of clothing. The items for each showed the article, its price, its expected duration or 'life,' and, the resultant annual cost. The Clothip.g Claims will be found in full in Appendix I.

, In Melbourne, Mr. Ferguson, for the Federated Employers, put forward a list <,>f suggested. clothing, alluded to as the Counter Claim. . This is printed in Appendix II . ..

AGES OF THE THREE CHILDREN.

The Clotl;ling Claim was based on the assumption that the three children of the typical family were a boy of ten, and a half years, a girl of seven, and an infant. This separation of the ages was not based on any statistical footing, but was accepted by Mr. Ferguson for the purpose .of preparing the Counter Claim. In all the States the evidence was presented on both sides on the

same assumption. . ' · , · · . ·

· ·. The Commission has found itself compelled to depart in one particular from the basis thus put forward, viz., in regard to taking tbe youngest child as an infant, and the finding of the Commission will be given on this point as for a boy of three and a half years of age . · It need scarcely be said that all three specified ages are only approximations for the purpQse of arriving at the average case, but the separation now adopted· has a sound basis, for the following reasons:-

1. Without a specific census inquiry ad hoc it cannot be ascertained what, in a family of three children under fourteen, is the average age or sex of the eldest or second or t4ird child. As to sex, statistics show that' there are about as many males as females under fourteen in the Commonwealth, and this balance of the . totals probably exists amongst families with three children und-er fourteen

amongst all . familie&. · · .

But the average age of all children under fourteen in the Commonwealth is knowJl ·statistically to be about seven. ExGluding therefore any physically possiPle, but not practically known, variations in death-rate at the various ages in the group between birth and seven, and in the group betw,een seven and ' fourteen, the average age of the second child may be taken to be seven (the

mean age of all), that of the eldest ten and a half, and that of the youngest three and a half. The exact relevant ages according to 'the 1911 Census· are 10·45, 6·47, and 3·09. 2. In all estimations of the requirements by way of clothing, close attention is necessary

' to the position, that what· has ' to be 8:etermined is not the cost initially of an outfit- or wardrobe, but of the replacement of articles as a · recurring expenditure. 'J;his has involved in every article the task of calculating its durability for its primary purpose and often, for a secondary pmpose, such, e.g., as a .second-best or a converted use . In any intelligently managed household very little is thrown away. With regard to infant's clothing the

difficulty arises that, while the typical family maintains its structure (i.e., contains three children, and no more, under fourteen), the question of carry­ over or replacement of infant's clothing is almost an insoluble one. 3. The Federated Unions' claim with regard to Food was based on the assumption that _

the third child was about three and a half years of, age. The structure of the typical family was . thus ·altered from the ages taken for Clothing. The inconsistency was ·pointed out to the parties more than once duri'ng the sittings, but neither party attached any importance to it, or (apparently) thought that the cost of keeping an infant in food and clothing taken together would be any more or any less than the same cost for a child of three and a half years. It is, however, clear, upon scientific evidence as to necessary fo od, that .a child of three and a half years needs more than an infant, and the Commission accordingly determined that it would be .more . symmetrical to take the same hypothetical age for clothing as for food, in ·case

the clothing regimen for an infant might be found to cost more than that for a child between and four years of age. This decision was reached without any comparison between the respective regimens having been made. In inquiries such as the present, no recognised separation of ages has yet been reached, nor was any specific separation of ages suggested by the terms of the Commission. In the Tentative Budget Inquiry in the United States (vide page 17 of this the sexes . and

26

ages selected for estimation were a boy of eleven, a girl of five, and a 'boy of two.

In the well-planned investigation by Mr. Giblin, the Government Statist of Tasmania, it was suggested that,_ as , the ultimate objective .of that inquiry was to . fix a minimum wage, it was desirable to take all the children as near to the of years of

possible, since families of that strp.cture would be liable to suffer privation if the cost of

living was based on the supposition of younger children. This, no doubt, is true with regard to food requirements and probably with regard to clothing, but the -Commission is satisfied that the only just basis is the average, not the exceptional, case. If the minimum wage is to cover all cases, · , then it should provide, not for children of average size, health, and conduct, but for children of the maximu1n of size (and therefore, according to physiologists, of .food requirements), ofmaximum expensiyeness for f- oetor and dentist, . and of maxi1num destructiveness with regard to their

own and others clothing, and to the equipment of the household .. In taking average ages for the three children in order to fra1ne the cost of living of a family provision for that cost is to be a permanent part of the institutions of the country) the family purse will have had during the years of earlier age of the three children advantages which, if prudently re-cognised, will obviate any inconveniences in the latter period .of 'the children's ·

For· these reasons the Commission, of returning a finding of the cost for clothing an infant, took the course of applying, with suitable modifications, the list of clothing selected as necessary for a boy of ten and a half to the needs of a ,boy of three and a half. '· vVith. regard to the sexes of the three dependent children, since in any one family there must be two of one sex and one of the other, the Commission accepted the basis on which the case was presented b.y both parties, taking the eldest as a boy and the second as· a girl. The third child has been taken as a boy for reasons give:q_ above. · . ·

There seems no ground for supposing that the total cost of clothing the children would differ from that detennined in this inquiry if the sexes were distributed at the three respective ages of ten and a half, seven, and three and a half in any oth,er arrangement as to sex than that here adopted. . · . · . ·

. The family structure thus selected is not ideal from some points of view. It is pr.obahly the rule, where there are three children, that the i:p.terva.ls of age them are less than 3-! years. Where the f hildren are nearer in age the opportunity of passing on'' out-grown garments is likely to be 1nore frequent, but the Co1nmission has felt that -the first essential was to assume a family of , such ages ·as would represent average _ expensiveness for Clothing and _ Food--the two sections of

cost which alone vary to any appreciabl_ e degree with age. · • -NATURE OF THE EVIDENCE.

In no branch of the inquiry was more ample evidence adduced by both parties, and in no I branch was the va-lue of popular participa.tion in the investigation more clearly shown, than with regard to Clothing. Only by such means was it possible to arrive at . clear determinations of a matter involving so many complicated . co'nsiderations, as doe·s the question of the amount necessary to provide a reasonable standard of comfort in dress. Commission had the advantage of evidence from a great number of witnesses, with various experience and points

of view, on the initial question of the kinds and articles of clothing which a-re essential to comfort according to current standards. · . · .

It is not proposed to canvass .in detail the evidence of individual witnesses on individual points, but a summary of the nature of the is desirable, I '

The witnesses consisted of three classes :-1. Traders. 2. Household witnesses by either party or by the 3. Volunteer being- chiefly witnesses who can1e_

forward at the desire of _ organizations, but including some individual witnesses who ·came forward out of a general interest in the evidence that was offered.

INTER-WOVEN QUESTIONS.

It is important to remmnber that material, make, duration, and number of .

garments cannot be separately considered. Within the moderate ranges of quality with which the Commission has been called· on to deal, the initial price paid will so deterrriine the material and the . make tha't the duration or life of garments will to some vary inversely with price. The universal opinion of witnesses, whether in the trade or 1n -pr1vate life, was that there is no real economy in ·n1erely buying what is cheapest to begin with. Indeed,' in many instances-and,

of CQurse, within the limits of moderate qualities-the higher-priced article is cheapest in the long run. ·

· - In view of this, the prepared, and the evidence given, alwavs directed to showing how long a given number of articles at a given price would last. . . Again, the question of total duration or life of garments IS inter-connected with the' questions 9f carry-over and replacement. The pask of the Commission being to ascertain ·what is necessary by way of replacement, it should be assumed that at the end of any postulated period (usually a_ year) would be in the house the same amount of carry-over with which to begin

5

2'7

the next period as there had been at tlie begjnning of the postulated period. It will ·readily be seen that the replacement neoessary in a. year can be ascertained from the total life of the garment. · '

If, e.g., a man's hat will last eighteen months, and a man begins 1920 with a hat, " A," which has already served twelve months, then he will need a new hat, " B," in June, 1920, which will last till January, 1922, then ·another, " C," which will in 1923, have served

- twelve months, so that the same carry-over is present in January, 1923, as in January, 1920, two new hats having been purchased 'in the three years. ·

TRADE WITNESSES.

In accordance with this principle, trade presented their lists of estimated '

requirements for replacement always in the form of the article, the price, and number required per year, while, for garments more than a year, the total life was stated.· · ·

In gauging the value · of these lists, it has to be borne in mind that the witnesses had a particularly difficult task. If a trader could sure that a customer bought exclusively from him ·over a period, he might give evidence of definite fact; but, since his customer may buyany article ot articles anywhere else, and since; in clothing, one garment so often saves wear upon another, 1 •

instances were lacking of such definite facts.' The evidence of traders, therefore, had to be, in the main, evidence of opinion, or estimation, though of the a,nd estimation of persons with unusual ·0pportunities of judging. Even so, · such evidence is not as· convincing as the of householders speaking from personal experience, especially, as in making estimates for other people's comfort, the natural tendency is to cater liberally rather than sparingly. r

Many trading firms ,assisted the Commission greatly by supplying, at the request of the . parties, lists of pr_ ices of. the articles included in the clai:rn, divided into minimum, · maximum, and fair average .quality prices. ' These lists Were prepared in advance for the Commission's sittings, and time was thus saved. In no case was any list accepted without oral examination; and tt was

generally found that by fair quality in the lists supplied witnesses meant the quality of which they· sold most to their pustomers, being at the same time a quality as to material and make which would give good wear,and appearance . • The evidence !rom the Clothi'ng T:fades in all the. capitals combined came from about 50 firms, including all the leading firms whose business 'is · chiefly or partly with the working classes,

and including suburban firms. ·

The Commission acknowledge with pleasure the help giyen -by traders with regard not only to their experience as to duration and character of garments, but also in producing samples, and, where necessary, supplying confidentially costings and other figures as to their transactions and turnover. , - ·

HousEHOLD WITNEssEs.

A number of and some workip.g men g'ave evidence as to the amount spent

in the home upon Clothing and tlie requirements· of various members of the family. The general trend of such evidence was that at present prices and with present wages, families of the typical size or larger, have short of necessary clothing or lived to some extent upon what they already had, without being able to make necessary replacmnep.ts. There can be no doubt, either, that since 1914, the standard of clothing enjoyed by families has been·lowered, or that the evidence visible

every day in the streets of a _ higher standard· of dress than that obtaining before. the war is confined to employees of either sex who have benefited by the increase of wages, based on a typical family's requirements, without having the liabilitie's of such a fa,mily. In all countries an increase in spending power is . at once reflected in expmiditure on- clothing, but , the increase in spending power in is limited to the or childless ; the family's ,spending power has been

lowered, and this has resulted in privation· chiefly regard to clothing. · ,

Instances were given of families with three or more dependent children where various - expedients, 'ingenious and occasionally pitiful, had to be resorted to in order to keep the children clad, and it was a compwn theme with married witnesses that, as the basic wage has hitherto been ascertained, the advent of a child had in their having to forego some part of

what they had qefore.enjoyed-a reasonable standard of comfort in clothing. ·And though during war-time such difficulties were borne-without repining, it is impossible to oyerlook the sense of dissatisfaction · expressed by thus affected with the present state of things. Few people realize the shifts and additionallaoour to the .housewife thus involved-labour which, when added to· the other trials of a family too large for its means, in some cases mentioned . before the

Commission, may well have been the cause of loss of health. The findi:p.gs of the Commission as .to Clothing will remedy whatever is well-grounded in such complaints coming from the typical familv. · · ,

of From the-point of view of nati-onal life, it is clea.r that t he married worker with children,

who is in receipt of the present basic wage, fin4s his position sharply contrasted-and to his detriment- with the unmarried man who, beyond the age when men usually marry, is receiving a wage which is de'em.e1 to include provision for a wife and three children, and so is able to spend

28 .

'I

upon his own clothi:q_g the whole· SUin included for the former purpose in . the basic wage. Such a position, which is not confined to Clothing, but applies to all the elements of the basic wage, may easily result in discouraging marriage and 'the growth of 'families. No reflecting mind can picture any one influence more ini1nical to national welfare, nor any country that can less ·afford to foster such an influence, than. the encouragement' in Australia· of single life (if for

motives), with its waste of wealth, its imp1airment ·of character, and its. unmanly distaste for the national duties of husbandhood and fatherhood. ' · ..

1

The household witnesses numbered 95, coming from · various callings, including, amongst others, the following :-Salesmen, lVIunicipal employees, Fa·ctory employees, Engine· drivers; Tanners, and Labourers. ·

SYDNEY.

The evidence taken in Sydney with regard to Clothing followed in the main the 1ines described on pages 26 and 27 of this Report, but it was developed more ft-i.lly than in Melbourne. In particular, the Commission had the advantage of having evidence from a great number of volunteer witnesses who came before it out 9£ a genuine public concern to have a just finding reached. This was notably .the case with certain public bodies, the Housewives' Association', the National Council of , Women, and· the Women's Service Guild . . Representatives of suc,h bodies in some instances cross­ examined witnesses called by either of counsel, and did so .with admirable point and brevity. - The President and other officer!' of the Housewives' Association, and witnesses from the other bodies named, gave evidence. The Con11nissiqn was greatly .i1npressed with the impartiality 'and exact knowledge of these public--spirited ·witnesses, and it has <;lerived great help from the ·

lists of requirements either put in by them 9r prepared at the Commission's request. . . In the course of the hearing the practice, common in all cities, came to light of some of the leading traders allowing a special discount at all times to their own salesmen. Such firms courteo'us,ly furnished the Commission with the names of employees at various levels of,salary and the amounts of -their purchases. The . Commission called the employees mentioned in camera, · and examined them so as to :find what purchases they made outside their own firrri. · It was

thus possible to obtain SOlTie fairly exact accouhts . of the purchases of individual vVearers, and to find out what . their own and family's expenditure was in fact, and what it needed to be, in order that they might have suitable clothing. . This class of evidence was later obtained. in other cities, but nowhere so fully as in Sydney.

BRISBANE.

· The evidence in Brisbane,·though very volu1ninous, did n ·t include ·any new methods of investigation. Its chief importance · lies in the fact that it showed that the clothing worn in sub-tropical Australia does not differ much from that worn in m9re southerly parts. The principal differences are in fabrics and weights, not in make. Then, again, in summer time washing-suits are worn to some extent, but by no means -qniversally ; . light tweeds being very commonly worn also ..

The Commission saw no to conclnde that the number and prices of the articles included in the Indicator List should be altered., since the same .articles, though sometimes of lighter fabric or weight, will be required ; whatever advantage may be , gained frorn th,e ,lower initial cost of washing-suits be'ing counter-baL:tneed by the additional number required to give the same , wear. Accordingly, the cost of Clothing for Brisbane has been ascertained by applying that capital's the Indicator List.

, P¥RTH, AND HoBART. ,

Voluminous evidence was given in these cities, but the only matter in the vvay of new n1ethod which calls for mention is that Perth and. Hobart, the Commission, instead of obtaining valuations of the Tentative Regin1en referred to on page 29 froJV. heads of each department in the stores, were able, by the cour,tesy of the _ firn1s ,in question, to have the valuations by Sectional Committees. In each branch of Clothing (e.g., men's clothing, wom_ en's

boots, &c.), representatives from every finn were appointed to a Sectional Committee for that·, branch. This Sectional Committee then 1na.de a joint valuation of each article in its own branch, and elected one of its n1embers to give evidence on the joint valuation and the subject generally to the Commission. '

:MEN's AND Boys' CLOTHING.

As ,in all branches of the subject, the Com.mission has·ha:d to consider the 'widely varying experience of different The witness who said he required five tailor-made suits per year 1nay have been a Beau Brununell building up a variegated wardrobe, but, apart from such extravagant assertions, there is no doubt that the· care men take of garments, their skill in buying,

and their habits, lead to /great variety in thejr experience as to the of clothing. A considerable body of evidence was given bearing the of t ailor-made as against ready-1nade clothing.' It was that there fs a widespread preference for tailor­

Inade suits, 'at any rate. for best wear, and that · as a result of shortened spending power, Inany heads of fa1nilies have taken to ready-made suits as a matter of Iiecessity.- On the other hand, the latter class o.f clothing has much improved of late years.

29

With regard to for men;s suits, it was shown that, at 'the time, Australian

tweeds afford better vahle than the imported, but that the former only supply 20 per cent. of the Qoinmonwealth's requirements. It .has consequently , not beeri possible f0r the to settle this item on the footiiig of Australian material being used. Similar ren1arks apply to Australian hosiery and underwear. . As regards' boots the positioD: is reversed, the Australian

supplJ.ing practically the whole 'o£ the consumption-by ,employees in the Commonwealth.

WoMEN'$ AND GIRtS' CLoTHING.

So far as women's· and girls' apparel depends upon woollen piece-goods, the Australian is more dependent upon: in1porteQ. than is the case with men's clothing.' The

reason is that Australian manufacturers do · not, except as to serges, cater, to aily adequate, degree, for the lighter fabrics ·used · in wo.men's costumes, &c. Nor do they or can they,. with a home market so limited, produce the desired variety of weights and. patterns of tweed. · . . In dealing -with this branch, therefore, the Corru:nission was again obliged to consider the prices of garments made .imported as well as from Australian materials, both in costumes and' in hosiery and u:q.derwear. ·

METHOD ADOPTED FOR AscERTAINING THE CosT OF NECESSARY CLOTHING. TENTATIVE REGIMEN. · At the conclusion of the Melbourne, sittings, the Commission, realizing\ that the important points of principle that had' arisen and been in ' the course · of taking evidence would be the same in all States, and, further, that the ,clothing ·worn does not differ very markedly in any of the States,_ to consider a Tentative List or Regimen of necessary clothing which

should .include all articles of com1non use. The Claim· and Claim supplied, so far only as the names of the articles vvere concerned, a satisfactory starting-point. The Comn1ission then considered the number of such articles annually necessary .for replacement selecting from a large number of exhibits produced by various firms·c-articles which conformed to the

standards presently described. The whole of the: a:rticles in the o' trial selected were taken to the States subsequently v1s1ted and the op1n1on of experts was Invited as to their general suitability in providing a reasonable standard of comfort, according to , current standards of dress for wage-earning emp1oyees. . . ·

. rhe suitability of the articles in themselves was accepted in all the States, except in the .case of one or two articles generally -regarded as " on the low side." The yxpert witnesses were not invited to express a;ny opinion as to the number of the articles so which would be necessary for the members the typical but _tbe regimen was utilized for the secondary

purpose of obtaining a comparison of prices in the different capitals.- This, indeed, is the only way in which such a co1nparison can be made, seeing that any named of clothing, such, e.g., as a suit or a costume, is ·susceptib1e of ·all degrees of value according to fabTic, 1nake, and finish, &c., and that t:Q.erefore in different cities cannot be n1ade on the strength of

mere description. · · . · . ·· . 1 . . .

THE S'I'A.NDARD.

In determining upo; the Tentative Regimen above the Commission acted on the . following principles :--;- ._

1. A good wearing quality as to fabric, and sound workmanghip were regarded as the prime essentials. 2. So far as duration is concerned, no deference was paid to the dictates of fashion. , It was not·, however, neces-sary in the case of any item to predicate a ]ife for,

clothing which would result in garments being worn till they were hopelessly obsolete , in · style. · This · paragraph concerns chiefly women's and girls' outer garments. 3. A good standard of appearance and fi( were considered essential for all outer

ga1;ments £or both. sexes. , , '

4. The regimen .was limited to the articles necm;sary ·for each person's equipment according to ·a reasonable ,standard of comfort. For this 'reason many articles of an "alternative" character, more ·· particularly as regards women's clothing, were orrtitted altogether. For wher.? such articles take the place of those

named in the tentative regirrie.q, e.g., .. a rain-coat in lieu of a top-coat, the relief thus· givyn to the :named article prolongs its-life to a corresponding and leaves the ·total ·of E:fKpenditure ,unchanged. ·

ToTAL AND DETAILEB CosT ·oF. CLOTHING IN MELBOURNE.

At the conclusion of the visits to other cities, tEe Comnussiori returned to Melbourne and reviewed the regimen in the light .. of evidence: subsegpently. received. As a result thev determined the actual cost of living according to a reasonable standard of I comfort in dress to be for Melbourne on November 1, 1920, as appears in the Table on p. 33.

I •

30

The 'details of this total will be found in the following Indicator List :­ INDICATOR LIST oF CLOTHING, MELBOURNE, NovEMBER 1, 19-20.

HusBAND.

Articles. Duration. Price. Annual Cost.

----

Suits Hat ..

Socks Ties ..

Braces

" Shirts, working , other .

Fiannels Underpants ..

Collars Handkerchiefs Pyjamas Working Trousers Overcoat Umbrella _ Boots, , best

, working

Shoes Boot Repairs Sundries

Hats

"

I

..

..

Costume, winter

"

summer

Skirt, blue serge

"

tweed ..

Blouse, silk ..

"

voile . .

"

cambric

"

winceyette

Camisoles . .

"

..

Articles.

- .. . .

' ..

..

. .

. .

..

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Combinations, woollen .. - · cotton , Undervests, woollen

"

cotton

Bloomers, winter Nightdresses .. Underskirts, white

"

moreen

Corsets - . .

"

..

Dressing Gown Aprons ..

Stockings, cashmere

"

cotton

Handkerchiefs Gossamer . .

Veil .. . .

Gloves, silk . .

"

cotton

Top Coat .

Golfer . .

Umbrella .. .

hoes, best . . s

s

- R

"

second

tippers ..

epairs, best .. , second

s undries ..

. .

..

. .

. . - . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . r .. .. - .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . .

..

. . . .

.. . .

. . . .

. . ..

.. . .

.. ..

. . ..

.. . .

. . . .

. . ..

.. ..

.. ..

. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ' . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. ' .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. '

2 to last 3 years ..

1

"

'1

" 6 " 1 " 2 1 " 1 " 3 " 1 " 1 " 4 " 1 , . . 5 " 3 2 " 1 " 2 " 1 " 6 . 1 " " .. 6 " 1 " 3 " 2 " 2 " 1 " 1 " 4 " l " 3 1 " 2 " .. 3 " 2 " 1 " 2 " 3 per year WIFE • . Duration . ' . . . 2 to last 2 years . . . . 1 " 2 " . . .. 1 " 3 " .. .. 1 " 3 " . . .. 1 " 3 , . . . . 1 " 2 , . . . . 1 " 2 . , . . .. l " 1 " . . .. 3 " 2 " . . .. 3 " 2 , . . .. 2 " 1 ,, . . .. 2 " 1 " . . .. 2 " 2 " . . .. 2 " 2 " . .. . . 1 " 2 I' .. .. 3 " 2 " .. .. 2 ' " 2 " .. .. 4 " 2 " .. .. 1 , 3 , .. .. 1 " 3 " . 1 2 .. . . " " 1 1 \ ... " " .. . . 1 " 3 " .. . . 4 " 1 , .. .. 3 , 1 , .. .. 3 , 1 , .. .. 6 , 1 , .. .. 1 , 1 , .. 1 ' 1 .. , , .. .. 1 , 1 , .. .. 1 , 1 , . . .. ' 1 , 4 , . . - .. 1 , 3 , .. .. 1 ,, 3 , .. .. 1 " 1 " .. .. 1 " 1 , .. .. 1 " 1 , .. .. 1 " 1 , .. . . i " 1 " .. . . I .. .. .. --£. 8. d. £ 8. d.

8 0 0 5 6 8

I' 1 6 1 1 6

0 ' 4 ' 6 1 7 0

0 5 0 0 10 0

0 6 6 0 2 2

0 3 3 0 .3 3

010 0 2 0 0

0 14 6 1 4 ;]

0 10 0 1 0 0

0 13 0 1 6 0

0 1 1 0 6 6

0 1 0 0 6 0

·o 19 6 1 9 3

'- .. 0 19 6 1 19 0

5 0 0 1 5 0

0 14 0 0 4 8

1 18 6 0 19 3

1 3 ' 9 1 15 7

0 15 0 ' 0 7 6

0 6 6 0 19 6

0 5 0

£23 18 0

Price. Annual Cost.

£ 8. d. £ 8. d.

. . . . 1 1 0 1 1 0

.. . . 0 12 6 0 6 3

. . . . 11 0 6 3 13 6

. • · . .. 5 15 0 1 15 0

. . .. 2 5 0 0 15 0

. . . . 1 10 0 0 15 0

. . . . 1 10 0 0 15 0

. . . . 0 15 0 0 15 0

. . . . 0 5 0 - 0 7 6 r . . . . ' 0 9 0 0 13 6

. . . . 0 8 6 0 17 0

. . . . 0 6 0 0 12 0

. . . . a 7 6 1 7 6

. . . . 0 12 9 0 12 9

. . . . 0 13 6 0 6 9 ... 0 4 ,6 0 6 ' 9 . . . . . . .. 0 8 0 0 8 0 . . . . 0 14 6 1' 9 0 .. . . 1 6 0 ·o 8 8 .. .. 1 5 0 ' 0 8 4 .. . . 1 5 0 0 12 6 . . . . 0 11 6 0 11 6 . . . . 1 7 0 0 9 0 .. . . 0 5 0 1 0 0 .. . . 0 7 6 1 2 6 .. . . 0 3 9 Q 11 3 .. . . 0 1 3 0 · 7 6 .. . . 0 5 6 0 5 6 .. . . 0 2 6 0 2 6 .. . . 0 12 6 0 12 6 .. • .. \ 0 4 0 0 4 0 .. . . 3 15 0 0 18 9' .. . . 1 15 0 0 11 8 .. . . 0 17 6 0 5 10 . . .. 1 15 0' 1 15 0 . . .. 1 1 0 1 1 0 . . . . 0 9 • 0 0 9 0 .. . . ,o . 5 6 0 5 6 .. .. o· 5 6 0 5 6 . 1 0 0 . . . . •· . £30 4 6 ' ·---

.. ·559

31

INDICATOR LIST oF CLOTHING-continued.

BoY, 10! YEARS.

I

' Articles. Duration. Price. AnilUal Cost. , -/

' ' £ 8. d. £ 8. d.

Overcoat . . ... . . . . . . 1 to last 3 years . . . . . . 2 9 0 0 16 4

Suits .. . . .. . . .. 2

"

2

"

.. . . . . 2 7 6 2 7 6

Pants .. .. .. . . .. 2

"

.2

"

. . . . . . 0 12 6 0 12 6

"

.. .. . . . . .. 2 " 2 " . . .. 0 9 0 0 9 0 Jersey · 1 2 ' 6 13 6 0 6 9 .. . . .. . . .. " "· . . . . . . Summer Coat .. . . . . . . .. 2 ·" ,2 " . . . . .. 0 10 0 0 10 0 Shirts . . . . . . .. . . 4 " 1 " .. . . .. 0 6 0 1 4 0 Stockings ... . . . . . . . . 4 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 3 11 0 15 8 Ca,ps . . . . . . .. . . 1 , , 1 " .. . .. . . 0 2 6 0 2 6 Straw Hat .. . . . . .. .. 1 " 2 " . . .. . . 0 5 0 0 2 6 Soft Hat' .. . . . . .. .. 1 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 2 6 0 2 6 Handkerchiefs 6 1 . 0 0 6 0 3 0 .. . . . . . . " " .. . . . . Braces .. .. . . . . . . 1 " 1 " . . . . . . Ol 2 6 0 2 6 Ties . . .. . , -· . . . 2 " 1 " .. . . . . OJ'1 6 0 3 0 Singlets, wool .. . . .. . . .. 2 " 2 " . . .. .. 0 10 0 0 10 0 " cotton .. .. . . - . . 2 " 2 " . . .. . . 0 3 6 0 3' 6 P yjamas .. . . . . . . .. 3 • 2 " .. . . . . ' 0 9 0 0 13 .6 " Boots, best .. . . . . . . . . 1 " 1 " .. .. . . 1 0 0 1 0 0 " school : . . . . . .. . . 2 ,., 1 " . . .. . . 0 15 9 1 11 6 R epairs .. .. . . . . . . 2 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 5 6 0 11 0 Collars .. .. . . .. . . 3 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 1 .0 0 3 0 ' £12 10 3 ------ ' GIRL, 7 Y EARS. \ ' I ' . Articles. Duration. ' Price. Annual Cost . . -\ £ d. £ d. 8. 8. Singlets .. ·' . . . . . . 2 to last 2 years . . .. . . 0 4 3 0 4 3 Stays . . . . .. . .. . . 2 " 1 " . ' .. . . 0 5 11 0 11 10 Bloomers, cot tan . . .. .. . . 2 " 1 " . . . . .. 0 3 9 0 7 6 " woollen . '· . . . . . . 1 " 2 " .. . . .. 0 8 0 0 4 · 0 P etticoats, winter . . . . . . .. I " 2 " .. . . .. 0 7 11 0 3 llt " summer .. .. .. . . 1 " 2 " .. . . . . 0 6 11 0 3 5f Dresses, best .. . . . . . . 1 " 1 .. , .. . . .. 1 -3 9 1 3 9 " voil e .. . . . . .. 1 " 1 " .. .. . . 0 17 6 0 I7 6 " .. . . . . . . 2 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 8 0 0 I6 0 J ersey . . .. . . .. . . 1 " 2 " .. . . . . 0 12 6 0 6 3 Hatsj .. . . I .. .. . . 1 " 1 " . . .. . . 0 10 6 0 10 6 " .. .. .. .. .. 1 " 1 " .. .. . . 0 4 6 0 4 6 Cap .. . . .. . . . . 1 " I " .. .. .. 0 2 6 0 2 6 P yjamas . . . . . . . . .. 2 " 3 " .. . . .. 0 11 9 0 7 10 Socks . . . . .. .. . . 4 " 1 " .. -·. . . 0 3 0 0 12 0 Handkerchiefs . . .. . . 6 " 1 " .. . . . . 0 0 6 0 3 0 Top Coat ' I 1 3 1 12 6 0 10 10 .. . . . . . . . . " " .. .. . . best . . .. .. . . . . 2 " 3 " .. . . . . 0 12 0 0 8 0 " school . . .. .. . . 3 " 2 " .. . . .. 0 11 6 0 17 3 R epairs . 2 1 0 4 6 0 9 0 . . . . . . . . .. " " .. . . .. Sundries - 0 10 0 .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ' £9 13 11 ' ,\ \ , ___

I

Articles.

Overcoat : Suits, light

"

heavy ..

Pants Jersey Blouse Coat Shirts · Stockings

Cap ..

Hat ..

Handkerchiefs Braces Singlets Nightshirts Boots, best Shoes Collars Boot Repairs . «

32

INDICATOR LIST OF CLOTHING-continued.

· BoY, 3! YEARS.

Duration.

1 to last 3 years . .

1

"

2

" 1 " .2 " 1 " 1 " 1 " 2 " 2 " 2 " 2 " 1 " 4 " 1 " 1 " ll " 1 " If " 3 " 1 " 1 1 " 2 " 1 " (2 " 1 " 1 1 " 2 , , ] " 2 " 1 " I 1a !year ..

Price.

£ s. -d.

1 1 0

0 18 6

1 2 6

0· 8 3

0 9 6

0 6 . 6

0 / 4 6

0 2 3

0 3 ' 0

0 1 . 6

. 0 0 6

0 1 9

0 4 0

0 2' 9

0 10 . 6

0 6 0

0 0 9

0 2 0

Annyal Cost.

£ s. d.

0 7 0

• 0 ·9 . 3

0 11 3

. o 8 3

0 4 9

0 6 6

0 9 0

0 9 0

0 2 0

0 1 0

0 1 6

0 1 9

0 8 0

0 5 6

0 10 6

0 12 0

0 1 6

0 2 0

'£5 10 9

The total annual amount IS £81 17 s. 5d. per annum, · before making the deductions mentioned below. . It iE; to be understood that the Cornmissio11 sense t_ his Indicator

List ,as being likely to be invariablv followed, or as setting any model to be followed. But no typical family will fall short of reasonable comfort which. is able to purchase the total annual replacements above described, and taste, buying skill, and domestic management are .at.a reasonably high level, such families will be suitably clad on all occasions, giving ·weight -w1.th1n

sensible limits to the consideration that · are a weJl-dressed community: . ' .

SALES AND SAVING BY HoME SEWING, ETc.

The Counter Claim put in by Mr. Ferguson (see. p. 25) amounted t<;> £104 15s., 10d., subject to the following footnote. At rresent prices the amount would be £118. · .

This list has been compiled \vithout making any allowance for the following:-(a) Purchasing at sale OT bargain price s. (b) Purchasing ready-made suits. (c) Home sewing and m aking up.

(d) Making down p ortion of parent s' clothes for children . . The discount to be allowed for such economies is impossible of exact calculation, bu t it iR submitted such thrift is practise,d in every well:ordered househ old, and the money so saved in the above li st can be applied in a more la vish on individual items according to personal t aste a n,d re'quirement or particular exigency. ' ·

The making ofsome garments at home from bought materials, the cutting down and adapting of garments of the parents for children, the lessening . of expense by purchases at sales or-:- other bargain-buying, are all, in varying degree, possible sources of saving. They have been considered under the heads :...-- ·

1. Commission considered that i( would . be unfair to expect that men or

their wives should buy .all clothing at sale prices. It could not, indeed, be done. On. the other hand, people of average prudence do p-Qrchase at sales to the extent of their Commission, thel'efore, first of all . ascertained what proportion of the total arriuunt of goods

sold is sold at sale time, .and at what percentage of reduction. To do this, the leadi:tfg firms doing a good mediu1n busipess.-indeed an: of them'' .household words'' in or more city;---:-were asked t:o furnish the, Commission confidentially wi-th the 'particulars as · to their business under· the heads in the folluwing Table:-- . ,

Percentage of transactions at sale tin:w in. Clothing.

Number of Firms. l 'otal Annual 'I

I

Turnover_. I

Sale Time.

Per Cent. of Total Turnover.

Average Reduction. spread over 'J.'otal Sales.

__ · _____ , ___ _ ----------·1-----r-----

31

£

15,570,877

£

3,108,854, 19•9

\.

It will thus be seen 'that the total price paid by the public for their total purchases in the year is less by about 3 per cent. than if all goods were sold at ordinary prices (i.e., without sale-time reductions): _ ,

.. The amalgamated figures given above .reveal the fact that sale-tin1e transactions are not

. mere incidental and ep'isodes, but a regular and un-iform feature of eaph year's business, ' -about 20 per cent. of all sales being effected during sale-time. Further, the Commission ascertained that the percentage reductions are applicable to " pread and butter " lines such as those utilized in the Indicator Lists, which are based on ordinary, not sale-time; prices.

It was, therefore, decided that a deduction from each of the totals of the Indicator Lists 3 per cent. should be made to allow for the a'-:':erage advantage to the housewife of sale-

time purchasing. ·

. 2. liorne-1naking, cutting-down, &c. ____:_In view of the economical character of large-scale manufacture of underwear.--in which, principally, home-making can be done-not much can be saved by making at home. Cotton piece-goods, e.g., will have carried the wholesaler's and the retailer's profit when the housewife buvs them, while the labour-cost in such garments as she would

make at home is a small element.. .; In order to determine what may be saved by cutting-down parents' garments for , children, the Commission examined the Indicator Lists to see what savings could be effected by this means. The List.s have been compiled so that the life of: each garment would be · its life for the first but it often happens that what cannot be further used for the father or mother can be_

put to some use for one or other of -the children. The Commission prepared a list of such specific garments in the Indicator Lists for the three children as could thus be saved, and their cost. It does not publish these items, since different families would· need and make different adaptations of discarded clothing. . But the amount of saving ascertained as ab9ve was found to be about 5 per cent. of the total clothing cost for the family,, and this SlllTI, it is thought, should

be deducted from the total annual cost in the Indicator List. The two deductions for sales and for cutting-down, &c., amount to 8 per cent., and the totals · shown in the Indicator Lists will, after this deduction, cost as on, 1st .November, 1920-

. I

Annually. . Weekly.

Melbourne 75 6 5 1 9 0

Sydney 70 3 10 1 7 0

Brisbane .. 67 ,, 9 6 1 6 0

'Adelaide 73 9 7 1 8 3

Perth 72 4 1 1 7 9

Hobart . .. 75 18 1 - - . .1 9 2.

