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Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Power Act - Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority - Report and financial statements, together with Auditor-General's Report - Year - 1961-62 (13th)

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YEAR ENDED 30th JUNE, 1962.

P r e s e n te d p u r s u a n t to S t a t u t e , 6 t h N o v e m b e r , 1962; o r d e r e d to b e p r i n t e d , 15th N o v e m b e r , 1962.

[ C o s t o f P a p e r : — P r e p a r a t i o n , n o t g i v e n ; 715 c o p i e s ; a p p r o x i m a t e c o s t o f p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l is h in g , £ 1 0 0 .]

Printed and Published for the G o v e r n m e n t of the C o m m o n w e a l t h o f A u s t r a l i a by

A . J. Ar t h u r, Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra.

( P r i n t e d i n A u s t r a l i a . )

No. 142 [Group H].—F. 10501/62.— P r i c e I s. 9d.

V ie» from the iil->n Khaiicoban-Gcchi road.

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P.O. Box 332, Cooma North, N.S.W. October, 1962.

Senator the Hon. W. H. Spooner, M.M., Minister for National Development, Parliament House, Canberra, A.C.T.


In accordance with the provisions of Section 3 2 b (1) of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Power Act 1949-1958, I have the honour to submit to you for presentation to Parliament the Snowy Mountains Authority’s Thirteenth Annual Report which covers the Authority’s operations during the year ended 30th June, 1962.

As required by Section 3 2 b (2) of the Act, Financial Statements for 1961-62 were submitted to the Auditor-General for the Commonwealth who has certified to their correctness.

The Authority again expresses its appreciation of the support and assistance extended to it throughout the year by you, Sir, as the Minister responsible for the Scheme. It is also appropriate to record here the excellent work carried out by the Authority’s personnel and by the Contractors and their employees. The progress made during the year would not have been possible without your

strong and effective support and their enthusiasm and efforts.

Yours faithfully,




YEAR ENDED 30th JUNE, 1962.


Section 1.—Summary .. . . .. .. . .

Section 2.—The Year’s Work— Investigations and Designs .. . . . . . .

Engineering and Economic Investigations Field Investigations . . . . ..

Engineering Designs . . . . . .

Engineering Laboratories . . . .

Construction . . . . . . . .

The Snowy-Tumut Development . . The Upper Tumut Works . .

Tooma Dam and Tooma-Tumut Tunnel Tumut 2 Project . . ..

Upper Tumut Switching Station and Control Centre The Snowy-Murray Development .. ..

Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel, Snowy-Geehi Tunnel (Snowy Section) and Island Bend Dam Snowy-Geehi Tunnel (Geehi Section), Geehi Dam and Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline and Murray 1 Power Station Provision of Road and Rail Facilities Electricity Transmission System . .

River Improvement Works . .

Soil Conservation . . . .

Bushfire Prevention . . . .

Section 3.—Completed Works— Operation and Maintenance of Completed Works Headworks .. .. .. ..

Eucumbene Dam and Lake Eucumbene Eucumbene-Tumut Tunnel .. Murrumbidgee-Eucumbene Tunnel

Tooma-Tumut Tunnel . .

Power Projects . . . . . .

General .. . . ..

Guthega Power Station . .

Tumut 1 Power Station . .

Tumut 2 Power Station . .

Upper Tumut Switching Station and Control Centre Section 4.—Administrative and Other Services— Staff and Industrial Staff . .

Industrial . .

Honours and Awards Housing . .

Property . .

Supply and Control of Stores, Plant and Equipment Public Relations . . . .

Transport and Air Services Safety . . . . . .

Medical Services . .

Communications . .

Computing and Data Processing Use of Land Affected by Periodic Flooding Recreational Facilities Associated with the Snowy Scheme

Civil Defence . . . . . . . . . .

Section 5.—F inance and Economics— Finance. . . . . . . . . . ■ ■

Overall Economics of the Scheme . . . . . .

Section 6.—G eneral Matters— Blowering Dam . . . . . . . . ..

The United States Bureau of Reclamation . . . .

Work for Other Organizations . . . . . .

Consultative Services . . . . . . · ■

Advisory Committee on Aesthetics of Major Structures International and other Commissions on Technical Subjects Technical Papers and Articles of Scientific Value ..

Section 7.—F uture Programme . . .. ■ ■

F .10501/62.— 2

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The year ended 30th June, 1962, saw the completion of the first major section of the Snowy Mountains Scheme, the Upper Tumid Works of the Snowy-Tumut Development, and the beginning of the second stage, the Snowy-M array Development. The excellent construction progress achieved on the Tumut 2 Project culminated in the first two generating units of Tumut 2 Power Station being available for commercial operation on 1st January, 1962, and all four units coming into full operaton on 1st April, 1962, one year ahead of the scheduled date. This project was officially opened by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. R. G. Menzies, C.H.,

Q.C., M.P., on 5th May, 1962, thereby marking the completion of all works on the Upper Tumut.

Opening of Tumut 2 Power Station by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. R. G. Menzies, C.H., Q.C., M.P., on 5th May, 1962.

