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Presented by Command, 29th September, 1954:; ordered to be printed, 11th November, 1954.

JCost of P1tper :--·Preparation, not given ; 880 coyir:s ; 'lp!Jroximat? c-:ast of printing stntl puhli 5- lllm;, £458. )

P rinted for the GOVEHNMEN'r of the COMMONWEALTH by A. J. ARTHUH a t the Government Printing Offi ce, Canberra. (Wholly up and In Anstrnll a . l

No. 38 [GROUP H].-F.5242/54.-PRICE 7s. 6n .

Letters Patent appointing the Commission Preliminary Chapter I.-Introductory


Chapter II.-The Background-!.: Developments and Legislation in Australia and Overseas Chapter III.-The Background-H.: Technical Matters Chapter IV.-'The Social Impact of Television Chapter V.-The Establishment of Australian Television Services

Chapter VI.-The Organization of the Australian Television Service Chapter VII.-Programme Standards and Hours of Operation . . Chapter VIII.-Some Particular Programme Issues Summary of Recommendations Supplementary Observations Appendix A.-Advertising Time Standards (Broadcasting) Appendix B.-Sunday Advertising (Broadcasting)

Appendix C.-Election Broadcasts Appendix D.-List of Witnesses Appendix E.-Bibliography Index

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11 23 32 44 66 75 86 102 107 108 109

llO 113 ll6 121

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ELIZABETH THE SECOND, by the. Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland and the British · Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith : ·

To Our Trusty and Well-beloved-Professor GEORGE WHITECROSS PATON, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne; RoBERT GUMLEY OsHORNE, Esquire, Chairman of the A nstralian Broadcasting Control Board ; CoLIN BLORE BEDNALL, Esquire, of Brisbane, in Our State of Queensland, Editor; The Honourable ROBERT CHRISTIAN WILSON, a Member of the Legislative Council of Our State of New South


NoRMAN SMITH YouNG, Esquire, of Adelaide, in Our State of South Australia, Public Accountant; and MAUD FoxTON, of Kalgoorlie, in Our State of Western Australia, Married Woman.


KNOW YE THAT We do by these 'Our Letters Patent, issued in Our name by Our Governor-General in and over Our Commonwealth of Australia, acting with the advice of Our Federal Executive Council, in pursuance of the Constitution of Our said Commonwealth, the Royal Commissions Act 1902-1933, and all other powers him thereunto enabling, appoint you to be Commissioners, to inquire into and report upon the fopowing matters :-

(a) The number of national and ..commercial television stations which can effectively be established and having regard to the financial and economic considerations involved and the availability of suitable programmes; (b) The areas which might be served by television stations and the stages by which they should be established; (c) The conditions which should apply to the establishment of television stations; (d) The standards to be observed in the programmes of national and commercial television stations to ensure the best

use of television broadcasting in the public interest; (e) Any conditions which.may be considered desirable to apply to the television broadcasting of­ (i) political and controversial matter and issues ; (ii) religious services and other religious matter ; and

(iii) advertisements ; and (f) The conditions, if any, which should be imposed with respect to periods of broadcasting of television programmes:

AND WE APPOINT YOU the said Professor GEORGE WmTECROSS PATON to be Chairman of the said Commissioners and as such . to have a deliberative vote, and, in the event of an equality of votes, a casting vote, in all matters considered by the Commission :

AND WE DIRECT THAT, for the purpose of inquiring into and taking evidence upon any matter entrusted to you Our said Commissioners, any four of you Our said Commissioners shall be sufficient to form a quorum and may proceed with the inquiry under these Our Letters Patent:

AND WE REQUIRE YOU with as litlle delay as possible to report to Our Governor-General in and over Our said Commonwealth the result of your inquiries into the matters entrusted to you by these Our Letters Patent.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF WE have caused these Our Letters to be made patent and the Seal of Our said Commonwealth to be thereunto affixed.

WITNESS Our Trusty and Well-beloved Counsellor Sir William John McKell, Knight Grand Cross of Our Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Our Commonwealth of Australia, this eleventh day of February, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and fifty-three, and in the second year of Our Reign.

By His Excellency's Command, ROBERT MENZIES, Prime Minister.

W. J. McKELL, Governor-General.

Entered on Record by me, in Register of Patents, No. 213, page 46, thiS twelfth day of February, One thousand nine hundred and fifty-three. T. COLLINS.



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS. To His Excellency, Field J\'larshal Sir William Joseph Slim, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint :Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the J\:lost Excellent Order of the British Empire, Companion of the

Distinguished Service Order, upon whom has been conferred the Decoration of the J\iilitary Cross, Knight of the Venerable Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Governor-General and Commander-in­ Chief in and over the Commonwealth of Australia.


We the Commissioners appointed by Letters Patent dated the 11th day of February, 1953, have now the honour to submit our report.


The Letters Patent directed us to examine, inquire into and report upon the following matters:­ (a) The number of n ational and commercial television stations which can effectively be established and operated having regard to the financial and economic considerations involved and the availability of suitable programmes;

(b) The areas which might be served by television stations and the stages by which they should be established ; (c) The conditions which should apply to the establishment of t€levision stations; (d) The standards to be observed in the programmes of national and commercial television

stations to en-sure the best use of television broadcasting in the public interest; (e) Any conditions which may be considered desirable to apply to the television broadcasting of-(i) political and controversial matter and issues;

(ii) religious services and other religious matter; and (iii) advertisements; and (f) The conditions, if any, which should be imposed with respect to periods of broadcasting of television programmes.


Our first meeting was held in Melbourne on 23 rd February, 1953. The first of our 34 public sittings, which were held in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart for the purpose of taking evidence, began in J\:lelbourne on 11th March, 1953. In all 163 witnesses were examined. We also received numerous written communications from individuals and organizations interested in the subject

of our inquiry. Some of our sessions were held in camera for the purpose of hearing evidence which was tendered in confidence, chiefly because the information to be supplied related to estimates of revenue, expenditure or costs. -

In order to give the fullest opportunity to the public to express its views on the questions referred to us, an invitation was issued, after our first meeting on 23rd February, 1953, to organizations and individuals desiring to be heard. This invitation was advertised prominently iu the press in every capital city throughout Australia. All who intimated their to appear before us were given an opportunity

to express their views. In addition, we invited certain departments, authorities, organizations, companie& and pers-ons to assist us by giving evidence on specific matters or aspects of our inquiry. Several witnesses appeared before us on more than one occasion. The number of separate organizations or companies which gave evidence was 122.

The witnesses, in general, were asked to submit a written stc. tement of their evidence, and the number of such statements received a-s exhibit., was 142. The official transcript of evidence (excluding exhibits, some very lengthy) amounted to nearly 2,000 page.s. We consider ed whether the transcript of evidence and the exhibits should be printed to accompany thi -s report, but came to the conclusion that the

expense and delay involved would not be justified.

, 8

'rhe Chairman was absent from Australia from 11th May to 21st August, 1953, in connexion with a series of University conferences in the United Kingdom. He took advantage of this visit to make certain inquiries on . onr behalf, into matters coming within our terms of reference, from the United Kingdom Government and the British Broadcasting Corporation. During the absence of the Chairman the sittings, _both public and private, continued, and 1\fr. R. G. Osborne acted as Chairman.

W e requested the Australian High Commissioner to Canada and the Australian Ambassador to the United States of America respectively to obtain for us information on a number of matters relevant to our inquiry. In Chapter II. of our report we describe the t elevision services in those countries, and in Great Britain, and iii some important respects we h ave been able to test our conclusions against their experience in this field.

We desire to acknowledge the help that we have received from many different sources, and our indebtedness to the witnesses who prepared statements and appeared before us. All the information for which we asked was supplied, to the extent to which it was, in fact, available. It will be appreciated that, in respect of som e matters (especially financial and economic) definite and precise information could not be supplied. Where relevant in our report we refer in some detail to the evidence of particular witnesses

on various aspects of our inquiry.

We are deeply indebted to our Secretary, 1\fr. K. Collings, for his assistance throughout our inquiry and in the preparation of the report, and also to Mr. J. M. Donovan, Assistant Secretary, Australian Broadcasting· Control Board, whose services were made available to the Commission, to Miss I. M. Eastwood, I.Jibrarian, on the staff of the Board (who prepared the bibliography printed in Appendix E) and to other officers of the Board who were of great assistance to us.



. 1. Some account of the circumstances in which we were appointed and some reference to the precise matter s referred to us for inquiry, are necessary to an understanding of the nature and scope of the inquiry, and therefore of our report. In Chapter II. we set out in some detail, an account of the historical and legislat ive background to television in Australia, as well as in other countries. We desire in this

introductory chapter to refer to two considerations which necessarily govern the form of this report and our recommendations. ·

2. In the first place, we wish to invite attention to the limited nature of our terms of reference, \Vhich required us specifically to report on the number of national (i.e. Government owned and operated) stations and of commercial (i.e. private) stations which could effectively be established having regard to financial and economic considerations and the availability of suitable programmes, and · also on the areas

which might be served by such stations, and the st ages by which they should be established, and on certain other specific matters, incident al to the introduction of t elevision services.

3. In the second place, we would refer to ·the legislation passed by the Parliament of the

Commonwealth in IY1arch, 1953 ('Television Act 195 3) , which provided legislative authority for the establishment of both national and commercial television stations. The provisions of the Television Act 1953 are discussed more fully in Chapter II. rrhe P ostmaster-General (Honorable H. L. Anthony, M.P.), the -Minister in charge of the Bill fo r the Act, stated that the purposes of the measure were-

( a) "to provide statutory authority for the esbblishment of television services in the

Commonwealth I submit it (The Bill) for the consideration of the House in the belief that no matter how we may differ in detail as to how it should be done, we are all agreed that television services with their great potential benefits for education, .culture and entertainment should be made av::tilable to the Australian people." (b) "to endorse the general principle that we should develop television in the Commonwealth on

the same fundamental basis as has been so remarkably successful in respect of sound broadcasting." -

From the evidence submitted to us it would appear that the limited nature of our terms of reference, and the f act that legislation providing for the establishment of both n ational and commercial television services in Australia had already been passed, were not generally appreciated, and we have therefore invited attention to the precise nature and scope of our inquiry.

4. In Chapter V. we refer to the subst antial body of evidence which was presented to us in favour of the argument that, for reasons which are there fully set out (mostly economic considerations), the introduction of television services in Australia should be deferred inde:finitely or for a considerable period. In view of the great concern expressed by many sections of the community with the prospect of the immediate introduction of television in we felt obliged to consider, with great care, whether it

would be proper for us to enter on an inquiry into this aspect of the matter; we came to the conclusion that, while consideration of proposals for the indefinite deferment of the introduction of television was clearly precluded by our t er ms of r eference, we should seriously examine whether economic and financial considerations might not justify, or even require, a recommendation by us that the establishment of national

or commercial television stations, or both, should not be proceeded with for some limited period. We deal with this question in Chapter V. 5. Another substantial body of evidence advanced the view that if television services were to be provided in this country they should be operated solely by a Government authority and that commercial services should not be permitted to operate at an: alternatively, it was submitted that commercial services

should not be permitted to operate for a period of some years after the commencement of the national service. These views were put to us, in whole or in par t , by a number of individual witnesses, and on behalf of the following organizations, list€d in the order of appearance:-Arts Council of Australia (Victorian Division).

New South Wales Teacher s' F ederation. Australian Council for the World Council of Churches. New Education Fellowship, New South W ales Branch. Australian Culture Defence 1\IIovement. British Drama League (Australia) . National Council of Women of Australia. United Churches Social Reform Board. Methodist Church of Australasia-South Australian Conference. League of Women Voters of South Australia. National Council of Women of South Australia.

Film and Television Council of So uth Australia. Women's Service Guilds of W estern Australia Incorporated. Fellowship of Australian W r iters (West ern Australian Section) : New Education Fellowship, Australian F ederal Council.

Archbishop of ·Melbourne's Committee on Television.


Council of Churches in Victoria. rrasmanian State School Teachers' Federation. National Council of Women of New South Wales. Australian Broadcasting Commission. Housewives' Association, Victorian Division. Australian Council of Trade Unions. Postal Telecommunications Technicians' Association (Austra:lia). "VV e have, however, already indicated that our terms of reference were clearly related to the provisions of

the rrelevision Act, and restrict our functions of inquiry and reporting, in effect, to the conditions under which what is known in Australia as the "dual system" of television services (similar to that already operating in the field of broadcasting) should be e,stablished. Although the question whether eommercial television should be permitted in Australia is clearly a matter "\vhich has caused great concern to large sections of the community, we have come to the conclusion that it is not included in the matters referred to

us, and we do not therefore propose to offer any observations on this issue. \Ve do, however, in Chapter V., express our conclusions on the stages by which national and commercial television stations might be established in Australia.

6. 1\ifuch of the evidence on the question referred to in paragraph 5 consisted of, or was based on, objections to the introduction of commercial television on moral, cultural and educational grounds. While, as we have said, we do not feel that the question of .the introduction of commercial television as such was referred to us for inquiry, we were specifically directed to report on the standards to be observed in the programmes of both national and commercial television stations in order to ensure the best use of television in the public interest, and this question, on which we also received a large body of evidence, we discuss at length in Chapters IV. and VII.

7. JVIr. A. C. Paddison, General l\fanager, Transcontinental Broadcasting Co . . Ltd., who appeared before us in Sydney, asked us to consider "to what extent is television validly within the powers of the Commonwealth", urging that while this question is of necessity one ultimately within the jurisdiction of the High Court, "it is still essential that the Commission should satisfy itself of its . competence to propose the expenditure of public funds, if there is any doubt regarding the validity of such expenditure". It was apparently conceded by the witness that, while "within clearly defined limits the Commonwealth. has authority to control the issue of licences (for television stations), the allocation of frequencies and the assignment of power", the competence of the Commonwealth to establish a" Government financed television service" should be determined before we recommended the expenditure of any public funds on the establishment of national television stations. Having received this submission in the form of a writt-en statement from the witness, we considered whether we should examine him on this aspect of the matter.

We decided that we were not required by our terms of reference to answer any questions such as those proposed, or to consider the issue raised as to the expenditure of public funds. No question appeared to he raised as to the validity of our own proceedings, and while it might be that any legislative, or other action, which mjght be taken by the Commonwealth Parliament and Government to give effect to our report might be open to C'hallenge on constitutional grounds, we felt that this not a matter into which we could inquire.




8. As an introduction to our report, we have thought it desirable in this chapter to · survey in some detail the history of what has happened in the past in relation to television in Australia, to summarize briefly the situation in those countries in which television services are already being operated, and to give some particulars of existing Australian legislation rela ting to television, and also some information relating

to the organization of broadcasting in Austra]ia.


V. 'rhe question of the introduction into Aust r alia of television services was investigated, amongst

other things, in 1941 and 1942, by the Joint P arliarnentary Committee on Broadcasting (the Gibson Committee). In its report, presented to Parliament ou the 25th lVIarch, 1942, the Committee recommended that television services should not be introduced into the Commonwealth until further investigations had been made by the proposed Parliamentary Standing Committee on Broadcasting. Accordingly, the

Australian Broadcasting Act 1942 provided that no licences should be granted for (inter alia) television stations except on the recommendation of t he Parliamentary Standing Committee on Broadcasting, the establishment of which was also · provided for in that Act.

10. Because of the effects of the virar on world developments in television, it was not consid-ered appropriate to consider the matter again until near the eessation of hostilities, and it was therefore not until November, 1944, that the Postmaster-G-eneral referred the subject to the Parliamentary Standing Committee for investigation and report.

11. The Standing Committee, on the 17th 1946, presented to Parliament a report, in which the fo llowing recommendations were made :-(a) In order to test the cost aspect and to facilitate a decision on the standards which might be adopted, tenders .should be invited as soon as ciTcumstances permit, and under conditions acceptable to the Post Office, · with a view to consideration being giv.en to the quest1on of arranging experimental transmissions in Sydney

and :Melbourne. (b) A condition of tendering should include a stipulation that a limited number of receivers shall be made available on loan for t4e use of selected viewers, but that none shall be sold to the p_ ublic until such time as television is eventually authorized as a stabilized service.

(c) Experimental transmissions by commercial undertakings should not be permitted at the present time, but they should not be precluded from co-o per ating in the experiments undertaken by the National Broadcasting Service. (d) In addition to technical, financial and other considerations, an essential requirement in both

experimental and regular transmissions should he the adoption of a code of standards in programmes along the lines of the motion picture code. ·

12. The Government decided that no immediate action should be taken to give effect to the recommendations of the Standing Committee, but appointed a Cabinet Sub-Committee to keep the question under review. Subsequently, in June, 1948, the Postmast er-General's Department was authorized to invite tenders for two or, alternatively, for six stations so that the aspect of cost could be properly assessed, as

recommended by the Standing Committee. 13. The A'u,stralian Broadcasting Act 1948, which was passed by the Parliament in November, 1948, but which was not proclaimed to commence until the 15th lVIarch, 1949, provided for the establishment of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and imposed upon it certain obligations with respect to the planning, establishment and operation of television services in the Commonwealth. These provisions are set out in paragraph 63. A section ( 103) was also incorporated in that Act which had the effect of

preventing (inter alia) the granting of licences for commercial television stations.

14. Following a report submitted to it by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, the Government, on the 14th June, 1949, announced that it had been decided that television should be introduced into the Commonwealth as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made and that the programmes should be provided by a national television authority. It was also stated that, at the outqet, stations would be established in each of the six State capital cities, where they would be capable of serving about 60 per cent. of the population, and that the service would be extended to other centres as soon

as practicable. 15. There was a ,change of government following the general election of 1949, and the matter was reviewed subsequently in February, 1950, and again in June, 1950, when it was de cided that arrangements for the introduction of television services should be proceeded with, but on the basis that development would

be on a gradual scale. It was proposed that initially a national station be established in Sydney, and that consideration be given to the extension of the nation al ser vice to other capital cities and to the larger provincial centres, as experience in the technical an d programme fi eld was obtained. It wa.s also decided to permit private enterprise to participate in the development of the service by t he licensing of one

commercial station in Sydney and one in Melbourne, and in any other capital city where there was


satisfactory evidence that an acceptable service could be provided. In announci!lg the decision of the Government, the Postmaster-General stated that, in view of the novel problems which would be encountered and the great expense which had to be incurred, the whole of television had t o be approached

for the time being on an experimental basis.

16. rrhese decisions necessitated, at least with respect to the commercial service, the of legislation. 17. Various steps were taken as a preliminary to the establishment of the station at Sydney, including the appointment of a Television Advisory Committee, the inviting of tenders for the supply of the required technical equipment, and the investigation of operational aspects of television in overseas

countries by a small committee, but early in 1952 the Government felt it necessary to reconsider the whole question in the light of t4e changed economic situation. '

18. On the 12th March, 1952, the Government decided that the introduction of television into the Commonwealth should be held in abeyance for the time being. In announcing thjs _ _. . .decjsion, the Postmaster­ General said that the Government had felt obliged to review its policy in many matters, including television, because of the very drastic change which had taken place in the Australian economy as a result, primarily, o£ alterations in the balance of overseas payments. In this connexion, the Government, whilst recognizing that the introduction of television could confer many benefits on the community, was obliged to pay due regard to many projects possessing a higher priority than television, notably those relating to defence, and also to the overall economic situation. The Government had accordingly reached the conclusion that, although it was anxious that television services should 1be provided for the people of the Commonwealth as soon as possible, the time was inopportune to embark u pon the introduction of t elevision. The Minister emphasized that this decision was reached by the Government ·with considerable reluctance, and it should not be taken as indicating that the establishment of television services in this country had been deferred

indefinitely. On the contrary, he said, the question would be kept under constant review, as it was the desire of the Government that the services should be commenced as so-on as circumstances permitted. 19. Following on a report by Postmaster-General on investigations made by him in the United Kingdom and the United States of America in September-No vember , 1952, the Government again consiqered the matter, and on 16th January, 1953, decided that legislation should be introduced at an early date to provide for the licensing of commercial television stations so as to permit the establishment of both national and commercial services in the Common·wealth. It was also decided that a committee should be set up

under the Royal Commission Act to advise the Government on various matter s arising in connexion with the establishment both of the national and the commercial services. The Prime l\1:inister in announcing these decisions stated, inter alia, that television was to be introduced into the Commonwealth on a gradual scale and that the Government desired that before final decisions were made as to the various stages in the development of the new service and the licensing of commercial stations, full opportunity should be afforded for the expression of responsible opinions and the formation of accurate jp.dgments on

the subject. 20. The Government on 23rd January, 1953, approved of the terms of reference to this Commission and it was appointed by Letters Patent on 11th February, 1953. 21. A Bill to authorize the establishment of national television stations and to provide for the licensing of commercial television stations in accordance with the Government's policy, was passed by

Parliament on 20th March, 1953. A summary of the provisions of this Act (Television Act 1953) is given in paragraph 61. We have already pointed out, in Chapter I., that the Postmaster-General, in introducing the Bill into the House of Representatives on the 18th February, 1953, stated that the Bill was being brought down by the Government for the purpose of asking P arliament to endorse the general principle

that television should be developed in the Common wealth ·on the same fundamental basis as is followed in respect of broadcasting, i.e., the provision of services both by a Government instrumentality and by private enterprise. 3. TELEVISION IN GREAT BRITAIN.

22. Broadcasting (including television) in Great Britain is conducted exclusively by the British Broadcasting Corporation (B.B.C.) created by Royal Charter in 1926. This exclusive privilege is enjoyed by the Corporation because, up to the successive governments have decided that, although the Postmaster-General is empowered by statute to grant licences to any number of persons to operate broadcasting stations, he should not licence any one other than the B.B.C. (As mentioned later, a somewhat different policy in respect of television has been announced by the present Government but has

not yet been implemented.) The charter has been renewed from time to time for varying periods, the last occasion being on 1st July, 1952, when it was renewed for a period of ten years.

Pre-war Development.

23. Experimental television transmissions commenced in Great Britain in 1929, and in 1932 the Briti.$h Broadcasting Corporation afforded facilities to Baird Television Limited for public experimental transmissions of low definition television (30 line). Other forms of television also began to be used


experimentally, and in 1934 a c01nmittee was appointed "to consider the development of television and to advise the Postmaster-General on the relative merits of the sev-eral systems and on the conditions under vvhich ·any public service for television should be provideu ". In its report submitted in January, 1935 (Cmd. 4793) the Committee recommended that- >

(a) a public t-elevision service of high definitimi should be established and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation; (b) the Postmaster-General should appoint an Advisory Committee to plan and guide the initiation and early development of the service;

(c) an initial station in London should, at the outset, operate on the systems of Baird and alternately;

(d) the aim should be the establishment of a network of stations operating on a national standardized system of transmissions ; and (e) at the start, the cost of the service should be borne out of broadcast receiving licence revenue.

24. These recommendations were accepted by the Government and a regular public service of high definition television, the first in any country, was inaugurated by the Corporation from the Alexandra Palace, London, in November, 1936. The Baird and lVIarconi-E.M.I. systems were used alternately until February, 1937, when it was

Initially, programmes were provided for two -hours per day, one in the afternoon and one in the evening. By the end of 1939, when the service was suspended for defence reasons, encouraging progress had been achieved, although the number of receivers in use by the public was only 20,000. This slow expansion in the number of viewers was attributed mainly to the high cost of receivers and the general impression that

the service was still in the experimental stage. Nevertheless, there were pressing demands for an extension of facilities to the provinces and plans for this expansion were under consideration.

Recornmencernent of Service after ·War.

25. In September, 1943, a committee was appointed by the <1overnment "to prepare plans for the reinstatement and development of the television service after the war". In its report, presented in 1944, the Committee recommended that-

( a) the 1finister responsible for sound broadc asting should also be responsible for television and the British Broadcasting Corporation should continue to operate the service ; (b) an Advisory Committee should again be appointed; (c) the London service should be restarted on the pre-war standard of definition and this

standard should also form the basis of plans for an extension of television to the



provinces; \

vigorous research should be initiated with a view to the introduction of an improved system approaching the cinema standard of picture definition and possibly incorporating colour and stereoscopic effects ; and two types of special television licences should be introduced for domestic viewers and for

cinemas respectively.

26. rrhese recommendations were accepted in substance by the Government and the London television service was reopened by the Corporation on the 7th June, 1946, using the pre-war equipment and transmitting programmes for approximately four hours per day.

The Beveridge Comrnittee of Inquiry.

27. The United Kingdom Government, in 1949, set up a committee under the chairmanship of Lord Beveridge "to consider the constitution, control, finance and other general aspects of the sound and television broadcasting services of the United Kingdom and to advise on the conditions under which these services should be conducted after the 31st December, 1951 ". The Committee presented its report (Cmd.

8116) to Parliament in January, 1951, the most impor tant r ecommendations for present purposes being-(a) that the B.B.C. should continue to be the authority responsible for all broadcasting in the United Kingdom, including t elevision; (b) the n ew charter of the B.B.C. should have no fixed time limit but the working of the

Corporation should be subject t o a quinquennial review; (c) within its own sphere the B.B.C. shouJ d in respect of television be in the same position as jt is in respect of broadcasting, of independence subject only to defined vetoes and specific requirement'S; (d) the Government should retain greater r es ponsibilities and powers in regard to television

than in regard to broadcasting ; (e.) a television advisory committee should be appointed to advise the Government inrelation to the B.B.C.

Views of Successive British Governments.

28. The Attlee Government, which was in office when the B everidge Committee's report presented, indicated in a White Paper (dated July, 1951, Cmd. 8291) that it in general agreement with the principal conclusion of the Committee that the B.B.C. should continue to function on substantially the same basis as previously, i.e. it should continue as the authority responsible for all broadcasting in the United Kingdom, including television. The Government proposed that the charter should be renewed for a period of fifteen years. However, the Churchill Gov-ernment, which assumed office before the current charter expired, outlined its views in a White Paper ( clatedlVIay, 1952, Cmd. 8550) as follows:-

(a.) the charter of the B.B.C. should be renewed for ten years;

( b) commercial television would be introduced vvhen men and materials are released from the rearmament programme ; (c) the B.B.C. should retain its monopoly in the broadcasting field (advertisements to continue to be excluded) ; (d) before the first television licence was g ra nted Parliament would be afforded the opportunity

of considering the terms and conditions under which commercial television would operat-e; (e) to prevent the B.B.C. becoming subo rdinated to political ends, a body of high State officials including the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition and the I.Jord Chief Justice would be made responsible for appointing the B.B.C. Go'vernors (this proposal was

subsequently abandoned) ; and (f) the Government would seek advice on technical questions generally and on the development of the B.B.C. television service from an Advisory Committee. (A Television Advisory Committee was accordingly appointed in October, 1952.)

The Present Service.

29. The television service is at present provid eel from five transmitters which serve about 80 per cent. of the population as follows:.,...-


Alexandra Palace Sutton Goldfields (Midlands) Holme Moss (North of England) Kirk o' Shotts (Central Scotland) Wenvoe (Wales)

Power kW.

17 50 50 50 50

Population Served.

11,500,000 6,900,000 13,400,000 4,000,000


In addition three 'temporary transmitters are in use and thes e extend the service to an additional 4 per cent. of the population. The majority of programmes is r elaye d from Alexandra Palace to the other stations, but progressively a greater proportion of the programmes is being originated locally, particularly in the field of " outside broadcasts ". rrhe technical standards of the television service have not been

changed since 1937. They are different from those used in the United States o.f America and those which have been adopted for Australia. Fundamentally (there are a number of other differences) the difference lies in the picture definition. In Great Britain this is 405 . lines, in United States of America 525 lines, and that to be used in Australia in 625 lines. The hours of operation vary: for the year ended the 31st March, 1953, the average weekly hours totalled 35. The following is an average week-day schedule:-

Afternoon-3.15 p.m. to 4.15 p.m., 5 p.m. t o 5.55 p.m. Evening-8 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. In addition, transmissions are undertaken for about two hours each morning (excluding Saturday and Sunday), primarily to facilitate the demonstration of receivers by retailers.

30. The number of licensed viewers as at the end of July, 1958, was 2,479,454. The rate of development may be gauged from the following list of licences jn force since 1946, when an additional fee for television receivers was imposed:-Year.

1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952


No. of Licences.

7,467 32,994 92,784 239,345 577,854 1,162,359 1,892,832



Financial .

. 31. rrhere was no special licence-fee for television receivers until the middle of 1946. In that year the Government not only doubled the licence-fee for a sound receiver to £1, but. imposed a combination sound and television receiver licence-fee of £2, which is the current fee. The amount received by the B.B.C. from the additional £1 charged for a combined television and sound licence in the year ended 31st

lVIarch, 1953, was £1,679,007. Capital expenditure for the year amounted to £933,432 and running costs to £3,401,042. In all, it was necessary to provide £2,654,629 out of reserves and other income. Of the operating expenditure 36 per cent. was on programmes and 45 per C€nt. on engineering.

Proposed Developments.

32. If frequency channels can be made available for the purpose, the Corporation envisages the expansion of the present service, in accordance with a ten-year plan, which provides for the erection of 35 additional stations, twenty of which would be used for the transmission of a second programme on a national basis. (See l''irst Report of Television Advisory Committee, 1952, paragraph 31.) 'rhe

Government, on 2nd July, 1953, announced that Corporation would proceed at once with the erection of seven new stations (the completion of which was expected within eighteen months) which would ensure satisfactory reception by some 90 per cent. of the population.

C ornrnercial Television.

33. Up to the present, as we have pointed out, the provision of television services in Great Britain has been the sole responsibility of the British Broadcastjng Corporation. However, the Churchill Government in l\1ay, 1952, in a memorandum to Parliament ( Cmd. 8550), proposed in the field of television "to permit some element of competition when the calls on capital resources at present needed for purposes of greater national importance make this possible". This proposal was subsequently adopted by both

Houses after vigorous opposition by the Labour party. There was also serious opposition on a non-party basis in the House of Lords. 34. It was proposed that, before the first station was licensed, Parliament should be given the opportunity of considering the terms and conditions under which the commercial stations would operate,

and that the commercial stations would not. be permitted to engage in political or religious broadcasting. 35. On 2nd July, 1953, the Lord Privy Seal informed the House of Commons that the Government proposed to publish in the Autumn a further White Paper defining· the terms upon which competitive television might be permitted to operate. Some of the broad principles envisaged were stated as follows

(Hansard, vol. 517, column 595) :-(a) The number of stations under any one ownership or control would be limited. (b) It was not likely that a large number of stations would be licensed in the first instance and they would be of low power and limited range. (c) A controlling body would be set up to advis-e the Postmaster-General on the issue of

licences and would see that programmes conform to the standards to be laid down. It would, for example, have power to call for a script in advance of presentation, to warn a station which offended against the letter or 1;:;pirit of these standards; and to make recommendations to the Postmaster-General that the licence of any particular · station should be SUJ?pended or withdrawn. (d) The owner and operator of a station, whose licence would be at stake, and not the provider

of programmes or the sponsor, would be the person responsible for what was broadcast. (e) Among other things which might be specified in the licence, or by the controlling· body, would be the maximum number of hours the station should operate, any restriction on the advertising of certain products, and the percentage of time and the place to be

allotted to advertising matter in any programme.

36. In November, 1953, the Government presented to Parliament a further memorandum on television policy ( Cmd. 9005) in order to inform Parliament, in greater detail, of its proposals with respect to competitive television. The memorandum stated that "as television has great and increasing power in influencing men's minds, the Government believes that its control should not remain in the hands of a

single authority, however excellent it may be. Moreover, competition should be in the best interests of v:ewers, writers, artists and technicians. There will also be an increasing and urgent demand for filmed television programmes throughout the world, and competition at home should induce vitality and help Britain to produce programmes for overseas markets". The principal proposals of the Government, as

detailed in the White Paper, may be summarized as follows:-(a) A public corporation is to be set up by statute for a suggested initial period of ten years. It would own and operate the transmitting stations and would hire its facilities to privately financed companies, which would provide programmes and draw revenue from


16 ._

(b) Like the B.B.C., the corporation would operate under licence from the Postmaster-General, and would be given independence in the handling of day-to-day matters, including individual ·programmes. (c) The corporation would have a flexible control over the " programme companies". It would

have the right to scrutinize programmes, to forbid the transmission .of specified classes of matter and to regulate advertisements. (d) In selecting the programme companies and in- fixing the duration of their contracts, the corporation would be free to give opportunities to a number .of companies. (e) As commercial television under the scheme proposed would be controlled by a public

corporation, there is a stronger case for withdrawing the ban on 'politics and religion originally contemplated, either at once or after a period of practical experience. The arrangements for' allowing such transmissions, as part of the commercial programmes, would follow those adopted for the B .B.C. .

(f) The Postmaster-General would specify ma:!imum and minimum hours of each day.


37. In March, 1949, the Canadian Government, in announcing the interim policy which was to be followed in relation to television in the Dominion, stated that the general direction of television was to be entrusted to the Board of Governors of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ( C.B.C.), which would make the necessary arrangements for the establishment of the services both by the Corporation and by licensed private stations, in accordance with the Broadcasting Act. The question was also included among the matters examined by the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences

(the Massey Commission). In its report presented to the Governor-General in Council, in May, 1950, the Commission recommended that "the direction and control of television broadcasting in Canada should continue to be vested in the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation", and also that-(a) no private television stations should be licensed until the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

has available national television programmes, and that all private stations be required to serve as outlets for national programmes; and ( b) the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation should exercise a strict control over all television stations in Canada . to avoid excessive commercialization and to encourage Canadian

content and the use of Canadian talent. 38. In December, 1949, the Canadian Government authorized the Corporation to proceed immediately with the construction of stations at l\'Iontreal and 'foronto, and in November, 1952, announced that applications would be received from private interests for licences f or stations in centres other than those where the Corporation operated stations, the objective being t o achieve the ' provision of qne service, either national or private, to as great a proportion of t he Canadian people as possible before a second service is provided in any one area.

39. On 30th lVIarch, 1953, the Minister for National Revenue in the Canadian House of Commons stated, with reference to the Government's policy concerning television that-The principle of one station to an area is to apply only until an adequate national television system is developed. At the rate that applications for stations are now being re ceived it. may not be long before there is

a sufficient degree of national coverage to justify the Government and the O.B .O. giving consideration to permitting two or perhaps in some cases more than two stations in certain areas. It is anticipated that, in due .course, private stations will be permitted in areas covered by O.B .O. stations and the O.B.O. may establish stations in some areas originally covered by private stations.

Existing Service.

40. The Montreal and 'f.oronto stations were brought into operation by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in September, 1952, and a third station commenced operations at Ottawa on 2nd June, 1953. The latter station serves as an outlet for programmes originating either in Montreal or Toronto. Certain of the programmes of these stations are available ·for commercial sponsorship. Initially transmissions were made for about three hours per day, but these have since been increased to six ho urs per day and a further increase is contemplated. There are about 400 ,000 television sets in use.

41. The programme schedules for the Montreal station have be en devised to provide service in the proportion of 35 per cent. English content to 65 p er cent. in French. The programme for Toronto also includes a proportion of French programmes. The proportion of commercial programming is understood to be about 35 per cent. of the total programme time. When the service commenced about 40 per cent. of the programmes transmitted consisted of film material.

42; Relay facilities are provided between Montreal-Ottawa-Toronto, whilst programmes of American origin are available by microwave relay from Buffalo, United States of America.



43. Up to the present the Canadian Government has made available to the Corporation loans amounting to 12,750,000 dollars covering capital expenditure and preliminary operatii1g It is expected that an additional loan of 2,000,000 d q,H ars will be required t o complete the existing installations and to enable the erection of three additional stations to proceed. It is estimated that the annual operating costs of the Corporation network, when completed will total between 10,000,000 dollars and 15,000,000 dollars.

44. The licence-fee of dollars for a sound broadcast receiver was abolished in February, 1953, and no licence-fee has been required for television r eceivers . . The revenue from the 15 per cent. excise duty which is charged on radio and television receivers and on valves and components has, however, been diverted to the Corporation to finance, in part, its broadcasting and television activities. The anticipated revenue from this source, based on present excise duty income, is approximately 12,000,000 dollars per year.

P roposed Expansion of Service.

45. The Government has announced that additional stations, to be operated by the Corporation, are to be established at Vancouver, Halifax and Winnipeg. 'i_lhe Vancouver station is expected to commence operations before the end of 1953. Private Television Stations.

46. Licences for private broadcasting stations. including television stations, are granted by the of Transport in confornJ.ity with the .Rad·io Act 1938 (as amcndBd ) but the approval of' the

Governor in Council is required before any such licence is granted. Under the provisions of the Canadian Broadcasting Act 1936, the Minister is required to refer all applications for licences for such stations to the Corporation for any recommendation it deems fi t to make thereon. Following upon recommendations of the Corporation, licences have now been granted for fourteen private stations, two of which have commenced operations. The private stations are r equired to transmit at least ten and a half hours of national programme material per week, which will be supplied to them by the Corporation. No private station will be permitted to affiliate directly with any network outside Canada and it is proposed that this

restriction should extend also to the use of kinescope recordings of network programmes.


Pre-war Development.

47. The first experimental television broadcast s in the United S tates of America were made in 1927 from a statio n established in Washington. By 1929, a total of 22 experimental stations had been authorized to broadcast visual images. In 1931, it became evident that technical progress was impossible in the medium frequencies whic,P were then being employed, and the trend t o the higher frequencies began (se e

Fifth Annual Report of Federal Radio Commission). By 1936, activity in the medium frequency band had ceased and all exp erimental stations were operating in the very high frequency bands. In the following year, frequency allocations were established for the fi rst time on a basis of channels 6 Mcjs wide, and, from then on, rapid progress t o the · development of a high definition service was made.

48. The Federal Communications Commission (11\C.C.), in the meantime, h ad appointed a Committee, compri

question of technical standards had been properly r esolved. In J anuary and April, 1940 , the Federal Communications Commission held public hearings on television, and concluded that a position had not been reached which would permit the "issuance of any stan dards of engineering performance " . Conflicting evidence had been presented to the Commission claiming, on one hand, that television had not reached a stage where it could offer suf-ficient ent ertainment value to justify commercial operation and that the issu e

of standards could r esult in the "freezing" of the science at the then level of efficiency, and, on the other hand, that television should be proceeded with at all cos ts. Because the situation was on e which threatened to hold up co-ordinated television developwent indefinitely and to delay the inauguration of a public service , the Federal Communications Commission, in collaboration with units of the industry, establishet1 a

National Television System Committee to explore existing television systems with a view to formulating and developi11g standards which would be acce ptable to the industry and expedite a national system of t elevision ( se e Sixth Annual Report of F.C.C.) . Out of the ,,·ork of this Co mmitt ee came virtually complet e agreement on a set o£ 22 standards which wer e pr esented to the Commission f or approval and adoption.

49. On 20 th March, 1941, the Federal Communications Commission held a public hearing to con <:;ider '' when t elevision broadcasting shall be placed up on a co mmer cial basis and f or co11..c: iderin g ru] es, regulations and standards for such stations". Subse quently the Commission adopted the standards recommende d by the National Television System Co_ mi ttee, an d issued r egulations providing for the

commercial operation of television st ations as from 1st July, 1941. The regulations provided, inter al1:a ,



that at least fifteen hours' programme service per week should be rendered· by each station, and that no person should be permitted to own or control more than three stations. Those stations which had conducted experimental transmissions immediately planned to commence a commercial service, and two stations in New York began commercial operation on 1st July, 1941. 'rhey were followed by several others in the ensuing months.

50. On 7th December, 1941, the United States entered the war and television developments ceased. Commercial television services continued, but . the production of receivers for public sale was suspended. The Ij1ed eral Communications Commission reduced the required hours of transmission to four per week.

Post-war Developments.

51. In 1944-45, the Federal Communications Commission held public hearings as a preliminary to preparation of plans designed to ensure as rapid and extensive development of the television service a.-; possible. Subsequently in December, 1945, the Commission promulgated standards for the allocation of frequ-encies to, and the technical operation of, television stations. The standards provided for thirteen and later (in 194 7) for twelve channels for television purposes. It was anticipated that under this plan 400 stations could be licensed, providing service to only about 40 per cent. of the population, and it was

recognized from the outset that many rural and even some important metropolitan areas would be without service. By October, 1948, when there were 103 stations in operation, experience had shown that the existing standards of allocation possessed serious shortcomings, as many of the demands for television ljcences could not be met. It was therefore decided to examine the position comprehensively before authorizing the establishment of additional stations. (This was the" freeze".)

52. In April, 1952, the Commission, after a lengthy study 'following public hearings, issued new standards of allocation and tables of channel assignments. The assignments were based on the following principles:-Priority No. I.-Providing at least one television service to all parts of the United States;

Priority No. 2.-Providing each community with at least one television station; No. 3.-Providing a choice of at least two television services to all parts of the United

States; Priority No. 4.-Providing each community with at least two television stations; and Priority No. 5.-The allocation of remaining unassigned channels to various eommunities7 depending upon population, location and services available. 53. The standards provided for the use of frequencies in tLe bands above 300 megacycles per second 'vhich hitherto had not been used. Provision was made for a total of 1,445 stations in these bands and for

a t otal of 606 stations on frequencies below 300 megacycles per second-a grand total of 2,051 stations at various specified centres throughout the country, ineluding 242 educational stations.

The Pt·esent Service.

The number of stations in operation as at the end of October, 1953, was 311, of whicb

103 were operating in the ultra-high frequency band. S tations were, until recently, licensed for one year but the F ederal Communications Commission on 5th Nove mber, 1953, extended the licence period to thre<> years. 55. It is estimated that there are approximately 25,000,000 receivers in use in about 55 per cent. of t he homes in the United States. The rapid growth of development may be gauged from the following


Year. No. of Stations.

No. of Receivers (approx.).

1.941 2

1942 4

1943 9

1944 8

1945 9

1946 6 8,000

1947 17 250,000

1948 29 1,000,000

1949 51 4,000,000

1950 97 10,500,000

1951 107 15,7507000

1952 123 22,000,000

56. rrhe F.C.C. rules provide that all commercial television stations will be licensed for unlimited time operation. Each station is required, however, to transmit regular programmes for not less than a total of twelve hours per week during the first eighteen months of the station's and for not less than


a total of sixteen hours, twenty hours, and twenty-four hours per week for each successive six months period respectively not less than twenty-eight hours per week thereafter. Most stations provide programmes for periods exceeding twelve hours per day. and in some cases (in New York) reach seven teen hours per day.

57. In May, 1952, Congress authorized an investigation by a sub-committee of the Congressional Committee on Interstate and For eign Commerce (the Harris Committee) on charges that television and radio programmes were "corrupting the nation's youth" and this inquiry concluded at the end of 1952. Some details of the Heport of this Committee are given in paragraph 387.


58 . The Federal Communications Commission, in July, 1953, reported that of the 108 stations in operation for the full twelve months of 1952, 94 reported profitable· operations, while fourteen showed a loss. Nine of the stations which showed a loss were located in the two "seven station markets" of New York and Angeles. The total revenue was 324,200,000 dollars, an increase of 35 per cent. on the revenue for 1951, while the profits were 55,500,000 dollars (before Federal income taxes) as against 41,600,000

Jollars for 1951.

Colour :Television.

59. The question of the adoption of standards to provide for colour television was recently the of public inquiry by the Federal Communications Commission. This matter js referred to in

paragraph 116.


60. 'relevision services have been established in a number of other countries either on a regular or on an experimental basis. In Burope experimental transmissions are now being undertaken in Switzerland, Holland, Belgium and Spain, while regular services are being provided in France, Italy and Germany. \Ve were informed that the present position in the three latter countries is as follows:-

Franc e: rrhe service is conducted by a public instrumentality. No advertising is permitted but a viewer's licence-fee of 3,275 francs is imposed. rrwo stations, have been established and three additional stations are contemplated. Programmes are transmitted for about 34 hours per week and .50,000 receivers are in use. Italy: Service is at present provided from five stations conducted by a public company in

which the Government is the majority shareholder. Revenue is derived from licence-fees and the sale of advertising time. Programmes are provided for about seventeen to twenty hours per week, and it is estimated that there are 9,000 receivers in use. Germa.-ny: Service is provided for about eighteen hours per week from eight station.-; operated

by a instrumentality. Some 10,000 receivers have been sold. A licence-fee of

60 marks is charged.

Considerable development has also taken place recently in l\1exico, where there are six stations in operation. in Cuba, where there are five stations, and in the South American countries of Brazil (three stations) , V<:nezuela (t-wo stations) and Argentina (one station). \Ve were also informed that there are three stations in operation in Russia and two in Japan, while in a number of other countries services are in various of development.


61. The Tele·vis1:on Act 1953, which came into operation on the 17th April, 1953, provides for the establishment and operation of national television stations and the grant of licences for commer cial television stations. The principal provisions of the Act are as follows:-3. The Postmaster-General may make television stations available for the transmission of television

programmes provided by an authorized authority. 4.-(1.) The Minister may, subject to the regulations and any determination made by the Board under see tion six K of the Broadcasting Act, grant to a person a licence for a commercial television station upon such eon ditions, and in such form, as the Minister determines.

(2.) Before exercising the power conferred on him by this section, the Minister shall take into eonsideration any recommendations that have been made by the Board as to the exe rcise of that power. 5. The Minister may direct an authorized authority to provide television programmes for transmission from a television station that is made available by the Postmaster-General 11nder section tlwee of this Act,

and that authority shall subject to this Act and any directions of the Minister, provide adequate and comprehensive for transmissio11 from that station.

6. Where the Minister, under the last preceding section, directs the Commission to provide television programmes, the Commission has powers are or for the purpose of enablin.g

Commission to comply with that sectiOn and, without hm1tmg the generality of those powers, the Oomnusswn may-(a) for that purpose and with the in writing of the Minister, acqu.ire, dispos: .of or

other·wise deal with any land, bmldmgs, easements or other property, nghts or pnv1leges; and

2o ·

. (b) .subject to sub-section ( 3.) o£ section t wenty-eight of the Broa'dcasting Act, defray the costs, charges and incurred by the Commission in complying with the last preceding section out of moneys standing to the credit of the account Ol' accounts opened and maintained by the Commission under the Broadcasting Act . . 10. The Governor-General may make regulations, not inconsistent with this Act, prescribing all matters which by this Act are required or permitted to be prescribed, or which are necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act, and, in particular, for prescribing the fees payab!e in respect of the grant of licences under this Act. .

The Act defines an "authorized authority" as an " authority of the Commonwealth that is empowered to provide television programmes or the Commission". "The Commission" means the Australian Broadcasting Commission, and "the Board " means the Australian Broadcasting Control Board.

62. The Postmaster-General, in introducing the measure into the Parliament, indicated that the Television Act was intended as interim legislation to be replaced at an appropriate time by a more comprehensive Act; the intention of the Act was to provide statutory authority for the Government to take such action as may be desirable as a preliminary to the establishment of television services in the

Commonwealth, and to make regulations to cope . with sit uations which may arise . before the introduction into Parliament of more comprehensive legislation, f ollowing the completioii of the inquiries of the Royal Commission. ·

63. Provisions relating to television are also contained in sections 6K and 103 of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953. Section 6K relates to the powers and functions of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and provides-(1.) The functions of the Board shall be-

(a) to ensure the provision of services hy broadcasti11g stations, television stations and f acsimile stations, and services of a like kind, in accordance with plans from time to time prepared by the Board and approved by the Minister; (b)_to ensure that the technical equipment and operation of such stations are in accordance with

such standards and practices as the Board considers to be appropri:1te; and (c) to ensure that adequate and comprehensive programmes are provided by such stations to serve the best interests of the general public, and shall include such other functions as are prescribed in relation to broadcasting stations, television stations, and facsimile stations.

(2.) In exercising its functions under paragraph (c) of the last preceding sub-section-(b) the Board shall in particular-

( v) fix the hours of .service of broadcasting stations, television stations and facsimile stations.

( 4.) The Board shall have power subject to any directions of the Minister-. (a) to determine the situation and operating power of any broadcasting station, television stations, or facsimile station; (b) to determine the frequency of each broadcasting station, television station or facsimile station

within bands of frequencies notified to the Board for such stations. Section 103, which precludes the Minister administering the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1905-1936 from granting a licence under that Act for a television station, reads as follows:-Notwithstanding anything contained in the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1905-19 36, the Minister administering that Act shall not grant a licence under that Act for any purpose for which a licence may be granted under this Act or for a television st:1tion or a facsimile station.

64. The Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 contains many provisions at present relating only to broadcasting which have been considered by us in our examination of various specific issues relating to such matters as the conditions of establishment of television stations, and certain aspects of television programmes. We refer where neecssary to the relevant provisions of the Broadcasting Act when commenting on these matters.


65. There is a number of matters contained in our terms of reference in respect of which considerable experience has been obtained over manyyears in the field of broadcasting. Although we appreciate that the problems which will be presented by television may, from some points of view, be very .different, it was evident that we might secure much information of value from an examination of the organization .of broadcasting in Australia, and of the manner in which the various provisions of the Broadcasting Act are administered, particularly those which r elate to matters similar to those included in our terms of reference. In later chapters of this report reference is made, in detail, to the relevant aspects of broadcasting, but it is appropriate to set out here a brief general description of the system and its operation.


66. The Australian broadcasting system consist8 of two types of (a) the national broadca<:Jting service established and operated under Part II. of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 ; and (b) the commercial broadcasting SNvice operated under licences granted in accordance with

Part III. of the Act.

67. The national broadcasting service is provided by the Australian Bro.adcasting Commission, a statutory corporation which, in accordance with the Act, is required to broadcast from the national broadcasting stations "adequate and comprehensive programmes" and "take, in the interests of the community, all such measures as, in the opinion of the Commission, are conducive to the full development of suitable broadcasting programmes". The cost of the national broadcasting service is met out of funds

provided by the Parliament in accordance with estimates of expenditure approved by the Treasurer. The provision and operation of all technical services associated with the transmission of programmes provided - by the Commission are undertaken by the Postmaster-General's Department. The situation and the operating conditions of the national stations have been determined on a basis designed to ensure, a'S far as

possible, the satisfactory reception throughout the Commonwealth of the programmes provided by the Commission. These programmes are, in general, produced on an Australian, and not a local, or regional, basis, except during relatively short periods devoted to items of special interest to the areas in which the individual stations are situated. (For a fuller description of the national and commercial services see the Annual Reports of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and especially the Second Annual Report


68. The commercial broadcasting service is provided by a number of separate stations licensed individually (more than one licence may be held by one person or company, subject to the conditions prescribed - in . section 53 of the Act). These stations rely for their income on the broadcasting of advertisements. Licences may be granted for a period not exceeding three years and inay be renewed for

a p eriod not exceeding one year. Licensees of commercial broadcasting stations are required to provide programmes to the satisfaction of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, which is also required to approve of the technical equipment and method of operation of such stations. 1n general the commercial broadcasting service is intended to provide substantially a local or regional service on a commercial basis

through separate broadcasting stations serving relatively restricted areas. 69. The Broadcasting Act 1942- 1953 imposes separate functions and responsibilities with respect to the control and provision of the national and commercial broadcasting services upon the Minister (at present the Postmaster-Genetal), the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, the Australian Broadcasting

Commission and the Postmaster-General's Department. 'l'he more important functions of the Minister and the three organizations mentioned, as prescribed in the Act, are indicated in the following paragraphs.

The Minister.

70. So far as the national broadcasting service is concerned, the Minister may prohibit the Australian Broadcasting Commission from broadcasting any specified matter (section 41). He may also direct the Commission to broadcast any matter which he considers as being in the public int€rest (section 23). The approval of the Minister is also necessary before any property may b e acquired, or any agreement entered

into, which involves expenditure exceeding £5,000. In addition, no lease of property or agreement involving a period in excess of five years, may be ent ered into without the Minister's consent (sections 20 and 21). 71. With respect to the commercial service, the Minister grants licences for stations

upon such conditions as he determines (section 44 ) . He may also determine the period of such licences, not exceeding three years, and renew licences for any period not exceeding one year (section 46 ) . The Minister may, in addition, suspend, revoke or determine any licen ce on the ground that the licensee bas failed to comply with any provisions of the Act or the regulations or with any condition of the licence, or if

he considers it advisable in the public inter est to do so (section 49). He may also prohibit any licensee from broadcasting any specified matter (section 60 ) . Before exercising any of his powers with respect to the licensing of commercial broadcasting stations, the Minister is required to take into consideration any recommendations made by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board (section 52A) .

The Australian Broadcasting Control Board.

72. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board, which was established on 15th March, 1949, pursuant to the provisions of the Broadcasting A ct 1948, consists of three members appointed by the Governor-General. The principal functions of the Board as set out in section 6K of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 are as follows:-

(a) to ensure the provision of services by broadcasting stations, elevision stations and f acsimile stations, and services of a like kind, in accordance with plans from time to time prepared by the Board and approved by the Mini-ster;


(b) to ensure that the technical equipment and operation of such stations are in accordance with such standards and practices as the Board considers to he appropriate; (c) to ensure that adequate and comprehensive programmes are provided by such stations t o serve · the best interests of the general public.

73. In the exercise of its functions in respect of programmes, the Board is required-( a) to consult the Australian Broadcasting Commission and representatives of licensees of commercial broadcasting stations in relation respectively to the programmes of the national and commercial broadcasting services, and

(b) in particular· to-( i) ensure reasonable variety of programmes ; (ii) ensure that divine worship or other matter of a religious nature is broadcast f or adequate periods and at appropriate times and that no matter which is not of

a religious nature is broadcast by a station during any period during which divine worShip or other matter of a religious nature is broadacst by that station; (iii) ensure that facilities are pro·vided on an equitable basis for the broadca.<:; ting of political · or controversial matter; (iv) determine the extent to which advertisements may be in the programme

of any commercial broadcasting station; ( v) fix the hours of service of broadcasting stations, television stations and stations.

74. The Board is empowered to make recommendation<:; to the Minister as to the exercise by him of any power under Division I. of Part III. of the Act, which prescribes the conditions under which licenc€s are granted to commercial broadcasting stations.

75. The Board also has power, subject to the directions of the Minister-( a) to determine the situation and operating power of any broadcasting station, television station or facsimile station; (b) to determine the frequency of each broadcasting station, television station or

station, within bands of frequencies notified to the Board by the Postmaster-General as being available for such stations; (c) after consultation with the Commission, to determine the conditions upon which a commercial broadcasting station may broadcast a programme of the national broadcasting



(d) to regulate the establishment of networks of broadcasting stations and the making of agreements or arrangements by licensees of commercial broadcasting stations for the provision of programmes or the broadcasting of advertisements.

The Australian Sroadcasting Commission.

76. The Australian Broadcasting Commission consists of seven Commissioners, at l€ast one of whom must be a woman; one Commissioner must be an of the Department of the Treasury and one an officer of the Postmaster-Ge11eral's Department (these last-mentioned Commissioners are referred to as Departmental Commissioners). The Commissioners are appointed by the Governor-General for a period

of three years (except the Departmental Commis.-;ioners, who hold office during the pleasure of the Governor-General). Section 18 (1.) of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 prescribes that the Commission shall-" provide and shall broadcast from the national broadcasting stations adequate and comprehensive programmes and shall take in the interests of the community all such measures ::ts, in the opinion of the Commission, are conducive to the full development of suitable broadcasting programmes.''

The Commission is specifically prohibited from broadcasti;ng advertisements (section 24 (1.)). It is required to provide daily news and information services and to employ an adequate staff both in the Commonwealth and in overseas countries to enable this to be done (section 25).

The Postmaster-General's Department.

77. The Broadcasting Act (section 36) provides that the Postmaster-General shall und<: r take the provision and operation of all technical services associated with the transmission of programmes provide d by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. The Postmaster-General is also required to provide, free of charge, relay facilities to enable simultaneous transmissions from two or more national stations and certain other services (section 38) .

7R. The collection of listeners' licence-fees is also the resnonsibilitv of the Postmaster-General (section 96). The fee is, at present, £2, except in the case of listeners residing more than 250 miles from any broadcasting station, when it is 28s., and in the case of pensioners who, subject to ,certain conditions, pay a fee which is one-quarter of the normal Free licences are granted to blind persons and to schools.




79. In the course of our consideration of the question of the number of television stations to be established in Australia and the areas to be served by them, it was necessary for us to examine, in some detail, a number of technical matters, since it became evident that, in the final analysis, decisions on these matters might well determine, to a large exterlt at least, the nature of our recommendations. Moreover, a great deal of evidence on technical matters was presented to us. \Ve feel that, as a background

tQ our observations in later chapters of this report on each of our terms of reference, it is r elevant to review

this evidence, and also to set down certain fundamental technical considerations which it has been necessary for us to keep in mind in reaching our conclusions. we have also considered it necessary to make a number of recommendations with respect to certain technical matters and these are included in the relevant of this chapter.


80. vVe feel that an appreciation of the discussions in this chapter might p erhaps be facilitated if, as a preliminary, a brief general description of as a medium of ·communication is given, and

this we attempt to do. 81. rrhe Television Act 1953 defines a television station as a station for the transmission of transient images and associated sound intended for reception by the g·eneral public. Similarly, the Federal Communications Commission of the United States of America in its rules defines a television station as one transmitting simultaneous visual and aural signals intended to be received by the general public.

The methods of transmission of sound by broadcasting stations are now quite well known, and the t echnique of transmitt]ng the sound component in television is not basically dissimilar. The transmission of visual signals is, however, more complex. 82 . The satisfactory reception of images is possible because of that property of the sense of sight

(known as "persistence of vision") which enables the eye to retain the impression of any scene for a small fraction of a second. During this interval of persistence of one scene, other successive scenes can be presented to the eye in their proper positions and appear as continuous motion, as in motion pictures. A scene which is photographed by a television camera consists of a geometrical arrangement of small areas

of light a nd shade. "rhis picture may be divided into a large number of fine dots or elements, and a television picture may eonsist of some 300,000 of these. The electronic system of television transmits the elements of a picture in a manner comparable to the eye reading a printed page of a book. This process, known as "scani1ing ", breaks the picture up into horizontal lines and successively transmits the elements

in each line, beginning normally with the top row in much the same manner as a book is read. The detail and clarity of the picture are determined by the number of scanning lines transmitted and the number of dots per line, which, in turn, depend upon the bandwidth of the channel on which transmissions are undertaken. The greater the number of lines the wider must be the channel if the best possible

definition is to be secured. 83. The mechanism for the transmission and r eception of visual signals by means of television has now become practically standardized. At the transmitting end, a camera is employed to scan the picture and convert the scene of light and shade into electrical impulses of varying intensities which are then

amplified, impressed on a carrier current, and radiated from an antenna. _At the receiver , a kinescope or cathode ray tube is employed for the conversion of the electrical impulses back into the picture elements. This device produces on the fluorescent screen of the tube a mroving dot, the brightness of which is controlled by the strength of the electrical impulses. By scanning the whole surface of the tube in synchronism with

the transmitter the original picture is reproduced. 84. In transmitting a television programme two separate transmitters are employed, one for the sound and the other for the pictures.


85. As we have explained above, the quality of a television picture depends fundamentally upon the number of scanning lines and the bandwidth of the channel upon which the transmiss ions are made. In Australia it has already been determined that the number of lines to be employed will be 625. If full is to be derived from this standard, a channel width of approximately 7 megacycles per

second is necessary. (As the Australian standards provide for 7. 5 megacycles per second.)

86. The necessity for using, for television stations, channels consisting of such a wide band of frequencies gives rise to special problems, because of the demands which are made on the available space in the frequency spectrum. (It was explained to us that the standards adopted for Australia will necessitate for each television frequency channel approxiw.ately seven times the space of the who1r of

the frequency band occupied by all the broadcasting stations in the Commonwealth .) Chiefly f or_ this . reason televi-sion stations are assigned to freq uencies in the very high and _ ultra high frecmencv where space is available, subject, however, to the clahns of otber srrvices which use those frequencies This matter is discussecl fu-rther in paragraphs 93 and following.


87. We were also informed that the difficulties which are involved 'in the relaying of television programmes between stations are brought about primarily by the need to transmit a wide band of frequencies. I t becomes impracticable; in consequence, to utilize the same relaying facilities as are used by broadcasting stations and the installation or coaxial cables or special radio systems is required.


88 . We were not required specific ally to examine the question of the technical standards which have been determined for the Australian television service . Some witnesses, however, made suggestions concerning them, and it became evident that the technical standards could have an important bearing on our conclusions on some aspects o£ our terms of ·reference. We have, therefore, given some attention to

this matter. Although efforts have been made to do so, it has been found impracticable to obtain agreement on uniform television standards for all countries of the world, but as a result of the work of the International Radio Consultative Committee ( C.C.I.:fi.) of the International Telecommunications Union, four sets of standards have been adopted, the principal characteristics of which are-

Great Britain-405 lines, 25 pictures per second, 5 megacyCles-per second chan:J!el width. United States of America-525 lines, 30 pictures per second, 6 megacycles per second channel width. ·

France-819 lines; 25 pictures per second, 14 megacycles per second channel width. Other Western Euro_pean countries-625 lines, 25 pictures per second, 7 megacycles per second channel width.

89. The standards which have been determined for Australia are substantially in accordance' with the standards shown above which were adopted for use in Europe (except France) and were recommended ·· by a study group of the · International Consultative Radio Committee for international use. The main difference is that a channel width of 7.5 megacyCles per second is to be used in Australia as against 7 megacycles per second recommended for international adoption. Full details of the Australian standards are published in the Second Anntml Report of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board.

