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Canberra - Development of - Report of Senate Select Committee

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up, 'l.!,Jih 8Pptember, l955; ordered to /1e p,-iulerl, '27th OctoiJe,., l\J55.

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No. S.2. [GROUP U & H].-F.571J:3;':5:5.-PRrcE GD.



Senator J. A. McCallum.


Senator A. :M:. Benn. Senator D. C. Hannaford. Senator J. V. Ryan. Senator D. M. 'fangney. Senator V. S. Vincent. Senator I. A. C. Wood.


To inquire into and report upon the development of Canberra in relation to the original plan and subsequent modifications, and matters incidental thereto.


A. CANBERRA AND THE CANBERRA PLAN--I. The Selection of Canberra as the Capital City 2. The Griffin Plan 3. The Griffin Report Explanatory .. 4. Griffin and the Initial Development Period 5. The Federal Capital Advisory Committee

6. The Federal Capital Commission and the Gazetted Plan 7. Machinery for Modification of the Plan ..

B. DEVELOPMENT OF CANBERRA--I. Has it been adequate for the .Administrative Centre?--(a) The First Programme--Federal Capital Advisory Committee (b) The Second Programme--Federal Capital Commission

(c) The Depression--World War II. Period (d) The 19-18 Programme (e) The Committee's inquiries 1. Need for a vigorous well-directed balanced programme

2. Need for assured long-range finance 3. Immediate need of houses 4. Need for unified direction The Committee's Conclusions .. 2. Has it been worthy of the Nat·ional Capital?--

(a) Advisory Bodies connected with the City's Development (b) Canberra's Appearance 1. Garden city 2. Density problems

3. Problems of architectural standards 4. Buildings of expediency 5. Lack of monumental buildings (c) Particular Comments--

1. Engineering services 2. Industrial areas 3. Commercial centres .. 4. Suburban development 5. Hospital accommodation 6. Education ..

7. Lack of communal amenities (d) Role of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee .. The Committee's Conclusions ..

C. VARIATIONS OF THE ORIGINAL PLAN--1. Variations Effected--(a) Griffin's variations (b) 1920-25 ..

(c) 1925-50 .. (d) 1950 to date 2. Main Features of Griffin Plan Still Undeveloped-­ (a) City Hill

(b) Government Triangle (c) Capital Hill (d) The main vistas ..

The Committee's Conclusions

D. ADEQUACY OF THE PRESENT PLAN--I. Opinions regarding Need for a Revised Plan 2. The Need for an Overall Plan ..

3. The Need for Greater Public Awareness .. The Committee's Conclusions

E. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF CANBERRA-I. The Aim of Future Development­ (a) Canberra as an Industrial City (b) Canberra as a Regional Centre

(c) Canberra as a Xational Tourist and Cultural Centre The Committee's Concluoions .. 2. Problems of Future Development­ (a) Atomic Warfare

(b) Royal Military College, Duntroon (c) I"easehold and Freehold







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33 36 38 40

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55 55 56 56 57

58 59 59 59

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F. FuTURE GovERNMENT OF CANBERRA-I. Governments of Washington and Ottawa 2. Advisory Council and its Recommendations Committee's Conclusions


DISSENT-Senator V. S. Vincent .. Senator I. A. C. Wood


APPENDIX A.-Invitation to Competitors: Design of Canberra







B.-Griffin's Original Report, 1912 C.-Griffin's Original Design, 1912 D.-Griffin's Preliminary Plan, 1913 E.-Griffin's Last Amended Plan, 1918 F.-Gazetted Plan, 1925 G.-Approved Plan, 1955 H.-Outline Development Plan : Projected Population of approximately 110,000 I.-Map Relative to Evidence given by Royal Military College J.-Report of Special Sub-committee, Australian Planning Institute K.-Legislative Powers which might be given to a Legislative Council




68 69 70


77 78


85 93 103 105 107 109 Ill

113 115 117 121






1. The building of a National Capital is a duty imposed on Parliament by the Constitution. Section 125 provides that-The seat of Government of the Commonwea lth shall be (lct ermineu bv the Parliament, and shall be within territory which shall have been granted tD or acquired by the Commonwealth, and shal!"be vested in and belong to the Commonwealth, a cut sha ll be in the State of New South 'Vales, and be dis ant not le,;s than one hundred miles f r om Sydney.

Such territory shal! contain an area of not less than one hundred square miles, and such portion thereof shall ''"r.sist of Crown lands shall be granted to the Commonwe '.lth without any payment therefor.

2. The insertion of this provision in the instrument which created the Commonwealth was a determination arrived at after long public debate. Inter-colonial j ealousy contributed to this result but there was also a strong feeling that the Commonwealth Parliament should be free from the influence of any State Capital and especially that it should be free from pressures supposed to be powerful in the great commercial cities of Sydney and Melbourne. It was believed also that the Capital should symbolize a united people.

3. The selection of the site was not an easy task and in the ensuing years many possible sites, including Bombala, Orange, Albury, Armidale, Tamworth and Tumut were visited, discussed. and debated. In 1904 a Seat of Government Bill was passed nominating Dalgety as the site, but disagreement over this site immediately ensued with the Government of New South Wales and the issue again became confused.

4. Finally, in 1908 the Commonwealth Parliament r epealed the 1904 Seat of Government Act, which had named Dalgety as the area, and determined that the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth be in the district of Yass-Canberra, that it contain an area of not less than 900 square miles and that it have access to the sea.

5. With the area selected the next step to be taken was the selection of the actual city site. In December, 1908, the Minister for Home Affairs, the Honorable Hugh Mahon, directed that the District Surveyor, Mr. Scrivener, make a thorough topographical examination of the Yaf;s-Canberra district, so as to recommend the most suitable territory for the purposes of the Seat of Government.

6. For the guidance of the Surveyor in making his inwstigation, Mr. Mahon listed the following four primary requirements of the territory desired:-(a) That it include a site or sites posses<;ing the necessary topographical characteristics for the Federal Capital.

(b) That it include the catchment area of the water supply for the capital-such water supply to be of sufficient magnitude to place the question of volume at all seasons and purity beyond doubt.

(c) That the site provide for a perfect system of sanitation. (d) That the site be within easy access of Sydney and Melbourne and through them to the other capital cities, and with a suitable harbour on the coast.

7. Mr. Mahon also directed that the Surveyor bear in mind that "the Federal Capital should be a beautiful city, occuping a commanding position, with extensive views and embracing distinctive features which will lend themselves to the evolution of a design worthy of the object, not only for the present bnt for all time ".

8. On the 25th F ebruary, 1909, Mr. Scrivener made a report to the Minister for Home Affairs, recommending the present site of Ca nberra. The followin g description of the site appears in his report :-" r·ity he loc;lted at Crrnh erru that 1nJul d be vi" 'l.Jc on approach for many m iles; street;; with cn;o;y gradients

, .. , 111r1 l:e readily while pr ominent hill.; of m o(h•rute altitude pre;;ent suitr..ble sites for the principal public

The Capital would prol,ahly lie in an amphitheatre oi J,;]], with an outlr,ok towanls north and north-cast wP!l · h"ltrrrrl from both southerly and wr,terl.-- 'Yind>. and in t'"'' immNliot.c vicinit)' of the Capital there are large areas .. r ''"'l t.l y undulating country ....

T rrgnrd the Canhcrrn site n• the lw't thnt can he ·1·'"'nrd in the Yass-Canberra di•trict. bcinrr promincnth·

· ' , ., t r cl nnrl yet sheltered, while facilities are Rfforclecl for 'toring water for ornamental purposes at a reasonable cost.

9. Mr. Scrivener's recommendation was approYed by a Board appointed by the Minister to consider his report, and the final strp in the selection of the Capital City site was taken by the passage of the Seat of Government Acceptance Act of 1909, the Scher1nle of which contained an agreement between the


Commonwealth and the State of New South \Yales regarding the provision of an area of about 900 square miles between portion of the Goulburn-Queanbeyan-Cooma railway and the mountains forming the western boundary of the watershed of the Cotter River. 10. In view of recent developments in the Snowy Mountains area, Clause 10 of the Agreement

might be noted. It provided that the State grant to the Commonwealth, without payment, the right to use the waters of the Snowy River, and such other rivers as might be agreed upon, for the generation of electrieity for the purposes of the Territory. The (tevelopment of the Snowy Mountains hydro-eleetrie seheme mig-hi well havr a very important hearing on the future development of Canberra.


11. In April, 1911, an international competition for the design of the new city was launched; entries to dose on 31st January, 1912. No effort was spared to make the requirements of the

Government fully known. Plaster models of the site were made available in the principal centres of the world, and a printed statement was issued embodying the conditions of the competition and giving· a full description of the site. A copy of this statement is attached as .Appendix A to this report.

12. One of the conditions of the competition, however, received very strong criticism. It arose t't·om the insistence of the Minister of the day, the Honorable King O'Malley, that he be the adjudicator, a stipulation said to be "contrary to all prBcedent ". (Vide Appendix A-Paragraph 14 of" Conditions of Competition".)

13. \Vhen the Minister refused to alter this condition the Royal Institute of British Architects unci the Institute of Civil Engineers and affiliated bodies throughout the British Empire boycotted the eompetition, with the result that the field of architects and town-planners available to compete was c·onsiderably reduced.

14. In all 137 designs were received. A technical body of three comprising an engineer, an arehited and a surveyor, appointed to report on the designs, disagreed in their choices, the Chairman reeommending three designs entirely different to the three chosen by the other two members.

15. In his capacity as adjudicator the Minister, Mr. O'Malley, adopted the recommendation of the majority and awarded first prize of £1,750 to Walter Burley Griffin, of Chicago, second prize of £750 to Eliel Saarinen, of Hensing·fors, and third prize of £500 to D .Alf .Agache, of Paris. These three dPsigns, called the premiated designs, then became the property of the Commonwealth. The Minister also authorized the purchase of the design adjudged first by the Chairman of the Board, viz. by Messrs. Griffiths, Coulter and Caswell, of Sydney. (Vide Parliamentary Paper No. 17 of 1912.)


16. Although the Walter Burley Griffin plan had won first prize in the international competition, it was not immediately implemented. 17. Criticism of the design quickly followed. It was said to be too extravagant and elaborate, too costly to carry out. On 27th June, 1912, the 1\'Iinister, Honorable King O'Malley, referred it and the other premiated and purchased designs to a departmental board of experts for report. On 25th November, 1912, the board reported that it was unable to recommend any of the designs, and, instead,

put forward for approval a design of its own, incorporating what it considered to be the better features of the designs referred to it, and embodying certain other suggestions. (Vide Parliamentary Paper No. 65 of 1912.)

18. After presenting the report to Parliament, Mr. King O'lVIalley, on lOth January, 1913, formally gave his approval to the board's plan, and issued instructions for work to commence immediately. When the formal opening ceremony took place at Canberra on 12th March, 1913, that was the plan on which the city was being constructed.

19. Then came a change of government. Burley Griffin was invited to Australia, to co-operate with the departmental board in the development of the city. 'When he showed little inclination to modify his plan, and in his discussions with the departmental board would make few concessions, the Minister, the Hon. W. H. Kelly, disbanded the board, cancelled the approval given its plan, and appointed Griffin as Federal Capital Director of Design and Construction.

20. One very important consequence, from a planning point of view, however, had followed from Griffin's discussions with the Board. The Minister had asked him for a report on the premiated plan in the light of personal inspections of the site and of his conference with the departmental board. 'fhis Griffin did under cover of a letter dated 13th October, 1913. The Jetter is interesting in setting out the points of difference with the departmental board's plan, but the report-the Report Explanatory as it is known-is an historic document, a key to the whole Griffin plan. (Vide Parliamentary Papers Nos. 1 :53 and 346 o:f 1914-15-16.)


:?I. ttaehe,[ to his 1·epnrt, l+riftin also ,-;nbmitted a rc•\ i.-mm of his premia ted plan, now kno\rn a::; the Plan. Hi;.; reference to thi..;; plan in };i,; ll'tter to the is interesting·, ha-ving in

mind the present-day den·lopmeut of Canberra. Hi,; \ronh \Yere-lt 1n11st be nncler::-:tootl that the original design 'vas in the nature of pn·liminary just as \\·ould. be first

pn•pan•d lJy an :trchi t et·t !nr a in Yiew ot thL· li!:!iLt'll tii::t.:· and other factors preYcnting cmL-.;eclltlYe work,

the acullll[H1nying draft ean IJe considered only '" a scconcl c'tt•p in thL• came direction. no llLcans, of conrse, as a

\\·orking dra\l·ing, or JinalitY-en•n as to the bare street jJLtns oi tlw restricted arc·:t to whic·h it is coniine

::md tre::ltwent j, not here illduded at all. Tlli' sLJ"" of the \l'lll'k cunsi,ts solely in the direction of

cletennining the Jnain linL::.s lliag-rannnatically on the uf a of 1!eC'essari1y

preceding particulars.


22. Althongh the approval given to the departmental board's de:-;ign had been L'Hncelled and Griffin had been appointed Federal Capital Director of the cle"ign and construction, final approyal had not automatically followed for the carrying out of Urimn's plan. 'l'here 11-ere still some misgivings and doubts a.<; to its possible coiit. It would appear, howeYer. that Griftin did not intend to lose any opportunities which his appointment as Pecleral Capital Director gaw him, and he set about laying· the essential outlines

of his own scheme as far as he ·was able. He also obtained approYal for and set in motion an international competition for the design of the permanent Parliament House.

23. 'l'he outbreak of \Vorld \Var I., followed by a clwnge of gowrnment and the replacement of Mr. Kelly by Mr. Archibald, further delayed approval of the Griffin plan, and also brought about cancellation of the international competition for the design for Parliament House. Departmental correspondence of this pe1·iod, as embodied in a parliamentary paprr, prm·idc·s yery interesting reading and sho·ws how radicall.v different were the policies of Griffin and the i1cpartmental officers. 'l'heir relationships were strai1wd and the situation was aggntYatec1 to no small extent by divided responsibility and ill-defined authority. 'l'he Senate Committee notes that ewn at this early stage of Canberra's

development, cliYided control stood ont as a problem. It is perhaps amusing now to reac1 the strong recommendation to the l\Iiniste1· by a scnim· departmental officer that approYal be HOt gi.wn to a request by Griffin for an additional snrvcyor to hrlp in his 'york of deyeloping the national capital.

24. Pinally, in 1916, a Royal Commi.-;sion wn.s appointed to im·esti:.;·ntc tbe varions n.speets of the Pederal CapitaL After it had presented its report, which to a large (•:dent subHtantintccl <'riticisms by Griffin of Departmental obstruetion, Mr. King O'Malley. who had only three years preYiouc;ly endorsed the departmental board's plan, formally appnweu of the Griffin Liesign and placed Griffin himself completely in charge of all the work in connexion with the National Capital. As one witness before the Senate Committee stated, "that action put Griffin's plan back as the plan for Canberra, and it haR ncYcr been departed from fundamentally since ".

25. Griffin remained in control of the work at Canberra, carrying out and re-vising his plan until 31st December, 1920, when the Capital Advisory Committee ·was establifihed under the

chairmanship of Sir John Sulman. Griffin was invited to sit on thiii boanl as a member, but, iu his usual uncompromising manner, refused to do so. He left Can berra with his plan well established on the ground and the satisfaction of knowing that any later adminiiitration would find it difficult to set it aside. As a .security against tl1is he had himself abandoMc1 one Jlropo:-;al of his preliminary design­ that for an initial city on the south of the Capital1)en(ling the construction of bridges and roadways and the development of ser-vices on the north. It appears that, wry justifiably, he feared his design

might be stultified in later by a conecntration nf to the iiOUth.


26. 'l'he rstablishment of the Federal Capital Committee was a conseqw•nc:!' of the clcsire of Sir r,ittleton Groom, the then ::\Iinister for llome ;\fl'airs, to han· the capital as the Seat of Gowrnmr•nt anc1 tl1e centre of a(lministration. ;\cc:rm1ing to one witm·ss, GTiffin, although a lanrJscapc arcl1itect of nhility, was poor at nnrl lmr\\- little nbout engineering.

r,ittlcton Groom, a man inspirrc1 with "a flaming zr·al for tlw lmilrling of tlliS eit.\- ", \\'illltecl the Governnwnt to approvP of thP rstahlisl1ment of a r:ommission. \Yhr·n the Gnvrrnment ,,-nulr1 not npproYe of that sng'grstion, hP oht<1ined approval for 11 ppnintnwnt of the Committe('.

27. Tlw OrrlPr in Connril of .Tann:uy, 1D:!1, app,intinl! tlH· CommittPe, ren!ls as follows:-'v\'ith a Yiew tn enabling the FPderal ParliamPnt to meet and the Central Administration of the Commonwpa]th Col·r·rrtiiH'llt 1o he !':trriP aer·eptanr·e ,,f the plan oi layout nf th<' Vt·â€¢lr·ral C:q.iLrl ('jl,l· \,:·"'.h.\\".}\. Criffin), it''""-' T!'C<>mm"n•1,.,\ 1•• Jli, T::

"!'l''."''"r! that-,Jon:-; Sn.\rA:-o, Es!]., F.E.T.R.A., :'ILT.P.T., C'oncnltin'! Ar<·hitrrct. E. :'If. m·: Bnwn, F."j., :'lf.Tnst.C.F... Chirf Eni?inecr inr '.'-'atnr :-;'1J•jlly anrl S<>\\·crage, Department of Puhlir- \Vorb. New Snllth \•. HEnnr:rn F:. Ross, E''l·· F.L·L An·hitect.

('or.o:xr-:r. 1'. T. Owr:x. Direct<,r-General of \Vork,, lh•j•artlllf·nt "i ('r,!lllll"li"·'·lllth \\'ork• anrl Haihnty' . . r. T. If. Cr!ODWIS, Esq., Cnmmnmn,alth


be appointed members of a Committee to inquire into and advise upon the follmving matters in relation to the construction of the said City:-( 1) The existing data, r;lanB, and works; (2) Tile works, buildings, and city services that can be further proceeded with or commenced forthwith;

(3) A geneml scheme upon which to develop the buildings of the Capital City progressively, having regard to both official and civil occupation; ( 4) Proposals for the design and construction of the necessary works, buildings, and services; ( 5) The order in which essential surveys and the construction of such works, buildings, and services shall be


( 6) Such rna tters as in the opinion of the Committee are expedient in regard to provision and manufacture of rna terials necessary for the purposes of construction, and to inquire and report upon any special matter in relation to the layout and construction of the Federal Capital City, as and when directed by the Minister for 'Narks and Railways.

28. One of the first acts of the Committee was to recommend a return to the city plan prepared by the departmental board. In making this recommendation, the Committee stressed the relative economy of the board's plan and particularly the fact that it provided for a concentration of the main city development, commercial, residential and administrative, to the south of the Molonglo River, resulting in a less expansive layout with consequent savings on roads, water mains, sewerage and electricity. As has been noted earlier, it was against such a contingency that Burley Griffin appeared to have developed the main outlines of his plan by constructional work on the ground.

29. The Government of the day, however, would have no part of the Committee's recommendation, and conceded to the Committee the power only of recommending amendments to the Griffin plan provided they were not amendments on points of vital principle. Since that time no suggestion has ever been made through official channels to any Commonwealth Government that the Burley Griffin plan be abandoned.

30. Some important amendments to the plan, however, were suggested by the Committee and approved by the Government. They concerned-(1) The siting of the railway station. (2) The concentration of shopping areas in compact blocks rather than in the ribbon development

in main avenues as proposed by Griffin. (3) The concentration at Civic of Griffin's commercial focus and civic focus.

(Griffin had provided for a market centre near the junction of King's-avenue and Constitution-avenue.)

31. The first amendment is of little consequence now in view of the later abandonment of the idea of a railway through the heart of Canberra, but the two latter amendments are of particular interest in view of the difference which might be observed between Griffin's preliminary plan and the overall map of Canberra attached to this report, which was prepared for the information of the Senate Committee by the Department of the Interior. There were also other minor amendments approved which were simply practical necessities arising from the geometric nature of the design, and its lack of conformity in cert11in cases to contours and natural features-amendments which were justified by the very reasons given earlier by Griffin himself in his letter of 13th October, 1913, to Mr. Kelly.

32. In ,July, 1924, the Seat of Government (Administration) Bill was passed providing for a commission of three under the chairmanship of Sir ,John Butters. In its final report to the Minister, the Federal Capital Advisory Committee concluded with the following paragraph:-An important responsibility rests unon those concerned with the building- of a modern city, and in hanrling- on this

trust to its successors-the Members of the Federal Capital Commission-the Committee trusts that they wi!J be enablerl to maintain the best ideals of modern town planning, and that no purely economic or immediate considerations or compromis!'s will be permitted to stand in the way of the rlevelopment of the Ca]lital on sound practical and aesthetic lines, in order that Canberra may be indeed a "city beautiful", affording to its inhabitants all the social advantages which may be readily obtained from the high degree of technical skill and experience now available, and that it may at an early date become a source of national pride and inBpiration.


33. The Federal Capital Commission, which assumed control of Canberra's development on the 1st January, 1925, was invested by the Seat of Government (Admin£stration) Act 1924 with very wide powers in regard to actual constructional and developmental work. The Government made it clearly understood, however, that the development must be along the lines of the Griffin plan.

34. JVIr. Daley stated in his evidence that the proposed legislation for the establishment of the commission had been kept secret as " Canberra matters were so touchy and inflammable at that time".

35. J\iir. Daley had been Secretary of the Federal Capital Advisory Commiteee and later became R<'cretary of the Federal Capital Commission. His evidence reads-Groom kept it up his slee,·c until that particular morning although it was to be introduced in the House that night. I was asked how the Griffin pbn could be put into an act of Parliament. They said they wanted to introduce it that nin·ht and wanted the Government Printer to have it ready for introrluctior. I told them that they coulcl not put the Canherra Plan

into an ad of Parliament hec to rlnte plan drawn with the various amendmPnts that harl been approverl. After a Jot of argument it "·as decided that a clause would be inserted requiring the new body, the Fci!cnll Capital Commission, to gazette within a certain period a plan which woulrl be the plan to be followed. It was very firmly understood that that plan was to be the Griffin plan. The Minister was to approve of it and he would not have appro,·ed of any serious rlcparture from the Griffin plan.


36. The Seat of Government (Admrnistration) Act, us passed, accordingly contained the following sub-section :-4.-( I.} As soon as practicable after the commencement of this Act the Minister shall publish in the Gazette a plan of lay-out of the city of Canberra and its environs.

37. On the 19th November, 1925, a plan appeared ill the Commonwealth Gazette with the simple preamble--Seat of Government (Administration) Aat 1924. PUBLICATION OJ? l,LAN OJ? LAY-OUT OF THE CITY OF CANBERRA AND ITS ENVIHONS.

In pursuance of the provisions of sub-section 1 of section 4 of the Seat of Government (Administration} Aot 1924, I, George Foster Pearce, Minister of State for Home and Territories, publish hereunder a plan of lay-out of the City of Canberra and its environs. Dated this eleventh day of November, 1925.

G. F. PEARCE, Minister for Home and Territories.

38. That plan-the gazetted plan-thus became the blue print for the lay-out of Canberra. It was the general plan as prepared by Burley Griffin with such modifications as had been approved up to that time. As subsequent modifications or variations to the plan have been approved the plan has been correspondingly amended.

39. Reference has already been made to the fact that Burley Griffin produced a Report Explanatory outlining the general princi1)les of his plan. That explanatory memorandum was in the nature of a zoning scheme. The gazetted plan of 1925 contained no reference or indication of zoning whatever; it was merely a series of lines without explanation legalizing Griffin's formal lay-out but not confirming his zoning principles. The Committee was assured, lwwever, by the Surveyor-General, Mr. Rogers, that while the gazetted plan contained no "precise legal obligation" in regard to zoning, his department still had the Griffin plan to work on and was, in fact, working to it.


40. The Act of 1924, setting up the Federal Capital Commission, in addition to specifying under section 4 (1) that a plan of the lay-out of Canberra and its environs should be gazetted as soon as

possible, also made provision for the safeguarding of the plan. These provisions, also contained in section 4 of the Act, were as follows:-4.-(2.) The Minister may at any time, by writing under his hand, modify or -vary the plan so published, but no such modification or variation shall be made until after the expiration of thirtv days after notice of intention, published in the Ga.zette, so to modify or vary the plan has been given. · ·

( 3.) A copy of the instrument hy which any modification or variation of the plan l1as been made shall be laid before both Houses of the Parliament within fifteen days of the making thereof if the Parliament is then sitting, or, if not, then within fifteen days of the next meeting of the Parliament. ( 4.) If either House of the Parliament passes a resolution. of which notice has been given at any time within fifteen sitting days after the instrument has been laid before it, disallowing the modification or variation made by the instrument, the modification or yariation shall cease to have effect.

41. These safeguards still stand, in identical phraseology, in the present Seat of Government (Administration) Act, except that in place of the words u the plan so published" as set out in

sub-section (2.) above, we now have "the plan of lay-out of the City of Canberra and its environs, published in the Gazette of the nineteenth day of November, One thousand nine hundred and twenty-five, as modified or varied prior to the date of the commencement of this section". In 1930, when this

section of the Act was thus set out in its present form (following the repeal of the 1924-29 Seat of Government (Administration) Act, with the termination of the Federal Capital Commission), the following sub-section was also added:-The Minister shall not depart from, or do anything inconsistent with, the plan of the city published in the

Gazette, with such modifications or variations as have been made prior to the date of the commencement of this section or as are made in pursuance of this section. 42. It is clear that when the Seat of Government (Administration) Act was passed in 1930 Canberra had an accepted, gazetted, legally binding plan, and legal machinery to safeguard it. The

guardian of the plan was not the public servant charged with a particular duty in Canberra, not the department or authority administering Canberra, not tlw lHinister responsible for Canberra, not even the Cabinet but Parliament itself. It is clear also that r·ither Honse of Parliament acting alone could prevent any deviation from the plan.



43. The main purpose of the construction of Canberra was that it should be the Seat of Government. Section 125 of the Constitution provided that "the Parliammt shall sit at Melbourne until it meet at the Seat of Government", and in view of the varying- State interests. it was most desirable that the transfer take place as soon as possible.

44. It was not until 1927 that the Parliament was able to move to Canberra and that the Seat of Government was thereby established in the National Capital. But the transfer was rather like a change of residence with only a suit-case-the Seat of Government did not have all its administrative furniture with it. Many of the governmental departments bncl yet to follow.


45. lt is the Committee's aim at this stage to review the efforts made to secure the transfer of the o·oyernme1ital administrative machinery to Canberra, and in the light of this review to adjudge the "How far has the development of Canberra been adequate for an Administrative

(a) The First Programme-Federal Capital Adviso1·y Committee.

46. In 1921, the Federal Capital Advisory Committee put forward the first programme for the building of Canberra. It envisaged the development of the city in accordance with the Griffin plan and the transfer of the Government from Melbourne to Canberra. The Committee being advisory was not responsible for administration or construction, but as its members included officers of the departments who 1vere responsible, it able to keep in close touch with the work. 'l'he Order in Council

appointing it required it to advise on the sequence in which essential services and buildings should be constructed to enable Parliament and the central administration to be transferred as early as possible to Canberra. ·world War I. had ended only three years earlier, and as the Government wished to avoid continued heavy expenditure in the post-war years, strict economy was enjoined.·

47. 'rhe Committee on 18th July, 1921, recommended that the city should be developed in the following three stages :-Stage ( 1) .-The establishment of Parliament at the Federal Seat of Government, attended by such administrative departments or branches thereof as must be closely associated with

their Ministers. Stage (2) .-The removal of central administrations of other departments to the Seat of Government, additional railway connexion, and execution of some permanent architectural and engineering works. Stage (3).-Extending over such prolonged periods as may be expedient, the progressive

realization of permanent and monumental works, ornamental waters, &c.

48. It further recommended that the parliamentary and administrative buildings in the first stage should be of a temporary character and that the erection of permanent official buildings should be deferred until later stages of the city's development; that civic buildings should be of a permanent character, but confined during the first stage to the needs of the perhaps small initial population; and that whilst certain engineering works, such as those of water supply and sewerage, should be carried out in such a manner as to provide for the future population in respect of their main lines, the reticulations should be limited to serve areas of initial settlement.

49. While bearing in mind that "the Federal Capital should be a beautiful city", the Committee considered that "utilitarian development and economy should be the aim in the first stage, leaving to future decades-perhaps generations-the evolution of the national city on lines that are architecturally monumental". Thus early was the vision of a great city obscured by the desire for cheapness and quick

results. The Committee conceived Canberra during the first stage as a " garden town with simple, pleasing but unpretentious buildings". By restricting development to defined areas the Committee hoped to establish the Seat of Government within three years at a cost of under £2,000,000. The Government approved of the scheme on 15th December, 1921.

50. Notwithstanding the modesty of the programme it was not completed. The funds provided fell below those asked for by' the Committee-£200,000 for the first year instead of £400,000, and £330,000 and £430,000 instead of £700,000 for each of the second and third years. As the funds were not allocated until after consideration of the Estimates, it was hot known till comparatively late in the year what sums were available.

51. There were also changes of policy and changes of Ministers. For the temporary building called a Conference Hall suggested by the Committee, there was substituted the provisional Parliament House now in use. The Committee's recommendation for temporary administrative buildings was overruled and an international competition for an administrative block ordered. As this block could not possibly be completed by the time Parliament was to be transferred to Canberra, the Cabinet decided that a Secretariat for each department instead of the Head Office should be located in Canberra. These administrative nuclei were to be housed in a special building to harmonize with the provisional Parliament House. The present East and West blocks are the result of this decision.

52. Two departments, the Department of Home and Territories and the Department of Works and Railways, were concerned with the development of the Capital, the :first controlling general administration, land policy and surveys, the second construction and de.c;ign. The Department of Health also intervened in various matters.

53. Finding that the programme was falling short of its target, and urged to action by a resolution in the House of Representatives on the 12th July, 1923, that the next Parliament should meet at Cnn berra, the Government east about for a method of putting more vigour into the programme. 54. The pattern of government in Washington may have suggested the an.swer. Towards the end of 1924, the Seat of Government (Administration) Act was passed, setting up the F'ederal Capital

Commission, which took over in .Tanuary, 1925. By then the main water supply system was ready,


three-quarters of the brickwork of Parliament House had been constructed, the central portion and half of the pavilions of the Hotel Canberra completed, Gorman House commenced, the power house built, the sewerage network well advanced and a considerable amount of road work finished.

(b) The Second Progm;nme-Peduul Capital Commi:;:;ion.

JJ. The instruction given to the l<'ederal Capital Commission on its appointment in January, l!:J2;:J, ;ras that it should complete the provisional Parliament House as soon as possible and certainly by January, 1927, by which time it should also have made accommodation for the transfer to Canberra oi the parliamentary staff and for the officers of the secretariats.

56. Confidence in the ability of the Commission to keep to time-table was illustrated by the first leases offered to the public on 12th December, 1924. ..A .. ccording to the evidence of one witness before the Committee, it was then represented that within fh-e ,rears Canberra would have a population similar to Goulburn or Albury, i.e., about 15,000, and that by the end of ten years all Commonwealth departments then in Melbourne would be transferred to Canberra ..

57. At the time when the Commission took over, there were several public departments sharing the administrative work in Canberra, and the Government recommended that their resources be used by the Commission as much as practicable. In the opinion of the Commission, however, this situation was most unsatisfactory and incapable of producing sufficiently effective and rapid results, so it proceeded to establish its own organization-not an easy task as there was a severe shortage of workmen and materials due to a building boom, which was then nation-wide.. 'l'o house its working force, the

Commission erected cottages at Causeway and Westlake, which still stand, and accommodated many families in a former war-time camp at Molonglo.

58. In November, 1925, the Government again reversed its policy in conuexion with the administrative office accommodation. It decided that the secretariat scheme agreed to late in the time of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee was unsound and that the original scheme of the Committee of 1921 (for the transfer of the complete statts of certain departments and of small secretariats

for the others) was to be preferred. 'rhe Commission was given the ta,.;k of 1n·oviding homes and office accommodation for the following departments:-Prime Minister's Department, the Treasury, Attorney-General's Department, Home and Territories Department, the Department of Trade and Customs (Head-quarters), and the

Markets and Migration Department (Head-quarters) ; and secretariats for the following:-Postmaster-General's Department, Defence Department, and Health Department.

Accommodation had also to be made available for a post office and telephone exchange. This change of government policy meant that instead of 200 public servants coming to Canberra, there would now be 1,000.

59. Since it was desired that this greatly increased programme should also be completed by 1927, the Commission's activities had to be further expanded. Additional hotels and boarding houses had to be built and portion of Hotel Kurrajong diverted for use by officials. \Vest Block was constructed and a wooden administrative building brought from Melbourne. The accommodation at Hotel Canberra

was doubled and the Printing Office constructed. Finally the provisional Parliament House and the residences of the Governor-General and the Prime :Minister were ready for occupation. The programme was finished by the required date, the transfers duly carried out, and in J\Iay, 1927, Parliament began to function in the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth.

60. In the meantime the development of communal faeilities had been keeping lJace with the arrangements for departmental offices and houses. Schools, hnlls and other buildings had been constructed by the Comwissi011, a commercial centre set up at Civic and shopping blocks erected by private enterprise.. Similarly, engineering works such a:,; sewerage, roads and water supply bad been even

further advanced. It ;yas said by one of the witnrsse:;; before the Committee that tbis period was Canberra's golden age of development.

61. With Parliament now establi'>hed in Can berra, the Federal Capital Commission set about the :;;econcl of development, a.<; envi...'iaged in 1921, that is, the transfer of departments to Canberra.

62. In September, 1927, the foundations of the permanent AdministratiYe Block ·were commenced with the expectation that the building ;;·onlcl be completed by 1934 ..

63 .. In 1928-29, the opportunity was taken of leasing for office accommodation a portion of the private enterprise. Similarly, engineering ;;·orks such as sewerage, roads and water supply had been even to the first effects of the depression. The change in tlw economic position \\-as Also being felt thr in thP rnrtailnwnt of its funr1s by the Go-.:r>rnmc•nt.


64. As the depression deepened towards the 'thirties, criticism of the Commission's so-called extravagance and undemocratic nature became pronounced. ·with the change of Government in 1930, the 1924-29 Seat of Government (Administration) Act was repealed and the Pederal Capital Commission \Yent out of office. 'rlw Territory reverted to the departmental .system of which has

persisted to this day.

65. The new Government's final comment 011 the work of the Commission, as contained in the second-reading speech on the bill by the Assistant Minister, Senator Barnes, was not a sympathetic epitaph-It is beyond dispute that the Commission has failed as an administrative body, and that it has proved to be an exceedingly costly experiment. Further, the system is objectionable as it is an abrogation of Ministerial and Parliamentary responsibility. Its era of usefulness definitely ended when the majority of the public servants were provided with living

quarters and moved to Canberra. :Much of the Commission machinery is a duplication of that already existing departmentally and considerable administrative savings should result from the proposed change. The intention of the Government is to abolish the Federal Capital Commission and place the afiairs of tl1e Territory under departmental control, with provision for Ministerial responsibility.

66. One of the advantages of the Federal Capital Commission, which was stressed by witnesses before the Senate Committee was its relative in regard to finance. It operations were financed, according to its Chairman, Sir John Butters, almost entirely from loans totalling about £10,000,000. In its five years of operation it constructed approximately 1,000 houses.

67. The Senate Committee was particularly interested in the work of the Commission because it operated under circumstances which were much akin to those which exist in Canberra to-day. It asked Sir John Butters his views on finance and received the reply: u I cannot encroach on the ground of national finance, but, from the point of view of carrying out urgent constructional operations, it is hopeless to have changes in planning, especially in a city such as Canberra. Sucl1 a city can be developed on

a sound economic basis only by operating in accordance with a long-range programme." Since Canberra is now experiencing a building boom .similar to that operating at the time of his Commission, the Committee also asked him how he secured his tradesmen. His answer was that he paid high wages to attract them from Sydney and Melbourne and that he trained promising labourers as tradesmen. Owing to the difficulty of attracting contractors to Canberra the bulk of the Commission's work was done by a system of day labour. Finally, we might note his reply to a question as to whether Canberra might now revert to a Commission form of construction: "I cannot think of any better arrangement . . . than that provided for in the legislation that established the Federal Capital Commission". His feelings, when Chairman of the Commission, on the departmental system will be gauged from th-e following paragraph which appears on page 17 of his final report: "It would be nothing less than a tragedy to subdivide the activities of the Commission and distribute them among two or more departments.".

(c) The Depression-----World lV ar II. Period.

68. After the dismissal of the Commission the Government was able to make " considerable administrative savings" at the cost of considerable unemployment. It was tl1e of th-e "great depression". Building was brought almost to a standstill. The only important public works of the period were a Federal Highway from Canberra to Goulburn and a good road to inconsiderable achievements and valuable as an indication of what could b-e done. As the situation was without precedent the Comm.ittee does not wish to lay the blame at the door of any of the Governments responsible. It points out, however, that knowledge of the policy best .suited to lift a country out of a has

grown since 1930 and it believes that a time when private enterprise is forced to reduce employment is a time when public employment should be increased. It is to be regretted that when labour and material were available in abundance, the governments of the day refused to take advantage of them. 69. As the financial situation began to improve approval was given for the building of the \Var Memorial and for a section of the National Library. It was not until returning prosperity was clearly evident that the Government thought again of the transfer of the remaining departments from Melbourne. A new programme was then entered upon which was to include the Postmaster-General's and Defence Departments, and was to be carried out in association with a balanced programme of 1wusing, schools and amenities. Plans were made for the recommencement of the Administrative Building, the construction of the Patent Office and the commencement of a new hospital.

70. This period saw the establishment around Canberra of several service areas-the Naval Wireless Stations at Harman and Belconnen and the Royal Australian Air Force on a portion of the Civil Aerodrome. The Royal l\Iilitary College had also returned from Sydney, to which it had been trausferred in 1930, and new buildings were needed to replace temporary quarters which had been pulled down in the meantime. It was very soon apparent, however, that the most important issue \\as housing, as Canberra's population was showing a marked growth and the bulk of the funds available was diverted to it.

71. World War II. then broke out with the diversion of all available resources to military expenditure; housing construction had to be restricted and further transfers of departmental personnel postponrd. The already difficnlt honsing n-as fnrther aggravatrr1 hy a very lllfge increase


which took place in the Canberra administrative staffs, notlrithslanding tlwt the central offices of the service departments still remained in Melbourne, and the })Osition became worse as service personnel and discha1·ged servicemen came to homes.

72. Meanwhile office accommodation had become aeute. The Public Works Committee considered sanctioning a new administrative building, but before a decision was reached it became necessary to add to East and West Blocks. Additional accommodation was found by the now established policy of "utilitarian development", leaving the city beautiful "to future decades-perhaps generations". .A proposal was mooted to build two new temporary S€cretariats similar to East and \Vest Blocks on the site in between those two buildings-notwithstanding the fact that it was also the site proposed by

Griffin for the future Parliament House. This suggestion fortunately ·was not acted upon, and in lieu the Government completed the Melbourne Block at Civic and made space available there for the departments. Temporary accommodation for the Prices Branch \Yas also built behind the Hotel Kurrajong. 73. The most important building erected during this period was the new hospital, due largely to American influence, as it was required as an American Base Hospital. Its completion relieved the lack of office accommodation by making the old hospital building available for departmental use.

74. After the war the emphasis was on housing to the near exclusion of all other considerations. Canberra's rapid increase in population accentuated the problem and the lack of balance in community life soon became noticeable as the need for additional schools, halls, suburban shops, play centres and the like became acute.

75. The resort to makeshifts similar to those of the war period was regretted as it was felt that the time had passed for the use of such expedients and that the stage had now been reached in

Canberra's history when permanent buildings should be constructed when and where possible. Accordingly, the question of the construction of the permanent Administrative Block was, in 1947, again r-eferred for advice to the Public Works Committee. Upon its recommendation work was resumed on the building on a modified and improved plan.

76. It was against this background that the 1948 plan for the transfer of d{'partments to

Canberra was formulated and approved by the Government.

(d) The 1948 Programme.

77. The 1948 programme for the transfer of departments to Canberra WOUlu appear to llaYe been due to a large extent to the efforts of a reconstituted Public Service Board, which viewed with

concern the adverse effect which the division of central offices between Canberra, Melbourne and Sydney had upon the cohesion of central departmental administration. After its reconstitution ear-ly in 1947, it took up, under the chairmanship of l\ir. W. E. Dunk, the whole question of development with the l\Iinister for the Interior. The Minister set up an Inter-d{'partmental Committee consisting of

representatives of the Public Service Board, the Treasury, the Department of \Vorks and Housing and the Department of the Interior, to discuss the issue and make recommendation.s to the Government.

78. In February, 1948, the Committee reported to the Government that whilst it realized that the present shortage of labour and materials, and the urgency of providing housing and boarding accommodation, would operate against any rapid expansion during the next two or three years, it had drawn up for the Government's consideration as " the target to be aimed at", a programme of transfers spread over a period of ten years, as follows :-

Ko. of Oilkcrs .

.First stage (one to three years)-Growth in Canberra Departments (including Division, lr1mmerr:e, which

temporarily inllfelbourne) . . . . . . oS2

Second stage (three to five years)-Hepatriation, Social Services, Labour and ;;cniC"c, Ci,-iJ Adation, Y\'orh, Housing, Shipping and Transport, and minor sections of IJCj;Clrtmcuts . . l,iO:J

Third stage (five to seven years)-Postmaster-General's Department plus minor sections of other Departmenb 772

Fourth stage (seven to ten years)-Defence group 3,G70

Total number of officers involved 7,027

79. The Minister for the Interior submitted the report to Cabinet, whir:h endorsed the programme suggested.

80, The programme received full publicit;.- in the press, and it appeared that at last there was a definite plan for the early transfer of Commonwealth departments to Canberra. But all did not go well. In its subsequent reports, as present€d to Parliament annually, the Public Service Board painted a melancholy picture of the slowness of progress. In its 2.Jth Report, it regr{'tted that two

years after the plan had been formulated, the immediate deficiencies of Canberra had not been overtaken, but had been increased and the implementation of the transfi'l' arrangements sccwPd likely tube long U.efcrred. lt >Yent on to say that special llJCasurcs would h:nc to J,e taken to c·opc with the


problem of building Canberra and that until such time as the city was brought to the full stature of a National Capital, the Public Service administration would not be able to give the full service which national government required. 81. By 1950, expenditure had increased to approximately £4,000,000 per annum. An

Inter-departmental Committee convened that year to consider the building programme stated that a major cause of delay was the absence of a single authority. There w·ere ten client departments all making separate requisitions to the D epartment of \¥ orks and each pressing the urgency of its own claim. A body to assess these conflicting demands was n ecessary and it was therefore recommended that the Cabinet Sub-committee on Canberra Development should be advised by an inter-departmental committee whose task it would be to eo-ordinate all works and services in the Australian Capital T erritory. It appears that little was done by way of giving effect to this recommendation.

82. In its Report for 1952, the Public Service Board regretted the lack of progress. l\lore than fom· years had passed, but it was impossible to begin the transfer of departments from Melbourne to Canberra. The position was much as it had been before the great depression. A balanced policy designed to provide office accommodation, housing and amenities was essentjal It was necessary not only to prepare for the natural growth of Canberra but also for expansion. It r

its determination to make Canberra the centre of the federal administration" and act accordingly. The next y ear's Report (1953) indicated that the demand for housing and amenities continued to outstrip the supply.

83 . This was the situation when the Senate Sel ect Committee began its inquiries.

(e) Tlte Committee's Inqui1·ies .

84. It soon became apparent that the programme for 1948 for the transfer of public servants to Canberra had failed. 'fhe major obstaclB \>as the lack of houses. How se1•ious the shortage was will be made clear by the following figures:-( 1) Housing units completed ( inclt1ding

1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 ..

(2) Housing units under con struction (il1Cinding fiats )-30th June, 1947 .. 30th June, 1948 .. 30th June, 1949 .. 30th June, 1950 .. 30th June, 1951 .. 30th June, 1952 .. 30th June, 1953 .. 30th June, 1054 .. 30th June, 1955 . . . .

( 3) Number of persons on departmental hm1Bing waiting list-30th .June, 1947 .. 30th June, 1948 .. 30th .June, 1949 . . 30th .June, 1950 .. 30th June, 1951 .. 30th .June, 1952 .. 30th June, 1953 .. :30th .June, 1954 .. 30th June, 1955 .. 31st July, 1955 ..

( 4) 1\'orkmen engaged ([ irt•d 1.1' '"' 30th .June, 1047 .. 30th .June, 1948 .. :JOth June, 1949 . . :JOth June, 1950 .. :JOth June, l9:H .. 30th .June, 1952 . . 30th June, 1953 . 30th June, 1954 .. 30th June, 1955 ..

135 (including 8 temporary structures) 249 ( 69 ,. )

285 ( 04 )

410 ( , 107 )

545 ( 37 )

()35 588 489 320

355 1

. . f: 784 1,044 664 535 513 ' 657J 1,445 1,764 . . 2,370 2,902 . . 2,618 . . 2,698 . . 2,476 . . 2,611 . . 3,014 3,091 405 554 664 951 987 1,109 788 500 693 (excluding con trads let !Jut not



85. It appears to the Committee that there was no carefnlly thought out plan hut mere1y a vague that somehow it would he possible to house the p11hl ic servants who would occupy the new

building. Th e officers mainly r esponsible for the development of Canberra seem to have had many other duties of an important character to perform which lrd them to believe that the building of the National Capital was merely one. anc1 by no means the most important. of their obligations. To eomplew the ne\1· AdministratiYe Block anct to bnild an increasingly iuallf,q uate nnmber o£ houses seems to have hcen the only res ponse to the challenge. It is absurd thnt the JH' W AdministratiYe Block, begun in 1!)2;), shonld in J9 ;);) bP


mo years short of completion, that it lx ,;,,. '-"<· l'"'·;,,aU'llt building in the gowmment triangle

and that rher e .should be no plan in esistcuc:•· for a s , '"n'd admininratiw hnild ill g. 'rhe only

ot ller permanent Commonwealth omcc i,; 'tlh' L'<\\C'\:1: Oi"rice Oil King's-avenue. Public departments nre in Bast and \Vest Block, 1rh:ch •n·L·c built ),, ;:n i nl':li l.'-)!icuuLJS style so that Inter thPy wonld not detract hom the appearanc<:' uf the 1;ni \1 > r(\ h · u :· der1 "futnre or in the

new; at Barton, blatantly lcu;wrary in ":'L' •: • c: •· ,. L•:t '"'t so temporarr in construction as to pre•·ent their outliving all those who no·,·: ,•.-o;k in 1!1· ,, [' :;,·;·,• ;:;·<· ·:,thel' buildings so unsuited to grace :1 national capital that thm;e nspunsihlc l' ur 1 l;':c·.;:\ ":it 1 ion of th;·ir offensiwness that tlwy 1rill l"'

screened L-om ihl' public gaze lJy trr(•:, , a;s thongb : ]y "t''li.· :1 C\f were to hide uglin('S:> , not to rnhan('<· and create beauty. The coJJein._l,,.; irun 1 \we. (' 1'ill'it therr is no positiYc ddermination ln

complet e the Sational Capital, but wcr.:>lr :1 poiicr t••' ii ,·i:;g !' rum h

86. 'l'he Committee b;>iieves tbat thi;; polie:- 1\' :eli ?!it •; c·h uc·acterized all goYermneuts and an de pa rtment::; since 1929, must eeasr.·, and a ;, ; q tr ••:: l ' l<:: fO !' the transfer of e!O' ntral departments to

CmLerJ·a sh ould be· drawn up, afrirmed nn,! ·, •,;,ti ,., >l:in a lll•.'ii>;Ln'abk period.

67. 'l'lle j,; oi '(h• clitli:::ultie·i cxi:,ting to<1a;; . There is a uation-wide boom in

building. Costs are high and Hl'c' But th· r;·obL•m js m·g<·nt and is becoming more so. Our

difficulties are pal'tly the result of timidity, lack oi' :md pre-occupation with purely

cl epnrtmcntal problems in th•2 p :1st . righ ·;;rid t !utt· t ht> Gonl'lJJJJent must assert its position

or surrender it. The Jll'Obkms 1r ill JJOt be• :su!,·e:: if le · :•J ' i:mekd. The nation h11S r e

derclopment wbm it desen vs and d.·malllb a•JJ::i c·np1t1: 1. 88. The Committee hcJien•:; th;it a programt,te fo <· mm-t iududt>

housing anll amenities. En'i','.' publi;: UJ :mg)J • :' mn;t l ta Y'' a pial'e to li n· in. sc·honls

for his (:l\ildren and the se>\'iccs nc•,•( ·sscn ·y f r:1 · eiYiliz·· d Thrr(' lw a ha b1w0 hl' t\''"<'11 working

accomm odation, c;mlr:m,;it . .- s·: n·ir·, •<. . A•·,·nrllin•2· t•1 thP rnnrlP 1l.Y th"

Public: HcarrJ, th· complc·li;m of :: 11 • /.• i; •i' n•'iY<' J :hd> --- ;; J'e.,,· ;.-en·s h('/11''1' -·· Y'·dl TJ(''·mi; the

transfer of 2,000 s ·rvants, and th;<; \,·ill ('H!t>.i' •·â€¢ u: ;·, _::.;:• .).UUO i;1 CanJJ, ,na'!'; population. Bul

Canberra hill nut be in truth th<' sea t of ;J;YC'l'l:m"nt r.n;il •Wlll'' h.Cil() ItA '.<' IH• <• tt lr:Jn•,f''lT•·rl

:md f;ome 20,000 peopk· provid rd 11·irh \\·orking- nnc1 room. fHJ . . .. Ag·;t the cc :-)1 iu.yu]Y('(1 in .. ;;;':, :-dti;U] d be :--il't the i-2-'c-ti n. T lte (; , i\·et'\111 \ ('tlt

in efti!.: ieacJ- and pays ::et1d.v 1J __ , is lil't\re::lJJ t

l\le1bourne allll Sydney. Ilighi y plat:eL1 nHl hi;·hly p::il1 p ;t·!·L e ..,,_ :n;Lds l'rnpu:n ll,1' travel itn;Hll·<·d,.; of ntiles to a ttend a short confct·en 1· < : ef'fh.:e:· ._; of ::-:.• t. f u ndd il ioll l il Prt ' h PnYy

esrwn;-;\'l'; involved in the :>t'l'Yi<:rs jll'UYi\},·d for a\\ i r\ c':·: spn'

to take tile l'f.':-;pou>;ib ility of lntildiilg tlw >:ittlui1­ and pla<:t it firndy a11d 011 t\i\\ Of !)t'L_li ] V tO-(lay .

UO. Tlw offie<' aeeormnoda ti'•Jl po·,il[nn )Ja'i ;:Jr.·:::'.l· h . ·< ·tt r.·fn·r,•(1to. TlJ,. l: un :,;t rU< :l ion pf tli•· br;lc

group of t\l'lH:tm.i·â€¢t1 tL·mpon;r y huildiilgs behind lln> i \:11T1i,i '-'l/ iu l'''r· :·nt ." ':Jr-; lw ·; t·,· Jin,•d lilt·

i1Jllne,1iate ::-;train in this respet·t. and of ldl tbe cf a;1 .:n·et·all io11

at the rnoment the lt>a>-t c'l.iffkn\t. If tlw ne1Y aumin' ·· :·:;'- )y , m·n· t o-JH OJTUII. th<' l:J<·k of

housing would prevent it b eing fnll_,. utili zed. This: .hi l ·. t a :1 r :·li(·L ;;, ·,, .,,, (i;J ;\i .;,;\ ,!l inn 1n IDu;t-r:Jilg-<' ,.r nJSidcritiiotls

of p e'·r:iatteiJ(·y. }!ln \.! 'Y; ·r.- i"' tl1e p •·( ,1:1 t i l !' t: l't1H·r !'e f eJ ·f• tt t·e 1-n 1hi s ;!·..; p !\ :·! ,,·il l L,·

nwde .in th e next sedio11 of this r<'pn rt. :n. 'flw JH'rd Ior co-or,linated (lp..-e]opmr n t nf ''' 'Hillllll ti i y , ,.n·j,., .. j.., illsintl i'"rl ln· il11•

ckn1a1Hl for schools. The Connnittz·c· hcarcl

Ca;ih('l'r:·l':·; llatllral <>·;·nw11J nnJ:·. Th-· c!'ii, ·i::1" ·,f •' il, !l

adnHI I'('r] p]a nnill;.t \\.c.l' ll()'' l.; fnr ill.· in 'it t'lt< ·ti"n of thPil· r·!>i ldrvl t, ill Y i t'\\. of the an!i,·ip;tit·d rapid ;.:1'\:\\.,h <1f (','!J h•r r:; it 1•:;1:; illl])"""ihl" i'•1r J,iJ,l to t il:tt

tlt " sr·hoo]s requirPrl wu;tl

1' Jn !l dir· "•·hoofs

j, IWtk<• ;t))OI\'illll'l' ro;· 1\il' ;.!1'<<\l' t i\ ' li li·ii:'J · •J, ,J\ ,:· !l!'J\';11" , .. \J, ,. ,j .. iii ! <\

1'' 'li

1 _, . (If t•(l1',1'tl1i(ll1 f()r rdl <·hilrlrr·n in tllf'

Capit:Jl. Th<' nf rlr·,·i·li: 1: \\·;,·,.!J tl! ,· ir eltilrlrr·Jt slJonlrl at1r•Jtrl J'l·sts with th•·

a}c;Jlf'. :JPi·i·· !!.,:. Jrl.l!d f(!J' p'!1Jl ir· ,>..; 1)if•!'r•f1J!'''· 1/; r· }Hl:':-.:iLiJ;ty 1\J i • 1JP

f:ompr11(•r1 to Pl'PI't adc1itiona[ 1Juiltliil •2-; i :·1 tlH· f> :t11n· .),,,;1),1 IH· k- ·pt i11 l!lind. !l:l. Lall(] s:; •,l l]d !11· !

of T,:md ;,\\.,l; .. rJ t 1 , ,,,_,. •• ; , ,,, ,] ··.h c-: \!' '1' P '! h]i ;· or pJ·iY:t 1" <-lJotdd lw snHi,·if' Jl f I'm· nil

l'tll i rl·r• n!!d p·,·r••at i <•!ll't1fi1 h\· lhe

r.:, -;-ll :\ c) .). -2


problem of building Canberra and that until such time as the city was brought to the full stature of a National Capital, the Public Service administration would not be able to give the full service wl1icll national government required. 81. By 1950, expenditure had increar;ed to approximately £4,000,000 per annum. .An Inter-departmental Committee convened that year to consider the building programme stated that a major cause of delay was the absence of a single authority. There were ten client departments all making separate requisitions to the Department of Works and each pressing the urgency of its own claim. .A body to assess these conflicting demands was necessary and it was therefore recommended that the Cabinet Sub-committee on Canberra Development should be advised by an inter-departmental committee whose it would be to all works and services in the .Australian Capital

Territory. It appears that little was done by way of giving effect to this r ecommendation.

82. In its Report for 1952) the Public Service Board regretted the lack of progress. More than four years had passed, but it was im}Jossible to begin the transfer of departments from Melbourne to Canberra. The position was much as it h ad been before the great depl'ession. A balanced policy designed to provide office accommodation, housing and amenities was (lssential. It was necessary not only to prepare for the natural growth of Canberra but also for expansion. It recommended that the Government should "reaffirm

its determination to make Canberra the centre of the federal administration" and act accordingly. The next year's Report (1953) indicated that the demand for housing· and amenities continued to outstrip the supply.

83 . This was the situation when the Senate Selec t Committee began its inquiries.

(e) The Committee's I nqui?'ies.

84. It soon became apparent that the programme for 1948 for the transfer of public servants to Canberra had failed. rrhe major obstacle vvas the lack of houses. How sm'ious the shortage was will be made clear by the following :figures:-( 1) Housing units completed (including ilats)-

1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 )949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 ..

( 2) Housing units under construction (including fiats)-30th June, 1947 .. 30th June, 1948 .. 30th June, 1949 .. 30th June, 1950 .. 30th June, 1951 .. 30th June, 1952 , . 30th June, 1953 . , 30th June, 1954 . . 30th June, 1955 . . . . . . . . . .

Number of persons on d epartmental ltonsing 1miting list-30th June, 1947 . . . . . . . . . .


30th June, 1948 .. 30th June, 1949 . . 30th June, 1950 .. 30th June, 1951 . . 30th June, 1952 .. 30th June, 1953 .. 30th June, 1954 .. 30th June, 1955 .. 31st July, 1955 . . . .

(+) \Vorkmen engaged d irt·â€¢·tly on llous ini-! ·-· 30th June, 1947 .. 30th June, 1948 .. 30th June, 1949 .. 30th June, 1950 . . 30th June, 1951 .. 30th June, 1952 . . 30th ,June, 1953 . . 30th June, 1954 .. 30th June, 1955 ..

135 (including 8 temporary structures) 249 ( 69 " )

285 ( 94 " )

410 ( " 107 )

545 ( 37 )

635 588 489 320

355 1 526 i 842 I


1,0441 664 535 513 '

657 J

1,445 1,764

. . 2,370


. . 2,618

. . 2,698

. . 2,476

. . 2,611

. . 3,014

. . 3,091

4D5 554 664 951 987 1,109

788 500 693

(excluding contraets let but not commenced)


85. It appears to the Committee that there was no carefnlly thought out plan but merely a vague aspiration that somehow it would be possible to house the public servants who would occupy the new building. The officers mainly r esponsible for the development of Canberra seem to have had many other duties of an important character to perform which h'd them to believe that the building of the National

Capital was merely one, and by no means the most. important of their obligations. To complete the ne"· Administrati,,e Block ani!. to build an increasingly ina


two yt>ars short of completion, that it should lH· ctt' [!L'l'Llillll'llt building in the governm<:nt triangle and that there should be no plan in existence for a s .. •:·.lllcl admini.,uative buildiug. The only

other permanent Commonwealth office building i::; the i'atent Oftice on King's-avenne. Public departments Rre housed in East and West Block, which Wel'e built "' m1 inconspicuous style so that later they would not detract from the appearance of the momunental ro lJe u·· ctec1 by "future generations", or in the JWW offic{·s at Barton, blaLmtl.; tewporary in t so teml>Orary in eonstrnetion as to

prevent their outliving all those who nmY \\'od;: in thcTL T!J'i'c ill"

86. 'fhe Committee believes that this 11olic:· \\ :,ich ,.h,wactcrized all governments and all

departments since 1929, must and that a cleal' pl·cgr:mlm c for the transfer of eentral clepa rtments t<>!ena should bt' drawn up, affirmed and caniP- Ctli ,._ itLin a llH'asurable period. 87. The Committee is 1m are of the difficulties exi:;ting to-day. There is a nation-wide boom in building. Costs are high anc1 i:ll't' incr"«sing. But tLe is urgr·nt am1 is becoming more so. Our

difficulties are partly the result OI timidity, of imcgination Rlld pre-occupation with purely

departmental problems in the past. One \Yitne:-ss rightly ,,aid that the GoYeJ·mnent must assert its position m· surrender it. The problems will not be sohecl ii 1mtoueJH•d. The nation has remancL a national eapital.

8S. The Committee believes t11at a programme for buildinz indnde uffice a\·\:ommodation, housing and amenities. Every public sen·ant h C'JJJL:t.;J'l'Cl nmst ha\·" a plaee in live in, sr•lJOo],

for his children and the services neeess;u·y for civiliz,·d living. There he FJ balarwr hetwcl'n \rnrking­ aecommodation, living- aeeomrnc.laticn a·1l SCl'Yl(CS. A;·c·ordil;p: tr; rhe liS">l'SSnwnt nwde l1.r Hw P1.-1blie Ser,Tice Boatel, the eo'llllJlc-tion of tJE' :Kln(·k----a J'eY\' yeurs hene{-'-------n-iU pern1it the

transfer of 2,000 public s:>rvants, and tb is will c. a use u <' ,- <>e n P 0,000 i':na's population. Bn1 Canben·a ·will not be in truth the seat of [/CYE'I'Illl11'Ht ld1iil ·''01JIP i:o.Cfl() public sP!Tanis hen r hrPJJ traJJ''T'n•·d and rsome 20,000 people provided ·with working and room. 89. _1-\.gainst the iuvo}•,'t" 1c1 in tbi-c· i?_r/ (!

lose:-; in eiiic:icucy and pays large .-:mm )'<'iirly ]), Melbourne and Sydney. Highly plaeec1 aml hlc>hly miles to attend a short l'onferem:e with of

.'1lluuJd be set the gajn. The Uu\-('t"illltcnt

\'(_':.itral io11 is (li•, \1 het\reen t'(lllht't'l'Cl,

p,ti·lie c;,:rnuis ht·qttenlly travel hnmlr<•ll"i of

expenses involved in the sel'vic·es pl'ovic1cd i'or a spread, htr hom finislH·cl r:i1y. The time has cOJW' to take the respuusihility of buildiug the C:n;itnl frc,m rn1,cl·:l had.;.:; of h:lnn· g''lit'l ;1ti\lll'

and place it firmly and sq

DO. The offiee accommodation po:,ilt(•;J kt:; hTt'i'd to. The n.f tlll' l

gronp of temponu·y bnill1ings behind U otc>l '•: :1 li! n·l':·Jlt ·:1 r. !Ja..; ,., h·n·d 11H·

iln1ncdiate strain in this and of all the cf oYcrall ;.;<·hP1l1\'J office aei·onnn()(1c-l1 io11

is at the moment the least difficult. If tlw new aclmin· :·;;!jw \l'l'l'l' fillished i.o-mono\\. thr" lii\'k of

housing would prevent it being fnlly utilized. This' ':t'r\i;;L r:•[irL

made iH the next sedion of this report. 91. The JH'ed for co-ordinated rleYelopn]('nt of r·r>lliJJlllllir.\· is illst;llW<'

Catholic :,;c:hnols, all of wlwm streYlJir·h is !' Canbc•JTa's natnral CTOWth on);-. The• cn!ei;;Jc.; '>f fl"' llr·JJ!;1·7JJ!·:'''t nf j]J,o Interior statrd that their aclvaneccl p]annill;! I'>Wi being: ao! 1 <' Oll l;!i' t1J:tt \1;; · 11lnrn:na.1:r;nal sr·h•JOL i\·on];-l cater fnr ;Jhllnp t J'Hri<·n

i1:dic:atcd that whilst the Tiuma!l C'athnlie r·'·!tl>L'n:\ty intcn,l•·r 1 . tn lwilrl fr>r n1.' instrndion ,.)· thl'ir c·hildt·e1>, in view of the antir·iJlai<·cl rapicl :_;r(J\\"th l>t C<:>lLt'IT;; ir 1•::ts in1pos,il,J · i'r>r l1i>.l to <.!'llill"illlf,•<' til;lt thr· sr·hools rrqnirer] >nnJld ht; h11i1t \':iihin tJI!' c1Psirerl time. ThP CoJIJJ1littvP tk1t whil<' it j, ]>•1': ,;"_j!,],. i'<•r II:<' l"'''irollin<.: pnL\i•· ..,.lJ()o\,..

to allowaJH'\' for t\1" llT0\1·1i1 l>f rkn'>ll!i•,a1i·'llid ,,,. ]>ri,-;,11· >,.];,,,,L, ai!rl ih hnildinl! pr(JgTilllllll>'

;J,·r·orllin,·h-, it ranno1 I'Ya

Federal The rrspm1sihility of c1er:idi:•:c: \rl,ir·h their r·!Ji!dr('n shonld atiPnd with th•'

parents alcml'. T•: al'1,, c:rlg' land for pn1Jlir· 1li>':·r·f·,,r•·- 1irl• fl'h"iLilit:.- tl1il; 1i11· (;11\I'J'!lJ!IrJil Jllil.l' he compelled to ereet additional huilclill':''i in thr· fr:tnJ·r· -hr.rd<1 lw kr·pt in mind. LalJ(l llf'YI'rth<'less he lllarlr• ill"i!i1:1h[r• f'nr d<'l111JlJin;JiioliS m1d Mlwr hr,dil'.'i r·ap

of ('nnr1nr·tiw:· Lund allottr·cl j,, 111n· s,•l!ll,,f \'. hr·d11'1' ]Y1!hli1· 01' priYatn he snfti,ir·nt fr1r nil

!'ntm·p hnilrlinc-· ;11111 l'l'''l'<'

F .. -, ;;i; -2


experience of State educational authorities whid1 iu tl1e pa::;t re::;erveu areas which were too small for schools. 1'he children of to-day are the victims of ti1is short-sighted policy. ln some city schools normal recreation is too dangerous in the diminutive areas of asphalt which are mis-named playgrounds. Tlw formula used by the New South \Vales Edueation Departmeut may serve as a guide, namely, that the minimum area for an infant school should be two acres, for a pl'imary school seven to ten acres, and for a secondary school fifteen acres. The Senate Committee has been supplied >nth a statement showing the areas of land allocated to all schools iu the Au,;tralian Capital Territory, and notes with pleasure that most have sufficient land for present needs. It is coucerneJ, nevertheless, ''"ith the future and is anxious that adequate land should be provided for the time when certain areas will have a greater density of population.

94. 'l'he opening-up of further suburban shoppiHg areas and community centres, the provision of playing fields and recreation areas, and the erection of halls, mothercraft and pre-school centres are some of the other community services which must be developed in _co-ordination with tl1e other aspects of an over-all transfer scheme, if the community life is to retuiu proper balance.


95. According to the evidence given by witnesses before the Committee, governmental finance has been the major obstacle to Canberra's construction. It wa" ::;aid that the system of annual appropriation delayed the commencement of new projects and then caused a rush to spend money before the end of the financial year, resulting in unevenness and uncertainty in planning· and in the uneconomical use of moneys. lt was also stated that it created "artificial barriers'' in building construction and that, by reason of its uncertainty, had been a barrier to long-range planning.

96. Witness after witness stressed that the first essential of any proposed development must be a guaranteed works programme with an assured allocation of funds over a period of years. Project budgeting, as it has been called, was advanced as the only satisfactory method of construction finance.

97. 'l'he Committee gave very careful consideration to these criticisms and suggestions as they were made by witnesses who had been closely associated with Canuerra's development.

98. The Auditor-General when questioned rebutted much of the criticism on the grounds that if uncertainty and unevenness of programming existed, it had nothing to do with the budgeting system as such, nor with the actual provision of the amounts for appropriation by Parliament; that it was a fallacy to believe that the liability to which Parliament was committed within each financial year was limited by the amount appropriated for that year; and that under the system of "revotes" a major form of project budgeting had been in operation in larger departments for many years, with governmental approval.

99. 'l'he Treasury officials also claimed that no criticism could be directed at the Treasury over recent years for lack of funds for Canberra's developmental programme. Expenditure on civil works under the control of the Department of \Yorks since 1950-51 haJ rang(x1 between £3,000,000-£4,000,000 annually and, in recent years particularly, the expenditure had Ldlen considerably short of the amount voted. The question of even programming had received very 'l'r€asury consideration and a new method of deahng with revotes and new contracts, which had been approved and was no·w in operation, should do mucll tewards meeting the criticism made by witnesses.

100. 'l'he Senate Committ€e is satisfied that the seheme recently introduced by the 'l'reasury could illl prove the method of making funds available, but Hevc·rthekss that uncertainty about the provision oi iinance could still thwart development. It not:."; that the one period in Canberra's history when development was swstained without flagging or failing: \\as when the F'ederal Capital Commission was in

l'ontl'ol. The Commission was able to carry out its programme without regard to the fluctuations in annual appropriation by Parliament. 101. From the Committee's review of the circmmtauc<:'s, it would appear that the 1948 programme had gathered mom€ntum with the work forces ready til .scl about the task of really developing the city when the economic situation caused a change of policy, wl1 :(']J was fatal to the project. Under tl1e threat of dangerous inflation, the Government tightened tbe rei''·'; of fin:tnce generally. Some public servants were ntn·nclwd; o\·ertime, country allowance and week-end \York in Canberra were stopped and, pending decisions in the budget, the entering into of new contracts and ll('\\' commitments was discouraged. The combined effect of the uncertainty and the discontinuance of illcr·nti1·e allowances saw the exodus of Canberra's \vorking force.

102. 'l'lJe Committee is satisfied that neither nor workmen will be induced to come to

Canberra unless it is represented to them that thcr<' i·' a rleflnite continuing programme with an assured allocation of funds. 103. The mere offering of spasmodic contracts is not enough owing to the peculiar difficulties of Canberra. In oth€r cities contractors are not depend ·n1 upon the Government for the bulk of their work;

1 wrhaps 01-,]y 10 per cent. of their business is governm·r:tnl. 'o 1hnt any fluctuation or uncertainty in regard to the volnme o£ gonrnmental building is not as vital to t]Jt'lJJ :1.' it is in Canberra where perhaps 90 per


cent. 01 contracts are governmental. .At a time like The present when plfmty of work is available elsev>here, new contractors and former contractors \vith experience of Caubena will require guarantees more substantial than exist ut present to bring them to Canberra. These fnctors are now affecting the dewlopment of Canberra.

104. Large-scale contractors obviously would not be induced to come w·ithont a specific contract. Contracts of Llw, nature, the completion of which is spread owr a number of years, already exist in regard to project-'; as the permanent .Administrative Building.

103. The Committee does not suggest that the financ;c required for carrying out a renewed departmental trnn::::fer programme should be made available other than annually, though it sees no objection to the Betting up of a Trust Fund for the purpose of maintaining continuity in the planned development or the eity. It is aware of the desirability of ultimate parliamentary control of the annual appropriation, but it believes tllat the Government should guarantee the annual allocations required as a commitment of the 1vhole project or programme in the .:wme way as it commits itself to the payment of

the annud sums required for individual contracts. It uote& that the Auditor-General in his evidence stated that he had queried and :sought the Attorney-General'.s opinion on the constitutional validity of the Government entering into commitments spreading over a nmnber of years, and had been advised that the Government could legally do so.

106. The Committee believes, moreover, that the 11ece:ssary finance should be as.<:;ured irrespective of the changes in economic conditions. This is doubt1ess \\hat the Chairman of the Public Service Board had in mind when giving eviden\le, as foUows :-\Vithout wishing to enter into any cliscussiou on the reaewns for fluctuations in the huitding construction output, it does, nevertheless, appear to th" Bc>trd that the key to the position is ·for tl1e authorities responsible for construction

to lwvc a clear authority for a high h'vel of e;cpenditure on lt prograrmne hasecl over a period of years rather than have to relv on the iluetnati

The Committee is convinced that the re-assertion of a \·igorous programme of development i.s a matter of immediate lli2C0ssity, awl it also believes that in the eY<:Jlt of an economic depression the construction inYohed should he pursued even more vigorously. This is in accord with modern economic theory that in a dcpre.s,.;ion it is legitimate to expand credit to Ullploy uuusecl resources.

107. lt i;:; noted that in the recently presentee] lJ,-JiJ-,)Ii Budget an amount of £:J,4JO,OOO has been provided fol' CnpitaJ 'IVork.s nnd Services in the Austndian Capital Territory, as compared with a vote of £4,300,000, and an actual expenditure of £3,340,000 during the past financial year.


lOti. ln v1ew of the figures given earlier, it is obvious that housing is the most urgent of all

components of any on:rall plan of development. There is an urgent need not only for houses to be

provided for the people already 'Waiting for them uut ,iJ;:;o for additional residences to be made availabl· for the public servants im,olved in any large departmental transfer.

lOJ. 'l'he present Director of Works ,Jnmc<,) n1d the Cllairmau of the Public Service Board Dunk) both stated that at least 1,000 houses a year were needed. According to Mr. ,James, it

takes about 400 men to build 300 houses a year; a programme of 1,000 houses a year, therefore, would mean a considerable increase in the number of men t'ugagecl on housing construction. The Secretary of the Department of Interior advised the Committee that the problems associated with "Operation Admin."--as the transfer programme is departmentally known-were being carefully considen·d by 2 speciai seeretariat of his department. During the Yt>

it had reeornmended to the 1Iinistcr that there be a planned programme of development, looking fiw years ahead, and that greater be placed on tl1r> "on.struction of flats, particularly in den-lopc>d

sn1mrbs, in ord{'r to take achantage of exi.-;ting services. It was considered that these re\lommeJJ(1atim:-; would net as incentiYes to large engineering

110. Senior officers of the Department of Works have advised, in giving evidence, that in the past the department hns preferred to use small contractor., \1-herc possible for housing construction O\Ying to tl1eir rrlative dH•aJmr•-;s. 'IYhilst the Senate Committr•e ha.'< no desire to exclude small contrncton, it believes that i11 a major 11nr\u·tc1l\ing snt:h a.-; now crJnhonb t1w in Canberra, mo:r la:·;te-scale

organization.'> are es..;enti:ll. The ach·antages of sw:h 1Jl"2'dlliza1ions in r1cvrloping roads und in eonjnnction \Yith the construction of homws were stres.s0tl in c1·iclence by J.Ir .. A. V. ,Jenning:;, 1dw etLo urged that Anstrillian firmc; shonld be 11srd in prrfr :·r·nr:,• onTsr·as fi;·;!JS. In vi•'w of the iiCJllf' .-;)wdng-r: of labonr and resource,; generally. the Committcr' thinks tlwt the Gon'rnment should take r;f

resource available tn it. If r-;;n kill'! <'killN1 labour 1\-itlJ tlH'm, thry ;1rr· to 1w

enconrngwl. Consic1crntion shnnld Rlso h<' g-j,·pn tot],, of the labour and contr8ctor.s aYailablr frnm the :'\fountains sclwmP fl.-: that nnrlrri8l;in;:: rlrfl''.-s nrnr completion.

111. Labour DI'jficulfl"e:>.-It was sug·gcstec1 to the Committee that special mict\Jt now

be ner•essnry to attrnct nn adecruatc labour forr;e to a g-m,rantc•rrl pro.'!ramme 1Youlc1 not

he enongh in thec;e times of acute labrmr RlH!rt8ge. .:\Irn who }Jar1 her•n here before would hesit8te to comf' back, because there was plenty of 'vork a;·ailable elsewhere.


112. One of Canberra's particular diiiiculties has been its fluctuating work force. Young men are wu often working tourists, who find few attractions in Canberra to hold them. The more settled typ2 find it diflicult to obtain suitable accommodation, particularly for their families. The combined effect c:il'Lises a lligh turnover of labour, a factor commented on particularly by Mr. A. V. Jennings, of

Jennings Construction Company, who stated that it was a very costly business involving an expen::;e of about £20 per man, for which some one had to pay.

113. In giving evidence before the Committee, the Australian Capital Territory Trades and Labour ComH.:il suggested that "a fair thing" to prevent the drift of workmen to other districts would be the introduction of a locality allowance of £5 per 1vcek, payable to all workmen in the building industry, a ,mggestion, the Committee notes, similar to the action taken by the Federal Capital Commission of

1he late 1920's, in paying its labour force an amount well over the normal city wages.

11:1. Owing to the shortage of contr

construci1on finns were opposed to any form of loN1'ity alJowance. In their opinion, the most effective inducement for lnbour is the provision eithf·r of arJeqnnte hon.>ing for workmen or the opportunity fo1• them to build houses of their own.

115. lYir. ·warren McDonald, of McDonald Con:ctnwtiom; Pty. Ltd., thought that 500 houses should be built immediately for skilled. tradesmen, who wen· in short supply in Canberra at the present time, :md that these homes should be of such a standard that they eould be spread throughout the suburb·; cf Canberra and not just congregated in one al"ea like the Narrabundah prefabricated dwellings. Professor Corbett, wl1ilst also advocating the rcsenah)n of homes for workmen and professional men,


116. Mr. emphasized the desirability of making home-purchase easy. In this eonnexion

the ComnJitt,·e mentions the scheme put forward by the Australian Capital Territory 'Trades and Labour Council that the Departmrnt of \Vorks should encourage the workmen to build their own homes and then giYB them the opportunity of either lmying or renting them when built, on the basis simply of the materi2l", rmd hmd involved.

117. The Senate Committee feels that the Jabom· position would also be ('Onsid<::rably assisted by the building· of more suitable and attractive quarters for the single tradesmen.

1:18. Shor·tages.-ln addition to difficulties in obtaining tradesmen, Canberra also has

difficulties in obtaining supplies of materials, the most serious being bricks and cement. A new kiln will sl1ortly be in operatioll at tl1e Canlwrra Brickworks, hnt it will still not produce sufficient brieks for C'nn bern;'.·; rcrp1inmwnts. 'rhe Master Bui !dcrs and tlle Australian Capital Territory 'l'rades and Labour Council both referred to the shortages of those stocks-brielrs, metal, sand and timber-which are under governmental control, and which were said to be totally inadequate even for present rcqnin'ments

u ndcr the red need building programme. It was felt that some governmental aetion should be taken to increase the supplies of these materials

11 <). The Committee asked the then Director of Works lVIr. 'ray lor, where the lily iu

these watters and why action had not hct'll taken to bnild np the departmental stocks. He replied that he. as Dire,· tor of \Yorks iu Can berra, did not haVL' sufficient (1degation to take the aetiou whi<:h might be· required--" far as remedying genrrnl t;]wrtagcs is that is the responsibility of the Chif'f

Comptroller of Stores in my head oillee. who has thr rig-ht to pnn·hasr ovrrs<'as. I have not that rig·ht ". Hr pointed out ho·wever, that the shortages referred to \\·<·r·<· general thro11ghout Anstralia fllH1 t!wt Can herra\ \\"er< · not simply the r<•snlt of tlle i'omptrol!er living in Melbourne.

1')0. ::\Ir .. )alii<'·,. 1\H· rn·<·s<•nt Din,dm· oi' \Yorks. 11·lw also rtnYe Pvidenee Ht a later date, n'll"ltrd<'fl the of larwnr as being· the main obstaele to cleYelupm<'Jlt and 1n1s not g·r('atly eoJwern<'d nbont the shorlag<· of materials. Altrwng·h tlH•re were threatened sc·an·ities of materials, he, as a C'Onstrudiull man. exprcted to be able to fight his 11·ay out of a11:· rliffienlty of that nature.

121. As tliC:' GoYer•llli<'>lt lias failed tu pruvide f->1· Hcl<.·rluat•.' snppli(•s of bricks and lmildin.g· nmt<•riah ancl as the po ,jt[ou may furth<:'r


122. The Committee notc·s that i11 rec·ent months. a rr-org·allization of staff in Departrn<'llt of \\'orb; l1as proviil<'fl for a S<'nior nffi<·er tn takr· ll\"1'1" the for tl11· hni!r1inl: 11p nf

C'anbena stocks.


la regarl1 to the different l,qlr's ;>j' lilCl1l'I'iilb t!Jnt mar br· e.g., timl:er. Ldc·k, fibn.

aml asbestos cement, the Committee heard a considerable amount uf c\·idcncc a;;d n·ceiYed S'' .:u:s.·,,ous with well-illustrated attachments from many firms representing the major industries concerned. It ci.o s not feel, however, that it shoulq attempt to acljudi0ate Oil thes::: materials and it ',Yishes ,1;: to

state that it does not believe that any one material sllonlcl lw used e:s:elusiYely for constrnetion p::rpo:ws in the Australian Capital Territory, but that, as at present. a IYitle variety shouhl Le ntilizccl. '[he evidenee given and the submissions and attachments :,;l'"lt to tl1e Committee by tl12 firms r c:cctl'lH'c1 r:J·p available to the construction authorities in Canberra for their information.

124. Private Building.-The Committee lwliens tbat priYatc cnterprist' shcn,ld help in every way possible with the dewlopnw1:t of Cnnlwua. p:ntic,larly in the and regrets that it has not always recein•cl the 1rhid1 might be expc•cted.

125. Some bitter emuplaiuts \\d':· lilLl•.lv Ly wirw·""'-"' ubuut tlH: pl'OYisLvL •. •t ,;.t.·s. H Wch

alleged that until recently the building of p1·ivate hume,, \I'Hs oiten p;·cYt•:•tu1 Ly 1aek of sites. For a long period no allotments were made available, and when they were offered for aur'tiou the demand was so great that large premiums over the ·' upset" priee were obtained. ::tiany housc-buiJders, in the

competition for sites, paid large :s1.nns to the Commonwealth whid1 :·on ic1 y,·:·Jl haYe bee;} u tili?u1 in better house-construction on the allotments thus leased.

126. Since this complaint was first Yoieed, many mOl'C sites have been l'eleasecl by the Dqmrtnwnt of the Interior, and it would now seem that the supply bns largely caught up with the demand.

127. The Department explained to the fknate Committee that tJw e

serviced but unoccupied as that would represent capital equipment lying idle. It was that

there would always be competition for the better sites available.

128. 'i'be Committrc feels that th(; GoYfl'llmcnt lws a l oh1 sites are always available and that a lac·k of services aml a

beconw responsible for the payment of nndnly high premiums.

129. It was suggestPCl to thP Committee that private home-building \YO!lln he Q'l'Ci:tl;' 0 1lC'"i'l'i1itPn by more liberal housing loan;;;. 'l'hr Cemmittt>r accepts the Yirw that, nniler a;•propri:,fn tJtraets. Commonwealth employefs in Canberra nre a safp risk for laeg·fr lnnns as repa;·m0nts can ).,, (1e:1motrd from their salaries ns governmrnt officials.


J30. 'fhe 1948 programme clearly ln•·k•. d unified

was also established, consisting of representnhYes from thC' Department of the lntC'I'ior, Treasury, Public Service Board, an<1 Department of \Vorks, bnt it. too, seems to ha·ve faclccl. out. According to the Chairman of the Public Service Board, it ·was never a wry effedive nry on priorities, ns mml1 of the total goyernment programme >Yas outside departmental control. e .. ( 'on•mnny·ealth S"ientifi!• and Industrial Researeh Org·anization, Ddenrp aiHl Anstrnli:m Xational Uniwrsity work,.

131. That there was a lack of departmental r·o-on1itnhon i11 r<>;pect to prog-r!lmn'!' v::>s •·]early dPmonstrated eYidence ;.tin•n to the Committee 011 mmwrons v:ih•r''' l,;cul his

own ideas regarding the type of authority which shouhl he entrnste<1 11·ith the exr•entirn of tlw

programme, but agreement wa;; general that some alteration of t]w prr•sent arlminist,·ation ,,·as desirnhle, and that an active, unified and ro-ordinate<1 m'l'i c-. .;sc'ntin1 for tlw of any proQTnmmc.

132. l\I r. Shakespeare nnd l\Ir. \Varren l\IcDonalc1 were p;n·+icn !iuly critircRl of t 1:e diYided control, an<1 of the Depflrtment of \Vorks. l\Ir. Shakrsprnrr of onininn tl·nt 1 h" '•l:m for the

transfer of pnblic ;;;ervants to CanbPrra would not be <'ffrderl until tlwr"' ;1 ''eyn]nj;, chnngr in

tbe means of executing tl1e programme-the most essential rpqnirr·n:rnt lwi·H'' t]JM tl'" D""J:ntment of the Interior shouln be in <1 pnsition to commnnd that its rleFhpmr·ntal rem1irenH'11h lw pr-rformrrl when it wanted them performed; it hnd the money. and the W"8lnws.o:: ln:-· in tl1" innhilit:: r,f Jhr• Depadnwnt of \Vorks· to ont the ,1·ork rcrpwsted. He snggrstrc1 tlwt it wr1s f''senti1l to "rlr:w tl1r> '1'11ole 0f

tlw Cf'ntrnl f':taff of the Dep:Htment of Works to Canherra hy th"' l1air of their ]Jcads ".

133. Mr. :\InDon:=llC! pointl'!d out that P\'Pl',V fnrcra"t in reQ"J1"(1 tro nf

ac1ministrative c1f'p<'rhnen•s harl h0nn "wo"fnll:.' ". anr1 1.1·ith tll" •;v

now exists could br nccompiished. Be considrrrc1 thnt it >ronlr1 he h"tt.2r for PnTIC"rneJ

if complPtion of the Yntirnal f':mitrll v;rre tRkcn 8\\'<11' from thr nf Wrwkr: aT"·l ontc·irlr

rnginrer.': of repntr tn


134. Mr. Rowe felt that the Department of the Interior had done an excellent job under difficult circumstances, but was of the opinion that it was not properly constituted for development and did not possess the proper authority to enable it to carry out its work effectively. 135 . The Committee asked the Chairman of the Public Service Board whether the divided departmental responsibility had been a cause of the lack of balance in planning. In reply, Mr. Dunk stated that the fluctuation in funds was a limiting f actor, but continued, "I should not like to say that, if you overcame that difficulty, the departmental system could not do the job. It has never really had a chance. I should think that, given a clear authority to make commitments, the present system will

do its job".

136. The Australian Capital Territory Branch of the Clerical Association advised that it was not greatly concerned as to how the administration was vested-be it in a commiK<:ion or department­ because it considered both methods had contributed well to the "phenomenal development" of the Australian Capital Territory in its 28 years, and that criticism could be made of both; the essentiaLs were that the administration, of whatever type, should be have realistic planning with automatic implementation, resort to no expedients, allow for local responsibility and be protected against capricious

reversals of policy. 137. Evidence Recommending a, Comrnission.--'l'he Commission type of administration was recommended in particular by Sir John Butters, the former Chairman of the Fedel'al Capital Commission, by Professor Corbett, representing the Canberra Division of the Instit ute of Engineers, and by Mr.

Rowe on behalf of the Canberra Chamber of Commerce. 138. Sir John Butters believed that, although Canberra is no longer in the state in which he knew it, a commission specially appointed for th{) purpose would carry out the work better than the present form of administration. "It could do all the neces sary planning and thinll:ing for the future. It could give its time to a study of Canberra's future problems. It would have plenty of time to do its designing on the drawing board before it put a peg into the grouno." He suggested, however, that in view of the desire of citizens to run their own local affairs, of those affairs should devolv<:: upon a local

anthority. 1:39. Professor Corbett recommended a commission similar to the Snowy .Mountains Authority with power to construct major works and see to overall planning, including houses. He recommended that a municipal council also be established and be responsible for day-to-day service.s, fo r maintenance and short-term projects.