The awarding of contracts for the Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel and the Snowy-Murray Diversion Works during the year marked the commencement of major construction operations on the Snowy- Murray Development. The Contractors began a rapid build-up of men and equipment at the main working points and by the end of the year construction w as well under way and good progress was being

achieved. About 2-\ miles of tunnelling was carried out during the latter part of the financial year. The Authority's forces completed the Regional Township of Khancoban and the road system required for the new contracts of the Snowy-Murray Development on the western side of the mountains. Good progress was made on the detailed investigations for Khancoban Dam. Jindabyne Dam and Pumping Plant, the Murray 2 Project and other works of the Snowy-Murray Development for which contracts have yet to be awarded; also on preliminary investigations for the remaining works


of the Snowy-Tumut Development, the Tumut 3 and Tumut 4 Projects. The production of detailed designs for the new works under construction kept pace with construction requirements. Employment of the Authority’s professional and technical staff remained fairly constant at about 780, and finance and administrative staff' at about 616. The peak labour force employed by the Authority during the year totalled 1,972 and the Contractors’ forces rose to 1,484. The harmonious relations which have existed between management and employees since the inception of the Scheme continued throughout the year.

The Authority’s personnel provided technical assistance under the Colombo Plan in Cambodia, North Borneo and Sarawak; also to various Australian Government Departments and Instrumentalities including the Commonwealth Department of Works, the Irrigation and Water Supply Commission of Queensland, the Australian Coal Research Association and the National Association of Testing Authorities. It continued to receive valuable assistance from the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S.A., and several Overseas and Australian Consultants.

During the year inflows into the completed reservoirs were about 15 per cent, below average, but due to the deliberate restraint in generation in Tumut 1 Power Station prior to Tumut 2 Project coming into full operation on 1st April, 1962, total storage increased by 379,000 acre feet to 1,916,800 acre feet, of which 1,551,400 acre feet is “ active ” or usable storage.

The total energy sent out during the year by Guthega, Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 amounted to 729,593,000 kWh., the average cost being 1.13 pence per kWh. From 1st April when Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 came into full operation 452,964,000 kWh. were sent out by these two stations, 31 per cent, above the guaranteed minimum, the average cost of peak load energy during the three months of full production being 0.86 pence per kWh. The estimated long term average cost of energy from these two stations is 0.95 pence per kWh.

The Snowy Mountains Council continued to operate Tumut 1 Power Station throughout the year, and on 1st April, 1962, with the coming into operation of Tumut 2 Power Station, assumed its full responsibilities under the Commonwealth/States’ Agreement for the operation of Guthega, Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Projects. The Authority continued to attend to necessary maintenance work.

The Authority’s expenditure during the year was £16,010,000, total expenditure to date being £197,193,249. Estimated expenditure for the Financial Year 1962-1963 is £24,150,000, reflecting the increase in construction activity resulting from the awarding of the new contracts. A comprehensive examination of the economics of the Scheme was carried out by economists and engineers of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, following which a loan of $100 million was made available to the Commonwealth for the Murray 1 Project.

Full information on the year’s activities and comments on general matters are given in the following pages of this Report.

Twin Portals at downstream end of Murray I Pressure Tunnel.

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Investigations a n d D esig n s.

Engineering and Economic Investigations. During the year investigations were mainly concentrated on the Snowy-Murray section of the Scheme, although some preliminary work was carried out for the proposed Tumut Projects downstream of the completed Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations.

Engineering investigations were completed for the following works of the Snowy-Murray Development for w'hich contracts have yet to be awarded:— • Khancoban Dam, the re-regulating storage required to even out the discharges from the Murray Power Stations before the water reaches the Murray.

• Jindabyne Dam, a 220 feet high concrete arch structure to be built on the Snowy River near Jindabyne.

Detailed investigations continued on the following projects which are planned for construction as work eases off on the Murray 1 Project. e The 440,000 kW. Murray 2 Power Project. • The Jindabyne Pumping Plant and Conduits.

Following preliminary negotiations between the Commonwealth Government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, a mission from the Bank visited Australia to examine part of the Snowy-Murray section of the Scheme as a possible project for financial assistance.

The Bank made a most searching examination of the economics and other aspects of that section of the Scheme. Its mission, comprising engineers, financial experts and economists, was provided with considerable detailed information. Some members of the mission also had discussions with the Commonwealth Treasury and the Electricity Commissions and State Irrigation Authorities of New

South Wales and Victoria. Information sought ranged from the overall national economic scene to details of the particular works under study, including estimates of costs and revenue, production of electricity, irrigation water to be made available and the value of increased primary production to be obtained from additional irrigation development.

As a result of these searching studies, the Bank made available to the Commonwealth a loan of $100,000,000 to assist in financing the first and major section of the Snowy-Murray Development.

Field Investigations. Field investigations in connexion with the Murray 2, Khancoban Dam and Jindabyne Projects were continued actively and a start was made on investigations for the Lower Tumut Projects.

Following the pattern of recent years, the number of stream gauging stations was further reduced in cases where sufficient information for future studies and power station operations had been collected. At 30th June, 1962, 60 stations were operated by the Authority, together with supplementary meteorological installations. A basic network of installations for collecting further hydrologic data where required for operational purposes has been maintained.