90. The representatives of manufacturers of electronic equipment, and other technical witnesses who appeared before us, in general commended the standards which had been determined for the Australian service. l\1r. L. A. Rooke, representing Amalgamated Wireless (A/asia) Ltd. and the Electronics and Allied Industries Division of the Chamber of Manufactures of New South Wales, told us that they provide for a standard of resolution somewhat in advance of that provided by present-clay techniques in Great Britain and America, and thereby anticipate improvements in design, manufacture,

and operating techniques, which must inevitably take place in the future. lVfr. K. S. Brown, representing Standard Telephones and Cables Pty. Ltd., also informed us that; with some reservations, his company agreed with the standards which had been determined, and believed that they would enable a service ,of high quality at a r easonable cost to be provided. l\tfr. Brown expressed the opinion, however, that unless sound reasons could be advanced for retaining the 7.5 megacycles per second channel width sp-ecifird in the Australian standards, the desirability ·Of adopting in full the standards recommended by the C.C.T.R. shoti.ld be revie·wed. He felt that adherence to the Australian standards was likely to have an appreciable effect on the cost of relay and transmitting equinment. wonld adversely affect the -establiRhment of an export market to some other cot1ntries, and would prevent the cUrer.+. of the henefits of overseas developments in eouioment designed snecifically for the C.C.I.R. 625-line standard. Sir John B11ttrrs, rebrf'>senting Associated Newspapers expresRPd somewhat views·. On the other Mr.

Hooke told us that he did not regard the difference in rhannel wir1th as an important factor so far as the question of possible was concerned.

91. Although as we have already pointed out, the question of technical standards . is not a matter embr2ce cl by our term of r ef erence. we felt obliged to examine the jmplications of the evidence to us with respect to the bandwidth of the freauency channels reserved for the Australian service,

as this mi

92. We have ascertained that, because of the disposition in the frequency spectrum of the channels reserved for television j)urposes in Australia, a reduction in the chani1el width to 7 megacycles per second would not result in any additional channels becoming · available. If a reduction Jf the channel width would result in the provision of additional channels in that portion of the frequency spectrum which is already reserved for television or tnay be reserved as a result of our recommendation in paragraph 106, there may be some force in the view that the C.C.I.R. standard of 7 megacycles per second should be adopted, particularly as we understand that no very great inconvenience would result. We, therefore, suggest that the evidence which has been presented to us in telatiort to the Australian television standards should be by the Am:tralian Broadcasting Control Board, which, in acMtdance with section 6K of the

Broadcasting Act 1942-1953, is responsible for· the determinatian of such standa.rd§.



93. The number of television stations which may be established i;o serve any one area is dependent primarily on the· availability of frequency channels. In the reservation o£ channels for television, certain fundamental factors have to be taken into consideration, of -vvhich the following are the most important for present purposes:--

(a) the availability of bands of frequencies is restricted becanse of the requirements of other classes of services (including defence ) ; (b) the distribution of bands of frequencies among the various classes of services is governed, to a certain extent, by the International Telecommunications Convention (to which

Australia is a signatory) ; (c) the relatiYely wide band which is required for each television channel (750 times that of a broadcasting channel in the medium freqnency ·band).

94. \Ve were inforn1ed by the representative of the Postmaster-General's Department, which is responsible for the det_erm,ination of the bands of frequencies to be used for the various classes of radio services, that in the very high frequency (V.H.F.) band the following provision had been made for broadcasting, including television, services :-

fl. 44-51.5 from 1st January, 1956, for use only within 50 miles of

State· capital cities. megacycles/second-Available from 1st 1956.

90-108 megacycles/second-Available now. 174-18).5 megacyclesjsecond_:Available now. 181.5-204 megacycles/second-Available now. 208.5-216 megacycles/second-Available now.

95. Having regard to the technical standards which have been determined for the Australian service, the above-mentioned bands of frequencies could provide for nine separate television channels. · vVe were, however, informed by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board that the two channels which could be provided in the band 90-108 megacyCles per second conld not be assumed to be available for television, as this band of frequencies was specifically reserved for possible further developments in very high frequency

(frequency modulation) broadcasting. As the frequencies ·are allocated at present only seven V.H.F. yhlinnels are therefore available !or television purposes . In addition to the foregoing,Jwwever, . provision ' br,en made for a total of 47 channels in the ultra high frequency (U.H.F.) band between 500 and 855 megacycles per second.

96. The above-mentioned channels are sufficient to provide for all the foreseeable requirements· of television in Australia, because the relatively limited interference range of transmission on those channels makes it practicable for any number of separate stations to use one channel so long as they are located about 200 miles apart. There is, ho-vvever, a marked difference between the problems associated with the use of frequencies in the two bands, and evidence was presented to us to the effect that the disadvantages

involved in using channels in the U.H.F. band were of such a serious nature, at least at the present stage of development, that it would be preferable to confine activities to the V.H.F. band. It became evident to us that this particular matter was of vital importance and that any decisions reached thereon could have a sig:nificant bearing: on the manner in which television would develop in the Commonwealth, because of the limited number ·Of V.H.F. channels which are available. In the circumstances, we felt that it was

essential to pay some attention to this particular question.

97. Vle were informed by a number of witnesses that it was only recently that technological developments had advanced to the stag-e which would j·ustify the use of frequencies in the U.H.F. band for television stations, and that only in the United States of America h ave these frequencies yet been used for the purpose . In that country a stage was reach ed in October, 1948, when because of the phenomenal development of t elevision, urgent action was necessary to secure additional channels to meet the deman<:l for television servic es in areas which could not be provided for with the channels then available. In April, 1952, after some years of investigation, new standards were promulgated by the Federal Communications

Commission of the United States of America providing for the lise of channels in the U.H.F. band and these are no\v gradually being brou1zht into use. The relatively brief practical experience which has been obtained in America in the u se of U .H.F. channels has, we understand, confirmed the theoretical predictions that they are inferior to V.H.F. channels, inasmuch as smaller areas are covered by the transmissions of stations using U.H.F. channels. The use o:f high p ower transmitters is, at present, impracticable and receiving eauipment is more complex. Although in CA nada provision has been made for the use of U.H.F. channels, they have not yet been assigned to any operating station and present development is confined to channels in the V.H.F. band. In Great Britain the fi ve television stations in operation transmit on ehannels in the V .Ir.F. band. The auestion of the availability of frequency channels in that country was the subject of a recent inquiry by the Television Advisory Committee. In its r eport dated 8th May; 1953, the ·


Committee recommended to the Government that to provide for future the following U.H.F. bands should be reserved for television:-470-585 megacycles per second. 610-960 megacycles per second. We have n ot ed , however, from this report that the Television .Advisory Committee recommended that efforts should be made t o secu re the use of additional V .H.F. channels. 'rhe economic advantages of the use of V.H.F. chann els over U.H.F. channels was emphasized in the report, and we take the liberty of quoting the following excerpt (in which Band III. relates to V.H.F. channels and Bands IV. and V. to U.H.F. channels) :-



operating. in Ban? III. give much service area coverage than is at

poss1b1e .vnth higher frequencies. Th1 s band 1s essentially smtable for a system of transmitters providing substant1ally complete coveragE> of the whole country. In broad terms, within the limitations of present of at, and the stage .of of valves for, the higher frequencies, at

least many statwns would be requ1red 'to g1 ve substantial coverage of the whole country using m Bands I V. and V. as would be required if frequencies in Band III. were used. In addition,

the cucmts, valves and other components required for both transmitters and receive rs operating in Bands I V. and V. have not been developed to the point of large-scale production. The start of television transmissions in bands do es not therefore represent quite such an easy progressive development of television broadcasting as vvoul cl the op ening of Band III. stations.

98. vVe ob tained from the Australian Broadcasting Control Board some details concerning the areas which might be expected to be covered by stations operating in the V.H.F. and U.H.F. bands respectively. This inf ormation disclosed that for typical operating conditions over average tertain, with an effective r adiated power of 100 kilowatts, and a transmitting radiator having a height of 500 feet above the average satisfactory service would be provided to the following distances:-

Frequency Channel.

Lowest V.H..F. channel (60 megacycles/second) .. Hi ghest V.H.F. channel (200 megacycles/second) U.H.F. ch annel

Rural Service.

Miles. 57 47 31

Ur ban Ser vice.

Miles. 27 29 20'

The great er distance possible in the case of rural services is accounted for by the lower noise level normally prevailing in country districts.

99. E lectronic equipment manufacturers, who are vitally concerned with the question of the bands of frequencies employed for television purposes, of its possible effect on the production and marketing of r ec eiving and transmitting equipment, informed u ,s that although no insuperable difficu lty wo uld he involved in the manufacture of receivers or transmitters suitable for the U.H.F. band, the techniques involved are generally more difficult, and that if sufficient channels were available it would be preferable to confine t elevision to the V.H.F. band. As we point out in Chapter V., manufacturers also generally agreed that although t here would be little difference in the cost of a receiver manufactured to r eceive transmissions in either the V.I-I.F. or the U.H.F. band, the cost of a set designed to receive transmissions in both bands would be significan t ly higher . Mr. L. A. Hooke (Amalgamated \¥ireless (Aj asia) Lt d. ) told us that "techniques are easier at V.H.F. than at U.H.F., and if it were not for the restriction of channels, it would be pn ?f erable to confine television to the V.H.F. region". He concluded that, taking all things into consid<:'ration, the best approach was to aim at starting television in the V.H.F. band and that, if it were necessary to utilize U.H.F. channels from the outset in order to meet the demand for .services, allocations should be grouped on an area basis, as far as possible; so as to avoid the need for combination receivers, which would be more expensive. Mr. K. S. Brown (Standard Telephones and Cables Pty. Ltd.) expressed the view that, bf cause of the cost factor, U.H.F. could be justified only after it had been demonstrated that inst1fficient V.H.F. channels could be made available to give an adaquate nation-wide service. He felt that, if it were considered that the V.H.F. channels which can be made available would be sufficient to satisfy requirements for some years to come, it would be wise to confine activities to those channels and cons:der usi ng the U.H.F. band when the need arose. The receiver problem could be overcome by

incorporating suitable converters in existing receivers. The Hon. A. G. Warner (Electronic Industries Limited) said that, whilst V.H.F. channels were available, he did not think there was any need to go into U.H.F., and Mr . S. 0. Jones (Philips Electrical Industries Ltd.) stated that it would be preferable from tne point of view of the manufacturers, and cheaper for the viewer, to confine the service to the V.H.F. baYJ.d , the available channels in which would, in his opinion, be ample for a long time. (Mr. Jones, in

r elation t o colour transmissions, which are referred to later, raised the question of confining activities to the U .I-T. F . band in order that adequate channel bandwidth might be provided.) 100. On the other hand, some witnesses, mainly those representing commercial broadcasting and allied inter ests, urged that steps should be taken to reserve sufficient channels to ensure that the number of stations to be established would not be restricted by technical considerations. The Australian F ederation

-;7 .. 0 ;> .t -


of Commercial Broadcasting Stations, for example, pressed the view that "the Australian television system should, from its commencement, make provision for the greatest number of channels, and to this end urged the opening up of the U.H.F. band in addition to the use of the available V.H.F. channels". The Federation's attitude was based, it was stated, on the grounds that-

( a) most of the problems concerning the extension of television services to rural areas would be removed; (b) the benefits of the dual system would, otherwise, be denied ·to practically all country centres; (c) there was no serious obstacle to the use of channels in the U.H.F. band; and

(d) receivers could be designed from the outset to receive transmissions in both bands; they would not become obsolete at a later stage nor would the expense of purchasing adaptors for U.H.F. use be imposed upon the public. Similar views were expressed by Sir John. Butters, Chairman of Directors of Associated Newspapers Ltd., and Mr. J. E. Ridley, Chairman of Directors of Country Broadcasting Services Limited.

101. W e also received evidence on other aspects of the frequency problem, such as the incidence of interference, shadow effects, and aerial design and effi ::iency, which we do not feel it necessary to review in this report. 102. From our consideration of the technical evidence, it is possible to summarize the main questions

involved as follows:-. (a) Only a relatively limited number of frequency channels has been reserved for television in the V.H.F. band, but ample provision has been made in the U.H.F. band (see paragraph 95); .

(b) television services have been operating for many years on channels in the V.H.F. band in overseas countries, but experience in the U.H.F. band has been confined to the United States of America and for a very limited period; (c) the area throughout which a satisfactory service may be provided by a station is much

more in the V.H.'B.,. band than in the U.H.F. band; (d) there is no significant difference in the cost of transmitting installations for the V.H.F. or the U.H.F. bands, but the techniques involved ·with the latter are more diffi cult and, at the present stage of development, lower power only is practicable for U.H.F. stations; (e) there is no great difference between the costs of a V.H.F. receiver and a U.H.F. receiver

but the cost of a combination receiver is significantly higher. 103. There is no doubt that from all points of view the use of channels in the V.H.F. band is preferable to those in the U.H.F. band, and that the u se of the latter is, at the present stage of development at least, only justified if channels in the former band are not available. As we point out in Chapter V., it is not practicable for us to draw up a plan to cover the ultimate development of television services

in the Commonwealth, because many factors which will have a fundamental bearing on the extent and rate of development can be determined only as a result of practical experience. Our objective is therefore to make recommendations which will be of practical use during the initial establishment period, and provide the foundations upon which the service may be built and developed progressively in the light of

experience. The problem with which we are confronted is whether the number of V.H.F. channels which have been reserved is sufficient for possible future developments as well as for the initial stages. In this connexion, we arranged for the Australian Broadcasting Control Board to prepare for us a number of specimen altPrnative assignment plans in order that -vve might assess the extent of the which is

practir>nhle with thP seven available V.H.F. channels. These plans, which were prepared only as of possible alternatiVP!-1. disrlosed-( a) that if. say, three channels were reserve d for capital cities and two for Nrwcastle (b<>canse of its pormlation of approximately 250,000 ), one channel conld be reserved for ever:v town

in thP Commonwealth having a population in excess of 5,000 bnt, for many snch towns, provision cm1ld not be made for a second channel to ensure a choice of programmes; and (b) that if the rP!-Iervation of channels for capital cities was inrl'eased to fiv<>, a ehannel won ld not be availahle for a number of rountry towns ovPr 5 000 popnlation. and fe·wer such

towns could, if circumstances in the future justified it, be given a choice of programmes. We should point out that the reference to towns with a population over 5,000 has no special significance other than to indicate in this context that, on purely t echnical considerations, provision could be made under snb-para'2,'raph (a) for one station in all of the more important centres in the Commonwealth.

104. Having regard to the recommendations which vve later make as to the basis on which television should be introduced into Australia, it seems ev ident that the channels which have been reserved in the V.H.F. band are sufficient to meet requirements for a considerable time. V\1 e ha e, therefore, reached t iL co11.clusion that the television services of the Commonwealth should be planned on the basis of the use of V.H.F. channels. There is some merit in the ·argument advanced by the Australian F ederation of

Commerrial BrnaCicasting: Stations and other witnesses that, from the outset, planning should be on the basis of both V.H.F. and U.H.F. channels will be used : but, apart from the fact that the coverage of


U.H.F. stations is less than that of those using V.H.F. channels, there is the hnportant consideration that the cost of receivers would be increased materially if this proposal were adopted, without any commensurate gain to viewers for a long time, if at all. We have also taken into consideration the evidence of

manufacturers who indicated to us that if future requirements demanded recourse to the U.H.F. band, receivers could be suitably equipped or modified. 105. It may be, ho wever, that it will be unnecessary to make use of U.H.F. channels and that as the service develops it will be found practicable to meet all requirements by making available additional facilities

in the V.H.F. band. Because of the decided advantages of developing the Australian television service on this basis, we feel strongly that every effort should be made to provide facilities which will enable the service to be developed and expanded without necessity for utilizing channels in the U.H.F. band. 106. We are not convinced that it would be impracticable to make some re-arrangements of frequencies

which, whilst still enabling the demands of other services to be met, would provide additional V.H.F. channels for television, and, indeed, the Postmaster-Gen·eral's Department in its evidence did not contend that it was impracticable to do so. We strongly recommend that the Department should thoroughly and critically examine the frequency position, in consultation with the other departments and authorities which are concerned, and every effort to achieve this desirable objective either now or in the future. Electronics is becoming increasingly important, both for civil and defence purposes, arid unless there is a critical examination of the allocation of frequencies, as we have recommended, a problem comparable to that arising from the lack of a uniform rail gauge in Australia might present itself in later years. We emphasize that the allocation of three or four additional channels in the V.H.F. band might obviate the additional expense which will be involved and the disadvantages which will be incurred if the U.H.F. channels must ultimately be used. In this examination regard should also be had to the use of the 90 to 108 megacycles per second band, at present being reserved for frequency modulation broadcasting in the light of the policy eventually

determined with respect to the development of that service. This band could, as we stated in paragraph 95, provide two channels for television.


107. The problem of providing a television service to the whole of the Commonwealth is primarily an economic one, arising from the wide distribution of the population and the fact that the range of from a television station is, as we have already explained, relatively restricted. In Chapter V.

of this report the economic considerations involved in the provision of television services are reviewed, and in the succeeding paragraphs we propose to set down briefly certain technical factors which have an important bearing on the problem. 108. The great bulk of the population of Australia is concentrated in a coastal belt some 200

miles in width extending from Cairns in Northern Queensland to Adelaide in South Australia, and in th e south-west corner of Western Australia. The population is largely located in the State capital cities, in Newcastle and in other centres of smaller, though in some cases quite substantial, population. In the country districts between these centres, the density of population is relatively low. If every one

were to be provided with a television service, this uneven distribution of population would necessitate the establishment of a very large number of stations, but the fact that about 70 per cent. of the

population of Australia is concentrated in the capital cities and in Newcastle greatly facilitates the provision of a service to the majority of the people. The difficult problem, as we see it, will be the provision of a service to the r emaining 30 per cent. of the population who reside in rural centres and it is clear that this is primarily an economic problem.

109. According to the specimen frequency as signment plans which we mentioned in paragraph 103, it would be practicable, by the use of the seven Y.H.J:!-,. channels already available, to provide for three telev ision stations in the State capital cities, two in Newcastle and at least one to each town in th e Commonwealth having a population of over 5,000. This arrangement would ensure the reception of at leas t one television programme by approximately 80 p er cent. of the population. The allocation of a greater number of stations to the capital cities would have the effect of r educing the number of country towns which could be provided with a loca1 station; for example, the establishment of five stations in each capital would reduce the population which could be served to about 77 per cent. 'fhe

principal technical difficulty which is involved is that, with only seven V.H.F. channels available, reservations cannot be made to provide for the eventuality that a greater number of stations may ultimately be required in some capital cities, except at the expense of certain country areas. Moreover, it is not possible to reserve more than one channel for some country towns and this will have the effect of preventing

provision for a choice of programmes in some centres where nn alternative service may in time be ju,stified. It is for these reasons that we have r ec ommended that a close and critical examination of the possibility of providing for more channels in the V.H.F. band should be made. The alternative is, of course, the subsequent use of U.H.F. channels.

110. It is clear from this review, and from the evidence which we received from the technical officers of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board early consideration must be given to the


preparation of a frequency assignment plan for the ultimate development of the Australian televl.sion services. 'This plan would need to be formulated in the light of the r esults of the inquiry, which we recommend in paragraph 106 should be undertaken as to the availability of additional V.H.l!..,. channels.

111. lt is, we f eel, relevant to refer to the action which was taken recently in the United States of America with r espect to the allocation of freq uency channels fo r t elevision services. Following extensive public hearings the l!'ederal Communicat ions Commission in April, 1952, issued new standards of allocat ion and t ables of channel assignments. 'l'h e p r inciples upon which these assignments were

base d are r ef erred to in paragraph 52 , · and it is of inter est to n ote that the F ederal Communications Commission r eached t he conclusion that " a table of as signments makes for the most efficient technical use of the r elatively limited number of channels availab le for television purposes. It protects the public residing in smaller cities and rural ar eas more adequately than any other system for distribution of service ". The Commission in its Sixth R eport dated 11 th April, 1952, further stated-

One of the principal reasons for an engineered T able of Assignments incorporated into our Rules is that it permits a su bstantially more efficient use of the available spectrum. It is clear that, mathematically, once a fi xed station separation has been agreed upon, the maximum number of stations which can be acc ommodated on any given channel becomes fixed. I n practice this theoretical maximum cannot be achieved since the location of cities capable of supporting such stations will not follow any such regular pattem of

location. B ut an Assignment T able drawn upon an examination of the country as a whole can confidently be expec ted to more clo sely approximat&' the mathematical optimum, than wo uld assignments of stations base d upon the fortuitous determinations of individual applicants interested solely in the coverage possibilities in a particular community irrespective of the effect of such assignments on the possibility of making assignments

in other communities. We are convinced that only through an engineered Table of Assignments can areas receiving no service or inadequate service be kept to a minimum. In our opinion there is an equally significant r eason why a Table of Assignments should be established in our Rules. For while the record in this proceeding demonstrates that the desire for broadcasting service from local stations, reflecting local needs and in.terests, is widespread, experience has shown that many of the

communities which cannot now support televisiOn stations but would eventually be able to do so, will in the absence of a fi xed rese rvation of channels for their use, find that available frequencies have been pre-empted. The same is true with respect to the establishment of any significant number of non-commercial educational stations. It might, of course, be possible to achieve these r esults by allocating a large block of frequencies

for these smaller cities and non-commercial educational television without specifying the assignment location of particular channels. But we are convinced that this could only be done at the expense of

unnecessarily reducing the total number of channels available to meet other television needs. In Canada, alSo, we have noted, a frequency assignment plan h as recently been published. It h as , as its primary objective, the establishment of a single television ser vice to as large a proportion of the Can adian people as is possible, in conformity with the announced policy of the Government.

11 2. 'l' he preparation of any assignment plan cannot be undertaken until the nature and extent of the servic es, for which p r ovision is t o be made, h ave been determined. \Ve can only state these in a general way becau se, as we have previously indicated, the p r ecise manner and rate of development of television in Austr alia can only be determined as a result of practical experien ce. Vve believe, however, that in

drawing up such a plan f or the Australian television services , first pr iority should be given to the provision of a single service to as large a pr oportion of the p op ulation as is r easonably practicable. In view of the accepted policy of est ablishing a dual service of both n ational and commercial stations, second priority should be given to the pr ovision of a choice of progr ammes to as large a proportion of the

population as economic considerations will p ermit. The third priority should be give n to the provision of addition al ser vices in p articular centres wher e this can be ec onom ically justified. In arriving at th e suggested priorities, we have t aken into account the evidence given to us that , even with the seven very high frequ ency channels now available, it would be possible to provide service to almost all the

population of Australia, an d at the same time p ermit mo re th an one station to be established in a n umber of cities (see paragraph 109).


113. 'rhe second problem of establishing the Australian ser vice arises f r om the absence of r elay facilities and the effect that this would have on the provision of programmes from stations located in ar eas the prod uction of local progr ammes is not practicable . 'rher e are two methods by which

r elay chann els may be provided, n amely, by microwave r adio lin ks or by co axial cable. V\Te wer e informed by the Postmaster-Gen er al's D ep ar tment that ther e ar e no existing f acilities suitable for the relaying of t elevision programmes, although a stage of develo pment was being r eached on certain trunk telephone routes which would j ustify the provision of systems which could a I so provide for the requir ements

of television. It was explained that , f or economic r easo ns, r elay chann els would n ormally be associated with telephone trunk f acilities, bec ause in thi way inst allation and running costs would be less than if the t elevision relay were provided independently of other f acilities . The Post mast er -General's Dep artment also informed u s that the provision of t elevision r elay facilities would normally be governed by the

rate of increase of t elephone trunk line t r affic on the r espective routes. Although it was consider ed that coaxial cable would be introduced p r ogr ess ively by the Department on a number of sep ar ate r outes, the rate at which this would be done was dependent upon such a number of indeterminat e factors that


no definite estimate could be provided. · On .. economic grounds it would seein that it would not be pos;;;;ible to justify the provision of suitable relay facilities for t elevision purposes alone. On the other hand, the abst nce of such facilities · will create special problems in providing satisfactory television services in rnost country cei1tres which would h ave to depend ve ry largely on the use of films. However, we think it likely that if the probable requirements of television are considered in conjunction with the normal needs of telecommunication circuits , ther e may be ju,;tifi catiou for earlier introduction of either coaxial cable or radio facilities than would otherwise be the cas e. ""\Ve have not ed from the evidence of the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs that in its for ward 'plannin&' the Depq,rtment would be giv.i OO' full consideration to the requirements of television. · He info rmed us that, from the point of

view of telephone services "the introduction of t ele vi: -:>ion could conceivably act in a very favorable way to the country people in that it could hast en the provision of microwave facilities or coaxial which, in other circumstances, Department might to_ instaH ".


114. Some evidence was presented to us ·con cer ning colour televiswn , which was recen tly tbt subject of public inquiry in the Unit ed States of America. lVfr . C. lVIoses, ,General l\lfan age r of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, told us that he had r eceived op inions from t elevision officials iJJ America that if Australia were not contempla_ ting t elevision within the - next few years, it vmuld preferable to commence with colour transmissions . . Other 1vitnesses, includin,r· the II on . . A. G. \¥ arner

(Electronic Industries Limited) a nd Mr. L. A. Hooke (Amalgamated (A/ asia ) lAd.), felt

that it would be unwise to attempt the int roductio11 of colour until the Australian television industry had become reasonably well established. l\1r. \¥. Dunst an (Her ald and Weekly Times Limited) urge cl that "we should include in our recommendations onr suppor ting compatible colour broadcasts and opposing incompatible broadcasts".

115. So far as we are aware, the introduction of colour television in Great Britain is not at present being seriously corl.Sider-ed, although some experimental work has been done by the British Broadcasting Corporation and el-ectronic equipment manufacturers. · The recent report of the Television Advisory Committee, dated 8th l\fay, 1953, recommended that any colour which might be employed in Great Britain in the future should be compatible, in the sense that the colou'r transmissions should be receivable in monochrome on rec€ivers not designed for colour reception.

116. In the United States of America, the possibiliti€s of incorporating colour trans missions in th e television system have been the subject of public inquiry by the F ederal Communications Commission in 1946-47, in 1949-50, and in 1953. Following its inquiries in 1949-50, the Conunission concluded that the addition of colour was a distinct improvement in t elevision t r ansmissions and, in consequence, it determined standards to permit the introduction of a colour system. The colour system d€veloped by the Columbia Broadcasting System, which was approved by the F ederal Conununications Commission in 1951, possessed the inher ent disadvantage that it was incompatible with the existing monochrome system, i.e., r€ceivers already in use would net be able to r eceive the colo ur t ransmi s;c;ion in black and white without costly adaptation. · The manufacture of colour r eceivers was suspended in October, 1951, since when experimental work in the development of an electronic comp atible system has been undertaken by the National Television System Committee (a radio industry body). It was rec€ntly announced that the developmental work had been successfully completed and on 17th Decemb er , 195 3, following a public inquiry, the Federal Communications Commission adopted the colour television standards proposed by the Committee. In it<;; Public Notic€ (No. 53-1663) containing the decision on colour television the Commission point out, inter a,lia, that the standards approved would not necessitate any change in existing monochrome receivers to enable reception of a black and white pictur€ from colour transmissions. No practical ,converter which would enabl€ existing receivers to receive colour transmission in colour had, however, been demonstrated. It was also emphasized that the cost of apparatus was high, the estimated cost of a colour receiver being in the range of 800 to 1,000 dollars.

117. We were assured that th€ technical l'ltandards which have been det ermined for tl1e A ustralian service (see paragraph 89) were formulated so as to provide for the d€velopment, ultimately, of a compatible television system.

118. It is recognized that, from some points of view, colour would undoubtedly add to th e attractiveness of television, as it has done in the case of motion pictures. As we und€rstand the position, however, it would always be a costly refinement, and t his would be particularly so in the case of r ec eivers. On this aspect we have nofed the evidence presented to us by l\1r . S. 0. Jones (Philips Electrical Industries I 1td.), who suggested that, -vvith the object of €nsnring that colour could be introduced on a less costly basis, the present Australian t echnical standards should b€ modified to provide for a channel width of 10 megacycles per second, · which would simplify some of the technical problems. Such a course would nBcessitate the virtual abandonment of the use of channels in favou r of U.H.F. channels, course which, for reasons we have already stated, we do not recommend.


119. Although it is fairly certain that in the near future colour transmission on a regufar basis will commence in the United States of America, it has yet to be demonstrated whether the attractiveness of colour transmissions will be . sufficient to overcome the natural resistance of the public to the very high cost of colour receivers. In any case, even if colour television were, at the present stage, a practical proposition in Australia, it is evident that it would be extremely difficult to justify on the grounds of the costs which would be involved. For the present ·we think that Australia should proceed to institute a monochrome system which will be compatible with colour


120. There are some matters which were mentioned to us during the course of · our inquiry which clo not come ditectly .)vithin our terms of reference but which, nevertheless, we feel should be referred to,

a.s they appear to merit consideration later by the authority responsible for the control and direction of the

· Au::;traliarl teleyjs.ion s_ ervice. ' (a.) Community Systems.

Mr. W. Dunstan, General l.VIanager of the Herald and Weekly rrimes Limited, brought to our notice the possibilities of utilizing a system developed in the United States of America for the d]stribution of programmes to community centres. He expressed 'the view that this system, known as

"community television", might havli¥ application in some country districts in Australia which, because of difficulties ari;:;ing from "Limited restricted opportunities for earning revenue and the high

cost of relay channels", might not normally have very bright prospects of having access to the programmes transmitted by television stations. 'fhe pro6e dure is that some company or business organization establishes an antenna and efficient receiving equipment on an elevated site, which makes possible the satisfactory reception of relatively distant stations. The received signals are then distributed to subscribers' homes

by means of physical connexions; an installation fee and a regular subscription are paid for the service. We were informed that there is a number of such systems in operation, serving particular areas the situation of 'vhich n1akes it impossible to receive satisfactorily a television service direct.

(b) Interfetence.

1\IIr. L. A. Hooke (Amalgamated Wireless (A/asia) Ltd.) and the representatives of the Wireless

Institute of Australia, strongly urged that steps be taken to suppress all probable sources of electrical interference to the reception of television programmes. It was pointed out to us that the reception of television programmes could be completely marred by the effects of interference arising from electric trams and · trains, motor car ignition systems and ele ctric motors. The opinion was that th:.s

was likely to assume such dimensions as to warrant the enactment of legislation to provide for the compulsory installation of interference elimination devices. l\fr. K. S. Brown (Standard Telephones and Cables Pty. Ltd.), also suggested that ignition suppr-essors should be made a compulsory fittlng on all motor vehicles u sing spark ignition systems, and that action in this matter should be taken as soon as

possible in order that good quality reception should be possible from the commencement of the television Hervic-e. We understand that a ction along the lines suggested has already been taken in the United Kingdom and that the cost is relatively inconsiderable. In our view, the suppression of all sources of electrical int-erference to t elevision programmes in Au:::tralia merits early attention.

(c) Sites of Television Stat-ions.

We were told by the Australian Broadcasting· Control Board that where a number of transmitters is established to provide alternative programmes in t he one area there are advantages to be derived from locating them on a common site. Such an arrangement facilitates the use of directional receiving aerials inasmuch as they do not need to be reorientated to receive different stations. This view was endorsed by

all technical witnesses who gave evidence to us. It was put to us that, in the selection of transmitting sites for national and commercial stations there were advantages to be derived from joint use of faciLties . As far as possible, all transmitters should be erected on a common site.




121. One of the reasons that led to the appointment of the Commission ;vas the genuine fear felt by a large section of the Australian community that an unregulated introduction of television would have unfortunate $OCial effects. · There is an extensive literature on the social impact of televiilion and while we are not required by our terms of reference to write a sociological text, many of the problems raised demand, as a background, a general discussion of the social issues involved. It is convenient to discuss these general problems in this chapter, before we proceed to detailed r ecommendations.

122. It. was significant to observe the number of witnesses who were concerned only with the general question of the effect of televi&ion on the Australian way of life. Some such a gloomy view that they advocated postponement of the introduction of the n ew medium-thus reaching the same r esult as t hose who wished to defer it on economic grounds. Other wit nesses saw in television an instrument of great educational importance and social significance whic.h would make the whole community more mentally alert. It was even stated that television would cause a social change equivalent to the discovery of printing. The Commission acted as a convenient fo r um for those who held these diverse views. We are grateful foi:· the care taken by the witnesses who prepared submissions on these important issues on which, by .their very nature, it is difficult to be precise. But this evidence revealed the basic p r oblem round which all the other questions revolved, which may be shortly stated as how to introduce television so as to take full · advantage of the experience of . other countries and make the greatest contribution to the Australian


123. It is our hope that the detailed recommendations which. we mal{e in the succ eeding chapters'" will go far to remove the fears felt by a sincere section of those interested in social welfare. Television, like printing, has no moral quality in itself: it is a weapon of trcmendqus power which may strike a blow for good or ill. But to refuse the use of an instrument because it may be abused rs not consonant with the qualities of character which have formed the Australian tradition. On the other hand, to refuse to take active steps to prevent the worst abuses is to invite the condemnation of history.


124. A short survey of the literature concerning t elevision illustrates how rapidly the scene has been changing. Most of the articles which were submitted in evidence originated h1 the United States where the early programmes received much criticism. There has been relatively little published criticism in Great Britain where television has been planned systematically, both as regards quality and type of ( programmes as well as coverage. The development in the United Kingdom has been more cautious than in the United States, and in the former country the economic and social effects have been much less striking.

125. A selective bibliography will be found in Appendix E: here It is enough to say that the literature falls into three divisions which reflect the rapidly changing scene and the development of a keener understanding of the real problems involved. j

126. Prior to 1949.-The literature of this period regards television in terms of wonder and speculation. The very titles of articles(!) express the fascination of the new medium, but since there is only a limited experience on which to draw, many of' the articles are speculative rather than informative. Some of the prophecies have been fulfilled rather more rapidly than the aut hors imagined. <2 l Another point stressed in the early literature was the fear felt that radio, press and film would suffer from the competition of the new medium. <3 >

. 127. 1949-51.-This period is marked by a change from vague speculation to a demand for concerted group effort to r emove glaring defects and to improve the quality of programmes. The following titles illustrate the mood of this era-" Prometheus or ": "What shall be do about television? ":

"Television brings new challenge to teaching". <4l Any innovation will cause, in the initial stages, both exaggerated enthusiasm and exaggerated suspicion. Had the world been more vocal when printing was invented, we can imagine the elders expressing serious doubts whethe r the printed page might not subvert the foundations of English life, interfere with the physical development of the people and give to the yeoman ideas beyond his station. But, in the case of t elevision, to the factor of novelty, there was also added a very real concern with the quality of programmes, and a gr owing number of writers emphas ized that television should not be allowed to become merely a medium of mediocre entertainment. The earliest problem to receive attention was the effect on children of excessive viewing, with the result that surveys

(l) Television: the revolution hv R . E. Lee, N.Y. 1944, Televi sion: the eyes of t ownrrow by W. M. Eddy, N.Y., 1945. "' H ere is :. your

window to the world" by T. H. Hutchinson , N.Y., 1946. "'Television: boon or bane? " Public Opinion Quarterly, v, 10, p. 31 4-29, F aiL 1946. Tele_;'JSJon 0 : There ought to be a Jaw;, by B. B. flmith, Harper"s Monthly M aga zine 197: 34-43, l04R. . (2) 0. E . Dunlap: The F ut m e of N.Y ..• ] 94 ' . p. -· (3) The early fears have not been altogether justified, e.g., since the War , r adw p roductiO n 2n U.S.A. r ea ched mJ!Ilon sets . 7! :;eo ;,s more sets were made tha.n in the prececling 21 years. See Broadcrt sttng voJ. 4-5 , p. 39, Ang. l t th , . . (4) . P romr.thens or , · Jo. Educ. Soc. : 154-66, Nov., 1950. ., 'Vhat shall we do ahont t elevi sion'? " , Pare nts' Jl'f aq. : 36,,Dec .. 10 f> O. . r eJcvi slOn b rmg;s new chall t o , School Life Nov 1951 See .. survey nfeclncator's attitudes anfl opi ni rms towar rl s t elevision' . E. H el m·ch fnr degree of Doctor of Un 1' ennt,y of uiit?/1950 un.iversity of Miawi-Television g 0 rveys-" Television audience in Miami "-12 / 12/ 1949. " P resentation of news ma.terial"­ News on M'ay, .1950. Xavier College Survey on Children's Leisure h ou rs and T.V., 195 l. .College---:-Tele-ce nsus Surveys conce rn consumer reactions to television, Nov., 1949- June, 1951. National Association of Educational Broadcasters M0111 tonng Stud1es-No. I, New York, 4th-10th Jan., 1951-1952; No.2, Los Angeles, 23rd-29th May, 1951; No. 3, Chicago, 30th July-5th August, 1951.

71 :t


were conducted in England by the British Broadcasting C01·poration and in the United States by University Research Departments. The wide publicity given to these surveys made many parents aware of the necessity to take active steps to prevent t elevision interfering with the activities proper to childhood. Educationalists in the United States also asked the F ederal Communications Commission for channels so that they could operate st ations providing planned p r ogrammes that would taise the cultural standards of all sections of the population. 'fhe industry in that country itself was affected by this publicity and took steps to regulate standards.

128. 1952-53.-Both in the United Kingdom and the United States, this was a period of great development, as the plans formulated during 1949-51 were put into effect. Television was now accepted as part of the pattern of life. In the United States, it played an important part in the Presidential election of 1952, and in England the telecast of the Coronat ion was widely acclaimed as television's finest hour. In both countries, there was a spectacular increase in the number of viewers, and the need for further experimentation in types of programmes was increasingly r ecognized .

129. In the United States of America the Federal Communications Commission lifted its "freeze" order which had provided that no additional stations would be license d p ending a complete engineering examin ation; provision was made for a t otal of 2,053 stations including 242 for non-commerical purposes . A code of conduct for television programmes was promulgated by the National Association of Radio and

'l'elevision Broadcasters. This Association has also stated in a publication that there has been a determined attempt by the industry to raise quality by qffering faci lities to educational organizations.

130. 'fhe literature is much influenced by these developments and r eflects a more realistic approach. lYiore attention is given to the t echnical problems involved, whether of electronics or finance, and when

pr ogrammes are discussed the emphasis changes from a demand for quality to an analysis of the means by which quality can be achieved. Thus the educationalists in the United States, having secured an option ,on stations, d evote their energy' to securing the money and discussing the technique of providing a programme which would be educational and also attractive enough to secure a large number of viewers.

131. F actual studies of the social eff ect of television now begin to appear as the result of research initiat ed in the period for 1949-51. 'l'he defect of many of the earlier su rveys was that they concentrated (in one aspect of the problem only and did not take a broad view. Moreover, while television is a new toy,

it is difficult to reach conclusions that will have any permanent value. The child who is first exposed to tdevision at the age of three years will presen t a differ ent problem from those who first see it in adult life. :'-:o real evjdence can be available until the experience has covered more than twenty years. Nevertheless, the surveys, properly analysed, do embody some conclusions which are valid at least for the television of



132. So:me r egard t elevision as a mere extension of broadcasting· (the addition of sight to sound) or as a mere extension of motion pictures into the horne. It has been argued that it is possible to exaggerate i t:s social importance: the addition of sound to sight may have made the cinema more interesting but it pro(luced no dramatic social results . Why should the ad dition of the sight of television to the sound of

radio be greeted ·with su ch apprehension on t he one h and or enthusiasm on the

133. But there are importan t differences between t elevision and radio, on the one hand, and television and motion pictures on the other, These rl ifferences f all into two categories: firstly the social effect of the medium and secondly the technical differ ences which render it essent ial that 1:ew techniques of presentation be exploited.

134. 'l'he social impact of t elevi.<:;ion is greater t han that of radio because the visual image makes a ll lOJ:e dramatic appeal than the spoken ·word. Television is more dynamic than motion pictures, because the

immediacy of its presentation enables the viewer to identify himself with the spectacle. As l\'Ir. R. J. F. Boyer, Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, emphasized , the addition of sight to sou nd is of greater significance than the mere invention of t he "talkie " . H e said-There is a primitive element in sigh t w h.ich see ms to go deeper and more critical its than

sound can ever be . . . This consideratio.n a. fu rther element ml _1eren .t m a .v_1sual a s

oppose d to or al, which is engaging the attcnt:on of socwlogists, namely, m adcl .l tlOn. to bm_ng the moRt intense of the avenues of consc iousn es s IS pr obably also the 1?-ost pomt out

tba t progress in thought and in bra:1ches of cnl ture mo,· es from the visual to th e non-n . In early

childhood we learn almost completely by .s1gh t, and. It the mark of when the mmdis able to

dispense with the greater par.t of these a.H 3 and thmk, 1magm e, plan and create u: abstract heavy concen tration of attentwn upon thmgs that may be seen must, they say, for ce mto. the ound of conceptual thought and reasoning to which we all aclv.ance. :s true that

lookin makes fewer demands on the min d and attention than or and It IS yossible th e

that a ·continuous diet of epectaclcs. could ad ,·crsely affect the r.eadmg, conversatiOnal and md1vJdual

thinking habits of a generati on. Mr. Justice F rankfurter in.a r ecent U mted States Supreme Court J .udgm ent, when s Jeakin of television as a pnblic medinm, expressed h1s concern at the of. o1·er- em pha 1s on the 1 .i Rua l th! pu blic's judgmen t . "Disclosure," be says, "conveyed b:v the hm 1tat10ns and power of tl1e

F.5242/ 5.4.- 3


camera does not convey the same things to the mind aa disclosure made by. the limitations and power of pen or voice. The of presentation, the opportunities. for distortion, the impact on reason, the effect on the looker-on as agamst the reader-hearer, vary, and the differences may be vital." 135. Professor Dallas W. Smythe (writing in the Public Opinion Quarterly, Fall, 1950) emphasized the importance of the visual medium-

We are seeing here the innovation of a social phenomenon of major proportions . . . Here is a technique to make imagination spin. There is hardly a phase of our civilization that could not be made more efficient-or more rich in meaning for our generation. l t could be an instrument of vast help to our ed ucational system in equipping all of us for complete living. :

136. Mr. Boyer also stated that the New York l''ime.s, in 1951, commented that, television had in five years begun to influence the social and economic habits of the United States to a degree unparalleled since the invention of the motor car. " Television is h aving its effect on the way. the public passes its leisure time-how it feels and acts about politics and government, how much it reads, how it rears its cJ:tilq and how it charts its cultural future."

137. 'l'he first social effect of television, therefore, !:iprings from its ·widespread appeal, for its immediacy and visual image make it very attractive to all ages. With children the visual appeal is most effective but it continues through all ages: though it diminishes in adult-; who have high educational qualifications, it never entirely disappears. For psychological r easons, the visual image affects the emotioJi!i! far more than the printed word or tlw spoken voice, and this makes television a very effective weapon for propag·anda. Television is a mass med ium which will become increasingly important. vVe are only at the beginning of a long evolution.

138. When television is first introduced into a home there is at first unselected viewing-what the slang of the critics has called the compulsive period. Experience in the United Kingdom suggests that for adults of reasonablB intelligence this period lasts three to six mouths; in other cases it may last two years. But except in rare cases, the viewer theu becomes l:lelective. There .is no precise evidence where children are concerned, though an American survey conducted by Phillip IJewis, (GJ who questioned 1,500 children, discloses that adolescents who spent seventeen hours a week in the first month of possessing a television set dropped to thirteen and a half hours at the end of the fo urth year. E arly exaggerated views of the compulsive effect of television are now being modified, and we were informed that even children become bored with over-exposure and select their programmes. It is impossible to .interest all children in any one programme; hence a successful children's programme must encourage selectivity, so that each age group obtains wh at is specially designed for it. Thus the British Broadcasting Corporation provides special progi'amrnes for children from two to five years, for children from fi ve to fifteen years,· and i

139. The early period produces both a danger and au opportunity. If the progriumnes are mediocre; that may set the standard of taste, so far as viewers ar e concerned. If the planning is imaginative, then the viewer will watch programmes which will create new interest<;. Thousands of people who have rarely seen a play became interested in televised drama in the early period and retained that interest when the novelty wore off. l\1r. J. L. J. Wilson, of the University of Sydney, stres.'Sed strongly in his evidence the importance of using the compulsive period to broaden the general culture of the community.

140. 'l'elevision is a mass medium, with all its merits and disadvantages. 'l' he programme r eaches an extraordinary number of viewers-thus even in the United Kingdom, where the number of sets is much less than in the United States, one telBcast of a play may r each an audience equivalent to that reached by one year's run in a theatre. A single educational programme, provided from the San Francisco Museum, was viewed by an audience equal to half of those who normally attended the Museum during the year. In England there are nearly 3,000,000 sets: in the United States ther e are 25 ,000,000. But if we wish to estimate the social effect of television we cannot assume that there is only on e viewer to a set, for, especially in the early period, each set has many viewers. The effect of the television of the Coronation may be incapable of being expressed statistically, but it was of tremendous social significance. 'l'he immediacy of the presentation created a f eelin g of psychological unity between those who were within the Abbey and those scattered in towns and villages: no previous coronation l1ad welded the community together in such a Yital way. A medium which in England had been r ather scorned by certain intellectual groups was suddenly shown to be of importance in intensifying the unity of the community and the importance of its traditions. In Australia television could be use d to assist in the assimilation of New Australians. The

visual image would help them to unclerstanct the wri t ten word and documentaries could acquaint them with our national way of life. 141. As a mass medium, television is the entertainmen t mainly for those with lower incomes. In 1952 in England over 60 per cent. of the viewers came from households where the breadwinner earned less than £9 a week and 85 per cent. where the earnings were less than £13. The popularity of the t elevision of the Coronation may have changed these figures, though no recent survey is available, but in all countries it remains true that those with many inter ests find less time for television. It is of incalculable

(5) "T.V.'s Impact on Teen-agers". Survey by P . Lewis, Chicago Teachers' Coll ege , in Phi. D elta Kappan, Nov., 1951.


benefit to t hose who are bedridden or live in isolat ed areas. As Gorham puts it

handicapped. Moreover, it is cheap entertainment if we cost it over a year with other forms of enjoyment.

142. But all mass media are subject to abuse. rrhe danger of television is that because success de}>ends on an appeal to numbers, it is difficult to escape mediocrity or vulgar sensationalism. A laudable attempt to please everybody may r esult in pleasing nobody. 'l'he difficulty of maintaining a supply of effective programmes is increased by the tremen do us cost of running a television service. This problem is

discussed in Chapter V. of this report, but is mentioned here only to make the point that since the overhead costs are difficult to control, there is a t emptation to economize by sacrificing the quality of programmes. fn America ther e are doubts whether advertising revenues ·will be sufficient to develop the full potentiality of tclev ision.

143. 'l'he novelty of an invention frequently creates exaggerated fears. Some witnesses gave evidence that tt·kvision creates too passive an attitude of acceptance in the· mind of the viewer and that it reduces mental and physical activity. This true of certain types of programme, especially when the viewer is still fascinated by novelty. Other evidence stressed the danger to the art of conversation, physical exercise, attendance at lectures, practice of music, and reading: indeed, the picture was drawn of a spineless

(;orn munity, Ull able to develop any interests save that of sitting supinely before the television screen. It was ev.en suggested that, although televi.'3ion tends to keep the family at home, the real unity of the family \Yould disappear as physical proximity did not compensate fo r the destruction of conversation and everything that intellectually held a family together.

144. However, an American survey showed that 46 per cent. of viewers combined their watching of tele\·ision with other activities such as sewing, knitting and even reading. It is rare Eor an evening's programme to inter est every member of the family and, just as the· many members of the community have apparently developed an ability to read in spite of the radio, so they will develop an i.mmnnity from the

distractions of television. (It is a popular misconception in Australia that television demauds a darkened l 'OOJU and therefore that reading i..,; With modern sets, it is better to have a fairly bright light. )

145. 1\Ir. N . H . Rosenthal, of the Visual Aids D epartment of the University of 1\Iclbourne, stated that surveys did show evidence that books were becoming less popular with viewers. Thus in New York 65 per cent. of viewers, in Los Angeles 67 per ce.r:t. and in the United Kingdom 42 per cent. admitted to reading less . But h e also emphasized that television could be used to stimulate reading.

146. 1VIr. vV. Dunstan, of the H erald and \Veekly Times Limited, referred to a survey by the New York 'l 'i'ines that showed a decline in book sales to adults aud suggested that the increased cost of books wo uld be at least a partial cat1se. This suggestion is supporte d by the fact that in the same periqd most public libraries reported an upward trend in the lending of books and that children were reading more and

not less . 'rhe witness also referr ed to a speech by Sir Allen I,ane, founder of the Penguin Publishing Company, who emphasized that in England the right type of progr amme had encouraged reading rather than the rever se. 'l'here is also evidence that children tend to borrow books that have been r eferred to in television programmes. A survey by the \Vashington Library (United States) found that, although the circulation of inferior types of liter ature hacl decreased, the general circulation had not been affected as

the better types of books wer e in greater demand. Ther e was an increasing to science, exploration, t ravel, information and natural history . 14 7. It is clear that there cannot yet be conclusive evidence on the long-term effects of television on other forms of activity. All the evidence shovvs that ·when a family is first introduced to television, the

r esult i.s an acceptance that is rather too passiYe. This ultimately leads to a reaction, as certain types of programmes pall and other interests re-assert themselves . Our experience of televisi on is, however, too li mited for any survey to give dogmatic r es ults, but this at least can be stated, that there is a social duty to ensure that the programmes will be desig'ned to stimulate mental activity instead of depressing it.

148. 'l'lte argument in the precedi11g par agraphs leads to the conclusion that t elevision will have. a far greater social impact than either radio or motion pictures. 'There are also important technical differences distinguish television from either motion pictures or radio, and these show that a i1 ew art of

presentation and programme construction must bt> learnt in order to exploit the n ew medium successfully. 149. 'l'he essence of television, so far as its appeal to the viewers is concerned, is its immediacy- on0 is seeing what is actually happening at the moment. ]\-Iary Adams, writing in the J otmtal of the f:Jociety of Arts, February, 1949, states: "Television techniques tend to brighten the interest of real h fe;

film techniques have the reverse effect. The psychological effect of television is to enhance reality and at the same time to bring about identification between the viewer and what he sees on the screen." The fascination of television is that it catches t11e unexpected-e.g. the expression of the batsman who misses the ball. If a

(6) "Television: medium of t he Future" by M. Gorham, Lon d., L949 , p . 135.


Lord lVIayor's p t·ocession 1s t elevised, the viewer sees a r eal cro\vcl, and not a collection of extras. Editing enables a fi lm t o have a smooth perfection , but it rob · television of the inter esting imperfections of life. T he gener al impression is t h at fi lms not made specially for t elevision suffer from technical defects-the p icture may be too fl at , or the screen t oo crowded. Television must use film, but in gen er al, to be satisfactory, it should be specially designed t o suit the new medium. Ne wsr eels and documentaries ar e successful examples of the proper use of film, and the effect of ac tu ality may be p r oduced by skilled editors ..

150. The technique of television also diff ers greatly from that of radio, for most radio programmes cannot r eadily be adapted f or t elevision. Thus one of t he bel:i t contr·i butions of radio has been in the fi eld of music, yet th er e is still gr eat contr oversy in the Unit ed Kingdom and United States of America whether the t elevision of a symphony concer t is as sa tisf actory as a sound broadcast. E ven oper a; which depends

fo r part of its appeal on the eye, pr esen ts a difficu lt t ask f or television. The t alk has proved effec tive on radio, but on t elevision only a very except ional p erson ean h old the viewer. On the other hand television can play a g-reat part in r aising the general level of appreciation of elrama.

151. Again, r adio has been gen er ally regarded as an eff ective medium f or t he br oadcasting of church ;,;er vices , but h ow t elevision should best be used to convey the religious message is 8till a matter of

experiment and controversy. 'l'hel'e are special services or cer emonies wh er e the general interest in the occasion is sufficien t to make the p rogramme a su':, bn t th ose who gave evi dence before us and church lf' nd ers in the United Kin g·d om , while recognizing the great signifi cance of t he new medium as a means of spreading the Christian f aith , freely admit that seYel'al problems must be over com e· bef ore the new t echniques can be successfully exploited . lVI uch ex pe rimen tal wo rk is now being· done in this field .

152. The conclusion to be drawn f1·om thes e ob.oer vations is t hat televi sion, wh ile it owes much to those who have been trained in fi lm and radio, can be initiat-ed on ly if the introduction is

gradual enough t o allow of seriou;,; t raining to those who are to engage in t he production of programmes . Professor Siepmann 's r emarks on educational t el evision are applicable t o t elevision programmes in general: " rrhe condition of further effective advan ces in this field is caution- great deliberation, more cnrefnl and extensive t esting and, ab ove all , concern with standards."(' )

4. rrr-rE PROBLEM OJ" C ON'l'ROh

153. l\:Iuch evidence was given before us r ela both to the broad prin ciple of social control and t he det ai led problems that ari ·e un der each pecifi c t erm of reference, e. g., t he number of stations, the hou rs of transmission, th e quality of progr ammes, t he ru les t•elating t o r eligious and p olitical progTamm es .

154. Som e witnesses advocated very rigid control. 'l'h us l\:Il·. H . . Al exander, Ge ner al Secretary of the Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Austr alia, suggest ed that an independent Board of Control :;hould be appointed and that thete should be a censor appointed by the Govemment to each· Station. l\I r . E . V . Hale, of the New South \Val€s F j]m Co uncil, wet'lt so f ar as to suggest that all

programme material, other than outside br oadcasts, ; -;hould be recorded on fi lm and submitted to the censot· befot e being t elevised. Mr. Ernest Oliver also suppor ted the cr en tioi1 of a censorship panel.

155 . A more pr actice:tbl e suggestion was that o£ hi:; Lordship Bishop Lyons, r epresenting the Catholic Church in Australia, who suggested that , so far as possible, progr ammes which past experience in the theatre, cinema and radio had shown to be most likely t o cont ain object ion able matter should be censored before beii1 g transmitted, and that fil m for tele\'isio11 sl1 oulrl satisfy the for m of censorship as film f or the picture theatre.

156. Other witn esses emphasi zed that t her e sh ould be reg nlation of quality by strict rules (in most cases without specifying the basis on which such rules should be fo rmulated) , and that f ailure to observe t hem should be a reason for t he revocation of a licence. 157. lVIr. H . E. Beaver, on behalf of the Australian l<..,ederation of Comm ercial !Jroadcasti ng Stations, stated the thesis for a minimum of r egulation-

The .E'eder ation takes ihe view that it is essential to the contin ued operation of a demo cn wy that rad io and television br oadcasting should be free to oper ate within the fr amewo rk of the general law and to provide news, information and entertainment to ·the gener al public, free from censorship and arbitr ary control. Ther e should he no lnahdatory l'egulations which wo uld con tr ol pr ogr amme content, except the laws of th e land relating to ma tters as li bel, defamation, gaming and bett ing, treason, obscen ity, &c. The witn e;,s believe d that the only eff ectivr control was that of public opinion. H e faYou red the po li cy of self-regulation by the in dustr y .

158 . F'or reasons elaborated in Chapter VII. '' 'e r ej ect t he pr oposa ls that ther e shonl d be eitl 1e:· continuous censor hip ot· any attempt to r egul ate q ll a li ty by detailed negative rules .

169 . On the other hand, we do not feel that so ciety can let the pr oblem go by default. rrhe crux of the pr oblem was significantly put by Dr . H. H. P enny, P r incipal of the Adelaide Teacll et s' College­ T o these br oad facts (the impact of sight with sound, and tl1e per vasive and a b orptive character of tele vision) must be add ed a third. T elevised program mes . . . ure heard-viewe d by hu nd reds of thousa JJ ds

( 7) "Television and 'Eclu cnLioll in t he UtJ !te rl States:· hy C. A. Siep ma1w. Unesco . p. 11 5.



aud sometimes milliom of peo ple. We h av e to be ar i 11 lll iml th en tlw L medium of communication so and so powerful only forn:ing the ideas, 'the attitudes, sh aping the -... alues and

the conduct of md1v1duals consider ed separately, it is doing all these things collectively. . . .

TelevlSlOn 1s the most powerful of all the mass media so f ar devised. . . . \V e must devise the means for "the by society of . . There is n othing essenti ally wrong or degrading about mass

med1a. ar: essent1al_ m any community to the development of those ideas, attitudes and

values ktut_ mdTvJd uals m to a soCla l _g:·?up. . . . T he fact that any f ormati-ve med ium can r oach

the mass I S potentially good, but t he r es pons1b1h ty f or quality i.s a se rious one indee d. H o ·won t on t o emphasize tha t a n y programme desig:1r--d onl;r thr· awr:::ge man pitches its lev el rather too low an d rn n. <; the danger of ·committing· itself to a more or les::; co nsis tent a n d continuous mediocrity. It fails to r each the qu ali ty n ee d ed by the u p p er third of a population- an d this is not t h e least important section of .a n y societ y . His thesis was that television is such an importan t mediu m t hat society \l1l1St at least exercise snffi-cien t cont rol to ensure that it is n ot smrender ed to mediocrit y .

160. Our conclusion in favour of t h e Eorm of control over p r ogr ammes, that we r ecommend m Chapter VII., is based on acceptance of the followin g consider ations:-(a) T elevision is .\i O efl'ect ive as a medium tha.t a wrong us e oi it wo u ld do tr<> mendons harm, especially in the early stages before any local standar d of tas te has bPen set and the

ver y novelty of t h e medium will en courage t h e viewer Lo look at anything.

( b) Television enter s t h e home and all ages are exposed to it: where children are concerned, the community has always been prepm·ed t o accept r egula tion more easily than wher e the problem r ela t es to adults only .

161. rrhis ar gument f or some form of control is a lso supported b,v p oints which are elabor ated in other parts of this r ep ort. ln Chapter V. we conclnd<> t ha t the cost s of establishing television ar e such that it should be introduced only gr adu ally : and in that chapt er, wher e the availabilit y of prog-rammes is discussed , we con clu de that it would be diffi cult, in the initial p er iod , to secur e p r ogrammes of adequate

qualit:r if an excessiv€ number of stations were licensed iu any one ar ea . .

162. It is often r eplied that r egulation is absurd as t he p ublic r eally sets the stan dard and get s what it deserves . That has n ever been entirely true, wheth er in bo oks, art, d1·ama or t he fil m . -There is no doubt that radio has already played a significant part in raising the stan dard of musical appr eciat ion in Australi' This was not achieved by findin g out the average level of t aste an d con centrat ing on that.

'l'he endeavour was to pitch the progTamme a little high er than public tast e an d thus gradually create a n ew st andard. It is important tha t this should be the p olicy of television as the com pulsive period gives an opportunity to widen the interests of the viewer. But the ar gument that the public gets what it d eserves emphasizes the undoubted truth that no administr ative set o£ r egulations can su ccee d in raising

quality unles s t her e is a wide pnblic inter est which will create the atmosp here necessary to su ccess. This point is the basis of our conclm:;ion t hat the most eff ective method of raising standards is through the licensing system , with provision for a public h earin g wher e the Australian Br oadcast ing Control Board does not think tha t it is in the p u blic interest t hat a licence shonlcl be r en ewed. If the public puts up w·it h inferior television, it will only have itself t o blam e if it fails to t ake ad vantage of t he means p rovided for the expression of its dissatisf action. \Vhat is n ee ded ill a vocal public which will off er constructive

criticism and r efuse to be satisfi ed with infe r ior programmes . In the Uni ted Kingdom the public and press are very active in expressing from week to w eek op inions on each particular t y pe of programme. In the Unit ed .Stnt es, man y organization s h ave b object of nsing public op inion as a means of improving quality . An active policy of constructive p ublic cr iticism i::; in

Australi a if t elevision is to r ea ch the st andard desired.

163. Programmes must appeal to t h e public, bnt is it untrue to say that the public cannot be made to appreciate progi·ammes of quality. The r eal solution is along the line of what P rofessor G. V. Por tus, in his book Happy H ighways, calls " en tertainment p lus " . Sup porting this a pproac h , Profess or 1•' . Alexan der stated in evidence-

If eff ective m e is to be m ade of the n ew medi um of T V', tho se who wo uld use i t to raise instead of lower standards ,.,,. ill nee d official recognition a11d greater Government assistance th:m they have been given in the development of broadcasting. The successful developmen t of telev ision in Austr alia will no dou bt make many demands on the technical side. Ope m ay f eel co nfi den t that such technical demands will be met by the

combined skills of public and private enter prise : If the resulting service of public entertainment is to m ake a r eally constr)lctive to _lif e, it must mnke equally h eavy demands_ on the fores ight of

Government and Parliament on the 1m agma twn and courage of those who control and dH ec t the several TV services and on the -active as well as the constructive criticism of interes ted individuals and

outside. It will dem and faith from i! ll concerned- faith, above all, in the artistic po tentialities

otthe Australian people, in their native shrewdness and in their proved capacity for disc riminating between the fir st grade artist or production and the second rate. T hese arc r eal of the rank and fi le

on which it is possible to build and which already do m uch to offset the h unted range an d depth of h1s actual cultu r al experience. 'l'he >vitness considered that the best p r oc edure was to raise t he quality of t he ord inar y pr ogr amme inst ead of merely injecting par ticular sessions r egar de d as educational, and that much value could be gained from

a study of the success of the Army Education Service and Adult Education Boards in Anst r alia.


164. lVIr. J. L. J. Wilson argued strongly that television should not merely try to strike at the level of average popular taste-there should be recognized a duty to lea d public taste and develop new interests.

165. Mr. Rosentha] stated: "Great as are the dangers from ,violence and unhealthy excitement to be derived from the television screen, dullness and monotony and stereotyped presentations are also harmful · to the community's mental health". . l!J


166. Regulation of the number of stations also raises an abstract pi·o blem of some difflculty. Democratic freedom (it was alleged · by some witnesses) demands that the only limit to the number of licences issued should be the actual number of available channels. It 1vas argued fir stly that the limitation of stations would create the difficult administrative problem of choosing between the different applicants: secondly that, if the limitation was too severe, it would create a dangerous monopoly: thirdly that free

competition was the only means of raising standards, selling the desired mimber of sets and creating enterprise and initiativ·e. On the other side, it was argued just as strongly that the proliferation of many: stations must inevitably lower the quality of programmes, since Al1stralia could not provide the talen t necessary for the number of hours of transmission that such a policy virould permit. It was suggested that

the long-term interest of television demanded programmes of quality (both in the technieal and the broader sense) and that it would take a considerable time to train both technicians and artists to the requisite level of skill. These issues are disclli;sed in Chapter V.

