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Food Supplies and Trade and Industry during the War - Reports and Recommendations of the Royal Commission on


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143

1914.

(SECOND SESSION.)

THE PARLIAMENT OF THE OF AUSTRALIA.

FOOD SUPPLIES AND TRADE AND INDUSTRY

DURING THE WAR.

REPORTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

OF THE

COMMONWEALTH ROYAL COMMISSION.

Presented bp Command; ordered to be p rinted, 17th Decem ber, 1914.

Cost of P ap er :-Preparation not given; 1,000 copies ; approximate cost of prin ting and p ublishing , £ 31.]

Printed and Publishe·d for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMONWEALTH of A USTRALIA by ALBERT J. MULLETT, Gcvernment Printer for the State of Vic toria.

No. 52.- F.I74:17.

CoMMONWEALTH oF AusTR.ALtA.

GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India:

To Our Trusty and Well-beloved

GREETING:

THE HoNORABLE ALFRED DEAKIN, THE HoNORABLE DuG.ALD THOMSON, and GEoRGE H.ANDLEY KNIBBS, EsQUIRE, C.M.G.

Know ye that We do, by these Our Letters Patent, appoint you to be Commissioners to inquire into and from time to time report upon the supply of foodstuffs and other necessaries of life required by and available for, the people of Australia during the war, and from tinfe ·to time report upon the amounts of such foodstuffs and necessaries available, or likely to be available, for export, having regard to the requirements

of Australia, and also to report upon any matters relating to conditions of trade and industry arising out of the war which, in your opinion, should be brought under the attention of His Excellency's advisers:

And We appoint you the said HoNORABLE ALFRED DEAKIN to be _ Chairman of the said Commissioners :

And We direct that at any meeting of the said Commissioners two Commissioners shall be sufficient to constitute a quorum and may proceed with the inquiry under these our Letters Patent:

And we further direct that in the event of the absence of the Chairman from any meeting of the said Commissioners, the Commissioners present may appoint one of their number to act as Chairman during such absence;

And We require you with as little delay as possible to report to Our Governor-General in and over Our said Commonwealth the result of your inquiries into the matters intrusted to you by these our Letters Patent:

In testimony whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent and the Se'al of Our said Commonwealth to be thereunto affixed.

Witness Our Trusty and Well-beloved Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro Fergu-son, a Member of Our Most Honorable Privy Council, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General (L.s.) and in and over Our Commonwealth of Australia this thirty­

first day of August m the year of Our Lord One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and in the fifth year of Our reign.

By His Excellency's Command, JOSEPH COOK.

R. M. FERGUSON.

. .

30th October, 1914.

His Excellency SIR RoNALD MuNRO FERGUSON, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Com­ in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY :

Your Excellency's Commissioners have the honour to report as follows:-your Commissioners, acting under instructions contained in Royal Letters Patent, dated the 31st August, 1914, having made certain inquiries intrusted to them, and having submitted to Your Excellency interim reports upon matters relating to

Trade and Industry arising out of the War which, in their opinion, should be brought under the notice of Your Excellency's advisers, have the honour of reporting their further action ; the direction and result of their inquiries ; of making additional recommendations; of summarizing previous reports; and of again submitting for the ­

attention of Your Excellency's advisers recommendations which, so far as Your Commissioners are aware, have not yet received complete attention. .

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The first meeting of the Commission was on 2nd September, 1914, and it has held to date 36 meetings. The information obtained by the Commission has been by persJnal examination of witnesses, who came forward voluntarily or were called, by questions • forwarded by post in schedule form or otherwise, by letters through·the Prime Minister

to the P:r;emiers and Departments of the States and direct to many bodies and institutiJns, and by statistics compiled by the Department of the Commonwealth Statistician from its own returns or furnished by State Statisticians and other Departments. Your Commission to record its indebtedness for the ready, courteous, and valuable

response to its inquiries. Your Commissioners have the honour to be,

Your most obedient servants,

A:.

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

General Report

General Report, Index thereto

Summary of Matters dealt with

Copies of Recommendations

CONTENTS.

Appendix" A "-Imports from Germany and Austria-Hungary

Appendix "A "-Index thereto

PAGB

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GENERAL REPORT.

1. Stocks of Food in Australia.-At the Conference held between the Prirrie Minister and State Premiers in August, it was agreed that the States should pass legislation with regard to the collection of returns of quantities of necessary commodities. In four States, viz., New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia,

legislation has been passed to this end. Compilation is proceeding in Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, but is not yet completed. Compilation :of the stocks of wheat and flour (expressed in terms of wheat), obtained partly from stock­ takings of local Commissions and partly from estimates of State Statisticians, is shown

in table hereunder :-STocKs oF WHEAT AND FLouR IN AusTRALIA (EXPRESSED IN TERMS Ol!"' WHEAT).

(No allowance has been made for exports from date of return to 31st October.)

State.

New South Wales .. Victoria ..

Queensland South Australia _ Western Australia ..

Tasmania*

Commonwealth, exclusive of Tasmania

Stocks of Wheat and Flour in Terms of Wheat.

Dat e of R eturn. Stocks. Estimat e made by-

bushels .

. 12th September .. 3,726,000 Government Statist .. 21st September .. 5,513,395 Government Statist .. 23rd August .. 528,855 Government Statist .. 19th October .. 1,900,000 Government Statist .. 14th September: .. 975 ,000 Government Statist and Food Co minis-SlOn Not furnished . . . .. . . .. . . . . 12,643,250 . . . . . . Estimated

Quantity Available at 31st October, 1914.

9,496,000

9,496,000

• Tasmania did not pass an Act for obtaining information as to stocks, prices, &c. , consequently there are no returns from that State. NOTE.-Transfers of stocks between State and Stat e hav e, no doubt, t ak en place since the dat e of the above return.

2. Statements of Stocks on Railways have been received from all States, with the exception of New South Wales, and these stocks have been taken into account in the results shown in the table above referred to.

· 3. Quick-yielding Food Crops, &c., and extended Planting.-On the 4th September the Commission communicated direct with the State Agricultural Departments, asking if they could suggest quick-yielding crops for local consumption, suitable to their States, in order to give greater release of wheat for export next year. _ The Commission also

pointed out, on the lOth September, to the State Premiers, through the Prime Minister, thegreat desirability of increasing th€1 area under maize and potatoes, also of increasing the production of cheese. Replies received from the Agricultural Departments indicated that maize, potatoes, lucerne, Hungarian millet, and perhaps other crops might -be

planted, and would alleviate possible shortage of other foodstuffs. This information was imparted to the Prime Minister on the 26th September, with the recommendation that the State Premiers be communicated with, and urged that the extended planting of these crops should be brought about without delay. The need for urgent action was on 30th September.

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. 4. Possible Prolongation of War.-In view of the possible prolongation of the war, arid the vital influence food supplies for Great Britain and the allied countries wi1l have on the result, the Commission submitted a recommendation to Your Excellency on the 11th September that Australian land-owners should . be urged and induced to plant

largely extended areas of wheat next·year. -

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The urgent necessity for the British Dominions to largely increase the production of wheat dtuing the season 1915-16 was again brought before Your Excellency in a report dated the 1st October, and it was recommended that the State Governments be asked to ascertain to what extent this might be possible by-

( a) Voluntary action of land -owners and occupiers ; (b) Inducements such as guaranteeing a market ; (c) Other means ; (d) Legislation.

It was also reeommended that each State Government be invited to ascertain what would be the totalarea in its State likely to be put in cultivation under conditions, and whether there would be a sufficient supply of labour to plant, cultivate, and reap, and of seed for sowing the enlarged area. Letters to this effect were forwarded by the Prime Minister to the Premiers of the States, and replies were received.

5. Response by State Governments and State Agricultural Departments.-New South Wales.-The Premier reports that the Government has given publicity to the desirability of the extension of areas under wheat, maize, and potatoes. Officers of the Agricultural Departments have been instructed to urge farmers to plant increased areas, and also to fallow for wheat as large an area as possible during the coming spring and summer, in order obtain increased yields next seaso · The Premier, in his Budget speech, announced that the Government, to encourage the extension of wheat-growing, will co-operate with the banks to make the necessary advances to settlers; will guarantee the farmers a definite minimum price per bushel for all wheat raised on their new areas; will clear large areas of land suitable for wheat culture, and guarantee growers on it the same minimum. This as a war measure . only. The Under-Secretary of Agriculture suggests Hungarian millet as a summer crop.

Victoria.-The Premier and Minister of Agriculture state that an educational campaign urging increased wheat-growing will be inaugurated by Ministers and the Department of Agriculture. It is considered that prices of wheat will be a sufficient incentive for growers to extend areas. The Government will assist farmers to enable

them to sow larger acreage. That 4,000,000 acres is not an extravagant estim-ate of the area that may be grown in Victoria. Maize production is not likely to he much increased in Victoria unless 3s. 6d. per bushel were guaranteed:

Potatoes.-Land for extension is available. An appeal to Agricultural Societies and newspapers would probably meet with -a general response, though financial considerations and fear of large production causing low prices might limit it unless, say, £3 lOs. per ton were promptly guaranteed, delivered at railway station.

Oheese.-The Department has long pointed out that conversion of milk into qheese would pay better than butter-making, but, owing to the dry weather, it is that production of cheese will fall off unless encouraged. A bonus of ld. per lb.- to go to milk producers might bring a response. There is a probability of larger areas of millet being sown for fodder, and irrigation settlers are likely to extend growing of millet, imphee, ambercane, and sorghum for forage.

Under-Secretary for Agriculture says farmers have been

asked to lay down an extra area for fodder, such as maize, lucerne, hay, and chaff. The ateas could be increased for maize, oats, green forage, and hay, probably by two-thirds of those for 1913. ·

South Australia.-The Director of Agriculture of South Australia suggests that the g:r;'owing of 'potatoes might be encouraged in all suitable localities, also millet and

sorghum. Maize might be grown in the irrigation areas between rows of fruit trees and vines as occasion arose.

Western Australia.-The Secretary for Agriculture and Industries and the Agricultural Commissioners report that cow-peas, soya beans, maize, sorghum, artichokes, pumpkins, stock melons, and lucerne are suitable to the State, and would , tend to relieve wheat and other grain from local consumption. There is a large area

of land available for extending wheat and maize growing if cleared and developed.

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Tasmania.-The Director of Agriculture has pointed out to farmers the advis.ability of planting crops for food supply, and also giving more attention to the growing of mangolds, rape, &c., for stock food. The State is not a large producer of wheat. No maize is grown. Attention will be mostly given to the production of dairy

produce., oats, peas, and pork. The ·Premier regrets that, owing to the Bill not passing to provide assistance for farmers, he fears there is not likely to be an extension of production. The Government will urge farmers to do as much as they themselves can in the planting of crops. .

6. Export of Wheat and Flour.-On the 7th September the Commission, .in view of the evidence before it, and in order to prevent supplies going by indirect channels . to the enemy, recommended to Your Excellency that the export of wheat and flour to any destination but the United Kingdom be prohibited, except with the permission

of the Government. Due effect was given to this recommendation by the Government in a Gazette notice of the same date. ·

On 23rd September a proclamation by the Government appeared in the Gazette to the effect that all exportation of wheat and flour was prohibited except by permission. On 22nd October the Commission reviewed the situation, and formed the conclusion, in view of the unfavorable harvest prospects, that the wheat nowonhandand thel914-15

crop would possibly not more than supply the needs of Australia for food and seed. It therefore reported to Your Excellency that the time for a strict pause in exports had arrived, even in the case of the United Kingdom, and recommended a total stoppage of exports, except in the smallest quantity to places that absolutely depend upon

Australia. 7. Export of Meat.-On the 7th September the Commission recommended to Your Excellency that shipments of meat to any place outside the Empire, except by permission of the Government, be prohibited. This recommendation was given effect to in the Gazette of the same and following day.

On 23rd September a proclamation by the Government appeared in the Gazette to the effect that all exportation of meat was prohibited except by permission. 8. Ships carrying Proclaimed Foodstuffs leaving Australian Ports.-On the 8th September the Commission recommended to Your Excellency that, inasmuch as a ship

carrying foodstuffs might, after getting its clearance for a certain destination, leave Australian waters and proceed to any place whatsoever, it seemed essential that no such- ship pe allowed to depart without guarantees being given that she would not commit a breach of the proclamation. Action was taken on this recommendation, and

guarantees and securities to insure observance of the proclamations are being obtained by the Customs Department. 9. Jute Goods.-The C<;>mmission considered the difficulties reported to exist, owing to the British Government's requirements for transports, in securing tonnage

for shipments of jute goods from India in time for the coming harvest and wool clip. Upon communicating, in September, with Chambers of Commerce, it was learned that the position had improved, and unless there were further requisitioning of ships in the Indian trade by the Government, tonnage would be available for shipments. .

10. New Sources of Supply of Commodities formerly received from Enemy.-With a view to meeting as far as possible the immediate inconvenience caused by the dislocation of trade with the enemy, and also to peJrilanently replacing by Australian and Empire manufactures, or by those of allied or neutral countries, articles previously obtained

from the enemy, inquiries were addressed to Australian Chambers of Commerce, Chambers of Manufactures, and the Public Works Departments of the States, and have the following information:-

The things of major importance that will be wholly or partly unobtainable from the usual sources of supply are :-Fencing and barbed wire, wire­ netting, sheet zinc, steel sheets and plates, steel bars . hoops, galvanized and black piping, certain household glassware, glass chiJ?lneys,

certain china ware, cutlery of cheap grade, carpenters' and engineers' ­ tools, enamelled baths and ware, globes for gas and electric copper wire and tubes, wire guns, revolvers (pnnc1pally

Belgian), nails, tiles (flooring and wall), Window glass, gold leaf, brushware (cheaper class), wall papers, specialized machinery, bentwood furniture (from Austria}, chassis and component parts (from France, Belgium, Germany, and Austria), magnetos, rubber tires.

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As to the extent these can be provided in Australia, some are already produced here, and production may be extended. In iron and steel, it is considered that existing works and the large new works of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company at Newcastle, N.S.W., will be able to supply many things hitherto imported. Some other goods, the usual source of supply of which is now closed, may be produced here, and locally­ made substitutes may be used for specialities not now obtainable from overseas. Where an expensive plant and large investment of capital are necessary to initiate or extend production in Australia, a view was expressed that Governmental financial support might be necessary. Failing Australia, the opinion was general that almost all necessities previously taken from the enemy could be obtained from the United Kingdom or other British Dominions, or from neutral countries, especially if the industries there were expanded, but probably at an increased cost, and at the expense of some delay. The Public Works Departments of the States joined in the last-quoted opinion in regard to such of their supplies as are not produced, or producible with a little enterprise, in Australia. One such Department suggested that local supplies could be stimulated by tariff, by granting of bonuses, and by entering into contracts for long ·periods. Another State Department said it was indenting its copper tubes and copper plates, previously obtained from Germany, from British n1akers through the Agent-General, and meant to do so in future. From Western Australia it was. reported that there had been trouble, owing to shipping and commercial disturbance, in obtaining petrol and fuel oils, lubricants, cotton waste, explosives, cyanides of potassium and sodium, acetate of lead and sheet zinc, also chemical supplies for laboratories. It was thought the difficulty would be gradually overcome, but it was suggested that a local supply of such things where possible is desirable for the maintenance of industries under extraordinary circumstances.

Regarding the cancellation or suspension of patent rights· of an enemy held in Australia, a view was expressed that cancellation should, ih many cases, enable new industries to be established; but other replies indicated that, in regard to the lines in which the parties were interested, the patent question was not of importance.

Several Chambers of Manufacturers reported that most of the commodities produced by, and raw material procured from, the enemy can be diverted to other sources of supply, though at increased prices. They suggested a Customs surcharge for some years on goods from Germany and Austria-Hungary, tariff preference to goods made within the Empire, reciprocal trade with other British Dominions, cancellation or suspension of enemy's patents and trade marks in Australia, assistance by tariff, by substantial bonuses, also-in the woollen and smelting industries-by capital expenditure, by education in national sentiment and patriotism; the treatment of German shipping in connexion with passenger and freight traffic to be that extended to foreign in the United States, Japan, and other countries. It was thought the Australian rubber goods, cement, piano, paper, paper goods, paints, varnish, and explosive industries could thus be largely extended, while other business could be diverted to the Mother Country. One Chamber of Manufactures advocated technical education-if necessary,

compulsory. Another, that Government contracts, for the next twenty-one (21) years, should prohibit the use of materials produced in Germany, Austria, or their dependencies. · The complete list of articles imported from Germany and Austria-Hungary is given in Appendix " A."

A copy of this list of commodities imported from enemy countries into the Commonwealth has been sent through the Prime Minister to the British Government, asking ·for an examination and a statement indicating which of the articles could be supplied by the United Kingdom, and whether the. extent of such supply could cover the whole import or only part thereof.

11. Tinned the 9th Septen1berthe Commission suggested to the Prime Minister that the British Government be asked if it were prepared to place orders for tinned meats for troops, in view of the approaching termination of the canning season, and also with the object of alleviating unemployment. The Secretary of State replied

that the Army Council would be purchasing supplies of tinned meats at intervals, and would be interested in further offers from Australian packers for January delivery.

12. Cargoes in Foreign Bottoms held up.-On the 11th September the Commission recommended to Your Excellency that efforts be made to overcome every difficulty

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in the way of having foreign ships containing cargo for Australian ports, and held up in other Australasian or British Dominion ports, sent on to their Australian port or ports of discharge in charge of British crews, and that the enemy's crews, as a matter of safety, should be removed from the vessels. In regard to ships sheltering in neutral ports, it was recommended to Your Excellency that steps be taken through the Government of

the country and/or through the British Consul or representatives to have all difficulties removed which would prevent or delay the cargo being forwarded to its intended destination by a British or neutral vessel. In this connexion the Commission also to Your Excellency, on the 16th September, a proposed cablegram to the

In: penal Government advising it of the action of the Prize Court in Australia in permitting vessels to proceed to other ports of discharge with British crews, and also stating

1t was believed that British crews were obtainable in South Africa. While arrangements have not yet been completed under which enemy's vessels in South Africa having cargo for Australia n1ay bring it on to its intended destinations, the British authorities and the High Commissioner for Australia are considering means for accomplishing that object.

13. Seized Ships.-In view of probable shortage of tonnage caused by the practical withdrawal from the carrying trade of the world of the German mercantile marine, and of the demand for vessels for transport, &c., the Commission, on the 11th September, recommended to Your Excellency that the permanently forfeited vessels

of the enemy in Australian ports be used to meet the deficiency, and also, if found necessary, those only conditionally forfeited.

On the 30th September a suggestion was also made to the Prime Minister, in consequence of inquiry from India for horses, that these vessels be used for their transport.