The continued assistance of the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology including the attachment of a Meteorologist to the Authority is gratefully acknowledged. With the inauguration of a radio facsimile weather service by the Bureau, the Authority received selected broadcasts and the data so obtained were used for routine local weather forecasting and operational purposes.

Following a pilot study by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of possible means of measuring evaporation from Lake Eucumbene, routine measurements were begun. The observations will continue for some years.

Further consideration was given to cloud seeding, also in collaboration with the C.S.I.R.O. The isohyetal maps for the 1955-1959 experiment were completed and a joint paper is being prepared for publication. The need for conducting further experiments to obtain more definite results was confirmed. Before further tests start, however, certain studies based on data from previous experiments are being

carried out.

Triangulation and precise level surveys required in connexion with the new contracts were completed and marks were established for use by Contractors in setting out the tunnels, dams and other works. Engineering, photogrammetric and property surveys were carried out in connexion with Murray 2, Khancoban Dam and Jindabyne Projects.

The diamond drilling programme was substantially reduced this year to approximately 5,000 feet, compared with 13,000 feet in the previous year. This reduction was brought about by the completion of investigations of many of the main features of the Snowy-Murray Development. The accumulated depth drilled by the Authority from the start of its operations to 30th June, 1962, was almost 200,000 feet or 38 miles. Although costly, these very extensive drilling operations have avoided mistakes and

proved to be economic in the design and construction of the works.


Coninieneemeni of excavation for Murray ! Surge Chamber and Shaft.

Engineering Designs. Design activities have been mainly associated with the Snowy-Murray Development and in particular with the prepration of construction drawings for the new contracts now in progress.

Included amongst this work was the completion of designs for the 300 feet high earth and rock fill Geehi Dam, a feature of the design of this dam being its narrow central impermeable core. When constructed, the dam will be the second highest in the Snowy Scheme. Provision was made in the design for the rock fill to be compacted by vibratory rollers, the first use to be made in Australia of this construction technique. The spillway of the dam has been designed as a “ morning glory ” type, with a concrete-lined circular tunnel outflow. The crest diameter of the bell-mouthed top of the shaft forming the spillway intake will be 105 feet, believed to be the largest in the world for this type of spillway.

Designs were also completed during the year for the 31 miles long tunnel system to link Lake Eucumbene to the Murray 1 Surge Tank from which point two surface pressure pipelines will form the final connexion to Murray 1 Power Station. The adopted design provides for the 7 mile long section of the tunnel system between Geehi Reservoir and Murray i Surge Tank to be concrete-lined and 23

feet in diameter. The remainder of the system, to link Lake Eucumbene to Geehi Reservoir, will be substantially unlined and 21 feet in diameter.

Particular attention was paid during the year to the design of the Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline. Each pipeline, 5,000 feet in length and up to 13-ft. 9-in. in diameter, has been designed to operate under a maximum pressure head of 1,892 feet under normal operating conditions and 2,352 feet for emergency conditions. These pipelines will be constructed from a special high tensile notch tough steel which has been developed in Australia. The Authority's technical staff was closely associated with Australian Iron and Steel Pty. Ltd. of Port Kembla, New South Wales, in the development of this steel and a substantial amount of testing was carried out in the Authority's Engineering Laboratories.

Designs have been completed for the 760,000 kW. Murray 1 (surface) Power Station which will be the largest of the power stations of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and by far the largest hydro-electric power station in Australia.

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The plant in this station will be in the forefront of world development, as it is only within the last few years that water turbine design has progressed to the point when Francis or reaction type turbines can be manufactured for the pressure head at this station. As in the case of Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations, this station, together with the future Murray 2 Power Station, is being designed to be

remotely controlled from a common switching station, which will connect them to the 330,000-volt transmission networks of the Victorian and New South Wales Electricity Commissions. Such an arrangement greatly reduces the number of staff needed for operation.

Design work associated with the 220 feet high concrete arch Jindabyne Dam and the re-regulating Khancoban Dam began during the year. In addition, designs for several bridges and other structures associated with the major projects were completed.

Engineering Laboratories. The Engineering Laboratories continued to carry out numerous investigations, many of which arise from design problems, thus requiring joint study by the Designing Engineers and the Laboratory Staff. Geological and materials investigations for the Snowy-Murray Development continued during

the year. A wide variety of field and laboratory testing was carried out, including— • The measurement of permeability of foundations at Khancoban Dam site, using a special well flow meter developed in the Laboratories.

• At the site for Murray 2, relatively undisturbed samples of completely weathered granite material were obtained from the foundation area, using a new drilling technique with an inner plastic core barrel developed by Field Investigation Division in co-operation with Triefus Ltd. of Sydney. These samples were sealed to retain moisture and

forwarded to the Laboratories for triaxial testing on equipment specially adapted for this work. This represents a major advance in sampling and determining the properties of poor materials encountered in foundation investigations.

• Extensive tests were carried out on samples of seven overseas and one local high tensile steel to provide data for the suitability of steel for use in Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline. Particular attention was paid to the notch tough properties of the steel at low temperatures. Tipper notch tensile tests on 2-in. thick specimens being used as a

criterion. Particular attention was given in these tests to developing reliable methods for controlling temperatures down to — -60" C. and ensuring that samples were similar in all respects. The results obtained showed a very significant improvement in repeatability and definition of transition temperature compared with many other

widely used testing methods, particularly those on small specimens.