167. The issue of freedom again intrudes in the problem of the regulation of political and r eligiou s broadcasts, and this is discussed in Chapter VIII.


168. lVIuch evidence was placed before us revealing widespread community interest in the possible effects of television on the child. The following bodies or individuals ·were among those who dealt with this issue, some expressing grave disquiet while others suggested that the danger was not in the medium bnt in 1 the way in which it viras used. The witnesses are listed in the order in which they appeared-

1\1r. N. H. Ro senthal, Director, Visual Aids Department, University of Melbourne. Dr. A. Fabinyi, Publishing l\1anager, F. W. Cheshire Pty. Ltd. Rev. A. Crichton Barr}p b . Ch h f v· .


. . · res ytenan nrc o Ictoria.

ev. . . eattie

lVIr. W. Dunstan, The Herald and Weekly Times Limited, l\1elbourne.

l\1r. S. K. Farrell, State Schools Committees' Association of Victoria.

Mrs. A. Paton}v· . C .I f Ch'ld ' F'l d T I .. Mrs. B. Falk Ictonan ounci or I ren s I ms an . e ev1s10n. Mr. S. F. E. Liebert, Australian Council of School Organizations. Mr. H. F. Heath, New South Wales Teachers' Federation.

A.WW aGlkeHr .

11 . d}Australian Council for the World Council of Churcht's. JS op . . I 1ar

lVIr. H. E. Beaver, Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations. Dr. M. S. Brown, New Education Fellowship, New South Wales Branch. l\1r. E. W. MacAlpine, Consolidated Press Limited. Mrs. B. Ewart. Miss N. l\1. Mills, Queensland Woman's Christian Temperance Union. l\tfrs. E. F. Byth, National Council of Women of Australia. Rev. E. H. Woollacott} Canon A. E. Kain United Churches Social Reform Board. Mr. S. B. Denton

Mr. B. Davies }F'l d T 1 . . C 'l f S th A l'


. 1 m an e evisiOn ounc1 o ou ustra Ia.

r. . . . Isney

Miss M. L. Wauchope, Senior Lecturer, rr eachers' College, Adelaide. Dr. T. L. Robertson, Director of Education, W estern Australia. Mrs. M. E. Calder, \¥omen's Service Guilds of vVestern Australia Inc. Mr. R. H. Featherstone, State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia Inc. Mr. W. D. Neal, New Education Fellowship, Australian Federal Council. Rev. W. J. H. Aikin, Australian Religious Film Society. Mr. V. R. Long, Education Department, Tasmania. Rev. W. J. Robbin, Child Welfare Advisory Counci l of New South W ales. Bishop P. F. J-.1yons, Catholic Church in Australia.

169. The main points made by those who '"'er e concern ed at possible abuses of the new medium were as follows :-(a) There was danger of the wrong type of p:J;ogr amme lowering the taste of children, and even encouraging delinquency: where young children were . concerned, nervous disorders

might result from the viewing of programmes f eaturing sadism, brutality or horror .



(b) Excessive viewing was undersirable for physical reasons, a::; it discouraged activity and outdoor sport and in some cases caused eyestrain. Dr. Penny, Principal of the Adelaide Teachers' College, gave evidence of three surveys in . America in 1952 which showed average viewing by children of 26 hours a week­ which is approaching the time spent in the Classroo-m. Three further surveys are now

mentioned in order to illustrate the diversity of the conclusions. The last-mentioned was not available in Australia when Dr. Penny gave his evidence. A Cambridge (l\1ass.) survey gives a total of only eighteen and a half hours a 'veek. Mr. P. Jj ewis, in his

survey, found that children viewed for seventeen hours in the early period and thirteen and a half hours after possessing a set for four years. Professor P. \Vi tty, in a survey of 3,000 elementary and · high school pupils in Chicago area, . found that grade school pupils spent in 1953 an average of 22 hours a week (an increase of one hour since the

first study in 1950), and that high school pupils had increased their vievving from fourteen hours a week in 1950 to seventeen hours a we- e.k in 1953. There was little correspondence behveen examination results and the time spent viewing. 'reachers were les:s worried about televi8ion as it had become part of the pattern of life instead of being

a novelty interfering with other activities. ':I:'hese figures seem to conflict with those of Lewis, but they are collected on a different basis. Lewis was concerned only with the effect of habit on viewing, and many of the child listeners surveyed by Witty might have been new listeners who pushed the general average up. But, however the figures are interpreted, they do sh ow an intense pre­

occupation with television. In England, the problem of excessive viewing by children is not so acute, because of the limited number of hours that television is on the air. The children's programme normally runs from 5 to 6 p.m. and after that there is a complete break in transmission till the ad tilt programme begins (usually 8 p.m.). rrhe total number of programme hour>;

(both for adults and children) is only 35 a week.

(c) Even where the programmes were reasonably good, viewing· was a passive experience which tendered to depress creative mental activity: i.t interfered with homework and with reading.

(d) It was difficult to maintain home discipline or to get young children to go to bed because of the obsessive fascination of the n ew medittm.

170. It '"Tas therefore strongly argued-(a) that there should be programmes at a suitable hour special1y designed for children with the object of stimulating new inter ests;

(b) that there should b e a complete break in transmission for an hour on all stations at the end . of the children's programme so that younger children may have th eir meaL<; undisturbed and then be put to bed; (c) that even in the adult programme care should be taken to pla ce late in the evening items

which are likely to do active harm to children.

171. There is no doubt about the unfortunate effects upon children of the wrong kind of programme, or even of excessive viewing of television programmes in gener aL I n the United States of America there are studies purporting to show that bedtime is getting later; that reading is diminishing; and that, although there is little evidence that the school '"'ork of younger children is affected, there is loss of

efficiency at the later periods ,;\,rhen more homework should be done. rrhe surveys do not yet cover a wide enough sample to be regarded as statistically conclusive. With r <:>gard to delinquency, the evidence is conflicting. Some surveys trace much delinquency to the portrayal of crime and violence on the screen, while others claim a fall in delinquency as children r emain amused at home instead of wandering bored in

the streets.

172. Figures published in January, 1953, co llected by a Parent-Teachers' Association of Chicago do show that certain programmes seem to be rather unbalanced. Every child1 ·e n}s programme in Chicago \vas monitored between Christmas morning and :t\ ew Year's Eve. Ther e were 295 violent crimes including 93 murders, 78 shootings, 9 kidnappings, 9 robberies, 44 gun 2 knifings, 33 sluggings, 2

whippings, 2 poisonings and 2 bombings. These were in cluded in 134 children's shows-mostly of old film. (Unesco Courier, :March, 1953.) These figures may be misleading to t hose who did not see the programmes in question, but they do at suggest that those responsible for them ';.,'el' e rather dev oid of initjative. rrhe analysis illustrates that the use of old film , esp ecially in children\ sessions, needs special care. The

Common,:vealth Office of Education gave evidence of m any American surveys : thus in Lo .· Angeles 55 per cent. of the children's programmes were drama and half of this \VDS west ern drama. The National Association of E d ucational Broadcasters found that, in Augnst, 10 51, the llercentagc of children'H

programmes in. Chicago devoted to drama was 68.89 per cent., and of this 41.61 per cent. w(_ts western drama. The National Association for Better Radio and Television classified 58 hours of -·children's programmes as follows :-8 were excellent, 11 good, 5 fair, 2 poor, 25 objec tionable, 7 most objectionable.

173. As Mr. Rosenthal emphasized, we take care not to make television a scapegoat for the social sins of omission and commission of the community, a.s vve are inclined to do in the case of films and · comics. There is evidence that television used to excess may damage the child's physical well-being and mental alertness. But there is also evidence that po or television habits, lower intelligenc-e quotients, lower parental control, bad envir-onmental conditions and poor school a chievement tend to be found in the same

child. rrhe effect of television on the child, like that of film, will depend largely on _what he brings to it. (See Report' of Research conducted by Xavier University, 1951.) Professor Paul Witty, in t-wo studies, (8l c-oncludes that it is usually the · child with the lowest intelligence quotient who ' is most distracted _by · television and that such children would probably have other di'3tractions if television did not exist.

17 4. 'rhere is no clear evidence to determine the effect of home viewing · o,li school

performance. Xavier University drew these conclusions:--(a) There was no significant difference in school achievement between children who · viewed at home and those who did not. ( b) Learning was not much affected by the way parents controlled their children viewing. v (c) Television can be used to excess, resulting in damage to physical well-being and mental


On the other hand Philip Lewis (Phi Delta J( appan, November:, 1951, page 118) refers to an investigation t. which found that children with a scholastic standing of " Good " or below could not afford to watch television. for as much as fifteen hours a week without affecting the ratings received. But, as he points out, generalization is difficult. In certain subjects such as current history or drama, selected television programmes might assist the student: in higher mathematics no help was receive9- from -vvatching._ There is evidence that many children do their homework while vvatching programmes, This must either lead to superficial work or else develop an ability to do two things at once ..

175. It is essential that children's programmes should have sparkle and arouse vivid ii1terest. Crime stories are not always harmful--indeed properly presented they may develop a sense of co-operation with the police. Due allowance 'must be made for the fact that some books (e.g. Uncle Tom's Cabin) which would be suitable to read are not appropriate for the more compelling medium of television. Children are more easily by the image word. Even educational may

-e.g. the excessive magnrficatwn -of a sp1der In a science talk; or the steady "trackmg · m" of a face. Children's reactions are very different from those of adults. Violence depicted television is no-£ necessarily damaging. Healthy adventure stories are full of excitement. ' 'rhese are points which are . soon learnt by experience, if the control of television allows sufficient scope for a competent director of children's programmes and sufficient money for costs.

176. In the United Kingdom, programmes that terrifying to children but may be suitable for adults are usually not televised till after 9 p.m. l\1oreover, on introducing such a programme a warning is always given if it is likely to distress the more vulnerable section of the vie"'vers. 'Phis seems a fair compromise of the rights of adults and children, as it would be unreasonable to suggest tliat the content of all adult programmes must be governed by the needs of children of tender years.

177. On the other hand, there are children's programmes both in the United States ai1d United Kingdom for which there can be nothing but praise. rrhe British Broadcasting Corporation has devoted much thought to this problem, and interesting experimental w·ork is being carried out. Child experts, teachers and parents are generally very satisfied with the British Broadcasting Corporatjon's programmes for children and, above all, the children enjoy them greatly.

178. We accept the conclusion -of Professor Charles Siepmann, in Television and Ed1tcat1:on in the United States, page 104, in discussing the psychological effect .of television on children- . It had better be said categorically that there is a·t present no solid evidence on this point. For it is virtually imposs ible to separate out the influence of television, whether on children or adults, from the concomitant influence of other mass media of communica tion and the complex of factors in the general social environment. To say this, however, is not to dismiss the subjec·t as of no importance. It is obviously of supreme importance. It simply means that, if one is looking for scientific proof on this matter, one will not :find it. It is a matter of judgment and opinion. And the abse).1ce, whether now or in the future, of scien6:fic

corroboration provides no alibi for serious thought and discuss ion of the problem or for responsible actio 11 stemming from reasoned· and reasonable judgment of the possibilities in the situation. 179. There is one small point that may now be regarded as established. The earlier complaints of eyestrain have been almost completely r emoved by technical improvements in the quality -of sets and of

transmission. 180. \Ve conclude that the evidence, critically examined, establishes that the child is more vulnerable than the adult, that healthy stories of action and even violence do no harm, but that sadism, torture and (8) "Television and the High School Rtudent, " , 'Education, December, 1951. "Television and the Rdn cntive Proce s " , School and Society, Decelllhcr 15, 1 9nl , pp. 369-72.




brutality have adverse effects: that, although · there is evidence that certain types of programme or excessive viewing . are harmful to children, there is· no evidence that there is anything in the nature of television per se which is injurious.

!81. 'rhe argument that television depresses mental activity has already been discussed with regard to adult (supra paragraph 143), and the same considerations apply in the case of children.

Programmes m,ay easily be devised which will create n ew interests. 'Thus, in Seattle, a television programme for children led to a rush to the Public Library to b orrmv any book by the author f eatured (Siepmann, op. cit., page 103). In the United Kingdom, pli.blishers are reprinting books which have been the subject of children's television serials,

· 182. But, however good the programmes, some parental control is necessary to prevent excessive viewing. That is. not a matter which can be controlled by public regulations.

183: vVe recommend that on the national stations there should be a regular children's programme, specially designed not only for the different age groups but also to cover a wide scope of interests. (The British Broadcasting Corporat ion has in mid-afternoon a session "\Vatch with 1\iiother ", which is. designed for those under five years, and another session beginnilig at 5 o\Jock which is intended to interest. children - from five to :fifteen years. Naturally that, age span is such that some parts cannot be of the same interest

to all, but care is exercised in the choice of programmes to keep a balance betvireen the various age groups. At present a new programme is being devised for adolescents over the age of fifteen.). \Vhere a commercial is operating in an area where there is no national station, we recommend that it should be required

to transmit at a suitable time a children's programme r ecorded by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. We think that it is one of the obligations to the public of all eommercial stations to provide a suitable children's progTamme, but we do not consider that this should be laid down as a legal obligation, in the case where there is a national station operating, but should be rather a matter to be considered when the

question of the general standard of the service is examined at the time a licen ce needs renewal.

184::rc V•l e make no recommendation with respect to the proposal for a break in transmission at the · end of the children's programme, but this question is adverted to in Chapter VII., Section 6.


in tlM Broad Sense .

185. may be made a force of great educational power. 'rhus properly designed

programmes may directly encou_rage-( a) reading-e.g. stimulatin g r evie\vS or television of scenes from a classic; (b) creative activity----'e.g. p ainting and drawing; (c ) wider knowledge of fo r eign countries ; thus in J uly , 1952, direct transmissions were made

from Paris to England and the experiment showed the p otential benefits in creatin g active interest in a for eign country; (d) discussion of political issues; (e) teaching of techniques-e.g. amateur film production, new agricultural methods;

(f) a higher level of taste by providing good drama, as radio has raised the general level of appreciation of music. 186. Examp-les of the British.· Broadcasting Corporation 's programmes which are educational in the broad sense are as follows :-

(a) Inventor's has been running for :five years. By March, 1953, over 5,000

inventions had been submitted by members of the public and 391 had been selected and shown in the programme. Ninety are already in full-scale production and others are in various stages of development. Large manufacturing firms watch this programme closely and it undoubtedly stimulates many viewers to activity. (b) Painter's Progress.-This was a successful att empt to arouse interest in the t echnique of

drawing and painting. Another series The E ye of the Artis t is designed to en courage study of the original paintings and sculptures. (c) Amateur Film Criticism.-Films are chosen from those submitted: a significant part of the film is televised and then the panel of critics (who h ave spent time in studying the whole

film) assess the value- of the :film. (d) T elevision intM·views of leading figur es by the P ress : f or example, the interview of Adlai Stevenson by four ver y co mp et ent jour nalists. (e) Household t echniques, e.g., cooking, ho11Se decoration, home man.agement. 187. In the United States, commercial st ations ar e in creasingly r ealizing the social obli gat ion to allot time for programmes that will raise the general level of p opular e. It is more convenient to give illustrations of these programmes in the next sect ion .

* S ee supplemen t ary observation No. 1 by h e Ch airman and Mrs. Foxton.


Adult Eclu)cation.

188 . .Adult education has become a technical ten'n for activities designed for those who wish to carry further their education in one or more particular spheres, and in many countries is supported by direct governmental grants to universities, or to bodies specially set up for that purpose.

189. In the United States (as ·we have already pointed out in paragraph 129 of this chapter) provision was made, in 1952, for 242 stations for educational purposes. It is yet too early to determine how the experiment -vvill work. But apart from these special stations, the facilities of commercial stations are also used, either by buying time or obtaining it free from the stations. (9 J At present over 65 institutions' of higher learning in the United States are engaged in providing television programmes. In Philadelphia a group of twenty colleg·es combined to present a regular series of adult education programmes; covering science, psycholog7, art, literature and drama. In addition to the natural desire to i'aise the level of the

intellectual life of the community, there is the hope of establishing good relations between the universities and the public, and of securing greater support and goodwill. Some concentrate on practical techniques­ e.g. farming or gardening. Such a programme as "r.rhe Whole Town's Talking" attempts to concentrate attention on the social and political problems of the region in question. Columbia University runs a programme "Seminar" which is a discussion on American education. Ten colleges are using television as part of classroom instruction, though the subjects presented are mainly concerned with courses on radio and television. Io-vva State College, which has had 24 years' experience in ra-dio broadcasting before commencing television, spent $285,000 in establishing the basic installation and incurred an annual operating expenditure of $370,000 exclusive of special research projects. Rut, although the station has had grants from the Ford Foundation, it still has to rely in part on sponsorship. Some interesting programmes that fall under the head of adult education are as follows:-

"The Johns Hopkins Science Review'' ( J obns Hopkins University). "Art in Your Life " (San Francisco l\fuseum of .Art). " Science in Action " (California Academy of Science).

190. In the United Kingdom at present there is only one programme provided and-it runs only for a bout 35 hours a \Veek There is no demand for specific stations for educational institutions for two reasons:_ firstly there is the financial problem which no University in England would wish to face: secondly the general standard of the British Broadcasting Corporation's programmes is such that both popular and minority interests are considered.

191. In 1945, an educational division of Television Francaise was established and it broadcast a weekly programme of one hour's duration on such subjects. as science, literature, art, and a monthl}r programme on univ-ersity activities. France has also experimented with university programmes of . a.n advanced scientific nature, e.g. Anthropology and :Microscope cinematography.

192. We conclude that at least in the early period, no plans should be made for special stations in Australia for the purpose of adult education. In this country the first and most important problem is to ensure that the quality of the progTammes of both national and stations is sufficiently hjgh.

rrhere are only limited resources to devote to the general development of television and our educational institutions need money for more urgent purposes than experimenting· with a new medium. "Entertainment television" will need to struggle to increase the number of sets and it would he unwise, at this stage, to cast on "educational stations'' the burden of securing viewers. Even in radio, which is well established and much cheaper than television, .Australia has not established educational stations. But the existence of the national network renders the problem less acute than in America.

School Class Room.

193. The-evidence suggests that television is not yet a suitable medium for use in the class room. Professor G. S. Browne, who, in 1953, made a survey of television in America, that its introduction into the school class room would stereotype the school time-table and diminish the activity of the pupils. On the other hand, some educators are very enthusiastic and, by 1952, 41 school districts in the United States reported some use of television in the class room (Siepmann, op. cit., p. 77).

194. In one survey, inquiry was made of 30 school superintendents. Twenty-two preferred the film, 2 preferred television, and 6 said that the two media served dHferent purposes and could not r·eally be compared (Siepmann, op. cit., p. 84). In a second survey, 15 out of 28 schools were satisfied with the use of television, 12 were unfavorable, and 1 was doubtful. Th-e difference of opinion concerning the efficiency of television as a teaching aid underlines the necesRity for further experiment and experience before conclusive answers can be given.

185. Of the witne.'3Ses who appeared before u s, M.r. V. R. Long, of the Education Department of 'rasrnania, suggested that the Department accepted t elevi sion as a teaching aid and considered that its introduction into the class room would increase th<: Yi t<'l l content of such subjects a. science and social studies, music, arts and crafts.

(9) Education on the Air (1952 , Ohio State University).




196. 'rhe Common\vealth Office of Education gave evidence of the Philadelphia experiment ·where 200 receivers have been installed in secondary and 700 in elementary schools. The preparation and production is handled entirely by the school author-ities. In France three half-hourly school programmes are televised each week: two consist of filmed material covering such subjects as science,

geography and history: the third is a live programme: altogether 10 secondary schools, 50 .elementary schools and 10 technical colleges have television receivers.

197. In the United Kingdom there has been a very careful and cautious approach to the problem of 1tsing television for schools. In 1951 the School Broadcasting Council and the British Broadcasting Corporation set up a Joint Sub:Committee to study t he implications of the problem. A pilot project has just been carried out with the co-operation of the :Mid dlesex Education Authority, and special programmes are being· transmitted- to six selected schools. The conclusions were-

( a) Although television has great potential value, it cannot take the place of the teacher, who must effectively prepare the class and aL'lo follow up the programme. The evidence does not suggest that television can compensate for a shortage of good teachers. (b) rrelevisi<{n vvill not be a satisfactory class room aid until more research has been carried out. (c) 'rhe great disadvantage of television, as contrasted ,;t,rith film, is that all schools must view

the telecast at the same moment. 'fhis causes great time-table difficulties. ( cZ) 'fhe economic cost of fitting schools ·with adequate receivers is considerable, as a large class would need more than one receiver. (e) The children did the immediacy of the telecast, which seemed to bring them into

closer contact with the commentator than in the case of film.

198. 1\lir. N .. Rosenthal, Director of the Visual Aids Department of the University of l\tielbourne, emphasized that, while television can be valuable in the class room, it is only a supplementary aid ·which can be effectively used by a good teacher. Television will not overcome the inadequacies of a bad teacher. Jts integTation into the c1ass room needs resourcefulness and skill, and in the hands of a poor teacher. it

will prove a danger rather than an aid to teaching. rrhe fir st priority, in his vie-vv, was the provision of good t eaching·, the second was the provision of adequate premises, adequate equipment and the institution of elasses small enough to enab}.e effective teaching to be given. Until these needs were met, he considered that money should not be spent on providing television for th e class room. On the whole, he considered

th at., in the present state of development, films were superior to television as a visual aid for teachBrs.

199. The Commonwealth Office of Education made the following submissions:-(a) Only certain types of school work lend themselves to treatment on television transmission. (b) Initially t€levision will be available only to schools near transmitting stations. (c) Television is certainly no substitute for the good teachers. ( cl) Costs of installing television in schools would be much greater than in the case of film. (e) Research and experiment will be necessary to develop suitable techniques.

(f) A high type of programme would be essential. 200. Dr. H. S. Wyndham, Director-General of Education in New South Wales, also emphasized that there is a significant lack of adequate and reliable experimental evidence on such questions as the types of lessons which can most usefully be televised; the ages at which children benefit most; the methods to be used for the different age gToups. The witness considered that, in view of this lack of knowledge and the

economic cost, the most effective vmy that the Department co uld procee d would be by way of pilot sessions on an experimental basis. 201. Our conclusion is in agreement virith the majority of the witnesses that television is not yet a suitable medium for class instruction, but we urge that experimental work should be carried out ·which

will take advantage of the experience of other countries and adapt it to th e particular needs of Australia.




202. We now propose to examine in some detail the specific matters referred to us for inquiry, against the of the g eneral information reviewed in the pr·ececling· chapters, and of the evidence

submitted to us. The questions to be consider ed, broadly, fall into two dist inct groups which may be epitomized as follows :-( n) The formulation of a plan to provide for the inauguration and progressive development of the Australian national and commercial television services (terms of reference,

paragraphs (a) and (b)) ; and (b) 'rhe organization the which are to ensure the

effective operation of such serviCes, havmg regard to the pubhc Interest (terms of reference, paragraphs (c) to (f) ) . .

In this chapter we · examine the issues which h ave to be resolved in relation to the first question. In Chapters VI.-VIII. ·we shall consider the second question.

203. We are specifically required by paragraph (a) o.E our terms of reference to reach a conclusion with respect to the number of national and commercial t elevision stations which can effectively be established and operated, and in doing so -vve are required to take into account-( a) :financial and economic considerations ; and

( b) the availability of suitable programmes. A further qualifying factor, not referred to in our terms of reference, but obviotisly r elevant to an adequate consideration of this issue is the technical problem connected with the availability of frequency channels which we have already discussed in Chapter III. It is therefore necessary for us, in the fii·st place, to

examine these particular aspects of our inquiry in th e lig·ht of the evidence submitted to us.


204. In order to assess the :financial implications involved in establishing and developing the Australian television service, we shall review the evi dence tendered to us on capital costs, operating cost.-, and revenues. Capital Costs.


205. The Chairman and the General Manager of the Australian Broadcasting Commission submitted to us a proposal covering the progressive establishment of fourteen national television stations. In presenting this proposal the Australian Broadcasting Commission expressed the view that "whatever the resources that can be spared from other uses, they are certainly not abundant enough to permit a great and rapid expansion of television in Australia". We were informed that the proposal of the Australian Broadcasting Commission was based on the assumption that once authority was granted to proceed with the establishment of national stations it would be possible to commence the service in accordance· with the follmving time schedule :-

(a) Sydney (b) Melbourne (c) Brisbane and Adelaide (d) Perth, Hobart and Newcastle (e) Regional " A " and " B "

(f) Regional "C" (g) Regional " D "

(h) Regina! " E "

( i) Regional "F " ( j) Regional " G "

within 2 years. within 2i years. within 3 years. within 3i years. within 4 years. within 5 years.

within 5i years. within 6 years. within 6i years. within 7 years.

'rhe Australian Broadcasting Commission did not identify the lo cations of the seven r egional television stations, but in its evidence it indicated that these stations would be established in centres of population designed to provide a television servic e to a maximum number of viewers. The capital east of establishing the above-mentioned national stations was estimated by the Australian Broadcasting Commission as berng to the order of £4,515,900. This figure was stated to include the cost of buildings, studios and technical

equipment amounting to £3,462,000, and, in addition, an amount of £1,053,900 to cover operating de:ficits from the commencement of the service up to the 31st D ecember, 1959. It was further stated that in estimating operating deficits provision had been made for interest at the rate of 4i per cent. per annum on moneys which would have to be borrowed from the Government to finance the capital expenditure involved. The Australian Broadcasting Commission expressed the view, on the assumption that the establishment of national television stations proceeded in accordance with the proposal submitted, and on the further assumption that 375,000 viewer's licences would be issued by 1960, that, as from the 1st


7 n 3 ., . .11.


(January, 1960, it was expected that revenue from licence-fees (if fixed at ;£5), and from miscellaneous sources would meet ope,rating costs, and would also provide an annual surplus which would be available to expand the national service and to amortize the cost of establishment over a period of years. It was suggested that the capital expenditure on buildings, studios and equipment should be allocated to stations

as follows :--:

Sydney Melbourn e Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart, £300,000 each Newcastle and seven regional stations, £145,0 00 each


622,000 480,000 1,200,000 1,160,000


\V e \V ere informed that the capital expenditure had been graded in the manli er outlined, on the assumption that the Sydney and Melbourne stations would be r equired to originat e the major part o£ the national studio productions and, accordingly, that economies in the provision of television facilities would be possible in other capital cities and towns selected for the establishment of the regional stations. In its

evidence· the Australian Broadcasting Commission recognized that the ben efits to be derived from the capital expenditure contemplated on national television stations would be r estricted to the concentrations of population locat ed in the capitals and in the p r incipal- cities selected for the r egion al stations and that, for this and other reas ons given in eviden ce , there wer e legit imat e grounds for objecting t o the national

se rvice being finance d through gener al revenue. 'ro meet this objection the Australian Broadcasting Commission advoc at ed that the nation al t elevision se rvice "should st an d on its own feet and that any advance made t o the national authority fo r capital equipment. or fo r working capital should be repaid in cl ue course from ·r evenues received when an adequate numb er of t elevision receivers h ad been licensed." Vve shall discuss the question of a licence-fee on television r eceivers in gr eater detail in paragraphs

241, 307 and 308. ,

206. Evidence on the capital cost of establishing national television stations was also tendered to us by the Postmaster-G€neral's Department (in relation to equipment) and by the D epartment of Works (in relation to buildings). If allowance is made f or t h e somewhat uncertain base which the several Cmilmonwealth authorities found it necessar y to u se in formulating their estimates, it may fairly be

concluded that the evidence of the Postmaster-General's Department and the Depar tment of Works broadly confirmed the estimates of capital expenditure supplied by the 1'\ustralian Broadcasting Commission.


207. Considerable eviden ce was submitted to us by licensees of commercial broadeasting stations and representatives of the electronics in dust ry with r esp ect t o the capit al costs likely to be involved in setting up a commercial television station. To a considerable extent, h owever, f or reasons given in evidence, esti111ates of capit al expenditure . r equ ired t o establish commer cial t elevision st ations were n ecessarily


208. Mr. W. Dunstan (H erald an d Weekly Times Limited, Melbourne) after giving p articular s of the extensive inquiries in this subject which had been made by his company overseas st at ed that " in a eountry without experience of television ther e is bound to be a good deal of gu essing about establishment and rnnning costs." He considered that " in the broadest t er ms it may be suggested that the establishment

of a television station capable of serving a r easonably siz ed community with a radius of 40 miles would be about £225,000 (plus cost of land, buildings an d antenna tower) " .

209. lVIr. Clive Ogilvy (Macquarie Broadcasting Ser1 ice P ty. Ltd.) stated that, in order to provide a t elevision station comparable t o the 2GB broadcasting station in Sydney, " the cost of providing f acilities on the same scale and of a qu ality comparable with its present op erations " would r equire an investment of £500,000. H e went on to p oint out that "until decisio ns have been r each ed by the controlling authority

as to power which may be used, and th e technical standards in regard to equipment are promulgated, an d further , until allocation of building n eeds are known, to mention only a f ew of the facts whi ch will bear upon capital expenditure, ther e is n othing factual upon ·which to base fi r m calculations " .

210. 1'\1r. L. A . H·ooke (Amalgamated \rVirel e.-. (A j a. ia) Limited ) also experien ced difficulty m giving precise fi gures on capital costs-he informed u .., that '' Au tr alian estimates f or ·apital costs of television stations vary within wide limits dep ending on the facilities provided " .

211. Mr. K. S. Br own (Standard rr elephone and Cables P ty. Ltd .) expre ed the same view when he advised u s that "the cost of technical equipment for a television station will obviously vary gr eatly with the transmitter power output, type of aer ial and tower r equir ed and the extent of studio f acilities desil•ed ". Similar evidence was given by the H on. A . G. .J_l .C. (E lectronic Industries Limited ) , an d by l\1r. S. 0 . J on es (Philips Electrical Industrie. Pty. L t d. ) ,

" .--,.

:4 _ , '


212. It became apparent to us that any" judgment on the capital cost of establishing a commercial television station would necessarily have to be on very broad lines. The estimates supplied by witnesses ranged from as low as £100,000 to as high as £500,000, ·with a fairly general acceptance of the proposition that in actual experience it was likely that in order to provide minimum facilities for a moderate sized station in a capital city at least £250,000 would be needed.

213. Broadly speaking, the witnesses who gave evidence on the question of commercial participation in the development of the Australian television ,service took the stand that the amount of capital expenditure which was likely to be involved in the establishment of commercial television stations was not a factor which should be taken into account in determining· the number of commercial television licences which should be issued. We were informed that there was or would be adequate · capital available to finance a number of commercial television stations, and that, subject to technical limitations, there should be no restriction on • the of licences where the applicants could demonstrate their financial ability to establish and operate a television service.

214. lVIr. H. E. Beaver, President, Australian of Commercial Broadcasting StationH,

expr essed a view on this issue which was representative of the evidence from licensees of commercial broadcasting stations when he said that-On financial and econom ic grounds, licences for commercial television stations should be made availabJ e to existing licensees of commercial broadcasting stations who may be prepared to undertake the responsibilit;y of inaugurating and pioneering television services.

215. lVIr. Clive Ogilvy (lVIacquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) expanded' this argument ·when he stated that-. It would be wrong for the Commission to accept the responsibility of determining whether television licences should be granted or not on the grounds of financial 'risk . . . It would be wrong, in principle, I believe, for any particular authority to assume the responsibility of safeguarding any or every person who elected to g·o into television or, for that matter, in any other form of business merely because of the fact that he may suffer financial loss.

216. 1\tir. A. E. Evans (7EX Pty. Ltd., Launc.eston) endorsed Mr. Beaver's contention and said that-\Ve feel, therefore, that apart from those that might be justified on purely technical grounds, no limitation should be placed on the number of stations to be established in Australia.

217. 'rhe opinion of Sir John Butters, Chairman of Directors of Associated Newspapers. Limited and Hadio 2Ul"iJ (Sydney) Pty. Ltd. was to the same eff ect-I have already indicated our very strong view that the number of television stations to be licens1t" should be as great as poss ible so as to provide the greatest possible ·choice of programmes . . . . We do not think it wise or possible for the Government to impose any limit other than on technical ·grounds. The substantial initial investment required to establish a television station and carry it through to tb e profit-earning stage will, by itself, impose a limit.

218. Mr. W. Dunstan also argued for immunity from Gov ernment r estriction on the is.sue commercial licences. An extract from his eviden ce is as foHows :-vVe submit, with respect, that this Commission should recommend that in issuing licences the statutory television authority should have proper regard to the creative, technical and :financial resources of the applicant. It would be entirely wrong, we suggest, for any authority to decide that a particular station should be national rather than commercial simply because of the risk that private interests electing to enter the :field

might lose money. We believe financial risk is a matter entirely for the people or eompanies investing their money and applying their skill to establishing T.V. stations.

219. In the course of our hearings, ho·wever, it became clee1r that a number of the witnesses 1vho appeared in support of commercial television, and who endorsed the argument for a minimum of Government interference or r egulation in the establishment and operation of the commercial service, r ecognized that it was impossible to divorce financial considerations from the of determining the number of commercial television stations ·which could be effect1:vely established and oper&ted in Australia, and, accordingly, that it might be necessary for contending applicants for licences to join forces in setting up the commercial services in the capital cities in the establishment period. It is perhaps fair to say that this concession vvas based on the belief that the interplay of the forces of free competition I>\70uld automatically determine the amount of capital that wouJd be committed in this nei'V field of investment, and, accordingly, that the availability of capital would impose its own limitation on the number of commercia I stations which 1vould be established, and that this procedure 1vas to be preferred to the number of commercial stations being fixed by the arbitrary prescription of a Government authority.

220. Mr. Clive Ogilvy, for example, acknowledged that there was; at present, a limit imposed by financial considerations on the number of commercial broadcasting stations which could effectively operate in Sydney. He expressed the opinion that existing revenues in this field would not support an additional station. l\.fr. Ogilvy further expressed the opinion there vvonld be room for at least four commercial television stations in Sydney and that ultimately he wouJd expect them to operate succes.sfully.



221. Mr. H. E. Beaver ag-reed that if the number of channels available in capital cities v,·ere limited on financial or economic grounds he would favonr sort of amalgamation of existing radio to

run television.

222. Mr. S. 0. Jones stated that after careful examination he had reached the conclusion "that in five years from the commenc-ement, Australia 'vill not be able · to support more than five or six commercial television stations".

223. Mr. L. A. Hooke agreed that under the most faYorable circumstances there would be sOine limit on the number of commercial television stations which could effectively in Melbourne and Sydney. Acknowledging the difficulty of fixing an upper limit, Ivir . Hooke expressed the opinion that on present information it would appear that two or three commercial television stations in Melbourne and Sydney

might be justified. Mr. Hooke also stated that if the number· of commercial licences were restricted and there were more applicants for licences than the number available, his company would try to make a voluntary combination with the other applicants.

224 . .Sir John Chandler, of Brisbane, informed us that he had a "grave doubt as to whether there vvas justification for issuing television licences to every present broadcasting station", and he suggested that the problem of establishing the commercial television service "could be tackled by issuing one or two licences first and then expanding· them as found desirable". Sir John Chandler also told us that he did not believe that Brisbane could support any more bro.adcasting stations than those already

in existence if such stations ·were to operate effectively ..

225. Mr. K. A. lVIcDonald, :Manager of the Advertiser Broadcasting Network, considered that it would be unlikely that more than one commercial television station would be set up in Adelaide. 1\:Ir. S. B. Denton, a Director of 5KA Broadcasting Co. Ltd., Adelaide, expressed the view that even a single commercial television station operating in Adelaide could not be run at a profit. 1\'Ir. J. S. Larkin,

Manager of 5DN Broadcasting Station, Adelaide, was of the opinion that ultimately Adelaide could safely have one national and two commercial television stations.

226. In the United States of America and in Great Britain the rapid extension of the television services has been made to a considerable extent by the provision of r elay facilities which have

enabled studio productions in a central location to b e viewed over an area very considerably greater than that served by the transmitter of the originating studio. It is obvious, however, on financial grounds, that facilities cannot be contemplated, at this stage, as part of the plan for the development of the

Australian television servic-es. 'rhe long distances b etween our main centres of population would make the cost prohibitive. It is estimated that the capital cost of providing an effective television link between all the capital cities of the Australian mainland and the larger cities and towns would he much greater than the capital cost of establishing national and commercial stations in those localities .

227. 'rhe methods by which programmes can be r elayed from one location to another, namely, by coaxial cable and by micro-wave radio links, have been referred to in Chapter III. Estimates of the cost of providing these relay links were received from a number of sources. The actual cost of a relay link depends upon the terrain to be traversed and can be a ccurately calculated only when the actual route is known, and any special requirements of the service and the relation to other communication services have been ascertained. We were informed by witnesses representing Amalgam a t ed Wireless (A/ asia) Limited,

Standard 'relephones and Cables Pty. Ltd. and the Postmaster-General's Department, that the cost of a micro-wave link would range from £1,500 per mile to £3,500 per mile for dual equipment with automatic change-over facilities, stand-by engine driven power supply at all repeater stations and t erminals, repeater buildings, aerial tovve rs, roads, water and power sup plies, im;tallation costs and purchase price of sites.

'J.1he cost of coaxial cable would be approximately the same, although in this case there are advantages to

be gained where the television link can be combined w-ith the provision of trunk line telephone or telegraph channels.

228. On the other hand, some witnesses submitted that it 'vould be possible to install a radio r elay, based on the minimum requirements of a one-way service, at a cost of approximately £400 per mile. Such an installation would not provide any automatic changeover facilitie.<; or emergency equipment to minimize circuit interruptions. Evidence was given to u:s, however, that tb is type of installation probably would not

provide a satisfactory standard of service .

Cost of R ece ivers.

229. We directed a series of questions to the manufacturers of electronic equipment to ascertain the estimated cost to the public of a t elevision receiver. The questions related to the comparative costs of receivers built to receive signals in the very high frequency band only, and those built to r eceive transmissions in both the very high frequency and the ultra high frequency band . .

230. The estimates supplied to us differed within fairly wid€ marginS but a r easonable inference from the evidence is that the price in the hands of the public of a receiver manufactured in Australia is unlikely to be less than £150 (inclusive of sales tax). 1'his price would be for a receiver capable of receiving transmissions in the very high frequency band only, and would not incorporate any elaborate features.

231 . It was generally agreed that, vvhilst there would be little difference in the cost of a receiver manufactured to receive transmission soleiy in either the very high frequency or the ultra higb frequency band, the cost of one designed to receive transmission in both bands would be significantly hig·her. Estimates of the additional cost varied from £10 to £40 (exclusive of sales tax). It would appear that there would be no substantial difference in co::;ts whet her the ·receiver was designed, at the outset, to receive signals transmitted in both bands, or whether a con verter v;ras subsequently added to a receiver designed

initially to reeeive signals in one band only.

232. It may, of course, be assumed that, progressively with increased demand for receivers, the cost of production will fall. It is, however, impossible to estimate, with any certajnty, what this demand is likely to be, as this will necessarily depend upon a number of assumptions, sucll as the number of station;;; established, the number of homes served, the general economic conditions prevailing, and the quality and quantity of the service provided. We refer to the estimates of prospective sales of receivers in paragraph 241 .

. 233. We were advised by manufacturers that the estimated selling prioo of receiv·ers was based upon a substantial sales volume, ancl it was generally agreed that each manufacturer would n€Jed to sell about 10,000 receivers per year to achieve economic production.

Operating Costs.


234. In order to obtain information with respect to the probable level of costs likely to be incurred in operating the national television service, we invited the Australian Broadcasting Commission to supply estimates of such costs, based upon transmissions of 24 hours per -vveek and 30 hours per vireek respectively from a Sydney station. Information was also sought from the Australian Broadcasting Commission on estimated operating costs in smaller capital cities and towns where regional stations might be established.

This difficult assignment was carried out by the ... 1\.ustralian Broadcasting Commission ·with commendable care and ability, and whilst the data supplied does not justify any positive conclusions, it has enabled us to form a broad judgment on the minimum costs which are likely to be incurred in operating the national service on an extremely modest basis. In paragraph 205 we referred to the proposal submitted by the Aust.ralian Broadcasting Commission for the progressive establishment of fourteen national television stations, all of which, it was claimed, could be in operation 1vithin seven years from the date upon which

authority was given to commence construction. rrhe Australian Broadcasting Commission's proposal envisaged that by 1958 (assuming authority to commence construction was given early in 1954) national stations would be operating in six capital cities, in Newcastle and in one regional centre-in all eight stations. On the basis of a weekly transmission of 321 hours, and on the assn:tp.p tion that programmes

would be provided on a relatively modest scale, the Australian Broadcasting Commission estimated that the total annual operating costs of these eight stations would be to the order of £935,500, made up as follows::-

.Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Adelaide, P erth and Hobart, £102,000 eacl1 Newcastle Regional " A "


302,500 185,000 102,000 306,000

20,000 20,000


This estimate does not include the annual provision for interest on and repayment of the amount borrowed to E;stablish the national services ( esbmated at approximately £4,500,000 for fourteen stations). The Australian Broadcasting Commission st ated that this amount would be £345,942 per annum if repayment were effected over 20 years, and £227,710 per annum if repayment were effe cted over 50 years, assuming at the rate of per cent. \ 7\f e we r e jnformecl that the figure of £935,500 included provision for

technical services as well as programming and administrative costs. The General Manager of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, in evidence, qualified the estimate, hOii\-ever, by stating that it covered "the simplest forms of production of an undeveloped service, but that if funds were available to enable the Australian Broadcasting Commission to make use of more live studio productions, the costs would rise sharply". If the estimated opera Eng cost of the Sydney .station ( e)(lcluding inter est on and amortization of capital costs) is taken as a gl1jd-c it may be deduced tbat the Australian Broadcasting Commissio11

expects to conduct this station on the footing that the ov erall cost of transmission will be to the order of £180 per hour. 'rhis figure should be compared with the hourly costs of television transmission in Great Britain and Ca,nada, .wbich the G€neral Manager of the 4-,ustrq.lian Broadcasting Commissiop_ s.ta.ted in -evidence were approximately £1,350 per hour in Great Britain and £800 per hour in Canada. W e have

the opinion that the estimate <:>f opera,ting submitt€d by t he Australian Broadcasting

Commission is extremely conservative, and that in actual experience, the operating costs of the proposed national service will be substantially greater if a service acceptable to the public is to be maintained over a period of yeal,'S. 'rhis opinion is supported by infoqnation which we have r eceived from sources in Great Britain and Canada. The General 1\lannger of the Broadcasting Commission admitted th.a.t

it 'YVO\lld be essential to develop from the modest beginniPg which he had contemplated in preparing programmes upon which his estimate of operating costs was based. He stated that while the Australian Broadca.sting Commission, "would n ot be an:xious to rush into ext:ra,vagarlt cOinpetitioP- with commercial ::;tations" the national service would be compelled to e:¥te11.d the range and variety, and, therefore, the cost

of its,pr'ogrammes if the commercial stations ." are able to put on more and more live p r ogramme;:; of a complex and expensive nature". In such circumstances . he considered that "the nationai service could not lag behind-''. (b) THE COMMERCIAL SERVICE,

235. We invited witnesses who represented commercia.l to of operatipg

costs of commercial television stations, but the h1herent diffkulties with thjs tasl} proved to be insurrnou,ntable and most confess-ed their ina bility to provide any reliable information on this question. There was, however, general agreement that the cost of operating a commercial televj$iou station would be considerably higher than the cost of operating a commercial' broadcasting station, alld

there was further agreement that commercial operat::>rs would have to be prepared to face initial losses. Some witnesses expressed concern at the probable impact of co:rp.mercial television on the advertising revenues of existing broadcasting .stations.

236. Sir John Chandler stated " that any one who anticipates making a profit out of television for quite a while is an incurable optimist".

237. :Mr. J. S. (Broadcasting Station 5DN7 Adelaide) e;xpressed the same thought he advised 1.1s that "co111mercial operator.s recognize that initial heavy losses in the operation of a televisio11 serviGe are ".

238. Mr. S. P. P. Lamb (Newcastle Broadcasting Co. Pty. Ltd.) agreed that initial losses would be faced but said that "at this stage it is impossible to estimate, with any degree of accuracy, the probable loss in operation for a year or the number of years of operation before commercial television in any area would be economically profitable. It is certain, however, that in the early stages, with few television

sets in homes, losses would be involved '?.

239. Mr. S. 0. Jones (Philips Electrical Industries Pty-. Ltd.) also agreed that operating losses were inevitable and informed us that in his opinion " it is going to take five years from the for

a commercial television industry to make a profit ln the illte:rvening five years l think both

commercial and national interests will lose a lot of money".

240. :Mr. S. B. Penton (Broadcasting Station BKA, Adelaide) concern, the prospe<;lt

of GOrnpetition, on the revenue of existing broadcasting stations 9-!ld advised us tha,t "without making any profit the present radio stations in South Australia require ann11al advertising revenue of £310,000 to £330,000, and if any new station or t elevision station would r educe such revenue below these figures, it would mean ruin to some station or stations".



241. In paragraph 205 we described the basic features of the proposal presented to us by the .Australian Broadcasting Commission for developing and :6nancing the :national t elevision service. It will have been observed that this plan incorporates the principle that the national service should " stand on its own feet" financially and should not become a burden on the taxpayer, because the benefits of national

television, for some years at least, will be restricted to persons living in the main C€ntres of population. 'rhe .Australian Broadcasting Commission proposed that the r evenue :required t o meet operating Gosts, and to service advances :for capital expenditure and establishment, be obtained by a lice:qce -:fee on viewer's §ets of £5 per annum. This fee would be additional to the existing licence-fee on radio r eceivers. In order to

assess the amount of revenue which the Australian Broadcasting Commission would be likely to derive from licence-fees on the basis of an annual charge of £5 (assuming this policy is adopted by the Government), it is appropriate that we set out certain estimates submitted to us in this respect, assuming the progressive establishment of a number of national and commercial transmitters in the main centres of population

during the same period.


1st 2nd 3rd 4 th

No. of years from commencement of service.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .






Estimates of I Estimates of

Australian Broadcasting Com_m_is __ si_on _. ___ · cs_a_n_d_A-lh-·ed - In-du _s_ tr-le_s -D-iVI -·si_o_n, _ _

Estimated Sale of Receivers.


40,000 50,500 64,500 97,000


40,000 90,500 155,000 252,000

Revenue (£5 Licence J!'ee).


200,000 452,500 775,000 1,260,000

Chamber of Manufactures (N.S.W.).

Estimated Sale of Receivers.


9,500 25,500 78,000 115,000


9,500 35,000 113,000 335,000

Revenue (£5 Licence Fee).


47,500 175,000 565,000 1,675,000


242. 11 he revenue required to · enable commercial television stations to operate effectively, in the financial sense, must necessarily be obtained from advertising. We accordingly sought information from a 1umber of witnesses on the volume of advertising revenue which \vas likely to be available for commercial television generally and the amount of revenue which, it was considered, would be needed to enable an

ndividual commercial station to operate at a profit, ariel at the same time to maintain a reasonable programme standard, both quantitatively and qualitatively. No conclusive evidence on these matters \Vas tendered to u.s, nor, having regard to the existence of so many unknown factors, could any conclusive evidence be expected. lVlr. N. V. Nixon, President of the Australian Association of Advertising Agencies, stated that it was impossible for him to attempt to give us any idea of the advertising income of television

n the early period, but he was of the opinion that once an adequate number of receivers was in the hands of 1 he public, t elevision would r eceive considerable support from advertisers "as the existing advertising media to-day are overburdened with advertising". lVIr. Nixon expressed the further general opinion that once commercial television became firmly established all existing advertising media would be faced with a simultaneous risk of losing revenue to television, but that in the main television would claim the major part of the additional advertising appropriations which are progressively made available in an expanding economy. Mr. vV. J. Cudlipp, President of the Australian Association of National Advertisers expressed similar views to those of :Mr. Nixon. The Ron. A. G. \Varner (Electronic Industries Limited) did n€>t agree that there was any .substantial amount of advertising expenditure in Australia which could not, at I present, find a satisfactory outlet and he considered that advertising revenue for television would be at the expense of existing media. lVIr. \V. Dunstan (Herald and vVeekly Times Limited) agreed that in the ear]y stages of television it would, like any new advertising medium entering the field, "dip into the pool of funds available for advertising" and that it must be accepted that this influence would be felt in th<; field of broadcasting as well as in other media. Mr. Clive Ogilvy (Macquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) informed us that his organization had already been approached by a number of national advertisers vvho require time and programmes ori television. He further informed us that these advertisers had Indicated their willingness to spend money on television advertising " even though, in the early stages, the initial circulation would not justify the expenditure".

243. The broad effect of the evidence is that the inauguration of a commercial television service in Australia will attract, immediately, a certain, but at present, unknown volume, of advertising revenue, regardless of the number of receivers in use at that time, and that, if the commercial service is effectively developed advertising r evenue can be expected to grow.

Preliminary Conclus1:ons on Costs and Revenues. 244. It is convenient at this point, that we should set out our broad conclusions on the evidence reviewed in the preceding paragraphs touching on the financial implications of establishing and operating the contemplated national and commercial television services. We shall r eserve a more detailed consideration of this issue for discussion in the concluding sections of th1s chapter. Despite the difficulties Involved m supplying financial data with respect to a project on whic4 there has been no previous practical operating experience in this country, witnesses went to considerable trouble and care and no small cost, to assist us with this problem. Information obtained from television operators and from other sources in the United States of America and Great Britai_ n was tendered in evidence, although it was generally con ceded that it ·would be unwise to place too great a r eliance on overseas financial experience In assessing the . cost factors of an Australian television service which will necessarily. function under a different set of conditions.


245. It will be recalled that the estimated capital cost of establishing fourteen national stations ha.s been put down at £4,515,900, of which £3,462,000 was assigned to the cost of buildings, studios and technical equipment and the balance of £1,053,900 to operating d efi cits up to the 31st December, 1959, from which date it was considered revenue from licence-fees wou]d be sufficient to meet operating charges.



On the information before us we have formed the opinion that the estimated expenditure of £3,462,000 on the provision of the physical resources for the national service has been fairly calculated. We consider, however, that oper·ating deficits during the establishment period, and operating costs subseqtiently (see paragraph 234) are likely to be considerably in excess of the forecasts of the Australian Broadcasting

Commission. We feel further that the Australian Broadcasting Commission has made insufficient allowance in its calculations of operating costs for the unrelenting pressure which will be exerted on an expanding television service for novelty and variety in programme material, and therefore, for the increase in costs which will have to be met if programmes acceptable to a progressively more critical audience are to be

provided. This has been the experience in other countries which have established television services. In fairness to the Australian Broadcasting Commission, it must be said that the existence and significance of this cost problem was recognized in its evidence, as was the difficulty of translating it into effective financial terms. We emphasize this factor at this point merely as a warning that, in budgeting for the

operating costs of a national service to the order of that envisaged in the proposals of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, it would be imprudent to assume that such costs could be contained within the financial estimates supplied to us. In our opinion provision would have to be made on a much more generous scale but to what extent only experience will show.


246. After carefully considering the evidence tendered to us by witnesses representing the commercial broadcasting and electronics industries, we are compelled to reject the submission that financial considerations should be disregarded in fixing the number of commercial stations which should be licensed. We have reached this conclusion, not because we consider it is the duty of Parliament to protect private capital from

investment risks, but for the reason that in our view a commercial television service should be required to conform strictly to the public interest by maintaining programmes of an acceptable standard of quality. vVhilst we concede that initiative and originality will be required if attractive programmes are to be and that competition is likely to foster these qualities in television operators, we are n evertheless unable

to escape the fear that during the inaugural period of commercjal television in this country the pressure to obtain an economic r eturn on capital invested would lead to a lowering of programme st andards which would be extremely difficult to prevent if a number of licensees competing f or what is at present ·an unknown quantum of advertising revenue. We wish to make it clear, however, that whilst in the early

stages we believe that a limit on the number of commercial stations is justified and necessary on financial grounds, we are equally conscious of the dangers of a monopoly in this field. In our opinion, the r equirements of Australia as a whole in respect of commercial television services should be kept under continuous observation by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, with a view to recommending to the Minister the extension of · the n umber of commercial licences as soon as financial and other considerations permit.


247. We have already referred, in Chapter I., to the fact that a considerable body of evidence was presented to us in support of the argument that, on economic grounds, the introduction of television services in Australia should be deferred indefinitely or for a considerable period. If allowance is made for minor points of difference in emphasis, the argument for postponement, on economic grounds, may

be summarized with reasonable accuracy as a contention that the present is not an appropriate time for the introduction of television services, and that they should be deferred until at least our developmental needs and the major deficiencies in our public services have been satisfied. Our attention was drawn to the capital expenditure required on public works essential to the development of Australia (i.n particular

rural development), the great defi ciencies in some, if not all, essential public services (again with particular reference to rural areas) which are mainly due to lack of funds, and the possible impact of television on the availabiiity of man-power generally for essential purposes, and in particular, on the supply of rural labour. Some witnesses stated, however, that their obj ections to the introduction of television on these

grounds applied only to the of public funds and they raised no objection to the expenditure

of private funds by commercial interests. These considerations clearly gave rise to great concern among many sections of the community and in the following paragraphs we set out what we regard as a reasonably r epresentative selection of the views submitted to us. 248. Professor S. JYI. vVadham, D ean of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of strongly urged that t elevision should not be develop ed in Australia at the pr esent time on the grounds th at

we could not afford the expenditure of the capital involved, that it would "add one more frippery in the way of embellishing the entertainment side of life" while basic developmental works such as roads, water conservation schemes and electricity undertakings, and public services such as schools, hospitals and telephones were still far from satisfactory. He further stated that any money available would be more

profitably spent if devoted to the development of the productive r esources of our rural areas, and that, as its high cost wouid make it impossible to provide television services to more than a very small percentage of the country population, it would act differentially against rural industries in their capacity to hold a satisfactory population of young and virile minds.


249. Sir John JYledley, :formerly Vice .. Chancellor of the Univerversity of Melbourne, and a member of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, advocated the po$tponement of television for some years, ·firstly, for the reason that in the expenditure of public .funds (which, in his view should be used when television is introduced) television should not take precedence over expenditure Oll housing, school buildings,

urgent developmental works and universities; and secondly, that the considerable man: .. power involved should not be used for this purpose either by public or private television at present stage of our

development. 250. Sir Jobn Buttf:lT$ 1 Chairman of Directors of Associated Newspapers Lhnited and Radio 2UE (Sydney) Pty, Ltd., made the following comments:-. .I fe el that ;I ca:u say that. opin_io;n or of Jny co:m.r>allies place telev_ision, with all

1t.s dos1rab1hty a:nd advantages, as mentmg h1ghe:r pnont:y the provisions of a plentiful supply of power, the development of our food production, the modermzatwn· of our traffic facilities and the provision of adequate housing, water, sewerage, hospitals and schools, to say nothing of the 1hst essential defence. If after having provided for these essentials to the extent of ou:r financial supply labour we

proceed with wall and good.

251. J\ir. J. L. J. Director of 'l1utot·ial 0leJ.$Ses of the University of Sydney, expressed the opinion that, from a national point of view, the diversion of either private or public investment funds to television at this stage of our development appeared hard to justify on purely economic grounds, but with natural resources cryin.g out for capital to them, with a.. critical shortage of funds

for housing·, schools and other necessary public works, there appeared to he far more urgent priorities for public or private investment than in the provision of yet ente:rtainirient industry, - 1\!r. Wilson informed us that he was strongly supported in these views by S. J, l3utlin, Dean of the Faculty of EcOI1omics, and Professor C. R. McRae, Professor of Educ;ation in the Uuiveriility of Sydney.

252. The Hon. A. G. Cameron, lVI.P ., expressed the view o£ the Victoria District Committee of the l.Jiberal and Country Leagne of .South Australia that television v.rould not aid development or defence, that its cost would be too high in r elation to its benefits, and that '\Ve could not afford to devote man-power and money to its establishment and development whilst there existed a large unsatisfied demand, especially among·st new settlers, for telephones, roads, schools, water supplies and hospitals.

253. lVIrs . Barbara Cullen, spealdng- on behalf of the Country Association of that her Association would be opposed to expenditure of large .s ums of the tq,xpayerf!' on

television services in cities to the detriment of the development of ·water conservatiou, rural electrification, telephoue facilities, better transport and like services· in country areas, but would not object to the oxp0nditure of private funds on commercial t elevision.

254. Archdeacon J. A .. placed before us the opi11iou of the Archbishop of

Committee on Television that, from the point of view of the Christian Church, there was nothing partic!llar . to recommend the early introduction o.f television, as it was a costly luxury that would, for a long time, succeed only in fu:rthet· accentuating the difference bebveen life in the cities and in country

255 . Mr. R. Broadby, General Secretary of the Au.strallan Council o£ Tracte Unions, submitted that the economy could not afford television 'at present and its introduction should therefore be postponed until at least the arrears or housing, facilities and other national essentials had been overcome, and it was possible to institute a system that would be available to all taxpayers throughout Australia

at a co-st the average worlrer could afford. 256. rrh vie·ws were supported, either in whole or iu part, by th{! Victorian Wheat a:p.d Wool Growers' the Union of Westerp_ Australia, the Victorian of the

Association, the \Vomen'_s Service Guilds of Western Australia, Btoadcasting Stations 5KA, 5AU, 5RM of South AU...':!tralia, the Australian Federal Council of the New Education F elJowship, the State School Teachers' of Western A-ustralia, the Film and Television Council of South Australi« 1 and the l\ (ethodj,st Church in South A1JStralia, a11d by rnany primary producers' Ol'ganizations which wrote to

the Commis.sion but did not appear before 11s to tender formal evidence.

257. A Blightly different was given by His Lordship Bishop P . F. on

behalf of the Catholic Church in Australia, who submitted that in view o.f our present .eco;nmuic po.;;ition and the state of our developmental worls::s and public priority of investment,

ma;n-p!.nver and materials should be given to agriculture and the primary industries1 an<'l we should, therefore, proceed cp,utiow;ly with the introdJictiou of television whjch he by most standards , was

a lu;s:ury. 268. The F.arroers' Union of AUtstralia by JYJ;r, B. Foley, Pn. behal!

of tbe followi;ng &fiiliated primary producers' 9rgani-4ations :­ .Australian Cane Growers7 Coup.cil, Australi:a-n GrO.w,ers7 AqstraliMl Wool aP.d Wht!at Producers' FadeFation, Australian Dairy Farmers' Federation,

Australian Vegetable Growers' F ederation, Federal . Flax Growers' Federation, Grazi€rs' Pederal Council of Australia, South A.ustralian Chamber of Rural Industries,

Queensland Council of :B1 armers and Graziers, Primary Producers Council of New South \Vales, and Victorian Chamber of Agriculture, expressed the opinion "that Australia has novi' largely ov er come the basic economic probl€ms associated

with the post-·war p eriod and there does not appear to be any major justification, from the national point of view, for delaying t elevision plans until a more propitious stage is reachBd ". Whilst agreeing that the national service should commence on a limited scale so as not to divert resources from the General's programme for the installation of country telephone sBrvices, l\1r. Foley submitted that television had great importance "as a medium; by scientific rural extension work, of increasing pr oduction in primary

industries": that the " early metropolitan establishment of television shonld be regard€d as an immediate step to rapid rural development": and that every encouragement should be given to the establishment of commercial stations.

259. In viBw of the general nature of the eviden<;e -vvhich has been summarized in the preceding paragraphs, and of the specific direction in our terms of reference that we should have r egard1 in reporting on the number of stations to be established, to economic and financial we asked certain

Commonwealth departments, the Commonwealth Bank, and two economists (Professor W. Prest, of the University of Melbourne, and l\1r. G. R. :Mountain, Chief Inspector and Senior E conomist of the National Bank · of Australasia Ltd.) to assist us on th€ economic and fi nancial aspects of our inquiry, with partictllar reference to the demands that television ser vices might be expected to make on man-power,

resoi.1rces and development. For this purpose we suggested to the witnesses that they p r oceed on certain assumptions, namely, that the national service would be introduced along the lines proposed by the Australian Broadcasting Commission in the plan that it had submitted to us ( deta"ils o£ which were supplied to witnesses), that it might be expect ed that the capital and operating costs .of commercial

television stations would be of a slightly lower order than that of the national stat ions, that the sales o£ receiver sets would be to the order envisaged by the Australian Broadc-asting Commission and that the purchase price of a set would be ap-proximately £150.