The rna tter was again referred to in a report to Your Excellency of the 22nd October, on the necessity for taking prompt steps to insure sufficient tonnage for out" export trade, especially of meat, when it was again suggested that many of the enemy's ships held in Australia were admirably suited for the purpose. •

14. International Clearing-house.-The Commission recommended to Your Excellency, on the lith September, the establishment of a form of International Clearing-house in the following words :-International Olearing-house.-Proposals are reported in the British press of at least a partial

application of the clearing-house principle in dealing eventually with the debts owing by subjects of the enemy to subjects of Great Britain, and vice versa, also with the securities held by each. One object of these proposals is that British subjects should not, when a ·time for settlement arrives, pay over to subjects of the enemy what they may owe, while other British subjects who are creditors of the enemy are unable to

obtain payment of their claims; also that British subjects holding securities in excess of their claims on the enemy should not release the surplus while fellow British creditors are left unsecured and unpaid. In other words, that debts and securities on one side be set against those on the other, and balances only be dealt with. · -

While, under ordinary circumstances, this might be impossible, conditions of war permit and often demand extraordinary action by Governments, and where that action is equitable, it can hardly, under the circumstances, be properly objected to because it may be arbitrary. It is recommended that the consideration of this question by the British Government be asked, and it is suggested that if the proposals be found practicable, reasonable, and advantageous, they be adopted, not partially, but so completely that the enemy's liabilities to, and indebtedness to the enemy by,

all portions and subjects of the Empire may be brought if possible into the one clearing-house. It is recommended that, in this connexion, the enemy's ships, which Prize Courts may condemn to be interned during the war and then released, be brought into account, they to be held as security at the end of the war against debts due to the Empire or its subjects, till either the debts are liquidated or the value of the ships paid by the enemy, such payments to go into the general clearing-house. If the Prize Court require to give a decision to that effect before it could be acted on, it is suggested that when cases are brought before the Court the decision should be sought.

15. Chloroform.-The Commission interested itself in the question of supplying Australian needs for chloroform and ether, owing to the stoppage of exports from the United Kingdom, and suggested the freedom from duty of alcohol used in their manu­ facture. The Commonwealth Analyst (l\1r. Wilkinson) was seen, and he has stated

that it is unnecessary to admit alcohol duty free for manufacture of chloroform, there being plenty of Australian alcohol available. In that case, the suggestion would cover

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the remission of excise. In any case the prohibition of the export of ether and chloroform from the United Kingdom is cancelled, and it may now be exported without limit as to quantity.

16. Seed Wheat.-An inquiry was addressed through the Prime Minister to the Premiers of all the States asking for information as to the desirability of securing, for next year's sowing, seed from present stocks or from growing crop, and asking for State expert opinion on the question. Victoria replied that last season's wheat would give as good results as new season's, and recommended that considerable quantities of present stocks be secured for the purpose. Western Australia replied that either year's stocks may be used, but, last year's supply being insufficient, some new season's wheat will have to be used.

17. Enemies' Patents.-The Commission, on. 16th September, recommended to Your Excellency that legislation similar to that passed in Great Britain should be sought in Australia.

18. Wheat for New Zealand.-On the 8th October the Commission addressed the Prime Minister, asking, in view of New Zealand's requests for wheat, if that country were willing to reciprocate with oats. New Zealand was subsequently granted wheat from Australia which had been contracted for previous to the war. No definite information has been received in reply to the inquiry as to oats.

19. Western Australian Wheat and Flour Export.-Section 7 of the Control of Trade Act 1914 of Western Australia, provides that "no person shall without the consent, in writing, of the Colonial Treasurer, export the necessaries of life to any place beyond the limits of the Commonwealth." The matter was referred to the Attorney-General, who

gave the opinion that the validity of this legislation was extremely doubtful. In regard _ to the request of the Western Australian Premier that the Commonwealth Commission delegate its powers to the State Commission in respect to shipments to South Africa, ­ the Attorn_ey-General st at ed that this clearly could not be done. It was pointed out in

reply to the Western Australian Premier's communication- that the Commonwealth proclamation not only did not prohibit shipments to South Africa, referred to by him, but specifically mentioned the possible desirability at that time of exemption in favour of that country, owing to the poor seasonal prospects. The Customs Department has now advised that it has been decided not to allow further shipments to South Africa beyond the quantities which are being taken in the Crewe Hall, Dalhanna, and Edinburgh.

20. Unemployment.-The State Premiers were asked on the 23rd September, through the Prime Minister, for returns showing, if possible, the number and usual occupations of persons out of employment. Replies have been received from some States, but the information is not con1plete. Further particulars are expected.

Meantime the Commonwealth and State Governments are conjointly seeking to provide as much employment as possible for those out of work by the dislocation of industry.

21. Mineral I and the Disposal and Treatment of Ores.-Communication was opened with the Mining Departments of the States, with the principal metal-mining companies, and with others associated with the industry, while personal evidence was obtained from experts. Information was very readily and fully furnished.

Silver-lead, Zinc, and Spelter.-It was made evident that those interested were endeavouring to deal with the industry, not by a makeshift arrangement to merely direct the present dislocation, but on lines which would promote the future interests of the industry and of Australia. These efforts must be regarded at the present time as

of a more or less confidential nature, and cannot be referred to in detail. Suffice it to say that the obj ect is future release from the German grip, more extensive treatment in Australia, and, as far as possible, a direct market for the required products. It is hoped that the united effort of those concerned n1ay be able to achieve these objects

notwithstanding many manifold difficulties, and in spite of long contracts, which are suspended but may not in all cases be cancelled by the war. The main outlets hitherto existing have been sudden_ly closed down, and, notwithstanding successful efforts to

13

find a market for comparatively small quantities, and the hope of a gradually expanding outlet in spite of the war, the result has necessarily been reduction or stoppage of output, with serious lack of employment. At Broken Hill, about 2,000 of the workers affected have, it is said, obtained Government and other employment elsewhere, about 1,500 are working half time, and about 500 are unemployed, most of the others working

full time. As against this, the Broken Hill Proprietary Company is putting on about 500 men, not necessarily from Broken Hill, to complete its Newcastle Steel Works.

About 175,000 tons of lead concentrates from our ores (nearly half the production) are said to go for further treatment (almost entirely) to Germany, Belgium, Austria, and France, and some 330,000 tons of zinc concentrates (about 4 per cent. being treated locally) to the same countries, and, in a small degree, to the United Kingdom. Were

these large quantities treated in Australia, employment would greatly be extended, and advantage to the industry accrue, but the outlay to accomplish this would be so large as to be unfaceable, unless the extra treatment could be continued after the war. The questions involved are said to be under careful examination. Great Britain appears

to be taking steps to enlarge her facilities for dealing with zinc and lead concentrates. Zinc is evidently in demand in Britain for war purposes, and were there sufficient works for treatment, a market could apparently be readily found for a considerable quantity. The United States has large smelting capacity for lead and zinc, but it is thought only

about sufficient for her own output. Some who have tried to place Australian concentrates there report failure. Complete treatment of Australian production in Australia, large extension of British plants, the possibility of America taking some of our concentrates, and the later possibility of Belgium and France, if the tide of war

should flow favorably, dealing with at least a portion of their former imports, offer, in the order named, the best prospects for the marketing of our product.

Copper.-While a large quantity of this metal is used for. war purposes, and it is to that extent in demand, the paralysis of industry due to the war has led to low prices, in spite of the fact that the United States has, for the time being, reduced its output. Though our production is shipped in different degrees of refinement, it can be

treated in Australia, even to the electrolytic stage. To treat the whole here would require an enlargement of plant. It is stated that an enlargeinent is being considered. The present position seems to be that a market is only obtainable at comparatively low prices-too low to pay some mines. That means either a stoppage of such mines or the

accumulation of production in hopes of an improved market, the latter a financially difficult-in many cases impossible-undertaking. North American production dominates the copper market, being over 50 per cent. of the world's, while Australia's only reaches about 5 per cent.

Tin.-This is smelted in Australia, though some Australian production is sent to the Straits Settlements for treatment. A slackened demand and a considerable drop in price are the adverse factors, meaning either stoppage, where a non-paying level has been reached, or production and accumulation with heavy financial strain.

Other Metals.-Tungsten-wolfram was shipped to . Germany, which war now prevents. It is said a works is being opened in Yorkshire, England, for treatment. Molybdenum, antimony, and bismuth-produced in small quantities and sent to Europe. Scanty and irregular production does not encourage local works for treatment.

Finance.-The evidence shows that, through the ordinary channels, all the financial facilities required for the marketing of shipments sold 'is very willingly provided, and that in other ways financial consideration. is If, ho:vever, the metals for which there is not a market at a remunerative pnce are to continue to be

produced and accumulated for the better demand, or better prices, that may, in some cases, be reasonably expected later on, then exceptional financial support must be provided, possibly by the Government in co -operation the financial institutions. It is in evidence that the Tasmanian and Western Austrahan Governments are now

making advances on ores not immediately saleable.

Shipment.-Ores being a favorable freight dead weight, there has been no difficulty in obtaining space for the reduced shipments at moderate rates. Only largely increased shipments or a very exceptional shortage of vessels would create difficulty.

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22. Wool.-This important product of Australia having been very unfavorably affected by the war, inquiries were addressed to Chambers of Commerce, Wool Brokers' Associations, and other quarters, and suggestions were invited as to meeting the situation. The following information has been gathered:-

The present clip is variously estimated at from 15 to 30 per cent. below last year's. England, America, Japan, and China are expected to be almost . the only purchasers, though France may take a little. There should be some extra demand from countries where mills are working, but the

shortage of the clip and extra demand from some directions cannot make up for over half the clip of Australian wool usually taken by Belgium, France, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, and, indirectly, Russia. Possibly not more than 50 per cent. of the clip may find buyers, which would mean a large carry-over to next season, or till the close of the war. Generally, it is reported that there is no present monetary difficulty, as the banks and wool firms are financing satis-· factorily. Smne of those concerned think there will be no necessity for extraneous financial aid, but others think further support may be needed if the strain is to be long continued. Steps have been taken to try to extend trade with those who can use wool formerly used principally by Germany. There is not a present shortage of shipping space, but freights are higher, and there may be a shortage of tonnage later, owing to the foreign shipping out of commission and requirements for transport. Since the sales have been commenced, and demand, . especially for cross-bred wools, has been very active, a much more hopeful tone appears to prevail.

23. Searching Enemy's Vessels for Guns in Neutral Commission, on the 30th September, reported to Your Excellency that it was possible that German vessels sheltering in neutral ports might discharge their cargo and proceed to sea, and recommended that the British Government be asked to make representations through its ambassadors or consuls to the neutral Governments concerned, that such vessels

be searched for guns before their departure, otherwise they may prey on the commerce of Britain and her allies. The Commission's recommendation was referred to the Secretary G>f State, but no advice has yet been received of any result.

24. Enemy's Banks in Australia.-The Commission, In a report to Your Excellency, dated 30th September, recommended that the provisions of Order in Council of the British Govern1nent under the Aliens Restriction Act 1914, . that enemy subjects shall not carry on or engage in banking business except with written permission, and with certain limitations, be adopted by the Australian Government. It was mentioned that there was at least one banking institution of German origin operating ·

in Australia.

25. Action on the Lines of the British Board of Trade.-On the 1st October Your Commissioners presented the following report to Your Excellency :-Str

(a) in Australia; .

(b) in the United Kingdom or British Dominions; (c) in Allied Countries; (d) in Neutral Cou'ntries ;

While some informative replies have been received, it seems to this Commission that, if practical results are to follow-especially as to a substitution of supply by Australia for that by the enemy-a close e.nd constant touch should be established between bodies representing the manufacturers, producers, and traders and the Government, such as that between similar bodies and the Board of Trade in the

United Kingdom. By this means concrete proposals, and not mere generalities, in regard to each particular article considered, could be and conclusions be reached as to whether production here is now possible ; if not, what reasonable provision would make it possible, or if it is impossible. If found impossible in Australia, it could be ascertained if steps had been, or could be, taken in the United

Kingdom or British Dominions, in allied countries, or in neutral countries·, to provide the article required.

15

26. Imperial Legislation with regard to the Withholding of Foodstuffs. &c.-The Commission considered the provisions of the following Imperial Acts, viz. :-4 & 5 Geo. V., Ch. 14, Currency and Bank Notes Act 1914; 4 & 5 Geo. V., Ch. 26, Army (Supply of Food, Forage, and Stores) Act 1914;

4 & 5 Geo. V., Ch. 29, Defence of the Realm Act 1914; 4 & 5 Geo. V., Ch. 51, Unreasonable Withholding of Food Supplies Act 1914.

The subject-matter of these Acts being relevant to the present situation, it was suggested to the Prime Minister on the 8th October that any powers in such Acts not possessed in war time by the Government of the Commonwealth be sought by legislation, in case they might be required.

27. The Question of Providing the Local Supply of Commodities of a Chemical Nature, notably tartaric acid and cream of tartar, was considered by the Commission, and the Federal Analyst was asked to submit a report thereon. The Analyst is now engaged 1n making a thorough investigation into the matter of replacing foreign goods · of a chemical nature with manufactures from Australian products, and expects to be

able to furnish a report about the end of the first week in November.

28. Country of Origin of Imports.-A report was submitted to Your Excellency on the 13th October recommending co-operation between the Commonwealth and States, in .order to prevent marks denoting the country of origin being removed from goods subsequent to importation, and also recommending that all goods manufactured in foreign countries be marked with the name of the country of origin.

29. Mineral Industries and the Disposal and Treatment of Ores.-On the 30th October Your Commission submitted a report dealing principally with the financial position and the question of long contracts.

30. Wool.-In a report of the 30th October submitted to Your Excellency, the financial position of _this important item of Australian production is set out.

31. Prohibited Exports-Proclamation in Gazette, No. 52, of 6th August, 1914.­ This is a copy of a British Proclamation framed for different circun1stances than those of Australia. The advisability of its cancellation and the renewal of only such portion as is useful or necessary is suggested in Your Commissioners' report of 30th October, 1914.

RECOMMENDATIONS

On the 30th October, 1914, Your Commissioners respectfully re-submitted, as not yet apparently dealt with and in their opinion of importance, their previous recommendations in regard t

Searching Enemy's Vessels for Guns in Neutral Ports (30th September, / 1914) ; and '

Action on the Lines of the British Board of Trade (29th October, 1914).

157

I

l:

159

17

INDEX TO GENERAL REPORT.

A.

Acetate of Lead, Western Australia Acts of Parliament (see Legislation). Advances to Settlers ..

, on Mining Products

Agricultural Departments to urge Extended Planting-New South Wales Victoria ..

Queensland South Australia Western Australia Tasmania Antimony . . . .

PARA.

10

5

21

PAGE

lO

8

13

5 8

5 8

5 8

5 8

5 8

5 9

21 13

Austria-Hungary, Imports from 10 9,10

Appendix "A" 31

Banks, Enemy's Bismuth

B.

Board of Trade, Action following Bonuses

Broken Hill Company's Steel Works Employment in

c.

Capital for Extended Manufactures

" Chassis Cheese

Chemical Manufactures •• China ware Chloroform Clearing -house, International Commerce, Chambers of-Reports from

Commissions' (Local) Estimates .• Contraband, Search for .. Contracts for Long Periods ..

Copper and Copper Manufactures

Country of Origin of Imports Cream of Tartar Crews, Foreign, replaced by British Customs Surcharge on Enemy Goods .

Cutlery Cyanides, Western. Australia

Debts and Securities Destination of

Education, Technical Enamelled Ware Ether Excise on Alcohol

D.

E.

Explosives, Western Australia Exports, Meat-Prohibited Western Australian Legislation doubtful

. Wheat and Flour

Planting

Finance-Mining Products

Wool Products

Flour Stocks

Prohibited

F.

Ji'oodstuffs (see under each class). Foreign Ships Interned .•

Furniture

{

{

{

{

{

24 21 25 5

10 10 21 10

10 21 10 3

5

27 10 15 14

10 22 1

23 10 10 21 28 27

12 10 10 10

14 8

10 10 15 15

10 7

19 I

6

10 3,4 5

21 29 22 30

1

12 10

14 13 14 8

10 10 13 9

10 13 9

7

8

15 9

11 11 9,10 14

7

14 lO 10 13 15 15 11 10

9

10

11 9

10 9

11 11 10 9

12 7

9

10 7

8-9

13 15 14 15

7

11 9

B

G.

Gazettal-Prohibited Exports, Great Britain Germany, Imports from

PARA, PA.QJI

31 15

10 10

Appendix" A" 31

Glassware and Window Glass Globes ,GM ,&o Gold Lea-f Governments (see Great Britain-

Exports of Wheat and Flour to Increased Imports from Export of Tinned Meats to Guns

Search for

H.

Horses for India

I.

Imperial Legislation re Foodstuffs Imports-Enemy, Prohibition of Origin, Country of

Industries, Expansion of

International Clearing-house Iron and Iron Manufactures

Jute Goods

J.

L.

Land-owners and Holders-Extended Planting Lead Concentrates Legislation-

For Extended Planting Imperial . . • •

Quantities of Commodities Liabilities and Securities Lubricants and Oils-Western Australia Lucerne

Machinery Magnetos Maize

M.

Manufactures, Chambers of, Reports from , Extended

Market, Guarantee of .. (See also Price.) Meat-Export Prohibited Meats-Exports to United Kingdom Millet

Mineral Industry

Mining Companies, Reports from , Departments, Reports from Molybdenum Motor Parts

N.

Nails New South Wales-Report re Extended Planting . . · · · ·

New Zealand, Wheat for and Oats from

o.

Oats ·.

Oils and Lubricants-Western Australia Ores, Treatment of . Origin, Imports, Country of

{

{

{

{

10 9

10 9

10 9

6

10 11 10 23

13

26

10 28 10 21

14 10

9

4

21

4

26 1

14 10 3

10 10 3

5

10 10 4

7

ll

3

5

21 29 21

21 21 10

10

5

18

18 10 21 28

9

10 10 9

14

11

15

9,10 15 10 12, 13

11 9,10

9

7-8 12-13

8

15 7

11 10 7

9

9

7

8-9 9

10 8

9

IO 7

8

12-13 15 12 12 13

9

9

8

12

12 10 13 15

Patent Rights ..

Patriotism Piping - · . . . . · · · ·

Planting Extended (see Extendl'ld Planting). Potatoes

Price, Guarantee of

Prize Court in Australia Prohibition of Enemy Imports Imports (British ProClama- tion) . . ·

Public Works Departments

Q.

Quantities of Commodities, Legislation, &c., re .

Queensland-Report re Extended Planting Quick-yielding Food Crops

R.

Railways, Stocks of Wheat and Flour at .. Ra:w Materials (s ee Supply, New Sources of). Recip.r;;pcity within o Empire Rifles and Revolvers Rub her Tires ..

Securities and Debts. Search, Right of Seed Wheat Seized Ships ..

Shipment of Mining Products Ships- · ••

As Securities Destination of

s.

Foreign, Interned, Seized, Used Silver-lead South Africa ..

Australia-Report ?'e Extended Planting Spelter . . . . ·. . . . .

States' Governments (see also-each State)­ ' Financial Support .. Guarantees Inquiry re Extended Areas

· Legislation

{

{

PARA.

IO I7

IO IO

3

5

4

5

12 IO

3I

IO

I

5

3

2

IO IO IO

I4

23 I6

I3 2I

I4 8

I3 2I I9

5

2I

w 5

4

I

18

INDEX -continued.