140. :Mr. Rowi! advocated a commission of eight members, consisting of four nominated and four elected members, with the chairman having a casting vote. He differed from Profes.c.;or Corbett, however. in that flltbough he :-;tre;;;sed the need for some form of administration to represent ancl recognize the citizens' right and responsibilities, he felt that the unique conditions existing in Canbena made it impracticable to st>parate local and municipal from State and national interests.

141. 'l'hcse vie·ws are interesting, not only in their support for an administration of a commission type, bnt also in their reference to the need for the people of Canberra to lwve some voice in local affair;:;. One of the many critici'>ms leve lled at the former Federal Capital Commission was that it ·was too autocratic and the cit izens had no effective part in administration. The citizens were vocal enough it would seem, and in 1028 the Seat of Government (Administration) Act provided that one of the three

commissioners shonld be elected by the residents of the Capital Territory. The result cloes not appear to have hem a happy one, and in this respect the following extract from Sir John Butters's final report to the :Minister in 1929 is informative:-Exrerienee pnwed that the elected representative was unlikely to co-operate in n. fri endly spirit with his colleagues by keeping eJcnrly before the Commission the local point of view, but on the contrary, im·ariably proceeded on the that hiH c"lleagnes were entirely antagonistic to the local intereilts. Furthermore, the municipal side of

the Ccnr.J ni ::

made subsidio.1·y to the smaller, but troublecome, points ass ociated with local goverament.

142. The foiiowing comment made by Mr. Withall, Federal Director of the Associated Chamber of liianufacturers of Australia, is pertinent:-" There must be a lot of people like myself who feel they would not like to go back to an authoritative commission, the sort of authority which is justifiable at an early stage of affairs but which could be reasoned as being totally undemocratic at a later stage of affairs."

143. From the point of view of getting a job done, hmvewr, there srnns to be Little argument flbout commission's ability. Reference was made earli0r to the success of the Frderal Capital Commi:'.sion in keeping to its programme. 144. EPidence R ecorn m e11 ding a Corporation.-A form of aclmini::tration which i:,; relatively new to Australian thought, but apparently very effectiYe in Eng:Iand, is that of the l\ew Town type of corporation. It was strongly recommended for Canberra by se.-eral witnesses.

145. Professor Towndrow likened the New Town corporations in England t o "a new kind of contracting organization. under government auspices, "·hich has a definite job to do ,,·ithin a certain time in planning, design, construction, housing and the creation of civic and architectnral amenities- so tl1at people can work and live in a healthy and happy environment".


146. lt w;-u; suggestt>cl by tlle Ca11bernt c\rea l'on tmittee of the Royal Australian of

.Architects that the e, ->tabli;;hment in Canberra of a c orporation of thi.s type would be the be:st means oi meeting tile two consid erations of ( 1) the method of organizing the functions of planning and

administration on the one hand, and of engineering and architectural design and construction on the other, within a single authority and (2) the relationship of the authority to the community generally.

147. The corporation is said to be essentially a policy-mflking body, the executive functions of which are performed by an executive officer and a staff which consists broadly of t"·o sections, admini>:;trative and technical. 148. It was stated that the merits of the corporation method of town development as applied t o Canberra would be that-

( 1) the responsibility for the design R!ld development of the city would be vested in 011e authority, the app0intment of 1vhich tronld be the responsibility of the Minister; (2) the personnel of t his body could ntriecl from time to time as r equired to suit changing needs; adequate repr esentation 201tlcl he given to private as well as public interests and

when Canberra developed a structure of r <2sponsible government. appointed member of the corporation could be replaced by elected representatives; (3) The corporation would have freedom tn recruit t he most competent staff and obtain the best expert advice available. 149. Professor \Vinston suggested that a corpor at ion of thi8 nature be established in Canberra, that i!, be known as the National Capital DeYelopment Corporation and that it have a chairman with seven to nine members, the majority of whom would be nominRtt>tl. Hr suggested that it should appoint a Director

with appropriate staff, and that the Director's job shnnlcl be comparable to that of the Snowy Mountain8 Commissioner. 150. In recommending this type of administration, Professor Winston stated that "the most important point to be observed in the administrative atTangements for the work of planning, implementing and controlling the development of Canberra is that these different functions should, under no

circumstances, be separated; planning ac:tivities, building activitie s and managing activities each react on tl1e other, and it always lrarls to mistakes and trouble if the responsibility for them is divided".

151. In this respect, Professor ·winston's opiniott d itfrrrd rather radically from that of Dr. Stanner who, in r ecommending a separate authority with "a t:on 1pl etely clear and unobstructed charter to buil!l what they are told to build, with absolute certainty of eapital and with a proper provision of working equipment ", nevertheless believed that it would be qu ; ff' \'iral to kt•ep such an authority wholly free, first of

all. of the current task of the administration of Ca 11 lwna. and secondly of the whole of the planning fnnctions themselves. It was Dr. Starmer's vi.e:w d,Hl if yuu diYide your time between planning and administration, you do both badly.


152. The Senate Committee has arriYed at the following conclusions:-(1) That Canberra has fllilef1 to drw1op ll'i t],,. [l(lmin istrative centre of the Commonwealth.

( 2) That the present form of administrat.i- ,n is unsatisfactory for the task r equired of it. The blame for this does not lie with the ot!']r,.r<> of the Yarious departments but with the type of organization. (3) That the development of Canberra to pt>nnit the full transfer of administrative departments

should be given over to a centralized

deal solely with Canberra's actiYiti r<; should be taken from their respective departments, and unified in this authority. (6) That the should be gnarant ·1 ·rl. an appropriate provision in the enabling Act,

snfficient finance t o permit it to carr': ont a larg-e-scale balanced programme over a period of years.

l!i::l. F'nrthrr to anthority will h,. marlr in the concluding sections of this report.

1!i4. Irsgons of the Past.-In making these the Committee wishes to refer to the

"'it 11 atirm in CanhE'rra in 1923. It is remarkahlP how ',imi 1flr thnt situation \Yas to that existing to-day. J !i!i. Then, as now , three departmPnts controlled ('nr hrrra-thc Department of Home anrl Territories, 11011· IntPrior; the Department of Work<; and Raih'a'·". now \Yorks; and the D epartment of Health. A prog'rilmmc for r1epartmental tramf!'r s had also b een :J T>fll'O\·ed a few years earlier, had b e<>n commenced

""ith high hopes. and had fallen short of its tilrgoet.

1Gti. As with to-day, finance was the stumi;Jing )Jlvck. Ju view of the Senate Committee',; recommendations given above, the following extract from the lhnal Report of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee might be noted:-The Committee repeatedly urged that a definite financial policy be adopted which would permit of continuity from one yenr to the next, without the necessity for the \vhole project being subject to annual review. The importance of this was stressed when it became impnssible to carry out the three-ye:>rs' programme of eonstrnction under the scheme wh

e,;timateil amonnt involved for this

157. A further important similarity is that the Federal Capital Advisory Committee in 1923, in order to accelerate construction, recommended that the Director-General of Works, Colonel Owen, be relieved of other work, reside in Canberra and "be given as wide powers as possible, consistently with the maintenance of the "Ministerial policy, to control work3 actiYitie; ". The recommendation was approved and Colonel Owen was transferred to Canberra in November, 1923.

158. It might finally be noted that two years later, in 1925, the Government handed over control to the Federal Capital Oommissjo;n.


(a) Lidvisory Bodies connected with tli e 0 ity's JJevelopment. 159. Except for the period bt:twcen 1930, whc·n thr l''ecleral Capital Commission was abolished, and 1938 when the present National Capital Planning and Development Committee was formed, Canberra, in its development as a city, has been served by advism·y bodief; of experts.

HiO. Refel'enee has already been made to the Frderal Capital Advisory Committee TrhielJ. lmder the thairmanship of Sir ,John SPlman, sugqy-;ted the development of Canlwrrfl in three stag·es. This ( 'ommittep did important work in layiPi!' the foundation>; of many of the dty's planning prineiplrs.

161. ·when the Federal Capital Commission took over in 1925, it established two committees to advise it-one on design called the Advisory Comrnittee on Architectural Design, and the other on development and planning called the Developmental Committne. The former committee assisted the Commission in considering major architf'ctural problems assoeiated with designing the more important buildings whilst thB latter committee made re\'ummenrlations on town-planning matters such as shopping facilities, reservation of land, building sites, rity subdivisions and pienic and camping grounds. The best known report of the Developmental Committee is the Peake-Owen Report on the lVIolonglo and Queanbeyan Rivers and flood alleviation.

162. It is interesting to note that Sir .John Butters, in his final report to the Minister dated 2nd November, 1929, recommended that these two committees-the Advisory Committee on Architectural Design and the Developmental Committee-should be eombined as a new eomTnittee to be known as the Committee of City Design and Development, with its personnel consisting of two engineers, two architects, a surveyor and one additional member to be drawn from a panel, consisting of a landscape artist and a RcnJptor, dependent npon the design under conflide>ration; all members to be appointed by the Governor-General and to be persons of special eminenc·e in their professions. He further suggested that an Act should be passed providing that all desig·ns for civil development, whether engineering, ardJitectural, landRcape or sculptural, all mnjor privat,• buildings anywhue, and n1l bnidings o;1 main

nYenues oe circles, must be submitted to and approve!1 hy ,:,•dt a committee. "In building a model <'iLy ;;;neh as Canberra, it is vital that all matters eonnedrd with design il'lCl development be

closely studied before a prncil is even put to paper arrl r1r.,iyo;;s rrlmcst io finality h•forr

is broken."

163. National Capdal Planning ancl Development Com.Jnittce.--For eight .rears after l!J30, there >vas nobody outside the admini:>teri11g departments to advi:'e Oll the Griffin plan aml on matter.> of arr.hitr;ctural importanee. After critil'ism of the JI.'Iiniste: n•JCI his ndmindration following disputes over the University area and the High S1·h:>nl in HJ3S, it "·,;s arcirled to p1·oyirle by ordinance for the establishment of an advisory c·ommilter tu he J\:poy,·n f\,, the l'Tr.+imnl PlanPiwr pn(l Cnmrn;ttre. This

Committre sti1l exists. anr1 as it •xi11 he ._, refc·r to it frrq11ently thronghont this report, it

is an visa bJe at this stag·e to set ont fnlJy it:; fnneti011S.

164. The enabling ordinance is Ko. 37 Gf !'J?F' L ?, nn 17th DH'C:'1 1'c·:·, 1938, nndrr the SNtt of Government (Administration) Act. It has the titl0 of "()]"(1iname to establish a Committre

to eonsirler anrl advise upon :Mattt'n: involved in thr and Development of the National Capital

and itll EnvirOJl$ 11 • 165. The members arr appointPrl hy the Gove1•nor-Genrra! to hold offiee during- his pleasnre :md thrir only payment i;;; a travdling allowance of £5 :'i<:. whf'll attending mPetin!!S. The CommittPe !'Onsists of three e:r: officio members-the Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public

Part of the central land a xis (northerly aspect). Mount Ainslie. with the Australian W a r M emoria l a t its viewed from the top of P a rlia ment House.

P art of the centra l la nd axis (;,outherly aspect ). P arliament i-io use v iewed Irom the top of the Australia n

War M emoria L Anzac P a rle is in the foregro\md. with St. J olm's Cllnrch and part of the suburb of R eid to the right. The new Administrative building can b e seen under construction to the left of Parlia ment House. v; ith St. Andrew's Church in the distance behind it. Portion s of East and Wes t Block,, m ay he seen to eithe r side of House .

J T u f 'tl'l JHI!/1 2-L j

F _ ;-,"(n :f

"Works, the Chairman of the Adviso1·y Couneil and tlu· :-:ic'cl'i'liHT r l'la;:uiu.• i!'id i ), ·

Department of the Interior-and four other membel's "of \dJOm at least Llw c' sl:all lw pcr.<(HJ:, who are authorities on town planning, architecture or ". Ti!i · CJwin1w•: '"

hy the Governor-General and meetin:;s art eallec1 by the Sc.r:·nu·:'· rP1c::J HiHI : .pnk:tt).

Drpnrtmcnt of tlw Interior. \\·ho tlw execn +iYe meml."•r nf thP ConmiHee.

l6G. rrhe of the the p, \.Yc·-:·s a; let ,, ]

;m(\ its rdatiomhip with the :\Iinister :-U. The IllHY refer to the Com_nlittee unv nlflltl'!" in rt_·latillu tu t]u_·

City 11pon 'lvhic1t he de:sire; the ach·ir·r of the C'o!nrrlittee,"' and tl 1t' shall inqH

HJlOll. the rnatter.

(l! 111 (' I

,1 til the

a:;:1 t n the -:\Iini;,:,te·r·

7.-- 1

1 1.) Tht· C'urnrnittce. on it-:. own initiatiYe. rnay i:urt ir:e::.; J.nd ru

\linl ·;ter in rel:1_tion to--! a i the apprn\·3d plan:

( /;) for the .::·enel':l1 11111..1

( t') To!· t h0 sit lay-out.

11/: pt,opos'l!s for the establishment in(lnstrial

,_f'on ;;:trueti on

of or S.Jt'' i :d

(e) Lmd subdivisiom anrl t11eir planning:

a nnhliC' bnildirlc:s_. or group of vublic buildings: tlH· '-city fo1· L or

(f) sites for public, semi-public, institutional and pri1nte ·

(pl the location, de;;ign, or construction of any ( h l btdlding and zoning regulations; (i) proYision for services and public utilities; i i) for promotin" the beautification of the Cit\' a eel facilitiPs for recreation:

(lc) :my matter ,\-hich in opinion of the Committee 'm,::- ad•-ersely aJfect tlw dcYe lopment. or

a ppcaranre of the City; and (!) nn:v other matters \vhatever 'vith reRpeet to city _;_liHl re:::ionn1 i:1 rdnti, n tn t1tc C1it:·.

( 2.) Tho Committee ,hall furnish a report to tl1e ::M;,,;,tu· with 1 Pspec·t h anY •'!a tier in r<'l 'hm t•.! wldel1 it

nJaltpc: a rec·on1r:1Pndatinn under this section.

167. The CommittPe is empowered to request the attendance of any Cormnnw,\'P;:!lth nnhlie to assist it and to request plans, data or other information.

168. Advisory body which win al.c;o be rE'fern'd to i11 this report is the

Th;s Conncil wa;; set up by ordinance immediately aftrr tlte termination of office of thE' Federal C;tpital l'ommission. as a means of enabling the local residents to h:lVP n voirr in ]oral affairs.

169. The Council which is still functioning ver.Y octiYcly consists of fonr nominated mrmbers--an office-r of the Department of Health, two officers of the Dep11rtmcnt of the Interior :md one officer of Department of Works-and five members, each of whom rcceiYes £100 per annmn, dectrd by th,· citizms of the Australian Capital Territory. The members elect th<>ir own ehairman and mnst meet at least oncr a month.

170. The follovving sections of the Ordinance indicate the powers of the Council:-10. The Council may advise the 1fini,;ter in relation to any matter Jnkin:,: •)i new Ordinances or the repeal or amendment of e:-:i,tin.z Ordinances. 11.-(l.) The Minister may refer to the Cnunei1 :my matter upon whieh he rlcsircs the arhicc of tf,p f'mmciL

(2.) Any member of the Council may submit to it fnr }my proposal for the mn1zing, nmenrlmf'nt or

repeal of any Ordinance. 12.-(I.) Any member of the Conn<>il JnRY. lw notice in writing to the Chairman, thnt nny mn ttr·â€¢· affertin.u

the Territory shall be submitted to the Council.

13.- ( l.) All advice of the Council shall be r:-:pressed in the form of resolutions. 171. The Council has po\ver to request the attenrlcmce of any Commonvvealth Public Servant to as":ist it. (b) Canberra's appearance.

172. The Griffin plan €nvisaged Canberra as a city built in the grand manw>r compnrab1c to Vf'rsallle>; and Washington. This aspect was emphasi?.<'cl Dr. wlwn giving cvirknce before the Committee. All that matters in Versaillrs, however, h" coYcrs half the distance br'hwen Capital Hill and the Australian War Memorial; and the length of the }[all in W

distance from the provisional Parliament Hom:e to the Australian WCJr :I\Iemorial-althongh it was one of the biggest axes known. Canberra's main avrnues evrn thr vAstness anr1 granr1enr of y:ith its

f'110rmous vistas.

173. Canberra as a city is being built to a plan which lool::s centnrics n head. Tn tllf' fn'· rlrrwll's since the plan >vas approved it has g-rown from nn open sparr to" r""o'·in':';al t0w•1 an-lis non· r1ryrJrmino:: ns rt ritY. ;\s a city it is now going throng-h g-rrat g-rmdng pains \•.·ith rritir•isms directerl nt its anrl its

inconvrniencr for residents who arf' srpnratPd in manY rf!'rs YPJ';'>' far from shoppincr centres anr1 amenities. fn this resrwct the city is, as one witness said. in a f]Uanrlnry ns to "·hcther to tnkr tl1r slwrt.trrm virw or i1;r long As a city to be in. it mnst contain nrleqnatf' provisions for the comfort nnr1 v;e1fnrc of

thr' eitizrns. but ns a city of the future it rrmst hr rwot"ctrrl n:::ainst thosr shorJ.trrm Yiews

\\·hieh woulr1 imperil its future devdopmrnt in the m!1nnr>r nlnnnrrl. In its nttrmpt to revir\\' awl ('::nhrrra's dcYrlopmrnt as at the present thP Committf'r hns rnrlraYonrrrl t0 kren thnc;" tv."o

:"rwets in mind-whilst it ferls thnt it i.s incnmhcnt on thP administration to make the cit:v a li,·ablr ritv. it is enn r1nrr concnrnrd to ensnre thnt the proYir1rr1 to the prim·inlr·s of th" r·ih·'s nl:m

i; adequate and sufficient.


174. The words of Daniel H. Burnham, former hend of the .B1ine Arts Commission in Washington, as qnoted to the Committee by .Mr. Daley, might here be noted-" Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men's blood Make big plans. .Aim high in hope and work remembering that a noble logical

diagram, once recorded, will never die but long after we are gone will be a living thing asserting itself with evergrowing insistency.".


175. The idea of a garden city was implicit in Griffin's plan. The Federal Capital .Advisory Committee of the early 1920's, appreciating that the development of Canberra was a long-term project, sug,g:estecl that in the early stages of development, before monumental buildings could be erected, the emphasis shonld be on the creation of a garden city.

176. Necessarily the planting of trees for beautification formed an important feature of this work. belts of trees were planted :for purposes of shelter and a considerable amount of forest planting was carried out in areas outside the city. At an experimental nursery established at Acton in 1913, and transferred to '{ arralumla in 1915, tests were conducted to ascertain the best types of trees for planting in the city and th,· snrrounding countryside.

177. 'l'he Sulman Committee initiated a vigorons programme of tree and shrub planting. Plantations \\: r·2 arranged in the main avenues and attention was given to planting in the various park areas at Ainslie, Park, l\fanuka Circle, Collins Park, Clianthns Circle and many other areas of the city. The principle was adopted of planting trees in straight lines in avenues and roads, but a less formal grouping was w;ed in parks to avoid monotony. Native :flora were deYeloped as much as possible in the area within Capital

Cii'cniL During this period of activity 1,162,942 trees were planted at a cost of £20,406.

178. Tlw variety of trees that wf'rc planted was the subject of considerable research. The tree" best able to withstand the climate were found to be varieties of conifers and certain deciduous cold country such as elms, oaks, maples and poplars. A comiclerable number of acacia trees and eucalypts were but some indigenous trees were found to be disappointing.

179. upon the foundations thus laid by the Federal Capital Advisory Committee has

1 d to the growth of a most beautiful garden city-a city of broad avenues with shaded parks and sheltered er7en··. To-day there are over 2,000,000 trees and shrubs in public parks and planting is still going on.

ISO. The suburbs of the city are being developed in keeping with the tree planting. In most streets 1 ,. o of trees were planted, the slower growing permanent trees and quicker growing shrubs and

''J"nry trees. At first the inhabitants were inclined to criticize when the temporary trees and shrubs were removed, but as the years pass the development of the permanent trees is showing the wisdom of the r•;el'lie· plantings. More recent years have seen a trend to lawn strips in the street plantations and thPse 1ogrther with the green front hedges make a pleasant feature.

181. The Senate Committee aslred the present Superintendent of Parks and Gardens, Mr. L. Pryor, to g·ive eviclence, and expressed its gratification at the way in which this aspect of Canberra's developmrnt bets been so admirably carried out. It notes, however, one important point made by Mr. Pryor, which was llr nrrd for decision in connexion with the more important aspects of the city's plan, viz., the lakes, City

< • :n Cnnitnl Hill and the Government Triangle. Mr. P1·;ror pointed out that tree planting should precede

d'•velopnwnt by at least twenty years if possiblP. and early planting permitted a more satisfactory later ;lpwlopment.

182. The most important feature of Canberra's nevelopment is its Garden City aspect, which future cH1ministrations should observe as fundamental, and the Senate Committee regrets that due to lack of ,. '1'\vnrn planning the tree-planting programme desired by 1\fr. Pryor cannot be carried out effectively. It

ronsiders it highly desirable that some early decisions be made in regard to these matters, so that beantification of those areas by the planting of trees and shrubs can be carried out. .As a matter of general rri11ciTJle, areas of unused land reserved for future purposes should receive such temporary treatment.

183. The planting of trees and the maintenance of parks and gardens are achievements which the Sr>nnte Committee notes with satisfaction and pride, and to all who have helped to make them what they are, it l!i,·r.o ullStinted praise. It is the Committee's hope that the day will come when the public buildings of f':wherra will E'CJUal its trees in dignity and grace.


184. ,.t.,,q one of the witnesses before the CommittE>e staten. "Canberra l1as grown has shecl tho·er,.rornered pants rmd become a city"; and notwithstanding the vastness of its conception, problems

nf snner are beg-inning to arise, not indeed within tht> centre of the city where arrfls are reserved for n11rnoses in accordance with the plan, but in the suburbs. In earlier suburban development lnrge

iJllilrli'r'! h1ocks were the rulE', and in portions of Red Hill these blocks were so large as to resnlt in n net f1pmitv of 1.6 persons to the acre; consequently, as the city grew, it sprend in a marked mannPr. Efforts arP now being made at eompre.ssing dPvelopment.


The disadvantages connected ·with the spread of suburban development are primarily the

increased costs associated with extended road, kerbing. guttering, transport, maintenance and engine<·r1ng and the inconvenience and expense occasioned the occupants of the more distant housel:i by

long-distance travelling to wo2·k, main shopping centres and amenities. The Chairman of the Advisory Council, lVIr. Bailey, informecl the Committee that the proYision of services to the suburb of O'Connor cost £910 per house.

186. The attention o1 the administration wa.s directed to this problem by the city's Chief To11 a Planner, Mr. Gibson, shortly after l1is appointment in 1849, and his reconnnendation for the adoption of closer settlement principles received the endorsement of the Capital Planning and Development Committe<:. In 1851-5:2 the density of Canberra vms h·n persons per acre net, and it i.;;; Gibson's c-ontention that it should be increased to 20 to 30 persons per acre net.

187. Increased density, it \YOulcl seem, is bf'ing "ougllt by the planning authorities in three IV:lys--­ ( a) By smaller house allotm12nts. (b) By greater construction of fiats, and (c) By lessened street widths.

Jis8. S:na!iel' House regard to honse all0tments, Mr. Gibson advised the Senate

Committee til at in 19".l7 the average block area was ] :2,375 square feet. After a review of the situation by l\fr. Gibson in 1952, the National Capital Planning and Development Committee recommt>ncled th t the allotments be reduced, preferably to 6,000 square feet, \vith frontages of 50 feZ>t where practicable. Uf 1,405 sites taken up bttween 1951 and the middle of 195:j, 48 per cent. had 65-ft. frontages and an averag •

area of 7,700 square feet. T·ly' Xational Capital Planning and Development Committee has since eontimwd to press for .smaller allotments and frontages.

189. Thh recommendation of the National Capit

develop really satisfactory plans fot· houses OJJ 50-ft. frontages. The reply of the National Planning and Development Committee was thnt such plans could be drawn and that the Depnr11l1i'111 of \Vorks should supply" completely new set of plans mitahle for such frontages, and RnclJ reduced b In the intervening period, public criticism was di l'ecterl at the erection on the smaller block.; of 1L>'1 built to the old designs, and at nnsatic-Jaetory expedients such as the placing sideways of honseH intcrul for larger blocks. The remedy, according to the National Capital Planning and Develormwnt Com'u it'· ch1Jirman, Mr. Waterhouse, WB.S the designing of "r .. " xllaped houses ·which could be made quite attractiYr on 50 feet.

190. 'I'he former Chairman of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Sir John informed the Committee "·hen giving evidence that he had been disappointed to see the tendmey that had arisen of putting· some ho'l:'\es "much closer togetlwr than we contemplated". To him it is fnm1:nnenhl that Canberra should be loekerl upon "i!i'> a number one priority as a garden city". As far as thr enr'-'· residential development in H1e city was concerned. he 1dmitted that more desirable results could kn·

hrrn obtained by comprrssing· it a little, bnt not n tremrndous amount. It was desirable, he said, to haY · plenty of .'1pproves of the action taken for reduced block frontages, ;md is

particularly opposed to 50-ft. frontagrs. It inspected many of the areas where houses were erectPil and are being erected on restricted frontages, and all members were left with a feeling of distinct regrrt that such a retrograde step s11ould have been taken in Canberra. The Committee is definitely opposrcl to the perpetnation in the National Capital of the unfortunate mistakes of other States in regard to C10QPJ1· packed houses.

192. If a reduction in residential allotments must be part of a scheme to achieve incrcN;ed densit:· the Committee, br:arin;]' in mind thP preference of most Australians for separate houses, sug;:re':ts th;!1 con'11df'ration be giwn to grcntrr mr of hro-.':torird houses. Odgers, in giving evidence, was eJJt}Ju.':insJi · in hiF. 11rnise of t11e two-storied homrs i.n America. 'l.nd he impres.;;;ed the Committee with his t(l

see the Ameriean rxnmple f0llowrrl in Canberra. HBrris. a former member of the National Canibl Planning anrl DeYelo11nv•nt Committro. thon'!ht that far morP mr eould hf' made of two-storiril hnilding.« and g-ronn hYo-storirrl hnil;lin!:"'>. not onlY for the saving of land im·olved, but for effect. He p(lintrd 011t that in ·washington tht>re \H'r" grnnps of tiro-storied bnildings not "jnst strung along a main strrC't ". h'1t in little court-yards. and he felt th8t Canberra wr1s mi<:sing an opportunity in not planning for <;w.''


The Senate Committee wonlrl like to see more experimentation and construction carried o":

in way, as· it i.s b:' the dforts 110 far made to adapt single-story units to r€strictcc1

frontages and blocks.


1 U±. Road Widths.--The Senate Committee is also opposed to any red,uetion in the widths of L'JC avenues and thoroughfares provided for by Burley Griffin. Griffin provided for the main avenues

1\Iajnra-avenn-c, J ena:Oombera-avenue, portion of Macarthur-avenue, and the extension of Limestone· avenue have been n·duced to 100 feet. 'rhe Senate Committee is opposed to this reduction as serving LittlE' pm'JlOSc compared to the disadvantages involved, ancl iiR bring wrong in principle.

195. According to modern town-planning theory, 100-ft. through re;,;idential suburbs would appear to be considered >vasteful, and in its search for increased density in Canberra, the National Capitnl Planning and Development Committee has recommenc1ecl that in future subdivisions the main roMb onJy be 100 feet and that the inner roads be not more than 70 feet, and 50 feet where practicable.

The Senate Committee feels that in neighbourhood units it may be permissible to reduce the widths of the stnd.-> t0 (}6 feet, but it deprecates a policy of lesser widths. Comiderations relative to Canberra as u en city, npnrt altogether from future traffic considerations, upon which the present generation can only speculate, justify a retention of more reasonable widths.

196. Flats.-'I'he final method of increasing density is that of construction of flats, cltld

with method the Committee is in accord, although certain of its members are opposed to the development of multi-storied flats such as the eight-storied buildings now being erected at Braddon in group pattern with adjoining three-storied flats.

1!17. On the general J1ropos1tion of the de»irability of flat development, there seems to be agreement between witnesses anc1 Sen'lte Committee alike. It is one method of increasing density against which there is no complaint. The census of 1951 showed that 95 per cent. of residential development in Canberra was by way of houses and 5 per cent. flats. It is the Chief Town Planner's suggestion that the proportion Rhonld be raised to 75 per cent. houses and 25 per Cf'nt. flats.

198. The Sena,te Committee believes that the fiats should be properly grounds, leaving space for appropriate courtyards and children's playgrounds. of flats should dominate the skylinr to the disadvantage of public buildings.

sited within their own Furthermore, no blocks

199. The Committee also be1ievc.s that the whole question of building heights shonld be giwn very serious recon.sideration in the of the multi-storied flats being planned.

200. Senator Vinccnc, in particular, has doubted. whethe:r the multi"'5toried flats JJOW bei'ng constructed at Dradc1on and inkncled elsewlwre in the city will be compatible with "Canberra's pastoral atmosphere ", an<1 in baianee -vdth the city's general development. He sJwr&'l the view of Sir J olm Butters that " it would be a pity at thi;' stage for any high building other than gowrnment structure;; to be erected in Canberra".

201. The opinion generally expressed to the Senate Committee, however, was that multi-storied flats were not only desirablt> in Canberra, but were not objectionable. The Chairman of the .Advisory Council, l\Ir. Bailey, who w::1s a member of tbe National Capital Planning and Development Committee when plans for the eight-storied flat:'> wen' being drafted, was of the opinion that the distances involved prcventerl any over-emp}wsis of the buildings, and that generally no objection could be taken to high buildings dispersed according to the landscape throughout the city providing they were not too close togetlwr. "I can reconcile lligh buildings with what I imagine to be Burley Griffin's concept of Canberra

bec::1use of its many open spaces, it."! trees and its parks."

202. The view expressed by Mr. Scollay in answer to Senator Vincent's question as to whether Canbrrra'.<> pastoral atmosphere could be preserved and maintained at the same time as· closer development is achieved in population is also I think it can if the closer settlement is handled intelligently.

If each house is pnt on a separate block, whilst at the same time the s'ize of blocks iR rednced, it could not be. Bnt if the density of population is achieved by bnilding- blockR of flats ::1nd by group devt>lopment, cou1c1 still acl1ieve the overall effect of density".

203. In cone.lnding its observations in regard to this general problem of density, the Senate Committee notes that 01w of the trends in Canben·a deprecated by Professor 'Winston, Professor of Town Sy(lney Uniyersity, is "the tfndcncy to forget that Canberra is a capital city and net

n gm'clcn subnrh ". Tbe 8enRtc Committee appreciates and recognizrs the need for increasing the density of ihr ,,01m!ation in Cf'rtain areas, but it trusts that in the development of the capital city, the ideal of the city is not itself lo:'lt sig1lt of. It believes that Canbrrra s1wn1rl retain thronghont its resic1enti,11 :new; all the features of n garden suburb.


:204. Another problem of acute importance which ha<> been accentnated by the recent rapir1 f1rYelopment of the C::1pitn1 City i., that of maintenance of high architectural standards.

205. Oversight in this mRtter would seemingly rest with the National Capital Planning ancl Develonment Committ0e ·which, alrearJy indicated, has power under HB Ordinance to make incmirie.s anr1 recommendations to the l\finisteJ· in rel::1tion to "designs for the Riting, layout or


of any public buildings or group of public buildings.,: "the location, L1csign or construction of any private building"; and to "building and zoning regnlatiom ". In actual fact, ho>YCY<'r, the amount of toHtrol which the .:\ational Capital Planning and DcnJupment l'ommittl'L' is c;ble lu appear.:; to be inadequate. 'l'his applies both to public anJ pr1nlte

206. BHildings.-The failure of tht> );cttional Cupiral Pwrllling: aml DeYelOjnnent

Committee to exercise effectin control over gOI'ermnenLll bnilcling: lw . .-; hel'n dononstnnell in many ways, but most obviously by two specific recent l'Ldiou of the Telephoue

building· at Barton and of the group of houses at .:\alTabumiali LL T cL·c Tdepllone Exdmnge at

Barton is a building devoid of any architectural m:rit, lJc..;' ail rht· oi a 1Juilding,

but, notwithstanding that, i::; sited most inappropria ttly 011 Oil<' ot 1 he be.-;t area.s in Canberra, iutended for first-class permanent ::;tructures. Being the first building o;; tlJi,, a rea north o£ the extended York Park, it will for many be promim'nt; a memorial to eli vitlecl 21ti It' eolltc·oi and architectural

anarchy; the unwanted chilll of nt>gotiations between the Department, tho

Department of the Interior, the Department of \Yod;,s and th.· ::a1iomtl Capital Plmming and Development Committcr, none o£ 1rhicL a lliltar a11xious to acn·pt for it.

207. The Clwirman of the .:\ational Capital Planning and Dt\·eloplL.·nt Cucmnittec, \Vntcl·house, c;aicl in evidl.mce that "Application was made for a telephone L'Xelwngc 'l'hich 1rac; rwctkd rather urgently and we decided that that would be a reasonable site for iL It was tu be a t\::mpm·m·y bnilding.

The Committee heard nothing more about it, so we wen• Ly-pa,c;secl ''. A.s f;u· as the present building i;-; concerned, his Committee "deplores it". 208. The Narralmndah liL·ights hou . .;ing· units have a tiimilar histOl'J'. ..-igai!l, tlw National Capiu.i Planning: and Development Committee was con.'iultcd earl;r in n·gan.l to .-:itl·s anci plans. It did not

feel justified in approving the erection of all house;; in at:corJum·e ,,.lLic tile piaus wbmittctl, and rec1uested that one or two only be erected as a trial fot the Commitke's consideratioJJ. The next it heard was that a contract l1ad 1W\'l1 ll't for the completion of the b:ll group in ac.;con1tl re;;i,lclltial e.':,

art being: creetPCt on mw of the loveliP"t an'. are ;•n 11nl'o2 t:uu; o:muplc of of

and of low ;-;tandiil'ds in architectural design, that 1 1:c ill\' iw;ilci1:wtc, ;mil tlwt t];;;

11hole appearance is one of monotony. One witness sugg\'Stcd tlnl1 tlll' Hwnotony c:onld be mitigdcd by titc planting· of trees. Tl1is i.s altogether to mistake the function of tree:; in n cit.'·· is not to bide nglines.'i but to create beauty. 210. The by-passing of the Capital Planning and l)('HlOi•llll'llt Committc·e in this latter

casD waB so blatant that members of the Senate Commiltve tri1·cl trJ a.c,c·crL1in more fnliy what were tb:c relations between the Committee and the administration. .:\fr. HogcTs, the executive officer of thnt Committee, reminded Senate members that the National Cctpital l'lclllPing nwl Dc>·elopment Committee was nn arhisory committee only, ancl that authority rest{·d \Yitli lJp• :\Iini: tc·r. Lr ,·ie11· of ll1is, lw wonld not

sny that the advice of the Committee had been rejec·ted; ratllr·r '' tilr' i!(h-i(·r• of tile Committee 11·as not followed". 211. J\lr. \Vatcrlwuse, in reply to a lJIWstion tl• >rltdlic·r Iris llacl :,i>lC.:l' 1rith

the department concerned th1• issnes involYed, replied: "T think it 11·ord,l be· r1uitc: a gooci tl1ing to point them out, but we feel that once tl1ing-s haye gril to t);;:t ,ct;rge, tl'.· ,\- ilTn· n·,.·c·iwd mini,<;tr'ri:Jl

approval ... or at least r1epartmental ar1pron1l ". 212. replies >Yonld appear to gi>·e to t!.r· upini

Committee by l\Ir. U0\1·c·, on of the Canberra ChamlJIT oi· Colllmerce thnt for practienl pnrpoc;c·c; the Natio11al Capital Plnnning" :mrl n .. \·c·loplllPnt Commi1te<· .. :l(h·i't'' thr· cf ilw Dl•p«rtmc1>t

of the lntcrior, 1rho fin::l!y mal,c:-; tl\(• L1rcision ''. It rvlr·\·:wt h :·r·,·n:·,1 l•c·r1· tl:r r·Millltt·ili made h:,· ::\Ir. -:\leLaruJ to a .'illJ.rg·(·,,tirdl tlia1 fnrill:·r r]('y,,]oplr·JJt \':Jtinnal f'npitnl !'Ianning and

DPvelopment ConnnittPe I'J·oyirir·rl yr111 do nut malu· tlH' m:,,.,,;!i'''·-'· ''' wn·,-i •. Jd\· :md so r·ireumloenton· that yon JJeYer have any r[e(·ic;ion.c;. I c;ay c1efinit,.1;· th:1t at tilll'··'· a-, kt' l.j)('JlZ'f! in the n;lc;t. _\'Oil g-r·1 :-;ic·k and tirPrl of w11 it in g- for <1f'eisions from these UJ•:,nJ i trr·c·.'- ! •n rt ic·: 1larlr J'ro111 tl•·· to wl10m

you referred earlier 1rlio hlo\\- in here only once a month or ,,r,J'"'1Lill;t like that".

21:3. Private Buildinys.-Thc mailltenance fJJ' archiledurai stan·1 nh in l'reded by privat<· enterprise is 1\llsatisfar-tory. The onlv f'!Jllirnl rrgaH1in!! "11"h appr·ars l·J he that 'ontaiclPrl in

tlw Canhrna Building Hegnlations 1mrl exereisr·d by tlJ .... jli'''P''I' ::1\thJrity" appr,intc·d tlll' .:\[inister. The "propr•r authorit.1·" is 1\sually tlw qffic·n in e11ar:!•' ,f 1 !11· :;•·ction of the Deparil!lent rd'

the 1nterior. to the :Jir. H•Jgr·r:'. tlwt lws ample discretionary power

within thc-;e building J'r•gu]aticms to pn'YCnt the ere<·tir,n of w:l:· lJIIt it i'i frr·rlnr'ntly rliflkult

to n;ereise it HlP!'(' :ll'r· differing opinions as to tnst··. rn];•..;..; it ('Ill! hr· ,.,]I(J'.'.'ll tLJ.t 1lir'

Sl!hrnittrr1 ill'>• i11 '''Jitfli··t Ill' t>lli of h:ll'llii>ll,\' \\ith the r••>i'tl'l·llJ<·n1' rd' :1 rli'11·ir·1. 1Li.-. ptt\11'1' j, !!ill :J'liiill,\· c·x,·n·is;:;d.


::14. The .National Capital Planning and Development Committee docs not appear to see the plam nutil after they have been approved, and it would seem that they are then submitted to it more for information. 215. In the earlier years following its appointment, when the tempo of business activity was noJ so great, it seems that the Committee was consulted by the building authority, then l\Ir. Daley, in orde1

to arrive at principles which might be followed, and it was the custom for the building authority tc obtain the advice of the Committee on any design which appeared to raise a new question of principk 'The Committee then took the attitude that it was its duty to save the city from developing into an ill-assorted grouping of antagonistic units such as characterize most of the unplanned cities and towns of Australia; a situation whieh no amount of strc'cL planting or garden treatment could remedy.

216. \Vith the inerease of private building· in more recent years, it appeal's to have been

impracticable to await deeisions of the Committee. 'l'hese cin:umstauce:o were 1nentioned by

?vir. \Vaterhouse in his evidence. Sketches, he said, were now " rn:lhing in " as more land was being subdivided and offered for sale. The situation "has just got a little out of hand", and he did not know r:11itc what to suggest. He was concerned as to how private designs eonld be controlled because there were eonf!icting issues involved. The aesthetic side of buildings had to be eonsideTed and at tbe same time it was the policy of the Government to encourage private enterprise, >Yhit:h was always in a hurry.

217. The development of Lonsdale-street is a mnjor t•xantple of a need for sume alteration in this method of architectural control. It is an area to the uear of Civic CEntre which has received

ge,wral criticism. The buildings that have been ereeted and ate ereded show a low standard of

architectural design. The different businesses follow diffen'nt des:igns, somr being bnilt elose to the street and others well back; some are one-storied and some two-storied and all of varied styles. The whole effect is· one of lack of continuity. It is a street unique in Canberra, t1le bnsines<; areas of ·whith have been so well co-ordinated.

218. The Secretary of the Department of the Interior, l\Jr. l\IeLaren, iufonn:•d the Committr>e i hat 1milding covenants were fixed for the area and that in som<' the \Yere a little owr

the tOYexumts, and in other cases they exeeecled it eon• :rlcrably. He felt tllat in adjudging the area the Committee should pay some regard to the type of b

enpital investment. It is not a governmental constrndion ; the pu!,lic have tn pzty for it and you have to be reasonable in these things. "On the one hand you get this publie demand for fa<.oilities and on the other you get the more theoretical approaeh that it should he on vcr.v top lines which possibly very f"nv concerns can afford." You can go too far in these matters of arehitcctnral control ani\ for his part he did not consider any of the buildings repulsive. It intended to be a minor industrial area and

''""" not finished yet. 219. Mr. Rogers, Assistant Secretary (Planning and Development), later re-emphasized this same point. I)onsdale-street, he stated, is rather misunderstood. It is a minor indusb·ial area which was never- rxpeeted to be a partienlar attraetion. The block;,; are larg(', providir'g for g:oocl expansion of tlv industries being developed there, and only in very few e:ases have t ht• lessees eompleted their buildings to the extent that they intend to eomplete them. A11y jndpueut passed on it is a little

premature. In the meantime, he said, it is serving a very 11SefuJ pnrpo;.:n in nwetin::.· the demand that it is really very aeute for that type of serviet<. ln his opinion, the 11ltimate c!ppearanee of TJonsdale-strcet W011ld bear no resemblance to its present appearanee.

220. The Senate Committee's conclusions in regard to Lonsdale-street are that, irrespective of the ('anscs of its present appearance, it does demonstrate eondnsively that the present system of control exereised by the building authority officer, throngh the building· is not snffieient in itself to

the standards of the Capital City, and further, that the present advisory ?\ational Capital

Plnnning and Development Committee l1as little or 110 inflnence in the

221. From the evidence given, it wonlc1 appPar that this problem of architeetnral eontrol is fnrther complicated by disagreement on points of ac!ministrativr poli;·y ht\rC'en th:' Department of \Vorks on the one hand, and the Department of the InteriOJ' and tlie National Capital Planning and DeYelopment Committee on the other.

222. The Department of ·works desig·ns the honscs to be c·onstmeted. The Drpartment of the Interior and the National Caphal Planning and Developmrnt Committee npprove of the snbdivisions. All partie;;; want the right to site the houses on the snlJdiYi'ions approwc1. Thr 2\Iini,,t('r has directed that the Department of \Vorks shall have that responsibility.

223. The Chairman of the National Capital Planning and De''rlopment Committee, l\fr. ·waterhouse, disa;JTees with the Minister's derision, aml claims that the siting Gf th1? houses is one of the most important features of the whole sr·hPme. Instead of houses ]wing pnt in a row as has been done by thC' Department of Works at Narrabnndah. they should be sta'.!gered and arran:?ecl in a JT\0rf' satisfartory manner. Hr cited thE' opinion of Sir Thomas Bennett, who is in charge of the Crawley project in


England, that the whole effect of Canberra will depend upon the appearance of the streets. For years to come, the important thing would, therefore, be how the houses are placed, and ho1r good they are. The Department of \Vorks, he said, is more concerned \\·ith gc•ing ahead and getting the houses up; they are not concerned ·with the placing of the houses properly in regarcl to the street vista, and this is detrimental to Canberra's appearance.

224. The Department of \V orks, on the other hand, believes that the Department of the Interior has a function which it should exercise, namely, control of the Town Planning Section. 'l'he Director of \Vorks, .Mr. James, stated that it was tied up so tightly with engineering and architednre that it sltonld be returned to the Department of \Vorks, from whid1 it was transferred about 1950. The tram&,•r took

place after investigation by the Public Service Board because it was considered more closely (;onnett.:d with the land tenure and development sections of the Department of the Interior.

225. It would appear obvious that some considered attention must be giYcn to the v.hole aspect of this problem of architectural standards. The Senate Committee's opinion is that the present arrangement;, are unsatisfactory and not in the best interests of Canberra's development.


226. The lack of forward planning, the difficulties of finance from time to time and the laek uf generally co-ordinated policy, have left a legacy over the last 25 years of temporary building:" of various kinds.

227. Reference has already been made to the lack of permanent administrative offices. Temporary buildings to house public servants are to be found at the Barton offices, a group of light mste1·i

be said of them is that they have done a good job as expedients. The Acton officrs with their many barrack-like structures must soon disappear because they are on a site that must be vacc\t.ed, bnt the Barton offices look like standing for many a year. The Senate Committee appreciates the reasons which made the Barton offices necessary, and realizes they are convenient buildings, but as has already been explained earlier in the Report, it insists that forward planning must faee up to the problem of

permanent buildings.

228. On the housing side there are far too many similar instances of expedients, though here again there are mitigating circumstances. What causes the Committee deep concern is that these temporary buildings have continued for so long as blots on Canberra's landscape. 229. 'l'he standard of housing generally throughout the city has been good. lllany of the newer

private homes have introduced an element of beauty and originality. Around the corner from these better buildings, however, we find dwellings like 1 he :'\ mTabunc1alJ prefabricatecl cottages and the Causeway Commission homes, and tucked behind the hill on which stand the beautiful American Embassy building'S arc the sub-standarJ homes of Westlake.

230. 'l'he \Vestlake and the Causeway homes ll«te Lad: to the early 1!120's,

citizens who are reluctant to give them up; and the Department eannot remoYc them while the lwusing shortage is so acute.

231. Other legacies of dt:velopmental booms are the "-orkmen's huts iYhich are scattered on tlte hill at Riverside, behind the Barton offices, onr a very 1 arge area of Capitol Hill and on the slOTlC o£ :\Iount Ainslie. The Riverside huts are now serving a very m;eful cultural purpo:;e in being the hcad-rpwrtcrs for bodies such as t11e J\rt Club, the Repertory Society, Boy Scout:-;, &c.; they will stnncl for

quite a time. The Capitol IIiH building.<> remain as the main hostel for single trarlesnH'n in Crmberr:l, anJ the hostel at the of l\Iount Ainslie has had a changing hi,tory, being first abandonel1 and mo,"' recently used to hou:-;c the families of British tradesmen.

232. Lack of accommodation for single public serY<111ts resulted in the transfer of iYooc1en war-time buildings from other districts. Erected in Canberra. tLcy arc uo\\· knoi\·n as the :JiulwaL1, Reid rmd Narellan Guest Houses.

233. On the industrial side, the lack of preplanning has resulted in a Ycry unsightly deYelopment at Causeway, where industrial workshops and buildings are OYer a large area in an unco-ordinated fashion. The occupants 11ave now been notified that they must shortly Yac8te this area anc1 take up leases, if they so desire, at the new industrial area to the east of Canberra, at }Iolonglo.

284. Finally, attention might be directed to the semi-chaotic dcYrlopmcnt.s around Trrmsp0rt Depot at Kingston. The nrNl for a clPtermination regarding tlle future uf this al'ca is fast bceomi n;r rr matter of urgency.


235. 'l'he sum total of these temporary buildings represents a regrettable waste of public and privat':! moneys which contrasts sharply with the lasting benefits of the comparatively few really worth-while i:mihiings that have been constructed. Unless Canberra's development is systematically preJilauned and Le rcq aisite nmnoer of worth-while buildings constructed, there will always be times when v lC tempoLuy :c:t.c-::cture or another will have to be en:;cted to meet urgent needs. It is ironical now tu reflec:t on t/1e amount ·of time and public moneys wasted on the early administrative building phtns. The revic;ell pL>:>s of this building prepared by the department in 1935 alone, for instance, repn:.".,ttecl about a work for six men. It was simply wasted effort. How often such a pitiful

loss oi ofiieiul effort has occurred in the Architectural and Draughting Section,<; of Commonwealth departments is a matter of interesting conjecture.


236. As the and also the result of building·s of expedience, there are very few monumental buildings in the city. t;uch a.s there ax-e stand out in their relative il:lolation, though not a;,; prominently as Canberra's long vistas

2U7. Tlle Australian National University has added a number of buildings no one of which very rematkable. The laboratories are naturally utilitarian with a few of the meagre coneessions to vrhich modern architects consider suillcient. University House i::; convenient and comfona!Jlc inside, aml the Great Hall is a .succc,s.sful attempt to express the timeless .spirit of learning in a new form. 'l'he exterior of Univel·c;ity House, however, lacks the dignity and grace one expects from a collegiate building.

Jn lJJe whole Univcr::;ity group there is not as yet one building which is wort1Jy ot the National Capital.

:2:38. The more notable of the few other monumental Commonwealth are the Institute

of Anatomy, :said be architecturally Canberra's best building, the Patent Office, the Forestry School, in picturesque ;.;; at Yarralum1a, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization buildings, and the partly-completed Hospital building. The pBrmanent Administrative Block now nearing completion will be Australia's largest building; 102 feet high, 483 feet long a11d 227 feet wide, it occupies a site more than the size of the block in ,Sydney bounded by lVIartin-place, George-street, King-street and Pitt-street. It is criticized, however, even before its completion, as being the wrong type of construction for office accommodation.

2:59. };ast anci \Ve:;t Block secretariats have bad alterations and additions that have changed them com;ider:Jl.Jly since they y;ere br,ilt in the 1920's to cope with the first Commonwealth public servant-s to be tra11sfcrred, but they were not intended to be permanent or representative of Canberra's monumental buildings. The present provisional Parliament House, though impressive, is still only provisional. One

witness desc:ribed it as a \Vembley Exhibition building.

240. Heccutly the Government lws commenced lhe of eight-storied flats at Braddon, as

rt•f<:>rred to U\rlier. \V"hile the Committee approves of flats, it feels the construction of multi-storied nsideuti;d lmild.ings will emphasize in an even more pronounced fashion the present lack of monumental public buildings.

241. 'l'here is a lack of monumental structures of a memorial nature. The fine .Australian-American ncar lllount Pleasant has given a very necessary emphasis, with its high column, to the vista along

King's-nvenue from Capital Hill. The only other memorials are the King George V. statue in front of Parliament House a11d the Robert Burns statue near Hotel \Yel1ington. On Capital Hill is the uncompleted Commencement Column, which denotes the commencement of the city on the departmental plan and not the Griffin plan.

242. The Embassies and Legations in Canberra are rapiclly beginning to give the Government the lead in artistic' taste. The .American Embassy with its main building on top of the hill adjoining the slum su lm rl.J of \V estlake, auJ its colonial type buildings on the lower reaches, is an outstanding example. The S\n•r!ish Legation, Hected in recent years, was awarded the Snlman prize.

'l'he churches lwYe also made their contribution. St. .Auclrew's Presbyterian Church with

its tall spire, Hear Capital Hill, il:l a conspicuous landmark. St. Christopher's Roman Catholic Church is a fiJJc iy designed Honwncsque building. EcdesiasticaJ arehitectnre in Canberra is, however, on the whole


::?44. The recently completed Industry House, <·J·ertecl at Barton, is an example of the more activ<>

1 :;: r1 pl'iYn tp (•nterprise is now beginning to play.

:24:). Finally the 11art played the private sc:hooh may be not<•d, particularly the Canberra Grammar B•·hool, thl' Church of England Girls' Grammar School, anc1 thf' Christian Brothers St. Ednmncl's College, all ot' whic-h gin• atmosphere to suburban areas. The Canberra High Sehool. IH1.ioining the Xational l'nil·,·rsity al'ea, is also a good example of moilrrn sc1wol c-onstruction.


246. The attraction of Canberra is ereatnl by it ,lte and the parklike appearance of the

Tbe buildings mentioned aboye adc1 to it, , dlt' di'el't tlley produce is marred by the inferior

constnwtiow; clscvvherc. 13ut the impressiYc and 61'"" cl bu;ldiJ;g•; envisag-ed by Griffin are still Jar off, scarcely yet begun.

247. The Committee belieYes that h;-o fundanL ''"'1 tile lJC>Licy of erecting temporary or !ll . F ir:sL :_:;mdoned, awl all public buildings shou1, I

ian else ;q)e building and tree planting should be gnwcfnl and stately. Second, the relation bet\i'l' always be kept in mi11d.

248. The Committee believes architects mn·: i;,· ,t to develop thl'ir plans, and does uot

undertake to give precise directions to th£m. lt llOi'i' nc, ··rt};elL'Ss that the ('/PC of building erected in Canberra is the concern of all citizens, anc! beli€\'es th

engaged to bnilcl Canberra should be m·tists. 1t \rants no stream-lined "functional" factory-1il;e boxes. lm; b-uildings.

calls ' 1 the intuitiYe good taste of the ."-;cnue o1:enly state that utility i8 the sole criteriou

tilis opinion, and believes that the architects ":_t:H:onth structnres rising to enormous heights". cle:·"ut. gracdnL .-;tatdy and S]Jaeions publi<:

(c) Particular Contmcn(s_

249. 8ewerage.-Canbena to-day has good W?scn to be grateful for early far-siglJtednes;; in relation to the sewerage treatmrnt fo;· 1lw it:L Ti11• system the bac.i". of whieh 1vas

laic1 down and eompletcd in majot· l''-'"Jl''cts by tlL• time Padic'. lt considered the capital cost involved was high enough for the maximum population for w}Jieh tlte :-:y.stem 11·as df'signecl. hnt enormous for the

population then existing. Since the JlOpnlation for y;hell it WllS designed ,,·as not likely to be reached for many years, the 1·eb1n1 to the administration by i\'<1:·· of ratvs con1(1 not nearly approarh

the eost. 230. The Senate Committee is not concerned willi tile (•·_o,wmj,.,, o1· tlH·· t'

pus..,ible for an over-all plan to be obtained from the• Town Planning Sc(•tion of the Department of tl!e 11lterior for a population of appro-:;imately 11\J.OOD ·uli" pl;m. \\·hi(·h 8hl\\'S C'anbcrra in zones

relntecl to fnture deYelopwent, ll:1s a:; brlsis tlie f',,:j 1t1i 1iz;•tiou of the prescn1 owwer:t.':<' "'·h Jn:·.

Hden•JWP tq tlw OY\•r-all mnp snpp1i:•r1 ;1·!]1 h:• made •:; l,•;leJ· ,··:·tioH of this repnrt.

Eletlricity.-'l'he main serYices conneeted ,,->h ,.],•;!Tieit:- iwl11din.•: !lH· t't'PctioiJ 1>1'

THY\YC·l' hrnJSP its pre:.:ent ,;;\:-.:') t,,,.. d ;.1i' in Can}H'rra's a1H1 01H't'

again Yery conmwndablr far-si12;htcdncss \\c1.s sho\Yn. Til" Cnmmission took the attitude that Canberra, bei11g' a garden city \\'ith trees ana parks \)) i'r; im!. of OYrl'!wad wire,; and

damnge or lopping of trees nnvst ine1·itably resnH if pai·! ienlar c:m·e w

nnsightliness of poles ancl lines in the street n'' \Wll as rcr1ncc• ilw di<;tnrha11c·e of roacl berls and pnvenwnh. th<' Committer dircetec1 tl:iil, 1dJe:·eYe1· po:<-;ible, on:rlwml sen·ir•cs for elretrieity and telt>phones should pass along thf' rear boundaries of aUotments, and th:il proYision :;honli1 lw madr in fnr to

those services.

232. Proceeding with this principle, ihe Federal Cap;tal Commission, whi<·ll Silil'f'l'dPrl 1 he Committe!', dirertec1 that t1H'rr' .. ;twnld h<· 11'' '''.-"' ltC"ilrl 1w:im:

"whir·l!. although vrJ·:· he;n-y frnm tlJ,, pnin1 ()f l'ler·Jri<·ity sHpply c·conomic·s. \\-a, r1dinitr·ly jJhtill;:hl<' l'ron1 tlw ;Jr•sthetie point of Yivw i11 :111 art·<': \Y],i,·h \i·ill t'IJtlhill at no clisiunt date a 1111111her of !Jinn!lnwrliRI b11i \\\i11gS ''.

Rtorm 1\'otrr.- Tlir· f;p-1 th:ll parh of ('an\-;·:-rn '·'''nld han· ilrainai:'·r· problc•nJs 11·;:s lllt'lltioncd

hy Sun·cyor ScriYener when he lll'esc•nt<'d his 1'1'J>Or1 1h1· clr·sirnbilit:"- of Canberra as the site for the <·rlpita] f•ily. TJjp lJi('t ;!< r·c) ,,'r;: ·1 ,); 1 n:Hl jt f()nnd lri


I'(Jil.'il1'1ll'lin'.!· h\'ll stnrlll-\\·a1r•r r·lJRllll"ls <>:J 1)11' ,],,p." •

ju11r-tion of BrishnJW-HYf'll\1<' :111rl \Ye:r\1',·"' \h-:ri···J:r;, _ "1 on Cauh:•i't'

r.l 1 ' ,,,,.,, !'ll'lrl iJtt<'l''·'''·ti<

l' 1r:•· pr\'>\ 1 }',\ j"'.I)-Si'r Lr))t.;,P, :nul t-hr· s:·f·onri

!\··:1l. Tlt" fi:·-t di{fl··plt_·- 1\:h ,-,,-,.r•·onw h:-.· tlw

! !>.,; ,., ::r :\](1q1'k'' ('<:::l---ill'''""'it:J1:•d ., ... Ji;!ht

:_:· ,. , .:;,-;,-:1"' I'' 1)·,. ,jz, ,:· )LJ!I:;\;;: f'ir,-],.

F.:JiiJ:l. :!:!.- 3


storm-water into Telopea Park. The problem has arisen again from time to time, and in more recel years particularly with the development in the O'Connor area in relation to Sullivan's Creek. Tl construction of schools n ear the channel of this creek has necessitated' special protective safety measurE

254. Water Supply.-The position in regard to Canberra's water supply has recently been ful investigated by the Public \Yorks Committee, and in view of this the Senab Committee did not purs1 any further inquiries on this aspect. 255. The Public Works Committee inquiry was directed at finding out the best way in whi( the present storage system could be extended. 'l'he pre:-;cnt dam at the Cotter River, although designed to 1 100 feet high, was first constructed to 60 feet only, and then later in 1949-50 to 86 feet. It provid• storage for 950,000,000 gallons, but with a present maxirnmn daily demand of approximately 14,000,0( gallons, and a rapid increase in population expected, this storage will soon be inadequate. Tv\ alternatives were offered to the Public vVorks Committee-a proposal for a new dam higher up tl

Cotter River with a capacity for 2,470,000,000 gallons at an overall eost of approximately £3,000,001 and a proposal for a dam on Googong Station, about 6 miles from Qucanbeyan, with a capacity < 2,300,000,000 gallons, at an overall cost of approximatPiy £2,000,000. Por various reasons, including tt greater purity of water at the Cotter and the difficulty of effective catchment control at the Googon area, the Public "\Yorks Committee recommended the Cotter Biver- proposal. Further reference to il inquiry will be made in a later SC{ltion of this report relating to the Canberra lakes scheme.

256. \Vork in connexion with the Public \Vorks Committee r ecommendation has already begm and when the proposed work is completed, adequate provision will have been made for Canberra's wate supply requirements, so far as they are reasonably discernible at this stage.

257. Changing circumstances and conditions might be noted from the fact that when the Federa Capital Commission took over in 1925 it was thought that the system then constructed would providE on a basis of 100 gallons per day per head, for a population of 70,000. During the first two years afte the transfer of the Government and early public servants to Canberra, it was eonsidered " of paramoun importance " to make it as easy as possible for the new residents to establish their gardens in conformit: with the g-arden city ideal. Consequ€ntly, meters were not installed in the r esidential areas. By th• end of his term, however, Sir John Butters had changed his views in this regard. He was satisfied tha the Administration's libera.lity l1ad been abused, and he considered it essential that all water service: in the future should be metered and excess water chatged for-particularly since the pumping charg1 at that time was approaching 6d. per 1,000 g-allons. The consumption of water per head of population he said, bad been much under-estimated.

258. Many years were to pass, hovrcver, uefure Sir John Butters's views r egarding water m€ter: were acted upon. They have only recently been installed in Canbena, 25 years later, and the polic) of the present Administration in installing them has uot bcen warmly greeted by the Canbern

inhabitants. To date, however, there has been no anllouncement in respect of any eharges to be madt for exces::; water. Average consumption in Canbt>rra is now 1G5 gallons per day compared to 75 gallom in Melbourne and Sydney.

As previously mentioned, the practice in Canberra is for all services to be available when

sites are taken up fo r building. Recent statisti c.> giYcll by the present Director of -works in regard to the hying of water mains show that during the years JYiJl-52, 19,52-53 and 1953-54, 72,000 feet, 56,000 fed, and 44,500 feet 1·e,;;pectively were laid, The d{'cliue in tJ1ese fi gures wns said by the witness to be closely related to the decline in housing com;trnction ow-r thnt period.

260. Roads ancl Br£dges.-Canberra's requirements in regard to roads and bridges were recently stated by the Public \Vorks Committee in its reference regarding the n eed for a new bridge to replace the present Commonwealth-avenue Bridge. The Senate Committ<:e commends th e Public "\Yorks CommitteP on its practice of always investigating Canberra's problems from the viewpoint of the Canberra plan; 11·herever possible it has insisted on an adherence to the Burley Griffin principles. Its findings in t!Jis

connexion were in keeping with this general policy. Tt rejected a proposal for a bridge across the centre of the Central Lake Basin on the grounds that it would be a serious departure from the Griffin plan aJlll would create traffic difficulties in the centre of th<:> g·overnment triangle; instead, it recommended the construction of a bridge at King's-avenue, which it re_!.!·arderl as being of gTeater urgency than tlw construction of anothel' hridgr at Commonwea 1th-aYenue.

261. It is to be hoped that tlte neces:sity will not ap:aiH arise foi' serious consideration to be given to any proposal so fundamentally oppo.sed to the main prinei11leg of thr Griffin plan as that for a central bridge. Thr Griffin plan is not sacrosanct in the sense that desirable alterations should not be made to it. but its conception of the Central Lakes seheme is on '-' of it:; most admirable features.

262. Since the Public Works Committee ll'awr:oed the problems of the Central Lakes bridg<'s, the Senate Committee did not attempt to take anr fnrther evidence specifically on thill subject. but was eontent simply to consider the Public \Yorks Committee's findings in the light of evid ence on the owrall Canberra position.


263. This eYideuee l'aised further important considerations. It showed that whilst there is no doubt that the provision of two n ew bridges-on e across as recommended fot jmmediate construction, all<1 the other to replace the :presen t Comm.omvealth-a. .. ·e uue Bridge-is a matter of supreme importance ,

the gr eate1· }>Jl't of future trairic will definitely be ua Co n:Htlo m,·ealth-ayenue Bridge. Unic'>s adequate provillion o£ laneways 1" made ou that bridge wlwn bniit , a "bottleneck" will r esult. 264. Ponnud pL.:nuiug in l'clation to a population ol approximately 110,000, as illUJ:itratecl by m eans of a plan prep;tl' ed at the Senate Committee's rcq lll'o;t. t' !lYisages a population of 53,000 to the north of the lakes and ;)4,000 to 56,000 to the south.

2Gi5. (Jf the 03,000 to the n orth, the natural t emlellt:.)' will be for 41,000 to cr oss the lakes at

Commonwealt!HtYenue and the remaining 12,000 f rom ti le Duntroon area at the King's-avenue Bridge. DeYelopment in relation to the D untroon area has dreudy been appro.-ed and commenced and this, in itself, is sufficient j ustificat ion for the immediate coHHnencement of the King's-avenue Bridge.

2GG. 'fraffic from the south making l'or the Ci\'ic b usiness centre will also naturally gravitate towards Commonwealth-avenu e, particularly the traffic from the Yarralumla region, which it is estimated will accommodate a further 20,000 people. Centrifug al tendencies in regard to this traffic will be encouraged by the developmen t in the future of two new r oaus, necessitating two new bridges-one at Yarralumla, passing through t he Zoological Park r eser n to link up with the north through the Botanic R '•serve to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial R esearch Organization; and the other the road

l.J ehiud t h e Hospital which will eventually replace the pre.:;;ent Lennox Crossing.

2G7. 'l'he Yarralumla-road will be morr of a .:;;cenic roundabout road thau a traffic r oute, and will probably not be u sed by those wishing to go direct to Ci\'ic, but the Hospital-road will doubtless take a lot of the peak-time t r affic fi:om the Commonwealth-aveuue B ridge.

2GS . As a m eans of encouraging traffic on t1Je King's-a venue Bridge, the Public \Yorks Committee made a recommendation the \l·i sdom of which the SeHate Committee queries. It was that there be a new road co nnecting the northern end of the King'8-UYtllllC Bridge with Constitution-avenue by a more clircet toutc to shorten the distance for city-bound traffi c nsing this road. The Public \Vorks Committee

was of the opinion "tha t a road gi ,·ing din'dly a:'! possible from the King's-avenne Bridge to

Comtitutim;-;ln'm1e is fo r this route", and it l'ccommencl ecl that it be constructed siml.ll'ianeously wit]J the ]{ing's-averme Bridge. It stated that it could po.-;::;ibly be partly formed by th e ultimate lakeside drive to be clewloped at a later st age.

The Sen ate Corn rnittee is opposed in vriJ JC:ipie to the construction of any short cut main

traffic route to Civic Centre at: r oss the area south of Con l-lt itution-avenue, as being· in conflict with Griffin':; eonce ption of this area, which t he 8enate Committee whol,,heartedly endorses. Griffin's writings and hif\ prelimina1·y plan for Canberra show that the area botwf'e n Constitution-avenue and the northern of the cPntral take should be one contim10us n :creation an•a unbroken by roHds, beautified by public

gardem.: vith buildings of a rcereationai ankm ents and drin'way along the Jake's edg-e. It

wonld xerm no trAffic was intended within the area.

:270 . Ti1c recommendat ion of the Public \York; Committee would mean

twaeefnlness of this m:ea

:2 71. /, feature equ ally as important as the problem of co nge.-;tion of traffie on the Commouwealth­

al·t•lJUe Bridge is the po.'is ib ility of <>imi1 ar eongestion «lo ng· Adelaide-aYeuue and State Ci r cle. The Chid 'l' o\111 Plann rr


A further lin<· of inquiry was pursued by the Committee regardin g- ring rond8 abont the city.

ft \\'as (·On(:nncd th:1t the· ll1

  • :JikiJtion h

    tl1 r ring· roads euntcmp ln terl. H e made particul ar reference t o the r oad which is to ski r t the city to the

    •·a ·d :md ,,-]tich will pe rmit of tram;port h 'J ':in!! r·:•<; i cr a ccess to the main inrln. <; tria l area to thr

    ;;outli of Cn nhrrra. an r1 tn tl 1e mnin Coomn road . Tt a 1"'J thoui!·lit that tll £' futn:re dcn·lopmrnt of

    l' ll W r oads of tlt[-.; nat ure " ·ould provide m ot cn·in:: excnr.-;ions for Canberra citizens.

    273. The in regard to parking are \\·hich are causing more and more concern u·;

    lht! c:i t y "ro'""· and t11is a.wrct will require wry specialir.(·d in the y ears t o come, particularly

    with tlw c] (',·rlopmrn t of administratiYe buih1ings in thr· Triangle. "\ ccorcl inl,!· to Dr. Langrr,

    the ll!'ed for parking space is enormous ; it r eq uires three times the area allotted to the building. It is tit (· fa ctor most o,·erlooked in town plans.


    27 4. Criticism has already been voiced in the prei-is at the ch'struction of tree plantations in the ncinity of the new Administrative Building to provide parking space for officers shortly to be transferred to that building. Very considerable thought has to lw given to an overall parking scheme for the full Govcrnment triangle if a chaotic position is to be by the time this area is fully developed.

    275. The parking position at the various shopping centres was becoming particularly acute until additional space >vas provided within recent months. The Committee did not have the opportunity to go fully into the question of the permanent solutions envi:ouged foT the>;e problems as again present relief by temporary measures, but it was assured that the Town Planning Se<:tion was fully aware of the problems.

    216. These problems associated with roads in Canberra are not always easy of solution, a fact which was stressed by the present Director of Works, lVIr. James, when giving evidence. He thought them of suflicient magnitude to warrant the appointment of a full-time iu traf:i:ic matters, stating that the i::ltates found such an officer necessary and ensured that their men were kept up to date with overseas development in traffic control.

    217. Interesting figures were also given by lvir. ,James in regard to expenditure on roads and bridges. During the last three years alone, he stated, some 80 miie:s of road had been tarred and "for a city of this size that is a fairly good effort". Some £300,000 to £400,000 a year is spent in Canberra on roads and bridges, >rhid1 is much more than that normally spent on a city of the same population elsewhere; it is made necessary, h(nvcver, by the nature of Canberra's plan ::md the policy of development.

    2'78. Refucnce to the development of suburban roads lH


    2iJ. The Burley Griffin plan provided a site to the extreme north of the city as the industrial area. This site vva.s selected largely because of the Government's stipulation that a railway should pass through the , so that it could he linked with Ynss and, at some future datf•, with Jervis Bay.

    200. 'The first industrial development took vlace in the time of the F'ederal Capital Advisory Committee, was directed by tl1e Government to N'j.JOrt specifically on areas which might be leased. The Conmnttee tccmmnended certain blocks near the rail taminal as being suitable for businesses of a minor industrial character v;llicl1 presented no objectionabi fcatnres; umlertakings of an industrial charactel' Jll'cseutmg objectionable features or requiring larger should, it stated, be relegated to the more distant :n·ea pnn ided for in the approred plan to the extreme m)l·th or the city, but it suggested that no blocks in the m1dor be offered for lease at that time. From this small beginning developed the pr<:'sent Causeway illdustriai area.

    :::El. e now four industrial a reM in Canbt'I'l'a ---the Cauoseway m·ea devoted to private

    ,,-iJich h:::s now been directed to vacate the tlw Bcijoining Kingston governmental workshops and two areas which have been developed in recent years, viz., the minor industrial area at Lonsdale-street and the main industrial area now located to the soqtlt of tiw l'ily between the l\Iolonglo River and the Queunbeyan -road.

    282. 'L'he Molonglo site replaces the area intended for industry to the north of Canberra,

    \\ hieh was abandoned in 1950 when the decision was made t

    2S:l. The :Molonglo site has an area of 1,000 aer:·:;, au area which should, according to the Chief Town !'l

    284. Reference has already been mack· r:arlier i 11 t hi,.; rcpriJ·t to the wasted capital invrstment involYed 111 tlt<· Causeway ;n·e;J. 'fhe rliree1ion to move bas ber•'1 n bitt,•r pill for many of the occupants, particularly

    1·. ileJL liS one "·it ness pointed out the occupants of cOD1 1l 1r·reird lll'eas in the vicinity of Civic have been able to

    ::cqui:·<· n considerable goodwill addition to their capii:1l inwstnwnt OYer this period. It is a bitter pill nl1ielJ tln• Commonwealth Government itself may havr lo s"·nllow in regard to many of its own expcdirnts.

    28;). Tn Yiew of the dn·elopment of this new 1\Iolonglo area, tlw Senate Committee queried the necessity fnr the industrial arras at Lonsdale-street and Kingston. The present Director of \Vorks, Mr. ,James, was ilskf'd conld thne not he onr nrra for Canberra ;ll '"' hich all industry could be locatec1. Tu reply, 1\Ir. Jame'; sng-!t··,tl'r] lh:d tlJP clwraf'trr of inrlnstrial aetivit.': nwir1l ioo "-irlc•ly to prrmit of tl1at. "\Vhat \YC pnt


    at :'IIolonglo ",he said, "1s appropriate to the site being du;;l' to tltc nlil\\ay, and what we put in Lonsdale­ street is appropriate to the inner area. You would not i':u to the e:'1wnse of shifting heavy actiYities, such as the GoYernment Printing Office, our big store and PO\, cr Sto.tiou from the Causeway and Kingston unless there was no alternative. You might say that there i.s Yestecl interest in the industrial area.''

    286. 'l'he Senate Committee believes that this iUJ aspect of to1m planning which should receive very full investigation. 287. Reference has alreal1y been made to tht• Lonsl1ale-street development wh('n discussing architectural standards, but the Senate Committee doC',; not snggest tlwt the minor industries should be withdrawn from that area. On the industrial aspect disti

    the enterprises no>v being carried on are far too noisy for an an·a

    the middle of an otherwise well-planned city. 'l'he presented from this tourist lookout adjacent to one of the main axes of tl1e city is one that would surely n'ake Dnrk,v Griffin turn in his grave. 289. Mr. James, Director of \Vorks, was ask(!d to fn1l particulars of the Kingston industrial area. He advised that he and his Department were J'nlly mvare of the chaotic situation and, in fact, had been taking action to remedy it as far as lay within their powf'r. rrhere were far too ma11y bnilc1ings and too much industrial activity taking place in that one congested spot. There were separate shops and bnildings for plant equipment, roads and bridges equipment, >Yater supply equipment, sewerage and cement products equipment, the saw-mills, general store, j;.i:wry works, furniture storage, meehanical \Yorks, plumbers, building maintenance, general day laboul' , the Power House, Technical Collerre, Government Printing Office and the various buildings connected with thr• !! atH1 maintenance of the, trucks

    and cars of the Transport Department. Through the •"<·ntn' of tl1e ar"a ran the railway Jine which linked up with the Power House. 290. l\Ir. ,James said that he had been working hard for six years to tidy up this area, and that the effo1·ts by his Department were Himed at less0ning the congestion b? tnmsferring· to the ne,,· Molonglo site some of the main shops :md buildings, and of improving· those rrmqining. 'rhe first step w::s the transfer of

    thr plant shop at a cost of £120,000, on a site of six N0xt to thi8 site four acres have been reserved for the roads and bridges depot, the transfer of which is I'XI'Pr+;or/ to eost £40,000. Similarly, water, scwrrage and cement products activities will be transferred to another fonr aeres at a cost of £:30,000. In regard to those activities still remaining at Kingston, nearly £100,000 has heen s1wnt since the war on rebuilr1ing thr

    saw-mills and the kilns and moulding shop. Fort:· rhm':;:md ponncls has also been spent on thr general store and another £40,000 is envisaged.

    291. As a result of these and other improwments. the Department of \Vorks hopl'S to he able to pull down some of the huts and depots which are now "mixrr1 up hir·rdcdy pig·!l·ledy ". Mr. ,James concluded by saying his department thus cmhmittec1 that it has already taken reasonable action eith<'r to move from Kingston, or improve to an appropriate standard at Ki11gston, it'i variom I]l(lustria1 activities.

    292. The Senate Committee compliments the D•'partment of \Yorks 011 it:; Pfforh. ln' i it <'1J'l'ics the wisdom of further expenditure within the Kingston l',V staticn -: omplctcly

    (•!eared of existing buildings. 2!10. Tt appreeiate:-; that thrrr i.s a ven· 'apital inn':-;tnvnt in th" .'c.,,.,.,.,.,nnrntal

    aNa, and that if a reeommrn1latinn were approver1 for the YacatiJP nf tl1is srdiou. ii 1nmld tak<• a c·onsid('rah1P timP to ar·c·ompllsh. Tlw ind1\s1Tia\

    Ti'<'d('ral Commission hnmr•s shon\<1 he n1fw:•r1 as soon as ]Wal'tir·alJ!P--a yr•r:.· dn],iow; tr·l'lrt iit tliis lintr• of honsing· shortag·,·-anr1, it app<'ars tr, th(' S r•JwtP Committ•·r., th<·J·r· Hre Yr:ry stl'O>l;!· f,n· doing m1·a,v with tl1P prPsrnt rail\nl,\' s.tati·;''· IY;th thro t!·an"f"r r,f i!ldl'"trin! r·m'llt:!,;'· :- 1h· " :.r .. J·

    site. it wonld log·i('fil that the railway tr·rminal co11lrl he rr•mo,·w! to a snilahk I" -!tirm a!l,iwr•nt h t!H· indn,trial area.

    2!)4. \Vith refprc•nr·r· to the ar"fJ. tiH· ('ommittr;l• qw'ries tlw ftill'r<' JlPCi'"·'ily of the

    Pow<•!' IlonsP in vi••1y

    l'rintin'! 0ffier was not or\US intr·itc1ed to lw ,,. rlrin th · (; .,.,., nwr·nt TriRnc;lr· rm a reL·llil·, 1,1· ' nr tl:

    Advisory Committee iih011· that it p··rr


    permanent Government Printing Office within this area, but that the proposal was abandoned as was thought that the permanent Government Printing Office might form part of a second administratic building on the western side of the government area. In view of delays, however, it was necessary " make some temporary provision so that the Government Printing Office could be established by the tirr Parliament was moved to Canbn-ra. A store building was therefore ereeted near the Power How in which parliamentary printing was to be earried on until sneh time as the permanent building w< ereeted. The Printing Offiee has stayed in that area ever since, in the typically Canberra manner.

    295. If the Kingston-Causeway area were vacated a very different appearance could be give to the locality, and large-scale developmental plans could be made in connexion with the v.rhole of th Hume-circle section which, from the planning point of view, would seem to the Senate Committee to b one of the worst features in Canberra. The present railway station is a poor advertisement for th National Capital and the development around it is not such as to a.rouse admiration in any visitors.

    296. Puture lnd1£strial Development.-Although the present :Molonglo area is probably adequat, for many years to come, long-term planning demands that consideration should now be given to th reservation of land for future industrial purposes at other extremities of the city.


    297. The Griffin plan provides for two main Ctmtres-the governmental area in the Governmental Triangle on the south side of the lakes, and the business or commercial area to the north around Civic Centre.

    298. In the early period of Canberra's development, it was considered desirable that small groups of shops be provided near the residential areas in the south, to obviate the necessity for the long journey to Civic, and in the time of the FedBral Capital Advisory Committee a decision vms made for self-contained shopping blocks to be established at Kingston and 1\fanuka. With this decision were also made two subsidiary decisions, viz.:-

    (a) Tl1at the erection of buildings of a "nondescript character" be absrJlutely prohibited, and the designs strictly controlled to ensure that the unsightliness so often found with retail shops in Australian towns be eliminated from Canberra; and (b) That the leases provide definite limits to extensions so

    interests inimical to the growth of Civic as the main businrss centre.

    299. 'fhe control of design over commercial buildings in these two areas and at Civic was aimed at crt>ating harmony between the separate units. At Civic the control provided for two-storied buildings with a continuous arcade treatment on the ground floor and for a middle conrtyard approached by two arched entrances which secured continuity of t11C facade.

    300. At Manuka provision was made for an arcade through the middle of the area, and

    for semi-detached residences with garden frontages to adjoin the shops. The li'ederal Capital Advisory Committee considered it desirable that in subordinate centres such as this, residential accommodation should be provided, but it did not support the principle of attaching the residences to the rear of or above the business premises.

    301. The desire to retain strict control of the city's zoning principles, and to emphasize the Civic shopping area, later brought with it its problems, particularly when development of the commercial facilities to the south began to outstrip those to the north. As one of the witnesses before the Committee advised, the businesses of this early period were profitable on the south side, wl1ere they were near the areas of closest settlement, but generally functioned close to a loss on the north. The Federal Capital Commission met problems, very shortly afterwards, in t·egard to lease covenants, and it complained in one of its reports that whilst strict zoning control was absolutely necessary, it should

    be exercised with sound judgment if impossible situations ·were to be avoided. It had partir•ular difficulty over bank sites at Kingston as a result of representations made earlier that four bank sites offered at Civic wonld be tht> only sites available for banking. Banks wished to open agencies at Kingston, aml. the Kingston business people wanted them there, but until very recently, trading hanks have been ahle to op0rate in that area only in a u hole in the wall" manner, by space made> available in business shops. The representatiw of the Canberra Chamber of Commerce advised 1hc Senate Committee that there was still no provision for trading bank sitE's at Manuka.

    302. For years the businPss community has been concerned with the lack of certainty in regard to the three shopping areas; it was suggested to thr Senate Committee that nntil snch time as the Administration gave a very clear indication as to which vms going to br the major shopping area, large retailrrs wonld not be interested in Canberra, a chargr which the Administratio:1 answcrrd by saying th:1t there has never been any doubt that Civic was to be the main area of commerr·ial development and that lack of population has been the only reason why business of this type has not bern attracted to Canberra. When Canberra has the population, big husine.c;.<; will comr. and it would now seem that Canberra is on the threshold of that stage.

    Manuka shopping· centre in the middle dist;mce. t>•itll M >lllllka Oval i11 the ';entre and T el opea Park in the foregrotmd. Telopea Pa.rk School m a y be seen to t1te mich\lc r ig ht. with pa rt of the snl.Jmu oi B a rtou . am\ t he B Mton Te nnis Courts. in the foreground. The K i ngston Khopping all(! part of the snbnrh ot' Kin gston appear:-; in the

    left foreground. Collins Park is ill the rig ht hackg rouncl.

    M an uka shopping centre. with the hockey hehl on t he lett. t h e C< 1pit a l Picture Thea t re in the middle foreground . St. Christopher·s Church a nd schcol on the r i;;ht . am\ rortion u f t h e sl!lJHrh of Griffith in t he h a ckgronud . The t wo storied semi-detached houses im!1lediately behind the shoppill!!; cr.n trc he noted .

    1 ')' () / 1/ f., . I" I f } i : ..... I

    1 -' :, : (t .j ....


    303. the sale of leases in the Brisbane c.ncl Buildings at Civic, and the pencling

    development of the Perth Buildings, the whole emr>lwsis of commercial activity has at last definitely become located at Civic. According to the Chief Town Phmner, the distribution of business in Canberra in 1954-55 was Civic 36 per cent., :Mannka and ±3 per cent., and the suburbs 16 per cent. Future

    distribution is expected to be Civic 49 per cent., :\Ianuka anrl Kingston 37 per cent., and suburbs H per cent.

    304. business development of the l'LLtme \\ill also be concentrated at Civic, which has

    the room for considerable As conttasted i\·ith Ci Yic, the possibilities fol' expnnsion at Kingston and l\Ianuka are severely limited. A new area has been given oyer to commercial leases at

    Kingston, which will comvlete the full block of buildings and .still leave a desirable lawned area for rc.sting purposes to the rear. SmM two-storied builctings are being erected in this new area which indicate a reversal of the policy adupted in earlier years of limiting the Kingston buildings to one story. 'fhe manager of J. B. Young Ltd. informed the Senate Committee how early representations for

    permission to build a second story on llis finn's corner b'ock had been refused. The Senate Committee is in agreement with this change of policy. :'\ow that R 11 ,q,·nil,ible area for expansion has been taken up at Kingston, it is inevitable that sooner m· later, C!mberra'.s population increases, all Kingston shop<; will take on second stories.

    30G. The policy in regard to l\Ianuka has also elumged in recent years, and we are now seeing the removal of the semi-detached residences to make way for a unbroken line of shops. Area is still available for expansion at l\fanuka, even apart from tl!e sites adjoining the picture theatre, which are reserved for a post oft1ce on one side and a branch of the Commonwealth Bank on the other. It might lle

    noted, however, that the present hockey field oecnpics much of this area.

    30G. In regard to the new dc\-elopmn1t taking pl:!ee at Civic, two important considerations might be noted. In the first place, the leases allow for greatc:· frrr•r1om of con.struetion, although certain definitr requirements and standards are still insi:;ted upon, Tl1•· \n•stern side of Brisbane Buildings, for instance, will be in harmony with the genera] colonnarlc etfr•e1 ,,r tlw pre;q0nt Sydney and Melbourne Buildings. In

    the second place, the new deYelopment is to the east sirle of Civic, as part of a plan to group the commercial or "busy" activities to that side of The i11tention of the Planning Section is to

    cany Xorthhourne-avenue Oll to an inner ro;:d oi' C'iyie Hill and cteftert through-city traffic to the west of the hill away from thrse shopping areas.

    307. In regard to all three of these shopping· centres, and also the suburban shopping to which reference be made, there ?.re sn·rral featnreto which bnsine:o,s people find most IJnck

    of yard '>pace and bulk ::;torage room an· the mo>-;t ch.;eonePrting·. Dift1culties are encountf'red in unloading supplies of goods in the very enclosecl spaces nYailahle for servicing the backs of the shops. The Committee wa.s advised it wns almo::;t to mnnreuvre a semi-trailer in these arr&'i. Also in

    yiew of the concentration of the business premises. JWactienlly all the available area of each site was quickly needed for actnal retailing purposes and there WilS no room for storagf'. To overcome this. some firm;; have resorted to a mezzanine type of construct}rm within their buildings; others have had to lea8e areas, :JS at Causeway, well awny from tl1r shopning cr>!ltrr>s, for bulk storage; and this has added to tht>ir transport difficulties, already complicated by lack o facilities. Dift1culties such as these involve

    a Rrrious overhead expeme and have militated against flH' nf'''<'lopmrnt of general stores. To date, lack of :;pace has necessitated specialization.

    308. The Senate Committee is particularly concrrned at the lack of space for traft1c around the main shopping centres. Kingston has had parking and traffic problems for a considerable time, and it is alarming, in view of this, that Ea<;t Row at Civic Centre should have been permitted to become the eongestf.'d area it now is,

    309. St(bttrban Shops.-As the city has grown mH1 rrsiclential oevelopment spread outwards, the drmnn!l has also arisen for suburban shopping facilities.

    310. When the first snhnrhnn shopping· centre, tlwt fn1· Ainslie. was under consideration in 1!141, the Canberra Chamb<'r of Comnwrce obi<'ctl'o to its d0wlopment on the grounds that when leases were first offer0d the understnndinp: was that the shopping- er·ntees would not be dispersed. It asserted scd a position alrcad?

    hno eno11f(h with thr<'<' shopping crntres. 'l'he Nntional C:1pital Planning :md Dewlopment Committer wns of the opinion, homover. tl1at snrh drvp]opmcnt not onh· desirable for the cmweniencc of residents, hnt wm:; also sonni! frnm n tmvn plAnning noint of YlPW did not conflict with an.v zoning or planning prin('iplrs implied in thr Rppl'OVf'd plan.