260. Th€ Division of Industrial Development of the Department of National Development provided us with a valuable survey which considered in some detail the prospective demand for television rec€ivers in Altstralia in the early years of the establishment of the service, the probable cost of r€ceivers, and the availability of materials and man-power likely to be r equired by manufacturers. The conclusions of the

Department were, broadly, that the call on resourc€s in the nrst four years of television services was not likely to be of major significance, or seriously affect the economy, nor could it be stat€d positively that the investment involved in establishing television would seriously affect more fundamental industries; the capital requirements, the demands for materials, and labour requ ir ements could, it was thought, be supplied

without serious diffieulty or disruption of other activities. 261. The Secretary to the Commonwealth T reasury (Dr. R . \Vilson) referr€d to the difficulties of making any foreeasts in this field in the absence of r eally concrete proposals and the consequent )mpossibility of doing more than speculate on the impact of television on th€ economy. \V"ith these

reservations, and \vhile not expressing any views on lt:iSu es of Government policy, Dr. 'VVil son assisted us with some general guidance on the effect on the economy 1ikBly to arise from a decision to establish television in Australia. He referred to the great pressu1·es during post-war years to ext en d both public facilities and private investment, and sug·gested that these pressu res wer e likely to continue. Excessive demands 011

physical resources and :finance, he pointed out, arise to a large extent from the aggregation of a great number of new and varied investment proposals which, individually, may r equire a comparatively small amount of capital. Usually all cannot be carried ou t at the same time ; and so a choice has to be mads, .A.. decision on the subject of television became, ther efore, in his view, a matter of choice, which r estBd partly

with Governments and partly with private enterprise. It appeared to him that in the present, and like]y futttre circumstances, a decision by the Government to ptoceed wi th television would probably mean that some other branch of development, or some other expansion o£ services and facilities, could not proc€ed as fast as it might otherwise have done and p erhaps could not procee d at ail. Essentiaily it was the

same sort of choice for private enterprise. 262. The Governor of the Commonwealth B ank of Aus tralia (Dr. H. C. Coombs ) st at ed that, from the estimates given in the material provided by the Commission , it appeared that the annual of funds and resources involved in the Bstabljshment o£ television faciliti es would not exceed a r elatively minor

proportion of the tota1 annual investment and consumption expenditure in Australia, although it was observed that the estimat€s were regarded as uncertain. In these circumstance , Dr. Coombs stated that the bank did not think that there would be any substantial difficulty in meeting the extra demands for resources and materials which wonld bt> imposed by the establishment of t elevision facilities. Similariy,


the bank did not at present foresee any difficulties in obtaining whatever of a normal commercial kind, would be required for a programme on the scale indicated by the material supplied by the Commission, provided, of course, that investors were satisfied with the propositions made to them. Should present conditions change and, in particular, should strong inflationary pressur e re-emerge, these comments might require some qualification.

263. Professor Prest examined the economic effects of television on investment, consumption, and production, using as his basis the general information which -we supplied. He concluded that the capital outlay was relatively small, not only in relation to investment as a whole, but a1so in relation to particular forms such as Government works, industrial building and new equipment for the engineering and technical industries, and would not have any significant effe ct either on t he capital market or on taxation. The impact on consumption and production would be in t he nature of a transfer from other channels and could not validly be regardecl as likely to cause any damage to the economy. He agreed with Dr. Wilson that whether there were more worthy projects to which fi nance could be devoted was ess>tmtially a matter for

political and moral judgment rather than of economics.

264. Mr. G. R. l\1ountain said that, short of totalitarian controls, the funds available for commercial television would not be devoted to the provision of basic developmental works and public services, but would, in all probability, be left idle until permission to establish television was granted, that the public investment involved would be a very small portion of the Commonwealth Government's Budget and the

diversion' of labour and materials would be .of small dimensions. He concluded that the establishment of television would place no strain on the economy and would not cause any disruption of other essential services. 265. W e were informed by the Department of National Development that, in it-:; opinion, little difficulty would be experienced in obtaining the labour required for the introduction and development of television, except for some skilled tradesmen. In this latter respect we were advised by the Departments

of Civil Aviation and Supply that, -vvhilst they ·vvere anxious t o see the electronics industry established in Australia on a sound basis, in view of the importance of the technical resources of the industry for defence purposes, the hnmediate eff.ect of the introduction of television would be to place a strain on the already inadequate supply of trained personnel and . t echnical staff. It was the emphatic opinion of these

Departments that steps should be taken without delay to provide adequate training facilities to prevent such shortages and thus avoid the disruption that might otherwise occur to their work.

266. A further economic factor which we f elt obliged to consider was the likely effect of the introduction of television on our overseas reserves. On this question the evidence we received was to the effect that the average imported content of a television receiver was not likely to exceed £5, and that the maximum aniount of imported equipment required for any t elevision st ation was unlikely to exceed

£250,000. It is evident, therefore, that the effect on overseas reserves will not be very great. It is difficult to assess the amount of dollar exchange that will be entailed, but as the components of the receivers and transmitters are all available from sterling sources, it would be possible to commence television services in Australia without any drain whatever on our dollar reserves other than perhaps some relatively small expenditure on programmes. If, however, the Government decided to permit the importation of television r ec eivers from sterling areas, the impact on our sterling reserves woti.ld be correspondingly heavier.

267. It will be observed from the evidence summarized in paragraphs 247-258 that particular importance was attached by a number of witnesses t o the possible adverse effect of the establishment of television services on the provision of telephone facilities, especially in · rural areas . On this subject we sought the opinion of the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs (1\lfr. G. T. Chippindall), who advised

us that it was not expected that the advent of television woi1ld have any detrimental eifect on the provision of telephones or any of the other essential services controlled by the Postmaster-General's Department. Indeed, the establishment of a number of television stations throughout Australia might well provide an impetus to the provision of coaxial cable or micro-wave links that would facilitate the installation of additional telephone f acilities. Mr. Chippendall summarized his evidence by saying that if the authorities decided on television the relatively small amount of money involved (which was not even a lar ge sum compared with the departmental vote) having regard to the whole nation al spending in a budget of £1,000,000,000 could in his opinion, have a marked effect upon the telephone programme of erecting trunk lines and in providing subscribers' services. It was nDlikely that there would be any difficulty from the materials stand-point, and the labour involved was r elatively smaJl.

Condusions on Argument for Deferment.

268. In Chapter I. vve have stated that we do not think that it would be proper for us, having regard to our terms of reference, to recommend the indefinite deferment of the introduction of television. We wish to make it quite clear that if we had been persuaded that t he reco mmendations which we subsequently make on the number of t elevision stations which should be established would be likely to have disastr ous, or even very marked effects, on the economy resulting from the consequent drain on r es ources, we would not hesitate to say so. \Ve have, on the evidence which we have already summ arized, come to th e conclusion


that, if t elevision is in troduced on the which we later recommend, t he capital outlay will be relatively small and the impact on the ec onomy r esulting f r om its introduction will not, from the point of view of man-power and materials, be significant. W e therefore do not f eel that there is any justification for recommending that some definite period should elapse before any national or commercial stations should

be establish ed. It will, however , be appreciat ed that our su bsequent are made in the

knowledge that , so f ar as expen diture by the Commonwealt h Go vernment is involved , the decisions relating to such expenditur e mus t he made in the light of the overall demands on the national finances and t he general fi nancial policy of th e Government , a n d t hat, so far as private expenditure is involved, it ma y be t h at issues of gen eral economic policy or ch anges in economic conditions may ar ise which may r ender so me of our recommendations inapplicable.

269. We feel V {e sh ould make one or two furth er comments on the arguments for deferment. They are arguments that could have been raised, at any time in our history, against the introduction of almost an y n ew development. They are not arguments that h ave commended themselves to the very large number of countries (some of which suffered severely from devastation in the recent war), which now have television services (s ee Chapter II.). On the question of deficien cies in public works and services, we feel obliged

to point out that it will always be impossible to find a p eriod when all works and services of an "essential nature " (assuming this expression can be defined with reasonable accuracy at all) will have been complet ed. Witnesses ' lirere ·asked, without any very satisfactory r esults, to define a state of affairs which could be r ec ognized in the future marking a completion of Australia's essential developmental works, or

condit ions which ' vould b e more suited to the introduction of t elevision. On the other hand, it is relevant t o p oint out that a number of witnesses told us that the in trodu ction of t elevision would greatly strengthen th e indust r ial and manufacturing potential of the Commonwealth and would be of considerable significance in th e t r aining of technicians in the electronic industries (particularly in t echniques connect ed with the u se of the ver y high r adio frequencies) ·who would greatly stren gthen resources required for our defence.

Sir Frederick Shedden , Secr etary of the Depar tment of Defence, informed us that although a decisio11 whether to introduce t elevision into Australia should be made on wider grounds than defence, its intr oduction 'lirould, on def en ce grounds, have some advan tages, although these might be limited.


270. Evidence was received from a numbe1; of witnesses whose experience in the production of films or the provision of broadcasting programme$ might be expected to have enabled them to form judgments on the extent t.o which material suitable for Australian t elevision programmes would be available. Representatives of Churches and of writers' , act or s', aTtist s' and announcers' associations also gave evidence

on this subject. ·we also h eard some eviden ce on the extent t o which programmes produced in overseas countries would be available f or A11stralian t elevision stations, an d we received a great deal of evidence ,vhich was sp ecially direct ed t o the capacity of Australian artists and writ er s to provide suitable programmes.

A vailability of P 1·ogrammes Gene1·ally.

271. As vvas to be expect ed, very f ew witnesses were able t o give eon clnsive evidence on the detailed programme requirements of t elevision stations and the manner in which these might be met. In the main the evidence was directed to·wards p articular fi elds in which the -vvitnesses possrsse d specialized knowledge. However, the Gen eral Manager of the Aust ralian Broadcastjn g Commission jnformed us that, in his

opinion, it would be diffi cult t o maintain a service f or more th an 24 honrs p er week if the number of stations operating in a centre su ch as Sydney excee ft ed two- at le::u:;t in the first year-unless the p r ogrammes were compose d of a great deal of imported fl] m material. 272. The Aust ralian F eder ation of Commercial Broadcasting Stat ions expressed the view that the

El vailabilitv of programmes (as wen as of advertising ) would depend largely on the number of viewers,

and that these were matters which could n ot at this stage be the subj ect of factual evidence nor even of reasonable estimates. The F eder ation f elt that t elevision should be started with the lowest possible operating and capital costs an d that as th e number of receiving sets gr ew and the demand for services increased, programme expansion and deveJopment would follow an t omatically.

273. The Managing Direct or of l\tiacquarie B r oadcasting Servj ce P ty. Ltd. stated that he felt there was no need for any apprehen sion with rt>s p ect to th e availability of prog-r amme material. H e estimated that his company conld .provide, from its own p ool of artists, p r ontlr rrs and scr jpts, progr amme material for four stations in Sydn ey. On th e oth er han d, h e told us th at some b m1 tat10n would be

necessary in the early stage t o maint ain quality , and he \VOll ln anti r' 1p ate oper ations of abo11 t 28 h om·s p er week if his company wer e gr anted a licence. 274. A nnmber of other witn€sses assist ed us by ex pr essing opin 'ons on this sub j ect . It is wo r thy of note that in every case it was estimated that the p ') ten tial Aust ralian .resour ces would not

be able to provide the whole of the material required , eve11 if th e nnmber of si·atwns m any one ar ea were limi.tecl and restricted hours of operation ob served .

Sources of Programme ll:faterial.

215. The principal sources of programme material foi· television services, classifi€d according to the method of presentation, are-"-( d) live studio production; (b) outside broadcasts of actuality events;

(c) feature films and films specially produced for television; and (d) newsreels and documentary films. We heard evidence from a number of witnesses covering these various aspects, but, as will be apparent from the foliowing summaries, which represent a reasonable cross-section of the views expressed, most o£ . the information presented to us was of a general character and, in many directions, can only be regarded

as expression of' oph:iion. ·


276. The types of live studio productions will b e determined; to a considerable extent, by the manner in which the television services in this country are developed. . During the establishment period; when television will possess the of novelty, and when operators will be compelled to keep· op erating costs at a :tninifuum1 the simpler forms o£ live studio productions · should provide satiSfactory

ptog•rah1me nittterial for a limited period. As the number of receivers in the hands of the public increases, and as additional experience is gained by producers and artists, it cart reasonably be expected that live studio prochtctions o£ a more elaborate nature will become features of the t elevision programmes. 277. The Generai Manager of the A.ustraiian Broadcastirtg· Conin1ission stated that studio productiohs whic11 couid be televised after the production staff _ and artists had been given an opportunity to gain some experience, ivdttld range .£rorri the simpler types of programmes (talks and dertioilstl'ations) to the i:nore complex t};.pes (drama, baiiet, &c.). Talent .£or this vvhole range of ptogramm€s, it was felt, could be rolind in Sydney, and to a lesser extent in Melbourne. The limhilig factor with regard to tlie more cortiplex p:togranitnes, £o1Iow1ng the initial period or training, would be the cost involved.

278. The types of programmes which the A.ustraiian Broadcasting Commission contemplated could be produced within a r easonable period of the commencement of a television service comprised drama, ballet, variety, dance-band shows; discussions, quizzes, interviews, illustrated talks, demonstrations and displays (including rural activities), music, children's sessions ( ineluding "Kindergarten of the Air "), and school broadcasts. ·

279. In the field of drama the Australian Broadcasting Commission expressed the view that little suitable professional dramatic talent is located outside Sydney or Melbourne and even artists available in these cities would need a considerable amount 'of training in the new r,nedimn. It was estimated that because of the high cost of major drmnatic productions and the need for experienc,e to be secured, the emphasis would necessarily be on relatively simple plays initially. On the other hand, we were informed that there was a substantial r€servoir of amateur talent which would be available for dramatic productions.

280. The Australian Broadcasting Commission also considered that, although most of the material , v.rould require different treatment for t elevision, there is an "important residue of sound broadcasting material which can be televised effectively without adversely affecting its programme value £or sound aione ". Included in this category were orchestral and other types of serious music, ab; o opera and

musical comedy, dance-band sessions and certain variety programmes, discussions) int erviews, quizzes, brains trusts,· and some children's programmes. A number o! the components of the Australian Broadcasting· Commission's existing sessions for children wa.s, .it -vvas stated, devised with a view to being televised successfully without change .

281. The types of programmes suitable as studio productions, described to us by the Australian Broadcasting Commission, were also referred to by other witnesses . 'J.lhe representatives of commercial broadcasting stations in their evidence stressed particularly the suitability for television purposes of much of the that at present comprises the programmes of broadcasting stations. It was also claimed that the use of this material would result in a considerable saving :in costs. The Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting· Stations, :Th'Ir. A. E. R. Fox (Amalgamat&d Wireless (A/ asia) Limited), Mr. Clive Ogilvy (M:acquarie Broadcasting Service P ty. Ltd. ), :Thifr . . D. Worrall (Broadcasting Station 3bB 'Meibotitne), and Mr. R. E_ Lane all laid particular emphasis bn this point.

282. in addition to these programmes, we w ere told that ther e were many programmes such as cooking demonstrations, weather forecasts, fashion parades, interviews, commentaries and actuality programmes of a simple type, some of which were regulariy used for broadca:sting, which could provide television programmes at very little extra cost.


283. The AustraHan Broadcasting Commission told t1s, as did representatives of commei·cial hroadcasting interests, that outside broadcasts of actuality events woUld provide an exte11sive source and


'vide vuriety of programme material. Such programmes would, it was contemplated, comprise afternoon and eVening items, major public events such as processions, ceremonies, carn ivals; &c., and

demonstrations of £arniing techniques.

284. The Australian Broadcasting Commissio:tl warned us that there might be difficulties in obt airting; rights to t elevise certain s.porting events- (in 1)articular the major sports), although some sporting bodies had already offered to their events t elevised wit hout f ee. In regard to the difficulties Whieh inight be expected ·with major sporting bodies con trolling horse 1'acing, football, tennis, and cricket,

the Al'tstralian Broadcasting Commission felt t h at t hese m.ight be overcome by an agreement between and stations to televise only part of the spectacle on mutually conditions. Should such

a cours e be found impossible, a trib'unal might be set l1p to determine disputes. On this particular matter the r epresentative of the principal racing clubs of Australia, Mr. A . ·a. Potter, said that, although it was believed that radio had adyersely affected attendances at raee meetings; the clubs did not feel that it would be right to prevent races being shown on t elevision . They considered that minor rac€s should not be .televised, but th ey would n ot object to the presentation of any tace of great popular appeal such as the

l\!I elbourne Cup. IVI:r . Potter also informed us that the regular t elevising of race meetings would be accepted

if the elubs vvere paid adequate compensation. Mr. P otter said that the objective of the racing clubs was to ensure, by means of legislation, or appr opriate regulations dealing with -licences, that no horse race could be t elevised without the consent of the racing club responsible £or the meeting. If the clubs were granted this protection and if r easonable financial arrangements were made, it woulc1 not be their policy

to prevent the t elevising of h orse r aces.

285 . Similar views were expressed by Mr. J. I.J. l\1:nlrooney for the Australian Nat ional Football Council on behalf of the affiliated bo dies which control Australian Rules F ootball in the various States of the Commonwealth. 1\tfr. lVIulrooney urged that legislative provision should be made for copyright in sporting events and adequate conipensation should be paid for loss of r evenue as a result of any falling off

in attendances due to television. 1'he Australian Nat ional Football Council considered that sporting events of all kinds would be t elevised as television developed, and it was anxious to ensure that such transmissions could be made only after agreement 'ivith sporting bodies and subj ect to payment of a reasonable fee .

286. rrhe importance of outside broadcasts of the kind we have been describing will be evident, l)al'ticularly in a conntry like At1stralia where s port of all kinds plays such a prominent part in the national life. \V € share the views of wittiesses who expressed the belief that the differences which are likely to arise behveen the operators of television s tations _on the one side , and the i'epresentatives of

sporting bodies on the other, should be settled by agreement on terms t hat will be fair and reasonable to both parties. In the event of the parties being unable to resolve their differences by negotiations, we ·would suggest that a solution be sought by means of arbitration. The copyright question which was raised by some witnesses clearly falls outside our terms of reference.


287. No evidence was tendered to us by representatives of the motion picture industry, despite the publicity given to the proceedings of the Commission. vVe did, however, r eceive evidence from

some other witnesses on the availability of films for television.

288. The Australian Broadcasting Conimissioh in f ormed us that exhaustive inquiries had been made of fihn sources in Australia controliing local and ov erseas productions. Their inquiries had revealed that none of t he large film companies would permit a11y fi lms under their control t o be used for t elevision. It would be possible, howevel", to secur e an abun dance of old. f eature film f r om American sources, some of which would be of suitable quality and could be obtained if dollars were available. A limited,

and continuing, su pply of films would also be available from British and Continental sources. These would be films which had been produced f or ordinary cinem ft exhibition. The At1stralian Broadcasting Commission also advised us t hat· t ent ative arrangements h ad been made with a E urop ean grou p for the supply of film s made specially for t elevision. Of the fil ms available f r om this . ource many would be suitable for children's programmes. In addition, ther e was a number of companies in the United States

o£ America making films for television, and if dollar s were available, some of -th ese could be bought.

289 . A nu1nber of film transciptions of t elev ision programmes would also be available from the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , but the use of this material would be subjeet t o further negotiatiGns .

290. 'rhe Managing Director of l\1acquarie Broadeasting Service Pty. I1td. stated that in the early .stages it might be necessary f or television stations to make u se of material from overseas, and his company had already been offered a number of films which featurert ed11catioual material, comedy, sport, drama, animated cartoons, action features, westerns and many others. yr..,r e were further informed by this witness that th(3te was also a considerable amount of other material which would be available soon and which Gould

be bought at fairly reasonable prices.


291. '.rhe :Manager, Broadcasting and Recording Departments, Amalgamated Wireless (.A/asia) Ltd., gave evidence to the effect that syndicated television films from the UnitBd States, Great Britain and other countries were circulated to an international audience. Much of this film vvas produced in the movie studios of Hollywood and London.

292. Mr. Vv. Dunstan (Herald and \i\Teekly Times Melbourne) said that with four or five stations in any .one city t>ach operating 20-25 hours per we ek, there would be no problem of getting suitable programmes. His company had negotiated with firm s in the United Kingdom and the United States of America for programme supplies and had suggested to the1i1 that overseas t elevision programmes might be purchased on the same basis as syndicated newspaper articles.

293. The Rev. Hamilton Aikin, Director of the 1\.ustralian Religjous .Film Society, supplied us with details of film material suitable for television which his society had available in its library, and informed us that from this source there was sufficient material available to supply a programme of 30 minutes per week for three to four years. This Society is representative of the Church of England, the Presbyterian, Methodist, Congregational and Baptist Chu rches, the Salvation Army and the Church of

Christ. 294. His J_jordship Bishop P. F. Lyons, representing the Catholic Church in Australia, gave evidence to the effect that his Church "had given a lot of thought to the provision of programmes if and when television started in this country". He said that his Church "had been in touch 1vith a number of authorities of the Catholic Church in other countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, thB United States and in Europe. In those places there was rather a good supply of suitable programmes which, t echnically, and in regard to subject-matter, would be very suitable here". .

295. Evidence was also given to us by other religious bodies, including the vVorld Council of Churches and the Seventh Day Adventists, with respect to the availability of films on religious subjects which would be suitable f or television, although certain asp ects of the film rights apparently had not been determined.


296. 'rhe Australian Broadcasting Commission informed us that a large pool of documentaries and films produced by larg·e commercial undertakings for public relation purposes, many of which are suitable for television, would b€ available for national television programmes. The Commission also expected to obtain newsreel material from the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting

Corporation, Radio Diffusion Francaise, and Nord West Deutscher Rundfunk.

The Australian Film Industry.

297. In connexion with the question of the availability of programme material, we felt we should give some attention to the capacity of the Australian film industry to meet, at least to some extent, the demands which television services will make on all potential sources ·Of supply. i

298. J\1:r. S. Hawes, Producer-in-Chief of the Film Division of the Department of the Interior, told us that the present output of film production units in .Australia (including units from Government departments and from commercial undertakings) was ·approximately 100 hours per year. The Department of the Interior produced approximately 9-10 hours of film with a staff of 45 and an annual budget of about £80,000. Besides Government film divisions (attached to the Postmaster-General's Department,

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Qrganization, State Education Departments and Department of the Interior) and newsreel companies, there were three or four moderate sized film-producing studios in Australia vvhich were not fully employed. l\'Ir. H awes con. ""ider ed, however, that although thr Australian film resources were not being used to capacity, the complete exploitation of available equipment and personnel would not alter the situation greatly. It might be possible, he said, to double or treble the output, but unless development of the industry was unrestrained and unless attention was given in good time to providing adequate production resources, it was not likely that .Australian produced film programmes could· make a significant contribution to television services.


299. Several 1vitnesses r eferred to the difficulties an d problems associated with producing regular television programmes, including high cost of production, shortage of suitable actors, and dBmands for high technical standards, as programmes were bound to be judged by comparison with motion pictures. Emphasis was also placed on the shortage of directors and producers in this c.ountry experienced in the visual medium, and of qualified camera men. Mr. S. Hawes pointed out that the initial problem of television was one of training personnel for the production of · programmes. To avoid a repetition of the situation in the cinema, in which Australian screens were occupied almost exclusively with film produced overseas, he advocated positive measures to develop production r esources. He su ggested that, from funds made available for building and equipping television stations, a reasonable amount should be set aside for the training of production staff and the establishment of effective production teams. Existing technicians could be augmented by overseas experts, and used to train and develop film , stage and radio artists, and


at the same time they could be preparing a stockpile of suitable programmes would then be available in the difficult inaugural period. :Mr. Hawes indeed predicted that "even if every film, stage and radio technician at present in the country were to prove fully efficient in television, which is unlikely, there would still not be enough to supply any considerable quantity of television programmes".

300. \V e received a considerable body of evidence on the importance, from the point of view of programme production and distribution, of the development of networks of television stations. Mr. S. R. I. Clark (Manager of Radio Station 4BK, Brisbane) pointed out that " commercial television will face mediocrity and possible economic failure if there are not sufficient outlets to share the costs of expensive

programmes". Some high cost productions would be essential t o complete the range of material suitable for the of the medium. Advertisers ·would pay for such productions only if they had wide

distribution. 'Ielevision operators would not be able t o meet this type of cost without joint underwriting, and t elevision production companies would also require a number of outlets to r ec over their costs. :Th!J:essrs. J. S. Larkin (Station 5DN Adelaide), S. P. P. Lamb (Newcastle Broadcastmg Co. Pty. Ltd.) and J. E. Ridley (Country Broadcasting Services Limited) also pointed out the benefits to be derived from network

operation. :Mr. Ridley maintained that networks would contribute greatly to television programme production, as they had in r adio and that for country stations, networks would be invaluable as a means of ensuring programme supplies at reasonable cost.

301. Evidence was submitted to us on the question of the types of television programmes which would be of special interest to viewers in rural areas. l\1r. ,John Doug] ass , Director of Rural Broadcasts of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, stated that television was likely to be a most powerful medium for agricultura1 extension wor k. In his opinion, the agricultural, pastoral and allied industries · of

Australia would provide material for programmes that would app eal to rural and urban dwellers alike. 'rhese p r ogrammes would cover such subjects as soil conservation, irrigation, and dise ase and parasite control, and would include a wide range of field demonstrations. Films of overseas practices_ and developments in primary production would also be u se d. Mr. Everett G. Mitchell, Director of Agriculture

of the National Broadcasting Company, Chicago, told us that the agricultural programmes that were broadcast in the United States of America had brought abo ut a better understanding between rural and urban dwellers, and that primary producers in his country v;rer e obtaining direct benefits from t elevision through such features as market reports and demonstrations of new and improved methods of production.

302. We have car efully consider ed the eviden ce r eferred t o in the preceding paragraphA, and have reached the broad conclusion that sufficient programme mat erial of a satisfactory quality ·will be available to meet the r equirements of an A"L1stralian t elevision servic.e, provided this service is commence d on the basis ·which vve subsequently r ecommend. It is clear t hat it will be som e considerable time before the

programme production r esources in this country can be built up to the po int of making an effectively sustained contribution to the almost jnsatiable dem and an expanding television service "\vill create for originality and variety in programmes, although we agr ee that Australian -producers, writers and artists should be given every encouragement and opportunity to develop and use their talents in this new

field. Fur thermore, whilst accepting the submission that it will be possible to import prog·r ammes from overseas sources, and that it will be necessary to d o so , we are not satisfi ed on the evidence of the pr ecise quantum of overseas programmes of a satisfactor y quality that will be avaHable. It is not e·worthy that, in Great Britain and in Canada, in order to avoid overtaxing programme resources, apparently it has been

found desirable to limit the number of stations and the ho nrs of transmissi on, at least during th e inaugural period of the television service. 5. rrECHNICAL LIMITATION S.

303. In Chapter III. we have discussed the limitations on technical gr ounds, particularly in r espect of the availability of channels, which must be taken into account in connexion with any consi deration of the number of television stations which might be est ablished . It will be sufficient t o st ate here that the recommendations which we subsequently make on this aspect of our inquiry do not involve an:v cEffi culties

on this score.


304. It will be observed that we are required, by our t er ms of reference (paragraph ( b) ) , to r epo rt on the ar eas t hat might be served by televi sion stations and the st ag·es by which they should be establi shed. In Chapter III. we have indicated some of the maj or pr oblems whj ch arise in planning t elevision services for a continent the size of Australia, with the very special p op ulation distribution which is a featur e of the present stage of our develo pment. T echnical considerations alone place considerable limitations on the

development of t elevision services outside the more closely settled areas and we have r ef erred to these considerations in that chapt er. W e have also ref erred, in the earlier sections of this chapter, to the limitations which financial considerations and the availability of suitable pr ogramme material are likely to impose on the number of national and commercial t elevision stations which can be eff ectively established

and operated. It is clear, therefore, that technical and fin ancial considerations and the availability of suitable programme matedal must necessarily determine the areas "\vhich cA n be served by t elevision. botl1 initially and ultimately.


'- J



305. It is now possible for us to set do,vn our g·enera.l conclusions with respect to our first two tern1s of reference. It soon became obvious that it would not be practicable for us to draw up a plan td covel' the ultimate developmtmt of television services in the Commonwealth because, as will be evident, many factors which will have a fundamental bearing on the ext ent and 1•ate of development of these services can only be determined as a result of practical experience in the new field. We therefore, taken as our objective the ma.king of recommendations "'

service may be built and developed progressively in iJJe light of experience. This is a Sltffici.ently difficult problem, and although a considerable body of evidence was submitted to us on the issues of out' inquiry, namely the financial and economic considerations involved, and the availability of programmes, the material available to us wa.'!l sufficient to justify only the broadest j t1dgments oh the i.ssues; We have also considered the experience of other countries ( including the United King'dom, the United States of America and Canada-- Be e Chapter II.) where television servi

States of America commercial television services) have been operati11g for som€ time. We have come to the however, that although there is a great deal to be learned from the experience of those

countries, the very precise manner in which our terms of reference are expressed, and the direction to us to consider the method of establishm-ent of both national and commercial services, requir-e us to work out proposals which must, in our viev'v, be conditio11ed by the practical circumstances and needs of the Australian community.

306. We have already pointed out that we were directed to recommend the of both national and commercial stations which can effectively be established and operated having regard to the financial and economic considerations involved and the availability of suitable programmes. It was essential, therefore, for ns to pay particular attention to the concept of " effective operation " which, in the broadest A ense, we interpret as the provision of programmes of a standard sufficiently hig'h to satisfy the needs of all . 'Sections of the community. In relation to the national service it is apparent , therefo1•e, that effe0tive

operation can only be achieved if the Government is. prepai·ed to make adequate public revenues (including revenue from licence-fees) available from time to t ime fo1" this purpose. In relation to the commercial service effe ctive operation would appear to imply operation by a cominereial station on such a basis that, after the initial period of establishment, the licensee will obtain an economic return on the capital

invested while, at the same time, providing· a reasonable standard of programmes both in quality and quantity.

307. These considerations would suggest that the of stations to be established, whether national or commercial, must be limited. In the case of national stations, apart from any other consideration, the inevitability of such limitation will arise, as we have already stated, primarily from the exigencies of public finance. It is necessary to consider not only the capital cost of establishilng' natiohal stations, and the cost of operation, but also the revenue likely to be available from if atty,

and sources similarly related more or less closely to the provision of television services. The precise method by which a national television service should be :financed is 'On-e which cannot be determined satisfactorily in the abstract. It must be determined as part of the general financial policy of the Government for t he time being and in the light of the overall budget requirements of the Government.

It will be recalled that the Australian Broadcasting Commission expressed the view that the national television service should, at least within a reasonable period, be self-supporting from licence-fees and othei' revenues, and that it would not be right to require the general body of taxpayers to contribute to the cost of a service which would be likely to be available at the outset to a relatively restricted s€ction of the population (see paragraph 205). Th:ls principle was also strongly advocated by a number of witnesses h1ainly, but not solely, representating rural interests.

308. In the :field of broadcasting it has been accepted as a fundamental principle that the rtationil.l broadcasting service shouid provide at least one programme t o throughout the Comn'lonwealth. C1 l This, in e:ffec.t, means that t he sparsely populated areas are provided with a broadcasting service in part, at least, at the expense of the general body of taxpayers : indeed, if the national broadcasting service were

only provided in areas in which the population would make it self-supporting on the basis of licence-fee revenue, large areas of Australia would not receive a servic e at all. In the :field of television there are considerable difficulties in applying such a principle, however desirable it may be. By comparison with broadcasting, the range of a television station is limited and the operating costs are high. These factors

seem to make it inevitable that for a very long time, failing some revolutionary technological developments, television services must be restricted · to a proportion of the population, even though the proportion may be relatively . large. There would seem to be much f orce, therefore, in the proposition that the service should be paid for by those who receive :it. If, howeVer, the proposition was applied literally, it would almost certainly produce the resnlt that the national television s:ervice would never be extended outside the major centres of population. While we acknowledge the force of the view which was put to us that

(1) This is discussed fully in the reports of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, especiall y the Thlrd (1951) ari d Fobrbl1 (1952) Reports.


the people who receive the b€nefits o£ the national television service should meet the cost of providing it, we think that there should be some measure of f1e:x:ibility in its application, and that it is undesirable to lay down, at the outset, restrictive which would prevent or hamper the development of the

natioual service i11 the future, u.:nder conditions which cannot, of course, now be foreseen. While we do not therefore, to be 11nderstood to be accepting the view that it would in no circumstances be proper for the general :revenue to contribute to the cost of a n ational television service (and it may be that if the were argued as .an abstract problem of public finance many other considerations would have

to be taken into account), we feel that the national television service should be planned on the basis that withiJ;l a reasonable period at least the major part of this expenditure would be covered by revenue which can be reasonably attributed to the provision of the service.

309, As we have pointed out, the availability of public funds will inevitably be the determining in the erection of natioual stations and the fin anc ial policy of the Commonwealth Government will

regulate the progresr:;ive developroellt of the national service. ('vVe 'were t old that it is largely due to the shortage of f11nds that the Australian National iSel' viee has not y et been able to provide

the standard of service to the remote country areas that it would wish to do. ) In the light of these

considerations vve consider that the proposal of the Aust r alian B roadcastin g Commission for the establishment, 'vithin a p eriod of years, of fourteen nation al stations is unduly optimistic,

and in our opinion it will be many years before national station t3 a1·e effectively establir:;hed and operating in all capital cities and in all major towns. It seems inevitable that the national service must be inaugurated in the centres of the greatest population densities, as it is only in those cent r es that a substantial growth iu the number of viewers can be expected. It is in · those centr es, also, that the resources n ecessary to

provide programmes are located. We have been assured from many sources that Sydney and Melbourne are the only cities in Australia capable of providing, in suffi cient n umbers, the artists of all kinds required to produce the quantity and quality of programmes essential for the succ ess of television in Australia. It is therefore apparent, on those grounds, that the fi rst national stations will n ecessarily have to be erected in

these two cities.

310. It is clear t hat, in planning the development of the national television service, consideration must be given to the demands which will be made on r esources an d technical man-power. In this connexion we have been informed that considerable difficulties h ave been experienced in providing the buildings an d equipment (including relay lines) required to give effect to the approved plan for the extension of national

broadcasting services to rural are'as. The forecast of the Australian Broadcasting Commission that fourteen national stations can be established and in operation within seven years f r om the date on which authority is given to commence construction ·appears to ignore these considerations, and · in our view the time schedule of the Australian Broadcasting Commission is unrealistic.

311. \Ve have come to the conclusion, therefore7 that so far as the national service is concerned, the first station should be erected in Sydney and the second in Melbourne, as it is in these centres that the facilities and r esources for the production of programmes located and where the population is sufficient to support a station in the initial period. As fi nances become available further expansion should

be made to the other State capital cities and to other centres of population, with the object of providing a service to the widest population as soon as practi<;:able.

312. In the case of commercial stations, the problem is quite different. As we have already stated, a considerable amount of evidence was submitted to u s, part icularly by representat ives of advertising and broadcasting interests, that within the basic limitations set by tech11ieal operating conditions and the availability of chanuels, there should be no l'estr ictions of a legllilative or au administ rative n a1ul'e on tbe

nnmber of commercial stations which should be permitted to be established. It was, ther efore, claimt d that to i.he extent to whil\h ch annels ar e available, licences f or t elevision stations should be is:::;ued t o a1l

applicants able to satisfy the licensing authority that they had sufficient financial r esources to enable them to establish stations and to operate them in a satisfactory manner . vV e are unable t o accept this contention. \Ve feel that it is essential, if proper t echnical and programme st andards are t o be established from the outset that commercialtelevision should be launch ed on a gradual basis, with the obj ect, in the establishment

' period, of finding out by experience the number of stations which can be effectively op erated. We r eceived, as we have already indicated, no precise evidence on the question of the probable amount of advertisiu;s revenue which would be available for commercial t elevision st at ions, and it wo uld seem to us that the only . feasible method of discovering this would be t o make a . tart on a modest scale an d with a str ictly

limited number of stations. It must be remembered that \\e ar e required to make our r ecommendation in this respect with regard not only to fi nancial considerations, but also to the availability of programmes. On a consideration of the eviden ce on this subject, we are satisfie d that, in order to secure, from the outset, that· will be .of an adequate standard . or: t elevision .stations, the number of

such stations during period must be limit ed m t he we later recommend.

It seemr;:; certain that unrestricted competit ion from the ou tset, supposmg this would be otherwise would have a disastrous effect on the of programmes. Most of the evidence V:hich was

presented to us supporting the view that no restnctwn should be placed on the number of statwns to be


established appears to us to overlook what is, in our view, the primary consideration, namely, that if the new medium is to be u se d to its best advantage as a means of broadening and enriching Australian life, it is essential that the programmes provided should be of the highest possible standard from the commencement. rrhis is not only of paramount importance in the public interest, a matter we discuss further elsewhere (see Chapter VII.), but of great significance in the development of television itself. It is, in our view, essential that a commencement should be made on a sound financial basis which. will enable all commercial stations to operate effectively as business enterprises and to provide programmes which will justify the grant of licences.

313. The contention to which vve referred in the precedi11g paragraph also appeared to overlook another matter which is perhaps not r eadily apparent but which we feel is of considerable importance, namely, that those members of the general publi c who will be making a substantial investment b;y p11rchasing television receivers are entitled to some assurance that their investment will not be wasted as a

result of the inability of commercial stations to maintain programmes of a satisfactory standard.

314. Some evidence in support of the contention we have just mentioned was based on the experience and results of the operation of commercial stations in the United States of America. Although we recognize that in relation to some aspects of our inquiry we may profit from the of television

in overs€as countries, our analysis has indicated that, in the main, the establishment and development of television services in Australia must be planned to suit best our particular· requirements, which, from many points of view, are quite different from those existing elsewhere.

315. On the other hand, the proposal which was put before us by several witnesses that commercial interests should be encouraged to commence operations in as mat1.y different areas as possible on the grounds that advertisers, for financial reasons, would need to be able to distribute their programmes over the widest possible number of viewers, is one that we feel has considerable merit. Since the availability of vjewers 1vill determine the amount of advertising appropriations, and this in turn will have a major influence on the standard of programmes produced, there appears to be good reason for suggesting that commercial interests should be encouraged. to commence operations in as many s€parate areas as possible. This is,

we think, a djfferent matter from the submission that there should be practically an unlimited number of licences issued for any one area.

316. As we see the future of commercial television, it is likely to devdop in three distinct, but conneded, st ages . Firstly, there will be the period of establisbment, during which transmitters will be erected and studios obtained and equipped, pians laid for programm-e production or procurement, and tec1mi cal and other staff engaged and trained prior to the commencement of the service. In this period cleady the commercia l television operator will derive no income. Secondly, there will be the period of development, nmnely, the first few years after transmission commences when t rading losses will probably be inescapable. It is during this period that the number of receivBrs in t he hands of the public can be expected progressively to increase. It is impossible to determine how long it will be before



revenues, depending on the purchase of receivers, will r each the level of meeting costs and showing profit. rrhirdly, and after some years, a point of stability might reasonably be expected when it will be possible for commercial operators to m-easure more accurately the economics of commercial television. It is during thjs stage that a wider extension of the commercial service in the cities and in country areas should be possible.

317. rrhe conclusion which we have reached in favour of limiting, in the establishment period, the number of commercial stations to be licensed, raises some particular problems that need careful consideration. It may be contended that if the number of commercial stations in any one city is limited to one, particularly in Sydney and .Melbourne, . where the main sources of talent and facilities for the production of programmes are to be found, the who is granted permission to operate this station will, in fact, be granted a monopoly which will afford him an opportunity of entering. into long-term contracts foi· programme material from all sources and also with licensees of television stat]ons in other centres for the sale of programmes, and that any formula for the establishment period that resulted in

only one commercial operator in a major city might prejudic€ the interests of op erators licensed for the smaller capitals or provincial centres, who 1vould be dependent upon the metropolitan operator for programmes expressly designed for commercial purposes. On the other hand it ma.y be argued that the initial licensee will carry the burden of pioneering the television field, and that subsequent licensees will

inherit the benefits of the pioneering work, and on the face of it should have less difficulty and certai.nly less risks in reaching a profitable level of operation.

318. If the first view, outlined in the previous paragTaph, is accept ed, it would appear to be essential from . the outset for at least two commercial operators to be license d in .Sydney and .Melbourne on the grounds that nothing less will provide the metropolitan complex for the development

of television in the other capitals and in provincial centres , and that ·a minimum of two commercial in those citiBs is required to ensure a place for varied interests and make possible a. sensible and responsible choice from the many and highly competitive interests that will desire to enter this fiBld.


319. We have considered confidential figures supplied to us by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board which included (in totals) the revenu es earned by the commercial broadcasting stations in the· State capital cities, and these, together with the r elevant population figures, we have t aken into account in arriving at the con clusions set out in the f ollowing paragraphs.

320. In the light of the foregoing discussion we have r eached the conclusion that, initially, commercial licences should be issued in Sydney ancl lH elboln·ne, and that two licences should be made available in each city. The subsequent expansion of t he commer cial service in Sydney and Melbourne (within the limits of channels available for those and its extension to the remaining

capital cities and other centres of population (including the larger country towns ) should be effected as rapidly as circumstances permit, subject to the Minister being satisfi ed, after receiving a report from the Australian Broadcasting Control Board that applic ants for licences for those centres are capable of supplying a satisfactory service. Having r egard to considerations of fi nance and the availability of suitable

programme material and the great ne·ed to obtain practical experience in Australia in the field of commercial television, vve are strongly in favour of the ser vice being introduced on a gradual

basis . By this mean s the programme productive ca pacity in Australia will be p r ogressively built up, the p attern of the ec onomics of commercial television 'vill gradually become clearer, and the opportunity will be available t o create a commercial service 'vhich might fairly be expected to serve the public interest. In Chapter VII. we recommend that commercial television licences should be issu ed only after a public hearing of applications for licences. W e should ad d that we consider the subsequent expansion of the

commer cial service in Sydney and :Melbourne will not be r eached inside t wo year s, nor, in our opinion, will licen ces for other centres be contemplated for at least twelve months after the issue of the first licences in Sydney and Melbourne. 8. *:' rrHE Ex·rENSION OP T ELEVISION rro COUN'l'RY AREAS.

321. A number of witnesses gave evidence to the effe ct that television would be of great to country interests in that it would bring to country p eople a variety of entertainment and c1.1ltural expr ession such as a city enjoys. It was put to us that t e]evision would help t o shape a better country life and become a most valuable means of developing country areas. \Vhile the force of these vievm is fully

appreciated, it is clear that, failing further technical developm€nts, the ar eas t hat can be served by televlliion will be determined largely by financial and t echnical considerations. It i'3 apparent that the col:lts will in the first instance be so high that no small commuuitie,-:; anywhere in Au:stralia, except those close t o large centres of population, can expect to r ece ive a t elevision service .

322. On the evidence, it would appear to be clear that, for some considerable time, the benefits of television will be enjoyed chiefly by viewers resident in, or adjacent to, the capital cities and other large centres of population. 'l'his conclusion is as inescapable as it is so cially unfortunate. Television, whilst it remains an exclusive city amenity, may adversely affect our national development policy, esp ecially

in relation to our primary production, as it will further accentu ate the appeal of the city, particularly to the younger generation, and thus render more difficult the task of keeping an adequate share of the country's labour force in rural areas. For this reason, despite the practical difficulties to be overcome, we regard the early extension of television services to country areas as a matter of prime importance. We consider it fundamental that when the Australian Broadcasting Con trol Board formulates a plan for

the allocation of frequency channels, adequate reservations should be made to ensure the widest possible coverage to country areas when financial and other considerations make this possible. We are indebted to Mr. J. E. Ridley, Chairman of Directors of Country Broadcasting Services Limited, for the evidence which he gave us on this question and for the practical suggestions which he submitted as to how this might be

achieved. 323. vVe have already stated our reasons for suggesting th at the national television service should begin in Sydney and be progressively extended to other capital cities and major towns. It seems probable that it will be many years before a national t elevision service can be provided t o all the principal centres

of population, and very much longer before it will r each country areas. The public interest would appear, therefore, to r equire two safeguards in connexion with the expenditure of public funds on the national television service. Firstly there should be an acceptance in pr inciple of the proposal submitted by the Australian Broadcasting Commission that taxpayers living in areas which are not served by t elevision should not be expect ed or required to contribute to the cost of supplying a service which for many year s may be described as a "metropolitan luxury". Secondly if, as we r ec ommend later , the Australian

Broadcasting Commission is entrusted with the responsibility of op erating the national television service, special precautions should be taken to ensure that the continued development of . the natio?al. sound broadcasting service (which is of particular impo_ rtance and val ue to country areas) 1s not preJudiced by the demands of the national t elevision service. We r efer to this matter in Chapter VII.

324. We rec eived evidence from a number of licensees of metropolitan commer cial broadcasting stations to the effect that they would gladly accept the r esp onsibility of op erating country stations in conjunction with city stations. W e are of the opinion that every encouraaement should be given to the • See supplem eDt ary observation No . 4 l.Jy :.rr. R . C. Wilson .


early of commercial television in country areas, and that licences should be issued for commercial television stations in country centres, as early as possible. In this connexion we have been informed that, by adoption of the network principle which operated successfully in commercial broadcasting, and the extensive use of film pending the installation of relay links, it should be p ossible for country television stations to operate on a much less expensive basis than city stations.


325. During our inquiry several witnesses discussed the question of the ownership and use of television transmitters.

326. 'rhe Chairman of the .Australian Broadcasting Commission expressed the opinion that "there should be no alienation of any channel for the exclusive use of any commercial body at this stage". ln, his view " the available frequencies should remain a public domain " and, accordingly, the Office sllould erect and control the transmitters both for the natjonal 11nd commercial services. Transmitters which were available for sponsored programmes should be rented to such commercial organizations as

wished to make use of them. It was suggested that thisproposal vmuld ensure that" the many both commercial, cultural and religious, who may now or in the future desire participation on a basis in television would not have their rights prejudiced by the present alienati,on- of any frequencies to any one or more particular interest". 'rhis proposal has some similarities to the procedure which is proposed in Great Britain in relation to-the provision of facilities for comme rcial television (see paragraph 36).

327. Sir Ernest Fisk also advocated the principle of public ownership of all television transmitters. He considered "that no programme party, whether it be or non-government, should be a channel f0r its own use", and that the transmitters and their operation should be under the control of a government authority. This witness envisaged national and commercial il1terests setting up their own studios and concentrating purely on producing programmes which would be transmitted by the public authority which owned and controlled the transmitters.

328. Mr. S. 0. Jones (Philips Electrical Industries Limited) without dealing· specifically with the ownership and control of the transmitters suggested ,; that immediately there should be provided one only television broadcasting station in each capital city and that the transmission time available should be shared l:)etween the national broadcasting service alld the commercial b:roadca$ting interests". In his opii1i011 "such

a method of introducing the service would serve the best of the public, as it would

of the stations to provide a variety of . prog:ram.mes, it would permit of a greatm; of hours per week, and it would provide sufficient revenuo to cover the cost of programme of a

much higher quality than would otherwise be possible".

329 . * \Vhile we feel that there are certain virtues in the proposition that all television transmitters should be under the control and ownership of a public authority, we have come to the conclusion that in Australia practical considerations will r equire that those responsible for the operation of commercial tdevision stations should have control over and responsibility for the transmission as well as the production of programmes, as in the field of broadcasting.

330. We now turn to the proposal that the .Australian television service should be established and operated on a basis which would provide for joint participation by a national authority and private enterprise. It was claimed that, while this proposal itlvolved a radical departure from the conventional approach that there should be both national and commercial stations operating as separate units, it still retained the elements of the "dual" system of national and commercial stations. The proposal is, so far as we are aware, a novel one in the field of broadcasting and television, although we were informed that in Holland a number of independent organizations have provided experimental programmes on a rotational basis from the only station in that country. We understand, however, that the procedure has been adopted as an expedient and for experimental purposes only, under circumstances entirely different from those with which we are concerned.

331.* Our .examination of the proposal has indicated that, from some points of vi ew, it has some attractions. It would, for example, possess the advantage that Il-O organization, now or in the future, would he placed in the position of being denied the opportunity of par ticipatiop in the provisjon t elevisio n of limitation on the facilities ava-ilable. On the other hand, we feel that the

adoptiop of the proposal would prese nt very re q,l ·ad111inistrative dif-ficulties, that it WOUld prOVf unacceptable to those who are in the best position to provide progra;mm etS of ap_ 11cceptable standan:l, and in the long run, it would result in the presentation of unbalanced programmes. Furthermore, it

seems to us that the developments which have taken place in the ultra high frequency band (referred to in Chapter Ill,) make it improbable that teGhnical requirements will , in the fu ture, be the limiting factoJ;.


332. The Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission told us that although he thought the joint use of facilities would be possible, he had grave doubts as to its practicability. He also expressed the view that it was in the public interest to keep the operation of national and commercial services as separate as possible. The President of the ],ederation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations informed us

that, in his opinion, the sharing of facilities would not be practicable. He said: "I don't think it would work. The ideas would be so different that I just cannot see how they could fit in together".

333.':« There are undoubtedly considerable practical advantages in the proposal outlined in the preceding paragraphs, especially in those centres where there is only one television station, but we find ourselves in agteement with the Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the President of the Australian Pederation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations that the principle of the "dual" system of operation of broadcasting and television services, which is basic to our terms of reference, necessitates provision for the establishment of separate national and commercial stations.

National" and Commercial Services to be Complementary.

334. \Ve were urged by some witnesses that in the interests of programme standards, no commercial station should be permitted to be established before a national station had commenced operation in any one area, and that it would be inconsistent with the "dual" system for commercial operators to open a station unless there was also a national station to provide those public service programmes that private

enterprise finds unattractive from a financial viewpoint. It will, of course, not be possible for national and commercial stations to commence operating side by side in every area to be served by television stations, and the provision of alternative services in such areas is a long-term project, even where it is practicable. We consider it more important that provision should be made for an effective ove.rall pattern

of national and commercial stations, which will be truly

where there is a commercial station only in any area, national programme material should be made available to it. As it is anticipated that licence-fees would be rec-eived from the owners of sets served only by the commercial station, they might very properly expect to have access to at least some proportion of the national programmes. We consider that in this respect thBre should be a statutory obligation on

the part of the national authority to make available certain of its public service programmes to the commercial operator, perhaps on the basis of payment for time taken on his station, and there should be a similar statutory obligation on the par t of the commercial operator to take and broadcast those programmes of the national authority.

• See supplementary observation No. 2 by Mr. Osborne.





335. In this chapter and Chapter VII. vve propose to discuss some of the general issues which arise under paragraphs (c), (d), (e) and (f) of our terms of reference, which, in brief, require us to report on the administrative organization of the Australian television service, and the conditions which should apply to the operation of that service, and the safeguards which are necessary to ensure that television programmes

are maintained at a proper standard. As in other aspects of our jnquiry, it is evident that quite different considerations apply to the national and the commercial services, and we discuss them separately. In this chapter we shall discuss the administrative organization .of the Australian television senrices, and in the following chapter the question of the safeguards which are to ensure that programmes are

maintained at a high standard. Certain specific questions relating to programmes are discussed in Chapter VIII.


336. While we were not expressly required by our terms of reference to consider or make

recommendations upon the method of constitution of the authority to operate national television stations, some discussion of thi.<:> question, in the light of the existing administrative arrangements for the operation of the national broadcasting service, appears to be essential, and to be relevant to paragraph (c) of the terms of reference. It is also relevant to recall here that under the 11elevis1:on Act 1953 (see paragraph 61) the programmes on the national television stations are to be provided by an "authorized authority", which may be either the Australian Broadcasting Commis ::;ion or some other authority of the Commonwealth empowered to provide such programmes. \Ve understand that this provision was intended to make it clear that no decision had been made by the Government at the 6me of the passing of the .1\ct as to the actual administration of the national television service. ·

337. In Chapter II., paragraphs 67, 70 and 76, we describe briefi,Y the legislative provisio.ns relating to the national broadcasting service in Australia an .. l also the provisions relating to the cmistitution and operations of the Australian Broadcasting Commission. AltHough ,there are some significant differences in organization and functions, e.sp,ecially in respect of the technical services, this. Commission is broadly similar in its constitution to the British Broadcasting Corporation, ,the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

and the South African Broadcasting Corporation. This 1neans, in effect, that the Austi·alian Broadcasting is constituted and operates in accordanC'.:' ·wjth the generally accepted principles which; in the.

English-speaking democracies, apply to public C)rporation. In the Commonwealth' these

principles, particularly so far as they relate to the for securing the independence of such bodies from direct political control, have perhaps had a special application in the field of broadcasting. We do · n ot feel that we should here make any attempt to re .;tate or re-examine those principles, ·which would, if undertaken, involve a lengthy digression, and would cover much of the ground traversed [in some detail by the Beveridge Committee in the United Kingdom and the lVIassey Commission in Canada. We may say further, indeed, that, except for the Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, who

referred in a general way to the necessity of applying to the national t elevision authority the same general principles as have applied to that Commission, 1ve were not invited by a.ny witness to discuss or reconsider these principles, and, indeed, it appeared to be assumed by all witnesses who discussed this question that we would naturally proceed to apply them in any consideration of the method of organzation­ of the body which would operate national television statiOJl!':l . There are other reasons which we mention in paragraphs 338 to 340, which suggest the conclusion that the Australian Broadcasting Commission should assume the same responsibilities in the field of television as it already discharges in the fi eld of

broadcasting. We should add, however, that we received a body of evidence on the subject

of a national television · authority which, in general, may he said to have been unanimously in favour of the view that national television stations should be controlled and operated by an independent statutory body, although there was considerable variation in th e method;-; proposed for constituting such a body and considerable evidence, of a general nature, in favour of rt body which should be representative of various inter ests (often including the interests represented b y t he witnesses) . The witnesses who discussed this aspect o'f our inquiry (listed in order of appearance) included-

Mr. E. L. A. Turner, Public Affairs and Parliamentary Reform Movement. Mr. S. F. E. Liebert, Australian Council of School Organizations. Mr. H. F. H eath, New South Wales Federation.

lVIr .• J. L. J. Wilson, Director of Tutorial Classes, Sydney University.

:11rs. E. F. Byth, National Council of Women of Australia. Rev. E. H. Woollacott l Canon A. E. Kain (United Churches Social Reform Board. Mr. S. B. Denton J

Dr. C. M. Davey, League of vVomen Voters of South Australia.

67 .

Miss JVI. Mills } , J - • . • ,

Mrs. D. A. Chettle Council of Women of South Austral]a.

Mr. B; Davies I

Professor J. Bishop and Television Council of South Australia. Mr. P. C. W. Disney J Rev. W. Kiek }A 1. 1-,., d . f W M. E C 1 ustra Ian 1 e eratwn o omen Voters. ISS • ase y Dr. H. H. Penny, Principal, Adelaide 'reachers' College. l\.J rs. l\1. E. Calder }vv , - . .

Mrs. I. E. Swift omens Service Gmlds of Western Inc.

Archdeacon J. A. Schofield 1· . _ ,

R . T W n'h (Archbishop of Melbourne s Committee on Television.

ev. . . 1. omas . J

Dr. M. Poulter, Tasmanian State School 1' eachers' Federation. :Mrs. T. C. Metcalfe, National Council of \Vomen of New South Wales.

.c .._.)

I t should be pointed out, however, that much of this evidence was directed to the question vvhich vve have mentioned in Chapter I., namely, whether television· s ervices in Australia should be operated solely by a Government authority in the form of an independent statutory body of some kind. This, as Vi'e h ave already explained, was a matter outside our· terms of reference. We have, however, considered the proposal

referred to above that the national television authority should be constituted in some way so as t o be r epresent ative of particular interests, and have come to the conclusion that this would have, to say the least, unfortunate results, even if it were possible to satisfactorily the interests to be represented.

338. In view of the great importance of the issues of principle involved we think that, although we have not f d)fnd it necessary . to discuss the matter fully, we should leave no doubt as to our general attitude. We are firmly of the opinion that the national television authority should operate with the same degree of independence o£ political control as the national broadcasting authority has operated. We are aware that, in some respects, the provisions of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 may not appear to secure precisely this and our attention was invited to this, in a very general way, by the Chairman of the Australian

Commission. What we have in mind is, however, rather the generally accepted political

convention (described in paragraphs 27 to 33 of the Report of the Beveridge Committee) which, in practice, effectively secures the political independence of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The maintenance of this principle in Australia is, we think, vital in the establishment and operation of the national television r service.

339. We have noted (see Chapter II.) that in all countries where publicly o·wned television services have commenced it has been the invariable practice to vest in the existing broadcasting authority the ' additional functions and responsibilities of providing television services. We heard some evidence on the advantages to be derived from such a course from the Chairman and the General lVIanager of the

Australian Broadcasting Commission, but it was not discussed by other witnesses. This matter was examined at some length by the Beveridge Committee in Great Britain and we have examined the discussion of the issues contain_ed in its Report. After reviewing the contrasting opinions expressed to it as to the desirability of television and broadcasting being operated by a single authority the Committee :;tated

(paragraph 318)·-We find ourselves partly in agreement and partly in disagreement with those on each side of this argument. We accept the main thesis of the B.B.C. that sound broadcasting and television should remain under the same authority. Broadcasting-communication to the public in their homes-is basically the same

kind of service and should have similar aims whether it us es the medium of sound only or combines vision with sound. All the general arguments about competition, diversity, controversy, educational and social purpose, various kinds of entertainment and so forth apply equally to sound broadcasting and to television . . . 340. In Canada the Government announced, in lVI arch, 1949, that the provision of the national television services would be the responsibility of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (the authority conducting the national broadcasting service), a decision subsequently endorsed by the lVIassey Commi&>ion.

341. We think the same principle should be adopted in Australia. There are obviously very strong reasons why the provision of the programmes on the n ational television stations should become the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Commission. Any other decision would involve the establishment of a separate body (presumably a public corporation of the kind r ef erred to above) for this

purpose and we can see no real justification for such a development.

342. We have not overlooked the fact that then· is , and will be, a continuing obligation on the Australian Broadcasting Commission to maintain the highe t possible standards in the national broadcasting service. This task has, we appreciate, been sufficiently onerous and difficult in the past, and it must be recognized clearly that it will become even more difficult as a result of the additional functions which the responsibility for television services will impose. On the one hand, it is essential, if the national television service is to be successful-and it would be calamitous if it were to fail-that the problems it will inevitably

bring and the tasks it will impose must be tackled with vigour and enthusiasm. On the other hand, it is


equaily essential that there must be no deviation of the Commission's attention from the requirements of the broadcasting service, and that the Commission should develop its policies mid direct its administrative and other officers accordingly.

343. We were told of the· plans which have been prepared for the expansion and improvement of the national broadcasting service and in particular . we have noted the very persistent requests which the Australian Broadcasting Commission h as made for technical facilities to be made available to enable it to present a third national programme. All of these developments would add considerably to its work and

responsibilities. We were, indeed, gravely concerned at the possibility that the fundamental obligations of the Commission to provide an adequate broadcasting service throughout the Commonwealth, and to make those improvements which it has indicated it feels are l'lecessary, might be adversely affected because of the demands which television will make on its resources. '>We have, ho-\vever, come to the conclusion that it should be possible for suitable arrangements to be made-chiefly of an administrative character-which will not only remove the cause' for the anxiety to which we have refeged, but which will have the effect of ensuring that the development of both the broadcasting service arrd' the television service will not be hampered by over-great on any one aspect of the· Commission's activities.

344. The Beveridge Committee gave a great deal of thoug4t to this matter and the following conclusions which were reached on the question of the relationship between broadcasting arrd television ar# of interest in the present discussion:- ·

In so far as television broadcasts are directed to the home, they should be controlled by the same authority as · sound broadcasting. Competition between sound broadcasting and television should be competition in service, subject to maintenance of standards ·and social purpose. On this point we accept the main contention of the B.B.C. But sound broadcasting and 'television, even as directed to the home, are different media of not fitting indifferently or equally all types of programmes; not using

always the same kinds of staff or performers; not having the same effects on the audience. Under the single authority maintaining in relation to each medium a like social purpose there should be distinction between them greater than that between other parts of the broadcasting organization. The' principle _ of integration which has dominated development of the B.B.C. in the past needs to be applied with more flexibility than in the past, now that television on a large scale is at hand. It would be wrong to develop television as an off-shoot of sound broadcasting, by people who had learned to think of programmes of all kinds first in terms of sound. It would be equally wrong if, as television grew in importance, it came to dominate ,..... sound, so that all programmes came to be considered primarily from the point of view of suitability for viewing.

This is a main reason for proposing a revision of the plan put to us by the B.B.O. of financing the development of television by subsidy from sound broadcasting. (R.eport, paragraph 346.) Following the report of the Beveridge Committee, the Government indicated in the \Vhite Paper of July, 1951 (Cmd. 8291) that it agreed with the Committee that "in the field of television the B.B.C. should adopt a policy of effective administrative devolution and that the Director of Television should have the fullest possible authority; they (the Government) have learned with approval that the B.B.C. is proceeding to develop the television service in accordance with these principles". (Paragraph 444 of White Paper.)

345. We have referred to the discussions o£ the problem in Great Britain in order to 1 emphasize our

view of the fundamental importance of the question of the organization to be established within the framework of the Australian Broadcasting Commission to provide for the discharge of its new responsibilties in respect of television, and at the same time to enable its broadcasting . functions to be carried on without loss of efficiency. We may add that the Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission suggested to us in his evidence that there was a strong case for increasing the number of members of the

Commission from seven to nine, and that this would afford an opportunity fo! widening and strengthening the constitution of the Commission. We are much impressed with this suggestion and recommend that it should be adopted. There are other ways in which the Commission might be strengthened or, indeed, completely reorganized, but on this we received no evidence, and a detailed examination would take us too far afield from our specific terms of reference.

346. There is another matter which will need to be considered seriously in establishing the organization for the provision of the national television service. In the field of broadcasting, the Broadcasting Act specifies that the Postmaster-General shall undertake the provision and operation of all technical services associated with the transmission of programmes provided by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. It was, however, put to us by the Commission that in the field of television "the relationship of technical operation to the television programme is so close and intimate that all studio technical services involved in the production of the television programmes should be under control of the programme authority. It would be understood that the Postmaster-General's Department would continue to erect, maintain and operate all transmitters and assume responsibility for the transmission from the point of output from the studios". ·

347. It is evident that television demands a much degree of collaboration between technical and programme services than does broadcasting and that certain categories of operating personnel are required to perform functions that are partly technical and partly programme in character. \Ve are not in a position to determine whether the extension to the field of television of the present arrangements with


respect to broadcasting (under which the whole of the technical services is by the Postmaster­ General's Department) would fail to provide the degree of collaboration which is required, but it is evident that the Australian Broadcasting Commission holds considerable doubts in the matter, at least so far as relates to operations in the studios. The problem which arises in this connexion has, so far as we know, no counterpart in overseas countries. In both Great Britain and Canada, where national television services are in operation, technical and programme functions are the responsibility of the one authority, and the

only objection that was suggested to the adoption of a 'similar course in Australia was that the Australian Broadcasting Commission would be required to recruit technical staff-:-a task which may be difficult but · not insuperable. We have not been in a position to make a detailed examination of this particular matter but, in the light of the information available to us, we are inclined to the view that the operation of all technical services directly associated with the production of programmes in the studios, should be included , in the responsibilities of the Australian Broadcastjng Commission.