PAGE

IO I2 -

IO 9

7

8

8

8

II

9-IO

I5

9

7

8

7

7

IO 9

9

II

I4

I2

II

I3

II

9

II

I2

I2

8

I2

IO 8

7-8 7

Statisticians' Estimates Steel and Steel Manufactures . Steel Works, Broken Hill Company's · s ·upply, New Sources of

Tariff Tartaric Acid .. Tasmania-

T.

Report re Extended Planting Bill to Assist Farmers Rejected Tiles Tin Tools Transfer of Stocks Transport, Ships for . Tungsten-wolfram

Unemployment

v.

Victoria-Report re Extended Planting

w.

Wall Papers ..

Western Australia-Report re Extended Planting Delegation of Commission's Powers Prohibition of Export-Validity of Wheat-

Export Prohibited Export to .New Zealand ' · Extended Planting next ' year Seed ''

Stocks

Wire and Wire-netting and Gauze Wool-Brokers' Reports from

. z.

Zinc

Western Australia

{

PARA.

1

IO IO IO 25

10 27

5

5

. IO 2I

IO I

I3 2I

20

5

IO

5

I9 I9

6

18 4

I6

I

IO

PAGE

· 7

IO IO

9-IO I4

IO I5

9

9 ·

9

I3 9

7

II

I3

I2

8

9

8

I2 I2

{

' 22

30 22

- 9

I2 7-9 I2 7

9

I4 I5

I4

{ IO

2I 10

9-10 I2-13 IO

19

SUMMARY OF MATTERS DEALT WITH.

-·· helg its initial September, 1914, and up to date a total of 36 meetings

has been held. . · ·

Date. ··· j Subj ect. Action Taken.

----------1------------------

1

4:yh September Stocks of Foodstuffs on hand

Quick-yielding Crops

7th September. and Flour Export

Governmen_ t Statistiytans asked to furnish retu.rp.s of stocks being •­ collected under State Acts Railway Departments also asked to state !s held on premises from time to time Departments asked whether they can suggest quick­

yielding crops for local consumption to give greater release of wheat . . . .

CommissiQn recommended to His Excellency; that the export of wheat and flour to any destination but the United Kingdom, without permission, be prohibited · , .

.. Meats Commissiqn r ecommended that the export of: meats to any place

other than within the Empire, without perm,ission, be prohibited.

8th September

September

"

lOth September

11th September

15th September

16th September

"

17th September

18th September

22nd September

23rd September

25th September

28th September

30th September

Clearances of Ships

.. Jute Goods

Proclamations to this effect were gazetted ori the 7th September · In re export prohibition of wheat and flour, : Commission recom­ mended that no ship be allowed to depart without giving : guarantees that she will not commit a breach of the proclamation

Reported , shortage of tonnage for supplies for coming harvest. of Commerce, Sydney and Melbourne, asked.

Effect of War on Trade, Manu­ facture, and Production, and the need for new sources of

Supply Tinned Meats

Position found to be at present satisfactory Commission issued letter (dated 11th September) to Chambers of . Commerce, Agriculture, Mines, Institutes, of Engineers, and other p\.lblic bodies, and to Public Works 'I?epartments of the

Commonwealth and States Prime Minister asked to ascertain from British Government whether they are prepared to place orders, t9 _what exten.t. and for what period. This would, while trade in normal

channels, keep the canning factories going, and thus prevent unemployment State Premiers asked, through Prime Minister, whether production of any of these articles in his own State could be increased

Cargo in Foreign Bottoms held up Recommendation made to His Excellency that efforts be made to have foreign ships which are detained promptly sent on to Australian ports to which cargoes are consigned .

Maize, Potatoes, and Cheese

Seized Ships ..

Flour for Manila

International Ciearing-house

Prolongation of War

Chloroform

. . Seed Wheat ..

Recommended to His Excellency that inquiries be made with a view to utilizing enemy's ships interned in different ports Comptroller-General of Customs informed of Commission's opinion that exports of flour to Manila should not be' permitted · R ecommended to His Excellency that, if possible, . arrangem ents

should be made so that the enemy's liabilities to, and indebted­ ness to the enemy by, all portions and suqjects of the Empire 111ay be broug}lt.wto .. Qne R ecommended to His Excellency that Australian land-owners

should be urged and induced to plant largely extended areas Commission suggested for the consideration of the Prime Minister that steps be taken, with necessary precautions, to permit duty free alcohol to be used for manufacture of sulphuric ether and

chloroform State Premiers asked through Prime Minister for stocks of wheat and flour on hand in order to see whether it is necessary to secure seed out of present stocks of wheat or whether seed should

be secured from crop now in ground Recommended to His Excellency that Legislation be passed as in Great Britain empowering the suspension of avoidance of enemy's patents in Australia if in the interests of this

... , Vessels detained at South Africa Recommended to His Excellency that British Government be m­ formed that it is believed British crews are available in South

Enemy's Patents

Prime Minister, N.Z., request for waiver of prohibition export Wheat, Flour Premier, W.A., reexports Wheat,

&c., to South Africa Imports from Enemy

Unemployment

Increasing Production

. . Mineral Ores ..

.. Wool

Africa to bring ships held there to Australia Commission forwarded draft letter to Prime Minist er explaining why prohibition proclaimed, and asking for information re New Zealand stocks

Commission forwarded draft letter to be sent t o Premier of West ern Australia ·Prime Minist er asked . to ascertain from Trade and Customs details of articles imported from Germany and Austria .

Prime Minist er asked to secure from Sta tes returns showmg numbers and occupations of persons out of employment Draft letter submitted t o Prime Minist er asking Premiers of States to t ake urgent action to increase areas planted for maize,

potatoes, lucerne, Hungarian &c. .

Commission agreed that letter be c1.rculated t o Chambers of Mines or other bodies inquiring as t o what extent mineral ores can be treated here, and how difficult ies in way of increasing manu­ factures from ores can be met

Enemy's vessels Neutral Ports

Letter sent to Woolselling Brokers' Association in chief centres , also Chambers of Co mmerce (w ool section), re disposal of wool clip, and fin ancial and shipping conditions, &c . sheltering in R ecommended that the British Government be asked to move

neutral -nations· concerned to search them for guns

Use of captured Enemy's Ships Quick-yielding Crops Prime Minist er recommended t o use for transport of horses to I ndia Prime Minist er asked t o urge in conjunction with State Govern­

ments the enlarged planting of quick- yielding crops, in order to r elieve demand for other foo dstuffs of better carrying q ualities

B 2

161

Date.

30th September

1st October

8th October

I Oth October

13th October

20th October

22nd October

30th October

,

20

SUMMARY OF MATTERS DEALT WITH--continued.

Subject. Action Taken.

Enemy Subjects carrying Banking Business

Prolongation of War

on Recommended to His Excellency that provisions of British Order in Council under Aliens Restriction Act 1914 be adopted by Australia Recommended to His Excellency necessity for increasing the

production of wheat in British Empire during 1915-16

Supply of Necessaries previously product of Enemy

Withholding of Foodstuffs, &c.

New Zealand reciprocating Aus­ tralian Wheat with New Zea­ land Oats Manufacture of Tartaric Acid and

Cream of Tartar, &c. Country of Origin of Imports

Unsatisfactory harvest prospects

Export of Wheat and Flour

Providing tonnage for export

International Clearing - house, Searching Enemy's Vessels for Guns in Neutral Ports, and

action on lines of British Board of Trade Response by State Government and State Agricultural De­

partments Mineral Industries; Wool; and Prohibited Exports

Recommended to His Excellency close relations between bodies representing manufacturers, producers, traders, and Govern­ ment be established similar to Board of Trade, in order that concrete proposals might be considered Recommended to Prime Minister that powers conferred by

Imperial Acts 4 & 5 Geo. V., Chaps. 14, 26, 29, and 51, be sought by Commonwealth Government if not already possessed Recommended to Prime Minister that New Zealand state her needs for further wheat supplies, also that she reciprocate with

oats to Australia Government Analyst written to asking what chemical products are capable of being manufactured here Recommended to His Excellency that co-operation with States

be adopted in order to prevent marks denoting country of origin being removed from goods subsequent to importation, also recommending that all goods imported · be marked with name of country of origin Draft cable submitted to Prime Minister in answer to Secretary

of State's inquiry re harvest prospects Report to His Excellency recommending total cessation of exports except in small quantities to places . absolutely dependent on Australia ·

His Excellency advised of necessity for providing tonnage especially for meat export, and suggesting use of captured enemy's vessels Commission, referring to recommendations of 11th and 30th

September and 1st October respectively, submitted these matters for the further consideration of His Excellency

Resume of replies to Commission's inquiries submitted to His Excellency, with the sugge'stion that it be transmitted to the Premier of each State Result of Commission's inquiries in regard to the Mineral and

Wool Industries, also recommendation that the proclamation re Prohibited Exports in Gazette of 6th August, misleading, be amended

21

COPIES OF RECOMMENDATIONS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING . THE WAR.

WHEAT AND FLOUR. Melbourne, 7th September, 1914.

In of evidence before us, and in order to prevent supplies going by indirect channels to the enemy, this CommissiOn recommends that the export of wheat and flour to any destination but the United Kingdom be prohibited, except by permission of the Government of the Commonwealth.

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 7th September, 1914. WHEAT AND FLOUR. In connexiori with the recommendation of this Commission for the prohibition of the export of wheat and flour to any destination but the United Kingdom, except by permission of the Government of the

Commonwealth, the statistics on which that recommendation is largely based are presented herewith. The exception by permission is suggested-(!) In order that the communities such as in British South Africa, British India, British Straits Settlements, also in New Caledonia, Fiji, and other portions of the South Seas, or some

of these, which have depended on Australia for supplies, are not enemies, and which require· comparatively small quantities, may have their legitimate needs provided if, and so long as, deemed desirable. (2) In order that there may be, if the Government think it desirable, temporary exemptions

where undue hardship or dislocation would result to innocent persons without equivalent advantage to the Commonwealth or Great Britain. It is suggested that the British Government be confidentially furnished with the statistics, and informed that steps are being taken under State Acts to test the statistics as closely as possible with actual stocks. That the British Government shoula also be confidentially informed of the uncertainty owing to climatic conditions of the growing crop and the possibility of it being necessary, in order to insure a

sufficiency for Australia, to very reluctantly call an early pause in even the export to the United Kingdom, till such time as the checking of stocks and the prospects of the growing crop, will be more readily estimated some weeks hence, show whether Australia is likely to have more or less than necessary for her own needs.

The recommendation that while export is permitted it be confined to Great Britain does not overlook the fact that the Mother Country may not desire to exclude her Allies from the food supplies of the Empire. The limitation would not do that. By making the United Kingdom the one destination it would enable the British Government to absolutely prevent s.upplies reaching the enemy, and yet to divert what it might be able to spare to either France or Belgium in the vessels that carry it from Australia. Russia could not be so supplied, but she is not likely to find it necessary to import wheat or flour. Even France

and Belgium, in spite of the destruction of a portion of their crops, will probably have garnered enough to secure a sufficiency for some time to come. ,

This recommendation to apply to cargoes that are now on board ships or being loaded for other countries than the United Kingdom, unless good reason is recognised for exemption.

Wheat.

ALFRED bEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

1. Carry-over Stocks.-Stocks of old wheat at end of year 1913 are not available. On the uncertain assumption that new wheat consumed and exported m December, 1913, balances stocks of old wheat at 31st December, 1913, carry-over stock may be ignored, and harvest of 1913-14 may be treated as coming into possession on 1st January, 1914, with no existing stocks.

2. Areas-(i) Under wheat 1913-14-For grain ..

For hay

Total

(ii) Estimate under wheat 1914-15-For grain ..

For hay

Total

Acres. 9,300,000 1,600,000

10,900,000

9,900,000 1,600,000

11,500,000

If the season is unfavorable, certain areas sown for grain may be cut for hay, so that the 9,90C, 000 rna y possibly be reduced.

16B

22

3. Production, Export, .· Consumption, and Current Stocks-Production, · " ···-

Net exports; Ll.14 _ to 31.7.14. .(wheat and flour in terms of wheat) Estimated quantity used for seed, 1914, for .both grain and hay _ . and beast, 1.1.14 to 31.8.14, on basis of 5-! bushels per

head of population per annum . . ·_ . . · . . . . . .

Balance- , Estimated quantity available_ at 31.8.14 requirements, manar1d beast, 1_.9.14 to 31.12.14 ._

Estimated stocks of old wheat at 31.12.14 in absence of Jurther export, and on assumption that no new wheat is used.* (This implies we havevery little to spare, if any)

4. Australian requirements, 1915, to 31st -JJecember, 1915-For man and beast, at 5-! bushels for 5,000;000 or more if large extension of wheat-growing .. For seed ..

. Total requirements Estimated Old wheat available at 31.12.14 (see above) 1914-15 season's wheat required by Australia in 1915___:0ut of harvest coming to hand December, 1914, &c., we shall require

in to all existing stocks.

Bushels.

+ 103,500,000 - 58;200;000': - 10,500,000

l ?t,400,000

+ 17,400,000 ·:-'

+ 8,600,000

11,000,000

- 37,700,000 -:1- 8,600,000 "

-- _ -5, Harvest Prospects.-In the principal .wheat areas the prospects are bad, but immediate rains

. would do; much to save the situation. If conditions continue unfavorable, a higher aggregate yield than ·cannot be regarded as probable, while under the best conditions not more than

80,000,000 bushels is to be expected. The quantity available for export in 1915, that is, _ from now on and harvest comes to hand· (Deceniber, -1915), will thus be between 11,000,000 and 51,600,000

;bushels, but not more 30,000,000 bushels should be counted on, and even this cannot be unless there is moderate rain in the near future.

- ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPtiES AND ON TRADE AND INDUS'TRY.: DURING:.·; THE WAR . . .: 1'

Melbourne, 7th September, 1914. _.,

MEATS.

' p ' • '

In view_ of the demands for tinned and other meats from the Unitea Kingdom and other parts Empire and of the need for maintaining food supplies for the troops and the people of Empire,· w..e recommend thatno shipments of meat :be permitted to any place other than ·within Empire excep_ t t_ he-express of the Government of the CoJ?-ri'ionwealth. ' - ·

.

ALFRED .·DEAKIN. _ : _ DUGALD THOMSON:. -.. _ , G. H. KNIBBS:

kOYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING " --·------ -- . - ·- . X_ HE __ WAR.

PROCLAIMED FooDsTUFFS.

. . .. , . .. . _ __ _ _ _ Melbourne, September,"1914.

Excellehcy the Honorable Sir 'Ronald Munro a Member of His

· l\1ost Honorable Privy Council, a Member _of the Most of

and· Saint George,· and Commander.-in-Chief of the Commonwea_ltP, Australia. · · · -· · · ·

May it please Your Excellency, .-·As the restrictions already proclaimed, we beg to advise that inasmuch as· a ship carrying

may, after getting its clearance, leave "Australi'a'n waters 'and pro'ceed to any place hatsoever, it

seerr!s essential thaf ho such' ship should be allowed to" aepart without guarantees being given to the satistaction (>fthe Government that she will not commit a .of the proclamation.

Your Commissioners have the hQnour to be, -- - ' • - f

__ . Your most 9pedient Servants;

.... 1 1

ALFRE-D DEAKIN. - DUGALD THOMSON . . G. H. KNIBBS.

,_ ·, .. : ' , ,' * :The crops --of ' wheat- will coinmenoo como in tho· month uf Wh ca;t will come in t ill, say,' end '?1 . Jf!I_l .\_ H:ry

(heaviest December.) , . . . -. c .• :: ••

.23

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD -SUPPLIES AND ON .TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING , THE WAR. Melbourne, 9th September, 1914:. SIR, . . . .

. !n of the fact that large quantities of tinned meat are likely to be wanted for the troops iu

the present war, and that, unless special orders be given, the canning season will soon

t ermmate, It 1s s"?-ggested that inquiries be made · as to whether the British Government is prepared, on Circumstances, to place orders and to what extent and for what period. Ifthat Government

1s unable, It _1s that the Commonwealth Government might, nevertheless·, ·make for the cannmg factones to put up considerable quantities of tinned meat for export, and it is understood the of cattle suitable for this purpose is probably available. Any possible loss which might be

will probably be negligible ,_ wHen the importance of anticipating the need for supplies is kept in

VleW,

:.- · It ·may be added that work of this kind te.nds to alleviate the which threl:ttens to

become widely extended. ··· .

The Right Honorable · Joseph Cook, P.C., M.P., Prime Minister of Australia.

We have the honour to be, Sir, . Your obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN .. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND .ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING _ . THE WAR. Melbourne, 11th September, 19·14:,. :: His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

.. · Council; a ·· Member of the Most · Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, · Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May !t please Your Excellency, Your Excellency's .Commissioners have the honour to report as follows:-Prolangatian of War. If, as is quite possible, the war be prolonged for a year or more, the pressure on food supplies is likely to become acute. The full effect will be felt of the destruction of, and failure to reap, a portion of this year's crop in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and, to a lesser extent, Russia, also of the expected

shdrtage in the present Can_ adian-crop; and the certain, perhaps large, shortage· in the· crop. These effects, and the fact that the belligerents will have diminished opportunity of planting and cultivating. the next. crop, will probably not be nearly counterbalanced by the expected excess of the crop ju'st harvested in the United, States. ,. . < .. •

. The feeding of Britain and the Allies is of vital importance if victory is to be achieved at the end bf a prolonged war. _ It is . therefore strongly that, unless the end of hostilities is reached

befme the time for planting next year's Australian crop, steps should be taken to largely extend the area put under wheat and other crops, which, while not so suitable for export as wheat, may be used:fox';}wrne consumption to relieve wheat for export. , , . . · , . . · , . _ ,. · '.· -·

To that end Australian land-owners should be urged and induced- (their patriotism .Should render compulsion unnecessary) to plant largely extended areas. - As a security to them, if such be needed, the British and .Australian Governments, acting in QOncert, might engage to . take up a certain_ qua{ltity at maximum price of SO, much, down to a_ minimum price of so much, or at market price between .. -If-tfat s?

taken were paid for by the Commonwealth Government, the financial adjustment could made Wltho_ u_ t any strain on the latter and without actual remittance, by the British paying

'London to the same total on the Australian debts, the States refunding to the Comrnonwealth.in Austni1ia:. Employment would be assisted by such an enlargement of produ.ction. · . . . , . _

Meantime, it is recommended that the State Governments and their Agricultural Departmel:\ts be -tirged to take steps to enlarge the .planting, not yet completed, of maize and potatoes. One · or th-ese valuabl'e crops bids fair to be short and to require importation. This-would be doubly unfortunate, m that 'the irupottation would prove _costly to the consumers, and mean loss of employment in Australia,,. v:rhile "a

would entail a greater local call on the wheat crop, instead of its relief for the : ?f

and Allied troops on which, if the war be prolonged, everything will depend. · . _ _ · ·

1

ALFRED DEAKIN .. .. · -·. DUGALD _ G. H. KNIBBS> - ·_· - t;·

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ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, lith September, 1914. His Excellency the Right Honorable Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's

Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :-Cargo in Foreign Bottoms Held Up. (1) In Australasian or British Dominion ports-It is .recommended that efforts be made to overcome every difficulty in the way of having foreign ships which are detained promptly sent on to the ports in Australia to which their cargo is consigned, in

order that the requirements of consumers may be met, and industries which are now hampered by the want of the machinery and raw material, carried by some of the vessels referred to, may be relieved, and employment be thus enlarged. It is further recommended that the assistance of the British Government and the Government o£ the Dominion where the ship is interned .be sought to further and hasten the despatch of the vessel to its ports of discharge.