Work was continued on developing epoxy resin formulations for use in concrete lining or repair work under the special conditions of the Snowy Mountains Area. A cavitation measuring device is being developed for use in this work. Attention was also given to testing additives to provide more durable and economic concrete.

A number of hydraulic model studies was also carried out during the year, including completion of model studies for Geehi Dam Spillway and Murray I Tailbay. A study of air entrained water flow in pipelines was completed, and the results embodied in a short technical film. This investigation has defined certain conditions under which “ blowback ” is likely in aqueduct pipelines, it forms a definite contribution to engineering knowledge on this subject and has received very favourable comment overseas.

In the course of photo-elastic studies of dams and underground structures, use of three-dimensional models using the reflection method was satisfactorily developed. While not as versatile as the “ frozen stress ” method, the reflection technique has the advantage of simplicity of model construction and loading.

Photographic work during the year covered many technical and specialized applications, as well as recording the Authority’s activities. Four movie sound films were completed. These were— • “ Science Serves the Snowy”, outlining the work of the Laboratories.

• “ Soil Conservation for the Snowy Mountains Scheme ”, showing the conservation measures undertaken by the Authority.

• “ Tumut 2 Power Station ”, a detailed technical film on the installation of mechanical and electrical plant and equipment.

• “ Snowy Newsreel ”, showing interesting episodes in the construction of the Scheme.

Studies w'ere undertaken during the year on new construction methods such as chemical grouting and improvements in techniques of the use of rock bolts.


To keep abreast of recent developments in the use of nuclear explosives for civil engineering construction, available information was closely studied and discussed with Dr. Garry Higgins, Director of Plowshare Project, United States of America, Sir Mark Oliphant and other experts. In this field some small scale experiments were carried out using small charges of orthodox explosives, in order to study scaling laws. With further development in the use of nuclear explosives for construction purposes, it is believed that this method could have considerable potential for Australia because of the favourable conditions for its use and its probable significant saving in costs.

Laboratory work carried out for Government Departments and other organizations is described on pages 34.

C o n s t r u c t io n .

The Snowy-Tumut Development. The Upper Tumut Works.—Excellent progress was achieved during the year on the remaining Upper Tumut Works. As anticipated in the previous Annual Report, the Tumut 2 Power Station was available for full operation twelve months ahead of the date indicated in the “ Notification ” forwarded to the Electricity Commissions of the States of New Wouth Wales and Victoria in 1959.

Tooma Dam and Tooma-Tumut Tunnel.—Soil conservation measures were carried out on the dam and associated borrow areas in accordance with designs prepared, at the Authority’s request, by the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales. The Australian Contractor, Thiess Bros. Pty. Limited, completed the clean-up of the construction areas and the contract was formally terminated on 25th July, 1961.

Access Tunnel to Tumut 2 Power Station, looking back towards the portal.

Tumut 2 Project.—This project was completed during the year and the four 70 MW units are now operating on full commercial power production. The civil engineering Contractors, the American Joint Venture Kaiser-Perini-Morrison-Raymond, completed all the remaining concreting operations in August, 1961, removed their various construction facilities and cleaned up the construction areas prior to the end of the year.

Early in the year the concrete lining of the tailwater tunnel was completed and again excellent progress was achieved, the 4 miles of concrete invert being placed in approximately one month.

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In the power station good progress continued with the installation of electrical and mechanical equipment by the Authority’s forces and the first group of two units was available for commercial service on 1st January, 1962, and, as mentioned earlier, the power station came into full operaton on 1st April, 1962.

The project was officially opened by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. R. G. Menzies, C.H., Q.C., M.P. on Saturday, 5th May. 1962.

Upper Tumut Switching Station and Control Centre.—The 330,000-volt Upper Tumut Switching Station located midway between Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations was extended to accommodate four incoming transmission lines from the two power stations and the three outgoing transmission lines to the two State systems, including the second line to Yass which, at the close of the year, was under construction by the Electricity Commission of New South Wales.

Adit to the 15 miles Fucumbene-Snowy Tunnel, looking hack towards portal.

The Snowy-Murray Development.

Eucumhene-Snowy Tunnel. Snowy-Geelii Tunnel (Snowy Section) and Island Bend Dam.—In June, 1961, Thiess Bros. Ply. Ltd. commenced the excavation of Snowy Adit to prov ide access to the line of the Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel, completing the work in September. 1961. well ahead of schedule.

In October, 1961. contracts comprising more than 18 miles of tunnel, a 150 feet high concrete dam and five shafts were awarded to the American Joint Venture. Utah Construction & Engineering Pty. Ltd. and Brown & Root Sudamericana Ltd. The accepted price for this group of contracts was £20,850.000, some 20 per cent, below the expected price.

The Contractor immediately commenced preparations for extending the initial housing, barrack and construction facilities provided by the Authority for his use at Eucumhene and Island Bend. F. 10501/ 62.— 3


Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel.