348. As Jn the case of the television service, we find it neces-sary . to discuss the question of the authority to be charged with the administration of the commercial television service, although no express reference was made to this matter in terms of reference. We have set out in Chapter II. the provisions of the legislation (including both the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 and the Television

Act 1953) on this subject, and also the· relevant provisions relating to the allied question of the administration of the commercial broadcasting service. Broadly, the system of administration of the commercial broadcasting service under the Broadcasting Act is based on the grant of licences for individual stations. Licences are granted by the Minister (at present the for ' s.pecified but

limited periods, and subject to various conditions some of which are referred to in later paragraphs of this chapter. It is provided that the 11inister may renew and may also revoke or suspend licences in certain specified cases. The Minister is required take into consideration, before exercising any of these powers, any ,recommendations which have been made by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board as to the exercise of that power. The Television Act applies substantially the same principles and procedure to the licensing of commercial television stations, although, as we have pointed out (see paragraph 62), the

Act was, we understand, intended only to be. an interim measure which would be replaced by more comprehensive legislation. The provisions of the Broadcasting Act relating to the teohnical operation of both broadcasting stations and television stations (which are also in effect incorporated in the Television Act) must also be considered in this connexion, since the basis of both broadcasting and television services is the use, subject to prescribed technical conditions, of a specific frequency or channel at a specific ·locathn. Under both Acts the Australian Broadcasting Control Board is empowered, subject to any

directions of the Minister, to determine the frequency, operating power and location of all broadcasting and television stations, and is required to ensure that their technical equipment and operation is in accordance with appropriate standards. This body has also, under the Broadcasting Act, wide powers in relation to the programmes of broadcasting stations. While it is perhaps more convenient to consider these prov1sions later under the standards to be observed in the programmes of television stations (see

paragraph 390), this question is, of course, closely related to the question of the administration of the commercial television service with which we are concerned in this chapter. 349. It is natural to assume that there must be a system for the licensing of commercial television stations, and, indeed, no other administrative device appears to be applicable. It appeared to be assumed

by most witnesses representing commercial broadcasting or similar interests that substantially the same administrative system as now applies to thB commercial broadcasting service would apply to the commercial televjsion service, although some submissions, in very general terms, were made on the necessity for greater security of tenure :for holders of licences or (by some witnesses) for a right of appeal against decisions of

the JHinister in certain cases: to these questions we refer in later paragraphs. In particular, it appears to have been assumed by most witnesses representing commercial broadcasting or similar interests (with the reservations just referred to) that licences for commercial television stations should be granted by the Minister after considering recommendations made by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. We

were, however, invited by some witnesses to consider a major question of principle, namely, whether the licensing authority for the commercial television service should be, instead of the Minister, as at present, an independent statutory body which would be free of political control. This view was put to us by the Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and by Mr. L. C. W ebb, Reader in Political Science

in the Australian National University. Both these witnesses, in effect, urged that the licensing authority in Australia should be, as in the United States of America, an independent statutory authority, similar in powers and functions, so far as broadcasting and television are concerned, to the Federal Communications Commission. These witnesses expressed the view that this result should be achieved by vesting in the

Australian Broadcasting Control Board the existing powers of the Minister in respect of the grant, renewal and revocation of licences, a.nd ensuring that that Board should have the same degree of independence of


political control as the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Canadian Broadcasting and the Federal Communications Commission. Mr. C. Ogilvy (l\facquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) and some other witnesses urged that the Australian Broadcasting Control Board should be enabled to function "free of political influence", but these witnesses did not avert precisely to the question whether the Minister or the Board should be the licensing author1ty.

350. The question to which we have referred in the preceding paragraph is, of course, of great importan ce and difficulty, and raises issues which may very well go far beyond our terms of r eferen c-e . Although we are ind·ebted to those Witnesses to whom we have referred in the preceding ,paragraph for their dis cussion of the question, we must say that, in general, it did not appear to be a matter to 'vhich many · witnesses whom we questioned had given any close attention. Our very firm impression of the 1:vidence as a whole is one, generally speaking, of acceptance of the· existing administrative structure for the licensing of commercial broadcasting stations, and its applicability to television stations.

351. There are, it seems, at least the following alternatives to · be considered, if the whole matter of the n ature of the licensing authority for commercial television stations is to be reviewed in principle, and in the light of existing practices in Australia and overseas:- .

(a) The existing law may be adopted without altei·ation, under the licensing authorit{ would be the 1\l[inister, who would be required to take into consideration recommendations · · of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, a statutory body with certain and administrative functions in res.pect of which it is subject to Ministerial directron; ( b) The licensing authority might' continue to be the' Minister who would be required to ,

into consideration recommendations of the Board (or other similar body) but provision would be made to secure that that body would, in resp.ect of all its regulatory imd administrative functions, ·be "free from control", i.e. · not subject to direction by the Minister ; (c) the licensing authority might be the Board (or other similar body) which might be subjee1

to .Ministerial direction in respect of some or all of its functions; (d) the licensing authority might be the Board (or o.ther similar body) which would be "f1:ee from political control", i.e. not subject to direction by the Minister in respect of any of its functions, although ultimately r esponsible to the Parliament by which the legislation

for its establishment is passed and funds for its operation are provided. There are, no doubt, other possible combinations. Of those we have mentioned, we find it relatively easy to r eject (c), for which no support in the evidence or in principle appears to be forthcoming. The alternative set out in (d) is in effect the syst-em operating S1J.ccessfully in the United States of America: it may be relevant, although not of course conclusive, to mention that in the United States of Am-erica this system appears to be accepted as the natural (if not inevitable) one for a regulatory commission, mainly,

of course, b€cause of the Presidential (as oppos·ed to the Parliamentary) system of GovernmJnt, which does not envisage any system similar to those described in (a) and (b). There are, indeed, powerful arguments in favour of adopting alt-ernative (d), although we have not, as we have said, found them accepted by witnesses representing interests which might be expected to give them strong support. We feel, on the other hand, that there is much to be said for retaining the principle of l\finisterial responsibility in a field such as this, in which very grave issues may have to be determined with serious social implications. It seems d ear, however, that an administrative structure (as in (a) above) under which the Minister is by law

required to take into consideration .recommendations of an authority, to which he is by the same law empowered to give directions, is somewhat anomalous. On the whole, therefore, we have come down in favour of alternative (b) : we think that, subject to certain other recommendations which we subsequently make (see paragraphs 354-7 and 361), the licensing authority for commercial television stations should be the Minister, as at present. He would, therefore, in our view, continue to exercise the functions of granting, renewing and revoking licences, and in doing so should be required to take into consideration recommendations made by a statutory authority. The statutory authority would also be responsible for carrying out certain regulatory and administrative (including technical) functions, as under the present Broadcasting Act. We have come to the conclusion, however, that in respect of the exercise of these functions the statutory authority should not be subject to direction by the Minister.

352. In this difficult field we are glad to find support for our conclusion in the law and practice in Canada, where licences for both commercial broadcasting and commercial television stations ar e granted by a Minister (in this the Minister for Transport), who is required to take into consideration

recommendations made by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, ·which is a body an1swerin g the description (in Australian terminology) "not subject to Ministerial control". The analogy is not. of course, complete, mainly for historical reasons, but, on the whole, we are persuaded that, if the necessary modifications are made to secure that the statutory authority in Australia responsible for making recommendations in respect of licences is placed on a basis similar to that of the Canadian Broadcasting

Corporation, the combination of Ministerial responsibility (which will secure the effectiveness of


Parliamentary control in the long run) with the and technical skill and experience of the

permanent statutory body, should produce an efficient administrative structure which will adequately serve the public

353. Vve recommend that the statutory authority to which we have r eferred in the preceding paragraph should be the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. 'rhe evidence was unanimously in f avour of this conclusion, and it is in accord with the r ec <:>mmen dation we have already made on the subject of the national television authority, namely, that the powers and func.tions of the appropriate existing

broadcasting authot·ity should be ext€nded to the field of t elevision. (In the case of the Board the position 1s, as '"e have explained, that the existing legislation already confers important powers on that body in r espect of various aspects of television.) In the next v;re consider the· functions and responsibiliti<:>s of the Board in relation to television programmes, and make some recommendations for the appointment to the Board of two additional part-time members: the adoption of this recommendation would also strengthen the Board in the of its functions in relation to the of the lictmsing of commercial

television stations. ·

The · decisions which 'Vill have to be made .in relation to all aspects of the licensing of

commercial television' stations will be of great importance, affecting not only the development of commercial ) television and the standard of its service, but also the investments and of large commercial

W:hile the ultimate decisions will, if our recommendations are adopted, be made by the

r esponsible Minister, the function of the Board in making recommendations as to the exercise of the . Mip.ister's powers are of great significance, and it is important that r ecommendations shou]d be made . after proper inquiry. In our opiD:ion jt is essential that the recommendations of the Board in respect of certain aspects of the licensing" .of commercial tele vi;;;ion stabons, which vve specify in the following

paragraphs, should be made to the JY'Iinister only after a public hearing at which parties with an intere..-;t in the proc-eedings have · a · right to be represented. . . 355. In the case 'Of the original g1·ant by the Minister of a commercial television licence for any locality, we think there should, in all cases , 'be a pub l ic hearing by the Board of the applications received

licences in that locality. The decisions on the grant of licences (that is, the selection of the licensees)

at the commencement of the commercial service will .clearly be vital and '"e 'feel that the public interest demands that the claims of all applicants should be the subject of investigation at bearings to which the public and pr·ess are admitted. It may be necessary or desirable for parties other than applicants to be represented at such hearings, but we are strongly of opinion that, in determining the procedure, care should

be taken that only bona fide applicants and other parties with a genuine interest are permitted to be heard; otherwise the proceedings may be unnecessarily prolong·ed. We do not think it is necessary for us at this stage to attempt to work out the detail-; of the procedure to be adopt ed. ·what we have suggested is consistent with the practice in Canada and the United States of America.

356. Similarly, we think that before any licence for a commercial t elevision station is revoked by the Minister, fhe licensee should have the opportunity of being heard at a public sitting of the Board. Section 312 of the Co-nt1nunicaJions Act 1934 of the United States, as amended by the Commttnicat1'ons Act Amendments 1952, provides, inter alia, that before revoking a licence the F ederal Communications

Commission shall serve upon the licensee an order to show cause why an order of revocation should not be issued, specifying the matter with respect to which the Commission is inquiring, and calling on the licensee, within a period of not less than 30 days, to appear before the Commission and give evidence on those matters. Similar principles would appear to us to be d-esirable in Australia, with the necessary

modifications required in view of the fact that the Minister would, if our recommendations are accepted, be the authority with power to revok-e licences. It is perhaps unnecessary for us to add that if, as we propose, a general power of revocation of licences for commercial television stations is vested in the Minister, it is most desirable that it should be exercised after proper inquiry and report.

357. of licences for commercial television stations should also , we think, be subject to similar rules relating to public hearings to those in force in the United States of America. Section 309 of the Comm.unications Ad, 1934 provides that if on the examination of an application for, in ter alia, renewal of a licence the Federal Communications Commission finds that public interest, convenience or

necessity would be served by the renewal thereof, it shall grant the application (i.e. without public hearings) : if, however, the Commission on examination of an application for renewal, is unable to make a finding that the licence should be renewed, it shall notify the applicant and other known parties interest ed of the grounds and reasons for its inability to make suc-h a finding, and shall then provide an opportunity for reply and,

if necessary, for a hearing of the matter. Renewals of licences, if our recommendations on this aspect are accepted, would be made annually by the :Niinister, on consideration of r eports by the Board, and it is evident that failure to renew would be equivalent to revocation. 358. We did not hear any evidence addressed specifically to the issues discussed in the preceding

paragraphs, but we did receive certain evidence on the subject of security of tenure for commercial television stations, mainly on the period for which licences should be issued, which we discuss in the following


Tenu,re of Licences for Oommet·cial Television Stations. 359. Several witnesses gave evidence to us on the question of the tenure of licences to be granted for commercial television stations. The Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations and the Australian Association of Advertising Agencies regarded the ·current practice of issuing broadcasting licences for one year as being unrealistic, and urged that this precedent should not be applied to television. They submitted that licences should be issued for an unlimited period subject to compliance with the appropriate legislation and regulations. The Federation conceded that the Minister administering the

Television Act, in addition to the power to grant licences, should have power to suspend or cancel them in certain instances, but maintained that this should be subject to a right of appeal to an independent tribunal. A number of other witnesses, including Mr. C. Ogilvy (l\ifacquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) and Mr. S. R. I. Clark (Queensland Newspapers Pty. Ltd.), also expressed the view that licences should be granted on a continuing basis. Mr. W . Dunstan (1\trelbourne Herald and Weekly Times Limited) suggested that the initial licence period should be seven years, and that future renewal periods should be determined by the controlling authority, whilst Sir John Butters (Associated Newspapers Limited) felt that the initial licence should be granted for ten years with renewal periods of five to seven years.

360. The arguments advanced in support of the above-mentioned contentions may be summarized as ·

(a) l\iaximum initial investment would be encouraged;

(b) licensees would be encouraged to rein vest earnings and improve standards of equipment and service ; and (c) advertisers would be able to arrange long-term contracts.

On the other hand, it was put to us that if the tenure of licences were limited to a relatively short period, it would have the unfortunate result of -reducing the a111ount which might be invested in the establishment and operation of television stations, with the result that the emphasis would be on the production of the cheapest programmes sold at the highest price to receive the maximum return. We were not able to accept these arguments: It is to be assumed that licences for television stations will only be granted to applicants who can demonstrate their capacity, financial and otherwise, to conduct the service in accordance with the standards which are prescribed. l\iany businesses are carried on under licences of some form or another from the Government, and these licences. are almost invariably for yearly periods subject to renewal on certain prescribed conditions as to good behaviour and conformity with the law and the pubUc interest. So far as we have been able to ascertain, there is no evidence that in any field of private enterprise, including commercial broadcasting, has there been any significant retardment of investment because of a limited licensing period. Although the Federal Communications Commission on 5th November, 1953,

altered its rules to provide for licences for television to be issued for a normal of three years,

licences in the United States of America were originally i.ssued for one year only. This did not, it would seem, deter the investment of private capital. In its "Notice of Proposed Rule l\ifaking" dated 23rd July, 1953, the Federal · Communicat_ions Commission stated that "the one-year licence period for television broadcast stations was appropriate during the early formative period of the television broadcast service".

The Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 provides that licences for commercial broadcasting stations may be granted for a period not exceeding three years and may be renewed for any period not exceeding one year. We recommend that the same provisions should apply in the case of licences for commercial television stations. In the following chapter we refer to the significance, from the point of view of the maintenance

of programme standards, of the annual review of the performance of television stations: it would seem, indeed, that in a licensing system, with provision for annual, or at least frequent, renewals of licences, lies the only effective administrative device for securing positive adherence to the high standards of programmes which are clearly desirable.

361. The submissions (mentioned in paragraphs 349 and 359) which were made to us in favour of some form of right of appeal (presumably to a judicial body) against decisions of the Minister 'with respect to the revocation, or suspension, of licences were not strongly pressed or very clearly argued. It is extremely difficult to formulate either the cases in which there should be such an appeal from the 1\iinister, or the precise form of an appropriate appellate tribunal, and it would seem to us to be inconsistent with the Parliamentary responsibility of the Minister to provide for appeals in these matters. It will, however, be evident from what we have said in paragraphs 356 and 357 that, in respect of both failure to renew a licence and of revocation of a licence, we have given careful consideration to the question of the rights of the licensee to a fair hearing. We consider that if, as we suggest, decisions on these matters are made by a responsible l\trinister, after taking into consideration recommendations made by an independent statutory body which is required to conduct public hearings before reporting to the Minister, the interests of licensees will be fully protected. We may add that, in our opinion, the Minister's power to suspend licences should be restricted to a very limited period, at the expiration of which either the suspension must be removed, or the licensee given notice (as proposed in paragraph 356) of intention to revoke the licence.

- ,..-r,: 7 <- : )[I



Limit ations on the Ownership of Co mmercial Television Stations. 362. The question of the restrictions (if any) which should apply by way of limitation of ownership of commercial television stations was referred to by a number of witnesses. The Australian F ederation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations submitted that any limitations on the ownership of commercial television

stations should not be more restrictive than those which apply in the case of comm-ercial broadcasting stations, that is as provided by section 53 of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953, which are as follows:-- A person shall not own, or be in a position to exercise control, either directly or indirectly, of, more than- · .

(a) one metropolitan commercial broadcasting station in any State; (b) four metropolitan -commercial broadcasting stations in Australia; (c) four commercial broadcasting stations in any one State; or (d) eight -commercial broadcasting stations in Australia. Mr. C. Ogilvy (:Macquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) told us that he believe d that the satisfactory

oper ation of commercial television stations in Australia could best be achieved by network operation and the plan which he submitted to us envisaged the grant to his company of a number of licences. He believed that in this way a complete and thorough service could be provided to a maximum number of communities, since not only would each station have its own local facilities, but would be linked to a central organization for the advantages of planned programming during the main part of its schedule. On the other hand the

League of Women Voters of South Australia urged that there should be a greater limitation on the ownership of stations than is the case with broadcasting stations.

363. Mr. A . C. P addison regarded network operation as a possible threat to the independence of licensees. He advocated that television licences sho uld be distributed to as many interests as possible to prevent any form of monopoly control and maintained that the real safeguard against the develo pment of monopoly control would be through the issue of licences to independent operators. The suggestion that

"rural stations" and " sub-metropolitan stations " should be satellites of city stations immediately · r aised the question of monopoly control-" channels would become the means for creating an insidious vested interest which in the wrong h ands could be capable of embarking on a mass-experiment in thou ght control". lVIr. Paddison claimed that the widest distribution of licences would be achieved if-

( a) no sjngle group controlled more than one capital city station ; (b) city st ations were not permitted to control country stations or enter into exclusive agreements for relays of programmes; (c) licensees of country television stations were required to operat-e on a non-exclusive basis

offering their facilities to all city stations; (d) a maximum number of city stations \vere licensed.

364. Mr. N. V. Nixon (Australian Association of Advertising Agen cies) expressed the view that every care should be taken to prevent the establishment of a monopoly which would be against the public interest. To prevent this, he felt that only one licence should be granted to any one organization. He added that this " w:mld not preclude the free as ")ociation of in dependent st ations in operational-but not financially interlocL:ed-network systems ".

365 . We are in agreement with the view that some limitation on the concentration of control of television stations is necessary in th€. public interest. On the other hand, it is evident that, in certain directions, there may be advantages to be derived from the co mmon ownership or control of a n umber of stations. For example, we envisage that the licensees of me-"ropolitan stations may be prepared t o es tablish

and operate relay stations in districts which may not be in a position to provide the necessary financial support to justify a station operating as c n independent unit. Indeed, it was put to us that it should be made a condition of any licence granted for a stat ion to serve a metropolitan area that the licensee should, within a r easonable period, be required also to undertake the oper ation of a st ation in a country district,

and it is clear that in certain circumstances this would assist in furthering the extension of television to the country.

366. -In our view provisions similar to those in section 53 of the Broadcasting Act (see paragraph 362) i£ enacted with r espect t o television stations, would be sufficient to prevent such a degr ee of concentration of ownership as would be co ntrary to the public interest, and at the same time would enable advantage to be t aken of the economies of operation which the owner ship of a number of st ations would

permit. Within the framework of the limitation suggested, any concentration of control which might be regarded as contrary to the public interest could be adequately dealt with through the issue of licences. In arriving at any such determination, the Minister and the Boar d would n ecessarily be guided by developments, the nature of which cannot at present be foreseen. W have noted that in t he United States

of America, t he F ederal Communications Commission has recently r evised its Rules to impose great er limitation on the mult iple ownership of stations. It is now provided that no entity shall have a direct or indirect interest in, or be stockholders, directors or offic ers of, more than five television stations.


Transfer of Licences.

367. It was suggested to us that licences to operate commercial television ·stations should be issued on the condition that they are not sold or leased, except with the approval of the Minister or the Board; this was essential to prevent undesirable trafficking in licences. 1\tir. C. Ogilvy said that transfers of licences should not be permitted until after a station had been properly established and was adequately servicing its coverage area, but such a condition should not preclude the sale of stations after a reasonable time had elapse d, if circumstances justified it. He said that, after the value of broadcasting licences was realized, there were several cases where the successful applicant sold or leased his .licence or erected a station of the sketchiest nature and sold it at a profit. Sir John Butters agreed that licences should be issued on condition that they were not sold, but he submitted that amalgamation should be permitted. l\Ir. N. V. Nixon agreed that conditions of some k ind we r e inevitable ; failure to comply with those conditions s ho uld properly r esult in the loss of the licen ce and one condition should be that licences should not be sold.

368. With r espect to broadcasting, section 50 of the Broadcasting A ct ,1942-1953 provides that "except with the consent in writing of the Minister, a licensee of a commer cjal broaclcasting station shall ',__ not transfer the licence or assign, sublet or otherwi::se dispose of the licen ce or a dmlt any other person to ' participate in any of the benefits of the licence, or to exercise any of the powers or granted by

the licence". It seems to us that the extension of this provision to commercial television statio:ri.s would deal satisfactorily 1vith the matters which have been raised. \

369. rrher e are no provisions in the Broadcasting Act regulating transfers in shares · in companies 41 holding licences for commercial broadcasting stations, and we were to!d that it was legally administratively impracticable to provide directly for the regulation of such transfers. In order '­ some f orm of control may be exercised over such transactions, which could have the effect of rendering nugatory the provisions of section 50 of the Act (referred to in the paragraph), it had beert

found necessary to incorporate in each licence a special condition providing that control of a station shall ' . .... . not be varied without the consent of the Minister. We f eel that the same condition should apply to the transfer of shares in a company holding a licence for a commercial stati_ on.

Licence-fees. \ .....

370. We have given some consideration to the question whether a fee should be imposed for the grant or r enewal of a licence for a commercial television station and the amount of such a fee. The Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting . Stations suggested that a nominal fee only should ' be charged, and that it should not be related to the revenue of stations, which was regarded by the industry as "a penalty on efficiency". The Federation suggested that if any such fee was imposed, .it should be ' assessed on revenue from the sale of time only, and .not on total turnover. Mr. C. Ogilvy (Macquarie _ Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.) supported this view and told us that, in his opinion, a licelice

fee would, in the early stage of development, impose an additional financial burden on operators, it would .. result in higher costs for station time and facilities, a course which should be avoided since th e standard of service to the public would depend upon the extent to which advertisers would be in a l(Osition to sponsor feature programmes. 'Ve feel, however, that the imposition of such a fee is justified. It will contribute to some extent to the cost of administration of the commercial television service, and, in any case, some charge in respect of the valuable public franchise held by a licensee is clearly reasonable. · In view of the criticisms voiced by some witnesses of the method by which the fee payable by commercial broadcasting stations is now calculated, we have alsQ considered alternative methods for determining th,e fee which might be adopted for television stations. The licence-fee at present payable annually in respect of commercial broadcasting stations was imposed on the recommendation of the Joint Committee on Wireless Broadcasting (the Gibson Committee) in 1942, and, in conformity with the provision of the

Commercial Broadcasting Stations Licence Fee Act 1942, is calculated on the formula of £25 per annum plus one-half of 1 per cent. of the gross earnings if the operation of the station in the preceding year resulted in a profit. Although this method of determining the fee is open to certain objections, we have been unable to formulate any proposals that possess any definite advantages over it, and we recommend that the same principle should be applied to the television service. We consider, however, that the annual fee should be £50 plus one-half of 1 per cent. of gross r evenue of a station and that this f ee should be charged whether or not a profit is made. ,

",.rr;_ "'.5·. .... . -- ' ' \ ..




371. We were specifically to report on the standards to be observed in the programmes

of national and commercial stations to ensure the best use of television broadcasting in the public interest, and in the. following paragraphs we discuss some of the implications of this problem. In Chapter IV. we have referred to the evidence we received concerning the impact that television might have on the intellectual, cultural and moral life of the community and we are indebted to those witnesses who assisted · us on this aspect of our inquiry. Clearly one of the m ajor reasons underlying our appointment as a Royal

C _.ommission was the need for a full and open discus 3ion, on the one hand, of the dangers inherent jn television and, on the other, of the advantages that might be derived from it, so that the reasons underlying the fear& and apprehensions,. the enthusiasm and anticipation by the various sections of the community might be clearly analysed and brought into proper p erspective. We have already indicated (see Chapter

V.) that we· are convinced that we should proceed cautiously with the introduction of the service, and we referred in thafehapter, as one 9f our reasons for that conclusion, to the necessity for establishing, from the outset, adequate· standards of quality in television programmes. We now proceed to discuss this aspect of our inquiry more


. - 372. We have, in Chapter VL, expressed the view that the responsibility for the prov1s1on of

on the national television service should be vested in the Australian Broadcasting Commission,

and that, in this field, the Commission should ha_ve t he same degree of responsibility and independence a"S'"'i

programmes are concerned, it is not to say more than it is to be expected that the Australian

-Broadcasting Commission, full recognition of i ts great r esponsibilities to the people and Parliament, within the limits of the available funds, will, as it has been r equired to do, and has substantially

in doing, in the field of broadcasting, " take in the interests of the public all such measures

"' as, in of the are conducive to the full development of suitable programmes".

(Broadcast·z :ng Act 1942-1953, 18.) .

... '


373. 1\IIost o1 the evidence which we receive d was directed to the problem of securing adequate programme standards on commercial stations, and t his we shall now proceed to consider. 37 4. The question of programme standards may be considered from two aspects. In the first place, there is the n egative aspect, which is the prohibit ion of t he broadcast ing of indecent, obscene and .blasphemous material. This is 'a matter that i's' alre ady taken care of by law and is not, in our view, really

a serious problem from the point of view of the regulat io n of the commercial t elevision service. It may be expected thht, as in the case of broadcasting, , instances of the televising of indecent, obscene or blasphemous ' material will be exceedingly rare, if they occur at alL If they do occur, they may be dealt "rith. It is t rue that there is the r elated, and :rp.ore diffict1l.t probl-e m of preventing the t elevising of incidents

which, while not strictly indecent or obscene, are offensive or improper : we were told that in the field of programmes this problem presents the greatest difficulties. It is our view that this problem,

which is really one of good t ast e, must be resolved by encouraging and securing positive standards, which we discuss in the following paragraphs. 375. There is, on the other hand, the positive aspect, which is essentially the problem of the means of establishing and maintaining a standard of programmes in order to provide, not only for the

entertainment and enjoyment of viewers, but also for their education (in the broad sense we have described in Chapter IV.) and enlightenment. The use of this new medium of communication must, in our view, be regarded, by commercial as well as national statio ns: as in the nature of ·a public trust for the benefit of all members of our society. <1 l In our view there is essentially the same r esp onsibility for positive values in television programmes in the ease of the CO "lmercial service a:S in the case of the national servic e.

We have already given some reasons for this proposition in Chapter IV., and point .out there that, basically, it depends on the nature of the medium itself. 376. We were urged by a number of witnesses, mainly rep resenting commercial broadcasting or allied interests, to recommend that licensees of commercial t elevision station'S should he left free to operate their services within the framework of the general la1v, free from censorship or arbitrary control, on the grounds that the development of the art of television broadcasting would thus be best promoted, and that interference with freedom of expr ession, which is a violatio n of democratic principles, would be.

avoi ded. It was argued therefore that the system of se lf-regulation wa s· most desirable from all viewpoints and was effective to secure adequate programme standards. Self-regulation would, it was urged., afford the greatest control of all through the weight of public opinion whilst at the same time placing no prohibition or crippling impediment jn the way of initiative and creative ability.

(1) Report of t he Royal Commission on National Development in t he Arts, Letters and Sciences, Canada, 1951. Chapter 18, para. 3, p. '276/7.


377. Mr. H. E. Beaver, · President of the Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations, said-What has to be guarded against, the Federation fe els, is that a Government-appointed body should be permitted to stretch out beyond the field of radio and television broadcasting to the field of listening or viewing.

This is a trend we believe to be fraught with danger . . . It is the Federation's belief that the best way to improve the arts of radio and television broadcasting is to give them liberty to develop and expand The Federation takes the view that it is essential to the continued operation of a democracy that radio and television broadcasting should be free to operate within the framework of the general law and to provide news, information and entertainment to the general public, free from censorship and arbitrary control. There be no mandatory regulations which would control programme content, except the laws of the .land

relating to such matters as libel, defamation, gaming and betting, treason, obscenity, &c. The freest possible mass communications, includi11g radio and television broadcasting, are essential rights of a democratic population to inform and to be informed. Centralized domination of mass communications is not in the interests of free citizens. Any medium of mass communication should operate within the f:r_:amework of the general law and should not be subject to discriminatory controls which limit its freedom of operation

That does not mean that no control will ,be exercised ·over radio and television programmes. There will always be the greatest control .of all-the factor of public acceptance. In addition, there is a very keen appreciation on the part of people in broadcasting that they are "operating in a glass bowl". They recognize that with the great opportunities which are theirs come also great responsibilities . . . They know full well that every receiving set is equipped with the eon venient means of tuning their pr_ ogrammes in or out

and that, under such a system of freedom of choice, the judgment of the people is ,the ultimate standard of acceptability. From a practical point of view, unless the types of programmes we broadcast and the content of our programmes meet with the approval of our audiences, we cannot attract advertisers to use our facilities . .

. The Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations has its "Standards of Broadcasting Practice", and, when television comes, standards will be developed for the new Any recommendation by this Commission that there should be control of programmes would take from the Austr?.lian public and

the broadcasting industry an important part of its liberty and freedom of activity. Such control would serve to destroy the creative ability of the industry and would stereotype programming and, what 1s more serious, would stifle the development of television from the beginning. · ,r

378 . .Sir John Butters stated that-Standards and controls which are self-established will be more realistic and effective than those wKich are imposed and our ma11 agements will be very sensible of their responsibilities. Above all, public opinion will express itself unmistakably. It is, we fee1, important that before any standards or conditions regarding

programmes are established they should be the subject of conferences with licensees . . . We feel that the best results will be obtained by the National Controlling Authority imposing the fewest poss ible restrictions and im posing as little rigidity as possible-and allowing managements to work out by experience in co-operation with the Authority the be st practice for Australia. This has worked out well with radio and should be equally satisfactory with television. ; · ·; ·

379. Sir John Chandl€r informed us that, in his estimation, public opinion imposed a greater sense of discipline on the manager of a broadcasting station than either the code of the Australian J1.,ederation o:f Commercial Broadcasting Stations or the regulations of the Australian Broadcasting Controlr E,oard.

380. 1\fr. Cliv€ Ogilvy said-I feel that self-regulation will be the best form of regulation ;of the television industry, and I have no doubt of the ability and willingness of the individuals who will be concerned with the development of television in Australia to evolve .Standards of Practice voluntarily which will be the best that can be devised.

381. Substantially similar views were put to us by many witnesses, including 1\fr. W. Dunstan (Herald and vVeekly Times Limited), l\1:r. K. A. MacDonald (Adv€rtiser Broadcasting Network), '.Mr. S. P. P. Lamb (Newcastle Broadcasting Co. Pty. Ltd.), Mr .• J. S. Larkin (Broadcasting Station 5DN), 1\fr. A. C. Paddison (Broadcasting Station 2KA), and Mr. S. R. I. Clark (Broadcasting Station 4BK).

382. It will be observed that was placed by th€se witnesses, all of considerable experience in the field of broadcasting, on "self-regulation" operating through the force of public opinion, as an adequate force for maintaining programme standards, posit.ively as well as negatively.

383. On the other hand we wer€ urge d by a number of witnesses representing churches, educational jnstitutions, children's organizations, cultural associations and similar bodies that self-regulation by the industry of television programmes would not be an adequate means of maintaining standards. The best, in the view of these witnesses, that could be expected from self-regulation was that programm€s would not

perhaps offend against good taste, but that the very n ature of commercial operation, depending as it does upon the financial support of advertisers who must of necessity satisfy the greatest number of viewers, would make it impracticable for commercial stations to produce programmes at any higher than minimum levels. The danger, therefore, was that in producing for the majority, the responsibility of op€rators to raise the levels of public taste and the public standards would be forgotten, and the medium would be reduced to mediocrity, or wo rse. Other factors that would tend to low€r standards would be the quantity of Australian talent available (especially if long hours of entertainmen t were to be provided), and the

pressure that the high cost of television would exert to allow th€ introduction of cheap and inferior quality programmes from overseas sources. These witnesses urged that a controlling authority,. vested with

. .. -


statutory power, should be constituted with the object of setting and maintaining standards that would not only satisfy the negative requirement of preventing the televising of offensive programmes, but would also ·meet the positive requirement of raising the general cultural and educational level.

384. The submissions which are summarized in the preceding p aragraph were made by a large number of witnesses whose statements of evidence covered a wide field, and we do not therefore propose to extract from them any specimens of the arguments presented (indeed in many' cases it would be necessary to quote the whole of some lengthy statements). W e wish, however, to express our gratitude particularly

to Mr. J. L. J .. Wilson, Director of Tutorial Classes, Un iversity of Sydney; Mr. Paul Freadman; Mr. John Metcalfe, Principal Librarian, Public Library of New South vVales ; Dr. H. Penriy, Prin-cipal, A delaide Teacher's College and the representatives of the A.ustralian Council for the World Council of Churches, the Archbishop of -Melbourne's Committee on Television and the Catholic Church in Australia. It will be

evident that the issues here are in respects iU:d istinguishable f r om those we have reviewed briefly in Chapter IV.

385. In this aspect of our inquiry we paid particular attention to the practices in the United States, which is so far the only example of self-regulation in the field of television programmes . In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission, which is the licensing authority for all television stations (see Chapter VI.), is empowered to suspend licences if a licensee has transmitted" profane or obs cene words,

language or meaning", is expressly stated to have no" power of " . However, in the exercise

of its power to renew, licenGes on the basis of compliance with "public interest, convenience and necessity", the Federal Oommission takes into co nsideration the programme performance of stations

although its power to do so appears to be a matter op en to some dispute, as the somewhat voluminous literature on the subject indicates.

386. Perhaps the most 1 interesting and development in television in the United States

of AmericaJlas been the formulation and acceptance by the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (N.A.R.T.B.) of the" Television Code", or " Schedule of Operating Standards for Television Programmes in the United States of America", which was adopted on 6th December, 1951, and became effective on 1st March, 1952. This ... co de was the industry's attempt t o provide for self-regulation of the

programme matter transmitted by commercial television stations. The reasons for adopting the Code, its enforcement p:rinciples, and the philosophy behind it wer e explained at some length to t he Congr essional Committee which, in May, 1952, investigated radio and television programmes in the United States of America and to which we r efer in the succeeding paragraph. The Director of Television of the N .A.R.T.B.

told the Committee that action was t aken by the industry "because for one thing there was a sense of vmtchful waiting on behalf of Congress an d on behalf of accountable and responsible organizations; the shadow of incipient censorship by Government regulation was evident ". He also explained that the licensees of stati6hs in operation at the t ime felt " a voluntary sense of responsibility to develop and

continue, insofar as was co-operatively possible, a wholesome stature for the commercial television industry in the years to come ". - · ·

387. On 12th :May, 1952, the United States House of Repr,esentatives directed the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce to conduct an investigation to det ermine the extent to which r adio and television programmes contained immoral or otherwise offensive matter or placed improper emphasis upon crime, violence and corruption and to make r ec ommendations to eliminate offensive and undesirable

radio and television programmes, and to promote higher standar ds. The investigation was made by a sub-committee of the Coinmittee (known as the Harris Committee ) which heard evidence from representatives of various civic and religious gr oups, the radio and t elevision industry and its trade associations, the N.A.R.T.B., advertising agencies, sponsors and the Federal Communications Commission.

Approximately 1,200 communications were r eceived from the g-eneral public. The r ep ort of the sub-committee, after reviewing the nature of the evidence tendered by witnesses an d commenting upon the steps which had been taken by the television broadcast ers themselves and t he t elevision networks to exercise control over programmes for the purpose of eliminating offensive matter therefrom, contained the

following conclusions:-(a) That substantial progress had been made in the self-regulation by the industry of t elevision programmes and that su ch a course was preferable to Government enforced r egulation. It was felt that ther e were no good reasons why such controls should be im po sed before

the industry had explored firstly whether . effective self-regulation was possible. (b) That there had been programmes offer d to the public containing offensive, suggestive or objectionable material and that t he industry should give greater r ecognition to the problem with a view to taking additional corrective action.

(c) That there was entirely too much emphasis on crime programmes and that too much time was being devoted to such progr ammes . Cr ime subjects were not suitable for children's programmes or for programmes so timed that they were likely to be watched with some degree of regularity by children.


(d) 'rhat cultural and educational programmes were finding increasing favour with the public and that sponsors were becoming more interested in such programmes, and that their development would avoid the complaints advanced against comedy a,nd variety shows on the one hand, and crime shows on the other. (e) 'rhat the best assurance against improper programmes lay in the interplay between an alert

and articulate public anc1 an aler t and conscientious broadcasting industry. (f) 'rhat poor taste had been used in the a dvertising of certain licensed and regulated products which had been offensive to a large segment of the public. Immediate cognizance shou]d be taken of this problem and mt: asures adopted to correct the condition.

ln concluding its report the sub-committee st ated that Congressional study of the problems·involvcd in television and radio programming should be continued, and recommended that the investigations already should be expanded and proceeded with during ·the next · Congress. The sub-committee stated

that it believed that such studies of the relevant important complex and controversial constituted one of the best assurances that the industry's efforts at self-regulation would be alert and in the public interest.

388. The most recent discussion of the position in the United States which has come under the notice of the Commission is the dissenting opinion of Commissioner F,rieda 'B. Hennock of the Federal Communications Commission handed down in relation to the decision of the Federal Communications Commission on 23rd July, 1953, with resp ect to a Notice of Proposed Rule Making dealing with the licence period for t elevision stations. Commissioner Hennock expressed the view generally that the standards reached by television stations were not adequate; she said-

In January, 1951, the (Federal Communications) Commission, in considering renewal of licences of some 44 television broadcast stations, was sufficiently disturbed by their program performances to announce publicly that-a public conference will be scheduled, a t a date to be announced later, for the discussion

of television broadcasting problems from the point of view of the public, the Commission, and industry. ,

Approximately a year later, in 1952, the Commiss ion once again reviewed the programming record of the existing television stations. I think it f air to say that this review did not show any substantial improvement. Accordingly, the Commission found it necessary to pl ace a number of licensees on temporary licences and only renewed their licences upon receipt of assurances that the stations in fact had, or in the future would,

improve their public service programming Such time as the Commission has spent in evaluating program performance has indic ated that that performance fell substantially short of being satisfactory. 389. In Canada, while licences for a number of commercial television stations have been approved, at the date vvhen the report was being written only two such stations had commenced operation. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which, it will be recalled,_ under the Broadcast,ing Act 1936 and the Radio Act 1938, is required to make recommendations to the with respect to ('inter alia) the . renewals of

licences of commercial broadcasting stations (including television stations), and has to make r egulations with respect to the programmes of such stations, has not yet, we understand, made any regulations specifically relating to television stations. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, in 1953, promulgated new revise d regulations for sound broadcasting stations after hearings in public session in January and consultations on wording with representatives of the Canadian Association of Broadcasters and other interested parties. We were informed that the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (the industry body) expressed substantial agreement with the r evised r egutations. The Board of Go vernon of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has indicated that it proposes to "'issue regulations governing television broadcasting but wishes an opportunity to study actual television operaiions. In the interval

it is expected that television stations will oper ate within the spirit of the regulafions governing sound broadcasting. The annual review of the activities of broadcasting stations, which, under section 24 of the Broadcasting Act, is made by the Corporation and is taken into account when the renewal of licences is being considered, will also apply to television stations.

390. W e have further considered in this connexion the provisions of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 relating to the licensing of commercial broadcasting stations, to which we have already referred in Chapter VI., and the evidence dealing with the procedure and p olicy of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board in relation to renewal of licences for commercial broadcast ing . stations. As we have explained in Chapter VI., before exercising the power to r enew licences the Minister takes into consideration the reports and recommendations of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. These r eports a careful review

of the overall programme performance of the stations in the period preceding, the renewal of the licence, and are made on the basis of general standards relating, inter alia, to the programme service provided by the stations. These standards have been formulated after consultation ·with the representatives of the Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations.

391. There is no need for us to repeat here the discussion in Chapter IV. and elsewhere in this report of the impact that television will have on cultural and moral values generally, and particularly on children and adolescents. We do not suggest, as some witnesses who appeared before us have done, that this


potentiality of television justifies unnecessarily gloomy views of its possible ill-effects. We believe, on the other hand, that the right approach to television should rather emphasize the very great advantages which may· be derived from it, if adequate provision is made, not only to avoid socially undesirable features, but also to secure the maintenance of high standards of service, so that the best and not the worst results may be obtained from the new medium. This is a matter upon which we feel strongly that no risk should be taken. ,

392. As will be apparent from the evidence which has been summarized in this chapter, there are two conflicting_ viewpoints. On the one hand it is h eld that self-regulation is the most effective means of securing adequate programme standards, and on the other hand there is a strong body of opinion that some regulatory control by a statutory authority is essential to establish and maintain proper standards.

393. We feel that there i$ considerable value in industry codes as a method of self-regulation, but we , do not believe that these alone would satisfy the public. r_rhese would p erhaps be sufficient if all that is necessary is1 the prevention of undesirable features, but we believe strongly that the fundamental requirement is the securing of positive standards which will ensure that programmes are of good quality. It is obvious that to secure this result negative prescriptions are of little value. In implementing a system

of voluntary self-regulation, there are difficulties which are illustrated in the United States of America by the evidence tendered to the fiarris Committee (see paragraph 387 ) . It is n ot out of place to add, although it is obvious enough, that perhaps the most acute difficulty in effectively implementing a system of self-regulation through a voluntary association of television broadcasters is the fact that compliance with

a involving positive obligations will add to programme costs. vVhere compliance with such a code will reduce profits, the difficulties of enforcement by a voluntary association are obviously very great.

394. A1though we have not been persuaded by the argument that self-regulation will produce adequate standards, we do not think that the only alternative is that there should be detailed administrative or bureaucratic control of prognammes. , 395. vVe have been impressed by the evidence of close consultation between the Australian Federation

of Commercial Broadcasting Stations and the ... 1\.ustralian Broadcasting Control Board on all aspects of broadcasting administration and, in particular, with respect to the formulation of standards relation to programmes. '\Vhile it is, of yourse, impossible to expect that on all matters the Board and the Federation will be in agreement, we have been informed that, in all cases in which specific determinations have been

made by the Board r elating to programmes of commercial broadcasting stations (some examples of these are given in Chapter VIII.), there has been not only consultation, but agreement, between the Board and the :B'ederation. Failing agreement, it is clearly essential that there should be a reserve of authority (which we suggest will most effectively be exercised through the licensing system) which will be designed to secure that commercial programmes will, in the broadest sense, serve the public interest. \Ve feel, therefore, ·

that, on the whole, the extension to commercial television stations of the existing practices with respect to the rerulation of programmes of commercial stations affords the most effective method of

secur ing, not only that undesirable :urogra.mmes should not be broadcast, but that programmes of really g·ood quality shou ld be available from commercial television stations. It ·will, of course, be necessary to have some legislative provision, along the lines of the present provision of the Broadcasting Act relating to-the programmes of commercial broadcasting stations, to secure that prompt measures may be taken

(apart from regular reviews of station performances in the ordinary course of the administration of the licensing system) t o prevent objectionable material frc.m being transmitted.

396. We would hope and expect that the formulation of a suitable code of operating standards for programmes of commercial television stations in Australia vvould, as soon as possible after the licensing of commercial f,tati.ons has commenced, be undertaken by the r epresentatives of commercial television stations. While we do not express any opinion as to the adequacy or otherwise of the Television Code of the National Association of Radio and rrelevision Broadcasters in the United States, it is evident that much valuable

assistance can be obtained from a consideration of this interesting document. A code of this kind would be of great value as a guide, not only to th e television stations in their day-to-day arrangement and production of programmes, but also to the Board as a se t of standards to be app1ied in the consideration of recommendations for the renewal of licences of commercial television stations.

397. vVe are conscious that the discharge by the Board of t he r esp on si bilities in r espect of programme standards which we have suggested above will throw a heavy burden on a body which already has substantial functions. W e have therefore given sonie consideration to the question of whether the additional responsibilities do not call for some addition to the member ship of the Board. We have come to the conclusion that it would he desirable to strengthen the Board in this respect by the appointment, on a

part-time basis, of two additional members who should not, however. be r epresentative of any sectional interest. The function of the proposed additional members would be primarily in the fi eld of programmes and we think that they should be selected on this basis. It is apparent also that it would be most advisable to secure the maximum amount of public participation in this fi eld and we feel this might very well be achieved by the appointment of advisory committees. The functions of these committees should be to advise the Board in respect of the scope and content of particular classes of programmes, and the constitution of



the committees should depend upon the precise functions to be performed. At this stage we consider that it is probably only necessary to set up two committees, one to advise on .religious programmes and the other upon children's programmes.

398. It will be apparent from the discussion in Chapter V. that we have been concerned by the extent to which it is possible that financial and economic considerations may control the quality of television programmes, and it will be recalled that it was for this, among other reasons, that we came to the conclusion that there should be a gradual approach to the introduction of television services. This is clearly a vital matter, and decisions with respect to the quality of programmes and the number of hours of transmission will inevitably affect the financial operations of commercial television stations. Although it is a matter which has caused us considerable concern, we have come to the conclusion that the operation of commercial television services on the limited scale which we recommend for the establishment p eriod , is the only practicable method of ensuring the provision of programmes of adequate quality. We hope that commercial television stations will realize that in the programme fie ld they have not only great responsibilities, but great opportunities, and that from the outset their approach to the formulation of the code which has been discussed earlier will be with the object of securing the highest possible standards. As we have repeatedly stated throughout this report, in this respect the standards must be pitched as high as possible, if television J is to be a success.

399. \Ve believe that the obligation to ensure high standards of programmes rests on all sections of the community, and we feel that the Government should welcome, and indeed, might seek, the undoubted opportunities that exist in television to encourage the of programmes that' will set acceptable cultural standards, and will further important national objectives. The outlets provided by commercial television stations will be no less useful in this respect than those of the national service. It may be appropriate for the Government to give consideration to such means of achieving this objective as the making of financial grants to cultural bodies capable of producing programmes acceptable to the operators as well as to the viewers, and the expansion of the Film Division of the Department of the Interior for the production of films designed to further and to intensify the interest of the people in the problems,

responsibilities and functions of the Australian community. We further suggest that steps along these lines should be taken immediately so that the full weight of their influence can be felt from the commencement of the television service.


400. We were strongly urged by some witnesses that, in order to provide scope for the development of the talents of Australian artists in a manner calculated to foster our distinctive national characteristics, and as a means of preserving our national heritage and culture, a strict limitation should be placed on the quantity of programme material admitted from other countries. On the other hand, we were just as strongly pressed by other witnesses to recommend that, in order to provide an adequate supply of programme material and to allow the Australian community to have access to the cultural contributions of other countries, no restriction should be placed on the importation of programme material.

401. We were invited by the Radio and Television Writers' Guild, for example, to recommend that "the importation of filmed or kinescoped television shows from Britain and America should be rigidly controlled". The Guild maintained that local television stations would be eager to reduce production costs by importing cheap programmes while overseas programme agencies and television fihn producers would be anxious to offset their production costs by making Australia a dumping ground for obsolete films.

402. The eontrary view was expressed by the Australian Association of Advertising which stated that "in view of the difficulties in the way of securing or producing in Australia sufficient programmes of a high standard there should oe no restriction whatever upon the importation of programme material". l\1r. Nixon (President of the Association) went on to say," There is still room for the importation of a certain number of overseas programmes. I say that at the risk of putting Australian

actors and performers out of work, because I do not see how a country like Australia, so remote from the rest of the world, numerically small in population, so culturally isolated, can live wholly on its own cultural artistic sources ". 403. Another view was expressed by Mr. Ogilvy (lVIacquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd.), who said-

If we prevent overseas material from coming in, we will invite retaliation in the future: an eventual overseas market for our own programmes is de sirable, and necessary, and so we should not go beyond the bounds of reason by entirely eliminating the use of overseas at any time. what is more

important to the viewer, we should always the use of the best form of fr?m whatever

source it becomes available, both from the satisfactiOn of the set owner and to prov1de compansons for the improvement of our own standards of production. 404. The Department of Trade and Customs advised us that there were no regulations at present in force designed to cover the admission of television material, but that it would be reasonable to assume that conditions similar to those relating to the importation of films for public exhibition would be applied.

} ·. f


405. Some witnesses claimed that the objective of encouraging local talent could be achieved by placing obligation on operators to broadcast a fixed proportion of programmes of Australian

origin, whilst other witnesses express·ed the opinion that ariy fixed quota would deny to the commercial operator the degree of flexibility essential for the success of his venture.

406. We were informed by Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia that there should be a fixed quota of Australian produced programmes and that-. The quota of be appo.rtioned in. accordance with the quota percentages

lald down, but any televisiOn statwn could, If It so desired, televise a greater proportion of Australian programmes than is provided for in the applicable quota. The quota of Australian programmes should be apportioned by each station so that the quota would apply to the various ·categories of programmes such as but not necessarily limited to-dramatic, comedy, musical comedy, musical, operatic, variety educational, sporting, and programmes specially devised for ·children, in such a manner that 'the amount of

time taken up by the televising of Australian programmes by each and any television station of each and any of the fo regoing categories of programmes, would be in exactly the same ratio to non-Australian programmes of a similar category as is laid down in the particular overall quota. 407. lVIr. C. Moses (Australian Broadcasting Ccmmission) stated-

The only appropriate means of guarding against an excess ive us e of imported material is to stipulate that there shall be a minimum percentage of Australian material in all programmes (national and commercial) in much the same way as the Broadcasting Act provides that at least 2i per .cent. of music broadcast by all radio stations shall be Australian. Apart from the obvious need to prevent the flooding of Australian television }1l"ogrammes with cheap overseas films of poor quality, it is desirable, both in the interests of our artists and

writers to encourage the development of Australian drama, that all television programmes should include an appropriate minimum percentage of Australian material, whether "live" or on film . Moreover, by giving adequate opportunities to local talent, avenues would be open for the exportation of the best Australian material, on film or as telefilms, to other broadcasting organizations, thus providing an excellent outlet for

information about our country overseas which would help to develop a better understanding and appreciation of Australia. In :fixing quotas, it must he realized that if they were merely to provide that an overall percentage of programmes shall be of Australian origin, stations would be free to do little or nothing in the way of developing Australian television drama or variety, since the Australian proportion could easily be made up of sport, discussions, cookery demonstrations, &c. The intention of the quota would thus be largely

defeated. 408. Mr. Ogilvy (Macquarie Broadcasting P ty. Ltd.) expressed the view that television

stations should be recommended to broadcast a progressively increasing percentage of programmes of Australian origin, certainly not less than 25 per cent. in the developmental stage rising to higher percentages as Australian material becomes available, provided, of course, that all typ es of televised presentations are included. He did not, however, consider it wise to fix a figure by mandatory regulation.

409. We are in agreement with those witnesses vvho advanced as a basic proposition that Australian artists should play a real and steadily increasing p art in Australian television, and we believe that there is an undoubted obligation on the operators of television stations to ensure that the best use is made of Australian talent. It would not be practicable, at present, however, before any actual experience has been

gained as to the amount of t alent available or its capacity to provide a good standard of programme, for any authority to lay down quotas for the Australian content of television programmes, even i£ the principle of encouraging the employment of Australian artists by the imposition of quotas is valid. This principle is, indeed, open to question and there are some dangers that the quota system, if adopted, might

lead to a deterioration in programme standards. 410. We consider, t oo, that in respect of imported programmes, it is not feasible to determine, in the absence of actual experience, the extent to which an embargo (if any) on imports should be impos·e d, and we are of the opinion that in the early stages of the development of television in Australia it would be of

great benefit to have access to overseas programmes of high quality. (In the following sections of this chapter ·we consider the question of excluding poor quality material.) We consider, therefore, that no general embargo should, at least in the initial Gtages, be placed on the importation of programmes from other countries, but that this question should be kept under review as television develops.


411. We have r eferred in Chapter IV. to the question of censorship of television progr ammes and the evidence that we received in this connexion. We f eel that we should also make some comments on this question in this chapter insofar as censorship .may be said to relate to the standards of programmes. It seems to us that the question of censorship must be considered from two distinct aspects. First must be

considered the application of censorship to Australian-produced programmes, which will comprise both "live" productions and recorded programmes, and secondly its application to imported programmes, which will necessarily be entirely r ecorded. In the case of commercial stations, r ecorded programmes will also contain a proportion of advertising matter, and this may be either of Australian origin or imported. Any

attempt to censor Australian "live" programmes would, in our opinion, be completely impracticable and would r ender it most difficult to carry on the day-to-day business of commercial stations. Actuality broadcasts of outside events (such as cricket matches) would be deprived of the sense of immediacy, which



is one of their main attractions. ·It is, nevertheless, d esirable tha,t there should be some reserve pow-er to prevent the presentation of material where there is · reason to believe it is likely to cause offence, and this power we think must necessarily involve some modified form of censorship, to be exercised, however, only in the case of specific programmes or types of programmes. · Imported programmes would, of necessity, all ·

be recorded and we see no reason why the provisions applying to the cen.'Sorship of imported films for mo tion picture ·exhibition should not be applicable equally to snch programmes. These programmes should also be subject to the same rules as we suggest above should be applied to Australian programmes.

412. · There is one other matter to which our attention was specifically invited by Mr. J. 0. Alexander, Chief Film Censor for the Commonwealth, who advise d us that-Other than the power exereisable under the Customs Aet enabling the prohibition of and/or licensing the import of film exposed outside Australia, no constitutional power vests in the Commonwealth Parliament to legislate for-

( a) Censorship of films produced in Australia for theatrieal exhibition within the Commonwealth; (b) Classification of films for purposes of theatrical exhibition; ( c) Censorship of locally produced programme advertising matter; (d) Control of films subsequent to censorship or eorrect entry under the Customs Act. With the advent of television a peculiarly anomalous p os ition in regard to censorship generally may, and in respect of films will, arise. Assuming that censorship of all material used for purposes of television programmes is intra vires the communications powers vested in the Commonwealth Parliament, censorship of the same material for theatrical exhibition will still remain the prerogative of each individual State. As theatrical exhibition of the film has assuredly become the universal form of mass entertainment, and televised programmes will eventually become available to all in the home, and will probably in certain circumstances be extended to motion picture theatres, it is suggested that the existing divided ·Control of .censorship of films for theatrical and television purposes respectively, be rectified by transfer by the various State Governments to the Commonwealth Government of the powers .of censorship and .classifi.cation of films for theatrical exhibition, together with the power of rcensorship of all advertising matter used in connexion therewith. .Such transfer would not deprive the States of their existing powers of control of public entertainments (including film exhibition), theatres, public halls, &c., but would serve to ensure uniformity of .censorship standards, and enable control of film by the appropriate Commonwealth Authority subsequent to censorship, e.g. to order withdrawal of a film from public exhibition for further censorship should it be necessary to rectify an oversight during the initial censorship, or for other good and suffi cient reason in the public interest.

413. Although this is a matter which is perhaps not strictly within our terms of reference, we feel that it is of sufficient importance to warrant consideration by the Governments concerned.


414. We were urged by some witnesses that strict limitation should be imposed on the total number of hours daily during which television should be permitted, and also that television should not be permitted during· certain specified hours. These limitations, it was claimed, were necessitated by the shortage of programme material of suitable quality and by certain social and domestic considerations.

It was stated that the limited amount of good materia] available would necessarily limit the number of hours of operation if a reasonable standard of programmes W 'as to be maintained, and that social and domestic considerations, themselves, imposed the ne ed for limitations, irrespective of the availability of programmes.

415. \:Vitnesses who advocated that s.ome limitation of houn; was necessary included the following, listed in order of appearance :-1\'Ir. R. J·. F. Boyer, Chairman, Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Mr. N. H. Rosenthal, Director, Visual Ai ds Department, University of l\1elbourne. Dr. A. Fabinyi, Publishing Manager, F. vV. Cheshire Pty. Ltd. Rev. A. Chrichton Barr} p b t . Cl h f A t r

Rev. G. A. Beattie res Y enan mrc o· us ra 1a.

Mr. S. K. Farrell, State School Committees' Association of Victoria. Mr. A. lJ. HalL Mr. R. C. Bird. Mrs. A. Paton }'(' .,. . . C .1 f Ch'l , , F"l d '1, 1 · · B ll v 1ctonau ounc1 or 1 uren s 11 ms an e evision . . Mrs. . J:' a <: · JV[r. S. F. E. Liebert, Australian Council of School Organizations.

Mr. H. Alexander, Actors and Announcers E quity Association of Australia.

. . e IO IS urc 1 o ustra as1a-1 ew out 1 a es on erence. Hev. W. C. Francis} M tl a· t Ch l f A 1 . N S 1 W 1 C f Rev. W. J. Hobbm

Rev .. A . . Walker . . }Australian Council for the World Council of Churches. Bishop W. G. Hilliard Mr. N. Pringle, Director of Variety, Australian Broadcasting Commission. Dr. Ivi. S. Brown, New Education Fellowship, New South Wales Branch. Mr. J. Douglass, Director of Rural Broadcasts, Australian Commission.

lYir. ·1\IL B. Keogh, Australian Culture Defence Mov ement.

. 83

:Mr. L. A. Hooke, Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited. B. Ewart.

:Mrs. E. F. Byth, National Council of Women of Australia. Mr. B. Foley, National Farmers' Union of Australia . .1\ir. E. H. Pearce, 5KA Broadcasting Co mpany Limited. Rev. E. H. \Voollacott 1

Canon A. E. Kain lunited Churches Social Reform Board. Mr. S. B. Denton j

< • 761-

Rev. E. H. Woollacott 1 . • -

M S B D t J

l :Methodist Churc h of Australasia-South Australian Conference. r. .. . en on.

Dr. C. M. Davey, League of \Vomen Voters of South Australia. Mrs. D. A. Chettle \ N . . -

l\tiiss M:. lVIills JI atwnal Council of Women of South Australia.

lVIr. P. C. W. Disney, Film and Television Council of South Australia.

Rev. W. Kiek, Australian Federation of \Vomen Voters. :Mi ss 1\IL L. W auchope, Senior Lecturer, T rachers' College, Adelaide. Dr. T. L. Robertson, Director of Education, Western Australia. lVIrs. M. E. Calder } , S _ .

.1\irs. I. E. Swift Women s erviCe Gmlds of Western Australia.

1\'Ir. R. H. Featherstone, State School Teachers' Union of Western Austra:_lia, Inc. lVIr. W. D. Neal,· New Education Fellowship, Australian Federal Council. RRv. W. J. H. Aikin, Australian Religious Film Society. Archdeacon J. A. Schofield} . . . .

R T W Th

Archbishop of Committee on TeleviSIOn.

ev. . . omas ·

lVIr. V. R. Long, Education Department of Tasmania. ·

Rev. W. J. Hobbin, Child Welfare Advisory Council of New South Wales. Dr. H. S. Wyndham, Director-General of Education, New South Wales. l\1rs. T. C. Metcalfe, National Council of Women of New South Wales . . Mrs. G. Hain, Housewives' Association, Victorian Division.

Mrs. B. J. Cullen, Country Women's Association of Australia. 416. The reasons put forward by these witnesses were not necessarily the same, and, indeed, there were varying degrees of emphasis even when the witnesses were broadly in agreement as to the reasons why the restrictions on the hours of operation· of stations were necessary. We have not attempted to set out the actual views expressed by each witness, but consider that it will be sufficient if we indicate the main

arguments which were advanced, and quote views expressed by some witnesses that could be regarded as reasonably representative of the general viewpoint: 417. The main arguments advanced were that limitation of hours of operation would be in the public interest because it would prevent the degradation of quality of programmes, either through lack of finance or from lack of ideas for programme material; that it would enable the artists engaged in television to cope with production of programmes; and that it would prevent t elevision from reducing the normal

after-school activities of children such as outdoor play or the r eading of books. The main arguments advanced for a complete cessation of transmission at certain periods related primarily to children's sessions. It was submitted that a c_omplete break in transmissions was necessary to assist parents in discharging their responsibility of managing their homes and their children. It \vas claimed that television was so

engrossing that no programmes should be transmitted for a period of one or two hours after the children's programme had cen se d, to permit proper attention being given to the evening meal, to enable younger children to be put to bed without the distraction of an absorbing t elevision programme, and to give older children an opportunity to do their homework and r ead books.

418. The Australian Council for the World Conncjl of Churches expressed the view that-It is desirable to restrict the number of hours ?f television. in the interests of qualjty,

and bearing in mind the eff ect of television on the soc1al and workmg habits of the community. For the first year it is suggested that two hours of television in the afternoon and two hours in the evening should be the maximum for any one channel. The practice of the British Broadcasting Corporation in le::t ving the hours between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. in general free ?f television be -carefully considered during the period when

television is being introduced into Austraha. Any prov1s1on of programme during these hours should be for the purpose of enriching family life and cultivating better parent-ch ild relationships. More particularly, th e careful supervision of what limited material may be broadcast during those hours is to the advantage of children and assists their parents at an hour when most of them are preparing to go to bed, or engaged in their

home lessons. 419. Dr. H. S. Wyndham, Director-Gen eral of Education for New South Wales, said-I am of the opinion that there should be a sp ecific 1imit:ltion upon the duration of children's television sessions out of school hours. The precise hours wi1l obviously be a matter of debate in the light of the

variations in domestic arrangements but I am of the opinion that such sessions should not commence be fore 5 p.m. and be limited, in total, to one hour. I consider, too, that television sessions of any kind should not be resumed till 8 p.m.