These figures will thus be the final finding of the Commission as to the cost of Clothing. The follo wing Table shows the distribution o£ the above amounts according to · the component members of the family :-- " Melbourne. Sydney. Brisbane.

I

Adelaide. Perth. Hobart.

. I• £ s. d. £ s. cl. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. , £ s. d. ·-· .. . . 0 8 5 0 7 9 0 7 6 • 0 8 3 0 7 9 0 8 6 Wife .. . . . . 0 10 9 0 9 8 0 8 9 0 9 11 0 10 2 0 ' 10 6 Boy (lOi ) .. . . . . 0 4 6 0 4 3 0 4 7 0 4 7 0 4 3 0 4 9 Girl (7) .. . . . . 0 3 5 0 3 6 0 3 4 0 3 7 0 3 9 0 3 6 Boy (3l) .. . . . . 0 1 11 0 1 10 0 1 10 0 1 11 0 1 10 0 1 11 I Total .. . . 1 9 o - 1 · 7 0 1 6 0 1 8 3 1 7 9 1 9 2 THE CouNTER CLAIM IN MELBouRNE. It will be observed .that the amount found for Clothing is considerably below the amount of what was called the Couilter Claim put in by Mr. Ferguson (vide p. 19). Had this Counter Claim been accepted by Counsel for the' Federated Unions, a difficulty might have arisen, though it is practically certain ' that even then the Commission, in a matter of such n1oment and also of such complexiiiV, would have insisted upon evidence . to justify it in adopting the a1nount, mutually agreed to. As it is, the Commission is satisfied that the Counter Claim cannot be relied on as a guide, part ly because in some instances the provision of a cheaper quality has infl.ated the number of garments annually necess D,ry, and t he t otal annual co st. The Commission has asc ert ained that the Cou11ter Claim \Va s result of the advice of at one time, five, and at another tin1e, three frrms called into consultation by the legal adv.isers ·of the e1nployers, and it cannot accept · opinion thus formulated ,against the marked preponderance of a great body of testimony given in open court. F.17723.-3 .

34

SECTION III.-FO'OD.

. In the actual cost of living in respect of Food; which, throughout this Report,

will be used as including groceries consumed as food, it has not been necessary t o consider separately the several States of the Commonwealth since, broadly the standard o£ comfort for Food is the same, and -the diet of the people is the same, throughout the Commonwealth. ·

METHOD OF DETERMINING OosT oF FooD :FoR TirE TYPICAL FAMILY .

the universal consent of writers upon such questions, the sufficiency of food for any

-human being can only be stated with precision in terms of heat-unit s or calories-1,000 calories · being one Kilo-calorie or one Calorie . (spelt with a capitan. A Calorie is t he amount of heat " :required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1° Cent igrade. The Calorie value of any a!'ticle of food can be determined by laboratory measurement, and of this kind have resulted in

tables of the Calorie value of different foods being constructed, which are generally accepted. It is not a very satisfactory nomenclature which uses the same word · (as pronounced) t o denote a unit and also t he same unit multiplied by 1,000; distinguishing between t hem only by writing the word with a · capital letter the 1,000 multiple is meant; but since in the literature of the the Kilo-calorie or Calorie is always used t<;;> express the measurement of Food regimens,

that unit of measurement will be used exClusively in this Report.

1t may be as well to point out that while the method of determining the stangarq_ of food by its equivalent in Calories savours of technicality and is, therefore, sometimes ridiculed as if it Were a pedantic way of treating a homely subject, yet it is a method which, as a met hod; has given universal satisfaction under the severest practical tests, such as the fee ding of great armies and navies in peace and in war. Moreover, during the recent Great War this met hod was the basis of the rationing systems of all countries which were compelled by reason of war conditions to cond'Q.ct the feeding of their people upon a regula ted system.

, It was obvious that if the finding of the Commission as to the cost of Food was t o have any value other than that of mere assumption ·or conjecture as to the necessary quantities of a great number of articles of diet taken together, it would be necessary to adopt some recognised method of determining, in the form of measurement, the total amount of Food which was to be the basis of the finding. No other method was suggested nor, indeed, could be suggested, than that already in use by persons or authorities charged with the duty of dietary standards for

/ various community purposes. The term Calorie is really, by this time,' no more technical than such terms as clinical, thermometer, or microbe.

.,

FACTORS IN DETERMINING THE FooD ToTAL. /

The prime conditions in the of a family's food are- . / '

First"----that it shall be sufficie!!_t in food· values, expressed in Calories, to provide warmth energy, to renew tissue so as to maintain the weigh-t of t he body, and to satisfy 1

the requirements of growing and developing children. ' . _

it shall a proper proportion of the three 1nain constituents of

food, viz., Proteins, ·Which produce ·new growth or replac e tissue lost, Fats and Carbohydrates-to supply energy. Such a proportion is deemed necessary in order to obtain a proper physiological balance in the total equipment of Food so as to maintain the various functions of the body. Third-the supply must pe11mit of a variety of food for the preparation of

palatable and digestible meals.

Fourth_:_the varieties of food n1ust conform generally to t he habits of the community.

With_ regard to the first condition, the question of the number of Calories .necessa-ry for a family involves the consideration of two points-first, the number of Calories necessary for a "man" ; and second, the "coefficients" or proportions to the man-unit Calories, which are t o be adopted so as to provide for ·the wife and for each of t he children according to age. Thus, according one authority, Atwater, for every 1,000 Calories required by a man, a_ woman requires 800, a boy of 10 requires 600, a child of 7 requires 500, and a child under 5 requires 400 Calories, the total Calories for such a family being 3,300. .

35

Another of statip.g the observer's conclusions is to say that the coeffi.o1ents to he used in· calculating the -requirements of other members of the family from the requirements of the "man" are :-Man

· Woman Child (10!) Child (7) Child (3!)

1.0 .8 .6 .5 .4

Total '" • . 3. 3

Such a family would be described as .consisting of 3. 3 "man-units." ]from this it will be seen t hat the Commission's first Q.uty was .to deter'mi:q.e what number·of CaJories should be taken for the man-unit, which involved the scrutiny of a number of scientific writings, since experiments and observations have so far been entirely lacking in Australia, except for a few sporadic and desultory inquiries. However, in the United States and in Europe such experiments· and observations have been carr'ied out over a large field, and with remarkable care and preciSion. The next· step was to settle what set of coefficients sho':lld be adopted the

balance of scientific authority in its When the man-unit Calories and also the cb­

effl.cients had been determined, the tot al number of Calories for the typical family followed as a matter of calculation.· ·

I-Iaving determined the number of Calories required weekly for the typical family, the Commission made use of the Household Budgets that had been in order to insure that the necessary number of Calories should be· obtained by a diet which was in conformity with the ordinary ,habits of the people as disclosed by the Budgets. · . .

Lastly, attention was paid t o the question of variety of food and to the necessity, mentioned above, of maintaining a physiological balance between Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates. Stated in less technical tenris, the Co1n 1nission had to arrive at the cost of Food, first of all, by det er:rv.ining upon foods of st1fficient v ariet y , and in sufficient quantity, to insure for the typical

family health, energy, an& palatable n1eals according to familiar standards and habits of eating. ' Secondly; prices had t o be applied to t he dietary requirements thus £ound to be necessary. It may be mentioned t hat the first of these steps, viz., the determination of the kinds and of food, was ·complet ed b efore tile second process was begun, the Commission feeling that t.o attempt

to dictate what the food habits of t he people <;:>ught to be by selecting, as the basis of the cost of living, foods which would merely comply with .the physiological needs of the in the cheapest possible way, was a function altoget hel' outside the Commission's province. It may be tr11-e that all t he requirements, fo r life and energy, of the family table can be obtained more

cheaply by a skilful adjustment of the physiological to cheaper kinds of food than those . ordinarily consumed by t he people, ' but a reasonable standard of comfort cannot be obtained if the known tastes of the comn1U:nity are ignored. ,. The evidence and contentions on the sevetal points in controversy will now be, dealt with

seriatim.

CALORI E S FOR TH E M AN-UNIT.

A not able attempt was made by counsel for the Federated Unions to induce the to ignore st andards recognised as satisfactory by European and American authorities, and to make a new departure in diet etics by setting up an Australian standard. The Federated Unions' claim for Food was formulat ed with this objective, and will be found in Appendix I. The dietary . thus was submitted to Professor Osborne, of the Melbourne University, who gave evidence

-upon it . In Sydney, Profes sor Chapman and , Acting-Professor Priestley gave evidence supporting the claim up t o a certain point. Dr. Springthorpe, of Melbourne, was called by counsel for the Ernployers, while General Sir J ames McCay, now Chairman of the Victorian Fair Profits Coinn1ission, and Dr. Corlett e were call'ed by the Commission, the former to give evidence, which

proved to be of great value, as t o the diet of the Australian soldiers in the training-camps in Eilgland. · . , .

r In 'View of the suggestion that an Australian standard should be set up by the Commission's

finding, it became incum.bent to consider what the standards hitherto recognised by scientific writers, or adopted by foo d authorities, have been ; and also to consider what comparative value should be given to the opinions of the authors of such accepted standards, and to the arguments adduced by witnesset3 who supported the proposed new departure.

STANDARDS ASCERTAIN ED INVESTIGATORS.

It is obvious that t he resfrlts of actual experiment or observation being the foundation of subsequent scientific discussions, must . be t he prime guides for laymen to accept. There was in exist ence before the -vvar a great body of such results. But durjng the war there has been an extraordina'ry augrnentation of t his knowledge; by observations carried on with regard both to civilians and t o soldiers, whose consumption of foo \1 could be, and was, regulated under of the war in all Euro-pean countries.

I.

36

Observational results are often classified according to the occupations. included in the dietetic study in which they have been ascertained. The classifications generally adopted are: men engaged in har4 muscular work, in moderate muscular work, in light muscular work, in sedentary work. The Co1nmission fully discussed the question which of t,Jlese classes should. be taken for the purpose of detern1ining the cost of living for the typical family, and the was reached that the man doing moderate muscular work ought to be t aken as representative upon the following ,

According to aN approximating calculation, niade by the Statistician to Hhe Commission (Mr. Sutcliffe), 70 per cent. of employees in the Commonwea1th belong either to this class (which alone comprises nearly half the employees) or to the two classes-light muscular work, and sedentary work-which are below this class in point of food requirements. While a man at heavy muscular work more food than a man ·of the class selected, yet his requirements in other directions, notably as to Clothing, may involve him in less cost than the man of sedentary occupation or the man doing light muscular work or moderate muscular The rationing of civilians in England appears to have been always on the footing of an average man engaged in average work. The class here selected as furnishing. the starting point for all classes is, if anything, somewhat above the man " .at average work." Again, the co-efficients to be applied to the other of the family are always based upon the man-units, for a man doing moderate muscular work.

. PRE--WAR INVESTIGATORS.

The following authorities whose took place before the war are quoted by

Hutchison, in" Food and Dietetics," page 29 (1918), the being for the man doing moderate D;l.Uscular work:- ·

Monk Wolff Voit

Playfair Moleschott Atwater

On the same page occurs the following pasS'age :-

Calories per day.

3022 30SO 3055 3092

3140 3160 3520

"In the latest American standard (Langworthy) the loss both from waste material in the food as purchased and from non-absorption is allowed for thus-" Dietary Standard for in full vigour at moderate muscular work. Food as purchased 3,800

Food as eaten . . _.. 3,500

Food as digested . . 3,200"

It is not clear from this passage whe.t4er these figures are ,the result of actual experiment by Langworthy or _,whether they refer solely to the' division of the food as purchased, as -eaten and as digested when 3,800 Calories have been supplied, but from other sources itis found that Langworthy's figure of 3,800 is not the result of any separate investigation, }put is taken by way of a standard on which to base the above comparison. . .

· At page 32-33 of Hutchison's work a table is given of 53 sets of studies in various countries and for various, occupations. · The author then summarizes his own conclusions by saying "On examining the table it will be observed that on the whole the results conform very closely to the ideal standard already laid down. . . . r_raking the results as a whole, however, one is ' astonished at the closeness with which the actual corresponds to the ideal."

The " ideal ", thus referred to is n1entioned on page 29, where Hutchison says " The energy value of such diet is close upon 3,000 Calories. Such a standard may be regarded as suitable for a man of average build and weight leading an active life and doing a fair amount 1

of muscular

work." The standard thus referred to by Hutchison is on the, basis of food as eaten and should have; say, 10 per cent. added to it in order 'to find the amount of food . as purchased. Thus Hutchison's opinion of the final conclusion to be drawn from all the studies utilized in his work Jeads to a standard of 3.,300 Calories in food as purchased. '

The investigations quoted from above comprise all the important ones that were made before the War. During the War the whole of the Belgian population, some of whom, as is known, were kept hard at work by the German authorities, were supported on a supply of food averaging 2,000 Calories per person per day. Five persons, equalling on this basis ·g. 3 n1an-units, this would in a family bring out a result of 3,030 Calories per " 1nan " per day. In England m:;tny observations were made of the Calorie consumption amongst n1unition-workers. According to Dr. Leonard I-Iill, writing in July, 1916, (Me·moranduin No. 11. A second Appendix to Memor­ andu.m N0. 3 (Industrial Canteens)), "the investigation was made at a well-managed hostel,

37

where each worker may eat as much as he or she desires. In the dining hall th-ere are separate tables for men and women, and by weighing the food supplied to a definite number at given tables, and by weighing the uneaten residue, t:P.e cost of each ingredient being known, the management obtained the cost price of food per week . . . ." The results in

this observation showed ill: round .. figures 3,900 Calories per man. Two points have here to be noted, first that the labour of munition-workers in 1916 was notoriously intense, and, second, that where th,ere is unrestricted access to food, especially if that is with people· who have been stinted most of their lives, over-eating is likely to

In an admirable memqrandum prepared . for the New South Wales ·Board of Trade by Mr. Sawkins, the Board's Statistical Officer, in June, 1920, under Table 6, "Composition of diets of men at moderate and hard work," a summary of 18,000 cases by Dr. Leonard Hill is quoted as showing for English in 1917 an energy value of food co_ nsumed of 3,465. ·

On page 17 of Mr. Sawkins' memorandum he quotes an analysis by Professor Ogburn, of the diet of families included in a survey carried out by the United States Bureau of Labour and Statistics, which shows that for selected families the diet averaged in energy value about Calories per per day as calculated from the co-efficients used by the United States Bureau

of Statistics. · It may be mentioned that had Atwater's co--efficients, dealt with -later in this Report, been used, the figure would have been probably about 3,660 per man-unit instead of 3,500. ' ,· .

In his evidence before this Con1mission on 12th March, General Sir · James McCay gave . invaluable evidence as to the character and adequacy of the rations· supplied to the Australian soldiers in training-camps under his control. The actual dietary sheets for the. several days of the week were produced, and calculations· have been made from them, applying recognised

standards of CalO'rie value to the various food supplied. During the period when, according to General McCay,. the rations enabled troops to undergo a training as severe as it was possible to make it, and to embark for France in the acme of physical condition, the average Calories per man per day were approximately 3,500. It is of the highest import ance that these rations were

found perfectly satisfactory from the point of view of the troops' contentment, always a vital , matter. I

No doubt,· in the ordinary household the excellent economical use of every particle of food so interestingly described by General McCay in his evidence would be ' impossible, but even on the absurd assumption that the 3,500 Calories in food as purchased for the troops were to be treated as being food actually eaten-thus assuming that every particle of food, bone, rind, &c.,

was eaten-and 10 per cent. added; as is usual in allowing for waste, the result would be on1y 3,850 Calories. ·

OPINIONS oF SciENTIFIC WRITERS As To. CALORIES PER M AN-UNIT.

Passing to the opinions of scientific writers, as distinguished from actual investigations, on the question - of Calories per man-unit, it· is clear that according to opinions published both before the · War and during the War, the Atwater standard of 3,520 Calories is by no means a low one. Some authorities will now be quoted which in part recount other

investigations, and in part express the opinion· deduced by the writers in question from studies ?r investigations by themselves.

Dr. Mary S. Ph.D., Assistant-Professor, Department of Nutrition, Teachers' College, Columbia University, in her work " Feeding the Family," published in 1916, quotes from a table taken from.the or Nutrition" by Lusk, which gi:vesl the conslill).ption

of farmers In Amenca, Mexwo, Finland, and Italy as 3,551. She estimates that wnters,, teachers, bookkeepers, shoemakers, tailors, physicians, and persons similarly occupied require 2,200 to 2,800. I

Dr. Leonard Hill, M.B., f.R.R, in his revised Report re "Investigation of Workers' Food I and Suggestions as to Dietary,". Numerous investigations have shown that the energy required by a man engaged in moderately light munition work is about 3,500 Calories of food as purcha·sed.'' *

1

'

The Report of the "Working Class Living Committee 191S,'U.I{.," says-" A man in ordinary work is believed to need food producing from 3,000 to 3,300 Calories a day." The United States Department of Labour says :- " Various scientific students of food have estimated that the of Calories needed by a man at n1oderately hard muscular work is 3,500 per day." (Tentative Budget Inquiry, U.S.A., p. 15, 191_9.)

The Fourth Report of the' Factory Committee of New York, 1915, says­

" A man generally needs enough food to furnish 3,500 Calories per day."

, * Memorandum No. ll.-A second Appendix to Memorandum No.3 (Industrial Canteens). '

38 '

. In "Human Needs of Labour " by Seebohm Rowntree, March, 1918, appears _ the following , statement :-" I take the following standard as representing . the amount of food necessary for unskilled workers ·and their families :- ' Protein (gra.in s). Fuel Energy (Calories).

Men 115 3,500

Women 92 .. · 2,800

\ Children (under 14) . . . 57! 1,750

In "Feeding of the Nations," Professor Starling ·calculates the total reg\iirements of Calories in eaten food as 3,136, representing 3,450 in food as purchased. , • . Professor Starling also quotes the Food (War) Committee of the Royal Society as suggesting the followj ng classification of occupations and their requirement s in Calories:- .

Sedentary 2,106

Light work 2,406

Moderate work 2,806

Heavy work . . . . 3, 706

Treating 2,806 for moderate work as referring to food as eaten, and allowing 10 per cent. on food purchased for waste, the requirements as purchased would be 3,08.6. The Committee of the Royal Society in a Report on t he F ood Supply of the Unit ed I{ingdom 1916, said, on page 3 :-"A full consideration of the dietary requirements of a nation for the most part engaged ip active work has convinced the Committee that t hese requirements be satisfactorily IJ.let on a less supply in the food' as purchased .......... equal approximately to 3,400

Calories per "man" per day, a man being an average workman an average day's work. The Committee has adopted this as their minimum standard." A footnot e says:-" It should be noted that these figures refer to total food constituents as purchased, and not to digestible constituents." ·

The Medical Research Committee, National ·Health Insurance, in t heir -special Report, dated December, 1917, give the result o£ an inquiry into the composition of the dietaries of munition workers made by Viscount Dunluce and Major Greenwood. The 'Report says-" The data show that the material purchased for each man's diet contained . . . . yielding

energy equivalent to 3,463 Calories." . The Inter-Allied Food Commission, upon which Professor Chittenden and Professor, Lusk represented the United States, and Professor Starling and Professor T. B. Wood represented the United Kingdom, reports as follows:-'' It was decided that a man of average weight, 70 kilos

or 154 lbs., doing average work during 8 hours a day, requires food as purchased with an en,ergy value of 3,300 Calories daily." The Inter-Allied Food Commission, • however, expressed'' this opinion at a time when all the Allies were faced with the prospect of short con1mons, and possibly allowance would need to be made for the influence 'of this consideration.

Professor Starling in" Feeding of the Nations," page 48, "Laborious direct determina­ tions of the energy output of recruits in training, carried out for the Army Medical Dep;:.,rtment by Professor Cathcart [in the United States1 have shown that the needs of this class, mostly young men,eannot be satisfied with a daily ration of less than 3,750 Calories. 3,800 Calories, therefore, seems a-fair average to allow for all classes of soldiers and sailors, and t his figure was adopted by the Inter-Al1ied Scientific Food Commission for the Forces of the United Kingdom."

Professor Bayliss in " The Physiology of Food and Economy in Diet (1917)" says at page 32 :-"The following are the quantities ,which are generally accepted at . the present time as a suffic.jent daily diet for a man of average weight, doing a · moderate amount of muscular He then gives 'the details of a diet having a total energy value of 3,300' Calories.*

ORAL EVIDENCE Fo-R THE NEW STANDARD SUGGESTED BY THE UNIONS.

It has been mentioned that the· Federated Unions' Claim was submitted to Professor Osborne,' but apparently the claim for Food was not prepared under the advice of any soientific authoritv. It contained items which Professor Osborne ·states he at once recognised as being extravagant. His own method of dealing wit h the dietary was to cut it down by a

process which he himself described as applying " my opinion dv,e to experience-:-I was going to say instinct" ,(Q.20070A). In his evidence given in Professor Osborne added that when it was cut down in this way he found that it was below the ration for the United States and he therefore added in such a way as to bring it up to that level in Calorie value, with the result that the amended regimen submitted by him to the Commission pr.ovided approximately 5,000 Calories per man-unit per day. No reason was given why the ordina:ry Australian working­

man shov.ld require as much as is provided for the United States Navy, nor did the witness know of what the U.S. Navv ratiqn consisted. In point of fact, its high Calorie value is largely due to ..,.._..,..,_ ________ ( ( .. * h is p. 30. where the last column, if calculated according to the figU es fo ; energy value of F9qd Supply qf t4a Society, wqul\l in a of · '

! '

5 7

39 ·

the amount of pork and .cocoa it contains, these articles having a very high Calorie value per gramme. It was further suggested by this witness the. Australian habitually eats more than people in other countries, and the eating of ·our travellers at railway

refreshment rooms and the Continental caricatures of the Britisher as a weedy and underfed individual were alluded to as supporting the position that Australian__s .are ·heavy eaters in comparison with Englishmen. Except with regard-to no attempt wa& made by the witness to prove t his position by reference to statistical or other records. ' - · ·

' this evidence was given the memorandum already referred to by Mr. Sawkins (vide page 37) has appeared, and it contains a ca:cefully worked-out demonstration of the writer's view that, t a-ken as a race, eat than Englishmen. It is not, necessary

for tpe Commission to express an opinion upon this point further than to say that it be , acting altogether without evidence to base a decision on, the assumption that Australians eat more than their own race does in other countries. It may indeed be taken for granted that a larger proport ion of Aust ralians obtain what is necessary in the· way of food than do the citizens of any other pountrv, but this does not involve the in£erence that the Australian who obtains what is necessary eats more t han the American or the Englishman who obtains what is necessary.

\ It may be noted' that in training camps for soldiers in the United States, according to Professor Ogburn, the food consumed showed an energy value of 3,900 Calories. l!e' quotes fr om a study reported in the "American Journal of Public Health,'' June, 1919. This figure may be compared with the figure of already mentioned as the number. found to be

adequate for Australian trainees according to General McCay's evidence. So far as it goes, this comparison would prove that the Australian habit is to consume less, not mo.re, than the American, under similar circumstances: ·

The opinion·of the Commissimi as to the value 'of Professor Osborne's evidence given in March was read by the Chairman on 24th September, in the following circumstances : About a "' month after giving evidence, Professor Osborne had published a book, "Elementary Practical which, according to its preface, "represents the course · of elementary

instruction in practical biochemistry . . . found suitable for large classes and local

conditions."

At p. 100 the following .occurs :-'-"-­

/ Human Calorie Requirements per ·diem.

Sedentary . . 2,700

Light muscular work 3,000

l\tledium muscular work 3,500

Heavy muscular work 4,500

On p. 102 it is . said that a diet satisfying inter alia human· requirements for moderate muscular work can be made up of-Protein Carbohydrate

Fat

506 Calofies 2,075 "

705 "

3,286 Calories

. These passages confirmed the authorities as to a standard of 3,500 calories, all ·of whom the witness had invited the Com.mission to discard ( Q.22490). - The passages were quoted to counsel at the sittings of the 31st and Professor Osborne was recalled at the request of the Federated Unions on 24th September. -. He then informed the Commission that he had seen

the book after giving his evidence in March, and before its publication, and that the figures ...., quoted slipped in by inad-vertences, that the book was not intended for the public, but only for students, who would use it in conjunction with its ap.thor's explanation of its mistakes, and that there were worse errors than this in the book. The Commission had before the sitting formulated their comment s on the March evidence, and in view of the witness's adherence to the position which his own work (published-while the controversy was fresh in his recollection) undermined, and of his efforts to 'lead the Commission to treat all writers of repute as obscure out of date, the

Commission's comments were read by the Chairman with the concurrence of his colleagues.

Since then Professor Osborne has been supplied at his request with a copy of these comments, which are now to be found, together with a rejoinder by the witness and notes by the Commission, in Appendix III. This rejoinder Comtniesion has closely examined, and it is satisfied that its

comments made on 24th September are just, and that the want of care admitted by the witness in the preparatio'n of hi's book for publication was also shown in of his evidence tending to support the ne': standard put before him by the V:qions. '

. In Sydney, Professor Chapman made a Report suggesting a man-unit standard of 5,000 CaJones. This was put forward as an appropriate figure for a man doing moderate muscular on the ground that such a n1an might be called upon from time to time to do heavy

muscular work, but such a reason would render all classification nugatory. · It might equa.lly be saia that the man at moderate muscular work should only receive what the man of sedentary occupation needs, since bn Sundays and holidays -he is free to sit down all day. Professor Chapman admitted quite frankly that it was " 'pure assumption" that the average Australian worker needed 5,000 Calories _ per day (Q.45056), and that investigations during the war had not altered the recognised standard for the aver·age worker (Qs. 44993-44994), 3,500 Calories being "the authoritative figure" (Q.45174).

Acting-Professor Priestley, also examined in Sydney, at first supported a standard of 5,000 Calories, largely on ground t hat food having been cheap and plentiful in Australia, it was the custom of most people to eat more than they req.uired, and, further, that the average Australian is very wasteful where food is concerned.

/

Following up Professor- Cathcart's determinations, th.e witness said in the course of his Report:-" Laborious direct determinations of the energy output of American recruits in training during the war have shown that the needs of this class cannot be satisfied with a daily ration of less than 3,750 Calories. If we take 4,000 Calories for an average 'man,' I think it allows for a reasonable margin fbr Australian, conditions for calculating the Food requirements of women ai1d children. In my experience of working class families it is the man of , the house who eats the

most, and particularly the most of the high Calorie foodstuff, meat, arid I think a safe outside margin 'for him is , 5,000 Calories, which is among the highest figures given for hard work in other countries." ·

In the course of his evidence. this witness Ufade it clear that he relied upon " the social habits of the people" in support of the new contention. It was then pointed out to him that the current prices for the dietary he postulated, if. applied to a family of man, wife, and three children, would absorb the whole of the then basic wage in Sydney, that is to say, that such a family would have nothing which to pay rent, purchase clothing, or meet any other requirements whatever. It was further pointed out to the witness that while many complaints had been made to· this Comn1ission of shortage in other respects, no family l;l.aving three dependent children had complained of any shortage of food . The witness then admitted that this fact indicated that a good deal of this assumption as to the social habits of -tlle people."'"' went by the board" (Q. 45353). He had already stated that there no scientific 'basis for dieting in facts at all that

are (Q.45306). . '. -·

Dr. Springthorpe, who was called in Melbourne on behalf of the employers, made ·the foFowing suggestion in his Report:-" Under all the circumstances as known to me, it seems that for us in Victoria some 4,000 'Calories' ' per man' per day, _ if. suitably sele.cted, should safeguard the dietetic requirements of a healthy man on medium work, the number and kind being varied as per approved scale, according to age, .sex, and season."

I t " •'

· Dr. Corlette, who was called in ·Sydney by the Commission, gave it as his opinion that Atwater's figure of approximately 3,500 was still the most authoritative standard, but in a letter to the Comn1ission, dated 11th September, 1920, he said that, after a olose study of the position for nearly three months, for the purpose of a memorandum for the New South Wales Board _ of Trade, he was satisfied that "the Calorie standard for moderate work should not ·be more than that of the Inter-Allied Food Commissi0n, viz., 3,300 Calories, as purchased." By the courtesy of the New South ·Wales Board of a copy of this mmnorandum, which had

been, on the 27th of September, ordered to· be printed., has been furnished to this Commission. The memorandun1 contains an exhaustive discussion of the • whole position up to date, 'and gives reasons for supposing that a man in the northern parts of the United States of America requires "not less than 200 Calories per day beyond the requirements of an otherwise individual living in Sydney." (cf. Mr. Sawkins' view p .. 39 of this Report.) He further says that "after

careful consideration, my own conclusion is that Atwater's standards are than merely safe for the United States, they are over-generous. There can be little doubt, if he were now alive, he would revise them.'' , ,

In conclusion, it appears to be abundantly cleat, from authorities and from the new investigations that were for the first time in the history of this subject n1ade possible 'on a large scale, and · over extended periods, as the result of war conditions, .that . the general trend of scientific. opinion is a reduction upon the standards accepted b-efore the war, and not to an

·s. 9

41

increase upon those standards, such · as it was suggested this Commission should .inaugurate. As the Sydney witnesses called by the Federated Unions abandoned, in effect, the ·position taken up in the they had written beforehand in support of the new standard of 5,000 Calories, · the case for that standard depends solely on the evidence of Professor Osborne already dealt ,

with. . ' . . .

PHYSIOLOGICAL BALANCE·.

' '

It is not necessary to at length tl1e question of the requ,isite physiological balance betwee)l Proteins, Fats, and Carbo-hydrates. \ The saying of Bayliss, " Take care of the Calories and the Proteins will take care of themselves," is .quoted with .approval by other writers, and has received a singular confirmation from experience according to the testimony of Professor Ogburn. Mr. in his Memorandum, page 10 :-

"The extensive household Budget Inquiry carried out by the U.S. Bureau of

Labour Statistics, in 1918-1919, which covered nearly 13,000 families in 92 towns and . cities in the United States, has been analyzed regards diet by Professor Ogburn. The method of survey was such tnat usually the agent could obtain accurately from the housewives . information with regard to the amount and price of the 145 articles

of food scheduled, only for a short period, such as a week, and had to compute the yearly · consumption by, multiplication, due consideration .being given to seasonal variations and family circumstances. The work was done, states Professor Ogburn, with extreme care, and the result may be accepted as within a· narrow margin

·of error if the survey be regarded as a cost-of-living study, . and not a dietary study. Professor Ogburn states that it seems impossible to get some single unit of measurement for the adequacy of qiet. A partial solution at least is however, he considers, afforded by the fact that those dietaries of the survey which yield 3,500 Calories per man per day are usually abu.ndant and varied enough to be fairly well balanced, and fairly adequate in the amounts of t,he necessary constituents."

. It would .thus appear that if the diet of 3,500 Calories per man unit pet day is obtained 'by a family purchasing their food according to ordinary eating habits, the food of the fam]ly will­ it mjght almost be said, autom.atically-conforn1 to a proper physiological balance. The generally accepted balance is, according to Bayliss (Physiology of Food and Economy in Diet, page 32), the

following :- - · ·

-· '

- Weight Weight in Oz . Energy Value in Calories.

'

I

I

l

Protein .. . . . . . . . . 100 3·75 ·400 I

Fat . . .. . . . . . . 100 . tJ 3·75 900

Carbohydrates .. . . . . . . 500 18·00 2,000 I · '

Total energy 3,300 Calories.

F!NDING AS TO CALORIES PER MAN.

Upon a ;review of all the authorities and considerations mentioned above, the Commission came to the conclusion that it was advisable for them as a Commission of laymen to ground their decisions upon facts actually and it appeared that the conclusion reached by Atwater that 3,500 Calories is a just measure of the food requirement of a man engaged in moderate muscular

work, had in its favour-first, that it was obtained as the result of actual investigations by an observer universally regarded · as being in the first flight ; second, that it had been supported at least as l;>eing liberal, by subsequent observations carried out over a scale and in diversified · conditio'ns such as could leave no doubt of the value of the results obtained. Nor can there be any question that this standard would be regarded by scientific authorities to-day as a perfectly

safe figure from which to commence the building-up of a family dietary. . I

The Commission, however, deems it desirable, and even necessary, that definite dietetic studies on a comprehensive scale should be undertaken in Australia under Government auspices. · In our Universities and in the men best qualified for such investigations are too

fully occupied 'o/ith their ordinary work to give the time that is necessary for such a research to be of value. This end can only be achieved by a highly qualified observer or observers devoting .full time to the purposes of the inquiry. In particular, questions of diet in the trqpical and sub-tropical parts of call for attention.

42

Co-EFFICIENTS. . _

The Unions contended that the Commission ought to adopt the co-efficients of the Inte ... ' Allied Scientific Food Commission rather than those of Atwate,r. The following table exhibits various sets of co-efficients, including th9se just mentioned :- ·

TABLE I.

(Adapted 'from p. 21 of Memorandum by Mr . Sawkins.) Scale of Co-Eificients f or Memhers of Typical Family. ' - EngeL Rnbner. Atwater. Znntz. American Langworthy. J,usk. .Hol)sehold.

:Man . . .. 1 •00 1 ·00 1 ·00 1 ·00 1 •00 1·00 1·00

Wife . . .. •857 1·00 ·so ·so ·so ·S3 ·S3

Boy of lOt .. '571 •492 - ' ·60 ·75 ·75 •60 · 83

Girl of 7 .. •486 •45 •50 ·w ·75 ·50 ·70

Boy of 3l .. •371 •354: •40 •40 •15 •40 •50

Total, Equivalent 1\ian Units .. .'3 ·285 3'296 3•30 3'45 3•55 3 '33 3 •S6

The mean of the first six of the above authorities for the family is 3·368 equivalent man units, approximating very closely to of Atwater, adopted by the Commission. . The question of the set of co-efficients to be adopted in conjunction with the number of Calories per man-unit is interwoven with the preceding part of this discussion, because in many

instances it occurs that an investigation has been made not with individuals but with families-· the investigator afterwards dissecting the total consumption in Calories of the family, and assigning to each member that membees share according to one or other set of co-efficients . . The position may be illustrated by assuming the consumption of the typical family to

be 19,300 Calories per day, and. distributing this among the members of the family according to the co-efficients of the Inter-Allied Food Commission and of Atwater.

TABLE II.

Inter-Allied ;Food Commission. Atwater.

Co-efficients. Calories. Co-efficients. Calories.