Underground excavation started in December, 1961, and by May, 1962, full face tunnelling had begun in the three headings of the Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel (i.e. from Eucumbene toward Snowy Adit and from Snowy Adit toward Eucumbene in one direction and towards the Snowy-Geehi Tunnel junction in the opposite direction). As at 30th June, 1962, excavation from Eucumbene had advanced

3519 feet; from the Snowy Adit towards Eucumbene 2,789 feet; and from the Snowy Adit towards Snowy-Geehi Tunnel 2,317 feet.

Clearing of the island Bend reservoir area was completed and sinking of the Island Bend Intake Shaft, the Island Bend Control Shaft and the Eucumbene Control Shaft was well advanced by the end of the year.

Snowy-Geehi Tunnel (Geehi Section), Geehi Dam and Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel.—In July, 1961, tenders were called for the 54 miles long Geehi Section of the Snowy-Geehi Tunnel, for the 300 feet high earth and rockfill Geehi Dam and for the 7 mile long Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel. Contracts for this work were awarded to the Australian firm of Thiess Bros. Pty. Ltd. The accepted price of £18,920,000 for this group of contracts was about 6 per cent, below the price expected.

Access roads to the various working points were constructed and the erection of workshop, stores buildings and other facilities proceeded satisfactorily. Three camps, with accommodation for a total of 1,080 men, and a village with 67 houses were constructed.

At the Geehi Dam-site, a 377 feet long construction adit to the line of the Snowy-Geehi Tunnel was excavated. From the end of this adit the main tunnel headings were driven a distance of 224 feet towards Island Bend and 169 feet towards Bogong Adit. Excavation of the Geehi Dam Outlet Works Tunnel was also started.



Commencement of Diversion Tunnel at Geehi Dam-site.

At Bogong Creek, a construction adit 1,294 feet long to the line of the Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel was completed and the main tunnel was driven towards Geehi Dam for a distance of 89 feet.

In the Murray 1 Surge Tank area, excavation of two pipeline tunnels each 570 feet long branching from the Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel was completed and a pilot tunnel along the line of the Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel towards the surge shaft, i.e. upstream, was advanced a distance of 772 feet. Open-cut excavation for the surge tank was started.

Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline and Murray 1 Power Station.—During the year tenders were called for the design and construction of Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline consisting of two large diameter steel pipes each approximately one mile in length. The pipeline will, when completed, connect the Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel to the power station. The Authority’s examination of the tenders was nearing completion at the end of the financial year.

In May, 1962, tenders were also called for the construction of the Murray 1 Power Station. It is anticipated that contracts will be placed during the first half of the financial year 1962-1963 for both the power station and the pressure pipeline.

As already mentioned, Murray 1 Power Station, with a planned capacity of 760,000 kW.. will be the largest in the Scheme. Tenders for the supply of the major plant items for this station attracted worldwide competition. Contracts were placed in August, 1961. for the eight 130.000 h.p. Francis turbines with the British firm Boving & Company (A.N.Z.) Pty. Ltd., for the eight 95.000 kW. generators with A.S.E.A. of Sweden and for the thirteen 68,000 kVA. transformers with Canadian General Electric Co. The total price of these three contracts was £4.300.000, about 30 per cent, below the expected price.


Kxcavation for Murray 1 Pipeline.

P r o v is io n of R o a d a n d R a il F a c il it ie s .

The Authority's day labour forces achieved good progress on the provision of facilities at new work centres on the Snowy-Murray Development. Accommodation was provided for the Authority’s forces and initial accommodation for the Contractors’ forces. In this connexion 190 buildings were transferred from work centres in the Upper Tumut Region and re-erected at the new centres. In addition alterations were made to existing buildings and a considerable amount of new construction undertaken.

The road network serving the Scheme was extended during the year by the construction of 34 miles of new road. This work included the completion, except for sealing, of the Alpine Way link from Murray 1 Power Station to Gechi Junction via Scammels Pudge and an access road to Bogong Adit. Approximately 40 miles of existing roads were sealed, including the public road between Khancoban and Bringenbrong and the Authority’s road from Khancoban to Murray 1 Power Station.

At 30th June a total length of approximately 487 miles of heavy duty road had been constructed by the Authority to serve construction centres and for later use in the operation of the Scheme. Of this length 220 miles had been sealed. These figures include 173 miles of public roads which, although in existence prior to the commencement of the Authority's activities, had to be realigned and improved, approximately 80 per cent, of the cost being financed by the Authority. In addition some 480 miles of tracks give access for surveys, site investigations and transmission lines.



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New Road from Khancoban to Gechi, looking towards the Main R an g e.

The Victorian Government and its instrumentalities have been most co-operative in improving the road and rail facilities in the Upper Murray area, which will become the main supply routes to the works on the western side of the mountains. For instance, the Department of Railways strengthened the Wodonga/C'udgewa railway line to carry the large and heavy items of plant required for Murray 1 and

Murray 2 Power Stations and the Country Roads Board is reconstructing the roads on the Victorian side of the Murray to cope with the heavy programme of road transportation. By arrangement with the Victorian Government, the Authority erected a 90 ton gantry crane ox er a spur railway line atCudgexva on land made available by the Railways and established a depot for unloading and handling plant and equipment. The Victorian Country Roads Board, the New South Wales Department of Main Roads and

the Authority shared the cost of a new bridge over the Murray River at Bringenbrong.