    311. The :\fatiomll Capital Pl:mninrr nnd Dewlopmrnt Committee was also of the oninion that such shonping <'<'!ltrrs .shonld hf> plannrd in relatinn to tlHc- wlwlr· city development and the varion;; arr8S ncrrJp(! >:honld he fixed on this hRsis rather tlwn It was also com;idf>rrd desirablr

    thnt rMii!PntiRl spAce avail11hlr ann adjRcent to pro.iPrtrr1 shoulr1 br ntilizf'd by thr construction. wherf' practienhlP. of mnltiple r1we11ings to raisf' thP in the immrdiate neighbourhood of centres.


    iH2. Owing to tlw pt·e.ssing need for lwuc-;es ci,L,mg the war period, the various schemes ror tl!c t11fierent centres had to be deferred, and it wHs not LlntiJ JU,l-7 that they eould be startcd. The ,,ince then have seen the de\'clopment of shopping uHl :\;,IT

    at GrifGth, O'Connor, Yarraluml;

    of other eentn>s when practicable.


    313. It would seem to the Senate Committee thnt Cnnbera snburban development was, until very reet'Llt :·ears, marked by a lack of appreciation of community needs.

    :314. Burley Griffin is sometimes dift1cult to f D'lU\\ in Lis Heport Explanator.v, and an elaboration oll some of his point;,; would have been of great but tfnt llortion which is headed "Domestic:

    ( 'omnnmities" seen1s quite clear to follow. ILis words were--Conlprising the proportionate1y large :hare of _the al'\.'<\ . the

    fotrned and separated by tlle general tra.fllc 1:nes, _furnish ('n1y hon1e s1tes: but <:OmJ?nse SdcJal

    units for tlwt }arg·er L.unii-v----the grcup, \Vith u:l\.: ha:t1;Jy- _ ;:;cltvul or_ more tor t:he children, hTHl

    \\'itl1 Ioeai piayiln)u_nd, fields, ehurch, clnh, and ,sr:;cia1 without crossing traffic tracks, or

    t'ueounterinQ· the/ ele1nent::. of t;.\Jnjltations o:i husL;c The innennost l!nit bloc·k n1ay lJe

    \ arihl to areas for sueh spec·iid purposes, .sanatorii(, re.,ddenr·e hotels, parks, ornamental or

    horticultural al1 ,yith the rninjnnnn \Vith the of the

    815. Obviov:dy, it 1vas Grifl\>•'s inLntion that (;omnwnity centn·s be in the various Planning, Jwwever, :;eems to haYc taken little account of r'cleh needs in the and it is r-egrettable·

    that at this stage of Canbena's r1cYe1opment there ;,hodd he a searching· for sites sneh a'! for sehools, at Forrest, ·where it appears con'licleration was given over Collin;., Park

    316. The nearest approach c,mberra (1riffin is at :Thiannka, \Vhere there swimming- pool, pre-11a.tal ecntre and a

    has to a neighbourhood group of the type envisaged by

    L\\;i!ities for tennis, cricket and hockey, churches, schools, theatre. there is too much traffie and

    too many shops and "disturbing elem ents " to be what Griffin contemplnted. The Griffitll

    ('ommnnity area is also dose to Griffin's idea. Here we have te1mis courts, chilclren's play area,

    mH! quiet shopping s<'t away fnnn the m:1in and a housing development that tends to look icrwards it.

    :317. It should be noted th:cc Griff1'L , . Lis noference to "neighbourhood gTonps ", did not include

    faeilities. In submitting his originnl plan he wrote: "Provision is made for business in

    !!ellcml, not only in the immed;ate neighbourhood of the specialized centres, but along the lines of tn1ffL nu!iiliill,'!' and short-eutting in varions dil·e,•tinm; ". Hrnce the earlier reference to "business streets". "ribbon" type of commercial d-evelopment, hovrever, hBs not heen adopted in CanbPrra, anfl to

    provide for the requirements of snlmrban ho'cscholders, shopping faeilibrs witbin the neii!·l1bnnrhood 11uits. a:-; part of the community ez'ntrcs, is now most desirable.

    318. The evidence given by the Chief Town Planner indicates that future residential develonment ;s How bei119: well planned. An endeavour is being made to provide for these neighbourhood nnits to have contact with the main lines of comnnmieation, vvithout actually fronting them, to tnrn imvards from tlwm and centre around eommuuity centres, ar,2 beinp; planned and provided for.

    Approaches to the main roads have been reduced in number and nei0·hbonrhood traffic is so t:ontrolled that it enters the• main through rontes only at definite points. Traffic dangers in the ncighbom·hood uuits are thereby reduced. The reduction in the si:1.c of internal roads also assists in making the arpas more homogeneous.

    819. Criticism of the earlier suburban type of development was made by many witnesseR, and mos1 suggz•stions for "improvements" on the present pian were aimed at a different method of suburban treatment. :;'\fany snggested an outer griclciron type of a.Qvelopment tban a eontinuanee of th2

    c·in·n Jar patti'rns. In 1051, the present Chief 'l'o>vn Plnnner himself }uu1 expressed the opinion that th,, ornamental pattern has been carried to excess iu tbe re:,idential areas, and the same opin:on was c·xprr•sscc1 hy l\'Ir. Harold Smith, town planner iJl Sydney, wllcn giving evidence. Dr. Karl I1anger, of Bri:-dmne, n·c·omnH'iHkd tlwt the further rc'iirlential dcYeiopment should be on modern or "good" by 1lSi' of 1l1e Hc•dln::·q Ja:vont, w1H·1·ehy hem a fe,'der road Toops go into a centre green strip from

    both "so thnt i1 i•; ]j],,• ,·rhie:'h

    !!Tren frorn tl:r oihrr ": thi:; WOI'lr1 mu1:1, staled Dr. Lanc·cr\ that from even- hrmse th" ehi]!lren

    eonlcl !-!'O to tl1e c-rntrnl :'T''''il ftrip "or f:rir s·boolin·;. ;mc1 the hOl:srvvives for their shoppin;-r. 8nf'h il of c1eve1flp11:<>nt n•er"Jtl_,. r·!'n·i0r1 o•.1t h;· Dr. Lml'>;i'r Rt 1\'l:""'lt I"a, a·vl was ;,t'ltnrl to haxc [·.f:'.''''-1

    !0 [1fT ('f'!lt. 011 strrr>f.S :llJ(l r•ecoiflns hr'i'l'!" R!ift' for children t(} )ive in.

    820. Tn eomnwnclin!.; Dr. Lanc:·l·r',; S'·!"'!''r'siicm i .. , Renate• Committer is satisfied that thr prineiples hrhind it are nlrearly a:1prePiatr•cl tl1f' 'rn,, .. , Pl •rn1in 8r>r·ticm. Dnd t1'2t +h· shortroming;;; of the past do not look like being- r<>peaterl in thr snlmrhan clrvelopnwnt of the future.

    R21. One final reff'l"f'l1U' mig·ht lw marlp in to tl1e m·r•<;f'nt trend tmvards small<'r rlne as inr1ir·Rterl earlier to t1:r on rll'llsih· r•owlir1rration<: 'Phr Rrnate Committr>r notes that

    Griffin, in tlw statrnwnt c)(•f"OHlpmn·i 11''" 11 m·i n·in 'I 1 p 1 ill1, wrote as follows:-

    Tl!P :-::.tanrhrd unit Jdor·k {;,l· :j '1 ··!:th · ·or·nl:·!fip •. nnd hefwt'{'n

    inh•rn;d !!flrflpn ft·nnta

    of ,.,,ntiJ;ition and privacy.


    ln SOl.lle f·

    I.'OllllUUHity initintiYe to wo rk out. vretty :;clleiJles o i . ... .. ::;,

    eomnton gar dens, irregular hill-gardens, subdivisions and a h o;;t <>1' ''i>l!il:lr i,o,_,, ;bilitieo. ndd; ll;.!. in r;dent :;;c d Ynriety to " co nsistent simple whole.

    :322. 'l'he ideal here enYisaged Bm-ley Gri:li n do(• s not riJil>l'


    J2;J. C:wberra's :first lwspital, a >nJoclen bnilllinc: '.':itich still

    ti1n e ·when th€ city vvas being laitl o1:t en the bu< ·tl'd':: phtil. I t of

    th e site no\v belonging to tlu "\ National

    11·as to be at Civic, where the main eommercja) area i'> iWII'

    ;124. The present hospital ·was built during: the \1';-t:· a·; " '• .jrc,·tic:<; :

    sinwrect on a s:te p rovided for in the Griffin i)LHL a!!d wm· WTCJJ ; t l'l 0 clil 1P'l 200 p:t tienh. T> ,· an•:: Sc't :-tsid,• for ih purposes is 22 acres .

    325. In 1950, as part of the balancPd plan fOJ' th<' t n•n,.;fcr oJ' to CanbeiTii . t}Jp

    qne:otion of the future needs of the hospital >Yns exami1wli,

    326. The f11ll programme, rnvisag·ing' a hospital of 600 brds at a fnrth er cost of £3,000.000, is now beforr the Public \VOl'ks CommitteE' a"Pliting rx:nniuatioJl. The •· nn<:tr nd ion of tl:if; ,,-ill

    mean that t he llnilding:s adjvining the h osp itnl. ::ntl n':. pt-< ''""J't•p[cr1 L,1· th:· Departm ;•nt

    of the Interior, will have to be ,-aca ted antl remowd. 'fl1 e Sr:wt:· C .'c r1m iite:· 1\"zi'' infm-p:nc! by iJ1e present Director of \Vorks that before the pl'oposal w ns ref<' rrPd to tlt,, T' nh;ic Cmnmitter tlw

    National Capital Planning ancl D evelopment CommittN• hat1 \lec·n co' -'il;]t('il ; ,, t o the :; rte. an(1 ean• had ber n taken to ensure that the buildings wol!ld be in prop(' r ''(• lc>ti" ''''h. ip •xitll tlw 18\\t' ;P\•1 its proposed levels. 'rhP Departmrnt of Civ;l D>•fc11Cc also 1·ons::lte(L b1: 1 i : t cf'[' ;•l't it H .;1visec1, "P11t it all behind a big hill somrwherr ", a whieh "·as not fo]inwd n-, ij· ,,·ns i',.]t +1!0• ho<:nital

    mm:t proceed on the present site.

    327. The advice given by the Department of Civil Drfence in regard to the siting- of the hospitaL " ·hih:t not accepted by the planning df'partments, is intereflti1 1g' in its implications. On e factor ncYrr Yisu n!i ?:cd in the time when d esigns were called for Canberr:-1 \Yas the posoihilit.,v of aton,ic warfare. D cf{'nce against atomic warfare would appear to caH for the selection of. 8itrs: Bnrle!' G1·iffin's mRjor

    buildings are planned for the elevated or prominent sitf's. Th<' TH'Oblcm s of ciYil clef eneP ill'C still stndied, and could well have a very important effect on nll planning· princinles. The S<>nH tP CommittN' therefore considers it desirable that close liaison be m'tintflin <> cl h<>hwrn t1Jr D rpartment of f:ivil Dl'fenre nnd the city's planning and constructional authorities.

    :128. Rrpresentations were made to the Senate Committee by the Nurses' Clnb 1n the Anstralirm Capital Territory that in lien of one large hospital in the centre of Canberra, provi::ion shon1r1 be macle fer 200-bed hospitals in each of the following areas :-Tnrner-O'Connor-J\inslir. Narrabnnd::tll -GriffitlL antl leavin g the prf'sent hospital to ser':" tl :" of Barton. Rei rl. ancl nrndrlon.

    The S<>nat e Committee feels that tb.<' (j\wc:.tion of f11rtlw r h o:::nitn ls of this nntnre mig-ht wPll <'onsi rleration in the light of increased popn1ation in f ,,tn r t" r1r·r<' des. hnt in•mrtiiatrly it pr!'fPr8 to fV'f' dPVPlopment on the present site in the manner proposed.

    329. 1\Ianagement of the hospital provides one nf th <.' t\yo l1Hl1TI ilVPml<"s thrn\\ .:;rh ' Vh ie11 th0 "ltizrns of Canberra have flegrer of local representlltion: thr f'n1meil hPinQ" th" othf'r. Fni!"r th"

    Seat of Government (Administr;Jtion) Art tlwre 11 sr>rriitlll, anr1 for othrr ". Tt prm·ir1Ps for tl:r C'01ltJ·n1 of tlw hospitnl to he in a hoard of six mrmbers. ,,,-hi"h n'l'.l' "rmsio;ts (\f onP TrN1 snry rrnrr·srntntiY" nnr1 nvP P)Prtrr1 Suhjeet to the directions of thr this hnarr1 m nH <' r s rmwr>n1infl'

    +hr .o.·PnNa l policy to be adopted by the '!\'[Nlieal Rnperi11t"n r1" nt in thr> ar1ministrnti on of thr hnsllitnl. anrl

    oprra tion . . 11()_ '1'he Senate Committf'e notPs that f'VPn in rr•'!" OJ·rl tn th0 thPr0 hno hnf'n th" r"s0rt

    t n PX p Nlirnts. h a\'e spen the constrnrtion in m!'till. nTHl11ot in harmon-:' witl1 tl1r mnin lmilclinl'". nf il lrJ;' staff (]\larterc:,. and Of n nrtae]Jf'rl tProp01"11r,\' warr] to thr of thP lllflin <;r>r•fi(l11 of thf' ]lnSpitnJ.

    fl. BDl}CATin\'.

    ::J:n. ReferPnce has alrefldy bef'n marlr in of rrnort to thr nr(!Pnt JH>r

    ,rlrlitionrJl i11 CanherrR to cnpe wit11 t1F· natnr·R] :tll(l f1nthrr rknartm,.ntnl trnm;f('ro A

    programmr of s<·hoo1 df'velopmPnt is tn nrr<1"f'n t A rl iffiPH]t sitJJAtinn In

    < 'onnr.xion the Senate Committee expressPrl th(' opinion that. whil0 thr: hnihling- Rllthnrit:- maY makf'


    allowance for children attending denominational schools, it is under an ultimate responsibility to provide education for all children in the Federal Capital. At the moment approximately one-third or 2,220 of Canberra's 6,3DO school children attend denominational schools; 1, 700 attend the Roman Catholic schools. Tirliance should not be placed upon the ability of these denominational schools to maintain this proportion i11 tlw rears of rapid expansion immediately ahead.

    ;)::\2. Since December, 1929, Canberra has had a University College affiliated with the University of ::Ueibomnc, through which degrees have been obtained in Arts, Commerce and Law. The College has had no llennancut site, and since its establishment has bBen housed in a number of temporary quarters. At pr'eoent it functions in a building near Civic which was formerly a workmen's hostel.

    In 1945, the passage of the Australian National University Bill saw the beginning of a pBriod of

    Y•'n· actiYe construction of buildings required for post. graduate research and study of the very highest level. Bill contained a clause under which the National University "may provide for the incorporation in the

    T"ni1·ersity of the Canberra University College ", but to date no such incorporation has been effected and it possible that the Canberra University College may devBlop into a full univBrsity in its own right. The

    Australian National University itself has been provided with very ample funds throughout its development, and hns received eYery possible assistance to permit of its completion in the shortfJst possible time consistent ;yith the magnitude of its buildings. It has been said to be an experiment as bold in its own way as that of Canberra itself. Situated on 204 acres in the very heart of the city on the site set asid€ by Burley Griffin for nnivBrsity purposes, it has at present four main units-the John Curtin School of Medical Research, and schools for Physical Science, Social Studies and Pacific Studies.

    334. I£ a decision is made to incorporate the Canberra University College in the Australian National Univer!'lity, a consid<'rab1e economy will result in the use of land and facilities which could be common to both, e.g., Great Hall, playing fields, common rooms, &c.; but it is probable that the Australian National T'niversity would require an enlargement of its present site to provide adequately for the full development of the undergraduate university within its borders. If an undergraduate university is not to be linked with the National University, then it will require land in its own right, and as yet no provision has been made

    for such a contingency. It is therefore desirable that an early decision be made by the University authorities OJJ this matter, so that the question of suitable additional land may be early examined, and resolved before

    Canberra is much further developed. In the meantime, the construction of a University Hall of Residence providing adequate study facilities for undergraduate students could well be planned by the administration w1 pilrt of its hostel programme.

    :335. As a seat of learning, Canberra is rapidly beginning to give the lead to the nation, as it is 1wculiarly well endowed with the opportunities and facilities for advanced research and study. BBsides the r\ ational University and the University College, facilities also exist at the Commonwealth Observatory on -:\Ionnt Stromlo, which is one of the largest and best equipped observatories in the British Commonwealth, the

    Pnrcan of 1\Iinerai Resources, the Institute of Anatomy, the Australian Forestry School, the National Tihn1ry ·with its archives and film section, Parliament House with its parliamentary records, the Patent Office, the National Mapping Office, the Royal Military College, and finally the Commonwealth Scientific and Tnc1nstrial Research Organization with its branches dealing with entomology, plant industry, wild life and land resrarch.

    336. Pre-School Centres.-One of the achievements in which Canberra can take most pride is its d(>vl'lopment of pre-school centres, which 45 per cent. of Canberra's children of that age attend.

    337. The centres themselves are places of credit to the administration and the voluntary

    o:·g,mizations connected with them. In addition to centres at Ainslie, Bannister Gardens, Duntroon, F,;irbairn, Monaro-crescent, Narrabundah, O'Connor, Reid, Throsby-crescent, Turner and Yarralumla, there has been a mobile unit to attend certain suburbs without centres and also visit outlying areas of thr Territory.


    :ns. Canberra's lack of ch·ic amenities has been stressed repeatedly in the annual reports of the 1'nh' ie Service Board, which is concerned that Canberra should be made a livable city a:; well as an ;c. -m:ndratiYe centre. Since 1947, it lws been urging the eonstrnetion of such amenities as a club house

    1,·JJprr, people could come ancl meet together as a group, and the development of the Central Park

    'IYitl1 lnnd rotunda and other facilitie;;, so that families could have a park area to frequent in leisurt!

    ];rnm'. It wants to see the establishment in Canberra of those general features of interest which will "nwm·ngr roung people to stay instead of seeking the larger cities, and which will help the family to 1 c·â€¢(l a more satisfying and a richer community life.

    339. The same need has been stressed by the Advisory Council, which i;; charged with the ;·"·'':nn

    ,July. J0SO. for instance, it recommended that community centres Rhould be establish\'d providing for a l:Jrg-r hall with good dance floor and provision for amplified music, a milk-bar and cafeteria, a reading


    room, a well-stocked popular Jibral'y, a billiards r oom table-teuuis tables aud badminton comt, a Ycnw,Lih with tables aml chairo;, a baud rotu nda and a }Womeuade with lawns-amenities of tbe type which 'rouid provide a medium IOi' actiYities and interests sadly needed in Canberra.

    ;)40. Tbe need fu ;_· mor<: halls has been Yoiced b5- many before the Senate· C omnE\. t 0c',

    includillg the ?\-ational Council of ·women and the Capital Territory Branch of tlw Conunoni\en h1t Public Serviee Clerical .Associ

    341. The Chief To>nl P lanner told the that to ovrrcome this la ck of meeting places in the

    suburb» he hact r;nggested that the assembl:y halls t o new schools should serve the c1nal ,1!'

    school by day mlJ public m ee tings when r eqnirPd by night. It would appear, however, that th,:

    education authorities ar e not in fayour of su ch a dual u se. anr1 not all schools are to l1ave the of an as.

    342. On the cultural sid e tl12 lack of facilities hAs been pointed out to the Senate Committee by tltr' Art Club, the Repertory S ociety and the Philharmonic Society, which function at present in the

    Riverside hnts at Barton bc•l1ind the temporary two-gtoried administrative buildings. 'rhese Hiverside huts we1·e erectec1 to house t11e wor lnnen bronght to Canberra for the 1948 construction programme; tlwy are examples of those t empot·nry expedients, all around Canberra, Hected for one purpose, and then used a.-s a stop-gap for another urgent need later. They do serve a wry useful and necessal'y public service now in proviclh1g jmmcdiate accommodation for enltural and public bodies, but they have t1w

    regrettable effect of into the nimho of the fntnre the constrnetion of permanent building.s f or

    those bodies. In cultural ns in more mnndmH' matters Canberra cannot long continue with solutions 1vhieh simply serve "to get by".

    343. 011 the acti-ve Tl'crcat ion al side Canberra has been exceptionally fortunate, and hns be · 11 generou,<;ly pro\'tded with go:)cl fields. The administration has been criticized by tl1e Cleric;:]

    Association how ::vcl', being unstable, and by Mr. l\Iulrooney, Preside11t of the Joe ·d

    National FootLlii Ll'ug'llc', n:,: lachng in appreciation of local needs. Too often, according to J\Ir. :Mnlroom':··, it proYided inq>l'OY cmenb sne ll 11s seding, and shade from trees in a manner contrary to com1ncn sense, ancl too often, ; 1111

    alleged change in tlH' depm.·tmental_ attitude towards local sporting bodies; it was ::-;uggrsted thr department, hith0rto concerned. more with the enco111"1gement a nd development of aU types of spol't. h ,,, now adopted a 1' tough " po!icy in regard to some bodies, particularly the bowling club.s, from which it is on high ainwd at amortizing the original cost of comtruction plus improvement-;.

    with the c1nbs ob1ig'C'C1 to meet their own maintenance costs.

    344. For family groHp;;, the only developed area would appear to he at the Cotter

    reserw•, some J5 miies ont of the city, and this reservr is fast becoming overcrowded in tl1e snnnnr•r months_ The devdopmcnt o f snch a(1ditional areas outside the city a.'l Pine Island, Kambah and Uriarr:L nnd of furthPr 3TC

    345. The Committee feels that the devf'lo pment within the city of Central Park, in particnl;]r. should be a priority, jnstead of indefinitely "under ". Thi:;; area, to which a grrat of

    thought has apparently be{'l1 given without much positive action, should not require very g-rrat treatml'nt to make it immediately usable. and improvements snch M the provision of a bandstand, pond:o.

    children's play areas, horticultural collections and the like could quickly follow.

    346. As tlle Griffin pLm for Can1)elTa takes full Rhape, the whole of the land to the Rontl1 of

    Constitution-avenue shonl r1. ::1s previously advised, become one long- park and g-ard"n ;nr:J rlottrrl 1vith important hnilding-c;. rneonrnrring- com munal activities and bordered hy the central hRsin ann tlw amJa,·i,,m_ In the Yarralnmln >rill he the zoolog-icRl r!'J;erw a nd, adi11eent. to the Commonwralth Sril'nti!J,. nn (l Jndnstrinl R!'sNnch Onranization. the botanical !Yfm1rns. In thr fntnre, there will hr mnrh tn orr·nrw

    th<' family 1mit i11 leisnrl' nnrl Cilnherra shonld then he an interesting a'l wrll 8S 11 ht>a' Jtifn1 r·ih· i•1 which to Ji,·e. Tlw immerliatr nerd is the one that concPrn'l the Committe<' herl.'. Canhl'rrn h"rl' ,­

    nrrcl.s more fR e-iJitiPs for f:Jm ih- Pntr>t'tainmrnt and pnssi,·e r ecreation.

    ::\47 . In this eon n l' xirm. tl1r f;ommitt 0e "·ishes to annreci:Jtion of thP Sll!!Q"Pstion h·

    Jl.. G. Wairrllt for t11" r·rl"h· of ar. wild life zoo. It is reQ'rl'ffohlr tl,o t tl10

    city anthoritil';;; rlir1 not nYnil tlH•mse]vf's of thP "'omlrrf11l onnortunitv for f'>nch A ;r;no lJ,,.

    tll r> offn of 8ir Colin In ]C)2::l. tl:is pnhlir-,niritPrl citi;r;!'n ofl'f'rPillls 11 r!ift to thP r'ommnn''"CJ'+h his co]l rdi0n of livr> fl'< Wf'll his nnir!'lP of Sl>!'rimPns. 'J'hp Tnotitntp of .\ nctnnw

    is fl ,;rf111Pl to thP r:'ommon 1V"a 1th 's ;J('rPnt;:mrr> of tl1 .s o!Tr> r _ Tt ronc;t,.prtn(l +11 hon<:n tl1n cnM.:, .... : lntrr trnn<: fprrPrl to it. Thr lj,·p nnimA l .t:_ howrYP1'. to ;,

    Victoria , and thP ; ; that somP time 1Rt rr f\ nrr <:wrp t the Healesvillr rlistrirt. nPstrm·i 11"'

    m()f;t of the animals. Tf thr Commomrf'a1th now took ?.rti on to con'>truct snch a wild life ;r;oo. it wonlr'l !!O


    a long 1ray lowanl, making good part of the thus of our Australian fauna

    .. s in (lnnger of extinction, and the need for its care unci preservation could well be emphasized in the :,_,: ational Capital.

    One very noticeable shortcoming in Canberra's d<:Nelopment is its lack of a showgronnd. It

    "·onld appear that the selection of a site was complicated by need for firm decisions in respect of the inllnstrial area and the railway question. rrhe :B1 ederal Capital Commission obtained the services of experts from Sydney to advise it on possible sites, and they suggested three possible areas-( 1) between .TerralJomberra Creek and the railway where it approaches Kingston, (2) in Griffin's industrial area to the north, and west of l\Iount Ainslie, and (3) in Majura Valley, near the then proposed Canberra-Bungendore­ .Jervis Bay railway. The sugg·estion was made by the experts that the areas suggested could provide for a showgrouncl, polo gronnd and racecourse. ·with the industrial area and railway questions now solved, and a eonsidentble amount of "heat" surrounding the present temporary racecourse site at .. A.cton, it ·would appear

    to the S

    349. In regard to the shopping centres, the Committee notes the plea put forward by the National Council of \Vomen for the provision of rest rooms near the centres. Whilst noting this, the Committee eommends the provision of the Occasional Centre at Civic.

    350. The retention of adequate park areas is a matter which causes the Committee particular concern. The development of Australian cities has shown that if park areas are not specifically reserved, there is ever a danger of their being filched. \Vhilst Canberra is still a city of many open spaces, most of these open spaces should bt>. reserved for special purposes. This applies particularly to those open spaces within the centre of the city, and the Committee regards it as a matter of grave importance that the specific purpose of PYCr_v piece of vacant land in the centre of the city be thoroughly appreciated by all in charge of development. In a planned city there can be no such thing as haphazard allotment of sites. In regard to the reservation of park areas, it was pointed out to the Committee that Canberra's land policy being under one administration, there is not the danger of park areas being lost as in the cities where many authorities may lw concerned. Nev(•rtheless the Senate Committee is of the opinion that the time has

    now arrived when action sholllrl be taken to ensure that these park areas are reserved in perpetuity.

    :351. The Senate Committee notes that the Public "\Vorks Committee in its report relating to proposed hridges over the Central Lakes, 1'ecommended that "·when the golf links have to be moved, further consideration be given to completing: the Vl est bourne 'Voods location, where considerable expenditure has already been incurred". The Senate Committee inspected this area, and does agree that it would make a golf course. as well it would make a delightful semi-woodland recreation reserv<'. In view of

    the evide11ee given that a great part of the residentia1 expan.sion to the south of Canberra will be around and beyond this very area, the Senate Committee recommends that it not be given over as a golf links but J"Ctilined as a recreational reserve.

    352. Reference has been made to the ·way in which the provision of adequate suburban

    o.Jwpping facilities was long delayed, and the Committee reiterates that forward planning must provide :H1e<;lwtf'1y for suburban requirements. The facilities provided at many of the suburban shopping centres nrc inadequate for the future development of the city, and services similar to those now available at Kingston and Manuka, e.g., cinemas and hotels, &c., should be planned for these areas. In view of the I imite(t suburban services now available, the Committee deplores the decision to permit the construction of

    11 sPemul nt Civic. It appreciates that the construction of flats near Civic will raise the density of

    1hnt arcn. and that another theatre is needed for the north side of the city; it considers, however, that this cini'ma togdher with at least one other should be erected immediately in suburbs which are now situated a+ lrmg from the existing theatres.

    :lG3. rrhc Committee noks the tendency on the part of the citizens of Canberra to rely upon the (!on·r·nment to provide amenities of all types from sporting and cultural facilities to dance halls and other (•e.;; of entNtainment. It also notes that this attitnde does not exist in other cities of Australia where

    1 iti;.cns an r'nconraged to accept a degree of responsibility in eonnexion with the provision of such facilities,

    Thr Committre believes that the absence of a proper degree of eontro1 by the citizens of Canberra through he:d ;rm·n·nment boclif's ani! a legislative council is primarily responsible for this attitude considers '11•· onl:· ru1l ,ointion to\Yards the encouragement of tnw c·h·ie r<:sponsihility is to givr the citi7:ens a def!TCI'

    ol' i'Ontrol with that responsibility.

    r d) Tlu Hole of the National Capital Planning and Dcm,lopment Committee.

    :1:!4. The part pla:·ed h.v the 1\ational Capital P!:::1::ing and Development Committee, in reganl to :i]·i'hitectnra l standards of design and in making recommPnr1ations concerning the general development of Canbern1, had hr:'"'1 referred to often in the preccdin!! pRrts of this report. Its powers and

    f 1mctions were specifically referred to in paragraphs 163 to 167.


    355. The Committee has often been criticize d ll lld h vl d respomible for many of the de \·elopmenb \\ hich ha,·e not received general public approval. Olle ol the main contributing fa e. t Oi'S towarci:s L:ritici:;ul has been the privacy which surrounds its deiiberat io11:;; its meetings ate uot open to the public and the public is never fully informed oi its activities.

    di>f:i. buough has been stated to show that it ha:;, insulticient JHl>Yt:r or status to act as a satisfactory

    guardian of architectural standards or as an dfectin. detc'!'l'Cnt to hasty and ill-eonceiYed departmental action. lt i;; an advisory committee only with no exectttin: authority wlwte1·er; it.s ad,·ice may or may not be accepted and frequently it is not.

    ;li)'i . 'l'lw Advisory Council, which ali vise,; in telation to any matter aftcl:tmg tlH ·

    Territory, has always held open meeting::; and its haYe always been given full publicity. lt

    would appear never to have been completely satisfied e.i th r.:r \l·.ith tlle umstitntion and pon'ers of the ::\ atiouai Capitai Planning and Development Committee, or with the prinwy which sunoumls its worli:.

    ;3;Jtl. In August, 1943, Mr. Daley informed the .Acl 1·i sory Co uncil that at the time when the ()owmittee wus constituted, the American legislation 1·datiug to the i\ational Parks and Planning' Commission (as it was then called) of the City of \Y ashington, prm·ided-( a) It was an offence for any oftic:iai to vroc.:eecl with a public work, in the District qt

    Columbia, which had not been by the Planning Cornmission.

    ( b) It was incumbent upon the head of the Devartwent eoncerlled to r efer for co nsidetation to Congress any case where he did r.ot propo.,.e to adopt substantially the advice or recommendation of the Planning Commissiou and he was required, before approving oi any alternative proposal, to submit tile Com missioll 's report to Congress together witb

    such explanation of the matter as he thought fit. (c) No action could be takeu to give effect to an alternative proposal unless Congress had, by resolution, declared that it was expe:.1ient to adopt such alternative proposal instead o!' thd recommended by the Planning Commission.

    i\59 .. IIir. Daky stated that the Govenmtettt was of this Amcrie:m lcgisbtion \Ybt:JJ it 1\ih

    the appointment of the National Capital Planning aud D 0n 'lopment lmt it did not

    ineorporate the special provisions relating to the auopLon of tiw Commission's report.

    360. The dissatisfaetiou of the .Advisory Council leJ to r ;d.1er all emLarrass in g- :;ituaiion iu 1948 at a meeting arranged between the t'ro committees. The n: inntrs of the Advisory Council show that its !Hembers handed to the Chairman of the Natio11al Ca t•ital Planning an

    a li.':it of t h i t'teeu cpw,;tion;; as a of di:>cnssion. The q uvstiuns \\Ttc: as follo>YS :-(a ) On what subjects has the National Capi ttird for departmental <1ntl millistrri:il

    perusal only? (c) Has the Committee ever attempted a i'eY is ion of the G riffln plim <18 a whole ? ( rl ) Is the composition ancl organi?-ati nn of t hP Committer r rgar<'led as ror <1

    comprehensive ( c) Has tlw Cmn m ittrc: made rc<·ommcndatinns ;· On•· r•rning 1 Lt· n ;n: 1· di'l' :.· t iY t· !ia isr;;l h ' i \':ec n all ho,:ie!' i'\ nd anthoritir·;.; eoncrrnerl with Anstralian Capi t;:l TC' I:i·: tn;-_1 - :tllrl

    D cnlopment ? (f) \Vhat stpps h11ve hrrn ti· I. r· i : .i/:<'1 • "" \'"' '.i"ch


    (r;) Are mt•JJiht' I'S of HlP Tr,\Yil l't>JJ!'"iilt': ' f:t·IJi.,!;:·.i '' i: 11 r· of 1!1" .'<

    Cmnwill<'l''s rr ports to th" :\finisted ( !I ) In ,·ir·\\' of thr• f;wt th:rt n r, f rJJ,. _, ,, \., .. , ,-,· ·", "·-:: j. : t ltt•·ltt1"-·r "i. th•·

    ConHniLtr-1' , tlrws·..tion r·xi.·;i j,, IJJ,·Jnbt ·;·,: ,,:· ; ;; ,. I. ·u ·uwi! p erl l'i ll>c' tiw rPr·ei YPrl hy til l' ,\rh-isory ('r >l ttll' il's r.·r·pn·,.;r•n la1 in· : ( i ) \Vhat is jiJ, . l'<'ln t iopsh ip h,·! r.r't' il dw ( 'Olitlllip, ... ii /1 .! 1!:" l ,, •,·;·.dcparlllli'Jr t n l ( ···t:llll iltt·t·

    fonn r d to rl irl'r·t t hP prelillli llar;· fl r :;-lf/' .i/ilti•,n JlJ,. •·â€¢:! "'' ,j ,.d < ·ai J; ,,.rr;l ·

    (_ii Is tlw (' r,mmiHPt · satisfi,·d . 11 res 11l t ,,f j:, ;•::i,•·":• · . ,,·r: · d ie l'

    is tJJt ' JHf1.;.;t ef'ft•r ·tj,-(. in i11 ;il\\'1\ r:·. ;d 1; · \· :·!:,;nJH·til .'

    r k lfow ft...,J1 l•· ntJ :· thl' Crmrmitt"r meet?

    (!) \Yoult1 nr,t l1 1' 1trr "''"11 11-; ];,. h:: ;: hi l-t.l:: li•i d •·\'1• ],,; ,: ·1'" 1 ;:·;;;,,,.11.,·:

    lm) Dof's t)w C'ntllmittr•t' P\'<'1" illYilkl' srdi<>ll ,,f' · ,, .. r lrdi '"' ·'· " 'X I; :C. It !1 t; ,

    initintr inqtt trtrs nn its own nr.r·o 11 11t.

    initintrr1 m this way ?

    :]61. Tit<· Chaitmatt of 1 hr \" ntiona! Capital P Janninp· <>Jil l fJ , .\-,·lt:)ll Jl•·, :1 ( ·" lll tnii t····· is i'<'p"rted t o li;n·â€¢· " ahsollltPl;.· dPr·l iJw d ·· in di s•· 'h-' rltr·"" '!w·stir' n " '\·i t 1: tl:r .\ ·; ,.-;, , ,._\- ('rn :11ei i.


    362. 'rhe matter is here referred to primarily to record the reply later forwarded by the Capital Planning and Development Committee to the Advisory Council. 'lhat reply, as reported to the Advisory Council on 20th July, 1948, was as follows:-_ The National Capital rlanning and Development Committee has now lmll the opportunity to consider the questions that were presented on behalf of the three elected members of the Advisory Council wl1en that body met the Committee on the Gth IVlay, 1948, and as promised, this reply is forwarded to convey the general views of the Committee, as far as practicable, on the points raised therein.

    In the first place, it appears to the Committee that tlwre i,; some mis"pprehension in the minds of ti1e eJected nwml,ers as to the nature and extent of the responsibilities that the Committee has been required to assume, and the c,;,;cntial ('hamcter of a committee of this kind in relation to the Minister, the Department of the Interior, other

    Departmento and the public of Canberra.

    The Committee understands that the principal reason for itB appomtmellt "a, the de,irubility o! having au entirely i:Hlq:enrlcnt body of experts who would be in a position to give ad> ice to the .\l,mcter for the Intelior on any question• uri,sing in relation to the approved plan of Canberra, and, particularly, any proposals for its variation. The Committee was informed that the general basis of its consideration in this respect was that the main principles of the statutory plan were Lo be preserved, and that any variat,Jons to be entertained ll!U6t relate to detailed liHttiers of convenience and unrl the design of incidental features not infringing the general principles of the accepted plan. The

    Conmittec is, therefore, the official custodian of the integrJty of the plan, and is responsible for giving advice as to

    the protection of ito principles in the developmental proposals that are submitted for the Minister's approval.

    !n ttdrlition, the Committee is expected to give independent technical alivice and crit1cism, from experienced practical and aesthetic points of view, of designs put forward for more important official and private buildings,

    bulldivisious, allotment of park and recreational areas, proposals for zoning, and scheme, for City be,mtification.

    T'he general responsibility for the preparation of de1'elopmental schemes and designs for buildings has been assumed hy the Departments concerned, and the Committee has given its advice in the manner in die'" ted. This has, of course, inc:ludcd achice on town planning principles and policy, and has involved the muking of suggestions calculated to obtain wliat the Committee feels are the best possible results. It has not, however, itself undertaken directly the formulation of sc·hcmcs, as departmental resources in staff and data al·e utilized for this purpose.

    The Departmental responsibility for the preparation of plans and proposals alBo appear to embrace any nece-'"ary collaboration with public bodies in the Territory, and any consultation from the point of view of Canberra eiti:cens, as action in these respects should be concluded before proposals are submitted to the Committee for its

    criticism. It is not deemed to be the general function of the Committee, therefore, to ascertain the views of Canberra citizens a, it presumes that the schemes put before it are the result of collaboration by those concerned. At tlw

    fame time, the Committee has, at times, agreed to hear the Yiews of Canberra bodies, and of individuals, in regard

    to }Woieets in which tl1ey were interested, but this should not, as a rule, he nceessary if proper procedure be observed at another level. It would be impracticable for the Committee to adopt this as a practice as it -would cut across

    departmental functions and lead to confusion.

    Hcference has been made to a "comprehensive review'·" of tl:e "Griilln " plan. \Vhat has been said above will

    indi,·ate that its basic principles have been adopted and legislation enacted to protect them. A reYiew in detail,


    C•JJnmittce was designed to afford to the Minister the knowledge and cxpcrie:H'e necessary for this purpose.

    So far "" the Committee's reports are concerned. it has been indicated that these are principally in criticism of pro)'O'als or eontain advice on questions referred to the Committee hy the ?llini;_,tcr. The question was raised with the }finister as to whether such reports should be made availuhle to the Advieory or other bodies, and the

    Committee was informed by him that its responsibility was to advise the :\Iinistcr, nnd that it was for the Minister to mnkc aYoJilahle the substance of any reports l1e might receive confidentially frnm the Committee.

    In re!!al"cl to the question of the liaison of various departmental br:dies awl ennnnittel's cnl1f'erncd with planning :•nd dcYclopmcnt matte1·s, the Committee takes the view that this is the lTS)lOll'iihili!y of the Depurtments coneerned. At the sn,ml' time it has made suggestions desig,ned to facilitate the emnpil

    aho strnn"'ly snpnorted the view that an adequate teehnieal staff should he a1ailahle in the Department of \Vorks to :1 ''mit nf the satisfactory :md expeditious preparation of the data and }'lans reqnirefl for the programme of deYelopment,

    and particularly for detailed town-planning work.

    The National Capital Planning and Development Committee has no relation to the int<·r-clepartmental committee "-]!:,,h lll''rlc a renort anrl swrgestions to the Government drvclnpment, This Connnittee was set up, as far

    :>·; ihr T'hm>ing Committee is aware, for the pnrnose of considcrin,!! qnccd inns in rclntion to the stalling and accommodation f,r >mltli•· rlPnartments. and the removal of the remaining central arlministrdions from l\Tclhournc, ancl it was not inhTclprJ to he a shnding- committee. It made various re"ommcnrbtions to the Oovernmcnt and endorsed proposals that ]>,,] hf'cn snnnnrtrd hv this Committee for imnroving denartmrntal to enable the rlevclopmental pro,Qramme

    j,, hf' '"'celrrctcrl in all its aspects. including the nrovision of more :>mr•nitirs for the Qrmving popnlation. It proposed thr he hased on tl1e removal of the clenartments mrntimwcl within a pc,-inrl of ten yenrs, anrl tlds was

    ""''''"'-rrl. in nrincinle. by the Government. Consideration of tlw r]P,'clopnwntal hy the Nationnl Capital

    Pl:•!lnin'! nncl Development Committee is, arcording,ly. now lw,crl npon ihis pro,Qramme range.

    D»rir><:' the tPn vcan nf its existence the National Canital T'Jonninr• and Drvelonment Committee. which meets on thP ;l'.('1':lfl'(' n1nnthl:Y. hn.::. !!i,·en advice on many hnndred8 of mn1ii'J':-:. ('lllllpri .. to\'\':1-plnnnin,c:· questions, for

    ln1ilrl;nrrc:: nnd irnnortant or to SlH'l1 Ll1ilrl11E'·;.;, b·entnH•nt of f'xist.inQ' and

    !·c·.·· :ln'n-·. nn·hitC'('tnrnl anrl enrrinf'ering- problen1s, site<::, for nnl:Ji(' plnw;:; of 1nany private building·s

    (\11 nnmrrnn" rp1Pstirrns of polirv in relation to sn0rial ll]lon Sl)(•{'in11v rlf'sin'rl thP

    ('r·m1":1tr(''c:: Tn th0 mrtiority of the Conlmitt

    ii·-..: YiP\\·-.:. lrnt. in m:-PlV it has rais.erl n1attPrs for dPpnrtJJll'nhll 11JJ!l0r ihP of section i

    of tlt<> Xntinna7 ('apitnl /)ae7opment lfi:JS,

    TlH' noint hn' ],celt raised as to whether a full-time "''' ]J,,;j>,- ,J,,J],j not lH· n:>pointrd hut it may he


    rdi''"h', A committee of tlw same stani!ing :H is pm,-;dcd fc,r in tile r,rlt•,;tnnlrl i>nmt"linl<'h- ],,,_, the inrlcprnt!ent character of the ('I•JlPll ;tth•. Tn tl,p ('(lmmitt0P'R oninion. tllf' existirQ :--:llnn1rl adt>rlli:ttc fnr anv inlmf'dfafe


    th(' (lr,!!:lfli7:dion nrnrnn"d "·ithin the ('111/('('1"!1(''1 i." 1<:1. :nul .npp1ie.q. particularly

    t" tltt' a ;1pointmcnt of a wrll-tra ined and experiencerl tnwn-plvnner 1_,, Sll]H'n-i-" illt' ,,,,hn ieal 11 ork ; ::ntll-crL

    The narticnlars !!il-en in this cnnnnnnieation shonH it is ,,.n-r· to "'"1,,, •·lear the position of th(!

    (",,mmittcP. anrl tlw rc,T>onsihilit> for giYin!! any furtlter inform:1lio11 tl1nt nu,,- ),, ,l,,irr•tl 1runlcl nppear to he a matter fnr thr D0pnrtment of the Interior.


    363. 1\Ir. Shakespeare's comment, as a memb101 of the Advi::;ory Council at that time, was: report contains a very good case for the abolition of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee and for the appointment of one authority of suffici'ntly high level to revie\Y all developmental proposals on a full-time basis".

    364. His views previously expressed to the Ad-risory Council on the 16th June, 1948, were-I do not tl1ink that the members of the PJannilcg C{)llllJJittee, I1a1 iug regard to their professional status, are to do themselves justice under the conditions they are requi:·ed to operate on this committee. The committee once a month, ailll the members give a few hours thought to the matters brought Leiore them, and then hasten away to their other everyday functions. That is not the way a citv should lJe plant.ed and I do not think the arranoement

    is a benefit to this city. '


    J\ly view is that there should be a JJireetor of Federal Capital Design, a central authority at world level, who would be the reviewing authority of this plan. That would obviate uelays, ancl you IYoulcl always have on the spot in the

    of Canberra, except to the extent he wanted to travel abroad for ideas, an autlwrity who could give rapid


    365. In the period which elapsed since the above-mentioned letter of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee, three developments have taken place-(1) A Town Planner, the present Chief Tow·n Planner, 1:\Ir. Gibson, was appointed shortly afterwards and placed in charge of a small Town Planning Section. 'l'his section was

    first attached to the Department of but later transferred to the Department of

    the Interior and placed under the control of the Assistant Secretary of Planning and Development. The Department of \VorlV:i contends that the section should never have been transferred a,<; it should logically be linked with architectural design and construction, controlled by the Department of \Yorks. (2) .. Within a short period the Development Committee, referred to above, ceased to function,

    "a fatal mistake" according to Mr. Shakespeare, as it had serv-ed a useful purpose in permitting views to be expressed on matters before they went to the National Capitul Planning and Development Committee. 'rhis Departmental Development Committee would appear to have been set up to direct progress on the 1948 scheme for departmental


    (3) The custom has now been established of the Chairman of the Advisory Council reporting back to the Advisory Council on matters dise\:t:>sed in the National. Capital Planni11g

    member of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee. As is obviou.s from foregoing parts of this report he had always had very definite ideas regarding the functions of the National Capit tl Planning and Development Committee, and at tlw first meeting of that body which he attended, he blandly told its members that of his

    own responsibility l1e intended to report back to the Advisory Council on matters that were not confidential. Subseqlwnt clmirmen lHtve continued to do so.

    366. 'rhe evidence before the Senate Committee, besides indicating, as already stated, that th·.' National Capital Planning and Development Committee has insufficient powe1· to act as a satisfactory guardian of architectural standards, or as an effective deterrent to hasty departmental action, also shows that the committee itself is held in surprisingly poor esteem by its ex-members.

    367. Mr. Harris, an appointed member from the time of the Committee's first meeting on Gtl1 1939, until his resignation on the 18th August, 1954, referred to it as "a feeble reflection of its

    American prototype" and a body which "possessed neither the capacity nor the machinery rerruired for the direction of, or even participation in, formulating· any comprehensi.-e 1-ichemc of dc'Yelopmrnt ''.

    368. Mr. MciJaren, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, and one time C!tairmau uf L .. dvi::wry Council, referred passingly to it, as already lllrntioncd, as th(' peO]Jle 1rho get him ".>iek nncl

    tired of waiting for decisiom ". J.\Ir. Bailey, until recrntly c.r of]ir·io mrmber, a.q Chairman of tl:c "\rhisory Council, referred to its lack of power; with ,,-hat is l;e!ng ,,n!nnitted to it no11·, he sairl, it doc.s not lH'<'rl i.o meet more than once a month; \Vith what should be submitted to it. it definitely should mcrt morr tL ::1 once a month-" it is being- by-passed to a large extent".

    369. Mr. Waterhouse, Chairman of the Committee, stated in evidence that he "stron(!1;: resented " the manner in which the advice of his comm ittre IYW'> sometimes not follmn,rl-" I t l1 ink '"") descn·c more consideration than just to discover that we are fiont1)d in regard to our ''.

    In his ideas as to how this could be overcome, l10wewr, he .!Jlpearrd a little contradictory. In reply to the Senate Committee's Chairman, he stated that he thonghl it would be helpful if the Committee l1ad mo_,e than just an advisory function; if it could have been pro.-irled that the Committee could giw amwoYal an11 the Minister naturally have the right to veto it, he Raid, it would haYe been hettcr. Later, hmn'nr. in to Senator Vincent, he thought that the con.r ,ittre "should remnin an alhisory committee".

    270. A period of membership on the Committee appnrently did' not alter :\Ir. Shnkespe:ne in l1i2 opinion that some change was necessary. as within recent months he 1nowd R'i a member of the Ach-isor:v Connril that- (a) the Seat of Government ( Admini:stration I "\ et hr amrnded to pro,·ide for tl1e ron"ti tn1ion

    of the I\ation:1l Cdp.i tal ()rdinance; (h) 'tv hen an y by· tlH-' :repol'r of the Con11n-ittee;


    and Development Committee vvith the jJowers at present deflued by the is made for the alteration of the approved plan, it must be accompanied and (c) the CommiU2e report om·e a year to the :Parliament.


    371. The Committee has arrived at the following general conclusions in regard to this aspect of "', 1nq mry 1) That Canberra's development has not been worthy of a National Capital. (2) 'l'hat too often considerations of expediency have been }Jermitted to override considerations

    of permanency. ( 3) T lwt the continued deferment of permanent eonstructions led to a mushroom growth of temporary buildings. ( '±) TlJ;,t wo little eon.oideration it; now being given to values, and too little foresight

    18 shovvn in the city's development.

    ) the lS laeking in

    Tb :;t the prssent architectural control exercised by the "building authority" is inacle'luate, and the; oversight of stanclards by tLe ::\Tntional Capital Planning and Development Committee ineffective.

    372. 'r ile Committee is of the opinion that an entirely different arrangement is rec1uired to penuit uf the' pl'O per development of t1Je city,

    373. The Committee wishes to dispel any impression giVen that in thus arriving· at these

    conell:siom; and making its recommendations, it is u-itieal of any individual members of the N ationai Capital Planning and Development Committee. These men are experts who have given of their time and energy iE an hmwrary capacity in a manner whieh \Yarrants the gratitude of every .A wotralian citizen interested in the preserTation of the beaEty of our National Capital. Quietly, without publicity, they have y;orkccl 1939 to make C


    374. A.s explained earlier a distinction must be draiVll bet1veen the original Burley Griffin plan in

    follow the principles and spirit of the original Griffin plan. The Senate Committee is intcr{'stcd, therefore. not only in tl•e manner in which the approved plan has 0('('11 follmved, but also the manner in which the spirit of the Griffin plan has been carried out.


    375. 'l'he variations made to the original Burley Griffin plan fall broadly into four periods­

    ( a) those by Griffin himself ; (b) those between 1920-25, when important variations to the spirit of the Burley Griffin plan were made; ( r) those between 1925-50, when only relatively minor variations were made to the approvcc1

    plan; and

    ( <.Z) those since 1950, which have included Yery important variations to the approved plan and the principles of the Griffin plan.

    (a) Griffin's Variations.

    376. Prior to his retirement in 1920, Burley Griffin himself made minor modifications to plan >Yhilst F'<•deral Capital Director of Design and Constn1ct im1. II is explanation of these variations has been nfen·rr1 to f'ar:ier; it IY«S tl1at his original design was in tl1e natuN' of a skt'tch plan and, in 1rorking ont rldails on the ground, it \Yas inc1·itahle that alteratiom must hl' lllarle from time to time.

    377. In one very important aspect, however, Griffin r1irl not foilo\\· his own pl:m of

    as distinct from his original design. It was in r<'gard to the pronston for :m "initial

    city". To understand this one im1>ortant deviation, it is m•eessary to understand how Griffin c:unc tn pro1·ide for an "initial city" in tlw first placr. It ,,,as tl1e resnlt of l1is eonferenees with tl:e departmental lJUcll"d after his anivnl in Australia in 101:1. .\t that t imr t h<' ': "l''' l"tnwnta I board plan was the areepted


    piau for Canberra, he t thl" :!\Iinistcr request l"d that

    378. In October, 1913, t he departmental bv

    I that it would not m Rke for cc;o uomy tu h'n-e t\ru initi,tl t·i tit'-' I want the city to take adYantage

    of the southern site in the nry best possible m:y h:· the berwli t of the future, and no t the inunediate, village of

    Canlierra . The danger of the initial city at a eerbil: j.l ht c·c fr,u 1 c• .. •n,iderations of immerliatl' connmience is that

    dema nds will be made for furthc1· impro,·cl:lCllts then). aml a e>] •inion " ·ill be crer.ted in favour of continuing th<"

    de\·eJopment on from that centre, a nd eYeryt!1ing on t1 te f ut ure (te\"!•lopment of the city depends will be

    th r01Y n out of its proper place. \i-e lliu.,t do wh at i .,; c·â€¢ cun t r ,.! the gro\\'th of tlJe city, and pre1·ent the creation '' '

    iuterest s il. nd a public opinion .that woul cl \-\'Ork against the o[ our design.*

    :379 . In view of the departmeutal board's stress on the ll,; :•d fm· clerelopment to the sonth of the GriiT1n concentrated deliberately on. development to the h )l' t h; lw constructed bridges to link Commonwealtll­ U\'Cnue with Civic, carried the railway along the CallS .way nu tl OY('l' the l\Iolonglo to Civic (the bridge was

    washed a·w ay in later years in a flood and the li1w aba nc!o;w:l), and commenced the con.stn1etion of roadways around the hexagon at Civic, and around Ainslie. By l:J:20, he had started the city in a way which it would be difiicult to alter. But alterations of principle soon follo-..,'ed.

    (b ) Period 1920-25.

    380. During the period 1920-25, Canberra w:'s w;rler clep2.rtmental administration guided by the Federal Capital Advisory Committee. Whilst the Gu ,cmment stated that the principles of the Burley Griffin plan were to be followed, t he development d nr ilig tlLis period was at variance with important of the Griffin plan.

    381. Jifa.rket Centre.-Perhaps the most imporunt n tr intion ·was in regard to the two focal points of the triangle to the north of the city, tlw one e1t ... ,.,-h ::::h BnJ"!cy Griffin intended to be primarily a

    municipal centre, and the one at the junction of Constirntion- rhich he intended to be the market centre. .At some stage during this period 1920-25 the idea for a market centre was abandoned an<1 a d"ci:>ion mad

    382. Burley Griffin, in his Report Explanatory, illd1ciitcd iti,·; inte11tiow; in regard to these two centrrs. His refer ences to the "Municipal Offices Centre" wc·r . · us follows:-:.\IUXTCIPAL OFFICES CENTHE. The fonner of these points is ns, •igned to the adminiotn• :.i<>n nf urhan Ltf[a ir,, pulJ!ic and where, grouped around the City Hall or Admini,tration Block Hrc the Genend l'ost 0 ;; ,.", Crimir:al and Ci,·il C


    C'ron tig u ous with the :Municipa l Ofnt·ial Cc11tre may, th•.·r:• :., ,. , .. l•c fnnnd the pri;-atl' nince, a n •l finan<"ial i n stitutio n ,, :::; t ol:k and in::;urance exchanges, ft)r tc ri :·-('": H nd the proics -- ions.

    His references to the "";\bmicipal :tllarket Centre " \\"\'re follows:-1U.HKET C: E\Tl:l·:.

    T:Jc iulen,d to the ,;ccond of the mnni <.: ip;rl centre' i . , . to f., r intklinite of both.

    which arc equally accessihk from tlte fru:ii t he (';'1.;; .J. f,..,,, till' rr·-i

    and in<1n.-trinl t'nlntrlJs. JHJinl are tl1v ( ' '!llrnl :-::t;ltii lil ;JIHI tlH· l:ullli f: Prflrlll f'C' :\f

    THE :\lEl\C\C\TIJ. E FOCTS.

    To the Station antl Pr()ciiJr'P CPu: \'. ,::1 n·11r!l"iJ

    in the iargPr ,r-J;;l)('<;Jlc. tt'_"...;, ·t(l! '!' \': i1l1 ·· :,.!'


    a 11(l mannfa('turlng.

    );e attr:!r't(·tl lJrj,·;ttP

    ··. tr;ln .... f,•r ....

    :j•;:l_ 'l'IH! r eports of tllC' l''l·tl !•rnl Capital .\d\·is•l

    J, :ar:-:<"t. !'<'ll t i'\' aholl dO J\f'IL TI H: fi1wl n'port siwpl_\.

    ( 'i \'i<: t<'litl't' and mairr eoiUHH'reilllli i• · : •:uni ''Ill plated by Griffiu.

    , ·.·<!il:,·r· dll i ' o: intiit·:ll•· \Yhy irlea for

    <:, :. .. Tilt' ;:pprq1·â€¢·uglo Hin·r antl the

    ; ... ,., · < rl<- ll\. tit• · rin·r." ln prt·p;n·ing for thr

    ;·, \\i'J j :t-

    ThP CfnHIHi1lrt uf ·,lt•., !.irn1 tfu• .'iit.;;!.: ri:J· tht·

    :1\::-; ;>ro\·irl('rl for the m;,;·Jet l:entre in kcepin:.r witl1 c

    Colllmittee, and leaves no in ference to lJP <1nt\H1 nth c:cntn: at tl1 is arwx of the c:entral trianglr: luh no11 ikeisinn to uhanc1o n thr eity f'Xtr·n,irm has n ;:1

    rlen•lopnwnt of this arc:1.

    ,:. 11 r,lt::r <;t·:ffin',; r>rigillal s\\gg('slirm fur a markl't , ,, . 1: r·IJJ :!pll'l!'l,,- ahandrmccl. It 11lso notes that 1he


    385. Commercial Centres.-Burley Griftin!s idea for commercial activity was that it should border the main arterial routes. His preliminary plan shows such contemplated development with provision for lanes of 30 feet. In his Report Explanatory, he indicated that he expected that a such business necessarily attracted by easy accessibility, will tend to align itself on the most direct of the avenues connecting the foca1

    centres ", and that it could be "assumed to include in some instances not only the wide main thoroughfare frontages, but also, in an elastic limit, the frontages of the first and longest parallel avenue on either side". 386. When, therefore, Griffin planned for conc"utration of municipal activities to the north side, he would appear to have had in mind, (1) municipal o1iiees and administrative chambers at Civic; (2) a municipal market at the other end of Constitution-avenue; and (3) avenues of businesses connecting the two

    387. The F'ederal Capital Advisory Committel' 0onsidered that block development of commercial business activity would preferable to the ribbon derelOpment envisaged by Griffin and that provision of lanes particularly would be an unsightly feature. it, therefore, recommended the concentration of commercial activity at Civic Centre in the present blod;: form of development. It was in this way that Civic Centre started as a hub of business activity to the north instead of bei11g one end of a busy line of activity stretching along Constitution-avenue.

    388. The development of shopping centres to the south of Canberra was similarly different from what Griffin had planned. Griffin had also envisaged business activity in the suburbs as being along the main traffic routes, but the Federal Capital Advisory Co"unittee 0oncentrated such activity at l\1anuka and IGngston, in the shopping block form of development in keeping with that to the north. It also directed, as mentioned before, that the leases provide definite limits to expansion so as to avoid the development of intBrests inimical to the growth of Civic as the main business centre.

    389. \Vhy two such centres were decided upon so close together is a mystery. The minutes of the :B'ederal Capital Advisory Committee show that the decision was made during the absence overseas of Sir .T ohn Sulman and that he, on his return, indicated his definite opposition to the action taken and directed

    that his dissent be recorded. The actual record in the minutes reads as follows:-The Chail·man expressed the opinion that the propoBed East Lake*· shopping centre was on the wrong site. He thought its location a mistake as it was too near the other site at :Man uka. This was contrary to an important principle of town planning, as a mile radius shoulcl be served by one shopp;ng cenh<'. He dPsired that this objection be ,placed on record.

    390. The decision to restrict the development of Kingston and l\Ianuka was obviously due to anxiety not to let it appear that encouragement was being giren to aevelopme11t of a type contrary to the Griffin principles. In this connexion it might be noted that b r iffin had earlier abandoned an idea for an initial city in this neighbourhood. (See paragraphs 376-379.) The confused commercial situation which has followed since the 1920's, however, was not of Griffin's making, nor the result of his plan, but the consequence of the unhappy compromise thus decided upon by the J'l'cderal Capital .Advisory Committee,

    which made lHanuka and more tlwn jnst :mburban shopping· centres, but tried to prevent them becoming main city centres. The commercial product'' of this unhappy "planning" have now outgrown their environment. 391. Provisional Parliament House.-During tl1is period approval was also given for the erection of the present provisional Parliament House in its preseut lo cation, which is immediately in front of Camp Hill, the site set aside by Griffin for the permanent Parliament House.

    392. Wl1en the question of the site of the vrovisional building was being examined by the Parliamentary Public Works Committee in 1923, Burley Griffin himself gave evidence and vigorously opposed the erection of such a provisional building aw_/ the site proposed. He pointed out that the site contemplated was within the area which he had proviJcd for a "reservoir "-as ean be clearly seen from his

    preliminary plan of 1913-and he went on to say tlnt if tile bn ilding were erected on that site it would defeat the possibility of having the permanent Parlian1:'nt J Ionsc erected on Camp Hill. Further reference to this evidence and the effect of the present building upon future planning will be made later in this report. The Committee wishes simply to point out at this stagt• that the erection of the provisional Parliament House on its present site has had a marked effect on tlH· ,;rtrng of the whole of the Government Triangle as Pnvic;aged by Griffin. As his evidence would indicak, it nullified his idea of a long reservoir in the central l\Iall. That it had a further effect on the siting of the h11ilclings in this area was indicated by the fact that the approved plan of 1925 showed a very different lay-o11t for this arNl than that envisaged by Griffin.

    393. In recent years, the placing of the King Georg·e V. Memorial in front of the provisional Parliament House has set a further bar to any futurr realization of the original Griffin concept of the central Mall. 394. Other Variations.-Referenee has already been made to minor variations effected, such as in regard to road deviations as at Manuka Circle. (See Paragraph 253.)

    395. This early period saw the beginnings of Canberra's general development and necessarily decisions made then had important consequences. It was during this period that indnstrial activity was first suggested £or the Causewa5· arPa. The pre;:;ent sitvation in thr f'an"cwa5·-Kingston area lllls already been referred to earlier in this report (Paragraphs 280-295.)

    • Now known as Kingoton shopping centre.


    (c) Period 1925-50.

    396. In the 2<'i-year periud between HJ:2.J, 'Shl:'l\ t:l,. appc •rn·d plan wa;; gazetted. m:d 1Y00. tm·n: were :s Ol'n:s',ons on which .:\otic;·s of ,,·ere In no ,.a c ,;:J the

    variatious inYulYe n1att-crs of ,)l(r>t nf then1 'rcre dnc to

    cvpographieal eonsidcrations or tl1e result of improYed svlwmr·' for snbdiYisional la,Y-Ollt.

    397. Jt is tu Hote that in vic\1· of tb:; 1'; nninlportcnH_·e of s01ne of these Yariati<-:n:--:.

    the Federal Capital Ccn1m iseiion queried the nec:essi l;·· lut f,,[L>\\ ing tlH' ;O;tatutm·y procedure ir: ,., Sjh'l'L of them. An :Jp:nir;n in regan1 to one snd1 minor prup"s·di,l ihe ne\.'cssit,r of c":cry wiuor


    398. On 16th .Tnne, 1926, the Solicitor-GClter

    the Seat of Government i 1924, disclos;. i:: ·i('t;til

    roads so are part of the ·â€¢ lay-out" of the city.

    Sub-seetiol1 (2) of 4 ;tt;thorizes the t•.) 1nodi1\· \·arY the plan: but

    io qu)te cleJlnite tl1at no sucl1 modification or variation shall LP ll:a(L' n::ti.l :30 days after publication of notice of

    intention to modify or vary.

    Any ol' of the scheme of road co•Jllll!!1li<:atiuu "l'"c-ified in the pniJlidled plan is in III,\

    opinion covered by sub-sedio11 (2) and can be made only i·l the n,twner pro1·ided by that sub-section.

    399. It might be noted that in 1935 a further o;>inion was song-ht from the Crown Sulicitor m; to \\·hcther '' tb',' J'Cl!lu-r·a1 fH, of a .-:;treet laterally 7G fePt Y':on1d also a Ya!'latiun. OJ1

    14th Oc:tober, 193;), the Crown Solicitor The sitnation of the street, the alignment of whieh it i; projJUH'•l to alter, j, dWll'll with exactw:c,; on the

    plan of the City of Cnnbena. The contemplated ::trnP:crlmc:'t oi tlrc rlan ,,.,t!ld, in mr opinion, be a

    fron1 the \Vi.thLn suh-seetio1) 4: oi section an;l could on1v properlv lJe n1ade hv rnodifyinrr or

    Yarying the pi

    400. l·-·o fiti'\th'l' since sou.:;i,t the po.;;ition tlJL'l'cforr stnnds h-dar thar any\.·ratiun to tlu· approved plan, in·â€¢·spedive of how minor it may br, mm;t Le shown a nniatioJJ in the manner pro,-idcd for in the Act.

    401. Some of the vaTi:!tion.s made OYer this pcl·ioll, thongh l'\'latiY'.•Iy llllimpql\<1;\t, ri':'t' in1:•!"·,1in;.;. On 20th September, 1!127, for instance, tl1e Minist<'l' bHW nnti:·:, of his intention to elimillnte ho111 the plan the murkiDgs in the Fniwrsity area. The reason !,:in·n wa> that to errd huildin,<;•, in ·;tri"i

    accordance with the diagrammatic layout shmYn on the plan 1wt he jn.•;tificd as it 1vunld IH'

    particularly costly and to no appal'cnt aclvantw,·e. A1so on the plan at that time n,, altrr·:wtin·

    route for the railway-rm ins1 '' nJo(,·n f:lr

    disallowanee in the s,,nate. as an amcndnl.ent, b1.1t had that had been made.

    Tt was P'1int('cl out, hO\Yel·cr, thctt the altnnn1 in· rnntr· '-'"

    402. On 9th April, 1!)29, intended altet·ati:Jiu, '.Ycre '.'dLCir:•d n) :]J· ,., JI,J,.;,; (>!'

    Broughton-street from its former position to 190 feet to tiw srmtl!-' «:-.1. a!lt'l

    to permit the most advantageous location of the p:·op•;>:Pd \'iJ111'1 !1 r;f En::/:!nri u: 1lni:d '>>l•.i 1, w,:l i -.>1 the

    street did not permit of tlw Lr·:;t iln·hitcetnra1 trcatmr·;1t, and the u<·w position ""n"'"'"'tvr\ a,-;,.\:, \'.·unl:i be afforded terminating: in the dome of tlw catlwdr:•l ". Tlw cathedrnl has nut yet been b:1ilt, nvd

    reer·ntly plans were sd:mittcd hy the ChmTh of En·,·hnul ant]Joritie;; in Canh<"rra ht n., c· ,,.,j n; ·i i.;n also on this site oi' an e<:•· 1e;-;iasi lihrary. The St•nate Committee notes with nppronl tll;JI thr· Xu.i.irm:J! CaT1ilal Plannin;; awl Den•lopmPnt Committf'e kept in mind this •·arlier consi;!Pr" ·' fil1;!':•ci

    for the 1ihrmy so that th!' main Yisla \\·ould nr,t he affrctrc1.

    40?.. On !Jth ,h!llP, 1T'l7, the Gazctto.1 of 111t011ti"n tfl \'nrY p ·r;yj,1er1 for the ,;(>11 ,, · iJJ•'

    Derodromr to embr

    n1sfl :JilvisPrl of inh•JJrlecl tr1 p0rwit nf thr h'•ildin:·: r,f the TTi<.d1 8ehn0L ::111 i11r·rr n" • i·â€¢ ; ;.,, i1lll:'i'

    eirr:l0 of Collins Park to pr<>\' id,• hr·tt0r m r•a ns of and for a .<;lwrt strip of nr11· l'iJ.': ' 1 1: ., ".:· 1111•

    Federal Jliglnn1y m:d Y;h;-1n:ul. ThP Ynriatinn in re:;-ar·d in thP pre.c:s as" an mHmthorizrr1 inY2:-:ion of the resPrYed ;tl"·a ". an,! a('r·on1iw' t1' )fr. Th:l• ....

    one of the far·tors leading: to the arpoi;1tnwnt of thr \'ational Capital anr1 n,.,.,.hpni:·nt


    404. Ahnnt thP samr timr that 1\'IJ.S l>•·iw: ,·nir·rd in to 111,, S•·tlll<>l. ;:.;:r

    Clwrlr"' Marr rxpr•·sscd tlw npinion that thr> erP•:tirm of the Pai"nt Ol'fke on its Jll''"l'''l sit" r<.'l'1"•··r••.11(•d a ckparture from the principles of the Griffin pln.n as proyicinn had heen m:1r1c hr Q'owrnmrntal buildings in the Government Triang1P. The drpartmcntal explanatchnir·al that fnll rnns:dcration harl hren gi'.'i"ll to


    il;; placemen t in the Government Triangle , but, as it -. -.·as designed in a way difficult to mcorporate in u scheme for admjnistrative build ings dung lmes indicated by Mr. Griffin, it was deemed advisable to locate jt adjacent to the governmental area, but to give it a sep arate site in view of its unusual


    40 5. 'I'he fin al va:riatioll of this period to wh ieh reference might be made was that gazetted on 7t[J J\farch, 1:140, ·whieh pc·ovidcd for elimination of roads near Hnme Circlr. This variation

    SC'l'YNl to the area l.'P(lnired for the present Christian Brothers' College.

    (d ) Yarialio11s, 19.50 to date.

    -tJG. .\lal'eli, L'5U, there have be:'u teu ;.;e}wtute ocem;ions on wltich notices of Intentiou in Y m·y hHYl' been gil:zetted. Tile main n;ri ations innJl\·ecl, 11 1JI1 tile dntes on which notices of intentio n \\"f'l'r pn blishccl in t l-!e Gc.z rJl'e, a'!."e ns _foll or;s :- --

    ( 1 i 2Jd )Jarch, l f!.'iO

    (2) Lt Febnmry, 1951

    (3) 2nd August, 1951

    (4) 17th July, 1952

    (.)) 11 t h Se;;temher, 1952

    (!J) 5t1J March, I953

    (7 ) llth .June, Hlii3

    ( S) Lith October, l !!53 (ili l9tll August, l\J 54

    (I 0) 4th August, 1955

    Yn riation.

    E J.1nl]JJ.atjo.u oi }JfOl -'osed 1H.Jrt1Jt: l'11 t->x t.evB ioJi of J·ailn-HJ'· HJ.i nJ jnation of Fast L ake. Ten1porary dci·cloiHneut uf Xt-l.r r nhtnH.lah al'ea.


    X e\V r oads ns llrst Btep in area.

    E 1i n:tl n.a tion of l'oad I-ink i:ag Lonsda.le+treet l\·ith C'jt.y business area. St;bdivision for City Lnsi!less lniiJclingt) and a djacent a r eas.

    Reducti on of 3l :

    Hnad lay -out ill 11o1onglo !.::Hlustr in-1 atea. }{cc;,d between 1\'.i ngst on shops. City road, a .:1d redlwtio,'7 oi London-ci rcu it fmm 200 fei't t o lO() feet.

    Inclusioa of Hoyn.l Jlilib:;.y College milibry roads. Symonston farmlcts. of \VeEt Lake .

    Acloption of :';arr::tbnc:c:ah prefabricat ed area road lay-out. Uecluctiou cJ fron1 200 fcl!t to 100 feet.

    Amended ;·cacl Jay out, '.re., t ern portion of 11ew suburb of Duntroon. ],a::e at rear of ne11' o!l Gkiug aucl professional ehmnbers, Kingston. Sew s uiJclidsionai lay-ou tA in J_,?neham, Deakin, a nd the eastern portion of new

    suburb of Duutroon.

    107 . Railway.---'fhe decision of l\farch, li-JGU , to c::miaute the proposed extension of the railway to r.i;e n o<-tlJ of the city wa.s n pE.:rticuiarJ.r important dcubt and uucertainty r elatiYe to the railway had Lu,:: crd l)lmming ae1ti d rYe] opnwd to H:e n orth of t he (oily for years. It wa.s a decision long overduf' . '_ i.;i te o.u;_el .:!J expl;.inatioY t t;\,rhi.Gh l\·it.b the _p nperx t·?! .. :: .. t\ 1Y L the SeiLate ''" a8 as follo,vs :-

    ·-·n:.: n.C

    iL r· :.•.:n-th of th':: tt:e .. J:d Ye r t he nty n.11

    ··:: ::i':a,\' to j i t1;nt n1 od.en1 c·oiJdH_i(ms there is now no need ior the provision of this

    ;·:ti_ :''- ; t J .1e cit.,h tlle 1·eservation :t'u r n-JJil:.lJ ];as .Nll,·eJ·,:A)ly afl'eeted development of adjoinhlg

    J t t11n cnn be :fnr t1H' railway t ern1inal t o be Joeatecl on the

    of t!JL' (:iL y tlw c :·cnt of Jt being c-.·l


    f to pl'Ci\·ide a e1n'!l1ex io n between a future

    r a ii \V tlV L Le frr;ln tUt{l t.iu.} line front Qucanbev,u,, 'l \\·onhl be little difficulty in finding a route that

    \\·o ·,dtl t>:·(;:-.:;.) nf ci.ty the Jnnd flj sturhance and danger

    frn i rl Je ·.-t'l l)l' ineu;, L.' t n1 l e::qwdients to proY]d :..• tntfflc cross11lgs.

    -iOH . Th e Committee (:nti.U"'"' ··· !lit' LU clJ·, and as indicated earlier in paragr11ph 293,

    1:; tbat n

    tiw !H·r.,·;( •llt ra1hvay t t> rminai f1·o m th>. llnmc Circic :: rca .

    The Y

    ;1r- e:1 to dw :'od

    1t c [' C'a nlwrr•;, :md th e :iiJ :•iltionment of Griffin's idea o£ an industrial area :u LUL'iit of r;,, , city Lidc·u1:. It it ::.-; ;t :,.: ; pluns to be made for the residcntinl

    dc..,: t··!(, ;·:n1 ('; -; i iLc i : f '( _ ' f". of :.Jc;Tnii .. for tJJr JJe\Y of

    1<> k- d\'\·O: oprcl in tiH• vic1nit,,- of thr Memm·ial arc muong the vnriatioJJS

    } i;'.i'P(l. f·\ lJOYC.

    -i- 10. l,i!kts fi' ll ll g:.::: .. :); the

    ['d t-U'.

    y;i J'.\; .( J () ! ' elllllinatioH or Ecl St in 1950 11cld

    ·w'''' as follows:--

    (1, ( ' i i ,\' i,:r-;;,u;r:· ;,1, ,. o lu.i·· i 11 !1 " 1. L:hl La k (•. tf1 e l an.!t':--1, o r' d&ain of Ol'h tll!le ntal


    , 1·:•' · · · - : Jt -

    1Htal in the <.'l'!'!L!'t'

    l \ 11• a\\·.1 i. k .., '' ' ! ! .:d· (,' '- ',IJ\d-! ) ; !:1 \ : P :Hl l'Cj tlid P f f{: J' tl:e (· it,Y, al1d tllat it

    !:> t;i ,: ;ll'\, , : .- :uti il.;:· \L ,_· .... t .. \·'l;· \', io:. ii i t lli :HculL in }.;l'()Yitle :ul eq 11ute Wolt l' r

    ;.i,t;n .- ·, ( t: ·· :\,,. -, .... ;.Plld td ll n inatP a lrt ?',!..' l' 11 f t !Jt · c1ai ry fal'llls upon ''·hieh Cautcrra'::::

    ·, ·,·, • ·â€¢ ,·' ' . ' - . ) 1 • . ) . 1 ·n"' '·.,. ; ; ;1 .. 1nl1y !1 c...:. l:' ·:dr;,' , •. ,f,ti ; H]l_ . j , ,J' ;.'<'1' u: :) ·: Expert opinion

    tl-·· .-.f i

    1 rl :tff(';·t th•' Lrantif1 r·n fion nf the citr and tJH·

    (l'\_tt!;!('nt ,:f

    .: L11 nn_: .. do ;.dJu\e Bn.:.:.)q i lll'::!i:-; 1n Ilanntlrl.\'. ·fn ,m '' poiri't of Yi0\\',

    .:; 1. opinion i·: ;;rnl'rally in \' ·i 1h ,•limination oi Ea:-;t L ;1ke. it is, ho,reYPr.

    '"<' 7'.'" <1i,·idrd !ndr•c- r1 nn tilt· r: e :i:,:· bi!l!T •. ,f· t);{' <' limi u::t ion •1f \Ye,t Lake. as gazetted in .Tnne,

    ( · 11,,,;,/,,··:hl .. erib·; ·,.m 1;· :: ··rl tlu· ri •·ci.sinn to e1in; in:!tr \\'est T1f:ke. and !he Pnhli<' C'nmlliitte••

    ill ;1 : l.,.,. ,.,,t in\·c· . .;; Ji!tfltin ·, l in !n 11 :,, C'rnl ;llJOll -.\-,• :lltli H: id:!·l' "lll''ition l'I'PO lllnlP!Hlr•rl that jj· h i' rPinstlltPrl n11 tl: t· ( ';: J:Lr r r ;: pl;n1.


    412. The Senate Committee cloe:s not 1n:;l1 t•> ri;c ctvlion wl:ivll 1,,,. ,.:iu!JlLttiutt ,.r

    this part of the lake.s scheme from the approved p :u. : c;,·Lc'?.Ke '· Pnh'ie -\Yu:-1c·,

    Committee in this respect. From the eYidence hcfrn e r'''' ::_:em:-t C ''"'"';. ,, ,, ,,,. ,l " .•ni rL:q

    public opinion is rather equally divided on the ot' •' c :., • n 1 :1e nw llnnd

    there are those ,,·ho feel that an observance of n 1<1n iu il,j,, res;<" 1., tl· ': ,. 1ul on tl"·

    othet hand there ar<} those 1rho feel that the e1iminHt1r'11 nf >:Le -r:o:-! ; j 10 ,: .1• of

    •.n:te1· 2spect, and permit of utilization of the area fer nth::r pw·po.':es.

    413. The main impression gained by the Senate CommittL<' >n;s that far too litre real innsti!:!:o.tion has been made of the issues involved in the Lakes schh'W. 'H'\1 th:1t ho much still to

    C'Xist. It noted that there had been no investigation eonductcd bdw,'cn tlle time of the Peal'e O>Yen Report of 1928 and the \Vilson Report of 1958, upon which the Pnblic \Yorks Committee placed particular and upon wl1ich it based its conclusions. The Senate CoElmittee's own feeling, expressed 1yith" some I'{'luctance in view of the Public Works Committee's findings. i", that immfncient official recognition ancl endorsement has been given to the Wilson Report to h a satisfactory basis upon Y>hieh to make a

    determination upon such a vital matter. The Lakes scheme is the most important single aspeet of the Griffin plan, and there cannot be room for differences of opinion on engineeTing and mechanical asnects of the scheme, such as still appear to persist. "

    414. The Senate Committee therefore recommends that at the earliest possible opportunity the Government should commission a panel of engineering experts to g·o fully into, and report nnm1, all aspects of the Central Lakes and West Lake proposals. Definite decisions in r<'gan1 to the hai·e been delaying the implementation of the Griffin plan, and endangering: futPre drYflopment. Canberra hns c·ome to the stage where the implementation of the Lakes scheme, be it on a modified fe:;le ,,.. 1:0t c:·w1o'. mneh Jong·cr

    postponed, and all the necessary vital inquiries shouJd hr conducted now. The \Vilson Report. to which so much importance is attached, should be definitely affirn1Pd or rejected, and the resultant necessary nction takrn in regnrd to the Lakes scheme. 415. Narrabundah Prefabricated Area.-In the Cw.ette notiee of :23rd 1I?rclL 1'lii0, co:il:lini>Jf"' thr' two important variations in regard to the City railw2;· <'nr1 li:ast Tjake, then' a1c.o :'.Jlpv:'.'''.•c1 :1 ,.c,1 t-jycJy minor variation, consequent up011 which provision was 1:1 v1c' for "rlre tcm pora ry 11cv,'lopnl<'ni of s11.1Jrl i \·isional str·eets for the purpose of a workm€n's housing area 0f pref:ibTicatr'1 chn,llings ".

    416. Reference has already been made in this r 'Ylrt to this ''ref;Jbricatecl area, which 1\ns as a means of housing workmen needed for the carni1g out of the 194S programme for :H1ministrntiw transfers. The programme has failed, and the workmr11 haYe scattered and drifted awn.'·· or in other employment, but the houses still remain and will cnnthne to remain, just as the earlier Commission

    homes have remained in the Westlake and Causeway areas. 417. This earlier Ga,zette notice of 23rcl Marc'!, 1060, related to ''the temporary r1rn:elopnwni of subdivisional streets". The Gazette notice of 15th Octohrl', 1953, however, provided for "tl1r ncloption of the existing road layout, Narrabundah "· And thus it i:-; BS thr Pnblic Works Committee stnt<'rt in ih rr'norf

    on Commonwealth-avenue Bridge, "that important infho>1v•rs cnn g-row from tempornry exper]i,·nts adnptrc1 in the early stages of plan formation". 418. The Senate Committee strongly opposes the ]Wrman€nt ndoption of the Jnyont of 1l1i:.;

    Pstablishment of a Senate Standing Committee to saf1•n":vrl thr Canbrrra plan nnd stnnrlar1b. 419. Redtwtion in Width of Main .A.vennes.-Thr Sc·natc Committee is also opposr·rl1n y·:rintinns of w}Jieh notice of intention was given in the Gazette.s of 17th -Tnh·. Hl52. nnc1 J0th 1'1>4. rt·l:Jiin· in the reduction of Majura-avenue, Jerrabomberra-ai'ennr· nn·.l nr1rtion of '\Jacnrthnr-nn:'nne from ::on fed to 100 feet.

    420. It has been stated that many of the 200-ft. Rwnnps are ornament!!l in pnrpos,·. r;l1h<·r tl1an intended as main thoroughfares, and that, particularl:· ·slwrr mRnY conYcrge at jnndi

    Rrna.te Committee is strongly opposed to any rednctions in the wirHhs of main nynmrs nnrl tlJ<,rn11'! 11f:Jrc•s :Is it belif'ves these widths are in keeping" with the garrlr11 eitY i

    it considf'rs the amount of Jnnd srrv ·r1 to lw nnnll compared to tlw loss''' \·idn ,fl•'r't anrl

    of brauty, apart altogether from the very important ntilitnrian consirler2tinns of tl1e ros<;i1ll<· 1r:lf'fil' nN'rls of thP City generations hence. 421. City Hill.-The Srnate Committee is of rniV' 1 in rqtard to thr ,-:Jri·Jtir,ns ll''tif!,,,; i1J

    the Gazette of 5th March, 19.78, relative to City Bill. T1' t:·e first nlar·r. it frr>l.'- thnt a1F· nr·t ir'IJ r];,.,,,.j,.,l tovmrnts of the Griffin \Jl:m j, tr, k '1''1>hn.'r,1 d d Th b h f t ] 'ttl 1 · 1 ] t]11"11 j,. 1 'n::: <>1tn'!Ptl"r. Tn th· an Pnronragt> . ere as e<:>n ar oo 1 f'··'"'-' 'l::r, , i'1nYarr , :· " -placl'. it is not in agreement with some of thl' ac>t:rm proposed.


    Provision is made by one variation for an inner circle around City Hill. The Committee noteE

    tl,at this is really a reinstatement of the Burley Griffin provision for such an inner circle. Although Griffin made provision for this circle in his preliminary plan, and his final design before relinquishing his post as Federal Director of: Design, it did not appear in the gazetted plan of 1925.

    1 !2:3. 'l'he Senate Committee is not in agreement with the second variation made in regard to this area - -thr reduction of London Circuit from 200 feet to lOU fed, not only for the same reasons for which it uppc';cs tlw reduction of .J err a bomberra, Macarthur a· :d niajnra avenues, but also for the further reason

    that its reduction could be part of a scheme aimed at u]timate provision of shopping facilities on the inner part of this circuit. The Senate Committee does not believe that any portion of this inner circuit should be given over to shopping centres, but should be reserved specifically for civic administrative and cultural pnrposes.

    42'1. To1wist 'l'erminal.-The variation of 1st Fl brpary, 1951, providing a suitable site to the east of City Hill, near Ainslie-avenue, for a tourist termimil, i8 warmly commended by the Senate Committee. Hefu·en(•e to the better development of tourist opporLmities will be made in a subsequent portion of this report (paragraphs 496-505), but it is desired to affirm here that a more suitably sited and more

    adequate Tourist Bureau is very much needed. The proposal of 1951 envisaged more than just a better 'l' Burean. It envisaged a terminal for the airways, coaches and tourist cars, with adequate provi::;ion for rest rooms, toilets, luggage facilities, souvenirs, restaurant, writing materials and the like. 'rhe site provided has the advantage of being near the main trA.nsport route:> and tlw commercial area, as well as having parking facilities and avoiding the main areas of traffic congestion.

    425. Nearly five years have elapsed since the variation was made, and a start has yet to be made on the b11ildings envisaged. This is in keeping, however, with the general failure of developmental plans. It is to be hoped that when the situation is remedied Canberra will, indeed, have a tourist terminal worthy of the national capital.

    42fl. LonRdale-street.-The variation gazetted on 2nd .August, 1951, eliminating the road link from Lonsdale-street to the City business area is also endorsed by the Senate Committee. It makes for better traffic and the enelosure of a mirror area as a separate precinct. For reasons


    427. Other Variations.-The othrr variations LsL d, whilst inti'resting, are of a minor nature. The closnre of part of Ducane-street at Manuka, for instance, was desirable to clintinate a traffic hazard in that aTc8 ; cxperirm<:e showed that the road was unnecessary, and its closure had the further effect of giving greater scope for development in the sections. The new road and lane at Kingston.

    gazetted on 11th September, 1952, and 19th August. 1954, make possible the further development of H:e Kin.!!ston husiness area, as already referred to. Finally, it might be noted that the variation providing for the Symonston £armlets is in kf'eping with Griffin's idras. In his earliest reports he reff'rred to projected agricultural development in this area.

    '128. Although apparently minor in themselve», several of the variations listed have an important bearing on the Royal Military College, Duntroon, to which reference is made later in this report (paragraphs 519-532). For years the College has been seeking security of tenure, and the variations effected in March, 1953, relative to the College area, could be considered as an endorsement of its position, The variations for the lay-out of the new suburb of Duntroon, as gazetted on 19th .August, 1954, and 4th August, 1955, are also interesting in view of evidence later discussed relative to the requirements of the College of land for manamvre purposes.