Man . . .. . . . . 1• 0 5,000 1 •0 5,S50

Wife . . .. . . . . ' ' 83 4,150 ·8 4,680 Boy of 10! . . .. . . . . '83 4,150 '6 3,510 Girl of 7 . . .. .. •70 3,500 '5 2,920 Boy of 3! . . .. . . . . '50 2,500 •4 2,340 3 •86 19,300 3 ' 3 19,300 It seems not improbable that, in adopting the higher co-efficients for wife and children here referred to, the Inter-Allied Scientific Food Commission was influenced to some extent by the consideration that the objective of its work was the rationing of entire populations, so that one ground of the preference for the higher co-efficients may have been t hat these would permit of a greater amount of food supply for the growing population of the Allied countries, with a corresponding reduction for the parents, who may best be called upon to bear any shortening of the food supply. It will be seen from Table II. that, under the Inter-Allied Food Commission's co-efficients, all t he children f!et more and both the parents less, than under Atwater's co-efficients, the fami ly consumption being the same. · I n his evidence in Melbourne Dr. Springthorpe urged that the co-efficients for young children were too high, particularly in taki;ng the consumption of the average of all children up to five years of age as being half that of a man. He had never, he said, seen a child of five eat half an average man's consumption. . In Sydney, Acting-Professor Priestley, who had strongly advocated the new co-efficients, said when the co-efficient for a child from was put to him in this homely way that it was too high, that it was absurd that a child of 3 should .eat half a workman's amount, and that this served to dis-establish the percentage [as being reliable] at once·. (Qs . 45358 to. 45360. ) FINDING AS To Co-EFFICIENTS. This comment would seem unanswerable, and while recognising the very great weight to be given to the decision_ of the Inter:-Allied Scientific Food Commission, ·it has been thought desirable to follow the co-efficients settled by Atwater, inasmuch as these are interwoven with the standard of Calories for the man-unit ascertained by the same investigat or and adopted bythis Commission, while the Jater co-efficients wereprobablyadoptedfor the special circumstances of the War, a view thought quite tenable by Professor Osborne, who had supported them. (Evidence 24th September, 1920.) ' '

(""571

43

_It will be seen by using Table II. above that the following results in nature a reductio ad absurdum arise from adopting Professor Osborne's man-unit basis .{5,000 Calories) and his co-efficients, which produce a family total of 19,300 Calories, if current (Atwater) standard of 3,500 Calories for a man is sufficient:-

(1) A girl of 7 requires as much as a man at moderate muscular work requires, viz., 3,500 C. (2) A boy ,of 10! requires 18 per cent. more than such a man, viz., 4,150 C. instead of 3,500 C. (3) A woman also requires 18 per cent. more than such a man. ( 4) Applying the prices used in the Indicator List, the typical family would need to

· spend on Food alone nearly £4 lOs. Od. per week. , . I

Nor do the figures adopted by this Commission depend on the authority of Atwater alone, since, as will be seen by TaNe I. on page 42 they are within · 068 of the mean of several high authorities in diet etics, including Atwat er and his successor, Langworthy, whose figure is only ·03 above At water. ·

To conclude, therefore,' as to this branch of the inquiry, it has been decided to adhere to the standard of Calories fixed by Atwater:s investigations for all the members of the typical family . If it is thought that this standard or any part of it is in need of revision for Australian conditions, that cah be done by carrying out t4e local research previously suggested (vide p . 41) .

. INDICATOR LIST USED TO ASCEETAIN THE CosT OF LIVI NG WITH REGARD TO FooD. Following out the principles already laid down in this Report, the Commission determined that the following foods and quantities would be sufficient for a family consisting of a husband, wife, and children aged respectively lOt, 7, and 3t years, where the father of the family is engaged in moderate muscular 'work. · The Calorie values here assigned to the respective foods are those adopted by -the Food Supply Committee of the Royal Society (1916), which are of highest authority. INDICATOR LIST.-FOOD.- WEEKLY' CONSUMPTION. Items. Quantity. Protein. Fat. Carbo· hydrates. Calories. - - Orammes. Gramtnes. Gtnmmes. Bread . . . . .. 20 lbs. 726 . 108 4,762 23,520 Flour . . .. .. 3 " 157 14 1,020 4,953 Oatmeal . . .. . . 1! " 110 49 460 2,787 Rice .. .. . . . . !lb. 18 1 179 816 Sago and Cornflaur . . .. l " 18 1 179 826 Eggs .. .. • ! . . 1 doz. 81 65 . . 922 Milk .. .. . . . . 7 quarts 270 31 7 397 5,688 Sugar . . .. .. . . 5! lbs. .. . . 2,444 10,230 Jam . . . . .. .. 2 " 5 1 452 1,890 Treaclf! .. . . .. pb. 5 .. 143 608 Butter . . . . . . 2 lbs. 9 769 .. 7,208 *Beef .. .. .. 8 " 550 521 .. 7,100 Mutton .. . . .. 4 " 236 434 .. 5,000 Fish . . . . .. .. 2 " 167 39 . . 1,052 Bacon ! lb. 22 136 • 1,1 73 .. . . . . .. Fruit (fresh) .. .. .. 8 lbs. 18 7 435 1,928 Raisins .. . . . . 3 3 ( 90 407 Currants .. .. .. 2 2 71 320 Potatoes .. .. 11 lbs. 90 5 734 3,421 Onions .. .. .. If " 3 \ 1 3'7 174 .. .. 8 , 33 8 147 800 -Tea . . .. .. .. t lb. . . .. .. . . Coffee .. .. .. t " .. . . . . .. ' Total per Week . . . . .. 2,523 2,481 11,550 80,823 Per man per day 109 ' 107 500 3,499 .. . . *lfl this particular, viz., that

44

I

As will be seen by the Indicator List, the physiological balanqe is duly observed, but it is desirah'e to emphasize the point that the main feature in determining the kinds and 'Yeights to foods has been the norn1al eating habits of the people, as far as it has been possible to ascertain them. The amount of meat-stuffs is below what is generally believed to have been the average

consumption of meat, before the War and the drought of 1915 c,ombined to raise meat prices to a level which is very much higher than the level in 1914. The amount of meat included in· the Indicator List is, however, approximately equal to consumed according to the household budgets received this year. · Both with regard to food in general,, and with regard to other expendi­ ture, these budgets are not very reliable, as indicating the ar.aount normally purchased by the people. In every group of income, from those below £3 per week to those as high as £5 and over per week, the budgets show that the average farr;tilies were expe;nding during the budget month considerably more tban their income. If this state of things were normal, then the tradesmen who purvey to the househo1cter would have reached the Bankruptcy Court between the month of February, when the b-L1dgets were taken, and the present date. The facts, however, suggest the conclusion that during the budgeting period, knowing tpat the·budgets were to be used for the purpose of arriving at the basic wage, householders lived rather according to their liking than according to their means, or to

their normal * This fact, however, and it seems to be a fact, renders the budgets

exceptionally reliable as an of the classes of food that are purchased when the people are purchasing ;what they like to have. The . Commission wbuld have had no hesitation in basing the cost of food upon a dietary which would assume a return , to the average consumption of meat in

1914 if it · had 'considered that this consumption was necessary for the health or

comfort of the community, since it could not be contended that' the

standard of comfort in Australia ought to be lower in the present year than it was

in 1914. But the authorities seem to be overwhelming in . support of the position that the altered habit of our people, in c·onsuming less meat, is fat from inflicting any injury to health or any hardship, provided that ·the total amount of food which is necessary is obtained. The Commission has, therefore, accepted what appear to be the present habits of the people in respect to the. eating of " . '

CosT oF FooD IN INDICATOR_· LrsT.

The prices of the ite1ns of food included iii the Indicator List are prices by inquiry from firms who gave evidence before the Commission, and all relate to the end of October. Prices for that month in all the capifal tlcities were kindly supplied by the Commonwealth Statistician and were used for comparative .as well as for arriving at prices of SDme articles for which

information was not available or inadequate. "' 'It may be observed that the relative cost of the items included 'in the Indicator List in the various capital cities agrees very closely with that shown by the index-numbers for food and groceries for October, published by the Labour and Industrial Branch of the Bureau of Census and Statistics.

INDICATOR LIST.-FOOD PER WEEK. FoR A F.AMILY oF FrvE, coNSISTING OF MAN, BoY 10!, GIRL 7, AND BoY 3f.

read · ..

lour ..

atmeal ..

ice ..

ago ..

o.rnflour ..

B F

0

R s

c

E M s

J

T B B M

F

B F

R c

p

ggs ..

ilk ..

ugar ..

am ..

reacle ..

utter ..

eef ..

utton ..

ish ..

aeon ..

ruit ..

aisins !.

urrants ..

_ otatoes ..

n'ions ..

egetables 0

v

T c

c

ea ..

offee \

..

cmdimentg

-

Unit of I Measure- ment. 4-lb.loaf 5loaves 2-lb. bag 3 lbs.

lb. 1! lbs.

"

!.lb ...

"

t lb ...

. t lb ...

1 dozen

quart 7 qts.

lb. 5! lbs.

"

2 lbs.

"

! lb ...

"

2 lbs.

"

8 lbs.

"

4 'lbs.

"

2' lbs.

"

t lb ...

"

8 lbs.

"

i lb ...

14lbs.

t lb ...

11 lbs.

lbs. 1! lb.

"

8 lbs.

"

t lb ...

"

i lb ...

.. ..

\

Melbourne. Sydney.

Price. Weekly Price. Weekly Cost. Cost. 8. ·d. £ 8. d. 8. ,.d. £ 8. d.

0 10i 0 4 4! 1 5 2!

0 6 0 0 9 0 6 0 0 9

0 4 0 0 6 0 4 0 ,o 6

0 7! 0 0 3! 0 7! 0 b 3!

0 4! 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1

0 9! 0 0 2! 0 8! 0 0 2

2 0 - 0 2 0 2 5 .0 2 5

0 8 0 4 8 , 0 8 0 4 8

0 6 0 2 9 ' 0 6 0 2 9

0 0 1 7 010 0 1 8

0 5! 0 0 3 0 5 0 0 2!

2 10 0 5 8 2 8!0 5 5

1 1 0 8 8 011 0 7 4 ,

0 10 0 3 4 0 9 0 3 0

0 9 0 1 6 0 6 0 1 0

2 1 0 1 O! 2 0 0 1 0

0 3! 0 2 8 0 5 0 3 4

0 U!O 0 ;3 0 10! 0 0 2!

0 10! 0 0 2! 0 10-§-0 0 2!

1 10 0 1 5 4 0 1 10

0 3! 0 0 5! 0 4 0 0 6

0 2 0 1 4 0 2!0 1 , 6

1 11 0 0 11! 2 0 0 1 0

2 0 0 0 6 2 4-§-0 0 7

.. 0 1 0 .. 0 1 0

-- 2 6 1! 2 6 8!

/

Brisbane. Adelaide.

I Perth. - Hobart.

. I Weekly Price. Weekly Price. Weekly Weekly PriCe. Cost. Cost. Cost. Cost. I s. ' d. £ 8. d. 8. d. £ '8. d. 8. d. £ 8. d. 8. d. £ 8_. d. 1. 0 0 5 0 011 0 4 7 011 0 4 7 011 0 4 7 0 6!0 0 9! 0 6 0 0 9 0 5!0 0 8 0 5! 0 01 8 0 5! 0 0 8l 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 7! 0 4! 0 0 6! 4 0 8! 0 0 4 0 8! 0 0 4l 0 8 0 0 4 0 8! 0 0 41- 4 0 4 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 It 0 8 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 2 0 10 0 0 2! 1 9 0 1 9 1 1 111 1 6 0 1 6 1 10 0 1 10 0 7! 0 4 6l ' o· 7! 0 4 6! 0 8! 0 4 11! 0 9 0 5 3 4 0 6 0 2 9 0 . 6 0 2 9 0 6 0 2 9 0 6 0 2 9 0 10-§-0 1 9 011 0 1 10 0 10 0 1 8 0 9! 0 1 7 0 5 0 0 2! 0 6 0 0 3 0 6 0 0 3 0 5!0 0 2! 2 4!0 4 9 2 8 0 5 4 2 ' 8 0 5 4 210 0 5 8 0 ,8! 0 5 8 011 0 7 4 010 0 6 8_ 1 2 0 9 4 0 9! 0 3 2 011 0 3 8 0 7!0 2 6 1 1 0 4 4 0 6 0 1 0 0 9 0 1 6 0 9 0 1 6 0 9 0 1 6 1 8 0 010 2 2 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 0! 1 9!0 0 10! 0 0 2 8 0 5 0 3 4 0 3! 0 2 4 0 3 0 2 0 - 1 1 0 0 3! 1 0 0 0 3 0 10 0 0 2! 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 011 0 0 2! 1 0 0' 0 a- 2 5! 0 - 1 lli- 2 2 0 1 8! 3 2!0 2 6! 2 0 0 1 7 0 4 0 0 6 0 4 0 0 6 0 4 0 0 6 0 4 0 () 6 0 2 0 1 4 0 2!0 1 6 0 3 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 3 0 1 1! 2 4 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 0! 1 11 0 0 lit 2 4 0 0 7 2 7 0 0 7! 2 0 0 0 6 2 1 0 0 6! .. 0 1 0 .. 0 1 0 . . 0 1 0 .. 0 1 0 -- 2 3 1! 2 7 1!, 2 ' 4 11! 2 8 ll! . * Western Australian Budgets-in number showed a Calorie consumption or 3,622 in 1917; _ the budgets obtained by thl.S Ehow 4,150, taking in each case all families. It is impossible to believe that in 1920, with its higher prices as a corrective, people of the Commonwealth, &E\ a normal thing, were eating 13 per cent. more than the people of Western Australia. in 1917.

\I

45

SECTION IV.-MISCELLANEOUS ' ITEMS.

. . Every knows that, apart from the outstanding of Rent, Food and

Clothing, there is a large number of items " comprised in the ordinary of a house­

hold" (to quote the terms of Clause 1 of the Letters Patent), which absorb a substantial part of the family income. Such itmns it is not easy tp group into anything more definite than ar Section known as "Miscellaneous Items." The Federated Unions submitted a Claim, which included no less than 198 separate _articles, and which (it would appear) would cover every possible · expel}.diture; either 'to replenish household equipment or to add to the. part to be taken by the

family in social and intellectual pleasures. The Claim is printed in Appendix I.

But while in the ordinary case, provision is necessary for a very extended list of separate items under this heading, the position is changed when the case is to be considered of a family · which has grown up in the epoch during which wages have been subject to judicial determination. It has been mentioned earlier in this Report that the ages of lOt, 7, and 3! years . for the three children commended themselves to the Commission as being the best approximation to the average distribution of the ages of children in the typical family. And since Arbitration Courts have fixed wages directly, and since also their awards have affected indirectly the level of wages paid in all occupations throughout the Commonwealth, it is important to @bserve that, except in New South

Vvales, it has been the universal practice of such tribunals to determine the basic wage on the assumption that the wage-earner is called upon to provide for a wife and three children under_ the age of 14 years. ' This assumption is known to be contrary to the statistical fact as to the average number of, children in Australian families, but the assumption is firmly rooted in. Arbitra­ tion Court procedure. In New South Wales there is this difference, that the family taken for the purpose of fixing the basic wage includes only two children. In the Queensland' Industrial Arbitration Act 1916, the necessity of awarding a wage 'for ·a .family containing three dependent children was imposed upon the Court by the provisions of the Statute itself. Except in the last­

mentioned instance, the assumption that the wage-earner has in all cases to support a wife and three children has its origin only in the judicial carrying out of the power to award a minimum wage.

Adopting, however, the ·assumption in question, as this Con1mission is bound to do under Clause 1 of the Letters Patent, it has next to be pointed out that inasmuch as, for many years past, ,the wage-earner is supposed to have received, speaking generally, a wage sufficient for the support of a wife and three children, that in the typical family with which this Commission ·

is dealing, and of the ages which the Comm,ission has selected as the fairest in point of distribution, has been receiving, in the form of wages, the following amounts :-PERIOD. THE CosT OF MAINTAINING-

Between Marriage and Birth of eldest child . . . . Three non-existent children. ,, Birth of eldest and of second child (viz., 3! years) Two non-existent children. , Birth of second and of third child (vj z., 3! years) One non-existent child.

Of course, previously to marriatge, the wage-earner will have received wages on the assumption · of his having to support a wife also. g , •

In view of these facts, it has seemed to the Commission that a great number of items included in the Federated Unions' Claim this section ought not to be entertained, because they relate to a replenishment of household equipment in regard to 'which there will have been substantial opportunities of keeping · that equip1nent in a sufficient condition as to nu1nber, quantity, and efficiency for the typical family to carry on without any new expenditure until the eldest child ceases to be wholly dependent and n1ay become a contributor to the fa1nily purse. A comparisoF of the Unions' Claim with the ?-rticles have been, after this process' of elimination, admitted for the purpose of determining the amount necessary for Miscellaneous Iten1s, will show what

articles, or groups of articles, have been excluded by the decision here mentioned. But, with regard to som.e other articles for which no amount has been allowed under the ·heading of Miscel­ laneous Items, the, Commission's disallowance of such articles rests upon different grounds, and rejected items of the Claim to which this remark will now, be considered.

LIFE INSURANdE.

The Commission records its considered conviction· that life insurance for the bread-winner of the family is one essential of a reasonable sta'ndard of comfort. Parents who are ordinarily thoughtful for the future of their children ' can hardly have any comfort of mind, though they may have sufil.cient for the daily satisfaction of ordinary r.aaterial wants and even .for the higher

demands of human beings living in a civilized epoch and community, so long as they are pressed by the fear that everything may be ,struck away by the death of the bread-winner himself. ' ' ,

'

"

48

13ut, though convinMd o£ the necessity for life insurance £or the bread-winner as an element of a reasonable standard of comfort, the Commission is equally clear that it is impossible to include provision for this in the cost of living, when is intended to be the foundation of the wage. Looking again at the typical family, as that term has been interpreted by the Comnnsswn, the Commission has no means of deciding what measure of actuarial p:wbability there is that such a family will be deprived of the husband and father while the family still retains in other respects its present structure. That probability will depend upon t.he present age and condition of health

of the father; upon the numerous possible accidents, either of injury or disease; and it may even include considering the possibility of the widow re-marrying. In the absence of any measure of the average father's expectancy of life, no scale of premiums can be applied. S_o far as the amount of the suggested in.surance policy is concerned, that will depend upon circumstances equally numerous and complex. Moreover, the Commission's task is to find the. cost of living on the assumption that the husband's needs are provided for, whereas upon hiS death, the structure of the family changes. In his valuable evidence before the Commission in Melbourne, Mr. C. H. Wickens, Supervisor of Census, Commonwealth Statistician's Depart­ ment, gave various figures showing the amount of premium that would be necessary in order to ensure given sums by way of insurance to the widow of a working man. Mr. Wickens expressed the opinion, however, that the difficulties could not be met satisfactorily by any scheme which would add the cost of meeting the premium for life insurance to the basic wage to be paid by employers. It is obvious that a very great number of employees who are heads of the typical family will not die during the period when that family is dependent upon them, and to provision for life insurance in' the basic wage to be paid to all married or unni.arried bread--vvinners, with or without the children of the typical family, or without any children whatever, and whether the husband survives the period of dependence of all or any of t the children, or survives his wife, would be to add an enormous burden to the obligations of

' employers in order to secure benefits which a great number, prohably a very large majority, of employees, would never need. Mr. Wickens' evidence-._ showed that he had made a very thorough study of the systems of national insurance that have been adopted in other parts of the world, and all such systems have this marked superiority over any random scheme of paying wages to include life insurance (which may or may not be taken out with the wage-element so

provided) that it is possible, by an actuarial survey of the life statistics and occupations of the whole community, both to pool the liabilities and to adjust securely the benefits, in such a way as to avoid diverting large sums of money into channels of little fruitfulness. In conclusion, the Commission wishes to state with the utmost clearness that in excluding any provision for so vital a part of th!'l comfort of a family as insurance against the death of the bread-winner, it has done so in the hope that National Insurance for such a contingency wiil be undertaken at an early date under Government auspices.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE.

For similar reasons the Commission has nt>t included any amount for unemployment insurance, as to which an additional reason exists for excluding it. It is customary for Arbitration Courts, when dealing with individu,al occupations in which frequently occurs from causes inherent in the occupat!on, so to, adjust the minimum wage to be paid under awards as to provide that on the average of the figures, including employment and unemployment, the wage­ earner shall always receive sufficient to cover the. cost of living. This method has the great

advantage over the proposal to include insurance against unemployment as ' a uniform part of the basic wage, that it permits of discrimination between occupations according to the extent to which they are exposed to periods of unemployment.

OLD-AGE ANNUITY.

Included amongst other suggestions of the Federated Unions was a proposal that the cost of living, and subsequently the basic wage, should be such as to provide for the wage-ea:uner leaving off work at 60, and then having an annuity purchased out of .the amount so included in the basic wage. This proposition is open to all the slifiiculties pointed out under the heading "Life Insurance" (p. 45), but in addition there is the objection that to do what is proposed· would be to intrude upon a province already occupied by legi slation, viz., the Old­ age Pensions Act. If the present provisions of that Act are inadequate, it is not for this Commis­

sion to suggest a change of policy involving its repeal and the substitution, of a new that of including in the basic wage a sum sufficient for the premiums of an annuitant's policy. The sum suggested hy the Federated Unions was such as would buy an of 30s. per week each for man and wife. ·

41

,

VARIATION OF BAsiC WAGE ·AccoRDING To 'THE WoRLDjs

. One witness was called in support of the contention of the Federated Unions that a scheme be recommended by the Commission, under which; it was alleged, the world's productivity

be reflected in adjustments of the basic and other wages. Apart from

the time needed to design, and the expense necessary to eqmp, the colossal apparatus that woulq be required to measure up the world's relative productivity from period to period and declare and apply the resul,ts of computation, the \matter is outside the Commission's·function as limited by Clause 3 of the Letters Patent. That function is to suggest adjustment of the basic wage , not according . to relative world-productivity (which might result in lowering or raising the Australian standard), but to the fluctuation in purchasing-power of money; the task of the Commission t herefore is not to re-organize the distribution of wealth, but the simpler one of determining what is essential for a reasonable standard of comfort, immediately and permanently obtainable. · It is inevitable that if there are richer outputs throughout the world they will be accompanied in this century by attention to the allocation of the fruits of human .

energy and skill, but other means for this are being explored, and will, it is hoped, be provided in every country that works and is self-governing.

CHURCH AND CHARITY.

No amount has been included by the Commission under this head, on the ground that for the basic wage-earner money demands for these purposes are not likely to be at all a substantial item of expenditure, There was no evidence submitted which would enable even an approxima­ tion to be made to the amount which wage-earners contribute to the support of any church, while, as to money-donations for charity, any sum allotted, if used rigidly for that purpose only, would be in reality the charity of the employer, and, if not so used, should not be included in as to the cost of living. People of limited means help one another wonderfully here, as in all countries, but this help is not s_ o much in money-donations as in the kindly personal_ offices and sacrifices that make such mutual help fa r more acceptable and useful. ' .

ALcOHOLIC AND · " SoFT " BEVERAGES.

This itein was included· by the Federated Unions in the Claim for Miscellaneous Items. There seems to be no reason ' for regarding the regular consu\llption of alcoholic or soft drinks as ess.ential to a reasonable standard of comfort. No amount, therefore, has been included under this head. The Commission's decision involves no consideration either of the desirability or undesirability of the use of alcoholic or soft drinks.

DoMESTIC AssiSTANCE.

It was pressed upon the Com;mission that the practice is almost universal for wives in the typical family to do the whole of the work, yea:r in and year out, of the home, without any domestic assistance. It was pointed out that in the Tentative Budget Inquiry in the United States, alluded to on page 17 of this Report, there was included an item for domestic assistance on one

day in each week at a cost of $2 ( = 8s. 4d.) It was therefore asked that an amount which would permit of thEJ' wife having assistance for a period of four weeks annually should be included in the cost of living. It cannot be disputed that housewives in a-typical family are amongst the most strenuous toilers in the whole community. To cook, wash; sew, and keep the house clean

and bright .for such a family requires physical work, some of it arduous, during_ a stretch of hours, and with rare intervals of relief, during the whole currency of the year.

In dealing with the cost of Clothing the Commission declined to adopt the argument that all clothing should be obtained upon a ready-made footing , as was agreed should be the case for female employees by the joint committee of employer and employee representatives in a recom­ mendation to the New South Wales Board of Trade in 1919. It was thought by the Commission that savings by cutting-down, &c., are an admirable form of thrift, and that the work involved is

not in itself the most laborious of a housewife's duties. Indeed, it is far from distasteful , as appealing to the exercise of skill and an age-long feminine art. It seems just, however, that in the course of a year the housewife should have some reward £or her skill in these and similar ,savings, and definite relief from . incessant household work.

Domestic assistance every week could not possibly be obtained-the necessary supply not being in the country- and therefore the only way in which relaxation can be provided is in the shape of an anmial holiday, and for this there has been included the sum of £4 per annum. It is · believed . that this · inclusion will benefit greatly_ the health of wives and mothers who carry daily and

cheerfully a proportion, seldom recognised, of the nation's burden of work.

,,

48

TuiTION IN Music AND

Some parents may feel keenly their inab.ility to provide tuition for children who p9ssess any exceptional gift in music or any other art. A housewife who had, as · she put it, by iron discipline, kept every member of the family up to some definite task, and who, by careful study (which even included the study of the Calorie values, &c., of foods), was able to make an inadequate income still provide her husband and children with a sufficiency of food, _ and

who was, moreover, a• skilful making all her own and her children's 'clothes,

·_was asked by counsel for the Federated Unions whether she was not at times tired of

"this slavery." While making the spirited answer that to work for her husband and children not slavery, she yet complained that two of her children -had had to go to work in order to

help the family, though each of them, she said, had some special talent which she could not afford to develop.

The Commission has to take the evidence of witnesses as a whole and not stress the view of any one witness. Very little evidence"-beyond mere suggestion-was called by the Federated Unions as to this item in their claim. No was tendered upon the question whether the daily . presence \of possible singers or potential artists in the house would add to the reasonable standard of comfort of a family of five.

To claims such as that of the· witness mentioned, the real answer is that such cases, being based upon exceptional gifts, con1e rather within · the sphere of general action in regard ­ to musical education or tuition in art i1han within the sphere of the cost of living according to average needs. From this point of view, such a claim is outside the function of the Commission

to consider. · -

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS INCLUDED.

Passing now to the in the claim for Miscellaneous Items, which can, after the matters already dealt with have been taken into consideration, be justly included in what is necessary for a reasonable standard of comfort, they are comprised in the following list:--(1) Fuel and Lighting.

(2) Groceries, other than food. (3) Renewal of brush-ware, &c. (4) Renewal of household drapery. (5) Renewal of . Crockery, Glassware, &c. (6) -Union and· Lodge dues.

(7) Medicine and Dentist. (8) Recreation, amusement, and library. (9) Fares. ' ·

(10) School requisites.

(1) FUEL AND LIGHTING.

Fuel.

Evidence regarding fuel requirement's could not be obtained on any statistical basis, but the Commission heard the evidence of wood and coal merchants who were familiar with the ordinary purchases of. a family such as that now in question, and also the evidence of house­ holder witnesses, as to the amount consumed during winter and summer ' respectively. From these data, the Commission determined up'on an annual sum which appears in the Indicator List print ed below. The amount thus determined will, according to . other evidence, .be adequate

for .gas, where that is used in substitution for wood and coal, for the purposes o£ cooking and warmth. · '

Lighting.

In respect to lighting expenses> the local' gas · companies and the supply companies or authorities in each State assisted the Commission by preparing well-thought-out returns from their books as to the cost of lighting a five-roomed house occupied by such a family as that which is the subject of this inquiry. · , In the case of electric light supply and of gas supply for lighting, it was necessary to guard

against any confusion which might arise from electric light consumers using the current for the purpose .of an electric iron,. or in the case of gas consumers fr01n their using gas for cooking as well as for lighting. The amount which the Commission has determined for lighting, therefore, excludes such user whether of electric current or of gas, and is also, in tbe opinion of the Com­ mission, a fair average amount to cover lighting by kerosene, where that illuminant has still to be ' used. The uniform cbarge, therefore, is included in t4is Report under the heading of Lighting

imply.

V I

-49 '

(2) G;aocERIES, OTHER THAN Foon.

. These include certain laundry· and -kitchen requisites. Certain articles have not been included which recur_ so infrequently that prgvision can be made for therri. out of the total weekly amount set down. (3) RENEWAL OF BRusH-WARE, &c.

, The amount allowed under this heading includes household and toilet brush-ware, and some few kitchen utensils, the wear of which makes the upon them sufficiently

frequent to justify their inclusion.

(4) RENEWAL <:m HousEHOLD DRAPERY.

. -Under importa:q.t of 1\Escellaneous Items, a great •amount of was

collected, both from trade witnesses and fron1 householders. As in the case of Clothing, trade witnesses expressed their opinion as to the durability of household drapery of given quality. In the case of blankets; in particular, it was possible to obtain evidence with. a fair amount of, definition, since there is -considerable standardization of these /articles, which, in the case of

Australian manu,facture, includes and weights. Moreover, apart from specific standardiza­ tion, certain makes and qualities are sufficiently known to ;make possible an estimation of cost by reference to such recognised lines.

The me_thod of -caJculation in this case has been to apply the evidence as to the dur-ation of articles of a given quality (this being closely related to price) in such a way as to bring out the amount annually necessary for replacement, as was done in the case of Clothing.

(5) RENEWAL OF 0ROCK'ERy, GLASSWARE, ETC. . This is an item which may vary indefinitely in homes, l?ut the amount that has been fixed for it is to' articles most often broken, such as cups, plates, &c. It

has been assumed that in t_he average household such articles will be handled with due care. I

(6) UNION AND LODGE DpES.

Union.

Since the majority of einployees belong to a Union; and since in all Arbitration Courts which are empowered to ·award a living or a basic wage, the Court can only be moved by Unions as applicants, the ordinary subscription fees to a Union are a no]-'mal part of the cost of living. They have been easily and precisely ascertained upon the evidence of, ·union Secretaries.

. Lodge. 1

Again, the majority of employees are members of some Benefit Society, and the J Lodge subscription attendance and medicil!-es ordered by the doctor for the family-,

and sick pay for the bread-winner. As the resultof a lpghly-developed system of management, which\ for many years, has been under State supervision audit, the Friendly Societies have now provided, with respect to sickness in the family, economy in contribution due to co-operation which has been indicated as one of the advantages of a scheme of national insurance against the death of the bread-winner. Had i.t not been for this, the Commission would have .had great difficulty in determining {even if it had been possible to do so at all) the amount to cover these. inevitable expenses, but as it is, it may be said that, as a result of experience, the relations between risks and benefits adjusted themselves. The Commission has accordingly taken from the statistical. data provided by officials dealing with the affairs · of Friendly Societies, the average contributions for Lodge benefits as being a fair, convenient and just measure of the · provision to be included in the cost of living for in the typical family. , .

(7) MEDICINE AND DENTIST.

In most of the States 'there exist voluntary associations of men engaged in profession of dentistry which are doing work in the public to the imporJance of the care

of the teeth. It 'is commonly said that Australians, a race, have not good teeth, and that a very large number of rejections of .re?ruits took on this Offi?e holders from -such ·associations came the Commission and explained· what_ done In each State by way of community action to bring about a general spread of reform In canng for the teeth. The system

g,dopted· by the Education D_e:partment of New South of examination children, coupled with the State's provisiOn for free dental attentiOn In. some cities, ar:d 'for travelhng dental hospitals visiting cmantry schoGls, t9 by the President of. VIctonan Odontological Society, in terms of generous .It appears to the CommiSsiOn a

?,f of teeth, :while. are at State schools, Is the .o?ly hope

. of · bringing needed Improvemel),t In thiS vital matter, but 1n the absence of provision at all F.l7723.-4

50

·large enough, in scale to be adequate, the Commission considered the evidence holding position.s who set what believed to be necessity for. the typical

!aml}y In the way of dental attentwn and Its cost. The Commission has not thought l.t necessary to attempt to, divide with accuracy the separate needs of individual members of the family; but has included' a sum thought t(} be sufficient as a general amount to be expended in the year .

. (8) AMUSEMENT, RECREATION, AND LIBRARY.

· · The claim of the Federated Unions with regard to recreation and amusement was supported by" the argument that families .shovld have a due share of the intellectual and social enjoyments of life. The argument may be conceded to be just, but it is not to be forgotten that. the best part of such enjoyments is often to be found in a family 's own resources when this family is not oppressed by poverty or the' fear of poverty. The mistake is in supposing that life has no pleasures other than .. bought excitements. It is probable that few communities possess easier I access, or access to a greater variety, of pleasure than the Australian community possesses, and

can exploit at little, if any, cost in. money. Nor eould anything be done to earmark any sum for recreations of an intellectual character. The Cominission has, therefore, included a sum under the one of Recreatio:h, Amusement, Library, leaving the use of the sum thus include_d to the choice I of the wage-·earner. The SJ.lm thus provided would, it been <;onsidered, enable a to procure a moderate measure o£ amusei.nent or ,recreation. . Nothing has beeh included for magazines, as to which the Tentative Budget Inquiry in the United States' provided at least

. )

one per week. ' ·

(9) FARES;

In all the capital cities a mass of figures and calculations submitt$d bearing on the number of carried on the trains or trams fron1 different suburban stations to the centre of the city, the cost of monthly from different and similar matters of transport

statistics. It is, however, impossible to deduce any working rule from such figures, and the Commission has provided for fares to and from work, bearing in mind the following principles.

1. 'In fixing the amount to be included in Rent the Commission treated capital city as one area, ' ,.. · ..._ - ,

2. In the industrial districts a great many employees live within walking distance of their work. Where that is the case, the saving is likely to be balanced by an increase over and above the average rental of the metropolitan area treated as a who}e'. ' -

· 3. Broadly speaking, residents of outlying districts will pay as tnuchleBs in re11t as they do more in fares from their to the mean zone of the whole area.

' . \

4. A 'sum of Is. 6d. per week for all employees has-been estimated as being, for the average amount necessary for a journey way on six working days. This permits of the · worker travelling by train or tram a distance such as is travelled by the avetage of workers. The sums for other cities have been assessed on the same footing. · · ,

5. Nothing has been allowed for exceptional cases such as are dealt _with by the Courts in travelling tinie or fares, to distaJ?,t places. ,

Finally the Commission has included such fares as are necessary, In addition to those of the head of the family in' going to · and coming from work, e.g., £ares £or the wife when doing her shopping, and for all the members of the family;, either Ill visiting places of amusement, or\ in occasi?nal seaside trips or other similar re_ quirements.

(10) SonooL REQUISITES.

The practice varies in different States as to the extent to which the State, in addition to providing free teaching, also provides free school books and free · materials. In no State is this done CQmpletely, but in of the States, the Department of Education was able to furnish the Commission with an exact statement as to details, whether of books or of writing or other school

material, which it is necessary to buy, apart from the supplies · the Department itself issues. amount included for the respective States under this heading is, therefore, the result of

. these offic1al communications. - ·

ol

- INDICATOR ITEMS.

The cost for items a;nd service included in the for expenditure

has .been .9n 1, for -

the other cities wnere variations occur. It will be obvious that for such Items as union and lodge dues;,niedicine, aentist, &c., recreation, smoki:qg, barber, the ·anowahce must be the fot each city. The variation in prices o£ fuel and light, groceries (not food), fares, and school requisites, where such occur, has been allowed for . .

MELBOURNE.

Fuei and tight=-Fuel, .It cwt. wood, at 2s. 6d. Lighting . . . .

Grbceries (not Ft1od) . . .

. . . . .

Renewals of Ho11§ehold Utetisils (General and Cooking) .. Renewals of Household Drapery, &c.- _ 1 pair D.B. Blankets, , to last 15' years, at 2 p_airs ,, ,; 15 ,

1 D.B. , 15 ,

2 S.B. Quilts, , 10 ,

1 pair D .B. Sheets , 2 ,;

2 pairs S.B. , , 2 ,

5 Pillow Slips , 1 ,

3 Towels, , 1 ,

1 Table Cloth , 5 ,

5 Servl.ettes, • P 5 ,

2 ·pairs Window Curtains, s, 4 ,

65s. each 37s. 6d. ,

69s. 6d. ,

21s. ,

28s. 6d. ;;

19s. 7d. ,

2s. 6P,. ,

3s. 6d. ,

11s. 6d. ,

2s. ,

25s.' ,,

Renewal of Household CtQckery, Glasswarei and Cutlery Union Dues . . . . . . . .

Lodge Dues . . .

. • . . .

Medicine, Dentist, &C'. . . . • . .

.. \

Domestic Assistance . . . . . .

Newspapers, Stationery, and Stamps . . . .

Recr.eation, Amusements, and,Library . .

Smoking , . . . .

. . . . . . 1 • •

Baibet . . . . . . . . •

Fares . . . • • • . . . •

School Requisites . . . . ·- . . .

.

. "·

; '

• j

•'.

:;

. ;

; ,

; .

. . .

WEEKLY CosT oF MrsbELLANEous ITEMS. . --

l Partkulars. Melbourne. Sydney, Brisbane.- Adelaide.

' .