E l e c t r ic it y T r a n sm issio n S y stem .

When Murray 1 Power Station comes into operation, it will be necessary to connect the present 330,000-volt transmission line between the Upper Tumut Switching Station and Victoria to the Murray 1 Switching Station. Although this connexion will not be required until 1965. the first section was constructed this year to provide power for construction activities in the Murray Valley.

The total length of transmission lines constructed by the Authority for all purposes stands now at 301 miles, including 42 miles at 330,000-volts.

R iv er I m pr o v e m e n t W o r k s .

On its own account and on behalf of the Snowy Mountains Council the Authority again joined with the Water Conservation and irrigation Commission of New South Wales in carrying out river improvement works along the Lower Tumut. Bank protection and snagging were the main features of the work, together with some further access bridges, to farms. Properties were purchased where

it was considered that the effects of power station releases would be so great as to make farming impracticable. With the commencement of full operation by Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations an office was opened at Tumut in April. 1962. to adxise and assist landholders whose property may be affected by periodic flooding due to releases from these stations.

Local organizations in the Upper Murray Valley were kept informed of the progress of investigations on the probable discharges for the Murray Power Stations.


Lake Kuciunliene from Hallstrom Island.

So il C o n serv a tio n.

The Authority continued to devote a great deal of attention to and considerable expenditure on conservation measures to ensure that its construction activities do not result in soil erosion. During the year activities were mainly associated with the re-establishment of vegetation in the Tooma Dam area and on transmission lines and cable routes serving the Tumut 2 Project. Work was also carried out on tracks and roads associated with the opening of the Snowy-Murray Development.

Maintenance of completed works continued. The main items under this category were dressings of fertilizer along roadsides and aerial re-fertilizing of the Eucumbene Dam borrow areas. Several temporary tracks were closed to ensure that drainage work and established vegetation on them would not suffer damage.

The great majority of early reclamation works became fully established and effective. Grasses, clover and willows previously planted by the Authority to give rapid initial protection to the bared soil on disturbed areas were followed by the spread of natural vegetation. The deeper-rooting plants in this natural re-growth confer permanent protection similar to that of the surrounding undisturbed areas.

Conferences and field inspections were held on soil conservation matters with representatives of the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales and the Kosciusko State Park Trust. The Soil Conservation Service again provided designs and other assistance for the reclamation of borrow areas in the Upper Tumut Region.

Another step taken to ensure that soil conservation works will be as effective as possible was the appointment of Mr. E. S. Clayton as Soil Conservation Consultant. Formerly Commissioner of the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales, Mr. Clayton has unexcelled knowledge and experience of soil conservation requirements in south-eastern Australia.

Apart from the above soil conservation measures directly associated with the construction works of the Scheme, the control of soil erosion in the general catchment areas continued to be of major concern to the Authority. Botanical investigations and comparisons with the results of detailed surveys carried out in former years indicated that, following the elimination of grazing, former bare patches of soil at moderate elevations have recovered or are recovering where a sufficient variety of colonizing

19 65

plant species are available. Such improvement, however, will be slower at higher elevations where only snow grass is present. On badly damaged areas at the highest elevations, intensive drainage and measures for the establishment of vegetation have been carried out over several recent summers by the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales.

From its observations of the general catchment areas the Authority concluded that despite the improvement that has already occurred, leasehold grazing will require to be excluded from the affected lands generally above 4,500 feet altitude for some time to come.

A contribution of £12,090 was made by the Authority during the year to the Kosciusko State Park Trust as compensation to the New South Wales State Government for the loss of snow lease rentals consequent upon the discontinuation of summer grazing. Under the agreement with the State Government, part of this sum was used by the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales for the

reclamation of badly damaged slopes on the Main Divide near Mount Carruthers and Mount Twynam.

Financial assistance was given to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization for research into phasmatid (stick insect) infestation which has caused defoliation of eucalypt forests. Patches of affected trees in the Snowy Mountains have made an apparently complete recovery, but defoliation is expected again between January and April, 1963, in most of the previously

damaged sections.

Bushfire Pr e v e n t io n .

Favourable weather conditions during the summer reduced the bush fire hazard in the Snowy Mountains Area. The Authority’s trained volunteer fire fighting squads attended promptly to any outbreaks which did occur and excellent liaison was maintained with fire fighting organizations neighbouring on the Authority’s area, particularly the Hume-Snowy Bush Fire Prevention Scheme. The Authority’s aircraft were used for spotting purposes and for the direction of fire squads.

New Road from Khancoban to Geehi under construction.



O p e r a t io n a n d M a in t e n a n c e o f C o m p l e t e d W o r k s .

Under the terms of the Commonwealth-States Agreement the responsibility for directing and controlling the operation and maintenance of the permanent works of the Authority rests with the Snowy Mountains Council which is constituted under that Agreement. The Council, which consists of two representatives of the Commonwealth, two of the Authority and two each of the States of New South Wales and Victoria, is also responsible for the allocation of loads to generating stations.