By this means the delay and cost of transhipment, the expense of re-chartering and of paying two freights for a portion of the voyage, -as well as the serious damage and deterioration of landing and re-loading, would be avoided, to the great advantage of the Australian consignees and consumers. It is suggested, as a matter of safety and expediency, that the enemy's crew should be removed from the vessel at the port of detention, and a British crew be placed on board to navigate her to the Australian port or ports of discharge.

(2) In neutral countries-It is recommended that steps be taken through the Government of the country and or through the British Consul or other representative in the country where an enemy's ship, containing cargo for an Australian port or ports, has sought shelter, to have all difficulties promptly removed which would prevent or delay the cargo being forwarded to its intended destination by a British or neutral vessel.

By so doing, in addition to the advantages to Australian consignees, manufacturers, and consumers of being able to get and use these goods, the deterioration due to long continued stowage in the ship's hold, and the serious injury caused by climatic influences, which might mean total loss, would be greatly minimized. In these cases the loss and cost of transhipment seem unavoidable.

Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 11th September, 1914. His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows:___:

International Clearing-house.

Proposals are reported in the British press of at least a partial application of the clearing-house principle in dealing eventually with the debts owing by subjects of the enemy to .subjects of Great Britain, and vice versd; also with the securities held by each. One object of these proposals is that British subjects should not, when a time for settlement arrives, pay over to the subjects of the enemy what they may owe,

while other British subjects, who are creditors of the enemy, are unable to obtain payment of their claims; also that British subjects holding securities in excess of their claims on the enemy should not release the surplus while fellow British creditors are left unsecure and unpaid. In other words, that debts and securities on the one side should be set against those on the other, and balances only be dealt with.

While, under ordinary circumstances, this might be impossible, conditjons of war permit and often demand extraordinary action by Governments, and where that action is equitable it can hardly, under the circumstances, be properly objected to because it may be arbitrary. It is recommended that the consideration of this question by the British Government be asked, and it is suggested that if the proposals be found practicable, reasonable, and advantageous, they be adopted, not partially, -but so completely that the enemy's liabilities to, and indebtedness to the enemy by, all portions and subjects of the Empire may be brought, if possible, into the one clearing-house.

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It is recommended that, in this connexion, the enemy's ships, which Prize Courts may condemn to be interned during the war and then released, be brought into account, they to be held as security at the end of the war against debts due to the Empire or its subjects till either the debts are liquidated or the value of the ships paid by the enemy, such payment to go into the general clearing-house. If the Prize

Court would require to give a decision to that effect before it could be acted on, it is suggested that when cases are brought before the Court the decision should be sought. ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON.

G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 11th September, 1914. His Excellency the Right · Honorable Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's

Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia. May it please Your Excellency,

Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows:-Seized Ships.

Although the breaches by the enemy of treaty, convention, and declaration might justify the United Kingdom in refusing to observe those provisions which favour the enemy, it seems from British Prize Court judgments that a general repudiation, however defensible, owing to the action of Germany, is probably not proposed. Doubtless the course taken by the Mother Country will guide the Empire. It is, however,

suggested that, within the limits of that course, certain steps may apparently be taken which are herein· recommended. It seems that an enemy's vessel taken within the 3-mile shore limit is to be held during the war, but handed over to the late enemy on peace being proclaimed; while one captured beyond that limit may be

permanently retained. If this be confirmed by further British Prize Court decisions, it may be presumed · that the enemy's vessels captured on the high seas and duly forfeited 'may be made use of by their captors in any way desired. In view of the practical withdrawal from the carrying trade of the world of the German Mercantile

Marine, the demand on vessels for transport and other war purposes, and in spite of the reduction of the oversea trade of the Continental belligerents, there is likely to be a shortage of tonnage. This may affect · Australia in two ways: one, much higher freights; two, an insufficiency of tonnage for her inward and outward trade, notwithstanding her .reduced requirements due to adverse circumstances affecting her

exports. If that prove to be the case, it is recommended that permanently forfeited vessels of the enemy be used to meet the deficiency, ·and, if there still be a shortage, those held for return at the end of the war be used also by such process as the law provides or does not prohibit. .

In this connexion it is highly desirable that the Prize Court decisions should be reached as early as possible. Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Your Excellency's most obedient Servants, .

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION· ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 16th September, 1914. His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia. May it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :-

Having considered .the fact of enemies' patents the manufacture or use of a_ rticles patented by them in this country, and also the impossibility of securing any articles so patented from an enemy's country during the war, your Commissioners recommend that legislation should be passed, as in Great Britain, empowering, on application of any person, the ordering, avoidance, suspension, or registration of

such patents, and all or any rights conferred by them on a suitable authority being satisfied that the proprietor is a subject of a State at war with His Majesty the King, that the person applying intends to manufacture or cause to be manufactured within this Commonwealth any of the goods in respect of which the design is registered, and that it is in the interests of the country, or section of the community, or of a

trade, that the avoidance or suspension should be ordered. Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Your Excellency's most obedient Servants, ALFRED DEAKIN.

DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

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. ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 16th September, 1914. His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint_ Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

:May it please Y

Your Commissioners have the honour to recommend that the following cablegram be transmitted to the Government of Great Britain in reference to the vessels for Australian destinations detained in South Africa, viz. :-" Prize Court Melbourne has allow_ ed seized vessels detained here to proceed to ·otner ports of

discharge with British crews. Believe British crews obtainable South Africa. "

Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY, DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 30th September, 1914. To His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint. George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia .

. May. it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to recommend that the provisions of Order in Council of the British Government under Aliens Restriction Act 1914 that enemy subjects shall not carry on _or .. e.ngage in banking business except with written permission, and that such permissiQn be only for operation_s

_necessary for the completion of . trans?>ctions entered into before the outbreak of ·war, be adopted and gazetted by the Government of Australia in the same way as proclamations of the British Government in !;regard to contracting and trading were adopted and gazetted on the 7th August, 1914.

· There is at leastone banking institution of German origin-Reuters-operating in Australia.

Your Commissioners have the honour· to be, Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

'ROYAL COMMISSION O:N FOOD SUP-PLIES AND ON TRADE AND "iNDUSTRY DURING ·· THE WAR.

Melbourne, 30th September, 1914.

To His : Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's. Honorable Privy Council, a,. Memb er of the Most Distinguis1ied Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australra.

May it please Your Excellency, I , " ... Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows:-Enemy's Vessels Sheltering in Neutral Ports and about to leave s'l)ch Ports. As statements have appeared in the press that some German vessels, more particularly the Roan, are likely to discharge their cargoes in the neutral .port where they are sheltering, and proceed, t o sea, it is

re.oommended .that the British Government be asked to make representations through its ambassadors or ·consuls to the Neutral Govtrnments concerned that such vessels be searched for guns befor e their departure. Otherwise they may proceed to sea to prey on the commerce of BTitain and her Allies . . ·

_J'"', .

Your Commissioners have the honour to be, _ Y Excellency's most ob edient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

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ROYAL COMMISSION--ON -FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY -DURING - TH-E WAR. -

Melbourne, 1st October,

To His. Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Ma1esty's Most Honorable Pnvy Council, aMember of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, -·- Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :-That it is recommended the Commonwealth Government make early -representations to the Governments of the States, pointing out that, in the event of the prolongation of the war, it will be - _ urgently on in this Commission's recommendation of 11th September,

1914,_ for Brrtish Dommwns to largely mcrease the pr9d,uction of wheat during the season 1915-16. - That each State Government be asked to to what extent this may be possible in its State

(a) Voluntary action of land-owners and occupiers; (b) Inducements, such as guaranteeing _ a market ; (c) Other means;

(d) Legislation.

· That each State Government be invited to :would the--total area -in its State likely

t q, pe .put in cultivation under these conditions, and whether there would be a sufficient supply of labour t_ cs plant, cultivate, and reap ; and of seed for sowing the enlarged area. .... ; !· - ' Your C6mmissioriers have the honour to. be, Your Excellency's most obedient Ser:vants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS. - .

t - ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND' ON- TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING

THE WAR.

Melbourne, 1st October, 1914.

, To --His Sir Rona1d Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable - Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, -· __

Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :- . ·_- _ ha:Ve been made- by tlie Commission to public, trading, and manUfacturing

bodies regarding the importance of establishing new or _ enlarged sources of supply for necessaries hitherto entirely or l51rgely the product o:lthe enemy. Information has also been asked as to whether it is thought . ·provision can be effectively made for so doing ·:- ·

(a) In Australia; {b) Jn the United Kingdom or British Dominions; (c) In Allied countries ; (d) In neutral countries.

. . .While some informative replies have . been -received, it seems to this C01;nmission that, if :.practical - results are to follow-especially as to a substitution of supply by Australia fo r that by the enemy-a close and constant touch should be established between bodies representing the manufacturers, producers, and traders, and the Government, such as that between similar bodies and the Board of Trade in the United

By this means concrete proposals, and not mere generalities, in regard to each particular article

considered, could he examined, and conclusions be reached as to whether production here is now possible ; if not, what reasonable provision would .make it possible ; <;;>r if it is impossible. If found impossib le in

Australia, it could be ascertained if steps had been, or could be, t aken in the United Kingdom or ·British Dominions, in allied countries, or in neutral countries to provide the article required. -

Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Yom: Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMS ON. G. H. KNIBBS.

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COMMONWEALTH ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR.

SIR, Melbourne, 8th October, 1914.

As New Zealand indicated that their present supplies of wheat would just carry them on to the present harvest, and as the Dominion has prohibited the export of oats; as, moreover, it is practically certain that the importation of oats to Australia will become necessary, it is suggested that some assurance from that Dominion as to probable further needs for wheat should be asked for. Further, in view of the absence of rain in South Australia and the greater part of Victoria, it might also be asked if the.Dominion is willing to cancel the prohibition of the export of oats so far as Australia is concerned. .

The Right Honorable Andrew Fisher, P.C., M.P.,

I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient Servant,

Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia, Melbourne.

ALFRED DEAKIN, Chairman.

COMMONWEALTH ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 13th October, 1914. His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy

Council, and Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia. May it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :-

In connexion with the reports that have appeared in the press indicating that the method adopted of informing the user of any article of its " country of origin " is very defective, we beg to recommend that some arrangement be made between the State Governments and the Commonwealth Government by means of which deception can be effectually prevented.

At present it would appear that it is possible to remove, subsequent to importation, marks or plates, &c., which denote the country of origin, and then to substitute misleading marks, in -this way rendering nugatory one of the objects of the Commonwealth Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act 1905, which-among other things-is intended, in certain cases, to ensure that the origin of goods shall be known. It would appear, also, that it would be desirable to require that all goods manufactured in foreign countries should be marked with the name of the country of origin or manufacture.

Under existing conditions State co-operation would appear to be absolutely necessary to ensure that information as to the origin of any goods shall be so indicated that on the goods reaching consumers they shall be made a ware of such origin. Your Commissioners have the honour to remain,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servan.ts, ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS. '

ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR. Melbourne, 22nd October, 1914. His Excellency the Right Honorable Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's

Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia. May it please Your Excellency, .

Your Commissioners have the honour to report as follows :-When making our recommendation of 7th September for the restriction of the export of wheat and flour to Great Britain, except when granted Government exemption, it was reported by your Commissioners that the stocktaking shortly to be carried out under the State Acts, and the seasonal conditions a few weeks ahead, might necessitate a pause in export, even to the United Kingdom. We regret now to have to advise that the returns of stocks which have come to hand and the loss of crops in many areas owing to

continued dry weather, show that the balance of the last crop and the total of the coming crop together may not be more than sufficient for Austfalian food and seed requirements next year. This seems to necessitate a total stoppage of export, except in the smallest quantity, to places which absolu'tely depend upon Australia. ·

·Your Commissioners reluctantly recommend such cessation of export. Your Commissioners have the honour to be, Your Excellency's . most Servants, ALFRED DEAKIN.

DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

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ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR.

Melbourne, 22nd October, 1914. ·

His Excellency the Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's

Most H_onorable Pnvy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Samt George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, ! our had evidence that tonnage, especially for meat export, may be

unobtamable m a few t1me, would follow up its previous. anticipation of the possible shortage of tonnage by a recommendatiOn that steps be promptly taken to msure a certainty of a sufficiency for our exports. As already suggested, some of the enemy's ships held in Australia are admirably suitable for the purpose.

.Your Commissioners have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON . . G. H. KNIBBS.

Melbourne, 30th October, 1914.

To His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

May it please Your Excellency, Your Commissioners have the honour to re-submit the following recommendations as, in their opinion, worthy of the close attention of Your advisers of being carried into effect where the decision rests entirely with Australia; and of being pressed to consideration where other portions of the

Empire would be involved:-International Clearing-house.

The statements in the Press, since our recommendation of 11th September, 1914, was first made, t hat German debtors have invested the sums they owe British creditors in the German War Loan and forwarded the stock to their creditors as settlement, emphasize the need for treating debts due by or to the enemy and subjects of the enemy on international rather than inter-individual lines. The crafty policy

of the enemy's subjects can be most fairly and effectively met in that manner. It may be objected that the placing of the value of an interned German ship, which has to be handed over to Germany at the end of the war, against a debt due by a German firm, unconnected with the vessel, to a British firm, is not equitable. It may be pointed out that the adjustment by which the ship-owner is recouped by the German debtor referred to is within the power of German legislation.

Searching Enemy's Vessels for Guns in Neutral Ports. The recommendation of 30th September, 1914, that before vessels sheltering in neutral ports are allowed to leave those ports they should be searched for guns by the neutral authorities, and not allowed to leave in a condition to become merchant cruisers preying on British commerce, is re-urged for the

consideration of the Imperial authorities.

Action on the Lines of. the British Board of Trade. Further consideration and the indorsement of the principle by a similar recommendation to the New Zealand Government from its Committee dealing with the dislocation caused by the war (vide press of 29tlt October) impress the desirability of a permanent Board of a Ministerial and Departmental eharacter on a modification of the lines of the Board of Trade in Great Britain. This could be kept in close and constant

touch, as suggested by your Commissioners' recommendation of 1st October, 1914, with bodies representing traders, manufacturers, and producers, as is the British Board of Trade.

Your Commissioners have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H . KNTBBR .

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3Q.

Melbourne, 30th October, 1914.

To His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Ma-jesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, a Member of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Austraha.

May itplease Your Excellency,

Your have the honour to report as follows:-

Mineral I ndustries and the Disposal and Treatment of 0 Tes . Following up their report on the Metal Industries, your Commissioners would add that extraordinary · &nancial assistance would appear to be necessary only where, arid to the extent that, production is continued witho'ut a profitable market, in the prospect of future absorption of the accumulation. Some of the States

have made advances in these cases, but others have not yet done so. Apart from that, there seem to. be ample facilities for financing provided by banks and companies. In regard to the proposals for developmg the treating processes and works in order to deal with almost the whole output of lead and zinc concentrates during, and after, the war, there is a laudable desire to do this by united action and effort among those directly concerned; If accomplished, that method would promise the best result, and would not add to

the heavy financial burden that must be borne by the Governments. One difficulty some of the largest producers may have in carrying into effect the permanently advantageous smelting schemes now under consideration is the long contracts existing at the beginning of the war. These are known to be suspended by the war, but it does not appear certain that they are cancelled. Uncertainty in that respect must

interfere with projects· for largely and permanently extending treatment in Australia. It may be that the question depends on the po ssibly varied wording of different contracts. In any case, it seems desirable that the matter should be looked into, if the Australian contractors consent, by the Crown law officers. It is said by some who have provided information that the German contractor either is, or considers

himself, free to cancel. In that case, or indeed in-any case; it may be advisable, owing to the existence of war and the national misfortune, if the industry cannot be placed on a permanently stronger footing, that consideration be given, in order to remove doubt, to the cancell ation of the contracts by Common­ wealth legislation.

Wool.

In regard to the wool industry, financial provision through the usual channels seems quite equal to the present situation. Only if a very large unmarketable over-carry becomes necessary is .Ullusual and extraneous assistance likely to be required. With the improved prospects of the industry even that may be avoidable.

P1·ohibited Expoi·ts: Proclamation in Gazette No. 52, of 6th A Jtgust, 1914. Your Commissioners would call attention to a proclamation in Gazette' No. 52, of 6th August, 1914, mid · to the desirability of cancelling the same and renewing such portion only as may be considered advisable. It is apparently a copy of a British proclamation for very different conditions. It is largely permitted to be inoperative, though with what legality is not certain, but still has a, bad effect. It is reported to yo ur Commissioners that one or more copper mines have closed owing to the proclamation prohibiting export (though export is really allowed in spite of the prohibition). It is desirable that those engaged in innocent trade, advantageous to Australia, many of whom are in other parts of the world, should not be under misapprehension as to what trade is allowed by Australia. They must misapprehend by reading the proclamation in question, and may no t possess the unpublished knowledge that the proclamation is not heing enforced.

Your Commissioners have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

Melboume, 30th October, 1914.

His Excellency Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, a Member of His Majesty's Most Honorable Privy :, Council , a Member of the Mo st Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia.

it please Your E xcellency,

· Your Commissioners have the honour of recommending that a copy of the following record of the:. response by the States to the requests for the growth of quick-yielding crops of foodstuffs and the extensionc. of the areas under wheat be sent through the Right Honorable the ·Prime Minister to each State Premier · as the knowfedge of what is being done in other States may be of assistance in each:- '

. R esponse by State Govemments and State Agricultuml Departments. N ew Wales.-The Premier reports that the Government has given publicity to the desirability of the_ extenswn of areas under wheat, ma1_ze, and potatoes. Officers of the Agncultural Departments have been_ to farmers to plant mcreased areas and also to fallow for wheat as large an area as

po ss1bl.e durmg the commg sprmg and summer in order to obtain increased yields next season. The Premier in his Budget speech, announced that the Government, to encourage the extension of wheat-growing, will

31

co-operate with the banks to make -the necessary advances to settlers; will- _the farmers a, . definite minimum price per bushel for all wheat raised on their new areas ; will clear large areas of land suitable for wheat culture, and guarantee growers on it the same minimum- this as· a W.ar measure only. The Under-Secretary of Agriculture suggests Hungarian millet as a summer crop.