I d. £ ' d. £ d. £ 8. a. £ 8. s. s. Fuei and Light· . . .. 0 4- 9 - 0 4 11 (J 3 zi () 4 3· 2 2 Groceries (not Food) .. 0 1 6 '• 0 l 6 _ 0 1 5 0 1 6 Renewal of Household Utensils ' 0 ' 0 6 0 D 6 0 0 6 0 0 6 Drapery 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 " " - ,' _ Crockery, " " &c. 0 0 4t 0 0 4t 0 0 4t 0 0 4! Union Dues .. ( 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 6 . •. ' .. Lodge Dues . , .. . . 0 1 3 · o 1 3 b 1 3 0 1 3 Medicine, Dentist, &e. .. 0, 0 9 0 0 9 0 b 9 0 0 g Dom_istid Assistance .. .. 0 1 6 0 i g 0 1 6 0 1 6 Newspapers, Stationery, and Stamps . . . . . . 0 1 a a 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 -Recreation, Amusements, Library 0 2 0.' 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2· 0 Smoking •' . . .. 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 b 0 2 0 Barber .. . . . .. 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 ' 0 0 3 Fares . . . . .. 0 2 6 0 3 4 0 3 4 0 3 4 ' School Requisites . . . . 0 0 3 .. 0 0 3 0 0 3 I 1 o iot i i 4 1 0 i i 1 2! --·

-- . .

Annua;l. Weekly'.

8 . d.

4 3

"5 6

4 6

4 3

i4 3

19 7

12 6

10 '6

3 6

2 0

12 6

8 .• d,

3 9

1 0

l Perth. I

I.

£ s. d.

0 5 0

0 1 6

0 0 6

0 1 9

a 0 4t

o- 0 6

0 1 3

0 0 9

0 i 6

0 1 3

0 2 0

0 2 0

0 0 3

. 0 3 4 0 0 3

i 2 2t

1

'-.

8: d.

4 9

1 6

0 6

1 g ·

0 4t

0 6 '

1 3

0 9

1 6

1 0

2 · 0

2 0

0 '3

2 6

0 3

0 lOt

-

Hobart,

£ 8. d ..

o· 3 1!

0 1 7 '

0 0 6

0 1 9

0 0 4!

0 0 6

0 1 3

0 0 9

0 1 () _

0 1 0

0 2·· 0

10 2 0

0 0 3

0 2 6

0 0 3

0 19 10

-

The aggregate of all · of the Cost of Living will be· found on page 58, and the

details of all sect ions on page 59.

I

52

DIVISION' II.

• I

THE CoRRESPONDING CosT oF LIVING IN 1914-1920.

I

I

I •

In ;the second ·clause of the Letters Patent the Commission was directed to ascertain · the actual corresponding cost of living_ for the years from 1914 ... to the present. time. The Com­ mission has so far been able to complete this. branch of its investigation for the year 1914 .. only, and it has decided to furnish a report in this Division with regard to that year, and to

await further direction from your Excellency as to completing the task under Clause'2 in respect of the subsequent intervening years. , .

The of the cost of living for1914 has been made upon the footing that the

same standard of comfort should be regarded as having been reasonable in that year as is found by the Commission to be a reasonable standard in the present year. That being so, the task under Clause 2 becomes almost entirely a' of statistics, and the methods adopted may therefore be shortly ·stated under the different heads or divisions of the cost of livi g that have been already adopted. ,

RENT .

. The rent stated as part of ·Cost of living in 1914 is the rent for a house similar in all to that .described on page 22 of ·this Report, but inasmuch as there are no statistical returns limited to the rent of houses of that description, it is necessary to as a modifying factor for bringing present day rent of such a house back to the a figure which has

been obtained by accepting the Commonwealth Statistician'.s ratio between the r,ents of 5-roomed houses as to which he collected information in 1920 ·and the rents for which returns were sent to _him in, 1914. This it has heen safe to do because the type of house as to which house-{agents have been for years past sending in their returns to the Comn1onwealth Statistician has been the

same throughout the intervening . period, and moreover house-age:f?.ts have been, the Commission ascertained during the taking of evidence, in the habit of filling · in their returns period by period from the rents of the same houses as far as possible. . To apply, therefore, to the 5-roomed house of the type determined upon by this Commission the · Commonwealth 'Statistician's ratio between the rents of 5-roomed houses· in 1920 and the rents of similar houses

in 1914 involves only. one element of hypothesis, and that is, that the rents for a house of this kind have fluctuated pari passu with the for other 5-roomed houses dealt with in the Commonwealth computations. The result of applying this method will be found in the first column of the Table on the next page.

CLOTHING.

. With regard to Clothing, 'the Commis,sion has taken into consideration the following matters in ascertaining the proportion by which the cost of living at the present tin1e exceeds the 1914 figure. , 1

1. ·The Indicator List determined 11pon has been regarded as furnishing the standard of living appropriate to the year 1914, the Commission having already, in determining upon articles and qualities for. the. purpose of this inquiry, followed the principle that the standard of 1914 was not :how to be lowered. . , · ' 1

. 2. traders in who furnished the arti.cles in have given

their valuation of those artlcles In 1914. From these valuations a ratio has been obtained between 1914 1920 for Melbourne, and this ratio has been the capitals upon the

assumption, would appear a one, that rate of. Increase In pr!ce over large a

humber of articles and so' wide a penod will have been substantially the same In all capital cities. 3. As a check upon· this method a list has been rp_ade of fair average quality garments of , the kind and of the number specified in the Indicator Lists, and .the prices as in 1914 and in 1920 from the same traders' catalogues have been calculated so as to arrive at totals 'for each

of the years compared. In view of thes'e considerations the Commiss_ ion has.' come to · the determination the cost of -the articles included in the total of the Indicator L!st (before any deduction was made either for purchasing at sales or for adaptation of discarded garn1ents) was as shown in the

Table below :- *

1914.-COST OF CLOTHING .

.

- MelbOurne. Sydney. Brisbane. Adelaide. P ert.h. Hobart.

-- I 8 . d. 8. d. 8. d. 8 . d. 8 . d. 8. d.

\.V eekly cost .. ( 17 4 16 3 15 7 r1 0 16 9 17 7

Deducting as . before (vide p. 33 of this Report) 8 per cent. of this amount for the causes mentioned earlier the final result as the cost of Clothing in 1914 is shown in the Table on the next

53

FooD AND ·GRoCERIES.

In this Section it was, as a rule, only necessary to apply prices supplied by the courtesy of the Commonwealth to the Indicator List mentioned on page 44 of this

Report, put where the prices were no_ t available frqm this source, prices obtained from various traders were utilized. ' ·, · ·

It is true that in 'one instance, viz., that of Meat, the consumption in 1914 constituted a greater proportion of the food of the family than in 1920. On the other hand, meat was in that year very much cheaper in with other main foods than it is now; but a conclusive reason for making the fihding for'l914 upon the basis· of the Indicator List mentioned above is that though the eating habits of the people were in respect of me_ at different in 1914, yet in that year the Food

described in the Indicator List would have . provided a reasonable standard of conlfort in the ordinary acceptation of the term, just as in 1920. In applying the Commonwealth Statistician's prices to the Indicator List, use has als.o been made of the elaborate list of prices and 'brands during 1914 of commodities manufactured and prepared in Victoria, and of the list of grocery prices (Melbourne) which are to be found as Appendices to the Inter-StatE( Commission Report on

Groceries (No. 6 Prices Investigation, March, 1918) . The cost of living thus ascertained for Food is shown in the Table below. · . ·

I

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS.

Methods described under the preqeding three sections have been followed under this the rell)aining one, but it has been possible to apply them with a greater use of direct comp_ arison than of percentage ratios. In this case, however, where the items :;tre somewhat diversified, it is not necessary to go into detail with regard to each item and the way in whic)l its cost in 1914 has

been computed. The total cost in 1914 under the heading Miscellaneous Items is to be found in the Table below. ToTAL CosT OF .LIVING, 1914. I

The following Table shows: for each city the relative cost in 1914 of all the items which go to make up the cost of living :- '

I

,...

Rent .. .. . .

Food . . . . . .

Clothing . . . . . .

Fuel and Light _ . . . .

Groceries (not Food) . . . .

Renewals o£ Household Utensils, Drapery, and Crockery ..

Union Dues . . · . . . .

Lodge Dues . . .

.

Medicine, Dentist, . &c. . .

Newspapers, Stationery, and Stamps . . . . . .

Recreation . . . . . . .

Smoking . .

. . . .

Domestic Assistance . . . .

Barber . . . . . .

Fares . . . . . .

School Requisites , : . . .

Melbourne.

£ s. d.

0 16 3

1 2 9

0 15 11

0 2 9

·o o 9

0 0 10

0 0- 6

0 1 0

0 .0 9 .

0 0 7! '

0 1 0

0 1 4

0 1 0

0 0 2

0 2 0

0 0 It

,3 7 9

' Sydney.

£ s. d.

1 0 0

1 4 0

0 14 11

o 3 o·

o ·o 9

0 0 10

'o o 6

0 1 0

0 0 9

0 0 ' 7!

0 1 0

0 1 4

0 1 0

0 0 2

0 2 7

3 12 5!

'

Brisbane.

£ s.' .d.

0 13 11

1 3 10

0 14 4

o. 2 1

0 0 10

0 0 10

0 0 6

p 1 0

0 0 9

0 0 7!

0 1 0

0 1 4'

0 1 0

0 0 2

0 2 7

0 0 1!

3 4 11

CoNcLUSION.

Adelaide.

£ s. d.

0 16 7

1 5 7 '

0 15 8

0 2 10

0 0 10

0 0 10

0 0 6

0 1• 0

0 0 9

0 0 71

0 1 0-

0 1 4

0 1 0

0 0 2

0 2 7

0 0 1!

3 11 5

Perth.

£ s. d.

0 16 5

1. R 4

0 15 5

0 2 11

0 0 11

0 0 10

0 0 6

0 1 0

0 0 9

r

0 0

0 1

0 1

0 1

0 0

0 2

71 2 0

4

0

2

7

0 0 1!

3 13 11

Hobart.

£ s. d.

0 11 10

1 5 9

0 16 2

0 2 3

0 0 9

0 0 10

0 0 6

0 1 0

0 0 9

0 0 7!

0 1 0

0 1 4

0 1 0

0 0 2

0 2 0

0 0 1!

I 3 1

In answer to Clause 2 of the Letters Patent the Commission finds that the actual cost of living in 1914 corresponding with the cost of living according to reasonable standards of comfort in 1920 is made up · of ilie following sections :..- . .

Table.

_, Rent. Clothing. Food. Miscellaneous. Total. Percentage of Increase, 1914--1920.

£ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d.

Melbourne .. .. 0 16 3 0 15 11 1 2 9 0 12 10 3 7 9 71;95

Sydney .. .. 1 0 0 0 14 ll 1 4 0 0 13 7 3 12 6 61•38

Brisbane .. .. 0 1 3 ll 0 14 4 1 3 10 0 12 lO 3 411 63·54 I

Adelaide .. .. 0 16 7 0 15 8 1 5 7 0 13 7 311 5 62·54

Perth .. .. 0 16 5 0 15 5 1 8 4 0 13 9 3 13 11 54·11

Hobart .. . .. 0 11 lO 0 16 2 1 5 9 0 12 4 3 6 1 76·92

54

OBSERVATIONS AS TO THE BASIC WAGE. IN 19l4 . .

It will observed th;1t the cost of living ftScertai:ned by th.e p:recedil)-g methods fo:r l9J4 is ,higher tlJ.e wage. Of ,the, minimum W&ge which was _ordinarily awarded' by various· ATbitration TTibunals within the Commonwealth. 'The Teasons foi; will be found i;n as to of the W on 1J et seg.

Shortly stated, the main Teason for the difference between the finding given by the Com.mission and the various basic or minimum wage levels that were in foTce in the Commonwealth ip. 1914 is that the various Courts, in the under which they made their awards,

working assumptions, the :has :J)OW been . for . the

time provided by. your Letters to investigate by continuous pubhc

the to which . working assumptions are found to be borne out by the

facts with regard to the aetual cost of living acco:rding to current of reasonable oomfort.

1-

•

/

\ .

\ ,.

' .

;....

.. \

55

DIVISION Ill.

fo-uTOMATic ADJUSTMENT OF THE BAsic WAGE.

Method of Ad}ustment,

The object. which it is desired to attain by a scheme for the automatic adjustment of the . basic .is in the spe,ech of the Prime already quoted: "That within the limits

o£ at least the sovereign shall always pl!-rchase the same ,amount of the necessaries of life." (In this quotatidn as in 3, the "sovereign" is to be regarded as synonymous with the pound Througho1.:1-t the investigation and more particularly in determining upon or principle of ascertaining the cost of section of living expenses, the Commission

ha§ borne. in mirid the necessity. of adopting such methods as would result in creating the opportunity . for devising a practically workable under 3 of the Letters Patent.

. Had the scope of the inquiry of the Commission been confined to the actual c9st of living at the present time its proceedings would have been simplified. But under Clause 3 of the Patent" the Comniission hlits to inquire "how tJ:!e basic wage may he auto- ·

matically adjusted to the rise and from time to time of the purchasing power of the sovereign." The term autonl&tic· is used in this clause, amd the Commission has to consider what it means .. It is clear that the purchasing power of the soverei.gn will not automatically adjust ·itself to the basic wage vnless the basic wage is regulated. 'The moving force which is to "automatically"

adjust the basic wage to the rise and fall from time to time of the purchasing power of the. sovereign must be derived from without. \ . , ·

. The Basic Wage should follow as closely and as rapidly as p!acticable the variations in the purcha.sing pewer of the pound sterling so that the wage ear:p.ed will ahya ys purchase the same qua:p_tity, and. q:ualit3; of articles which go to make UJ? standards

of. corn,fort without having an Investigation before a Wages Board, Arbitration Court, or other industrial tribunal, often a and costly 0 I 0 • 0 It would, therefore, appear that this CommJSSion IS asked to suggest some snnple and effec- 'tive method whereby the above re$ult might be obtained. _ ' · First, it will be necessary to devise some automatic machinery whereby the __ variations in the purchasing po_ wer can be ascertained at stated pe).'iods. . . In United Htates, the Bureau of Labour Statistics of the Labour Department carries Ol.lt all inqlliries industrial This Commission does not suggest the ·creation of a. new Department of Labour, but it that for t1he purpose -of collecting the necessary data should be established, for which the officers should be drawn from existing departments whe:tte similar is done so that no new appointments would be necessary. With the Indicator Lists in Part I. the variations w_ ould be adjusted according to the following sections · · · 1. ' 2. Clothing. 3. Food. · 4. Miscellaneous. . . The next or second step will be to give effect to the finding as to the cost of livii1g based upon the 'results so '!his could be done i_n the manner. _ -Upon receipt of a · certificate · from the chief officer of the Bureau at regular periods . the Commonwealth Arbitration Court, satisfying itself of the accuracy of the finding stated in the certificate, would apply that finding in _determining the basic wage to be legalized by whatever methods Parliament deems fit to prescnbe. Assuming that- the findings of the Commi$sion under Clause I. of the Letters Patent_ are. made the ba$ic wage by some form of legislative action, the does not think it desirable to prescribe minutely the "methods to be adopted by such a Bureau for the·purpose of bringing the basic wage into line with prices. It would, e.g., be for the Bureau to ascertain ·at the prescribed period, the rent of such a house ·as has been described in this Report. The might be those adopted by the Commission or such better Inethods as tin1e n1ight suggest. With regard to the is for .a -practical authority to closely ordeF the .compansons from t1me to time of prlces apd quahties of the in the Indicator List. A selection . of ·according to tp.e prices in those lists has been made .by the CommissiOn arid can be retained as standards whwh could provide · one method of tracing ,fluctuations , in price. But this requires care and personal inquiry from traders. Other methoas 'and checks are various but they need ·not be detailed. A similar but easier task of the Bureau would be to apply ·current prices to the Indicator List of Food and to . the List of Misoellaneo11s Expenditure set out in the Report. . OF FOR AuTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT oF THE BAsic WAqE. Difficult questions aris·e in determining how long the interval should be between each declaration as to the oost of living. The following· matters have to be borne in n{ind. · First dl.lring i,nterval the worker who a wage as fixed fit

56

beginning of the interval will be worse off ·or better off according as the cost of living up or comes down. Second, employers naturally desire as great a m_easvre of stability as can be obtained, and therefore desire that should be as prolonged as possi1:>le. the Arbitration

Court has o:rdinarily taken about a year as the shortest interval for the basic wage in the light of cost of living fluctuation.

Dealing first with the first of these positions, it has been the case during the last six years that the cost of living has always been rising. As a result wage which at the beginning of any one year was, or was deemed to be, sufficient to m_eet the cost of living was bound to be insuffi­ cient during some at least of the time before the next-fixation of the basic wage. If, on the

other hand, a period of falling prices were to set iri, the wage-earners would, during any interval, be receiving n1ore than the amount necessary to meet the cost of living until the ensuing fixation of the oasic wage ascertained to what figure that ought to be reduced.

, Next, with regard to the desire of the e1nployers for as great a n1easure a.s possiole of, stability in the wage, the risk they run as the result of wages increasing as the cost of living increases is that they may enter into contracts, either for construction work or for the supply of goods or -servjces or for at prices based on the wage at the tinJ.e of contracting, which prices may

proye unprofitable if wages rise before the termination of the contract. In the case of contracts which permit of it, this difficulty can be got over by a clause such as is now common, providing that prices to be paid shall increase correspondi:agly with any increase in the declared basic wage. But a great of business is carried on under arrangements-which do not permit of such a saving c1ause.

vVith regard to readjustment at intervals not shorter than1a year, the Arbitration Court has taken the view that in re-stating the basic wage, the fluctuations for at least one year should 'be applied for the following reason. Some of the staples of life, e.g., eggs, meat, butter, fruit,· and vegetables, are dearer in winter than in summer so that to fix a basic wage at the end of winter taking into account only the fluctuation during, say, the last quarter, would mean increasing the basic wage by what is . probably the maximum fluctuation in the price of necessaries during the· year. On other hand to fix the bask wage on the fluctuation during the summer months as ascertained at the end of the summer would have the opposite effect, and, to equalize the contrary tendencies, a year is taken from which to n1easure the fluctuation which is to be applied. In choosing: then betweel?- quarterly or or yearly re-adjustments of the basic wage to the purchasmg power of mo:J!ey these seasonal Influences have to be considered.

The Federated Unions sugge·sted that adjustments should take place every quarter, but upon t his principle. · It should be assumed that whatever tendency, of increase or

decrease ih prices, was disclosed by the examination at the beginning of any given ,quarter would continue till at least the middle of the ensuing intervaL There should then be a projection, so to speak, of the adjusting ratio between prices at the beginning of the interval and prices durina the preceding quarter, in such a way as to make the basic wage anticipate a continuance the first half of the ensuing quarter of the ratio so ascertained. In this assumption the would agajn be better off or· worse off according as· prices were found to have fallen or to have risen since the ' preceding quarter. There is therefore no special reason fo;r preferring this system to a simpler one. .

Apart from reasons of business and contracts, the more closely the fluctuations in the cost of living are reflected-automatically in the ?asic wage, the more equitable the system would be.

s? far as business or risks are _ concerned, em:rloyer who ?as .to deal upon

the footing of short term dehvenes will be. by having hiS wage obligation known at short intervals, while as to long term dehver1es the employer can only be prejudiced in the first of the pos-sible cases .. ,First, >if c?st. of living rises during the cur:r:ency of a contract ; second, if it remains stati?nary; tinrd, If falls. In any .ev:ent an employer can in

rnany instances safeguard .himself by the . savm& clause for a . shifting pnce already alluded to.

The Com1nission therefore sugges_ ts an interval which will reduce to a not figure the risk o! being paid little. interval three months would produce

this effect. · It IS very unhkely Indeed, .that with an Interval pnces can so seriously rise as to jeopardize the worker''s And there is the contrasted chance

always that pnces will and the wo!ker , Again, It IS necessary that the adjustment

should t2Jke place up'on a system whiCh recognises the seasonal character of the fluctuations in price of corinn_odities, and it is therefore suggested by the Comn:-ission at each quarterly dedaratwn, the basiC wage should be fixed on the average of the detenninations of the cost of . living in each of the four preceding quarters. Thus declaratio.n t.? be made in November 1921 would be based on the average of the cost of living determinatiOns at November 1920 1921, May 1921, August 1921. · This systel!l will inclusively represent all seasonal

fluctuations, and also the latest trend or tendency of pnces at l-.Tovember, 1921.

The ·following as to equalizing seasonal may be of use. If £5 5s. Od.

a week is taken as the cost of living in November, 1920, and the seasonal variation is assumed to be 5s . . a week less during six months other than winter months, then tlie wage in :November, 1921, will 'be determined th11s :- . . - , , \ . Quarter ending. Determination.

November, 1920 £5 5 0

February, 1921 5 0 0

May, 1921 ... 5 0 0

·August, 1921 5 5 0

Average .. £5 2 6

+fin the year Noven1ber, 1921-November, 1922, all but 'seasonal fluctuations were to remain constant, _£5 2s. 6d. would be the wage at each of the next four quarters. worker would then have £5 2s. 6d. throughout- the year, being 2s. 6d. below the cost of living

·from May to Novernber and 2s. 6d. above it from November to May. No system can be devised which will completely eliminate other chances of variatiou because the cost of living can never be ascertained in adva?ce. \

SUMMARY.

CLAUSE 1 OF THE LETTERS pATENT.

1. The main task of the· Commission has been to ascertain definitely the cost of living­ according to reasonable standards of comfort for the typical family . . The reyiew of this matter, contained on pp. 8 t<;> 13, shows . that this inquiry was suggested by the· President and Deputy President of ,the Commonwealth Arbitration Court to put an enq to doubts as to the ·

adequacy of the basic wage, that Court not having been able to conduct a completed inquiry of this kind. history of the Court?s previous inquiries and decisions shows:- ·

(a) That all decisions in the Court have hinged upon the finding in the Harvester Ca 1 Se, 1907. . . , · ·

(b) That thi,s finding was (no doubt, necessarily) the result of evidence upon the question of Rent and Food, but not of evidence in the case of Clothing and Miscellaneous In the sections of , Rent and Food, the evidence was very

circumscn bed. , ,

(c) Subsequent decisions have assumed the. sufficiency of the Harvester Wage, an,d have purported to bring. it up to date by applying to it the of the

Commonwealth Statistician, base_ d on t.he fluctuations · in price of rent and food combined. -

(d) In the case of rent, subsequent decisions have wrongly asslimed that the rent · found ih the Harvester Case was the rent' at the time in Melbourne, whereas · it was that in Sunshine. . 2. The Commission examined the question independently of the Harvester Case, giving a free opportunity to all parties to put ·.forward their contentions as _ to-(i) what · are rea,sonable standards of comfort in each of the Sections-Rent, Food, Clothing, and Miscellaneous; (ii) what is the present cost of ·those standardEt. ·

I

_ 3. The Commission determined a .concrete standard in each section and the amount necessary to obtain that standard at the prices on 1st November, 1920.

4. The standard as to 'Rent is -set out in the' Report, p. 20 et seq. It d}ffers from that in the Harvester Case, which was the rent of a four-roomed house, because the evidence was over­ whelming that a five-roomed house is necessary for the typical family. It conforms, however, to the prescribed in by 'Mr: Justice Heydon, of a four-roomed house for a fami_ ly

with one child less than the typical family.

, 5. The standard as to Clothing is set out in the form ·of an Indicator List. This is not to prescribe a regimen, but to serve as an example of the articles, their kind and their

price, necessary for replacel?ents. The · list is limited to articles of common to all classes of wage earners. · A deduction of 8 per cent. has been made for passing on garments from one mmnber to another of th,e family< and for pUfchasing at sale -

· 6. The standard for Food is also _ shown in •the form of an.Indicator with the same intended purpose as in the section of Clothing. To ascertain that standard, it was necessary to have a specific basis of, totaJ dietary and this has been discussed in pp'. 34 et . seq. ,

58

. ' .

The basis of dietary requirements has been ascertained in the terms of the now universal method of such measurement (which is the only to be used for such a preliminary ·

purpose), the Commission determined upon the articles and their quantities by adopting broadly · what the l{ousehold budgets showed were the habits and tastes of the people in food.

7. The standard of Miscellaneous Requirements, was determined by including such specific items of those claimed by the. Federated Unions as seemed to lj e In only one part

of this section was it necessary to frame a list, viz., in that of Household Drapery (seep. 51).

8. The standards, services, articles, quantities, qualities, and prices determined upon in each section were such as to conform to current standards of reasonable comfort for the average

CLAUSE 2 o:w- THE LETTERS PATENT.

9. In answer to Clause 2 of the Letters Patent, the Commission has only so tar oomputed the corresponding Cost of Living for the year 1914, and awaits further direction af? to inte;rvening years. ·

\

CLAUSE 3 OF THE LETTERS PATENT.

10. (a) In regard to propounding !1 method of automatically adjusting the basic wage t o the purchasing power of the pound sterling, the Commission is of opinion that as its findings · , in each sectio:p.-Rent, Clothing, Food, and Miscellaneous-involves specific determinations of the services· and commodities going to make up t he necessary cost of living, it is only necessary ·that these dete:rm.ip.;1tions be brought up to date by officials who should 11pply to

them current prices. · ,

(b) The critical a.nd ref?po;p.sible character of this work ·necessitates a Bureau of Labour Statistics, which be staffed from, the Public Service with.ov.t any fresh It is

proposed that, u:ron . period.iofll findings of such . a, Bureau as to the cost of living, the Commonwealth Arbitration Court should declare the basic wage upon such methods as Parliament prescribes. ·

(c) The fi:xin.g, in the past1 basio wage at intervals of not less than a year had the inequitable reS,ult, period of rising prices, that the worker during each year of that period received a wa.ge based on the lower cost of living of tpe preceding year. In a period of falling prices, the inequity would be felt by the employer, who would be compelled to pay more than what is necesf'ary for reasonable stap.dardtl of comfort, bec;ause the basic wage would be fixed on the higher cost o'f the preceding year. · . . '

The shortest interval to minimize these possible inequalities, consif!!tently with accurate . estimation by the suggesteq. Bureau, and with a due regard to stability for both

amployers and w;:ts' fop.JJ.d ·to of a between the

of the coE;t of living. ·

(d) In order to balance inequalities, arising from the seasonal fluctuations, it is proposed that t:Q.e mean of the fow quarters pre,oeding each quarterly determinatiQp. shguld be taken. working of the is on 57. ': ,

FINDINGS.

T}le of the Con:mission are as follov:s :­

ln to l of the Letters fatent.,.---

1. . The actual cost of living at_ the present time, according to reasonable standards '· of comfort, including all matters comprised in the ordinary of a household, for a man with a wife .and three children rindei! fourteen pf age, is \n - ·

SydJWY .

Newcastle Adelaide .. Perth Hobart .•

!

.

, .

..

. '

/ '

£

. ' 5 5 f5 I • 5 5 · 5 5

16 6

l7 0

6 4

15 ' 6

16 1

13 11 16 1.1

;· 5 7

59

2. The items and amounts whic4 make up that cost are as follows :- . ' ' I

· Sydney.

I

J? risl)an e. 1\.delaid e. P erth: Hobart. - .-.

'

-

.. ' .,. ., . . .

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d; £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d.

Rent .. . . . . 1 0 6 _y 2- 0 0 17 0 0 19 6 0 19 0 0 19 0

Clothing- M:}n .. . . 0 8 5 0 '7 9 0 7 6 0 8 3 0 7 9 0 8 ()

"

t . . . 0 10 0 9 . 8 0 8 9 ·o 9 11 0 10 2 0 10 6

"

Boy (10!) .. .. 0 4 6 ·o 4 3 . 0 4 0 4 7 0 4 3 0 4 9

"

Girl (7) .. . . 0 3 5 0 3 6 0 3 . 4 ' 0 3 7 . 0 3 9 0 3 6

"

Boy (3j) .. . . 0 1 11 0 1 ' 10 0 1 10 0 1 11 0 1 10 0 1 11

Food .. .. . . 2· 6 2 6 8Q 2 3 11- ' 2 7 lQ 2 2 It 4 11! 8 11! 4 2 4

Fuel and .. .. 0 4: 9 0- 4 71. 0 ·3 ' 2t 0 4 3 0 5 0 0 3 71. ll 2 Groceries (not Food) . . 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 5 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 7 • Renewal of Household Utensils, Drapery and Crock,ery .. 0 12 '7! 0 2 71. 2 o· 2 71. 2 0 2 71. 2 0 2 7! 0 2 7t Union· an9- Lodge Dues ... 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 · o 1 9 .. Q 0 0 0 9 0 0 9 0 0 9 0 0 9 0 0 9 Domestic Assistance .. . . 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 ,6 0 1. 6 0 1 6 N .. ft.nd Sta'mps .. . . -·. 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 Q 1 ' 0 AmuseiiJePtt? and - Library ' .. . . . . 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 '- 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 Smoking · .. ! • . . 0 2 0 \ 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 ' 0 2 0 Barber .. . . . . 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 · 0 .o 3 Fares . . . . . . 0 2 6 0 3 4 0 3 4 0 3 4 . 0 3 . 4 0 2 6 School Requisites . . . .. 0 0 3 . . . 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 I 5 16 6 5 17 QQ. 4 5 6 21. 2 5 16 11. 4 •' In answer to Clause 2 of the Letters Patent-( 1. The actual corresponding cost of living in 1914 was- . . Melbourne Sydney .. Brisbane Adelaide .. Perth Hobart . .. .. . 5 13 11 £ 8. d. 3 7 9 3 12 6 3 4 11 3 11 4 3 13 11 . 3 6 1 5 16 11! '- • 2. Find!ngs as to the last four years 1915-1919 are deferred pending Your' Excellency's further directions.

In answer to Clause 3 of the Letters Patent, the Basic Wage 'may be automatically adjusted to the rise and fall from time to time of the purchasing power of the sovereign as follows :- ,

1. It should be the duty a Bureau of Labour Statistics, staffed from existing members of the 00:rrimonwealth Public Service, to estimate, &c., from quarter quarter the actual cost of the several services and items' set forth in the Report as to Rent, Food, Clothing, and Miscellaneous.

' ' . r .

2. This Bureau should declare that actual cost upon an average of prices of the preceding four quarters of the year. • • I 3. This ·deClaration should be reported to the Commonwealth Arbitration Court with a view to its being made the Basic Wage by the Court in

such manner as Parliament may prescribe.

WORK OF SECRETARY AND STATISTICIAN.

No terms could be too high in which to describe the remarkable work done by the Secretary and Statistician, Mr. J. T. Sutcliffe. His intimate knowledge o£ every branch of the subject, his intense industry, and his great power of organization, were all brought to bear upon th\s task in a spirit of unselfish devotion, and without services of this Pxceptional character the work of the Commission could. not have been dQne in the time taken. ·

/

60

Mr. Commissioner Keep and Mr. Commissioner Gilfillan, in a Minority Report, dissent from any expression used in the Report which' seems to imply that the findings of the Commission as to the cost of living must necessarily become the Basic Wage. · '

The same Commissioners also dissent in their Minority Report from any conclusion being drawn from a comparison of the findings as to the cost' of living in 1914 with the present cost which would imply that ,the Basic Wage in that year was too low:.

(Sgd.) .

•

. , ,

We have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

(Sgd.)

(Sgd.)

(Sgd.)

(Sgd.)

(Sgd.) (Sgd.)

(Sgd.)

A. B. PIDDINGTON, Charrman.

R. CHENEY, Commissioner.

HARRY C. GIBSON, W. D. GILFILLAN, Commissioner:*

ERNEST E. KEEP, Commissioner.*

THOS. C. MAHER, Commissioner.

ALBAN C. MORLEY, Commissioner.

JAS. T. SUTCLIFFE: Secretary and Stati.stician. Offices of ' the Inter-State Melbourne, 19th November, 1920 .

* bj ect to dissent.

. /

5 g \

MINOR11'Y REPORT •

BY

MR. COMMISSIONER KEEP AND MR. GILFILLAN.

MAY I'r PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY :

We have the honour to present our Minority Report to the Report presented by the CommissiC?n dated the 19th day of November, 1920, dealing with cost of living.

, • There are certain considerations in connex.ion with the questions submitted for report and inquiry to the Commission to which we think due weight has not been given. The Commission was appointed to inquire into and report upon two principal matters :- (1) , The actual cost of living at the present time according to reasonable standards .of comfort, induding all matters

comprised in the ordinary expenditure of a household for a man. with a wife and three children under fourteen yeats of age, and the several items and amounts which make up that cost. (2) How the basic wage may be automatically adjusted to the rise and fall from time to time of the purchasing power of the sovereign.. A third. to th_e Commission was

and report as to the actual corresponding cost of hvmg durmg each of the last five years. This latter matter has not appeared to us to be very material to the main inquiry of the Commission and can be disregarded as not affecting the substance of our present considerations. The more we look at clause (1) and (3) of the Letters Patent, the more we feel that they deal with two

different matters. The actual cost of living is one thing; the adjustment of the basic wage in accordance with the rise or fall of the purchasing power of the 'sovereign is another. The Report seems to assume that the amount which the Commissiop. finds to be the cost of living at the present time will be fixed as a basic wage. ,But several considerations occur before we can accept this assumption as final :-(1) It is open to doubt what value (if 'any) the Judge or Judges of the Federal Arbitration Court ·will attach to the finding of the Commission. (2) It is questionable whether the Fe'deral Parliament has any constitutional power to ,make the finding of a Commission as to the cost of living the foundation of a basic wage in the (3) The Prime'

Minister said at Bendigo that a Hoyal Commission was to be appointed "to inquire into thecost of living in relation to the minimum or basic wage." He never promised that the amount found to be the cost of living would necessarily be adopted as the basic wage. (4) The actual amount of the cost of living by an inquiry into tile cost of house rent and the price of clothing, food, and

miscellaneous items may be of statistical _value: But the _that the rate of wages

depends solely on the amount wh1ch the wo!'ker IS paymg for rent, clothmg, food, arid miscellaneous items is of doubtful economic value. A basic wage as it appears to us is not really a wage earned by the employee as reward for work .9-one, an allowance for suggested requisites of living, to be paid by the employer to the employee. . It may1 very well be that increased prices are· the / results of decreased production. On this point we have no desire to be controversial. But if the cost of living goes up because of the decreased, production by the wage-earners, it seems unreasonable that the community should have to pay to the wage-earner by way of a basic wage an amount which the latter has not ea!ned. in production :m,ay increase the cost of living. The on _the assumptiOn that the wage not be less than the cost of living, has to

pay for It. It Is,.m?reo_ver, a matter of fair observatiOn that throughout the _whole of the Inquiry . before the Comrmsswn It was never suggested on behalf of the Federated Umons that, if the basic wage was increased, any increase in production could be relied upon. . It may be suggested that these are considerations not for this Commission, but for the Government when it creates effective machinery to give-effect to these principles . But we feel that we should be neglecting the interests of and indeed of tf!e community generally, on this Commissioll:, if in _this our Minority Report we did not call attentiOn to them. But we are _pressed by _consideratiOn that, if'a basic wage was fixed to1 correspond exactly cost of hvmg, however that may vary,

this would operate as a burden on existmg mdustnes, and be a deterrent to new industries in Australia. - ·

We _consider that the above by us not been sufficiently

dealt with m the ReJ?ort. We fully ahve to ourresponsibihty on this_ matter, and respectfully commend attentiOn of Parliament to these aspects of the two questwns of the cost of living and the' basiC wage. ·

62

There is a further point to which we venture respectfully to ask attention. The Inquiry was directed towards the actual cost of living "at the present time." -It is by no means clear whether this meant the time at which the Cmnmission was appointed in December, 1919, or the time at which it is presenting its Report in Noven1ber, 1920. This consideration becomes of in1portance when we examine the prices set o11t in the lndicator Lists, particularly of clothing. It must be borne in mind that this I:r(quiry was conducted in abnorma1'times and auring a peri9d of continuously rising prices. This, in our view, discounts alike the vaLue and the chance of permanency of the figures in the indicator lists since it is not unreasonable to suppose that prices will drop at no distant period.