420. We were informed by the Country Women's Association of Australia that a confer ence, representative of the six States of the Commonwealth, had decided that programmes should be restricted to certain hours and that children's programmes should be shown at suitable times. Mrs. B. Cullen, representing the Association, said-

We recommend restricted hours and one of the hours we thought was a bad time was the smaller children's bed time, or around about 6 p.m. . . . We do not approve of television between the hours of

6 p.m. and 8 p.m. : most ·children-those you still call real children-would be going to bed between those hours. 421. Mrs. Thelma Metcalfe, President of the National Council of Women of New South Wales, expressed the following views :-

Under the British Broadcasting Corporation system, 30 hours per week is provided and this is considered the maximum time that can be filled with mate rial of reason ably good quality with the resources available. When television is introduced in Australia hours of view ing should be limited and there should be no television broadcasts between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. Special times should be set aside for children's

programmes, between 5 p.m. and 6 p.m. 422. We were told by Mr. N. Rosenthal that, because the qualitative control of programmes was so difficult, quantitative limitation might be required in the early p eriod. 423. Some of the representatives of t he Churches who appeared before us also, claimed that certain -'' times on Sundays should be reserved for Christian education and public worship, and that the times set aside for education should be outside the established hours of public worship. We refer to this in paragraph 476 in Chapter VIII.

424. On the other hand some witnesses informed us that any limitation on the number of hours per day during which commercial television stations would be permitted to transmit programmes would impose unnecessary restrictions on the activities of the stations and would make it extremely difficult for them t o operate profitably, and that this, in turn, would react detrimentally on the standards of programmes that . they would be able to provide. J[lexibility of operation was essential if operators were to be able to bring to

their viewers programmes including, for example, such outstanding events as Test Cricket or Davis Cup tennis at the time the events were taking place. It would ther efore be impracticable· to lay down any specific hours during which these stations must not transmit programmes. It was also claimed that unless an adequate number of hours of programmes was provided, the sale of r eceivers would be adversely affected. 'l'he witnesses who expressed these views included the following, listed in order of appearance:-

Mr. N. V. Nixon, Australian Association of Advertising Agencies. Mr. W. J . Cudlipp, Australian Association of National Advertisers. Mr. W. Dunstan, The Herald and W eekly Times Limited, Melbourne. Sir Ernest Fisk. Mr. C. G. Scrimgeour, Associated TV Pty. Ltd. Mr. H. E. Beaver, Australian F ederation of Commercial Stations.

Sir John Butters, Associated Newspapers Limited and Radio 2UE (Sydney) Pty.1 Ltd. Mr. J. E. Ridley, Country Broadcasting Services Limited. Mr. S. R.I. Clark, Queensland Newspapers Pty. Ltd. Mr. E. Oliver. Mr. L. J . Sanders, Sanders Chemical Limited. Mr. K. A. McDonald, Advertiser Newspapers Limited. Mr. L. R. Coleman, J. Walter Thompson Aust. Pty. Ltd. Mr. C. Ogilvy, Macquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd. Mr. K. S. Brown, Standard Telephones and Cables Pty. Ltd. 425. Ther e was some evidence in favour of establishing a minimum number of hours of operation during which commercial stations should be obliged to transmit programmes, but in general the witnesses who expressed this view claimed that there should be no upper limit, but that this should be left to the discretion of the operators.

426. Mr. H. E. Beaver (Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations) said that­ The Federation's view is that there is no case for arbitrary limitations, but that the position can safely be left to find its own level. Obviously, in the beginning the operators of television stations will wish to transmit for only a very limited number of hours per day. However, it is important that the position should be

flexible so that as additional programme material of suitable qu ality becomes available, the industry may be able to expand its operations in the public interest, without being impeded by arbitrary restraints. 427. Mr. W. Dunstan said-Our company that there should be in hours for television

'of public requirements w1ll soon set stand.ards. It l S recogmzed that quahty 1s a most m;portant consideration and high standards w1ll be desuable from the start to attract new v1e wers, expand the mdustry and make balanced operational budgets po ssible. 428. Mr. K. S. Brown stated-

I think the mo st important thing is that there should be a reasonable number of programme hours per week in any location. An abbreviated period of televi sion transmission each week is not going to be conducive to persuade the public to invest in receivers.

7 -' 3


429. Mr. Ogilvy said-I do not think it is realistic to attempt to set up any arbitrary limits, save only that of a mtmm1tm period of transmission . . . I suggest, therefore, that apart from fixing a minimum period of transmission, no attempt sho.uld be made to regulate the number of hours by mandatory authority.

430. This view was also put forward by Mr. S. R. I. Clark and others. Mr. Clark said: "Would it not be abetter plan if the Television Authority fixed a reasonable minimum and not a maximum number of transmission hours per week as a condition to the granting of a licence 1 We believe that any statutory regulation covering anything but a minimum service would hamper the industry's development and foster irresponsibility.". Mr. Clark also said that "the patterns of Australian daily life would naturally have to be considered in planning transmission schedules, but why not encourage the television operators who will have studied the habits of their own communities to take them into account 1 No common time schedule of a blanlcet nature would suit all localities in the Commonwealth.".

431. It was pointed out to us by the representatives of commercial interests that it would be necessary for some stations to maintain constant transmission, at least duriilg normal working hours, to assist in the sale and maintenance of sets. Mr. Clark said: "We would like to bring to the notice of this Commission the necessity for transmission of some kind to take place during daylight hours, whether

they · be picture frames or otherwise: any station not being allowed to send a signal out during the daytime hours would make it impossible for people to install r eceivers in the home or service the receiver. We must have a signal, as any adjustments of the receiver must be made on an actual transmission.". 432.* We have noted the practices in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Canada, and whilst we agree that there is much to be said for the limited number of hours and the compulsory breaks in transmissions such as apply in the United Kingdom, we are of the opinion that these would not necessarily be equally applicable to Australian conditions. We have come to the conclusion that, although in the initial stages the availability of programme material will, of itself, impose restrictions on the number of hours of operation, it. would be undesirable to endeavour, at this stage, to lay down any hard and

rules as to the actual hours during which stations should operate. We feel that in this matter flexibility is essential and that the actual hours of operation must be determined by experience and in the light of the considerations put before us by the witnesses whose views we have summarized above.

• ·See supplementary observation No.1, by the Chairman and Mrs. Foxton.






433. We were asked by paragraph (e) of our terms of reference to report on " any conditions which may be considered desirable to apply to the television broadcasting of-( i) political and controversial matter and issues; (ii) religious services and other religious matters;

(iii) advertisements." These are all matters which are clearly of great importance in relation to the programmes of television stations and have given rise to special problems in the field of broadcasting. We proceed to consider them separately in this chapter.


434. The broadcasting of political and controversial matter and issues is a subject to which considerable attention has been given in all English-speaking democracies since the inception of broadcasting, and the general attitude to the question is, as might be expected, one of concern that this medium of mass communication should be used fairly for the dissemination of differing opinions on such questions. The Broadcasting Committee in Great Britain (the Ullswater Committee) in 1935 ( Cmd. 5091), · expressed this view in the following terms :-

The control of political broad.casting is one of the most difficult and important problems which the advent of "wireless" has created. It is obvious that a medium whereby expressions of political opinion can be b:rought into seven or eight million homes needs very careful safeguarding if it is not to be abused. It would be possible for those in control of broadcasting to maintain a steady stream of propaganda on behalf of one political party or of one school of thought. They could to some extent make or mar the reputations of politicians, and by a judicious selection of news items and the method of their presentation they could influence the whole political thought of the country.

In the United States, the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission stated in 1941-The prospective radio speaker is not a publisher who can always find a printing press and run off a few extra pages ; radio channels are limited and broadcast time cannot be stretched beyond twenty-four hours a day. If printing p1'esses were few and their output severely limited, a democratic society surely could no t allow the small group of owners unlimited discretion as to what is and vvhat is not printed. The opinion market would be cornered and the public deprived of the com petition in ideas so necessary for government by the people.

In Canada, the statement of policy issued by the Board of Governors of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation on political and controversial broadcasting on 27th May, 1953 (adopting the words used in previous statements) said that its policy was based on the following prinCiples:-(1) The air belongs to the people, who are entitled to hear the principal points of view on all

questions of importance. (2) The air must not fall under the control of any individuals or groups influerttial by reason of their wealth or special position. (3) The right to answer is inherent in the democratic doctrine o£ £ree speech. ( 4) Freedom of speech and the full interchange of opinion are among the principal safeguards

of free institutions.

In Australia, the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Broadcasting (the Gibson Committee) in 1942 said-The broadcasting of politieal talks is a matter of vital concern to the community. At election times, particularly, the necessity for a reasonable discretion and control of the use of this important medium for

the creation and influencing of public opinion is obvious. 435. The introduction of television will provide a new medium of mass communication and, although there are many differences between sound broadcasting and television, it is useful to review the legislation and practices of English-speaking countries in the field of political and controversial broadcasts as a preliminary to our consideration of the difficult question of the conditions which should be applied to the televising of such matter. In the succeeding paragraphs, we give a brief summary of the legislation and practices in Great Britain, the United States and Canada.

436. Great Britain.-The charter and licence granted from time to time to the British Broadcasting Corporation by the Postmaster-General have imposed no obligations on the Corporation in respect of the broadcasting or televising of political or controversial matter, except that the current licence granted· by the Postmaster-General in 1952 provides that the Corporation shall broadcast an impartial day-by-day account of the proceedings of Parliament. Consideration has been given to the subject by Parliamentary Committees which have from time to time reviewed the activities of the Corporation. In 1935, the Ullswater Committee in its report ( Cmd. 5091) made the following observations:-

Controversy.-We think it important that controversial topics should continue to be If

bro Pdca eting is to present a reflection of its time, it must include matters which are in dispu te. If it is to hold public interest, it must express living thought. If it is to educate public opinion, it must look upon the questions of the hour froni many angles.



In our opinion the B.B.C. has exercised the responsibility confided to it with outstanding independence and has hand.led the pr?blems of presentation with wisdom. In the trust that this policy will continue, we make n?· except with to political broadcasting, but would leave to the B.B.C. the

respons1b1hty choos1ng speakers and subJects, ensuring any necessary consultation, preserving an impartial and representative balance, and arranging that controversial opinions are expressed in a proper context. recommendati.ons with r eference to br-oadcasting during a General Election campaign will be

found m the tw? .succeedm.g paragraphs. At other times, though 1ve are far from implying that all broadcast treatment -of poht1eal questwns should be controlled by the political party organizations, we recommend that on the major political issues of the day there should be dose co-operation and consultation between the B.B.C. and the authorized spokesmen of the recognized political parties. The B.B.C. m ust, of course, continue

to be the judge of the amount of political broadcasting which the programme will stand, and while recognizing in the allotment of time, according to current Parliamentary practice, the preponderating position of the main political parties, should allow adequate expression to minority views, however unpopular. For the conduct of political broadcasting during a General Election campaign, the B.B.C. should, we consider, first offer for election speeches such time as may seem appropriate. The a1location of this time

between the Government, the official Opposition and other parties should then be arranged by agreement between them, in default of whieh the Speaker of the House of Commons might perhaps be asked to make an arbitral decision. The broadcaster who has the last word during an electoral contest is in a position of great advantage, because there can be no adequate reply to, whatever he m ay say. In the fear that this advantage might be

unfairly used in the production of a sm·prise issue at the last moment, it has been suggested to us that all political broadcasting should cease for three days before the Poll. There is force in the suggestion; the General Election of 1935 has shown it to be practicable; and ·we recommend its adoption.

437. 'rhe r ecommendations of the Ullswater Committee were substantially adopted, and in a stat ement which the B.B.C. submitted to a later committee (the Beveridge Committee, 1949) it explained its practices in regard to controversial and political fields in the following terms:-Controversy.-The Corporation has always been under the obligation to refrain from broadcasting its own opinions by way of editorial comment upon current a.Jfairs. The broadcasting -of controver sial matter was

at first. not allowed but was admitted in March, 1928, since when the area of controv,ersy has been gradually widened. The development of controversial broadcasting was approved and encouraged by the Ullswater . Committee, who commended the Corporation's policy, at the same time underlining the importance -of its trust to preserve an impartial and representative balance of opinion. During the war, the nation's single­ minded pursuit of victory, as reflected in the party truce and in the virtually undisputed acceptance of the

National Government'.s policies, left little scope or justification for controversial broadcasting, though ,occasion was found for the airing of opposing views on the future of India, in lYiay, 1942, and on other, for the most part r elatively minor, issues from time to time. With the end of the war and the return to party government, the normal processes of debate were resumed in the country, and the Corporation embarked on a policy designed

to promote the free expression of opinion at the micro phone over a wider field and in more vigorous forms than ever before. Political Broadcasting.-Politics are bound to figure prominently in controversial broadcasting and the Corporation is free to arrange talks, debates, and discussion s on political topics as well as ·On other matters. In this fi eld however a special responsibility is laid upon the B.B.C. Broadcasting has become a recognized medium for' of n ational importance by Ministers of. !he During Election

campaigns, and at other times, br·oadcasts by spokes:nen of the poht1cal parties have a d1r ect on

the casting of votes by the electorate. In the r egulatwn. of all such broadcasts,. t?e . co-operation an.d consultation has al"wavs been so ught with the authonzed spokesmen of the pohtwal part1es of the day. Th1s course was enjoined upon the Corporation by the Ullswater Committee (Report, paragraph 92). After the late war, the whole -of political broadcasting was accordingly r ev iewed consultat ion between the leaders ?f

the three principal parties and the B.B.C. As a result, a cornprehensrve agreement was reached, the mam purport of which can be briefly stated-( a) In view of their for care of na.tion, the should be able to

use the wireless from t1me to time for Mm1ster1al broadcasts whwh, for example, are purely factual, . or explanatory of legislation or. administrative policie.s a ppro;e.d by · Parliament; or m the nature of appeals to the nat10n to co-operate m nat10 nal poliCies. (b) A limited number of controversial party political broadcasts is allocated to the leading parties

in accordance with their polls at the last General Election. (The number agreed upon for the pres-ent year is 12, divided as to Government 6, Conservative Opposition 5, Liberal Opposition 1). The of the broadcasts the speakers are cho sen by parties

and either side is free, 1f 1t w1shes, to use one of 1ts quota for the purpose of replymg to a previous broadcast. The reserves the right,, after consultation the

leaders, to invite to the m1erophone a member of either Rouse of outstandmg natwnal eminence who may have become detached from any party. (c) Apart from these limited broadcasts on major policy, the B.B.C. is free to invite members of either House to take part in controversial broadcasts of a round-table char acter, in which

political questions are dealt with. (d) N 0 discussions or statements may be broadcast on any issue which is within a fortnight of debate in either House . 1\IJ:embers of Parliament may not be used in discu s:;; ions on m atters while they are the subject of legislation. The arrangBments .as outlined above take account of the fact that it has long been the practice of the B.B.O. to invite the Chancellor of the Exchequer t? broadca.'3t .about his Budget after presenting it · to Parliament and to arrange for an Opposition reply; procedure 1s by the ag!·eement. The party

political broadcasts referred to in (b) above started m March, 1947. The obJect of (d) 1s to ensu re that the


B.B.O. at no time becomes an alternative simultaneous debating forum to P arliament. Within the terms of (c) there has been a wide range of on political topics arr:mged by the B.B.q. in the 1:ormal course of its programmes, in which Members of Parhamei;t and others have taken l_)art. It 1s recogmzed .the . appearance of a Men:;ber. of Parliamen.t the miCrophone, the subJect of the ?roadcast be poht1cal

or non-political, may mev1tably carry w1th 1t !1 of for. th.e party to whiCh he belongs. The

Corporation therefore takes steps to ensure, m the mterests of 1mpart1ahty, the appearances of of in any type of broadcast are regulated broadly oYer quarterly penods so as to accord w1th the

party ratio adopted for the party political broadcasts. Gene1·al Election Broadcasts.-The procedure adopted for political broadcasting during General Election periods has been in accordance with the recommendations of the Ullswater Committee-" that during a General Election campaign the time available for political speakers should be

allotted by agreement between the parties (paragraph 93) and that all political broadcasting should cease three days before the Poll (paragraph 94) ". (Summary of recommendations.) The time allotted for election addresses before the war varied according to circumstances but did not exceed some dozen periods in all on any one occasion (there are normally only seYenteen days, exclusiYe of Sundays and public holidays, between Dissolution and Polling Day). In 1945, however; it was de cided, because of the long interYal since the last election, that more time should be allowed. The Diss olution was announced in advance and it was agreed t,hat the General Election broadcasts should cover the period from the announcement . of Dissolution to Polling Day. Provision was made accordingly for twenty-four broadcasts to be giYen by the

spokesmen of the three main parties. The allocation was agreed upon between the parties, as followF :-Government 10

Official Opposition (Labour) 10

Liberal Opposition 4


These broadcasts were given after the 9 p.m. News. In addition, it was arranged in adY ::mce that minority parties would qualify for a broadcast if on N omiantion Day they had mo r e than twenty cRndidates in the Two parties, Commonwealth and Communist, qualified under this arrangement and one broadcast was allotted to each after the 6 p.m. News. All these broadcasts were included in overseas transmissions for the benefit of men and women serYing in the Forces. They are known to have been heard by very large audiences in the home country.

The Beveridge Committee in its report appears to have approved generally of the principles and practices of the B.B.C. in this field, although it made some specific recommendations designed to provide greater opportunities for political broadcasting. The Government, in a White Paper published in 1952 (Cmd. 8550), stated that it proposed "to discuss the BroadcaP,ting Committee's recommendations about political broadcasting with the Opposition and the B.B.C.", but we are unaware of the outcome of these discussions.

438. Canada.-As stated in Chapter II., the Canadian Broadcasting Act 1036 confers upon the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation specific powers relating to the control of broadcasting in the Dominion. With respect to the broadcasting of political matter, section 22 of the Act provides that the Corporation may make regulations "to prescribe the proportioJJs of t ime which may be devoted to political broadcasts by the stations of the Corporation and by private stations and to assign such time on an equitable basis to all parties and rival ,candidates". Pursuant to this requirement the Corporation has made the following regulation:-

Each station shall allocate time for political broadcasts as fairly as possible among all parties and candidates desiring to purchase or obtain_time for such broadcasts.

There is a number of other provisions with respect to political broadcasting, including in particular the prohibition of dramatized political broadcasts, which, according to the Corporation, "is held to prohibit all political broadcasts incorporating any device which could be considered theatrical, and to declare that political broadcasting must be restricted to strictly political addresses and announcements".

439. In a statement of policy issued by the Board of Governors of the Canadian Corporat"ion on May 27, 1953, which was in similar terms to previous statements, it was indicated that a general plan had been instituted to cover party political broadcasting. This plan includes the provision of network time free of charge to recognized political parties during elections with the objective of providing all parties with the opportunity of speaking to a wide public, irrespective of their capacity to buy time, plus a limited amount of free network time to recognized party leaders or their representatives in the periods between elections. In addition to free net-work time, provision is made for the purchase of time on privately owned stations under such control as will ensure an equitable division of such purchased time and (as stated by the Corporation) secure the public against an excessive amount of political broadcasting to the exclusion of entertainment and other normal programme material. The national networks, on which facilities are provided free to the parties, comprise both stations operated by the Corporation and private stations affiliated with a national network. In addition, other privately owned stations are invited to carry the national broadcasts without charge and on the condition that the broadcasts of all political parties are undertaken.



440. The Cor p orat ion has determined t hat the p r ivilege of free network time for political broadcasting will be granted t o bona fide parties which are national in extent and which r efl ect a substantial body of opinion throughoi-lt the country. vVhile it was thought impossible t o lay down an exact definition , it was suggest ed that such a party would meet all the following requirements:-

(a) Have policies on a wide range of national issues; (b) Have a recognized national leader; ( c) Have a nation-wide organization established as the result of a national conference or convention ; ( d ) Have representation in the House of Commons; ( e) Seek the election of candidates in at least three of the provinces and p ut int o the :field a

minimum number of 66 ·officially nominated candidates (appr oximately one for every f our constituencies).

Time is distributed on the basis that an adequate amount of free time will be set aside on the national networks t o p rovide for adequate presentation of the policies of the national political parties involved. The parties will be asked to agree mutually on the division of the time. Free network time will also be allotted to · parties with no representation in the House of Commons if at nomination day they have provided definite

evidence of meeting the other provisions outlined in the previous paragraph. To new national political parties the Corporation will allot an amount of free national network time t o bring to listeners an adequate presentation of the party's programme and policies. The t ime so allotted will be over and above the amount given to the existing national political parties. Individual p r ivately owned stations are at liber ty to sell time t o p olitical candidates and parties for single station broadcasts either at or between election campaigns, subject to t he requirements of the regulations referred to previously, and subsidiary network broadcasts within provinces are permitted.

441. United States of America.-The broadcasting of political matter in the United States of America is governed by section 315 of the Communications Act 1934 (as amended) which as follows:-(a ) I f any licensee shall permit any person who is a legally qualifie d candidate for any public offi ce to

use a broadca3ting station, he shall afford e(lual opportuni6es to all other such candidates for that office in the use of such broadcasting station : provided, that such licensee shall have no power of censorship ove r the material broadcast under the provision of this section. No obligation is hereby imposed upon any licensee to allow the use of its station by any such candidate.

(b) T he charges made for the use of imy broadcasting station fo r any of the purposes set forth in this Eection 8hal1 no t exceed the char[!es made for comparable use of such station 'fo r other purposes. ( c) The Commission shall prescribe appropriate rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this section.

The F eder al Communications Commission has promulgated rules governing broadcasts by candidates for public office. In general, the r ules elaborate but do not add to the provisions of the Communications Act referred to above. Summary.

442. The in these three great English-sp eaking democracies may, it seems, be briefly

summarized as f ollows :-(a) I n Great Britain, the responsibility f or arranging political and controver sial broadcasts is left t o the discretion of the British Broadcasting Corpor ation, which confers with the Government and Opposition parties in the P arliament in connexion with arrangements for

p olitical broadcasts. (b) In Canada, statutory authority to regulate political broadcasts is vest ed in the Canadian B roadcasting Corporation, which, in conference with the ma j or parties, allocates time f or political broadcasts over its own stations and provides by regulation that each

p r ivat ely operated station shall allocate as fairly as possible time for p olitical br oadcasts among all parties and candidates desiring to purchase or obtain time for such broadcasts ". (c) I n the United States, where ail stations operate under licence from the F eder al

Communications Commission, each licensee is r equired by statut e to "afford equal opportunities" to all legally qualified candidates for public office, if he permits any such candidate t o broadcast.


443. Great B ritain.-The arrangements whereby the British Broadcasting Corporation confers with the main par ties in regard to the allocation of time for political broadcasts is appar ently being applied also t o the television service. I n its annual r ep ort for the year 1952-53 ( Cmd. 8928) t he Cor por ation reported that " under the agreement r eached between the main political parties and the B .B .C. on t he use to be made of television for party political broadcasting during the year beginning 1st April, 1953, the

Conservative P art y an d tbe Labour P arty will each have two t elevisio n br oa dcasts, and in addition each will have the right to t ake two from its existing quota of sound broadcasts as t elevision broadcasts. The Liberal


Party will have the right to take its one broadcast on sound or television or on both simultaneously. Ministers of the Crown broadcast during the year on a number of matters of national importance. 'fhe nse which might be made of television for this type of br oadcast was still under consideration at the end of the broadcasting year".

444. Canada.-We have ascertained from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation that in the field of television no special regulations have yet been promulgated to cover the transmission of political matter. Operations by privately owned stations did not begin until October, 1953, and the Corporation television stations have functioned within the spirit of the regulations governing broadcasting stations. During the general elections the political parties in Canada agreed mutually not to use t elevision. The

Corporation indicated that, in consequence, "ther-e has not been any experience to judge the modifications of interpretation which will be required for television to gi-ve effect to the statutory prohibition of dramatized political broadcasting".

445. United Sta.tes of Ame:;"ica.-'fhe same provisions apply to political tel-ecasts as to political broadcasts (see paragraph 441). Although -vve are a ware from the press and from broadcasting industry publications that there has been much discussion of the extent to which t elevision was used for political purposes in the presidential elections of 1952 (includi11g the previous televising of the party Conventions), and of the r emarkable which was aroused by the televising of certain political addresses, the

information available to us was incomplete. 1\fr. IJ. C. Webb, Reader in Political Science, Australian National University, however, gave us a valuable review of the available evidence, which, among other things, appeared to demonstrate the extraordinary quality of television as a medium of political education af.: well as propaganda.


446. The provisions of the B roadcast'ing A ct 1942-1953 relating to th-e broadcasting of political and controversial matter are contained partly in section 89 and partly in section 6K (2.); Section 89 provides as follows :-(1.) .Subject only to this section, the f Australian Broadcasting] Commission may determine to what

extent and in what manner political speeches or any matter relating to a political or controvershl subject may be broadcast from national broadcasting stations, and, subject only to this section and to Part I A. of this A·ct, the licensee of a eommercial broadcasting station may arrange for the ·broadcasting of such speeches or matter from that station.

('2.) The Commission or the licensee of a broadcasting station shall not, at any time prior to the close of the poll on the day on which ·any election for the Parliament of the Commonwealth or a State or for any House of any such Parliament or for any vacancy in any such House is held, or at any time on either of the two days immediately preceding that day, broadcast, in whole or in part, any speech or matter-

( a) ·commenting on, or soliciting votes for, any candidate at the election; (b) commenting on, or advocating support of, any political party to which any candidate at the election belongs ; · (c) commenting upon, stating or indicating any of the issues being submitted to the relectors at the

election or any -part of the policy of any ·candidate at the election or of the political party to which he belongs ; or (d) referring to any meeting held in conne xion with the election. ( 3.) Neither the Commission nor the licensee of a commercial broadcasting station shall broadcast any dramatization of any political matter which is then current or was current at any time during the last five preceding years. Section 6K (2.) (which is the provision in Part IA referred to in section 89) enacts that the Australian Broadcasting Control Board shall, inter alia, "ensure that facilities are provided on an equitable basis for the broadcasting of political and controversial matter". (This provision, it will be observed, does not apply to the national broadcasting service.)


447. The Australian Broadcasting Commission has since its establishment in 1932 always had complete discretion in respect of the broadcasting of political and controversial matter, and the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Broadcasting (the Gibson Committee 1941) expressed the view that in the national broadcasting service the aim of "guaranteeing a degree of impartiality to everybody" had bee11

generally achieved in connexion with political broadcasts. The Committee stated in its report that the syst em adopted in the allocation of time for the broadcasts of policy speeches and party leaders' addresses preceding elections was as follows :-(a) The A.B. C. re,cognizes parties already established in Parliament, but not aspiring parties which

have not wo n representation in Parliament. (b) The fa cilities are the same for all parties so recognized. (c) The order of time is-( i) the Leader of the Government,

(ii) the Leader of the Opposition, and (iii) other recognized parties as arranged between themselves, or, failing agreement between them, by lot.



(d) In the -case of Federal elections, the follow ing rules apply:-(i) The broadcasts by the leaders of the recognized parties or their nominees to open a campaign . are nation-wide and must not exceed one hour each. (ii) The said leaders or their nominees are each allowed an intermediate State-wide broadcast in

each State not 30 minutes or, alternatively, two such broadcasts not exceeding

££teen minutes each. (iii) In addition, the said leaders or their nominees are each allowed one closing broadcast not exceeding 30 minutes. . .

(e) In the case of State elections, the leaders of recognized parties or their nominees are each allowed a State-wide broadcast of one hour for their policy speech and a State-wide broadcast of 30 minutes for a concluding address. rrhe Committee expressed its agreement with this policy. Vl e understand that it is still being substantially followed by the Commission, but that on some occasions the Commission has allo.cated time to minority

parties not represented in Parliament. During the 1951 Federal Election Campaign, the Commission allocated eight hours for political broadcasts on a network of National stations. The time was divided equally between the two Government parties and the Opposit ion, six hours being devoted to the initial policy speeches of the party leaders and othrr addresses on simultaneous national relay throughout the Commonwealth, and two hours to broadcasts on State relay, which took place at different times in the various States.

448. Unless. action is taken by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board to " ensure equitable facilities" as provided in section 6K (2. ) of the Act, under section 89, licensees of commercial broadcasting stations are subject to no restrictions or requirements in respect of the allocation of time for the broadcasting of political and controversial matter. The Gibson Committ ee reported in 1942 that-

Most commercial stations sell time to political parties on equal terms, hut where time is purchased or where political parties own and -control broadcasting licences there is inequality of opportunity for the inculcation of party views during the election period, and control of the manner and method of broadcasting has been practically non-existent, and recommended that-

The commercial stations be required by legislation to adopt the same practice as has been recommended for the national service; and that where time for the broadcasts is sold a.n equitable arrangement be evolved by the proposed Parliamentary Standing Committee. The Parliamentary Standing Committ ee on Broadcasting was established in 1942 and in its second report to (1943) it recommended that r egulations should be made to require commercial

broadcasting stations-( a) To observe the same policy as may be adopted by the A.B.C. according to the .circumstances prevailing at the tim e, in regard to the recognition of parties . . (b) To sell time, at the card rates in operation not less than three months before the election, to any such recognized party or individual desiring to broadc as t on behalf of such party, provided that-

(i) The card rates for political broadcasts shall not exceed those charged by the station concerned for talks of other types; ( ii) Equal opportunity shall be afforded to all such recognized parties at the outset; (iii) The broadcast shall be preceded by an announcement of the name of the party on whose

behalf it is made; (iv) The Federation shall supply to the Postmaster-General's Department a of the rate card for each station, and any alterations to it from time to time, so that it may be available for inspection on application and so that the Department may institute any check found to be


449. No action was taken on this recommendation, but when the Broadcasting Act 1942-1946 walj amended in 1948 to provide for the establishment of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, it was prescribed that the Board, as mentioned above, should "ensure that facilities are provided on an equitable basis for the broadcasting of political and controversial matter". The Board was established in 1\larch, 1949 and in relation to the Federal Election of 1949, it. mad€ an order under section 6K (2.), the objectives

' of which were summarized in evidence as follows:-(a) that all commercial broadcast ing Bta tions should broadcast such of the addresses of the leaders of the political parties as wer e broadcast on interstate relay by the Australian Broadcasting Commission ; (b) that, in any case where a commercial broadcasting station broadcast political matter during

the election period, the time avail able for such broadcasts should be allocate.d on a basis which would afford fair and r easonable opportunities to parties and candidates (c) that there should be no discr iminR. tion between parties in respect of charges and tht> provision of facilities. 450. This order received a hostile r eception in the press and in P arliament, where an adjournment motion was moved in the House of Repre.<;entatives on 28th Sept ember , 1949, to discuss the matter (s ee Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, volume 203, pages 643-659). It was quite clear from t he that it was not the desire of Parliament, either House of which has power to any order made by the Board, that the provisions of the order should be applied to the br oadcasting of political matter during the

eleCtion pedod. The Board, therefore, on 6th October , 1949, made a further order repealing all the


provisions of the original order, except thos-e which required licensees of comm-ercial broadcasting stations to refrain from discriminating between parties and candidates in r espect of charges and to submit r-eturns to the Board r-elating to political broadcasts during the campaign. The Board has not, since 1949, attempt-ed to exercise the powers conferred by this p r ovision in thB Broadcasting Act.

-451. We do not wish to mak-e any observations on this niatter, which we have noted is discussed at considerabl-e length in the Second Annual Report of the Board, other than to draw attention to the fact that the Board has requested Parliament to review the provisions of section 6K (2.) quoted above, and has si1ggested that Parliament itself should .enact such provisions as it thinks appropriate for the regulation of political broadcasts.

452. The evidence we have received both from officers of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and from commercial broadcasters would appear t o indicate that, in spite of the fact that no legal requirement has been imposed on commercial broadcasting st ations in respect of the allocation of time for political broadcasts, they may be fairly said to have substantially complied with the spirit of the Act. The pr incipal exceptions have apparently been in the case of stations for which the licences are held on behalf of p olitical parties. In view of the importance of this matter we s-et out in Appendix C the valuable statistical information supplied to us by t he Board.


453. It is evident from the information which -vve hav-e se t out above concerning the legislation and pr actices of Great Britain, Canada, the United States and Australia, that persist-ent efforts have been made in all these countries to ensure that political matter is broadcast in accordance with democratic principles, and we have carefully considered to what extent there is justification for applying comparable conditions to the televising of political matter. There are many points of differenc-e betw-een broadcasting and · television, but they both provide means whereby information may be conveyed to great numbers of people

in their homes, and their capacity to influence opinions is very great. '\Ve have in Chapter IV. referred to the f act that t elevision possesses a greater appeal than either broadcasting or th-e printing press and its possibilities as a medium for- propaganda wo.uld seem to be considerable. It therefore appears to us prudent that, at least until some practical knowledge is acquired of the operation of television in this country, n o less effective .safeguards should be applied to television stations than hav-e been found necessary in the case of broadcasting stations. The information contained in paragraphs 443-5 suggest that this course is being f ollo,:x1ed in the television s-ervices of Great Britain, the United States and Canada.

454. This question was referred to in evid-ence given to us by Mr. R. J. F. Boyer, Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, who said-Whatever be the differences as behveen sound b1·oadcasting and television as technical media, it is clear that their controversial and political responsibilities are in the same dimension, but the impa-ct of television is likely to be much more pronounced. Television, indeed, will undoubtedly prove more politically and controversially potent than sound broadcasting. The swing of a camera may have political implications quite as potent as, for example, the choice of a news item or the subject of a commentary. If our experience in Australia to date can be taken as any guide, it is obvious that similar political and controversial safeguards should be atta-ched to a national television service as had been developed under a radio service. In my view, the present legislative conditions which apply to the national radio servire in respect of political and religious safeguards, can_ be regarded as adequate. Further, they should be applied without diminution to a national television service. The fact that the present legislation has grown out of our indigenous Australian conditions and temper, through trial and error and after extensive parliamentary scrutiny, should indicate, I suggest, that it would be unwise to vary them in any notable degree. We would add t o Mr. Boyer's assessment only the consideration that, at the time of our inquiry, it was impossible to expect that ther-e would be any conclusive evidence of the actual effect of television as a politicaJ medium : all that is known (and that mainly from exp-erience in United States of Am-erica) is that it is very powerful, although the t -echniques are still to be perfected.

455. These con:nderations seem to support the general conclusion we have reached that the practices followed in Australia at present in regard to the allocation of facilities for political broadcasts, to which we have referred in paragraphs 447-52 should, at least in principle, be followed in the television services. We have com e to this conclusion, notwithstanding that, in the early years of television there may be only a few commercial stations, and in consequence there may be only a very limited time available for political television and the cost will be very high. These considerations may have implications which do not arise in sound broadcasting with its multiplicity of stations but these, we feel, will have to be considered in the light of experience.


456. We have explained in previous paragraphs that under section 89 of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 the Australian Broadcasting Commission has complete independence in the field of political broadcasts. The Gibson Committee ( 1941), which was representative of ali parties in the Commonwealth Parliament, commended the Commission for its success in "guaranteeing a degree of impartiality to



everybody,;, and after a lapse of a further seven years Parliament amended section 89, in the words o£ the Chairman of the Commission, to make "it quite clear that the discretion in this area rested solely and absolutely upon the Commission". This amendment was carried unanimously by both Houses of the Commonwealth Parliament, and in the course of our hearings, no witness gave us any evidence to suggest

that the confidence reposed by Parliament in the Australian Broadcasting Commission had been misplaced. Mr. Webb told us that he was, on balance, in favour of the same autonomy being granted to the Australian Broadcasting Commission in the field of television as the Commission has ii1 respect of the national broadcasting service, although he expressed the _opinion that it was necess ary that the rights of minority·

groups not represented in Parliament should be respected. Mr. Webb had in mind that the general practice of the Australian Broadcasting Commission during recent election campaigns had not afforded to parties which were not then established in Parliament facilities to put their views to the people. We have, however, observed that the Commission's policy has been determined in the light of conditions prevailing at the time

of each election, and that the rule requiring representation in Parliament has not always been applied.

457. We are of opinion that the principle laid down in section 89 of the Broadcasting Act should apply to the televising of political and controversial matter on the national television service and in this specially difficult field we take the same view as we have expressed earlier on other aspects of the Commission's functions, that the Commission should have full and unrestricted power and responsibility to determine

to what extent and in what manner political and controversial matter may be televised on national television stations.


458. The transmission of political matter by commercial television stations clearly presents very difficult problems. We have, as we have already pointed out, been informed of the difficulties which have been encountered in the administration and application of the existing statutory provisions governing ·the broadcasting of political matter by commercial broadcasting stations, but it is important to note that we have also been told that the great majority of commercial broadcasting stations make reasonable efforts to

afford equal opportunities to parties and candidates. 'fhere will be, at least in the early stages, a limited number of television stations in operation, the hours of transmission will probably be relatively restricted and the costs of operation will be high. These factors have, in some given rise to the view that it

will not be possible for the same degree of impartiality as had been practise d in the field of broadcasting to be extended to television, and that in consequence the transmission of political matter by commercial stations should be completely prohibited. This was originally proposed with respect to such stations in Great Britain (see Cmd. 8550), but has now been (se e Cmd. 9005). \V e received no evidence

to support such a contention, although Mr. Beaver, President of the Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations, informed us that, in his personal opinion such a proposal would be acceptable. On the other hand, other witnesses whom we questioned on the matter deplored the suggestion and in general maintained that it would impose an unnecessary restriction on commercial operation and would result in the public being deprived of an important means of political education. Mr. Webb expressed the view that the imposition of a prohibition on the commercial station operators would remove a very

useful safeguard which now -exists in the broadcasting fi eld, where the commercial stations and the national stations "have tended to. look at politics and arrange political broadcasts in very different ways". We are in general agreement with these views and believe that it wo uld be most un_fortunat e to prohibit the transmission of political matter by commercial television stations.

459. 'rhe basic issue here is whether there should be any regulation of this respect of commercial television at all. The Australian F ederation of Commer cial Broadcasting Stations told us that in their view commercial television should enjoy the same freedom as the p ress in regard to political and controversial issues, that is that they sho-l1ld be subject to no special obligations or restrictions. It was the Federation's

view that the transmission of polit ical matter should be arranged on the same basis as is the case with all other material and that the power of acceptance or otherwise of political material should r emain within the "domestic policy of the station licensee ". Similar views were also expresse d to us by a number of other witnesses, including the Australian Association of Advertising Agencies and the Australian

Association of National Advisers. Sir J ohn Butters said-So far as political and controversial matters are concerned the existing legislation in -connexion with radio works with reasonable satisfaction and if there .are be at all those laid down for radio might be extended to television. On the other h and our vww I S agarn-the fewer cond itions impose d the better.

Our newspapers without compulsion give the sa me spac.e t o reports of speeches by po litical lea ders at elect ion times and when controversial issues are befo re the pubhc. Our radio stations by law do likew ise and welcome periodic talks of the "fireside chat" type by the Prime Minister of the day on national a:ffa'irs which are not of a Party character. I h ave no doubt that televis ion stations v ould do the same.

Mr. Dunstan also submitted that there was no need in this fi eld to depart from the broad princip1es app1ying to radio broadcasting of political subjects. The League of Women Voters of South Australia, after referring to the provisions of section 6K of the Broadcasting Act, urged that this provision should extend to television broadcasting from both national and commercial stations.


460. In approaching this question we think that, subject to some qualifications which we make later, there is an obligation on the part of every commercial television station, which allocates any time for the televising of political or controversial matter, to afford r easonable opportunities for the presentation of opposing views. This obligation can only be expressed here in general terms, but the underlying principle has perhaps been made reasonably clear in the discus.sion in earlier paragraphs of this chapter relating to the practices in broadcasting in the English-speaking democracies. In the following paragraphs we shall indicate the extent to which and the manner in which we think this obligation should be the subject of direct statutory provisions.

461. We think that, on the whole, experience has demonstrated that a distinction can be dra1-rn between the obligation of commercial television operators in this field during an election period and during times other than election periods. It is possible to define an election period for this purpose with precision, as the period commencing on the clay on which the w rits for an election for a House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth or a State or for a referendum are issued and ending at midnight on the Wednesday preceding the day of the poll (see paragraph 446). Our view is that exeept during an election period (as defined), commercial television stations should, subject to t.he general principle whieh we have laid down in the preceding paragraph, and to our recommendations in paragraphs 466 and 467, be free to allocate time for the televising of political or controversial matter in the ordinary course of busine.'5s. The evidence appears to have demonstrated that commercial broadcasting stations in Australia have, with perhaps some few exceptions, shown a sense of responsibility and impartiality, and we can see no reason f or supposing that commercial television operators would fail to measure up to this standard.

462. We are persuaded, however, that during election periods · (as defined above) it is essential to lay down in some detail the precise responsibilities of commercial television stations in this field. Here we think that different considerations apply to a commercial station which operates in an area in which there is no national television station, from those which apply to such a station which operates in the same area as a national station. In the former case, there are strong' reasons for requiring by law that the commercial station shall provide a r easonable amount of time for political matter; these reasons may be shortly summarized as the importance of television as a political medium, the great significance of

parliamentary elections during which political addre.sses directly influence the choice of governments, and the basic obligation of licensees to which we referred in paragraph 460. We think that this obligation can be discharged by requiring the commercial station to make available (without charge) to the leaders of the parties (or their nominees) an amount of time equivalent to that allocated by the Australian Broadcasting Commission for the t elevising from national stations of the main policy speeches of the


463. * Where there is both a national station and a commercial station in the same area, our view · on the conditions which should apply during election periods may be summarized a.<:; follows:-(a) the commercial station should be entitled, if it thinks fit, to refuse to allocarte any time fo r political matter;

(b) if, however, the station allocates any time for political matter, it shall be obliged to afford equal opportunities for the presentation of opposing views to all the parties contesting the election which are represented in the appropriate Parliament at the time of the dissolution or vacancy leading to the election (but there should be no obligation on the station to provide time free of charge) .

46< 1. We are conscious that in the preceding p aragraph we have stated summarily views on issues which have given rise to great diversity of opinion and great legislative and administrative complexity. The conclusions which we have r eached will, we hope, be accepted as a reasonable attempt to hold the balance between opposing views, and ·will also be realistic and applicable in practice in the day-to-day operation of commercial television stations. W e would point out in particular that whilst sub-paragraph

(b) of the preceding paragraph appears to favour p arties already represented in Parliament, the proposed requirement will not prevent a licensee of a commercial television station from providing time for parties not so represented. This is a matter in respect of which we feel that it is appropriate to leave some discretion to the licensee. Otherwise the burden on commercial television stations during an election

period might be intolerable.

465. The obligations which we have set out in the preceding paragraphs should, v;re urge, be stated in direct legislation passed by the Parliament : that is, they should not, as in the Broadcasting Act as it stands at present, be left to the exercise of the administrative discretion of a statutory bo dy. We agree with the Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission that the existing legislative provision is "quite impossible of enforcem·ent ". In the legislation which we feel to be . required we appreciate that

Parliament will probably be able only to lay down broad general principles, but we think the foregoing recommendations should · form a r easonable basis, not only for the necrssary legislation, but also for their application in practice. It will be recalled that in Chapter VII. we have proposed that the general

• See iiUpplementary observation No. 3 by Mr. R. G. Osborne.

7 7 3


programme performance of each tBlevis ion station should be reviewed annually in connexion with the renewal of its licence: the extent to which a station dischar ges its obligations in r elation to the televising of polit ical an d controversial matter is cle arly an important factor to be t aken into account in this conne ' ion, an d may be in certain circumstancBs a p roper subject for a public hearing.

9. 0 'l'H EI-.:, CoN DI'l'IONS lirELA'fiN G 'l'O TELEVISING OF POLITICAL lVIA'l'TEn ..

466. W e ar e of t he opinion that the provisions ot section 89 (2.) of t he B roadcasting Act 1942-1958 ·which provides that , no political matter shall be broadcast on the two days pr ece ding the clay on which any election for either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth or a State, or for any vacancy in any such House is h eld, should be applied to the televising of political mat ter on both the national and the commercial t elevision services. This practice WB hav e noted is followed in both the Unit eel Kingdom and


467. We think t hat it is desirable that the prohibition of the dramatization of any political matter which is provided for in .section 89 ( 3.) of the Br·o adcast'i1'ig Act 1942-1953 should be extended to the national and commercial t elevision services. It may vvell be that dramatization of political matter on a television stat ion may have to be defined in different terms from those which the Australian Broadcasting

Control B oard preparBd for the guidance of licensees of commercial broadcasting stations in 1949 (see Board's Seco n d Ann ua l Report, paragraphs 186 and 187 and also paragraph 438 above for the Canadian definition), but this, we suggest, would be a matter for discussion between the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the licensees of commercial television stations and t he Board. We consider that it would be

most undesirable f or thB television services to be used as a medium for the threatrical presentation of curr-en t p olitical issues or scenes designed to hold political p ersonalities up to ridicule.


468. As we have pointed out previously in this report, it is probable that for a long time to come the number of t elevision services available in any one area will be limited and factor, we suggest, gives added force to the views we h ave Bxpressed concerning the obligation of lice:nSees to provide equal opportunitiBs for the televising of political and controversial matter. Some fears were expressed to us in evidence

that if licences \Vere granted to political parties for commercial television stations, facilities for the televising of opposing views might not be provided by those stations. We were informed that although some commercial br oadcast ing stations are owned and operated by inter ests associated with political parties, the same dan ger does not exist because of the relatively large number of stations in operation. In consequence, the ownership and control of stations is vested in a diversity of interests and, as we have

mentioned, the commercial broadcasting service as a whole can -be regarded as being reasonably impartial in the pres entation of political views. W e believe that the licensing system which we have recommended in Chapt er VII. will provide adequate safeguards against any obj ectionable concentration in the control · of television stations . We would add, however, that in our opinion it would be mo st undesirablB for

licences to be granted to representatives of political p arties whilst conditions exist which severely limit the number of stations es tablished in any one area. \Ve appreciat e, of co urse, that as t he service develops and the number of st ation::; increases, circumstances may justify the ownership of stations b] political inter-ests. 469. As will be appreciated from the general tenor of this chapter, we have, in reaching our conclusions on the subject of the televising of political and controversial matter, been influenced very greatly by the experiences of English-speaking countries in the field of broadcasting. On the evidence

available to us we believe, as we mentioned in paragraph 455, that the conditions govBrning the broadcasting of political and controversial matter will prove to be substantially applicable to t elevision. As we have already pointed out, how·ever, the technique of televising political matter is as yet only in the development: · stage and in the early stages in Australia there may be some special t echnical difficulties due to the absence of r elay facilities. There js no doubt that the gen eral principle of equal opportunity should be applied, but it may well be that experience with television will demonstrate the need for some modification of certain of the detailed conditions ·which we have proposed.


470. In considering what recommendations should be made on the conditions which should be applied to t he televising of religious services and other religious matter, 'Ne have had regard to the legislation in A11stralia r elating to the broadcasting of religious programmes and the practice that has been adopted to give effect to these provisions.

471. rrhe Australian Broadcasting Commission provides a very BXtensive series of religious broadcasts of a varied kind, including not only broadcas ts of divine worship from churches an d r eligious talks but also devotional services and other broadcasts specially designed for particular groups and classes of li;teners. The special problem which confronts any national broadcasting service is to allocate time and facilities for religious broadcasts among the various denominations in such a way as to be fair and reasonable and generally acceptable to them. Broadly, the Commission allocates for this purpose


mainly, but not wholly, in accordance with the numerical strength of each denomination as revealed by the Commonwealth census, but pays due r egard to the claims of minor ity groups and to the desirability of affording opportunities to outstanding broadcast ers, irresp ective of their particular denominations. It appeared quite clearly from the evidence t hat the Au st ralian Broadcasting Commission has been successful in performing a very difficult task.

472 . 'l'he Broadcasting Act requires the Australian Broadcasting Contr ol Board, inter alia, "to ensure that divine worship or other matter of a religious nature is btoadcast fo r adequate p eriods and at appropriate times ". W e were informed by the Board that, in pursuance of this provision, and for the guidance of commercial broadcasting stations, it has indicated some general principles which should be

adop ted in the cas e of religious broadcasts : briefly , these provide for the al oc ation by commercial stations of at least one hour per week to the broadcasting of r eligious matter, either by way of broadcasts of divine worship or by studio presentations, and for the division of time among the various denominations broadly on a population basis. We understand from the evidence that these principles meet with general approval, and that most stations not only comply with these minimum r equirements but also, in varying degrees, provide much additional time for different kinds of religious broadcasts.

473. A number of witnesses, pr incipally those representing the maj or r eligious denominations, impress ed on us that it was of the utmost importance that the Christian message should be brought to the people through television. 'rhey claimed that, in the early stages at least, the number of stations would be str ictly limited and, t her efore, the stations granted th e pr ivilege of operating ' ·hat was, in fact, a mon op oly had an obligation to use it in the public inter est. In a Christian community this undoub tedly included the provision of adequate facilities for the presentation of t he Christian faith and the Christian way of life. It was therefo r e necessary, in the view of these witnesses, that there should be a statutory obligation on the part of both national and commercial stations to provi de adequate time for the televising of r eligious services and cer emonies and other religious matter.

474. Most of the churchmen who gave evidence before us aske d that, as television was costly and the Churches were not wealthy bodies, such time should be provided f ree of charge. Others considered that, if this was not practicable, a substantially r educed rate should be charged. 'l'he Australian Council for the W orld Council of Churches considered that finan cial aid should be provided fr om public funds (either alone or in conjunction with the revenues of commercial stations) to assist in meeting the cost of the presentation of r eligion. Whilst most of the Churches expressed satisfaction with the method adopted in broadcasting of allocating time in acc ordance with t he numerical strengt h of the various denominations, we were urged by some that time should be made available only if the standard and quality of the material offered justifie d its inclusion in the stations' pr ogramme schedules. However, the method of allocating time in broadcasting was questioned by the Australasian Inter-Union Confer ence of Seventh Day Adventists, which contended that the "time for telecasts of a r eligious nature be made available on the basis of the merit of the programme rather than the n umerical strength and influence of any particU:lar body of Christians, and that thought should be given to the desires and nee ds of that large section of the community who are not represented by any particular church and yet who do enj oy a r eligious programme".

475. It was claimed by r epresentatives of com mer cial broadcasting stations that the presentation of church services on t elevision would not gener ally be a satisfactory means of using the medium, and that if Churches were given a statutory right to time, particularly free time, there would be no incentive f or them to present programmes that would attract large audiences. They claime d that this was borne out by experience in broadcasting wher e, in general, the religious programmes t hat commanded the best audience ratings were those that wer e producd by the Churches which paid for their sessions. The Churches, however, maintained that they were aware of the new responsibility and opportunity that television afforded them for the presentation of their faith and that they would inevitably develop techniques of using the medium in a way that would command audiences.

476. The New South Wales Confer ence of the Methodist Church of Aust ralasia submitted that each station should make available one hour each Sunday for the t elevising of the Christian message. They considered that the best use of this time would be in f our fifte en-minut e sessions, and that, in addition to the Sunday hour, all stations should make provision for one hour p er week f or the transmission of programmes , spread over the six days of the week and used fo r drama, talks and other purposes. The Presbyterian Church of Victoria urged t hat "a substantial all ocation of time should be allott ed to the

television of r eligious matter, including services of worship ", and that " on Sundays and the gr eat occasions of the Christian year, such as Christmas D ay, Christmas Sunday, Good Friday and Easter Day, all inappropriate matter should be excised and worthy provision made for religious sessions allocated to the various churches on the basis of the latest available census fi gures ". The Methodist Church of South Australia stated that "television has an immense potential f or the ·presentation of the Christian faith through drama as well as other aids in which the Church must hasten to become skilled". The r epresentatives

of this Church also recommended "that certain time on Sundays be specifically r eserved for this field of Christian education and propaganda and such times, as far as possible, to be outside the established hours of public worship".

7 7 5


477. The Reverend Hamilton Aikin, Director of the Australian Religious Film Society, stated that­

. . . having regard to the prominent place which religion should have in the life of the ·community and does normally have in the community, and taking into consideration the hi

to the Churches and reliO'ious

groups, should fix the charges. with a view to the ability of the Churches to pay . . . Freedom of can probably be more effectively secured if time is availab le on commercial stations than on a national monopolJ: system . . . It. may not seem equitable that such facilities are available only to persons and groups w1th ad:quate resources :to pay for them. H owever, while ability to pay is the freely accepted

method by wh1ch commod1tles and serviCes can be sec ured, there would appear to be no other practicable The Australian Religious Film Society therefore submits the opinion that while in principle it is

more desua?le to be able and free to buy time at will, whatever the price, than to be denied the facility completely, 1t must be borne in mind that the financial resources of Churches are limited and will probably not be adequ.ate to p_a;y schedule rates for station time. The Society is therefore of the opinion that

commerCial telev1s10n statwns should by law be required to make provision for either free time or time at subRtantia_lly reduced rates for recognized religious programmes (assuming, of course, that the programmes are good quahty television as such) . . . It is essential that national television services should make quality the fir st criterion and that the rank or status of any particular applicant, in this case a Church or the

Churches combined, should not by itself justify a privilege or a right which would not be granted if the applicant were another party, the quality of whose tele vision is below the normal standards required. Mr. Aikin also stated that he contemplated that about half an hour should be made available on Sunday evenings between 7 and 8 p.m., either free or at a minimum cost, and that the Churches should be free, as m

broadcasting at present, to buy time as a commercial proposition.

4 78. The Australian Council f or the \V orld Council of Churches submitted that-Provision must be made on all television channels for the expression of minority opinion. Carelessly handled television could take us further toward the development of a drab and uniform mass mind. The threat to minority opinion will not necessarily come from government sources. Only the most powerful commercial interests will be able to operate commercial television and to them will be given great influence over the thought life of the community. Regulations will be necessary which will preserve for minority groups such

as educational and religious sections of the community the privilege of reaching the people through television. 479. Bishop Lyons, representing the Catholic Church in Australia, said-Our view is that ther e should be a statutory obligation to provide adequate time for the broadcasting of religious ceremonies, such as divine worship and other religious matter. But it should not be just a casual matter, it should be from the beginning part of the whole system for the national and commercial stations, or the licensees. I would emphasize that we feel it is a distinct credit to the Commonwealth Government

and a tangible recognition by our Parliament that we are God-loving people that there is already, for sound broadcasting, a statutory obligation of this kind. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board has imposed upon it by the relative Broadcasting Act a statutory obligation to ensure that stations broadcast such material, and the allocation is according to the national census fi gures, and the time is made available, as the members

of the Commission will know, free of charge. The stations are required to give that time free of ch::trge . . . We strongly urge that, in Australia, at least sim ilar provisions to tho se relating to sound broadcasting should be applied to the telecasting of religious ceremonies and other r eligious matter. The Church is satisfi ed that religious ceremonies and matter can be more attractive and effe ctive with a combined sound and visual

presentation by television than by sound alone; and that the telecasting of such material would confer a positive benefit on all, particularly the young, and contribute m uch to the r aising and protection of moral standards while, at the same time, providing a welcome antidote to the incr e::tsing secularism of our times . \Ve urge that religious telecasts should not be restricted to .S undays since r eligion is a way of life , and not just something

"served out" on Sunday. It is, of course, appreciated that the specific amount of time which might be available for r eligious purposes would necessarily depend, to a large extent, on the total transmission hours observed by stations both initially and ultimately. On the other hand, ho wever, it might well prove in practice that both n ational and .commercial stations wo uld welcome having access to broadcasting material of a

religious nature which, apart from the r eligious aspec t, can be of absorbing interes t . . . We recognize, of course, that an obligation would lie on the Church to play its full part in providing a positive contribution to ensure that all the benefits which may be derived from television are affo rded the people of Australia. We believe that what the Morality Plays we re to the fifteenth century, televised ceremonies, when skilfully planned

and competently presented, can be to the twentieth. 480. On the other hand, we were informed l:iy other witnesses, mainly represe nting commercial interests, that while they believed every opportunity should be given to the Churches t.o present their services, ceremonies and other religious p rogrammes to the people, there should be no statutory obligation

on the television op erators to provide time for these programmes : this should be a matter for negotiation between the st ations and th e Churches . These witnesses stressed the fact that t elevision wo uld prove so expensive that operators would n ee d the utmost fl exibility if they were to make a commercial success of their venture. Not only would the obligation to provide time free impose an undeniable burden on the oper ators,

but any r equirements that certain hours should be set aside for t he Churches' programmes would, especially if they wer e peak listening hours, prevent the stations from ob taining essential r evenue. Mr. N. V . Nixon (Australian Association of Advert ising Agencies) sai d: "We f eel that if any station oper ator is inclined to give time or if any r eligious organization gets a licen ce or wishes t o bu y t ime, they should be ab le to air

their views or their programmes . W e feel, as an Association , that r eligion is a matter that you

cannot legislate for, and we believe it must be treated with the utmost tolerance and toler ation, that every opportunity should be given, and that no legislation or compulsion should be applied in any way." Mr. W. J. Cudlipp (Australian Association of National Advertisers) submitted " that the broadcast of r eligion


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should be governed by public demand. If the public in sufficient numbe'rs wishes to see church services they will undoubtedly see them, but any idea of forcing religion into the home by means of the television screen is repugnant to public conscience. We feel quite sure that this question will solve itself on the basis on which all television material should be g·overned, the desire of the public". 1\!Ir. Cudlipp also maintained that it would be the proper function of the national a nthority to set aside certain limited but specified time for religious purposes. He went on to say "the cost of operating a television station will be very considerable and the operator will necessarily have to charge quite a large amount of money for his time and that will mean that television advertising will be expensive. If, im;tead ·of being able to sell ' x ' hours on television, he can only sell 'x' hours minus one or minus two, '"' hatever it may be, then he will have to charge more for his time, and any one of a number of influences could come from that decision, most of them undesirable. 'rhat is an example of what we would regRrd as 'oYer-regulation'".

481. Mr. A. C. Paddison informed us that, in his opinion "the licensee should be allowed to operate his station with absolute discretion. 'ro safeguard both political and religious sectional interests the licences should be distribnted in the same way as they have been in the Sydney area. If the Council of Churches and the Catholic Church both have priority of access to one particular television station-without necessarily owning the licence-there can be no danger of the exclusion of any major religious group from television facilities". lVIr. C. Ogilvy expres.<:ied the view that "it would not be at all a sound thing to attempt to lay dovvn arbitrary rules, other than to sugges t that a certain minimum amount of time should be made available for the presentation of religious programmes. Am;tralian 'Churches of all could secure large audiences were they to follow the lead given in the United of America, where many religious programmes obtain high audience ratings. Religious programmes both on radio and in television require a specialized approach. Australian churchmen might well study the technique employed in the United States of America, and if this type of programme wa s developed in Australia, the churches would con1,.mancl time, and would not find it nec.essaJ'y to demand it by regulations". 'f.he Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations informed us that the ''Federation feels that this also is a matter which should not be the subject of any special n1andatory conditions. It beli-eves that the operators of commercial television stations can be relied upon to have proper regard to the wishes and needs of the public in this connexion ". Mr. Beaver ·went on to say "there is no reason why religious services should not be made more attractive, particularly from the television point of view. But in the

past I do not think the Churches have done very much to develop an attractive radio programme. I think if they set out to use radio in the right way they could do a very gz)od job and make religion more attractive to people and they would get more followers and I think they would be using the medium to very much' greater advantage than they have in the past". 1\fr. S. R. I. Clark stat-ed that his company believed that "reJigious bodies should have regula.r access to television, but that compulsory broadcasts will defeat their purpose. We make thi1s submission because in our experience in sound . broadcasting we have found that some religious bodies who are assured of free time make little attempt to train personnel in

broadcasting technique".


482. W-e believe that the presentation in suitable form of religious services and other religious matter is one of the important obligations of television stations to the public, to be discharged in eo -o peration 'vith the Churches and other · religious bodies. rrhere are, however, certain features which distinguish t elevision from broadcasting and it may not be appropriate to prescribe the same conditions for stations as have been applied in the fi eld of broadcasting. Indeed, we think that it would

be unde;;irablc to attempt to formulate any precise rul-es until some practical experience of the new medium has been obtained. It is clear that at the outset at least the cost of television as compared with broadcasting will be extremely high and stations will be transmitting programmes for a r elatively limited number of hours per ·week. It is evident also that the techniques fo r presenting religious programmes on television, are as yet, impcrfeetly knovirn even in those countries ·where 80me practical experience has been gained.

483. It may be expected that the Australian Broadcasting Commission will, in the field of tel€vision, give the same careful and impartial attention to relig i.ous matters as it has don€ in the field of broadcasting. In it would appear that the same principles as to allocation of time as have proved pracbcable

and acceptable in the field of broadcasting ·will be applicable to t elevision, although with the much more limited hours of television programmes it is not to be expected that the same total amount of time will be available. \Ve had some .interesting evidenc€ from the Rev. Kenneth Henderson, Supervisor of Religious Broadeasts in the Australian Broarlcasting Commission, who discussed in a general way the t€chnical problems associated with the production of religious t elevision programmes.

484. 8o far as commercial television stations are concerned, we have come to the conclusion that, at this stage, it is not necessary or practicable to do more than indicate, as we have done in paragraph 482, the general obligations of license€s in this field. Any specific provision r-equi _ring the alloeation of time by commercial stations to relig·ious bodies would be premature at this stage, and we would think that there, as with other aspects of programmes, the annual review of the performance of stations in connexion with the renewal of licences (s ee Chapter VII.) will be a convenient and e:ffeciive way of securing that the



stations do not neglect their responsibilities. It may be expected that there will be consultation b·etween r-epresentatives of religious bodies, the commercial stations and the Australian Broadcasting Control Board on this subject, and also full interchange of views and experience on the techniques of televising religious programmes between these bodies and the .Australian Broadcasting Commission. In paragraph 397 we have recommended that there should be an advis}ry committee in this field to assist the Australian

Broadcasting Control Board and the commercial stations.