    429. Little has been done to develop the mai:l features of the Griffin plan.

    430. 7'he city lws grown, but its main featurc•s are wide open spaces that serve to puzzle tourists and nni11 fonned residents alike. City Hill, Capital Hill, the Government Triangle, and the lakes arra:; are :-:till gras"y strBtches, while the Molonglo Rivel' still winds its way along its shallow bed. After 10 :vn!T': of t·it)' ckvelopment, the important pla'mrrl areas stand Ollt, not as monumental regions

    the character of a national capital, but m0r0 as gTaveyards where dc•parted spirits await a

    r 'mJTec:tion of national pride.

    \Vkrt the Srnatc Committre finds most regrettnble is thnt so little thought has been given,

    H'·H1 i·: , to the' 'say in which thr>se er<•:1 ': will hr, developed wh:n the tirne is ripe. The

    ,.;t,·' ac1miuistrntion seems to have been taken up Joo much with hancl-to-mo'.·th cxistence to wony nnch·,)y abr•11t the fnt11re of these areas. ·until 1950, forward planning was practicaJly non-existent, and sin:·e then it "·onld appear to havP been limited by the caparity of the Town Pl:1nning Seetion to function effcetively under administrative arrang,'ments, nndrr which it would appear almost impossible for final decisions to be made.

    Civic Centre and City Hill. The Brisbane and New crt stle buildings can be seen under construction to tlle middle left. Reid House. the Olympic Swimming- Pool under construction. Mnlwala House and the Roman Catholic Presbytery can be seen in the backg-round.

    Torrens Street. Braddon. with its pin-oaks. Portion of Parliament Honse may be seen in the di.'>tanee. I ,,,,., ,,, ,_,, , :., l


    (a) City Hill.

    432. Reference has already been made to Cit:· Hill, to comnwrcial development around Civic, and the variations made in the approved plan. It coc1ld justifiably be expected, the Senate Committee felt, that in this area of proposed municipal actiYity, there would be some certainty regarding the shape of things to come. \Vhen eviMnce >-ras taken. howewr, there was found to be no certainty whatever. At various odd times s;ncr its constitlltion in 1938, the National Capital Planning and Development Committee had given consideration to Hill. mainly at the instigation of Mr. Harris, but nt>ver with any semblance of 1war finality.

    433. The Senate Committee notes with approYal that the Chief Town Planner, I\Ir. Gibson, in 1951, a few years after his appointment, pn:>sentt·d for the consideration of the National Capital Planning and Developlllt>nt Committee a snggested plan for the overall development of this area. 'l'he Assistant Secretary (Planning and Development) of the Department of the Interior, informed the

    Senate Committee, however, that no decision had been m:tde in regard to the development of the City Hill area, and that he was nnable to say what hni1<1ings would go on it.

    434. Thf' Department of the Interior >vovld appear to lw immediately cone·c-rned >vith the provision of suitable sites for civic offices. In the opinion of the Senate Committee they should have been placed on this area years ago. In the present nebulous state of forward planning, however, there is no knowing whether they will be within the City Hill area or somewhere along l\'orthbonrne-avenue. Continued

    delay will doubtless see the situation resolved by the provision of some site unrelated to any overall plan for the area, for the simple reason that there is no approved overall plan. It is long past the

    time when this sort of situation in a rapidly expanding planned city should have been rectified.

    (b) GovPrnrnent Triangle.

    435. A ,;imilar position exists in regard to the Government triangle. The one permanent building on this area is only now under construc:tion, and, 3s previously indicated, it will provide office accommodation for but a portion of staffs yet to be neeommodated in Canberra. The evidence riven before the Senate Committee, however, clearly indientes that relative}y little considt>ration has been

    given to the further buildings which must be constructed within a few years if further resort to

    temporary expedients is to he avoided.

    436. The present provisional Parliament Holl!'e and the King George V. Memorial have marred the plan for the Government Triangle put forward by Griffin, and administrations sincf' Parliamrnt was transfrrred to Canberra seem to hav+'. avoided the area for fear of making mistakes. Notwithstanding the explanation given of the Patent Offier sitr, tht> Committee feels it could well have been

    placed in the Government Triangle, but it the reluctance of administrative officials to

    site it there in the abst>nce of an approved over a 11 pl:m of the area. The same reluctance will continue until there is such a plan.

    437. Griffin's sketch plan of the area provided for a eentral terrace court with ornanwntal pool and fountain, with departmental buildings along the sidt>s. In his Report he referred

    to the area as follows :-The ensemble presents excellent opportunity for cnmulath·e massing. The central terrace court of the Government Group 35 feet above the lowest terrace, from which it is separated by the along the waterway frontage, but to which Recess is given by ramps at ends and flights of steps between

    the struQtureR. The court terrace, however, is carried on the roof of a central building of the waterway embankment, which projects into the Basin, crowned toward the water by an open colonnade, surmounting a slight bank of steps to afford an open forum, beneath which the structure gen·es as a launch entrance or "Water·gate ".

    438. In 1928, preliminary consideration was ginn to the area by the Civic Design Committt>e, and the plans submitted at that time are apparently still subject to consideration. The subject was again raised in 1944 in the National Capital Planning and Dewlopment Committee, and two further sketch studies prepared. In 1954, the National Capital and Development Committee considered a sketch layout submitted by the Chief Town Planner, b11t still no r1Pcision has been made in respect of it or the

    earlier plans. The situation to-day is that there are "C\"Pral suggested plans of the area, but no finality whatever.

    439. When asked by the Senate Committee win- nothing had really been done in relation to the Government Triangle, Mr. Waterhouse, Chairman of the Xational Capital Planning anrl Development Committee, replied that no plan has ever been endorsN( l1:: tlle Gm'ernmmt as to the ultimate layout. He went on to say thRt, "Before an effective plan conlr1 hP dc,'is-ed, it would be necessary to haYe some

    intimation from the Government as to the bnilning-:o thnt tlH'Y think might occupy that area".

    440. It would appear to the Senate CommitteP that thrrt> is far too much wandering around in circlrs in the planning field, and to relieve this a sh,nlrl hP estahliRhed with power to take the necessar:v initiative and actually make decisions.


    (c) Capital Hill.

    441. Since the Public Works Committee inquiry of 1928, in relation to the erection of the proYisional Parliament House, there seems to haYe been very little thought in regard to Capital Hill.

    442. Burley Griffin's plan for this area provici:·d for a" Capitol'' on the summit, with residences for the Governor-General on the one side, and the Prime .\linist ron the other. Parliament House was to be on a lo·wer level at the head of the Government Triangle ()ll the site known as "Camp Hill", in dired line with thl' axis running from the " Capitol'' to the summit of :1fount Ainslie.

    448. No development has taken place in regard to this area, except for the provision of temporary workmen's quarters and the laying of the foundation of the Commencement Column in 1913, and it R !))Wars in the centre of Canberra as a huge vacuum.

    H4. The Senate Committee is interested in tlm'c· <1spects of this area, namely­ (1) Future plans for the main buildings on nnd near the summit, (2) :Buildings around the perimeter, and (3) Immediate temporary treatment.

    445. In regard to future plans for the main buildings on the hill, the Senate Committee feels that the time has come when the Burley Griffin plan for this area shrmld be reviewed. It feels that the permanent Parliament House should not be constructed on Camp HiH ·where Griffin intended, but on Capital Hill on the site allotted to the "Capitol". It notes from the ori;0:inal report submitted by Griffin with his plan for the city that Griffin himself had considered such an alternative," and even stated that it might be preferable. His own preference, for the "Capitol" on top of the hill, was primarily due to the fact that he considered the Parliament House needed to accommodate two Housrs would not lend itself' easily to the architectural tl'{•ntrnent required for the site.

    446. Much can be said on this subject, which cnme under very interesting discussion when the plans for the construction and siting of the provisional Pa1·Jiament House were being examined in 1923. Opinion at that time was fairly evenly divided on the subject, bnt the Senate Committee :finds support for its attitude in the opinion of the late Right Honorable William Morris Hughes, ·who stated-

    The building en Capital Hill, whatever it he, will the l;n:<1.scane nn,l ht• the mo't prorninent >Hchitectural

    feature in the lay-out of the city. Having rc;rard to the architectnral fc:1tnres of Rome. Athens, Washinl"ton, and all the other grf'at capital cities of the world, the mo;'t importnnt lmil

    '< i!B . · Thei·efore the dominating site nt Canherra cllnnlrl be nWized for Parliament Home.

    \Vith these sentiments the Senate Committee agrees. It is to be noted, moreover, that the existence of the present provisional Parliament House. which has mnned the vista from Camp Hill, is itself a srrious objection to the placing of the permanent building on the orig-inal site.

    447. That there are some physical asgociated with the construction of a large Parliament House on Capital Hill is obvious. Much of the earlier criticism of such a proposal was based on the amount of levelling of' the summit which would be required. Difficulties of this nature would now appear less important, however, with modern earth-moving ef]uipmrnt available. The Senate Committee is

    therefore of opinion that Griffin's nebulous plan for a "Pantheon " should be discarded, and plans prt>pared with Parliament House as the dominant featnrr of Capital Hill.

    448. The opinion givrn by Dr. Langer the Committee's view. After studying the aspect

    from_the top of Capital Hill, he said, "I measured in PTcoes the appearance of the AustraJian and American War Memorials in order to get the reciprocal height nnrl bulk of the proposed Parliament House which would be required at the end of the axis. I came to the ennelnsion that a tall, wide and impressive building is nt>ri!ei! to fulfil the function of a focal point at the end of the long vista".

    449. ·until a definite decision is made in regard to the building on the summit, no precise plans can be prepared for the overall treatment to be given to Ca11ital Hill, nor in respect of many of the adjoining vacant spaces, particularly around the perimeter of tlw hill. The Committee feels that the question of the buildings around the perimeter particularly shon1r1 not hr indefinitely left in abeyance. but should be integrated into a master plan for the future devrloprnent of Canberra at the earliest possible opportunity. Assuredly provision must be left for unforesera blr con tin Q'rnrirs of the distant fnture, hut this provision i.tsrlf should be part of such a master plan.

    450. Pending development of the area, the Committer recommends tree planting and landscape treatment to give the hill a more attractive appearfince.

    (d) The Main V1:stas.

    451. Mr. Harrison, a member of the ComrnittPr a pnointerl the Australian Planning Institute to submit a sprcia 1 report to the Senate Committre e A pprmlix .n criticAl of the lack of attention

    ziven to Griffin's main vistas. Peoplr coming to Canhrrra. lw said, •lo 11ot hPrrmw awarP of what th,, is really about in terms of to\vn-planning and lands('apin!!. ft shonld hr possible to stand on Capital Hill. in the rrntre of rarliating ("' on thr top of :rrmnt Ainslie. at tl1r othrr enil of the main axis,


    or on City Hill, and feel that one is 011 a .spot of sullt l' im;_)uJ·t;mn•. undeveloped, difficult of, particularly Mount Ainslie, aud the• marrrd in some manner.

    .\li Df theM· places, lwwerer, are 1·ista rie1vs are all obstructed or

    -i ;'J:!. "One of the cleverest things Griffin did ,., sin lLtnison in his criden ce, " was to develop ;; .-; v\ic·mc 1rhich does not depend for its realizatio11 <' ,• ; 11\. of grand buildings. It does not


    expr ess themselves Griffin's scheme depends uu architecture as a setting for the public

    buildings lil\:e jewels in the landscape. It is not an architectural composition bnt a landscape composition''.

    'l'l;e Senate Committ::e wjth Mr. t!ht IYith r elatiw.\y little exJ.wnditure, the

    beauty and nttl·activeness of the vistas conld be ll1:tL1t• !!!! c h mure ([ j,-;<.'e rnible from tLe main points, and it f t·eis t11at t1w little effort and m oney invo1 ved would be :m1:1ly ttl' aid by the greder ap]n-eciation of tltt• funannwnta i principie;; of t} le ci ty's plan whith WOU] cl he g-<1 bY Cm , lkn· ;:'/s c!t}zem

    454. Dt'. Langer, in his eY iden ce, was concerned \r itl 1 t he arehitectnral treatment of the vistas. and suggested that instead of efforts being diffused in an attempt to [':iYe n:·chitr ctnral emphasis to all three vistas ranging nortlnrarcls from Capital Hili, Dtfl'lltion s ho ''· !cl be' dir?ctec1 primarily to the proper treatment of the central axi\>, r unning thnmgh the C\-oYFl':lllH'llt Triangl{,' anc1 the centre of the ornamental

    lak(•s to 1\fonnt ii.inslie. 'r he Senate Committee agrees thnt t h i'; is tl:r· ?xis to wh1 eh most nttcntion should be direct ed, and feels that it could be made more effective imm edintrly br i'. mwc: ch,tinctivr lilndscape t reatment of the },_nzac Park area; [t r ecommends thnt in the forthcoming of tlle ncv.: subnrb

    of Dnntroon to :its east , this area receive atten t ion, as t he present treatm en t doe-.:; little justice to main vista. The Committee also feels that care should be taken in the devi']opment of the ad.i'lcent suburban aren to ensme that the r esidences fronting: Anzac P Ar!: should nlso be v

    455. The Senate Committee has noted tltat the Yi sta from City ITill ?< 1cng Crmstitntion-avennc ha.s a n:.a:ior· defect in that there is n o dominant builcling· or physicd fcatnre to close the aYenue.

    The King's-avenue-Constitution-avenue junction was tllC " ·eak point C'f Griffhl's celltrnl triangle and his eit y pliln. Grifiln took Capital Hill ;mel C.idc Hill t'.\'0 foc <:i poiutc.; nf h i-: ee Dt rnl tl·iangie. auc1 the CaDita1 Hill-Mcnmt Ainslie axis as the biseeting- line. The jnnction of Constitution­

    aveune was based on the com p .l otion of thD triangle, nnd not on any outstanding· p!1 .rsical £c;1t ure. The fact that it is a hollow h as served to render diffieul t its <'deqnate treaJmcnt. The siting of the

    Anstralian-American Memorinl, t he now c1omin:mt f r,1 tm·e o.f this area, som e dist nn ce n1ollg King's-avemw nw11 y from this junction point, while giving emphasis to thr Cnpital Hi11-Kirw'.'i·rlYPll11 1"! vista. hns sPrVPil

    to throw the City Hill-Constitution-avenue aspect complt>tely ont of focus.

    TnE CmnrtTTEE's

    456. The Committee h as arrived at two main conclnsion.'\ in rP;!ard to this m;prct of its inquiry:--­

    (1) That the modifications and variation:; mnd0 i11 th'2 )\'1St to thr orirrinnl plan have not been subject to adequate nnrliamentaJT snrwillance. 'lml th :- t modi:fieRtions have bren m a i! e that }HJVe hn0n the snh.irct of .sc·nrchin!2· mrliamr ntm·y im1nirv; nni! (2) Thnt pre.>:ent ndministrntiYe Hrrangeme'lt'; At'r tchllv inl1f1Nill'ltr to nr rmit of s;1t isfaetory

    forward planning-. T he t y.-o main o'·ga n izntions d e;; ling " ·ith plml!ling can make r ecommendations only. Th P Tow11 Plnm1ing- of th" of tl1 r Interior

    has no n.nthorit.v to make nn d thr :\':Jhon :: l (" and Drvf'lopmrnt

    Committee h11;; no powrr to veto d r:Pisiom: of which it disnpproVPS.

    4fi7. To remedy these th,-, Committ"P

    (J) '!'hat a Sen nte Btandinv Committ0e on C'anherr::1 "f-, p TYrovir1rrl frlr th r of maintain in!! a com;tant wfltch on the rlewlopment of Canhrrrn. (2) That th.r ll(lmini.strntive m11chinPJ')- b e oYPrh:-m1rll tl18t forwnrd plnnning can he cRrrird ont. Jf an ilnthority of the h ·tw l'('('On1ntf'n rlrrl in rrport Wf'rf' constitntrrl.

    thi:;; should f o11ow.

    D. :\ DE0T! :\ CY OF TRE PLA:'\.

    458. It is nm': hN·om ing grnerall v recognized th nt ( \J nh r> ?T!l is hein11· lmil t t 0 n concri·recl

    plan. Tn rarlier yr11rs this p l an ·wils rriticizrd a.q ht>i ncr t00 in it" a.c: ,•nvisa!!ing a

    non11lntion that conld not h e r rachrd in an inland < : ih·. Rnrl ns h r> inr:r t0n c.Tanrli n.'-'f•. As thP popnlntion nnw grows. hmwn•r, thr tl'nr \I'!Jtth 0f Griffin'-; yast r rmr·r>:> ti()nc i <: lwrnrninn· rmrl tl1r> hrilli'lnc·r> ,,.f l1 is foresight more plainly apparent. 450. The SenatP Committee ca nnot too Rtrono-h t he n<•Nl for tl1r anprOY!'rl citY T'lRn to

    lw >: tmliNl mort> fnlly -in conjunction with Griffin's n\'t•rnl ] ·" "1Jr> mf'>. :mrl f0 r fnnn1 r rl nlmm in:z to takr into iH'r>.ollnt Griffin's thoug:ht on 1Jartie'.1lar n>

    : . 'T'lw n>.rn·f' cm0 (}r]ffin's phn a n rl his

    l·xplnn::Jtl)r_v stRtPmrnts, thl' more obYions it is that hom hi s m nin !';honld not h f'


    lightly countenanced. 'l'he Committee is in agreement with the statement made by the President of the Australian Planning Institute, l\Ir. Veale, that " The principal features of the Griffin plan should be maintained at all costs. It is a grand plan and something we should hold on to ".

    460. Por this reason, the Senate Committee attaches as Appendix B to this report a copy of tile Original Report made by Griffin in 1912 when he submitted his first design. This Report has not previously been published; it is earlier than the Report Explanatory, referred to in this report, which was published in Parliamentary Paper No. 346 of 1914-15-16, and though the greater part of it is almost identical with the later report, it is in many respects more detailed and illuminating. It should be studied in conjunction with the statement issued by the Commonwealth in 1911 when inviting designs for th0 :N"ational CapitaL (See Appendix A.)

    461. Por purposes of reference and record, the following maps are also attached as Appendices­ the original design of 1912 (Appendix C), the Preliminary Plan of 1913 (Appendix D), the last amended plan, dated 1918, prepared by Griffin prior to his ceasing duty as Pederal Director of Design (Appendix E), the gazetted plan of 1925 (Appendix P), the approved plan with recently proposed amendments

    (Appendix G) and, finally, an overall zoning plan for a projected population of approximately 110,000 people, as prepared for the Committee by the Department of the Interior (Appendix H). Reference to this overall zoning plan will be made later.


    462. Whilst pointing out the value of the Griffin plan, the Senate Committee stresses that some modern trends could not be envisaged by Griffin. Therefore the Committee considers that the plan should be modified from time to time so as to conform with these modern trends and developments in town planning.

    463. Modifications, when made, must of course be made to the approved plan, which is now the legal plan. As previously indicated this approved pLan is only a blue-print of road lay-outs, and in this respect it has severe limitations, even though the Griffin plan does serve as a guide to zoning.

    464. The weakness of the present gazetted plan \Yas referred to by Professor Winston. A planning scheme> to-day, he said, is more than such a blueprint of the road lay-out. It makes allowance for continued change and development, and it deals clearly with such essential matters as main traffic roads, zoning and the allocation of the main industrial and commercial centres, and the provision of the various kind" of oren spaces and recreation areas.

    465. Many witnesses were asked, therefore, whether they believed the present plan should be completely overhauled and revised in the light of modern conditions by experts specially commissioned to do the job.

    466. 1\lfr. W aterbouse, Chairman of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee, considered the present statutory plan eminently satisfactory. Other witnessefl, like 1\lfr. Scollay and Mr. Harrison, believed it should be reviewed by a group of experts. Speaking for the sub-committee of the .Australian Planning Institute which submitted a special report to the Senate Committee, Mr. Harrison said-

    The fiYst thing that struck us was that the gazetted plan of 1925 is not a planning scheme but is merely a pattern of roadways and water areas. It does not reflect all of Griffin's ideas of the development of the National Capital. It is certain that many of Griffin's ideas will have to be reviewed in the light of 40 years' planning experience, but we feel that the review needs to be done by the most skilled town planners, civic designers and landscape architects that it is possible to obtain. It is not that we felt that Griffin's plan is bad but that it needs a sympathetic review to enhance the good features that have been neglected and to change the bad features that are still capable of being changed.

    467. If any criticism of the plan is justified, said Mr. Harrison, it is in the planning of the

    rrsidential areas; "it does not require town-planners to-day to tell the ordinary layman that formality carried to a ridiculous point is not much of an idea in residential areas". (Members of the Senate Committee who have difficulty in finding where to cross the streets when walking from Hotel Kurrajong

    to Parliament House feel that it is not much of an idea either where pedestrians generally are

    concerned.) 468. Dr. Langer took the view that a revision of the plan should be entrusted to one man

    only. "Let one capable man", he said, "have a go and then scrutinize his work, and tear it to

    and throw it away, and invite another capable man to have a go. Bnt let one man do the thing

    and then let it grow into team work."

    469. Mr. Farrinzton's views were similar to those of Dr. Langer in that he thought that the :1ctnal planning could only be done satisfactorily by a competent individual, who shoPld be "a free agent. and not an appointed public servant". He felt such a person should be a mc>mber of a

    representative commission controlling the city's development generally. A commission which does not snch a man on it, he said, cannot study q1.wstions in detail because it does not have the time to do so.

    470-1. ·whilst the Senate Committee considers that a review of the plan either by a group of experts or an expert could do little harm, and that in matters r;uch as this fresh opinions and criticism are to be sought and encouraged, it feels for its part that better purpose would be served by strengthening

    the permanent planning arrangements. The principles of the Griffin plan ate Bow so well entrc11C'hed that purpose would be achieved by any drastic reYision; it would seem to the Committee, as

    Pt·ofessor ·winston stated, that a progressive plannin;£ authority is now more important than a new plan.


    472. The Senate Committee formd th<'t although a great deal of forward planning had, in fad, be en done by the Town l)1anning Section, much of the \\·ork there perfol'med lack(' d formal nppro-'l'al and a c:ee ptanee. At the Commitke\; reqnest, H1\0 Chi -.J To\nl Planner prepared a map showing projected development for a popnlat.ion of approximately 110,000 people (see .Appendix H ) .

    473. Reference to mneh of the infonnati <:!ll i;y(·ll in to this plan lws already I.Ji•en

    made ·when deaiing with "roads and bridges" in an earlier part of this report (paragraphs 260-278). In addition to the figures of sub1\rban l)Opulation there m ent ioned, the Chief Town Planner indicated that an extra 10,000 people would also be provided f or at D ickson, 7,000 at Lyne and 7,000 at South Red Hill. Shopping and district centres are provided for in selected areas.

    474. This map exemplifies the type of forward planning which the Committee feels

    shonld be going: on cnnti.nuonsly. As l\.Ir. Gibson stated, the map will now be the basis of further

    planning, but being a purely skeleton plan, the details for particular areas are not yet complete. The map docs, however, serve to give clarity and direction to planning, and the need for it ha>; been so obvio·ns that the Senate Committe<: was surprised to find that it had not been prepared prior to its rcqnrst. Shown on the map a1·c projrcted ring roaLls, and these appear to have receiwd little previous high-level consideration, notwith>itand ing their integ r ul eo nnexion with the development of the indnstrial area, and the ne{'d to diYert through traffic away from the eentre of Canberra.

    :t YEED FOH GREATEit PuBLic ..:\>VARENEss.

    475. The lack cf certainty in planning in the past would appear to have resulted in a tendency to keep planning mattc:s unduly confidential, and i : has oft<>n been difficult for thr pnblic lo obtain adequate advance info1·mat ion ou projreted de,:elopment. The Senate Committee appr ee \at,·s that with tbe prcsrnt lac:k of 1ler in plam1 'ng, officials arc naturally relnctaut to make definite

    statements, bnt it feels that this sitnation is not in the brst interests of the city's developmc·nt. Tt is very mneh in sympathy \\·ith the S'.lgg<:·stiun 1\taJ.e by {h e National Council of .. Women that the Cn nberra plan should be kept before the Canberra public, that alterations to it should be giv t'n the

    fullest possible publicity and that information on prospcl'.tive deYclopment shonld he given W<'ll in advance.

    476. The also put forward by the National Council of ·women that town planning

    exhibitions should be b eld regularly to inform the Canberra people of what is planned for them is one, too, which the Senate Committee commends.


    477. In regard to the adequacy of the Canberra plan, the Senate Committee has therefore nrrh•ed at the following conclusions:-(1) That the Griffin plan is a well conceiYed plan, and little purpose would be served by any drastic revision.

    (2) That the provision of a strong and progressive planning authority is more important at this stage than a review by a tl'mporary body of experts.

    (3) That a lnng·-range overall zoning plan should be kept constantly under reYiew as n anc1 target fo1· futnre deYelopmrnt.

    (4) That informatinn on city pl<:11ning should be more readily ava;lable to the pnhli1• , and int,. J·rst and discnssion encouraged.


    I. Tm: Anr oF Fun;nE DEVELOP:l.1EXT.

    478. It was sng-g·estrd to tht> Committer thnt n decision shoulcl be made now as to whnt was to he• 1hc nim in regard to futtu·e rlcn::opmcnt.

    479. It mm contcndcr1 that althongh the city \\

    the Seat of GovrrmnPnt anrl 1 he centre of administration. it had nmr grown in surh a other

    functions not only should hi' com;ii!errd. hut were demanding urgent attention.


    480. Before very long some determination must be made to the future function of Canberra w; " 'fhe Committee considers there are three possibilities--

    (]) 'l'he retention of Canberra purely as a Seat of Government and as an administr2tivc. culturaL and educational centre of the m:tion: thi.s wonld involve planning for indnst rr catering so1e1y for the needs of tlle city. (:!) The development of Canberra as a reg;imw l (·mmnvrciai c<.·ntre for that section of :;outh-ra.·;t

    Australia bounded by Yas.s, Tumut ancl C'anberra; this v1·oulcl invoh·e p1mming fcJ· industries necessary for such a regiona! centre. ( 3) The deYelopment of Canberra as an industrial city which would involve not the prohibition but the fostering of all types of secondary industry po.ssibJe of establis}Iment, haYing

    regard to Crmherra's close proximity to the Snowy Mountains pmver scheme. and the factors associated with the coming atoinie era.

    481. These possibilities are now discus..

    (a) Canberra as a Possible City.

    482. 'l'he Senate Committee is of the opinion that little consideration need be given to this

    possibility, as it is opposed to the very purpose of Canberra.

    483. Bur·ley Griffin's statement in his Report Explanatory is expressive. The prime purpose of th· Capital City, he :;;aid, is not nn intensive commerce of the throng, but the housing of various specializecl deliberative, and edncati \'e activities. A similar sentiment was expressed by Sir John Butters in evidence. In his opinion. it >vonld bB contrary to the fundamental conception of Canberra if it became anything like an industrial city. "The atmosphere of Canberra ", he said, "should not be associated with high pressure commercialism or industry".

    484. ·with these sentimrnts, the Senate Committee agrees.

    (b) Canberra as a Regional Centre.

    485. The cnse for Canberra as a regional centre was very ably put to the Senate Committee by Ivlr. Ruddock and lVIr. MeCrty, of the DepRrtment of National DevelopmPnt. These officers pointed out that Canberra w2s already well on the way to becoming a centre for education. religions and eultunli interr>sts, and commercial and to:wist actiYities, all of which they suggested .shonld be fostrred. \Vhnt they JlarticularJy wi:Jlled to a,,;ert, however, was that Canberra ;.;honld also be developed 11 1·c•giond industrial centre, their attitude being that whetlwr or not the development of inz1nstry wns ::ctivel.1· sponsored, it would take place as the city and it was better ther-efore that it be controlled and

    dirf'cted along the most .satisfaetory lines.

    48G. 1\Ir. Ruddock invite

    wonld l'NlCtJ 100,00:1 in the r;ext twc'1ty ye1rs. Ccmsequently, CVCls ill-balanced, and would beeomc a re;rional centre for an area bounded by Yass. Tumnt, Cooma, Bcg;a, Bateman's Bar, Brnidwood and Bungcndm·e. If its development as such were recognized, a more accurate of fnt

    the use of land an<1 thc m:1l:i11[': of intcrnal road.s would be easier and communication >vith outside centres conld be deYeloped in a co-ordin:1tel1 fashion. 'l'he advantc1g'e to tl1e nation would decentralization of industry, the need for whch Iwcl been strl·ssccl by all political parties. The ad>:ililtagen to the An:Jtra]ian Capital 'l'erritory would he cheaper goods, greater avenne8 of and more divrrsity of interestR.

    487. The lae:k of in social deYrlopmPnt wn.s demonqtnJted by the 19!i4 Cewms

    figurrs. These showt•t1 that there >vere 13,780 prrson<; in the ;\u;;tralian C:apital Territory work forel'. Of ,jQ JWr c·i•Jlt. •xete public servants or pl'Ofes:-.!ional people: 13 per cent. wen· engaged in bnilr1ing· ond ronstruction: ripproximately 7 per cent. in commerce; just over 6 per eent. in mannfacturing; P per cent. were cJa,:siflec1 mH1rr amusemrnt, lwtrls, cafes, &c.: 4 per. crnt. 'Sere rng:1p-rd in primary production. This was ill-balanced by normnl standards. bnt it eonld be PXpected for many

    yrars to come thnt (':;nhelTi!'s work force would he prcc1ominrnt1y pnblic srrvRnts. A hrttn bahnccd social and economic life conlrl. it w?s :otnted. he achiryrc] by the encoungpment. of industry.

    488. It was not sn;rgl\'>tl?d that industry should he encouraged indiscrimincrtely in Yiew of the hip:l1 of transport anr1 the limiter] resources of the Territory £>:rnerally. The Snowy Riwr pro.iect, howrvc1·.

    whrn completed. wonld proYicle ahnndnnt power. The aim should be to c1cve1op the elecm of

    m:mufflctm·in;r thr products of wh;?1l .. J,;;-:1' value comnared to their weight. sueh ns

    foods anc1 beverag'es. textiles and clothing, sporting g·oods. shoes, bags, boots anc1 tbe like. Althoug-l1 Cnnbf'rrn has nr1rly b0rn short of labour. a cit? of rvPn to 50,000 should, it was claimed. he nhlP to .snpport manufacturing drve1opment of this nature.


    489. That Canberra be actively dewloped as a regional centre 1s 1WT a new idea. J\lr. Daley adviserl that in 194G oflicial8 of the Department of the Interioi· were inyited to a conference sponsored by the Department of Post-war Reconstruction to consider pro1Jositions for Canberra's clenlopment as such a regional centre for the south-eastern part of .0Jew South \Yales, and for the establishment of industries dealing with the products of the area. An euormous amount of \York had been done on the subject by the DepartmPnt of Post-war but the Department of the Interior took the Yiew that it was

    1n·ong to reduec Canberra from a national to a proviwir•l ;,,nl, that nothing should be done to impair it.-; special ehnracter as the city of legislation and of nntioual

    490. The Committee believes that the increase ot J!OlJulation a::; a result of the transfer of public sl·rv:mts, the growth of educational institutions, and the cln elopment of the tourist trade will provide a hu·ge market for local manufacturers; such an industry as printing, for· instance, would naturally extend because of governmental and educational needs. But tl1e delibPratc increase of manufactures for purposes

    nnconnccted with the primary purpose of the capital is to be deprecated. The Committee is of the opinion that the most serious objection to the planned development of Canberra as a regional industrial centre is that it would entail Commonwealth expenditure for the btnefit of one State, and Commonwealth acceptanee of responsibility for the establishment of industries which 11·ould be required to serve a region far beyond the

    Capital Territory.

    491. 'rhe Senate Committee's views in this regard arc shared by the sub-committee of the Australian Planning Institute. In its special report it stated-The development of Canberra according to its functions as the Xational Capital is a single objective. Any other function the City assumes by reason of it.s geographical position ill relation to an importrcnt region of Kcw South \Valeo or

    whirh is it to secure social and economic balance, must be supplementary to this f\lnction· and be fostered and controlled '"'cordingly.

    492. Active encouragement of industries not necessary for the city's development, whilst considered to be undesirable in view of the city's national character, would also be objectionable from the viewpoint of nearby cities and the States alike. ·whatever form took, pncouragement would seem to involve some subsi'cies, be it only in the provision of cheap sewerage and water serrices, which themselves are the rc.sult of

    taxpayers' money. 'rhe officials of the Department of National Develo11nHmt themselves admitted that llt:arLy cities would probably be resentful.

    493. For these reasons, the Senate Committee feels little purpose is sened by further talk of developing Canberra as a regional industrial centre, and it is frankly puzzled at the insistence that such industrial development should take place in Canberra, IYhen only 6 miles away in New South \Vales is the to\Yn of Queanbeyan, where encouragement of industry would probably not only be welcomed, but appear to sciTe equally as satisfactory a purpose, without any n:1tional or constitutional considerations to complicate


    (c) Canberra as a National Centre.

    494. In sharp contrast to the objections which may be raised to Canberra's development as an industrial city, or as a regional centre of industry, are the considerations which make it most desirable that C'anberra be developed as a national tourist, educatiouaL enltural ancl religious centre. Developments to this end are entirely in keeping with the city's charactcr as ihc Scat of Government and the administrative c·cntrc, and would foster the development of an admiration ancl affection for the nation's capital.

    493. Reference has already been made to the remarknllk {'dmational facilities available in Canberra paragraphs 332 to 335), and the Committee notes that the city has :tlreacly become the head-quarters for at least one religious body. 496. 'l'mu'ist Centre.-In the field of tourist

    n d nmtages. 'rhe development of the tourist traffic well be c·onsidcred to have only just begun,

    d since 1950,· a:Hl is still mounting rapidly.

    4!17. In 1H54, some 240,000 people visited CanlJf'nn .. '-'tiiying an :werage o£ t11·o days anu spending :d;unt £1,2iJO,OOO in the city, It could well he that in th:· y('at'' to tui>H:. the tourist trade will become, as in \\'

    498. The Tourist Bureau situated at CiYic does a Y\'l'y good jub unrler difficult circumstances. For a i•"riorl it was primarily the concern of the commercial in Canberra, hut in recent years has come l'nrkr departmental control. It maintains a register of 200 homr•s accrnnmor1ation of

    alJrJHt :J.IO beds to mPet peak-time holiday traffic. when th<· i!i11itrd l1ot<'l and residPntial accommodation in { 'anhnra is totally inadequate to cope with L;ht n•m· it handled 25,000 "heel nights". It

    nlsn solrl some 30,000 maps and guide books.

    4[19. Genrrallr, Canberra's facilities for tourists ar0 unr1err1eYeloped, except, perhaps, for car

    sr·rricing, is now arlPqnately proYif1ef1 for a 111llnlw1· nf sitnaten to the north of



    500. The catering and commercial facilities, until recently very poor for tourists, are improving with Canberra's growth, but the opportunity does not seem to have been taken of fully exploiting the tourist trade. The city lacks the vigorous business approach ;,;uch as is found, for instance, in the Blue Mountains area, and is without adequate first-class hotel accommodation and proper facilities :for tourists.

    501. The main tourist attractions at present are consequences of the development of the city as a national capital rather than attractions specifically deV"eloped to encourage tourists. Canberra has been too busy with its own growth to worry unduly about visitors. .For instance, although the city has its many natural attractions, it has as yet few developed areas for tourists to frequent, the Tourist Camp at Turner and the reserve at the Cotter River being the only with facilities.

    502. Two features of Washington, stressed by Mr. Odgers, could well be followed in Canberra. The first is its Cherry Blossom Festival, which lasts a week each spring and attracts some 500,000 tourists. The second is the practice that at some time during their High School education every American younster should have the opportunity to visit Washington. lt would also seem that persons visiting Washington cannot be there long without having its importance as the capital of the American nation fully brought home to them, by the buildings, the guides and the residents alike.

    503. A suggestion in keeping with Canberra's pastoral atmosphere and of interest for the tourist trade was that made for the development of bridle paLs and horse tracks around the outskirts of the city. It was stated that Canb€rra could well have a RotL:n Row like London and a Prater Ride like Vienna. Australian examples of this type are the Tan Tracks around the Botanical Gardens and Government House in Melbourne, the track in Centennial Park, Sydney, and the Green Belt in Adelaide.

    504. The city's natural lookouts have no cairns or monuments and it is remarkable that in Canberra there is nothing to commemorate the designer of the city, Burley Griffin. It has been said that Canberra itself is a memorial to him, but nevertheless something on the top of one of Canberra's lookouts might also be appropriate. One witness suggested the top of Red Hill as being the lookout most frequently used, but the Senate would suggest that such a mon-,nnent might be placed on the top of lVIount Pleasant

    (with the Military College on one side, perhaps appropriatejy in view of the minor war of the early city plans), because that lookout, standing near and above one apex of the central triangle, would overlook the central lakes and the Government Triangle, and give a splendid view of the parliamentary building. 505. 'f'he development of the Snowy Mountains scheme has given an added :impetus to Canberra tonrist trade. The whole of the Canberra-Coorna area could well become a great National 1'ourist Park.

    506. Cult-uml Centre.-In recent years Canberra has become the mc,eting plaee for seientific, <:ultural and fellowship meetings and conferences. For instance, the Australian and New Zealand Assoc-iation for the Advancement of Scienee held its eonference with 1,300 ddegates for a week in Canberra last year, and it is now the practice for the Australian Politie:al Summer School to be held regularly in Canberra each year. Commercial and business associations and others are also realizing the benefits of Canberra as a meeting place, and the Committee was advised that during the present year meetings have been or will be held of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia, the Printing and Allied Trades Employers' Association of Australia, the Association for Adult Deaf and Dumb Education, the Auiltralian Esperanto Society and the Australian Apex Clubs.

    507. As :indicated earlier in this report, Canberra is, however, sadly deficient in such cultural institutions as an Art Gallery, Concert Hall and Legitimate 'l'heatre. Heprcsentatives of the Canberra Art Club, the Canberra Repertory Society and the Canberra Philharmonic Society, in giving evidence before the Committee, stressed the desirability of bl,tter facilities to nplaee the present temporary aeeommodation available for their activities at the Riverside huts. The Art Club representative, Mrs. "F'rankel, stated that in the absence of a permanent Art Gallery there is no satisfactory building for slw'.ving ·works of art, and no encouragement for any public-spirited citizens to donate paintings to the National Capital.

    508. A suggestion was made to the Committee that, under a modern method, art displays and concert and repertory facilities could be provided for in one building. This method involved the constn1etion of the main stage and seating facilities for reprrtory, concert, operatic or othf.'r sneh purposes, and the construction of a large foyer whic-h would be nsed by patrons during intervals and be hung with works of art. In this way it wa.s suggested, art was brought closrr to the patrons. The Senate

    Committee eommends this suggestion as having many ad van ta;.>,·es and considers that buildings of this nature could serve many purposes. 509. One of the requirements listed by the Commonwealth on 30th April, 1911, in its invitation to eompetitors in the Canberra design competition, was that they should allocate "appropriate areas, suitably situated and embracing sites" for a National Art Gallery and Library, a Museum, a National

    Theatre, and a Stadium. The Committee notes that Griffin provided for these, as well as for an Opera House, and other cultural buildings, in the public garden and domain area to the south of

    Constitution-avenue. He showed his galleries, however, as the Galleries of Graphic Art, and the Galleries of Plastic Art, in separate buildings, and likewise provided for a Museum of Natural History and a Museum of Arehaeology.


    510. Although no eonclusiYe proposals haYe ylt bern forthcoming, the Committee notes that c·onsideration has in fact been gi\"'211 by the authorities in rhe past to the pro1·!sion of a Hr·p<·l'lory ThPatre and an Art Gallerr. At one stage money for an Art Gallery w:n voted on the E·.tim,;t.·:;. In 19Jl, the Art Advisory Board studied the site proYided hy (iri11i'l for a gallen·, deeidecl tllat it suitable. and that a gallery be erect••d tll(Te ih an c·ntirely distinct buihru;;·. 1t had

    preYionsly be

    plac·e on the (11wstion of whether a theatre could be [H'vYicled for i:1 tlw fntnrc At:stra1iau Comm;ssion building, the site for which ,1·as to be near fw York Park area opposite Ea:;t Bttd'.

    511. It was suggested by une witness that p:nnanPnt bnildiDgs of a cultnra1 natt1re v:oult1 Lc "white elephants at this stage of our development'', and that CanbeJTa, being a young city, could not have everything immediately. As the Senate Committee sees it, however, Canberra is not merely an ordinary city, and being the capital city of Australia, its standards shol1ld 11ot be reganled as simply those of a city of about 30,000; there are also some 250,000 visitors to Canberra each year to be considered. As soon as it is rea!-lonably the necessal'y cultural lmildings should be erected.

    512. The Senate Committee's views in this connexion were endorsed by the mf'mbers of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board, from whom the Committee took evidence immediately before completing this report. Mr. Ashton referred to t'le need for a gallery in the following words:-I do not hesitate in saying that we feel that it is most important that we haYe a national gallery, and the sooner it is provided the better. I want visitors to Canberra to be able to Yisit a national gallery as Yisitors in Washington

    can do, and to be able to go away feeling better cWzens and knowing something of the art of the nation.

    513. Industries Associated with the Capdal.-The Committee does not wish to be dogmatic in regard to the establishment of industry associated with the city being primarily the Seat of Government, but it sees no reason why such industries as high-class printing and bookbinding, the printing of music, manufacture of musical instruments, good-guality furniture, high-class pottery and china, and other industries associated with the arts and crafts could not be promoted and encouraged in the capital city so as to provide suitable av€nues of employment in certain cases.


    514-515. The Committee's conclusions regarding the "aim" of the city's future development are therefore as follows :-(1) A highly industrialized city is incompatible with the prime purpose of the capital city. (2) Canberra should not be actively encouraged to become a regional industrial eentre for

    a section of New South \Vales. (3) Every encouragement :;hould be given tmyan1s the development of the city as a tourist, eultural and educational centre: al1!1 that to this end-( a) Certain cultural institutions. tiw Lktnib of are given latrr in this report

    (H.eeommemlation 7:2) :;honld hP r:-;tahli'ihed as soon as prar:tiL·ahJc. (b) A more positive approach shonld lw taken to e1wonrage (c) The industries referred to aboYe (paragraph 518) and ntltrrs of a like nuture should be encouraged.


    (a) Atomic lVarfat·e.

    516. The thn·at of poss1ble atom\e prrsents the nw:;t t1ifficJ•lt of all prol)lems to p\"mlcrs

    and not simply in Canbrrra but the world over.

    517. 1\efnrll\'C to this problem has already lJ''''n marl:• parlier in this rq1ort when dealin'.!· 1Yith hosJlital f

    SlS. Thr- CommitteP sought expert arhir:e on this ma1t<·r and th•· issn1·:; fr<·,·ly and

    i11fnrmally with the Direetor of Civil DefPW'l', Brigadier \rat·rlr!L As thr problem,.; iny.,]\·,,<1 ;1n· ''ii ill lwing· stll(1ied, it :;1\i[g<'Sts, as mentioned 1·arlirr. that th. trnn1 Ji)nllni".'! ;wtlwrities shonld ]J;tYP clo;;e li

    (7;) Royal Military College, Dnnfroon.

    519. The Senate Committee heard a consi11erable anwunt of eYidcncr relating to tht' Huyal .\Iilitary College.

    !120. The College was in l:HO, plans had (•Yen LcPn invited for the layoHt of

    thP .\'ational Capital, and in its earlirr the eadds harl the 11-!Jok of Uu!lwna, t}H'n nniJi·Yelupr·d, 1111 which to PX<'rci;;f'. The Collt•g-r authoritiPs ar,, 11o1r 1rau·hing with S(J!ill' anxic·ty, hii\\'C'Yt·l'. the


    spread of suburban development towards its boundaries, over land on which it formerly held muuceu 1re rights; as tl1e Coll\'ge has no of L:nnre, they are anxrous that its b01mdaries and rights to

    adjacent Jaw] for nw ncellYJ'e p:;rposes b<· el ('arly defined.

    521. A(wording to the cvideneu h.v the Commandant, J\lajor-Gem:rul I. H. Campb(•ll, the

    Oolleg·e has been endt>avouring to obtain from the Department of the Interior the following lhrec safeguards:--(a) A dear legal entitlement to the present area held as the grounds of the College p1·oper. (See area marh:ed A-approximately 367 acres-in map attached as ""1ppendix "I".)

    The Departmcitt of the Interior had advised the Department of the Army by letter dded 29th December, 1953, that it was not the practice £or Commomvealth land to be held departments under a separate documentary title, but that all snell 1am1 was vested in Conm1oll'Neaith as owner. The Commandant advised the Committee that he >Vas not. sedcing- au in the area aUotted to the College proprr as it

    'Nas adequate for foreseeable needs, bc•ing sufficient to aceouunodate 600 cadets, as

    c:ompared to the 250-200 normally in residence. 'rVhat he anxiom; to secure was a vesting of the arerr in perpetuity to the College in the same wa.v as the Australian National Uniwrsity had comrol of its particular site.

    (b) 'The retentio11 of an existing dog-leg feme as the boundary of the College.

    The Department of the lntJTior had advisd that it considered the high-tension lines which are slightly to the east of and below the ridge running northwards from l\Iount Pleasant a:; a ecnvenicnt line of demal'eation for tbe western boundary

    The Comnumdant was opposed to this for two reasons. li'irst, it left futTLre residential development bordering this high-tension the main bui1ding>; and ca,det quarter;; of the Coliege. Secondly, some of the ground \Yhieh it had bevu a(:eu;,;tmned to n•gurd as College land, an.ll vd1icb it could -rrcll ftH' College puTposes.

    (c) A lease the areas of nearby land wl1ieh the College had beo1 accustom eel to use

    for manmuvre pur poses. (Areas H, C and D on map.) Suburban development >vas already approved for mueh of the area marlred B, to the w:'st of tlw College and Mount Pleasant. The Commam1ant tl1ought the College could sacrifice that portion to the west of the lJorth-;;ouih line from the

    AustraJian-}_mer·ican };Iemoria1 to l\Iount Ai11slie, but he claimed that the rest was poor eountry, hilly, n;gged and fairly hravily timbered, uwmitaiJlc f,n· nsldential pm'}Jo;,es, lmt ideal as a College mtmoc;uvre area. He asserted that the College 11reded that area as wel1 ns the aceas formerly nsed to the immediate north of the Cu]]ege

    (mm·kcd C D on the JWip) to permit the Coll:•ge to fnndion efficiently. L'nrticms

    of the northn·n area:;;, how<·Ycr, al,'XI came witb11 the City plan and were intended to be utilized by the Depctl·trn nt of the Interior at fiomr fnturc date for rPsidcntial

    pnrpwws. Fiuu lly the College also m:cded a contimJaJH'P of its Ieac;e over some

    11,000 acres some di;;tanee avHlY to the c•w:t of tlw Collrg·e, wllieh appeared to present llO problems.

    ;)22. The Sennte Committee L·lt that eonsid(•ration shunk( lw e;·iYl'll to tltt' reprpsentations thus made by the Roral l\Iilitary Collcg;r, as there was a tradition aud " :tin;c: t ;:tta··hl'd V1 it

    made its coutinncd on its presellt site in Canbeera most desirablP. 'l'}H' Cmnmamlant ]J;H1 put.

    it forward as a propc:;;ition that nnle;s the obtainPd seenrity of tr111HP nm1 mnwPnYl'i' rights

    m the areas songht, its fntnre existenee as n "'as jeopardized.


    \ \

    nrounc1 the area where th<· r•,.] wm- :.;tan d.-,, ;:;J(l f:a1 ]I(• ,.,.,.,, (·r:::templ<:k ()JlC side of the nppcr h;he. lli' sairl, "at-e the 1-!l'OlHHls of the .ThriEtat·r l'ulle.:.>e, \ri1 h 1 he stc('.p lnlld knoll of Fkasant lli!l-tlw higl1est erc:,t within tiH' mo"t con"pic:uow; f(':ch:l'e. Jii'l,>" he• erOFJJ ed either hy a fnlr1re (],.,-c)opwetll, u1' t)w Jlilitar.1'

    Collq.:('<', or, c:itarlel JikP, .gin·n oyer. tog'dher with the nrljae1·nt to t)lf' ::\Tllitar:· with its

    armories, arsenals, drill-halls, and barracks, commanclitt;r tltr• railway lim•s, owrlookin::r th1' "ntire City. and flanking· the gap eastwan1 the sea". 1'11'' Cmlllll:lle<' (10•·s not feel that mod!'l'JJ-dily Jl:illlg·hi \Yiilllrl ··onsi!1rr tlw c·xt1•;::"ion oF rnilita:,,- <1n·e',;pmen1 ()Jl Pka::;HJit thn:: •·m:t,nmLli(·d h:,- < :rifTin to be either cksiraUr or jrF!ifi

    ns it om· of 11Ji' h•,j in Cani;rnn pf thP ('r•ntral Lake . .., n:ul (}ny: l'lllnrnt

    Triangle arPns. 'rhP Cnmmitt:'e 11·:;''· 1,u1'.-,.,.,,, .. illlpr•':-;•;ed lw 11w sb·t(·h snhmit+erl h,· nriffin '.\ ith )Jj, original plan, showing l\Jount Pleasant as lntviJlf!'


    524. lVIr. Hog:?rs, Assistant Scerdary ";tl Denl

    in reply to questions relative to the claims mac1e b:· the i{n··Hl :'.lititary mad•.' tilt' fo1l

    points:-(a) He restated the Commonwealth objecti:Jn ti! th,· 1·esting of lamls iu pel'pctuitr to any Commonwealth department.

    (b) \Yith regard to the ut tlle ;is il \restem bouw1ary to the Coll!'ge,

    he indicated that the present p0\\'<'1' line made a morv ('Oil\enit•nt and clefiuite lim• of llemarcation which >Y01lld be even lllore pronunnc:ecl when it was duplicated; it was the main 1righ-tension fur the soHth\'l'll di6trict, iucluding Canberra, Yass and

    Burrinjuck area. As to the f•nn of 1 he ColL·g:e that residential deYelopment

    might cwrlook the \ .. 'oH''t;t·. aren ii' it '\Yere left as tl1!' lJO!· liit• al't'il west of the ColJege provided for a reserved strip 300 feet to 400 feet "·ide, stretching along the top of the range, between the College and the resiclen tial areas, so tlw t no dr•Y:•lopnwn t of tlw type feared by

    the College would actually take place,

    (c) Helative to the oi' th<' Coll''6e to n·ta\n ll'a:st•s l'<:r HlUl.l\l"1Wl'e purposes oYer

    adjacent lands, l\"Ir. Boger;; stated tllat Iw g!larantee;; ha,l <.'Wl' been gin·n to the

    College authuritil"s that they \Yould ah·ay.'i h;-n-e the ri:.tht to m

    needed for residential development, then :meh dc•velopmcnt mnst tak1• plaee, a11d the College llel' \'SSarily forego Yight.':. n,. failed to sec· how the {'Xistcuee of the College ·was jeopardized by the of such rights in those areas when there were some 11,000 aerPs readily :wai.lable for Hse io the east of the College.

    525. Committee's ConcLusions.-\Vhilst sympatitdic to the Royal 1\lilitary College, the Senate Committee feels that the Department of th€ Interio;· h

    development that is taking place. It notes that the roa 1 Li.nntt oi' the College was endorsed by a variation of the approved plan, gazetted on 5th .March, 1953. 'l'he ( '(>lllmit1 P<' ngrct•s with t}w view that as the city grows and spaec is needed for residential development, it wo,!),[ lw nnn•asonalJJe to expect these areas to be retained simply for manoeuvre purposes.

    526. In one respect, however, the Senate Committee ([oes suggest a variation of the action proposed by the Department of the Interior. It is one which shoub no/ aifcd tlH' plan of development prepared by the Depctrtment, but which should go a considerable di,; to meeting the final objection of the College authorities in regard to the high tension line boumlary. The Senate Committee recommends that of the re8ervecl strip of land provided for in the deparL,H•JJtal pia11s bet\Yecn the College and the suburban deYelopment to the west, that part which lies north awl e:, .. t uf the lW\\. road wl1ich will bisect the reserved

    a rea should be incluclecl in the College lands. This \\ i:i s: iH mean that the new approaches to .Jionnl Pleasant lookout, am1 the whole of the lookout area it-C"1f \l·ili he outside the College limits, and that til'' lcokcmt area will still be a reserve section-all of whic], tlu· a tc Committee regards as illl portan1. Th1· Royal :\Iilitary College on the other hand wiH retain ll('

    north should, for the Department of tlw Interior pm·: .r,ses. bc PIJU

    S27. To further clarify the position of the J:u:, a! .'\1 ilitary College. the Senat<> Committee als<) rreommends that the Colleg€ shoui<1 be aclYised in nllil' -,iJ:.:!.·iHlns tPrms that-(1) The boundaries of the College as sng!!' stHl abo,.,, ilre guaranteed;

    (2) The area immediately around the .Mon"i Pivasant lookout "'ill be a resene, :mrl residential development will not be pNmitted t·' 111e1 iol!k thr College groun(ls in that Yicinity. (3) Adjacent lands may be uti1i%ed by th(' ('ql\e:,;(' tiJl' mauo·tFrr· pmposr·s nnly for sneh period ilS they are not rer{Uircd for l'f'sicJ, i ;,.] lllll'pnse.'. ;lllrl tlwt nltimately the Collef!e \Yill

    probably be required to mancruYl'f' ,.,;J,,· ll'ithin its rn1·n area or on lHml outside the eity boundaries to the east.

    0:28. Decelopment within Scnat<: i ":: :::i11<''' 1\'iJS Slll'\ll'is"d to fincl, wlt<'n illY\'stigatin>.:

    11w daims made hy the Ho:>al ::\[ilitan· Collef!c. that tl1" lil'l'l']npm,·:Jt r,f tlir· ( 'c,jl,g,· ;,;·r·il ,., :1s tJI

    in r 0 c:rmt years, apart from supplying :cmd 11:i:"• ' ' ...... j, .. '·. !,;,,., hr.,·n 1'' '";J;:,·l !1· 1 l11· ,.,;,·j;,tinJJ of tlr<'

    l'it:v p1an. endorsing the presl'nt Co1lrg·â€¢, rond Y .. )/0:1/00.-5


    529. When more buildings are needed by the College, the Department of the Army requisitions on the Department of Works, which then constructs the buildings on the sites made available to it by the Royal 2\Iilitary College authorities. The Committee was advised that this allocation of sites was made in accordance with a master-pian of the area held by the Department of the Army.

    530. Construction within the Duntroon area haR not always been of a high standara,

    although it does contain many pleasant homes; and much of the aitractivencss of the College has been marred by some poor quality houses and buildings, particularly along the route to the aerodrome. Tl1e Commandant mentioned that he was concerned at this aspect, and was endeavouring to have the position improved.

    531. Running through the College area to the a<:rodrome is a narrow, busy road, ·which is already a traffic hazard, and which wiU become dangerous when fnrtlier College buildings planned for areas bordermg it are constructed. This road is used by city vehicles 01 ronte to the aerodrome, particularly by those from the south of Canberra, as it proYides a shorter route than the new road to the north from near the \Var Memorial. The College authorities have tried unsuccessfully to haYe it closed to through traffic. l\Tr. llogers achised that the Department of the Interior agrees that it is an unsatisfactory situation, but up to the

    present it has not been practicable to close it. It is proposed to snbstitnte for that road another road wJ1ich ·would keep completely free of buildings at Duntroon.

    GB2. The Senate Committee suggests that the building of the new toad should not be long deferred, and

    that the prest•nt road running through the College should be closed to through traffic as soon as possible.

    (c) Leasehold and Freehold.

    533. 'l'he main legal provisions in regard to leasehold in the .tl.ustralian Capital Territory are contained in section 9 of the Seat of GovM·nment (Administration) Act 1910-1947, which provides that-No Crown land in tl!e Territory shall be sold or disposed of for any estate of freehold, m:eept in pursufmc:e of some contract Emtered into, or the right to enter into which before the of this Act,

    nnd in the following sections of the City Area Leases Ordinance-12. A lea8e Rhall be-( (L) for such period not exceeding 99 years; and

    (b) suhject to such covenants and conditions as to rent and otherwise, a>' the :Ylinister determines or as are prescribed.

    Terms Rnd conditions of lease.

    25.-( I.) The unimproved value of land included in a leaBe shall be re-appraised by the prescribed He-cppraisc-authority during the twentieth year in the term of the leHse and during each twentietl1 year thereafter. vame

    (2.) During the period of twenty years next after tlw year of re-appraisement, the lessee shall pay as rent Five pounds per centum per annum of the re-appra i:;ed 1·ahw or of the unimproved value of the land as determined on appeal under this Ordinance.

    5!34. The first auction sale of city leases was helri 011 12th December, 1924, when 289 residential and 104 business sites were offered. At 30th June, 1955, tlH' total number of 99-year leases granted (as distinct from short-term leases) was as follows:-Residential

    Business Industrial Special purposes (churches, schools, legations, &c.)

    2,319 206 94 59


    586. The early reports relative to the city's development are interesting, (lemonstrating tlJC far-sighted attitude taken by the early administrations in regard to the importance of leasehold as the means by whieh a great deal of the city's cost would eventually be met. The Federal Cnpital Advisory Committee in its fin a J rcpo1 t dated 2,)th Ma.y, 1926, ndvi.sed as

    Constant repre.scntation,, 11ere made to the Government hv ,·arion:; to tl1row oj•<:n the eity lands for tlw erection 11f bn-im'"' and otht•r prcllli'"' by private enterprise, and, at the rcqnc•,t of tlte the on c;ec-eral occasions

    nwde ,pecial report" r!caling with the The Committee tn<'k the view that the City lands constitutecl one of the

    l''·inc:pal "·'·"·t,.; of the Commomc-ealth at Canberra, and that a hrtl<'r rPntal hn;.;ic- <'rml

    thcu;.:ht 't!tat if a few l<>ases w<'re gra.nterl in the early stages, ,..-,tab might bP established at a low rate which could not he n'-adju,.;terl for a number of years.

    53G. In lJis final report to the Minister, datrd 2nd 1929, Sir ,John Bntters stat2d nuder

    till' ll':acling of "Land Ar1ministration "--The existing legislation pro\·ides for the funding of all ti!"

    in the history "f the r·

    537. l'nder the of the Real Urdiuame, land is re;si:-,tC'rvd on line-; similar to

    the Torrens system, and lessees are provided with eertific<1tes of title, witlJ li1tle restriction upon their transfer. By these means le.ssee.'> are enabled to obtain reasonable retnm:-: fnr any inqHWI'emenh which they cttcct. while the Commonwealth gains by the accretion in land values as the city clevelops as a result of Commonwealth expenditure. It is a syst(,m that c-an be mut11ally :ldvanbgeons, whibt protecting the Cornmonm·alth from the p1·oblems ;wd t1ifficultic'" PxpcriPlll·erl ill ot ilc•r e11 pita].-, land resumptions were required under freehold land tenure.


    538. Re-appraiscds._:\V ith this backgruuud, tlie Committee wishes to refet· to a particularly mteresting submission which it received from Mr. J . ..-\.. Cal'l'oc1ns, a former Secretary to the Department of the Inte1·ior, in r c>lation to the re-appraisal of leasehold ,·alues.

    039. l\h. Canodu;, stated that during recent .ft'

    for r e-appraisnl, the first period of twenty years having elapsed, aud he claimed that those leases which had been r e-apprai.sed before 1951 received much more fi trorallle treatment than those dealt with since 1951. "\Yhel' eas re-appraised before 1951 were only sjgl!tl ,,· increa sed in value, tho::; e re-appraised since that time have been increased as much as 100 per cent. and 200 p er cent. in some cases. He cited one r eecnt ca':le \rhere the unimproved value had been from :L)2.) to £1,3,)0, and a nother wlu•re it had been increased from £436 to £1,200, and stated that t \rere due to a change in the method

    of valnation in wccnt years'. The valuers appointed t ( \ do tiE' recent re-appraisals, he said, have based their valuations on the total prices (i.e. , reserve prie" p]u.-; premiums paid ) of leases sold at auction in 1951 , 1953 anct 1954, a basis of valuntion which he "unsound and definitely unfair to the

    lessee". MO. ] Canodus then wrote as follows, uncler the h eadi11g of "Leasehold and T he GoHnnnent has announced fl"(llll time to time that it is ib; poliey to make the condition s of leasehold in the Auti tralia n Capital Territory approach freehold as nearly as pos,ihle . nnd that tlie main l"Pason for lea sehold is to ensure that the Gorernment retains ownership of the land.

    Unde r freeh0U, tlH' original price paid for the land io t he fin al cxpenditme. If the bl ock is larg e enough, it

    could ue and a profit made on the original cxpenditHre. appn·c iation in the ndne nf the laud accrues to

    ihe o11· ner. The ]ORS of inte1·eet on the purchase price is more than reconpeJ by increased value. l'ndcr the leasehold sy stem at present opera.ting in the Auotralian Ca pital Territory the lessee pays the G over nment re nta l at t h

    the full unimproved value of the land in twenty years. H t here were no re-apprai>ements , the lessee would pay the Gor·crnment by \l·ay of rent the full unimprovecl value of the Janel fi1·e times during the currency of the lease. Should the re-apprai;; ed values of the leases mentioned ab•o, ,·e \, e a llowed to stand, the les.sees will be called upon to pay the GoYer tlii H.•:: t £l,S75 ancl fl,

    further a JUOltnts nld. have heon the J\ual payment. ln view of the foregoing, n sonnd ca;;e could be made o\J t i nr no clurini,:· the r urre1:cy of the lease,

    ;cuing tha t the pays the original unimproved value uf the laml Jiye times. Such payment should coyer any

    a p jll" ('<;i at ion iu the value of the Jan

    in to p ayment of and their effcet l,p l,n nie in lllinrl , n. ud any incr ea ses in n

    kept l<>W They cNtainly should 1:ot exceed the pric:c,;; fix<' d hy the fllr hlocks .

    :'i.J.] . The Senate Committee considered the views t! ms by ::\Ir. Carrodus to be of particular

    to its inquiry, and r elevant to evidence of a similar nature given before the Committee by

    ·IIlr. E ast. tcpl'esenting the Canberra Chamb<:r of Commer ce . Accordingly. it forwarded th e statement made by I\I r . Carrodus to the Department of the Interior for comment.

    54,2. The reply fonvanled by the Department or thr Interior jnst prior to the eornpletion of the inquiry contained the fo llowing: conun eut.s :---

    The nwth(1ci of not cliaJJgecL The ;, ,; ,." r n the r to tho'"·th of C

    in la. ml value;;. Va.hmtion re·apprai; als made prior to 1951 had rfg· a1·c.l t.o cleei , ions of the. Appeal Bo:trd given in 1\HG in n''l'''<:t u\ >t !Ill ill her ap[Wals a p:ain;; t l\l44 re·:tppraisecl Yalues, nne! w ere also influenced by till! "pllggi11g" o1 l aml val 111H1 cr Sa ti.nw.J Seenri ty ( J:"Cononlic Organization ) R ion . .:...

    The Yicw is expresS<'< l by Carrodus that the " '''" lol ul l'ri <> ce (i.<'. , the rt',<<•rv e pric·e tl• c

    pa id) to cuw pute t he n 1luc o·f t h e block to be rc·

    Tim es ], im il,:d 1'. lhe J!I inisto ·, wh i<:lt had been heard by it c.n -l t h );" oYe mlii, I" , \!l i",J , the 1\ ppeal Hoard eotnme ntctl-"1\Ir. Keith l> roU , who macle the re-apprai ·,a l ui the ' ul;jvct land at £1 ,3,)0, r el ied upon sales

    whieh harl taken )llaPe b etween 1951 and 1954. II :• di sc·â€¢J!Jnt cd the J[l:,J sales by 20 per cent. to allo w for the ,·C'ry keen dcn;aml :ct that first post-war sale. "

    Tite Appeal Board appointee! untler section Zi of tlJ<• Ortlina n t.:t2 Jil""' id<·s an intt w hid1 the rc· ·ap)rrai -< er1 values. allcl the lmsis of Yaluation, may he t<> am! >ll\J .-cqllent tl c\vnninatiun by the

    ·noa.Hl. J'rnl,aiJly the ori;.dn (}[ lhe of leasehold tennre ;,, th l· .-'l.ll_-t ,·ahtn ('a)Jital Tcrrit<:ry "'''' "' that the

    C•>llllt< <1 1111"<•fl!th conl

    of hy lt .... w ork a:nr\ expenditure in t a u lJ e rra .it j:--: it.q•!i Y e r y .( ·rt·:tll l!;_.!; ..

    fn·<' II oH t itle thi,: l

    " " Ir-e tna\ on t h e Jl dlU'HJv ,, lo-s of ren tal if at allY l ilii <' '"Juc- declml'

    T\,,; effect of t !J P tJf r c·appraisals of Yal;,c a1 ilit<'l"l·a !,. 1n ndd J,c lu l'as.' t• • k ->ees the

    'Ji>}HJrtJJni ly t o . r:!·ain in a• y Hll c ni a lea se frmn the eul,nn• e ll tent i1 1 land r·l'l"y largely <·n •a t l'l\ h y the Comm•mwcalth ill tlel"l' lllpiug CanU('ITa.

    Committu.: ·;; C'uH!tH t. nf .-The Senate Committ•·c· r•·;ilizc>; th:11 the i>''i!l<' r11i v 'd by :Hr. Carrudus

    is a Yit"l one, \l·hieh atreds e Ycry lessee in the Territory. and 'l1;1t it 1\ ill drmhtle:<.'i hr: the subject of much t·onsideratiun and di:;cns-;ion a.-; more and wore leases fuJI tine f<;r l'I'-ilJ>id'

    rhe g- t: net'nl principles ancl that it must endorse its comwent.

    G44. This nccretion of lea.-;ehold yalues a.s thr ci t;· gr(; \\ 'S and rlr·Yr,lop:-; is a m·gmnent in

    rl'bnt.tal of the criticism of (•Xeessive gowrnnwntal expenc1iture mnc1e thosr opposing the full d evelopment of the :-\atioml GapitaL The developm ent of the city is bringing its own return in enhanced land values.


    545. 'l'he Committee therefore concludes with the final comment made by lVIr. Carrodus in his .statement: "Seeing· that the Government acquired the land on which Canberra is being developed for approximately £4 per acre", he said, "the residential lessees are paying a handsome contribution to the origimd cost of the land". As the Department of the Interior replied: a lessees have also gained the benefit in improved amenities and enhanced values or the considerable Commonwealth expenditure incurred in tlw development of Canberra".


    546. The conclusions reached by the Senate Committee in the foregoing p

    the dewlopnwnt of Canberra in a manner befitting· the National Capital and the early

    completion of departmental trausfers are 110\V the two most important problems to be resolved, the Committee cast about for the best methol1 of securing- these two aims .

    . 5J8. :B::villen(!C and sngget:itions given by witne;;ses before the Committee have already been outlined in an earlier part of this report, and before setting out its final conclusions, the Committee wishes to refer to the forms of government and administration already in operation in other national t·.apitals such m; \Vashington and Ottawa, and to recommendations recently made to the .Minister by the Australian Capital 'l'erritory Advisory Council.


    (a) D1:sttict of Colnmbia CWashington).

    5±:). The prct:>eut form of government in the Distriet of Columbia was created by an Act approved by Congress on 11th June, 1878. ruder this Aet, the District was made a municipal corporation with the right to 8ue and to be sued.

    iJiiO. 'I'}w Act provid0d for three two to be selected by the President from persons

    residing in the Distriet of Columbia, and the third, to be known as the Engineer Commi:;sioner, to be an oftleer detailed by tht' .Pl'esicleut from the Engineer Corps of the United States Army. 'l'he Civilian Commissioner;-; held ofike for the term of three year1> ami the I

    651. To permit of handiing, the various municipal functions are divided among the

    Colllllljssioucr:, whose individual actions are approved by them sitting· as a Board. The Engineer Commi"siont'J', for example, deals, inter oJia, with \Construction, highways, vehicles and traffic. The 1·ariou.s depattlllental heads make Teeommcndations to the Commissioner in elwrge of their respective depmtm<,Hts, 1rho iht'll bring:; the:;e reeolmn,·ndationc; to mc\'tings of the Board of Commissioners }wld twi<·<' \',·eekl;·. The Seuelary of the Board of Commissionen; acts as Executive Officer of the Board.

    The Act provided that the lcXpen:>:c of g·ovet·Hmc:tt should be borne 50 per eent. by the

    Fedcml Gm·erpneut cmd 50 per l:C'llt. J'nnll the l'CVCillll'b or the Di::;trid of Columbia raised by taxMion, a of fiwtilcc IYhit:h remained in forcl' until when the proportions W<'re ehanged to 40 per

    c·ent. by the 1•'cc!era1 Oovernment and GO pe1· cent. taxatinn. Tn l\ia3·, 1!)38, this tinauce provision was repealed.

    ;"););). in the .Federal UoVP1'lllllL'llt <·ontrihntnl 12,000,000 dollars of a total budget

    t'stimate ot' 10:!.000,()00 dollars for the District.

    ,):J4. The Hoard of Commissioners does not contr·o! ;ill dntics, some of which arc vested

    in Ju,·;ll Buurds. The Puhlit· Library lltall

    Cou1mic:siollel';;, a]](\ tilL' pnb\i1·. sd1oo\s h:v /l Board appointed by thr Di;.;trid ,Justiees. Other mnnieipal tlti1 ies an· a],o eXI'l'<·i·'''ll

    ;);).) . ..:\II ti!fcding the J)istric·t mlv;l he pa.'i.'il'd C0J:gress after bPing considered and

    n·ported oil tltt· mH1 tlw House Cmnmitte,•es of the Di'itriet of Colmnbia. The advice of tbe

    Commissioners is usually asked in vouncxion with SUC'h legi;;/atiou.

    55(1. The Distrid has tlw ;;tatus of H nJllnieipai corporation as well as a branr.h of the Federal Uown,ment. :;n>l it n].,, p;•rfc,rms many State functions. Tn this respcd it has no parallel in any otlwr ,.jty of th l'nih·c1 The Commissioner::; arc Hdvi:.;ed by a Citizens Arlvh;;ory Council but the

    re,;idcnh h!!YI' no Yote, 110 J·epl·cscntation in Congress and uo nlte in the election of the President. Between t1w period ]871 and 187G, the Di,;triet had a ddrgatc in the House of Representativrs but he had 11 " right to ,·ute. Th!' tltre1• Commissioner·s fHlministrr the· Distric·t, anrl although they are .<;aid to have

    "on1inmwr po\H'rs ", tlu';· do not lPgislatP. fJegislatiYt' powrrs ill rr>gard to the District are retained by CongrC'SS.

    557. The Z•iational Capital Plannin!) ;,.--In ,July. UL:i2. tht' prcsmt ?

    Planning Commission was established as a successor 10 the Jomwr :..::ational C'a})itnl Park Commission. It created to be a central planning agone:· for the apprcpriatc plaUJ:i;;g, ol·,lrrly clevelcpm· nL ;ucl re-development of the National Capital, and fo1· the 0f its important nahral and historic


    558. It is composed of twelve u· D(jiclu and fin appointed. The ex of/lcio mr·mbers

    include the Chief Army Engineer, the Engiw·er of th .• Distrid. J be Cnmu iss on'''' of

    Public Buildings, the Commissioner of Public Roads, the Chait'man of the ('ommittee of L'olmnbia and thP Chairman of the Honse of Representatives fiYl' appointed members iti'c ,.jtizens

    well qualified and experienced in eity or regional .c\!l memiwrs serYP in an ho>H•rary eapnC'ity. The Commission has a small staff with a Direetor at bcail nn(1 from time to time it rd:1inR vxp0rt


    559. Its activities include the preparation, adoption and amendment of a plan

    for the National Capital, and the acquisition of snrh as are necessary drsirahk for the

    development of parks, play-grounds, &c.

    560. The Commission of Fine Arts.-'rhe Commission of F'inr Art, 1\'lls crratrd hr :m Aet of dated the 17th l\fay, 1910. It is an advisory body on malicn; of m·1 wbieh n'> omnundDtium;

    on the artistic aspects of the design and erection of pnb}ie statnes. fonnL1ins, monunu•nts and like projects. It renders advice in the seleetion of artists for the PXHU<•n, of sm'b works and npon all

    questions of art concerning the Federal Government. 1 t also approves ail plan:' i'ol' pnbli(: bnildings and parks and controls the erection of private buildings ;n certain pitrts of tlv• District. It j:;; eomposed of seven "well-qualified judges of the fine arts, appointed thf· Pre,;;;ident for terms of fonr years".

    (b) Ottawa.

    5131. The Pederal District Commission Act JE'O\;,led for ihv '". , ,,ta\\.9,

    a city with 11 population of ahollt 200,000, by a Fe(]rnil n;strid t'Oi1Si-;tin;i of' 11nmty

    persons apJHlint d f·q· a term not exceeding fin' year:;; ei.,;·ll!cen of the 1nemhcrs ar('

    population of 43,000, and lies across the river from Ottawa in the pro•'inee of Qw·l:ee. ''l1e m· mhi"'" appointed by the GovPrnor-General i.neh1de one member for eaeh provinee.

    562, The Commiss[on is a body eorporate and has power to make b,v-laws. The Commi:.:sio11ers are unpaid. The funetion of tht• Commission is to co-OJ'iiinlltP the f'Ollstnwtion and '1\'c>r], in

    tlJP national capital distri(·t, and to appro\'\' proposaL for tbe ereetion. alteration :wd Joeation of governmental buildings or buildings erected on govennncnt lHnd person. The

    563. The Minister for Finance may pay to the Commi%ion :300,000 dollars a year for a period not exeeeding fifteen years from the 1st April, 1947, io <'Xpenderl for tlw pnrposes of tl1" Ar-t. nnrl if ihif' smn provrs insuffiei;ont, he may provide fnrther smns noi 8.000.000 dollar•·.


    . )64. Ref<'renee has alrrar\,\' h('en mar1,, to the (',il:u·il of th< .\ii'il!"l)i;•JJ (':lpiUtl T,.r,·ito:-y, whi<'b has alwa;-s fnn('timwr' as an hody. Tn .T"'''' this ;.-rm· ! l:r· ('"'"Jr·;l ;, .. ,,<'•1 ;J n•port

    1'0Pommendin!.!: thf' r'l'0at;OJ1 nf a TPj:!is1ati'''' Coww;\ •n t iw J,.,..i"]ati,·r f1mr·+iflr1;.; nf f1w Tr·rritnn·

    within proper limits of lor,al jnrisdiction. To g:iw en'ect tn this it rr':·ommrnrlf'r1 (o) the Seat of Govt•rnment (Administration) Act, section 12. chnulrl he nmcnrlrrl to rrrnYirl<' f()r a LP,'!i'lntirc C01mril tn n1id.;:p nnlinalH'C:-i 1un·inp; tllc forr·e of 1aw jn 1 lw Tlte porti()n of \\"lLidt

    to 1'arli;nn<'l1t the ri;cl1t of inrd: (lJ) nf''.\' l10 in.::"'rtPd in tllP Ac-t to dPfine t]t(• nnn•?er ,dtit·h flu:• --H·-\'.'t'r lw P":\'r;·iS(·d.

    thP. anrl mldhod nf e1P('tion nf the .. <'"L1ti\(• ( (f!1Ii<·il. <1Hd j(-c. tn f'{l!i'L 1.t11 it o\\il

    and to ordt•r o\\·n pr

    (,.) it Le P1: 1t h? the Co'JlWll -lln;1 l,r· -P1:1 t:1 il:t• f(H' to the

    G-ovrrnor-<:en('raL ancl t'lke 0ffrr·t fn1m t11(• d;111· ,1 .. 1·n1 11r 1,p n dr._r f!l·r,t·ir1('r/ in thf'

    (d) The <'onn<·i1 :-:.honi1l ret:dn t-1H' f qf d1r• _\dri:--11/'·\· ('11//o'J·iJ 11f :.1·h-i--iJJ_!.! 1l1r'

    <>n mntt<'rs:

    ( r') the Lr;!'i'-·1ntirf' Cnun(:i1 r·nn.'-ii.'-'t of t\Yelvc meJnlJrrs, :;.;i .\ ()f \\·hrnn :--:hn !1 la- l1;-· thf' (;n\ (•n;<,r-G

    and six of whom shn 11 he elected the F>tcr.' of 1l:e

    (f) the Cm·<·rnnr-GPneral >hall appoint a nwmhcr nf tho (''"'!:c·'.l tr. ]

    and Pres; lw eler·ted hy th<; ('"'·.

    ( y) the of the Col'nr-'1 shall he three

    G65. Thr Aclvison' Connr·il was also of t1w that it was rlf'sirahlr· to ,·,·JJtrnlizP in a siJJr!'le

    author1ty the for tl1P ronrlnr·t of thr T,·rrilf,r.v. and rerommr·nrlrr1 th\t thn Ar1ministratirln

    of th0 'l'rrritory .<:hnulrl he 1mifirrl nnrlPr th0 rliPr-tion r·.f a :\finistpr with prm-rr to r1rlcgatr fmwtinns.


    566. The Senate Committee has paid particular attention to these recommendations as they have been made by a body of elected local r epresentatives conversant with the background of Canberra's development and acquainted with its local needs, and made after the examination of a m1m1Jer of authoritative witnesses.

    :567. In making the recommendations, the Advisory Council pointed out that when it was eonstituted in 1930, the Commonwealth Government then hoped that it might be possible at the expiration of twelve months to give the eitizens of Canberra a greater degree of se lf-government. 'fhe Committ<>e notes that since that date the number of local r-epresentatives on the Advisory Couueil has been increased from three to five, and Canberra has obtained representation in the IIouS(> of

    Representatives by a member having restricted voting powers.

    568. The question of the responsibilities and the division of functions in a Commonwealth capital is not an easy one, as the Advisory Council r ealized. It is difficult to draw clear-cut distinctions between Commonwealth, State and munieipal adivitles. Whilst considering that it was both pradieal and desirable for a Legislative Couneil to be created, tJ1e Advisory Council was unanimously of the opinion that it was not practical immediately to vest in a local form of goverrnnent the authority to control and administer local affairs.

    569. In this connexion, the Senate Committee noted that in 1949, Mr. Cole, the Town Clerk of Hobart, at the invitation of tl:) e Government submitted a r eport on Civic Administration of Canberra. In making his report, r ecommending a form of nmnieipal government, he drew a line, however, between the municipal and governmental functions, without commenting on the gown)mental functions. His report has been criticized, therefore, as not covering all aspects of the problem.

    'rnE CoMl\IITTEE's CoNcLusioNs.

    570. In making .its rerommendations the Committee was faced with the following

    ( 1) '1'he provision of a form of administration which would permit of unified direction and co-ordinated action, and which shoulcl have as its purpose the early completion of departmental transfers to Canberra. (2) The need for the city to be developed in a manner befitting a national capital with the

    protection of architectural sta.nclarcls and aesthetic values. (3) The need to safeguard the principles of the city plan whilst at the same time provide for forward planning, and the making of modifications or variations where


    ( 4) The need to ensure that action taken to secure the protection of architectural standards and to safeguard the principles of the city plan will not unnecessarily hamper or delay the accomplishment of the departmental transfers, and the neeessary development of the city. (5) The need for some form of local government and local expression in the making of

    decisions affecting the city's development.

    571. Bearing those problE-ms in mind, the Senate Committee has come to the conclusions hereunder:-572. Government Administration. - As already advised, the Committee believes that the administration of Canberra should be placed under a centralized authority controlled by a single Commissioner responsible to a Minister of State, and with powers similar to those of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority. The Committee believes that the Snowy Mountains Authority has proved to be an eminently successful method of dealing with the task entrusted to it, and it feels that a similarly successful job could be done in Canberra if one man were entrusted with the task of seeing that the work actually was done. There is a common saying that what is everybody's business is nobody's business, and the Committee would aim to ensure that the proper development of Canberra and

    the successful completion of remaining departmental transfers be definitely the task of one person.

    573. The Committee believes that parliamentary r esponsibility should be exercised through a Minister, and recommends that the m1thority br r eRponsibl e to a MinistPr holding a separate portfolio for the Australian Capital Territory.

    574. As the evidence given has indicatNl, unless the authority here recommended i.9

    givrn adrquate financial resources, there can be no guarantee of any and acc ordingly the

    Senate Committee has also r ecommended that embodied in the Act setting up the authority there shcmlcl be a clanse guaranteeing :finance, and also a provision enabling the Treasurer to make advances for the of carrying out a long-range programme of construction. In this c•on nexion, the Committ0e

    invites attention to the finan cial provisions operating in Ottawa, where the Commission wh ich there functions is granted a certain sum for a p eriod of up to fiftePn :vears with an understanding that if more money is required it will, in fact, he made available.


    573. Tlw next question \Yas that of adequate control of architectural values and the t:ity's planning The diili.eulty in the past has been lack of 1igh-le-rel control and and to

    fault of earlier years, the Committee that exercising authority immediately

    below the Commissioner there should be six permau,'nt tedmieal directors eomprising a town planner, su1·wyor, hmc(scape architect, building architect, building engineer and a roads and services engineer, who :;hall advise the Commissioner on those aspe('tS of the l'ity's development pertaining to their respedive professions.

    576. In these six directors the Committee feels it has cow•red the six main aspects of the city's planning and development. The town planner, the landscape architect and the roads awl services engineer are all rated highly in this proposed organization and deliberately so. The Committee considers it unnecessary to elaborate on the reasons for this aspect of the recommendation except to say that in its

    opinion the town planner particularly has been undervalued in the present city administration. It feels that instead of being a very subordinate member of the city's organization, he slwuld have an administrative status giYing him executive authority subject only to the control of the administrative head.

    577. These six directors working under the co-ordimtting direction of the Commissioner, and, it is suggested, regularly meeting and conferring together Oll all aspects of the city's development, should form a body capable and authoritative enough to ensure a vigorous execution of any programme of development may be e11dOTsed by Cabinet. Each in his own sphere would be responsible for the preservation of

    standards and the execution of the overall programme.

    578. The Adistic Standards Committee.-The"'e believes that the co-ordinated activity of these directors working under a Commissioner wi1l ensure efficiency. The Commissioner should be free to act in most matters without waiting for the advice of an external body, and directed only by the policy laid down by the responsible Minister. Experience has shown, however, that public authorities sometirrws ignore artistic standards, and in their anxiety to get things done they not infrequently do things that are wrong­

    and the evil tlwy do" lives after them". The Committee, thongh willing to trust a Commission to do the ordinary >vork of building a city and carrying on rontine administration. thinks thai a special body, with ele11rly defined pmvers, should be set up to preserve artistic standards.

    579. The National Capital Planning and Dev<'lopmrnt Committee was give11 an impressivr list of functions rmd no authoyity. It could not always persuadl' the administration to do what it knew was right, or prevent it from doing what it knew was wrong. The Committee therefore decided to recommend the >:rtting up of a body whose sole function should be to maintain artistic standards in the grand plan of the

    city aml the major buildings. It is content to allow a good dral of individual freedom in the building of honws nnd smnller buildings, and to leave such supenision as is 11ecrssary to the Commission.

    580. After stndying the work of va1·iDus commissions which operate in Washington, United States of America, the Committee decided to recommend that a horly to be called 'l'he Artistic Standards Committee hf' set np, with functions similar to those of the Comm:s:;;ion of Fine Arts at ·washington. It would not have tlw power to retard the development of the city, and 1nmld not be consulted on minor matters. It would,

    howrver, have the duty Df advising on the siting and ftlanning of major buildings, and if its advice was rf'jf'ctf'd. the pmvPr of forcing the is;:;ur to he brought beforr Pnrlianwnt. The Comm\tt1'1' sl1onld consist of architrcts, town planners, artists and connoisseurs. Thr distinction heh1·e<'Jl the on "·hieh its adYice nmst he songllt anrl thosr on which the Commissioner is free to make his own cleeision shonld be clearly set

    down i11 the statute o1· 01·clinanc<> und<>r which it will oprratr .

    . 581. Local Represcntation.-Ear1ier in this rrport reference \Yas made to evidence recommending the f'Stahlishment of n eorpornt1on of thr Rnp:lish Tm\"n t.VJW I . ..-rn ph:-; 14-l-- Fi 1 ) , am1 it wa.<.; then

    imliriltPrl t}wt nne nf the adyantages of such a corpuration was that it prrrnitted a eonsickrable amount of loeal rrprr•s,.ntation. The Committre did not fe 0 l tlwt a eoJ·poJ•ation of this 1\'ould fully meet

    thr nrl•ch of :1 sitnntion s11e·h as that no"- existing in ('anhrrnL nnd that lorn! on a

    r1(·1·elnpmentrrl hn<1:· \\·onl1l karl to a lrss effec-tiYP typr· of (·1mtrol.

    G82. The Committee fee)s, however, that the tinlf• arriYcd as recommenrled by the Advisory CoPneil, thNc should be set up in the National Capital ;1 L•·gi.-;lati,-c Conn<"il to discharge 111 Jllr Stat" lrvel. Tn Appendix K of this report, it 'r ts nnt tl11• legislative functions which might be given

    to end! II Lrp;islatiYe Council.

    !'iR:J. The Le)!islatiYc Council as thus rrcommclldl'll shonld, the Committee feels, proye an ndequate

    nhirlr thro'.1f!h whieh the TWoplc of Canberra will be a1,],... tn p-iYf< I'Xpn·ssion to thrir Yirws on thr mannrr in whieh thr rlrYrlopmrnt of the city is bring effecteil. Tlw C'imnnittee sug[!ests that the Commissioner of the .\nlhnritr hr· thf' Pr''·'i1lent of thi . ..; Lr·ctisbti\'0 ('<)!]nr•i]. ::nd that till' .cix lJIJJII:JJ

    this thrre r011Jr1 f! romp1rtP liaison between th(• authority on the one hand and the elected

    n·p?·c,rntatiwq on the other, with tht> opportunity gin•Jl for a thorough exchange of opinim1s and advice in l'''!!Clrrl to (;anbrrra devPloprnr>ntaT matterR.