· ·Probably at no in history has the question of of comfort been the s?-bject

of so n1uch controversy, and, like the selection of the typical man, was one of the n1ost difficult matters the Commission had to . decide. · ·

·. . While it is universally admitted that a high standard of comfort is desirable, it is shown that such could only be obtained in norn1al ti1nes, and that any to an id4jal

standard during the abnormal we are passing through w:ould add an- burden

to a young comh1unity u?less for by considerably increased production. . vVe are unable to agree with the general conclusions regarding the :Harvester Case. Whi\e the evidehce may have sllown that the amounts o£ some of the items were incorrect, it is more than probable that the remark at p. 13 o£_the R,eport, that probably H . one error, namely food, balances the two othm;s,"· and the rernark at p. 12, that "it conformed fairly _to what believed to_ be fair and reasonable remuneration," accurately state· the facts . . This would account for the fact, as stated by Mr. Justice Higgins, that his finding had been unchl}llenged for ten

we h:;tve no evidence before that the subsequent awards of the Arbitration Court

did not provide a reasonable standard of comfort in accordance with then current standards. is (luite conceivable •that the great and rapid changes brought by war conditions oa-q.sed

hardship to all sections of the con1munity. This, unfortunately, one of the effects of war, but probably no in the world suffered less in this respect than Australia. . . We are in accord with the .explanation of the differen9e between the finding ,of the / Commission for the .c·ost_ of living in 1914 a,nd the awards of the Arbitration Court for that year,

for, as already these awards appear to _haye provided reasonable com.fort according to the then current standards. ' ·

It is moreprobablethat the explanation 'lies on the fact that this Com1nission, conducting an inquiry during. an abnorma,l period of high prices, has arrived at a higher standard of comfort the existing standard in 1914, and this consequently does away with the infer:ence that

· 1914 awards were too low. . ·

· Beyond e:xptessing a·h opinion that we do not consider that some of the highe\L' priced atticles mentioned in the Indicator Lists are indispensable to a reasonable standard of comfott; and oUr that We ate not in agreement with minor matterS', after ta,king into considet!ation

the nature of the evidence, we do not st.tbstantially dissent from phe General Report. Our position is that during the proceedings of the Commission co:q.sidetations arose which :t_nUst mutually affect not only employers. as a body but in . Australia genera,lly. vVe should be failing in our duty to the en1ployers, whom we represent, if we had not given cm1sideration -to these matters. ·They· sure to be subjects of comment and inquiry py employer's g,fter the Report·· appears. It is 'in our view, certain aspects or the ·probable result of the Commission are sufficiently dealt with in the Report, and it might be suggested that we had been neglectful o£ them,tl).at we take this opportunity of calling attention tq them now.

· We the honour to

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ERNEST E . . KEEP; Com_niissioner. , '

W. D. G ILFitLAN, Commissioner.

JAS. T. SUTCLIFFE, Secretary and Statistician.

OfficeS' of the Inter-State Commission, Melbourne, 19th November, 1920.

591

63

PROTEST BY THE CHAIR1vl;\N.

MAY IT PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY :

I desire to record 'my protest against the time and manner in which the Minority Report of my colleagues, Mr. Commissioner K.eep and Mr. Coilirnis8ioner Gilfillan, has been brought· forward. All the relevant decisions as to amount · on Clause ,1 of the Letters Patent had been ' reached on 15th October, and as usual, there had been disagreements in various ·

matters of detail; these. had all been overcome, and + proceeded the next day to draft a Report on behalf of the, whole Commission which should embody the decisions already arrived Except for adjusting figures to present-daJy prices, which it had been unanimously agreed should be don€, the Report embodies preci seJy and faithfully. all the decisions reached by 15th

October. The draft of the Report in its passage again presented differences of opinion, but it ,was not until yesterday afternoon at 5 o'clock1 when the lSJst revise of the Report had been received frqm the Printer, and when the Commission had· gone through the Report page by page to the end, ahd wp.ile I was still under the belief that the Report would be sig:ned without any

Minority Report of this kind, that Mr. Commissioi].er Keep mentioned that he had prepared a .Memorandum (now t he basis of the Minority Report) which · he asked to have- considered at an adjourned meetjng. · At that adjourned meeting, held last night, Mr. Commissioner Gilfillan mentioned the matter ·of the comparison between the years \914 and .1920, now dealt with. in

the Minority Report. The whole of that matter had been debated and had been · in type for many days, except the actual figures on page 53 of the Report, much of _ it having been modified on suggestions by Mr. Commissioner Gilfillan. Though the figures were rnore recent, it had been stated at more than one meeting that the 1914·corresponding cost of riving ·was higher

than the then Basic Wage. · ·

In the Minority Report the following paragraph occurs :-:- 1

· "Beyond expressing _an opinion that we do not consider -that some of the higher­ priced articles mentioned in the Indicator Lists are indispensable to a reasonable standard of comfort, and rec_ording our view that we are not in agreement with minor matters, after taking into consideration the nature of the evidence., we do not substantially dissent from General '

This, Mr. Keep stated at our meeting to-day, was meant as an equivalent of the followipg · passage in the. Memorandum referred to :- ' . -

" On the evidence submitted in the various States, and as the result of and observation, we cannot dissent from the conclusion that at the present time a reasonable standard of comfort for a :man with a wife and three children under fourteen . years of ag·e cannot be obtained at a less cost per week than that indicated in Appendix ."

[This had reference to the findings of the as to the cost of living on p. 58 of

the Report,_ wrongly supposed to be in an Appendix.l , _ ,

Mr. Commissioner Gilfillan was and is not a party to the opinion in this form, but it is now quoted in its more. ample forD?- because shows that Mr. Keep was and is in

complete agreement with mai?- of the ComlniSSion, v;z., that as to the cost ·of

living, and shows also how little the Commission could have expected, In the fina] moment of its work, the introduction of matter- so little 'relevant to that work as is the Minority Report.

While forwarding, as I am to do, the Minority Report of my colleagues, I desire to object that the whole of and economic matters Report

are extraneous to the duty of the Co:mmisswn, and I .would add that the Imphed stnctures on the Commission's Report to the effect that certain .aspects of the probable result. of the findings of the not dealt. with in the misrepresent the

position. J Com:misswn In .Its -consistently excluded economic

views as being no part of their functiOn. It was never suggested, from beginning to. end of the Commission's work, that such views, e.g., as those regarding output, should be dealt with in our Report, nor was the point _ as to the date for which cost of living should be determined ever mentioned.

,J

" 64

'

I express neither agreement nor dissent with any of the political or economic doctrines embodied in the Minority Report, nor with reference t o the point of constitutional law mentioned, my objections being (1) that these · and other matters were suggest ed for the first time at the last moment;, (2) that under cover of a Minority Report the propriety of existing or contemplated legislation or of the wisdom 'of the Letters Patent ought not to be questioned.

I regret that this Protest should have been evoked by a course unexampled in my experience, though I wish to record my sincere appreciation of the part t aken by the colleagues in question in the decisions and conclusions of the Report. ) . I h€lg respectfully to ask that this Protest be for warded t o Your Excellency's Advisers, with a request that it be printed together witli the Report and Minority Report. ' > I

I have the honour to be, Your most obedient servant,

A. B. PIDDINGTON, · Chairman.

19th November, 1920.

yve desire to associate ourselves with the above Prot est--

•

•

R. CHENEY, Commissioner.

HARRY C. GIBSON, Commissioner.

THOS .. C. l\IAHER, . Commissioner .

APPENDICES.

F.l7723.-5

Item.

read .. .. B F lour, self -raising

lour, ·plain F T ea . ..

ocoa ..

o:ffee . .

ugar ..

ago ..

.. .. ..

..

..

..

c

c

s

s

R ice or Tapioca ..

am J

H oney

..

G olden Syrup

atmeal · 0

R c

s

aisins urrants ultanas

..

..

..

..

..

..

Ca

p

0

M Co B

rraway Seeds ..

otatoes ..

nions . . ..

ilk ..

ndensed Milk .. utter-Table Cooking eese Ch Eg Ba Pi

gs con ck1 es ..

To w mato Sauce orce'stershire

Sauce negar Vi Sa Mu

It ..

stard

pper Pe Cu Ba rry

rley ..

as, split cuits

..

..

..

..

,.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Pe Bis Cu Arr

stard Powder .. owroot or Com-:fl our

.. y Crysta:ls ence and Spices Jell Ess

led Lollies Boi Cor D dials or

rinks

..

Soft

oholic Ale (i Liquors ncluding those

sed medicinally u in household) Fru it-Eating Cooking ..

etables -Cab- Veg b

flo age or Cauli-wer .

ow or Pump- Ma.rr kin

Quantity p er Week.

30 lbs. ..

3 2-lb. pkts.

..

:! lb. ..

!-lb. tin .,.

!lb. ..

Sibs. ..

1lb. ..

1lb. ..

2"'I f l? . tins '

! lb. ..

' !lb. ..

2lbs. ..

t lb. ..

·!lb. .... ..

t lb. ..

2 ozs. ..

I

14lbs. ..

3lbs. ..

10-! qts. ..

3lbs. ..

i lb. ..

! lb. ..

2 doz. ..

I lb. ..

! bot. ..

l bot. ..

t bot. ..

1 pint ..

..

1 oz. ..

1 oz. ..

1!- ozs. ..

t lb. ..

! lb .. ..

I lb. ..

1 pkt. ..

1 pkt. ..

1 pkt. ..

1 pkt. ..

2lb. ..

2 bot.

..

10 lbs. ..

6lbs. ..

2 ..

6lbs. . .

I

66

Melbourne.

Cost per-Weekly Quantity

Cost. per Week.

£ 8 . d.

4-lb.loa£, lid. o. 6 10! 28lbs. ..

2-lb. pkt.,Std. 0 2 2 2-lb. pkts.

lb., 3s: .

.. ..

.. 0 l a ! lb. ,, .

lid. .. 0 0 11 !-lb. tin ..

'· ) lb., Is. lOd. 0 0 5! t lb. ..

lb., 3! d. .. 0 2 4 8lbs. ..

lb., 7d. .. 0 0 7 } I lb. ..

lb., 8d. .. 0 0 8 I

tin, Is. 3d ... 0 2 6 2 I t -lb. tins

lb., 7!il. .. 0 0 4 ! lb. ..

2-lb. tin, IOd. 0 0 2 t )b . . ..

'

lb., 5d. .. 0 0 10 2lbs. ..

-

lp., IOd . . 0 0 5 9d.lb. .. . .

lb., 9!d. . . 0 0 5 lid. lb . . . .

lb.; 9t d . .. 0 0 4 ls. l t d. ..

oz., 2d. .. 0 0 4 2 ozs. aver-

age

14lbs. , Is. 6d. .o 1 6 14lbs. ..

lb., 2d. .. 0 0 6 3lbs. ..

qt., 6d. .. 0 5 3 12! qts. ..

.. .. 3lbs:. lb., 2s. .. 0 6 0 . . lb., Is. 5d. .. 0 l 5 .. lb., ls. 2d. .. 0 0 7 }, lb. .. doz., 2s. .. 0 4 -o 2 doz. .. lb., ls. lld. 0 l 11 Ilb. .. bot., ls. .. 0 0 6 ! bot. . . bot., IOd. · .. 0 0 10 l bot. .. bot., ls. 3d. 0 0 7! ! bot. .. pt., Id. .. ' 0 0 l t pint .. .. .. .. oz., 3d. .. 0 0 3 1 oz. .. oz., 3d. .. 0 0 3 1 oz. .. oz., 3d. . . 0 0 4! I t ozs. .. lb., 4d. .. 0 0 2 t lb. .. lb.,4d. . . 0 0 2 pb. .. lb., IOd. .. 0 010 llb. .. pkt., 5d. .. 0 0 5 . . pkt., 9t d. .. 0 0 l pkt. (1s., 9d.) pkt., 5d. .. 0 0 5 1 pkt. .. pkt., 7!d. .. 0 o· 1 pkt. .. lb., IOd. .. 0 1 8 1lb. ... .. 0 1 6' 2 bot. .. .. 0 :t 6 .. lb., 2t d. .. 0 2 l 10 lbs. .. lb., 2d. .. 0 1 0 6lbs. .. each, 4d. .. 0 0 8 ,2 (Cabbage, 6d., or ... Cauliflower, 8d.) lb., 2d. .. 0 1 0 6lbs. ..

APPEN

CLAIMS OF FEDERATED . I ,

Sydney. Brisbane.

Cost _per-Weekly Quantity Cost per-

Weekly

Cost. , per Week. Cost.

£ s. d. £ 8. d.

2-lb.loaf, 6f d. 0 7 3t 24lbs. -2-lb. loaf, 6d.

1

0 6 0

2-lb. pkt., 0 I ' 9 2 2-lh. . pkt., IOd. ..

0 l 8

IOtd. .. .. 2lbs. .. lb., 3d . . . 0 0 6

lb ., 2s. 7d . . . 0 1 3t . . lb., 2s. 'Zd. to

0 l 5

3s.

1 tin, IO t d ... 0 0 10 i . ! lb. . . !--lb. tin,

0 1 4!

l s. 4,! d. -

lb., 2s. 4d. . . 0 0 7 i lb'. . . -;\-lb., Is. l t d. 0

0 6!

lb., 6d. . . 0 4 ' 0 Sibs. . . lb., 6d. . .

0 4 0

7d. .. 0 0

7 pb. . . lb., 6d. . . 0 0 6

tin , Is. 3d. . . , 0 2 6 2 I! -lb. tins tin, I s. 4t d. 0 2 9

lb. , .. 0 0 51 ! bot . . . ..

0 0 9!

'

2-lb. tin, 9!d . 0 0 2t 2-lb . or

1 tin, 9t d. .. 0 0 5 2 tin

lb., 5td. .. 0 0 ll 2lbs. . . (9d. to Ibtd.)

0 l

lb. average

r Raisins or Jb., I s. 0 0 7 ·o 0 ll Sultanas, j lb . l cu:-rants, l b., Is. .. 0 0 6 2 lb. oz. , 2t d. .. 0 0 7 .. .. .. 14 lbs., .. 0 2 0 14lbs. . . .. 0 2 8 lb., 2td. . . 0 0 7! 5 lbs. .. .. 0 1 0 qt., 7t d. .. 0 >7 10 12! qts. .. qt. , 8d. . . 0 8 '4 .. . .. 1 tin .. tin, Is. ld ... 0 l l lb., 2s. Ot d. 0 6 l ! 3 lbs. .. l b ., 2s. 4t d ... 0 7 l -! .. .. .. . . . . lb. , Is. 4d. .. 0 0 8 . . lb ., 1s. 3d. .o 0 7-k doz., 3s. 2d. 0 6 4 2 doz. . . doz ., 3s. 6d. . 0 7 0 lb. , 2s. . . 0 2 0 Ilb . .. l b ., 2s . 2d. . . 0 2 2 bot., l s. ld. 0 0 t bot. . . (Is. 3d. to 0 0 9 - 1s. 6d.) bot., lld. .. 0 0 ll * bot.. .. to iit d.) 0 0 [)J. 1 bot. 2 bot., Is. 4d. 0 0 8 .. (9d. to ls. 4d.) 0 0 6 pt., 3d .. .. 0 0 I t l bot. . . bot., ll! d ... 0 0 6 .. . . .. .. . . oz., 3d. .. 0 o. 3 1 oz. . . !- lb., Is. 3d. 0 0 4 oz., 2t d. ' .. 0 0 2! 1 oz. .. i lb., Sd. . . 0 0 2 oz. , l t d. .. 0 0 21 2 ozs . .. . . 0 0 8 2 lb., 4d. .. 0 0 2 t lb . . . (Is. 2d. and 0 0 8 lb., 4d. 0 ! lb. Is. 7td.) .. 0 2 .. 5d. .. 0 0 2:1. 2 lb., IO t d. .. 0 0 10! Ilb. .. 1 b., lOd. . . 0 0 10 .. . . 1 pkt . . .. pkt . , 7d. .. 0 0 7 pkt., ... 0 0 l Q! I .. pkt., 9d. . .. 0 0 9 ' J pkt., 6d. .. 0 0 6 1 pkt. .. pkt., 6d. . . o 6 p kt., IOd. .. 0 0 10 .. . . o . o 3 lb. , lOd. .. 0 0 10 llb . lb., lid. . . 0 0 11 bot ., 3! d. .. 0 0 7 3 hot. .. bot., 4!d. .. 0 l It .. 0 , l 6 . . .. 0 1 6 -lb., 3t d. 0 2 ll 12 lbs. lb., 4d. 0 .. .. .. 4 0 lb., 3d. . . 0 1 6 4lbs. .. lb. ; 4d. .. 0 1 4 each, 7d. .. 0 l 2 2 .. each, 6d. .. 0 1 0 ... lb., 2d. .. 0 1 0 6lbs. . . lb., l t d . . .. 0 0 9

. \

DIX

UNIONS.-FOOD.

-·- - .. I - I Adelaide .

Item.

Quantity Cost pel'- \ per Week. Cost.

I

£ &. d.

Bread .. .. 28lbs. .. 2-lb.loaf. 5-!d. 0 6 5

Flour, self-raising 2 2-lb. pkt s. 2 lb. :,:>kt, 9! d. 0 1 7

plairt ..

" .. .. .. Tea .. .. i lb . .. llb., 2s. 6d. 0 · 1 3

Cocoa .. .. i lH. I .. I lb., 2s.'5d. 0 . 0 7

Coffee .. t lb. I lb., 2s. 6d. 0 0 7) .. .. Sugar . .. Sibs. .. 1b., 6d. .. 0 4 0

Sago .. .. Sago, 6d. lb.,n-a. .. 0 0 7}

Rice or 'J'apioca .. 9d.,

"' I lb.

Jam .. .. 2 If -lb. tins t in, Is. 4d .. . 0 2 8

Honey ... ! -lb . tin- .. lb. IOd. .. 0 0 5

\

Golden Syrup. : ! lb . . .. 2-lb. tin Is. 0 0 3

Oatllleal

.. 2lbs. .. lb. _ 5d. .. 0 0 10

Currants, Raisins, Is. "lb. , Is. l ! d . . 0 1 1}

Sultanas ld. ; Cur -

rants, Sultanas, Is. 3d.,

lib., aver- age

Carraway Seeds .. 2 ozs . .. oz., 2}d. .. 0 0 5

Potatoes .. 14 lbs. .. 14lbs.,2s. 4d. 0 2 4

Onions . . .. 3lbs. .. Ilb,, 2}d. .. 0 0 . 7!

Milk .. 12! qts. .. qt. , 8d. .. 0 8 4

Cendensed Milk .. .. ..

Butter-Table .. 3lbs. .. lb., 2s. 6d. .. 0 7 6

Cooking . .. ..

Cheese .. ' * lb. .. · lb. , I s. 4t d . .. 0 0 8}

Eggs .. .. 2 cl.oz. . . doz., 2 s. 2d. 0 4 ' 4

Bacon .. .. I lb . .. lb., Is. lld .. . 0 .1 11

Pickles .. ! bot. .. bot ., Is. 1d. 0 0 6!

Tomato S::tuce .. 1 bot. .. bot ., lid. .. 0 on

W orcestershire , -! bot. .. bot., 1s. 3d. 0 0 7!

Vinegar .. f bot. .. pt. bot., 9d. 0 Q H

Salt .. .. lib. .. lb ., 1d. . . 0 0 1

Mustard .. 1 dz. .. ! · lb, t in, 1s. 0 Q 4

4d.

.. 1 oz. .. t lb ., . .. 0 0 2

.. .. I! o_ zs. .. . lb., I s. .. 0 Q 4!

Barley .. ! lb . .. lb., . . 0 _ o 2i

Peas, split .. .. lb. , 5d. .. 0 0 ·2!

Biscuits .. 1lh. .. lb., ll! d. .. 0 0 1Jt

Cust ard powder

..

Arrowroot or Corn- :pkt., lid. .. 0 011

flour l s. ; Corn-

flour, 9! d., 1 pkt .

Jelly Crystals .. 1 pkt. .. -};lkt .• , 6d. . . 0 · o 6

;Essence and 1 pkt. .. Essence, 8d., .6 0 3

Spices Spice, 2d.

Boiled Lollies .. lib . .. lb., Is. 0 1 0

Cordials ·or Soft 2 bots. .. bot., 4d. .. 0 0 8

Drinks Alcoholic Liquors .. .. 0 1 6

(including those used medicinally irl

lb., 3d. 2 6 Fruit-Eating .. 10 lbs. .. . . 0

. · Qookiilg .. 6 •lbs. .. lb., 2!d. .. 0 · i 3

:Veget ables - Oab- 2 .. each; tld. .. 0 1 0

b::tge or Cauli- flower .. ,

I

Marrow or P ump- 6 lbs. .. J b ., l i d.· .. 0 (}' 9

kin

97

I \

.,.

Perth.

Quantity per

Cost Weekly · Cost.

-· '" -.

I

£ 8 . d.

28lbs. ,2-lb.'loaf;- 5}d. 0 ' 6 5

2 2-lb. plfts. pkt. , !)d. .. 0 1 6

.. ..

i lb. .. lb., 6d. ... 0 ' 1 3 -

!lb. .. Ss. . . 0 0- 9

! ib . lb., is. IOd ... 0 0 5! .. Slbs. .. ib., tid. .. 0 4 0

Sago, 6d .. lb., 7d. .. 0 ·0 7

8d.,

l lb.

2 1!-lb. tins l f ,-lb. tin, Is. 0 2 6

3d.

i lb. .. 2-lb. tin, Is. 0 0 5

Sd.

! lb. .. ·,2-lb. tin Is. 0 0 3 .

2lbs. .. 1 lb. (flaked) 0 011

5! d.

Raisins, lid .. lb., li}d. .. 0 0 11}

Currants, lid. ; Sui-tami.s, Is., lib.

2, ozs. .. lb., 2s. 6,d. .. 0 0 4

14 lbs. .. 14 lbs., 3s. .. 0 3 0

3lbs. .. lb ., 3d. .. .o 0 9

12! qts. .. qt., 8}d. .. 0 8 10!

. . ..

3lbs. .. lb., 2s. 6d. .. 0 7 6

.. .. ..

! lb. .. lb., Is. 7d. .. 0 0 9!

2 clez. .. doz.; 3s. .. 0 6 0

1lb. .. lb., Is. lid ... 0 1 n.

l bot. .. bot., Is. ld. 0 0 fi t

1 bot. . . bot;-, 10d. .. 0 0 10

t bot. .. bot., Is_ 3d. 0 0 7}

!pt. .. pt. bot, 9d. 0 0 4!

\ . . .. "•• \

1 oz. .. oz., 3d. .. 0 0 3

1 oz. . . ! lb., 7d. .. 0 0 2

I t ozs. .. ! lb., 7d. .. 0 0 2

-! 1b. .. lb;, 4d. .. 0 0 2

t lb. . . lb., 4!d. .. 0 . 0 2!

llb. . . lb., lll d. .. 0 o U !

.. .. ..

Arrowroot, pkt., St d . .. 0 0 8!

. ()d.; Corn-flour, lOd., 1 pkt. 1 pkt: .. pkt., 6d. .. 0 0 6

1 pkt . .. pkt., 9d. .. 0 0 9

--:

'1lb. .. lb., IOd. .. 0 0 10

2 hots. . . bot., 6! d. .. 0 1 1

... . .. 0 l 6·

IO lbs. .. lb., 4d. .. 0 3 4

6lbs. .. lb., 3d. .. 0 l 6

5 lbs. Cab- lb.; 2d.

}

0 2 0

bage, 7 lbs.Cauli- lb., 2d: fl9wer -

- 6 lbs., aver- lb., I ! d. .. 0 0 9 age /

Quantit y Pet Week.

28lps. ..

2 2-lb. pkts.

. .

! lb! . . .

i lb. tin ..

!

..

..

8lbs. ..

SagQ, 6d. lb. Rice, 9d.:

I lb.

2 -i f ib. tin

! lb. ..

! lb. . .

2lbs. ..

Raisins, Is., Currants, Is.; tanas, Is . .

2d., I lb.

2 ozs. ..

I4 lbs. . .

3lbs. . .

,12! qts. . .

3lbS. . .

. .

! lb. . .

2 doz. . .

I lb. ..

·! bot. ..

1 bot. . .

! bot . ..

! pt .. ..

..

1 oz. ..

1 oz. ..

1! ozs. . .

t lb. ..

! lb. ..

1lb. .. / .. Arrowroot, 1s.; Corn- flour, 9d., ·1 pkt. 1pkt. . . .. 1lb. .. 2 hots. .. .. IO lbs. .. . 6lbs. . . 2lbs. .. 6lbs. .. /

···-··s 5'-·

\ .

'-

Hobart . .

Cost per-

2-lb.loaf,Jl!fl. 2-lb. pkt ,

..

lb. , 2s. 3d. . .

lb. , 2s. 6d . .•.

!b., Qs. 2d. , . lb;, 6d. . .

lb., 7fd. . .

tin, Is. 4d ...

2-lb. tin 2s.

4d. -,

2-lb. tin lid.

lb. 5d. . .

lb., Is. ..

,

oz. , 2d. ..

I4 lbs., 2s; 3d. lb., 3d. ..

qt., 9d. . .

. .

lb. , 2s. 7d. ..

..

lb. , Is. 7d. ..

doz. , 2s. 3d. lb., Is. IOd ...

bot., I s. ..

bot;; lla ; ..

bot ., Is. ..

pt., 7d. ..

dz. ; ad.' ..

oz., 2d. ..

oz., 2d. ..

lb. , 4d. ..

lb.,f!q. lb., Is. ..

. .

pkt ;1 10j d . ..

I

\..

pkt., 6d. ..

Essence, 9!il., Spice, I}d. lb. , Is. . .

bot. , 3!d. ..

. .

lb., 3d. . .

lb. , 3d. . .

lb., 3}d.,

approx.

lb., 2! d. a.pprox.

- -.

w (

£

.o 0

0

· o

0

0

0

0

0

o ·

0

0

'

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

· o

0

0

()..

0

0

0

8 . d.

6 5

1 7 •

1 1!

0 7!

0 6!

4 0

0 7!'

2 8

0 7

o· 2! 0 10

0 4

2 3

0 9

9 4!

7 9

0 9!

4 ' 6

I10 0 6

011 0 6

0 3!

0 3

0. 2

0 3

0 2

0 2! ..

1 0

o'wt

0 6

1 0

0 7

I 6

2 6

I 6

0 7

• 68

CLAIMS OF FEDERATED

" Melbourne. Sr,dney. Brisbane.

·Item.

Cost per- Weekly

Quantity Cost per- Weekly Quantity Cost per-. Weekly per Wee . Cost. per Week. Cost. (per Week. Cost. I :£ 8. d. £ d. £ 8. d.

Tomatoes or Beet- 4lbs. .. - lb., 3d. .. 0 1 0 Tomatoes, lb., 4:d. .. 0 1 4 4lbs. .. lb., 3d. .. 0 1 0

root 4!d.; Beet-

root, 3!d., "4lbs.

Beans or Peas ... 4lbs. .. . lb., 3d. .. 0 1 0 Beans, 4d.; lb., 6d. .. 0 2 0 4 lbs . . . lb., 5d. .. 0 1 8

.. Peas, Sd., - ' 4lbs, ' Carrots, Parsnips, 1 bunch each -bunch, 3d .. . 0 0 9 1 bunch each bunch, 3d .. . 0 0 9 .. 1 bunch .. 0 0 3 or Turnips Parsnips 1 . , .. 0 lo 6- Turnips . . " 0 0 3 Lettuce, Celery or .. .. 0 1 6 1 per week average 3d ... 0 0 9 Lettuce . . . . 0 0 3 Radish. each Celery, .. 1 bunch .. 0 0 6 Radish .. 1 " .. 0 0 3 ,. Meat-Beef ' .. 14 lbs. .. lb., 9d. .. 0 10 6 10 lbs. .. lb., 9!d. .. 0 7 11 10 lbs. . . lb., 6!d. . . 0 5 5 Mutton .. 14 lbs. .. lb., 6d. .. 0 7 0 10 l bs. .. lb., 7!d. . . 0 6 3 10 lbs. .. lb., Sd. .. 0 6 8 Pork .. 2lbs. , ... lb., 1s. .. 0 2 0 2lbs. .. lb., 'ls. 6d. . . 0 3 0 2 l bs. . . lb., 1s. 6d. . . 0 3 0 ---- Total .. . .. .. £4 1 .. . . £4 4 9 .. .. £410 3 \ FOOD AND

/ (As approved by

' Articles. Quantity. . Cost. Weekly Cost .

-

I £ s. d.

Bread .. .. . , .. . . . . 28 lbs. per week . . 4-lb . loaf, lld. . . 0 6 5

Flour, self-raising .. .. ..

'

.. . . 2 2-lb. pkts. . . Per 2-lb. pkt., Std. 0 1 5

Tea .. .. . . .. . . . . i lb. per week . . Per lb., 3s. . . 0 1 6

Cocoa .. .. .. .. .. . . ! -lb. tin per week . . Per tin, lld. . . 0 011

Coffee

. ! -lb. per week Per lb., 1s. lOd . 0 0 5! .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . Sugar . . . . .. . . . . .. 8 lbs. per week . . Per lb., 3}d. . . 0 2 4 Sago and Rice ... .. . .. .. . . 1 lb. per week . . Per lb., 7}d. . . 0 0 7! Jam .. .. . . . .. . . . . 2 1!-lb. tins per week Per tin, 1s. 3d. . . 0 2 6 Honey .. .. .. . . .. . . ! -lb. per week . . P er lb., 7ld. _ . . 0 0 4 . Golden Syrup .. . . . . . . . . t lb. per week . . Per 2-lb. tin, lOd ... 0 0 2 Oatmeal .. ... . . . . . . . . 2 lbs. per . . Per lb., 5d. . . 0 0 10 Raisins, Currants, and Sultanas .. .. . . 1lb. per week . . Per lb., lOd. . . 0 0 10 Carraway Seeds .. .. .. .. . . 2 ozs. per week . . Per oz., 2d. . . 0 0 4 Potatoes . . .. . .. .. . . . . 14lbs. per week . . 14 lbs. , 1s. 6d. . . 0 1 6 Onions .. .. . . . . . .. 3 lbs. per week . . Per lb., 2d. . . 0 0 6 Milk . . .. .. .. . . . . '12! quarts per week P er quart, 6d. . . 0 6 3 Butter, table ' 3 lbs. per week P er lb., 2s. 0 6 0 .. .. . . . . . . . . . . Cheese .. .. .. . . . . . . t lb. per week . . Per lb. , 1s. 2d. . . 0 0 7 Eggs .. .. .. . . . . . . 2 doz. per week . . Per doz., 2s. . . 0 4 0 Bacon .. .. .. . . .. , 1 lb. per week . . -Per lb., 1s. lld. . . 0 1 11 Pickles • ' i bot. per week P er bot., 1s. 0 0 6 . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . Tomato sauce .. .. .. . . . . 1 bot. per week . . Per bot., lOd. . . 0 0 10 W orcestershire Sauce . . . . .. . . i bot. per week . . Per bot., 1s. 3d. . . 0 0 7! Vinegar . . .. .. .. . . . . 1 pint per week . . Per pint, 1d. . . 0 0 1 Mustard . . .. .. .. . . . . 1 oz. per week . . P er oz., 3d. . . 0 0 3 Pepper .. .. .. .. . . . . 1 oz. per week . . Per oz., 3d. ' . . 0 0 3 ---

' ,·'597 '

69

VmoNs.-Foon-continueda

' Adelaide. Perth. ' Hobart.

Item. I

Quantity per Week. Cost per-

Weekly Cost.

Quantitk per Wee . Cost per-

Weekly Cost .

Quantit y per Week. Cost per-

Weekl:r Cost.

£ 8, d. £ 8. d. ' £ 8. d.

Tomatoes or Beet- 4 lbs. .. lb., 6d. .. 0 1 6 4lbs. .. lb.,3d. } 0 0 8 4 lbs. .. lb., 3}d. • • . 0 1 . 1 root bunch, 3d. lb., 2d. approx. (average, 2d. ) Beans or Peas .. 4lba. .. lb., 6d. .. 0 2 0 4 lbs. Beans lb. , 4d.

} 0 1 6 .. .. . .

Peas .. lb., 5d.

Carrots, Parsnips, 1 bunch each bunch, 3d . .. 0 0 9 1 bunch each bunch, 2!<1. 0 0 7! 1 buncheach ·bunch, 3d .. . 0 0 9 or Turnips I Lettuce, Celery or 1 bunch each 2d. -each 0 0 7! 1 bunch .. Lettuce, l!d.,} 0 0 7 1 bunch each Lettuce,1!d.,} 0 0 6 Radish Lettuce Celery, 4d. _ Celery, , 3d. , bunch head Radish, 1! d. , Radish, 1l d. 4d., bunch, 1}d. • Meat- Beef .. 10 lbs. .. lb., llld. .. 0 9 7 10lbs. .. lb., -ll}d. .. Q 9 7 10 lbs. .. lb., ls. . . 0 10 0 Mutton .. 10 lbs. .. lb., lld. .. d· 9 2 10 lbs. .. lb., 9d. .. 0 ' 7 6 10 lbs. .. lb., 1s. . . 0 10 0 Pork .. 2 lbs. .. lb ., 1s. 4d. .. 0 ' 2 8 2 lbs. .. lb., 1s. 5d. .. 0 210 2 lbs. .. lb., 1s. 6d. . . 0 3 0 - · Total .. .. .. £4 7 11! .. . •• I £4 9 8! .. .. £4 7 7 ! i

GROCERIES.

1 Professor Osborne.)

..

' Article. ' Quantity. Cost . Weekly Cost.

.. £ s . d.

Curry .. .. .. . . . . . . 1! oz. per week . . P er oz., 3d. . . 0 0 4!

Barley

..

• .I t lb . per week P er lb., 4d. 0 0 2 . . .. . ' .. . . . . . .

Split P eas .. . . . . . . ! lb. per week . . Per lb., 4d. . . 0 0 2

Biscuits .. ' . . . . . .. .. 1 lb. per week . . Per lb., l Od. . . . 0 0 10

Arrowroot or Cornflour ,. 1 pkt. per week Per pkt., 9td. 0 0 9! . . . . . . . . . . . .

J elly Crystals .. . . .. . . . , . 1 pkt. per week . . Per pkt., 5d. . . 0 0 5

Essences and Spices . . . . .. . ' 1 pkt. per week . . Per pkt., 7td. . . 0 0 7!

Boiled lollies . . . . . . . . .· . 1 lb. per week . . Per lb., 10d. . . 0 010

Cordials or Soft Drinks . . . . . . . . 2 bots. per week . . . . . . .. 0 1 6

'Alcoholic Liquors (including, those used medicinally m Per week .. . . .. .. . . 0 1 6

Household) Fruit, Eating . . . . .. . . . . 10 lbs. per weeki .. Per lb., 2td. . . 0 2 0

Fruit, Cooking . . . . .. . ' . . 6 lbs. per week . . Per lb., 2d. .. 0 1 0

Cabbage or Cauliflower . . .. .. . . 2 per week . . Each, 4d . . . 0 0 8

Marrow or Pumpkin . . .. .. . ' 6 lbs. per week . . P er lb., 2d. .. 0 1 0

Tomatoes or Beetroot . . ... . . . . 4 lbs. per week . . Per lb., 3d. . . 0 i 0

Beans or Peas · . . . . . . . .. . . 4 lbs. per week . . Per lb., 3d. . . 0 1 0

Carrots, Parsnips, or Turnips .. . . .. 1 bunch per week each Per bunch, 3d. each 0 0 9

Lettuce, Celery, or Radish .. .. . . . . P er weelf . . ... .. . . . . 0 1 6

- l

Meat-Beef . . . . . . .. . . . . IO. lbs. per week .. Per lb., 9d. . . 0 7 6

Mutton ' .. . . . . .. . .

- . . 10 lbs. per week .. Per lb., 6d. . . 0 5 0 Pork .. .. .. .. .. . ' 2 lbs. per week . . Per lb., Is. . . 0 2 0

' '

'

Total .. , 3 12 7 .