April 1st, 1962, marked the termination of the temporary agreement between the Authority and the Electricity Commission of New South Wales under which the output from the Guthega Power Station was supplied only to New South Wales. From that date, the operation of this station came under the control of the Snowy Mountains Council, its output being shared between the States of New South Wales and Victoria and the Commonwealth in accordance with Commonwealth/States Agreement,

H e a d w o r k s.

Eucumbene Dam and Lake Eucumbene. At 30th June, 1962, the maximum depth of water in Lake Eucumbene was 294 feet and the surface area of the Lake was 29,100 acres; 1,872,900 acre feet of water were in storage, of which 1,522,500 acre feet were above minimum reservoir operating level.

Eucumbene-Tumut Tunnel. During the year 169,100 acre feet of water were diverted from the Tumut River to Lake Eucumbene via the Eucumbene-Tumut Tunnel, the major part of the diversion occurring during the snow melt season. Because of the reduced generation from Tumut 1 Project pending the completion of Tumut 2, the natural flow of the Tumut River, together with diversions from the Toorna River, were at least sufficient to supply power station requirements for the first nine months of the year. During the autumn and early winter months substantial diversions from Lake Eucumbene to Tumut Pond Reservoir were required to meet considerably increased outputs from Tumut 1 and Tumut 2. The quantity so diverted amounted to 163,500 acre feet.

The tunnel was taken out of service and drained early in 1962 for inspection and maintenance. Modifications were made to the cylinder gate at Happy Jacks Shaft, tests at the available head indicating that the vibration mentioned in the 1960-61 Annual Report had been eliminated. The tunnel was found to be in good condition, but the opportunity was taken whilst the tunnel was out of service of carrying out routine maintenance and the painting of equipment.

Murrumbidgee-Eucumbene Tunnel. The Murrumbidgee-Eucumbene Tunnel diverted a substantial quantity of water, viz. 339,100 acre feet, to Lake Eucumbene during the first eight months of the year until Tantangara Reservoir was drawn down to minimum operating level.

During May, 1962, advantage was taken of the low flows in the Murrumbidgee River to cease diversion and inspect the 10} miles long tunnel. The tunnel was found to be in excellent condition after 15 months continuous use and was returned to service.

Tooma-Tumut Tunnel. The Tooma-Tumut Diversion made available 173,600 acre feet of water from the Toorna River catchment to Tumut Pond Reservoir.

P o w e r P r o je c t s.

General. Besides supplying peak load electricity, the generators in the Authority’s power stations were frequently called upon to run as synchronous condensers to improve the voltage conditions of the States’ systems. In addition, the units were frequently operated on low power output to provide spinning

reserve so that unscheduled system loading could be met without delay.

As reported on previous occasions the output of electrical energy from the Tumut I Power Station was deliberately retarded, firstly to allow a reserve of storage to accumulate in Lake Eucumbene and secondly to conserve this water for later use through both Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations. In notifying the States of the guaranteed outputs in respect of the Tumut 1 and Tumut 2

Stages of the Scheme, this factor was taken into account and it was assumed that the date of full operation of these Stages would be April, 1963. However, inflow s experienced over the past few years have been favorable and the construction progress on the Tumut 2 Power Station exceeded the most optimistic expectations. As a result, the date of full operation of both the Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations

21 67

was 1st April, 1962, one year ahead of the previously scheduled date. From that date, all of the capital invested in the Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Stages of the Scheme was brought to account and the cost of energy for the three months of full operation was 0.86 d;kWh. During this period the output was 31 per cent, above the guaranteed minimum. The energy cost for the year for Tumut 1 and Tumut 2

Projects, including the nine months period of low output, was 1.06 d/kWh. or 1.13 d/kWh. including Guthega. Future energy costs will be influenced by actual outputs, but the average cost of Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 peak load energy will be approximately 0.95 d/kWh., or approximately 0.97 d/kWh. for all three stations, viz. Tumut 1, Tumut 2 and Guthega. With the completion of the Upper Tumut

Works, the annual return to the Commonwealth Government from the Scheme, by way of repayments of capital and payments of interest, increased to over £6,500,000.

Guthega Power Station. Pending the construction of Kosciusko Reservoir, the 60,000 kW. Guthega Power Station continued to operate on a “ run of the river ” basis. During the year, inflows were about 20 per cent, below average, 115,526,000 kWh. of electrical energy being sent out compared with an estimated average annual production of 144,000,000 kWh. The maximum station demand during the year was 67,000

kW. and the capacity factor was 22.20 per cent. During the year the cost of this predominantly peak load energy was 1.48 d/kWh. sent out; the cost of energy since the station commenced operation in 1955 has averaged 1.067 d/kWh. with an average capacity factor of 29.68 per cent.

Tumut l Power Station. The 320,000 kW. Tumut 1 Power Station continued to provide peak-load electricity to the New South Wales and Victorian systems and during the year 367,874,000 kWh. of electrical energy were sent out. The maximum station demand during the year was 269,000 kW. and the average capacity factor was 13.34 per cent.

Tumut 2 Power Station. Since coming into operation the 280.000 kW. Tumut 2 Power Station has sent out 246,193,000 kWh. of electrical energy. The maximum station demand was 276,000 kW. and the average capacity factor 20.51 per cent.