    384. Jfunicipal and other Bodies.-It 1Hts already beeunoted that the Advisory Council recommended that at this stage of Canberra's development, it was not practicable to vest the administration of local affairs in a municipal body. The Senate Committee feels, howe..-er, that the desirability of the eventual of such a municipal body and also of a shire body should be kept constantly in mind so that at

    an appropriate date in the future, power may, in fact, he delegated to bodies of this nature.

    585. Parlimnentary 0Dersight.- -Final1y, tbe Senate Committee feels that there should in future be a Parliamentary oversight of the National Capital's devdopmcnt. Parliament in the past has shown

    a most rrgrettable lack of interest in Canberra's development, and the Committee feels that the charge of neglect should not again b€ dir€ct€d at members. It suggests that there should be set up a Senate Standing Committee on the development of Canberra consisting of seven Senators with pow€rs to call for persons, papers and records, and it suggests that this body should maintain a constant oversight of Canberra matters.

    586. The Committee feels that the sugg€stions thus given above form an overall picture for administrative r€sponsibility, local representation and effective oversight that should ensure the early fruition of a national capital in keeping with the l1igb ideals of tl1e city's early founders.

    587. Financial Oonsiderat1:ons .-The Committee is aware that many of its recommendations will entall increased expenditure of public moneys, and it makes these recommendations fully conscious of this fact. The Committee believ€s that the people of Australia arc only too desirous of ensuring that their National Capital shall be a city of great beauty and dig:nity. fit to rank with the other great capitals of the world, and will not begrudge the wise expenditure of tlwir money for this purpose. The only alternative to such an additional expenditure is the indefinite continuance of a capital half-built, and an adminstration disperSJed between several cities, entailing in themselves 11 wasteful Uf.le of public moneys and a loss o:f administrative efficiency.



    (1) That governmental control of Canberra be through a Minister holding a separate portfolio for the Australian Capital Territory (save and exr;ept C(•rtain Commonwealth services such as those carried out by the Postmaster-General's De.partment, the Department o:f' Civil Aviation, and tbe Attorney-General's Department.). (2) That parliamentary oversight be exercised by a Sennte Committee on the Development

    of Canberra, consisting of spven senators with power to call for pE'rsons, papers ttnd records.


    ( 3) That the present system of diYidE'd departmental emJtro1 of Can berra be replaced by a single Authority to be known as the Canberra Authority, and that to this end new provisions be inserted in the Seat of Government (Administration) Act providing for its establishment. ( 4) That the Authority be constitute(! by a Commissiow•r, be a corporation sole with perpetual

    succession and an official seal, have power to acquire, hold and dispose of real and personal property, and be capable of suing and being sued in its corporate name. ( 5) That the Authority be responsible to the Minister for the administration, planning, construction and development of the Federal Capital, and have powers, subject to necessary modifications,

    similar to prescribe(! nnder scc·tion 14 of the Seat of Oovernment ( Adm1:nistration)

    Act t9ZL\:.

    ( 6) That the Authority be assisted by six permanent teehnic11l Directors comprising a Town Planner, Surveyor, Building Architect, Lanr1seape Archited, Building Engineer, and a Roads and Services Engineer, wl1o shall give snch adviee and assistance to the Commissioner as the Commissioner requires and shall perform sneh duties as the Commissioner directs. (7) 'rhat the Authority he empowered to engage profes.>ional men, and seek the best expert aavier on

    any matter p\'rtaining to the devclopme11t of the city.


    (8) That the Authority b0 gnarantced, by an appropriate provision in thr d to make advances to the Anthority for the ;mrposps of the Act.


    (9) That the enormons wast0 of p11blic mm1rys anr1 lnek of c1Pp!lrtmrntal effieirm.v oceasimwii by the carrying on of administration in thr threr ritirs of l';mhrrr

    Government. and steps taken to ensnre its completion by 1965.

    (11) That the Cion•rmnent also takt• steps to lll'ing to Canh<'I'I'il. and <.'stilhli-.d>

    The Federal Arbitration Court. :\, TIH' Commonwealth Bank. +. 'I'he Anstralian Broadcasting Commissicm. (12) That Ministers of the Crown, during their trrm of oitke, nwke their hn1n:·s 111 ( 'a11hen:t. tllnt

    app1'opriatc housing accommodation be proYic1ec1 accon1ing1T.


    (13) That the National Capital Planning and DeYelopnte,lt Committee be abolished. ( 14) That an Artistie Standards Committt'e be eonstitnted to achisr on planning, archited nl'e and eity heantifieation, and to consist of nrti:-,ts. and t-minent whose• gon(1 tnstr and

    sound jndgment make their'e valuable. ( 16) Tkt it be obligatory for the Authority to seek the advice of the Artistic Stcmdarch Committee in regard to major public and other large buildings. and in respect of other major aspects of the development and construction of t11e city; tlwse d11iie:s to be e1ear1y drfined and fully f;c>t out

    in the enabling Act. (16) That the Artistic Standards Committee have the right to veto any ::;ubmi!'\sion mru1e to it in pursuance of the above policy, and npon such veto being intimated to tlw Minister. thr· }fin ister shall plare the whole question before the Parliament for determinatim1.


    (17) That section 12A of the Seat of Government (Administration) Act relativr to the mor1ifi(·ntion or variation of the plan of the city and its environs, bt' retained.

    I,EGISLATIVE CouNcrr,.

    (1R) That a Leg·islative Council be established to diseha1·ge thr• fnnction of tht> Australian

    Capital at a Statr level in respeet of the powers S11it!2'estrrl in A pprnclix "K "; the

    Governor-General have the right to delcgatt' fnrther powers. nnil to rrtai;J the 1·ig·ht

    of disallowance of any ordinanec. (19) 'l'hat the r,eg·islativc Council consist of thirteen mrmbcrs, eomprisinQ' six nmniPated hv the Governor-General, six elected by the voters of the Territory, am1 the Commissioner of the Canberra Authority who shall ex officio be President of the CounciL


    (20) That there be established as Canberra's development aml eircmnstance" warrant-­ (a) a Canberra mnnicipality for the City of Canberra, and (b) a Shire Counril for the balnntc of the Anstralian Capital 'fenitor,v. both bodies when constituted to be responsihlP to the Minister throuQh the Canbrrrn A ntlwrity. (211 That these authorities have power to dra] with sneh mattNs, at loc>al Q·owrnmPllt lr·vel.

    as are delegated by the Minister from time to timP.


    (22) '!'hat immc>diatr steps be taken to encourage f',o prndnrtion ot hrieks from smnr·f's 1wnr f'anherra. nnd tfJp prodnetinn of matrrinls hy privutr' Plltrrprisr· v:ithin tl>f' \'''.tl':,li:IJl C'apitn1


    (2::1) That Iar'!e-sealr contra\'tors hr \1l\'01\\'W>:V>G in ()J'Gf'r to <'n]W \Yit], H1P l?··· J' th• '''''l·l'''H·+ir,n of

    (24) 'rhat, to nttrnd an.] retain thr> lnbour fon•e rrr;nirrrl for thr r·o,;ctrn( :inn qf i]',r· 11l'l"ri('r1

    men in thr e,·,sr nti;'ll trarlrs hr .'.!"lHirRntPed :1llor·ntion of ''r tl:r• oppori of

    buildinQ· thr'm for themselw:'; that sin!!lf' "1\"0Jkmr·n h" pr ,,·irl(••l ,,.;ill mo:·r·

    qnartc>rs, inr1nr1ing eomfortnhle Jllr•scip•: ar•r·r,mmor1atirm. (25) 'rhat snfficient honsinQ" sitP'i h· kep1 1l',·i:i1a11],. I" >nlt•J' to prr•Yent thr' pnnw·nt uf

    rompc•titivcl:v hi;,·h ll'ilSr• nreminms. (2fil Thflt thr typo of ac•f'ommodflti\)Jl known "serYif•(> fhts" hf' p··r,;·irlr·r1 for ltll'lll)H']"'-; nf t1w

    ns nn altflrPativr to hostPl aPr·ommodation.


    (27) 'rhat ad.ion now hr taken tri rmmre H,' J'• i<"r of rnrk 11reac; in

    (28) That land that is 1illlibol,'.· j() lw nscd for it.<; rPl'illiliJ('llt J!llf/i()Cf' for ,.;omf'

    time be trf'ated temporarily with trres and shrnhR. (2!)) '['J,at forward pla•minQ' lw prorPPr1rr1 Kith to PnahlP plnntin!! ill kc·r·piw.r \':itl1 ilw 1nnin ac;pr•ds of the eity plan.


    " P A.S'I'ORAL" oR " GARDE;'<" AT.M:oSPHimE oF CANBERRA.

    (30) That the importance of the " pastoral" or "garden" atmosphere of Canberra be kept before future administrations ; and that the tree patterns, wide streets, and particularly the policy of siting each of the important public and s€mi-public buildings in its own spacious parklands L,· recognized as important factors whieh must govern the future planning and development of the city.


    (i3l ) Tlwt the policy of 50-ft. frontage,; and sever ely reduced street widths be abandoned. (32) That t11e Nmstruetion of Hats be the main method by which increased density should be secured. ( 33 ) That blocks of flats he o;o constructed as not to dominate the skyline to the detriment of public buildings ; that the dominating features be public and ecclesiastical buildings. (34 ) That more two-storied homes be built.


    (35) 'fhat no more temporary buildings be erected. (36) That all governmental buildings be designed by highly qualified architects, and be of the highest possible architeetural standard; no style to be adopt ed which will be in danger of "dating". (37) 'rhat in the grouping of buildings in the future, as in the Government Triangle, care be taken

    to ensure that the style or period of each component is in harmony with the whole. (38) That a greater degr0€ of architectural control be exercised in regard to buildings erected for minor industrial purposes. (39) That at the earliest possible opportunity consistent with the supplying of housing requir€ments, the

    present temporary houses at Causeway, Westlake, and later Narrabundah, be removed.


    ( 40) That the recommendation made by the Public ·works Committee for a more direct road from the northern end of the proposed King's-avenue Bridge to Civic be re-examined in the light of the Griffin plan proposals for this area. ( 41) 'fhat the widening of Adelaide-avenu-e and the provision of alternative approaches from Yarralum!a

    be proceeded with at an early date,


    ( 42 ) 'l'hat offensive or noisy industries constituting a public nuisance be moved from Lonsdale-street to the l\Tolonglo industrial area. ( 4:3) That no additional governmental industries or buildings be planned for or constructed in the Kingston industrial area, and that the present industries there be progressively removed to the

    1\Iolonglo industria 1 area. ( 44) Tlwt consideration be given to the clearing of the whole of the Kingston-Causeway industrial area, the removal of the Railway Station to an area nearer the n ew industrial centre, and to a re-designing of the whole Hnme Circle area for residential development. (45) That consideration be given now to the reservation of land for futurf' industrial purpose.

    extremities of the city. SHOPPING CENTRES.

    ( 46) That the planning of narrow streets between shopping blocks, as illustrated by East Row, City, be re-examined in the light of traffic hazards. ( 47) That more attention be given to and more adequate provision made for business servicing requirements.


    (48) That shopping and community services similar to those at Kingston and 1\fanuka, i. e., cinemas, hotels, &c., be planned in other suburban areas of Canbena, r .g., Yarralumla, O'Connor Find 1\inslie. with the provision of proper parking areas, the small shopping centres in these latter snbnrb.<; hring altogether inaderyuat e for the future devrlopment of the city.


    ( 49) That, whilst the present policy of enlarging the existing- ho8pital be continued with, future hospitn I nerds be examined in the light of defence requirements.


    (50) That a vigorous pro£rramme of school development be proceeded with, and that the ultim:lt•' responsibility of the administration to providr rdncation for Hll children in the Federal Capital be more fully accepted and provided for.



    \31) That the situation whereby Canberra has only one adequate pnblic hall, the Albert Hall, be remedied by the provision of a community hall containing a dance hall and at least four conference chambers. (52) That as soon as practicable, the local cultural organizations of Canberra be provided ·with more

    adertuate facilities than those available to tlv:m at Ri.verside, hut that tlH'Se Cl1ltnra1 organizations be inYited to accept some degree of responsihilit;-· for. and participate in. the capital ,;:zpenrlitnr<' involved in the provision of these facilities. (58) That additional recreational areas similar to the Cotter n,".wrw be developed outside the city area. (54) That the development of Central Park be hastened.

    (55) That an early decision be made in regard to the provision of a showground. (56) That vVestbourne vVoods be not used as a golf, but retained as a semi-woodland recr<>ation reserve.

    ( :17) 'rhat immediate consideration be givel'J. to the proYision of sites for more hotels, the Committee bf'ing of the opinion that Canberra needs at least four more hotels immediately of a size and in localities to cater not only for the citizens of CnnbPrra, bnt for the increasing number of visitors to the city.

    (58) That the decision to permit the construction of a second cinema at Civic Centre be re-examined with a view to this cinema, together with at least one other, being erected immediately in suburbs t}wt nre now situated long distances from the existing theatres.


    (59) '!'hat the variations of the City Plan providing for-( a) tlle permanent adoption of the road lay-out in the Narrabundah prefabricated area; (b) the rediJction of Majura-avenue, Jerrabombera-avenue and portion of l\Incarthur-nYemw from 200 feet to 100 feet;

    (c) the reduction of IJondon Circuit from 200 feet to 100 feet; be reversed. THE LAKES.

    ((W) 'l'hat the exmniw;tion of the question of the lake.'> be proceeded with immediately; and that tbro final decision be implemented as soon a.'l possible; bnt that the provision of the tl!rpe central basins be regarded as obligatory. OrTY HILL.

    (til) That plans be now drawn up in respect of the treatment of that portion of the eity knovvn as" City Hi!l" .so as to provide for the proper siting-within adequate parklands-of ;meh buildings a:-; may be required for the following purposes, namely:-1. The Council of the Australian Capital Territory.

    2. The Local Government authorities of the Australian Capital Territory. 3. The Superior Civil Courts and the Criminal Court and the Comts of Inferior ,J urisfliction of the Australian Capital Territory. 4. The City Hall, to provide for large pnb!ic gatherings, musical recitals, &c.

    5. Any other building that may be required in respect of the Civic Administration of the City of Canberra. (62) That the area of land enclosed by London Circnit be reserved exclusively for the above pnrposes, and that no shops or commercial establis}Jmentfi '"h!ltsoever be permitted to be erected therein.


    ( 63) 'rhat the question of the buildings to go on t1w Go,·ernment Trirmgle, and siting and parking problems of the area, be thoroughly examinr·r1 ;md a ma:;;ter-plan of the area deeirlerl upon as a working basis. PARLIAMENT HousE.

    (G4) '!'hat the site of the permanent Parliament Honse he on top of Capital Hill, in lien of the ,,ite

    proposed by Griffin. (GG) Th8t eonsiderntion be g-iwn now to the eonstructirm of n permanrnt Parliament House. (fin) That the area between State Circle and Capital Cirele be rrsrrYed exclusiYel:v for pnhlic each to be set in it;;; own spacious parklands. nn(l fls not in any way to interfere with Yistns

    of the vario11S nvenues to the pPrmnnrnt Pnrliament House.


    (fi7) Thnt attPntion br given to the better develonmc·nt of the eapital's vistas. awl th:tt tlw mam

    lool,ont point." of tlw city be developed and mnflr more Rrrr,<:siblr to permit of a better apprecintion o1 the city's planning principles.


    CAN.Bl!.iRRA Pr.,w.

    (68) That a long-range overall zoning plan be kept constantly under review as a guide and target for future development. ( 69) That information on city planning be made more readily available to the public.


    (70) That assistance be not given to the development of Canberra as


    (72) '!'hat step'-l nmY be taken for the establishment of the following institutions in 1. A National Art Gallery. 2. A School of Fine Art for the training of artists, the intention being that the Government should so endow the school to enable scholarships to be to the most

    art students throughout 1-\ustralia each year. 3. A National Theatre, for presentation of drama. 4. A _School of Drama, established along similar lines to the School of Fine Art. 5. A Conservatorium of Music.

    6. An Opera House, which should also be suitable for the presentation of ballet. 7. A National Museum. (73) That appropriate sites be immediately chosen and reserved for the various buildings that may be required in connexion with these establishments, and that special consideration be given to

    the site originally selected by Griffin for some of these institutions.


    (74) T1wt close liaison be m:1intained between the city dPveiopmentai authorities and the Department of Civil Defence, so that the official.s responsible for the construction of Canberra may be kept fully informed of latest information in rega.rcl to defencf' in the event of atomic warfare.


    (75) That the bonndaries of the Royal Military Co1lege be permanently reserved as recommended in p<1ragraph 526; that the area immediately around the Mount Pleasant lookout be kept as n reserve; and that adjacent lands be used by the College for manmuvre purposes only until such time as they are required for city developmental purposes. (76) That the existing road through the College to the aerodrome be closed as soop. as pos13ible.


    The Committee expresses its thanks to all witnesses for their valuable evidence, the preparation and presentation of which, the Committee appreciates, took much. of their time. It also thanks the officers of the srvPral public departments in Canberra for their ready assistance in providing material and information when requested by the Committee, particularly the officers of the Department of Work;s and the Department of the Interior, from whom many statistics were sought.

    Appreciation is also expressed of the v[lluable report submitted by the Australian Planning Institute on crrtain aspPcts of the evidence given to the Committ<•e. This report is attached as Appendix J.

    Tn particular, the Committee places on record its very real appreciation of the services of its R E. Bullock-Usher of the Black Rod and Clerk of Committees of the Senate. Members

    are inc1ebted to this competent officer for the enthusiastic and tireless way in which he facilitated the work of the Committee.




    29th September, 1955.



    l disagree with the acceptance by the Committee of the present proposals for the erection of multi­ storied flats in Canberra, and recommend that the proposal to erect an eight-storied block of flats near the Civic Centre be cancelled forthwith; and that only pub lie and 8emi-pubbc buildings be permitted to be of, or exceeding, this height.

    V. S. VINCENT.




    l. ln presenting thi3 separate report and recommendations, l do so because I differ witll tlle report of the majority of the Senate Select Committee in some 1mportant aspects, as well as having a different basic outlook on the main subjects of the investigation.

    ·) F'irstly, I disagree with the undermentioned _varliamentary and administrative recommenclations--­

    (1) That a Minister should be appointed s1;eeially for the Australian Capital Territory. (2) That a Commissioner for Canberra be appointed. ( 3) 'I' hat six permanent Directors of Town Y1anmng, Surveying, Landscaping, Architecture, Building Engineering, Roads and Services construction Engineering, be appointed. ( 4) A Legislative Council for Canberra. ( 5) As future development of Canberra wan ants-the establishment of­

    (a) A municipality for the City of Canberra. (b) A Shire Council for tlle balance of the Australian Capital Territory.

    0. 'l'hese recommendations make a very impo.;ing array, and in my opinion they highlight the tuu1ency in parliamentary affairs to run to the extravagant.

    4. As one who has had considerable experience in local gover·nment work as Mayor of a city, and a? one who was responsible for the first town plan in by a muncipality, and also sponsored two

    revision town plans, I say quite strongly there is no for such a heavy government and administrative anangement, in connexion with the town plan of Canberra, 5. Experience in local government has taught nte, that in a city operating under a town plan, the !Jest way to achieve results is to have as simple or a set-up as possible.

    6. I am not convinced that the development of Canberra needs a special Minister, with a portfolio for the Australian Capital Territory, nor do I think it needs the appointment o£ a Commissioner. In both it would not be long before we would have both appointments surrounded with an array of typists and


    7. 'l'he appointment of six planning and works directors would be even worse, and with the establishment of a Legislative Council, plus an expensive building for it, together wit:h the consequent staff wlJieh would have to be attached to it, the planning development and administration would involve highly paiJ administrators, departmental heads and general staff.

    i:l. Nor can I see the successful working of a city and a shire council in Canberra. lf such were

    created it would mean that-( a) the people of Canberra would have to pay much higher rates tlwn they do at present; (b) the Government would have to heavily subsidize the councils and tl1e granting of that subsidy would become similar to the a1mual fight between the Commonwealth and Statt'S,

    as to the amounts they should receive. As Canberra is the National Capital I cannot see it succeeding in its fullest and most attractive

    ionn of development, other than from government finmwe. 'l'lw Canberra community can be given tlwir .:;/!

    Departmental Town Planner, and the suggested Depal'tmcut of the Interior Liaison Officer. 10. W c should strive for simplicity in administration, not to make it complex. The builuing o£ a l'ii y ·with a town plan is much easier than a city without a plan. It docs, however, require someone in ::111ltority to :-;ee that the plan i8 carried out, and to me the simple solution so far as Canberra is concerned is to clothe the Departmental Town Planner with snfiil'i<'nt authority, so that he can preveut any of the

    departments from contravening the plan. 11. IV hen a town plan is made law, is nu all t hority for any department to sidet::;iep the plan; 1 he Departmental Town Planner should be its departm ·nt a! guardian.

    12. altemtions proposed to be made to the pi;JJI ohould be scrutiuiz\'d and reported upon by the 1\Utsidr A(l,·isoJ·y Committee; copies of same should aho be sent to the Canberra r,ocal Town Planning Committee. In addition any proposed alterations sho:ll

    13. If a revision of the plan is made, which I rongl,v rrcomml'nd, and which mnst be done by a lirst-elnss Town Planner, the amended plan should he snffil'ie11tly detailed to prevent any ambiguity in :its interpretation by the Departmental Town Planner. H. In my opinion the Secretary of the Department of the l!1trrior or one of his deputies or assistants .'-d1nnld be designated as a liaison between the people of C:mherra and the various di'partments, on matters

    ontside of the toirn plan. l\Iatters concerning the toivn plan shonld be dealt with by the Departmental Town Planner. 15. These suggestions would make for a much .'impl<>r administration and much cheaper in cost than that suggested by the majority report of the Selrct Committee.


    16. 'fhe other major basic difference is that l do not agree that the present Burley Griffin plan is so well conceived, that it must be sacrosanct.

    17. The plan as conceived by Griffin is now ove1· ±0 years old. During this period town planning ha'! made great progress. Our conception and mode of bing has changed considerably. Transportation has made terrific changes. It was horse and buggy in tho ;co days. To-day it is motor cars, motor transportation and aeroplanes. Economic circumstances and costs h:c \'e chang< d. Gone arc the days of spacious homes, Hnd public buildings when costs did not matter; architectm·e has changed; we have moved away from the ornate and quick dating type, to the simple cleaner form, whic-11 I is a striving on the part of our architects to express that open sunny and democratic Austra.lian spirit. To-day we go for brighter colours in our

    homes, furnishing, and dress, and our ideas of landscaping, massed gardening effects and city beautification haYc also undergone some considerable changes.

    18. I have always felt the Canberra town plan,- which is designed in a now discarded geometric ,;:-stem of Ji'rench orig-in, is un-Australian. It was a design created so that Freneh Kings could by stationing their guns on the pivotal point shoot straight duwn each of the streets radiating from that point and so quell the rebellious mobs. It is, therefore, an imperialistic design. It does seem strange

    that people want to ding tenaciously to sn•·h a design, when Canberra is a young National Capital, which should express in its design!ng a truly modem democratic outlook, because it is the Capital of a young democracy. 19. \V e should be resilient and absorbent to new ideas. If the conditions and life of the people, living and working in Canberra are changing, if conditions generally have changed, all of which we accept readily, then why should we only resist the changing ideas in town planning?

    20. Canberra is a difficult place in which to find your way about. I found it so on each occasion I visited it before entering Parliament ancl, although I entered the Senate in 1949, I still find it a

    difficult place to find my way about. 21. Mr. Gibson, the departmental Town Planner, admitted he found it difficult when he to live in Canberra, but he said he didn't IHnY as he has lived there fiye years. 22. One of th€ world's recognized town planners, Dr. Karl Luuger, fonnprly of Vienna am1 now

    of Brisbane, said he always has to use a map to find bis way about Canbcna. 23. If town planners cannot easily find their way about Canberra \\·ithont the usc of maps, then vvhat chance has the ordinary Australian citizen visiting his own National Capital of so V 24. I bdieve that a world class planm-r should be f'nguged to recksign and improve the Ca11bcrra

    towu plan; three essential features being, to try and make it C'asicr fur the ordinar,v citizen to fiml his w<1y about, to redesign the Government Triangle, and to make it mol'c lin1hlc for the people of Canberra.

    23. Dr. Karl Langer, in his evidence, showed by placing c;culc• l!I'

    features of Paris, \Vashington and New Delhi, that we had as m1lch lall(l lwl(l in Canberra for

    ;.:;overnment buildings as those three cities combined. The population of the three countries they represent would amonnt to approximately 800,000,000 people. The ventral avcnuPs of caeh uf tlicse is on the grand and spectacular basis. T therefore agree with Dr. Langer tllat the population of Australia will never be large enough to requi1·e an area of land eqnivalent to governmental building and aesthetic requirements of those three countries eombined, in their eapital eities, whieh no one will deny are designed on the grand basis.

    26. Only one witness, a departmental officer, indicated t be ba laurc of the still to eo me

    to Canberra through departmental transfers, and Ht"Y arr· w1·.'· fn,·. E·,·en aJJ;nring tl11·

    27. T am entirely in accord thrn should be spar·iun'i gJ·nlilHl.-; [or pnhlii' Jmilrli))!-2"· 'J'his allrw;s iill':r lwst architectnral to be seen to better vdY

    ilPiic\'r· thne ],r plenty of laud near them fol' ear Jlilrl..:ing d thr· staff ,,-ol'lzing tl1:re 1IIH1 for

    1hc•. transacting busine;.;s there. I lwlien· also tlrat the i\l'l'lllW.; hd11·r•r•n tlw rmvs oi' puhhc

    ln1ildings should be 'xidc <'nongh for traffir·. f

    I agree that an oversupply of land should be he],\ in th" mi!ldlt· of C

    (1) That buildings are so far apart they h:1ye 1 o affinity or contact with each other. (2) That the area so spacious thnt it will11< t nrwr lw filled. hnt that it-­

    (a) Creates a ''aeuum in t!Je mi(1rll" of CHnherra. (b) That it forees pr·ople to liYe mneh fnrihrr from tlJ<·ir work than ner·,.ssary. (c) It thereby entails more tinw trawllin;; to anrl from \Hdc for cmpln:nTs. (d) l\Iakes it more costly for JVOple her· ami' of the longer distance ri'quired for

    transportation to and from work. (e) Makes it uneconomical for the public bus tram;portation system nmnini! tlil'uugh so many miles of unoccupied land.


    28. As I have stated before, I am keen on the park-like effect of Canberra being- retained, ·with as mueh beautification as possible, in order to make it a national capital of which we will be proud. A proper balance must be kept in town plan11ing with these things on the one hand, and the economics of more mumlane things on the other hand.

    2D. Vvith the re([esign of Cauberra on more wodem Jines giving us a main street, which is

    surdy an ac,·epted Ansrralian dwracteristi•:, and the allowa11ce of a residential area closer to the centre, with a consequent rcduetion of the Government area, we will make it a more liveable place for those living in Canberra, it wm appeal more as a human unit of living to the average Australian visitor, and it will become a more eeonomic unit to administer and in which to live.

    30. At present Canberra is like a lot of limbs without a body. I know many people say it \Vill be all right when it is completely built upon. Let any one go into the details of the building·s likely to be built thete 111 the Juture and they will realize unless the plan is altered the centre will always be a vacuum.

    31. I noticed a fear in the evidenre of several of the witnesses that we must hold all the

    spaciousness of Canberra we now hold, for fear we may require it for some unknown purpose. I sincerely hope fear will not hold us back from tackling the problem,

    32. An illustration as to what 1 mean might be given this way. vVhid1 is better, a small patk or garden attractively designed and planted and very ·well kept, c1·eating· a delig·lltfu1 impres:sion, or a park of huge acreage, which it is always intended ·will be nicely designed and kept, but never reaches that desired stage because of its size and the finance required, with the result it always 1'e111ains a large park of tall grass and in an undeveloped state? .A better and more compact design of Canberra could well be compared to the small park; the present design might easily resemble the good but never fulfilled intentions of the large park.

    33. The basic requirement for the best development of Canberra is a very good town plan.

    34. It is essential that the architecture of the buildings should be good, that the landseaping and beautification should also be first class. 35 . .1£verything is, however, just incidental to the plan, the rate of its development, the transfer of oepartrnents, everything is secondary to that of a good town plan.

    36. It is, therefore, essential that Canberra should be built to a really excellent town plan and I believe the quickest, cheapest and best way to secure this is to do as Mr. C. J. Farrington, Arehitel't and Town Planner, of Sydney, and Dr. Karl Langer, Architect and Town Plann€1", of Brisbane, town planning witnesiJes whose evidence impressed me most, said, "Let one man revise the plan and so express himself as it would be much better than having a commission to do the job''.

    37. A town plan by an individual is the complete expression of that 1wr:wn, the plan of a

    commission is at best a compromise plan of several people.

    38. Finally, the difficulty and expense of getting say three outstanding town planners together would be considerable. 39. Le' us get back to the reason for the setting up of this Committee. Did the mover

    of the resolution think there vYcre major deficieneies in the plan which khonld be reetified, or did l1e do so for the purpose of eonfirming that the present plan was a good plan 1

    40. It must surely have been engendered by the thought that something should be done about redesig·ning tlw plan. 'l'here must have been some positive reasoning.

    41. As I have said before the basic requirement is an excPJlent pJan. If \Ye havrn't got that, then everything else will be adyersely affected. The slow rate of Canberra's development \Yill not afl'ect Australia advcn;e]y t() any extroni 11nd it does not matter what administration of Canberra we appoint, it will not ovPrcome a plan with drofects.

    42. In my vie\\' the CummittPP h11s not dealt strongly enough 1rith the real r'ause of the tt·oublc, viz., the Guvcrmnent 'l'rian.:2le anrl the romp1cxity of the existing town plau.

    The Town Planner selected to revise the existinu town plan of Canberra., shmtl.d give consiclerat,ion to the following:-(1) The roading system of Canberra, whether it can be improved for present and future traffic requirements. Whether the elimination of the circular system o£ :roads or some of them

    would be an improvement. (2) What would be the best for the future of the city in the development of the lakes scheme, keeping in mind not only the aesthetic ralue to the city, but also the improvement o£ living: conditions for the people of Canb ·1-ra, by providing more amenities and recreational

    facilities, such as boating, fishing, acr1uatic sports, lakeside drives and lakf'side picnic and park grounds. The Town Planner .,hou1(1 keep in mind the distance Can berra is hom the coast.


    (3) Whether there is too much land bei1:g held iu the centre of Canberra for government buildings which might neyer be filled. ( 4) If he decides there is too much land being Ldu for government buildings, whether it would make Canberra more livable for its ru;iclcnts, if some of the land could be used-(a) to

    give Canberra a main ::;hopping stre. t, \ ; to be used for good class residential areas, and so allow people to live closer to th '" aml thus save the extravagant distances of

    travel to and from work, which iLL· pt·e::;eut sprawling or extended development of Canberra is forcing people to mak,:. it must be kept in mind to ·what Canberra will sprawl, on the present basis of design, \dtcn it quadruples its population, which at present is small. ( 5) Whether there should be further ind u.-tr1al areas, designating them as noxious and non­

    noxious industrial areas. It would "il,l'lll to c1z·signate such as heavy or light industry areas is wrong, because a heavy industry i·; nut ahrays noxious, whereas a light industry could be noxious as to smell or noise, &c. ( 6) The extension of the community or ne:gltl.Jourhood centres.

    (7) The preservation and extension as fal' as possible of the garden effect of Canbena. The maintenance of the best balance possible between garden city effect, and the other requirements of Canberra as the National Capital. ( 8) 'rhat ample provision be made in the plan for cultural, educational, recreational sport, and

    organized sport requirements. (9) Whether the present site is most suitab:c Iol' .Parliament House, or should Parliament House be ultimately built on Capital Hill, or sueh other site as the Town Planner may considPr. (10) Whether the centre of the area, at pre:-;ult known as the triangle, should be made into one

    central avenue, or two or three. (11) Consideration should be given as tow hidt are thP most ..,nitablr for flats. and whether the Town Planner considers limitn t i· •H of height should be placed on fiats. \12) Special consideration be given as to wiwther Duutroon College would be a military target in

    time of war, and, if so, whether it ,nnltl make Canberra a target of war. If not, should it retain its present site, with a permanl'nt right of manceuvre over the areas where it docs at present, or to what area it should be confined.


    (1) That the town plan of Canberra be recle.;ig:H·d and for this purpose that a first-class Towu l'launer be engaged to do job. It is desirable that til\' Town Planner should be an architect, and have a knowledge of landscaping and, if possible, an engine!' ,·!ng knmdedge. Such men can be obtained.

    (2) The Town Planner .should not be tied to limitations on town planning imposed by Committee or the departments in the preparation of design as no really worth-while town planner would (:ousider such an appointment, limited by a committee o1· department, with possibly no real expert knowledge on the subject.

    ( That the Town Planner be one person and not a of tmvn planners. This will lead to

    11 quick completion of the plan, a more effective unit of ideas, and be much costly than it ·wonld he with

    " eommission. ( 4) 'l'hat when the plan is approved by the :\I in;;' :'1' a ml gazetted, that an outside advisory body be sd. np embracing an architect, engineer, and the Town l'lnnner \\·ho cl€signec1 the new town plan. All of 1 !1<'111 to be men of high standing in their professions.

    (;'!) This committeB to be of a continuing natm\'. ;:n'1 \\·Jwre m·c:essary, when dealing witlt particular ph;'""" of Canberra's development they haYc po\n'r .<' <·n-opt for consnltation representati-res of art, the 1llca tre, women's organizations, child welfare organ iza 1 ions, ib i\'f' ll as busin<'ss, industry and sporting bodies, &1·. The Rdrice of this Committee must be treated wit]• :·<·sp<·d aml serious consideration by the ::\finister.

    (G) If the Committee fails to secure agreement ,·,ith the .:IIinister on matters which they fed are of :-nlf'fivient eonsequenr:r•, then tlH· arlvison· conunittr0 '.\'(



    ({! The Senate Standing Committee on Tmn1 i'Liillting to be comprised of seYen senator.o.;. (8) 'fhe Senate Standing Committee on the To·,,·n Plan of Canberra W011ld act as a parlia11trntary !-:'1111 t·dian of the town plan, scrutinizing in rletail any amendments of the to·wn plan. In additiOJl

    ir. wonld haYc power to receive representations from th" rmtsidr Advisory Council in the cnsc of a rlispnt,.

    ld.wc('n the Minister and the Council and that it "''lldd hnn• the right to make representations to tlH' .\Jini:>lel' on the suhject in dispute and that where tl1 : nrl the Standing Committee still r]i,agl'f•r•il i1 wnnlrl 1w ilhl<· to l'<'JlOl'i tl11· rlispnt,• 1" thr· '-;r•n:t1r·.



    (9) 'l'hat a local committee of say nine persons, representing various local organizations of a public spirited nature, such as the Chamber of Commerce, women's organizations, child welfare, playground associations, sporting bodies, &c., be set up for the purpose of watching the interests of the people of Lanoerra 111 the develOpment of the town plan. Such members to be selected by the various organizations or group of ol'gamzations, which the lYiinister may desire to have represented. It is visualized that the members of th1s comm1ttee which could be named the Canberra l.Jocal Town Planning Committee, would work in an 110norary capacity, as is done in hundreds of local municipal councils. The sy.:.tem of appointment to such a

    committee by elections, on the vote of the Canberra px:opie, is one to be avoided. It brings politics into town planning affairs, and immediately tends to spoil the true public spirited outlook necessary to act on this committee. Politics have been the greatest drawback to town planning in my own State of Queensland, and my own City of :l'llackay in particular. Town planning should be entirely free of politics.

    l\ly experience and observations in the making and operation of a town plan shows that women have u much keener and more sympathetic understanding of the aesthetic and community requirements than men. 'rhey have a much more highly developed sense in these matters than men and I would therefore stress that women should have a fairly good proportion of the representation on the local Canberra town planning committee.

    (10) That one departmental officer of the Department of the Interior be designated as the liaison otlicer to all departments, through whom local Canberra residents might place requests or other matters concerning living in Canberra.

    ( 11) 'The development of Canberra as the National Capital should be proceeded with as circumstances and the national economy will permit. 'rhat rate of development should not be of a speed, suggestive of a burning desire to complete the capital at top pressure, as some witnesses desired. In this widespread and sparsely populated nation, there are many areas urgently desiring just ordinary amenities, and I cannot exhibit a passion to have Canberra pushed at a headlong speed to the detriment of the people in many of those areas. Commonwealth departments and civil servants are comfortably housed where they are, so let

    Lm make Canberra development at a speed we can comfortably attain. I have in mind in particular

    shortages of loan funds for local authorities, and where in many cases residents of places have not yet got a water or electricity service. .A slower and more ordedy developed Canberra might well prove in the long nm a much better designed Canberra.

    (12) Pinance should be made available for each project in Canberra so that when commenced it Rhould be carried through to completion.

    ( 13) Whilst architectural aspects would be referred to the outside technical advisory body, all departments should be given to understand that buildings of their department should be of a good architectural standard. No further disgraceful eyesores should be sponsored by any department such as the postal building opposite the Kurrajong HoteL The Postmaster-General's Departrnent seems to have fallen to a wry low architectural standard.

    (14) No temporary building should be allowed to be built m Canberra, as there is nothing mor'e permanent than a temporary building.

    (15) .Architecture in Canberra should get a\ray from the old style of densely packed countries O\ erscas. lt should be modern, clean of appearancP, and expressive of the wide open spaces, and the

    of this country.

    (16) For the purpose of achieving the best in architecture, the best of our Australian architects, ontside of the g·overnment service, be engaged to draw the designs of major government buildings.

    (17) Cnltural Buildings.-\Vhen an opera honsl', auditorium, national theatre or whatever name i<> is built, size should not be the main consideration. Any such hall should be large enough to

    Hccommodate a fairly large audience, but not too big to spoil the intimacy of the building which is so It is far better to plan a building for a rcpNlt performance occasionaiiy, than to have a huge

    half empty hall, on many occasions.

    In the execution of such a building the foyer of it should be large enough to hold the bulk of those attending, during the intermission.

    The suggestion of Dr. Gertrude Langer, the Brisbane Courier-Mail art critic, that instead of bwlding a large and costly art gallery, which we must admit only a wry small proportion visit, art be taken to the people. by the hanging of works in the auditorium foyer; and by continually changing and making displa:y-s, that many more people, through attendmg concert:-;, &c., would see the art displays, and s1 become nrore acquainted with art. For some time the B:ishane Conl"icr-Jlf ail has made small displays of art in tlwi t• ground floor entrance and this has I believe bePn vcry sncr-essful in attracting people's interest.




    Arkwright, .I!'. J ., Public Servant; representing the Capital Territory Branch of the

    Cowmomvea1th J>ublic Service Clerical Arn1itage, J. A. M., Secretary, Australian Clay .Prod t Ashton, \V., Chairman, Commonwealth Art Actvi;;ory Board and practising painter. Bailey, R. 1.±., Solicitor, and Chairman of the Advisor.Y Council of the Australian Capital Territory. B1· opny, J. J ., Commonwealth Aud1tor-General. Butters Sir John, Company Director, and f01·mer Chairma u, .F ederal Capital Commission. Campbell, Major-l.±eneral 1. R., Commandant, Hoyal Jiilitary College.

    Campbell, H., Director, National Gallery of South Au stralia and member of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board. Chapman, Juajor A., Deputy Commander, Royal Engineers. Uolman, G. A., General Manager, J. B. Young Ltd. Corbett, Professor A. H., Professor of Engineering, Royal }lilitary College, Duntroon.

    lJa vis, E. 0., Director, Timbe1· D evelopment Assoc1atiou of .i..ustralia. Dickius, J. M., Geologist; representing the Australian Capital Territory Parents and Citizens' Council. .Dunbar, W., Director, Government Tourist Bureau, CanbelTa. Dunk, \Y. K, Chairman, Public Service Board.

    East, S. G., Chartered Accountant; representing the Cnnbena Chamber of Commerce. Eldridge, Lieutenant-Colonel R. T., Otticer-in-charge of Administration, Royal Military College . .Farrington, C. J., Architect and Town Planner . .l!'itzhardinge, L. :F., R eader, Australian National Universjty; representing the Canberra and Distr ict Historical

    Society .

    .Fi%elle, 1L, Assistant Director of Works, Canberra . .Frankel, Mrs. E. M., Honorary Secretary, Canberra .\.rt Club. Fry, R McD., representing the Australian Capital Ten· ito l',y Ji.ngineering Company. Gar ran, J. C., Farmer and Grazier; representmg the Cnr: ben a }{cpertory Society.

    Gibson, T. R S., Chief Town Planner, Departmeut of the I nterior. Gle eso n, L. T ., Public Servant; representing the Australian Capital Territory Parents and Citizens' Council. Godfrey-Smith, Mrs. A. A., Manager-producer, Canberra Hepertory Society. Go odes, H. ,J., Assistant Secretary, Department of the 1 n:asnry. Uoodnwn, R. D., Hesearch Scholar; representing the ::w stralian Capital Territory Parents and Citizens'


    Gulson, A. L., General Manager, Gulson's Brick Company. Goulburn, and Councillor of the Australian Clay I'roducts Association. Harris, H. J. K., Architect and Town Planning Uonoultaut; former mE·mber National Capital Planning and Del"elopment Committee. llani;;on, P. }'.,Senior Lecturer in Town 11nd Country l' lanuing, CniYersity of Sydney. H erman, 1\f. E., Architect and Town Planner.

    H ewitt, C. S., Assistant Secretary, Department of the 'J'rcasury. llorgan, Mrs. J.; representing the Australian Capital '[pnitory Branc·h of the National Council of Women . . Jmlir:i:', ,l., Assistant Direc tor of Works, Australian Ca pit

    KeJJ!lOdv, .J. 13.; representing the Master Builders' "\.sso ;·ia t i rill of ti1e Australian Capital Territory. Ki11g , If. \V. H., Reader in Geography, Australian N ati .. utd Knight, W. ll., Assistant Transport :Manager, Departme- nt of the Interior. Kuner, Director, Australiau Capital Territory Eng: m-ering Company. J,H JJger, Dr. K., Consultant Town Planner and Architect.

    Lind, W. J. H., Assistant Secretary, Department of the f nt erior. Lindsny, D. E., Director of th e National Gallery of Vic toria. J,o wc, T. H. 11., Public Serrant; representing the Oanhvrra Hcpertory Society. \!<:Cay, :F. L., Senior Projects Officer, Departmcn t ?f Xn tiona] Dc,·clopment.

    !IIcCauley, F. J., Trade Union Secretary; representmg tlw .\u;:tralian Capital Territory Tradrs and Labour CounciL ,\f ut· Douald, .A. .J., Public Servant; repreoenting tl1c· .\w:t ralian Capital Territory B ranch of the Comm 0mvealth Public Se rvice Clerical

    \fdlo!!ald, W. D., Chairman of the }IcDonaltl Construction Com pany Ltd. \ld,an•n, "\v. :\.., Secretary, Department of the Interior. \f('my, G . • J., Engineer.

    :\loir. :Jf. J., Arc!Jitcct, and Gen eral }fanager, Car,it'll (";;uLr·na Picture Theatres Ltd. 'fllll1 erin , K .. J., Pllhl ic .Sc n·ant; the .\n.o tr :J\i:1n ( ":l t•ital Tcnitor_y Progrc::s anti \Vrlfarc Connei.1. Vnl roonry, J. L., P11hlic Servant; representing tll(' :\.u -n·alinn Football League, Canberrn . '-fn o

    O'flricn , Hi,: Grace Eri", Roman Catholic .\rrhbi;:hop ,,f (";;nht·r:a and Goulburn. Orl.!!r r.", .J. TI., Second Clerk A::sistant, DeJ>artmcnt of thr· :--; en atr. Pra tt. D .. :\fcmher of tlw Con1monwcalth 1\rt .\d•.-i;;r.r_,. Br.;,rrl nn d J•rartisinrr Artist. !'r\·,, ,._ L. D .. Snr.erintendcnt, l)arl s anrl Garrlrn.'. Der,,1r :! "'·nt of thr Interior.

    1\ nL f'hi 1lwrrnon ic Societ_y. .T. X. C .. Sr-rrda ry and Sun·r·;>0r-Gr-; ,(·:·nl. Department of tbc Intcrinr.

    Ho\\"r- . R.; rcprei' <' nting the Canbcrrn Chamber of Comm r- rr·P. nwlrlw+, G., A!'s i.otant Secretar.v, Department of Xat i0!l al Dc,·clopment, and Pres id en t, Canberra Area f'omm ittcc of the Royal Austra1i!l!l Institute of Arrhi tec t,:.


    E. J., Architect ; representing the Association of Architects, Engineers, Surveyors and Draughtsmen

    of Australia. Shakespeare, A. T., Editor of The Canberra Times and a member of the Advisory Council of the Australian Capital Territory. Smith, D. ·0.; representing the Master Builders' Association of the .._'\..ustralian Capital Territory. Smith, H. H., Architect and Town Planner. Spate, Professor 0. H. K., Professor of Geography, Anstralian National University. Stamler, Dr. W. E. H., Bursar of University House, Au stralian National University. Strahan, JvL, Teacher of Modern Dancing.

    Taylor , R. M., Director of Works, Australian Capital Territory. Tow ndrow, Professor F. E. , Dean of the Faculty of Arcl1i tecture and Building, New South Wales University of Technology. Ure, R. M., Principal Architect, Department of Works. Veale, W. C. D., Town Clerk of the City of Adelaide, and President of the Australian Planning Institute. Waight, A. G., Clerk. .

    Warde , Mrs. S. E., Public Servant. ,

    Waterhouse, B. J., Chairman, National Capital Planning and Development Committee. Watters, F. J.; representing the Master Builders' AsEociation of the Australian Capital Territory. Wigmore, Mrs. I •. ; representing the Australian Capital Territory Branch of the National Council of Women. Wins ton, Professor D., Professor of Town and Oountr;y Planning, University of Sydney.

    Withall, Federal Director of the Associated Chambers of Manufacturers of Australia.



    (Sec paragraph 12, page S, and paragraph 460, page 5;:), uf this Report.)



    Department of Home Affairs, ;i pril, 1911.


    1. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia im·ites designs for the laying out of its Capita] City, and undertakes to remunerate the authenticated author or authors of the Designs that may be placed respectively first, second, and third in order of merit at the nnal adjudication upon the Designs in accordance with the "Conditions of Competition," as follows:-

    For the Design placed first For the Design placed second For the Design placed third

    Premium £1,750 ,_. £750


    2. The conditions under which Designs are invited and will be receiYed by the Commonwealth, follow under the heading "Conditions of Competition."

    3. Information and particulars are also given, solely to assist intending competitors, under the respective headings:-Historical and Introductory; Requirements; and

    Description. The statements container\ therein do not form part of the contrart between thP Commonwealth and the competitor.

    4. Information for the guidance of intending competitors will he available free of cost, at the following places:--Australia

    New Zealand Canada Routh Africa

    London Paris Berlin Washington New York Chicago

    The Department of Ilome "\flairs, ;wd tlw J'ublir ll<'[wrtment of eac1J State. Public Works Department, Wellington. Public Works Department, Ottawa. Public W arks Department, Pretoria. Public Works Department, Cape Town. Office of the High Commissioner of ,\ m;tral ill,

    The British Embassy. The British Embassy. The British Embassy. The British Consul-General. The British Consul-General.

    5. Applicants must establish their bona fides as intending competitors before being supplied with information.

    6. The information comprises the following:-(a) Historical notes; conditions of competition; requirements; general information; descriptive matter; and statistics relating to meteorology and clima tologv. (b) .Map of preliminary Contour Survey of country a hout Can berra.

    Scale, 20 chains = 1 inch.

    (r) Map of Contour Survey of site of Federal Capital at Cnulwrra (2 copies). Scale, 400 feet = 1 inch.

    Contour8. 5 feet vertical intervals. NoTE; The Trigonometrical Meridian lllBY prar-ticnlly lw rc·p:arcl('rl 11::< rlw local true Meridian. (d) Topographical map of Federal Territory of abo11t f!OI) sqnnre mileo.

    Scale, 6,000 feet= 1 inch (approximately). (e) Map of Statr of New South Wales. (f) Map of the south-eastern portion of the Statr• of SPw South Wale,. (g) Geologic-al map of the. City Site, Scale, :;;on fr·r-r I inr·li. llll

    Geologist of New South Wales. (h) Map showing rainfall anr1 temperature stRtiC'tics r.f t]w "it·· +'r tllr· r:r•>leral rapitRl and .Qurroundin g district. (j) H.eport by Commonwealth ()!J the l'limatr ,,f th" dictrir·t.

    (k) Reprodnl'tion< of landscape sketrhe;; tah!n front points 1Yithi11 the ( 'ity

    7. Competitors willlle bound only hy the Condition< of C


    1. In these Conditions the Government shall mean thr· (;ol·ornment r,f the Commonwealth of .\ustralia; the MiniRter shall rnr•an th•• '\fiHi'tH of State admin;-1erin!! ttH'" Drpartr!l<'lll "f !I'ilJt<· .\fTuir,-: thr· Board 'hall mPan the Board n·fr·rrerl tr, in ('lame 12 hereof.


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    2. Geometrical plans and sections should be prepared to scales based on meaurement, and the general plan of the City Design shall be drawn on Contour Invitation to Competitors).

    the British standa1·ds of Map ( c of paragraph 6,

    3. No other restriction is placed on the method and character of the drawings submitted. 4. It is desirable that at least suggested outlines of t.he more important public and other buildings, parks, gardens, bridges, and principal const1·uctional features be indicated, in so far as they illustrate the general Design. ·

    5. The drawings shall be mounted on linen and on stretchers, and it is desired that these should not greatly exceed the dimensions of the Contour Map referred to in paragraph 2. 6. Descriptive and other matter accompanying the Designs must be either in print or type·written and not in manuscript. It is not obligatory to use the English language.


    7. The Designs must be so prepared as to facilitate their succesful reproduction, it being the intention of the Government to furnish the leading technical journals interested in the subject and willino- in thfl public interest to publish them, with copies of the more important of the drawings. "'

    8. The Designs and desc:riptive matter shall be submitted without any distinguishing mark, motto or name, but a sealed packet containing the name and ad:lress of its author must be securely attached to I esign, such packet to be held, and opened after adjudication, only by His Excellency the Governor-General or his deputy.

    9. An attempt by an author to disclose his identit.Y in any other manner will disqualify his Design and such Design will not be included in the competition, nether win it be returned to the author. '

    10. The Designs must be delivered to the Secretary, Department of Home Affairs, :Melbourne, on or before the 31st day of January, 1912. Omission to .so deliver will involve disqualification unless the Board referred to later on is satisfied that the delay has not occurred through on the part of the competitor,

    and provided that such delay is only for a period that will not interfere with the work of investigation and adjudication. 11. All Designs must be delivered at the Department of Home Affairs, :Melbourne, free of cost to the Government. N on-premiated Designs will be repackud and shipped or posted for return to the several competitors at one of the following addresses to be named by him in delivering his Design, namely:-

    Australia The Department of Home Affairs, and the Public Works Department

    New Zealand Canada South Africa

    of each State. Public Works Department, Wellington. Public Works Department, Ottawa. Public Works Department, Pretoria. Public Works Lepartment, Cape Town.

    London of the Hig-h Commissioner of A ustl'll ]j a.

    Paris The British Embassy.

    Berlin The British Embassv.

    Washington The British Embassy.

    New York The British Consul-General.

    Chicago The British Consul-General.

    who will be advised of their despatch. Freight and other charges will be paid by the Government as from Melbourne to the address so named by the competitor. Insurance will be effected by the GoYernment should the competitors state in their sealed particulars the intrinsic value they place on their drawings, but the Government may fix the values upon which insurance will be effected without incurring any liability to the competitors.

    12. The Designs delivered and admitted to competition will be submitted to a Board consisting of­ An engineer; An architect; A licensed surveyor; appointed by the Governor in Council for investigation and report to the Minister.

    13. In the event of any member of the Board resigning or being from any cause prevented from carrying out his duties, or declining or neglecting to carry out his duties promptly, 1 ;ten the Minister may accept the resignation of such member or remove him from the Board and appoint some other person to fill the varancy so caused, but such departure from the originally constituted Board shall not affect the conditions of competition.

    14. The Minister will adjudicate upon the Designs admitted to eompetition, after they lwve been submitted to the Board, and such adjudication will be final and without appeal. 15. The oecision of the 1\Iinister will be announcrd in Melbonrne within two mont1ls of t1w !late of receipt of tlw Designs, or as soon thereafter as is possible. The result will he submitted for pnbliration as

    soon as possible in the leading technical ionrnals devotee to mch mattrrs hoth in Australia and in surh other places as tl1e locale of designers may indicate, and the Minister approve of. 16. Immediately after the announcement of adjudication it is intended to publicly exl1ibit in ?.feJhournc for a rea.oonable period, all Designs admitted to com petition. Should tl1c comr;ctitinrs on their own

    behalf to arrange a seeond exhibition in London or clsGwhere, the \l·ill, if l'N]lh'.'trrl, sn)lply as exhibit' reyll'orluctions from the originals of the preminted Designs only. 17. Competitors must understand that publication, wl1et11er of premiated }kcigns or of otl1er Dr.signs will in no "·ay entitle competitors to any claim for compensation against the :1\Iinister or the Gon'rnmr'JJt in rcgfnd to proprietary or othrr rights.

    18. The premia ted Designs shall become the prop.crty of the Government for it." usP, .Pithcr in whole or in part. Any claim for further remunera twn by one or by nll of t}Je authors or t1Jclr ass1gnors or legal r<>pre,entativeR will not, nnder any circumstance, be recognized.


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    19. The Gonrnment, in consideration of the undertaking to pay the premiums mentioned, becowes entjtled to call and to be furnished with, additional information, including such elueidating plans, sketches, and reports, as 1t may be advised by the Board referred to in Clause 12, are requisite. Such information need not necessarily be in the nature of working drawings or specifications, but similar in character to tbe original designs themselves, and such as it may not have been p1·aetieable to fu1}) den1op in tbe first instance

    without such further information. ,

    20. On the application by the }1inister for such information, the competitor shall forward the same so tha! it may be received within four months from the date he should hHe receiYed the application in the ordmar.y courPe of post, but such application shall be made, if at all, within two months of the date of ad.iudication upon the o1·iginal Designs. The aforesaid premiums coYer the cost of supplying the additional information referred to, and the Minister will not recognize any elaim for payment beyond these amounts.

    21. Of the se•·eral premiums, 75 per cent. will be paid on adjudication, and the remaining 23 per cent. on receipt of snch additional information as may have bt•en asked for, if any. Should, however, the Board consider the Designs as submitted to be suflkient, t11E'n the full premiums ,,·ill be paid on the final adjudication. 22. No unsuccessful competitor shall have any claim for payment in respect of an apparent adoption of his proposals or any part of them as risclosed by a1l_Y Designs he may deliver.

    23. The Government by its own officers wi1l give effect to the adopted Design. 24. The GoYernment does not accept responsibility as regards safe tra11Sit, cmtoiJJ, or re-transit of the Dec·igns or any documents forwarded or delivered by a competitor, but it undertakes that aD reasonable care shall be exercised to prevent damage during tbe period in which they are in its possession.


    1. Stalutory.-The people of :New South Wales, Victoria, QueenRland, South Western

    Australia. and Tasmania, agreed to unite in one indiR soluble Federal Commonwealth, under the Crown of the l::nited Kin9:dom of Great Britain and Ireland and under an Act knOivn as the "Commonwealth of Australia Oonstitutio;:;_' Act," -which W?.s assented to i11 July, 1\l 00. 2. Section 123 of the "Constitution Act" provides-

    The Scat oi Government of the C•Jmmonwealth he determined f)y the }'arliament, ,,n,) ,;],,]] he within territory which shall have been gr;, and be di,;tant not lee's than 100 mile" from Syclnev. Such territory shall contain an area of not less than 100 square miles, and such portion tl;ereof as c;hall c

    Crown lands shall be to the Commonwealth without llny payment therefor.

    Tlle Parliament -shall sit at ;VIelbourne until it meet at the Seat of Gowmment.

    3. Didn:ct of Yass-Canberr-a Selectecl.-The qnestion of the seleetion of a site for the purposes of the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth was frequentl,\' del_,ated in l>arliament, and in December, 1908, the Seat of Governr(Jent Ad 1908 was assented to. This Act provides that--It is herehy determined Uwt the Seat uf Govenil!l<'nt ,,f tlH• Commonw,•:tlth ,;hall lH, in the di,tri1t of Ya,,,;-Canlwna

    in the State of New South V't:::U.

    4. With a vievv to giYillg effect to the foregoi1:g the Minister of State for Home Alfai_rs

    instrnetions to the Surveyor tD make a thorongh topogrnphical invrstigation of thr dutn_c-t, w

    order to before thr :Minister as wonld enablP Parliament to demde on tlw most Sllltablr

    territory for tlJC purposes of the Seat of \\'ithin tlw t district. TlJC iss ned to t11e

    Suneyor embraced the following:-" (I.) Preliminary reconnaissance, covering the whole of the district and embracing the catchment area of the water supply governing the same. . . . .

    (II.) Topographical inYestigation of that portion or. J?ortions of d1stnct wh1r}1, clnrmg are shown to the reqms1te charactenst1cs for tlw CommonweaLh


    (IJI.) Contour Sm;py of suggested site or for the Federal City.

    The nrimarv of the territorv were briefly summanzed as follows:-. ( n) Thatv it indudes a sitr; or sites ])r;c;Sl'ssing tlH• lll'r·eo:sar,v topogi'aphical characteristics for FPrlera1 Capital.

    (/J) Thnt it include'" the eatdllnCH: an'a of thv 11 -up ply fOI" t]te Capital-such wate1· supply m112t be of sufficirmt r:ragllitndC> to plac-P t!te qn(',tion of iolnuw nt all seasonR and rurity lw,vond donht. . . .

    N"oT1,.-It is desirable that tlw area sLall l1e lll the prox11mty of

    \J],, Capital site, rJUt should tlw topographienl ext1lllination of the district disclose ihe fad that :"Uth a eonditir111 i.' 110t practirahli', thrn tile ratc_hment rnmt be r,r,>neetul wit11 th,-. trrritory, inrlnding the >'ite fur the Caplta1, that Js to sn:v, sereranee must. he a 1·oirled. ( ,·) i'·J far

    as tlJC City itself is crmr<:rJJed, but grnera1ly. {.7) Ar'Ns.vi7n"lify.-Tt i-: rrrruisitr that thl' site be ea,y uf aN·,.,, from Sydney_ anrl and, thrrl1lgh them, to tlw other Capital citie, al

    hrrhonr on tlw coast. In tlw of (u) the Suncyor will bear in mind that the F_cdcral Capital sho:1ld

    vc a beautiful city, a r:orumanding position, w_ith esten

    rJi.ctinctiYn i\·hieh will ]r•nd t]JCJrFr-ln•s to the rndutwn of a r]r•'J!!Tl 11·orth_y r,f .\lie 1


    not only fo,. tLr· r·rc-:c-nf, l.nt f!Jr all tilT'f'. l'()mcqnf'nti;;: the ;,f th: Site \\"Ll

    r:,oo,t ('flrd·11 ('nmir\('1'?ii'll1 fnm1 a scenic stanrlprl1nt, w1th a new to '<:cnnng and

    also w'ith the object of beautification and expansion.


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    The foregoing covers the main essentials which occur to me, and I lwve no doubt but that the experience of the Surveyor will enable him to realize what is required from him. I should be glad if the Surveyor could enter upon the work at the earliest possible date, and, in the first instance, conduct the reconnaissance of the district, from which possibly certain territories will be shown to stand out as possessing the necessary advantages. These territories could then be more critically examined and reported on.

    5. In complia11Ce with these instructions the Surveyor, in February, 1909, reported that he had made an examination of the area embraced in the Yass-Canberra district and submitted reports upon possible sites for the purposes of the Federal City.

    6. Selection of Territory.-The Minister for Home Affairs thereupon appointed a Board to consider lhe Surveyor's report and to advise him generally with respect thereto. This Board concurred with the Surveyor in his selection of the Federal territory, aml recommended its adoption. This recommendation was approved by the Minister and subsequently was confirmed by the Commonwealth Legislature. In December,

    1909, the Seat of Government Acceptance Act 1909 was passed, in which the territory to be granted to or acquired by the Commonwealth for the purposes of the Seat of Government is determined.

    7. The territory comprises an area of about 900 square miles, as indicated on the Topographical map hereto appended ( (d) of paragraph 6, Invitation to Competitors).

    8. Proclamation.-On the 20th January, 1910, the following Proclamation was published m the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 4, of 1910:-

    Commonwealth of Australia to wit,

    CHELMSFORD Administrator of the Government.


    By His Excellency the Honorable Frederic John Napier, Baron Chelmsford, Knight Commander of the 1fost Distinguisl1ed Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Administrator of the GoYemml'nt of the Commonwealth of Australia.

    hy the 8ent of Government Acceptance Aat 1909 it is enacterl that that Act shall eommence on a day to be fixed

    by Proclamatio·u. after the Parliament of the :State of New South WaleR has pa.ssed an Act :ratifying and confirming the agreement mentioned in and set out in the first·mentioned Ac·t. und snrrenrlering the Terdtory specified in the said first-mentimed Act to the Commonwealth: AND WHF.RE,\S the Parliament of the State of New South Wales has passed an Act, No. 14 of 1909, called the Seat of Government Snn·encler Act 1909, ratifying and confirming the agreement before mentioned and surrendering the Territorv before mentioned to the Commonwealth: •

    Now therefore I, Frederic John Napier, Baron Chelmsford, the Administrator aforesaid, acting with the advice ol the Federal Executive Council, do hereby fix Saturday, the twenty-second day of January, One thousand nine hundred and ten, as the day upon which the Seat of Government Acceptance Act 1909 shall commence.

    Given under my Hand and the Seal of the Commonwealth, this eighteenth dav of Jannv.ry, One thousp.nd nine ( r,.s.) hundred and ten, find in the ninth year of His MaJesty's reign. ·


    By His Excellency's Command,

    GEORGE W. FULLER, Minister of State for Home Affairs.

    and in November, 1910, the Commonwealth Legislature passed the Seat of Government (Administration) Act 1910, which provides the necessary machinery to enable the Commonwealth Government to efficiently administer the Terrjtory.

    9. The final step with regard to the acceptance of the territory by the Commonwealth wa,s taken under Proclamation issued on the 8th December, 1910, as follows:-

    Commonwealth of Australia to wit,




    By His Excellency the Right Honorable William Humble, Earl of Dudley, a Member of His :Yiajesty's :Moc;t Honorable Privy Couneil, Knight Grnnd Cross of the .Most Distinguished Order of Saint :Tvricl1a2l and Raint George, Knight Granrl Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Australia

    \VHEREAS by the Seat of Government .1cceptanee Act 1909 it h enaeterl that the Governor-General is thereby authorized to declare bv Proclamatio·n that, on anrl from a day to be f\xed the Proelamation (in that .\ct referred to as the proclaimed r!ay). Territory described in the Second Schedule to that A"t, und surrcnderell by the State of Xew South Wales to the Commonwealth, is by the Commonwealth ''s a T"' ritnry of the Commonwealth, and that the effect of the

    Proclamation he that, on and from thl' proclaimed day. the TPrritory shall he r.Pccpterl hr thr CommonwNtlth Bnd be acquired by the Commonwealth for the Seat of G'oYernment: A:vv WHEREAS it is desirable that a Proclamation shou].] he issued accordingly: Now THEREFORE I, \Villiam Humble, Earl of Dudley, the Gm·crnor-Gcneral acting with the adYice of the

    Federal Executive Council, do hereby declare that nn 9Tid frr>m tlw fir,t day of .Tanuar.l'. OM thousand nine hundred and eleren, the Territorv described in the Second Schedule to the caid Ad an


    Given under my Hand and the Great Seal of the Commonwealth ,,.; Australia thiH fifth day of D<,·ember, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred anrl ten. and in the first year of His Majesty's reign.

    By Hi., Excellency',; Command, KING O'MALLEY.



    APPENDIX A-continued.

    10. Selection of the City Site.-The f or Rome "\:flairs, ou the advi\:e of the 13oard referred

    to it in paragraph G, instructed the Surveyor to carry out such i'm·n•ys as ,,·err nere;:sary to determine the site within the tenitory most suitable for the purposes of the l:'cderal CapitsJ . Cpon the completion of these surveys, the Board recommended that the City site shoulrl be at Canberra. 11. Populat,ion of City.-For the purposes of tbe design, the population of the Federal Capital City

    may be assumed at 25,000 persons, and may be expected to increase at least proportionately >Yith the increase of population throughout the Commonwealth, estimated at prcsr:nt at 4,421, 795 persons. 12. As a typical example of the growth of population under not dissimilar conditions, thP. following table of the population of Washington, 1800-1900, and its relation to that of the Enited States, is ap1'ended :-


    1791 1800 1810 1820

    1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900

    Yeor. I'opuhniu n vf ,,-.. l:; hiur.: t .... H.

    !{;; r· o of Popnl:\t i'1 !!

    ( o f \\ I ;J:, t

    I t' !litf'(l

    , I

    ! ____________ ._ ... ·- ---·----- ..

    Year of fo rmation of District of Colnmbia, 8, 144 5,308,483 ,001534

    15,471 7,239,881 JJO:H:n

    23,336 9,638,453 . 002'121

    30,261 12,866,020 '0023,52

    33,745 ,001\177

    51,687 23,191,876 .00222!1

    75,080 31 ,443,321 '00338('.

    131,700 38,558,371 ,(J03·116

    177,624 50,155,783 ,00354-I

    230,392 62,622,:230 . 003d79

    278,718 75,568,686 .oososs


    1. T-teguirements.-The Federal Capital Oity wi11 be t}Je permanent Scat of Go1·e rnment of the Commonwealth of Australia, the place at which the Federal Parliament will meet, where all Commonwealth Legislation will be enacted, and where the Governor-General will have his offieia l The city will

    therefore, be primarily the official and social centre of .:\ ustralia. 2. The special consideration of designers mugt be gi,·en to the allocation of appropriate areas, suitll hly situated, and embracing sites for the following:-Houses of Parliament (should be so placed as to become a dominating feature of the city. The

    building will probably have a frontage of 600 feet and a depth of feet). Residence of the Governor-General. Residence of the Prime Minister. Public Offices as follows:-

    The Department of the Prime Minister. The Department of External Affairs. The Attorney-General's Department. The Department of Home Affairs.

    The Department of the Treasury. The Department of Trade ann Customs. The Department of Defenre. The Dellartment.

    Courts of Jmtice. Places of Public Worship. Mint. National Art Gall er:v and I.ibrar:v.

    State Printing Offiee. Government University. Oollegps,

    Oity Hall, nenera1 PMt Offiec. :M:useum. Oentrnl Railwa:v Statinn. 'Railwav MHo;h!l l1inrr Yank

    Milit:>rv B!lrrnrks. 1 ::mn P()

    1irl' 0n,nL

    Gaol. RoRnitals. National Theatre. 0f'ntnll Powr>r

    Gas Work.o . Markets. Rtadium. Parks and


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    . 3. In. addition to the foregoing, areas must be laid out within the city for commercial, residential, and mdustnal purposes. (It is probable that the manufacture of military equipment and other productions for Commonwealth use will be undertaken within the territory.)

    . Railwa'!j.-The P.roposed route on. Contour Plans (b and c of paragraph 6, Invitation to

    while occupymg the best positiOn, havmg regard only to gradients, curves, and cost of construction,

    Is subJect to modifications both as regards location and formation-levels in order to minimize the ill effect due to severance, provide the freest access, and secure harmony with the general city Design. 5. Tramways.-Designers should bear in mind the necessity for providing inter-communication between distant parts of the city by means of tramways.

    6. Ornamental Water.-Two sites for weirs across the Molonglo River have been examined-one at the rocky bar, almost in line between trigonometrical stations "Sullivan" and ''Shale", and the other beyond the western boundary of map ( c of paragraph 6, Invitation to Competitors). 7. The catehmcnt area of the Molonglo and its tributaries may be taken as 700 square miles, over which the annual rainfa11 is approximately 23 inches, and the annual evaporation from extensive areas of water

    surface may be assumed to be 40 inches. •

    8. ReP'ulating- weirs, at least 14 miles above the citv site, will be constructed on the Molonglo and the Queanbeyan Rivers to control flood waters, to equalize the flow of the river, and to maintain a constant level behind anv weir within or near the city site. It may be assumed that a flow of not Tess than 20 cubic feet per second could be maintained at the site during successive years of minimum rainfall.

    9. Water S?rrml7J.-A water supplv for city purposes will be provided on the basis of 100 gallons per capita l)er diem, whirh will be deEverrHl by g-ravitation from a service reservoir at an elevation of about 2,250 feet above SPa level. the position of which has been determined. The supply will be available within the city area below the 2,150 feet Ieve1.

    10. Bewera.oe.-Sewerage will be water-carried bv g-ravit:Jtiol1 and delivered at treatment works at a level of 1,800 feet, such works being 6 miles westerly from Camp Hill Trig;onometrical Station. 11. Central Power.-A suitable s:ite for a central power station must be provided. The prime mover will be a steam plant using- coal.

    12. Sforrn W afer.--The Design must indicate a scheme for the interception and disposal of storm water discl1arging within tl1e city area. 13. 8c1"rmtifi c ObserDatories.-A site for scientific observatories has been selected at a distance of some 6 miles from the city.

    14. Traffic and General.-The contour of the snrface and the panoramic value of the city surroundings i11flnencc tl1e desi"'ni111r of the main avenues. the nrincin11l means of inter-communication, and thA

    ]oration of the park lands, tog,-ether with the adornment of the whole. 15. Competitors are reminded that the city s:itA lies in latituflP 35° south, and that attention must be paid to the treatment of the Design as regards arboreal and other shelter. 16. TD1i!n Pln.nnino.-The occasion for the Desicm of the Federal Canital Oitv of thr> Commonwealth

    of j\ ustra1ia is unicnw in recent times. and it is exnected that comnetitors will rmbody in their Desig-n,q All rPrent devrlnnments in thP scirnrr of town plannintdwr last, at whirh manv anthorities on thP subirct of town planning WPre nrese11t. mmt hrnrp a mwr'ked influpnce upon r:ity Design from the utilitarian, the architectural, tl1e scientific, and tl1e artistic standpoints.


    1. Description.-The seTeded site for the FAdrmll Capital IS m latitude 35° 15' south, and lonp:itnde 149° 15' east, on the westPrn side of the mrrin Dividin!! Range senarating eastern fl"om western rivers, which range attains in thiR locality an averag-e altit11de of 3.000 feet above Rea level. The Crrnital site is distant from the Dividing Ranp:e a bout 30 miles, and from the eastern roastline of Australia abo11t 70 miles in a direct line.

    2. T.,ying- in the v11llev of the MoTon"'lo Rivrr. the !!rPater nart of the r>itv areA is on thr southrrn side of thRt on tl1e nnrthrrn side of thP river it is bonndcd on the east bv Monnt A ins lie. 11nrl a nrnminrnt

    of hilh r1mning 11lmnd (hlP north sonth. trrminating- 11bruptly on the nortlwrn bank of thP 'M'olonq]o

    River. On tl1e wrst. tlw hnnr1d:nv is Blnrk :Mountain and a ran(J'e somprnbat similar to tbat on the eastern bounonr:v. lmt of lowrr a1titur1e and less prominence, and practicAlJ.v paralJel. The ,]onrs townrrh fhe bv thPse two ran"'rR are at fir<::t abrupt. oftrn rock:v. or>r•AsionAllv

    prerinitrmq nnd rlntlwrl with All onrn forr.ot of cnrAlvnt. this fo1•rst extending- to the iunction of the ]owe.r slrmes with thr l!rntlv nur]J,lotin"' ]:J,iJ. and hrrr and thrre moirrtirsr two ran!Ycs fll'P. rnuo·hly. :1 milrs anart. tho. !'t.crnrr s1onrs for a distanr>e of about 1 rnilP

    either ,;irlr. a narrow .strrtrh of morlrrAtf' inclination A1mtti11't llT'f\11 thP wirler area of !!Pncral unrlulation. whirh i.o relir1'ed at intervals by rlevaterl risin.f!' some 50 feet abovr the generallr1·el. 4. Norfh of }.folonrrlo Ri1•rr.-The vallev betwPrn :M'mwt /1inslie and Black 1-fmmtain draimrl prir1rinnl1v hv 9 wlltrr-rourse on its wcstprn oir1r nPAr thr foot of Blar>k Mountain. wl1ir>h watrr-ronrsc for a hont 1,1 milr>o frnm its ronHnenr>r> with the Molonalo T?ivrr is a rnnnin!! stream: brvonrl this noint n fl'rnssv denrcsoion with n ,,nmhrr of snbsirliarv br11nrhrs orrlinarilv rlrv, bnt at timeo nnrlrr the inflncnrc of hraYY th1mrlento»ms-all thPoe ra.rr:v 1Ar!!e hod iPs of WAtPr. A fall of 1 inl'h of rRin within

    minutrs is not rxreption:Jl. Anri there :11"8 rvidenres in thr> rlrhris rnrriPil far out on thB plain thnt rvrn thi, downponr has bren exrceded. The aren drained by this water-rourse iR. apprnximatrly 2!) Rf!Uare mile8. or 16.000 acres. Thr- other water-courses within this val1Py drain relatively small areas.


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    5. The sorl of the valley is everywhere adapted for arboricultnre and much of it is of high qualit,·. suitable under modern methods for cultivation for the growth of all crops. ' ·

    6. South of M olon7lo.-So11:th of :M:olonglo Ri1·er, the contour of the country is irregular, the Narrabundah Range, whrch culmmates m 1fugga Mugga-nearly 2,700 feet above sea le,·el-runs in a north-westerly dire,;tion .to Red f_eet; here there is an. abrupt descent to a level of about 2,100

    feet, _and thrs pomt the range drvrdes rnto a nllmber of radrating spurs. On the Xanabundah Range and rts subsrdrary spurs down to the 1,950 feet level, there is an open forest of cucalynt, the average height of the trees being about 50 feet. •

    7. No prominent water-course flows through this a rea, but the numerous shallow channels and broad depressions under the influence of heavy falls of rain experienced, most frequentlv during the wmmer months, carry rapidly rising turbulent streams. ·

    8. Arborieulture will present no difficulty over anv part of this land· even on the higher rocky points there is a fair growth of trees. ' ' '

    9 .. The !'f olong!o R1:ver.-The _}.{olonglo River-which intersects tl1e city site-is, ordinarily, a sluggish stream; 1t drams some 700 square mrles of country and flows betwePn steep banks cut in the alluvial soil. During periods of prolonged dry weather the river ceases to run. It is readily fordable at short intervals during the greater part of the year, though subject to sudden alternations in volume.

    10. The highest recorded flood was experienced in the year 1891, when the waters reached the height shown on the Contour Plan of the Federal Oa pi tal Site; since that date there has been only one flood of ;.\ny importance, or one which extended to any distance beyond the river banks. It will, however, be noticed by reference to the records that the rainfall for the past 14 years has been below the average, and it is probable that :floor1s wi11 recur, but measures will be taken to control the flood waters.

    11. Prevailing Winds.-The prevailing winds during the winter months are from points west of the xferidian, and as those from the south, south-west, and ,,.e,,t pass over the snow-clad Alps, they are keen. 12. During the summer, hot dry winds from the and north-west alternate with cool winds from the south, ·while the frequent north-east winds from the or·esn are refreshing, and serve to modify the summer temper a ture. '

    13. Tempera.tvres, &c.-The maximum shade temperature recorded is 104°, the minimum 11° Falucmheit; the ordinary summer temperatures are high, while the nights are always cool. During winter the temperature frequently falls below freezing point; the minimum record for 1910 is 26°, but tlwt winter was exceptionally mild. It is, however, rare for snow to fall upon the city site, and still more rare for it to remain nnthaw0d for more than a few hours after sunrise. Fogs are neither frequent nor dense.

    14. 8oil.-Over practicalJy the whole of the city area the soils contain a large percentage of sand, and, though rarely of high quality, give satisfactory results with earcfu1 treatment; the land is usually \\·ell drninrcl naturally, and there is an almost total absence of marsh. 15. Buildinq },f aterial, &c.-Neither within thl' city area nor near it has any freestone (sandstone) been found of sufficiently 11:00d quality to be used in the more important buildings; one freestone quarry

    ( sanosto11e) has been worked on the eastern side of Black Mountain, and from it the material usrrl in building Canberra church and some of the larger homesteads. has been obtained. Freestone (sandstone) of hig-h quality, and in unlimited quantities, is available within 100 miles of the city site, and will be accessible by rai1.

    16. Granite occurs in large quantity over a g]'('at part of the territory; none has yet been nscd for buildings, but it is ]Jrobable that, with the demand created by the of tlw :Fl•rlPral C:1pitnl,

    witahlc will b() opened, while the porphyritie rock which outcrops fl'NjlJently will no rlonbt ]11'0\'i(le valuable stone. 17. Bricks of good quality will be made locally, while there is everywhere ample material for road eonstru ction.

    18. 8helter.-The lanrest area sheltered from thr more obiectionable winds lies south of the Molong1o River on the eastern side of the N arrabundah Range anrl its tributary spurs; a more rrstrirted shelterf'fl area i" ,}tuated east of Black Mountain. 19. Ranae of View.-Looking from the more e'en1tr>rf points on the northern side of the Riv0r--·sneh as the Vernon Trigonometrieal Station-tc•1Yard.; the 11orth, the Yiew cxtenrls onr a wry gPlltl.Y 11nrlulatin,\(' va11ev for some miles to the low of tin•l1rred hills forming- the nortl1ern hrmnrlnry nf th F0rlr>ral territorv-1fount Ainslie, Blaek Mountain, awl ?IIajma rising some 900 feet abon' t 11e g,ner:1l lew!.

    lwin(l' nrominent. fcatnrcs in the landsca\)e. . . 20. W 0,ter1v Rnd south-westerly throug-h the g-fP1 her,,·r>pn Black tain and spurs from Tirr] Tii11 on t)Jp Narrflhnnrlah ·nrm!!e, sucressin rang-es are visible. in \l·lJich th0rc arc nnmerons pPak" attnininor :111 altitnrlP of from 4.000 frrt to 6.200 feet ahovr sea Jr,· .. ]; in the mirlrlle rlistanre unrlulating- raqnrr· ln1Hl"

    rr>lirvrd hv the timbered slones on eithrr side of the Ri,·rr hills of plrasinrr rrmtnnr. ricin!! c:rn(tP

    :JflO fr>rt fl hove the rrcneral level. In the fln"'··" t1Jr' •. ,·illn•r-borrlcrerl '!If olowrlo RinT. SnntlterlY tlH· •·irw i" limited bv the rang-e of which Mugqa Nunt

    fr>ntnrr · bnt the south-east the outlook is morf' extl'n'i,·c, the timbered ran!!es to tl1P of thr

    rnilwflV being- visible as f.c,r the onen rn11ing pasture lands stretcl1ing f,,r rnilec,

    t1w olong-lo Rivrr winding its sinuous way through thn alluria1 lands. ?1. J,ooking from the Trio-onometriral Station'. r'Rmn Hill and Knrraiong, . fnllo"·"rl on rithPr rnnrl for mi]P'. t 1·r> fnl:n,,.,,

    nf the willows contrasting- with the pale tints of the nasfurr lanrh thrse a!!ain rp)jp,·ina trr· hnr-h,rnJpJr] nf sombre-toner] encalvnt-\:.:,·,·(·l'(.] slopes of Monnt AinsliP anrl Blar_k :!\fountain .. In the. mirldle rli;..tanr:e the <:anberra v111age c1.;11!C]l parsonage, eneirc1ed hy }ll:mtnhom, nre promment obJects.


    APPENDIX A-continued.

    22. Turning towards the north-east under the shelter of the hill upon which "Russell" Trigonometrical Station is established, lies Duntroon homestead, with its garden and ornamental grounds, the houses of the employees grouped on the rising land above the 1Yiolong1o River; beyond the homestead, glimpses of farms in the valley east of Mount Ainslie, undulating pasture land between, and for a background the forest-clad ranges on both sides of the Molonglo. Towards the east and 3outh-east the country is of pleasing contour, with here

    and there a farm, the Goulburn-Cooma railway in the distance ascending the lower spurs which have their origin in the Main Dividing Range. Towards the south !vfugga :Mugga stands out prominently, and the range, as far as Red Hill, limits the view. 23. Looking from" Kurrajong" Trigonometrical Station towards the south-west and west, the mountain chains forming the watershed of the Cotter River, also those on the western side of the Murrumbidgee River

    are visible; they attain altitudes of from 4,000 feet to 6,200 feet above sea level, and are frequently snow-clad during the winter months. In the immediate foreground the wooded spurs from Red Hili intrude, but through the gaps in these spurs the roiling pasture lands of Y arralumla offer a pleasing contrast to the deeper tints of the distant mountains. North-westerly the scene is varied from either "Kurrajong" or " Camp Hill" Trigonometrical Stations-timbered slopes in the foreground fall rapidly towards the 1folonglo River with

    undulating pasture land and cultivated areas bordering the river; then stretches of the stream itself, and beyond, the steep partially cleared spurs from Black Mountain and the uneven contour of the range of hills dividing the Molonglo from one of its smaller tributaries, form one of the most charming views within the city area.

    24. from u Kurrajong" Trigonometrica1 Station, the more elevated points on spurs originating near Red Hill, offer magnificent views partly obscured by the density of the forest growth, and somewhat restricted towards the east; these points, however, are exposed to the winter winds, being unsheltered towards the west.


    A model of the City Site on a horizontal scale of 400 feet to 1 inch with a vertical scale of about 100 feet to 1 inch has been prepared, and a cast of the Modrl will be sent to each of the centres of distribution for inspection.



    (See paragraph 460, page 58, of Report.)

    ('OPY OE FEDERAL CAPl'L'lL DESIGN No. ill BY W. B. GRIFFIK. Onwr:-;>;r" REPORT.*

    Commonwealth of Australia. Federal Capital Competition.


    Presentation. Plat of City Central District Scale 400' = 1". Plan of City and Environs Scale t mile = 1". Sectiuns Through City Scale 100' = 1".


    Axis-AB Black Mountain into Upper Lake. Axis-BA Central Basin Government Group. Axis-CD " Ainslie " to " Red Hill ". Per.opective-Scale at intersection of the Axes.

    AB and CD 1340' = 1".

    View from Summit of Ainslie.


    Explanation. Site Characteristics. Site Adaptation.


    General. Occupation. Public. -Federal.



    Communication. External. Internal. Circulation.


    Although the information data are exhaustive the time limit, (especially for competitors of the opposite quarter of the globe for whom the mere matter of announcement took a considerable share of the period, finally arriving at the height of the Season preparatory to Fall building, and from whom the duration of shipment has subtraded another month) llreduded to a drgree the variety of tentative efforts with different "parti " that alone would render a solution final.

    It is only possible to snbmit a design worked out tentatinly bnt to a degree conclusive as to it..; practicability. In its presentation many final steps hare bern omitted in the belief that the general

    scheme is foremost in importance and the details are largely now in the light of nmeh discnssiou and publication, matters of common knowledge. Because of the uncertainty of our 1)l·irately administered nJI•ans of rnpicl the Expres.;

    Company, a duplicate of the written matter accompanying the drawings is poste

    Drawings. The presentation of this seheme comprises a .'rri('s of ,JJePt' monnterl on Ul strdf'ln·r" ;lO" x fiO" and two fractional frames 30" x 30". Plat of City. r:rnll'(ll District, as required, on eontour maps furnished 11ith "Invitation to Competitors".

    The drawing is mounted on muslin in two sections hing('d togetlJ{:l' \l:rtit·ally. The plat indicates-Street and Block outlines black line. Prominent Public Buildings gray line.

    Alterations in contour as required by f"l' thnl'nll)!.hfnl'i'c. IPnacc·s, /1.:1' .• bmwn linP


    Flan of City (lnd one frame.

    the dominant topogra phica 1 features and thr publie architecture, anc1 landseape treatm('nt.

    Rendered on caml;rir· in monotone to indicate graphically rcla tion t hcrpt" of t lH· ]'ropr,serl, alHl indrfini tely proposed

    Also the communication lines including rail and train ways anrl the local plob together with their resistance in future. times. Indication of axis of architectural arrangement in

    Indication of hlar:k

    '· 1funicipal black hat··hed.

    Private. tone.

    Rerl--Fcdr'ral Group. }f unicipal Group. General Group.

    n·sidential and industrial

    "'Suhmittt·d S(li!H' \·Pry fn iltf:' f•rjJ.!iJ:.--,1 1 ' 1 •}•Y !J'J'"' bt·f•Jt iu TIJf· tr:;JJ"r·ri1Jl w!tklt

    ,\.:;r·r Gritlin·:-: Prdirnirwry lt,_•port. printed ill Parli


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    Sections through the City rendered in decorative convention with color, since m fact highly

    conventional but technically descriptive. AB-l\1 ortherly side of " Water Axis". 4 frames hinged-joined. Showing successively

    Black Mountain in Profile. University and Professional Schools. Municipal Center of Administration of Affairs. Printry and :Mint. Bridge.

    Pubhc Gardens including Zoo, Museums, Theater, Stadium Casirw, Opera, Plant Hous,:, Gymnasia and Baths. Ainslie Park and Approaches. Hotel. Bridge. Church. Station, Markets. Public and Military Manufactories. Central Power Station. Viaduct. 11ilitary Headquarters, Armory, &c.

    Lake Park.

    llA-Southerly Side of" Water Axis" along Central Basin, 1 frame showing Federal Government Building, their terraces and ramps. a \Yater Gate" in center. CD-Easterly Side of "Land Axis ". 4 frames, hinge-joined.

    Showing successively-AillsEe in Profile. Casino in Section. Ainslie Parkway. Railway, Viaduct, Freight Honse and Entrance, and Church.

    Library. Station and :Military Headquarters . .Museum of Plastic Art. Museum oi' i'lrchaeology.

    Stadium. Gymnasia. Baths. Central Basin and Bridge. Courts of Justice. Departmental Buildings on First Terrace Fountain Basin and Ramp. Houses of Parliament on Second Terrace. Plateau with Plaza, Monument and Cataract. Subwav for Trainways and Street Traffic. Capitol.