(

I'

ltem. ,

.

(

fuN't;

CLOTHING.

Suits

\

W:.ashing

'Enit

Washing

trousers

llats

·

-$ hirts,

working

Shirts,

best

. .. .

Flannels • Underpants

..

Collars

..

Pyjamas

..

Handkerchiefs Studs

..

Sports

Coat

..

'[' rousers,

flannel

'[' rousers, working

'[' rouser!',

dungaree

Ovet

9 oa.t

..

"-.

·CLAIMS

OF

[FEDERATED

UNIONS.-CLOTHING . .

. ,, 2

, M.'elfu>Ul'lle.

Quantity.

il; : I :

Price.

Ea:ch.

Annual - Cost.

...

Quantity.

£

8.

d.l £

,'1,

i.

9

9 0

18

18

0

. j : ;

n; • l

•

'I

WJ ,th

2 '

· extra. : ' l i

'trm.ns.ers · £or ; 1

year

Sy.dn:.ey. Price. Each.

Annual - €lest.

Quantity.

£

s. d.l

£

8

•

..z.

9

0 0

13 '

10

0

.. 11

..

; J

extra

'

pair

of

trousers

T;rouser.s

d

; 2

:J)

!

•. J I ..

. ..

· 3

.

:l12

·pairs

\ 1 1

o · I

3

3 · o

I 2 1

. ; l4 .. ; 2

pairs

•• ,

0

4

14

o i l ' 9

, pairs.

..

0

:S

, 6 0

14

o , 4 .

H

' 3 ' 6 0

7

0 "!

2 r pairs

..

. : 1 ·1. 6 : • •

;

..

. 3 .,

. . I o 'TO

. 6

1

3 3 -

6 . . •

..

• • . : (J

1'2

·.6

1

17 . '

3

" . .

•• : :

· o 7

· ti>

1

:2 ·

s > : 2

:

'

·

summer · 2 Sing1ets, ·winter

•

•I

3 pairs

• • 1

0

12

6\ 1

17

61 2 pairs,

..

12

..

0

1

. . 2

pairs

. .

0

13

..

9

..

1

0

I

..

6

..

0 0

. .

!

. .

I

I5

summer 2 pairs, winter

0 0

J2 ·

6112

..

6 1 7

0 .

2

pairs

..

0 0

9

0

I2

..

3

0

I

61i·

l

..

. -

0 0

I7

6

,

2

House

. . . .

..

: !

•..

. .

!

.•

0

16

6 1 13

0

2

..

0

4110

411

....

0

5 9 2

IJJ

9

..

9

pairs

·

. (cashmere)

' 0

3

11.1

0

15

4

. \

:· 3

;u

0

7:

2

pairs

..

. .

..

.

•

. 1

.•

••

. o .10

·

6 1 Ill 6

3

.•

· 6

'8

. 6 o

1'Z

0 -2

Singlets, cotton

· o T6

6

1 T3

- o ·

W€10llen

0

9 3

0 18

6 2 pairs,

cotton

0

I7

0

1

I4

0

2

pairs,

winter

0

1

2

0 14 0

I2

..

0

I6

6 I

I3

0

2

pairs

..

0

I I

0

I3

0

I2

..

I

W

Ol 0

I5

0

! ! Sweater tl>at 0

4

:wairs

..

Brisbane.

Adelaide.

Perth.

Price

•

.Annual Cost.

Quantity.

1 · Price.

Annual Cost.

Quantity.

· Qua.n:

.tit¥.

Annual. GQst.

:P.Fice

• .

Each.

Each.

fEa .

ch · .

£

,'j,

d.i £

8.

d.

9

0

0

9

0 ' 0 · 13

2 5

0

2 5

0

£

8.

d.\ £

8

..

d : '

for

2

110

10

0

I5

15

0

jit"

£

8

• .

a.l £

. ft.

a.

IO

10

0

I5

1.5

0

It

years,

or

l

with

2

extra trousers Trousers

12 IO

0 /

5

0

0

2

10 0

1260113 l . 5

0

2

10

. 012

•

0 ·

ir 9 2

i i 9

pairs

0

4 6

0

4 6

0

3 11

0

9 11

0

12 6

0

7 6

0

I8

014

0

9 .

0

2

pairs

0

3

11

2

19

6

1 I7 6

0

I5

0

6 3

0

12

91

L 5 . 6

3

Singlets, woollen 3

Underc

o 7

6 o

I5

o•

0

I2

6 1 5

0

vests

0

1 3

0

17 6

0

1

6

0 15

.'

0

II2

I

I5

, 0

2

pairs

0

I8

0

I2

0

19 --'

0

0

1 6

0

9 6

0

16

61

3 6

0

-!

House

·

Coat -!pair 2 pairs

I l

0

0 6 6

0

5 11

0

4 . 6

0

' 6

1 " · ··

2 2

0::2

0

6

1

2

I3 -3 9

0

18

0

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0

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., 4

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0 ' 7 6

pairs

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.

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913

I6

616

..

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'613

· 3

IJ ; 1

:.6

o

12

I

6 I

I7

· 6 · 3

. .

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3

0

I4

0 .

2 2

0

3

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I4

6 2 3

6 ;

3

..

woollen

0

14-

0

2 2

0

3

pair-s :

....

o I o

I o 12

o ; II2

'

0

I7

· 6

1

Hi

2

pai :v

s

0

1

.

2! 0

I4

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1-2

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11

3

t

House

·

•

Coat

0

I2

•

61

1

I7

6

l 3

paks,

w:o .. ollen.

: . ,

0

I

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12

0 . , ,

I2

0

17 6 1

15

0

: , 2

pairs

· 0

-1

3

- 0 - 15

...

· 0 '

-12

t

15

01

0

17·

6

t

House Coat

,

6

r. : t pair 0 "

2

paius

Hobart. Priee. Each.

.Annual Cost;

. .

£

s. a.j

£

8.,

d.

10

IQ

OJ5

15

0

I 5

0

2

10

0

· o "5

-rr o

5

II

0

5

6 , 2 9

6

0

4 6

Q , 18

0

0 4

6

0 9 0

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0\0

63

3 _ 0

0 ·

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0

6

01.4

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0

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0

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3 , 0 15

1}

100

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import

e d

l4

ll10

material

Suits

..

. .

2

5

l 2 , wool . . 2 12

6 5

5

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best . . 2

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2

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.. ..

..

. . ..

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H obart. Price. Ann u al Cost.

Each.

1

£

8 .

d .

£

d

•

. .

. .

3 1 9 6 1 1 4

9

1 2 6

0

7 6

. .

..

210

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0

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0

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Braces Ti es Singlets,

wool. .

Singlet

s

Pyjamas Bathing

Co s tume

Sundries Boots,

best

Bo ots,

schoo l

Sandshoes Repairs

Totals

..

CLOTHING.

(7 !

years

. )

Sin«lets

woollen

Singlets: wool

and

cotto

n

Stays

..

Bloom

e rs,

cot ton

woollen

Petticoat

£ , winter

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summe

r

Dress,

bl u e ,

se rge

Dre

ss , blu e ,

tweed

Dr ess, be s t

summe

r,'

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s

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approx. 30

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4

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pairs 1 1

pair 2

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pairs 12 t 1

pair t 1 1 1

1

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0

10

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0

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11

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5

11

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9

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1

3

6

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5

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.

0 ;-J..

CLOTHING-Co'fl,tinued.

I

MelbourJ?.e

.

Sydney. Bri s bane. Ad e laide.

Perth.

Hobart

.

'

•

I

. . Annual . Annu a l

· ·

.Annual . . Annu a l . . Annual. .

. Annual

Quant1t y .

PriCe.

&>st.

Quantity. Pr1c

e.

Cost. Quantity.

PriCe.

Co s t.

Qu a nt1ty.

Pnce.

Cost. Quanttty .

Prtee.

Cost. Quantity.

PriCe.

Cost.

/ , Ellch. ·

Each

• .

Each. Each.

Each. .

Each.

CLoTmNG.

£

8 •

d.

£

8 •

d.

£

8.

d.

£

8 ,

d.

£

s. d.

£

s. d.

£

s . d .

£

s

d.

£

s. d.

£

8,

d.

£

8.

d.

£

8.

d.

Singlets

. .

. . 6 . .

0 · 2

6

0

15

e

6, wooll e

n,

0

5

11

1 15 6 6, second

0

3

11

1 3 6 6, wooll e

n,

0

3

11

1 3 6 6, woollen,

0

3

11

1

3 6

6, woollen,

· o

3 9 1 2

S

se . cond

size ' second

second

second

size size _ size size

Nightdresses,

cotton

..

4 . .

0

3

1:1:

0

15 8 6 . .

0

6

11

2 1 6 3 . .

· 0

5

11

0

1

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9 6 . .

0

5

U

1 15 6 6 .

.

0

5

11

1

1:5

6

6 -

. .

0

8 6 2

U 0

Nightdresses,

winceyette 2

..

0

5

1:1:

0

11

10

.. .. .. ..

flamrei- 0

5

11

0

1 'l

9

..

.

.. ..

.

..

.. ..

.. ..

. .

.. ..

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Bibs

·

•.

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..

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1

6

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6

12

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12

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1 _ 11

1!

3

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6

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2 9

o

16 6

Napkins

. . . . 4 doz. . . 1 5

0

5

0 • 0 ·

4 do .

z.

. .

'1.

5

0

5

Q

0

4

d r, z ;

. . 1 5 6

5 2

0

4

cfoz

· . . . 1 5

0

5

0 0

4

doz.

. .

1 7

0

5 8

0

4 . . 1

2 6 4

10

@

(doz.) (doz.)

(doz.)

(doz.)

(doz

. )

(doz.)

Flannels

·

.. ..

3

..

0 6 •

11

1

0 9 ·

3 .

.

0 10

9 1

f2

3

..

.

•

..

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..

0

5

H 0

17

9

3.

/

0

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1 0

9 3

..

0

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0

16

· 6

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11

3

n

0

4, bes . t .

.

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2 3

0

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nerage

0

7 6 1

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6 .

, 0

12

6 3 15

0

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0

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best,

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6 9 1 13 9

5,

average

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1:2

0

3

0 0

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

plainer

Petticeats,

knitted

..

2 . .

e

6 11

0

13>

10 •

2 .

: 0

12 9 1

5

6 3, flannel

0 10

6 1

11

6 2 . .

0

5

1'1 •

0

11

10

2 .

.

0

5

11

0

11

10 2 . .

0

5

6 0

11

0

Petticoats,

white

..

4 . .

0

4

11

0 · 19

!l ,

4 . .

0

4

ll

0

19 8 6

·.

0

6

H

2

l!

6 4

· · 0 0

11:

1 3 8 4 . .

0

5

11

:r

3 8

4

. .

o

6 6 1 6

0

Outdoor

Coat

..

1

..

0

19>

6 0

19

6 • 1

-..

i 3

0

1 3

0

1

•.

@ ll9

11

0

19

U

1:

..

· ' 1

2 6 1 2 6

.. ..

..

..

1

..

1 9 6 1

·

9 6

Bonnets

. . •

. . . 4 .

.

0

3

11

0

15

8 • 4 .

.

0

. 5 9

1 3

0

4 .

.

0

4 9

0

19

0

4 . .

0

3

6 0 14 0

. .

. . . . 4 . .

o

7 6 1

16

· e

Shawl

•

. . . 1 1

1

0

1 1

0

1 .

. 1 1

0

1 1

0

1 .

·.

1 5

0

1 5

0

1

..

· ·

1 2 6 1 2

6 1 . . . 1 2 6

l

2 6

1

•

\ 1 12 6 1 12 6

Bootees

..

6pairs

..

e

2 · 11

017.

6 • 6pairs

..

0

211

(i)

17

& 6pmrs

. ..

0

111

(i)

11 6

6 . parrs

..

0

1 6

0 9

Q

6parrs

. ..

0

211

017

66 ·pairs

..

0

2 3

013

6

Kid

Slippers

.. ..

..

..

2

pairs

..

0

8 9

0

17

6

..

\

.. .. .. ..

.. ..

..

•

.. ..

.. ..

..

Jacket

•

. . . 2 .

.

e

3 . 11

(}

7

!0 • 3

pilchers

0

3 9

@ 11

3 · 1

woolleD>,

0

4 6

· O

4 6 3 pilchers

0

3 6

0 10

6 3

· pilchers 0

4

11

0

14 9 3

pilchers

0

3 11

0

11

· 9

Mode s ties . .

. . 3 . .

6 3

11

0

ll

9 • . . . . . . .

. 4

· · · 0

3

11

@ 15

8 . . . . .

•

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

•

.

Binders . .

. . 2 . .

o

1 6

0

3

0

2 . . .

0 · 1

9

0

3 6 4, flannel

0

1

0 0

4

0

2 . .

0 1 0 0

2

0

2 .

.

0 0 10! 0

1 9

· 2

. .

0

2 6

0

5

e

. Feeders

. . •

. . . .

•

. . . . . . .

• •

. .

. . . 6 . . .

0

1

0 0

6

Q

• • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ,

Rorepcrs

. .

..

! . . . . .

..

.. ..

..

3 .

..

0

5 6

0

16 6

..

.. ..

.

..

.. .. .. ..

..

.

..

..

..

Shoes,

baby

• •

, . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 2

. .

0

3

11

. @

7

10

. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Socks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.·.

. .

_

4

p.arrs

. .

0

1 6

0

: 6

Q

•

.

, • •

,/ ..

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Pram

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

l,

Gendola

6

15

0

} 1

0 0 •

l., @.ondola

. .

}

1 1

0

Gondola 7

10

0} 1 1

0

1, Gond o l a

10 10 0

} 1

1

0

1, Gondoh

7 12 6 } 1 1

0

Push

Charr

.. . .

.. ..

.. ..

..

' 1

..

3 0 0

l

.. ..

· l

..

1

l'Z

6 .

d

.

2

])Q

0

(avge .

.) l

..

4

17

6 (avge:)

For

1 of e a c h I of e

ach

1 of

each

who _ le

pur- pur-

.

pur-

fanuly

chased

chased

chased

-

b

•

f a mily

whole . w.hole

· ,

family

·

family

Dummies

•.

3 . .

0

1

0 0

3

0

3 . .

0 0

5

0

1 3

3

0 0

6 .

0

1 6 3 .

.

0 0

9

0

2 3 3

. .

0 0

6

0

1

6

3

0 0

6

0

1

5

Waterproof

Sheeting

..

2

yards

. .

0

4

11

0

9

10

2

yards

. .

0

4 3

0

8 6

2

yards

· · 0 _

5

11

0

11

10

2

yards

. .

0

4

11

0

9

10

2

yards

. .

0

5 6

0

11

0

2

yards

. .

0

5 9

0

11

6

Feedjng

Bottles

. . . . . . . . . . . 6

0

1 9

0 10

6 6

· · 0

2 6

0

15

0

6 .

.

0

2 6

0

15

0

6 .

.

0

1

,11

o

11

6 6 . .

o

1 9

o

10

6

Teat-s

for

BOttles

. . . . .

. 6 . .

0 0

5

0

2 .

6 .' 6

· · 0 0

6

0

3

0

. 6 .

.

0 0

9

0

4 6 6

. • .

0 0

6

0

3

0

. 6

. .

0 0

6

0

3

0

Tins

Powder

• •

. . 12

• .

0

11

0 0

11

0 . 10

. .

0

1

0 0 10 0 10 · · 0

1 6

0

15

0 10

. .

0

l 6

Q 15

0 10 - · · 0

1 3

0 12

6 . IO

0

1 3

0

12

6

.

'

Powder

Puff

• •

. . . . . . . . .

. 2 . .

9

1

Q 0

2

0

2

· • 0

2 3

0

4 6

2

0

2

0 0 '

4

0

2 . .

0

2 6 '

0

5

0

2 .

0

1 3

0

2 6

Soal'

• •

. . 12

cakes

0 0

6

0

6

0

12 cakes

0 0

5

0 5 0

12 cakes

0

1

0 0

12

0

6

cakes

. .

0 0 10 0

5

Q 12

cakes

0

1 3

o

15 0

1-2 cakes

0

1

.1

0

13

0

Sponge

.

• •

. 2

. .

0 0

6 ,

.0 - 1

0

2 .

.

0 0

9

0

1

6l2

'spo . nges

0 , 1

11

a · 10'

2 . . .

0

l

6 0

3

0

2

• . 0

2--.

6

0

5

0

2

..

. 0

1

0 0

2

o

Totals

•

.

..

..

.. ..

20

12

10

..

. .

..

26

10 2 ,

..

• •

21

19

1

.. .. ..

. 22 19 4 . .

..

..

23 3 3

..

..

..

26

, 7 9

I '

Item.

Cotton Thr!)ad Silk Mending

Wool

(Chad-

wick' s )

Needles

. (Se . wing)

. . .

Nee

. rlles ('Darning.)

..

Neeales (Machine)

..

P.ins

.. ('Best)

Sa.fe.t;y

Pins

Ho . dks

'and

Eye

s

Press

Studs

Assorted

Tapes

Hair

Pins

..

Buttons

for

replace·

ment Hair

Slides,

&c. . .

Hat

Pins

·

. . .

.

Shoe

Laces

..

Boot

Laces

. .

Garter

Elastic

..

Ha . t .

Elas

.tic

..

C l eaning

.

and

Pressing

Costume Ribbons,

. .&c.

. .

LIST

OF

ITEMS

ALLOWED FOR IN

CLAIM

FOR

SUNDRIES.-REGIMEN

OF

WOMEN'S CLOTHING.

l>!elbourne.

Amount

per

Year.

6 r ee ls,

300

yards,

at

6!d.

each

2 reels,

50

yards,

_

at

4d.

each

3

reels,

50

yards,

at

4!d.

each

4

balls

at·

Ls .

9d.

each

Sydney.

r

Brisbane

.

Anuual Cost. £

8.

d.

0

3 3

0 0

8

AmountperYear.

1 j

Annual Cost .

6 reels, 4

00

yards,

at

I O!d.

each

' l reel,

2 · ozs.,

at

1s.

lld.

£

s. d.

0

5 3

0

1

1 ! 13

reels,

50

yards,

at

4!d.

each

0

l

ll

0

1

It

0

7

0 0

7

0

4

ball

s

at

ls.

9d.

each

Amount

per

Year.

.,

12 reels,

200

yards;

at

7!

. .

cach

1 reel, 2

ozs..

at

LO!d. 3

reels,

50

yards,

at

3d.

each

4

halls

at

9d.

each

Annual Cost. £ '

s. d.

Adelaide.

Amount

per

Year.

0

7 6

112

reels,

200

yards,

at

7d.

each

0 0 10 !

3 re e ls,

at

3!d

.

each

0 0

9

0

3

6

3 reels,

50

yards,

at

2!d.

each

4

balls

at

1 s. 9d.

eac)l

Annual Cost . £

.s. d.

P e rth.

A!fi&unt'!)er

Year.

0

7

0

I \12 reels, 200

yards,

at

7d.

each

0

0

10!

·J. reel, 2 oz.,

at

1s.

0 0 7,! 13

reel

s , 50

yards,

at

2!d.

each

0

7

0

4

balls

at

9d.

each

2

pkts.

at

3d .

pkh

.

1

pkt.

at

3d.

pkt.

6

at

1il.

each

..

6

pkts.,

1

oz.,

at

4!d

.

0 0

6

2

pkts.

at

2!d.

pkt.

0 0

3 1

pkt.

at

3d.

pkt

.

0 0 6

6

at

ld.

eaeh

..

0

2 3 6

pkts

. ,

1

oz.,

n,t

3!d.

pkt..

0

0

ii 1 . 2

pkts.

at

3td.

pkt.

0 0

3

I

pkt.

at

4d.

pkt.

0 0

6 6

at

2d.

canh

..

0

1 9

f\ pkts.,

1

oz.,

at

0 0

7

0 0 4 0

1

0

0

2 3

2

pkts.

at

3d . .

pkt.l

0

9

6

1

pkt.

at

3d.

pkt.

0 0

3

6

at

2d.

each

. .

. 0

1

0

6

pkts,

1 oz.,

at

0

2 3

2

pkts.

at

3d.

pkt.

1

pkt.

at

4d.

pkt.

6

at

2d.

each

..

6

pkt s ., 1 oz .,

at

6

each

card

1 doz.,

at

3!d.

each 2

cards,

2 doz.

on

car d, a . t 3d.

card

4. dciz.

at

4!

-doz .

2 bdls.

at

9!d.

bdle.

4

pkts.,

5.0 in

pkt.,

at

2!d.

pkt.

0

1

.9

0 0

6

6

cards,

each

card

'

I

doz., .

at

3d.

each 2

cards,

2 doz.

on

card,

at

2d.

card

0

I 6

0 0

4

0

1 6

1 4. doz. a t 4d. doz.

I 0 1 4

0

l

7 1

bdle.

at

1 s .

lld.

1 0

1

11

0 0

10

· 4 pkts.

at

2d.

pkt.

0 0

8

0

2 6

0

2 6

4!J.

p'k t .

6

cardg,

each

car.d

1

· doz.,

at

:Jd .

each . 2 cards,

. 2 doz.

on

each

card,

at

2d.

card - 4 doz.

at

2d. doz.

1

bdle.

at

1s.

3d.

4. pkts,

1-oz.

pkts.,

at

2!0-.

pkt.

0

1 6

Q 0

4

0 0

8

0

1 3

0 0 10 0

2 6

• • I

0

5 ' 0

0 0

-';"

0

0

5

0

0 0 0 0

0

5

0

2

6

0 0 0 0

0

2 6

4td.

pkt.

6

cards

at

4!d.

each

2

cards;

2 doz .

to

each

card,

at

3d.

card 4

cards

at

3d.

each

1 bdle.

at

1

s. 3d.

4

pkts.,

1-oz.

pkt.,

at

2d.

pkt.

I • • • •

;

0

4

prs.

at

1s. pr. . .

0

1 doz.

at

10!

doz.

, 0

3

yds

.

a . t Sd.

yd. . .

i

0

2 6

0 0 0 0 0

0

4

0

' 4

pre.

at

1s.

pr.

. .

0

0

10!

' l doz.

at

10!d.

doz.

0

2

0

!· 3

yds.

at

ls.

yd.

. .

0

. . i

3

yds

.

at

4!d.

yd ..

. .

0

0 0

' 0

4

0

4

prs.

at

8d. pr. . .

· 0 2 ·

8 4 prs.

at

4-td.

pr

...

0 IO}

1 doz.

at

lO!d.

doz.

0 0

10!

1 doz.

at

ls.

3d. doz.

3 · 0 ·

3

yds.

at

l s: 3d.

yd .

:

0 3

9 3 yds.

at

1s.

yd.

. .

1 2 3

yds.

a.t 4d.

yd..

.

0

l

0 · 3

yds.

at

4d.

yd ...

86

00

••

' 086

0

3 6

0

2 3

0 0

6

0

1

0

0 1 3

0 0

8

0

2

6 ·

0

5

0

0

2

6

0 1 6

0

1 3

0

3

0

0

l

0

0

8 6

6d.

pkt.

6

cards,

each

card

1 doz. ,

at

6d.

each 2

cards,

2 doz.

to

each

card,

at

3d.

card 4

cards

at

3d.

each

1

bdle.

at-1s. . .

· 4 pkts.,

1-oz.

pkt.,

at

2d.

pkt.

4

prs.

at

3).a.

pr.:

:

I

doz.

at

2s.

doz

..

.

3

yds.

at

ls.

yd . . .

3

yds.

at

1d .

yd ..

.

·Petersham

·

Belting,

}

2!

in s.,

at

1 s.

6d . yd.

Neckwear

and

Fronts

Linings,

&c.,

for

r e ­

pairing

and

r e lining

clothing Adornments

-Beads,

Brooches, &c. )

0

ll

6

o

I5

' o

0

I3

() I !

£2

2 1 £3 3

0

£3 3

0 '

£3

'3

5

Annual · Cost.

Hobart.

A:mount p· e r

Year. Annual

Cost.

-----1---

-

£

8.

d.

0

7

0 112

reel s,

200

yards,

at

7!d.

each

0

1

0

1 reel,

-2

at

1s.

0 0

7!

0

3

0

0 0

6

0 - 0

4

o

1

o ·

0

3

0

0

3

0

3 reels,

50

yards,

at

2!d.

eaGh

2

balls

at

2 s . 6d.

eacn 2

pkts.

at . 4!d.

pkt.

1

pkt.

at

4!<1.

pkt.

6

at

2d.

each

..

6

pkts.,

1 oz.,

at

6d.

pkt.

· • 6

cards,

each

card

1

doz.,

at

7

!d.

each

0 0

6 ' 12

cards,

2 doz.

to

1

each

card,

at

3!d.

0

1

0

0

1

0

0 0 R 0

2 6

0

5

0

0

2 6

0

1 2

0

2

0

0 3

0

0

l

0

0

8 6

0

14

9

card · 4 cards

at

1

1

bdle.

at

"I s .

6d.

4 .

pkts.,

1-G>z.

pkt.,

•

at

:ld .

pkt. 0 • •

4

prs.

at

4-!d.

pr

..

.

1

doz

.

at

4 ·s.

..

.

3

yds.

at

10!d.

yd.

3

ydS.

at

3td.

yd ...

(P e

ter s h a m Bel't­ i - ng,

2! in

s. ,

at

Is.

3d.

yn.)

(

;£3

;{

0!

1 '

£

8; d.

0

7

6

0

1

0

0

(')

7!

0

5

0

0 0

9

0 0

4!

0

1

0

0

3

0

0

3 9

0 0

7

0 0

6

0

1 6

0

I

0 .

0 2 6

0

!)

0

0

2 6

0

l

6

0 4 0 o 2

n

0 0

lOt

0

8 6

0

8

11

£3

3

0

MS'f

OF

SUNDRY ITEMS ALLOWED

FOR IN

CLAIM

FOR

SUNDRIES.-RE

. GIMEN

OF

H a ir

Ribbon

s, 9

per

year

at

1s.

6a.

Collars,

Dress

Ribbons .

.

£0

13

6

t2 · per

year

at

1s.

9d.

£1

1

0

0

5

.

6

0

11

6

£0

19

0

£1

12 6

-.:t C..'1

/

l _ OJ w

CLAIMS

OF

FEDERATED

UNIONS.-MISOELLANEOUS.

Melbourn e . Brisb a ne. Adelaide.

Item.

I

Sydney.

I------=-------:-----

--------:----

- I

Annu

a-l 1

Amount

per

Year.

Annual Cost.

Amount

per Year.

Amount

per

Year.

Annual Cost.

Annual Cost.

1----

Unio!\

Dues

£

8.

d.

Avera

ge

per

I

1 6

0

year

Lodge

Fees

{ A.N.-A.). . Average

cost

per

I

4 '

Q

l

year

Newspapers-

_

Morning

and

Evening

10 at

1d.

each,

2

at

I

3

0

8

2d.

each

l

Political,

Industrial,

_

Social, Religious,

or

Sporting

Sunday

Paper

Stationery-

3d.

per

week

0

13

0

I

f

Envelopes Writing

Pads

ilnk

..

,150 3

11 0

8

0

'Pens Pencils

..

Blotting

Paper,

&c . .

Stamps Social,

Recreation,

and

.

Amusements

Church

and

Charity

..

School

Requisites

..

Lighting

(Gas

or

.Elec­

tricity) Smoking

Requisites-

Tobacco

..

Pipes Pouch

Pocket

Knife

Holders,

&c.

Barber_:_ Hair

Cuts

J

0

19

6

3

per

week

5s.

per

week

..

,13

0 0

1s. 6d.

per

week

..

Average

cost

per

year Average

cost

per

year

3 18

0

4 '

5

0

2 12

0

t

lb.

l., . J

..

8 -at

1s.

8 at

9d.

}

I

o

14

o

Average

cost

per

year

at

6d.

per

week Average

cost

per

year Morning, 7

at

2d.

each E ven

ing,

6

at

l i-d.

each 3d.

per

week

150 3

l

Cost.

£

8.

d.

1 6

0

I Average

cost

per

1

year

at

7d.

per

1

week

3 9 4 3

0

8

.!Morning,

6

at

1d.

I

each

1 19

0

Evening,

6

at

1d.

each Delivery,

at

1d.

per

week

0

' 13

- O I 3d.

per

-..veek

l

at

3d.

per

week

150 3

£

8.

d.

I

10

4

1 6

0

1 6

0

0

4 4

0

13

0

0

13

0

I

o

8

o

l I

0

8

0

3

per

week

J

0

19

6

5s.

per

week

..

,13

0 0

1s. 6d.

per

week

..

Average

c0st

per

year

13,. pe'

week

J

3 18 .

0

7 16

0

' I

8

at

1s : 3d.

8 at

1s.

;

.

}

1

o

18

o

. .. J

3 ' per

week

at

lid.

each

0

19

6

5s.

per

week

..

,13

0

Q

1s.

6d.

per

week

.

·1 3 18

0

Average

cost

'per

1 13

0

year

4 ozs.

at

8!d.

per

oz.

week, 2s.

10d.

7 7

4

0

8 8

2d.

8

at

Is.

3d.

8

at

Is.

(boy's)

}

I

o

I8

o

Amount

per

Year.

Average

cost

per

year

I '

A vmaiSe

cost

pelf

vear J\'lurn ing,

6

at

l!d.

each Evening,

6

at

ld.

each 3

per

week

150 3

l

£

8 .

d.

1 6

0

4

0 0

l

19

0

1 6

0

0

13

0

o

8

o

3d .

per

week

J

0

19

6

5s.

per

week

..

,13

0 0

Is:

6d.

per

week

..

A vera.ge

cost

per

year Average

cost

per

year I

3e. pe'

week

J

3 18

0

1 4

0

3

0 0

7 16

0

8

at

ls

...

8

at 9d.

}

I

o

14

o

Perth.

Amount

per

Year.

Average

cost

per

year

I Average

cost

per

year :Morn

in g , '

6

at

2d.

each Evening,

6

at

2d .

each 3d.

per

week

Sunday,

Lat

4d. -..

150 3 3

per

week

at

each

I I ( J

lld.

Ann · ual Cost.

\

Hobart.

Am;unt

per

Year.

I

Annual

--=-·-

1

Cost.

£

s.

d.

I - .

£

s . d.

I

. _ I Avera

g e

cost;

pe r

I

year

l 19

0

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cos.

t

per

I

year j

7

10

13

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d

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12

2

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0

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r

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,

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l i

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..

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3

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..

, 13

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per

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I

3 18

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lls.

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..

I

3 18

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cost

per

I 3 9

0

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cost

per

1 - 2

13 1

year

year

4 ozs.

at

8d.

per

oz.,

2s. 8d.

per

week

6 18 8

14 ozs.

per

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I

7 ' 16

0

9d.

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. .

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Shaving

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Brush Strop Soap Sharpening

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Fares

for

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Dental Tooth

Paste

.

Handbag

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Fuel

(Firewood

and

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Comb

Brushes­ Nail Scrubbing Tooth H a

ir

(Woman's)

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(Men

's )

Clothes

..

Bannister Boot Sundry

Brushes-

Hearth

Brush

..

Stove

Brushes,

&c.

Brooms­ American Millet Hair Yard Household

Sundries­

Paste

Board

and

Roller Steps Clothe s

Pegs

Scrubbing

Board

Shopping

Basket

Insurance

,

Insuran

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Garden

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.

Seed s

. .

. .

Plants S l akes Manure Soil Garden Tools Lawn

Mower

Water

}

••

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3

0

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at

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0

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-l at

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,

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I

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3rd

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2s. 6d.

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To -b e

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At 6d:

per

week

57

8 9

0

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I

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&.

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6d.

tat

27s. 6d.

week

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2s. 6d.

I cwt.

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per1

per

cwt.

· II3 0 0

II

loads

Firewood,

averaging

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load,

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load

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6d. j

pe , r

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bags

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I

bag

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I

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10 at

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!

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,

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b

0

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.

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I

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Is.

6d.,

1 /

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1 /

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. .

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to

be

deter-

mined To

be de

t ermined

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per

week

0 0

6

0

I

0

0 0

9

0

I

0

0

I

6

6

0

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I/I5th

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2

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(Life) to

be

deter-

mined To

be determined

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per

0 ' 5 0 0

I5

0

0

9 2

6 l

Q

0 . 4 0 0

3

0

"-

42

2 4

10 tubes

at

1s. 6d.

tat

20s. ·

..

1

cwt

.

Wood

per

}

week

at

2s.

1

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per

week

·

0

5

0

0

15

0

0

6 8

7 16

0

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1

49 6 2

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!

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27s. 6d.

0

3 6

II

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0

3

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Is

...

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0

1 6

0

19 2

0

2

0

0

2

0

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0

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1

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.

10 at

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.1

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1!

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0 0

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0

I

0

0

2

0

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I5

0

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I

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I

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7s. 6d.

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2

0

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·

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2

0

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·

0

3 .

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II

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3s. . .

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1

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0

2

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i

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0

I 2

0 0

9

0 0

8

0

1 ' 5

I - Paste

Board

4s. 9 d .,

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6s.

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I7s. 6d.

2 doz.

at

5d.

doz.

1/3rd

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3s.

1/3rd

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4s.

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be determined

To

be determined

6

0

I At

6d.

per

0

3

0

11 .at

4s ...

0 l

I!

i

at

6s. 9d.

0

2 6

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3s. 9d.

0 0

7

0 0

lO

0 0

10

. 0 1

0

0

1 4

Paste

Board

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1/lOth

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S s.

1/20th

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2ls.

2 doz.

at

4d. , doz.

1/3rd

at

4s.

lld.

I/3rd

at

4s.

lld.

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be determined

To

be dete-rmined

6 . 0

I At

6d. ,per

week

0

0

0

12 6

0

9 2

6 15

0

49 - 9 6

10 tubes

at

1s. 3d.

tat

30s.

/

.

0

I

0

I

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Is.

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I

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a · 0

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I

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l

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i

at

8s. 6d.

!

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4s. 6d.

Paste

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5s. 6d.,

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2s., .

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7s. 6d.

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:

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4s. 6d. . .

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be determined

To

be deterinined

l 6

•

0

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6d.

per

week

..

0

5

0

3

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0

12 - 6

0

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l

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,

Melbourn

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Item

.

Annual

Amount

p e r Y

ea r .

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'

Amount

per Year.

Co s t .

C os t .

£

Hou

s ehcfl.d

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8.

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£

8.

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la, neous -

'

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upkeep

I

..

Ringer

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Clothes

..

[;ron

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Ironing

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Wire Slrle

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doz .

j l s . 2d .

I l3s . d o z .

j 1 s .

4-!d.

each

1 1 .

eac h

9 s.

6 d .

r "

set

each

I

5 s .

6d .

•

5s .

.9d. •

1

each e ac h

·

..

Av e ra

ge

I

..

Ave r age

.rep l a ce -

0 1'0

0 ( r ep l ace:

1

2s .

3d .

me n

ts

j2s.

eac h m e

nt s

ea c h

1

5s , 6 d. ,

j 4 s . 3 d.

e a c h e ac h

65s.

set

' 50 s .

set

I

Annual Cost

. 0

•

00

'

Glassware- . Fruit

Bowls

1Sa:lad Butter

Dishes

Jam

:IDishes

Average

replace·

I

0 10 0

ments

Drinking

Glasses

••

·

Cake

Dishes

Suga.rBasin

Cutlery-Knives­

Carvers Table

..

Dessert Br e ad

. .

Forks­ Table

..

Dessert Bread

..

< Spoons­ Table Dess10rt Tea

•.

..

•J

Average,

1

set

in

20 year!! per

set ..

£1

0 0

per

doz. 2

10

0

per

doz. 2 5

0

each

..

0

3 6

" per doz. £1

9

0

per

doz. 1 5

0

each

..

076

per

doz.

£1

9

0

per

doz. 1 5

0

per

doz.

0

14

6

12 8 6

I 0

12 5

0

1

0

Sundry

Cutlery-Jam

and

Salt

.

11

Spoons .

. .