Victoria.-The Premier and- Minister of Agriculture state that an educational campaign ·u,rging ­ increased wheat-growing will be inaugurated by Ministers and the Department of Agriculture. It' is _ considered that prices of wheat will be a sufficient incentive for growers to extend areas. The Government _ will assist farmers to enable them to sow larger acreage. That 4,000,000 acres is not an extravagant estimate.

of the area that may be grown in Victoria. Maize production is not likely to be much increased in Victoria unless 3s. 6d. per bushel were guaranteed. Potatoes.- Land for extension is available. An appeal to agricultural societies and newspapers would probably meet with a general response, though financial considerations and fear of large production causing low prices might limit it unless, say, £3 lOs. per ·ton were

promptly guaranteed, delivered at railway station. Cheese .- The Agricultural Department has long pointed out that conversion of milk into cheese wo.uld pay better than butter-making, but, owing to the dry weather, it is probable that production of cheese will fall off unless encouraged. A bonus of ld. per lb . to go to milk producers might bring a response. There is a probability of larger areas of millet being sown

for fodder, and irrigation settlers are likely to extend growing of millet, imphee, ambercane, and sorghum for forage. Queens land.-The Under-Secretary for Agriculture says farmers have been asked to lay down an extra area for fodder such as maize, lucerne, hay, and chaff. The areas could be increased for maize, oats,

green forage, and hay probably by two-thirds of those of 1913. _

South Australia.-The Director of Agriculture of South Australia suggests that .the growing of potatoes might be encouraged in all suitable localities, also millet and sorghum. Maize might be grown in the irrigation areas between rows of fruit trees and vines, as occasion arose . _ Western Australia.-The Secretary for Agriculture and Industries and the Agricultural Commissioners report that cow-peas, soya beans, maize, sorghum, pea-nuts, artichokes, pumpkins, stock melons, and

lucerne are suitable to the State, and would tend to relieve wheat and other grain from lo cal consumption. There is a large area of land available for extending wheat and maize growing if cleared and developed. -Tasmania.- The Director of Agriculture has pointed out to farmers the advisability of planting crops for food supply, and also giving more attention to the growing of mangolds, rape, &c., for stock feed. ­

The State is not a large producer of wheat. No maize is grown. Attention will be mostly given to the production of dairy produce, oats, peas, and pork. The Premier regrets that, owing to the Bill not passing to provide assistance for farmers, he fears there is not likely to be an extension of production. The Government will urge farmers to do as much as they themselves can in the planting of crops.

Your Commissioners have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

ALFRED DEAKIN. DUGALD THOMSON. G. H. KNIBBS.

APPENDIX "A."

Commonwealth of Australia.

IMPORTS FROM GERMANY AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. A CoNSIDERATION oF THE PROBABILITY oF SUPPLYING, BY LocAL PRoDUCTION, THOSE GooDs HITHERTO IMPORTED FROM GERMANY AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

This subject requires a -general consideration of all circumstances relating to production and trade and to what extent the normal circumstances of the past will be permanently upset by the war. The immediate and primary effects of the war on the trade of the world will be that new sources of supply must be found for goods hitherto supplied to other countries by Germany and Austria-Hungary (and also by Belgium and to some extent by France), and, consequently, new markets must be 'found for the products

of other countries hitherto exchanged· for the products of Germany and Austria-Hungary. This change will undoubtedly effect, to some slight degree at an alteration in the composition of trade, e.g., the country or countries which supply, say, the dyes previously obtained from Germany; will not require just those particular articles which Germany took in exchange .

By its effect on the world' s credit, the war will bring about a contraction of trade and a reduction of industry, not in belligerent countries only, but in all countries of the world, and, therefore, the competition for such trade as is offered will be intense _ amongst those countries able to supply. This fact must be borne in mind in considering the probability of local manufacture. On the other hand, the

purchases by the Commonwealth represent only about 1 · 4 per cent. of the export trade of Germany and Austria-Hungary, and consequently the efforts of those desirous of capturing German trade may be directed to the larger markets, and the competition for our trade may not be so keen as for that of other countries.

All those goods, wh' ch have hitherto been imported into the Co=onwealth from Germany and Austria-Hungary, could, with perhaps a very few exceptions, be supplied immediately by other countries. The exceptions would be particular kinds of goods manufactured by secret processes or qualities pec uliar to localities. Substitutes, more or less acceptable in place of art1cles w1ll, no qoubt, be

forthcorp_ing. The probability of Australia supplying for itself goods h1therto 1mported from Germany must therefore be considered in relation to the general question of our capacity to manufacture in face of the competition-modified by our Customs Tariff-of other countries. The matter thus resolves itself

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into a question of the relative economic advantages of local manufacture versus importation from new sources of supply, or in other words, will the greater initial cost qf local production be compensated by the security of supply and the increased power of national production. This, again, is of course merely a question of Protection v. Free Trade. State assistance in some form will undoubtedly be necessary to local manufacture against the competition of the United States of America, Japan, and other

countries, and indeed also of the United Kingdom. In this regard, too, it may be mentioned that security of supply of manufactured articles can only be guaranteed, by local manufacture, when the supply of all raw materials necessary to their manufacture is also assured.

A primary requirement for the economically successful manufacture of many articles is a market large enovgh to keep the necessary expensive plant and equipment constantly employed. If such a market is not available, the standing charges on capital invested must be recouped from a fractional part of the possible output of the plant. This factor, which alone would materially affect cost, is one which seriously

militates against the manufacture of many lines in Australia. In addition to cost , there is the difficulty of retaining suitable expert labour in an industry subject to broken time. The data necessary for the proper weighing of the relative advantages and disadvantages of local manufacture could be obtained only from an exhaustive examination of the conditions (supply of raw material, comparative wage cost, sufficiency of market, technical knowledge, and expert labour) affecting the manufacture of each particular article. An inquiry of this nature is being c·onducted by the Inter-State Commission at the present time.

In the published Trade Returns, many articles, differing to any extent in kind or quality, can be dealt with under generic names only. Though goods of the same genus may be produced or manufactured in Australia, many articles included under these headings will be imported under any circumstances short of prohibition. The existing prohibition, of all trade with enemy countries, effectively excludes for the

present goods manufactured in Germany or Austria-Hungary. At the termination of the present · war, however, many persons will desire to obtain goods from these countries for the reason that such goods, by their peculiar attributes-real or imaginary- afford, to individual tastes or requirements, a satisfaction which cannot be procured from the same kind of goods produced elsewhere. As cases of the kind referred to, beer (lager) and cigars may be mentioned. The German-born residents of Australia (21 ,717 males, 11,273 females, = 32,990 persons: Census 1911) and perhaps many of their descendants will prefer, even at an advanced cost, the beer, cigars, and many other articles to which they have long been accustomed.

The following review of the imports into the Commonwealth deals, necessarily, in a very general and superficial manner with the probability of substituting such imports by goods locally produced. The goods are dealt with in the order of the classification adopted in the published Trade Returns of the Commonwealth.

IMPORTS INTO THE COMMONWEALTH FROM GERMANY AND FROM AUSTRIA-HUNGARY CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO THEIR BEING PRODUCED OR MANUFACTURED IN TIDS COUNTRY.

NoTE.-The figures represent the imports during 191 3, and the rates of duty shown are those which were in force in that year. The percentages . given in parentheses indicate the proportion which imports from Qermany and Austria­ Hungary bear to the total imports under the same heading.

CLASS I.-FOODSTUFFS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:­ Cheese.-£1,446 (8 per cent.), duty 3d. per lb. = 20 per cent. Egg: Contents, d1·y.-£713 (63 per cent.), duty I s. 4d. to 2s. 6d. per lb., average about 2s. 6d. per lb. Fish, all kinds .-£3,979 ( ·5 per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

Meats-Bacon and Hams.-£773 (1 2 per cent.), duty 3d. per lb. = 15 per cent. M eats-Other preserved.-£3,464 (7 per cent.), duty average about 20 per cent. M eats-Sausage Casings.-£1,486 (16 per cent.), free. With the exception of preserved and potted fi sh, foods of a nature similar to, though perhaps

not of the_ precise quality or kind, of the above, are manufactured in Australia.

CLASS H.-FOODSTUFFS OF VEGETABLE ORIGIN AND SALT.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Caramel, Caramel Paste, &c.-£2,681 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty l !d. per lb. = 20 per cent. average. Conjectionery.-£ll,984 (Germany) + £84 (Austria-Hungary) (2 •7 per cent.), duty 3d. per lb. = 20 per cent. average. Biscuits.-£837 (Germany) (5 per cent.). This is an expensive line; the duty, l !d. per lb., equals only about

8 per cent . ad val. Fruits, preserved in Liquid.-£862 (Germany) + £5 (Austria-Hungary) (1•7 per cent.). Malt.-£1,421 (Germany) + £2,300 (Austria-Hungary) (12 per cent.), duty 6s. per cental = 31 per cent. ad val. Hops.-£16,151 (Germany) + £3,324 (Austria-Hungary) (21 per cent.), duty 6d. per lb. = 31 per cent. ad val. Almonds, Alnwnd Paste, &c.-£877 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty 4d. per lb. = 36 per cent. ad val. Glucose.-£2 ,619 (Germany) (5 per cent. ), duty 8s. J?Cr cwt. = 50 per cent. ad val. Salt.-£6,488 (Germany) (24 per cent.).

Goods similar to these, though perhaps in some cases not exactly the same, are produced in Australia.

CLASS IlL-BEVERAGES (NoN-ALCOHOLIC) AND SUBSTANCES USED IN MAKING.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Aerated and Mineral Waters.-£8,348 (Germany) + £46 (Austria-Hungary) (60 per cent:), duty 25 per cent. ad val. Cocoa and Chocolate, prepared for edible or potahle use.-£3,024 (Germany) (1 per cent.). Goods of this class are made in Australia.

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CLASS IV.-8PmrTs AND Ar.ooHOLIC LIQuoRs.

Principal lines from Germany a nd Austria-Hungary:-Ale and Beer (Lager).- £133,446 (German y) + £305 (Austria-Hungary) (25 per cent.), duty l s. 6d. per gallon in bottle; l s. per gallon bulk; 98 per cent. German beer in bottle, duty equal to 45 per cent. ad val. Excise duty on Australian beer 3d. per gallon.

P erfumed Spirits and Bay (Germany) (50 per cent. quantity), duty 25s. per gallon = 125 per

. cent. ad val. Local Exmse duty lOs. per gallon. German spirit is comparatively low priced. (Germany), average duty about 40 per cent. ad val.

CLASS V.-TOBACCO, ETC.

Oiga?·s.-£15,805 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty 7s. 6d. per lb.= 75 per cent. ad val. Local Excise duty 3d. and 9d. per lb., average about 4td. per lb.

CLASS Vl.-LIVING ANIMALS.

" animals valued a t. £570 were imported from Germany. These were all classed under the indefinite heading Other, and were probably amma ls for Zoologwal or for the "fancy," i.e. , dogs, cats, birds, &c.

CLASS VII.-ANIMAL SuBSTANCES (n1AINLY UNMANUFACTURED), NO'l' FooDSTUFFS.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Gelatine and Glue.-£3,2SO (Germany) + £1,097 (Austria-Hungary) (7t per cent), duty 2d. per lb. = 25 per cent. ad val. . (See Inter-State Commission, Argus R eport, 19t h September, 1914.) .

Adheswe Cements, &c.- £1,657 (Germany) + £90 (Austria-Hungary) (10 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. ad val­ Cattle Hides. - £1,365 (Germany ) ( ·5 per cent.), free. (See Inter-State Commission, A1·gus Report, 31st January, 1914. Request for export duty on hides.) Hair, Human, not made (Germany) + £8 (Austria-Hungary) (1'25 per cent.), free. For wig, &c.,

makers.

Yarns, partly or wholly of wool. - £556 (Germany) (21\- per cent.), duty 10 per cent. Goods of this class are produced in Australia.

CLAss VIIL-VEGETABLE SuBSTANCES AND FIBRES.

Principal lines from Germany a nd Austria-Hungary :­ CO?·ks, Bungs, and Rings.-£883 (1'3 per cent.). These articles are cut in Australia from imported cork. (See Inter-State Commission, Argus Report, 3rd J anuary, 1914, 14th March, 1914, and 27th May,

1914.)

Bmom Corn, Millet, or Rice Stmw.-£631 (Germany) + £3,041 (Austria-Hungary) (40 per cent. ), 4s. percental. Seven hundred and sixty-three tons of broom millet was· gr own in the Commonwealth dm·ing 1912-13. (Raw material for broom and brush makers.) Bass.-£1,016 (Germany) (33 per cent.), free.

(Raw material for brush and broom makers.) Flax and H emp Fibre.- £5, 718 (Austria-Hungary) (2 ·4 per cent.), A bounty is offered on the local production of New Zealand flax, flax and hemp and jute fibres. £215 was paid in bounty on flax and hemp during 1912-13.

{Raw material for rope-makers.) ·

"Other" F ibres .- £2,459 (Germany) + £7 (Austria-Hungary) (23 per cent.), free. Resins.-£1,655 (Germany) (1•5 per cent.), free. Seeds, Horticultural, &c.-£14,068 (Germany) + £339 (Austria-Hungary) (20 per cent.), free. Yarns, J ute, Flax, and Hemp.-£622 (Germany) (4 per cent.), duty 10 per cent.

Under Customs by-laws jut e yarns are passed free of duty for the manufacture of fuse. Flax and hemp fibres are passed through all stages in the manufacture of cordage in Australian factories . . Yarns, n.e.i., including Hosiery Yarn.-£12,138 (4"5 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. ; used in knitting and weaving industry.

These yarns are probably principally h osiery yarns which are not manufactured in Australia.

C LASS IX.-APPAREL, TEXTILES, AND MANUFACTURED FIBRES.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-

F .l7407.

Apparel of Fur.-£3,734 (Germany) + £91 (Austria-Hungary) (5 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. Apparel, n .e.i. {for males or f emales ).-£326,673 (Germany ) + £4,701 (Austria-Hungary) (l ·7 per cent.), duty 40 per cent. Minor Articles for Apparel.-£116,834 (Germany) + £48,423 (Austria-Hungary) (45 per cent .), free.

This item includes articles of many kinds and of different materials, such as buttons, buckles, clasps, braids, tapes, &c., used in the dressmaking and tailoring trades, also in the household. NoTE.-When the local manufacture of any minor article is undertaken t he particular article is generally transferred to a dutiable item ; consequently it ma,y be accepted t hat the lines which make up the figures given above are not made in Aust r alia. The manufacture of all these articles would require a great number of machines of different t ypes, and it is doubtful whether the local market would, in many

instances, warrant the investment of the necessary capital. The encouragement of the manufacture of these lines by protective duties wo uld destroy the existing parity between cos t of local and imported apparel. (See Inter-State Commission Report, Argus, 31st J a nuary, 1914, " Woven Materials.") Boots, Shoes , Slippers, Clogs, Pattens, and other Footwear of an y material, n .e.i.- £12, 447 (G ermany) + £24,770

(Austria -Hungary) (7 ·4 per cent .), duty 35 per cent. Minor Articles for Boots.- £8, 109 (Germany) + £890 (Au stria-Hm1gary) (14 per cent.), free . . (See note to Minor Articles for Apparel above.) Feathers, Dressed, including Feathers made up into Trimmings, also natural Bi1·ds and Wings.-£15,632 (Germany)

(12 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. . . . .

F eather trimmings arc made and feather dressmg 1s done m Au st.ralia. Furs, Dressed or Prepared. - £9 975 (Germany) (33 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Furs are prepared, dressed, dyed, and made up in Australia. Gloves (excluding Harvesting, Driving, Housemaid's, and Gardening Gloves).-£167,255 (Germany) + £11,61 4

(Austria- Hungary) (50 per cent.), duty 15 p er cent. Gloves of this kind ha ve not hitherto been manufactured in Australia.

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CLASS IX.-APPAREL, TEXTILES, AND MANUFACrURED FIBRES-continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Hair N ets and articles of Hair, excluding Wigs, Transformations, Fringes, and Switches.-£3,298 (Germany) + £5,204 (Austria -Hungary) (30 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Hats and Caps-

Caps and S ewn Hats.-£633 (Germany) per cent.). F elt, of Fur.-£2,675 (Germany) + £10,340 (Austria-Hungary) (7 p er cent.). F elt , of Wo ol. - £1,482 (Germany ) + £7,338 (Austria-Hungary) (14 per cent.). Hats, Cap s, and Bonnets, not previously mentioned.- £40,5ll (Germany ) + £1,643 (Austria-Hungary) (2 per cent.).

The duty on hats and caps ranges from 35 per cent. to 50 per cent. ad val. Minor Articles for Hats, includes Straw Braids or Plaits, Articles of L eather, Cork, Metal, T extiles, &c.-Free of duty for use in local hat factories (s ee note to Minor Articles for Apparel, page 33).-£29,090 (Germany) + £5,685 (Austria-Hungary ) (25 per cent.). Socks and Stockings-

Of Cotton.-£295,444 (Germany) (80 per cent.), free. Not manufactured in Australia. Of S ilk or Wool, or containing S ilk or Wool.-£38,206 (Germany) (6! per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Socks and stockings of wool are manufactured in Australia, though the yarn is almost entirely

imported, if not wholly so. Trimmings and Ornaments-Artificial Plants, Flowers, Fruits, L eaves, &c. -£26,806 (Germany) + £327 (Austria-Hungary) (30 per cent.), duty 30 per cent.

Goods of this kind are made in Australia from imported raw material. Other Trimmings, &c.-£68,275 (Germany) + £3, 589 (Austria-Hungary) {19 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Trimmings similar t o some included in this heading are made in Australia from imported material. A great part of the value of imports would, however, represent goods of a kind not locally manufactured. Umbr ellas, &c.-£460 (German y) + £169 (Austria -Hungary) (8 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

Umbrellas are made in Australia from imported raw material. M inor Articles .for Umbrellas, &c.-£619 (Germany ) + £749 (Austria-Hungary) (5 per cent.), free. This heading includes handles, ribs, ferrules, &c., few of which are made locally. Articles, not elsewhere included, p artly or wholly made up .from Textiles, F elts, or F eathers, including material cut

into shap e therefor.-£3,060 (Germany) (6 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Articles of this nature are made in Australia. Blankets and Blanketing.-£2,163 (Germany) + £409 (Austria-Hungary) (7 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. (Probably low-priced blankets, containing a large proportion of cotton.) Carpets, Floor Rugs, &c.-£4, 317 (Germany) + £960 (Austria- Hungary) (18 per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

Carpet s are not woven in Australia. .

Cosies and Cushions, in part or wholly made up, articles under and the like not being piece goods, viz., Articles of Furnishing, Drapery and Napery, including Quilts, Table Covers, D'oyleys, Traycloths, Sheets, Pillow Cases and Covers, Bolster Cases, Counterpanes, Bed Spreads, Table Mats, Splashers, Table Covers, Runners, Mantel B orders, Toilet Sets, Bags for Linen, Brush and Comb Bags, Nightdress Cases, Antimacassars, H andkerchief Sachet s, Saddlepags in the piece or otherwise.-£55,500 (Germany) + £6,535 (Austria­ Hungary) (12 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

Articles included under this heading which are made up by secondary processes are manufactured in Australia from imported raw mat erials ; articles such as sheets, tablecloths, quilts, &c., which are complet ely woven are not made locally. Curtains and Blinds, n. e.i. (not attached to rollers), Curtain Clips, Bands, Loops and Holders, Blind Tassels and

Acorns.-£10,281 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Curtains and blinds are made up in Australia from imported materials; the tassels and acorns are not made here. Floor Cloths and Linoleums.-£6,256 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

These goods were at one time manufactured in Victoria, but are not now. Canvas and Duck in the Piece.-£5,345 (Germany) + £144 (Austria -Hungary) (15 per cent.), free. Used chiefly for tarpaulins and rick covers. N ot made in Australia. Cotton and Linen and other P iece Goods, n. e.i., Oil Batize , L eather Cloth, Dungaree, Denims, Moleskins, and

Corduroys.-£142,205 (Germany) + £1,670 (Austria-Hungary) (3 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. A small amount of cotton is woven at Ipswich in Queensland, principally in the form of meat wraps, formerly unbleached calico. Turkish and honeycombed towels were woven at Ipswich. Cotton can be grown in Australia, and, apart from cost, there is no reason why the manufacture of cotton goods should not be carried on. .