    Red Hill.

    Persnective-1 frame, 2 half frames hinged-joined. View, South South-West from peak of Ainslie toward Parliament Hill, Capitol Hill and Mt. Bimberi m line, with all Public Buildings and numerous pri-;;ate structures indicated per details of sections.


    Site Characteristics. The IJatnral individual characteristics of the Site, which it is the purpose of this plan to take

    ad1·antage oi' by all means are-sheltering forested ranges and di;:tant snow capped pcab South and West for

    background. 2nd.-The three local mountains, "Ainslie". "Blar·k :Mountain" and ".Mugga J\Iugga" for aspect and prospect. 3rd.-Tlw lesser hills, "Kurrajong ", 11 Camp Hill", 11 Vernon", "R1JSSrcll ", "Shale" and

    othrrs unnDmed whieh are utilized as t<·rmini of radial thoroughfares, sites for the most important 4th.-The waterway for architectural effect, recn•ation and climates amelioration. !ltb.-The generally flat. valleys for the general pnrpoo;es of industr;v and habitation.


    Oencral:-1. The backgronnd first mentioned above and visiLle primnrily from thr> orthrrly portion flf tlu· r·n;tral rli


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    2. The mountain.s retained in their natural state, as nearly as possible, as parks, and forest and game preserves, are treated as the termini of the principal axt:s of as many important vistas as possible, conversely making of them the best possible view poi11ts ±rom to see the city in orderly arrangement. The greater of such commemorative or purely monumental structmes as may be desired from time to time, can be afforded on the side of Ainslie and Black Mountain eqT\:ially the most commanding of situations.

    3. The hills, where practicable to conform with the regrlar arrangement, are utilized as the elevated foundations ±'or the utilitarian buildings of dominating importance, such as, the Capitol, The Parliament House, The Station, The Market, The City Hall, The Citadel and The .First Church, terminal to the greater thoroughfares which render them at the same time most and accessible. Elsewhere in the

    lesser remaining instances, hills are in general avoided by the geometrical avenues and streets and allowed to crop through, only in places where they least interfere with the traffic and can be utilized for informal recreation or large residence sites, sanitoria, Hotels, &c., reached by winding inclines with little or no artificial grading.

    4. The main waterway the "Molonglo" is left in its present state in the lowest and wildest regions, where it forms a feature of the forestry and botanical gardens continuous with Black .Mountain in preservation of, or restoration to, primeval condition. Next above and at the second of the weir sites suggested in the Im,itation prog1·am, a dam of very modest proportions constructed in c:onnection with one of the roadway crossings floods the lower outlying informal lake, and the triple internal architectural basins which bound on three sides the government group for the reflection of its buildings and for improvement of the humidity

    conditions in the heart of the City. This dam may be high enough to form all the lake and basin waters, but it is suggested that the waters over the large upper area subject to occasional flood may be held back at the point where the railroad and main line of traffic pass around the governmental reservation by another weir with sluices and locks to form

    a naturalistic lake without whose beaches may be allowed to vary somewhat with the river supply as controlled at these sluices to maintain the formal basins and lower lake uniform throughout the year. The most difficult problem connected with the waterway through the center of the site is to minimize its interference with traffic, and at the same time least cut up areas. The circular pools and the connecting

    basin provide three water bodies, each complete in itself, and located in the spaces between the direct lines of communications from center to center. At the same. tiwe, because of their largeness of scale and severe simplicity they conform to the architectural character of the center of the City with its monumental groups and t1trongs of busy people.

    The two irregular lakes a1·e likewise located om of the direct lines of communication and their informal treatment conrsponds with the park-like, irregular charadPr of the City's first submban zo11e. 5. All the sheltered flatter areas are utilized for the general'llurposcs of industry and habitation for the obvious reason of easiest adaptability to development, improvement and up-keep as regards grading, paving and wire and pipe service equipment.

    In the laying out of these areas, which comprise the greater bulk of the city, first consideration is given to suitable plot units for building, tilling, and operating, in systematic ways, the ideal being rectangles of varied sizes. Second consideration is for the greatest compatible facility oJ access, with from G to () directions

    reac1ily obtainable from any point. Third consideration comprises accommodations to suitable

    JlUrposes in special case for large growps as suggested in the proposed future extensions for manufactures, agriculture, etc., ancl in the general case to adapt the varying degrees cf a::cess and frontage of all the individual plots to accord with the uses to which their relative positions arc best adapted. The methods for this are detailed further under the two general as'lJcct.s, Occupation aud Communication

    into which the problem resolves itself.

    0 CC1ipation. General. If this were the problem of an ordinary general city, eonsideration of the requirements of regular plot shapes and distribution and arrangement of the b uilclings would ],,. '1dnrien t ly treated Ly Htilitarian

    consitlcration of the graduation in requirements from and lines of aetiYity and bustle to

    opcrcdions rerruiring lcsfer degrees of popularity and more unrl IJJ():·r· of

    r·omplic:ated gr!:tclation of the intermediate areas. In the city each group of most individnalizcd plH}liH· i, ir, :·c·;·langular ·'}·"''lit of l!llilding.3, all system connecting via aYenue thoroughfares of v:iil: <'r•ntt·r:, <1f ]j,·iest

    husinesses where populDrity is essential at all timf'' nf .tty.

    fJulilir Buildings. The ·prime object r•f the Capital City is not an intcn"l'·:c r,f the throJJg bnt tlll' housing of

    qll·io11s S]Jeeialized cleliberatin r,nd edncatin· adiYitit:s rl":nunrliJJ£; ratlJ!·r '(ltir·t .. \rcLitc:r·lural rather than b·ailic coJt.,i,Jeration' guH·rn tlJr·rr·fore in the placin"t un,r in.·Hting ,,f !rt'··''' \:tri"''" fn!tr·ti<•H" and rletcrminc il!l•rcf,,rr, for tlJi' ;;itf' <>llf' gr:nrr;il trr·ntmr:nt \l·hic·h alt· .. "r·1lH :· Jllil·i r,;· ull rJt:rt·r

    Espericnf'e from thr• beginnittg:< of nrchitr·ctnr0 Ln, rlr·:"''n'i:· !r·â€¢l tl•r· .,i:nph.'1 awl most formal c;t,ylr· loc, r ·, .,lved with the completed civilizati

    tending that way, though by no nwam near the finalit.v i:, l'f•lrn«hinu t t<· r·â€¢â€¢ntpiPtr•rl Hnman r:x[ll'Posion of that ,,f any other ltistorical epoch.


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    Possibly the fullest sco'Pe for this tendency has been given designers in the numerous exposition projects, typical and best of which may have been the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, where the restrictio11 to one colossal scale and single type of design around 'l rigidly formal enclosed court produced an impres3ion outliving those of all subsequent experiments, or of :per haps any architectural ensemble of modern times.

    The lessons to be learned from these examples are first: largeness in the unit buildings, which modern fireproof construction renders nt the same time, the most cm1venieut, a11d the cheapest and, as well as the most monumental shelter for our operations. With a liberality in public space, and jndicious distribution of eenters, and directness and speed in communication between all points, the necessity of making- these large units stand on end, as in the congested American Cities, can be avoided in a Capital City at least, securing

    a horizontal distribution of the large masses for more and better air, sunlight, verdure and beauty. For the essential uniformity in style it is hardly advisible to recommend, however, an adaptation of any historical style which Jifferent requirements will inevitably render a cariDature insteacl of a of its own proper grandeur. Thus are Greek temples rendered boxes with glass windo·ws instead of masses of masonry, and colonades are applied in front of windowed walls to the detriment of light and comfort, and thus are noble features like columns, capitals and consoles mutilated and distorted, distributed for every sort of function except their inherent one of support. That sm·t of treatment may be well enough in scene painting and even exposition building-s, but can by no means be considered dignifirod, as permanently standing for the

    life and government of a great modern commonwealth. It >vould seem that a suggested restriction to one mateTial reinforced (:oncrete, the ne1vest, cheapest, most dm·able, least limited, most plastic and variable singlr medium yet introduced into construf'tion would contribute to dignity and impressiveness of the entire city, while purity in .proportion and unity in scale; appropriate immensity in spans and masses with contracting

    delicacy in plastic omamentation; ths elimination of useless protective features and connective expedients, uncalled for in monolithic construction together with a maximum of repetition and rhythm, and a general simplicity which is best adapted to the economical handling of this medium would with imagination suffi-ce for rational and genuine style.

    Higid adherence to the principles of honest direc:t solution of the building problems in a civilizatio11 of aspiring ideals possessing a medium with qualities so individual, so limitless mnst result in an .proportionately greater than any on earth heretofore. For the purpose of grouping the following general dassifieation has been observed, in with

    which a single system of co-ordinate axe;; is for aesthetic reasons giYen to the P11hlic hui1dingR,. the primary a:xes of ·which are the federal groups and a secondary arm :-municipal.


    ___ --..-CUNI


    Possibly observations may be made of discrepancy between preaching and practiee in tlJC buildings as iuclicatecl thls 'city selwme but here scene painting- is the theme awl of the most hurried sort, not

    arc-hitecture under sueh limi ta ti <)ll s. A suggestion of stepped pinnacle treatment in lien of the ineYitable dnme is no adaptation or inr:ovation althouo-h fullv direct an expression of the as ar.y double shell dome and it 1s an expresswn that

    wa' last ,;ord of all the longest li.-ed civilization hereto ·whether that be of .Egypt, Babylonia, Syria, India, Indo-China, China, }:ast Indies, :Mexico or Peru. .

    By this anangement all tlw public buildings of whatever group, are Luilt on parallel lmes so that, as the predominant fpatnre brPause nf number, size, scale and open aNl el•·Yalt·d sit11ations from nn.> gr•npral view point of the town they will work together into onA simple pattrn1 info 11·lJich tlie other groll'ps mllst mergr· snbol'(linatrly to rn:ti:,:tiu the fnndamental simplic-ity.


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    The principal axes of this F euel'al Group co-ordinate are determine(t by the most important natural features of the site, sinee they furnish the fu nd::tmentf\] basis of a Capital city at this particular location.

    In the panorama Ainslie with its distinct conical peak stands out first and forms one termimus of the " land" axis which runni11g frorn it to "Kurrajong ", the Oap.ital, after passing directly through "Camp Hill", produced 30 miles extends direct to the peak of Bi.mberi the highest in the entire region, a series of coincidences marking it distinctly almost without the of man's handi11·ork.

    The other co-ordinate or "water" axis extends from the " la nd" axis in one direction directly to the peak of Black :Mountain a featlll'e, second only to Ainslie in t1w panorama, and rquidistant in the other direction on the long line of water extends to the pal'k shoTes, ibc l a rg:C! Ppper lake. The "Cni-rersity and the three aligned basins call for very slight nd ditional artificial t:· t0 mah H1e "\':aL'r rn;i.o. '' glso m1111istnkable.

    These co-ordinate axes, are not primarily thoroughfares fol' communication but the.)' form the garden frontages, as it were, for all the important federal structures .

    Limited to one source of control they can be systematically and consistently de,reloped as in the case of the Mall at Washington with conditions for artistic de,:dopment little hampered by utilitarian considerations and affording great ease and comfort of observation and appreciation.

    The next two axes are not with the cardinal p oi nt.;; of the compass ·which would mean 25 ;'lo frontage witho11t sunlight nor are tl1e y with the diagonal points, wherr., tor pnrts of tl1e day no can be found, but they lie midway between these extTemes as they should.

    Government Group.

    Representative Gov ernmen t in all its ordinary j,. b be dasc'l' rl .n rl eliberati\·e and limited and is properly quartered in a Capita1 in an access ibl e but .•.ti ll qnict :ll'ea.

    As a center the capitol is the focus of nine avcHue :• lJUt 1nany of lead only to the rocky fastnesses of the highest class residence areas; none of them approach nenrer the center tlJan the Jim its of an extensive hilly park and at that, a limited funetion for the "Capitol" it."elf as a g"C'JWral administration building is snggested aR one for popular Rssrm],]_v and frstirity nwn' tllnn for drlibl'ration and connsel.

    The whole group of gon•tnment buildings, }JO\'.'(•\·(•J' , direcied 011t from tlH' one popular point along of sequence in function.

    With the Parliament i!J two " H ouses" it would seem that tl1e fact shouJrl be recognized

    architecturally, so herewith is mggestec1 an organic anangcm ent with "administration" as a focus and dominating feature comprising the general executive ofike;; and official :lf·&d-quartP1'S f or popnl1 u oAkial and social functions and cercmoniah. In this Rcheme the reqnirrd struetnn•s b r, di sposed of :per following diagram:-



    APPENDIX B-continued.

    1-Y ere the Parliament in one house, the following alternati 1·e arrangement would be adaptable to the

    same site conditions, and in that case, preferable, which it may be anyway, as a logical sequence from the general and fundamental representative course of govemmeut, parliament, through its principle attributes to its least important subdivision.



    0 1'1" l 0::. CFf'KE

    :Jvb(Jf'J, Def . ' ,, ,,


    ,, b. Dcp

    .. H ,,


    " ••

    ,, ..

    •• • •

    .. ..

    ,, .. o I ot:=

    . , .,

    The architectural development of this latter formula differ only in a few details from tllat of

    the other one suggested. " Kurrajong" Hill being as high a point as a 1·ailable for natural water supply, for tall structure and accessibility, is, tluough its eentrallocation and isolation from other heights, the dominating building site with possibilities in a sky line. The irregularity and yariety of this hill summit affords an ideal setting for the one isolated building and most appropriate situation for the two official residences. Moreover,

    while thoroughly sheltered by the "Red Hill" region its view not only commands the entire city, but through gaps looks into tl1e beautiful Yarralumla lands, and beyond onto the snow cap mountain chains of the Cotter and Murrumbidgee water sheds, the most spectacular feature of the entire landscape. The Plateau stretching from "Kunajong" to,v:nd Camp H ill provides a sufficient foreground from

    this side to set off the Parliamentary group, beyond \vhic·h, however, the court of the groups on the next terrace below may yet be seen and the view beyond is uninterrupted across the basin, the water front, Public Gardens, and along the broad pleasance to j\inslic. The l'urliament building on the edge of Camp Hill stands forty feet above the succeeding plateau and is approaehed thL'refrom by wide ramp around the fountain and of a basin that take advantage of possibilities in a gnn'ity water supply. From this court the

    Parliamentary Structure has a lofty setting stopping the long axis of the " Court of Honor'' reservoir; is erowned by the Capitol building beyond a11d supportc·d on the flanks by the lower Departmental buildings. The ensemble from the court presents possibilities fo1· all impTession difficult to surpass. This central court of the governmental group lies some 2ri feet above the lowest terrace from which it is separated by the buildings along the waterway frontage and to whicl1 aecc'ss is given l)y ramps at end and flights of steps between t}w buildings. The court terrace, however, is ennied 011 tho roof of the central buildings of the lower

    court jutting into tbe basin capped by an open eolonJladP trnvnnl tht> water surmounting a slight bank of steps to form an open forum. This building the "Vl'ater Gate" may be made use of for something more than a terrace.

    Recreation Group. Beyond the basin and about the Group "Land " is ananged the buildings next in

    importance to those of the gon:rnment, the one group used in general l1y tlw people of the commonwealth aa distinct from their representatives, or agents or ants. 1 t is, therefore, loeated more directly in

    communication with the congregation centers and of the; people tlw;1 attadwd to any other specialized Bedcral Group. The circular pools and connecting essentially lwlong to tl1is group, adapted by their continuous boulevarded einbankmcnts for IYntn rugc:iilf" and tl1(' ('C!ltr:d basin, incidentally, forms a race

    course of just one mile between termi11al bridges. The buildings of the Public Gardens follow the· ordc·r diagramed below (see lop of page 9!!). The stadimn for gcm'ral a.,sembly is recessed into tlte slope of tl](' h:lllk where it does not interrupt tlw c-ontinuous yista along t/10 "Iand "\xis". The Theatn', and Oj><'ra l!oiiH; on either side arc each reached on one side from the nnmieipal an'JJU(• on one hand and frolll tl11• l)r:idr·I·:Hrl of the. water front garden on the other for maximum aeeessibilih' from the residential dis!rir·k F:1rthl'r to raeh side of the ''Land Axis"

    arc 1;aired galleries of th(' grap.l1ie ancl tlw plastic the lnll'-'\'11111:' fo_r. w1tural hi . .; tory and archeology, zoological gardens, and the krth,; mHl 1lw all rogrtl11·r r·orlljll'l:'lllg a fr?nt toward the water _for

    the business districts to c·orrespond ll'ith tlw gornnnwnt :rl .';jrnctnrf'..; on the other ;:Jcle of the central basn1. Continuing toward Ainslie the "Land "\xis" i.s marked l),v :1 Lroad forlllal parbn1y to be maintained open in the center and banked foliage on the side', setting rdl' tlJr' rr:cidr•!lr£'."· _The 1:ailrond linr: can:ied across this parkway while depn•sc;c·d is y;itlwut side cmhnnklllenh tu )H'l'lult of_ a passmg g:llnpse to the Cap1tal group. c\ t t}w foot of ;\ ini'lie (•(']] trring 011 the struel llJ'C' for 0 c_a SlllO II llll Hetretory 0 purposes tlw

    3Utranc-e to the Fedrral park for rr·cr('ation is marked b.r u fnnnu l ·"f'lli I-cn·cle of commemorative structures with trails leading to points of Yantage and finally to tlu· .c:mnmit of thi.' lrwal mountain. \VJ1ere the wat('r axis starts :!1 a point r•qnicli.-t:lllt Blneh }fmmtnin from the "Lnnrl j,­

    he l11keside pa1·k, thl· oth0r recr0ation amnsC'ment are:; of tlw pnL!ir· 11otnblr perhaps f_o:· tlw

    Jroad waten nnd the ynriflus rdlertion.c oi" tlJr thrl'r' locul IIIOlllllnlll.' nnrl thr· YPJ'Y nuhtary

    H'IHl-qllaril'rs l>l'('l'illf( rwrr the nec;;t of rl1ut g-r·r·<:t La],] knob ·· Hu,-:;t·ll ''.




    APPE:NDIX B-continued.


    .. l/IAST I C AvJ:S



    This feature wi th Armories, Arsenals, Drill H all and other structures command immediately from the :hest occupied crest in the site, the railway in both directions, the municipal avenue, all the waterways and the whole area of the capital.

    Protected by its crest the barracks a11d possibly military academy are terraced on its Southerly slope.

    ncation. Black Mollutain rising almost directly out of the waters at the ·western end of the " Water Axis" is off from the forma1 pool by the U niversity and surrounding professional schools. The Mount itself .tributes to the educational purposes through botanical gardens, and forestry preserv es, apparently also lring opportunity f or mineralogical and mining studios. Its crest affords an outlook of more varied

    than els ewhere obtainable in the city.

    The sch eme of the educational group corresponds in conformity with the site conditions to the owing program and compTises the fields for high er ed ucation that may be taken up by a Nation.


    APPENDIX B-continutd.

    . It will be noted that fundamental sciences, descriptive of nature lead directly to the theoretical dependent on them, along the lines of direct derivation, and through those in appropriate combination,

    mto the lines along which they are applied to the work of our civilization. Some such arrangement is necessary to permit proper expansion in these changing fields, with convenience to students. Moreover it is endeavored to direct these lines on the site to such fields for actual application as are more available to them.

    Thus from Physiology and Gymnasia open onto the broad flat athletic grounds and the water areas, and the Hospital, of itself in a most suitable isolated location with equable temperature and atmospheriG conditions is adjoined by the Medical, Surgical, Pharmaceutic schools. Thus the Agricultural schools lead into the fields and forests and waterways of the botanical and forestry preserves.

    Thus Mining runs into the base of Black Mountain and Engineering lies between it and Architecture, both of which it serves and has a maximum of room for extension. Pedagogy, Law and Commerce approach the Civic center of the people, the Courts and Offices. A convenient succession of parallel contours 011 the protected slope of Black }fountain opposite the prolonged ":Municipal axis" is converted by ravines, ramps, and marking as a distinctive feature the location of student dormitories and homes of the faculties.

    lJ!Junicipal Group.

    Ranking after the Federal Groups for which the City is organized, are the public centers for all its inhabitants. Unlike the Federal Buildings their first requisite is accessibility to all. T·wo such sites are made use of in the important and central hill "vernon" and a slope of similar elevation lying between to terminating hills to the eastward and equidistant with "Vernon" from the "Land

    Axis " of the Public Buildings. ·

    The former of these points is devoted to Administration of affairs, public and private where grouped around the City Hall are the General Post Office, Criminal and Civic Courts, Banks, Stock and Insurance Exchanges, and Offices of corporate enterprises and the professions. Although convenient to the railroads and to be reached from a local station it is not deemed good practice lending to congestion to concentrate further important functions at one center so the second of the municipal centers is located at a considerable 11istance to allow for indefinite expansion and at a point at the same time equally accessible by rail and from

    the capital, and from the minor centers and residentia 1 areas. At this center are located the central railway station and the markets, around which naturally group merchandising of all sort, wholesale and retail and possibly light manufacturing. These are two groups that tend to segregate naturally in any city. For symmetry and because of their importance these are fixed as tho terminals of an axis, designated the

    " :M: unicipal Axis " a secondary axis of the co-or dina to system of the Federal group. The University is made accessible through the first to the second and the Military Headquarters through the second to the :first. Private buildings are distributed between the architectural axes along as many lines as are feasible connecting with the Public groups which they supplement or with other and subordinate specialized centers of industry. Though the directions of these routes arc determined according to the opportunity to follow easy and uniform gradients without humps or sags and yet with a minimum of grading while aiming towards

    natural or artificial points of eminence. Each forms one of the two axes of an individual system of co-ordinates offering rectangular sites foi" all buildings up to the point of junction with the next similar system. Even at these intersections no acute angle sites are permitted for triangular buildings are as expensive as they are irredeemably ugly, but the obtuse angles as economical even as the rectangular with two long prospects at each sweep of the cross-connecting ring streets. These angles are as a rule, less adapted for formal than informal and picturesque treatment however, and excepting immediately around the central squares where the completed geometrical figure is

    manifest to the eye they occur at the very points of least communication, accessibility, and formality and the most room where such treatment is adaptable. The parallel streets decrease in length, in accessibility and in importance in direct ratio with thel!' distance from their main axis furnishing many valuable street terminal sites appr

    toward the ultimate of enclosed courts best adapted for uses requiring privacy, seclusion and quiet and tending naturally to maintain themselves for such residential and similar purposes against any possible intrusion of business. In these regions the unit block size may be varied to form considerable areas for special purposes as horticultural gardens, ornamental and industnal play grounds, sanitoria, residence hotels, educational institutions, etc., with the minimum interference with the traffic of the City.

    Moreover a reduction here of the proportion of street area to private ground adds materially to the space available for uses, and as well as economy in service equipment, pipe and wire line pavements and their maintenance. An example of one suburban town in the writer's experience where the alternate roads as laid out were omitted leaving blocks 1,200 ft. long, was a demonstration in the consequent acquisition of all these accommodations a generation ahead of other places of similar conditions in other respects but with

    the greater multiplicity of streets. Because of the triangular traffic lines and business boundaries of these internal Sites, those secluded are but a few steps from the industries and communication lines which sene them and these become naturally distributed through the different of the City allowing domicile !11 hr cYerywhere handy to work.

    The standard unit residence block is designed for a depth pl'rmitting ample gardens and a separation between internal garden frontages equal to that between the frontages across the streets, the effect being the maximum degree of ventilation and privacy.


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    In some and in many cases larger block areas, leaye opponunity for development on private

    or small commmuty 1mt1ative to work out pretty schemes of Llrin'\HI.)" suhcliYision, recessed courts, quadrangles, lanes, Terraces, Commons Gardens, Irregular Hill Gardens, Subclil'isions and a host of similar possibilities adding incident and variety to a consistent simple whole. With the sites on the hills while an informal regularity of block arrangement may in some cases be

    attainable, it is not deemed particularly advantageous for where houses are on different levels much picturesque juxtaposition is permissible. Of greatest importance however is the expedient :1dopted here oi running the thoroughfares in the and ravines not so much for economy in the grading, pipe ocrYice, drainage, &c., and shelter,

    whlch belong to the circulation phases of the subject as for tho gi1·ing c:i' hi2;h lots on both sides as far as possible, enhancing their appearance of course and also their utility and in privacy and individuality. Provision is made for business in general not onlv in the immc(Eate nc:is:hbourhood of the specialized centers but along the lines of traffic radi';;.ting and short-cutting in ym·ions The blocks on the

    long aYenues :::re narrowed by the amount of increase in the front traiL: ac·con:Ewclation (these avenues being twice as wide as others) and also by the width of a rear way, or . Then, too, c·ross streets

    should be carried at least one block to either side, e\'eJl in outlying they may 1Je omitted

    alternately beyond, not only providing in effect rece,;se

    has resulted in the large cities, and the lift or "elevator" pressed into .-;crvicc for relief. .::'ln equally well administered tram service possibly supported financially in the same way '"·ould certainly assure more convenient as well as far better horizontal alignment, for even in spite of inadequate and costly nature of the strE;et railway accommodation the trend in the lare:er cities of tlw t'nitul States of "\merica is now

    obviously that of dispersion in long lines, as witness, in:::\ C\Y York nnd all the important through

    lines that a ccidentally occur in Chicago of a i!,l'Hera1ly unwieldy cheeker-boonl pattern. Suburban centers, situated at the points topographically nYailable, but nt greater distaw·es from 1l1e heart of the City, are indicated on the plan of "City and Environs" to give soJUCJ idea of the rxteusion of thr prineiplrs

    of planning with specialized centers and radial axes, and r bn c. nn',Ying in utility from a

    maximum to a minimum of accessibility. It 1rould seem advisable to detE'l'lnine the lines of extension just as far ahead as possible, as has been done in many German c-ities in orrlcr to an ultimate ohstrnc:tion

    of orderly growth through land speculation or imprO\'Pmcnts. ·'l

    is adapted to manufacturing purposes 1!C.:ing equipped with railroad sirlr· t:n p•nc,rul fn ight yar

    agricultural and horticultural uses for truek gardens, poultry, &e. .

    0 orn.rn.un ication. The general communication system doe;; after all in spite of all 1>eot\:wtic ccr.ditions estahlish the utility of a city, not in attaining a maximum of communication lines to he sure, hut in correlating tlw nrious so!'t' into a system of receiving, circulating and distributing.

    The arrangement must be elastic and variable with varymg c:ondiliu11c c,f e:,p;.lllsion and the c-hanges of conditions with time. Yet it still must be detrimental to the bui!di11gs or the natund bcnut.1- in 110 ease that Hoidable.

    External Railway. The lim: of railway approach from either 11 ay i, directed t1·1' ,, 1 ·I I view and then di1·crtcd to pac,; aronnd the l'tiLli" JJuilrlin;.:; GroU]" tn ;.; Gradients are the easiest possible being 1 irtuall,1· a len·l '·

    by an open depression about 12 feet deep, the cxraYatel f•!l'ilt.;;

    an elevation requiring but slight incline for (·rocsii'[! strccto and l,,,. l ·From the north tl]() railway comc.s i!il() tlw &c., and the flattish Yalley on the north r·lHl of trw:n whic11 a considct·able area is sr·t n,irle i:d!'rfc·r

    The line aprn·oadte'-' the :.'.[unil:ipul .\dn,ini,.:ft·.,lin:t ,., n'•·:· '' , 1 1 direetcrl toward the emi1wnt l1ili crownP•l b:: ilu· C'l:n:·· 1, j,,tn ;],,. 1,,,._.,, , and rntP1'2 tl1e Jnar1\.et r·nJU'1' {J [tt- it:.: r11.':11 !1 1 -: · '·i:

    Spurs aH()rd tu·min:: I u·nin tra,·k., ':: ], !: -, :• ·

    The station it;df of l"·xngoun! rwr·n:,j .. , 1 ;.,. ,( :,,,,

    tnrffie curr<:nt.o emu to tlw J,;]]y l'<.nfo:·nt:•i]r,Ji :11 •], .. J'r·:rr. south from ion tlie raih·:oY r·: fr,Jm thv 'Oll

    crossing the wntenva,ys st junr-tion 'Jf J,;;,in :;;;,] :1': ti,,n

    of the city with the capital in ib v::,Lr·.


    \:r 1· ·

    In c:enera1 t1w

    cach of the axes of the whole.


    Ci! pita] hill a" it •·onJe:; intc. icr·--tion of the illt<•rJ!al tndlir·. ,,,j tlwrougldar<' i . .; JJJtlintained I' kHl1_'1lt..; nf (i f\ ·1•1" itt lt(•i:c.dit.

    rond .... :Id.i:H·r·nt.

    f(l]' ."\':itl·!till!l:. :..:,· ::;t'l i':lr . ...:IIJl':l,:...!.t' ynrd...: fnr

    ::1 -n·,.,., lin'''·

    ihr· ltlr';J] , ! (. II l I ]': I -. ...., ( • : I i f ! ll I'll ....

    '1: ,. il: t· -lt!iii'H.

    , r(·t·t 1 i.: I. r ,.II))) • \ j n . ...:l1P

    fin;J 1:y rnrnin.s:· n:Ji

    ,)r-r} t•1 llt'/' } i Jlf'..: :o1d

    nf \\-11 1 '1'1'


    APPENDIX B-continued.

    Hoadways. Existant roadways are practically ignored though the through routes in the city replace them to all purposes. Future roadway may be expected to continue from the through internal lines.

    Internal Circulat?:on. Aside from the centers for special popular indus tries or branches of trade the bulk of the business of the city will tend toward the most direct connecting thoroughfares. Not only their geographic arrangement but their equipment ·with transportation facilities operate to draw inhabitants for t ravel from any point and whe re the people are trade .must b:e.

    It is a noticeable tend-ancy in modern to.wns to supplement large ly where not altogether to supplant the spot concentration of mediaeval towns with long alignments of trade. The problem of circulation is to make orderly disposition of the correlative functions and to so thoroughly adapt them by terminus selection, ample variety in direction and the conrenient arrangemen t of feeder streets that traffic can find no competitive channel. Of course a r adial sys tem with multiple centers

    alone can give the multiplicity of direction and specializing with elasticity too. To properly handle avenue traffic never can less than triple roadways be considered to take care of tramways, fast vehides and slow vehicles in each direction. The resultant area, if reduced to that, is a desert and unpleasant to traverse so additional

    space is needed for the arboreal accompaniment Df at least four rows and preferably park'vvays of shrubbery bes ides, for wind and dust protection. For that reason 200 feet is advocated in these plans. Tl1ere are other r easons as ve11tilation, fire stop, architectural setting but in a region of broadleaf evergreen avenue trees none other than the protection and landscape setting obtained are demanded.

    Distribution. A system of distribution .. at right angles to the circulation thoroughfares gives the minimum of distance from any point to such thoroughfares. In case of public transfer lines trams, &c., this is the prime obj ect. With a frequency of the circulation ways the distances can be short and indeed a point more than four blocks back in the triangular interspaces of the plan i3 a rarity and cross town lines in these cases prevent greater.

    In the hilly sections the distribution takes the form of sweeping ramps confined as far as possible to the depressions for many reasons as heretofore explained and al so as the simples t way, and least conspicuous in mutilation of natural rugged types of scenery. In conforming the thoroughfares to the topography, storm water is to be disposed of either i11 the pa r·k ways of the and avenues for 11;mple space is allowed in the widths su_gges ted, or in mid

    axis of blocks accordmg to the degree of dev1at10n fro m th e nn turnl channels. I 11 mthl,r case there IS n o reason why the freshest waterways should be less attractiY e in their changed state than before, an added interest for special occasions. The standard width of distribution ways is 100 feet between building lines.

    Trainways. The suggestion of the street railways as indica ted on the plan of "City and Environs " are tentative, bu t indicate the principle of long routes with necessary loops a way from centers of traffic Hnd transfer stations at the centers.



    . ' t i



    - - or--

    AOJ $ i llRAILITA


    t,PPENDIX C.


    T he here J•fv

    titlt! aarl t he nf hl lbrL-·y Ot·;ihn cn1· t-xp!ainr-d

    rltc Cit y in ;rhi(· lt ir n "tuired ihat il. '' gt> HPra l

    Unnvn on the Contor,r } lap ;1ro Yi dffi n and that ;, 1lH· a nd

    witLou t lillY d istingai.:;hing a :ork, motto or HH!fte . " . )


    GRI.FFIX'S PRE.LIM:n-3.P.Y rLA , • No. ""6 o! llll4-15·16.)





    D ITS ENVIRONS. ll'ottm P'M!Oe, CANBERRA AN 1994, I, Oeotge _,E CITY OP ....._i Act nd its environs. ,. om or --( ..... •" ""'"""" . PUBLICATION OF p'::. o: ol o/ol lay-out olthe City • - fo' a- .... """""'"'· of mb-se blflh h F PBARO .. ,


    ..,....,_ dT"ri._,.. a. · 1ll'ltance o f Home a.n 925 I N of State ar of November, 1 . Dated this eleventh da.y

    ........ , I r I .....







    ___ ._ __ _










    P.M.G ., FIRE &. AM BULANCE ,





    EXISTING 1:::1 :::


    • OPEN SPACES. R A I L WAYS . -+--+-...______.__-+-----+----"--..__.___,.

    ........ .......... ____

    LEGEND :

    --• Existing Road s ===::::::.::::: Propo sed Roads


    \ \

    \ \

    \ \

    I \

    \ \

    \ \

    \ \

    \ \

    \ '

    ' ' ' ' '

    \ c




















    I I

    I I

    l I I I l



    I L

    Royal Military College






    ' ...... ' ...... .... ...... .... ...... .......... ...... '·



    (i:·:ee acknowledgments, page 76, of Report, also paragrapi1 JGti, page 5S.)


    This statement has been prepared for the Senate Committee on the Development of Canberra. lt represents the results of a study of the evidence submitted to the Senate Conm,itl,,e and of the present state of the National Capital. The members of the Institute Committee were as follows:-

    Walter Ralston Bunning, Architect and To1n1 Planning Consultant; Chairman, New South \Vales Town and Country Planning Advisory Committee. Hoderick David Lovat Fraser, Chief Com1(y Plannf:l', Cumberland County Counc-il, Sydney. Peter Firman Harrison, Senior Ledurcr in TO\nl and Country Planning, university of Sydney.

    Assisted by Mr. Vvalter Geoffrey Faithfa}l, Oifirw in Cl1arge of Planning, Cumberland County Council, as executive secretary. The statement is divided into four parts-Part I.-The National Capital-The Pmpose of Canberra.

    Part II.-The National Capital Plan-F;jlm·e to :Materialise. Part III.-Present Administrative Machiru'rv---Iack of Direction and Co-ordination in Planning and Design. ·

    Part IV.-Proposals.

    I'm[: T.- -The National Capital-The Purpose of Canbsrra. Tlle function of Canberra has been described in. tlw constitution as the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth. The interpretation of this simple stavm:cnt giYen in tho conditions of the International Competition for the planning of Canberra was-

    " The }'ederal Capital City will be the permuneut ,;eat of G-o•erJJment of tl1e Commonwealth of Australia, the place at which the Federal l'adiament will meet, where all Commomvealtr1 will be enacted, and where the G ··cn:or-Gcneral will }wve his residence.

    The city will, therefore, be primarily Ill(' oiiicial nw) ,n,·ial '" nrn• ,,f' 1\ 'l"tralia.''

    Since then, Australia has taken its place as one of the foremost nations of the In two world

    wars it has built an Australian tradition based on the <:nnlities cf courage, leadership and initiative. In peace, it has distinguished itself in world trarle and itw•ru

    In a Commonwealth of sovereign states, strong ;•ncl mdcpendent, no more fitting means of exprcssiug national unity and spi.rit c::ists tbm i11 the N a tiona] Gc:pit::l. Tl1c City of Canberra, built according to the p; inciples conceived by ·walter Burley Griffin, will [," can able of demonstrating Australia's stn tmr a' :1 nation-to ,\ ustralia's citizens and to visitoTs from ot111 ;· r•o1mtries.

    The building of the City of Canbel'l'a is therefon· :: of great magnitude and signifieance. ]I a mttional development project Tequiring the utmost ski11 :urrl in planning and achninislration and is the direc-t rcspon.,i1Ji1it,y of the Federal GrYI·er:unent, 12: i·.·r· cf \ k· of the (\11Jll110!lll'f'R lth.

    The :Federal House of Parliament and the residi·1J;'C' of the Go1·ernor-General as the nation's fir::t link l>ith the British Crown, are the key points of the ::\at:c.::l ( a;:itnl. Those tr1g:ether -with the Embassies, tlJ<• .\ustralian National University alld the ;\.nstralian IV:::· \1cnwrial are in.stitutiom whieh trul;v express its parposc. The Capitol,'1 ' a National Art Gallery, I,ihr:n·:·. Th:·atre, ?J:1strum and .si1nilar institutions serving as repo"'itoriPs of Australian achievenwnts in thr rliffPrc-;1t rJ tlH' S ation'> adi1·ity ltmst in ti;nr• lH'

    A:Htrallan eitizct!s. regar

    arr· of equal status in their responsibility for the dewlo, •'JJCH'r uf the X a tiona} Capital.

    The rlcn·lopmPnt of Cnnlwrra ar,eorrl ing to its ;';;;:··, ;,,il : · th· .\ n tinunl Ca pitnl ic: a ,,jnglt> ohjer1 j.,·e . . \ny otlwr fmwtion the City assnmes by rcaoon r!f j;, r.r.-i+ion in rr·lntion t0 311 important

    region of Sew South \Vales or v'lJich j, gin•n it to·""'' •:·r· s':C'i;,] f1l d N·nwn11ir· l,nl:IJWP, mn'i bP "ll]>plcmPntary tn this fm1di0n and he f0stererl :mrl c0niro11r-d arcor,Jing·ly.

    i't.i'( /1.--Thr· Yrtfll,n(l/ C(fpi!o7 l'lon---l\;i/:,rr· /r, .'/,,' . r/,i/,:.,·,

    Griifiu'.-; Pbn ,.f F\12 \'(()]] intr·rnational COlli[ l'liiJI

    1n \\·hi('11 \\·onld t:XJH'(':::s in tJ1r' -pr . .:;.;jlJJt, ,-,-ity 111r· ,J t::,, n01in;J.

    This iil1•a wa' dcri·1ed from a elo.

    Griffin (•;m;e t'l ,\11110Lnliv in 1:11:1 anrl nnti! 1:1·!(: I'C!I' 1·--,.,i,, ·nl ( r,,,;:al ll;,.,,,,,,,. ,,r

    , .. l.;,,h tirv• hr> 1nndr• a '."-·

    to t1 1c rlr!ln""tie of tl1r• Pliill, tlJi.-: .''tnrJ,,·

    ,,r f11r --pirit1\"l \w

    F .. -,(()?, I)(, 9

    \I i /' 1; I•

    , I , ' . "

    1-·11 r ,.

    1 • :·; !' i - 1; r . · '< } :,.I,, ·rt lid,



    APPENDIX ]-continued.

    It is a theme, simple yet grand, which owes little to its historic antecedents at V erEailles and Washington. of. the Cwpi.tal as Griffin concei:ed it was hased on the major axis from Capital Hill to Mount

    Amshe b1sectmg a tnangle formed by Commonwealth, King's and Constitution AvenueB containing the formal water feature of :M:olonglo Basin. This is the central theme which placed the Griifin Plan above all otl1ers, tlie grand idea without which the Plan of Canberra has no meaning.

    This is the dramatic essay in civic design which alone distinguishes the Canberra Plan and places it in the first rank of world capitals, a brilliant combination of mountains ancl lake, axis and avenue to form a noble composition. It embodies the heart, the brain and the spirit of the Nation, the most important area of land in the 3,000,000 square miles of the Commonwealth.

    13ut after 40 years of development let the Nation 'H citizens stand at any of tl1c fom key 'points and try to find the magnificent vistas promised by the Plan, try io travel the broad a 1·enues with the: grand-sounding names They may well ask "Where is the National "

    Yet this should be the visual expression which all citizens might hope to see nnd n'member; instead there is the great anti-climax of grazing and paddocks and desolation. Clearly, there has been serious neglect of the N a tiona} property beta use tlw de,·elopment of the Ca·pital has been more concerned with domestic requirement of a rapidly growing population.

    The arrangements proposed by Gri±I-in for the domestic 'parts of Canberra were, eve11 for 1\H2, o[ somewhat doubtful validity. The geometric formality of the central idea, when extended to the residential suburbs becomes absurdly extravagant but, except for minor modiiicatious, stl'emwus eiforts have been made to preserve or respect these relatively unimportant features of the Plan, eve11 at the expense of sound planning.

    The residential requirements of Canberra are not greatly different from those of any Australian city. Housing development under the ideal conditions of the Austl·alian Capital Tenitor.r should afford an otpportunity to show, by example, how residential areas can and should be built. Their value as examples, however, depends on keeping costs at least comparable with those of ordinary svburbs. In this respect they fail.

    tOn tl1e other hand, the standards of housing and living area amenity enjoyed. by Canberra residents are better than those of any city in Australia because, it seems, finance for development is not subjeet to the Hevere limitations which restrict loeal government activities elsewhere. This may be justifiable in the National Capital as long as a prupcr balance between national and domestic features is maintained. For instance, the new swinnning pool will t:ost i)Yer £;HJO,OGO. Little more than one-fourth of this cost applied to landscaping co old make the national fe!:ltnres of the Plan intelligible.

    Part lll.-Admini.strative lvfachinery-Lack of Planning Direcf.ion and Co-ordination. The unbalanced growth of Canberra is an exam pie of the common misconception of town planning-­ that the 'plan is an end in itself. A trnvn plan cam1ot materialize suecessfully unless it includes a programme of \vork and is kept under constant review although the t1ltimatr aim may remain u:whanged. Ia the development of the National Capital, the process of revimv aml supcnision should be waintained at all time,-; and at all le1·els, from the broadest eonsiderations of the overall plan down to the smallest details of tre•,

    planting, 1paving and sign-posting. The gazettal of the Canberra Plan in 1925 was obviously intended To giH: it lc·gal backing. Tlw Gazetted Plan is however not a plan but merely a pattern of ro11ds and a •·emlc.-.:. .1 t gi n·s no hi11t of how, or in what it sho1;ld be built-up. It has the zlisadva.ntage of givin$ t.llllt Can.bcrra is

    plmmed for all time, and that no further planmng des1gu le necessary. "' otlung could be further from the tnah. There has in fact been no review of the Plan siuec Griffin's timt! rc1·isiou iu J S. That is to say tlw: after nearly 40 years there is no •person or group in a position to ta kc thr view and exercise the cxecutivr power that was required of Griffin.

    The development taking pla.ce. the. w?rk of a mm.1ber of of diffnent

    each c:arrying out its own respons1b1ht1es m 1ts own partwnlar way with liltlc• ·'cn:-:r ol tlw coutnl!lliwn 1t Eihonld be making to a 1properly designed development oi' the Capital. The various officials responsible for the subdivisions, hnildings, 1·oads, senif'es. Jnndseape awl strert furnishings, carry out their work more or. less there is uo plnn_nl'd ,'esign or :.;eqtJPllCC'

    of operations for the Capital a whole, neither does 1t BCPTIJ t.o be: the respons1b1hty of an:·o1w to formulate t:neh a scheme. Never since the aduptiou of the Griffin plan ] there been sllflicieHtl.Y and :;\:ilbl sclfen·i;ci,;u the growth of the city. The qapital qomnusw;n r,mne elosc·sl to tl1c' JrlPt:l. hut i'l·cn tills hod:· rlHl not have continuous and respons1ble shlled ass1stance.

    )tfter the abolition of the Commission in 1930, Canberra had no planni11g arlvi,·P \1·/wt;:.oerer until rhr· National Capital Planning and Dev.elopment was s.ct up. in Hli)S \l·ith till' pm·jiil-r' ."f

    safeguarding the plan. This Cormmtteo has ll1e. J_JepartnH'llf, ,,f \1 :·rb nwl lntr·1;:nr

    can submit matters to it, but are not bound by :ts recommenr1atiOns. l·.ndrnr·r ha.c. [,,,,.11 to dH>',\. !iJal the Committee, in spite of its composition a1:d. 1ts lauda1,lc purpose, has hrcn h.Y-'i'il""''d and Ignorrd w "nlllf' important matters such as the West Lake declSlon. A small secretariat between the departments 1la.'l beeu to de.\·eln;ll:wnt. Bnt, .i11

    . 't f 'Cretariat' or inter-departmental committees there Wlllll1PV!tabl_y lw ,!JfhcultJe..; 111 rll\'lcle

    in planning and design .. It is _quit.e impractical for ar('IJJll·dm:il and 111 'lllg < "'ll,(ll w one < rpartJJJ('Jlt tn be independent of plannmg des1gn m another.


    APPENDIX ]-continued .

    . This is not .to say that the Departments of Works and Interior are failing in their respective domesti\! tasks m the Terntory. Indeed, as far as construction and administration are concerned there is little to criticize. The defect lies in the failnre to give oveml1 planning and design sufficient importance in the development of the Capital.

    It is .clear that the failure of the National Capital Plan to materialize after 40 years is due to lack of balance lll development with too much emphasis on relatively unimportant domestic features. This lack of balance in turn is due to lack of appreciation of the national features of Canberra and the need for properly co-ordinated priorities in development.

    Part IV.-Proposals.

    The development of Canberra, because of the City's importance as a symbol of a country's unity, strength and character, places it in the front rank uf na tiona! responsibilities. Parliament itself should be directly responsible; not through any department whose functions extend beyond Federal Capital Territory, but through a Parliamentary Standing Committee whose sole task should

    be to control the development of the National Capital. This Committee should have and exercise the authority necessary to ensure that all aspects of developmental policy, planning and design are properly considered and related befol'e being dispersed as tasks among the various departments and sections of departments responsible for their execution.

    The exercise of this authority would encroach very little if at all upon the main res ponsibilities of the present departments concerned with the Australian Capital Territory. Development is at present mainly carried out by the Departments of Interior (Administration) and vYorks (Construction). Neither Department is, by its very nature, equipped to concern itself with all those aspects of the design and development of the

    Capital wbich are so necessary if it is to fulfil its rightful destiny. The constitution of the Committee should primarily aim to provide effective representation of national interests but, at the same time, allow representation of the departmental instrumentalities most concerneJ. For these r easons it is suggested that a Chairman and fo ur members be dracvn from the Senate with the :Minister for "\Vorks and the Minister for the Interior, and also the :Member for the Australian Capital Territory to form

    a Committee of eight. The Committee should be required to take the be st advice available on all matters relating to the Capital. Specialists in such subjects as regional development, town planning, civic art, architecture, su rveying, sculpture, landscape and traffic engineering sho uld be consulted as required irrespective of whether they are Commonwealth or State officers or private practitioners. In certain cases competitions might be conducted.

    Initially the Committee should be required to en gage at least one consultant of the highest qualifications in Civic D esign, if necessary from overseas, to assist in the establishment of a policy from which tht) Committee and its staff could continue their work. It should have as its principal executive a full-time Director of Planning and Design assisted by a highly qualifier] tecllllical and administ rative staff.

    The Director of Planning and Design wonld be r espom; ible for carrying out a continuous review of the Plan in general and in detail, and with his staff would form the permanent nnelm.1s upon wbich the departmental and other consultants would rely for the coll ec tion of necessary information and the definition of par ticular problems n:hich they may be called upon to solve.

    This statement has not dealt with the many (ktails of design and dev elopment which haYe been mcntion_ed cr.itically by witnesses before the Committee. C?nr reYicw of tbe evidenl'e a;1d our of the s1tnat10n has brought us to the conclus10n that the unsatisfactory state of Canberra :s Jcvelopment. 1s due primarily to present inadequacies in .. It is that by an anthont.y rcpresentab-re

    of the nation and acting on the best available adv1ee 18 essential to achieve the best result s. This may not mean that every aspect of the Capital wi ll be beyo nd criticism, bnt it will ensure that the finest skill ;nd effort will be devoted to the building of th e n11tion 's r·apita l city.



    These plans drawn t o t he same scale show how c an berra may be compar ed with other g reat civil compositions. The distance from the Capitol (Capital Hill) to the War Memo rial is a little more than 2 miles, almost the

    l'ARi5 --·---- dist ance as f rom the U .S. Capit ol to the Lincoln Memorial. The Grand Avenue at Versailles and t he Avenue des Champs Elysees from the Arc du Carousel t o the Pla ce de l'Etoile (Arc de Trtomphe) each slightly less than 2 miles.





    s co I'>

    "'" .,.... I'> G :::>" ([) 0.. ,.._ 0 U> ...... .,., ...... ([) ;::; "' :::; tn c 0'" §. .,.,._ ..... "' p... 0'" '-1 .... t::r" ro >->::: w .,.,. >-; e. ;;;· f:;j .,., ::1 l:l .... ::t H t:;j "' c-. .,.._ c .,._ "-./ >-

    "' '" trt z 8 ..... '--< I 0 "' c ;:s ...... .... ;:s "1>



    (See paragraphs 582, page 71, of Report.)

    LEGISLATIYE POWERS WHICH MIGHT BE GIVEN TO A LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. A . .Powers which would not be given. 1. Certain Commonwealth Acts apply in the J.1Etralian Capital Territory and it is not suggested that the Legislative Council be empowered to cover any part of the relevant fi elds. Sections 5., 6

    and 7 of the .Seat of Government (Administration) Act apply the Conciliation and Arbitration Aet, the Australian Industri es Preservation Aet, and the Secret Commissions Act, in each case deleting the limitation to inter-State transactiollS contained in the Act. 2. Other important Commonwealth statutes applying of their own force cover the following

    (a) Banking. ( b) Bankruptcy. (c) Crimes (those special. crimes covered by the ( CommonwPa lth) Crimes Act) . (d) Civil Aviatio11. (e) Posts and Telegraphs (including Broadcasting). (f) Customs and Excise. 3. In addition the Legislative Council would not be given legislative competence in the following

    fields:-(g) Finance--including taxation of an.'· kind (rates, stamp duty, taxes on registrations of motor vehicles, &c.). (h) Land tenure and land alienation. ( i) Public Service-including P olice. (j) Parks and Gardens.

    (k) Roads. (l) Public Utilities-Buses-Water-Electric: Power. ( m) Commonwealth property and buildings. 4. The Legislative Council would have no executiYE' or administratiYe functions.

    B. Powers which might be given. 5. This would still leave an impressive list of Icgisla tive functions ,,-hich could be enumerated. Moreorer, if it was made clear that the Go,·eJ·n or-Geueral was f t·ec to ,,·itlthold nssent in any case, there not be any need for a r eservatio11 J)rovision. 6. The list mentioned in paragraph 5 could include­

    Administr ation and Probate. Adoption of Children. Animals and Birds Protection. Apiaries. Apprenticeship.

    Auctioneers. Bank Holidays. Building. Business Names.

    Cemeteries. Companies. Co urts (Petty Sessions, Coroners). Crimes. Dentists.

    Dogs. Education. Explosives. Fire. Fish Protection.

    Guns. Hawkers. Health. Hospitals. I nebriates. I nsanc P ersons.

    Tn siTUm Pnts (bills of :;ale, etc.) . Liquor. Lotteries . .}farriage (matrimonial causes generally). }feat. Medical Practitioners. Mining.

    Moneylenders. 1fotor T raffic. }J oxi0us Weed,;. Plant ilisrn ses.

    Poi!lon;; and Drugs.

    Police Offen('f• s. P ounds.


    APPENDIX K-continued.

    Public Baths. Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages. Statistics (local). Stock.

    Theatres and Public Halls. Timber Protection. Trading. Weights and Measures. Wild Flowers and Native Plants Protection. Workmen's Compensation.


    BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. Compiled in the Commonwealth National Library.

    The biblograpl1y is arranzed in six: parts: I.-Archives· III.-Pri'llted Works; IV.-Maps; v . .....:.

    Landscape paintings; VI.-:Moving picture films, film strips and sound recordings. It is based upon the collections of the Commonwealth Kational Library but includes additional archival and mannscrint materia1 in the Public Librarv of New South Wales. historical objects and ce1:tain

    classes of printed wo1·ks specified in the note to Part III. are exduded: Information as to additional material, especially manuscnpt, suitable for inclusion in a revision of the biblio­ graphy would be welcomed by the Librarian.

    A short select biblography based on Part TII. was included in CanbeTra, o. nettion's cap·ital, edited by H. L. VVhite for the tl1irtieth nweting of the Australian and New Zealand Asso­ ciation for the Advancermmt of Science. held in Canberra in January, 1954. ,


    Commonwealth Archives in the Notional Library. The archives relating to Canberra which are being assembled are extremely diverse in both content and format, ranging from t11e sectional drawings of the site by \V. B. Griffin, some fragments of film on early Canberra and nine volumes of

    scrapbooks, to long serie' of administrative records. From the A.C.T. Administrative Brancl1 of the Department of Work; 1m> come, amongst otl1cr series, over 150 feet of records relating to public works, lands and properties

    ( 1901-1932), which hflve now been described in a draft

    innentory. There is a f'Uhject inrlex to these records for the period ln.S -1932. Special efforts lwve been made to obtain custody of the most important a:·chin•s rrlnting to the A.C.T.---those of the Depart­

    ment of the Interior. As a result a considerable quantity

    nf Interior archive,; Rre now held. Tl1ey include designs for the Canberra Coat of Arms, papers and minutes of the 1903 Hoy:,] Connnisoion 011 the eites for the seat of government, and tll€ oriQ·iua.l D!crc·rmPnt 1wtw<>en the Commonwealth and \V. B'.

    Griffin,' as as a very considerable footage of valuable

    ge•1eral records which hegln abuut 1912. Other llr]:RTi.nwnts 1Htvc ]Jcrn c:.Jnc crned in the administra­ tion of t1w .\.C.T. Some of the deposited holdings of th''

    Department of Health, for instance, contain information on early puhlie lwalth matters, while the recorcls of the Prime '\Jin ister's Dertntment and Attorney-General's Department thrmv lidtt ( IT! general governmental policy and matters of


    New South Wales Archives. The more important in the Public Librarv

    of Xnv Sonth IValeH include Colonial

    Office retnrns of tl1c colony, which give statistical

    returns covering finance and trade, lists of offices and

    much useful information on various subjects; the Colonial Secretary's correspondenee with, f,,r example, the Crown Lanrh Commissioners; the Commissioners of Land Claim,; cases; Governor,;' clespntchcs wl1ich include reports of explora­ tion; Lands DepartJnent records including reports and field

    Looks of s:1rn:yors; the Educ:ati<•n Department records, par ticularlv the Denominational Schools Board series 1848-fifJ. Board ;f Xatiunal Jcdncfltion series 18-t8-6G, Council of Educa­ t'on rc·r.rnts a]](\ crnr""P"'"lence lSG6-SO and Department of

    }>Juration reeorrls from l8RO: and the Hrntll'ick Transcripts which contn in iso1ated extracts fn1n1 the rcbtin!! t,, T.ill1C ' t'"'" J'htins, :\c\\' Sonth \'Yale.-. · holr1:--; re('nn1s of ni

    births, n:arri"g·cs anrl rleatlJS c. 18:l0-l!l:ll. Qneanheyan Cr•urt J-lml:'r. clrp0sitinn cnn"r free a....;:;;:ig-ned

    and tickets of le:lYe hci11'£'1'11 JR:18 and lP4i. Th0 n•g·i,tns frnm 181.) 0' the CLunh nf St. .J,]m thr·

    f':nl1Wrrfl, other n•enrrls are in t)Je Gonlhnrn

    Dir·.r·esf\n RP!!i••trv. Rrmwn Cntholic an·hi,-es \HII'C tmn.cfcrred t." the r.rm11mrn.Di·lcrsaJJ RP"i,iry in l!J17.

    PART !I.-MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts in the National l.ibrarv. AnnO'J"f, 1-Tn.nA. The openin7 of ParlianH'nt at C'

    Rarlio Station ?.CH. 21 Apr. l 1lil. Prcsontntinn cf tlw SJ•enkr·r's Chni1·, TYP. D. S I'· Brna•l· r·nst from Harlin Station 2CR, lG c\pr.,' 1051.

    C C:ncrAL "r:nncc: _-\ssCJcuno';. :'.Iim1te• of meeting

    of ,.,,nw'l. 11 Fe h .. l !12r.-2R M"Y· 1 !1'20. T:q). D. 376 p. p. 1 fi2-27f. blank.

    l 1 \RK. JoHS. [Xotebook used during the valuation of the

    Yarralnmla ef'tate for resumption hy the Commonw•,alth, 1913] A.D. 81 p.

    (Tracings of Yarralumla paddocks and land near Queanbeyan used in the valuation abon, 1913]. A.D. 2 sheets. CRmorELIN, }1I'C'!NA.RD :E'. [Family letters and papers, Canberra district] :.Iss.

    Drxo:s-, R[oBERT] [Extracts from field book entitled Survey of farms, allots., reads, riYers &c,-counties of Argyle, Camden and :'.Iunay commencing] 16 Apr. 1820. p.

    46-7 4. Plwtostat copy of original in the l\Iitchell Library. FARRER , 'YILLLUi J.nn:s. [Letter book and notes of experi­ ments] 18\18-1905. :'.lss. G.uwrNF:R, LYNDSAY. Eden-Monaro

    Canb., l\li51. Typ. D.

    Melbourne Unh·enity.

    to 1850: a regional

    129 p. :'.'I.A. Thesis,

    GIBLIN, EILEE'C'! 31. Canberra diary. v. 1, Aug. l9i0-Aug. 1941. Typ. D. v. 2. Jan. 1942-0ct. 1943. :Ms. Restricted. C!W(;ORY, GEORGE EDWARD. [A.L.s. to Rev. James Hassall] Duntroon. May 23rd, 18;)0 [3] p.

    [A.L.s. to Rev. James Hassall] Canberry. August 14th !850. [4] p.

    ropil·s of ol'iginnls in -:\Iitchell 'Lihrary.

    Sh· LITTLETON ERNEST. [Papers and cuttings on the

    Federal Capital, 1899-!929] JoHNSON, Sir WILLIAM Er.LIOT. [Xewspaper articles and material collected therefor, on Canberra] HlO!l-10. JxcAs, Australian war memorial, Canberra: archi­

    ral c·ompetition, July, l92fJ- February, l!J27. CM:elb.,

    19271 Typ. D. 18 p.

    :\IooRE, .T[osJIUA] J[OHN] A.L.s. to Alexander MeLeav, Colonial Secretary, Cumberland Cottflge, Cabramatta, loth December, 1826. Applying for a lease at Canbeny.

    Photograph. '\Iowu:. :\fARY BRAIDWOOD. [Diaries and letters including IPtters of Elivabeth Hudspeth and T. B. Wilson 1832-l fL'l !.] l\[inofilm negative of originals in the posses,ion of

    L. :\L Esq.

    _\[t:RRAY. F. A. [Discharge note for William Smit\,: Yarrow lmnla] 1:1 Mar. IS4i. A.N.s. 1 p.

    F'ERKI"iS, .JoHN ART!n:R. [Papers including diaries 1892-1950, :\fs., 44 \'., some in shorthand; notes on history of the

    :\fonaro, Ts., ::19 v., Mainly of Eden-Monaro interest] CllABLES, Extract from " journal between the :)r

    and lOth days of Dec. 1820. [Rl p. Photostat copy. T'.YTOH. THO'\IAS GRIFFITH. (Papers including physiographic suryey of the c>lpital sitel 1902-1910. Includes A.D.s. TnRofiBY, C'nARLES. [c\.L.s. to His Excellency GoYernor

    )frtrqunrie1 Glenfield. ;\fay lOth, JSZJ. [5] p: Photor;tat eopy of original in the Library.

    \!so collcr·tions of nc11·spaper cutting·s, including 2 vols. r-ollpderl hy A uhrey presrntNl from the estate nf the

    latr 1'. C. :\Jrm-lr: Federation scr:lp hook compiled by A.

    r:iklnist. Carnarnn. \\'.A., Hll5. &e.

    Manuscripts in the Public Library of New South Wales. RoBERT. Genealogical table of the Campbells of

    Duntroon. Scotland and Duntroon, N.S.'W. 'EYRE, 'E. .}. \utnhiography. Tnclllfles experiences of a

    pastnralist n11 the :\Jolnni)lo Plains, 1 R34-G. p. ;)().81; Charks Campl,l'll's finaneial in onrlanrling of

    F,\HHEH. \\'H LIA\f .L-UrES. 1SG7 -1 Chiefly from

    ,\!!ricuitnral Bun•aux . .Sc·. :Jhroarl, tran•fcrre

    RPY. P. (;, Smiill.

    Jfon:rL, \rn.LL\\! IL [DiarYl remarks on a i••Urn<',. from Lak•· (;p"r;!C Western port eomrnencing

    from 2n

    \\'ollnJJg-r'n". Apr. 21, lS:i.). J:drr• to rondnct of hi-.

    ""ele C. Thn,shY, the .in11rnr.'· thro. Lirnectonc Plnincs. 1\ P.'.'SWY. 1 >. LPiter to .J. :\f r Tnt,-rr, A pL !2, l83S. Refers

    to of Charles C1ml-lw\l 1winging letter" to

    Lin!e;..;tPnP Plain-.: }nd\ rr'tin 1n district.

    LncnnARDT. L. Lcttcn< to P. P. King, :\ov. 2R. 1R4G. Refers to 12 m.•ther'< snppliN! to Ldr·hharrlt hy Ch>lrles

    C'amr,bell, l84f>·7. Ki11g Papers, .. 2, p. 3:Jii. \!oonE, .Josnt:A .Jon:-;. [Assigned servants applied for, Mar. 3!, Sept. I, 1837]


    OLIVER, A. First sketch plan for layout of the Federal

    Capital and several letters. (c. 1901] PARKES, fHr HENRY. Correspondence, including letter to D. Gillies, June 25, 1889, suggesting that seat of body be unitedly in Victoria and N.S.W. on the Murray,

    v. 46, p. 159; letter from S. M. Battye, May 20, 1866,

    concerning bnshranger Thomas Clarke in Molonglo Mountains, v. 5, .p. 397-\J; letter from J. G. N. Gibbes, Feb. 22, 18ii6, concerning purchase of Yarralumla. WATSoN, J. H. [Church of Enghnd in Australia: newspaper

    cutting, &c., 1906-28] v. 2, p. 173, 214. OtheJ· collections of newspaper cuttings in the Public Library of New South vVRles include v. 887, Canberra.


    Arranged in Chronological Order. The entries which are arranged in chronological order

    include periodical articles and government series as well as individual items. The work of government departments con­ cerned with the development of the A.C.T., and the develop­ ment and activities of institutions in the A.C.T., are covered, but annual reports of many A.C.T. organizations, church, sehool and other magazines and catalogues and programmeB are excluded.


    THROSBY, CHARLES. Colonial incidents: Mr. Throsby's late tour. In The Australian magazine; or, Compendium 01 religious, literary and mibcellaneous intelligence: v. 1, no. 2, Jun. 1821, p. C0-61. Syd., Robert Howe, Govt.

    Pr., 1821. "Notable as the first publislJeil in Australia··. J. ,\.

    Ferguson, uj A v. 1. p. 310, 1D41.


    CURJUE, MARK JoHx. .Journal of an excm·sion to the south· ward of Lake George in New So1Jth vVales. In Field, B., ed. Geographical memoirR on Xew South Wales: ch. 14 Land., John :Mnrray, 1825.


    ToE:OTSKY, .JoHN. A journey from Sydney to the Australian Alps, undertaken in the months of January, February and March, 1834: being an account of the geographical &

    natural relation of the country traversed, its aborigines, etc., together with some general information respecting the Colony of New South vVales. Syd., J. Innes, 1835.


    BURTON, .Sir 'WILLIAM WESTBROOKE. County of Murray In his The state ot religion and education in New South Wales: by 'William Westbrooke Burton, Esq., one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of that Colony: p. 237-240.

    LDnd., J. Cross, 1840. 1847.

    [HARRIS, ALEXANDER] Settlers and convicts; or, Recollections of sixteen years' labour in the Australian backwoods: by an emigrant mechanie. Land., C. CDX, 1847. Author's nnme may hP vseuaonym. H.f•p!'iHh•d in :IHii

    1852. .Same-foreword bv C. M. H. Clark. [Melb.J Melbourne Univ. Press [1953]. Same-[2nd ed., i.e. reissue]

    Press [1954]


    [Melb.] Melbourne Unh'.

    [HARJns, ALEXANllER] The emigrant family: or, The "tory of an Australian settler: by- the author of "Settlers and convicts" Lond., Smith, .Elder & Co., 1R49. :J Y.

    Reissued in 18C! 0. entitled] Martin Reck: or, The Rtory of an Aus­

    tralian settla: by Alexander Harris, author of "Settlers and convicts". Lond., G. Routledge and Co., 1852.


    AGE: no. 1- , lo Sep. 1860- , Queanbeyan,

    N.S.\V,, 1860- . twice weekly.

    Early issues i'Il tit leu the Golden age.


    QUEANBEYAN TIME&; 1879-[189- ?) . 1879-[189- ?] three times a

    age, q.v.

    Queanbeyan, Dornbusch, week. Incorporated in


    CUMMING. C. F. GoRDON- [Letter dated] Duntroon, near the Murrumbidgee Hills, N.S.Wales, Sept. 2 [1875] In heT At home in Fiji: p. 42-5. Edinb., B'lackwood, 1881.


    DE SALIS, LEOPOLD FA:\ E. Our roads: a letter reprinted

    from the Queanbeyan age of 25th c\pril, 1882. Quean­ beyan, J. Gale, printeT, [1882]


    BRoDRIBll, WILLIAM ADAMS. Recollections of an Australian squatter; or, Leaves from my journal since 1835. Syd., John \Voods [1883] 1884. QUEANBEYAN OBSERVER: 1884-1932. Queanbeyan, A. ::VI.

    Fallick & Sons, 1854-1932, twice weekly. . . .:\fter,vnrds incorporated in ()ueanbeyan


    GIPPS, FREDERICK H. Our lakes and their uses. Royal Soc. N.S.W. J. & P'roc., v. 20, 1886, p. 143-53. HussELr., HENRY CH.UIBERLAINE. Notes upon floods in Lake George. Royal Soc. N.R.W . .J. & Proc., v. 20, 188\i,

    p. 241-60. Samw-[reprint] [Sycl., Govt. Pr., 1887]


    CURB, EDWARD M. Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia, and the routes by which it spread over that continent v. 3,

    bk. 17, no. 195, Queanbeyan; no. 196, Yass; no. 197,

    JVIoneroo. Melb., Govt. Pr., 1887.


    NEW SouTH \VALES-Lands, Department of. Crown lands; correspondence in connection with the claim of :Mr. E. K. Crace to land adjoining Gungahleen estate. [Syd., Govt. Pr.] 1890.


    AUSTRALASIAN .FEDERAL CONVENTION, Sydney, March-April, 1891. Official report of the debates: [on the

    seat of governmentJ: p. 8!Hl-!l00. Syd., Govt. Pr., 1891. Draft of a Bill to constitute the Commonwealth of Aus­ tralia: ch. 7, clause l. w·ith Official report of the

    debates. \Yrr.LOUGHBY, HoWARJJ. The federal capitaL In his Aus­ tralian federation: its aims and its possibilities: with a digest of the proposed constitution, official statistic,,

    and a review of the National Convention: p. 91-8. JVIelb., Rands & McDougall, 1891.

    1893 .

    DEMARR, .JAMES. Adventures in Australia fifty years ago: being· a record of an emigrant's wanderings during the years 1889-1844: ch. 3. Lond., Swan

    I 893.


    }Linmws. HOBERT HAMILTON. The Bnnan ceremony of New So 11th Wales. American Anihrorologi8t (Wash.), 1·. !I. Oct. J 896, p. 327-44. 1897. ,\ URTR.\LASIAN Ft:VEHAT. CoNVKXTir,N, Fi?"st session, Adelaide,

    lfruch-Jfay. 18.97. Official rceord of the debates of t!w Convention: [on the Beat of government of tht• Commonwealth]: p. 1019-20. Adel., Govt. Pr., l8!l7. GAnR,\N, Sir RonERT RA:\'!lOLl.'Tf. ThP federal capital. In

    The coming commm\WPalth: an Australian handbook nf federal government: p. 180-2. Syd., Angus allfl

    Rnbertson, 18G7.

    MossMA:>, S"\C\fliEL Diotricts of and Qucnnbev-an. In

    Australia visited and revisited: a narratiYe of recrnt traYels and old experiences in Vietoria and New South 'Vales: by Samuel JI,Jossman and Th'"lnHlS B;mister: rh. 12. Land., Addey, 1853.


    NEW SoUTH WALEs-Electoral Office. Electoral roll: County of Murray [N.S.W.J: 1855-56. [Syd., 1856] SYDNEY DIOCESAN SoCJE.TY. [Bishop note on a Yisit

    to "Can berry" in 1855, and Report of the parishes of Queanbeyan and "Canberry" for l8fi;)] fn its Report for 1855: p. 14-lfi, 32. Syd., l85fl.

    .\ ''STRALASJA:\ FEDFRAL CoNVENTION, 1'hi•·d session, ,January-.JTarch, 1898. Official record of the debates of the Convention: [on the seat of government of

    tb rnmmomnalth]: Y. 1, 1'· 700-12; v. 2, p. 1802-lfi.

    }felh.. G1wt. Pr. [ J R!lRJ


    CL\RKE, \VrLLIA M BRANWHI'l'E. Researches in the >'Outhern fields in New South \Vale'. Rycl., Reaclinq anrl




    Science of Man, v. 2, no. 2, Mar., 1S99, p. 20-l. CoLE. EDWARD 'iVILI.IA\L Greater )fp]bo11rne and the fedPrnl capital. 1 80\l. Ar.Fx. Federal eapitaL Bulletin, 4 Mar .. lR!l!l.

    p. 19.


    HAJLW"-Y _,sn FIWERAL (;API'fAL LEAG t; E.

    Dionaro a ,. a "it(' tor the cr.pital of fclleratecl Ballara t , F. W. 1\ivcn, printe1's, HIOO.



    CoWAHD, T . Federal capital: Cooma or Bttngendore? l\lOO.

    ED:.'>fOl'i D, J .AMES . The Commonwealth capitaL-The cost of a fed, ral capitaL In his A policy for the commonwealth: being a serie,; of artides reprinted from Bulletin ., :

    p. 1-G. Syd., "'Il1e Bulletin" Xewspaper Co., 1900. CHEAT St>ttutes, etc. An act to constitut<: the

    CommonwEalth of Australia ( 63 & M Viet. ch. 12 ) :

    sections 52, 125. 1900. (Short title : Commonwealth

    of Australia Constitution act) l\IATHEWS, Rol\ERT RA:.'>liLTOK. The organis

    Miss l\1. M . E veritt. Hoyal Soc. N.S.W. J. & Pt·oe., v . 34, 1900, p. 262-81. l\Ew Souni WALES·- Pttt·liaml.ent-Le.fJ iSlative .-lssembly, of g·m'l't'nment of the Commonwealth: (opinion of :Yir.

    R 'i,:. O'Connor res;weting). [ Syd., GilYt. Pr., 1900]

    (P.p. 203 of 1900) C\EW SoUTH \VALEs- Royal commiss·ion on sites {01· the seat of go ve1-n m.ent of the Commonuealth, 1899-1.900. Report ot the C'>mmissioner Syd., Govt. Pr., 1900. ( P.p.

    425 of 1900 ) Alexander Oliver, Com:rnis.s-irJner. Sume-Plans (19{)0] 1901. [ASTLEY, WILLIAM} Bathurst: the ideal fede ral capita!:

    n otes on its historic and its sreuic beauty, with

    a statem ent of its claims as a su ggested site fo1· federal capital a nd territory: by " Price \¥a rung ". Jhthnrst. G!yndwr Whulan, 1801. AUSTRALIA-Parliament-8enat'e. Federal capital site:

    [precis of correspondence respecting] [Melb., Govt. Pr .. 1!101] (P.p.45of19012) Co::«GRESS OF ENGrNEERS, ARCHITECTS, SURVEYORS, .AND OTHERR IN THE BUILDING OF THF. FEDERAL CAPITAL OF

    A'CS'fR"-LlA, illelbou.rne , May, 1.901 . Proceedings. Melb., .T. C. Stephens, printc1· [l!JOl] FEDERAL CAPITAL CO>:S1'IRACY. 'Bulletill, 7 Mar., 1901 , p. 7. GIPPS, FRF:DEI!ICK B. Lake George South Wales) a s a

    sit e for the fedentl capi t al o f Australia. Hoyal Geog.

    Soc. of A's ia (Vic. Brand' ) TransactionR, v. 19, 1901

    p. 30·8.

    IDEAL CAl'ITA! .---OR A BLOT. Bulletin, 2 ::VJar. ]901, p. 7.

    .L-\.RDINE, WILUAM. of the Curmck-da-hidgee tribe.

    N.S.'Wal es. Science of ]\Ian, v. 4, no. 3, Apr. 1!)01, p. 5:1·4. Nll:'v Sounr WAI"Es-PMiiament-Legisla.tive Assemnly. Federal capital (Jl

    rr., }!)flJ] ( P.p. 57S of l !){)])

    F ederal capital eites : 1 eport of thl' Commissi(lner nn 'evera 1 points r a.isecl by the Federal Premier [Fiyi! ..

    Govt. I'r., lf\Ol} (P.p. 421 of 1901)

    QuiCK, Si·r .foHN. nnnotaterl r·onstitution

    t ralia n Commn11wea lth: b 1· .Tol

    R :m rl nlph G:ura.n · !"_v1l. , Ant!ll '

    RohertRo n. l !lOl. 22;) FiQUAHE :·:R. Titilletin. 4 Mny, l!!Ol , \' · i.


    a n

    AFFLECK, \\'Jl.LJA)!. Federal capital site: (letter] to t!tc

    E<.litor , Yass C'o11rier [daterl1 P"rl i>\mC'nt House'. '\Tar,.J, li. [Y A, l !)02 ?l Rroadsicle_

    c\I'STRALIA- Tfonlr .lfl·lir.<. Dcpnrtrnent of. Cornplete '\lllllllllf," of iuformatinn with regar:l to i'ropo>ru fp<] erell <'apital sit rB. Syrl.. (;o>'t. Pr __ 1902.

    AURTRAUA--T'rtrli,r,n n>l. Pnrliamcntarv dehate' Y . 1- , J!lfl l - Jlelb., Canh., Go",-t. Pr .. 1'102-

    Nt' c llllikr Ft•flf•ra l Ca pihtl. St•n l h !' (;o \'t'rnnH'IIt & (" .,

    abo on 1-ifh:. li :-:lf ·il t: .. l,w

    BO!>!nAL\- TilE F e. nl-:RAT . CAPITAl.. Jlnllctin. ;{! )fay. 19112.

    I'· 7.

    AB A r··v.nrmAT. ( 'A PTT .\r. siTE: •onw ,,f its

    mf'ndn t iuns, v,·jt]J 111:1. ji , -, f :·-11 rrolllH} inp- \\ :1 . ..:u rp1i(•-.:. [C0n mn , )f<• L F02.

    [D-\r.<;ET Y PHnr:rc:·:";; .-\11 '"'i'!''" >ite for tl1<·

    f<•r1<·r a l <·i(y. [11algdy,

    FAHHFH, \Yrr.LL'. ·.< F<·â€¢'•·ral c-apital: \l·nni a.<.-n ,,_, " -it.·.


    FEI>EHAT. CAI'l'J'A l. 27 :-)!!<>. ]fi02, p. 8.

    c nY. J:nllt·tin. I \'lfl2. l'·

    l-TA SR ALL .. fA 'fF:--\ c..; { l!'l ir nf "hn "" lH'I l "

    (; . Gregory I / il hit<· J 11 old A u;;tra) ia: rer:o rd s an

    n .•mini:- ('1•!\( •: ' " 17!_ l-4: P· ';' S-RJ. R . S. He W!-',

    1 !){)2.

    ! x 8fARL' H OF .\ l' Al'l T.\L. uf Hcvi e w;:; fo r L 20:

    no. 2, :Feb., 1902, p. ll S; v. '.W, t:o. 3, M;n. 1902, p. 230 .

    KI&II'AN, s;.,. Joux \VATERS. lll oe;n ch of a fecleral capital. ReYiew of Rc1 ·ic"·' for J'sia. Y. 2 J, no. l, Jul. 1902, p . 34-8. )lAT!iEWS, HOBEHi' Ih}Ul.lO.'i. .·l.3JOr igi nal at initiation cermn onie<::;. In !tis The Th:JOl);:_-n IangnagP : p. Q.

    Gcog. J., v. 17 [l!H.J2j p. _\IooRE, W. HARRISO:->. The conotitntion of the Com momwalth of Australia. Lond., '\Iunay. 1Dll 2. 8rttnc- 2nd eel. 1\lelb., :\faxwc•!l. H\0. ::\EW SOUTH \YALEs-Pari<:amcut--Legi8lathe _l;,-semb ly.

    Proposed f t> ll eral ca. pita] s i tes: (summary of infor mation respecting, ancl photographic Yiewo of) . /Sy

    Feclel'a l capital site: (fnrtlter corre;; poudcnee res pecting) . [ Syd., Go,·t. Pr., 190'21 ( P'.p. ·183 of :\JCHOI.A S, 'V. A. F ederal eapibl reasoJls w h1· the

    fec\eral s!wu kl he )milt f\t tl1e .100 mile lin{it . on

    the Southern Hailwa:,- line. [BundaJlO t,n, l\){)2] O!!ASGE FEDERAL CAPITAL LEAGL'E. Canol>olfLS ; the ideal site f or th e fedPral capital of Au ilt ralia . Orange. 1002.


    FEUER.U. CAPITAL .LEAG UE . Particulars of the

    Gostwvck site. [ Annichtlc, ·â€¢ _.!,.l'm \dale l'rjnt ",


    \VIJ.LIAJI. The argument aga inst Hom bala : reprinted

    fr<'tu the '' X ational ArlvDeatp ., Sept. 28th .

    1!1 03. Ba thurs t , JV0.3.

    J>u ()/ i x/l('t{ u· ifli X :lf: !: Jn! .\fh'O(·;!f, .. /Jit fhur,, .. : . 'J'hp c:! p ital fn t' tlw weRt. The federal capit.ll: an argmucn t fo1· t he· e

    B atl1ur•t. Whtlan. lflO :l .

    Ar-Erru.-\I .. L\- /J a 1f8, 8Utl1ttt'8l eft·. :\ 1>;ttl fnl· an net to fllllend OJ1e hundred liJld of the Con:::.:tltutton

    of t l1 e C

    <'llll st itnti rm entativcs h_v 1·. L.

    lapsecl at prorogation. .". hill for an aet. tn <'n t ,f r:·overntnent of t he Connnonu'eaHh . (.'-.:h nrt. tit1P: !"'eat ;'J i gn\'ernrnent. act tno:n. Tni tiatNl in n"''''(' of h v S ir

    1\'illin,n 1 Oet. hlp, at prnro;> ation,

    A bill for an art to prm·idc fN i hc li.CC]ni f' iti o n of lanrl

    for the pnrnnf'es n i the • Pnt n f hv th(' C'olll ­

    rn onw

    other pnrpi'>,e .s connPct<'rl tlir r ewit.l; . (Short title:

    F et1Q r nl T••rritnn· af't \ . lniti:d<·

    Senator s'oct. 1H03: }RfiS('cl on .

    :\FSTRAT,JA- P cwliamcnt. J'»rli

    {iJS4 +. .\nlTH.\l.lA-Roya ( c on1111iRsio n on xifr:s f or l h c sr-rtl of goren!· of 1hr f!rnnmo !l nrraltlr. Rep

    sinncr". 'l'ith nnrl pbn>. r:nvt. Pr.]

    l!lfl:L ( P.p. 2:l of 1!103)

    .John E i t·l\pn t ;:

    s,m•r-SnppkHWll t t r, n ·nor t. report on a pro-

    l">setl ior tlw ferl<•r:;l capital a.t (with

    rs,-cl .. GO\·t. Pr.l 1n01. (P.p. ,,f 1!111 :1)

    Sam e. Snl.. c:.,,·t. Pr .. 1'104 r:\.S \\'.1 IT'.('· 177 of l!I0-!1

    ( Sernntl 1

    .-\l'f;Tf!.\Ll.IX rAl'ITAL. \lullf'!in. 2'1 ()d J0Q:;.. f'. K.

    nrsa He\ nf f(ll' .·\':-:ia , "· l\1'1.

    I '1().1 , i>. 107 -".

    FAH\!EH GP. .\Z:Ell. Ferl <'Lil ,.,,,itnl •iiu• nl!rnlH,.: S . 1 pr.

    .. . J. '[wpm I . . r _l l'iT.IL. P.ulletin. ::o )!av. l !tn :\. \' · !t ; :;o .Jul. J!l(J:l, p. S: 20 .-l ugo. l I'· S : l O<· t. l !Ht :), p. !; : I :) Oct.

    1t)(}:;. 1'· <>. : 22 Od. 1' · !'.

    f ' · P- -' · [; l;F \ <".\ rr·.\L

    n(J. +. Oct. !'·

    FOH TH'P- FEJJEIL\L ell". B1 1 -{ ! )1•' ·.

    :\.\Tfq\'.\1. Nu-'/.u t- ·- 1. ,: , ;r,' i''/ )·1/', Tlu· t:apit:1\ f!11'

    W(•!-:t: H: tll'I;IJ;l r· !" " ) I•\' r: rdn .··;J] ('r•n rliti(ll\:0:,

    Hathur-L l !IO::.

    llf n.Trt. :\!. P. :\.\ SPEH. l 1\' Wa\· l)f fl. :.;}J r q·t n·\-lt•\\

    thr• rJi. n·;Hrrt uf til(· CrJIJJ-

    :..:):t·..:. t l- · p·1t •r ·1 '. 1'1"n i 1:1 ·ni.. u f

    Cnntnlr,n wf·:11 t1J. ,...

    ·''nilr- ott ;" tlrd :\ n·,·i.·v. · rtf tl:t· r·n ntnnt..: of t}l{· n•pqrt

    of t :w C tJ!JI IJl!IJI',\"ca lth s _ y:l.,

    r; ,,,·t. ljr ..



    ASTLEY, WILLIAM. The federal capital: a ratio of \'a lues: an argument and au exposition. Bathurst, [Bathurst Federal Capital Committee] lll04. AUSTRALIA-Laws, StatHtes, etc. An act to determine the

    seat of government of the Commonwealth {No. 7 of 1904). (Short title: Seat of government act 1904) Hepeu lt.d by Sea t of gonrnment act 1908 (1\o. 24 of Hl08). AusTRALIA-Pa.rliament. F ederal capital: proposed si tes:

    minute by the Rt. Hon. Sir John Forrest on the localities in the Tumut and Southern :Monaro districts of Xew South \Vales, suggested as sites for the seat of government of

    the Co mmonwealth. [:\1elh., Govt. P r., 1904] {P.p.

    14 of 1904) Federal capital: proposed sites : (observations and interim report by Licut.-Col. P'ercy T. Owen, Inspector-General of rrorks , on the proposed sites in Southern .Monaro and

    Tumut districts). [:1\'lelb., Govt. Fr., 1!)04] (P.p. l7

    of 1904) Federal ca pital: proposed s ites : (report by Charles Roht. Scrivener, surveyor, on ?roposcd s ites in the Southern Monaro district). [?o.J elb., Govt. Pr., 1904) (P.p. 18 of

    1\l04) Federal capital: proposed sites: (report by A. H. Chester­ man, surveyor, on proposed sites in the Tumut district) . Govt. Printer, 1904] (F.p. 19 of 1904)

    Federal capital: proposed sites: (report by tl1e Rt. Hon. Sir John Forre8t en suggested site at Lyndlmrst, with appendices). [l'.felb., Govt. Pr., 1904] (P.p. 20 of 1904) Pederal capital: proposed site at Dalgety: (re110Tt on avail·

    ah1e water supply and water power, by Mr. T. Pridham). LM elb., Gort. Pr., 1904] (P.p. 24 of 1904) Federal capita]: proposed sites : Southern Monaro trict: 2nd report (with plans) by C. R. Scrivener,

    sul'\'eyor. [ JIJelb., Govt. Pr., 19041 (P.p. 31 of 1904)

    Plans in septuate vol. Federal capital: propose d sites : Tumut district: 2nd

    renort (with plans and a prcndires), .by A. H. Chesterman. sul·veyllr. [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1\3041 (P.p. 32 of 1904)

    Plans' in separate vol. Fecleral r apital: proposed sites: Toom a district: report by A. H. Cl1esterman, surveyor. [Melb., Govt. Pr., Hl04] (P.Jl. 37 of l!l04) Fecleml <'ap ita[: proposed sites: (report by Mr. L. A. B.

    W ade on tbe water sunr>1v at l ,yndhurst). [Melb., Govt. Pr. l!l04] (P.n. 40 of 190i)

    clebatrs: [on of government bill, 19041

    H. of R: · 2R. 32!l8 + ; Com., 3614 +; Senate: 2R,

    1468 +; Com.,' 1782 +. CARRUTTIJms' IMAGINARY FEJJEJ!AL CAPITAL. Bulletin, 23 June. l!J04, p. fl. DAVIS, J. Proposed federal capital sites near Yass. Syd., Govt.

    P'r., I !104.. Broadside. DEGRADATION OF CARRUTHERS . Bulletin, 22 Dec. 1!104, p. 9.

    FE-DERAL CAPITAL. Bn11 etin, 7 Anr. 1\304 , p, 9; 26 :May, 1!104, p. 9; 14 Jul. l!l04, p. !l; 28 Jul. 1ll04, p. 9; 18 Aug.

    1904, p. 8. FEDERAL CAPITAL. Rev{ew of Reviews for A'sia, v. 25, no. 2, Aug. 1004, p. 106. FEDERAL RAILWAY GRIEVANCE. Bulletin, 22 Dec. 1904, p. 8.