Butt

e r Knives

. . . 1s.

Pickle

Fork

..

,j

...

Average replace. ments,

including

Water

Jug

To

be renewed

in

20 years per

set

..

£1

8

0

per

doz

.. .

. 3 5

0

per

doz..

. 2 18

0

each

..

020

per

doz

...

£2 18

0

per

doz

...

2 2

0

11e .ach

..

040

. • per

doz

...

£)!

18

0

p e r doz

...

2 2

0

per

doz

...

1 2

0

0 10 0

1 -

18 19

0 I 0

19

• O

Jam

.Spoon 0

2

6

Butter

0

2 6

Knives Pickle

0

3

0

Fork Salt

0

1 3

Spoon

093100

.• 6

6s. 6d. each '68.

6d.

each 2s. each 2s.

each

6s.

6d:

each 2s. 9d. 16s. 6d.

doz.

Tum· biers 6s. 9d. 'Water Jug

Average replace· ments

Average, 1

se t

in

20 years per

set

..

£1

12 6

per

doz.. . 2

15 · 0

per

doz

...

2

5 0

each

..

0

2 6

0 10

r o

'

615

0 . 10

6 9

per

doz .

..

£3

0 0

pe!'

doz

...

2

10 · 0

..

0

5 6

per

doz

...

£3

0 0

per

doz.. . 2

10 0

per

doz

...

0

18 6

0

5 9

6861066

; : Jam

a nd

.

Salt Spoon Butter Knives Pickle Fork Salt Spoons

0

2

11

0

3

9

0

1 ' 3

0 1

0

•

7 s .

6cl. each 5s. 6d. . •

each 3s ;

6d'. each 3s. 6d. each 18s. 6d. i l

doz. 6s.

each

Average replace­ ments

3s. 9d. each 8s. 6d. Water Jug

t

Renewed

in

20 years

per

pair

..

£1

5 0

per

doz

...

2 5 6

per

doz

...

2 1

0

·

•each

..

026

. I per

doz

'l •.

1

1 2.. . 0

per

doz

...

1 4 6

ea . ch

. . .

· 0

7 6

per

doz

...

1 12

0

per

doz

...

1 4 6

per

doz.. .

0

13

0

12 7 6

Average

per

year

J am Spon

0 .

2 6

Butter

· o 1 9

Kni

• ves

Pickle

0

3 6

Fork Salt S ,

poon

. 0

1

0

0

s . 9

0 10 • 0 0

12 4

4s. 6d. each 5s. 6d. each 2s. 6d. each 2s. each

15s. doz.

4s. 6d.

each 2 s.

eac h

5s. 6d. Water Jug

Average replace­ ments

·

R enewed

in

20 years

per

se t

..

£1

5 0

per

doz. . . 2 5

0 -

per

doz

...

2

0 0

each

..

0

3 6

per

doz

• . ..

2 4

0

per

doz..

. 1 1 5 .

0

each

..

036

per

doz

...

2 4

0

per

doz..

. 1 15

0

per

doz

...

0

16 6

14

11

6

A

veJ;age

per

year

£0

3 6

0

3 6

0

3 6

0

1

0

0

ll

6

0

10

0

0

14 7

Av erage

pet

year

I' 0 0

5

r Average

per

year

I

0 0

'f

5s.

each

3s. 6d. each

·

2s; 6&

each 28. 6d. each

-lAverage

lls.

doz.

replace­ ments

l r

7s. 6d. each 2s. 3d.

•

each 7s : 6d. Water Jug Renewed

in

20 y,ears

per

set

..

£1

10

0

per

doz

...

3

0 0

per

doz. . . 2

1-0

0

each

: .

0

4

0

per

doz

...

l 6

0

per

doz

...

1 4

0

each

.•

076

per

doz

...

1 6

0

per

doz..

. 1 4

• 0

per

doz..

.

0

12 6

0 5 0 0 4 -

6

0

4

· 0

0

1

0

13 18 6

0 10 0

Average

per

year

I 0

13

11

/

'

··

Qj e

'

Me l bourne. -

I

Syd n

ey.

Item .

I

per Year

..•

Annual Amount per Year. Cost. £

8 .

d.

Cooking

Utensils,

Alu·

Replacement

in

15

Replacement

in

15

minium

-

years-

-

years

-

Eaucepans

..

4sizes

..

£1

19

0

4 sizes -

£1

17 3

-

5s., 8s .

6d .

16s . 6d.

'-

7s.

3d.

-

Kettle

..

. .

-I 1 5

0

Kettle

. . I

lO

0

.

Boiler

. .

..

I 14

"'0

Boiler

..

1 14

0

Preserving

Pan

. .

1 1 7 6

Preserving

1 4

0

•

Pan

Fry

Pan

..

. .

0

12 6

Fry

Pan

0

12 6

Colander

\

0

12 6

Colander

0

12 6

Steamer

..

. .

0

9 6

Steamer

0

9 6

--

- - -

--

-

9

0 0 0

12

0

7 19 9

- - -

--

-

Enamelware-

/

-

Replacement

in

10

Replacemenhin

IO

years-

years-:-

Pie

Dish

..

r

..

3, cost

£0 10

6

3 / cost

. .

£0

8 6

Mixing

Bowl

..

0

4

0 0

4 6

l'.filkCan

. .

0

6 . 6

0

5 9

Tea

Can

. •

. .

0

5

0 0

3

3

Coffee

Pot

..

0

7 6

. .

0

8

0

--

-

---

1 I 3 6

0

3 4 I

10 0

-.

---

---

Average

replacement

in

5

years

Average repl ac

ement

£

8.

d .

£

8 .

d.

£

8 ,

d.

Tinware-Strainer,

Soup

•

..

0

I

6

/

0

2 5

Steamer

..

. .

0

2

0

Wash

- up

Dish

0

3 6

0

4 3

DipJler

..

..

I o 1

0 0

1 6

Bucket

..

..

0

4

0 0

1 6

Refuse

Tin

..

0

12 6

0

1 5 3

Slop

Bucket

..

0

6 6

0

8

0

.. '

1

ll

0

..

0

6 2 1 12

u

l

\

Miscellaneous

Tinware-

-

"'

--

Flour

Sifter

. .

2•.

per

2

0

Dust

Pan

..

1

3

Grid

I ron

. .

3

0

Average

Graters

. •

. .

0

4

replace-

F u

nnel

. .

..

0

2

0

. .

ments

·rea

Straine

r

. .

J

0

6

per

year

Egg

Beater

..

1

0

2s.

·-

Patty

Pan

. .

1

2doz. /

.

MISCE

LL ANEOUS - c o n t

inued

.

B r isba n e .

Adelai

d e . .

A nnual

.,Am

o unt

per Year.

Annua l Amount per - Yea r

.-

An nua l

Cost.

C o st.

Cost.

£

8 . d .

£

8 . _ d .

£

8 .

d.

Replacement

in

1 5

Replacement

i n }5

years-

years

-

,.

4

sizes-

£2 12 3 4 sizes - £ 2 5

0

Ss .

9d.

-

8s. 6d.

Us . 9s. 6d.

1 4s .

u s.

6d.

- 1 8s. 6d. 15s . 6d.

Kettle,

1 2 6

Ketti'e

..

I

10 0

4

pints

Boiler . . 1 7

0

Bo i

ler _ . . 1 I 4

0

Preserving

1 5

0

Preserving

1

10 0

,,

Pan,

Pan

enamel-I ware Fry - Pan

' 0

8 6

Fry

Pan

0

7 6

Colander

0

1 3

0

Colander

0

1 2 6

Steamer

0

12 6

Steamer

0

9 6

sl

8T3

010 010

8 8 8

()

011

3

'

I Replacement

;n

10

Replacement

in

IO

years-

years

-

3,

cost

. .

£0

7 6

,

3

at

3s . 3d.

0

9 9

0

2

0 0

7

0

0

4 9

0

3 6

\

0

5 6

0

5 3

Oll

6

0

7

0

---

-

0

3

0

I 11

3

0

3

2 1

I2

6

0

3 '

3

in

5

years

I Aventge repla

c ement

in

5

years

Average

replacement

in

5

years

£

8.

d.

£

8.

d.

£

8.

d .

£

8 .

d .

£

8 .

d.

- I

Strainer,

1 -

Tea

0 0

8

0

2

0 /

I Strainer

..

. 0

1 9

0

4-0 • 0

3 3

.

0

2 3

- 0

1 6

0

2 9

--

0

5

0

.

0

12 6

0

u

0

0

lO

6

0

5 6 '

I

-

---

0

6

7

1 16

5'

0 - 7 -

3

1

8 3

. .

0

5 8

0

2

6

'

f 0

0

I 3

0

2

0

I

0 0

9

0

2

0

A vera , ge

2s . per

year

0

2

0

..

2

0

0 0

9

0

1 3

J

0

1

Od oz .

Perth. H o ba rt.

(

Amount per

Yea

r . Annua l Amount per

Yea

r .

I Annua

l

Cost. Cost.

£

8 .

d .

Replacement

in

15

Replacement

i-n

15

years-

oli>

years-

..

4 · sizes -

£2 7 6 4

sizes-

£2

9

0

5s. 8s.

6d .

16s . 6d. 7s. 3d. I 7 6 I

3

0

I

14

0

I

I4

0

1 4

0

1

4

0

0

6

6

0

7

0

0

6 3

0

9

0

0

9 6

--

0

9 6

'

7

I5

3 - 0 10

4 7 15

6

Replacement

in

' 10

Replacement

in

10

years-

years

-

1 3 at

3s. 6d.

0

IO

6 3,

cost

..

0

7 3

. 0

6 6

0

4

10

I

0

7

6

I

0

5

0

0

5 6

0

6 6

0

8

6

0

8 6

----

l 18 6

0

3

'1 0

I 12 1

Average

replacement

in

5

years

Average

replacement

£

8.

d .

£

8.

'

d.

£

8.

d.

rs

0

2 3

' " 0

2

0 ' .

. I

0 . .. 0

. -

0 0 10 -

0

3 9

0

1 5

0

3

1 0

-

o

3 . 9

I

0

u

6

- 0

17

0

0

8 6

' 0

lO 6 _

1

I

l

1 0

8

0

6 I

,

1

IS

8

..

0 , 2

3

l

0

2

3

l

0

I 6

0

2

0

0

2

0

l

'

0

2 6

0 0

7

0 0

6

. .

Jo

2

0

. .

>-

0 0 10 0 0

9

J

0 0

9

0

1

4

0

2

0 doz. ·

I

l

· 0

doz .

0

00 0

•

j....

- - t.-:)

. , , 0)

;Family

Social

Need!!-

Toys

..

..

Presents

..

. .

Photographs

and

Frames

(Family

Photos)

.•

..

Tuition

in

music

or

art,

&c.

(two chil-

dren) ..

..

Household

repairs-

Household Utensils

.•

Renovations Scissors

and

Knife

Sharpening

Unemployment

...

..

. .

..

..

. .

. .

\

..

. .

..

. .

..

..

L.

.......

"'

1

0 0

. .

..

..

1

0 0

. . .

. .

..

1

0 0

..

. .

..

1

0 0

..

. .

..

" '

0 5 0

.. ..

..

0 5 0

..

..

. .

12 12

0

..

. . . .

12 12

0

..

. .

•

0

5

0

..

. . .

.

0 5 0

..

..

..

To be

To be determined

.......

1

0 0

. .

. . ..

1

0 0

.. ..

. .

1

0 0

..

..

..

i "

0 0

. .

..

..

0 5 0

. .

..

. . 0 5 0

. .

..

. .

12 12

0

. .

. .

..

12 12

0

. . .

.

. .

0

5

0

..

..

. . .

0

5 0

..

. .

. .

(

/

To be

determined To be determined

(;

1

0

0

. .

. . . .

1

0 0

. .

. . .

.

0 5 0

. .

. .

. .

12 ' 12

0

. .

. .

-ioo

' • •

0 5 0

..

..

. ..

I'

\ To

be determined

1

0

1

0

0

5

12 12 0

5 .:_

0

0

0

0

0

00 .....

CJ'J ;

., m"',

t:.C>

CLAIMs :

oF

FEDERATED

UNIONS.-HOUS ' EHOLD DRAPERY-REPLACEMENTS.

Assumed

House

contains

:-1

Doub1e

Bed, 3

Single Beds,

7

Windows.

.

Melbourne.

I

Sydney.

Adelaide.

I

Perth.

Hobart.

Item.

- -

Amount

p .

Annual Amou n t

p

ice Annual

;Amount Price

Annual

Amount

Price Annual

Amount

p .

Annual.

Amount

Price

1 Anm!al

'

per

Year.

nee. Cost. -

per

_ Y ea r. r

·

Cost.

per

Ye a r.

·

Cost.

per

Year.

·

Cost.

per

Year.

nee.

Cost.

per

Year.

·

Cost.

-------------------

•

Each

Each.

Each:

Each.

Each.

-

Each.

£

·

£

£

8.

d.

£

s. d.

£

8.

a. £

8.

a.

£

8.

d.

£

8 .'

d :

£

8.

d.

£

8.

d.

,.

£

8.

d.

£

8.

d.

Blanket

-s-

-

Double

Bed

!

-pair

. . . . . .

!

pair

. . 2 7

61 approx

i-pair

2

10 0 0

8 4

I/5th

pair

2

I?

0 0

II

0

t

pair

. .

4

0 0

I4

0

t

pair

. . 4

? 0 0

I4

2

'"'-

j

-

pair

pair

Single

..

!

pair

,.

._.

..

,!pair

..

Ill

ll

II5

o · 3/6thpair

2

0 0

I

0 0

3 / 5pair

I

I?

6 I

0 0

3/6pair

..

_

I

I?

6

0

I8

9

3/(>pai;r

..

2

? 0

I 2

6

girl's,

..

pair

approx.

pair

pair

,

pa1r,

boy s

-

-

Baby's

Cot..

. .

!

pair

. . . . . . . . . . .

· · \ · · · · _ · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · • · · · · · · • ·

Quilts-

1

Double

Bed

!

.. ..

..

I j 5th

..

2

IO

0

}approx

I/5th

..

2

IO

0 0

IO

0

I / 5

..

I

I7

6

0

7 6

t _

..

2

5

0 p

7 6

t

..

3

o · 0

010

0

Single

Bed

. .

-. .

!

girl's,

and

. . . . 3 j

5ths

. . .

I

IO

0

I 8

0

· ·

I

I5

0

I I

O . 3/5

.

·

I 5

0 0

I5

0

3 / 6 . .

I_

7 6

0

I3

9

3/6

•

. 2 2

0

I I

0

!

boy's

Baby's

Cot . .

!

. _ . .

.

· · · · · · · · · · · · · - · · · · · · · · · , · · · · · · - · · · · · · · · · · · · - · ·

Sheets-

1

·

I

IO

2

·

DoubleBed

..

2

..

. _ .

..

Ipair

,_ .

II7

9 _

II7

9

I2paus

0 .

50

Ipa1r

..

II5

0

II5

0

Ipair

..

I15

0

II5

0

Ipair

..

II7

6

II7

6

. .

·

.

_

.

pair

pair pair

Single

Bed

. . . . . 2 girl's, . . . . 3

pairs

· ·

I I 9 3 5 3

4!

paus

· ·

I 5

0

5

I2

6 3

pans

· ·

I

? 0

3

I5

0

3

P!l-irs

..

·

I 5

0

3

I5

0

3

pairs

. . I

II

6 4

I4

6

·

- 2

boy?s -

pau

pair pair

Baby's

.

. .

.

..

2 . . . . . . . . . . . .

· · · · · ·

.

·

. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .

. .

Pillow

Slips-

/

Plain

. . . .

10

. .

. . .

· .

12 . .

0

2 6 1

lO

0

12

· · 0

2 6

1

lO

0

12 . .

0

2 6

1

10 0

I2

. .

0

2 3

I 7

0

12 . .

0

3

0

I

I6

0

Towels-

" _

Bath

. . . .

I2

. . . .

-

. . 6 . . .

0

6 6 1 19

· 0

6 . .

0

7 6

2 5

0

6 . .

0

5 3 1

11

6 . . . . . . . . . .

•

. .

. . .

Face

. . . . . . . .

-:-.

. . 6 .

- . .

0

4 9

I 8 6

· · · · · · · · _ · ·

. .

. . 6 . .

0

5 6 I

I3

0

6 .

.

0

7

II

2 7 6

Tea

. . . . 12 . . . . . .

I2

. .

0

2

10

1

I4

0

I2

· ·

. . 1 15

0

12 . .

0

2

11

1 15

0

12 . .

0

2 6

1

10

0

I2

. .

0 ·

2

II

I 15

0

Table

Cloths . . . . 2 . . . . . . 2 . . 1

10 0

3

0 0

I .

. 1 12 6 1 12 6 1 . . 1 3 9 1 3 9 2

·

. .

1

10 0

3

0 0

2 .

. 2

0 0

4

0 0

Serviettes . . . . 6 .

. . . . . 6 . . I

IO

0 0

I5

0

6

· ·

2 5

0

I 2

6 6 . . I

IO

0 0

I5

0

6 . .

0

2 I

0

I2

6 6 . .

0

2 6

0

I5

0

doz :

, ·

doz.

-

doz.

D'Oyleys

..

. . 4

..

·

---

..

.

. _ 4 · - -- . .

..

-0

2

-: 6

o · IO

0 . 4 · - - : · 0 -- I

II

0

7 8 4

..

- 0 .

I

6

0

6

0

4

_

..

0

I

0 0

4

_9

4 . .

0

I 3

0

5

0

Tray

Cloths

,_ ..

• ,

. . .

.___.

_ .. ..

2

.

.

•.

,

0 ·.· - -:6

6

0

I3

0

2 .

. · · 0

8

II

0

I7

IO

2 . .

0

6 6

0

I3

0

2 . . . .

0

3

11

0

7

IO

2 . .

0 - 5

6

0

ll

Q _

Window

Curtains

..

2 . .

'

. .

Replace

· ·

I

10 0

Repla?e

· ·

I

IO · 0

Replace

. .

•

I

IO

0

Replace

. . I

10 0

Replace

. . I 5

0

. -

,,

all

in

7 avge.

all

m 7

avge.

all

in

7 ' avge.

all

in

7 _ avge.

all

in

7 avge.

;;

J

, _

. :

_ _ • • • • • • • - •

...,

__

;

years

·

.,

, · ·

years

· · _ ·

years

..

years

years

Cu13hion

Covers

: :- . .

. .

. . . . . . 4 . .

0

4 6

0

18

0

4

· · O .

5 6

I 2

0

4 . .

0

5 6

I 2

0

4 .

.

0

5

0

I -

0 0

4 .

.

0

5 3

I 1

0

Sideboard

Runners

. . I . . . . .

w

1 . . . .

0

6 6

1

· · 0

8

. 6

0

8 6 I

. .

0

5

6 · 0

5 6

I . .

0 _

5 6

0

5 6

1 ,

. .

0

6 - 6

0

6 6

Toilet$ets

· ,

.

· •

.

· 3

· •

. . - . '

..

. . . .

· - 0 ·

6 9

l

· · · 0

8

-ll

· 0 ·.

8

11

I

..

0

7

·

6

0 .

7 6

I . .

0

6 6

0

6 6

I . .

0

5

· n o

5

II

Kapok

.

• . ;..; J

I, ,

. . . . . . .

. . .

6 lbs. . .

0

2

0

' o ' I2

0

6 lbs. . .

0

2

0 0

12

0

6

lbs.

. .

0

2 3

0

I3

6

6lbs.

. .

0

2 6

0

I5

0

6 lbs. . .

0

2 3

0

I3

6

. . . lb. lb. lb. lb. lb.

Tea

Cosy

· ,

. . .

.

•

. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . I

0

4

II

. 0 -4

11

1 .

• 0 4

II

0

4

11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

•

Covers . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

· · •

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

_

..

23 8

"9

24 13 8

· - 20

I 2

20

I5

4 . . . . . . 25 I

l

0

-

,f' 0 F •

00

- -

r--

\•

}

Item.

Washing Material-

Quantity per Week.

Star.ch . . i lb. . . .

Blue · . . . . 1 oz. . .

Household Soap . . I bar .. ..

Soda or Soap Extract I pkt. . .

Cloudy Ammoina . . i bqttle ..

Borax . . . . I oz. . .

Toilet Soap. . . . I cake

Household Cleaners-Sand Soap . . . . i cake ..

Black Lead .. · . . I oz.

Floor Polish . . ! tin

Metal Polish . . t tin

Phenyle . . . . i pint ..

-

83

MiscELLAN:Jiious-continued.

Melbourne.

Cost

Price. per

Week. -Annual Cost.

8. d. 8. d. £ 8. d.

0 IO 0 2!} 0 lt 0 It I a- I a .

0 2 ,0 . 2 .6 10 0

0 . 7t 0 2 I

.. ' 0 I

.. 0 6

0 4 0

0 It 0

I 0 0

I 0 0

0 7! 0

I } '- It :r I I9 0

IJ

2

Quantity per Week.

!lb. ..

I oz. . .,

I bar ..

I'"pkt. . .

! ,bottle ..

I caka. ..

! cake ..

1 oz. !tin ttin ! pint " .

, Sydney. Brisbane.

P).'ice . Cost per Week.

Annual· Cost. Quantity per

Week.

Cost

Price. per

Week. Annual Cost. ,

8 / d. 8. d. £ a. d. '· d. 8, d. £ '· d.

Q. lO 0 I!

I 8.

0 2

O, Iq

0 i 6

0 5

0 It

I I

0 11

0 7

0 It

I "'8

0 2

i lb.

I oz.

I bar - ..

0 IO

0 I

I 9

0 2!}

0 2! . 7 9

0 6

6 ! bot.

I oz.

._. ·1· cake

0 7!

0 I

.. 0 6!

0 I . } · ·!cake

0 It I oz. . .

o a I I9 .o ·! _. _ tin ..

0 I! · -l tin ..

o· 2 . . ! pint. ..

0 2t }' 0 I I 9

Q 2' 7 I6 0

0 2 .

0 I

0 6! .

Household Sundries­ BoQt Polish Matches · ..

.. I tin .. · 0 '6

. . I doz. . . 0 8

o 6 }a 0 8 I tin 0 8 I doz. . . 07 07) Itin, .. 0 8! 0 8! 11 6 'I doz.. .. Salt .. Me(:licines-. Olive Oil • .. Castor Oil .. Sulphate of Soda Pills .. Patent Medicines . . , . Aspros . .. Tincture of Q:uinine . . . . Replacements_:_ { To be re-Lino . . 1 Ma tsJ . . p aced Carpet runner · every IO years .. .. .. Domestic assistance . . · 4 weeks per annum I ..

''}·

.. ,

0 6 I 6 0 .. '

" . I .

Average I lO 0

To be re­

placed every IO :y:ears

0 a 0 Ia 0 ..

. . 5 , 0 0 4

per annum

.Adelaide.

.. 0 I ) ..

-_ ··_}·

..

.. .

• '•

0 6 · I ' 5 0 ..

..

Average To be re" ' I IO 0 placed·

I 7 0 every IO

years ··

o· a_ o Ia o . . . .

. • 5 0 0 · 4 weeks

_per . annum

·Perth. ·

::} 0 6

0 .3

· ... /

Hobart •

I 6 o.

I 10 0

0 I3 0

5 0 9

Item.

per Week . .

:I

Washing Starch . .. .. i lb.

Blue . . . . I oz. . .

Household· Soap · .. I bar ..

Soda or Soap Extract I pkt. Cloudy Ammonia . . ! bottle ...

Borax • . . ...

Toilet Soap. ; . . I cake ..

Household Cleaners-Sand Soap . . . . ! cake' ..

Black Lead. . . . I oz. ! ••

· Floor Polish . . ! tin ..

Metal Polish . . t tin ..

Phenyle • . . . i bottle ..

Household Sundries-;-Boot Polish . . . I tin

Matches 1 ' • ·â€¢ • • I doz. . .

Salt , .

edicines___:_-Olive Oil · . .

. . . .

Castor Oil ·. . , . . . .

Sulphate of .Soda ..... .

Pills .. .. ..

Patent Medicines ... ..

Aspros . . 1 ••••

I ''

Tincture of Quinine . . . . Replacements- . Lino ', I . • r T.o .be re-

placed,

Mats . . · · L IO

Carpet Runner · · every

. . years

Library . . . . . . . .

Domestic Assistance . . 4 weeks

annum

Price. Cost per Week.

.Annual . Cost.

Quantity per Week.

Cost

Price. per

Week. Annual Cost. '?lr . ;:ff;. )£.. --:----:----1--- ---------

8. d. 8. d. £ 8. d. . 8 • . d. 8. d.. £ 1!. d.

0 6 0

0 It 0

I 3 0

0 11 ' 0

0 11 0

a} 4 2 It 2! 7 8 ! cake . •

l oz.

! tin

t tin

!-pint

. .. }.

0 6 I 6 0 ..

..

' ..

Ia .6

yard 1 IO 0

}I 7 0

.. , .

To be re­ placed every 10 years

1 ' /

0 IO 0 I } t lb. .,

0 It 0 . It I oz. . ..

I 1 8 I _ 8 . ·I bar. . . .

0 2 0 2 ! 7 9' 6 I pkt. . . .

0 • 0 ..

0 ' 6 0 -, 6 : _ , I cake ..

0 6

0 It

I I

011 0 7·

.0 7 0 7 • } I tin ..

0 8t 0 . 8} a II 6 I doz. . .

. . 0 . .1 • . • . .

.• !

. ''} ..

: . 0 .. 6 I .. 0 ..

.··--. . · 13 · 6 1 IO 0 To re­

: yard } 1 7 0 · •• ! IO

' ! year.s

0 a 0 Ia 0 .. . . .. . .. 0 I3 . 0 . . . .

5 0 0 4 weeks

i' l .. l ·'

per annum-

.,.

5 0 0 4 weeks

per annum I

d. 8. d. £ '· d.

0. .U o 2!} · o ll ·o I! . o·n on 1

o· · I! · O ·I! 510 .6

l . 0 0 a ..

0 ..• 6 0 J .

0 . 4!

0 It

0 IO I 0

0 6

0 7

0 9

· .. } .• .•

·''

I

I

0 , 6

Ia 6

:yard

I 6 0

I 10 . 0

}1 ' 7 0

0 I3 0

5 0 0

84

)

APPENDIX.; .;! .• EMPLOYERS' COUNTER CLAIM.

Quantity. Price. Annual Cost. Item.

Quantity. Price. Annual Cost.

' Item.

MEN 'S CLOTHING. Suits Hats Socks Ties Braces

Shirts, workihg Shirts, best Flannels ..

Underpants Collars ..

Pyjamas Handkerchiefs Studs ..

Coats

Trousers-Flannel Working Dungaree

Overcoat ..

Umbrella ..

Boots, best ..

Boots, working ..

Shoes, rubber soled Boot Laces · ..

Repairs, and heeled ..

Total

· WoMEN' s CLOTHTNG. Hats . . .. ..

Costume, Win.ter . . . .

Costume, Summer ..

Dress, Summer . . . .

Skirt, blue serge . . . .

Skirt, tweed . . . .

Blouses, silk . . . .

Blouses, voile . . . .

Blouses, 9ambric or winceyette Camisoles . . . .

Combinations, calico ..

Undervests, woollen ..

Undervests, cotton ..

Bloomers . . . .

Nightdresses I • • • •

Underskirt, white . . . .

Underskirt, dark moreen . . Corsets . .

. . . .

Dressing Gown . . . .

Aprons, white . . . .

Aprons, black . . . .

Stockings. cashmere ..

Handkerchiefs . . . .

Veils . .

. . . .

Gloves . . . .

Top Coat ..

Golfer ' . . . .

Umbrella ..

Scarf . . . .

Shoes . . . .

Houseshoes (nurse's) Slippers . . . .

Repairs ..

Sundries.. . .

Total

BoYs' CLOTHING. Overcoat Suit ..

Pants ..

Jersey . . .

r Summer Co at

Shirts ..

Stocking01

It 2

9

4

2, or I and a belt,

2s. ·6d. ·

each · 5

3 I

3

3

I2

2

9

6

i pair

2 trousers, br 1 pair

and 2

dungarees 1 '

3

t

1

2

I

6 pairs 5

3

t

1

·1 It I

1

2

4

4

2

' 2

1

3

1

1

2

t

2

2

6 pairs 1 dozen 1 gossamer 1 veil . .

2 pairs • t

t

t

2 pairs I

1

t

2

3

t

1

6

6 pairs 2

£ s. d.

6 6 0

0 I8 6

0 3 6

0 2 6

0 2 6

0 8 6

0 10 6

0 7 6

0 8 6

0 I 0

0 I3 6

0 '"I 0

0 0 3

0 I9

0 9 ll

0 IO 6

3 I5 0

0 I2 6

} 7 6

0 I2 9

0 7 6

0 0 4

0 6 ' 6

0 15 6

4 4 0

2 5· 0

2 2 0

I 5 0

0 I5 6

0 9 6

0 7 6

0 4 ll

0 8 ll

0 611

0 2 11

0 5 11

0 7 ll

0 9 11

0 9 11

0 I2 6

0 I5 ll

0 4 6

0 4 6

0 3 9

0 0 6

0 4 6 ·

0 I 6

0 5 6

3 0 0

I I 9 ll

0 lO 6

£ 8. d.

9 9 0

1 I7 0

1 ll 6

0 10 0

0 5 . 0

2 2 ·6

1 ll 6

1 2 6

I 5 6

0 I2 0

1 7 0

0 9 0

0 I 6

0 9 9

0 9 11

I I . 0

"

. I 5 0

0 2 6 ,

1 7 6

I 5 6

0 7 6

0 2 0

1 12 6

30 7 2

2 6 6

2 2 0

2 5 0

2 2 ' 0

I 17 6

0 15 6

0 9 6

0 15 0

0 19 8

1 I5 8

0 13 IO

0 5 lO

0 5 11

1 3 9

0 9 11

0 9 11

1 5 0

0 7 11

0 9 0

0 9 0

1 2 6

0 6 0

0 4 6

0 1 6

0 ll 0

1 0 0

0 13 3t

0 3

1 ·o o ' 2 ·0 o

. . 0 lO 6

o· 5 6 o 5 6

.. 1 8 0

I IO 0

1 I5 6

0 6 6

0 9 6

0 8 ll

0 4 11

0 4 ll

0 I 6

29 16 6

0 15 0

3 ll 0

0 19 6

0 4 9

0 8 11

1 9 6

1 9 6

0 3 0

Boys' CLoTHING--continued. Felt Hat , . . . .

Straw Hat . . . .

Handkerchiefs . . . .

Braces . . . . . ·

Ties . . . . · ·

Singlets, wool . . . ;

Pyjamas . . .,.

Boots, best . . . .

Boo-t s, school . . . .

Repairs . . . . . .

Collars . . .

. . .

GIRLS' CLOTHING.

I

1

6

1. pair 3

3

2

1 pair 2 pairs · 6

6

4

2

6

£ 8. d.

0 5 11

0 '5 11

0 2 11

0 1 9

0 1 6

0 4 11

0 7 6

0 15 6

0 13 9

0 5 6

0 1 0

0 4 11

0 5 11

0 2 11

0 7 11 } 2 1 -Winter 1 4 6

Singlets, woollen .. Stays . . . .

Bloomers, cotton .. Bloomers, woollen Petticoats; Winter Petticoats, Summer Dress, blue serge : tweed Dress, voile ..

Dress, tobralco .. :: 0 12 1 6

Dresses, cambric .. Woollen Golfer . . . .. J

1 0 19 6

Hats-3 and I cap

i 2 a.t 10/ 6} .. 1 at 4/ 6 ..

Cap,

Pyjamas . . . .

Socks . . .. . • .

Handkerchiefs . . . .

Top Coat . . ., .

Sundries-Ribbons,Collars,&c. . Shoes, best . . . .

Boots, school . . . .

Repairs . . . . . .

BABY'S CLOTHING. Singlets- . . . .

Nightdresses, cotton ' Nightdresses, winceyette Bibs , .. • ..

Napkins . ..

Flannels.. . .

Dresses . . . .

Petticoats, winceyette Petticoa,_ts, white .. Outdoor Coat •.

Bonnets . . . .

Shawl . . . .

Boot ees . .

. .

Jackets . . . .

, Modesties · - ..

Binders . . ' ...

'Pram .. . . \

Dummies - ..

Waterproof Sheeting Feeding Bottles ..

Teats . . . .

Tins Powder ..

Puff . . . .

Soap and Sponges

Total

2 0 8 6

6 0 3 9

6 0 2 11

t 1 15 0

1

2

6

4

4

6

3 dozen 3

6

2

4

1

4

1

6

2

3

2. 1

Another

0 17 9

0 11 11

0 4 6

0 12 0

0 3 11

0 1 6

0 1 0!

0 5 6

0 5 11

0 3 6

0 3 11

0 8 11

0 3 11

I 1 0

0 1 11

0 3 11

0 ·3 11

0 1 6

6 5 0

1 15 0

in IO years · 8 0 0

0 6

411 1. 6

0 6

1 0

1 6

. 3 0

1 yard 0

6 0

6 0

8 0

I 0

\ '

SUMMARY.

Men's Women's Boys' Girls' Baby

Caps NoTE.-This list has been complied withou t making any allowance for the following:-(a) Purchasing at sale or bargain prices ; I. · ·

' (b) Purchasing ready-made suits; · ·

(c) .Home sewing and making up;

£ 8. d.

0 5 11

0 5 11

0 2 11

0 1 9

0 4 6

0 14 9

0 15 0

015 6

1 7 6

1 13 0

0 6 0

£15 13 11

0 19 8

0 11 10

0 17 6

0 15 10 1 4 6

1 17 6

0 19 6

1 8 0

0 I7 0

1 2 6

0 2 11

0 17 6

0 17 9

1 3 10

1 7 0

£15 2 10

0 8 0

0 15 8

0 9 0

l 17 6

0 16 6

1 15 6

0 7 0

0 15 8

0 ,8 11

0 '15 8

1 1 0

0 11 6

0 7 10

0 11 9

0 3 0

0 16 0

0 1 6

0 4 11

0 9 Q.

o 3 rr

0 8 0

0 1 6

0 7 0

£13 15 5

30 7 2

29 16 6'

15 13 11 15 2 10.

13 15 5

104 I5 10

(d) Making down portion of parent's clothes for children. The' discount to be allowed for such economies is\mpossible of exact calculat]on, but it is submitted suchthrift is practised in every well-ordered household, and the money so sayed in the above li st can be applied in a more lavish 'expenditure on individual items according to perional taste and or particular exigency.

,6 3

85

APPENDIX III.

SEPTEMBER 24, 1920.

CoMMENTS BY THE CoMMISSION ON PROFEssoR OsBORNE's EviDENCE.

The Chainnan.-This moo·ting of the Commission has been held specially because the 'Federated Uuions wished an opportunity. to be )given to Profe'ss or Os­ borne to explain what, upon the f 1ace of it,

is a •serious discrepancy between his printed book, published after he gave ·his evidence, and the · evi­ dence given March. I do not pcropose to go at

length into the explanation, further than to . say this, tha.t this witness says that if he we.re writ ing his hook again he would again put in the figure 3,500 Calories, and add " Atwater." That book would .not he merely used as a substitute for not es handed round· to students -it is published to the world-and if 3,500 is the

Atwater figure, yet it is published with this witness' authority, and may be used by medical s.tudents in other Australian universities, and they by follorwing the authority of Atwater, quoted in this book will, per­ haps, appear before future Roy;:t.l Commissions, and

commit a very serious ertroP if .witness's evidence, given in March, is to be taken as correct. Similarly, · with regard to figures J)•age 102, they almost

exaetly fit in with the previous statement as to 3,500, , but we are told that t hey were ruled through. Unfor­ tunately, some·thing h appened, either the copy that was ruled through was not, tne corpy that went to the printer, or if it was, the pri1;rter ignored the erasures and cor-. r ections, and after he had ignored them. it escaped at­

tention when the proof was read. In regacrd to t4at matter, I do not prbpose to go into it a.t any length. The TVitness.-Is it permissibl·e fo:r · me to make a

By the Chairma;n.-Yes ha.ve been "teaching amended figures verbally to my studen"ttl for a oonsider-ahle number of years. ·

Then ! c:an only repeat that it is 11nfortunate that the hook does nort correspond with the lectur es, the book is for the public a:re very serious

errors elsewhere in .the hook which I . am sorry to sa.y escaped my notice.