Horsehair Cloth and Hopcloth.-£7,356 (Germany) + £1,796 (Austna-Hungary) (22 per cent.), free. Used in the drying of malt and hops. Piece Goods of S ilk or containing Silk or having Silk worked thereon.-£85,321 (Germany) + £9,879 (Austria-Hungary) (10 per duty 10 cent. . . . .

Silk-weavmg 1s not done m Austraha; raw sllk 1s not produced on a commermal scale. Goods of Velvet, Velveteens, Plushes, Sealette and Cloth imitating Furs, Astrachans, Lace for Attire, Lace

Flouncings, M illinery and Dress Nets, Veilings, Embroideries in the Piece, Italians containing Wool, Tucked Linens or Cottons.-£220,748 (Germany) + £4,004 (Austria-Hungary) (25 per cent.). These goods are not made in Australia. . Flannels.-£408 (Germany) (2! per cent.), duty 30 per cent.

Flannels covering a wide range of qualities are made in Australia. Other Piece Goods of Wool or containing Wool, n.e.i.-£90,862 (Germany) + £1,287 (Austria-Hungary) (4! per cent.), duty 30 per cent. This heading includes tweeds and similar suitings and dress stuffs. Many goods lines of these

stuffs are manufactured in Australia. The large imports are probably du'e to the great variety of design demanded by fashion, which can only be supplied by a great number of mills, each having the necessary market for its own specialties. Flannelette.-£6,290 (Germany) (4! per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

Flannelette is not manufactured in Australia, though it has been contended by the woollen manufacturers that the importation of this article is prejudicial to the local woollen industry. Eighty per cent. of the imports of flannelette is from the United Kingdom. Piece Goods "Other" Free.-This item includes Bookbinders Cloth; Brattice Cloth, Saddlers' Kersey and

Check;' Filter Cloth for Mines ; Lace for Blinds; Furnit_ure Lace; Military Lace; Milling Silk;

Tinsel Cloth; Webbing, &c.-£ll,830 (Germany) + £183 (Austna-Hungary) (9 per cent.), duty free. The Trade R eturns do not disclose the particular-nature of the imports from Germany under this head, but little, if any, of these goods is or could successfully be made locally. Rugs, n.e.i., including Buggy Rugs, (Germany), .duty 30 P.er cent.

Rugs of various kinds and quahtws are made m Austraha. Sewing Silks and Twists, Household Threads, and Cotton, &c.-£2,995 (Germany) ( · 8-per cent.), duty free. The goods are not manufactured in Australia. Eighty per cent. of the supply is from the United Kingdom. Tents Tarpaulins, and Sails.-£418 (Germany) (28 per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

' These goods are made in Australia.

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CLASS IX.-APPAREL, TEXTILES, AND MANUFACTURED FIBRES-continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary :­ Cordage-Metal.-£2,647 (Germany) + £252 (Austria-Hungary) (2 per cent.), free. Metal cordage is not made in Australia. It does not appear possible to establish this industry.

until the iron industry is further developed. -

N.E.I., includi_ng Sliver, Cordage with metal core, Macrame Twines, Fleece Thread, Brushmakers' Twine, Mattr:ss Twme, Roping Seaming and Shop Twines, H alters and Articles, n.e.i., manufactured from cord or twme.-£4,415 (Ge!'many) + £920 (Austria-Hungary) (35 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Many of these lines are made in Australia.

CLASS X.-OILs, ETC.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Naphtha (Wood), Met.hylic Alcohol, and Acetone.-£800 (Germany) (90 per cent.), Is. per gallon, 26 per cent. ad val. These lines are produced in Australia. Lubricating (Mineral) Oil.-£1,753 (Germany) + £5 (Austria-Hungary) (·8 per cent.).

The local manufacture of these goods will no doubt follow the satisfactory establishment of the petroleum shale refining industry at Wolgan and elsewhere. Waxes.-£7,841 (Germany) + £1,480 (Austria-Hungary) (8 per cent.), duty ld. per lb., representing from 10 per cent. to 45 per cent. ad val.

A large proportion of this is paraffin wax, which can be manufactured locally. (See previous item.)

CLASS AND CoLouRs.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:­ Barytes.-£778 (Germany) (95 per cent.). Barytes (raw material for paint) is produced in Australia, though some paint-makers assert that it is not suitable. Blacks-Bone,-Ivory, Lamp, and Vegetable.-£705 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

· Not made in Australia.

Dry Colo-u,rs.-£9,912 (Germany) + £85 (Austria-Hungary) (15 per cent.),. duty 2s. 6d. per cwt. Kalsomine, 4s. per cwt. In addition to barytes, several oxides and earths suitable for paints are found in Australia. A number of primary colours are manufactured here. The manufacture of green paints and high-grade

chemical colours requires large capital and scientific skill. Ground in Liquid and prepa1·ed for use.-£736 (Germany) (2 per cent.), duty about 20 per cent. Whiting.-£1,054 (Germany) (14 per cent.), duty 6d. per cwt. = 30 per cent. Earth suitable for the manufacture of whiting is obtained in Australia. Paints and Colours, Other, including London Purple and Paris Green; prepared Glazes for Pottery; Ultramarine

Blue ; Ceramic Colours ; Artists' Colours ; Vandykes ; Manganese ; Paris White ; Vermillions ; Crayons.­ £7,918 (Germany) + £124 (Austria-Hungary) (21 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. This class of paint is not manufactured in Australia. The demand for individual lines would probably not be sufficient to warrant local manufacture.

CLASS XII.-STONES AND MINERALS USED INDUSTRIALLY.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary :­ Coke.-£26,929 (Germany) (80 per cent.). Two-thirds of the coke imported into Australia is used at Port Pirie. It is alleged that the Australian . coke is not equal to English or German coke. The Broken Hill Proprietary Coy. are building coke ovens

in connexion with their steel plant in New South Wales. Lithographic, Oil, and Whetstones and Emery Stones.-£513 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty free. Slates, Roofing.-£1,208 (Germany) (18 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Good roofing slates are produced in Australia (South Australia). Slates are carried at low prices

as ballast.

Stone, including Granite in the rough, n.e.i.-£1,680 (Germany) (40 per cent.), duty free. Similar stones are produced locally. Marble.-£1,366 (Germany) (7 per cent), duty 40 per cent. Good marbles are produced in Australia.

CLASS UNMANUFACTURED, AND ORES.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Iron and Steel, Pig.-£2,121 (Germany) (I per cent.), duty free. · Under the Manufacturers' Encouragement Act a bounty of l2s. per ton has been paid on pig iron made from Australian ore. During the year 1912-13 bounty was paid on 28,249 cwt. This iron was made

at· the Lithgow Works in New Wales. . . . . .

Mixed Metals.-Aluminium, Bronze, Yellow Metal, Bntanma Metal, Nickel and German Silver; Pigs, Ingots, Blocks, Bars, Rods, Strips, Sheets, Plates, Pipes, and Tubes-Plain.-£3,994 (Germany) + £391 (Austria­ Hungary) ('I per cent.), duty free. These goods are not manufactured on a commercial scale in Australia.

CLAss XV.-METALS PARTLY MANUFACTURED, BRASS BARS, Ron (PLAIN), ETC.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Brass Bars, Rod (plain), Angle, Tee, and Strips.-£2,521 (Germany) (8 per cent.}, duty free. These could be made locally. I ron and Steel-

Bar, Rod, Angle, Tee, &c.-£218,476 (Germany) + £2,787 (Austria-Hungary) (1•3 per cent.). Hoop.-£35,590 (Germany) (40 per cent.). .

Ingots, Blooms, Slabs, Billets, &c.-£23,427 (Germany) + £591 (Austna-Hungary) (30 per cent.). Iron and Steel, Total.-£277,493 (Germany) + £3,378 (1•5 per.cent.)

When the ironworks now in course of contructwn by the Broken Hill Coy. are completed, a larger proportion of the Australian requirements of iron will be _manufacture.d Ninety

per cent. of the ingots, blooms, &c., are imported mto VIctona by the Railway Comllll.Ss10ners for use at Newport Workshops. Iron and Steel, Scrap.-£3,311 (Germany) (3! per cent.), duty free. (Raw material for foundries.) · Spelter (Zinc Bar).-£11,140 (Germany) (92 per duty .free. .

The distillation plant of the Broken Hill Propnetary Co. Ltd. produced 2,043 tons of spelter durmg the half-year ended 31st May, The Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay) Ltd. have been considering the establishment of a spelter plant (Argus, 26th September, 1914).

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CLass XVI.- MACITINES a ND MACHINERY AND OTHER MaNU FACTURES OF METAL.

Principal lines from Germany a nd Austria-Hungary :-(a) JJf achines and M achinery.

Adding and Computing Machines and all attachments, T ime R egisters and Detectors , Gash Registers, Automatic Weighbridg es and Auto matic W ei ghing Machines (not coin fr eed), Co mbined Bagging, Weighing, and Sewing Machines- £4,424 (Germany ) (2 per cent.), duty free. Although this particular class of goods is not made on a commercial scale in Australia, it is alleged

by makers that t he automatic weigh bridges a nd scales compete against ot her weigh bridges, &c., which are m ade here. The economic manufacture of comput ing machines, cash registers, and similar machines requires a large market so t hat machine-made parts of a similar pattern can be produced in large numbers. Ghvin B lo cks and Tmvelling Blocks; P neumat·ic Elevators and Conveyors; R otary Blowers for S melting and Turbo­

blowers; T elp hers; A pparatus for L iqu efaction of Gases ; Patent Portable Hoists for underground use­ £81,134 (Germany ) (60 per cent. ), duty 5 per cent. Many of t hese articles are protec t ed by patents. Similar goo ds are made in Australia. Churns of all kinds; Cheese Presses ; Dairy Coolers; R efrigerators (other than for household use); Supply Cans ;

I ncubators, n.e.i. ; F oster .Mothers. - £ 1,889 (Germany ) (8 per cen t.), duty 25 per ce nt, Articles of this nature are made in Australia. Grectm Sep arators.-£4,739 (Germany ) (4! per cent. ), free. .

These machines are made in Australia, though some particular m odels are protect ed by pat ents. E ngines-P ortable and T raction.- £1,283 (Germany ) (1 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

This class of engine is made in Australia. Locomotive.-£12, 932 (Germany) (3 per cent. ), d uty 25 per cent. These engines are built in Australia, both by Government and by privat e enterprise. I mplements and M achinery (Agriwltural, &:c.).-£2,355 (Germany) ( •4 per cent.), duties various.

These implement s are largely manufactured in Austra lia. Machinery-Electrical-Dynanw Electric Machines.-£51,70 8 (Germany ) (11 per cent.), duty 17! per cent. and 25 per cent. Machines of this nature are made in Australia.

R egulating, Starting, and Gont,·olling A pparatus, S witchboards, &: c.- £7,180 (Germany ) (10 per cent.), duty 20 per cent . These are made locally. M achinery-Mining.-£9,094 (Germany) (80 per cent .), duty 5 per cent . and 25 per cent , average 20 per cent.

These are manufactured locally. M otive Po wer M achinery.-£3 0,992 (Germany ) (6 per cent. ), duty 5 per cent. and 20 per cent., average 17 per cent. I s made locally. P rinting M achines, &c.- £10, 361 (Germany) (5 per cent.), free.

Not made locally.

Sewing JJiachines.- £60,737 (Germany) (25 per cent.), free. Not made locally. T yp ewriters (including Govers).-£1,969 (2 per cent.), free. Not made locally.

W eighbr·idges, n.e.i., Scales, n.e.i., &:c.-£1,662 (Germany) (4 per cent. ), duty 20 per cent . These machines are made in Australia. Other Machinery. - £95,223 (Ge rmany ) + £643 (Aust!'ia -Hungary ) (7i per cent.), duty average about 18 per cent.

(b) Other Mamtf actures of M etal.

A xles, n.e.i., and Springs.-£25, 89 8 (Germany ) (20 per cent.), duty-loc omotive axles 5 per cent., other axles 40 per cent. Locomotive axles are manufactured at the Victorian R ailway Workshops ; in the other States they are imported. Ordinary vehicle axles are made locally. •

Bolts, N uts, Rivets, and Washers, n.e.i.-£5,530 (Germany) (3t per cen t.), duty 25 per cent . These goods are made locally. Brass P ip es and T ubes (p lain).-£4,765 (Germany ) (9 per cent .), duty free. Not made in Australia. B rass P late and Sheet (plain ).-£4, 732 (Germany ) (28 per cent.), duty free.

Not made in Australia.

Brasswork, Bronzewodc, and Gun-metal Work.-£954 (Germany), (1.2 per cent. ), duty 30 per cent. This work is done in Australia. In 1912 the a verage number of hands employed in brass a nd copper working was 1, 495. Cutlery, n.e.i., Forks, Spoons, and Knif e S harpeners, including the ar t icles named when plated or silver ferruled,

but not including any article otherwise par tly or wholly made of gold or silver.- £30,577 (Germany) + £206 (Austria-Hungary) (10 per cent.), dut y 15 per cent. According t o r eturns relating to manufacturing industries, 121 persons were engaged in the cutlery industry of the Commonwealth during 1912 ; these persons were probably engaged in subsidiary

processes and repair work rather than in wholesale manufacture. Droppers, Patent S teel ; S tandards and P illars f m· Fencing, and Patent Wedges f o1' Dropp ers and S tandards.­ £364 (Germany ) (10 per ce nt.), duty 17! per cent. The articles are manufactured locally. Electric and Gas Appliances-

Electroliers, Gasoliers, Chandeliers, P endants, B1·ackets, Zinc T ubing.-£2,796 (Germany ) (7 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Work of this class is done in Australia. Electric Fittings, consisting wholly or partly of Metal, viz. : S witches, Fuses, and L ightning Arresters. ­

£ll,ll2 (Germany ) (14 per cent.), free. These goods are not made on a commercial scale in Au stralia. Electric H eating and Coo king Appliance.s.- £645 (Germany ) (6 per ce nt.), duty 15 per ce nt. Electric A ppliances, n.e.i ., .wt included as Brasswork.- £54,689 (Germany) + £6,664 (Austria-Hungary) (30 per

cent. ), duty 17! per cent. Gas Appliances, n.e.i., no t included as Brasswm·k.- £6 ,863 (Germany) (22 per cent.), duty 17! per cent. Electric appliances of various kinds are made in Australia t he number of persons employed in the manufacture of electrical apparatus during 1912 was 661. Electrotypes and Stereotypes.-£407 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty 1d. per square inch = 70 per cent. ad val. I ron and S teelr-

Girders, Beams, Channels, J oists, Columns (rolled), T rough and Bridge I ron and Steel, not drilled or further manuf actured, S haf ting, cold- rolled, t1trned, or p lanished.- £36,304 (Germany ) (10 per cent.), duty 17! per cent. Work of this nature will be undertaken at t he new steel works of the Broken Hill Propriet ary Coy. Lit tle is d one locally at the present time. Plate and Sheet-Galvanized, .wt Corrugated; and Corrugated, not Galvanized.-£894 (Germany ) ( ·9 per cent.),

duty £1 per t on = 5 per ce nt. Plate and Sheet-Plain, not Galvanized.-£93,198 (Germany ) (20 per cent.), free. Little, if any, plate or sheet iron is rolled in Australia at present. Broken Hill Proprietary Coy. •

37

CLASS XVl.-1\'lACIDNES AND MACHINE RY AND OTH·E R MANUFACTURES OF METAL---£ontinued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary :-(b) Other Manufactures of Metal-continued.

Lamps and Lampwm·e.-£40,848 (Germany) + £1,215 (Austria -Hungary) (26 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. ; glass parts, 15 per cent. During 1912 the average number of hands employed in m aking lamps and fittings were 48 males and 61 females, total 109 persons. Many of these were probably engaged in making incandescent

mantles.

Incandescent Mantles.-£11,475 (Germany) + £156 (Austria -Hungary) (40 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. These are made in Australia, see preceding item. L eaf and Foil, of any m etal.- £28,983 (Germany) (70 per ce nt.), duty 5 per cent. Gold foil was at one time manufactured in Victoria, but is not now. Locks.- £680 (Germany) ( ·9 per cent.), duty 20 per cent.

Locks are m ade locally.

Nails-Horseshoe Nails.-£326 (Germany) (2 p er cent.) , duty Ss. p er cwt., about 25 per cent. Rail Dogs or Bmbs.- £1 ,643 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty 3s. 3d. per cwt., about 25 per cent. Brads, Spi kes, Picture Nails, Spouting Screws, S taples, Tacks, Wire and othe1· Nails, n.e. i.-£4,589 (Germany)

(10 p er cent.), duty 5s. 6d. per cwt. = about 45 per cent. Nails are made in Australia . N etting, Wire.- £112,747 (Germany) (33 per cent.), duty free. A bonus of 10 per cent. is paid on wire netting, not being prison made, manufactured in Australia

from Au.st ralian ore or from wire manufactured in the United K ingdom. The amounts paid in bounty are as follow :-1909-10, £6,036; 1910-11, £4,824 ; 1911- 12, £5,968 ; 1912-13, £l,ll0. · Pipes and T ubes-Cast I ron and Cast-iron Fittings.- £921 (Germany) (1 '5 per cent.), duty £2 per ton = about 10 per cent.

b-on and Steel Tubes or P ipes (except or cast) , not more than 6 inches internal diameter; Flexible Metal Tubes, Galloway or Vertical P arallel Boiler Tubes; Wro!ight and Malleable Iron Fittings for Pipes and Unpolished Tubes or P ip es.-£70,151 (Germany) (9 per cent.), duty free. (Raw material for boilermakers, &c. ) Water Bore Casing Tubes.- £7,858 (Germany) (11•5 per cent.), duty free. Wrought, n.e.i.-£9,675 (Germany) (7 ·5 per cent.), duty £2 per ton = about 15 per cent. Plates (except Plain Tin), Sheets , Pipes, T ub es and R ods of any metal, plated, p olished, or decorated.-£993 (Germany)

(3.5 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Plates prepared for Engravers and Lithographm·s.-£1 ,53 5 (Germany) (30 per cent. ), duty 5 per cent. Printers' M aterials-Ci> ·cles, Clumps, Curves, Knives (pa1·ing), Rules, and Leads.- £523 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

T yp es, &c.-£505 (Germany) (4 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Some type is cast in Australia. Rails, Fish-plates, Fish-bolts, T ie-plates, and Rods, &c. , f or R ailways and T ramways.-£56,7 17 (Germany) (4! per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

. Rails are rolled at Lithgow, N.S.W. The Broken Hill Coy.'s plant will produce this class of work. Screws with Nuts 01· for u se with Nuts ; Enginee1·s' Set SC?·ews ; Bralce and Ploogh, Music Stool, Table, Roofing, and Spiral S crews .-£1,135 (Germany) (4• 5 per cent .), duty 25 per cent. Stoves-Primus and similar heating Lamps.-£6,335 (Germany ) (20 per cent.), duty 20 per cent.