485. In Australia the provisions of the Broadcasting Act relating to advertising by commei·cial broadcasting stations are contained in section 6K, which requires the Australian Broadcasting Control Board to "deter1nine the extent to which advertisements may be broadca.<:;t in the programme of any commercial broadcasting station", and in section 61, which is as follows:-

(1.) Subject to this Act, the licensee of a commercial broadcasting station may broadcast

advertisements. (2.) A licensee desiring to broadcast advertisements shall publish a tariff of advertising charges, and, except as prescribed, shall make his advertising· service available without discrimination to any person. ( 3.) A licensee shall not broa.dc ast advertisements on a Sunday except in such manner and in

accordance with such conditions as the Board determines. ( 4.) Except as prescribed, an advertisement relating to any medicine shall not he broadcast unless the text of the proposed advertising matter has been approved in writing by the Director-General of Health or, on appeal to the Minister under this section, by the Minister.

( 5.) The Director-'General of Health may delegate to any medical officer of a State his power under this section to approve of the text of advertising matter. ( 6.) Any such delegation shall be revocable in writing at will and no such delegation shall prevent the exercise of the power by the Director-General of Health.

(7.) Any person may appeal to the :Minister from any decision ·of the Director-General of Health, or a delegate of the Director-General of Health. "\Ve were informed that the Australian Broadcasting Control Board had made two determinations under these provisions, one relating to advertising time standards and the other to Sunday advertising. 'rhese determinations are set out in .Appendixes A and B. It will be noted that the control of the text of

advertisements relating to medicines is vested in the Director-General of Health and no advertising matter of this kind may be broadcast unless the text has been approved in writing by the Director-General. There is, however, a right of appeal to the Minister from any ruling of the Director-General. vVe were informed that appeals are very infrequent.

486. Mr. N. V. Nixon (Australian Association of .Advertising Agencies) submitted that the broadcasting of advertisements on television should not be restricted by "arbitrary legislative conditions". The Association believed that "self-regulation will take care of morals and competition will take care of quality". They considered that the content and form of television advertisements will be largely dictated

by the viewing public; any which offended the good taste or failed to command the interest

of viewers would not be transmitted. 'rhc AssociatioJ?., however, recommended that certain regulations in respect of broadcasting laid down by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board (relating to the amount of advertising either in words or in time in a given programme period) and the provisio.ns of the Broadcasting Act relating to advertisements for proprietary medicines, should be extended to television.

The Australian .Association of National Advertisers advocated that advertising on t elevision should be regulated to ensure truth, technical accuracy and dignity. They suggested that the body set up to control television should take advantage of the .Association's knowledge and experience before laying down conditions for advertising. The Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations saw no

reason for imposing any conditions on television advertising; unnecessary restrictions on advertising would be likely to damage television and retard its development. Mr. C. Ogilvy supported this

submission but he suggested that if some official regulations w·ere considered essential, they should be framed only after consultation with station operators, the Australian Association of National Advertisers and the Australian Association of Advertising Agencies . In their individual representations, many of the members of the Federation urged that rigid rules should not be prescribed and that advertising practices should be left to self-regulation by the industry.

487. Other witnesses, however,· contended that, both in matters of detail and of broad principle, regulations would be necessary and desirable and should be enforced by some authority. It was urged that more stringent control should be exercised over television advertising than was exercised by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board over radio advertising. Other witnesses, including the League of "\Vomen Voters of South Australia, expressed the view that the provisions relating to the presentation of

advertisements on commercial television should follow closely those laid down in the BroadcasHng Act.

488. Althoug4 they appreciated that some difficulty might be experienced in prescribing limits for commercial announcements, many witnesses stated that the determination of the extent to which advertisements should be shown on television should not be left to the discretion of television operators.


This was referred to by Reverend A. Walker (Australian Council for World Council of Churches), Messrs. W. H. Dye (Arts Council, Victoria) and H. Alexander (Actors and Announcers Equity). Miss E. Tildesley (British Drama League) referred to the question of commercial announcements during plays, and urged that they should be limited to three minutes per hour before or after the production. Actors and Announcers Equity Association urged that an adequate restriction should be placed on the length of a "commercial" and the number of "commercials" in any one programme or in any period of time, to protect the public from a surfeit of advertising.

489. Several witnesses advocated that some provision should be made to ensure that the continuity or atmosphere of programmes is l10t destroyed by frequent breaks for advertising. Messrs. R. H. Featherstone (State School Teachers' Union, Western Australia), W. H. Dye (Arts Council, Victoria) and J. L. J. Wilson (Director of Tutorial Classes, University of Sydney) urged that the commercial motive should not be allowed to dominate the matter broadcast and that care should be taken to prevent entire programmes being disfigured by advertising. The British Drama Leag·ue and the League of Women Voters of South Australia confined their recommendations to dramatic productions and requested that no advertising should be permitted during the course of a play, including the interval.

490. The Australian Council for the World Council of Churches and the Methodist Church of New South Wales proposed that a restriction should be imposed on the number and length of programmes available to any one sponsor as a safeguard against the development of a monopoly of channels by financially powerful advertisers. Such virtual monopoly, it ·was suggested, would be to the detriment of the community as a whole, since "buying power" rather than suitability of material would determine access to available channels.

491. Actors and Announcers Equity Association suggested that, in the interests of Australian actors and announcers, there should be a complete ban on the importation of advertisements on film. This was supported by Mr. J. L. J. Wilson on the grounds that American advertising was frequently misleading and offensive and any funds available for the purchase of film should be devoted to procuring good films for entertainment rather than filmed commercials.

492. The Australian Council of School Organizations urged that particular care should be taken to ensure that advertising permitted between the hours of 4.30 and 5.30 p.m. should not contain any matter damaging to children. Mrs. B. Falk and Mrs. A. Paton (Victorian Council for Children's Films and Television) suggested that some control over advertising in children's sessions was desirable to ensure that only appropriate and truthful methods of advertising were used. Miss M. L. Wauchope (Teachers' College, Adelaide) and Mrs. T. C. Metcalfe (National Council of Women) presented the view that commercial firms would not be fully aware of children's needs and that children's sessions were not suitable for sponsorship . .

493. Two witnesses requested that advertisements of intoxicating liquor should be banned at all times. Miss N. M. Mills (Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Queensland) vigorously condemned the presentation of advertisements or the sponsorship of progTammes by the liquor industry. It was claimed that in America programmes sponsored by breweries were designed to appeal to young people and the organization represented feared that similar advertisements on Australian television screens would "invade the sanctity of the home". Rever end Courtenay 'fhomas stated that the Council of Churches in Victoria

would like to see a complete prohibition against advertising of liquor. The Victorian Brewers' Association presented evidence in reply to these witnesses, referring to what it described as the natural right of the alcoholic beverage industry in Australia to equal and non-discriminatory treatment with other lawful industries on television.

494. The League of Women Voters of South Australia expressed the view that, as for broadcasting, Sunday advertisements should be broadcast only in accordance with such conditions as were determined by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. Some Church representatives urged that all advertising matter should be eliminated from commercial programmes on Christmas Day, Good Friday and Sundays, or, if this was impracticable, advertisements should not be permitted to predominate on these days. Reverend W. Francis, representing the Methodist Church in New South Wales, considered, however, that Sunday broadcasting on most radio stations is satisfactory and if the same standards were extended to television no further conditions in r egard to advertising wo uld need to be introduced.

495. Several witnesses maintained that it was necessary to prohibit sponsored programmes on television to ensure the independence of licensees in the selection of programmes and referred to the report of the Beveridge Committee and recent discussions in Great Britain on this subject. The Australian Culture Defence Movement, while not advocating that sponsored programmes should be prohibited, suggested that sponsors should buy programme material and not time alone from station managements. In this way,

it was claimed, station licensees would control the programme output and would accept responsibility for the production of all programmes. Mr. C. Ogilvy urged the necessity for the acceptance of the principle that the licensee should have the fullest control of all programmes. We refer to this in some detail in paragraph 498.

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496. The question whether there shall be advertising on television in Australia has been determined by the T elevision Act 1953, which provides for the of commercial stations. We were, however , required to report upon any conditions which we thought it was desirable should be applied to the televising of advertisements. It seems clear, on consider ation of the experience in the administration of the Broadcasting Act in this respect, and of the evidence summarized above, that effective provision should be made to ensure that advertising matter does not constitute an excessive part of the programmes of commercial television stations. This can, in our opinion, be achieved by the establishment of appropriate standards which will set limits to the extent to which advertising matter may be televised. If provisions similar to those contained in the Broadcasting Act were applied to commercial television stations they would, in our view, enable this matter to be dealt with on a satisfactory and workable basis. We have been impressed by the way in which the standards determined for broadcasting advertisements have been worked

out by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board in consultation with representatives of broadcasting stations and of advertising interests, and by their general acceptance in practice. Similar consultation between the Board and representatives of t elevision stations and of advertisers will be necessary to work out the detailed standards for television. It is evident that it will not be sufficient merely to adopt the

quantitative limitations which have been fixed for broadcasting advertisements, since there are many differences between the advertising techniques applicable to and to t elevision. While such

standards can only be worked out effectively in the light of practical experience we would think that, at the outset, the adoption of the g(meral principles of the broadcasting standards would achieve the desired results. . .. 1.1

497. VVe were urged by many witnesses, whose evidence we h ave set out briefly in preceding paragraphs, to make recommendations with respect to particular kinds of advertisements and to the televising of advertising matter at specified times. We feel that it would not be practicable, at this stage, to attempt to lay down particular rules, which can only be determined in the light of experience, and that, in general, the broadcasting principles (for example, as to advertising on Sundays) should be applied at the outset.

498. In paragraph 495 we referred to the evidence of certain witnesses who urged that there should be a complete prohibition of sponsored programmes on commercial television stations. 'rhis is a question which has led to a great deal of discussion r ecently in comiexion with the introduction of some form of commercial television in Great Britain. (See, for example, The B.B.C. frorn Within, by Lord Simon of Wythenshawe,

formerly Chairman of the Board of Governors of the B.B.C., Chapter XVII.) The question is also discussed by the Beveridge Committee in its report (paragraphs 351 and following and especially paragraph 360). There are, it would seem, considerable differences in the sense in which the expression "sponsored programmes" may be used; the British White Paper on Telev ision Policy of November, 1953 (Cmd. 9005), for example, uses "sponsoring" to signify "that advertisers would hire time on the television transmitters

and provide and control their own programmes". It seems to be accepted in England that the expres.

practice (as, for example, in the Advertising Time Standards of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board set out in Appendix A) it does not necess arily imply that the advertiser (sponsor) controls the content of the programme, but is a description of a particular kind of programme with which the name and products of a particular advertiser are associated, as distinguished from "spot" advertisements, which are

separate advertisements for different advertisers inserted in a programme at regular intervals. In fact, we understand that it has been genr.rally established in Australian broadcasting practice that the licensee is responsible for all programmes (wheth er "sponsored" or not) which ar e broadcast from his station. We were informed by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board that some licensees had put to the Board the view that they were not responsible for certain programmes broadcast by their stations on the ground that

these programmes had been prepared by organizations not under their control. The Board had not accepted this contention, and, after consultation with the Australian F ederation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations, h ad recently reminded all stations that the r esponsibility for the observance of programme standards rested on the licensees .

499. We are strongly of opinion that the licensee of a commercial television station must accept responsibility for all programmes transmitted by the station, and cannot delegate this responsibility to an advertiser or to any one else. The adoption of this principle (and we see no r eason to doubt that it will be applied in commercial television as in broadcasting) will, we think, prevent the development of undesirable

practices in relation to "sponsored" t elevision programmes.




1. In the foregoing chapters we have examined the issues referred to us and have set down our conclusions and recommendations where it was appropriate after a di

them. It should also be clearly understood that our recommendations relate only to the

establishment period for television services, and do not pretend to contain a blueprint for the development of television in Australia, which must be fle xible in scope and the implementation of whicl1 must depend on circumstances that, at present, cannot be foreseen.

2. A notation has been made against those recommendations on which individual members of the Co mmission have expressed supplementary observations.


1. Television should be introduced on a gradual basis. (Paragraphs 161 and 320. )

2. A limit on the number of television stations to be established in the early stages is justified and necessary. (Paragraphs 246 and 307. )

3. There is no justification for req niring some definite period to elapse before any national or commercial television stations should be established. (Paragraph 268.)

4. As far as the national service is concerned, the first station should be erected in Sydney and the second in Melbourne. As finances become available further expansion should be made to the other State capital cities and to other centres of population with the object of providing a service to the widest population as soon as practicable. (Paragraph 311.)

5. 'l' he national television service should be planned on the basis that, within a reasonable period at least, the major part of the expenditure would be covered by revenue which can be r easonably attributerl to tl1 e provision of the service, but there should be some :flexibility in the application of this principle. (Paragraph 308.)

6. As far as the commercial service i

any applicants for licences for these centres are capable of supplying a satisfactory service. (Paragraph 320.)

7. 'l'he requirements of Australia as a whole in respect of commercial television should be kept under continuous observation by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, with a view to recommending to the Minister the extension of the number of commercial licences as soon as financial and other considerations permit. (Paragraph 246.)

8. Licences should be issued for commercial television stations in country centres as early as possible. (Paragraph 324.)

9. The television service should be developed and expanded, as far as possible, by the use of the very high frequency channels, without the need of utili.zing channels in the ultra high frequency- band, and a dose examination should be made of the possibility of further channels in the very high frequency band being made available. We are not convinced that it would be impracticable to make some re-arrangement of frequencies which, whilst still enabling the demands of other services to be met, would provide additional V.H.F. channels for t elevision. (Paragraphs 105-106.)

10. At an early stage in the development of the Australian television service, a complete frequency allocation plan, which will make adequate provision for future developments, should be formulated by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. In particular such a plan should make adequate provision for development in country areas. (Paragraphs 110 and 112.)

11. As far as possible all transmitters serving on e area should be located on the same site. (Paragraph 120 (c).)

12. A system under which all television transmitters would be under the control and ownership of a public authority and made available to national and commercial operators as required should not be adopted. (See supplementary observation No. 2 by Mr. Osborne.) (Paragraph 329.)



13. The national television authority should operate with the same degree of independence of political control the national broadcasting authority has operated. (Paragraphs 338 and 372.)

14. The provision of the programmes on the national television service should be the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Commission (see also r ecommendation 31). (Paragraphs 341 and 372.)

15. The membership of the Australian Broadcasting Commission should be in creased from seven to nine. (Paragraph 345.)

16. The operation of all technical services, directly associated with the production of television programmes in the studios of the national television stations, should be included in the responsibilities of the Australian Broadcasting Commission. (Paragraph 347.)

17. There should be a licensing system for commercial television stations similar to that which at present applies to commercial broadcasting stations. The licensing· authority should be the Minister, who should exercise the functions of granting, renewing and revoking licences. In exercising these po·wers he be required to take into consideration recommendations made by a statutory authority, which

should also discharge certain t echnical and other administrative and regulatory functions. 'rhe statutory authority, in the exercise of its technical, administrative, and reg·ulatory functions, should not be subject to direction by the Minister. (Paragraph 351.)

18. The statutory authority r efer red to in the previous r ecommendation shonld be the Australian Bl'Oadcasting Control Board. (Paragraph 353.)

19. Two additional part-time members should be appointed to the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. (Paragraphs 853 and 397.)

20. In the ca:se of the original grant by the Minister of a commercial t elevision licenee for any locality, before making any recommendations, the Australian Broadcasting Control Board should conduct a public hearing of the applications received for licences in that locality. (Paragraph 355.)

21. Before any licence is revoked by the Mini.-;ter, the licensee should have the opportunity of being hear·d at a public :;;itting of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. (Paragraph 356.)

22. In any case where the Australian Broadcasting· Control Board proposes to recommend to the Minister that a licence for a commercial television station should not be r enewed, or where the Minister proposes not to renew the licence, this licensee should be notified of the reasons therefor, and should have the right to a public hearing by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board, which shall report thereon to

the Minister. (Paragraph 357.)

23. Licences for commercial television stations should be granted for a period not exceeding three years and should be renewed for a period not exceeding one year. (Paragraph 360.)

24. It is not necessary or desirable to provide for a right of appeal against the decision of the Minister with respect to the revocation or suspension of a licence of a commercial television station. (Paragraph 361.)

25. The Minister's power to suspend licences s hould be r estricted to a very limited period, at the expiration of which the suspension must be removed or the licensee given notice of intention to revoke the licence. (Paragraph 361.)

26. Provisions similar to those contained in section 53 of the B1·oadcasting Act 1942-1953 if enacted with respect to television stations, wo uld be sufficient to prevent undesirable concentration of ownership of such stations, and at the same time enable advantage to be taken of the economies of operation which the ownership of a number of stations might permit. Any concentration of control which might be

regarded as contrary to the public interest could be adequately dealt with through the issue of licences. (Paragraphs 365 and 366.)

27. The extension of the provisions of section 50 of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 to commercial television stations would be adequate to deal with the transfer of television licences . (Paragraph 368.)

28. J\. condition should be incorporated in the licence for every commercial television station that the control of a station shall not be varied without the of the Minister. (Paragraph 369.)

29. The licence-fee for a commercial television station should be £50 plus one-half of 1 per cent. of gross revenue of a station, and the fee should be charge d wh ether or not a profit is made. (Paragraph 370. )

30. The objective of all televi si on stations, from the ontset , must be to provide programmes that will have the effect of raising standards of public taste. (Paragraph 162. )

31. W-hile the Australian Broadcasting Commission should spare no effor t to make the national television service successful, it is essential that it should continue t o maintain and develop the national broadcasting service throughout the Commonwealth to th e highest possible level. (Paragraphs 342 and 343.)


32. Provision should be made for an effective overall pattern of national and commercial station.s which will be truly complementary in providing a television service of high quality. It is essential, therefore, that there should be the utmost co-operation between n at ional and commercial stations, and that such co-operation might reasonably be required of commercial operators, e,g. in the condition.s of licences. (Paragraph 334.)

33. Where there is a commercial station only in any area, certain selected public service programmes of the national t elevision service should be made available to that station. There should be a statutory obligation on the Australian Broadcasting Commission to make available these programmes to the commercial station·. There should be a similar statutory obligation on the part of the commercial station to transmit these programmes. (Paragraph 334.)

34. The formulation of a suitable code of operating standards for programmes of commercial television stations in Australia should be undertaken by the representatives of commercial television stations as soon as possible after licences have been granted. (Paragraph 396.)

35. Self-regulation will not be sufficient to secure that commercial television programmes will be of suitable standard to satisfy the public. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board and licensees of commercial television stations should endeavour to reach agreement on programme standards, but where the Board and the representatives of commercial television stations cannot agree on standards, there should

be a reserve of authority (which will most effectively be exercised through the licensing system) designed to secure that commercial programmes -vvill, in the broadest sense, serve the public interest. (Paragraphs 393 and 395.) 36. Legislative provision should be made (along the lines of the present provision of the

Broadcasting Act relating to the programmes of commercial broadcasting stations) designed to secure that prompt measures can be taken to prevent the televising of obj ectionable material. (Paragraph 395.) 37. The two additional members, which it is recommended s-hould be appointed to the Australian Broadcasting Control Board (see recommendation 19), should have special responsibility in respect of programme matters. These members should ·not be representative of any particular interest.

(Paragraph 397.)

38. Advisory committees shol.1ld be appointed to advise the Board in respect of the scope and content of particular classes of programmes. One such committee should be appointed in respect of religious programmes and the other in respect of children's programmes. (Paragraph 397.)

39. Immediate steps should be taken to encourage the creation of programmes that will set acceptable cultural standards and further important national objectives. (Paragraph 399.)

40. There is an obligation on all television stations to ensure that the best use is made of

Australian talent. (Paragraph 409.)

41. Quotas for the Australian content of television programmes can only be after

actual experience has been gained in the operation of the service. (Paragraph 409.)

42. No general embargo should be imposed, at least in the initial stages, on the importation of films from other countries, but the question should be kept under review as television develops. (Paragraph 410.) 43. Any attempt to censor Australian "live" programmes would be completely impracticable, but there should be some reserve power to prevent the presentation of material where there is reason to believe it is likely to cause offence. 411.)

44. The provisions relating to the ·censorship of imported films should be applied to imported television programmes, which should also be subject to the · same rules as "live" program·mes. (Paragraph 411.) 45. On the national stations there should be a regular children's programme specially designed for the different age groups and also designed to cover a wide range of interests. (Paragraph 183.)

46. Where a commercial station is operating in an area where there is no national station it should be required to transmit, at a suitable time, a children's programme recorded by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. (Paragraph 184.)

47. All other commercial television stations should provide, at suitable times, programmes especially designed for children. (Paragraph 184.)

48. The actual hours of operation of television stations must be determined by experience. (See supplementary observation No. 1 by the Chairman and Mrs. Foxton.) (Paragraph 432.)

49. As far as the national television service is concerned, the principle laid down in section 89 of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 should apply to the televising of political and controversial matter. The Australian Broadcasting Commission should have full and unrestricted power and responsibility to determine to what extent and in what manner political and controversial matter may be televised on national television stations. (Paragraph 457.)


50. The transmission of political matter by commercial television stations should not be prohibited. (Paragraph 458.)

51. There is an obligation on the part of every commercial television station which allocates any time for the televising of political or controversial matter to afford reasonable opportunities for the presentation of opposing vievvs. (Paragraph 460.)

52. Except dur ing an election period (as defined), commercial television stations should, subject to the general principle set out in the preceding recommendation, and to 57 and 58, be

free to allocate time for the televising of political or controversial matter in the ordinary course of business. (Paragraph 461.)

53. During an election period (as defined), a commercial television station which operates in an area in which there is no national t elevision station should be required, by law, to make available (without charge) to the leaders of the parties or their nominees, an amount of time ·equivalent to that allocated by the Australian Broadcasting Commission for the televising from national stations of the main policy speeches of the parties. (Paragraph 462.)

54. During an election period (as defined), a commercial television station which operates in an area where there is a national television station should be entitled, if it thinks fit, to refuse to allocate any time for political matter; jf, however, the station allocates any time for political matter it shall be obliged to afford equal opportunities for the presentation of opposing views, to all the parties contesting the election which are represented in the appropriate Parliament at the time of the dissolution or vacancy leading

to the election (but there should be no obligation on the station to provide time free of charge). (See supplementary observation No. 3 by Mr. Osborne.) (Paragraphs 462-3.)

55. The obligations on commercial t elevision stations set out in recommendations Nos. 51-54 shnuld be stated in direct legislation pass·ed by the Parliament: that is they should not, as in the Broadcasting Act as it stands at present, be left to the exercise of the administrative discretion of a statutory body. (Paragraph 465.)

56. The extent to which a commercial television station discharges its ·obligations in relation to the televising of political and controversial matter is clearly an important factor to be taken into account in the annual review of the programme performance of a commercial television station in connexion with the renewal of its licence. It may, in certain circi1mstances, be a proper subject for public hearing.

(Paragraph 465.)

57. The provisions of section 89 (2.) of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953, which provides that no political matter shall be broadcast on the two days preceding the day on which any election for either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth or a State, or for any vacancy in any such House is held, should be applied to the televising of political matter on both the national and the commercial television services. (Paragraph 466.)

58. The prohibition of the dramatization of any political matter which is provided for in section 89 ( 3.) of the Broadcasting .Act 1942-1953 should be to the national and commercial television services. (Paragraph 467.)

59. It would be undesirable for licences for commercial television stations to be granted to representatives of political parties whilst conditions exist which severely limit the number of stations established in any one area. (Paragraph 468.)

60. The presentation, in suitable form, of r eligious services and other religious matter is one of the important obligations of television stations to the public, and should be discharged in co-operation with the churches and other religious bodies. (Paragraph 482.)

61. Until some practical exp-erience of the new medium has been obtained it would he undesirable to attempt to formulate any precise rules concerning the televising of religious matter. (Paragraph 482.)

62. The Australian Broadcasting Commission should, in general, apply the same principles to the allocation of time for religious broadcasts and other religious matter as have proved applicable and acceptable in the field of broadcasting. (Paragraph 483.)

63. It would be premature, at this stage, to lay down any specific provisions requiring the allocation of time for religious services and other religious matter by commercial television stations. (Paragraph 484.)

64. The extent to which commercial television stations carry out their responsibilities in respect of the broadcasting of religious services and other religious matter should be considered during the annual review of the performances of stations in connexion with the renewal of licences. (Paragraph 484.)

65. Effective should be made to ensure that advertising matter does not constitute an

excessive part of the programmes of commercial television stations. (Paragraph 496.)


66. Provisions similar to those contained in sections 6K and 6L of the Broadcasting Act 1942-1953, relating to the control of advertising, should be extended to commercial television stations. (Paragraph 496.)

67. Until practical experience has been gained in the operation of television, the general principles of the standards at present applicable to the broadcasting of advertisements by broadcasting stations should be applied to advertisements on television station..;;. (Paragraphs 496-7.)

68. The licensee of a commercial television Htation must accept responsibility for all programmes transmitted by the station, and cannot delegate this responsibility to an advertiser or to any one else. (Paragraph 499.)

We have the honour to be, Sir, Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

Authorized to be printed-K. CoLLINGS (Secretary) . l\1elbourne, 13th November, 1953.

-·---- ..... .

G. W. PATON (Chairman).


C. B.




Sydney, 20th February, 1954.




HouRs oF

Observation by the Chairman and Mr·s. 111. C. Foxton.

1. One of the principles on which the report is based is that television should be introduced on a g-radual basis. In two respects, we wish to carry this principle further than our colleagues are willing to go. In the initial period we consider that-( a) there should be a compulsory break in transmission on all stations for one hour after the

end of the children's programme ; (b) until experience has demonstrated that a high quality of programme can be achieved, the hours of transmission should not exce ed 30 a week.


Observat1:on by Mr. R. G. Osborne.


2. I do not agree with the reasons given by the majority of the Commission for rejecting the proposals put to us with respect to the establishment of joint national-commercial stations and the public ownership of all transmitters (Chapter V., p aragraphs 325-333). I do not think that these proposals are necessarily impracticable or contrary to principle and, indeed, they have some advantages which would, I feel, facilitate the introduction of both national and comm ercial services on an economical basis. However,

I do not dissent from the conclusions of the Commis.sion, since I am of opinion that the terms of the Television Act 1953 do not authorize the adoption of either of the proposals discussed in the paragraphs to which I have referred. H. G. OSBORNE.


Observation by Mr. R. G. Osborne.

3. 1 do not agree with the recommendation in paragraph 463 so far as it would restrict the right to allocation of time on commercial stations to parties r epresented in Parliament. In my opinion, commercial television stations should (as was recommended by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Broadcasting in 1942) observe the same principles as to the recognition of parties as are applied from time to time by

the Australian Broadcasting Commission. This would involve the publication of those principles by the Commission, and I think this would, in any case, be desirable. R. G. OSBORNE.


Observation by ll!lr. R. C. W"il son.

4. I agree with the report that television should be introduced gradually. 1 believe in the dual system as applied to ra dio but I am afraid, because of the very high costs involved in providing equipment and suitable programmes , that dual system television will be confined to the larger capital cities.

Under present technical knowledge, costs and conditions, . I do not see how television can be carried far out into country areas. If television is to be taken into lesser populated areas, then I think it can be done only by having a single station in each rural area and there must be co-operation between the national authorities and the commercial interests in doing this.

Presumably, licence-fees will be .charged to ·owners of receiving sets, even though the only service they can receive may come from a commercial station. If this is so, I think the commercial station should receive assistance up to the Pmount of licence-fees paid by its viewers. This may be either by cash subsidy or by direct assistance from the Australian Broadcasting Commission in providing suitable programme

material. On the other hand, if the Australian Broadcasting Commission is prepared to extend to a rural area where there is no commercial station, but is prevented fr om doing so by t he fact that viewers' licence-fees are not likely to be sufficient to be ar the cost of the servic e, then I think cons ideration should be

given to the Australian Broadcasting Commission taking sponsored progr amr.nes in that area. I realize that this is going bey ond the inquiry- an d, as previously stated, I agree with the gradual development of television-but, after the first stage h as been p assed, I am anxious that television should be extended for the benefit of country viewers. I do not want t elevision to become merely another expen,::;ive luxury to be viewed only by dwellers in some of our already ov ercrowded capital cities.



Appendix A.



The Broadcasting A ct 1942-1 951 provides that the Board shall determine the extent to which advertisements may be broadcast in the programme of any commercial station.

2. After carefully examining the Standards of Broadcasting Practice adopted by the Australian Federation of Commer cial Broadcasting Stations, and similar standards operating in other English-speaking countries, the Board has, in accordance with the provisions of section 6K (2.) (b) (iv) of the Act, determined the conditions under which advertisements may be broadcast in respect of duration and wordage, and in respect of the extent to which advertisements may be broadcast from Monday to Saturday inclusive.

3. These conditions are as follo ws :-(a) In the case of advertisements in sponsored sessions, the number of words and the maximum time occupied by the complete presentation of such advertisements should not exceed the following:-

5 minutes

7! minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes 45 minutes 60 minutes

Duration of sponsored programme. Numher of words permissible for advertisements.

150 words 200 words 250 words 300 words 450 words 600 words 750 words

Maximum duration of presentation of advertisements.

1 minute 1 minute 30 seconds 2 minutes 2 minutes 30 seconds 3 minutes 4 minutes 30 seconds 6 minutes

For programmes exceeding 60 minutes the rate at which advertising matter is broadcast should not exceed 125 words in a maximum period of one minute f.or each ten minutes of overall programme time. (b) Direct advertising announcementS! ("spot advertisements") should be distributed at

reasonable intervals throughout periods set aside for the broadcasting of such announcements, and should not be so placed as to destr·oy the value of the entertainment or service provided in the remainder of such programme periods. (c) In the case of direct advertising announcements ("spot advertisements") and of time

purchased for announcements only, the following standards should be observed:-

Type of announcement.

25 word announcement 50 word announcement 100 word announcement

1 minute

Maximum time or words permitted for complete presentation of announcement.

15 seconds 25 seconds 45 seconds

140 words

(d) Direct advertising announcements (" spot advertisements") may be grouped, provided that not more than three ad vertisements occur in any one group and no group exceeds one and one-half minutes in duration. (e) Of any programme period during which direct advertising announcements ("spot

advertisements") are broadcast not more than 30 per cent. may be devoted to advertising and not more than eighteen minutes may be so occupied in any period of 60


(f) The limitati?ns of the preceding paragraphs do not apply to advertising matter which is m the form of a service such as a "shopping guide", or programmes

cons1stmg of market r eports or serviCe matter, provided that the total time devoted to such programmes doe s not exceed nine hours in any one period of seven days.



Appendix B.



As you kJ.?-ow, section 61 ( 3.) of the Broadcasting Act 19·42-1951 provides that "a licensee shall not broadcast advertisements on a Sunday except in such manner and in accordance with such conditions as the Board determines".

. Adve.rtising on Sunday is at present regulated under the rules laid down by the Postmaster-General m. 1943, wh1eh we:e adopted by the Board. The Board has recently reconsidered this matter, in .consultation With A.ustrahan Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations, and has decided to make certain alterations lll the present rules. The principal alteration is that, in certain circumstances and subject to certain ·conditions, prices may be mentioned in advertisements broadcast on Sundays. In addition, the existing

rules have been rewritten.

The conditions which shall apply to advertising on Sundays will be as follows:­ SPONSOREID SESSIONS. l. Except as otherwise .provided, advertisements may be included in a sponsored session, but the time devoted to advertising matter in such a session shall not exceed ten per centum of the total time occupied by the session, and the number of advertising announcements shall n ot exceed two in any period of 15 minute.s.


2. Except as otherwise provided, direct advertising announcements ("spot advertisements") may be broadcast, but, except as expressly provided in paragraph 5, the total time occupied by such announcements shall not exceed 6 minutes in any period of one hour and the number of such announcements shall not exceed two in any period of 15 minutes.


3. The price of any article or service shall not be mentioned more than once in each advertising announcement relating to that article or service. SHOPPING GUIDE. 4. A session containing a group of advertising announcements, in the form of a shopping guide, may be broadcast at

a time, not later than 6 p.m. (local time), to be approved by the Board, provided that-1 a) the time occupied by such session does not exceed 15 minutes; ( o) the time occupied by any single advertising announcement in such session does not exceed l minute in duration or contain more than 140 words; and

( o) the session shall not be broadcast between 11 a .m . and 12.15 p.m., but a licensee may, after consulting the Board, substitute for this period another period usually accepted by the majority of churches in the area served by the station as the hour for holding Divine Worship.

MANNER OF BROADCASTING ADVERTISEMENTS. 5. All advertising announcements, except those included in a transcribed sponsored session1 shall be spoken by the station announcer. 6. Direct advertising announcements (''spot advertisements") which have been pre-recorded shall not be broadcast.


7. No advertisements relating to alcoholic liquor shall be broadcast.

RESTRICTIONS ON BROADCASTS IN CERTAIN PERIODS. 8. Advertisements (other than opening and closing announcements) shall not be broadcast by a station during any part of a sponsored session which is devoted to the broadcast ing of Divine Worship or other matter of a religious nature. Opening and closing announcements in respect of such a session shall not contain any reference to the price of any goods or services.

9. Direct advertising announcements (" spot advertisements" ) shall not be broadcast during a session which is devoted to the broadcasting of Divine Worship or other matter of a religiou s nature.


10. Advertisements should be presented in good tas t e and with discretion and as unobtrusively as possible. Repetition and sensational presentation shvuld be avoided, especially in statements relating to prices. Advertising matter relating to medicines and medical and toilet preparations should be kept strictly within the bounds of good taste.

I am specially directed by the Board to invite the station's attention to paragraph 10 above and to say that it is hoped that this requirement in particular will be strictly observed according to the spirit of the paragraph. .


Appendix C.



Political broadcasts in the "election periods " preceding the Federal Elections of December, 1949, and Apr il, 1951, were divided into three main parts:-Policy speeches. by party leaders; Talks and advertisements authorized by parties ; and

Talks and advertisements authorized by organizations other than parties.

The total time devoted to political matter by the commercial stations in the two campaigns was as follows:-

Party Leaders' initial speeches Other matter authorized by parties Organizations other than parties


Nature of Broadcast . 1949 Elections.

Hours. 236 1,548 362


1951 Elections.

Hours. 277 905 74


Initial policy speeches were made by the leaders of the Country Party, the Labor Party, and the Liberal P arty. R eturns show that in 1949, 84 commercial stations broadcast all three speeches, four broadcast two speeches, and eleven stations did not broadcast any of the policy speeches. Two commer.cial stations also broadcast the policy speech of the non-Communist (Lang) Labor Party. In the 1951 election campaign 85 commercial stations broadcast all three policy speeches, fourteen broadcast two, and three broadcast only one speech.

Broadcasts authorized by parties were made as follows:-1949 . Metropolitan stations (24·) Country sta tions (77)

Tota l

1951. Metropolitan stations (24) Country stations (77)

Tota l

The allocation of this time to each party is shown in the following table:-1949.


Country Party Labor Party ..

Liberal Party Other Parties . .

Country Party Labor P a rty . .

Liberi:Ll Party Other Parties . .

Country Party Labor Party ..

Liberal Party Other Parties . .

Common· wealth.



41 50 2


21 29 48 2


New South Victoria. Wales.


5 8

39 40

52 52

4 ..

100 100

Cou NTR Y.

26 19

26 35

47 44

I 2

100 100



43 47 4


28 25 42 5



18 23 16 24

31 27 36 28

49 48 46 43

2 2 2 5

100 100 100 100



Hours. 332 1,216


199 706


South Western Tasmania. Au,tralia. Ausiralia.

6 8 5

42 42 42

50 47 53

2 3 ..

100 100

I 100

7 10 ..

36 22 38

53 64 62

4 4 ..

100 100 10.0

6 I 9 2

39 32 39

52 56 59

3 3 ..

100 100 100

---- ·


Liberal Party Country Party Labor Party Other Parties ..

Liberal Party Country Party Labor Party Other Parties ..

Liberal Party Country Party Labor Party ..

Other Parties ..



.. ..

} .. .. .. .. .. ..



CommoP· New South

Victoria. Queensland. wealth. Wales.



49 I{

52 2

46 39


\} 32 4 58 52 5 7 2 16 100 100 I 100 100 CouNTRY. 56 { 42 28 } 46 18 25 38 35 46 41 6 5 1 13 100 100 100 100 METROPOLITAN AND CouNTRY CoMBINED. 55 I{ 44 30 } 43 15 21 40 36 48 43 5 5 1 14 100 100 100 100


South Western Tasmania. Australia. Australia.



I{ 57 i 50 .. 57 40 43 2 1 .. 100 100 100 44 76 {



53 23 47

3 1 ..

100 100 100

43 69 {



55 30 46

2 1 ..

100 100 100

An important part of the 1949 campaign was the c;ontribution of organizations other than parties, which occupied 17 per cent. of the total time allocated to political matter. In the 1951 campaign ouly 6 per cent. of the total time was occupied by organizations. The distribution of time was made as folluws :-1949. Metropolitan stations

Country stations

1951. Metropolitan stations Country stations

Hours. 64 298


}6 58


In each case a large number of organizations took part, but m each case the bulk of the time was used by relatively few of them as shown in the following tables:-


Organizations representing banks or bank employees ..

Federal Independence Fund . . . . . . ..

Constitutional League .. .. .. .. ..

Citizens Rights Association .. .. . . ..

Other organizations and persons . . .. . . ..


Australian Council of Trade Unions People's Union Party .. Federal Economic Council Australian Coal and Shale Employees Federation

Queensland Institute of Public Affairs Other organizations and persons (18)


.. . . . .

.. .. . .

.. . . . .

.. . . . .

.. .. . .


Metropolitan. I


21 48

40 20

16 8

17 6

6 18

100 100


43 24 10 8



Percentage of time.

37 21 8





(NOTE.-The above statement does not take into account any part of any programme sponsored by any of the above organizations which did not consist of political matter.)


The distribution of political matter between stations was not evenly made, but it is convenient to strike an average :figure for the amount of time per station so occupied in campaign. In 1949 this average was 21.25 hours per station or 4.2 per cent. of the total hours of transmission during an election period of five weeks and two days; in 1951, 12.3 hours per station, or 3.1 per cent. of the total hours of transmission during an election period of four weeks. ,

The Australian Broadcasting Commission is, under the provisions of section 89 of the Act, solely responsible for political broadcasts from national stations. In each case the Commission adopted a period of eight hours per stations for election broadcasts-six hours on national relay and two hours for State transmission. (In areas served by two national transmitters this time was shared between the sb tions.) In the 1949 campaign 30 minutes was allocated to the no n-Communist (Lang) Labor Party for transmission in Sydney and Melbourne only.

79 1


Appendix D.


Aikin, Hev. Tf.T . J . H., Managing Director, Australian Religious Film Society. Alexander, Professor F., Dean of the Faculty of Arts, University of V\T estern Australia. Alexander, H., General Secretary, A.ctors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia. Alexamler, J . 0., Chief Commonwealth Film Censor.

Allen, E . E ., Chief Enginee r , Hadio Station 4BK, representing Queensland Newspapers Pty. Ltd. Armstrong, R. . E .,. Assistan t S ecretar y (Assimilation ), Commo HY\·e alth Department of I mmigratio n. Arnold, C. E., Actmg Gener al Secretary, Postal T eleco mmunications Technicians' Asso.ciation ( Aust.). Badenach, H. 11., Director of Air1vays, D ep artment of Civil Aviation.

Barr, R ev . A. C., Presbyterian Church of Victoria . Beattie, R ev. G. A., Presbyterian Church of Victoria. Bea-rer, H. E ., President, Australian Federation of Commercial Broaucasting .Stations. Benson, tT . E ., Amalgamated vVireless (Australasia) I-'im ited. Bir d, R . C., Hawthorn, Melbourne. Bishop, Professor J ., Professor of .:"-.delaid e representing the Film and Television Uouncil

of South Australia. _

Boyer , H . J . :F., Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission. B r oadLy, H. H., Secretary, Australian Council of T r ade Unio ns. Brovvn, K. S ., Standard T elephones and Cables Pty. Ltd. Bro1vn, Dr. M. S., P resident, New Education Fellowship, N mv South Wales Branch.

B urton, B. L. , Department of Trade and Customs, Canberra. Butcher, :F. E . J., 001nmonvvealth Bank of Austra 1ia. Butters, Sir J . H., C.M .G., 1LB.E., Y.D., Chairman of Directors, Associated Newspapers Ltd. and of Radio 2UE (Sydney) Pty. Ltd. Byth, :Mrs. E . :F., O.B .E., National Council of vVomen of Australia.

Cald er, Mrs. M. E ., Women's Service Guilds of vVestern Australia Inc. Cameron, The Hon . .:'\ . G., M.P ., Speaker of the House of Representatives, Canberra, representing the V icto-ri a District Committee of the and Country L eague of South Australia.

C argher, J ., Glen Iris, Melbourne. Casely, :Miss E ., Hon. Se·cretary, Australian :Fc

Chippindall, G. T., O.B.E ., Directo r-General, Posts and Telegraphs. Clark, S. R. I ., :Manager, Brisbane Broadcasting P ty., representing· N e-vvspapers Pty. Ltd. Coleman, L . R., Managing Director, J . Walter Thompson Aust . P ty. Ltd. Crouch, E. C., Country Broadcasting Services Limited .

Crowley, N. G., Assistant Director, Department of National Development. Oucllipp, W. J ., President, Australian Association of National Advertisers. Cullen :Mrs. B . J ., Country \V omen's Association of Australia. D avey; Dr. C. 1L, League of vVomen Voters of South Australia. Davies, B., Senior Lecturer, Adelaide Unive rsity, rep resenting t he F ilm and Television Council of South

Australia. Dawes E. R . Vice Chairrrj_an, Australian Broaucasting Commission. Dento;1 S . B: Director, 5KA Broadcasting Company Limited ; United Churches Social Reform Board (.S outh ; Methodist Church of Australasia-South Australian Conference. Disney P . C. W., H eadmaster, Scotch College, Adelaide, representing the Film and Television Council of

Australia. · ·

Donovan J. 11. AssistaTit Secretary, Australian Broadcasting Control Board. Douo·lass' J. Director of Rural Broadcasts, Australian Broadcasting Commission. w: V.C. General Manager, The H erald and \ V" eekly Times Limited, Melbourne.

Dye, H. 'w., 'Hon. Secretary, Arts Council of Australia (Victorian Division). Evans, E. A., Managing Director, 7EX P ty. Lt d., Launceston. E'wart Mrs. B., Concord, Sydney. Ewers; J. K., President, F ellowship of Austr alian ters ( vVeste rn Section).

:Fabinyi, Dr. A., Publishing Manager, F . 7l. CheshHe Pty. Ltd ... Falk Mrs. B. Victorian 'Co uncil for Ch ildren's Films and Telev ision. S. K: State Schools Committees ' Ass o.ciation of Victo ria.

:Faudell, 0. L.: Electronic Industries Lini.ited, Chief Supervisor, P ye E lectr onic Pty. Ltd. Faulkner A. D. Newcastle Broadcasting Company P ty. Ltd. F eatherstone, R .'H., General Sec retary, State School T ca:hers' Uniou of W.A. Inc. Fisher J. A. Church of Christ P erth, Vles tern Au strah a.

Fisk, .Sir E. T., formerl.Y J?irector, a2 1cl }fu-·ical Industries Limited .

Fogarty H. F . G. Chauman VIctonan .A sso C1atcc1 Brewers. ' . ' . ) . ' TT . f I l ' :Foley, B., Vice-President, N atlonal. Far mers m.on o m stra Ia. Forrester J. Electrical Trades Umon of Austr aha (Quee nsland Branch) . Fox, A . E. R., Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) I.imited.

Francis Hev. W. C. President New Sou th Vval es Co nfe rence, Methodist Chur ch of Australasia. Freadn;an, P., .National C?--as Ass ociation .of A1J strali a.

Glover, A. G., President, Wuele . I n tltute ..:i.u ,-,trah a. .

Gronow W. R. F ederal Vice-Pres ident, Wue]e Institute of Austrah a. Hain, Mrs. G. A., Presidr.nt, H ousewiYes ' Victorian Division.

Hale, E. V., Sydney. H all A. L. McKinnon, Melbourne. H a-v:es, S. G., Producer-in-Chief, Film Division, Depar rment of the Interior. F .5242j5lr.-8


Heath, H. F., President, New South Wales Teachers' Federation. H enderson, R.ev. K. T., Supervisor of Religious Broadcasts, Australian Broadcasting Commission. Hilliard, Rt. Rev. W. G., Bishop..!Coadjutor of Sydney. Executive Member, Australian Council for the World Council of Chur.ches. Hob bin, Hev. W. J., Director, Social Service Department, New South Wales Conference of the Methodist

Church of Australasia; Member of Standing Committee, Child Welfare Advisory Council of New South Wales. Hooke, L. A. G. , Managing Director, Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited; Chairman, Electronics and Allied Industries Division, Chamber of Manufactures of New South Wales. Hooper, E. M., Ghief Engineer, Radio Station 3DB, representing the Herald and Weekly Times Limited. Howell, F. R ., ExBcutive Member, Victorian Wheat and \Vool Growers Association. Howse, J . B., :M.P., Parliamentary Under Secretary, JYfinister for Territories; JVIember for Calare, New

South Wales. Hull, G. M., Federal Secretary, Wireless Institute of Australia. J ames, 0. R. B., Hon. Director, Adult Deaf and Dumb Society of V'jctoria. J effa res, Professor A. N., Professor of English, Adelaide "'University, representing the Film and Television

Council of South Australia. Jones, S. 0., Technical Director, Philips Electrical Industries Pty. Ltd. Jose, D. A. A. , Director of Programme Services, Australian Broadcasting Control Board. K ain, Rev. Canon A. E., Church of England, South Australia. Keogh, M. B., Australian Culture Defence Movement. Kiek, Rev. Winifred, Vice-President, Australian Federation of Women Voters. Lamb, S. P. P., Managing Director, Newcastle Broadcasting Company Pty. Ltd . .Lane, R. E., Sydney.

Larkin, J. 8., General Manager, 5DN Broadcasting Station. Leonard, R. B., Herald ,and Weekly Times Limited. Liebert, S. F. E., President, Australian Council of School Organizations. Long, V. R., Superintendent of Primary and Modern Schools, Education Department, Tasmania. Lyons, Most Rev. Monsignor P. F., Auxiliary Bishop to His Eminence Cardinal Gilroy, representing the

Catholic Church in Australia. MacAlphine, E. W., Editor-in-Chief, Consolidated Press Ltd. McDonald, D., Director of Services, Australian Broadcasting ·Control Board. MacDonald, K. A., Manager, Advertiser Broadcasting Network, representing Advertiser N e·ws papers Limited. McDowall, lbs. K. S., South Yarra, Melbourne. McGowan, L. T., General Secretary-Treasurer, Professional Radio Eimployees' Institute of Australia. 1fcKenzie, A. J., Assistant Director of Technical Services, Australian Broadcasting Control Board. Maclean, Miss M., Neutral Bay, Sydney. McMillan, Professor J. R. A., Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sydney. Martin, A. F., Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited. Medley, Sir J. D. G., Member, Australian Broadcasting Commission: Formerly Vice Chancellor, University

of Melbourne. Metcalfe, J. W., Principal Librarian, Public I ,ibrary of New South Wales. Mrs. T. C., President, National Council of Women of New South Wales.

Mills, :Miss M., National Council of Women of South Australia. Mills, 1fiss N. M., General Secretary, Queensland Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Mitchell, E. G., Director of Agriculture, Chicago, National Broadcasting Company, United States of America. Moses, C. J. A., General Manager, Australian Broadcasting Commission. Moulds, H. G., Secretary, Australasian Inter-Union Conference of Seventh Day Adventists. Mountain, G. R., Chief Inspector and Senior Economist, National Bank of Australasia Ltd., Melbourne. Mulrooney, J. L., M.V.O., M.B.E., Australian National Football Council. Murphy, B. Buller, Barrister, 46:2 Chancery-lane, l1:elbourne. N aden, L. C., Australasian Inter-Union Conference of Seventh Day Adventists. Nash, C. H., Secretary, Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations. Neal, W. D., Ron. Federal Secretary, New Education Fellowship. Nixon, N. V., President, Australian Asso:eiation of Advertising Agencies. O'Donnell, M. W., Assistant :Secretary, General Finance and Economic Policy Branch, Commonwealth

Department of the Treasury, representing the Treasury. Ogilvy, C., Managing Director, Macquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd. O'Grady, F. P., Superintendent (Engineering) Commonwealth Department of Supply, South Australia. O'Kelly, J., Secretary, Australian Broadcasting Control Board. Oliver, E., Engineer, Brisbane. Paddison, A. G., General Manager, Transcontinental Broadcasting Corporation Limited. Paton, Mrs. A., Chairman, Victorian Council for Children's Films and Television. Pearce, E. H., General Manager, 5KA Broad·casting Company Limited. Penny, Dr. H. H., Principal, Adelaide Teachers' College. Perkins, W. H., Ledurer in Education, University of Tasmania. Phillips, A. C., President, Fellowship of Australian Writers (Victorian Branch). Potter, A. G., Chairman, Australian Jockey Club, representing the Principal Racing Clubs of Australia . . Poulter, Dr. M. W., Principal, Teachers' College, Launceston, representing Tasmanian State School Tea-chers'

Federation. Prest Professor W., Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne. Pring)e, N. H. L., Director of Variety, Australian Broadcasting Commission. Reynolds E. A., Adult Deaf and Dumb Society of Victoria. Ridley A., Country Broadcasting Services Limited. Ridley: J. E., Chairman of Directors, Country Broadcasting Services Limited, Robertson, Dr, T. L. i Director of Education, Wester:p. A-qst:ralia,



Rosenthal, N. 1:1., Director, Yisual Aids Department, University of :Melbourne. Russell, E. A., Senior Lecturer in Economics, Adelaide University, representing the }..,ibn and Television Council of South Australia. Sanders, L. J., Managing Director, Sanders Chemical Limited.

Schofield, The Venerable Archdeacon J. A., Chairman, Archbishop of Melbourne's Committee on Television. Scrimgeour, C. G., Chairman and Managing Director, Associated TV Pty. Smith, E. K., Radio and Television Writers' Guild. Spielvogel, E., Centelex Trading Company. Stevenson, M. H., Australian Federation of Commercial Broadc,asting Stations; Chief Engineer, Radio 2UE

(:Sydney) Pty. Ltd. Stewart, E. J., Supervising Engineer, Postmaster-General's Department. Swift, :Mrs. I. E., Women's Service Guilds of vVestern Australia Inc. Taylor, H. V., Architect, Melbourne.

Thomas, Hev. T. W., Hon. Secretary, Archbishop of Melbourne's Committee on Television. Thomas, Rev. W. C., Hon. Secretary, Council of Churches in Victoria. Tildesley, }.;[iss E. 1L, 1LB.E., President, British Drama League (Aust.). Tovvner, A. D., Engineer, Burnie, Tasmania.

Traine, A. G., General Secretary, Farmers' Union of ·western Australia Inc. Turner, E. L. A., Hon. Secretary, Public Affairs and Parliamentary Reform JYiovement. Ure, R. M., Directing A.rchitect Commonwealth Department of vVorks. vVadham, Professor S. M., of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of JY1elbourne. Walker, Rev. A., Executive Member, Australian Couneil for the vVorld Council of Churches. vVarner, Hon. A. G., M.L.C., Managing Director, Electronic Industries Warner, G. A., Ele>Ctronic Industries Limited. \Vauchope, Miss l.L L., Senior Lecturer, Teachers' College, Adelaide. Webb, L. C., Reader in Political Science, Australian National University. Weeden, W. J., Director, Commonwealth Office of Education. 'White, J. M., Secretary, Taxpayers' Association of New .South Wales.

vVilson, J. L. J., Director of Tutorial Classes, Sydney University. .

vVoollacott, Rev. E. H., Director, United Churches Social Reform Board; Methodist Church of Australasia-South Australian Conference. vVordley, E. G., Author, Hobart. Worrall, D. T., Manager, Radio Stations 3DB-3I.,K. vVyndham, Dr. H. S., Dire-ctor-General of Education, N e·w South vVales.


Appendix E.


1'his bibliography comprises literature on aspects of television, and legislation arising

through the impact of telev ision on society. A review has been made of the literature available in Austr alia as at 1st D ecember, 1953, and prece dence has been given t o the mo r e recent literature, but a pr oportion of older refer ences has been ch osen for its hist orical interest, an d to indicate logical developments. The arrangement is alphabetical under broad sub ject headings, except in the case of legislation where references are in chrono logical order.


JOIN'l' Parlia mentary Com mittee on Broacl eastiug. Heport. 2i5th :Mar., 1042 . Ch a inna n-;::-;enator t he Hon. vV. G. Gib::;on . P AR L,I A J:viENTARY Standing Committee on Br oa dcasting . R eports. 1942-1948. AUSTRALIAN Broadcasting Act 1942-1953 . 'I'ELBVISION Act 19 53 . BroRdcast ing Control Board. An nual reports. 1949-19 52.

CANADIAN Broadcast ing Act Hl 36 ( a,s a mended ). RADIO Ac t Hl3 8 (as a m ended ) .


ROYAL Commission o n nation al developmen t in t h e arts, letter:s an d ::;cience::; . Repor t . ll:I 4U -1 9G l. Chairman- Viscount Ma ssey. P A RLI AMENT. Hou se of Common,; . Spceial com mitt ee on rad io broadcasting. ::\Iinutes of proceedings and ev ide nce 1\os. 1-11 . Nov.-Dec., 195 1.

(Includes r Ppol't on < 11H1 a im:-: of t h e C.B. C. )

CA N ADIAN Broadcasting Co r poration . Annual r eports. 19 :)0-] U5:3 .


TELEVISION Oommittee . Report, 1935. Ch airma n-Lord 8elsclo n. ( Cmd. 4793 . ) TEL,EVISION Commit t ee ] 943 . R eport 2Dth Dec., 1!)44 . Ch airm an-Lord Hankey. BROADCASTING Policy. Lond. , H .l\II. S.O., July , 10 40. ( Cm cl . ti852 . ) BROADCASTING Committee. Report, 1!)4!) . Lon cl ., Jan., 195 1. Cha irman- Lord Beveridge. ( Cm cl . 8116 . )

Appendix H. Memor a nda submitted. ( Cmd. 8117. ) B R OA DCA STING. :Mem orallClu m on t h e r eport of t he Br oa f1 ca stiug Com mittee 1949-­ July, 1951. ( Cmd. 829 1. ) lVIay , 1952. ( Cmcl .

No.-. , 1953. ( Cmd. 0005. ) BROADCASTI NG. Copy of licelJC·e a nd agr eem en t between H .iVL Post mast€r- Genera1 a nd the British Broadcast ing Corporation. Lond., J une, 1052 . ( Cm d. 867 9. ) Draft of Hoyal C:h art er for cont inuance of B.B.C. ].;ond., June, 19 52. ( Umcl. 8580. ) BRITI SH Broadcasting Cor porat ion. Annual r epor t and accounts for the year 1952 -30. ( lJmd. SD28 .) TEL,E VISION Advisor y Go nnn it t ee l D52. First H. eport. Loud., H .M.S.O., 1953 .

B a sis fo r piau for ut>e of f r eljuen cies iu Great B r itain fo r t e levision purposes. " TEL E,VISION space fo r sale.·' (Edit orial.) E co-nornist, pp. 751- 3, 13th June, 1953. Comm en t on estim a t e ot nu m lw r of ·chann el s• 1'ln1t can be r eserved f or British coi umerei;ll n etwor ks in d ew of E'.B.C.

tedm icn l uevelopme n ts.


F E D ERAL COMMU N ICATIONS COMMI SSION. Communication s Act of 1934 (as amended). Annual r eports 13-18th. 194'7-1 953 . Sixth report and OHler . F iual t elev ision a llocations r eport. lkoadcasti,ng 'l'elecastin g, Par t II., 14th Apr., 1952; also puulished in R egist m·, v. 17, no. 87, 2nd May, 195 2, vV a sh.

I nvestigation of radio a nd t elevision programs. Final report of 'the F.C .C. Sub- Committee to t he Committee on Interstate and F or eig'n Commerce . Chairman-0. H arris. \¥ash ., Govt. Ptg . Off., 1952. Study to d et ermine the ext Pn t ro which p rogram s con tnin immora l and oth erwi :>•e offe n sive m atter, or place improper emphasi s ou c l'ime, violence a nd corrup t ion.

GRE.A T BR,ITAIN . SP R I N G, S. Risks ST'RA SCHN OV, G. 88 -!) 5, Summer ,


Copyrig ht Co mmittee. R eport. Lond., H.M.S. O. , Oct ., 1952 . a nd rights in publishing, television, radio, motion pictures, adver t ising a nd t he theatre. Loud., 1952. "'Copyright obstacle s to the I nternational exch a nge of t elevision programmes." B.B.O. Qnar t., G, n o. 2: 195 1.


DUNNI NG, .T. " The r a,dio a nd t elevision indu st ry : a post-vvar survey." 'l'hree Banks R e'IYiew, No. 14, Jun e, 1952. Nation-wil1 e acceptan ee of tel eYi o; io n a >; a nH' a n s of' en tert ainment. In 5 years sale of set s is impor t ant singl e item i u

t enus of yalue produ ced by t ll e t r atl<' .

DUNNIN G, J. " P r ospects for r adio a nd television in 19,53." D i s t1·,ict B ank ]?,e'v'iew, X o. 10 5 : -28-42, Mar., 1953. R e d e" · of t r ends and deYr lopments i n Gr ea t B rita in in 19G2. FAUGHT, ilL C. " T ele1·ision : an interi m su mmiug-up." Satt/,J'day R ev . L it:., 26t h Aug., 1950. Su bscripti on t elevision con sider ed n eces:;a r y to fi n ance ·good progr a mmes . F AU GHT, M . C. " T elevision: an interim sum ming-up." Satt/,rday R ev. Lit., 1952.

Probl'em,; of' telP I' i ::;lo u bruadca.stin g a r e r ootetl in ecollomic S u b:; crip t iou t elecasting a s ol ution .

F AU GHT', M. C. "' P osit i. n approach to t he f ut ure of t elevi::; ion. " 'l'ext of speech tl eliv er ecl bef ore t h e :'li en 's Adver t i sing Club of Washington , on 17th i.\far., Ulbi:l . F EDERAL COMMUNI CATIONS COMMISSION. Broadcast finan cial data fo r networ ks and AM, FM and T elevi sion st ations. vV a sh ., 195'2. GERALD, J . E ., and ECKLAND, G. K . " P r obable effect s of teleYi sion on in come of other media ." Jotwnnlisrn Qua1·t., 29:

388-9 5, Fall. 19 52 . Analys•is of p a st and r u t u r e tio11 of ad rcr ti siug d olla rs.

GREENE, H. C. " Television t ranscript ions : the eco nomic p o::; sibilit ies." JJ .H. O. Qua1 ·t ., 7, n o. 4 : 2 Hl-22l , vVinter, 1952. A lPYi sion t r anscriptions. bo t h fi lm s and kinescopes, i n U nited States . l\1ar l\et will in cn'ase wh e11 t el evision sen ices cs t 11 blish r cl .

HOWARD, J. " Hollywoo d a nd t elcvisio11 : year of decis ion .'' QiW1'i . F''ivm , R cuUo an d 'l'elevision , -7, no. 4: 35 9, Summer, 19 53. To avoid televi sion being a m edi ocr e dis pP n s•er of lo w g rM1e r nrli o plu s sig' h t, f·hcatr e t elevision or subscript ion teleYi o; ion

n rcessary to finan ce devel op m en L



NATIONAL CO. Television to-day: its impact on people and products. June, 1951.

A :study as to the effectiveness of television advertising conducted in the New YOl'lt mt tropol'itan area iu Jan., 1951. Television to-day: Report II: Additional :findinO's and research methods of the second NBC-Hofstra study by T. E. Coffin. Apr., 1952. 0

. '

NAPOLITANO, G. "Television broadcasting and its legal and economic problems." O.I.T. Bull., 1: 15'9-163, 1951. Proposals for the Study Groups of the International Television Committee submitted at conftrence held in Paris, 12th-13th Feb., 1951. Exchange of programmes considered necessary. '

RENWICK, R. "Television programmes: a new link of Commonwealth." New Commonwealth, 25: 267-8, 16th Mar., 1953. Opportunity for Britain to provide acceptable films for countries which must rely largely upun programmes compiled elsewhere. "TELEVISION'S time of trouble." Fortune, p. 75, Aug., 1951. (Editorial.)

Phonevision and/or theatre t elevision necessary, as advertising cannot wholly finance television broadcasting.


GORHAM, M. Broadcasting and television since 1900. Lond., Dakers, 1952. In Great Britain. HORTON, D. Television's story and challenge. Lond., Harrap., 1951. In England, U.S.A., Russia, France and Germany.

SIMON, Ernest Darwin, 1st Baron Simon of Wythenshawe (Chairman of B.B.O. 1947-11:!52). B.B.C. from within. Lond., 1953. SIMON, Ernest Darwin, 1st Ba1·on Simon of "J!Vythenshawe. "Broadcasting in other countries." Political Quart., 24, no. 4: 345-8, Oct.-Dec., 1953. SWIFT, J. Adventure in vision. Lond., Lehmann, 1950. U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Radio broadcast primer. INF-2, p. 14-22, Wash., Nov., 1952. WILLIS, E. E. Foundations in broadcasting. N.Y., Oxford U.P., 1951.