The 'chairman.-The que-stion of the dis_ cr epancies between the1 book and evide1 nce is a minor matter; but the way in which the evidence has been given t o­ day, and the wa.y in which every autho.rity who has been named is treated with contempt, obliges · me to read

what my colie.agues a.nd I h ave agreed upon as com· ment-s upon this witness' evidence g iven in which would not have read, though t hey :might

have been put in our R epor t, had it not been for the

attitude that has been taken up b y the witness towards the main question. ·

The comments upon which my colleagues and I have agreed are as follows :-That a painful impression was produced on our minds in March that the witness had not realized the gr avity of the ·situation, ·and that his evidence in March, which put forward a new theory

for our adoption, not prepared with the care the

Commission vv,as entitled to expect from an expert wit­ ness. The position pivots round the proper amount

of food for an average workman. That is uni­

versa.lly expr essed. by authorities in

of calories_ . In ev:ery a,uthoirity published befor e t p.e war 3,500 Calories per day was looked upon as ample, being, in fact, the highest sta.ted by any investigator, with one a:mhiguour: exception. Whether the aver<*ge

workman in Austra-lia ought to r eceive more, in view of all the evidence, the Commission ha.s n&t yet deter­ mined. My own mind is still open on the po·int. The

witness' evidence in March was directed to showing that for he Australia.n home a man-calorie basis ought to be 4,931, to which must be add·ed 109 for the difference which the witness did n ot observe in the calorie value

between mutton and beef, bringing the total r calorie basis.to 5,040. If rwe reported the cost of living in Australia

on that the amount of wages necessary

for the .diffe•rence between the n ew standa.rd and the 3,5 00 would be from £ 40,000,o'oo to £ 50,000,000 per annum, assuming that, our finding was made effec­ tive for all work·ers i14 the Commonwealth·, both

as t o the basic wage and as to the margins, and

applying prices. The gravity o:f the

quences does. not affect, one way or another, the justice of . the witness' theory, but when a. Commission of lay men is asked to subvert the ooncl usions of recognised scientific writers, with potential results so serious, the ·evidene;e ought to he cogent , and put .fo:rwai!'d on full

and adequa.te preparation. As a body of this

Commission has the same wrt of duty as a Judge has in a. p atent case, or in a case of l una.cy, o;r in a case of rack of disposing power in·, a disputed will-tha.t of w·eighing and deG iding upon the scientific data., oral or . written, or both. So f ar as what such data

show, the1 task in this . case is a comparatively

easy one if the data · are fully and accurate,ly ·

produced; but fullness and accuracy of statement are essentia l. The , main position 'taken u p ' by t4e wit_ness

m ·was that the war h ad dissolved all

au..thority. In support of that, the' Royal Society

Co:mmitte1 e's Report was put !orward to show that modern investigation had demonstratedr 3,500 Calories to be too low. The witness stated that that investi­

gation that 3,800 ca.Iories _being pur­

ehased " per physio1ogica1 man--that is fo il" every man in England. In point of fact, Professor Thompson's results, -embo<:li ed in that Report, had nothing to do with what is · the proper regimen for a.n a.verage workman in

England or anywhere else. The fig ure 3,800 per man · was the amount that would be available fo r all civilians after the needs the Foroes were satisfied, assuming that there was in 191 6 the same food as there· had been

on t he average of 1909-1913 . This was a. serious mis­ r eading of the report. F·ortuna.tely, the Comm ission a copy. and found that the witnest had ove:rlooked

(or, at least , n ot quoted lmtil it was quoted to him), the one pa.ssa.p-e in which t he Committ.ee did. de1 al with the average requir·ements. They said, at

page 3, '' A full consideration .of the dietary require­ ments of a nation for the most part engaged in ' a·etive ·work has convinced the Committee that these ments be satisb.ctorily met on a less supply in

the food as purchased than 100 grammes of protein, 100 grammes· of f a.t, and· 500 grammes of carbo-hydrates, equal, approximately, to 3,400 Calories per per

day, a. ' man ' being an averag e workman doing a.n , a.verage day's work. The Committee have a.dopted this as their minimum standard.' ' In another part of the report they show quite clearly that they were pressing

u pon the authorities t.he necessity of providing sufficient diet t01 provide for all claooes, and to maintain the

working efficiency of the nation. · The witness next put forward a book called

lVelfare and, II ousing} in which it wa,s shown

th at male munition worker s consumed, in fact,

3,900 caJ ori.es . The 1 .vitness was not able · to state, nor ind€·ed to find, a. passage in the same volume intro­ ducing this statement, which showed that this was

86

under circumstances' of unrestricted access to food. F'ortunately, again, the book had been passed up to the Bench, and that cardinal fact had been noted, which takes the case at once out 9f the category of strated requirements, as may be seen by the fact (not mentioned by' the witness), that Dr. Leonard Hill, who reports the fact in that very same work, reports,·

also that investigations show that the amount ·r.equi!ed by the man engaged in fairly 1light munition work is

I ·did not take up the p,osition that "the war had _ dissolved all authority." I took up the position that, as some of the

highest authorities in Great .Britain had stated, pre-war esti­ mates of dietetic needs and values could no longer be

regarded as reliable, Consideration will show that the Com-, missio!l misapprehended the reference to the Royal Socie ty Committee's Report. What I called attention to was the ·

estifnate by Professor Thompson that 3,800 calories we re being purchased per " m an" in the United Kingdom. (Question 20081.) • .The estimate of Professor Thompson appears on · pages 8-9 of the Report. It is the only estimate specifically by Professor Thompson, which appears in this Report.

{See heading on p ages 8-9.) It shows that the calorie value of the . food consumed in the United Kingdoll') on an ave·rage of the five years 1909-1913 was 8,864 calories-which I referred to in round numbers as 3,800 calories. I assumed that "food

consumption" meant "food purchased." (Queiltion 20081.) If it means " food consumed," then the figure for

about 3,500 calories food as purchased. ·

Again, the witness argued that the superior

physique of the Australian soldier showed th::tt

what was ample in •other countries woulq not

be enough in Australia. Yet the witness had

made no inquiries as to their rations here, .or while in Englfl,nd; where they were w1able, after a certain date, to purchase outside of their own rations. and their all of which came into the· diet as

known to us; and it wa:s left to GeneralllfcOay to give the Commission valuable evidence, which includes not only the scale· of ration and ,allowances, but the very m'eals on which the soldi·ers were. severely trained in England, and sent to Frar,tce in tip-top physical condi­

tion. Lastly, it was sought·1to make up for the , ab'sence of scientific data by reports of conversations with emi­ nent men in England. Professor Thompson had said that " di.etetics was in tlle melting pot." Professor Hopkins had said, "We must review t he field again." That such generalities did n9·t cover the po·int at issue is clear frOlll the fact that both Professor Thompson and Professor Hopkins were signatories to the Royal Society Committee's Report, which contains, as I have

sa.id, the conclusion that 3,400 calories was the min:i:tnum fo·r the average workman doing an average day's work The conclusion, in which we all concur, is that this witnB

special scientific value, while points such as any 'lay wit. ness, or indeed an advocate without any evidence could urge, such as the alleged heavier eating of the Al!str'a­ lian, and his proved heavier ea.tinl! of meat,, w1ll be given - their proper attention when the Commission is coming to -its decision.

The witness w.ithdrew.

The Commission adjourned. ·

REJOINDER BY PROFESSOR OSBORNE ON ABOVE - STATEMENT.

8tatement,-" The witness' evidence in March was directed to showing that, for the Australian home, .a man-c:;tlorie basis ought to be 4,931, to- which must be added 109 _ 'for the

difference wl1ich the witness did not observe in the calorie value between mutton and beef, bringing the total calorie basis to 5,040." · · · .· .

R ejoirnder.-" I am not aware of the grounds for.. adding

109 calories to my estimate. That thi,s ·addition was necessary or proper was never suggested to , me, !J,nd I do !lOt agree

with it." ·

CHAIRMAN'S STATEMENT.

"The main position taken up by the witness in March was that the war had dissolved all authority. In support of that

th!l Royal Society Committee's Report was put forward to ' show that modern investigation had demonstrated 3,500 calories 1 to be too low. The witness s tated that that investigation: showed tluit 3,800 calories were being purchased per physiolo- ·· gical man-that is, for every man in England. "In point of fact Professor Thompson's results embodied in that report had nothing to do with what is the proper regimen for an average workman in England or anywhere else. The fi gure 3,800 per man w'as the that would be available for all civilians after th.s needs of the forces were satisfied, assuming that there wa.s in 1916 the same food as there had been on the average of 1909-1913." " This was a serious misre ading of the Eeport.'' \

"food purchased" should be higher. '

The Chairman's remarks concerning "food available" refers to page 17 of the Report, which has nothing to do

with the estimate of Pt,ofessor Thompson. The calculation on page 17 'deals, as with food available for con­

sumption upon the basis mentioned at that page. This

amtmnt of fo od would be, in the opinion of t.,he Committee {page 18), 5 per • cent. over "the m'inim'u m necessary for

proper nutrition, and rather more as regards the supply of energy." My evidence did not deal with, and did )lOt pro-

fess to deal with, minima. (See my Report, Question 20027

(3) .) '

The Report of the Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Medicine _in Ireland (referred to in Question 20087) shows that 3,875 calories was the value of the average ration per

" man " as purcha11_ed in Great \Britain in 1908, and that this was Professor Thompson's estimate. Thus my statement was strictly accurate as to calorie value of food purchased according to Professor Thompson's

estimate.2

r

CHAIRMAN'S STATEMENT.

"Fortunately the Commission · had a copy, and found that the witness had overlooked (or at least not quoted until it

W l) S quoted to him) the . one passage in which the Committee did deal with the average workman's requirements. They said, at page 3 :-'A full consideration of the dietary require­ ments of a nation for: the most p art engaged in active work

has · convinced the Cqinmittee that these requirements cannot. be satisfactorily met · on a less supply in the ·food as pur' ·

chased than 100 grammes of protein, 100 grammes of fat, and 500 wammes of carbohydrates, equal approximately to 3,400 C>tlortes per "nian " per , .day, a "man " being an average work man doing an average day's work. The ' Committee h ave · adopted this as their minimum standard.' "

'rh.e Committee was here dealing with the mmmw,m

standard in Great Britain during. a period of acute danger of food shorta.ge.. I did not regard this as relevant ·to the

standard proper to be adopted for Australia. This j) Jssage does not. deal with the ·. " average workman's· requirements " in any sense appeared to me to be r elevant to

in time of peace.3 '

CHAIRMAN'S STATEMENT.

" The witness next ·put forward a book called . W elfm·e

and Housing, in which it was shown that male munition

\vorkers corisume·d in fact 3,900 calories. The witness was not able to state, nor · indeed to find, a passage, in the same

volume introductory to this statement which showed that this was under circumstancb of unrestricted access to food.

Fortunately', again, the book had been passed up to the

Bencli, and that cardinal fact had been noted, which takes the lease ' at once out :of the category of demonstrated require­ ments, as may be se•en by the fact (not me!l tioned by the

witness)" that Dr. Leonard Hill, who reports the fact iri that very :same work, reports, also . that investigations show that the. ·amount required by the man engaged in _fairly light

munition work is about 3,500 calories food as purchased ." ' The facts were obvious in tl1e book which I produced.

Tliese were cited simply r.s fi gures of actual consumptinn under the conditions which are fully set out in the book,

i_ i:tcluding "unrestricted access to food." This condition is, ·fortunately, not uncommon in Australia. (See my answer to Question _ 22256.) It is suggested that if the, book had not been passed up to

the Bench the Commission could not have been made aware of the fact that Dr. L eonard Hill _ had estimated -3,500

calories as the requirements for certain workers: It is diffi­ cult to understand this suggestion, as my answer to Question 22285 shows that I firs£ mentioned this fact to the Commis­ sion. Incidentally, it may be observed that Dr. Hill's esti-.

dealing with m unition workers refers {page 56 of

·welfa1'e and Ho using) to-.:" persons e·ngaged in medium work " not to " men engaged in fa irly light munition work. "4 .

615

87

STATEMENT.

" Again the argued that the superior physique of

the Al!strahan soldJer showed that what was ample in other countnes would not be enough in Australia. Yet the witness had made no inquiries as to their rations here or while in

England." , I had not an ' opportunity of stating what inquiries I h ad

mad e. I had m ade many inquiries as to rations here and in

the fi eld, though I h ad not worked out the calorie va lues for the reason, stated in my evidence, that inquiries had

shown that the amounts consumed outside the ration were considerable, and not capable of acc11rate ·calculation. · The answer to • Question 22373 is misreported in effect as the answer to Question 22374 shows in its reference to what I had · said (22358) about the fi gures which f h ad, though

not w1th me.s

CHAIRMAN'S STATEMENT.

"Lastly it was sought to · make up for the absence of

scientific data by reports of · conversations with eminent men in England. Professor Thompson had sa1d that-" Dietetics was in the m€lting pot." Professor Hopkins h a d said- " We mu st review the field again." That su ch ' generalitie s diq not cov er the point at issue is clear from the fact that both

Professor and Hopkins wer e sign atories

to . the Royal . SoCiety s R eport, which contains,

as I have said, the conclusiOn that 3,400 calories wa s the

minimum for the average workman doing an average day's 1 work." It is sufficient to . say that t he statements of P rofessor

Profess6r Thompson m ade to me are obviously

not Inconsistent with t he Committee's estimate of the mini· mum-the low€st possible--st andard a t a time of critical

stringency in food supplies.6

NOTES BY COMMISSION. 1. As to calorie- values. Professor Osborne's d ietary took beef and mutton each at 1,000. (Question 22607.) No investi­ gator fo ods a s. equal. Profeesor Thompson

Society s Food Committee Report. page 8), deriving

Ius fi gm;es from Atwater's analyses, gives F oreign (which .mclude Australi!in) :-'Beef, 1,039>; mutton, 1,251.

·'I en pounds· of beef, t)lerefore, equal 10,390; 10 lbs. of

mutton equal 12,510. Total for 20 lbs. beef and mutton,

22,900 _ for the week, inst ead of the witness' 20,000. (See

appendtx .) The, difference (2,900) divided by 7 for

/

t he days of the week, and by 3.86 "man-units" (on the

Inter-A llied F ood Commission's ·coefficients favoured by the wit n ess) shows an error of 109 calories per man per day as a result of erron eously t aking beef and mutton at equal calorie values .

2. I11 the Ii;e.port quoted by wit ness (p.ages 8·9) Professor Thompson' s estimate relates t o 1909-1913 only. ,He says n othing aj:>out 1916. The witness treat ed as f act s t he two

assumptions (1) -that there was, in 191(>, as much food as

there h a d been on the aver age of 1909-1913; (2.) that " a-.:ail­ able supply " ana " f ood purchased " mean the same thing.

'fhere is no evidence of either a ssumption bein g true. The

Royal Dublin Socie·ty 's Report h as to do with 1908, not 1916, and, though it was r€ferr€d to by the witness, no quotation was made from it such as the statement now 12roffeJ,: ed. 3 . Th1is grave omission· being a dmitted, no comment is necessary, ex cept that the r elevan cy of the passag€ was f or t he Co mmission;· not the witn ess, to judge.

·4. The facts are undisputed as to the witness' use of the

book in question. Question 22285 sho\vs that the witness spoke of Dr. L eonard Hill as "putting f or ward" 3,500

cal ories. In Question 22294 he spoke of Dr. Hill as having

go t t his figure from ' ' an old wo l\k; this figure has been cir·

culating in ' dietetics since I was a child.' " Dr. Hill's own

words are :-"Numerous invest iga tions have shown . . 3,500 calories; " a very diff er ent th'ins from " putting for­

ward" the figure out of "an old 'work." Nor was the fact

mentioned that Dr. Hill's statement occurs in the very

Report from which, the witness .3,9QO calories.

5. The answe·r to Question 22373 is not misreported. The baa begun, but " given up the investig_a tion" (Ques­

tion 22353) in view of a difficulty whwh may have existed

her e, b ut n ot in E ngland. As t o the feeding of the troops

in E ngland, conclusive . ev i_dence, such as Genar al McCay's, all printed in official papers, and could have been ascer­

t ained in England or through Defence D epartment here,

e ven if it had not occurred to the witness to see General

McCay himself either in England or upon his return. 6. The professors in question could not have, simultaneously, scouted the st andai·d of 3,500 calories as belonging to · a

vanished epoch of science, and also announced 3,400 calories as the right t hing even as a " minimu)ll ·st andard," which

cli d not in its context mean t he " lowest possible standard at a time of critical stringency." ·This latter J?hrase would mean the bare amount to keep body and soul together, whereas the standa rd was for " an average workman <;loing an average

day 's work." ·

/

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' 617 '

- Jt

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. '

Royal Commission on the Basic .Wage, Inter-State Commission Offices, 314 Albert-street, East Melbourne. 22nd November, 1920.

The Right Ron. W. M. Hughes, P.C., M.P.,

Dear Sir,-Prime Minister of the Commonwealth, Melbourne.

/

I forward herewith a reply to your request to-day for a memorandum oh the following matters :- , ' - - '

1. The true incidence of the cost of living. _

2. How the findings of the Commission as to cost of living may be distributed between (1) man and wife, (2) ·each of dependent children. 3. How the said finding of the Commission can be made effective so as to secure for every employee the actual cost of living according to its true incidence, accepting

the finding of £5 16s. Od. as the actual cost of living for a man, wife and three children. 4. The effect upon industry, domestic and for foreign countries , of making a basic wage for all employees of £5 16s. Od.

5i The effect of that course upon prices and the actual realization of the desired standard of comfort. , ' ·

6. The effect upon the Commonwealth's obligations to its employees, permanent and temporary, of whatever course is adopted.

MEMORANDUM.

1. Thl) true incidence of the cost _ of liv_ing. The present basic wage purports to' provide-( a) In New South Wales Awar9-s the actual cost of living of a man, wife and two dependent children.

(b) Elsewhere in the Commonwealth the same, but with three children (henceforth · called the typical family). So many employees in New South Wales are under the Commonwealth Awards that I shall assume the Commonwealth Court's family throughout.

It is self-evident that while this wage system is based ontl_le theory that the minimum of wages is that which will enable employees to live in comfort, it ,do es not follow that system. Assuming that the basic wage does provide the actual cost of living of the typical family, 1. All families with more than three dependent children suffer privation.

2. families with less than three children receive more than is necessary for the living wage. 3. All unmarried men receive what support a wife and also three children. The following population figures_ become relevant :-

- - '

Children •under 14.

Total W-age

Con jugal condition. Earners. Average per - No. Employee . . 7' Never married . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 438,735 .. . . Families in which children grown up " ' 90,617 . . . . . . .. . . Married, but no children .. .. . . .. 69,174 . . .. . . Married, one child .. . . . . . . . . . . 78,288 78,288 .. Married, two children . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7,752 155,504 .. Balance of husbands and children· . . . . . . .. . . 220,400 645;626 .. 974,966 879,418 I '90 These are 1911 figures. I sha:ll assume for 1920, 1,000,000 male- employees, 900,000 children, arid other figures correspondingly. From this it appears :-1. That at present the industries the Commonwealt h pay as if the children in the Commonwealth were 3,000,000 (i. e., three children for each of 1,000,000 employees) . In point of _ fact the children of employees in the Commonwealth number 900,00{).

' .

90

2. Thus industries now pay for-450,000 non-existent wives. 2;100,000 non-existent children.

. '

' There is little qoubt that the present quasi-submergence of employees with families is due to ignoring the true incidence of the actual cost of living. From the produced wealth of the country, jts children have less than enough in order that the unmarried may have more than enough. . . , _ ,

2. How the Findings of the Commission as ' to Cost of Living may be distributed between ( 1) man. and wife ; (2) each of three dependent children. The work of the Commission enables the cost of each child in t he typical family to be ·ascertained precisely, except as to its share in the sections- Rent and Miscellaneous requirements.

A careful estimate as to these two sections renders results upon which the following may be taken • to be a -fait distfibution of the actual cost of living :-

(a) 'Man and wife

Per week. s. d.

4 0 0

(b) Three dependent children .. 1 16 0 ( . an average 12$. each per week.)

£5 16 0

3. How the said finding of the Commission can he made effective so as to secure for every employee · the actual cost of living according to its true incidence, accepting the finding of £5 16s. Od. as t4e actual cost of living for a man, wife and three children. - (a) To secure the actual cost of living for each employee according to its true incidence, it

is desirable that every employee should receive enough to keep a man and wife. (1) because during bachelorhood, which ·ends, on the average for the whole Common­ wealth, .at the age of 29, ample opportunity should be p;rovided to save up for equipping the home. ·

(2) because a man should be ?-ble to marry and support a wife at an early age. The figures as to 450,000 non-existent wives may therefore be disregarded. . (b) Every employee must be paid the same amount of wages ; otherwise married men with children will be at a disadvantage. There is, indeed, no conceivable reason, either on economic or humane grounds, why an employer's obligation to each individual employee should vary with the number of that employee's children.· , · . .

· (c) There is, however) every reason why employers as a whole throughout the Common­ wealth should pay for the living needs of their employees as a whole. Indeed, that they should do so is the basis of the whole t heory of the living wage. proposal below f()r a tax upon employers as a whole is based upon this consideration.

(d) The desired result can be seemed by a basic wage of £4 per week paid by the employer to the employee, and the payment ofan endowment for all dependent children, whether three, or less, or more, in the family at the rate of 12s. per week '

Thus the employee would receive as follows :-

( '

If a bachelor . . . .

If married but with no dependent children Married with one child .. :Married with two children Mar.ried witll. three children

Married with four children Married with five children ·

£, s. d.

4 0 0 per week

Composed of £4 per week plus child · endowment by Commonwealth Government to the

amount of:-

4 0 0 , Nil

4 12 0 , 12s.

5 4 0 , 24s.

5 16 0 , 36s.

6 8.' 0 ,, 48s.

7 0 0 , 60s.

And on adding 12s. per week . for each child.

The above Table shows that every basic wage earner's family in the Commonwealth with even one dependent child is now receiving less than a reasonable standard of comfort. When it comes to thr ee dependent children, the shortage is formidable and justifies the evidence given on 25th August by the President of the Hobart Chamber of Commerce '(Mr. Malcolm Kennedy) that with prices as th(3y 'are, a' man with a wife .and three children on a wage of £3 17s. Od. "is having a rotten bad time of it.'.' (Q.90145.)

.,

(

. 1

l

6 9

91

. It is shown below that this situation is incurable if fiction is adhered to that every employee supports a wife and three childreJ.?... The man who really has such a family can never attain the :,:easouable standard of comfort ascertained by the Commission.

The number of ,families thus adversely and permanently-affected will •be seen to be-Married, with one child . . 78,288

Married, with two children • 77,752

Married, with more than two children 220,400

t

376,440

These are 1911 figures, and would be now about 386,000 families, or 38·6 per cent. of.all tlie . employees (married or unmarried) of the Commonwealth, or about 79 per cent. of all employees. f

4. The effect upon industry, domestic and for foreign countries, of making a basic wage for all• employees of £5 15sA)d. •

' "

,The increased burden pf from raising a present basic wage of say £4 to £5 16s. Od. would be for 1,000,000 employees the sum of £93 ;000,000 :per annum. The latest :figures (1918) of the total production of the Commonwealth showed it was' valued at £298,000,000. Thus the increased burden upon industry would amount to. 31 per cent. of -the production in 1918,· but as prices of things produced have universally risen since, this percentage would be somewhat reduced. It may fairly be taken that the labour cost of things produced, carried out to the last analysis, equals

50 per cent. of ,their value as produced, so that the increased burden on industry would make the labour cost of things produced 62 per cent. higher than' it is, less whatever deduction should be allowed as above ·suggested. If it could be supposed that the whole of the additional £93,000,000 labour cost could be passed on to the community, the increase in prices would altogether outstrip the purchasing power of employees having · a basic wage of £5 )6s. Od. (see below). But of the

£298,000,000 in 1918, £113,000,000, or about 38 per cent., was exported. Whether the increased wage cost of 62 per cent. could be added. to the prices asked for the 38 per cent. of our products, would depend upon world prices, that is, upon outside competition with all countries in .the markets of the world. I have not had time to go into details with regard to our individual export industries, but it seems certain that, as far as manufacturing industries for export are concerned,

they would be ruined. With regard to primary industries, the percentage of labour cost in them is below the perdentage of labour cost (carried to the last analysis) in the industries of the Commonwealth as a whole, and moreover wool, and (at present) wheat enjoy a fav

ducts of our primary industries would before long be a formidable drawb,ack to their develop­ ment, and possibly to their continuance. The total obligations, under the new proposal, of employers of about £4 lOs. Od. per week would,not, as far as I can judge, have any injurious effect upon our primary industries, as it is not so much above the level of wages in other countries

as to countervail our natural superiority of opportunity. Nor would other industries, in my opinion, be adversely affected. Another result of adding to the cost of production of goods for domestic consumption (which was 62 per cent. of the total production of 1918) the additional wages cost (£1 16s. Od.) would be to so raise prices for such goods that all secondary iridustries would be liable to be ruined by importations unless the Tariff was very substantially increased.

COMPARISON WITH THE . SYSTEM UNDER .QUESTION 3.

Increased Wages Bill of Commonwealth. , I

Assuming the ,existing basic wage to be £4 per week, we have the following figures ::.__ If 1,000,000 employees receive £1 16s. Od. increase £93,000,000

If 1,000,000 employees receive. £4 per week, there would need to be - added 12s. per week for 900,000 children £28,080,000

, Saving for industry £64,920,000

- .This saving would be due the fact that the_ extension of the cost of living of the .typical family into the basic wage of every employee would involve employer,s as a whole paymg for 2,100,000 non-existent children. 5. The effect of paying £516::;. Od. per week to all ernplqyees upon prices and upon the actual reali­

zation of the desired standard of comfort. If £5 16s. Od. is paid tp all employees, it is demonstrably impossible ever to provide for the family with three children the standard of comfort determined by the Commission, and now procurable for the amount of £516s. Od. This is because of the resultant_ rise in prices. There may ,

92

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ofcourse, be :r:nodifying influences, or other economic factors, such as a general drop world prices, but this must be laid out of consideration in order to perceive clearly the effect which must follow from the cause to be presumed. Omitting, therefore, all other influences on prices in order to isolate -, the issue and show what the wage rise from £4 to £5 16s. Od.--about 45 per cent.-would do in . -bringing about increased prices, the table printed in Knibbs' Labour Report, No. 6, page 183,

shows that it will be impossible for the worker ever to catch up to the standard of comfort now . purchasable for £5 16s. Od. after all necessary adjustment of p:r;ices and re-adjustment of wages take ThlJs, with qu.arterly automatic adjustments of wages to prices, assuming labour-cost . to be 50 per cent. value or price, then if a present wage of £4 were increased to £516s. Od. I

the following table shows . what would be the course of events :__:

I

Rise in 1\foney Wages.

Resulting Effect on

-- Percentage Increase. Prices, I perr.entage. . I From- To-·-- 'I £ s. d. £ s. d. November, 1920 • • I .. . . . . 4 0 0 5 16 6 45 22! February, 1921 .. . . . . . . 5 l6 6 7 3 0 22! I 11! May, 1921 - .. . . . . . . 7 :3 -o 7 19 0 11! 5l August, 1921 .. . . . . . . 7 19 0 8 7 9 - 5.1 29. / 2 4 November, 1921 8 7 9 8 12 " 4 2! }3* .. .. . . ' 8 * Continuable indefinitely. It will _ be seen that taking the adjusted wage in the second column and the wage which it will have been adjusted in the first column, and comparing them, the worker will every quarter be getting a less wage·than is necessary for the standard of comfort foF the typical family. I ' COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE. S,CHEME. A:p. scheme enabling every employee to have the standard Qf comfort.pregcribed by the Commission could be prepared on. these lines. If employers were to pay £41to each em.ployee, and a tax of £27 1.8s.' Od. per year.-10s. 9d. per·week per employee-the latter would .bring in the necessary £27,900,00Q a year for t?e endow­ment of the 900,000 The Commonwealth could then pay to the of families 12s. a week for each. child. ' The total obligation of the employer would be £410s. 9d. (wage and tax) per week. I AS TO EMPLOYEES. 1. Every employee w.ould receive enough for a man and wife .. He coul_ d marry or save for marriage as Soon as he earns a wage. · Every family would cost of living, no matter how many children there were. . . . , , . .. · ) . 3·. There would be an effect on prices only if the employer passed on the full amount of the tax. The effect on prices would be about_ 6 pet cent. increase instead of 22! per cen.t . . Barger's Oase.-In my opinion, a law imposing a tax upon employers according to the number of their employees would not -be affected by the-'" decision in Barger's Case (6 C.L.R. p. 41) because . it would be what it protessed to be, a tax up0n citizens according to the magnitude of their interests measured (in this instance) by the number of their employees. What the Com1nonwealth does with the revenue from such a tax is a matter for Parliament to determine. A law for the maintenance or endow1nent of the children of the Commonwealth is just as much a law of the peace, order and good of the Commonwealth as are laws for the payment of a maternity bonus· or of old-age pensions. · \ 6. The effect upon the Commonwealth's obligations to its employees, permanent and temporary, of whatever course' is adopted. EFFECT ON PUBLIC SERVICE. Approxi1nately 40,000 (permanent and temporary) employees. They now ,get (or would get under the lat est decision) nearly £3 16s. Od., excluding juniors ·under 18. The extra £2 per would mean £80,000 .per week-£4,160,000 per annum. ·

621

93

Assuming and £4 basic wage, there would be an increased pay sheet-.

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4s. per week per employee .

36,000 children (allowing the proportion for the ComJUonwealth) at lOs. 9d. each . . . . . . . . . .

Old System New Proposal /

Saving to

Per annum.

£ '

416,000

. 1,008,000

£1,424,000 '

£4,160,000 1,424,000

£2,736,000

·: Disregarding throughout what it would for bringing the number of single employees (unknown) £3 2s. Od. to £3 16s. Od. _ . ,

IMPORTANT.

' · . Throughout this all calculations are based on the assumption that the

increment in the basic wage will be added also to the wages of employees (including )' now receiving more -than the basic wage. ·

PRESENT BASIC WAGE.

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Throughout the £4 has· been treated as the starting point.

In point_ of fact, it would mean to most basic wage-earners a of about 2s. ·a week. In N South Wales, · the· basic wage is £4 5s. Od. \ ' .. .

The latest Commonwealth AJ,'bitration Court Award gives ¥4 2s. Od. as the basic wage. , -: for employees other than Commonwealth employees. It .-is on the average of prices, for 12 months ending September last. If on last quarter's prices, it would have been £4 13-s. Od. But only Unions. which have quite recently obtained awards have £4 2s. Od. It is thought there are so far not more than two such Unions. Commonwealth employees in the Court receive

(if under the latest award) £3 15s. 4d. if married, or £3 2s. 4d. if single as basic wage.- But some Commonwealth employees -receive £3 B.s. Od . . as basic wage.

, of

The subject mqtter of this Mmnorandum is outside the terms ,....of the Letters Patent of this Commission, and I have at no time discus'sedit with any of my colleagues. Having received your· request at 5 p.m. to-day, there has been no opportunity to summon my colleagues to ascertain whether they desire to take part in this matter, therefore I do not sign this Memorandum as

Chairman.

· Yours sincerely, (Sgd.) A. B. PIDDINGTON.

NOTE.-Throughout. " employee" means "adult male employee."

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MEMORANDUM BY MR. COM·MISSIONER KEEP AND COMMISSIONER . GILFILLAN. ·

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'MAy IT PLEASE YouR ExcELLENCY,

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623 .

· A protest has been lodged by the Chairn1an and .three members of the Commission inquiring into the cost of livi:q.g (usually known as the Basic Wage . Commission) against the Minority Report by us, two members of the Commission, Messrs. Erhest E. Keep and W,. D. Gilfillan. With the prop,riety or nec essity of this protest we are not concerned.

When, after many lllOnths of sitting· and undue l.airry in the final stages of the Report; we intimated that, while supporting the Report in the main, there were certain suggestions and which we thought should be embodied in a Minority Report, we were met ·

with a threat that a protest would "be lodged with Your The terms of the '

pr·atest, as now printed, vary those conveyed -to us. . We signed .the l\1inority

Report in face of the threat, and would ask t hat the Majority Report signed . by a1l

the Commissioners and the Minority Heport signed by two of the Commissioners as well as this reply be read as one d_o cu> m.ent. Nlembers of the Commission might well

have pointed out, in the lVIinority Report, that the cla1rn s made for the e1nployee were not the claims of the worker, but the claims put forward for hin1 by_ his Union. Apart from the exaggerated of the , claims · to which attention is dra wn in the .Majority_ Report, it is open to remark that the witnesses called for 'the Federated Unions, few represented the typical family. The Federated Unioris had the right to put tl1eir own case in their own way, but a consideration of the evidence in detail will leave no one in doubt that the Unions endeavoured, in every' State, to support . their cbiim s by the statements and -the ideas ' of extremists. ' . - _ _ · ..

These, are reflected to some extent in the Majority ' Report, and. have had

iri its findings. Had it been otherwise, we would not have signed it.

-The men1orandum of Mr. Keep referred to in the protest was a collection of private " notes prepared by him as a basis fo:r his,. ,speech during the evening sitting. The Chairman asked to be pennitted to look at it, an.d Mr:. K.eep complied . Later in the evening he asked for it back, but the Chairn1an retained it and had copies struck off for distribution among the

·commissioners on the day. Against t h'is we vigorously protested, and ' Mr.

Gibson returned his copy, and we think the other Commissioners should have

done the same. '

As to the· reference, in the ·protest, to the time and m:;tnn'er in, which the Minority Report was brought forward, we consider our procedure was qu.ite right, as from time tp time I during the sittings of the ConlJ.nission various members had intimated that they n1ust decline to sign the Heport UJ?.less certain of its provisions were altered or amended. It is obvious tHat we not draw up a He port until . th e Maj or ity He port was completed.

vVith reference t d the comparisons of UH 4 and 1920 fi gures, it is self-evident that the , 1natter could not haYe been debated till the fig ures were avail able. Apparently the Chair1nan confused this matter with the criticis1n of the Harvester case, which was amended in the earlier pa:t;t of the Report, on Mr. Gilfillan's suggestion, to include Mr. Justice Ifeydon's ·

finding with regard to food heing ,excessive, with a view of having 'the position fairly set out. _

While the genera!'findings of the n1ajority R eport are a result of compromise, there are certain considerations which we have felt it 1 our duty to call attention. The question - frequently arose how far our findin g . as to . the of living would affect T ndustry. The Chairman took the view. that this matter outside the scope of the Comn1i ssion and was for

Parliament to decide. In our view this consideration was no more outside the scope of the Comn1ission tban the question of the stabilization of rent, equal pay for n1arried and single men, insurance against old age or unemploy1nent, and the fixing of the workers' wages according to production, all of which are discussed in the Report. . . ,

It was suggested by the members of the Con1mission who have sent their protest to - Your· Excellency that our dissentien.t _ yiews .might be expressed in a · memorandum, the whole - or part of wni&h•-they might .: . ..... 1 • , - : • • • ·

96 .

To this we could not' agree, as there were considerations affecting the establishment of the cost of living as the basic wage, which concerned the whole c'ommunity and which could only be properly expressed in a Minority Report.

We have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

ERNEST E. Commissioner.

W. D. GILFILLAN,-Comn1issioner.

Melbourne, ' 23rd November, 1920.

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t"rinted 1 and Pu bhshed for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA by · AJ,BERT J. MULLETT, · Government Printer fo ..- the State of Victoria.

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