T elephones , Switchboards, and Appliances.-£7,244 (Germany) (4} per cent.), duty free. · Not made on a commercial scale in Australia.

Tools of Trade.-£38,135 (Germany) (6 per cent.), duty free. F ew of the tools included under th.is heading are made locally. Some tools of trade, e.g., saws, are made locally, but are subject to protective duty, and so are recorded separately. Wire, Barbed.-£10,325 (Germany) (2 8 per cent .), duty 15 per cent.

Barbed wire is m anufactured in Australia fr om imported wire. Wire, Copper.-£19,435 (Germany ) (9 per cent. ), free. Many inquiries have been ma.de regarding the market in Australia for copper wire with a view to local manufacture, but the information has never been available prior to 191 3. I ron and Steel Wire.-£326,866 (Germany ) (50 per cent.), free.

Wire drawing has n ot h.itherto been done in Australia, but the Broken Hill Proprietary Coy.'s plant provides for th.is work. Wire, n.e.i ., including Woven Wire measuring over 20 holes to the square inch.-£17,020 (Germany ) (23 per cent.). Not made in Australia. Zinc- Sheet, and Zinc Circles and I ngots bored and unbored, for Cyanide Gold Pmcess.-£29,940 (Germany) (57 per

cent.), free. Spelter bar is produced by the Broken Hill Proprietary Coy. Metal, Manuf actures of, N. E .I., including Pins in F ancy Boxes-Duty 30 p er cent.-£158,217 (Germany) + £3,827 (Austria-Hungary). All countries, £1 ,350,976 (12 per cent. ).

Duty 5 per cent.-£43,837 (Germany ) + £1,115_ (Austria-Hungary). All_ countries, £337,595 (13 per cent.). Duty F>·ee.-£37,506 (Germany) + £135 (Aust na-Hungary ). All coun tn es, £186,363 (20 per cent.), 'l'otal.-£239,560 (Germany) + £5,077 (Austria-Hungary ). All countries , £1, 874,934 (13 per cent. ). Some of t he articles included under these headin gs are made in Australia. In regard to pins in fancy

boxes, a duty of 30 per cent. is imposed in order to encourage t he manufacture of t he boxes and the packing of the pins and not t o encourage t he manufacture of pins. In bulk, pins are free .

CLAss XVII.-INDIA-RUBBE & AN D INDIA-RIJBBER M ANUFACTrr&ru3; AND l\'IAN"ITFACTURES OF RuBBER.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hunga ry :-

F.l7407

(a) India-rubber and India-rub be>· Jlfanuj actures.

Rubbered Waterproof Cloth, not of S i lk or Wool.-£500 (Germany) (2 }p er cent.), duty 20 per cent. . '!'he work of waterproo fing is d one in Australia . The pwce goods are, for the m ost part , 1mported. Rubber ]Jfanufactu1·es, N. E.I., including Rubber and ot her H ose, Bandages, Stockmgs; Bags and Rings ; Gas Bags ; Soles, Pads, and H eels ; Cash Mats ; _Trre R ubber ; Rubber Tire F abriC ;

Tires, Tubes, Rubbor Stoppers or Corks.- £258,841 (Germany) + £2,3 il (Austna-Hungary) (39 per cent.), duty average 30 per cent. ad val. These goods are made in Australia .

(b) L eather and Manufa,ctu?·es of L eather, and Substit!ites therefo r. Belting- _

Canvas and Compo sition. - £1,323 (Germa,ny) (1•6 per cent. ), duty 2t> per cent. Leather. - £1 ,302 (Germany) (4 p er cent .) , duty 25 per cent. These beltin"s are m ade in Austra lia . Calf other than Patent and

0

EnameEe1 .--£16,791 (Germany) (55 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. n

179

38

CLASS XVII.-INDIA-RUBBER AND INDIA-RUBBER MANUFACTURES; LEATHER AND MANUFACTURES OF RUBBER­ continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary :-(b) Leather and Manufactures of Leather, and Substitutes therefor-continued. Patent and Enamelled.-£43,061 (Germany) + £71 (Austria-Hungary) (36 per cent.), duty 2d. per square foot= a bout 14 per cent. N.E.I., including Kid Leather.-£18,143 (Germany) + £289 (Austria-Hungary) (6 •5 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Free, viz., Orust or Rough-tanned Goat-skins, Persian Sheepskins, and Skivers, Chamois Leather.-Free.

In regard to the manufacture of leathers, see Inter-State Commission Reports, Argus, 28th January, 1914; 29th January, 1914; 30th January, 1914; 13th March, 1914; 14th March, 1914; 20th May, 1914; 21st May, 1914.

CLASS XVIII.-WooD AND WICKER AND MANUFACTURES THEREOF.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Furniture, n.e.i., including any article of Wood, or partly of Wood, wholly or partly m'J.de up or finisheJ, &,c.­ £9,845 (Germany) + £28,254 (Austria-Hungary) (14 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. These imports are largely bent wood chairs, &c. These are made locally. Minor Articles for Furniture.-£4,629 (Germany) + £122 (Austria-Hungary) (6 per cent.), duty free.

These articles are of a miscellaneous nature, and are not made in Australia. Picture Frames and Photo Frames and Stands for Pictures.-£3,249 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. Picture frames are, of course, manufactured locally. The imports are of various materials and designs, some of which could not be commercially made in Australia. Timber-

Dressed, n.e.i.-£1,106 (Germany) ( •15 per cent.), duty 3s. per 100 superficial feet= about 10 per cent. For making Boxes or Doors, being cut into shape and dressed or partly dressed.-£696 (Germany) (6 per cent.), duty 5s. per 100 superficial feet = 17 per cent. For making Boxes, cut to size but undressed.-£1,I11 (Germany), duty 4s. per 100 superficial feet= about

22 per cent. (Further small quantities of undressed timber were imported from Germany.) Wicker, Bamboo, and Cane- .

Basketware, N.E.I.-£742 (Germany) + £187 (Austria-Hungary) (25 per qent.), duty 35 per cent. This work is done in Australia. Wood Manufactures-Articles made of Wood, N.E.I., partly or wholly finished, including Bellows, Sashes, and Frames; Window

Screens; Walking Sticks; Hods; Mallets; Rakes; Grain Shovels; Saw Frames; Mitre Boxes; Wood Split Pulleys; Wood Bungs; Type; Rules, N.E.I.; Washboards and Knifeboards.-£16,095 (Germany) + £597 (Austria-Hungary) (16 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. This class of work is done in Australia. Brushmakers' Woodware and Turnery.-£664 (Germany) (16·5 per cent.), duty 30 per cent.

This work is done in Australia. Lasts and Trees.-£9Il (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. These articles are made locally. Picture and Room Mouldings.-£17,176 (Germany) (60 per cent.), duty 30 per cent.

These goods are made in Australia.

CLASS XIX.-EARTHENWARE, CEMENTS, Cm:NA, GLASS, AND SToNEWARE.

Principal lines from Germany 3:nd Austria-Hungary:-Asphalt Mastic.-£719 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Bricks-Fire and Glazed.-£1,889 (Germany) + £156 (Austria-Hungary) (8 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. These bricks are made in Australia. Cement (Portland).-£159,969 (Germany) + £2,168 (60 per cent.), duty Is. per cwt. =about

40 per cent. Made in Australia.

China, Parian, and Porcelain Ware.-£72,711 (Germany)+ £16,125 (Austria-Hungary) (50 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Some classes of this ware are made in Australia. Earthenware, Brownware, and Stoneware, N.E.I.--£25,043 (Germany) + £2,223 (Austria-Hungary) (10 per cent.),

duty 25 per cent. Earthenware, &c._;_Orucibles, Tubes, Pressure Filters, &c., duty free.-£1,562 (Germany) (6 per cent.), duty free. Filters, N.E.I.-£4,100 (Germany)+ £1,634 (Austria-Hungary) (50 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Filters, though perhaps not of this particular kind, are made in Australia. Fire Clay Manufactures, N.E.I., Fire Lumps, Fibro Cement, n.e.i., and Asphalt Tiles.-£13,784 (Germany)+

£172 (Austria-Hungary) (20 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Goods of this nature are manufactured in Australia. Glass-Bent, Bevelled, Heraldic, Sandblasted, Enamelled, Embossed, Etched, Silvered, or Brilliant cut; Corners

Bevelled, or Engraved; Panes, Prisms, and all glass framed with metal.-£1,343 (Germany) (9 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. The bending, bevelling, &c., is done locally-the glass is imported. Polished and Patent Plate up to 25 super. feet.-£9,612 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty free. Polished and Patent Plate, N.E.I.-£5,882 (Germany) (9 per cent.), duty lis. per cwt. =about 90 per cent. Sheet.-£16,329 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty 2s. 3d. per 100 super feet= about 15 per cent. . N.E.I., also Seltzogenes and Accessories, Syphon Bottles.-£3,898 (Germany) + £136 (Austria-Hungary)

(5! per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Sheet glass is not made in Australia. Inquiries have recently (since the outbreak of war) been made at this Bureau with a view to the local manufacture of sheet glass. Glasses-Lenses, N.E.I., Locket, Brooch, and Watch Glasses.-£2,566 (Germany) (3! per cent.), duty free.

Lenses are ground in Australia. The other articles are not made on a commercial scale. Glassware-- Bottles, empty, of not more than 5 fluid drams capacity.-£914 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty free. Bottles, empty, N.E.I., Flasks and Jars, empty.-£45,225 (Germany)+ £295 (Austria-Hungary) (45 per cent.),

duty 35 per cent. In addition to these empty bott.Ies, many bottles containing goods such as beer, sauces, &c., are imported; · the value of such bottles of German origin cannot be stated. Bottles, flasks, and jars, are manufactured locally. ·

N.E.I., including Glass Gaps and Fruit Jars,· also Bottles, Fancy ground or out glass, empty, over 5 drams t fluid capacity and Glass Stoppers.-£65,098 (Germany) + £12,432 (Austria-Hungary) (43 per cent.), duty [ 25 per cent.

The greater part of this item is composed of goods which cannot be manufactured locally. Otier, Fre•.-£1,859 (Germany) (1·8 per cent.), duty free.

39

CLASS XIX.-EARTHENW ARE, CEMENTS, CHINA, GLAss, AND STONEWARE--continued.

Principal lines from Ger:rnany and Austria-Hungary :-Plaster of Paris, and other like preparations, Magnesia, Magnesium Carbonate, and Magnesium Chloride• in packages over 14 lbs.-£19,342 (Germany) (48 per cent.), duty ls. per cwt. = 30 per cent. Tiles-Roofing, Flooring, and Tiles, of all material-s, Mosaic Flooring, Tiles of Fibro Cement, Asbestos

Cement, and similar substances.-£5,963 (Germany) (70 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Goods of this class are manufactured locally. -

CLASS XX.-PAPER AND STATIONERY.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-(a) Paper.

Wrapping.-£2,287 (Germany) (2! per cent.), duty free.

Blottmg.-£495 (Germany)+ £119 (Austria-Hungary) (4 per cent.), duty 5s. per cwt. = 25 per cent. Boarrls, Coated, n.e.i.-£4,700 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. ·

Boards (largely imported) are coated in Australia. Cardboard and Pasteboard.-£5,462 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Millboard, Greyboard, Leatherboard, Manillaboard, and Woodboard.-£12,148 (Germany)+ £4,621 (Austria­ Hungary) (25 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Strawboard.-£3,453 (Germany) (14 per cent.), duty ls. 6d. per cwt. =about 25 per cent.

Boards of various kinds are made in Australia. . (See Inter-State Commission's Reports, Argus, 11th, 12th, 13th, &c., February, 1914.) Gartndge Paper.-£832 (Germany)+ £235 (Austria-Hungary) (12 per cent.), duty 5s. per cwt. =about 22 per cent.

This paper is made locally.

Paperhangings.-£2,847 (Germany) (45 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. . Not made locally.

Parchment, True Vegetable.-£18,184 (Germany) (70 per cent.), duty free if of a size 38 x 8 inches, if less 15 per cent. This paper is not manufactured locally. Printing Paper.-£48,989 (Germany)+ £8,427 (Austria-Hungary) (5·7 per cent.), duty free.

Not made locally.

Wrapping Paper of all Colours (glazed, unglazed, or mill-glazed), browns, caps, not elsewhere specified, casings, sealings, nature or ochre browns, sulphides, sugars and all other bag papers, candle carton papers.-£29,877 (Germany)+ £188 (Austria-Hungary) (20 per cent.), duty 5s. per cwt. =about 30 per cent. Papers of this kind are made locally. Writing and Typewriting (plain), in sheets, not less than 16 inches x 13 inches.-£11,632 (Germany) + £2,211

(Austria-Hungary) (4 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. and free. Some writing papers are made locally. Paper, N.E.l., including Boards, n.e.i., lined or unl·ined Gover Paper, Pressings.-£6,203 (Germany) + £342 (Austria-Hungary) (16 per cent.), duty 20 per cent.

Paper-Other.-£28,791 (Germany)+ £545 (Austria-Hungary) (22 per cent.}, duty 5 per cent. and free. Little, if any, of these papers is manufactured locally.

(b) Stationery.

Books (printed), Music, Periodicals, and Newspapers.-£9,968 (Germany)+ £498 (Austria-Hungary) (1·5 per cent.), duty free. Inks-News Printing Ink and Stencilling Ink, n.e.i.-£2,386 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. These inks are manufactured locally.

Stationery, Manufactured, including Bill Files and Letter Clips, Paper ruled or bordered, by waterline or otherwise, Writing Paper in sizes less than 16 x 13 inches, Cardboard Boxes, cut and shaped or finished; Mounts for Pictures, Date Cases and Cards ; Albums ; Cal'ds and Booklets, including Printers', Visiting, Menu, Programme, Wedding, Funeral, Christmas, Easter, New Year and Birthday; Scraps; Transfers, n.e.i.; Ink-bottles, Ink-wells, Ink-stands, Paper Knives; Blotting Pads; Billheads, &c.; Books-Account, Betting, Cheque, &c. ; Envelopes ; Stationery Packets ; Memo. and Sketch Blocks ; Labels, Tags, &c. ; Sealing Wax; Post-cards, n.e.i.; Writing Desks (not Furniture); Writing and Stationery Cases; Paper

Binders, Card Hangers; Pen Racks; Charts for manuscript use; Corrugated Strawboard (including Bottle Envelopes); Confetti Paper; Printed Parchment and Manufactures of Paper, n.e.i.; and Fancy Pencils.­ £43,716 (Germany)+ £1,233 (Austria-Hungary) (18 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Some of the goods included under this heading are made locally. Pictures, not being Advertising.-£7,302 (Germany) + £253 (Austria-Hungary) (17 per cent.), duty free. Oil

Paintings, £1 each or 25 per cent. Stationery, Manufactured (Free), including Pencils and Penholders.-£19,838 (Germany) + £8,199 (Austria.. Hungary) (27 .per cent.), duty 5 per cent. and free. Not manufactured locally.

CLASS XXL--JEWELLERY, TIMEPIECES, AND FANcY Goons.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary :-Fancy Goods, including Card Cases, Snuff and Match Boxes : Thimbles, Serviette Rings, Button Hooks ; Shoe­ horns and Lifts; Glove-stretchers; Toys; Ivory and other ornamental figures; Feather Dust ers; Paper Parasols ; Articles used for outdoor and indoor games ; Fishing Appliances, n.e.i., and Articles, n.e.i., used

for ornamental purposes, or partly f01 use and partly for ornament.-£137,053 (Germany) + £14,810 (Austria­ Hungary) (35 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.· . Very little work of this nature is done in Australia. Jewellery- ·

Cameos, Intaglios, and Precious Stones, unset, fn.cluding Pearls and Coral.-£14,645 (Germany)+ £962 (Austria­ Hungary) (5 per cent.), duty free. These goods represent the raw material of the local jewellers. Imitation Jewellery, N.E.I., and Imitation Precious Stones, also Jewellery commonly known as Rolled Gold

and Jewellery under 9 carat.-£4,566 (Germany)+ £5,268 (Austria-Hungary) (35 per cent.), duty 40 per cent. Machine-made Chain in the rough (known as Brunswick Pattern, Foxtail, or Lace Chain), Gallerie, Coronets, Beads, Catches and ,Joints for Pins, Clasps, N.E.I., Points, and Brooch Pins.-£4,564 (Germany) (75 per

cent.), duty 20 per cent. Jewellery N.E.I., including Bolt and Split Rings : Swivels ; Ear Wires ; Bars and Stampings used in manufacture of Jewellery; Medals and Medallions of Gold and Silver; Buckles, Badges, Clasps, Slides, Buttons, and other Ornaments of Gold or Silver for Attire; Combined Bracelets and Watches; Gold or Silver Safety Pins ;

Gold and Silver Bags and Purses; Lace Braid and Cord, and all Articles N.E.I. partly or wholly made of Gold or Silver.-£4512f>S + £443 (Austria-Hungary) (20 per cent.)1 duty 30 per cent.

40

CLASS XXI.-JEWELLERY, TIMEPIECES, AND FANCY Goons-continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Unfinished Jewellery, viz., Unset Bracelets, Brooches, Necklets, Rings, and other Articles prepared for setting, or such Articles set with Imitation Precious Stones.-£799 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty 40 per cent. Other Jewellery.-£404 (Germany) (50 per cent.), duty free .

. During 1912 the jewellery manufactories (employing four hands or power) employed an average of 1,929 hands, and paid in salaries and wages £205,834; Pipes, Smoking-Clay.-£127 (Germany) (30 per cent. ), duty Is. 6d. per gross = 100 per cent.

N.E.I., and Cigar and Cigarette Holders and Accessories, Smolce:s' Requisites, including Cases, Tobacco Pouches, Smokers' Sets, Boxes, Match Stands, Ash Trays, Smokers' Lamps, Cigar Stands, and Lighters.­ £7,855 (Germany) + £12,415 (Austria-Hungary) (13 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Pipes are made in Australia, but the establishments are small. This item includes smokers' requisites

of a miscellaneous character, few of which are manufactured locally. Spectacle Cases (not partly or wholly of Gold or Silver, or Gold or Silver Plated).-£882 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Not made in Australia. Timepieces-

Clocks.-£18,926 (Germany) + £102 (Austria-Hungary) (22 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Watches and Chronometers, N.E.I., Pedometers, and Pocket Counters, and the .like.-£5,660 (Germany) (3 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Clocks and watches are not made on a commercial scale in Australia.