    MATHEWS , ROBERT The Wiraclyuri and _other

    uuao-es of Ne''' South Wales. J. Anthropologwal Tn &tl · of Great Britain and heland, v. 34, 1904, p. 284-305.

    NEw SoUTH 1VAT.Es-Porliament-Le.'fislatit'e Assembly. Papers the selection of a site for seat of

    governnJEmt of the Commonwealth. Syd., GoYt. Pr., 1904. (P.p. 147 of 1904) Eleven pnpPrs of thr Commml\V(':1Uh P nrli:lmPnt reprintN1. l'ropm,ecl fede1·al capital »ite at Dalgety: (precis of

    mental reports on). [ Syd., GoYt. Pr., 1 !l0-11 I P.p. -32 of 1!104) ..

    Scat of goYernment of the Common\\·ealth: of

    Mr. C. G. \Vade ( c\ttorne\·-General), nnrl Sn· .Tnllan Salomons and Mr. C. B. Stepl1en, as to " ·hl'ther the Seat of o-ovrrnment net, 1004 (rnmrnom\'ralth Art No.7, 1!J04) is binrling on Xcw S(mth Wales). [Syd., Gm·t. Pr., 1004]

    ( I'.p. 242 of l !l04) . . . . .

    Propo'e(l fed eral cap1tal (statement g•vmg partJ .

    culars nne! cost of connections hetiYern existin!! lines, to,!!rther with tn!tp). [Syrl., Govt. Pr .. 1D04l (P.p. 244 of J !104) .

    Proposrrl fcrlpra] capital ;; itrs: (infnr.rnntion rr:]wct!lli!. with nlan slwwing nroro'<'d •ttcs nrar > as•. and

    proposed irri!!ation at .Tack). [Syd.,

    Go\·t. Pr., 1904) IP.p. 2"" of l .D4J . .

    Propoced fr

    270 of 1 fH14) Proposed ferleral capital site nrar I report

    in connection with). [Syd., Govt. Pr., 1 n04] ( P.p. 2RO of 1904)

    Proposed federal capital site near Yass; (report in con· nection with). [Syd., Govt. Pr., 1904] (P.p. 281 uf

    1904) Dalgety federal capital site: (report of railway comrnis· sioners on cost of railway communication witl1). [Sy d., Govt. Pr., 1904] (P.p. 243 of 1904)

    WESTERN fEDERAL CAPITAL LEAGUE. The federal capital: the case for the west: revised statement of the League. Bathurst, Hl04.


    A Statutes, etc. A bill for an act to deter­

    mine more definitely the seat of government of the Coru­ monwealth in the neighbourhood of Dalgety, and the territory there within which it shall be, a nd to provide for the grant to and acceptance by the Commonwealth of the

    territory and to provide for other matters in relation

    theret o. (Short title: Seat of governmen t act l!l05 ).

    Initiated in House of Representatives by 1\Ir. Groom, 14 Dec. 1905 ; lapsed a t prorogation. AnsTRALIA-Parlia.rnent. Federal capital site: (corres pond· ence between the Prime Minister and the Premier of N"ew

    Sollth Wales re draft bili to expedite geftlement of site). [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1905] (P.p. 38 of 1905) Federal capita[ site: {further correspondence re draft bill to expedite settlement of site). [Melb., Govt. Pr., 190;1]

    (P.p. 41 of 1905) Federal capita 1 site: correspondence between the P'rime Minister and the Premier of Xew South Wales (25tll October to 3rd November, 1905). [Mel b., Govt. Pr.,

    Hl05] (P.p. 50 of 1905)

    Federal capital site: (closing of corresrondence re-letter from the Premier of l\ew South ' 'Vales to the Prime

    Minister). [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1005] (P.p. 51 of l\l05) Federal capital site: (letter from the Prime :Minister to the Premier of New South Wales (dated 15th November, Hl0 5) ). [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1905] (P.p. 5ii of 1!105) Federal capital site: report by Mr.

    Scrivener on the areas near Dalgety, tn,gether with plaus. [Melb.l Govt. Pr., 1905. (P.p. 74 of 1905) Parliamentary debateR: [ on Seat of government bill, 1005 -1 H. of R.: 2R, 7148 +.

    AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL. 26 .Tan. ]905, p. 8.

    CAPITAL QUESTION: Mr. Carruther's complaintB. tralasian, I 6 Dec. 1005, p. 1481. CAPITAL S1'I"E. Bulletin, 26 Oct. 1905, p. 6. FEDERAL Bulletin, 9 Mar. lllO.'i, p. 9; 5 Oct. 1905,

    p. 7; 9 Nov. 1905, p. 7.

    FEllERAJ. ClTY. Bulletin, 13 Jul. l!J05, p. 10. J\fol!E FEnERAL CAPITAL. Bulletin, 27 .Tul. 190!5, p. 8. NEw SoD'l'H \VALEs-Oommissio"e'· for Ra·ilways. The Qnenn· bcyan centre. In his Trout flBhing in New South W ales:

    p. 4-6. [Syd., Govt. Pr.l I !105.

    Same-[new ed.]: p. fl .!J. [Syd., Brooks) l!l08. NEW SoUTH \VAI,Es-Pal·liament-J,cg·islati1:e A sscrnlll!J. Federal capital site: ( corre•ponrlence betll'e<>n tl1e Com · monwealth and the New Sm1th gnYern·

    ment, respecting). [Syd., GoYt. Pr., 1005} (P.p. 121 of l!l05) The residence of the Governor-General in New l'lnntlJ 'Vales: (papers relating to). [Syd., Govt. l'r., 1905] (P.p. ISS

    of l!lO.'i) Federal r.apita[ site: the resirlPnce of the Gonrnor-Genpral in Nt>w South \Vn les: {further corrrsponrlrnr·e !){'t\,-cen the Commonwealth government and t hP. Gnl'<>nnncnt of

    K ew SOlith 1Va 'ee : rin snpnlemcntntinn of thQ

    rorrespnml<>nee and papers on these mattrrs, h irl npon the Table nn the 11th .Tnly nnrl ht Aug11 st, Hl0G1 [Syd.,

    0m·t. I'r., 1!l0fil (l'.p. 1!10 of ]!l{).'i) Federal canital Rite: (<>orr<>sro nrknre lwtwc<>n the Cnm· mnn1rpalth Gnvermucnt nuil th<> Govcrmurnt nf '-"rw South ·waJ<>s resr(>etin!rl: nn further of the

    dornments laid nnon the on tlw 1 lth l"t n!l(l

    Jfith 1!105], Govt. Pr .. J!JQ ;i] iP.p.

    of l!lO;i/"' ' ·

    Ferlrral caritnl Rite: (minnte hy the Hnn. f'. n. 'Ynrrle,

    TCC., A ttornr,·-fi,'nrral. r<>Rp<>din!! a ronfNrner hrlrl with the Attornr\·-Grnrral of the Commonwealth nf .-\n, t r:ll in. in rega rd to). [Syd .. G01-t. Pr .. HJO;)) (l'.p. 2!li of

    1!10;;) Frrlrr·d l'aritnl sitr: (rnmnnmirntinn nrlrlrr''Nl ln- tlt•'

    of >;rw Wale< tn the Prime )fini,trr of

    the Cnmnwnwealth. upon the of). [Sy

    Pr., 1!10::il (P.p. :137 of 1!10;;) FPrlrral rnpitnl Ritr: lf11rtl•rr rnrrpoponrlrnrr hd11·r•rn !Itr ('nmmnnwrnlth Grwrrnmrnt nnrl thr !!P,·Nnlllrl!l .,f \r•w Snuth "'a 'r•. rl'spetting) . f.C::yrl.. r:m·t. Pr .. l!liLi] (P.p.

    of ]OO .i )

    l"Nlrrn I r:1pita 1 ( fnrth••r rnrrro;ponrlrnre l><'twrrn .thr Commnnwralth GoYernmrnt nnrl the of );r•,·

    Sonth Wa [Ryrl., Govt. Pr., I !l();, 1 ( P. p.

    ::!72 of !!105)


    QuEANBEYAN LEADJc'R: 21 Jan. 1905-1913. Queanbeyan, Leader Pty., 1905-1913. YouNG, JoHN. The proposed federal citv for t:he Common­ wealth of Australia in New South Wales. Syd., Batson,

    p1·inters [1905]


    AGAIN, THE FEDERAL CAPITAL, Bulletin, 3 May, 1906, p. 7, AUSTRALIA-Pa,rliarnent. Federal capital site: (correspond­ ence respecting resolutions passed by the New South \Vales Parliament-from 18th December, Hl05, to 30th

    May, 1906). [Meib., Govt. Pr., 1!l06] (P.p. 27 of 1906) Federal capital sites: reports respecting proposed sites at Mahkoolma, Canberra, and other sites in the Y ass (Lake George) district. [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1906] (P.p. 29 of

    1906) Federal ca oital site: (further correspondence between tl1e Prime Minister and the Premier of New South 14th September to 6th October, 1906). (P.p. 100 of 1906). Itinerary of visit of inspection to capital city sites in New

    South \Vales by senators and of the House of

    Rrnrcs<'ntatiws of the federal Parliament, August 1906. [Syd., Govt, Pr., 1906] CoMING PROTEST. Bulletin, 11 Jan. 1906, p. 6. FEDERAL CAPITAL, Bulletin, 4 Jan. 1906, p. 6. NEW SoUTH WALES-Pa.rl.iament-Le.CJi8la.tive Assembl>J.

    Federal capital site: ( furtl1er correspondence the Commonwealth Government and the Government of New So•Jth Wales rcspcctin;r): [in supplementation of the documents laid upon the Table, Session 1!l05] [Syd.,

    Govt. Pr., 1906] (P.p. 66 of 1906) SILLY "BUSH CAPITAL" JEER. Bulletin, 10 ]',fay, 1906, p. 7. SOME JVEW FEDERAL CAPITAL SITES. Bulletin, 7 Jun. 1906, p. 6.


    AUNET, G. BrAnD n'. La Question de la canitale. In h;s

    L'aurore australe: p. 231-7. Paris, Librairie Plon, 1907. AusTR.4.LI.4-Laws, Statutes, et1e. A bill for an act to deter­ mine more definitely tl1e seat of government of tl1e Com­ monwea1th in the nei.e

    ritory thr>re within wl1icl1 it sl1a1l he, ancl to provide for the gTant to ani! acceptance by t11e Commonwealth of tl1e territorv ancl to nrovir1e for 'other matters in relation then•to. (Short title: Beat of !!overnment act 1\107).

    Initiated in Rmtse of Representatives by Mr. Groom, 17 ,Jul., J !'l07; lapsed at prorr,gation. AUSTR.ALIA-Parliament. Federal ra]Jital: -pro]Josed sites: minute hv tl1e Rt. Ron. Sir .Tohn Forrest . . . on

    the site for the seat of government of the

    Commonwe:dt1l near Qnennheyan. in New

    Sm•tl1 Wnles. [Melb .. Govt. Pr., 1!l071 (P.p. 5 of

    l!l07-8) Federal ranital: pronncecl s;t<' at Canberra; renort on

    s1mnlv lw St<">l•en R. \Verdon, Tn

    rMe1b .. 0nvt. Pr., J\1071 (P.n. !l of l!l07-l'l)

    Federal ran;ta 1: nro'>Med site at Canrwrra: report by

    L.A. R \Vrrle. Chief Eng-;neer. Yew Routh \Vales. [Melb., Govt. Pr .. 1!1071 (P'.n. JO of l\'107-R) Feder!tl capital: pronnsed site at C:wherra, N.S.W.: ( 1) rf'nort on ;Yater >111'nlv, bv E. "M. rlf' B11rgh, M. Tnst. C.E..

    N.S. Wales, ilaterl Sentemher, 1907: (2) report on local supnlv of hnilding weterial. bv W. L. Vernon. Govern­ ml'nt · arPhHect for '!'\.S. cla.ted 13th Rentember,

    l!l07. f).fE'lh .. 0ovt .. Pr., ]'1071 (P.n. 1:17 nf 19<17-R) [on federal capital 1907] H. of R.:

    Aili. 2!l1Vil4. rlrbntr": ron of government bill. Hl071

    R. of R.: 2R 10111 +-

    HnENNAN, 1\fMITT:V. Thf' 1Vn

    of forty-ri0·ht n'nrs' Rq nn otlker of police:

    ch. 14. Svd .. 'Yillhm Rronks. Hl07.

    CARRTT'l"ITERR' PROPORT·:n F-'J{!o:D REFEP.ENDtT"'.!. Bulletin. fl .Jun l9

    DRYING-UP-a matter rrhtinrr to the .. 4nstralian Papital. Bulletin, 1!1 Dr•P. l!l07, p. 7. FEDRRAT. CAPITAT. F.\Tir'E, 'Bn11f'lin. 4 Apr. Hl07, p. 6.

    [GALE .. ToHN 1. The fPrlera l Papitn 1: Da !Q-rty or Canherra: \Vhif'h? a na)lrr Tf'iHl nt a 1',lhl1e nH'Ptlng (('nn,·rllNl ln­ tlw ].plr] nt Onennlwvan rm 2Hh of .Tnly,

    anrl Nrlerrrl to lw nrinted. 'Qneanbe:ran, Gale & Knok, [1907] MATHEWS, RonKnT HY\PIToN, .'\hflri.uinal qong;; nt initiation ceremonicR. Tn hiR '\ote' r,n tl1e aborig-ines of New South

    WaJeq: p. Sycl., Govt. Pr., 1!107.

    :\EW \VALEs-Pa.1'1iament·-Leyislati>:e Assembly. Pru­ postd site at Canberra: (report l.Jy the

    GoYennnent architect respecting the local d:pnlv oi

    building material). [Syd., Go\'t_ Fr., lODi] ( P:p: 18:1 of 19071 Propo_sed federal capital. site at Canberra: (rer10rt by tlw act1ng .eng:ne-er for r1Yers, \Vater and drainage,

    respectmg a water supply). [Sycl., Go•·t. Pr. 1fJ07]

    (P.p. lDO of 1907) • '

    Federal capital site: (further between the

    Commonwealth Government and tl1c Go;-ernment of South W:des respecting!:. [in supplemcnLltion of dnr·u ments la1d upon the Taole, Sessions l'lD.i "ncl 1 !JOG 1

    [Sycl., Govt. Pr., ID07] (P.l'. 2G3 of 1007)

    TAYLOR, GRIFFITH. The Lake George senkungsfcld:

    '\ of_ the r;f Lakes George aml Bathurst,

    N .S.W. Soc. :\ .S.I\. Proc., v. 32, pt. 2, no. 12G,

    Aug. 1907, p. 325-45. THO}!SQN AND THE FEDERAL CAPITAL, Bulletin, 24 Oct, 1907, p. 6.


    AUSTRALIA--Laws, Statut'CS, etc. An act to determine the seat of government of the Commonwealth 21 of

    1908). (Short title: Seat of government act 1008) Federal site: further corre­

    spondence between the Prime liiini't"r of tl1e Common­ wealth and the Premier of New South \Vales: (dated 31ot October, 1907-6th .January, 1908). [Melb., Govt. I'r,, 10081 (P.p. 1i53 of 1!107-8) Fecl<:>ral ca])ital site: further eonesponclenee between the

    Prime Minister and tl:e Premier of Sontl1 \Valc.s.

    25th Fehrmny to 31st :\Tareh, 1008. [:\felh., Govt. Pr.: 1908] (P.p. 171 of 1007-8)

    Federal en rita] site: fnrther c,

    (P.p. 181 of 1007-8) Parliamentary della tes: [on Seat of gorcrnmcnt bill 19081 H. of R.: 2R, 27,5 +.

    BuLLETIN, ne1rspa.pcr. [_\rtiele., on the federal capital] l tl .Tan.-17 Dee. 1 !lOR. \Yhy Dalgetv slJOulcl l1e tl1e "\n,tralinn canital. [Svr!, '(Btllletin post card: Federal capital srriC's) ·

    C'.\"'llFRRA: [illust, hy (has. G. CoultPrl [SyrL Gni't. Pr.,


    CorY, EDWARD 'VrLUA\1. The finrtl fderrtl c:1pibl site.

    Dfelb., 1008 n Broadside. MATHEWS, Rom-:Rr nf the l'\e

    trihe X.S.W. Royal Snr. '\.S.W .. ). & l'roc· .. i', 4Z, 1'.108,

    p . .3.3.5-4{), "EW Sol:TU A s,

    Federa 1 en pita! site: ( rorrespnnclPnr<' betm,rn t l1"

    Commom.-ealth Government Hnrl thP t:nn,rnnwnt nf \'pw Sonth [tn of r!ocH­

    ments laid 1111on tlw Tahh•, 10th Tlcr·pJnhrr. l\Hl7. nnrl preYinnslyl fRYcL. G•>Yt. T'r .. lflOSl ( l'.p. :il of J'lO>iJ

    FPrlrrrrl cnnitnl site: (fnrthPr porrespnJHlPnPe hf'twr•en thr Prin'e :\Tinister of the ('omlllflll\I·PnJt], nnrl tl1f' l'rPJni<·â€¢ of '\"ew Rnnth "'n]r, the). IS)·d., (iod. Pr.,

    l00fll (P.n. 5R of !!lOR)

    Fe.r1ern1 cn11ital site: (further rnrrrspnnr1rnrr lwhn<'Tl the Prime of tl1e CnmmnmrPalth anrl tl1r Premier

    of '\ew Snnth 'Vales rrsrwcting tl1c1. [Syrl., Go1·t. l'r .. 10081 ('P.TJ, fiS of 1908) Frrleral capital site: (rrnort nf tlw nr·tin!! chief cn!!inPCJ fnr \\·rrt('r nnd on thP

    of tlw C'ntter nm1 r',YCr" fnr ncri .. <1 Fi•lJrnan

    to SPntrn1lwr. 1nn:ct. in r·onrtr>('tfr,n wit11 w·Jter fn.r


    Frclrrnl P::Jllit:1T c.:jt.(>: hr r•mf'er-.: nf tJu) nf'll'll'hl 1rnt

    nf Pnh1;r· l\',.flrt·c rr''!·1r:linrr 1r:1tf'r -.:nnnlr. f•lr·rtrir·:d

    pn"·rr. anrl \1(\'---.::hilif :e;:: in <'<)l:!lf'f't}nn win1

    tn:!f'ilJPr \Yii'l 1•l:)11 1o in

    "\Tr. flf' tl1f' rin"· ·--T..:tr•nJ. PT('.

    •li:-JC"f'l!ll c;l."('h'h ll''rl] •I n

    1Pf'fr;r• ..

    cinn or-hcrno) rs:r·l.. r.OI·t. Pr .. )00.q) IF.p. "'·' nf I


    ArsTnALL\-J.n,rs. gtntutrs. r·ff'. .\n ad rP1:1iiJ·':! t 1 n:t\·lll

    nnr1 n ·ilitnn· r1Pfenrr> 1:) r,f );!{If)): r1:td ].):

    (Sl1nrt titl(l: Dr>fPnf'P :\r:!r":rlr·rl l1\'

    Dr>f0r1rf' ar·t 1010 87 pf Jrl/IJ 1:

    il ,,f 104!11.

    \n flr·t rrht!n!:! tn tl'.r r f t 1·» T····r;t,,,.,:

    T.P.nrlrrr··1 hy t1lf• nt c.: ,.,.,ni \\-·1 1 "..; ir: t'"·

    of [!OYPrnrnr>nt r·f thfl 1'\-r>. 1.f 1r1nr1·1

    -'l1 r)i·f tiflr·: r,f '!'•\''•rnp11·nt _:-rr·r•<».t•lnr·(' :1r·t

    .\mpnrlr>rl h,· SPrtt r,f L'r ,,·prrrP<·'1t n 1 :tr·t

    Jrll!l ·2'i nf ]1)]0): .Tnrlir·;on· n•·t 1027 IC\o. I) of

    1027\: Sr-:)t nf ;:!''WPrnm"nt ;;r·t

    i '\ o. 4 nf 1 : t nf arrepta nrr n f't l \l:l'l

    !No. 12 of HJ38).


    AvsTRALIA--Parlicunenl. Federctl capital: propuoeil site at Yass-Cauberra, paper" respecting selection of territory and proposed site for the city: together with reports

    respecting topogr>tphy, water supply, ,-,ewerage, railway pnwer, etc. [Cileib.] Govt. Pr. [1909]

    (P.p. 6 of 1909) P'Jans and map;; printecl separately.

    :Federal capital: proposed. site at Yass-Canbena: re11ort bv chief engineer for harbors and water supply, New

    s"outh Wales (E. M. de Burgh), Tetlow of Cotter River, from lst January to 7th July, 1[109. [J\Ielb.] Govt. Pr. [l90U] (P.p. 23 of l\J09)

    Federal capital: proposed site at Yass-Canberra: further papers respecting tlre selection of territory and proposed site for the cit,v. [}Ielb.] Govt. Fr. [l90!l] (P.p. 35 of

    l\JO\l) Federal capital: proposed site at Yass·Canberra: further papers respecting the selection of territory and proposed site for the city (dated 17th Angc:st to 30th

    1909). [Melb.] Govt. Pr. [lD09] (P.p. 47 uf l\109)

    Parliamentary deb>Ltes: [on Defence bill, 19091 H. of R.: Com., 4877 +; Senate: Com., 5087, 0715. Parliamentary debates: [on Seat of government acceptance bill Hl09]. Senate: 2R, 4308 +;H. of R.: 2R, 5169 +;

    Com., 5201 +· BULLETIN, nev;spapcr. [Articles un the federal capitalJ 7 Jan.·ll Nov. 1909. GrsBORNE, F. A. \Y. The federal capital. In his Social

    problems in c\ustralia, Jl· 154-5. [ l90!J]

    NEW SOUTH \Vi>LI!.S-Laws, statutes, etc. An act to provide for the surrender of territorv in connection with tht '"'''"l of government of the a11d to ratify and

    confirm an agreement for that ancl other purposes. (No. 14 of l 90S). (Short title: Seat of government surrender act 1909) NEW SoUTH Assembly.

    Yass-Canherra proposed fr'c!ergl territory: (report by chief engineer for htn.bours and water supply, re flow of Cotter RiYer, from Jst January to 7th .July, 1DOO): [in supplementation of corrcspnndcn"e tabled on 14 .Tuly,

    l!J09] [Sy,l., Cnvt. Pr., I90D] (P.p. 37 of lfJOD) Feder:d capital site: ( corresponclPncc and reports respect­ ing Yass-Canbcrra proposed fpderal territory, including report re flow of Cotter River, from lst January to 7th

    July (1909)) [Sycl., G

    Federal capital site: (papers and plans received from the Prime :\Iinister of the Conllnrmwealth respecting the Yass-Canherra proposed federal territory). [Syd., Govt. Pr., 1909] (P.p. (l() of 1\)09)

    Federal capital site: (further correspondence between the Prime Miuister of the Commonwealth and the Premier of New South WaJei< respecting Yas"·Canbcrra proposed federal territory, :31 August, I [Syd., Govt. Pr.,

    I !lOll] ( P.p. 104 of 190!l l

    Federal capital site: (report by the chief engineer, harbours and water supply, Department of Puhlic Works, on the discharge of the Cotter River during August, 1909, in connection with tlte water supply). [Syd., Govt. Pr.,

    l!l09J (P.p. 132 of l90!l)

    c:tpital site: (report by oflicers of th'• Department

    of Public \Vorlcs on the propo,;er[ railway connection hetwceu Yass-Canberra ancl .)en-is 13ay, together with plans). [Sycl., Govt. Pr., l90!l] (P.p. 133 of l!J09)

    Federal capital site: (report uy chief engineer for harbour., and wat<:'l" re,..pecting depth of water available for

    navigation at .J,.n-i8 Bny, together with plan). [Syd., Govt. Pr., l!JOfl] (P.p. 134 of 1!l0fll Federal capita I o;itl': (rep orb n·garding mining possi bilities and extent and value of land proposed to be

    surrenderee] hy the Stntc at Jcnis B<1y. together with map showing ,JerviR Bay and arc

    wealth [S)''L Gm·t. Fr., lD09] (P.p. ].'JD

    of J90!J J Federal capita 1 sitr: ( repo•t by the chief engineer for

    harb<•llL and wah·r S1l]•ply, res;>rcting water snpply aYaihhlc hom the Gmlgenh:·, ans and Paddy Rivers). [Sy!l., GnYt. l'r.. 1900] (P.]'. l3G of J'lOfl)

    Federal capitrcl site: ( 'whcrh1le ;;llii\\·ing tennres. area and value of Janel> \Yithin tl1e cntclunent areas of the

    Gud!Tenh1·. :<:1ws nnrl Pacl

    Fedcml capital site: (schedule showing land tenures

    witl1in the additional area pf l 00 square miles, proposed to be smrende1·ed), [Syrl., GoYt. Pr., HlO\J] (P.p. 180 nf 1909) Fecleral capital site: (further eorrcspundcnec and iuiurum­

    tion respecting territory prol'""'d to !w snrrcnrlercd hy the .'·tate). [Syd,, Gm·t. Pr .. IDO!ll (J>.p, 191 of HIOD)

    SunrAN, Rir JOFr'>, 1],_. L•rlPral rRpitaL Syd., Sanrh., [190!J] Rqn·intcu from the Daily Telegraph, 8yd,, G to 13 l\Iar., 1909.

    S1 s:s:IULCH, C. A. Xutes on the physiography of the :southern

    tableland of Xew South Wales, Roval Soc. N.S.W. J. & Proc., v. 43, 1909, p. 331-54. •

    SYDNEY. Technologieal Museum. Building and ornamental stones of the Yass-Canberra federal capital site: extract from a publication now going through p1·ess. Syd., Govt . Pr., 1909.

    " Fnr Felieral Jif•rnbt'•·s on1y ., .

    TAYLOR, M. C. The land of the used-to-be. Lone Hand., Dee. 1909, p. 213-8. YARRALVl>fLA: the Yarralumb estate: the property of Mr. F. Campbell. Syd., Pastoralists' Review [l90fl1]



    1910). Amended by Judiciary act 1927 (No. 9) of

    1927; Seat of government (administration) acts 1930-40. AVSTRALIA-Parlia,ment. Fecleral capital site (Yass-Can-berra) : correspondence (dated 3rd February to 4th

    July, 1910) between the Prime Minister of the Common­ wealth and the Premier of New South \Vales re issue

    of proclamation under the Seat of government aooeptanoe aot 1909. [Melb., Govt, Pr., 1910) (P.p. ll of 1910)

    Federal capital territory (Yass·Canberra site): water supply and rainfall: record of discharges at the official weir

    on the Cotter RiYer from the date of the establishment of the gauge (20th May, 1910) to 7th September, l9Hl, and memorandum by the Commonwealth Meteorologist on the average rainfall. [Melb.l Govt. Pr. [1910] (P.p.

    35 of 1910) Parliamentarv debates: [on Defence bill, 1910] Senate : 2R, 1660 -t; Com., 2273 +; H. of R.: 2R, 6116 +;

    Com., 6144 +. Parliamentary debates: [on Seat of government ( adminis­ tration) bill, 19101 H. of R.: 2R, 5874 +: Senate:

    211, 600Y.

    AUSTRALIA'S NEW GAPJTAJ_; the city of pumpwater. Bulletin, 25 Aug. l!JlO, :fl. 7.

    C'APITAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH. Geographical J., Mar. 1910, p. 318-20.

    CAPITAL: the new Government's first duty. Bulletin, 5 May, 1910, p. 6.

    CURIOUS AT'J'ITUDE OF MINISTER O'MALLEY, Bulletin, 23 Jun. 1910, p. 6,

    ELEVEN INCHES Ok' RAIN. Bulletin, 28 Jul. 1910, p. 7.

    FEDERAL CAPITAL SWINDLE. Bulletin, 24 :Feb. 1910, p. 6.

    FEDERAL CITY. Bulletin, :31 :\Jar. 1910, p. 6-7,

    HU;<;T, HENRY AMBROSE. On the climate of the Yass-Canberm district. [J\{elb.J Govt. Pr.. I!l10. (Commonwealth

    Bureau of Meteorology. Bulletin: no. 7)

    KITCHENF.R OF KHARTOUM, HoK\TIO HERBERT KlTCI.!ENER, 1st earl. The Military College. In his Defence of Australia: memorandum p. 1:1-]4, [Melb.] Govt, Pr.

    flDJOl (P.p. S nf IrlJO)


    TEU>GRAPTI. Bnlletin. 20 ,}a 11. 1 fJlO, p. 7.

    FuU.ER 0:\' THE FEPFRAL PORT. Hnllctin, 7 _4pr, J!JlO, p. 7.

    Sornr \YALJ,s-Parliament-Legislative t!ssembl!J. Federnl capita I site: ( cnrrc,;pond<>nce between the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth and the Premier of Xew South Wales, regarding is>me of proclamatiou providNl for under Section 5 of "Seat of government acceptance ar·t. l'lOfJ "). [Syd., G,wt. Pr .. 19!0] (P.p. !J6 nf HllO)

    :"OUTJI iVALES--I'rw/i(lm.cnt-J,cgisla.ti1;e CounciL. The

    seat of government of the Commonwealth: ( a.n-recmcnt entered into hetween the T'rin"' of thl• Common­

    "·enlth an,l the l'rrmirr of Xr•w ,<:outh i\'a)c, respecting .'Urrf'ncler of territmy f11r purpo'r" of). [Sy


    D<'e. 1010, p. 6-i".

    TAYLOR, TJIO\!AS GniFl'I'l:lL The phy,iograph;v of the proposed federal territory at Canhrrra, Melh., Uo1't. Pr., 1910. ( Commonwrnlth Bureau of :Vfeteornlogy. Bulletin: no, 6)

    Tt:.\fPORARY CAPITAL OE' AVSTRALIA. Bulletin, 3 Nov. HllO. p. 6.

    YASSBERRA: a postscript. Bulletin, 8 Dec. 1!110, p. 6.



    AusTRALIA-Census and Statistics, Bu·reau of. The Common-wealth ;;eat of govermnent. :Melb., MeCanon, Bir'.l

    [1911] Heprinte

    out capital city] in Official year book of the Common wealth of Australia . 1901-1911 no. ;,,

    1912: section 31. Melb., l\ll2.

    8ce aU;u correBpon

    Aus:rn .. ,\.LIA-Home AfjaiYs, Depat·trnent of. Digest: no,. 5-30, Oct. 1911-1918. :Melb., 1911-18. FormerlY

    Bi-monthly digest, formerly :t\Oii. l-4 not

    published. Information conditions and particulars for guidance in the preparation of competitive designs for the federal capitai city of the Commonwealth of Australia. [Melb., GoYt.

    Pr., 1\lll] AUSTRALIA-Laws, gtatutes, et·c. t:leat of government: onlin· ance no. l of 1911- [Melb.] Go,·t. [1911-

    A'USTRALIA-l' ar!·iameni. date: statement of for initial works

    (P.p. 55 of 1\lll)

    Federal capital: J 91D/ll, and tu

    workB out and preliminarie'

    [Melb.] Govt. Pr. (l\lllj

    AUSTRALIA. l\oyal :Military College, Duntroon. Report fur the year UllO/ll- [Syd., Melb., etc., Govt. Pr.,

    1911- ]

    CAPITAL W11'H A COX.J;'JDE-VI.'Ll" ESl'L\lATED :&AIIH'.ALL. Bulletin, 2G Jan. 1911, p. 6.

    J.!'EllEUAL CAPITAL AUSTUALIA. To\1 n Plannin•• Heview

    (LiYerpool), Y. 2, no. 2, -Tui. 1\lll, p. 15\l. "'

    GHOST OF YASSBERRA. Bulletin, l4 Sep. 1\lll, p. T.

    PITTMAN, EDWARD FISHER. Reports on the geology of the federal capital site. [Melb.] Govt. l'r., 1911.

    BULMAN, Hir JoHN. The federal capital of Australia. ln

    Institute of Architects of New flouth \Vales. Architecture·, v. 8, l!lll: p. 264-8.

    TAYLOR, THOMAS GRIFFITH. The physiography of ea>tel'il Australia. [Melb.] Govt. Pr., 1911. (Commonwealth Bureau of 3.1etcorology. Bulletin: no. 8)


    AUBTRALIA---H orne Affairs, Department Capito!

    Designs noard. capital city: xeport of BoaT

    appointed to investigate and report to tlw Minister for Home Affairs in regard to competitive designs. [Melb.] Govt. Fr. [1912] (P.p. 17 of Hll2)

    Federal capital city designs: report of a Board appointed to investiuate and rel'ort a,; to !itzitahility of Cf'rtain

    designs adoption in ccnmexion with lay-ottt of capital; together \\'ith photogml'h" of " design and ''

    perspective sketch submitted the Bo;trrl. f}1elJJ.. (;on. Pr., 19121 (l'.p. ()5 of 1!112)

    CAMPBFJ,L, \Cn:n;R S. An historiral "ketch of Willian.

    Fa.rrer\; work in connection with his inq;roYements in whea.ts for Austndian eonditionx. .\'sian .\.A.S., 1:Jtb :Meeting, Syd., 1911. Report: p. 523-3fi. Syd., 1912.

    FEDEUAL GAJ'lTAJ. A?iiD A UlU\'E lJl1ildill!.( aud )lud

    Estate, ,-. .5, no. 58, .Tun. l 'll p. 4:1-4. -


    25 Apr. 1912, p. (i.

    FEDEIUT, CAPITAL Hll Z, p. 40-.>2.


    Town Planning HeYie" (Linrpnol J. 1·. 2. no.:;, Ort. JnJ'?. p. 165-7.

    GmFTIN, \VALTEH BcRI.EY. federal "it\ plam1v 1

    tells the story uf his ,l<·'ign. Huilrling nurl neal l:,tatt·. v. 5, no. 59, ,Tul. 10!2, Jl· 4'2-:J.

    HUMORm;s \'lEW OF Till·: l'EDEIU!. CAPITAL: [bv "Oriel" i11 tbe C.Ielhonrne "Arp-us "] Bnilding Re;l Eo;tate, ,._ .-,

    no. 5!'1, .Jul. l!ll2, p. 2:3.

    iSJ.OSSON, EDWIN E. Hunting {()r tltc capit;J] oi :\n>traJi,,

    Independent (K.Y.), "· n<<. 12 1! 11:.!.

    p. 590-605.

    Sl:RPil!SE. Bulletin. 15 Aug. l!ll2, p. !l.

    TAYLOR, GEOll"I: .\t:GCSTINI:. T1w fctl<-r:tl <:it\·: the W· rid' r:ompetitinns Tluil.Jin(!' "nrl Rerd J->t11tr·. " ·>.

    IH< .• 'iR .. Tnn. 1!112. p. 4i-54.


    ,JEssiE. [Canberra] in Iter Australia irurn a

    WnJnan's point of view: p. 28-84, Land., Cassell, 19J:J.

    Canberra: capital city of the Cunnnonwe>

    Australia: laying· the fonnclatiun stones of the r·umrncut·tL ment column aml naming the federal city, 12th C.larch, 1913. Dielb., Gmt. Pr.] JDl:l.

    .\U;'lR.\LlA-llutdc "if[ain, Department of. The federal capital: report c,;plnnatnry of the preliminary general plan: [by Wa!te1· Burley Griffinl Go,-t. l'r., 1913]

    FeJeral capital territory: the commencement of the prin­ cinal engineeriru.!· ,vnrks jssu€0. on the occasion

    o( tlle frJunclatiuu ef thl1 COlllllH'-l1C'l'1lH'·lli

    column. ?-.Ielh. [God. Pr.] Hll:3

    _-\.CSTRALL.>,. RoYal \' 0 l, ;).'), 1:


    )liliLuy Col1cge. . J) c J l

    Dnntroon. Jlelb., etc., ,J"urnal: UJ13-

    C . .>,::->BEHRA, THE CAPlTA.l. Oli Lone Haml, \'. l:G.

    no. 72, .·ipr. lDl:}, p. 322 ·4.

    CAPITAL CJ'l'Y OF l'HE CO.\DIO.'\Wi<:ALTll: a great City thnt is to be. Briti>h A'sian, 24 .Tul. 1>113.

    t'llE#lTIO..._'\ O.F c.A.:YBERRA: £:all for a rovaJ C(IUJ·

    mission. Builcling Que\ Rr,ctl rstate, \'. G, no. 71, .ful. HJl:). p. 43-\l. CVTLACK, FREDERIC }Io&LJ::Y. Lanbrcna, eapital of Austntlia. [1913]

    FEDEBA..L CAPITAL OF .-\ Town Planning I\.evit\\

    (Li\·eqwol), v. :l , ntl. 4, .l:1n. l\113, p. 221-2

    FEDERAL TEWUTORY 'VIGlLA.'\U; AssociXIION. Xotes of " dejJUtation to the l\Iinbtcr for Home AlfaiTs (from th·.­ Queanbeyan Age, August S, 1\ll:l t land-owner<

    [Queanbeyun, lUl:Jj

    \Y c\LTE!{. BCHLEY. Ai'C:JI itcctun' and



    boin!f >lll atldrc'' hcfore tlw \ 'id<1rian Tnctitutc uf teet;:. DHtlrling and Heal E:-tatc, v. J:l, no. 74, Oet. 1\lJ.). Jl· \il-4 0

    Canberra: the arv!titedur;tl and cnt::tl \"'·'S'

    bilities of -\ w;tn; lia ·, ea pitni <·iiy. Ibid .. v. n. no. 7 .-..

    SoY. p.

    Canberra: federal city ,_itc and i1" arcl1 ii.t'l'tnrn ·

    possibilities. lde1n, Y. 1;1.. no.',Jn, Dee. JGI:{_, p. Town planning :111d it3 a rchi tcetnrai essentja)s: bei11g :t :; address before the Institntc of nf

    Idem,"· J:l, no. 74, Oct. Hll:L p. 'i(HiO. \L\.lJO:XY, D .. J. Heport 011 a geuiugi(·.nl reeonnais--att(:C. ol CH· frden.d tPrr\tCirY: wHlt n._'fcn•nrt• to a1·ail:.lld •

    huiiLLiHg: wateri.a1.s, ]!11:3; lJy D .. i. ancl 'T. Griflith Ta;-'lor :liclb .. Cod. l'r. ilDJ::,

    \[u .. }nJ;:; (:,\l.Y. L·.•HC Hand,\. ii, no. ii:l, ,Jan. i\Jl:l, l'·

    C\E\V Sornl \ \' ,\ -1 ia.," -/,cgisla ti rc .I sse n1 /,z,,.

    }'crlPrnl: { to the C'nnnnoll\\''l!

    c·rrtain t(•JTitorY in th0 • .. nf ./prvi...:. Hn;_v­

    Prernier\.:. ofliee '111in11te n:: tqgvthcr w1tll p1an). fS>'d . l:m·t. l'r., l:Jl:lj (I'.p. :!i:G n[

    :\u:,IG!l, ,J. \\·. The H<>yal \ ro',kgP. L<>llv

    Hand.\·. 12, n(). 71, 1!:1:-:, p. -f:J1 7.

    OI"R t'OI/1:'\L\l. cJ._['lT,\: the j!;t<'ll nf tlH' .\n :-:. tra1i:lll"'

    [and r111 CanlJrrr


    G. C. Tl11.• n ('!l;!J\h·r ! \

    romanr-r and rem in isr·r·nr•c•. Life .. \ pr. 191 :l. I'· :\Z:J-'1. a\1\t(,in.t :t C'!IlJJld:--:--ion of 1{n1l,Jitl."

    and Rertl E>tab. '· nP. 72. All'!. l!J13, J'.

    T.\YL011. (;E0JU;E .-\{"c;(·;-.;r :\'J:. :-:a··:(· ('al;lJI'I ra . .\ IJ()ard ()i

    e:\jJ<'rt:-:.1rnperativP. [r,id .. Y. 1:-;, no. . . '-·el1, l!ll:L p. 40-\.{.

    D11riPv (;rifTi 1I-rrJwl: !rln·n, \·. J:L no. 7-L (kt.


    p. 47-!l. '

    Tr:.\ll'IJJL\l:Y (',\J'IIAL .\i (',\.'\[:I:l:HA. nn:lr·tin. '>lnr.

    I'· 8.


    11! n t !1· , 11

    1 1

    ) ) .J.

    ir-"'. Drporlltif'll 1 0f. FP·1er.i1 j,:q·1ia (•,·t:lta1 ["\TcllJ._. r;n\·t. Pr ..

    '-r.nk11r-(, }a fe1}1•rnein pnrLJHH'JJtrjl 1.

    ["\fr·HJ.. I'uH·r,r·;; Drn-: .. l -11 .\1:-:n r··d·li -- IF·d i:: Cr(·!!('/! : 1 [td r;r·rn :({!.

    -\ l'!iTll.\LL\-l'rnlio t11n1 f. (IV) Quean


    y ( Tct;.;da1e Sn;lth ':-; :..:Pcti(n1 \ r,f cnlY-=.trn(·

    lion · ['>Tell> .. l';n•.t l'r IP.p. 11 <•'

    !fiH 1


    CANBI!:RRA CONTROVERSY: is the \Valter Burley Griffin desig11 a national acquisition or a national calamity [corre­ spondence in the Sydney Morning Herald .between L. A. Curtis and G. A. Taylor] Building ancl Real Estate, v.

    13, no. 77, Jan. 1914, l·· 2:>45. DAVID, Bir TANC'AT Wn.LIAM EnRWORTH. The tectonic geology of New South Wa'es. B.A.A.S. Handbook for New South \Vales: 'cetion 2, ch. 6. Syd., New South

    \Vales Committee, Hll4. DRYBERRA CAPITAL AND THE JOYS AND HOPES THEREOF. Bulletin, 5 l\Ja.r. 1914, p. 6. DUST CLOUD AND A BONE AND A FEDERAL CITY Bulletin, 8 Oct.

    1914, p. 6. [EDITORIAL CO.\JMENT ON CANBERRA'S DESIGN AND CANBERRA'S BUILDINGS] Building and Real Estate, v. 15, no. 86, Oct. 1914, p. :J9-G2. GRIFFIN, WALTER BURLEY. Canberra: 3-u. TI"uilding and Real

    v. 13. no. 77, Jan. 1914, p. 65-8; v. 13, no. 78,

    Feb. Hll4, p. fo5 7; v . 13. no. 79, Mar. 1914, p. 81-7; v. 14,

    no .. 80, Apr. 1!114, p. 65-6. PIUDHAM, .J. T. vVilliam Frtrrer's work, methods, and sucr.eH><. ln B.A.A.S., Sydney Meeting, ilug. 1914. Report: p. 662. RIVERS OF CANBEHRA. Bulletin, 31 Dec. 1914, p. 7.

    SUSSJ\HLCH, C. A. The cenb'nl tableland region of New South Wales. I n B.A.A.S. Handbook for New South

    Wales: section 2, cl1. 4. Syd., Kew South Wales Committee, 1914.

    TAYLOR, GEORGE AUGUSTINE. TJ1e controversy: 11

    lmndrcd-guinea dwllenge. Building and Real Estate, v. 13, no. 78, Feb. l!Jl4, p. 68-70. The competition for a capital-The plans that pleased-The battle for fair play. In h>is Town planning for Australia:

    section 8-10. Syd., Building Ltd. (19141 Al"o published in monthly instRlments in Buildi11g a11d Real Estate, v. 14, nos. Sl-5, 1!H4.

    TAYI,OR, THOO.IAS GRIFFITH. The evolution of a capital: a physic>graphic study of tbe foumlat'on of Canberra, AuRtralia. CLoud.] Royal Gecgraphical Society [19141 Reprinted from 'l'he Ueograph·ical journal, il.pril and May, 1914, p. 378-95, 53654.

    VERNON, W. L Capital city competition. In A'sian A.A.S., 14th .iJfeeting, Melbourne, 1913. Report: p. 556-7. Melb., Govt. Pr., l!Jl4.

    WoRLD's C


    AuBTR.ALIA-Laws, statutes, etc. An act to provide for the Rceeptance qf cert

    Hll5) (Short tit.e: Jervis Bay Territory acceptance

    act, 1915) AvsTHALIA-i'arliamcnt. Fedem1 capital: design for lay-out of federal capital city-correopo!J{!ence and papers: pro grcss plan, etc. . . . : temporary transter of Mr.

    A. ,J. ..\.Iacdonald to assist Minister Griffin-correspond­ ence. [J\lelb.] Gort. Pr. [1915] (P.p. 153 of 1914-17) l'luliamcntary debates: [on Jerris Bay Territory accept· ance hill 1!ll5] Senute: 2R. 3165 +; Com. 3166 +;

    H.ofR.: 2R.4721+. AusTRALJA-Parliamcnt-Btanding Committee on Public IV orks. Report together with minutes of evidence appendices Oil the que,tion of the construction of a mam

    sewer for tl1e City of Canberra. [l\'Ie!b.] Govt. Pr.

    [1915] (l'.p. 5!l of 1914-17) Report together with minutes of evidence and relatin" to tlJC proposed storage and regulating reservon, upper cQueanbeyan river. [:Ylelb.] Govt. Pr. [1915]

    (P.p. 64 of IH14-l7) Henort too·cther witl1 minutes of evidence relating to the que,;t'm;" of a site for the propose


    AFFLECK, WILUAM. to present date. Reminiscences from infancv

    [:::iyd., l'rivt. Print., 1916] •

    AUSTEAJ.IA-Parliament. Federal Capital Director of Design and Conotruction: paperb respecting the renewal of tne engagement of Mr. \V. H. Griilin. (}Ie,b.J Govt. Fr.

    [ !Ul6J ( .P.p. 28fJ of 1 Ul4-l7 1 Federal capital: documents necessary to complete l'arlia· mentary paper no. l:j:J of ses,;ion 1914-15-16, Ja:d on - the table of the House of Representatives on 16th JunA,

    1915. [1\Ielb.] Govt. Pr. [101Gl (P.p. 346 of 1914-17) AUST1lALIA-Parliament-Standing Committee W or h. General report: 1st-

    [Melb.] and Canb., Govt. Pr., (1916-on Pnblic

    : [1915-

    Report, together with minutes of evidence, relating to the proposed cement works for federal eapital ancl other Commonwealth purposes. [Melb.] Govt. Pr. [1916] ( P.p. 284 of 1914-17) Heport together with minutes of evidence and diagrams

    relating to the propo,ed dams for ornamental waters at Canberra. (Melb.] Govt. Pr. [I9l6j (P.p. 353 of 1914-171 Report, together with minutes of evidence and a diagram relating to the propmcecl city railway at Canberra.

    (Melb.] Govt. Pr. [lfll6] (P'.p. 354 of 1914-17) AUSTRAUA. Royal :Military College, Duntroon. Standing orders (lst January, 1916). Syd., Govt. Pr., 1916. CANBERRA. Building and Real Estate, v. 18, no. lOG, Jun.

    191f, p. 48-52. CANBERRA PARLIAMENTARY BUILDINGS: world's competition (re-opened): Canberra Commission. Ibid., v. 19, no. IDS, Aug. 1916, p. 5G·9. GRIFFITHS, S. Canberra. Surveyor . .Aug. 1916, p. 104-6.


    AuSTRALL\-Auditor·General's Department. Special report of the Auditor-General (under sed'on no. !i4 of the Audit act Hl0l-l!l12): report of the royal commission on federal capital administration: comments on that portion of tlJe report JJCaded "recpdr,ments of the Audit act".

    (Melb.i Govt. Pr. (1917] (P.p. :3 of 1!117) AusTRALtA--Laws, statutes, elc. Ordinances of the Korthern Territory of Australia, the TerritDry for the seat o1

    government, and tl1e Territory of Korfo]]< Is'·ancl made from the date of the acceptance of tho'e territories by the Commonwealth to 31st Dc(cemher, l'll6: with tables, appxs., and indexes. [J\felh.l Govt. l'r., Hll7. .\TJSTR-HH-Parliament, Federal capital: royal commission

    on administration: particulars of sittings, officers

    involved, etc.: ( Melb.l Govt. Pr. [19171 (P.p. 370 of


    AusTRALIA--RO!Jal oomrnismon on federal ca]Jital ar!mi11istrfl tion. Mim1tes of evidence: J8tl1 Jul. HJ!fi-2lst Feb

    1917. [Melb.] Govt. Pr., 1!117. Report [s] : Hl. [Mel b.] Gn..t. Pr. [ l!JI7l 1. Issues

    relatina t" 1\lr. Gritrin. I l'.n. :ns of Hll4-17)-2

    Aceounh and finanr.e at Canbc1·i·a. (P.11. 12 of 1917)-3. \Vasteful expenditure at Canherra. (T'.n. 1:5 of Hl17l -4. Seweraae nt Canberra. (P.p. 14 of 1!1171--Ii. Brick works at Canberra. (P.p. Li of 1!117)-6. Water supp'y. power, and miscellaneous. (P.p. lG of 1917) AusTRALIA. Royal Military Dnntl'Oon. Extraets

    from regnhtions. etc., for guidance of prospective candi dates. 'syd., Govt. Pr., lll17. BACH RrCJIAHD F. Tl1e sad story of Canberrn. American Architect, v. l Jl, no. 2153, 1b.r. Hll7, p. 206-R. QPEANBEYAN-CANREHRA ,\DVOCATE: ]917-[192()] Qneanbeyan,

    A. M. Fallick & Sons, l\Jl7-[l92G] twice weekly. JnrOl'})OfHtPd in ()IIPO/!]J('_1l(il/ a{!C.


    Committee on Public

    Works. Report together with rninntes of evirlrnee relat· ing to the propm,rrl arsenal railwny: rTng·gcranong! (l'vfelh.] God. Pr. (1'1lR] (P.p. 112 of lfll7-lfl) CA"Il'IlELT. DoXALil. [I:eportl to the Honorable the :Minister

    fnr Home Affairs Fith Xnremher. 197 7. lu

    Federal Cap;till Territory: report" n'Tating to alforl'stil tion hv H. ffngh Corbin and others: p. 30·2.

    Govt. Pr. [l!ll8)

    GILLO.IA;-;, HEC>l\Y FFREi\CH. The priest who did: Tidbinbilla tales: by Henry de Ffreyne-Guillmayne [psettd.J: per­ sonal experiences. Lond., Carlton Coy., l!l15. NEW SoiTH \VALES--Laws, statntes, etc. An act to provide

    for the sunender of territory to the Commonwealth, and to rRtify ancl confirm an ngreement for t]Jat and other purposes. (}io. 9 of 1915) (Short title: Seat of

    government surrender act, 1915)

    C01mrx. HoRACE If1;GII. 3-lemnrandnm t

    Federal Territory lancls, with suggestions and recorn· mendations. Idem, p. 22-29.

    TAYLOR. GEOP.GE A TJGUSTTNE. tralia's capital city and of bnngle i•nrl intr'gue. v. e1o. 4, Jul. 1915.

    The flgl1t for Canberra: Aus­ its cheqnered career: a Rtory Town Planning and

    I !11 !l.

    AUB'rnALlA-Prime Minister's flepart'ment. Federal guide. 19l!J· :Melb., Canb., Govt. Pr., 1919·


    CAMBAGE, RICHARD HIND. on the native flora of New

    South Wales: pt. 10: the Federal Capital Territory.

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    amendments. Melb., Maxwell, 1919.


    ED1>IDND, JAMES. Australia in search of a capital. Syd.,

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    AUS'lCRALB.-Laws, stai!Ltes, etc. .An act relating to the Com­ monwealth institute of science and lndustrv. (No. 22 of 1920). (Short title: Institute of science" ancl industry act 1920). Amended by Science and imluotry research

    act 1926 (No. 20 of 1926); Science and industry research act 1937 (No. 27 of l!l:37) ; Sci

    industry research act lll49. CA:illERRA: A ustralh's federal city. Tourist, Juu. 1fl20,

    p. 5-S.

    ED?YiiJKO, JA1rES. Dream ships on Jervis Bay. Bulletin, 2il Oct. 1920, p. 7.


    AUSTRALIA-Pedentl Capital Ad-visory Committee. Construc­ tion of Canberra: general report: l st-final

    [:Jrd] [Melb.] Govt. Pr. [1921-26] (P.p. 134 of

    1920-21; P.p. 41 of 1922; P.p. 58 of 1926-28) I, .\ )lB \G t:. HICIUI\D HIND. Exploration between the Winge­

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    Frm£RAL <.:AriTAL AGAlX! the elimination of "Va'ter Burley Griffin. Stead's Review, v. 55, no. 5, 5 Mar. 1921, p. 253-6. GRooM. Sir LITTLETO" ERNEST. "\York at the federal

    cai)ital ": address

    Club Luncheon 29th August, 1921. [Syd.,


    1-IR. Vv. B. GRIFFIN AND CANBERRA. Architecture, Syd., v. ll, no. 2, Feb. 1921, p. 35-6. SHEAI\SBY, A. J. Canberra, the federal city. In his Tourists' illustrated gui-de to Y11ss district; p. 113-5. 1021. SL'DIAN, Sir ,Jon:N. The federal capital. In his An intro­

    duction to the f,tucly of town planning AustraliR:

    appx. C. Syd., Govt. Pr., 1921.

    TAYLOR, THOMAS GRIFFITH. A geologist's on water·

    divining. Roy. Soc. Vic. Proc., v. 33 (n.s.) 1921, p. 79-8(). VIHI11 OF PAHLIA::\UCSTAHY PARTY TO CANBEIU!A. Rea, Land nncl Air, Feb. lfl2J. p. fHlil-9. WEn::

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    1rs, statutes, etc. An act to consolidate and

    amend the Jaw regulating the public service, and for

    other purposes. o. 21 of 1922). (Short title: Com­

    monwealth public sen-ice act 1922). Amended, l!J24-A.n act to ratify an agreement fm the varili.tion of_ the

    Agrcenw11t for the surrender and acceptallce for the purpo,es of tl1e seat of goYernment_ ot tl1e Corn· momvea1th. (:\o. 28 of l!l22l. (Short title: Seat of

    government acceptance act 1922) AesTHAJ.I,\-l'arl·iament. Parliamentary [on S;eat

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    At:STRALL\-l'rFl·iamcnt-Sta.ildin[J Committee_ nn I'11M1o TVor1c 8 . Hcport together with minutes of Hldt•nr:e relat_mg tn fhe water supply for the federal capital

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    :FEDERAL CAPITAL PIONEER: no. 1-20, 3 Dec. 1924-20 Aug. 1926. Canb., A. K. Murray, 1924-6. monthly. SMnc-Federal capital pionec1· magazine: new series: v. 1, no. 1-no. 20, 15 Oct. 1926-20 Aug. 1927. Canb., A. K.

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    Keh1e. H":·al Sr'w. Prw .. ,._ in.•. i. pi. l. 1!1:! 11.

    I'· 27-!l.

    .To:'\F:S. TJ.\\"ffl 1 ... r i.r . . -.:JIII/11<"11 Li-t ui ],in], of ( ""''('JTJI. llw F•·d('ral Territr'r.\·. l·!Jili. , .. )'t. t.

    l'· 2.i2

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    11 ( '· 1 . . l.f:r" J I'· :'::.!--+2.

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    , inr·-l:il ::rr• .... :-i1lt'll ;Jt ( ;11J

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    I• •! :II'' J :.."· \I'! ' ,!: ,. ,-,.','!:•·i) 1•)1'• 1! >II

    ( :tn!• .. l;r•\1. ! 1 1

    AI Ftl(' ,, : II "'"i '(i,,l,.- I' [: i!'J/11{ \i\!; l:tl i1."'

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    r·E·- -t·· I. !: 1: ,. r ; · t·i rr 1 ,.,J.


    AusTRALIA-La-ws, etc. net to amend the Seat

    of government (administration) act 1910, and for oth€1' purposes. (No. 2 of l!l30). (Short title: Seat of

    government (administration) act 1930). Amended by Seat of government (administration) act 1934 (No. 67 of 1934) ; Seat of government (administration) act 1935 (No. 39 of 1935). An act to provide a fund for the establishment and endow·

    ment of a Solar Observatory in the Territory for the

    seat of government. (No. 5 of 1930). (Short title:

    Solar Observa tory fund act, 1930 ) . Amended by Solar Observatory fund act 1931 (No. 4 of 1931); Solar

    Observatory fund act 1932 (No. 28 of 19 32) ; Common­ wealth Observatory fund act 1944 (No. 41 of 1944). An act to provide for the establishment of a :Forestry

    Bureau. (No. 16 of 19 30 ). (Short title: :Forestry

    Bureau act, 1930) . Amended by Forestry Bureau act 1932 (No. 27 of 1932); :Forestry Bureau act 1944 (No. 13 of 1D44); Forestry and Timber Bureau act 1046 (No.

    . Pa.rliamentarv tlebates : [on

    Forestry Bureau bm, 1930] H. of k: 2R, 2572, 3400;

    Senate :' 2R, 3698, 3970. Parliamentary debates: [on Seat of government ( adminis· tratim1) hill, 1930] H. of R.: 2R, 35 + ; S€nate: 2R.


    Puliameutarv debates: [on Solar observatory fund bill, . 1\J30] H. of R.: 2R, 40 +;Senate: 2R, 571 +·

    Commit-tee on Public

    1Vo1'ks. R e-p ort together with minutes of evidence relating to the proposed construction of public baths at Canberra. Canb., Govt. Pr. [1930} (P.p. 55 of 1929·31) Heport together with minutes of relatin.g the

    proposed con, trnction of a federal h1 ghway w1thin tl1e Federal Capital T erritmy. Co,nb., Govt. Pr. [1930]

    (P.p. 72 of lfJ29-3l) Report together with minutes of evidence relating to pro· posed eredio11 of cottages at. Canbernt. Canb._. Govt. P1·. [l!l30] (P.p. 74 of 1()29-3 1) Report togctlwr 11·ith minutes of evjdcn cc relating to proposed

    eonstru('tion of concrete roads, city area, Canberra. Canb., Go\'t. P1·. [ Hl:10] (P.p. 116 of 1929-:31)

    AUSTRALJ.IN CAI'I'LII, TERRITOli.Y-.4.<1-vi so! ',l/ Cotl.·n r··i.l. .Minutes of meetiugs : J st· [20 :M:ay] 1 930· . Can b.

    ( 1930- Processed. Early reports not published.

    C.Hil'llELL, .T. :v. "SqwttliJJ!-,'" on <;I'OII"tl lands in New Sont-11 Wales. Hoval Aust. H b t. Soc. J. & Proe., .-. 15, pt. 2,

    1930, P· !) ;i.J20; Y. 17, pt. 1, 1932, p. 4:3-86 . C\NBE!UIA. Cui,·crsity Co ll ege. Calendar: [uo. J ]-19 30/3 1- Canb., 10:30-

    l'ANBERUA a !Hl itK [anon.]. [Syd., Printed hy

    , \<1 rt. Co ., 1 9il0 ?]

    CRAIGIE, EmL\JW .Tom\". Land ya] nes taxation in Aw;tmlia: t.llC Canberra letlsing the Llighting cffeets of H

    high tarill" polir:y. A

    HANGOUK, KEITH. Some a,;ped'i of soeietv in lt

    "new" eountry. ln his .-\u,;tralia: eh. 13. Lone( Benn , 19 30 . .

    Same--lrepriut] . [Syd., A's ian l'uh. Co., 194 i'i..J tralia n Pocket Library) LT::nvEU SI'l'Y AssoCIAno;-; oF CA::X llEill\A. Annual reports: lst-1 !12!)/ :iO- 1 C'anb.J , 1 O:lO- • '< Ol nc processed.

    Vo1;T, i'T.I :\'LJD' . .Southem ?\cw i'io u t h \Va les, con­

    tainin!!" t],., ""'-'t iuten•sting scenes of Canbel'l'ft (:Federal Southern Momiro and :South Coa•t

    frpm BniemaJr' s Bay to Eden. 11030 ?]

    H . William Farrer. Au:;t. Q. , no. 6, Jun. 10:10,

    p. lll-100. \ \-m\\·,1 11 :\', ('A HI.. Ca nberra. die haup,;tadt olmc einwolwer. In his Australien: querschnitt durch das .llnkunftsland der weissen rnssc: el1. 1. SaarlJriicken, 8aarbriicker

    Drueke1·ei Hlld \ ce rlag:, J 930. \\-oor.soJ ;(:Il. \\·,\T.TEJ: CiEOW;t:. :-; trud .n l·e and ><'!' IH'I'\. of the Ft•clcral l'apit nl Tc,rritory. :\r<•Ilc. ,

    Reprinh•d from the Ojji eioL \"wrbook of the C'OIIWIOH!rcalth of A.11sfmlia. : no. 22 of HJ2!J, p . 627·638. \\'YLIE, C . . H. I A nus of Canberra] In his Hcmldry a nd

    "·mholis n1 oi .-\.n4ralia: p. J;)-H. Royal Au ,t. His't. !';()c. J. & Proe., "· ](l, pt. 1, J 93 0, p. 1-22.



    19 31]. Typescript.

    A U5TRALIA-Pctrliamcnt. Parliamentary debates: [on A us· tralian Institute of Anatomy bill, 1931]. H . of R.: 2R., 1192; Senate: 2R., 705. Parliamentary debates: [on Seat of government ( adminis ·

    tration) bill 1931]. H. of R.: 2R., 2838 +; Senate: 2R., 3120 +· Parliamentary debates: [on i'iolar Observatory fund bill 1981]. H. of R.: 2R, 1393 +; Senate: Com. 1523 +·

    l>'R.A:NKLIN, S1'ELLA MILES L AlfPE. Old Blastus of

    Bandicoot: opuscule on a pioneer tufted with ragged rhymes. Lond., Palmer, 1931. J'lanl6--[reprint]. [Syd.] Allied Authors and Artists

    (1945] (Australian Pocket Libra ry) MoRGAN, A. C. Canberra. Aust., Q., no. 12, Dec. 1931,

    p. 104-11.

    l'oHJ.ANPALO, JORMA. Kaksi kaupunkia ja kompromissi: [two cities and a compromise] . In his Australiaa kynalla ja kameralla: . [c:h] 2. Helsinki, \Verner Soderstrom

    Osakeyh tio, [1931] .

    'l'AYLOH, THOMAS .Wale:; : Sydney and

    Canberra. In ht-s Australla: uw1udm0' chapters on New Zealand and neighbouring islands : a "aeoaraphy reader: ch. 6. Chicago, Rand Mc?\ally (1931] " "

    \VILSON's COMANY LTD. Canberra : Australia's capital city: a brief review of its history, features and administration. In Wilson's rail, road and sea guide to the South coast and southern highlands New South

    Wales: p. 149-162. Syd., [1931]


    .Bnt.:<,;E, AL&'\A:-Rlt DICKSON EssoN. Hosl'S in t he federal ca-pital. [Melb., 1932 1 Heprinted ft·ow tlJe Austmlian Ros e A. nnuul, l!J32. Hcuu.:y, T. R V. [Canberra hospita l]. Medical .T. Aust.,

    .Jan., 1932, p. 1·6.

    \VA·n,;os, . • fAMES I<'REill>:kiCK. Canbena past aml present. In Otri cinl Yearbook of the Commonwealth of Australia: no. 24, l!l31: p. 454-ti2. Ca1 1h., Govt. Pr., [1932] Wn'I:'J'E, WII.LIAJ\1 Canberra. B.P. Mag. Mar. Hl32,

    p . 22-4 +.


    A c·sTRALIA---lu./ e,·io·r, 1 lepartment of the, Canberra: a city of tlo"·er8 : offieial tn11ri ,_ t ::· 11 irh• to Australia's national 1 .-i'iy< l. , O, l,., ltbtone ,( Co ., printers, 1!133]

    8umc- - [new ed.: cmnp. by Gwen Cameron]. [.Melb., lti::JGJ ilnme- [new t•

    Court of the Terntory for the seat of government and for other pm·p<,;es. ::J4 of 19:13). Canb. Govt. Pr.

    l\l:l:J. title: Se<:•t of go,·e rnlllcut st(preme court

    ad l fi:J:)). A1nendecl hy of "U \·cmment court

    a<:t 1!J:J,j (Xu. 27 of 1D:J •5); Sca"t of gm-ernnll'nt supreme co urt act l!J4J (No. 57 of 1945) etv. .-\u a<:t ra1idate the of ('!' ow n grants,· t he

    PXf.emuon of the term and the detennination of the rent of the determination of the value of

    <·ertam Jund.s and the sa le and di ... po:;al of tcrtain crown Ia nd s in the Territory for tlw seat of n·o •'ernment t o

    •llll<'lld section six of the Sc11 t of gorernu7eut ne e

    ( ti hort t1tle : Seat of 1-!·ovennnent ( :tdm in i&tra tion) ad 1933).

    At·s ·rR .\I.I.I --l'a:Iia.mclll. J';trliamentan· dt'lcat<·,: lou Au s­ tmlhm Institute of Auaton1y bill i!J:J:J]. ff. of Jl.: 2H,

    ISi!l _ : i-;enat e : 2n., 3128. J>a rli illllCntal'\' d!'hates: r 011 Sent of ;..;orel'llllll'llt ( athnin[,. tration) biil, l!l33] . H . of R.: 2n, ];)!Ji, 1805; Senate:

    2H , 1930. Parl in !llenta ry I on St•a t 1 ,f g·o,·t'!"lllll ('ll t HI pre 111 1.'

    comt bill, · l fl:J:l]. H. of H.: 2H , ii:l48 +: Co 111 . 5:1;)/ ;

    s .. uatc: 2H. :317.3 + ; Com . 3209 +. .-\I_" :-..TJ: .\1.1.\-· -/)urlionlf' tt f---./oillf ff ou .o...; 1· /J •jHi r/o/111/ . p, 1r}ia -Jilt' llt H.oll:-:<'. ('an1wrra: handiHJtlk:

    gncph,; hy \\· .. J. :\Iildenhnll. IC'anlt., Co1·t. l'r., JU:J:lj l\Rt-c·F.. , \u;xAXHEl\ DICKSON Ei

    Butler. [Melb., 1933] lt i·pl'illl !·d frum the .tu.strali-u11 Nt,sc . I nnual.

    CAxm-;mu. UniYe.rf

    [Cnnb., 1033· ]


    College: no. 1- .1033-

    Assn.J 1933·

    t11 e Ca ulwrr:t l'ui,·crsit\' [ Cnnb., C.P.C.


    QuEANBEYAN REVIEW: 1933-l 934. Canb., A. Y. Abral1am:;, 1933-1934. RoTARY CLUB OF C.L'iBE'RRA. Canberra: the national capital of the Commonwealth of "l..ustralia: its origin and purpose.

    lC'anb., 1933] S}IITH, A. N. Canbc'I'l'a. In his Tl1irty years: the Common­ wealth of Australia, l!JOl -1931: ch. 24. ::\IellJ. , Bro\Yll. Prior, 1933.


    At:STRALIA-Pcwliament. Parliamentarv debates: of government (administration) bill l!J34) 2R, 937 +;Senate: 1306 +-[on Se,\t

    H. of H.:

    BEimAYs, Hom;BT HAMILTON. A citv made to order. In hi& Special correspondent: ch. li. 'Lone!., 19.34. BUSHMAN" pseud., i.e. Albert Edward \Yright. Why I do not fight: the nunblingo,; of a bnslnnan among the banks

    of Aue;tralia and bome other countrie,;. Sycl., ::\ e\Y Centurv Press, 1934. · ·

    CAMPllELL, \VALTER S. \\'illiam Jameb Faner. Hoyal Au:;t. Hist. Soc. J. & Proc., v. 10, pt. :), 1034, p. 269-85.

    l.L'iBEBRA ANNUAL: no. 1-3, 1934-1940. Can b., Federal Capital Pres,;, 19.14-40. Shakespea re, editor.

    (',\'\DERHA. UniYenity College-CoHncil. Estahli,;hment of a nation:1l nnivereity in Canhcrn1. [Canb., GcJI·t. Pr., 19:54] FERRI-PISASI, C,\MILLE Al:GL'STF; ANATOLE. Canberra. In his . l'Australie, paradi" socialiste: ch. l.

    Les Edition,; cle France, 1934. KEHR, F. R. In praise of Canberra. Aust. Rll

    19:34, p. 91-G. 1'.\H.-;oxs, E. \·V. Can ben a: Awotralian fedual capita!. Bank :\qtes, ::\Iar ., Hl34, p. 22-4. :--LATER, F. Ahorig:inal names in the federal capital. :\

    kind, v. 1, no. I 0, Oct., 1934.

    STOHE Y, ELzA. Eve'., af!airs: written aud decorated by .Elza Storey. Syd., SteplH;nsen, Hl:H.


    ALSTIL\LIA--ln terior, Department of I he. Xotes on Canberra and the Federal Capital Territory. [(>tnbcrra, 193;)] ProcesBed. Same-new eel. 1dth l:'i/.le Historical ancl clescriptiYe note:; un

    Canbena and the Territory for the oeat of government. [ Canh., l 93G] Processed. ALSTRALIA--Parliamenl. Parliamentary debate': [on Seat of government supreme court. bill lil:l:i]. H. of R.: 2R,

    1201 +; Senate: 1257 +-CANBERRA's nRST STATUTE-Robert Burn". Scottish A'sian, Feb. 21 , 1 !l:l5, p. 83-4.

    FEHGUSON, E. ,\. Canhcornr: 1-'eclentl C«pital Tenitory. Bank Xote,, v. 17, no. 7, .Jul., Jn:J.), 1'·

    l?IT ZHABDINGK, I.JAUBK'\OK FREIWIUC. The univer:;ity that will be. v. 2, 10:54-3;), p. 10-ll.

    GAJ\1\AN, Sir RoBEI\T 1\ANDOLPU. A national uni\·cr,ity at Canberra. Aust. Q., Sep. Hl3;J, p. iJ-15. ifAHRIS. l',\\'1. PEHCY. [Canberra]. fu his l'en,_!!rination:;: v . -2; p. 114-22. IChi"ago, lB:\5] ,JACOBS, MAXWELL RALI'If. The occurrence and importance of

    spiral .c:rain in Pinu.s mcliulrt. in the Federal Capital Terri· ton·. Can b., GO\·t. Pr .. 1'l:J;). I Commonwealth Forestry Bu;·eau. Leaflet: no. ;)()] ,JERVIS, JAMES. Xote on the nawe Canberra. Hoyal Au:;t.

    Hist. Soc. ,J. & Prne., \-. 20, pt. (), 1D:35, p. 400. MACPliEl\SOc;, .ToliN. ,] ohn ::\htcl'her, firct r<"ident land owner at Canberra. lliid., "· 20, pt. 2, rn:l.). l'- flrJ-ll:l.

    AGE: juhilee issue lHHO-UJ:J;): 27 Sep. I n:J.-,_

    QneanlH'Y'tll, H. .• T. S. Fallick, I 03i}. s,nTIJ GLA:""\'IT.I.I;. A tale of thrl'P citic:; I HoiJ;trt. ·')'dfl<'_l·. " c,;nbcna]. Atlnnti" ).[onthly .. Jnn. I HI:J;)J rcprinlrrl iii Bank -:\/ltP:·..; ,-. 17. JJ(J. 7.

    .Tnl., 1 \J:J.), p. 22-4. TAYLOR, 1\I. Co'i- Old Dnntroon: itc rrnn:tnr·<' or' lull;.! "·""·

    ;\1n·y, Ann:'' & Air Force -T .. Or·t. 1 n:l.). ]>. >l-;), 1 n:1ti.

    ('r'/18/IS and ,\'/(t/r .. <;/ir·.<.,', /lllrtOII of. ( .l'!J'-11-' l)j till'

    Co1nmoJ;\\·t·1. i ·

    tenitori<"'' population. CanlJ .. (;o,t. l'r. [lfl:liil

    .'l.nlTHALU-/nlerior, /II'J!Ui'lmr•JJI 1Jj tire. Canhnra: tlH' n<'n·u..;t. c·jtv: ttJOllllllH'nt of a natioll· ..

    \!rowth lntilt to < .. (;ol'\. l'r .. l\l:Jii I

    .] llg. _,],. ... t.

    ...:\tT:";TRALL\X ('.-\PITAL 'fEHIUTOJ:Y ldrisorlf L'rJI)i/Cil-(/oJii mUf'cc of inq'uinr £nto lhr r·ost a.nd prarticrtlJi.lity r1.f

    erertinr; o 111i/l.· rlrpol in ('"ii/!('J'nr. Hf']•nrt nn t1H' p;;;t;dJ-lisluneDt. 11 f n uli)J,:- 1lr·Jlftl in (':IJJ1wrr:J. (':1!!11 .. Pr


    :F . .',(Oil

    1\ELFTIAC>E. C. c;it:'·· [n /Jis wa:· from it all:

    p. 208-74. 193G. BrcK, E. 1\-. Canberru, thP c\n,tralian C trees. Q. ::\aturalist, v. !l. no. ti, Apr. 1936, p. · !).i-108. Co>DIUNITY Hos?l.L\L-Boanl of Jfanagement.

    Chairman's report: 19;3i}/:3n-. [Can h., 1930-. KIRWAX, ciJ· JOHX \VATERS. Searchino for a federal eapital. ln his -:\Iv liie's adventure: 9. Lond., Eyre &


    l tJ'}lALl.EY, ]. Concerning lanlJerra: the christeniug


    Ansl., pt. 4, ch. 25. Leipzig. P. A. BrocklJam, 198ii. \\'y_\TT. PlA:.'\80\lE TUYi:Y. Broughton l8:H-l\l5:!. I 19:Hq

    The of BiHhop

    Goullmrn, Diocesan Church House

    1 ():37.

    c\L"SlH.\1.!.\.\' (',\l'IL\L TEE!UTOH'i-larlustrial ltoard. Award ( C'onJJn(llJ\\'l-'a1t1J l, 1J('in2· the a\rard of tlw Indu::-:­

    trid Duanl puiJlisl";d in the (/(u'Ctte of 2nd Augu,t. JH:J+, :1s \ nriccl by up to ancl includ­

    ing determination no. :; ui I ll:ll. l Cnnb., Govt. Pr., 1!137] cil"STB.\LL\.\' ( ',\PI'L\L TETIRITOHY-Nuprel/ie Coar!. of

    court. CanlJ., I 9.')/. '\ATIOXAL BE'VII.:\Y: Y. l. 110. 1-Y. U, JlO. 32, Jan,,

    l n:17 1 \l39. Canh .. Ca n1wt:ra PulJ. Co., lfl.'l7 I 9:l9.

    1Jrxss, ed. of the road from Snlney to

    ::\lelbonmc via Canberra: planned and eel. ' ·[for

    thel Education Fello\1·ship. CanlJerra meeting,.

    Canb., HI.'H. Processed. '.\:"BEHR,\ .\'E\Hi Bl'LLETIX: a lllOllthJy budget of new,; and topical iten1s c·cmcerning Australia's national capital no. l-18, I Jun., Jil.'l7-May. 1940. Canh., Canbernt

    Tourist RurL•an Cunnuittee, l!J;Ji . .Jo. irreg. l'Low, 1\0BHI'IT .Jo::\. ThP uf the In his The book

    of the a2c:-: a l'l'ntc•Jmid 'tun of ::\Ielhourne ant! A

    :l. Queanbeyan, Clo" Lihrnry. 1\l:li.

    CoLE, C. h. Cuniferou' planting in the Capital Terri-

    tor:\' 'If. ;-:nt>tralia. In .A_uckland meetill.r_;,

    ./o''·· Ut.,. 1\epurt: 1'· 28-±. Syd .. Jfl:l7.

    l·:mERSlLI.W, :\I. BAR;o;Am>, pseud. l'laqne with laurel. Lund., Harrnp, lil:l7. IJ.\.IUUS, HrnTE. ( 'ont·erning· ( 'anlJeiT

    tralian tl':;t t'lm: d1. 20. Lond .. Hutchin"m [19:57] HoFF, n. \\"inllin;..: dt>-.:.igH \11\' tht' Ut'Ol';!l' Y.

    at C';ml,c•n;J. _\rt in .-\uctmliH. -:\[n_, .. lfl.'l/, I'· \i.'\-.). lllll'ISO:>, .J. K. :-;_ Hol,nt ('alil)i 1JI'll of thl' wharf.

    Au>t. Hi,t. ""''· .T. & Prot·.,,._ 2:1, pt. J, Jfl:Ji. I'· l-2H.

    -lt:H\'IS, Ho!wrt Hodclle. SuneYm--General

    \'i<"turia :llHl his Parlv work in !l!irl.

    ,-. 2.'3, pt. l, l! :J7, 1'· .-!2-:ili.

    l-.::.!L\oil'H . .\1.\HTI:>. ::\Iartin E ntm<'r pra i,,., l ·:mherra. .-\ust. :\-atinn:tl H .. I \1:\7. l'·

    LH;l;E .. TA.\IE:o; (;OHliO.\-. on the plty:-;iograph,\- a111l

    of tlll' Fc

    luckltJurl mectinrf .. /an .. Tf}.{/·. H(;pnr\: p. 8--1-R. :-::.yd.,

    ; fl:l/.

    Trl\\'.\1'11·:><. r; .)<>'11'11. l:•wk 1-:,d. I :-;_,·<1.1 Tlnrai1<''·

    \\'y \TT. To\TY. TlH· ]li-..l_IH'\' of tit(' diof·(h(' of (;oul­

    \tt\l'll: l1y tltt· lit. f:p,- .. E. II. ..


    .\ i ..... TJ:.\LL\ -f';,,stt ..... · uo'l ,\'fulistir·.'·. /11u·rt1!1 t)(. ( of Uw

    < (If :;nth .Tnn(•. 11t.

    1f·tTit,Jrit·--: d\r1·llir1g--. ('anlJ .. (;o\t. l'r .. ]!J:{S.

    .\r llrf'"J'IIiltil( ()f the·. flf

    and t.'.\]H'l1ditt1l'e fJf the .. ( apital TPrri-

    1-•r.\·: 1\l.'liiS·]fl:Js r1. .. Cult. Pr. [l

    \1 .

    ... );,.1,: rt ti!,:..:!·tliri· witb of p\jtl{'IJt't'

    the f'!'pr·tion nf ;l ;1(

    ( anll('l'J'il, Ft·dr ·r;J] ( ·il)tit

    I \1:1,.; I I l, ·I'· +:> ,( 1 \I:J7 --lO I

    .\ l.STHAL!A.\' .\.\'}\ \'J;W ZE.\L.\.\'\} c\>-i>-ioCIATlO.\' FOH Tlll-. AllY.\:\' I; \fr·::'\T oF I-Jnndhook for (';JnlJ('JTa: prt·parPd fnr

    1 JH• l!:PlnlH·r--- of t]J(' ..:\-.:socia ti•n1 nn tla•

    ... i .. n ,,f ii 11H"f·lin.!..! 1H'li1 in Cnnh:rra .. Lul.nnry.

    ! ,-d. J,_ ,.] 1\c:nn<·llt Hi nih ( anl, .. Cu\'l. J>r. I


    BRIGHT, lViARY Lors. The dream city-Canbcrru. In he·r Tlw song of the happy warrior: p. 169. Mel b., Robertson and Mullens, 1938. CAMPBELL, WILLIAM .JoHN MciNTYRE.

    Vale", Dalton

    Press, 1938.

    " Old Tom Brown " of Canb., Federal Capital

    Thomas Southwell of Park wood: pioneer settler: patriarch: a father of 1fethoclism: a survey of his life to mark tlw centenary of his arrival in Australia in 1838. Canb.,

    Federal Capital Press, 1938. DENNING, \\-lARREN EuwrN. Capital city: Canberra. today and tomorrow. Syd., "The Publicist", 1938. Same- 2nd ed . Canb., Verity Hewitt, 1944. [1945]

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    AusTRALIA. Royal Military Co llege, Duntroon. Australian military forces : Hoyal Military College regulation. Can b., Govt. Pr., 1939.

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    HASKELL, ARiioLD LIO:!\'t:.L. Federal capita l : Canberra. In his 'Valtzing Matilda: a background to Australia: ch. 8. Lond., Black, 1940. NATION AL COUN CIL UE' WOMEN OE' THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL

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    p. R-14.

    WAL RICR, DA\'JIJ. .-\. call on Canberra. ln his vVe went to

    Au•tmlia: ch. s Lond .. Chapman & Hall, l!J49.


    .\ \: :-

    Conllnonwea lth of ,\ m;tralia, 30th J unc, l!l47: analysis of population in local go,·ermnent a reas: pt. 7: Aus­

    t J·;d ia n C'apital Tenito ry, etc. Ca nb., GoYt. I'r., I!J :'> O. nf t he L\.>IIIIHOilweulth of Australia, 30th June, 194i:

    ll ll· ellings mtlllllary for the Au. tra lia n Capital Territory. Canh ... Gmt. Pr., lfliiO . (Ccl!f'lls ]Julletin no. 23)

    :\ n;TIM UA-1 il tc1 ·ior, ]icJW1'I111CIII u/ the- l,ands, A ,{fricultu1·c ll ii!l Stock S er tini1. .\u,tralia n Ca pital T enitory agri­ c·u lturnl bulletin: II<>. l/.)0-2/,iO. Cn nb., 1950. Proeessrd.

    A 1· BTllALI.\-hz terior, llcpartm en I of t he-Public Relations S ec tion. ellzlJ." nnd in the .'1!1'­

    tralian Capital Tl'JTitory a' at !JccembPJ'. /94!l-[ Ca n1 J.. ]!l:iO- annual. Processed.

    St•r \' ir<" n•:ailah!<' 1:n n• , ide nts of the Australia n Ca pita l ' I'< •J-ri t"r,r. f('nnb.l 19/iO. .-..:amr-[ ne\\· Nl.! rnli lled Haurll1ook ,,f " ·n·iccs. [Utnh.J 1!:1;)1.

    .-r:ct.lnl'-·· 1'1· \·. ,c], ('anh .. lfl!iZ. 8rtme- n•L I e

    .\ c·sn:AT.TA:'\' .c\ )!!·:R IC' A': As so<' I \TJO\. .-\ n stralia',; natiuJt:l I Jl lellllll' iu I (n .\m<'riea. f 1 !1 .-i l)'f

    r ·_\J:J E . . \T.Jct ·; }[JJ.DREII. S\'(lm··,- a11cl Ca nberra: uY :\Iildred Ca l1le a ud .h·cnch. lu thciz· ll'ith a

    puq>nse: dJ. R. Lond .. Hodder [Hl:)Ol .\ .\IEHO:'\'. l{oJJEHTCK. tanlJPI'J'a. ln his :\fy tranl'; histon: (·h. i-1. Lond., Ha111ish Hamilton [lfl,iOJ ·

    C \ S ilJ·:niu. Techni c·â€¢d Coll<'ge. Report: J!l49j;i

    Govt. l'r. [l K•O-C'.\\Bf.ltRA T Gt:RIS'f BrRE.\1 ' C'


    CITY co1:sciL FOR c"\XBEilRA : rel'ommellCla tiotB H . . T. R . Cole, Town Clerk of Hobart. Aust. )lunic. J.. , .. :20,

    no. 575, Jan . 1!!50, p. 228-31. CoPLAND, Svr DouGLAS B!!:RilY. The Au stralian Xational University: a project in resear ch. Xature (Lontl. ).

    v. 165, no. 4188, 4 Feb. 1950, p. 169·70. The Australian National Unhersity: au experimetJt in education. New Horizons, Spring, 113 50, p. 2\)-33. Ross AINSWORTH. The Australian National Univer­

    sity. Anglican R., May, }!);)(}, p. S-IZ. Hc;oHES, .MoRms. F ederal territory. ! 11 his Polieies

    and potentates: ch. G. Syd., Ang u s and Robert-on

    [l !)50 ]

    DoN,\Ln \V. The chang ing status o1 aviiatlll a in the

    A u stra lian Capita l Territory: by D onald \V. Lamm and D avid White. Emu, v. 49, pt. 3, Jan. 19;';0, p. l!:l!l-204. Seasona l v ariation of bird population s alon g tlw :Munmn­ hidgee i n the Australi a n C\t pi t!! [ Territory: by Douald

    \V. Lamm anc1 J. H. Ca!aby . Enw, 1·. iiO , pt. 2, Oet. ! BRO. p. 114-22. Lk:Wrs, BRIAN B"\NNA'IYNE. The K a tional Universitv at Canberra. Build. & Eng., Sui. Hl;iO , p . 22·4. ·

    1'dULGRA VE, G. Duntroon-hard school for hard fight-ers. S.W. Pacific, n.s. no. 23 , l %0, p. ,) :J-7. NATIONAL UNIYERSITY, CANBERRA: initial stages of fllnhitiOll '-' proj ec t. Build. & Eng., Jul. 1Hii0 , p. 21-2. NEW SO UTH WALES CGUNTRY DIRECTO}{Y (including Auotralian

    Capita l T erritory): [no. 1· , 1949/ flO - Syd ..

    Univer, al BuBineso Directories [l!.lflO· QUEANBEYA.N NEWS: 1950-195;). Queanbeyan, iV. P . Houston , 1950-1955.""-W eekly. SPF.lSER, vVou<'GANG. Mit d em F lngzeug in,- Parliament.- ­

    Uuter w eissen BHiten gibt's Keine Re1·olutionen. Iu his Austral ien-heute: p. 143-7 . W ien , Wien c1· Volkshuch­ verlag, 193D.

    UNIVERSITY FOR CANREHlU. A'sia n Pm•t, 23 ]'dar., l!l::>O, p. 1:3.

    1951. Econotnirs, R·rtr eau of. Australian Capital Territory. Canb., 1951. (Regional studieti of th(' Australian wool g-ro,ying indui' tr,v: no. l ) AUSTRALIA N CAPITAL T ERRITOHY--A.pprenticeship Board.

    A nnua l r e port: 14th, 1950· Ca.nb., HJi'i l - . Processed.

    AUSTRALIAN N A'l'ION AL UNIVERSITY, Canber-ra-l n t e1·im Co-un ­ cil. Report for the pniod 1st Augu st, 1946 to

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    \Veekly_ , '" · 65, no. 16, J S Q,·t. l !lii l, p. 10. DALEY, C HARLES STUDDY. The Canuerra pla n a nd its {)cl·cJop­ ment [talk to F ed er al on "Reg-ion Rl

    and Town Planning, Canberra. 10 Aug. )!);)]I [Canh ..