BORSOCK, E. "Television, its legal limitations." Boston Univ. Law Rev., 32: 179·89, Apr., 1951. Television and governmental programming limitations; television and state contror; television and the rights involved tn telecasting sport events. ·

ROBBINS, E. C. "Some legal problems of television in England." Eu1·opean Broadcasttng Union Doc. and lnf. Bull., 1, no. 3: 226-229, 15th Sept., 1950. SAGLE, R. F. "The nature and effect of major sports restrictions on radio and televJsion broadcasting rights under the Sherman Act." Geo. Wash. Law Rev., 21: 466-82, Mar., 1953. SOLINGER, D. M. "Unauthorized uses of television broadcasts." Columbia Law Rev., 48: 848-75, Sept., 1948.

TERROU, F., and SOLAL, L. Legislation for press, film and radio. Unesco, Paris, 1951. WARNER, H. P. Radio and television law: a standard reference book on the legal and regulatory structure of the radio industry. N.Y., Matthew Bender Co., 1948. WARNER, H. P. Radio and television rights: the l aw of copyright, trade marks and unfair competition and the broadcasting

industry. N.Y., Matthew Bender, 1953. (In 4 vols.) ·


ADAMS, M. "Television and education." J. Roy. Soc. Arts, 97: 195-203, II th Feb., 1949. Second Cantor Lecture on television delivered on 29th Nov., 1948. OARSON, S. Television and education: Panel discussion with the co-operation of Nat. Assoc. of Educ. Broadcasters on need for reservation of channels for educational broadcasting. Symposium. New Republic, 26th Feb., 1951.

COOLEY, H. Vision in television: the origins and potentialities of educational television. N.Y., Channel Press, 1952. DENNY, R. ''A note on the educational television channels." Chicago Univ. "Round Table", No, 782, 29th Mar., 1953. DUNHAM, F. "The obligations of an educational television st!ltion." Educ. Rec01·d, 33 : 392-402, July, 1952. A•lflress before the Am erican Council on Education. HOLTZMANN, J. L. "E-TV "-The challenge of educational television. Univ. of State of N.Y. Press, 1953. LASSWELL, H. "Educational broadcasters as social scientists." Quart. Film, Radio and Television, 7, no. 2 : 150, Winter,

1952. .

LEVENSON, vV. B., and STASHEFF, E'. Teaching through radio and television: N.Y., Rhinehart, 19 52. McNICKLE, R. K. Television in education. Editorial Res. Reports, 1, no. 20: 31st May, 1951. "NOTES for our 'Time capsule': reflections on educational television." See and Hear, 7, no. 5: 7,1952. (Editorial.) Writer considers evolution of visual education was delayed through lack of orderly planning by vi sionaries, and th01t television also has these visionaries. To me et cost of t erevision station, Iowa's State College leases some of the stati.on 's tim e for poor

programmes such as low-comedy and strip teas·e. NEWSON, C. V., Ed. Television policy for education: Proceedings of the Television Programs Institute, held under the auspices of the American Council on Education at Pennsylvania State College, Apr., 21·24, 1952, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, State Education Dept. Use of television for educational purposes in the State of New York.

Albany, 1952. Televisio n broadcasting should further the democratic aim of increasing the understanding of the many. NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. Addresses given at Conference at Schenectady, 12th-13th Nov., 1952 . Advantages of pooling resources of cultural institutions of the State of New York for educational programmes. OLSON, 0. J., Ed. Education on the air 1952 . . 22nd year-book of the Institute for Education by Radio and Television .

Ohio State Univ. Fress, 1952. PAULU, B. "Challenge of the 242 channels" Pt. I. Quart. Film, Radio and Television, 7, no. 1; I, Fall, 19 52 . Pt. II., 7, no. 2: 141, Winter, 1952. History of television channels allocation, and analysis of functions, costs and possibilities of educational television stations.

SIEGEL, S. N. "Educational broadcasting in the United States." B.B.C. Quart., 8, no . 1: 17, Spring, 19 53 . Audi Pnce building wilT be necessary, owing to lack of proper information about programmes, and wide gap that exists between size of audience and size they might have. SIEPMANN, C. A. Television and education in the United States. Press, film and radio in the world to-day .Series. Unesco,

Paris, 1952. TAYLOR, D. "The possibilities of educational television on commercial stations/' Educ. Record, 33: 392 -402, July, 1952. Address before Americau Council on Education, Chicago, 2nd May, 1952. TAYLOR, T. "Television as an educational medium." Educ. Reo. 33: 30-4, Jan., 1952 .

Possibilities of television for educational purposes cannot be realized until its econom ic base is broaaened and diversified. TELEVISION: a challenge and a chance for education. Courier , Unesco, 6, no. 3, March, 1953. U.S. JOINT COMMITTEE on Educational Television. Television channels for education: a statement on the and potentialities .of educational television. Wash., 1951. WIGREN, H. E. "Educational television: some suggestions." Teachers' College Record, p. 23 -30, Oct., 1952,

Educational t Plevision is community centered television arising out of needs, interests and concern s of community groups, and gives opportunity for discu ssion of problems in public forum. Aims to develop " thinking ".



DAVIES, S. W. "Adult education telecasts in Baltimore." Adult Educ., 11, No. 1, Oct., 1951. FORD FOUNDATION Fund for Adult Education. Annual report, 1951, p. 33-34 TV-radio workshop. FORD FOUNDATION Fund for Adult Education. Challenge of lifetime learning, 1953. Describes how more than $2m . . has been spent on radio-TV projects during 1.1. 52 to 30. 6. 53. FRASER, A. "Limits to democracy. The standardized mind." Voice, p. 12, July, 1953.

Discusses part played by prl' ss, radio and television in trend towards development of standardized mind. MILLER, R. C. "Scientific museum's experiment in television." Museum, Unesco, 5, no. 4: 248-50, 1952. Television program " Science in action " gponsored by California Acad. Sci <' nces. MOORE, R. \iV. "Television: a cautionary approach." B.B.O. Q·uart., .5, no. l: 8-12, Spring, 1950.

F ears television by increasing standardized entertainment wilf prevent individuality. SCHOENE,R, A. "An art museum's experiment in television." Museum, Unesco, 5, no. 4: 239-244, 1952. San Franeisco :Museum of Art has put on regular television programmes ·â€¢ Art in your life" since April, 1951. PACIFIO COAST Committee for Humanities. Humanities in television: a symposium. Pacific Spectcito1·, 6, no. 3: 272-90, ·

1!}52. Conference held at San J:i'ra.ncisco in Feb., 1952, "E-TV at adult level". Contents. Ideas of history by G. E . .Mowry. Literature and the adult laity by R. B. Heilman. Value of imaginative under­ standing by L. Sears.

REHAGE, K. J., and HE.YWOOD, S. J. ,., Television and educa tion." Elementa1·y School J., 133-135, Nov., 1952. Includes some findings of the Montclair, N. · J . television in education project. Research needed for most effective use of 242 TV channels reserYed for edueation. Television best media for continuing adult education. SOOP, E .. J. "University of Michigan television hour." A.dult Educ. (U.S.), 2: 113-116, Feb., 1952.


"BATTLEGROUND: ' Vhy we oppose the television boom." Annual Fall inventory of new audio-visual materials 1952, published by See and If ear (Editorial). CLARKE, E. "Television experiment in Salt Lake City. Local co-operation." See and Hea-r, p. 13, Nov., 19.51. P1·ograms using public school students since Sept., 1949. CONRAD, L. H. Television. in educational project. Educational television moves forward: report of a full school day of

ultra-high freq·uency classroom television programs in the public schools of Bloomfield and Montclair, New Jersey, uu 30th Apr., 1952. Montclair State Teachers' College, July, 1952. DUNHAM, F. "Television ·brings new challenge to teaching." School Life, Nov., 1951. Televised subjEcts .in degree course at Western Reserve University. DUNHAM, F. "Effect of television on school achievement." School Life, pp. 88-89, Mar.1 1952.

Comment on Xavier survey-How do children with television sets compare with non-television owners. G4'BLE., M. A. «The viewers' views on classroom television." Ed·uc. Screen, June, 1951. A Philadelphia survey r ecords reactions of pupils, teachers and parents who are viewing and using school telecasts.

LEVIN, B. "Television aml the schools." Harv

Summary of survey held at South Shore. High School in Chicago. PHILADELPHIA PUBLIO SCHOOLS. Television schedules. Monthly bulletin of t elevision school programmes. WITTY, P. "Television and the high school student." Education, Dec., 1951. WITTY, P. "Television and the educative process.'' School and Society, 369-72, 15th Dec., 1951.

Summary of survey held at Evanston, Illinois, of 2,100 erementary pupils and 1,700 parents to see how children's strong interest in television can be utilized to best adYilntnge and to stimulate .varied interests• and reading.

K., Ed. Television annual for 1953. Lond.


BENOIST, P. "Le theatre a la television, un nouvel art a decouvrir." '.reievisPd theatre productions seem flat; need for dramatic work to cater speeeh rs and artificiality do not go over· well.


La television pTatique, Apr., 1953. for requirements of television. Static action, lengthy

E. S. "'Television scale and , television index." Sociol. Rev., 17: 220-3, Apr., 1952.

· P rogramme selection--survey of 20, of programmes to s•ce how people would react to television programmes if given time and opportunity to view. . ,;;<

BUSSELL, J. Art of television. Lond., Art of producing programmes. Televi.· . · owerful means of national expression. OARSON, S. "TV's brave new experimen '!'he Nation, 17th Jan., l95a. Innovations in programm •,'s produced by Ford Foundation's T.V.-Radio Workshop. CLARK, M. "'relevision prospect ·", pp. 174-187, Cinema 1952, Lond., Pelican.

'l'elevil"ion the ideal medium for feature programmes. COOKE, A. "Television 'code' in the U.S." Listener, pp. ll 08-l:l, 27th Dec., 1951. GOR.HAM, M. "TV: a medium in its own right?" pp. 131-146, Cinema, 1951, Lond., Pelican. HODAPP, W. Television ma-nual: practical guide to television production and programming for education, public affair:;

and entertainment, N.Y., Farrar, Strauss & Young, 1953. HUBBE,LL, R. Television prog-ramming and production. N.Y., Murray Hill, 1945. HULBERT, J. "'Television and entertainment." J. Roy. S'oc·. Arts, 97, 203-13, llth Feb., 1949. Third Cantor Lecture on television. MANVELL, R. " Head start in television.'' " B.B.C.-TV: an interview with Roger Manvell." Quart. Jl'ilm, Radio an-d

'l' elevi.sio-n, 7, no. 3: 246-263, Spring, 1953. Details of E'ritisb television programme service. NATIONAL BROADCASTING CO. NBC radio and television broadcast standards. N.Y., 1951. Company r ecognizes its basic responsibility is to serve and advance the public interest. NEWNHAM, J. K. Television .behind the scenes. Lon., Convoy Pubs., 1948. B.B.G. programmes.

viewer". ORME, F. "New television code." Quart. Filrn, Radio (tnd 6, no. 4: 404·413, Summer 1952.

PENNELL E. "Home economics in television." ll. J. Home Econ., 45: 239-42, Apr., 1953. There a declining interest among viPwers in home economics programmes ; suggestions for improvements.

Chap. n:-" The

SWEZEY, R. D. "Give the TV code a chance.'' QuM·t. Film, Radio and Television, 7, no. l: 13-24, Fall 1952. Deve1opm Pnt and provisions of the Code for programme s!andards and practices by the Assoc. of Radio and :relevision Br(}adcasters. Writer considers Code is sincere attempt by American television broadcasters to Improve service to thf' public. TELEVISION: the viewer and the advertiser. Text of a memo. on competitive television and draft suggestions for the

reaulations of programmes, submitted jointly by the Inc. Society of Britisl1 Advertisers and the Institute of Inc. in Advertising to H.M. Postmaster-General. 1953.

UNESCO. World survey. Paris, 1953. Comprehensive world survey of pres C> nt television f!tations and plans for future introduction of television -in 4Ci countries and non-self-governing territories.


UNITED STATES. Text of NARTB [National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters] television code. Broadcasting Telecasting, p. 81, lOth bee., 1951. In force as from 1st March, 1952. .\dopted on a voluntary basis by the television industry. U.S. DE·PARTMENT OF AGR.ICULTURE. Office of Information . Television report. Sec. III. Programme methods. Feb.,


YOUNG, M. S. "Television: how bad can it be." A. mer. Scholar, 20: 447 -M, Autumn, 1951. Discus-ses poor quality of programmes and future trends.



BATTEN, Barton, Durstone & Osborne Inc. What's happening to leisure time in television homes ? N.Y., 1951. BEVERIDGE, ·william Henry, Baron ll_everidge. " Monopoly. and broadcasting." Political Qua1·t., 24, no. 4: 387 -95, Oet.-D ec ., 1953.

BRACKBILL,. C. "The church must use television." Religion ·in Life, 22: 110-21, Winter 1952-53 . . H. R. ."The television set becomes a French village meeting place." Courier, UNESCO, p. 3, Aug.-Sept., 1952.

Comnmmty television. COFFIN, '1'. J£. "Television's effects on leisure time activities." J. A.pplied Psychology, Oct., 1948. COLLINS, N. '''Television and the future." B.B.C. ·Quart., 4, no. 1: 26-31, Apr., 1949. COLLINS, N . "Nature of 'competitive' television." Political Quart., 24, no. 4: 368-75, Oct.-Dec., 1953 . OOOK, A. "Television's impact on American home life." - liistener, 6th July, 1950. DAVIES, E. '' Public control of television." l'olitical Qua1·t. , 24, no. 4 : 387-95, Oct.-Dec., 19 53 .

. Contr ol over B.B.C. is exe r cised by L icence and Agreement tetween it and P.M.G., and thence to Pl'lrliament. consid ers

simil a r control through licensing p rocedure should be imposed upon all alternative services. De FOREST, L. Television now and onwards. Lond., Hutchinson, 1946. DUNLAP , 0. E . Future of television. N.Y., Harper, 1947. GOULD, J . What TV jg doing to us: a survey of the effects of television on American life. New Yo,rk Times (Reprint

of 7 days' articles published in June, 1951, based on nation-wide reports from more than 100 "Times" correspondents). GREEN, R. S. "Narcom (North Atlantic relay communications) and United (United telecommunications): world-wide televi;;ion within five not a dream, .but a real possibility." U.N. World, pp. 28-31, Feb., 1953.

GRUBER, F. C. "Radio and television and ethical standards." Armals of Amer. Acad. Pol. and Soc. Science, Mar., 1952. HALEY, Vv. "An extension of broadcasting." B.B.C. Quart., 4, no. 3: 129-36, Oct., 1949. LEE, R. E. Television: the revolution. N.Y., Essential books, 1944. McDONAGH, E. 0. "Television and the family." Sociol. and Social Res., 35, no. 2: 113, Nov.-Dec., 1950.

Survey of a community of 800 families in South California. ·

MADDEN, C. " Television: problems and possibilities." B.B.O. Quart., 2, no. 4: 225-228, Jan., 1948. IviANVELL, R. The crowded air: study of the problems and potentialities of American and British television. N.Y., Channel Press Pub., 1953. MARX, H. L. Television and radio in American life. Reference Shelf series, 25, no. 2. N.Y., H. W. Wilson, 1953.

MORRISON, H. "Commercial television: the argument'examined." Political Quart., 24, no. 4: 338-44, Oct.-Dec., 1953. NAPOLITANO, G. "Social aspects of television." O.I.T. Bull. (International television committee), 1, no. 1: 115-118, 1951. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTERS. Television Information Committee.

Facts about TV. Aucr. 1953. Education and reading·. shows television has not adversely affected library circulation of bookS'; a decrease in " pot baiTers ", but an increase

in books on world events, economics, history, &c. Oct., 1953. Health and medicine. How the medium is being employed in the furtherance of public health. PATCH, B. W. Television boon. Editorial Res. Reports, 1, no. 4, 26th Jan., 1949.

Effect on family activities. RICHARDSON, G. D. "Television and the public library." Aust. Lib. J., 2, no. 3, 54-57, 1953. RILEY, J. W., CANT'WE,LL, F. V., and RUTTIGER, K. F. "Some observations on social effects of television." Pub. Opinion Qua,rt., p. 223-234, Summer, 1949.

R esult of project by Columbia Broadcasting System and Rutger's Univ. to study social consequences of television ownership in middle-s•ized Eastern city. SALTER, A. "The impact of broadcasting on Great Britain's life and outlook." B.B.C. Quart., 3, no. 1: L-6, Apr., 1!)48. SARNOFF, D. "What's next in television." U.S. News & World R eport, .p. 38-44, 9th Nov., 1951.

SARNOFF, D. "Facing the future in radio and television broadcasting: opportunities and responsibilities." Oomm. and Fin. Chronicle, 177: 1961, 7th May, 1953. A.ddress before the Nat. Assoc. Radio and TV broadcasters, Los .Angeles, 29th .Apr., 1953. SIEPMANN, C. A. Radio, television and society. N.Y., Oxford U.P., 1950. Philosophical and psychological aspects of

broadcasting. SMYTHE, D. W. "National policy on television." Pub. Opin. Quart., 461-474, Fall, 1950. SMYTHE., D. w. "The eoJ!sumer's stake in radio and television." ·Qttart. Film, Radio and 'Television, 6: 109-128, Winter, 1951. .

Speech delivered at Con13umers' Union Conf., Vassar College, Summer, 1951. TAYLOR, s. "B.B.C. or commercial radio." Political Quart., 24, no. 4: 357-67, Oct.-Dec., 1953. "TELEVISION Revolution." Platform, Sept., 1951 (Editorial). VICTORIAN Women Graduates' Assoc. Report on television. read at General Meeting at Melb. Tech. College on 16th Apr.,

1953. in Baby HeaLth (Vic. Baby Health Centres Assoc.) 2, no. 9, June, 1953. of social implications in America and England.

· WALDROP, F. c., and BORKIN, J. Television: a struggle for power. N.Y., Morrow, 1938. WEAVER, H. B., and CORLE-Y, T. H. "Competition in the broadcasting of ideas and entertainment-shall radio take over television." Univ. Pennsylvania Law Rev., 101: 721-39, Apr., 1953. WIEEE, G. D. "Merchandizing commodities and citizenship on televisi<;m." Pub. Opin. Qua1·t., 679-691, Winter, 1951-52.

Social objectives of television and ra dio need efficient handlmg.


ADAMS M r< Programmes for the young viewer." B.B.C. Quart., 2, no. 2: 81-89, Summer, 1950. Need !o; programmes for small child as well as older. and for in programmes.

ANON "What shall be do about television?" Parents' Mag':Lztne, p. 36, Dec., 1950. parents illustrate bow a commonsense approach solves many problems by television.

FOGLER s "Prometheus or Frankenstein 1" J. Educ. Sociol., p. 154-166, Nov., 1950 Repo;ts 'an tnTeEJtigation tn which 1,208 children wert questioned on favourite leisure occupation.


"INFLUENCE of television crime programs on children's health." J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 150-1, June, 1952. Mental, physical and sociar conseq uences of t elevision programm es on health of children. Con tinuation of tlndings by Dr. Preston. LEJEUNE, C. A. •• Television for children." Family Doctor [published by B.M.A.] 3, no. 10: 535-38, Oct., 1953. B.B.C. programs for graded age grou ps ; experimmting in programs for deaf children, and for teen- agers from 16-19 years. MACCOBY, E . E. " ·Television: its impact on schoolchildren." Pub. Opin. Quart., 15, no. 3: 421-44, 1951.

Study of family behaviour in which 33:! mothers of 622 school-children 4-17 years were interviewed in Cambridge, Mass. , Dec., 1950-Fe b., 1951. PRESTON, M. I. "Children's reactions to movie horrors and radio crime." J. Pediatrics, 19, no. 2, Aug., 1951. Study of emotional respou ses or 200 children 6-16 years to horror films, programmes and literature, uud health reaction.

SEAGOE, M. V. " Children's television habits and preferences." Quart. Film, Radio and Television, 6: 143-53, Winter, 1951. Children show distinct preferences for adventure, family programmes and comedy. SEAGOE, M. V. "A score sheet for children's television." Quart. Film, Radio and Television, 6: 327-337, Summer, 1952.

Nece seary factors in programmes for children. What the child himself demands. SHAYON, R. L. Television and our children. N .Y., Longmans, Green, 1951. STOCKS, M: " Television and the young viewer." Political Quart., 24, no. 4: 349-56, Oct.-Dec., 1953. Difference in impressions received by adult and child of B.B.C. programs. WITTY, P. A. "Children's, parents' and teachers' reactions to televi sion." Educ. Digest, p. 4-7, Feb., 1951. WITTY, P. A., and BRICKER, H. Your child and radio, T.V., comics a nd movies . . Chicag-o Science Res. Assoc. 1952.

"TV and the Young." Mother and Child (Journal of Maternal and Child Welfare, Great Britain), 23, no. 10: 246, Jan., 1953. (Editorial.) Approves of B.B.C. programmes for children.


BOGARDUS, E. S. The making of public opinion. N.Y., Assoc. Press, 1951, p. 92-5. Rise of television. Necessity to safeguard the people against m align manipulations of opinion-making. BOGARDUS, E. S. "Television and the political conventions." Socia l. d> Social Res., 37, no. 2: ll5-l2l, Nov.-Dec., 1952. Television increased interes t in U.S. conventions, and may change life of nation by increased interest in politics. GOSSETT, W. T. "Justice and television: some thoughts on Congressional investigations." A mer. Bar Assn. J., 38:

15-18, J a n., 1052. LANG, K., and LANG, G. E. "The unique perspective of television and its effect." A mer. Social. Rev., 18, no. 1: 3-12, 1953. Pilot study of television broadcasting of a publfc event (Mc Ar thur Day in Chicago) upon the television audience and upon

participant observers. Differences in perspective of viewer and spectator. SELDES, G. The great audience. N.Y., Viking Press, 1950, p. 160-191 "Pandora's box: television." Programmes to satisfy mass audience. SHAFFER, H. B. Televising Congress. Edit. Res. Reports, 1, l)O. 15, 20th Apr., 1953.

Writer considers the impression gained by viewers of personalities of candidates and of officials in performance of public duties wm affect subsequ ent appointments. TAYLOR, T. "The issue is not TV but fair play: TV is only the medium. The need is for higher sta ndards in Congressional hearings." N.Y. Times Mag., Sec. 6, p. 12, 15th Apr., 1951.

Effect of terevising Kefauver Hearings. WIEBE, G. D. "Responses to the televised Kefauver Hearings." Pub. Opin. Quart., 16, no. 2: 179-200, Summer, 1952. Impact of the HParings on thinking and behaviour of a sample of 260 New Yorkers. Interest aroused, but no constructive, problem-solving behaviour.


BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION. Television inquiry (1950). Viewer Research Report. Part I : Introduction---Genes is of t he In quiry, the methods employe d and the degree of co-operation obtained. Pa rt II: Viewers-Study of the TV public and their viewing facilities. Part III: Viewing-Behaviour of th e vi ewing public and the effec ts of t elevi 8ion on leisure. DECKINGER, E. L. " Let's end the confusion in radio and television audience research: ratings laboratory is proposed to

measure differences among services." Advertising Agency, p. 64-65, Sept., 1951. FLORIDA. Miami University. The television audience in Miami. TV survey No. 5, Dec., 1949. GEORGIA. Emory University. Social impact of television on Atlanta households: so cial investigation of dwelling units within the Atlanta corporate area, under the direction of R. Stewart, Div. of Journalism. 1952. HELMICH, R. E. Survey of ·educators' attitudes and opinions towards television. (Thesis ) Teachers' College, University

of Cincinnati, Dec., 1950. Under grant from Crosley I:"roadcastlng Corp. HUDSON, T. R. Family life habits in television and non-television homes. (Thesis). Stanford University, Calif., 1951. KINGSTON, Vv. K. "The second New York television survey." ·Qua1·t. Film-, Radio and Television, 6, no. 4: 317·326,

Summer, 1952. NATIONAL ASSOC. OF BROADCASTERS. Plan for the evaluation of audience measurement methods: Reports to the Radio and Television industry by the Special Test Survey Committee. Wash., 1951. NATIONAL ASSOC. OF EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTERS.

Los Ang-eles Television, 23rd-29th May, 1951, by D. W. Smythe and A. Campbell. Monitoring Study No. 2. Urbana, Ill., Dec., 1!l51. Chicago Summer Television, 30th July-5th Aug., 1951, by D. Horton, H. 0. Mauksch and K. Lang. Monitoring Study No. 3. Chica go University, 1952. N ew York Television, 4th-10th Jan., 1951-1952, ·by D. W. Smythe. Monitoring Study No. 4. Ur.bana, Ill., Aug., 1952. OHIO. St at e University. Radio-Television Studies: 1949-50:

No. 4-Radio, televi sion a nd evening house hold activities of Columbus men and women. No. 5-Radio nnd television in televi sion-equipped hom es. No. 6- Radio program preferences of children of school age. No. 7- Evening listening to radio and telev ision in a city in which half of all homes have t elevision sets. RENICK, R. A. "News on t elevision." Florida, Miami University, May, 1950.

Report of an ir.vestigation carried out under the terms of a fellowship of the Kaltenborn Foundation. SILVEY, R. "Methods of viewer resea rch employed by the B.B.C." Pub. Opin. Quart., Spring, 1951, 15, no. I: 89-104, Spring, 19 51. SILVEY R. "Viewers, viewing and leisure." B.B.C. Quart., I, no. I: 31-40, Spring, 1952.

Su rv'ev held in 1950 . is co ntinuation of inquiry of Autumn 1948, and reveals that televi sion is sttll more popular in rower socio-e conomic and educational groups. UNESCO. Dept. Mass Communication. Television: an experiment in community reception in French villages. Clearing House series No. 5. Faris, Aug., 1952. WHAN, F. L. Boston trade and distribution area radio-television audience of 1952: a study of adult radio-television

list ening habits. Wichita, Westinghouse Radio Stations Inc., Jan., 1952. WOODBURY COLLEGE, Los Angeles. Tele Census Surveys Nos. 2-5, Nov., 1949-June, 1951. Impartial survey s concerning consumer reaction to televi sion. WOODBURY COLLEGE. TV's impact on education. Special study, Jan., 1951.

XAVIER COLLEGE, Cincinnati. Of children and television. 1951.



Actors and Announcers Equity Association . . . .

Adams, M., "Television and Education", J. Royal Arts Society, 11th February, 1949 Advertisements-Conditions applied to broadcasting Evidence submitted-

Advertising by liquor industry Advertising in children's sessions Control by regulation Extent of adve; tising

Imported advertisements Self-regulation Sponsored programmes Sunday advertising Conclusions Advertiser Newspapers Limited Advertising, Sunday (broadcasting)-Appendix B .. Advertising Time Standards (broadcasting)-Appendix A Advisory Committees recommended Aikin, Rev. W. J. H. Alexander, Professor F. Alexander H. See also Actors and Announcers Equity Alexander, J. 0 .

Amalgamated Wireless (A/sia.) Ltd. See also Hooke, L. A.

Anthony, The Hon. H. L. See Postmaster-General. Appendixes-A.-Advertising Time Standards (broadcasting) B.-Sunday Advertising (broadcasting)

C.-Election Broadcasts, 1949 to 1951 D.-Alphabetical List of Witnesses E.-Bibliography .. Archbishop of Melbourne's Committee on Television Areas to be served-

by commercial stations by national stations Extension of service to country areas Frequency position

Limiting factors Population distribution and other problems Argentina , television stations in .. Arts Council of Australia (Victorian Division) Associated Newspapers Limited and Radio 2UE (Sydney) Pty. Ltd. See also Butters, Sir J.

As•ociated TV Pty. Ltd. Australian Association of Advertising Agencies. See also Nixon, N. V.

Australia n Association of National Advertisers Australian Broadcasting Act, 1942 Australian Broadcasting Act, 1948 Australian Broadcasting Commission. See also National Television Service­

and t elevision legislation as n ationa l operating authority Availability of programmes, evidence submitted Composition

Increased membership recommended Conditions of operation as nationa l broadcasting authority Establishment of national stations, plan submitted Conclusions on plan

Independence of Introduction of television services Maintenance and development of broadcasting service recommended Programmes-

Polit ical and controversial matter Religious services and other religious matter Standard of Studio Technical Services Australian Broadcasting Commission, Chairman. S ee Boyer, R . J. F. Australian Broadcasting Commission, General Manager. See Moses, C.

Australian Broadcasting Control Board-Composition Increased membership recommended Est ablishment Evidence submitted

Powers and functions (broadcasting) Advertising Political and controversial matter Programme standards , . Religious services and other religious matter Powers and functions (television)

Recommendations and discussion relating to­ Administration of licensing system Programmes Technical matters .. Reports Australian Canegrowers' Council ..

7 f: 9


154, 406, 415, 488, 491 149

485, pages 108-9

493 492 487 488-90

491 486 495 494 496-9

225, 381, 424 page 109 page 108 397,484 168, 293, 415, 477


154, 415, 488 412

90, 99, 114, 120, 210, 227, 281, 291, 415

page 108 page 109 pages 110- 112 pages 113-115

pages 116-120 5, 254, 337, 384, 415

315-20 308-11 321-4 93-106

304 107-13 60 5,488,489 90, 100,217,250, 359,

424 424

242, 359, 364, 402, 424, 459,480,486 242, 424, 459, 480, 486 9


61 , 336 341, 372

277-84, 288-9, 296 76 345 67,76,446 205, 234, 241, 307 245,309,310,323 337,338, 372,456-7



446-7, 456-7 471, 483, 484 372 346-7


353,397 13

95, 98, 103, 110, 120, 319, 498, pages 108-112 68- 9, 72-5,348 485,486,494, 496

446, 448-52, 467 348, 390, 395, 498 472,479 13, 61, 63, 92, 348

246, 349-57' 366 162,395- 7,465, 484,496 92, llO, 112, 322 308n, 451, 467



l . •

i' '


Australian Council of School Organizations _ Australian Council of T rade Unions Council for the World Council of Churches

' Australian Culture Defence Movement Australian Dairy F armers' Federation

INDEX TO REPORT--continued.

Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations. S ee also Beaver, H. E.

Australian Federation of Women Voters Australian National Foot ball Council Australian Religious Film Society Aust ralian Vegetable Growers' Federation Australian Wheat Growers' F ederation Australian Wool and ·w heat Producers' Federation Availability of Programmes. See Programmes, availability of.

Baird t elevision Barr, Rev. A. Crichton. S ee also Presbyterian Church of Victoria Beattie, Rev. G. A. S ee also Presbyterian Church of Victoria Beaver, H. E. S ee also Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations

Belgium, experimental transmissions in Beveridge Committee (Great Britain) (Cmd. 8116)

Bibliography, Appendix E. Bird, R. C. Bishop, Professor J. Boyer, R. J . F.

Brazil, television stations in British Broadcasting Corporation. See also Great Britain­ Colour, television, experimental transmissions Constitution as a public corporation

Growth of television service . . Hours of operation

Integration of broadcasting and television Programmes-Available to Australian Broadcasting Commission Educational - ' '

for children for the deaf Origination of . . . . . .

Political and controversial (broadcasting) and oontrqyersial (television)

Proposed developments Report, 1953 (Cmd. 8928) .. ,Revenue and expenditure (television) Royttl Charter . .

. .

British Drama League (Australasia) Broad, by, R. R, See also Australian Counoil of Trade Unions Broadcasting Act 1942-19{53-Provisions relating broadcasting­

Advertising Limitation on ownership . • . .

Organization of national and commercial services Political and controversial matter Religious broadcasts Quota of Australian music 'J'enure of licences 'l'ransfer of licences Provisions relating tq te,levision Broadcasting and Telecasting, Vol. 45, August, 1953 Broadcasting and television, integration of. See Integration of broadcasting and television. Broadcasting Committee, 1949 (Great Britain). See Beveridge Committee.

Broadcasting, Organization of. See also Australian Broadcasting Commission and Commercial Broadcasting Service Broadcastinu Station 5DN . .

. . . . . . . . .

Broadcasting Stations 5KA, 5AU, 5RM (5KA Broadcasting Company Ltd.) Broadcasting Station 4BK, Brisbane. See also Clark, S. R. I. Broadcasting Station 7EX Pty. Ltd. . . . . . .

Broadcasting Station 3DB Melbourne . . . . . .

Brown, K. S. S ee also Standard Telephones and Cables Pty. Ltd. Brown, Dr. M.S. S ee also New Education Fellowship, New South Wales Branch Browne, Professor G. S. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Butlin, Professor S. J. . . Butters, Sir John

Byth, Mrs. E. F. See also National Council of Women of Australia

C.C.I.R. Calder, Mrs. M. E. See also Women's Service Guilds of Western. Australia Inc. Cameron, The Hon. A. G.


168, 337, 415, 492 5,255

5, 168,295,384,415,418, 474, 478, 488, 490 5, 41 5, 495 258 104;, 157. 168, 214,

272,281, 332,333,359, 362,370, 377,390,395, 424, 426, 459, 481, 486, 498

337, 415 285

168, 293, 41 5, 47 7 . 258

258 258

23,24 168, 415 168,415

157, 168, 214, 22 1, 377, 424, 426, 458, 481 60 27, 337, 338, 339, 344,

437, 495, 498 page 116 41 5 337

134, 136, 205, 326, 332, 333,337,338,339,345, 415,454,456,465 60


337,338 22 -31

24,26, 29,169,302,418, 421 339, 344

289,296 186, 190, 197 138; 169, 176-7, 183 141


1436-7, 442 443

443 31

5,488,489 225

48f'l,496 362,366

65-78, 338, 348, 372, 390 446,448,4o6,457 472,479 407

360 368

63-4,92,348 126n


225, 237, 300, 381 225, 240, 2 .:56, 415 300, 381 216


90, 99,120,211,424,428 168, 415 193 251 90, 100, 217, 250, 359,

367,378,424,459 168,337,415

88,89,90,92 168, 337, .415 252 .


INDEX TO REPORT--continued.

Canada. See also Canadian Broadcasting Corporation-Broadcasting Act, 1936 . . . . . .

Canadian Association of Broadcasters Financing television in Frequency assignments Government television policy Massey Commission (1949-1951)

Political and controversial matter Private stations Radio Act, 1938 Receiver sets, number in use

Regulation of programme standards Relay facilities Television in Canadian Association of Broadcasters Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. See also Canada-­

Board of Governors Constit"\}tion as a public corporation Political and controversial matter-Policy

Broadcasting of Televising of ..

Powers with respect to programmes on commercial stations Programmes available to Australian Broadcasting Commission Television services of Capital costs. See Financial considerations. Casely, Miss E. See also Australian Federation of Women Voters Catholic Church in Australia

Censorship Chamber of Manufactures of New South Wales, Electronics and Allied Industries Division. See also Hooke, L.A. Chandler, Sir John

Chettle, Mrs. D. A. See also Nationa.l Council of Women of South Australia Children's Programmes. See Programmes. Child Welfare Advisory Council of New South Wales Chippindall, G. T.

Civil Aviation, Department of Clark, S. R. I. ..

Coleman, L. R. Colour television­ Discussed .. in Great Britain

in United States of America Technical standards in relation to Columbia Broadcasting System .. Columbia University (tTnited Sta.tes of America) Commercial Broadcasting Service-

Administration and organization Advertising, conditions applied Conditions of licences Licence fee for broadcasting stations

Political and controversial broadcasts Programme standards Religious broadcasts . . . . . .

Commercial Broadcasting Stations Licence Fee Act, 1942 Commercial Television Service-Advertisements­ Evidence submitted

Suitability of broadcasting standards Recommendations Areas to he served Co-operation with national service recommended

Deferment Establishment of commercial stations Financial considerations-Capital costs ..

Operating costs Revenue Legislation for Licences for commercial stations. See Licensing System.

l.imitation on number of ,1ommercial stations Programmes----Availability of

Political and controversial matter Religious services and other religious matter Sponsored Standa.-d of. See Programme Standard?.. Proposals for unrestricted development Public service responsibility of operators

Stages of development Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, United States Senate Investigation into Radio and Television Programmes, 1952. See Harris Committee. Commonwealth Bank of Australia

Commonwealth Censor Commonwealth Government decisions on television •



46,389,438 389 43-4 Ill


37,337,340,375n 434,438-40,442,444 37-8, 46, 352, 355, 389 46, 389

40 389 42

37-46,347 .. 389

37,434,439 337. 349, 352

434,439 438-40 444 389 289,296



155, 168, 257, 294, 384, 479 154-8, 411-3 . 90

224,236,379 337, 415

168,415 113, 267 265

300, 359, 381, 424, 430, 431,481 424

114-9 ll5 59, ll6

99, 114, 117-19 116 189

68-75,348,390 485,496 360, 362, 366, 368 370 446,448-52,466,467

395 472 370

496 496-9 304, 315-20 334 4-6,247-69


207-12,246 235-40,246 242-3,244,246 3, 5, 21, 61-2, 348


272-6, 281-6, 290-5, 297-302 458-67 470- 82,484


213-19,253,258 183, 334, 37.'), 398, 460, 482

259, 262 412 9-21



INDEX TO REPORT-continued.

Commonwealth Office of Education Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Vol. 203 Community television systems Consolidated Press Limited Constitutional aspects-

Commonwealth powers, validity of Censorship of films .. Control of television transmitters .. Coombs, Dr. H . C0pyright of sporting events Costs. S ee Financial considerations. Council of Churches in Victoria .. Country areas, extension of television to Country Broadcasting Services Ltd. . . Countrv Women's Association of Australia Cuba, television stations in Cudlipp, W. J. See also Australian Association of National Advertisers Cullen, Mrs. B.

Davey, Dr. C. M. See also League of Women Voters of South Australia Davies, Mr. B. Defence, Department of .. Defence, effect of television on DefermP.nt of television .. Definition of television-

Method of transmission and reception of images Nature of the medium Denton, S. B.. See also Broadcasting Station 5KA, Methodist Church of South Australia and United Churches Social Reform Board Disney, P. C. W. Douglass, ,J. Dual system . . . .

Dunham, F.," Television brings new challenge to teaching", School Life, November, 1951 Dunlop, 0. E., The Future of '1 elevision, N.Y. 1947 . . . . . . . .

Dunstan, W ...

Dye, W. H. See also Arts Council of Australia (Victorian Division)

Economic consideration-Deferment on economic grounds discussed Conclusions Evidence on effect of television on­

Consumption .. Investment National development Manpower

Overseas resom ces _ Production

Eddy, W. M., Television: The Eyes of Tomorrow, N.Y. 1945 Education Department, New South Wales .. Education Department, Tasmania Education Department, Western Australia Educational programmes. See P

Ewart, Mrs. B.

Fabinyi, Dr. A. Falk, Mrs. B. . . Farmers' Union of Western Australia Farrell, S. K. . . . .

Featherstone, R. H. See also State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia Inc. . . . . Federal Communications Commission (United States of America). See also United States of America-.. .As licensing authority

Colour television, policy n.dopted Conditions relating to hours of operation Frequency assignments Political and controversial matter, determinations on Powers in respect of programmes .. Programme. standards and tenure of licences Reports Television policy Federal Flax Growers' Federation Fellowship of Australian Writers (Western Australian Section) Film and Television Council of South Australia . . . .

Film industry in Australia, capacity of Films for television


172, 196, 199 450 120 168



325-333, page 107 262 284-6


321-4, page 107 100, 300, 322, 424 253, 415, 420 60

242, 424, 480 253,415,420

337,415 168, 337 269 265,269

4-6, 122, 247-67, 268-9


132-52,453 168,225,240,337,415

168, 337, 415 301, 415 3, 5, 21, 325-34 l27n


ll4, 120, 146, 168, 208, 218,242,292,359,381, 424,427,459 488,489

4-6, 247-56 268-9 I' 259,262,263

259-64 259; 26L 264 259,260,265 259. 266

259,263 126n

200,415,419 168, 195, 415 168, 415

page llO 99, 114, 211 , 242



168, 415 168, 415, 492 256 168,415 168, 415, 489

349, 351, 356, 357, 360, 366, 385, 442 59, 116 56

52, 88, Ill

434,441 385 388 47,48 48-56,59

258 5

5, 168, 256, 337, 415 297-8 149


INDEX' TO REPOBT-ccmti7&md.

Financial considerations-Commercial service­ Capital costs Operating costs

Revenue National service­ Capital costs Operating costs

Revenue RecPivers, cost of .. Relay facilities, cost of Fisk, Sir Ernest Fogler, S. J. Edltc. Social. Nov., 1950. " Prometheus or Frankenstein? , Foley, Mr. B ...

Ford Foundation Fund for Adult Education (United States of America) Fox, A. E. R •..

France-Educ.ational programmes .. Technical standards for television in Television in Francis, Rev. W. C. See also Methodist Church of Australasia, New South Wales Conference Frankfurter, Mr. Justice F. (United States of America) Freadman, P •..

Frequency channels-Adequacy of channels reserved for television Alienation from public ownership Allocation

Allocation in United States of America Characteristics of transmission on V.H.F. and U.H.F. Problems associated with use of U.H.F. Recommendation for development of television by Ui'le of V.H.F.

Recommendation for formulation of frequency allocation plan Specimen assignment plans .. Technical requirements and standards . . . .

Use of U.H.F. in United States of America and provisions for use in Canada and Great Britain Frequency modulation broadcasting. See Very high frequency broadcasting.

Germany, television in .. Gibson Committee-Recommendations-on introduction of television

on licence fee for broadcasting stations on political broadcasts • . . .

Gorham, M. Television: Medium of the Future. Lond., 1949 Gould, J. "Television: boon or bane", Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 10. Fall1946 Government decisions on television, survey of Government grants-Suggestion for financial grants to cultural bodies

Graziers' Federal Council of Australia Great Britain. See also British Broadcasting Corporation­ Audience, socio-economic status Number of licensed viewers

Beveridge Committee, 1949 (Cmd. 8116)

Colour television, developments in Commercial television, proposals for Frequency position . . . . . .

Govemment White Papers, Television Policy-1951 (Cmd. 8291) 1952 (Cmd. 8550) 1953 (Cmd. 9005) Hankey Committee, 1943, recommendations Licence fee Population coverage . .

. . . .

Programmes. See British Broadcasting Corporation. Relay facilities Selsdon Committee, 1935 (Cmd. 4793) Social impact of television

Effect on children Technical standards Television Advisory Committee Television in Ullswater Committee, 1935 (Cmd. 5091)

Rain, Mrs. G. A. See also Housewives' Association, Victorian Division Hale, E. V. Hall,A.L. Hankey Committee, 194-3 (Great Britain) .. Harris Committee, 1952 (United States of America) Hawes, S. Health, Director-Genera] of . . . . · · ..

Heath, H. F. See also New South Wales Teachers' Federation . . . .

Helmich, E. " Survey of Educator's attitudes and opinions towards television ,, Henderson, Rev. K. . . . . . . · · ·.

Hennock, Commissioner Frieda B. (United States of America) Herald and Weekly Times Ltd., Melbourne. See also Dunstan, W.

Hilliard, Bishop W. G. See also Australian Council for World Council of Churches



207-25,246 235-40.246,398 242-3,244,246

205-6,245 234,245 241,245 229-33

226-28 327,424 127n 258,415



191, 196 88 60 415,494

134 384

94-6, 103-6, 109 325-9 86,93-106 47, 51-3, Ill


96-7,99,102-4,118,231 105-6 110-12 103, 109

85-92 97




434,447,448,456 141n 126n 9-21

399 258

142 30

27, 337, 338, 339, 344, 437, 495, 498 115 28,33-6,498



28,33,437,458 36, 326, 4581 498 25 31


226 23

124, 127' 128, 140, 141 169, 177, 181 24,29,88 28, 32, 115

22-36,347 434,436,437

415 154 415 25

57. 386, 387, 393 298,299 485 168,337



114, 120, 146, 168, 208, 242,292,359,381,424 168,415


. INDEX TO REPORT--Cont-tmtett.

Robbin, Rev. W. J. See also Methodist Church, New South Wales Holland, experimental transmissions in Hooke, L.A. S ee also A.W.A. (A/sia.) Ltd.

Hours of opera.tion­ Evidence submitted ' in Canada in Great Britain

in United States of America Recommendations .. Housewives' Association. Victorian Division Hutchinson, T. H. Here is Television: Your Window to the World, N.Y., 1946

Impact of television. See Social impact of television. Inquiry, the-Conduct of Scope of ..

Integration of broadcasting and television­ Beveridge Committee, conclusions on in Canada in Great Britain Proposal by Australian Broadcasting Commission Proposal by Australian Federation of Commercial Broadcasting Stations Recommendation for extension of powers and functions of Broadcasting Control Board Recommendation for operation of national services by Australian Broadcasting ComiP.ission Suitability for television of radio programmes Interference Interior, Department of, Film Division International Radio Consultative Committee International Telecommunications Convention International Telecommunications Union .. Iowa State College (United States of America.) Italy, television in

Japan, television stations in Joint National-Commercial Stations Joint Parliamentary Committee on Broadcasting. See Gibson Committee. Jones, S. 0.

' Kain, Canon A. E. See also United Churches Social Reform Board Keogh, M. B. See also Australian Culture Defence Movement Kiek, Rev. W.

Lamb, S. P. P. Lane, Sir Allen Lane, R. E, Larkin, J. S. League of Women Voters of South Australia

Lee, R. E. Television: The Revolution, N.Y. 1944 Legislation for Television-Australian Broadcasting Act, 1942 Australian Broadcasting Act, 1948

Broadcasting Act, 1942:-1953 Television Act, 1953 Letters Patent . . . .

Lewis, P. "T.V.'s Impact on Teen-agers", PM Delta Kappan, Nov., Licence Fees-in Canada, abolition of in Great Britain

on radio receiving sets . . . . . . . . . .

on television sets, proposal by Australian Broadcasting Commission Payable by commercial broadcasting stations .. Recommendation for fee for television stations L!censing System­

Administration · Appeal, right of Grant of licences Licence fees Limitations on ownership . . . . . . . . . .

Public hearings before grant, revocation and renewal recommended Renewal of licences .. Revocation of licences Suspension of licences Tenure of licences .. Transfer of licences and shares in licences . . . . . . .

Liebert, S. F; E. See also Australian Council of School Organizations Long, V. R. . . . ·. . .

Lyons, Bishop P. F. See also Catholic Church in Australia

' MacAlpine, E. W .. MacDonald,. K. A. • • . i ' . , •' • j) I •• :

; ,


168,415 60

90, 99, 114, 120, 210, 223,415

170, 414-31 40

24,26, 29,169 56

184, 432, page 107 5,256,415 126n

pages 7-8 7-10

339, 344 37-45.340 22-32; 339 205,234,241

214 353

337,338,341-2 280-2 120 298 88, 89, 90, 92

93 Q8 189 60


330-333,page 107

99,118,211,222,239, 328

168, 387, 415 415 337, 415

238! 300, 381 146 281

225,237,300,381 . 5, 337, 362, 415, 459, 487' 489, 494 126n



63-4, 92, 848 3,21, 61-2,836,348,496 pages 7

138n, 169, 174

44 31 78 241 370 370

348-57, 361 361 355 370 362-6 354-7, 361

357' 360, 395, 465, 484 356 361 359-61


168, 337' 415 168, 195, 415 155, 168,257,294,479


226 , 381, 424



Macquarie Broadcasting Service Pty. Ltd. See also Ogilvy, C.

McRae, Professor C. R .. . Marconi-E.M.I. System Massey Commission (Canada) Medley, Sir John Menzies, Rt. Hon. R. G. Metcalfe, J. . . . . . .

Metcalfe, Mrs. T. C. S ee also National Council of Women of New South Wales Methodist Church of Australasia, N ew South Wales Conference Methodist Church of Au'ltralasia, South Australian Conference Mexico, television stations in Mills, Miss M. S ee also National Council of Women of South Australia Mills, Miss N . M. Mitchell, E. C. Moses, C.

Mountain, G. R. Mulrooney , J . L .

National Association of Educational Broadcasters Monitoring Studies National Association of R adio and Televi:>ion Broadcasters (United States of America ) National Broad casting Service. See Australian Broadcasting Commission. National Council of Women of Australia . . . . . . . .

National Council of Women of New South Wales National Council of Women of South Australia National Development, Department of National Farmers' Union of Australia

National Television Service. See also Australian Broadcasting Commission­ Administration of Areas to be served Australian Broadcasting Commission recommended as operating authority Conclusions on establishment and development of Co-operation with commercial operators Deferment E stimated capital costs Estimated operating costs

Estimated revenue .. E stimates of costs, cvuolusions on Financing the service Independence of operating authority Legislation for Programmes-

Children 's sessions Political and controversial matter Religious services and other religious matter Standard of ..

Studio technical services, recommendation relating to Neal, W. D. See also New Education Fellowship, Australian Federal Council New Education Fellowship, Australian Federal Council • • . ,

New Education l!""ellowship, New South Wales Branch New South Wales Education Department .. New South Wales Teachers' Federation New York Times Survey, 1951 ..

Newcastle Broadcasting Co. Pty. Ltd. . . Nixon, N. V. See also Australian Association of Advertising Agencies

Nord West Deutscher Rundfunk . . . .

Number of television stations which should be established-Commercial stations-Establishment, recommendation relating to General conclusions on limitation

National stations- ·

Establishment, recommendation relating to General conclusions on limitation Population distribution, effect on Technical standards in relation to

Ogilvey, C. See also Macquarie Broancasting Service Pty. Ltd.

Oliver, E. . . . . · · · · · ·

Olson, 0. "Education on the Air 1952 ", 22nd Year Book. Institute for Education by Radio and Television, Ohio, 1952 Operating.costs. See Financial considerations.

Paddison, A. C. . . · . " . . ,

Parents' Magazine: December,_ 1950. What we do about TelevlSIOn 1 Parliamentary Standing Committee on Broadcastmg Paton, Mr•. A. . . · · · · · · · ·

Pearce, E. H. See also Broadcasting Stations 5KA, 5AU, 5RM Penny, Dr. H. H. . . . . · · .

Periods of broadcasting of television progran;tmes. See Hours of operatiOn. Philips Electrical Induskies Limited . S ee J ones, S. 0 ...

8 0 5


209, 21 5, 242, 273, 281, 290, 350 , 359,362,370, 403,408,424 251

23, 24

37,337,340, 375n 249 19 384 337, 415, 421, 492 415, 476, 490, 49·1:

5, 256, 415, 476 60 337,415 IC8, 493


114, 205, 234, 271, 277, 339,407 259,264 285



5, 168, 337, 415 5,337,415,421, 492 5,337,415 260,265

258, 415

336-:47 304, 308-11 341, 372 306-11


4-6, 247-69 205-6 234 241 244-5 307-8

337, 338, 349, 372, 456-7 3, 5, 21, 61-2, 336


453-7,466- 7 473-83 372 347 168, 415 6, 168, 256, 41 5

5,168,415 200, 415, 419 5,168,337 136, 146 238, 300, 381 242, 364, 367' 402, 424,

480,486 296


. 246, 306, 307, 312-20

308, 311 306-11 107-8 93-103, 303

209, 21 5, 220, 242, 281, 350,359,362,367,370, 380, 403, 408, 424, 429, 481, 486, 495

424' 189n

7' 363, 381' 481 127n 9, 10, 11, 12, 448 168, 415, 4D2

41 5

159, 169, 337, 384

99, 118, 211, 239, 328



Political and controversial matter and issues-Applicability of broadcasting practices and principles to television Broadcasting legislation Broadcasts, review of Grant of television licences to political parties

Legislation and practices-Canada Great Britain ..

United States of America ·Recommendations and discussion on television broadcasts­ Commercial service National service Population distribution-Effect on provision of television services Portus, Professor G. V ... Postal Telecommunications Technicians' Association (Aust.) Postmaster-General-

Functions and responsibilities (broadcasting) Investigation of television in United Kingdom and United States of America 1952 Powers (television) .. Recommendations relating to powers and functions (television)

Statements on television policy of Government-(1950) (1952) Television Act, 1953, introduction to Postmaster-General's Department­

Allocation of frequency channels Effect of television on services Estimates-Capital costs Evidence submitted on relay facilities .. Responsibilities (broadcasting) Studio technical services and Tenders for television stations (June, 1948) Postponement of television. See Deferment of television. Potter, A. G. . .

Poulter, Dr. M. See also Tasmanian State School Teachers' Federation Presbyterian Church of Victoria .. Prest, Professor W. Primary Producers Council of New South Wales Prime Minister .. Pringle, N. Programme standards­

Censorship Co=ercial service­ Conclusions Con trolling authority to set standards, proposals for

in Australian commercial broadcasting service in Canada in United States of America ; review of system of self-regulation Problem of maintaining positive standards

Prohibition of unsuitable material Recommendation for appointment of Advisory Committees Recommendation for formulation of code of operating standards R ecommendation for increase in membership of Control Board R ecommendation for prevention of televising of objectionable material· Renewal of licences and review of programme performance Self-regulation Control, the problem of Hours of operation in relation to standards National service, recommendation relating to Programmes of cultural and national significance

Quotas of Australian programme material Programmes-Educational Adult education

in schools Recommendations and conclusions For children-Proposals relating to children's sessions . . . .

Recommendation for appointment of Advisory Committee Recommendation for regular programmes .. For viewers in country areas Political or controvernial. See Political and controversial matter and issues. Religious. See Religious services and other religious matter. Sponsored ..

Programmes, availability of­ Conclusions Estimates of Film industry, capacity of Network operations in relation to Problems associated with Sources of programme material

Live studio productions Outside broadcasts Feature films and films for television Newsreels and documentary films Suitability for television of broadcasting programmes Public Affairs and Parliamentary Reform Movement Public ownership of transmitters


453-5,466-7,469 446 447-52 468

434, 438-40, 442, 444 434, 436-7, 442, 443 434, 441, 442, 445

458-67, page 107 456-7,466-7 107-8 163


69-71, 74, 75, 346, 348 19 61, 348 351-2,354-8,361,365-6,


15 18

3, 21, 62

94, 106 267 206 113, 227 67, 77-8, 346

346-7 12

284 337

168, 415, 476 259,263 258 19


154-6, 158, 411-3

392-9 383-4 390 389 385-8 374-5

374 397

396, 398 397 395

162,357,360,395,465,484 157, 376-94 153-67 398, 414-32

372 399 400-10

18.5-7 188-91 193-200 192, 201

170,414-22 397 183-4 301


302 270-4 297-8 300

299 275 276-82 283'-6 287-95

296 280-2 337

325-9, page 107


INDEX TO REPORT-continued.

Queensland Council of Farmers and Graziers Queensland Newspapers Pty. Ltd. See also Clark, S. R. I. Quotas of Australian programme material-Conclusions and recommendations

Evidence submitted

Racing clubs of Australia Radio and Television Writers' Guild Radio Diffusion Francaise Receiver sets-

Cost of For U.H .F . transmission Number in use in Canada Number in use in Great Britain

Number in use in United States of America Recommendations, summary of . . Relay facilities-Discussed ..

Effect on services of Postmaster-General's Department E stimates of costs . . . . . . . .

Religious services and other religious matter­ Evidence submitted in Great Britain on nationa l and commercial broadcasting stations

Recommendation for appointment of Advisory Committee Recommendations for television broadcasts-on commercial service . . on na tional service Revenue for television stations­

National service Commercial service Ridley , J. E. Robertson, Dr. T . L . Rosenthal, N. H.

Royal Commission on National Development in t he Arts, Letters and Sciences, 1949-1951 (Canada). Commission.

Royal Commission on Television­ Appointment Inquiry, the-Conduct of

Scope of Public sessions Terms of reference Witnesses examined, Appendix D Russia, television stations in

Sanders, L . J. Schofield, Archdeacon J. A. S ee also Archbishop of Melbourne's Committee on Television Scrimgeour, C. G. . . . . .

. · ·

Committee, 1934 (Great Britain) (Cmd. 4793)

Seventh Day Adventists, Australasian Inter-Union Conference of Shedden, Sir Frederick . . . . . . . . . .

Siepmann, Prof . C. TV and Educat:on in the United Stales, Unesco, P aris, 1952 . . . .

Simon, E rnest

Darwin, 1st Baron Simon ofWythenshawe, The B .B.O. from Within, Lond., 1953 .. Sites of t elevision stations Smith, B. B. There ought to be a Law". Harper's Monthly MagiJ.zine, No. 197,' i943

Smythe, Prof. D. W. "National Policy on Television". Public Opinion Quarterly, Fall, 1950 .. Social impact of television-Child, the Educational programmes . . . . . .

Literature and periods of development, survey of N ature of television Problem of control .. Sonth African Broadcasting Corporation South America, television in South Australian Chamber of Rural T ndustries · Spain, experimental in . . . .

Sponsored programmes, proposals for prohibition of Conclusions Stages of establishm<"nt of t elevision ..

Standard of programmes. See ProJrramme standards. Standard Telephnne.o and Cables Pty. Ltd. See also Brown, K. S. of hroadcasting pr·a ctice ..

Standa ds. technic

Suppressors . . . . . .

Swift, Mrs. I . E. See Women's Service Guilds of Western Australia Inc. Switzerland, el\Perimental transmissions in

Tasmanian Education DPpartment Tasmanian State School Teachers' Federation






409-10 400-8

284 401


118,229-33 99 40 30 55

pages 102-106

87, 113 267 226-8

151,473-81 34 471 - 2 397

482,484 482-3

241,244-5 242-4,246 100, 300, 322, 424 168, 415 145, 165, 168, 173, 198,


19-20, 121, 371

pages 7-8 7-10 page 7 page 7 page 113



254, 337, 415 424 23 295,474


152n, 178, 181, 193, 194 498 120 126n 135

168-84 18.5-201 124-31 132-52

153-67 3:17 60 258

60 495 498-9

305, 311, 316, 320

90, 99, 120, 211, 227, 424 377

168, 415

168, 256, 415, 489 page 107 265 120

337, 415 60

165, 195, 415 5, 337


INDEX TO REPORT--continued.

Teehnical standards-Effect on establishment of television stations in Australia in Prance ..

in Great Britain in United States of America in W e!'tern Europe 'l'elevision-

Method of transmission and reception of images Nature of the medium Television abroad Television Act 1953-

Principal provisions Provision relating to national operating authority Purpose of Act Television Advisory Committee, 1950 Television Advisory Committee (Great Britain) Television legislation. See Legislation for television.

Terms of_reference

Thomas, Rev. Courtenay. See also Council of Churches in Victoria Thomas, Rev. T. W. See also Archbishop of Melbourne's Committee on Television Thompson, J. Walter Tildesley, Miss E. See also British Drama League (Aust.) Trade and Customs, Department of Transcontinental Broadcasting Co. Ltd. See also Paddison, A. C. Treasury (Commonwealth), Department of Turner, E. L. A.

Ullswater Committee (Great Britain) (Cmd. 5091) .. Ultra high frequency band. See Frequency channels. UNESCO Courier, Vol. VI., No.3, March, 1953 United Churches Social Reform Board United States of America. See also Federal Communications Commission­

Colour television Communications Act, 1934, and Amendments, 1952 Educational stations Frequency channels for television­

Allocation Use of U.H.F ...

Harris Committee, 1952 Hours of operation of television stations Licensing system for television ami broadcasting

N.A.R.T.B. television code .. National Television System Committee Number of stations in operation Programme standards : review of system of self-regulation Programmes-

Agricultural Children's Educational Political and controversial programme matter Receiver sets, number in use Relay facilities ..

Social impact of television­ Child, the Nature of medium Survey of literature and periods of development H.evenue of commercial television stations 'l'echnical standards for television Television in University of Miami, television surveys

Venezuela, television stations in .. Very high frequency band. See Frequency channels. Very high frequency broadcasting . . . .

Victoria District Committee of Liberal and Country League of South Australia .. Victorian Brewers' Association Victorian Chamber of Agriculture ..

Victorian Conncil for Children's Films and TV Victorian Wheat and Woolgrowers' Association

Wadham Prof. S. M. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Walker, Rev. A. See also Australian Council for World Council of Churches Warner, The Hon. A. G. Wauchope, Miss M. L. . . Webb, I.. C. Western Australian Education Department Wilson, J. L. J.

Wilson, Dr. R. Wireless Institute of Australia Wireless 'l elegraphy .A ct 1905-1936 Witnesses, list of, Appendix D . .


93-103, 303 85-92, 117-8 88 29, 88 29, 47-9, 51, 88


80-4 132-52 22-60

3, 21, 61, 348, 496 336 62 17 28, 32, 88, 115

pages 5, 7 202-3, 335, 371, 493 337, 415

424 488

404, 412 7

261 337

434, 436, 437


5, 168, 337, 415

59, 114, II6, 118 356-7, 441 53, 129

47, 51-3, Ill 97 57, 386 -7, 393 56 349,351,355-7,360,366,


127, 129, 386, 396 48-9, Il6 54 38P-9


172, 177, 181 187, 189, 193-4, 196 434, 441, 442, 445 55, 140


169,171--4-,177-8,181 134-6, 138, 140, 142 124-31 58

47-9, 51, 88 47-59 127n


95 252 493 258

168, 415, 492 256


168, 415, 48R 99, 114, 21I, 242 168, 415, 492 239, 445, 456, 458

168, 415

139, 164, 251, 337, 384, 489,491 261 120


page ll3


INDEX TO REPORT--continued.

Witty, Prof. P. "Television and the High School Student", Ed1tcation, Dec., 1951. "Television and the Educative Process", School and Society, Dec., 1951 Woman's Christian Temperance Union-Queensland Branch Women's Service Guilds of ·western Australia Woodbury College, Tele-census Surveys. Nos. 2-5 . .

Woollacott, Rev. E. H. See also United Churches Social Reform Board, Methodist Church, South Australia Works, Department of Worrall, D. · ..

Wyndham, Dr. H. S.

Xavier University, Survey on Children's Leisure Hours and TV, 1951

Printed for the GovERN MENT of the CoMMONWEALTH by A. J. ARTHUR at the Government Printing Office, Canberra.



169, 173

168, 493

5, 168, 256, 337, 415 127n 168, 337, 415 206


.200, 415, 419

127n, 173-4