CLASS XXII.-OPTICAL, SuRGICAL, AND SciENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Cameras, including Lenses and Accessories, n.e.i.-£4,354 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Cameras are not made in Australia on a commercial scale. Cameras most generally used are made up of standard parts produced ip. great numbers by machinery. Instruments, S cientific.-£16,854 (Germany) + £139 (Austria-Hungary) (28 per cent.); instruments of glass,

some of which can be made in Australia, are dutiable at 20 per cent., others are free of duty. Kinematographs, Bioscopes, and K inetoscopes (including Films).-£8,177 (Germany) (4 per cent.), machines 35 per cent., films free . The greater part of this item is represented by films of subjects foreign to Australia. The machines

are not made locally. Magic or Optical Lanterns, including Mounted Lenses and Accessories, n.e.i.-£1,240 (Germany) (40 per cerit.), duty 5 per cent. Not made locally. Optical and Meteorological I nstrurnents-

Field, Marine, and Opera Glasses.-£6,321 (Germany) (40 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Microscopes and Telescopes. ·-£2,120 (Germany) + £26 (Austria-Hungary) (40 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Spectacles, Spectacle Frames (not gold), Spectacle Glasses and L enses, and Magnifying and Reading Glasses

mounted, except when the Mountings are partly or wholly of Gold or Silver.-£14,597 (Germany) (40 per cent.), duty free Goods of this nature are not made in Australia on a commercial scale. Photographic Materials-

Lantern Slides, Photographic Mounts, Photographic and Scenic Backgrounds, Photographs of Australian Subjects, and Stereoscopic Views.-£1,173 (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Sensitized Films and Sensitized Pape1·s, n.e.i., and Sensitized Postcards.-£3,068 (Germany) (11 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Other Photographic Material.-£3,094 (Germany) (70 per cent.), duty free.

Many of these articles are made in Australia. Surgical and Dental Instruments-Surgical Appliances, N.E.I., including Belts, Trusses, Pads, Corsets, Braces, Breast Supports, and Vaccination Shielils.-£603 (Germany) (9 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

These articles are made lo cally. Other Surgical and Dental Instruments.-£23,196 (Germany) (12! per cent.), duty free. These instruments are not made on a commercial scale in Australia. Talking Machines, Phonographs, Gramophones, and other, including cases imported with machines; and Records.­

£29,191 (Germany) (22 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Not m fl,de in Austraila.

CLASS XXIII.-(a) PHARMACEU'riCAL PRODUCTS; (b) INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS; ( c ) CHEMICALS USED AS FERTILIZERS.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-(a) Pharmaceutical Products.

Orearn of Tartar. £18,714 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty free. The raw material for cream of tartar is at present sent from Australia for manufacture abroad. Foaming Powders and Liquids, including Malta-Peptone; Yeast Foods, &c.; Quillaya Bark,· Saponarias; Glycyrrhizin and its cornpounds.-£1,941 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

Goods of this class are made in Australia. Insecticides and Disinfectants.-£12,624 (Germany) + £7,990 (Austria-Hungary), duty 15 per cent. in drums containing less that 5 gallons or in packages less than 28 lbs., in greater bulk free. Insecticides and disinfectants are made in Australia though the ingredients are largely imported. Medicines.-£8,757 (Germany) + £1,455 (Austria-Hungary) (33 per cent.), duty 15 per cent.

This item is composed largely of patent and proprietary medicines. Many of these medicines have gained favour in association with trade marked names, and even if not now covered by patent rights it would be a slow and difficult task to popularize and sell them under any other name. Saccharin and other Substitutes for (Germany) (40 per cent.), duty 30s. per lb. = about 400 per cent.

Locally-manufactured saccharin is subject to an excise duty of £1 per lb. Soda, Bicarbonate and Carbonate.----.:£334 (Germany) (1·4 per cent.), duty free. Other Pharmaceutical Products.-£66,871 (Germany)+ £2,649 (Austria-Hungary) (30 per cent.), duty free. This item covers a wider range of drugs , some of which are-Airol, ammon. hydrosulp., antipyrine,

argent protenic, "protargol," arsenic, aspirin; atoxyl; calcium c.hloride, chloroform; photographic developers, Epsom salts in bulk; iodoform; iron, sulphate of, carbonate of magnesia, citrate of magnesia, orris root; potassium-permanganate of, &c., &c. ·

41

CLASS XXlll.-(a) PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS; (b) INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS; (c) CHEMICALS USED AS FERTILIZERS­ continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-HQngary :____,

Acids­

(b) Industrial Chemicals.

Salicylic.-£1,025 (Germany) (85 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Tartaric.-£16,893 (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty free. "Other" Acids.-£6,765 (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty free. Ammonia-

Anhydrous, Liquid, Acetate, Om·bonate, and Voltoids of Sal-Ammoniac.-£1,163 (Germany)+ £638 (Austria­ Hungary) (25 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Muriate.-£1,370 (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty free. Cyanide of Potassium, Sodium, and Bromide Salts.-£16,956 (Germany) (9 per cent.), duty free. Dyes.-£21,013 (Germany) (60 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

Gas, Carbonic Acid.-£1,200 (Germany) (100 per cent.), duty 2d. per lb. Perfumery, including Perfumed Ammonia; Toilet Preparations (p erfumed or not); Skin Foods; Refined Lanoline; Refined Glycerine; and Petroleum J elly.-£12,402 (Germany) + £204 (Austria-Hungary) (8 · 5 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Photographic Goods-Sulphite of Soda; Nitrate of Silver, Powdered Magnesia, and Ohlo;ide of Gold.-£1,570

(Germany) (40 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Potash and Pearlash (cr·ude) and Caustic Potash (in bulk).:---£1,338 (Germany) + £233 (Austria-Hungary) (40 per . cent.), duty free . ·

Saltpetre.-£4,034 (Germany) (40 per cent.), duty free. Sodas- ·

Acetates for the Manu.fact·ure of Acetic Acid.-£1,179 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Salicylate of Soda.-£917 (Germany) (70 per cent.), duty 25 per cent.

(c) Chemicals used as Fertilizers.

Superphosphates.-£19,551 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty free. Other (unspecified ) Fertilizers.-£31,995 (Germany) + £625 (Austria-Hungary) (60 per cent.), duty

CLASS XXIV.-MISCELLANEOUS.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:­ Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-A1·ms- -

Revolvers and Pistols.-£1 ,421 (Germany) (10 per cent.), duty about 30 per cent. Guns and R ifles, bearing approved test marlc.- £2,277 (Germany) (3 per cent.), duty 15 per cent. Gaps, Percussion.-£5,671 (Germany) (53 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Oartridges.-£640 (Germany) ( · 5 per cent.), duty 20 per cent.

The loading only is done in Australia. Cartridge Oases (empty, capped, or uncapped) and Wads.-£1,114 (Germany) (4 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Cartridge cases are not made locally. Dynamite.-£738 (Germany) (1· 3 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

Fireworks.-£694 (Germany) (8} per cent.), duty 30 per cent. These are made in Australia. Gelatine, Blasting.-£9,772 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Gelatine, Dynamite.-£951 (Germany) (12 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Gelignite.-£74,655 (Germany) (33 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Powder, Blasting.-£1,511 (Germany) (3 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

Apart from the Commonwealth Factory for Defence purposes, no explosives are manufactured in Australia. ·

Articles, N.E.I., of Celluloid, Xylonite, Bone, I vory, Pulp, P apier Mache, Indurated F ibre, or Asbestos.-£2,191 (Germany) (30 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Not made in Australia. Articles of an advertising character, not otherwise dutiable at a higher rate, including all other articles which would

be free but for their advertising characteristics.-£7,372 (Germany) + £226 (Austria-Hungary) (13 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. This heading includes articles of a miscellaneous character, including articles of glass, metal, paper, and of almost any material. Bags, Purses, n.e.i., and Wallets, Baskets, Boxes, Oases, or Tnmks, with or without fittings, viz. :-Fancy, Hand,

Jewel, Trinket, Sporting, Travelling, Picnic, Toilet, Dressing, Glove, Handkerchief, Collar, and Work, Satchels, Reticules, Valises, and Companions.-£160,369 (Germany) + £1,066 (Austria-Hungary) (53 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Goods of this class are manufactured locally. Bags, Purses, Minor Articles for.:-£14,387 (Germany) (45 per cent.), duty free.

These articles are mainly metal fittings of various kinds and designs, such as frames, handles, studs, fancy nails, &c. Blacking, including Dressings, Inks, Stains, Pastes, and Polishes for Leather ; Furniture Oils, Pastes, and Polishes ; Floor Polishes; Bronzing and Metal Liquids.-£645 (Germany) (2t per cent.), duty 40 per cent.

Goods of this nature are manufactured locally. Brushware-Artists', in Metal, Tin, or Quill, t inch or under, including Aerographs.-£728 (Germany) (17 per cent.), duty 5 per cent.

These brushes are not made locally . N.E.I.-£24,796 (Germany) + £5,598 (Austria-Hungar y) (20 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. This class of work is done in Australia. · Candles, Tapers, and Night Lights-

Paraffin Wax, wholly or in part.-£223 (Germany) (5 per cent.), duty 2d. per lb. = about 20 per cent. Other Candles, &c.-£242 (Germany) (2 per cent.), duty l td. per lb. =about 12! per cent. Goods of this character are manufactured locally. Combs (Toilet) and Shaving Sets.-£12,842 (Germany) + £151 (Austria-Hungary) (40 per cent.), duty 25 percent. Decorations of any Materials, n .e.i ., including Wall and Ceiling Parts.-£805 (Germany) (18 per cent.), duty

25 per cent. Goods of this class are made locally .

42

CLASS XXIV.-MrsOELLANEous-continued.

Principal lines from Germany and Austria-Hungary:-Electrical Articles and Materials (see also Electrical and Gas Appliances, Class XVI. (b) ). Accumulators or Storage Batteries,· Arc Lamps,· Carbon in Blocks of 12 square inches and over,· Electrical Vacuum Tubes,· Measuring and Recording Instruments; Prepared Insulating Tape.-£43,195 (Germany)

+ £229 (Austria-Hungary) (25 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. ·

Arc Lamp Oarbons.-£16,684 (Germany) + £525 (Austria-Hungary) (90 per cent.), duty 10 per cent. Cable and Wire, Oovered.-£56,450 (Germany)+ £1,527 (Austria-Hungary) (9 per cent.), duty 5 per cent. Not made in Australia. ·

Gums, Dry (not Resin).-£1,192 (Germany) + £382 (Austria-Hungary) (7 per cent.), duty free. Instruments, Musical--Military Band and Orchestral.-£9,597 (Germany) (25 per cent.), duty free. Not made in Australia.

Pianos-Grand.-£9,216 (Germany) (75 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. Upright.-£300,008 (Germany) (80 per cent.), duty 35 per cent. Pianos are made locally. Piano Parts and Accessories.-£18,609 (Germany) (60 per cent.), duty free. Other Musical Instruments.-£21,676 (Germany) (50 per cent.), duty 20 per cent.

Few of these instruments are made in Australia. Matches-Wood and Wax.-£1,334 (Germany) + £765 (Austria-Hungary) (·8 per cent.), duty equal to about 36 per cent. Matches are made in Australia. Oilmen's Stores, n.e.i. (Dutiable), being Groceries, including Culinary and Flavouring Essences (non-spirituous),

Soap Dyes, Condition Foods, and other preparations used in the household, including Food for Birds, n.e.i.­ £13,636 (Germany) (7 per cent.), duty 20 per cent. Goods of this nature, though perhaps not of the same kind or quality, are made in Australia. Packings-Asbestos and Other Packing (except in Rope furm), including Asbestos Cloth (with or without wire),

Proofed with Rubber; Asbestos Cord; Asbestos Pipe and Boiler Covering; Asbestos Mattresses for (Germany) + £5,003 (Austria-Hungary) (18 per cent.), duty 20 per ce.Q.t.

Packings are made in Australia. Pitch and Tar.-£5,230 (Germany) (20 per cent.), duty free. Soap-Toilet, Fancy, and Medicated.-£8,084 (Germany) (8 per cent.), duty 25 per cent. Soaps of this character are made in Australia.

Vehicles-Bicycles and Parts and Accessories.-£7,067 (Germany) (4 per cent.), duties various-average about 6 per cent. The greater part of the value is represented by articles not made locally. Motor Cycles, Tricycles, and simila1· Vehicles, N.E.I., and Frames therefor whether partly or wholly finished.­

£2,065 (Germany) (15 per cent.), duty 30 per cent. Vehicles and Parts, N.E.I.-£l1,454 (Germany) (5 per cent.), duty 40 per cent. These articles are made locally. Bodies for Motor -Oars, Lorries, and Waggons, including Dashboards, Footboards, and Mudguards.-£4,291

(Germany) (2 per cent.), duty from £17 to £42 each-equal to about 50 per cent. Chassis for Mo,tor Oars (but not including Rubber Tyres), Lorries, and Waggons.-£68,984 (Germany) + £1,826 (Austria-Hungary) (5-! per cent.), duty 5 per cent. There is no specialized industry of chassis building in Australia, though they can be made in

engineering shops. Parts of Vehicles, viz., Wheels, n.e.i., Undergear, Buggy Hoods, and Carriage Bodies.-£129,098 (Germany) (50 per cent.), duty 40 per cent., and on locomotive wheels 5 per cent. This item is composed largely of locomotive wheels imported for the State Railways. Ships.--£47,291 (Germany) (3 per cent.), duty under 500 tons 30 per cent., over 500 tons free.

Ships of large tonnage have not yet been built in Australia.

Acetone Acids ..

INDEX

Accumulators (Electric) Advertising, Articles for Aerated and Mineral Waters Agricultural Implements

Alcohol Methylic Ale and Beer Almonds Ammonia

Ammunition, &c. Animals Apparel Arc Lamps

Arc Lamp Carbons Arms ..

Articles of Hair .. Artificial Plants, &c. Asbestos Packings Asphalt Mastic ..

Axles and Springs Bacon and Hams Bags, Purses, &c. Barbed Wire Barytes Baskets, &c.

Basketware Bass Beer Belting ..

Bicycles Biscuits Bioscopes Blacking Blacks-Bone, &c. Blankets Blasting Gelatine Blasting Powder

Blinds ..

Bodies for Motor Cars Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, &c. Bone, Articles of Books ..

Boots and Shoes Boxes, Trunks, &c. Brass-Bars

Pipes and Tubes Plate and Sheet Brasswork Bricks ..

Bronzework Broom Corn Brush ware Cameras

Candles Canvas and Duck Canvas and Composition Belting Caps and Hats ..

Caramel Carbonate of Soda. Carbonic Acid Gas Carbons, Arc Lamp

Cardboard Carpets Cartridge Cases Cartridges ..

Celluloid, Articles of Cement, Portland Cements, Adhesive Chassis for Motor Cars

Chemicals Cheese .. China Ware Churns, &c. Cigars ..

Clocks .. Clogs . . . .

Cocoa and Chocolate Coke Colours and Paints Combs (Toilet) Confectionery

43

APPENDI'X "A."

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Copper Wire Cordage Corks ..

Cosies and Cushions Cotton Piece Goods Cream of Tartar Cream Separators

Curtains Cutlery Cyanide of Potassium Disinfectants Dressings, Stains, &c.

Drugs and Chemicals Duck, in the Piece Dyes Dyes, Soap Dynamite Earthenware Egg, Contents

Electrical Appliances Electrical Articles Electrical Materials Electrical Machinery

Embroideries Emery Stones Engravers' Plates Essences, Flavouring Explosives Fancy Goods

.. -

Feathers, Articles made of Feathers, Dressed Felts, Articles made of Fertilizers

Fibres ..

Filters ..

Fire Clay Manufactures Fire Lumps Fireworks Fish Flannel Piece Goods

Flannelette Flax and Hemp Fibre Flax Yarn Floor Cloths

Floor Rugs Foaming Powders Frames-Picture, &c. Fruits, Preserved Furniture Furs, Dressed Galvanized Iron Gas Appliances .. Gas, Carbonic Acid

Gelatine and Glue Gelatine, Blasting Gelignite Glass and Glassware Glasses-:Field, Marine, and Opera Gloves ..

Glucose Glue Gramophones Granit.e Groceries Gums, Dry Gun-metal Work

Guns ..

Hair, Human Hair Nets Hams ..

Hats and Caps Hemp Fibre Hemp Yarn Hides (Cattle)

Hop-Cloth Hops ..

Horsehair Cloth Incandescent Mantles India-rubber Inks

Inks, Stains, &c. Insecticides

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Instruments­ Musical Optical Scientific

Surgical and Dental Iron and Steel­ Girders, &c. Pig, Bar, Hoop, Ingot, &c.

Plate and Sheet Ivory, Articles of Jute Yarn Jewellery

Kinematogra phs Lace for Attire, &c. Lamps and Lampware Lantern Slides Leaf and Foil Leather Linen Piece Goods Linoleums Lithographers' Plates Lithographic Stone Locks Lubricating Oil .. Machines and Machinery .. Magic Lanterns Magnesia, &c.

Malt Manures Marble Matches

Meats ..

Medicines ..

Meta( Manufactures Metals, Mixed Metal Plates Methylic Alcohol

Millet Straw Mineral Waters .. Microscopes Mining Machinery Minor Articles for-

Apparel Bags, Baskets, &o. Boots Furniture

Hats and Caps Umbrellas Motor Cars Motor Cycles Motor Vehicles Muriate of Ammonia Musical Instruments Nails Naphtha Netting, Wire

Nuts (Almonds) Oilmen's Stores Oil Stoves Oils Optical Instruments Ores Ornaments Packings Paints and Colours Paper ..

Parian Ware Perfumery Phonographs Photographic Goods Photographic Material Pianos ..

Pictures Piece Goods Pipes, Smoking . . . .

Pipes and Tubes-Iron, &c. Pitch and Tar Plaster of Paris Polishes Porcelain

Potash and Pearlash Powder, Blasting Powders-Foaming, &c. Preserved Fruit .. Printers' Materials

44

INDEX-continued.

Page

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Printing Machines Purses, &c. B,ails, Fish-plates, &c. Resins ..

Revolvers, &c. Rice Straw Ropes ..

Rubber Manufactures Rugs Saccharin

Sails Salicylate of Soda Salicylic Acid Salt Saltpetre Scales Scientific Instruments Screws with Nuts, &c.

Seeds ..

Sensitized Films, &c. Sewing Machines Sewing Silks, &c. Sets

Ships Silk Piece Goods Slates Slippers Soap Dyes Socks and Stockings Soda, Carbonate .. Sodas ..

Sodium Spectacle Cases Spectacles, &c. Spelter Spirits ..

Stationery Stockings Stoves ..

Stoves-Primus, &c. Straw board Superphosphates Surgical Appliances Switchboards, &c. Tar and Pitch Tarpaulin Tartaric Acid Telephones, &c .

Telescopes Tents Textiles-Articles inade of Tiles Timber .. Tobacco Toilet Combs Tools of Trade Trimmings Types ..

Typewriters Twines Umbrellas Vehicles

Velvet s, &c. Vessels-Ships Wall and Ceiling Decorations Watches Waxes ..

Weigh bridges Whetstones Whiting Wicker Manufactures Wire Wire and Cable, Covered

Wire-Barbed Copper Netting

Wine Wood Manufactures Xylonite, Articles of Yarns ..

Zinc-Bar Sheet, &c.

Printed and Published for the GOVERNMENT of the COMMONWEALTH .of !'-USTRALIA by ALBERT J. MULLETT, Government Printer for the State of VICtona.

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