    1 \)51] ])roces,;ed. .TrLES. The

    .i nbilee hook: the

    picture;;: [ch. !l1


    storv of ('a nherrn. lu his The grrat

    StOrY of t\tc c\\t.< trrr lillll ll>ction Ill

    Dielh.l <' n'

    FLoREY, Si1· HO\L\IW. :Jicclieal r e,rarc,lJ, lT: 1'1H· .Jnhn C11:·ti 11 Rch ool o f Medical "Re,earch in the .-\n<;t ndian :\atinna! U niversih'. Anst. .T. Scienrp. Y. 1:1. nn. Frh.

    p. 93-fi ..

    FOWLDS, GEORGF: }[. C'a.nherra : the ca pita l '';i;J, a r-ap ital r evenue sy s ten1 . [Anrklantl. J!l :: ; . Frtwp--.•rl.

    T ext of i!"R Ue for Od. J . l!l i'i J nf ] ,i/, r ml /{'{{r/rr r,f Yrw

    7.eal aml. HIGGI NS, 13. Canberra : a g::tnh•n \rith nut a <' ity. Planning He,·iew rottawal. ,._ J. Ul.i l. p. SH !1::?. .

    HIPI>T.F:Y, E. H. The Anstralian ln.

    BRTA!\ .. .\11 -tra li ;:n ('ninr-i1\.

    C'wea I t h Eng-.. , ... 1.'l. no. fl .. T." n. I!: .; J. !'· 2! :i -R.

    LT NFO RD , 13 . .J. The .\.C'.T. _,.,, ,.>r .-] fir-1 '-' "" ..

    nf oprr ati0n. H<•aHh, ,._ I . 11 " . I. :'liar . \'· 27 !1.

    J,r;G.\T. FORESTS lWff.!J .\ :-.·.\T!O:";·r; CAf'fT.\1.. .-\11st. Ti r11 hc r . T .. ::\f a r. HJ ;"jJ , l'· 107.

    [NucoLorwur. Prwm..:en oxR l t lw l"i\ _,. l.r-ant iill l .

    . [Menton e_. Vir .. l!lr; J .,

    l'E AR CE, 8ir FoSTb:R. T h e Denki n gOI·e nunent . . z, his

    Ca r penter t o ea iJinet: rcnrs of Pa.r lia.ment :

    ch. l i.l. Lonrl. , Hutehin,;o n, in J I. •

    Canberra. fbi,!. : ,.], . 41. Yc1:R 0.-\.PIT.\I-. Cuaent BuL. '"· !1, no. :.;, :3 Dee. 1951,

    i'· 07-7!1.

    l \1ii2.


    TEHRI"J'ORY, GIL\XTEIJ FXIJER THE LEASES OHDIXAXCE, 1\ll S-:3i. .-\ '1st. Conwyancer, ::iep . 1n;,2, p. Sl-4. SECRETS l'RORE!r-IN Bl' SH L\ :-;l) SF. l"flNG.

    .ltll.-Aug. 1952, p. 2-3.

    .-\rsTIL\LIA-l-nterim·, Depa r t m ent of the. Provi s ion s for the a nd administration of t he Capital

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    Amtrali an Capi tal Tenitorv Hlii0/ 51-

    Canb., J 9;) 2- Annual. l'n ;ce,,ccl.

    A.t"S TR ALIA-Xe ws rmd Tnjormai.ion JJm·eau. Before school: the of CJ.nbcll"a JH C· school centre,;. [Canb., Can·

    berra X ]u -e1, School and Pre S!'h ool .\.c!Yi sory Committee, J \)52 ] '

    n guide to the nat in nu l capital. Syd., Angus and

    Hobertson [ J 952] .-\ mcu 1--Standwg Committee on Pu blic

    ll'nrks . Herort relating to thr re-submission of the proposal to ercet the Xational L ibra r y nne! R cosHelt :Jfemona l at Canbcrnt, Ca]iib l Territory. Canb., GO\-t .. Pr.,

    1952. ( l'.p. 11 6 of Hl fi l-•1 2) S a me-)linutes of eville nr e. Canb., Go,·t. l'r. [ll)52] .\ C Al'I'rAL fl1 :i so1·y Gowwil. Annual

    n•port: l !l ,';!/:i2- [ CanlJ., 1 !) :)2- Processed.

    A rsTR.\T.L\X XATIOXAl. l'xrn:nsnY, Clin f, e1·; a . The Andralian X a ti0nal Gniven

    in l!J4fl. Canb., 19.52. fl h'tu"!Jation of the Ht. H o n. \ "i,;co unt Bruce of :Jfell:ourn e i' r - t :. hamellnr of the Fnil·er ,.ity. Canh., l!I G2 .

    .\l TS TIL\1-JA:\ :\AT!OX AJ. l: ;\"l\"ERSITY, !9:1!1. Canb. [l!li'i2 ] C0UJICil. [Final J r C'po r t

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    .Jan11ary, l !!iJO to .10th .]nne, !O fi l. C'anh., Gort. l'r.

    [l!li52] (J'.p. 104 [GrDup F & Hl ,,f 1051-52)

    BIRR ELL. .J.\)I J·: s . Jnfant' :-; 1'-l chool.

    .\n;trali<1. :\rehiicdtil"c :T uri p. [ 14 -lR]

    BoYD. Hom:-;. [Canberra]. In hi8 ,;rigin,, builrlcrs and occupier s: 1Hilll"llt' T'11iv . Pre's [1!!52]

    I \,· alte r HmlP\' Griifln] JIJirl.: p.

    Karrabnndah, A.C.T., .-\rt>', l9fi2,

    A nstralia's home: its

    p. 204-7. Melh., ::\1el-

    I 73 -ii.

    BHOIYX, , \ . . r. Son:e note,- on t h e plan of Canherr;l, federal

    <· a pilal of .-\n,-tralia. Tn\\ n Pla nnin!!; Hedew (Liverpool) ,

    .Jnl. 1! 132 , I'· 16:!-&. (; c· :minc t:. :\.\ XC Y T. i'rdiminary a eennnt of t he

    (Jf 11-11' Capital [ Ca nh.,

    C.S .T.H.O .. I l'rn<·e,,NI. l)ndt <:npy.

    B: ·nc l! Al:D .. Top:-; l·:t.Y. TbP >\>I tt· ,,f an·hitl'cturc in Australia. .\r< ·hitc:dt: ral J{ceord IT-.<; .. \. ':. .·\11 .!:!'. l!Li 2, I'· llli>-l!l, 2lli-7. "''' m (.'- I· V\ t ra<"t=--: \\·it It by Florerwr )f. Taylor i

    Bni ld. J.i;_,:ht. f·:no: .. '!-4 \ -, , ._ IU .)2. ['· 2fl -.1:i. 1 11\f .l lfJX\\T. \I .TJJ

    TnTifnr.lf. Din'c·tf)r·:--: l'i']•nrt 0n .T11hil<'e (·rlel1r:1·

    I illn · . r •.. Ul.i2] i'I"N "('"("C/.

    ( "O .IJI'U::O: ,.;ysTJ:\1 f"tl\"EHS .\ !. f. 1'01:\TS !:"; G.\HDE X f'TTY.

    T :·n ,·k .5,· Rn..: T:"-l li:-.:pr ·rtnt inn . . \pr. p. -!R-D. t12, fiK.

    [i)! " "B.\H. \\.li . J.L\ \1 .[oil:\ i hi-un·y and >i p:nilieaHP<• oi

    t h( • annn r i .. d \:l·a r in. !!·-- (Jf t h (• City ( I f C:lnh<"rra. rcaniJ ..

    1 1 llrc,cp_ .:..: p(\.

    F.\RII"l-:1 1. . [(" ,.- nhern•1 In hi.< :\11 -trnlian

    ··1:. ::. f. nnrl.. E1·:1n' [\!l.iZ]

    l:rni·TITHS. (.;_ \"J :sT"'· ( anlwrr" [.!JHl di>'triJ·i I l illlllfl" flf -:\" r• \1' . '-·-' (, lit h n·:, )(>-.:

    "-' l 1rplwrrl Pn':-;". 1 !,.)2.

    In h r r ;--..;flrrW

    (·;/_ (i. ;--..:y£1.,

    1 ,PT .. l o :--:EI'H 1-:J>\\'.\Hll. D11nt ronn: . ..- .-\ " ' t ,.,. 1 i". I riJJ-1

    1l1 r RnYal )!ilitarY C"ll"f!'' (";Jnh .. . :\ ll.< tra )inn n·,,.

    :\ f (•11l •ll "il11, 1

    \\ r-Dr .:-; Al n. .\ mrn·l\ 1J::npoJ.n I;T . . \n"T""''-· .\ liln· a n· arh-en­ I IIJ" <· : t llf• c-t:d,l'•hmcnt ui the Lihrarv ;,f th!' .-\itetrnlian \', ti <•llal "!'niY•·r,it.v . . R . .-\l iJ! . l !l7:i2, p. .

    .\ [cl;t:Il

    \ n-t"r:d i:o : ) .'l . :'lfelb ..


    MmmAY, MAX. The right honourable corpse. Lond., Josepl1 [1952] MAX WELL, ALL-!..\" V lCTOH. Magna Carta group : add res:; hy His Hon. Mr. ,Justice Maxwell. Empire Outlook, Jan.

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    1952, p. 2-5. SAVING HOSPITAL BEDS: Work of the Canberra District Nursing Service. Health, Jun. 1952, p. 19-21. SHOOBRIDGE, DAVID \VILLIAM. Mechanical clearing and ground

    preparation for softwood plantations in the Australian Capital Territory. Aust. Forestry, v. 15, no. 2, 1951,

    p. 105-9. TERRY, SYLVESTER. Capita! punishment: a letter from Canberra. Port Phillip Gazette, v. l, no. 1, Winter,

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    Directories ( Aust.) [1952]-vVAYNE, EDGAR. ,A new university A'sian Post, 4 Sep. 1952, p. 6-7: WHITE, HAROLD LESLIE. A major collection of early works on

    political economy. Econ. Record, Nov. 1952, p. 281-2. National Library services. In Australian Library Seminar, 1952-0anberra Session, 25th Feb.-6th 111aT. [Programme and papers presented] [Canb., 1952] \VHYTE, WILLIAM FARMER. Monsignor P. M. Haydon: a

    memoir: by W. Farmer Whyte [in collaboration with Kevin ,J. Wade] pref. by the Most Rev. Dr.

    Justin D. Simonds [Canb., 1952]


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    analysis of dwellings in local government areas: pt. 26: A.C.T., Northern Territory, etc. Canb., Govt. Pr., 1953. AUSTRALIA Commonwealth National Library. List of parlia­ mentary papers concerning Canberra, 1001-1 !),')1. [ Canb.,

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    Commonwealth (Lond.), Jul.

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    WILLIAM FARRER. In Fifty famous Australians: p. 294-30 l. [Melb.] Colorgravure Publications [1953] WRIGLEY, HELEN. The nation's garden city. Air Travel, Nov. 1953, p. 3-5.

    Same-[reprint] Canb., Department of the Interior, 1954. folder.


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    Same. Canb., Department of Interior [1953] MANTLE, PETER. Garden city developing rapidly. Austral News (Bombay), Oct. 19M, p. 4.

    H.enrlntN} from thf\ Gror;rophit·nl Rrrir11·, Y. 44. no. J. l!•::d. p. J()J.flR.

    KNOX, PETE!!. Canberra seen from Lo..; Angeles. Town and Country Planning (Loud.). Apr. 1034, p. :\Ic:'.IULLIN, A. :\I. Roval visit to Canberra. United Empire ( Lona:), Sep.-Oct. ·1954, p. 177-181. McNEIL, C. Press gallery. Bul., 29 Dec. l9fi4, p. 27. :\'"AMING AUSTRALIA'S CAPITAL. Ford News, Nov. 1954, p. fll-63.



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    \VnsoN, \VIXIFRED E. Xutrition: snrYey of bread consump· tion and preferences in Canberra households. Henlth Y. 4, no. 4, Dec. l!Ji}4, p. 103-lOR.

    Survey of bread consumption & prderences in Canherra households. Food and nutrition notes and reYiews: \, 11, nos. 7 ancl 8, Jul. rtntl Ang. 1954, p. \\5-71. \VRJGLEY, HELEN. The lonelv splendour of the Brindabell>ts.

    Air TraYel, Dec. 1954, p:8-ll. YATIHA.M, E. R. The making of Canberra. Contemporar)

    Review (Loud.), .Jan. 1954, p. 19-22.


    ALDRIDGE, FRED. iVh·eg but not slaves: [Homemakers' School of the Southern Tablelands Junior Farmers' Club of

    N.S.'W., Ginnenclerral \Vomrm's Day and Home, 14 Feh. 1955, p. 12-13.

    AUSTTIALIA--Commontcealth Electoral Office. Australian Capital Territory: liquor poll ordinance 1 !155: stateme11t showing rPsult of the poll in respect of trading hours of hotels, held 17th September, 1953. [Canb., lfJii5]


    AUSTRALIA-Parl,iament·-8enate--Select Committee on the Development of Canbe1·ra. Minutes: Dec. 7th, 1954-Scp. 12th, ]!),).5. Canb., 1954-19.5.5, Processed. Renort from the Committee. Canh.. Hl:iii.

    Processed. Same-[Extrnets] from Burley Griffin report extraordinary. etc. [Canh., lU5:)j

    Same-Dissent: sermrate repo1·t \Vood. [Canh.,

    195.5] Processed. Same-Dissent: high flats: V. S. Vincent. [Can b., 195fJ] Processed.

    AuSTRALIA-Pm·Uame>1t-Btanding Committee on Works. Report relating to proposed extetbion water supply storage system at Canberra. A.C.T. GoYt. Pr., 1955. (P.p. 32 of 1954-55)

    Public to the

    Cmb ..

    Report relating· tn the pTOposerl erection of Commonwealth Avenue hrirhre at Canberra, .\.C'.T. C'anh .. Gm-t. Pr ..

    1955. ( P.p. · 5:l of lilii4-5il)

    BuRGMANN, EP.NF:RT' HF;NHY. bishop of 0a."libc1'nl nmr/, Goul/JHr/1. .Teru,:ctlcm. 1Vestminster nncl s :\[ark's. Ca nlwrra.

    Anglican, 1 Apr., 1053, p. R.

    CANBERRA AD\'ERTlSER: no. 1-beyan, N.S.W.] Hili.5-, l:J ,Jun. J \\3;)­



    CANBEHRA AXD DISTRICT HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. Address fl t Acton House commemoration ceremonv: by L. F.

    Fitzhanlinge, 5/12/i'i4. [Canh.] 10.34 [1955] Processed. Submission on behalf of the SocietY to the Senate Select on the Develojlment ·,,f Can bern. Hl/8/:i:i:

    [by J,, }', FiblwrdingP·! [Canh.l 1();;;;, Prners,rd.

    CANBERRA. .. Tohn'' C'hnrrh. The challcn!.U' tr, faith an

    CAXBFRRA. St. Paul's Churr·h. Faith in ar·tion. CanlJ., lfJ;;;;,

    JoNER. TIRTAN GwYXX. Sonthern Higl•lands. p. 40-l.

    Agrieultme in the ,\.C.'f. anrl

    C'ounir.\· ll1,,1r .l .. _\nJ.!·.

    :'\Ew 'lF.ALAND-A1'1Jry-l'uh!ir Rr·lrtlinn8 SrrL'ir:r. T!Je Royal :Yfilitan· C'ol 1rQe, Duntrnon: a guis. f\\'eJl.: Or,,·t. Pr .. /!1;1.1] PBACTT, B. \V. ram1Ji,.. OutcJ,oJ·, aJ•d

    :Mar. Hl5G, p. 28+. PeLT.IA,r, ;\IX.\. Canberra, Alhtralian Capital T<'JTitory. Jn 71,.,. l traYe!lcrl n lonel\' land: r·h. l.'l. Indi"""'"oli-.

    B<'h1Js.":Verri11 [1!L3Gl · ·

    Sornmr:x C':1rn·nt .\tfn ir" Bul .. '"· l :;,

    no. JO, 2R Feb. l!l:i'i, p.

    Tno-:-!PRO:'\, '-fAnGAR£1' LT:-:I:S.\ Y. O:)w's nc,t lnnrly in i\ hnst<>!. \Vomn.n's Day and Home, 1 i Oct. J f),J,j, p. 24-2.>.

    \\'Ann, Ho1ue Beautiful goes h1 C\mbena: by Elinor

    and Frederick Ward and Home Benntiful staff 'writers: pictures lJy Leslie H. Rnnting. Home Beautiful 1Iar. 1955, p. 35-59. '

    \VniTE, HAROLD LESLIE. Canberra: a centre of learnincr: [bibliogs.] [Syd., Printecl by Halstead Pres<] 1955. "' Fi' .:t puhli:-·hed in Can!;erra rt nation-'s capital, the lwndlJook lll' p:1rPd by the nad Se\v Zealand A:':!socin.tion for the

    Advaiu.:dnent of Science for the thirtieth lneeting

    .Tnnunry, 1954.

    PART IV.-MAPS. Printed Maps.

    Arranged in Chronological Order. 182.).

    l'FR!liE, '\lAnr-:: .Jonx. ',bp ol the country to the Aouthcl. of Lake George shewing Captain Cmrie's & Major Ovens's route during months of :\fay and ,June, 1823, dmwn to <'crrcspomt Wlth Lieutennnt general map of the

    r·olony of :South Wales . . . 18'25. Lond.,

    ,Jolm :\Iurray, 18'2;), 71" x In Field, Barron, ed.

    Geographical memoirs on Xcw South "rale,;. Lond., ,John '\Tun-ay. 1825. ]833. SociEJTY FOR THE DIFFUSION m- USEFCC KxoWI.EOOE, New South \Vale:;: romp. under the superintemlence of the Society . . . from the M.S. maps in the Colonial

    OJ11ce, the surveys of the Austt·aln. AgTicultl. Company, and the routes of Allan Cunningham: scale [I": 27.7 milesl. Lond., Bnldwin & Graclock, '!833. l iii" x UlY'.


    ).(ITCHELT.., K'h' TwnrAs :Ylap of the eolony

    r.f New South \Vales: comp. from aetna! measurements with the el1ain & llircumferenter, anrl according to a trig­ :wmctrical survey: >calc [l": 7 miles]. Land., .fohn

    Carmiehnel [ 1 S:J4l 23![" x 53". Snme-Another issue [with rounty boundaries and roads coloured h;' hand] 18:14. •


    Drxox, RoBERT. Mnp of the colony of New South \Vales,

    exhibiting the situation ancl extent of the appropriated lands, including the connties, towns, village reserves coulp. from authentic surveys scale

    1": 8 milt•s. Lone!., .J. Crrhs, 18:37. 4S" x Balfle-Hh ed. 184\\. 184-?. BAKER. iVII.LIA11. A map of the County of Murray . .

    ,,ale; [I": 3.7,) miles]. 21" x 19". In Baker's Australian Connty Atlas showing the various parishe8,

    townships, grants, ptu·ehases and unlocated lands. Syd., William Baker, Hibernia Press [1843-6] '


    :\JITC'IIELL, Rir LIYTN'GSTONE. General map of the

    ,nnth enstern pnrtinn of Anstrnlia, showinp: the colonY of South \Yales ns Slll'l'eyed and diYided by th'e

    Ceneral hdween the vears ISZ7 anrl !RfiO:

    scale [1": :JO miles]. Syd., ,J. Carmichael [1850] 35" x


    SociETY Ft>R FR01IOTI.\'G Kxowr.EnGE.

    Sydney: scale [1": 33 miles] 11 t" x 8r'.

    colonial church atlas, arranged in diaceses <"d.: pl. 21. 1-ond., 1853.


    Diocese of In its The


    IJ,l8('1f & C1-,. CoHntr of '\Inrray .'\.S.\V.: .sr·ale fl": 5.3

    miles]. 131" x 171". ln their Atlas of the settled counties ,f '\c·.1· <.:,nth \YaJes Syrl .. [186-?]


    r .. Lnn:s. \'idorirt includinl!' ]lat·t of Kew South \Vales,

    1he g<>l

    J flllO.

    \"I·,, ..

    c\istril'ts r,[ Sn11th \Yah·" slwet 2: embracing part;,

    ·d tlH' Tnmnt ;J\Hl >nnthern mining

    <]i-t :tiill'III)C tl jyjsiolb anrl !l'Olrl fields: ,.cJ.: -•·a 1<· [1": l wi]ps]. [Syrl., lflOO] 40" x 2G".

    \J:\\- ('f)Jilinissioil on ,\-iles fo-r the seat

    r)f _l}iJL'C(It/iH·iJf r;f thr ('()rnmnnlf:cnltlJ. JBrJ0-1900. [.\np,.;. t" Hr]>Mtl , :--:yd .. lleJ•nl'tment of Lands, lDOO.

    111 l'lans ;,rl. iLl Sketf'ir lll>

    wing proposed ferleral ancl ca;•ital site :d f,lneanbcvan: parishes of

    Canlwrrn, Pialligfl, \YPetan.zera. Yafrolutnla. Xarra· 1nmdah, nnr:tnheYan, Goog'Olli!', Tngg·eranong and Giger· J inr: county nf X.S.i\7 .. 1900: scale [ 1": 1 mile}



    OLIVER, ALEXAXDEJL Rough suggestion of ground plan for the Federal Capital on the xadiation principle. 1901. ?.1±" x l!ll". (Plan not drawn to scale. Rough coloured c;ketc·h by G. V. F. :\fann from .\. Oliver's sketches)


    . \ csn:ALIA-Royal commission or1 sUes for· the seat of gorern· ment of the Commontcealth: Report . . plans

    [S;•,l., Govt. Pr., ]!)03] (P.p. 23 of l!JO:l) 17 Plans incl. 110. 14: general plan of country surrounding suggested

    fpderal capital site in the locality of Lake George, N.S.W.: sc·n le r 1 ": milf'S ., !'yd., Department of Lands. l!J03.


    . \t'HTHAIU-Parria/1/elll. Plan,; in conne:-cion with reports on fNleral ('apital site. hy C. H. Serivener, Surveyor on

    Southern Monaro ,;tes-papcr no. :3! [7 plans]; A. H. C'he,tennan, Sun·eyor, on Turnut District sites-papPr no. 32 [10 plans]. [Melb., Govt. Pr., 1904] NEW SoUTH vVALES-Electoml Districts (.!ormnission. Map

    showing bcundaries of electoral districts under the E!ee· torates redistribution act 1904: N': [Rega, Clyde, Monaro. Queanbeyan]: scale [1": 8 miles]. Syd:, Govt. Pr. [1904] 25'!" X 24". (N.S.W. P.p. 97 or lD04)

    NEw SOUTH vVALEs-Lands, Department' of. Map of New South \Vales railways with diagrams of North

    Coast, South Coast ancl parts of Sout11ern and Western Lines: scale l": 29 miles. Syd., 1904. x 29". To

    which ar·e added: Railwav connections and cost thereof in connection with the different proposed federal capital site. (N.S.W. P.p. 2H of 1904)

    1\EW S.2 miles. Syd., Govt. Pr. [1904] 18" x 13". (N.S.W. P.p

    255 of 1904) Same-[new eel.] Syd., GO\t. Pr. [1904] (N.S.W. P.p. 281 of 1904)


    Nmw SouTH \VALEs-Public Wor·ks, Dep01·tment of. Plan showing capital site at Canberra: scale l": 3 miles.

    Syd., Govt. Pr. [1908] 22i" x 26{". (N.S.W. P.p. 283

    of 1908) Plan showing proposed federal capital site at Canberra: scale [1": 4 miles]. Syd., Govt. Pr. [1908] In Canberra: [illust. by Chas. G. Coulter]


    AUSTRALIA-Home Affairs, of-Advisor·y Board.

    Canberra: contour survey.: to accompany report of 16th • Tune, 1909: scale 1": 20 chains. Syd., Department of Lands, Jul. 1909. 42;);" x 291". (New South \Vales­ Lands, Depart•ment of. Canberra. N.S.W. P.p. 66 of 1909, with additions) AcsTRALIA-Meteorology, Bur·eau of. Map showing rainfall

    and temperature statistics of the proposed site for the federal capital and the surrounding districts: scale

    [1": 8.7 miles]. [Melb., 1909?] 33" x 22!". :\EW SoUTH vVALES-Lands, Department of. Canberra: COli· tour surv.ey: scale l": 20 chains. Syd., June, 1900.

    42!/" x 2!).!''. (N.S.W. P.p. 66 of lH09)

    :\lap showing practi(·able railway route between proposed federal territory and ,Jervis Bay: scale [ 1": 4 miles].

    Syd., Department of Lands, !900. 40" x 28t''. Ibid.,

    Printed o1:er· New !'outh 'Vales-Mines, Department of. 1\Iining districts of New South Wales: sheet 2 embracing parts of the Tunmt and Adelong and of the southern

    mining districts shewing the mining divisions aml

    g·o!dfields: 2nd ed. 8ame-[with] alterations proposed by Surveyor Kennedy shewn in green ( 17 .n.on). Syd., Department of Lands, HlOn. 40" X 2Sr. (N.S.W. F.p. l3:l of l!JOD)

    '\Iap showing proposed Federal Capital Territory and tenures of land within same: scale [ 1": 90 chains]

    Svd., 1 \10'1. S\1" x 4fH" in 2 sheets. ( X.S.W. P.p. G6 of

    1fi09) -

    :\lap shewing proposed Federal Territory Canberra with detail connected with water supply: scale [l": 2 miles]. Syd., 1009. 2H" X 20f'. Ibid.

    Tracing A: showing watershed of Cotter Hi,·er and

    :\folonglo River after its junction with Queanbevan

    Rinr "·ithin tht• FPderal Territory: scale I": 4 miles. Svd .. GO\·t. T'r. f!!lO!l] Hl" x 11". (X.S.W. T'.p. :JD of

    1 OOfl) R: showing watpr'

    t1w Federal Territorv: srale 1": 4 miles. Svd .. Govt. T'r. [1!l0!l] 17" x ]{)" .. Ibid. •

    C': showing \Yatcrsherl of the River:

    land. district of Qncanbeyan: scale 1": 4 mil"s.

    Govt. Pr. [1!100] x H" Idem.


    Ac:sTRAMA-Hame A.ffairs, Department of. Map of contom suney site for the federal capital of Australia from original plan by F. J. Broinowski sur·

    veyed under instructions from the Minister of State for Horne "\ffairs, Charles Robt. Scriviner, District Surveyor: scale l": 400 ft. Syd., Department of Lands, !910. 4

    sheets ea. 26i" x 26i" .

    :\EW SoUTH vVALES-Lnnds, De]Jurtment of. Topograpllical map of the Federal Territory, Australia: seale [1": 1.1 miles]. 1010. 48!/;" x 34±" in 2 sheets.


    ArsTRALIA-J/ome A!fai1·s, Department' of. Canberra: cou· tour snrvev: scale 1": 20 ehains. Syd., Department of Lands, I!lil. x 204" .

    '\E\\' SOUTH \\'.\I.KR--Landg, Depa1·tment of. :\Iap of New South \Vales Australia [Commonwealth Territory shewn by red tint] : scale [ J ": 48 miles]. Syd., 1911.

    IH" X l7!f". Map of pa.rt of New South vVales, Australia: showing

    position of Commonwealth territory: scale [1": 16 miles]. syd., 1911. 21 r x 26±".

    PITT'MAN, EnWARD FISHER. Geological suney of tl1e site of the federal capital of Australia: scale l": 800 feet. [Syd., 1910] In his Reports on the geology of the feaeml

    ea pita! site. l !lll.


    [AGACHE, D. ALF.] The federal capital of Australia: [third premia tee! design: no. 4]. Reproduced in P.p. 17 of


    AUSTRALIA-Home Affairs, Department of. Design of the lay·out of the federal capital city of Australia as pro·

    .iected by the Departmental Board 2iith Nov.

    1 H12: scale 1": 400 ft. Reproduced in P.p. G5 of 1912.

    [CO.liiEY, ARTHUR C.] [Design no.] 41: [secondary minority recommendation]. Ibid. [GgLLERSTEDT, NILS] Competitive design 81: plate l: [third minority recommendation]. Idem. [GRIFFIN, \\TALTER Bc:RI.E'Y] [First premia ted design: no. 29].

    Tdem. Commonwealth of federal eapital competition:

    city and environs: [provision for extension: first pre· miated design: no. 29]. Idem.

    [GRIF]<'ITIIS, ,V, ScoTT] [Design no.] 10: [by vV. Scott

    Griffiths, G. Coulter and C. H. Caswell: first minority recommendation]. Idem. [l\IAGCJN!GLE, HAROLD VAN BUREN] [Design no.] 7: [men· tioned in majority report]. Idem. NEW SoUTH 'VALES-Electoral Districts Commission, 1912 .

    :\lap showing boundaries of state electoral districts as proposed by electoral distriets commissioners l!ll2 under Act no. 3:3, 1902: N': [Gnu! burn, Monaro, Commonwealth territory, Bega]: scale [l": 8 miles]. Syd., Department of Lands, 1912. [SAARINEN. ELIEL) [Second premiated design: no.] 18.

    Reproduced in P.p. 17 of 1912. [SCHANFELRERG, ] [Design no. 3fi: by Schanfelberg,

    Rees and Gum mer: mentioned in majority report}. Ibid.


    A l'STBAT.IA-Tl orne Affair·s, Depar·trnent of. Canberra: schematic plan prepared per Minister's request of 1 !l.l2.!4 to indicate road, rail and waterwav leYels: scale l": 400 ft. 1914. 52" x i\3". Printed· over· Map of contour

    sunev of the site fnr the federal capital of Australia

    • 1!ll 0.

    8arne-l9Ui. .\l'STRAI.TA-Tlome Affairs, TlcjJartmn1t of-Lands nnd 8urrr.11 Rmnrh. Contour map of city site and ad.iarPnt lanrh

    rthe Federal Territory) : scale 1": 800 ft. Mclh., Photo· lithographed at the Department of Lands and Snrwv, ] !ll4. 4 shpets ea. 2R" x 28". Sites of workR added in

    colom· hy hand. 1 GRIFFIN. 'VALTF:R BuRLEY] Canlwna: federal capital of Australia: preliminary plan: e;cale !": JGOO ft. [1!!141 x l:l". (P.p. of 1!114·17)

    :\F:W SOl'Tll Depar·tment of. GcoloQ:ical map

    of Nc•w South \Vales: scale 1": 16 miles. S\·d .. ]fll.f.

    4!l" x fi2!/' in 2


    .\T·sTn \J.TA-!Tomc Aff(l.irs, llrJ>ar·tmeot of-Ixnul aorl Sun·cys Tli'fl '" h n p "f the FPc!Pral Terri ton·: r·oun( ics of

    ('rm·],,,. "nrl '(·ale !": 100 Phai{l'<. )fdh .. l!l];),

    .;.;'" .·;n". Inset; Village of Hall. To\l·n of Quranbe;van. \'illaj:te of Tharwa, Locality map.



    AFWl'lL\LL\·-l'•trliamcnt-Standing Comm·itlce on Public 1Forks. city railway: diagram showing various routes

    -;enle 1": IGOO ft. [1\1elb., Gmt. Pr., l!JlfJ]

    In P.p. 3ii!J. of 1914-17.


    CnwFm, \\ALTER BDHLEY. Canberra: plan of city an:1 environs: drawn IJ\· the Iiome aud Tenitories Department (Land' nnd Bnmd11 .: scale 1": 1600 feet. :\Ielb.,

    Uo\·t. Pr .. -1918. 34" x 26"

    Cu:hena: plan of city and environs: scale [1": 5 miles]. [:\[clh. Connuom\"ealth Department of YVorks] 1918. X


    . \ :·sTH.\LL\--/Icfeur'e, l!cpartment of. Canbenn, An,;tralia: .,,.ah• ! ": 1 mile, l: G:3,3GQ. Mel b., GoYt. Pr., 1919. 2·'it"

    x 2Gi" snr\'ey of Australia)

    c. n. Hoad a.nd raihvay referenc-e Inap of Victoria

    and Hiwrina, inelnding also the Ieden1l eapital rnea: [2:lnl issue. 1919]. 8a me-[24th issne, 1920]. \'a me-[2i1th isRue, 1921].


    A VSTI:,\LI,\-){ome nnd TeiTitories, Depa1'tment of-Land and Surre.u Rra'lleh. SkPteh map of the Federal Territory: Commonwealth of Australia: seale 1": 3 miles. MellJ., G:nt. Pr .. 19:.!0. 19" x (Inset Canberra).

    Scrn;c--[-indicatillg :-;:,el'Yices] In P.p. GO of 1W2H-2S.


    H.\LLCRAN. (HENRY F.) & Co. Canbena freeholds esbte: adjoining and forming an extension of the prog-ressiYe to\Yil of and co1nprising alJsolntely the

    freehold Janel to the federal city seale l": ;j{)O ft.

    Syrl. [ 1 !l24] 3H" x 2H }" •


    At·sTRAI>IA-Home and Tcnitm·ies, Deprrrtment of-lAnds and Sun'C,IJ B1·anch. Canberra: plan of city and environs [showing localities of works, services]: scale l": lnOO feet. Mclb .. Govt. T>r., 1918. [1926]. 34" x 26".

    IL1u., ,LnJEH. Bnrrin,iuck Dam: the ma,2net of Australia: Canlwrn:. B1llTin,inek Dam [192fl] 32" x 2()"


    c\\'STH/.LIA-Fcde1'al Capital Commission. Plan of Canberra the fedpral cn pita! of the Commonwealth of Australia: c·omp. and pnhlbhec1 by the Fecle.ral Caj)ital Commission from the Jlrc;t premiated design by Walter Burley Grffin

    ami from f'lll'\'eys conducted under direction of C. R.

    Scrivener htte Di1·ector of Commonwealth Lands and SmTeys with approved detail modifications of desig_r:, in May, Hl27: Neale l": 1000 feet. [Canh., Hl27] 21 x


    rCROVEit, HAHHY, r'Ol'lp] Canberra. and the Federal Capital Territor!' map mpplied free witl:

    (inver's IJeseriptiYe guide to Canbenn: s<·ale 1": !GOO ft. [Mel h. Brown, Prior, Co., 1 927]


    AuS'l'RALlA-Fedcrn! Capital Commis8ion. T'eature map of the' Ferlernl C:l'ntnl Teniton· of the ConllllOil\\'<•alth of Aus­ tralia awl :.n,iroHs: s<,nle: fl": 2 miles/. :\Ielh .. Uo\'t.

    Pr., Hl2!1. 29Y' X 21


    l": 800 ft. /('anh.l ]!12!l.


    of tile. ('alllJerra:

    ;"}21" X 4fi'l".

    A1'STRALL\- H' od:.,, /!rpa,.l men t of-Lands ruul sune.11 l!l'U 11rh. Canbena: ,,·ale l": ];).iS :nile', l: 1.1•00,00() JieliJ ..

    GoYt. rr.. s: 22". {1nternatif;na1 lnap of thP



    ::\Ew S01'Tll \\.\1.VS--f '""Is. fle]'""tmril/ of. }lap of the couth eastern to11ri<..:t. inf'1urlin.2· Burrin,in('k. FPdf·ntl

    TerritorY, ,JpnoLIJl, nnfl \\"f1mlwyan C::tYr'.

    }Innnt nnd prinrdpal -.;tr('nlll.": lOth Nl.:

    I i": 1n ..


    Ar·sTRALL\----/utcrlor. of thr--PrOJJf'rl,lt rt1id ,'

    rry P,r""'1'. CanbP:Ta: "·al<· 11": .2 miles], l: l2,!,i2.

    Ca:1h., j\iPll!.. CnYt. Pr.l Pl:1:L

    Tourist !"uid<· t" r·.,niH·rr;t: scale 11": .+ mile,]. Canb.,

    Gnvt. Pr .. Jn:1:3. x

    f'onJ)c.--rn. T(Juri,;t (_'anhPrra t\\-(J

    hours trip: S(';t]e: [1": A ('ani> .. r;,,yt, l'r.

    fJ933!j X


    .\u-;nu.rn --T,ilcrior, Dcpartl!leut of lhc--Propcl't!/ all(t Sur­ u".Jf Brunch. Tonri:;t map of Federal Capital Territory with LlD. p of n djaccnt cnastuJ dL:;trh:t: ..;:(';1 le f J": ;j n1ilcs; l": 10 milPs] Cmh .. Go\'t. Pr .. Hl34. 20'1" _, 2.>r.


    .\XST!L\LU-Tnl crinr. I !cpo J/ /IIC!It of /he. T<>nrist guide to t alll:erra: [l'': .ii mile,] Can h., Gnvt. Pi·., 1!136.

    ]2}" X 8j".


    .'\t.:STRALLI.-/i.te,·,ior, JJcpartmenl of the. Canhcna: scale [l": U510 ft.]. Canb., Govt. Pr., 1937. I>L Australia­ /nlcn'or. J)epa:·tment of the.] Canberra: a c-ity of flowen [new Hl. eomp. by Gwen Cameron. 1!1271 .


    AL'Sl'HALL\-]Jefencc. liepm·tment of'. Canberra: Xew 1'-\out.h \Vales: 2nd etl.: scale l": 4 milt•s, l: 233,440. [:VIe! h.],

    A.H.Q. Cartn.Qraphie Co., l!l42. (Sheet 1 55/16, Zone 8). 221" X :\ew South \Vales and A.C.T. Citnbena: scale 1": l mile, 1 : ::\Ielb., Printed by A.H.Q. Cartographie Co.,

    l H-12. . .f.) l. Zone 8 1 • x :10;1''.


    At-STHALL\-[n/crior, !Jepartmeut of the. Plan of Canberra eitv numenelature as amended by the determina­

    tion or' the. :\linister for the Interior uncler the, National :\Icmorial13 Ordinance 1928-1037 of Uw 23rd July, 1943: q·alP 11": l{)()O ft.]. [Canb., l!J4il]. x 2:1t".


    .\rsTnALIA--lJefcncc, ])epartment of. New South \Vales and A.C.T.: Lake George: scale l": 1 mile, 1: 63,:i60.

    [1felb.] 2/l Anst. Anny Topo. Svy. Co., 1!144. (No. 446, Zone 8) 22j" x 30".


    .'\rsTn"\LIA-hdel·ioJ·. Depa1·tment of the-Property and Sm"vey Tlrnnch. Lanrl classification map of the Anstralian Capital seale [l": 2 miles}. Canb. C,ovt.

    Pr., l!lin. Tn H. W. H. Land classification and

    utilization in the Austnt!inn Capital Territory: fig. 9. Can b., Govt. Pr., l !J4G. Land utilization in the Australian Capital Territory scale [l": 2 miles]. Canh., Govt. Pr., 1946. In King,

    H. YV. H. Land classification anrl utilization in the Aus­ tralian C>tpital Territory: fig. 10.


    APRTHALIA-lnterior, Department of the: Plan of C


    APRTUALIA-Dcfence, Department of the. Canberra: Aus-tralian acronautieal map: reprinted Sept.. l!liiO with major amendment.;: comp. and drawn by the National Mapping Ser·tion, Department of the Interior

    scale 1: l ,000,000. [}Jelb.l Royal Australian Suney

    Corps. l!l:iO. (K.!li lHr x 28".

    A 1"S'rHALTA-J 11 terio1·, I !CJ>ortm eo t of the. Fc;rture map of the ,\ndralian Capital 'I'Hritory and ennrons: revised 19:l0: ,r•ale [1": 2 lllilcs]. Canb., CO\·t. Fr., lfi.)O. 3H"·x 22'];".


    A t'RTlL\LIA-TJcfcoee, l!eportmen t of. Michelag·o \nest: ::\ ew South \Yalec am! A.C.T.: ht eel.: srale 1": 1 mile.

    l: fi:i.:loO. [:\fellJ.] Royal Austral ian Snney Corps, l !l:i I. (C.:hert ZoneS (\Yestern Half).) 2fi" x lii'l;".


    herr:•. f.C:nl.] Hlill. Jfl" x !+".

    l !lil2.

    Ar·sTJl,\LL\-!Ji.fro,·r·. !Jr';arl''"''' 'Jf. Brinclalle!l:r E:ht: Jst prf.: "'"l" 1": J mile. 1: ti:l,;;,;O. [.\fell!./ l{qntJ Ans­

    tndian ("fJ''· no. 4!ifJ. Zr,ne

    (Eastern half 1. 1 /Jr)lflr/ilif'J!{ r;f fhf' Yntionul .lfuppii!rf

    fJ[f/r·r·. :\n:-;tralian (';tJ,it

    1: 121).7:2(1. CanlJ.. :{n::" z:/'.

    Al.STHAI.IA-Tnlerior. {!r·por/olrnf r1{ the-/'ropcr/,11 rtnr!Surrey Tlrollch. Canlll'rra: alterations and adrliti"n,; to tlJl• eity Jlr,men<'la tnrr ,uJ.,c·qnent t" t]l(• detPTlllinatirm" as nlltifie;l in (!ucrltr ""· :l>'i rlatPrl iit], .Jnh. ]!1.)0: re,·ic.Pcl ,Jul\',

    1!1.)2: ,cale ll": 4 lllilrs]. CanJ,,,' l(Ju2. 1-1!1" x 10". ·



    AusTRALIA-Defence, Depa·rtment of. Bimberi East: New South Wales and A.C.T.: 1st ed.: scale 1": l mile,

    1: 63 360. .Melb. Rova l Australian Survey Corps, 1953. no. 454 8 (eastern half).) 26±" x

    AusTHALIA-Jn te1·i or Department of the-National Mapp·in[J Office. Land map of tlte Australia n Ca pital

    Tenitory: scale [1": 5 miles]. [1 953 ] 131" X, 81".

    A lso in Canberra, a nation's capttal: ed. by H. L. Whtte. Land utiliza tion in t he Australian Capital Territory: sca!e [l": 5 miles ]. Oanb. [1953] 13!" x Si". Also m

    Canberra, a natio n 's capital: . eel. by L . Whit: . Topographic map of Austral!an Captta l Terntory and environs : scale I": 4 miles. 1953. 16i" x }2_f' .

    AlBo i n Canberra, a nation's capltal : ed. by H . L. 'ii\• lnte.

    Aus 'IRALIA-;IHnernl Resources, Geo logy and Geo physics, Btweau of. Canberra: South \'Val es: l s_t ed.: s?ale

    1 : 253,440. Can b., 1953. ( 4 mile geologwal

    sh ee t l ;i ;) -16) 23t" x 34". Also in Canberra, a nation s

    capital: ed. by H . L. White. Geological map: Canberra : A.C.T.: . geology by A. A.

    o pik: base m ap by A.C.T. Plannmg & ,Pe':,e lopm_enl Branch Dept. of the Interior: scale [1 : -.:>3

    [C'anb.] 1953. x 25". Afso i1t Canberra, a nations

    capital: ed . by H . L. White.


    AUSTRALIA-Interior, Department of t!te- Tourist map of Canberra, Australian Capit a l T ern tory: scale [ 1": .2 m ile ]. Canb., 1954. 32!" x 29!".

    Manuscript Maps in the Commonwealth National Library. [AoACHE, D. Ar.F. Fede1:al des ign no.

    4 : Desig n Board's thn·d premtated des1g n] [AuST'RA I,IA- Home ;lffai1's, Depa·rtment of. Tracil1g showi11g · the nosition of the Fecleral Me mbers' camp, Canberra,

    19{)0: scale 1" : 1 chain] [GEU.ERSTKOT, :NILS. Feder a l design_ n o.)

    41 : [Design Board's seco nd mmonty r eco mmenda tJ?t:] [GlllFFIN, \V .U.TER B1TJU,EY, Federal cornpt;htlon

    d e>

    Caswell: Design 11oard's firs t nnnonty r ecommendatiOn l Honnr.E., RonERT. [.Map of Limestone Plains] accompanying list and cles<: r. . , . letter

    scale two inches to a mile or 40 chains to a n mch. P hotos tat copy of origina l in the DPpar t ment of Lands,

    N.S.W. [11AG ON IGLE, HA ROLD VAN B"?REN .. FQde:al tion des'gn no.] 7 : [mentJOnecl m Des wn Board s maJority r eport] . . .

    [SAARINEN , ELIEL . Federal capital. destgn no.]

    18 : [DeRign Board's second prennated desJgn} [ SCII AN FELBERG. F ederal capital competition no.

    by Schanfelberg, Rees and Gammer : mentioned m Design B oa rd's m a jority report] [SCRI VENER, C. R.] Rough sketch site for Fed;ral

    camp at Can ben-a am out 8 miles from Quean be\ an

    [23rd Febrnarv. 1909] TAYL OR, THO:MAS • GRIFFITH, A.L. to Jas Taylor [dated .Ca nberra ] S tdy. p.m. [23rd July, 1910) P ostcard describing map on verso as "th e fi r st courou r map of the F ed. Cap! '

    WHITE, J. [H. ?l Su ney of part of t he llforumbidgee and

    country south of La ke George: [ scale I" : I mile]. 15th

    J any. 1834. P hotusta t co py of original in the Department of Lands,

    N.S .W .

    PART V.-LANDSCAPE PAINTINGS. Paintings awarded major prizes or included in the collec­ tion of Austral ian uational ga lleries a nd ins titutions are listed individ ually. In oth er cases only the name of the artist,

    medium and name of the society which exhibited them are given . Pen or penci l drawings and prints of specia l interest are included. ALLE::\", NoRMAN. Oil and water colour painti ngs exh. Artists

    8 oc. of Canb. and Crmb. Art Club. AND J::RSON, W. NICHOLLS. Canberra, : [1 9 1- ]. S . A. Soc. of Arts 16th Federal Art exh. 1913. T. Oil paint ings exh. Canb. Art Club.

    A NNAN D, DO UGLAS SHENTON. Oil a nd water colour paintings cxh. Soc. of Artists. ASHTON, CEDRIC. Oil painting s exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. BisCHOFF, T HEo. ' Vater colours exh . Canb. Art Club, 1954. BLAC KBU RN , VALERY. Water colours cxh. Artists Soc. of Canb.

    B'LYTH , CHA RLES. [The Franklin's first home at Brindabella ] 1885. Water colour, sr X ll :l: " . In the possession of

    t he Commonwealth National Library. BO NE, THOMAS H. Water exh. Artists Soc. of Canb.

    BousFIELD, P. \Vate!' colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. Boyo, T. Penleigh. The Federal Capital site Canberra

    (Australia) 191 3, Oil Jlaintmg, 4H" x 95:!;". Awarded second prize by Commonwealth government in competition fo r painting of ]'ederal Capital site 191 3. In the posses· sion of t he CQmtnonwealth Historic Memorials Committee . BRAD STCCK, C. W ater eolours exh. Artists Soc. of

    Can b.

    CA1fBRIDGE, E Nm . Water co lours exl1. in Canberra, 1940. CARRICK, ETH EL (:\Irs. E. Phillips l<'ox) . Paintings exh. it • Canberra, 1944. CARTER, KOR MA N.

    Soc. of Artist s, CLA RICE, HARTNELL. Club, 19 53.

    Canberra landscape. Oil painting exh. 1947. View from Ytlrralum!a. Exh. Canb. Art

    CoLLINs, ALBERT. Wa ter colours . exh. Soc. of Artis ts, 1935. CoNRON, ,JEA N. Oil paintings exh. Artists Sac. of Canb. CoULTER, RICH ARD CIIA RI,ES. Cvc'oramic view of Canberra Capital site: vi ew looking from Camp hill: s ketched on

    th e spot . Sy

    87" x G".

    Cycloramic view of Canberra Capital site : view loold nt• from Vcrnou: sl

    coloured lithograph, 85" x 6". CouRTNEY, CYRIL JoHN. Oil a nd water colour paintings exh . A rt'sts Soc. oi Ca n b. Cox, T. R. Manuka: oi l r• ainting ex h. Can b. Art Club, 19iJ4, CF\lPSTO N, A. G. Oil paintings exh, Artists Soc. of Canb. DEN NY , Pnn.IP. Oil paintings exh . Canb. Art Cl ub. DFBROWV, W. Oil paintings exh. Canb. Art Club. DUN CA!I', GEORGE M. Oil and water colour pa'ntings exh.

    A l'ti ots Snc, of Cnn b. DUNDAS, DouGLA s RoD EnTs. Oil paintings e -: h . Soc. o f Artists, ete. EoW.\RDS, LESU E, First survey camp (Canberra) and other

    watei· col ours exh . :\rtist s Soc. of \anb. ELDERBFTAW, JnHN Roy, Country nea. r Canberra, n .d. Oil painting. 26J" x 33f'. Awa rded 3rcl prize. Commonwealth .T11 hi !ee O]len Art romnetit'on , Hl 'il. In the em,tody of

    the f'omm onwralth S!ltionnl Uhra1·v. ELLIS, Ul RICH RuEGG. Oil paintings ·exh. Artists Soc. of Can b. ENGLUN D, IVA :\'. Oil painting-s exh. Soc. of Canb.

    EWENS, GLADYS GWEXDOLINE. Oil paint' ngs exh. A1·tist s Soc. of Cnnb. FFaiYT, ''DRTA?I'. Blue Va lley, Canberra [19447 . Oi1 painting. x In the of the Kational Art

    Ga l'erv of .New Routh W a les. FmTn, J. M. Oil paintings exit. Artists Soc. of Canb. Manuscript Maps in the Public Library of New South Wales. FifntF:R , A. H ucm. First suney camp at Canhcrra, l!l!O.

    Ft<· hing-. c.nfPB EI.L, F. Duntronn, property of the late George Ca mpbell [M «. tracino- from a mapl •ip:ned by F. Campbell, 6 Dcr. 1884: l": 2 miles] 9!" x IA f '.

    HonDLE RoB ERT . [2\fap of Limeston e P lai ns ) 1 ist 8 ncl desr· r. . . . let ter ria ted 23rrl A ll " U<; t , I A.l::l:

    two inches to a mile or 40 chains to an inch.

    Phol'nst:Jt copy of ori;;in rr l in th e Depart•nrnt of Lan

    K.S,W. HoDGKI NS ON, P. C. R ough plan showing the fa rms at present occnpied on the Aetnn E•tate [Canlwrra] 1878: [ scale 1" : 10 cha in s ]. 25f' x 20:f".

    vVHITE. J. [Jl. ?1 811TVC :V of part of the 2\fnrumhiflgl'e nnr! country south of Lake GeOI'ge : [ scale l": l mile]. 15tl• Jany. 'rs34 . Photost at ropy of oril!i nnl in th r D r partm<'nt of Lnn


    FI'1'7.1lE'JlALD: .TonN Oil and water colour

    exh. Arti,;ts Soc. of Canb. and Canh, Art C: lnh. FoRSL\L\NN, VICTOR. Oil painti ngs exh. Artists Soc. of Canh. FRAXKEL, l\hP.G.IItET. Oi l exh. Canh . . ·ht C'l11h.

    GALL OP, HEIWF.I\1' H. Oil painting, ctdting and drypoint;; ''"h. Soc. of .\rti.

    Grasox, RcssEJ.L. Oil pai ntings exh. l'anh. U uh.

    [Hoya l College, D11nt roo n l J !Jii:l. Oil. pa!nt ing.

    x 20". In the of the R oya

    Colleo·c, Duntrnott. Coll ege, Duntroon] 1!) 54. Oil paint:ng. In

    the possession of the Officer Cndet School, Portsca, V1c.


    UILLILA::\ll, HECToR. Oil an,l wat<:r coluw painting exh. Artists Soc. of Canb., Australian Wah1r Colour Institute, etc. GRATCll:EFF, VAL. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb.

    GRAY, JoHN TELFER. Oil and water colour paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. [GRIFPIN, \VALTI:R BuRLEY] Commumvealth of Australia: federal capital compt>tition [drawings accompanying

    winning entry no.] 29, incl)lding City and environs: scale [l": .25 miles] x

    Section A·B: northerly side of water axis: Black :Mt. to Lake Park: scale l": 100 ft. 4 panels ea. x 60i".

    Section B'·A: s{)utherly side of water axis: government group. x 601".

    Section C- J): easte'l"ly of land axis: Ainsliie to

    Red Hill: scale 1": 100 ft. 4 panels ea. x 60i".

    View from summit of Mount Ainslie. a panels

    25f" X 16±", 25f" X 60k", 25f' X

    Ink and wash on linen. In the custody of the Common­ wealth N a tiona! Library. GROSE&, Humr ·WILLIAM S. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. and Canb. Art Club. GRUNRR, ELIOTH. Canberra lanclscape, 1938. Oil painting,

    20" X 16".

    Junction of Cotter and Murrumbidgee Rivers. Oil painting exh. Artists Soc. of Canb., 1934. Kamhah landscape. Oil painting exh. Soc. of Artists, 1937. Landscape, Federal Territory. Oil painting exh. Soc. uf

    Artists, 19:34. The :Molonglo. Oil painting exh. Soc. of Artists, 193!l. Mount Tennant, Canberra. Oil painting exh. in U.S.A. and Canada under the auspice8 of the Carnegie Corporation.

    1941. The Murrumbidgee at Wcetangra (Canberra] 1937. Oil painting, x Awarded Wynne Art Prize l!lil7,

    Soc. of Artists award 1937. In the possession of the

    National Art Gallery of New Sout11 \Vales. Murrumbidgee Ranges: Canberra. Oil rainting. Awarder\ Wynne Art Prize 1934. Path to tllC town, Canberra, 1937. Oil painting.

    Poplars at Canberra. Oil painting exh. Soc. of Aytish,

    1937. Willows on the ::\folonglo, 1937. Oil painting. GuRNEY, ERICA. \Vater colours exh. Artists S.oc. of Canb. GWYNNE, RnWARD \VII.LIA"I. \Vater eolmn·s cxh. Arti-;ts s,"··

    of Canh. HACKMAN, YVONNE. \Vater colours exh. Artist...; Soe. of C:ml!. HAMMOND, B. (Rankin). \Yater col om exh. Artists So e. of Canb. HARVEY, EDMUND ARTHUH. Canberra Oil

    exh. Soc. of Artists, 1942. HARVIE', E. H. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canh. HELE, IvoR. Opening of Parliament 19M. Oil painting. In possession of the Commonwealth Government.

    HEHBERT, HAHOLD B. \Yater eolonrs exh. Artists Soe. of Canh., etc. HINDER, FRANCIS HENHY CRITCHLKY. Cyclists, Water colour, 20" x 28". In the possession of the National

    Gallery of Victoria. HuDDLE, RoBEHT. Landscapes, 1831-47, in the Public Libruy of New South \Vales, including (2) Ginninginninderry Waterfall near ::\Iurrumhidger.

    sketched 1835, drawn 1848. ( 10) Molonglo Plains near Limestone Plains. ( 13) Murrumbidgee. HOPKINS. Ro:"!ALD NICHOLAS L. Oil and water colour p8intin)::!s

    exh., Can b. Art Club. HoJWA'\', JoHN. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canh. HUDSON, HARHY. Cotter River, A.C.T. Oil painting. Hunso'\', LEO); C. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of CanlJ. !VA.NAC, JonN F. \Vate1· Poloun exh. Canh .. \1·t Clnh.

    ,JACKSON .. TA'>IES R.\N.UPH. Oil]'ainting,; in the possessi<>ll ,,f Cornmom1'en ltl• Historic :VJcmoria ls Cumnlittee. X a ti•m" 1 Gallery nf Victoria, ete. JB'FFERY, DoRIS. Oil nnd water colour painting.-• r•xh. Artists

    Soc. of Canh. and CardJ. Art Club. JOH?' Soc. oi Canh. JOH:\"SON, HonEilT. Oil painting, commissioned by Cmnmon­

    wealth GoYernnwnt l!l3fi for prrs<>ntatir>n to Xational .ht Wellington, X.Z.

    ,JOHNSoN, SiJ· 1-:I.I.IOT. CanlJl'rra Cln1n•h 1\il\1. l'Pn•·i!

    drA.wing. Jn prli•kession of the Cnnl!nonwealth Gn,·erm ·L' Ferleral camp at Canherra, :\-farch, 1909. Pen and ink

    sketch. In the po,;s<>ssion nf the Commonwealth GnYrrn· ment. JONES, C. Lr.oYn. Parliament Honse. Canberra. Oil paintinz exh. Soe. of Artists, l92;J.

    JosJ:L\.No. Uo\1".'-lW. "}"irst artbt tu exhibit Lanbernt lau

    .Junois, MIKSEYicrus. Oil and water colour paiutings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. KEAGE, \VILLL\.M. \Yater exh. ArthL.; Soc. of Caub.

    KNORR. FRANK G. Oil and water colour paintings cxl1. Arti.-;t-; Soc. of Canb. and Canh. Art Club. L\ZAHUS, :i\IAHION. Oil paintings <:xh. Artists Soc. of Cunb. LILLYMAN, JOHN X. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. LISTER, \VILLIAM LISTEB. Canberra, l!ll2. Oil pamtmg,

    33" x 33". In the posseesion of the National Library. The Federal Capital Jan. HJI3. Oil

    painting, 47Y' x 95f'. Awarded first pri.ze by Common­ wealth Government in competition for painting of Federal Capital site 1\)]3, \Yynne Art priz<> 191:3. In the posseeision of the Commonwealth Historic ::\Iemorials Committee. Winding of the Molonglo riYer. Oil painting. In the

    of the National Art Galiery of New South


    Lr.cYD, HENRY GHANT. (Canbernt in September, 1862]. Water colour. In the Dixson Collection. "Earliest known

    painting or picture of any kind of Canberra". (F. W.

    Robinson, Canbc1Ta's jiTst hwu/Ted ))ears and after, lll27, plate facing p. 14.) LoWRY, GEORGINA. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. LucAs, 8. IV. \Yater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. McCALMAN. DoUGLAS. Water colours exh. Artists Soc. of

    Canb. ·

    McGREGoR, E. Oil paintings exh. ATtists Soc. of Canb. :HeTNrn:s, \VILLIAM BECKWITH. Inauguration of the Federal Farliament at Canberra by His Royal Highness the Duke of York, 9th May, 1927. HJ27·H. Oil painting, 71" x 83f'.

    In the possession of the Commonwealtl1 Histol'ic

    }femorials Committee. }L\HSIIALL, L.:sr.m ARNOLD. Oil paintings exh. _\rtisb S

    Mor.DER, A. Can1Jerra. \Vater· colom· exh. Aust. Citizenship Com·,•ntion, Canh., .Jan. 1950. \tnxTAGFE, F. L. Duntroon, c. 1870. Oil ]Htintin::;. In the

    posse,sion of the Royal Australinn Historical Society. A ""PY macle in l94fi by Licut-Col. F. L. Colrlwe!l-Smitlz j,q in the possession of the Hoyal }filittn.v Cullei,':c', Dn:1troon. \JoollE, DoHOTIIY. Oil paintings exh. Artists So". of C'anh. EmExE. Pencil sketches and etchings exh. at the

    /l.ustralian Painter-Etchers' Syriney, April-May,


    \ln.u:v., ClmlsTF:I. ScHULZ·. Oil painting-; l'xh. Canh. Art Club. ::\F:ILSON, ,)K'\':\IE L. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. and Canb. Art Club. ::\WHOLAR. ATBOL :VlATBOX. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc.

    of Canh. :-,· ICHOL.\S. E. HILDA Rrx Pfr>;. E. P. \Vright I. Canberra fmlll

    Red Hill. Oil painting, 28!" x 3ii}". In the po8'ession

    of the Xational Gallery of Victoria. :'\tJBILI, TX!OI. Oil exh. Artist' Soc. of Ca11lJ.

    0.-..TER. F.l.Alc.;E. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Canh. PITILL!PS, PHYLLIS. \Vater colours exh. c\rtists Soc. of Canb. Po\\'ER, HAROLD SEPTIMCS. ArriYal of Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of York at Parliament House,

    Canberra. \lth 1Iay, l92i. Ul28. Oil painting,

    ;)fJ1" x !Hlt". In the possession of the Commonwealth

    H;,torie 1Ienwrials Cnmmittee. QncK. En:>EST. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canb. HoBEHTS. Rcnr. Telopea P<1rk. Oil painting exh. Artists Soc. of Canh., 1955. ItoLL\XD. H. )f. ,qo water rolours of Canberra, l!li3·1!J2;i,

    of whic·h !J are in the p<>Ssession of the Commomn•alth

    ·"·\1ST. G . .\. \Yater colour.s Artists Soe. of Canh.

    C:tll:\"ElllEIL AU>ERT. Oil painting> exl1. Canll. ,\rt Clnh.

    :'cor.LAY, EnwARD .Jmi:>. \VatPr colours cxh. Canh. Art Ch1b. !"f:ITZ, H.\:\"'i. ,,.ater colours exh. Carrh. Art Cluh.

    H. T. Oil paintingc exh. ,\rtists <:or. ,,r Canll.

    '-:!L\\1", l<<>:"ALD HEATH. "'ater r·olonr; r:dt. Artisb Soc. of Can b. :'HEI:\\'OO!l, :\L\RC;ARET. Landsc:1pc near Canberra. \Vater cqlqnr Soe. of Arth:,t:-:.,

    ""'T'I. L. .\. HEEYE-. Oil paintings f'Xh. Artists Soc. of Canh. "nd Canh. Art Ch1b. <;,riTII. LES!.lE H. TRF""XTA.

    "'1:){) Yean x.s.w:

    Oil 1•aintin;rs ex h. Artist' Soc. of \a nh. St . .T•·hns. Canherra. Oil P" ;ntin!! rxh. ill of Australian Art". Gallery of


    l:h!YT II, .JoYCE. Oil ana water colour paintings exh. Artis t s of Can b.

    tioARES , ALBERTO DrAs, 1·ec t m· of Ghrist Church, Queanbeyan. Canberra and Queanbeyan ln.ndscapes in water colour [e. 1858-c . 1R77) Moort>, W., Story of Australian art., 19:H , Y. 1, p. 1Hi.

    S·rERN, ALFRED. \Vater colours exlJ. Jtrtist;; Soc. of CanJ1. Sncr\L.\ND, PETER. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of C'anh. TAYLOJI, BoN.\LD 1\1. Oj] paintiJJgs exh. Canb. Art Club.

    THORNHILL , D. Poplars on the Molong lo. Oil painting exh. Soc. of ArtistB .. 1941. 'rcJ'ATSKA, JACKA. Oil paintings ex h. Artists Soc. of Canb. WAKELIN, .ROLAl'ID SHAI{ESPEARE. Black Mountain, Canberra.

    Oil painting, board, 23" x 26r. Tn tl1e possession of the National Gallery oi Victoria. \V ARDELL, ,Lums E. ·water colours ex h. Artists Soc. of Can h. WEBB, L. P. \Vater colours exh. Artists Soc. of Ganb. WoLINSKI, .Tosr.:PH. Ainslie post office (Canberra) 1912. Oil

    painting. In the possession of the Commonwealth

    .ZIGGELL , B. H. R Water colours exh . Artists Soc. of Canh.

    Zusl'F.RS, RETNrs. Duntroon, 1952. Oil painting, canYas, ll 3" x 21". In the posse,

    College, Duntroon. Oil paintings exh. Artists Soc. of Canh. and Canb. Art Club. Albums and collections of phntogl'aphs and prints are to he found in t11e Public Librarv of New South Wales and Com­ monwealth National Libl'a.ry; t11e l a tter induding the " -· .T. ::\Jildenha ll ('O ll eetion of phntP!!ntphie , lid('>' of Cau],ernL


    Moving Picture Films.

    Arranged in Chronological Order. NAMING· THE I•'EDERAL CAI'ITAL OF AtiS'ITlAI..IA, ] 2TH MA!ICH, 19I:.l. (17 min., silent, black & white. lfll :l.) Prorluc('cl hy S]Jeneer I'ictun·s Ltil.

    A r econl of the n aming of Can\wrra hy La.c\ y ])pnman ancl of the lavin

    (King O'Malley). A number of Australian statesmen

    are included. There ftl>;n a punorarna taken from Mt.

    Pleas ant, the camera sweeping in a circle.

    THE OPENING OF CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA'S CAPITAL CITY, 9TH )lAY, 1927. ( 19 l\Iin., silent, black and white, 1927.) Produced by Development and Migration Commission. An acco unt of the ceremonies connected with the opening in Canberra o f Federal P>trliament in 1927 hy the Duke of York. A number of sequcnt<'s g i1·e some ide11 of the a.ppeara.n ce of the ci ty at the time.

    CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA'S CAPITAl. CITY. ( 12 min., sound, black & white, 1930.) Produced by the Department of C'o mmel'ce, Dir.: Lyn T. )faplestoue. Preparecl from waterial shot at silent speed, this fii!IJ des­ cribes in :;orne detail the Canberra of Hl29 -30. Commencing

    with pictures of early huilcling projp<•h:, it sho11·s public buil

    Ho.use, Instihlte of Anatomy, Commonwl•alth Oftkes, &<'. Shopplng centres, the general layout of the city, domcsti<' arehitect.ure and , ill fad, most aspc!'ts of lift• in Canhena ar<' em·ered. N ,\TTONAL CAPITOL. (18 min., hlaek & white, 1!)4,).)

    Producl'd by Depa rtm<'nt of Tnformation, Dir.: H.

    }[aHiyn Williams. An overall picture of Canlwrra as it \vtt '< in l!J4,). The huilrl· ings, the sr·enery aucl the life of the people in the espancling r•;;pital are fully cles<'J'ihecl.

    Al'STR.AUAN llL\H.Y l\o. ;H. ( 10 lllin., sound, blaek & white, 1950. Pn:clut:ed uv the Departme <: t of Information, Dir.: Allan. ·

    A magazine film in whieh one item (approximately 2 min.) is tl e1·o ted to Caniwna '" a garden r'ity. The item shows

    chi{)lly th(' ntridy of blossoming· treeo.

    Al'STRALIAN DIARY No. 30. ( ll min., sound, black & white, l9ii0.) Produced by the D"partnJt'llt of Information, Dir.: ,Jack Allnn. A maglt zine Jlhn in which one item (approximately I min.) is de1·otc(l to a brief description of the location of the pmjected Ameriean War l\Iemorinl.

    AuSTRALIAN DIARY Xo. ji). ( fJ Ill ill ., black & whit


    .l.'roclueed llv the Department of Information, Dir.: Jack Allan. ·

    m agazine film in which two item s deal with Canberra.

    Jten1 one (approximately 2 min.) describes the activities of a typical grou p of Malayans studying in Canberra under the Colombo Plan . Item 2 (approximately 31 min.) describes the activities of Cadets at the Royal Mil itary College, Duntroon.

    AUSTRALIAN DIARY NO. 7tl. (9 min., ;;ound, hJack & white, 1!l i54.) T'roducccl by the Departmen t of lnfo rmatioll, Dh.: .Tack Alla n . A magazine fillll in whieh one itcw (approximately 2 min.} disr·Hsses Canberra pre-sehool play (·e ntres.

    THE QUEEN IN AUSTRALIA . ( 70 min., sound, black & white, ] 954.) Prntlneetl iw the De· pari IUC11t of ln t eriPr, Dir.: Stanley Hawes. ·

    '.!.'his r ecord of the Queen·., vioit to Australia includes

    sequences on her stay in Canlwnn. The description covers the Ci\·i(' Heeeption, the opening of Parliament and the march pa,;t of troops. the pre:"<>nta.tion nf the Queen's Colour at Dnntrnon HTlfl the nttPJHlnnec of the Qu ee n nt St .• Tohn's Chun·lt.

    THE QUEEN'S COLOUR. (22 min., sound, black & white, 1954. ) l'rnducecl hy tlw D t>partmcnt o f t he Army, Dir.;


    A record of the ceremony of the presentation of new colours to the Royal )Iilibtt-y ( 'olleg·e, Duntroon, by TL::\IT. Queen Il.

    T1m ROYAL vrsrr. (30 min., eilent, colOtn, 1954.) Produced and dintted hy Ralph H . L:wrenson. T11is film contains several sei]lH'!lCt'.• on the Queen'H visit to Canherrn.

    COLOUR DIARY NO. 2. ( 10 min., sound , colour, 1955.) l'roclu cPd bv the Depurtrnen t of tlw ln!Nior. A ma.crazine in wl1ich one itRm deals with the mohile

    1wits ot' Ca nherra play centres. The visit of one

    s uch unit to Urin rra cle sc rihecl in il.

    THE Al'STlt,\LBN WAR :-!E:\IORIAI.. (20 min., 50\lllll, colour, ]!);iii.) Produced by the Departmen t of the Iuterior. .-\ study of the Menwrial with many shoh of the

    exhibits history in "l'Yeral !'ases is giYt'n in 'ome deta1l.


    (:A:'i!IERRA-A PLA::\''XED CITY. ( H4 frames, l.JJack & white, l!lii:L) l'roclncccl hy thP D e j»lrtt((l' 'lt nf tlJ<' Iu terior. ,\ strip dcsigne<[ to gi1·e . nn o1·erall. of

    A.usTRALL\ TO-DAY. ( :{,) min., sound. t·olonr, l !l4Ci.) Proclnctd by the Departn1ent uf Jnior!llat.ion.

    It the ]avout n( tlw the lnnldtngs. and th<· hf< of

    the peo pi P. ·

    Thi·; b ,, >;urvcy ,f followed by a descrip­

    tion of each capital eity showing it!< r elation to Australia '"' a whole and its point of interest. l'anhena i' covered in the

    final sequences which ;;how tlu• c·ity in broad outline with a few pictures only of the lmildin;.:s, &... "\ ne11· 1·er,-i:>n i,.; nt p1·esent in procludion. AusTRALIA:\' lliARY :'10. 26. ( 9 min., sound, lJiad:: & white,

    Hl49.) Produced by the Department of fnfonnatiun. Dir.: .Tnek Allan. .-\ magazine film in whii:h one itelll (approxim:tt<>ly 2 miu .) i:i cl<•voted to C'aullerra's pre-school play centres.

    l 'A:\'BKRJL\. ( :l2 fralll!''· hlal'k & ll'hil t•. J!I .H.) Proclucecl by the Education Dt•partment, :"outh Aus­ tralia. \'pry ;drn il:Jr to the pn·,·ion" . .;trip 1l1lt with lesB detail.

    Sound Recordings

    of ::-:JH'\e C'hf.' :-O <1n or ituyortant O('f'a­

    .; i0n , han' lw c·n pre,-pn·<· ,\ 1!'traliau }lroadca,-ting C'OillllliB , ion and conuncrc1al cn mpaniC':-:..



    '!'he numbers hereunder refer to of the Committee's Report ; preceded by R., thPy r efer t-o the Recommendations

    of the Committeil as set out on pages 72- 71J :-A.C.T. Trades and Labour Council, 113, 116, 118. Adelaide-avenue, 271, R.4l. Administration of Canberra, proposed, 572 et seq. R.3-8.

    Administrative Block, 62, 69, 75, 85, 88, 235, 238, 274. Administrative Centre, development of Canberra as, 43-158. Advisory bodies, 159-171. S ee also Advisory Council, Hospital Board, National Capital Planning and Development Comonittee.

    Advisory Council, 168--171, 339, 357-365, 370, 564--668. Allotments, house, 188-193, R.31. Amenities, lack of, 338--353, R.51-58. Anzac Park, 454.

    Architectural standards, 204 et seq., 575 et seq., R.35-39. See also Nations.! Capital Planning and Develop1nent Committee. Art Advisory Board. See Commonwealth Art Advisory Board. Art Gallery, 342, 507-512, R.72-3. Artistic Standards Committee, suggested, 578-580, R.13- I6.

    Ashton, Will, IS12. Atomic Warfare, 327, 516-518, R.74. Auditor-General, 98, 105. Australian-American Memorial, 241, 384, 455.

    Australian National University, 237, 333-334. Australian Planning Institute, 451 , 459,466,491, Appendix J (page 117). See a.lao Harrison, P. F., Veale, W. C. D. Bailey, R. G., 185, 189, 201, 368. Bowling Clubs, 343. Bricks, 118--123, R.22. Bridges and roads, 260-278, R.40-4l.

    Building mat-erial shorta,ges, 118- 123. R.22. Butters, Sir John, 32, 66-67, 137-138, 141, 161-2, 190, 200, 257-8, 483, 536. Campbell, Major-General I. R., 521. Camp Hill, 442, 445, R.64. Canberra-

    Density problems, 184 et seq ., R. 31-34. Development as an administrative centre, 43-158, R.9- 10. Development as a national capital, 159--373.

    Future development, 478 et seq. R.70-7I. Selection of site, 3-9. See also, Canberra Plan, Griffin and Griffin Plan. Canberra Chamber of C<>mm erce, 301, 310. See al-so East, S. G., Rowe, R. Canberra High School, 245, 403. Canberra Plan-

    Adequacy of, 172-3, 458 et seq. Approved Plan 1955, 37-38. Appendix G (page 111 ). Competition, 1912, 11- 15. Departmental Board Plan, 17-20, 28-29.

    Gazetted Plan, 36-39, Appendix F (page lOll). Invitation to competitors 11-13, 460, Appendix A (page 85). Machinery for modification, 40-42, 397-400, R.l7. Outline development (population 110,000) 250, 472-474, R.fl8. Appt-ndi:x H (pag" 113).

    Undeveloped features, 181-2, 429 et seq. Variations of, 374 et seq., R.59. See also Griffin and Griffin Plan. Canberra University College, 332-334. Capital Hill, 430, 441-455, R.64-66. " Capitol, The!' 442--450. R.64. Carrodus, J. A., 538-545 Causeway cottages, 230, 292-293, R .39. Causeway industrial area, 280 et seq., R. 44.

    Central Park, 338, 345, R.54. Chamber of Commerce, Canberra, 301, 310. See also East, S. G., Rowe, R. Christian Brothers Coll ege, 245, 405. Church of England Cathedral site, 402. Clerical Association, A.C.T. Branch of Commonwealth Public Service, 136. Cinemas, 352, R.48, R.58.

    City. See Civic Centre. City Hill, 406, 421-423, 430-434, 451-455, R.61-62. Civic Centre, 297 et seq., 381-383, 386-387, R.46--47. Civil Defence Department. See Atomic Warfare. Cole Report, 569. Commercial centres, 2\li et seq., 349, 385-390, R.46--4S. Commission-evidence supporting, 137- 143. See al.>o Capital Commiss ion. Commissioner, suggested, 5i2 et seq. , R.4, R .l!l.

    Commonwealth Art Board, 510- 512.

    Communal Amenities, lack of, 338- 353, R.5l-58. Concert Hall, 340, ;"i07-:il :?, lUi!. R.72. Construction, R.22-26. See also Canberra. Contractors, 101-110, ll4, R.23. Corbett, Professor, A. H., 115, 139- 140. Corporation, evidence supporting, 144- 151, ;)81. Cultural centre, 342, ii06-512, R.52, R.72-73. Daley, C. S., 34-35, 21:3, 358 - 350, 403, 48\J. Density problems, 184 et seq., R.3 1-34. Depression period, 68, 106. . . . , .

    Design of Canberra. S ee Canberri\ Plan, (.nffin and (Jnffin Pian. Development of Canberra-As an administrative 43- 158 , R.9--l0.

    As a national capita l, l 59- 3i3. Future, 478 et seq., R.70- 71. Directors, suggested, 57;)-:377, R.ti. Dunk, 1V. E., 77, 106, !09, 1:30, J3;). Sec also Public i;en·ice



    E ast, S. G., 541. East Row, Civic, 308, R.46. Education 91-93, 331-337, R.50, R.7I.

    Electricity, lO, 251- 252. Engineering services-Bridges and roads, 260-278, R.40-4I. Electricity, 10, 251-252.

    Sewerage, 249-250. Storm water, 253. Water supply, 254-259.

    Farmlets, 406, 427. !<'arrington, C. J., 469. l<'ederal Cap!tal Committee, 25-32, 46--54, L:iJ- 156, 160, 175-179, 251, 280, 294, 298- 300, 380- 39;'), 535. Federal Capital CommiSSion, 32-42, 55-67, ll3, 141, 143, 161- 162, 249-250, 2GZ, 257-258, 301, 396-402. See also, Butter8, Sir

    John. Finan ce, 95-107, 156, 574, 587, R.8. Pine Arts Commission, Washington, 560. Flats, 196-203, 240, R.26, R.32- 33. See also Di>sent, Senator Vincent (page 77). Frankel, Mrs. E. M., 507.

    Freehold, 533-545. Frontages, building, 188- 193, 321, R.3l. Future development of Canberra, 478 et seq., R.70-71. Future government of Canberra, 546 et seq., R.l-8.

    Garden city, 175-18:1, 202, R.30. GibHon, T. R. S., 186, 188, 271-272, 283, 303, 318-319, 420, 433, 472-4. See also Town Planning flection. Golf. See Wcstbourne Woods. Governmen t of-

    Canberra, future, 546 et seq., R. 1-8. Columbia (Wa"hington), 549-560. Ottawa, 561- 563. Government t riangle, 404, 430, 435-440, R.37, R.63. Griffin and the Griffin Plan-Capital Hill, 442- 44fl, R.64-66. Commercial centre, 297, 385- 390. Cultural buildings, 509, H. 73. Departmental Board proposals (1912), 17-20, 28-29. Government triangle, 437. Initial development period, 22- 25, 376-379. Last amended plan (1918), 461, Appendix E (page 107). Market centre, 38 1- 384. l\Imnorial t o Griffin, suggested, 504. 1Yii lita ry College, 406, 428, 523, R.75-76, Appendix I (page 11 5) .

    . Original Design, 15- 22, 172, 4-61, Appendix C (page 10:>). Original R eport, 460, Appendix B (page 93). Parliament House, permanent, 442-449, R.64-66. P adiament Hou8e, provisional, 3!31-393, 436. Preliminary Plan (1913), 21, 377- 379, 461, Appendix D (pagE' 105). Report explanatory (1913), 20, 21, 39, 460. Residential blocks, 321-322. Suburban a l4- 322.

    Variations to plan, 374 et seq . io'ee also Canberr&, Canberra Pl&n. Groom, Sir Lyttloton, 26, 35.

    Halls, lack of, 338-342, R.5l. High School, Canberra, 245, 403. Hospital, 73, 323- 330, R.49. H ostels, 117, R.26. Hotels, R.57. Houses, need for, 84, 108 et seq., R.24-25, 1t.34. See leases, residential sites. Hume Circle area, 295, 405, 408, R.44.

    Industrial areas, 27!)--296, 409, R.38, R.42-45. Industrial development, 233- 234, 482, R.45. " Initial City " (Griffin), 377-379. Institute of Anatomy, 238, 347. Interior, Department of, 77, 91, 109, 12,j-127, 130-136, 152, 204- ::l25, 434, 489, .521 -531, 638-5t.'i. Se·! also Gibson, T. R. S.,

    1\IcLaren, W. A., P ryor, L. D., R.oge rs, J. N. C. InviLttion to competitors for Canberra design (l!J12), ll- 13, 460, AppC'ndix A (page 86).

    Jamos, J., 109, 120, 224, 25f!, 276- 27 7, 285, 326.

    Jennings, A. V., llO, 11 2, 116.

    King,; ton commercial C<'ntre, 298- 308, 388-390, 427. Kingston industrial area, 233-234, 279 d seq. , R.43- 44.

    L a bour difficulties, 111-117, R-.24. Lakes, 260-262, 406, 4 10-414, 430, R.60. Langer, Dr. K .. 172, 273, 319- 320, 448, 468. Leases and 533- 545. S ee also sites, building.

    Legislative Council, proposed, 564-569, 581-583, R.18-l9, Appendix K (page 121). Local Hcpresentation, 141, ;)64- ;369, G8 1-584, H.lS-21. See also Advisory Co uncil; Hospitnl. Lonschle-btreet, 217 -220, 287, 426, R.38, R.42.

    McCay, 1<'. J. 485. l\fcDonald, W. D. ll!l, 132- 133. McLaren, IV. A., 109, 212, 218, 283, 358. Mahon, Hon. Hugh, .5- 7. iii:tnuka commercial centre, 2f!S --308, 388-390.

    Maps, of CRnhcrra, 461 and Appendices (pages 103-115). '' Market cen t re", 381-384. Ma-ster BuildPrs' Association, I \ 4, liS. Makri al shortages, building, ll8- 123, R .22.

    :>lenlOrial to C1·if!in. Sll l(ge.>tN1, 504. Jlilitary College. 8<"' JiilitM:r CoJi f'W ; (;ritlin and Griffin l'lou. ,\Jo louglo ludu,t ri a l ill'<.' u, 2i!) et oez., 40(), 409, RA2-i3.



    Monumental buildings, 236-248. Mulrooney, J. L., 343. Municipal bodies, 569, 584, R.20-21. Heights houses, 206, 208, 223, 321-322.

    Narrabundah pre-fabricated area, !Hi, 22\l-230, 406, 415-418, R.39, R.5B(a). National Capital, development as, 159-373. National Capital Planning and Development Committee­ Architectural standards, 204 et seq.

    Church of England Cathedral site, 402. City Hill, 432-434. Constitution of, 163-167. Density problems, 186 et seq.

    :Flats, 196-203. Government triangle, 438-439. House allotments, 188-193. Narrabundah Heights, 206-212.

    Road widths, 194-195. Role in development of Canberra, :354 et seq. 373. Siting of houses, 222-223. Suburban shops, 310-311.

    Telephone exchange, Barton, 20!3. See also Waterhouse, B. J. National Capital Planning Commission (Washington) 557-559. Neighbourhood units, 314-319.

    0 'Brien, Archbishop Eris, 91. O'Malley, Hon. King, 12, 15, 17, 18, 24. Odgers, J. R. 192, 502. "Operation Admin", 77 et seq. R.9-1I. Ottawa, gov8rnment of, 561-563. Outline Development plan of Canberra (population IIO,OOO), 250, 472-4 74, R.68, Appendix H (page 113).

    Parliament House-Permanent, 442-449, R.64-G6. Provisional, 51, 239, 391-393, 436. Parliamentary Oversight and re>pon&ibility, 583, R.1-2. Park areas, :150, R.27-29. Parking facilities, 273-276, 308. Pastoral atmosphere, 202, R.30. See also Garden City.

    Patent Office, 404, 436. Peake-Owen Report, 413. Picture theatres, 352, R.48, R.58.

    Plans of Canberra, 461, and Appendices (page'l 103-ll5). Preliminary Plan, Griffin (1913), 21, 377-3/H, 461, Appendix D (page 106). Pre-f!chool centres, 33!3- 337. Printing Office, 294. Priorities Committees, 130.

    Private buildings-ArchitPctural stRndarcls, 213-220. Sites, 124-129, R.25. Programme, need for 85-94, 106. Pryor, L. D., 181-183.

    Pdblic Service Board, 77--82, 106, 130, 338. 8ee alw Dunk, W. E. Public ·works Committee-Lakes scheme, 4!1-414, R.60. Roads and Bridges, 260-2i0, R.40-4l.

    Water ;mpply, 254-256. Wcstbourne Woode, 351, R.56.

    Railway, 401, 406--409, R.44. Re-appraisal of leases, 533-545. Recre:>Jional facilities, 338 et seq., R.51-58. Rcgiom1l centJe, 48i)-4()3, It.7(1.

    Hcpertory Tlwatre, 3-Q-510. Report (·xplnnatory, Griffin (Hll3), 20-21, 3ll, 460. Residential blocks, 125--12!!, 188-193, 222-223, 321-:nz. See also lects£s. huts, a42, i>07,

    lUng rcadf', 272. Hoad "irlths. 104-195, 401i, 41!!-4:20, R.59 (b) and(··). Ro>cds :mel bridgc·c, 260-278, R+0-41. R.ogtT", J. :'\. C., 39, 210, 213, 2HJ, ·13:{, 0:!!, ;)31. Ro\1 e, It., 134, 140, 212. Royal l\filitr•ry Colkgc, 40G, 428,519 .;)32, R.l.i-76. Appendix T (pagP !L)). Suo/so Griffin anrl Griffin Plan-.\(i!itary College. R.udcluck, G., 48.i-488.

    Schou\:;, 91-9:3, 331. R. -50. Scoll:w, E. J., 202, 466. Surveyor, .5-9.

    Scat of Governrri'ent Act, 3-4. Scat of Government Ac:ccptancr Act, 9-11!. Scat of Guvcrnmcnt (Administmtiun) Act, :>2-+2, .-,L fi+ .. 1 !I,:\\!,.;, .-,:l:l. Senate Stanr1ing Committee, sugge,t{'(l. H.:?.

    facilities. Su: Cm-nmercinl ct·utn· ..... ; S1J})JJrh;-Jn ;.;.!Jnp-;.

    of building m8teria1, 11.'-\ H.:!:.?.

    Shr\'\-grorrnrl. H .. ).), nf l_'rn1hern1, :J

    Site:-:, httilding, 12.l--l2:t, <,r:

    Smith, H. H., 319. Spnrting faeiliti.-e, 343, Standing CnnunittN· on ;)8.), fL:!.

    ;.)tanner, Dr. W. E. l-1., ].)J. Stnrm-l•,:ntf•r, 2.)3. ;;, 1 !irh:m dt·v"l"pnwnt, 313- Ruburh:m ,],OJ"· rl -'Uf., 3,;2. H.48.

    Sldrrwn, Sir .John, 20, :?.11, :18fl. ,\'u-. r"Jl.-.·r) Federal <:aldtul <. 1·{·-.



    Taylor, R. :II. ll!l, U\\1. Tel<'phone Exchange, Barton, 206. Temporary buildings, 226-235, R.3;), R.3\1. Theatres, pieturc, 35:?. R.48, R.58. Tourist tcrmiwd, 406, -124-4:(;}. Tourists, 453, 496-505, ;iJ 1-.)Ui, Town Planning Section, 191, HJ7, 2:U, n;;, 3d.5, 431, 433, -172. See ul-lo Gilo,;on, T. R. S. : :'\;ttional C.tpiL1l Phnnin;

    and Development Committee. Towndrow, Professor, F. E., 14.). Tre;u;ury, 77, !J!J-100, 130. 8ee ol"o Fin:once.

    \'ariations of the Canberra Plan, 374 et .


    ,James, .J., Taylor, R.

    Zoo, 346-34 7.

    By Authority: .L .}. Ainll u:, Commo!lll ealth GoYenuneut l'rinter, CanlJerra.

    r_) !

    ' f l

    .:::- : '