Drilling .Jumbo in the Snowy-Gechi Tunnel.


Upper Tumut Switching Station and Control Centre. When Tumut I Power Station was first brought into operation it was operated by staff located in the power station. During this year control of this station was transferred to the Upper Tumut Switching Centre by the installation of equipment which enabled the power station machines to be started, stopped and controlled from this centre. Except for housekeeping staff, all personnel have now been removed from the power station. Similar facilities for Tumut 2 Power Station are now being installed. When these are completed both stations will be remotely controlled from the switching centre.

It was mentioned in the last Report that equipment had been installed at the Upper Tumut Switching Centre which would automatically control the output from Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations to provide the power required to maintain constant frequency on the inter-connected transmission systems of Victoria and New South Wales. This equipment has to operate in conjunction with similar equipment on the New South Wales and Victorian systems, and although as yet it has not been fully utilized, it has been most successful in such operations as have been allotted to it. Amongst other things it has the responsibility of regulating the output between Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Stations in such a manner as to maintain a virtually constant water level in the pondage between the two stations.


Sta ff a n d I n d u s t r ia l M a t t e r s.

Staff. The table below summarizes the variations in the number of salaried staff employed during the year:—

— P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d

T e c h n i c a l S ta ff .

F i n a n c e a n d

A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S ta ff .

t o t a l S ta ff .

1st July, 1961 . . . . 787 601 1,388

1st O ctober, 1961 . . . . 778 613 1,391

1st January 1962 .. .. 787 614 1,401

1st A pril, 1962 . . . . 776 623 1,399

30th June, 1962 . . . . 773 631 1,404

Increase during year .. 30 16

Decrease during year .. 14

Figures do not include 32 staff on loan to the Snowy Mountains Council. A number of professional staff joined the Authority from overseas as a result of the recruitment campaign carried out early in 1961. This materially assisted in meeting target dates for contract specifications and drawings.

During the year training was provided for a number of Colombo Plan Fellows and for 15 University and Technical College Undergraduates. Officers of the Royal Engineers and the Royal Australian Engineers were attached to the Authority for varying periods. These Officers, as well as the Colombo Plan Fellows and the Student Trainees engaged on vacational training, made valuable contributions to

the work of the Authority.

A Determination by the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission in June, 1961. resulted in substantial increases in salaries of junior Engineers. The effects of this Determination necessitated a reorganization of the engineering structure of the Authority with resultant increases in salary for certain of the more senior engineering staff. The re-organization followed the pattern adopted by the Commonwealth Public Service Board in the engineering departments of the Commonwealth and used as a basis the principles established by the Commission in the junior Engineers’ case. The salaries fixed by the Authority for Engineers higher in the organization were subsequently challenged before the

Arbitration Commission by the Association of Professional Engineers. After a hearing lasting some six months, the Commission handed down a decision granting very substantial increases over the salaries fixed by the Authority. In all, the Arbitration Commission’s two Determinations in respect of Engineers’ salaries have added approximately £100,000 to the Authority's annual salary costs.

Staff turnover for the past five years has been—

Year ended 30th June. Average Number of Staff. Resignations as Percentage of |

Average Number o f Staff.

1958 .. . . . . ' 1,262 15.21

1959 . . . . .. 1,361 16.16

I 9 6 0 . . .. .. | 1,389 20.45

1961 .. . . . . 1,395 19. 14

1962 . . . . .. 1,394 17.00

As in previous years, the figures for the year ended 30th June, 1962 were heavily weighted by female and junior staff resignations.

Industrial. The harmonious industrial relations which have existed between the Authority and its employees since the inception of the Scheme continued throughout the year. The Authority acknowledges the co­ operation and assistance received from the New South Wales Industrial Commission and all Unions for the very satisfactory industrial record.

The peak labour force during the year employed by the Authority was 1,972 and by Contractors 1,484.


Continuation of English language classes in the main work centres and tuition by correspondence in the more isolated areas has benefited the large number of New Australian employees. In the interests of the men’s safety, the gaining of a reasonable knowledge of English by the end of the first six months’ service continued to be a condition of employment for all personnel.

H o n o u r s a n d A w a r d s .

In the 1962 Queen’s Birthday Honours List, Associate Commissioner Mr. E. L. Merigan was honoured by having the Commander, Order of the British Empire, conferred upon him.

in the 1962 New Year Honours List three of the Authority's employees, Mr. Cecil Dreise, Mr. Joseph Grech and Mr. Miloslav Tsarevich were honoured with awards of the British Empire Medal.

H o u s in g .

As in previous years, the Authority continued its policy of providing self-contained flats or cottages for its married staff and for key wages personnel, located as near as possible to their working areas.

The completion of the Tumut 2 Project freed a large number of houses and other buildings in the Upper Tumut Region for moving to the Geehi and Upper Snowy Regions for personnel transferred to these areas. This process will continue during the coming financial year. The practice of designing cottages and other buildings required in the construction areas as transportable units has greatly facilitated this movement to new locations.

J Ι­

Α garden in tin· Construction township of is la n d Bend.

P r o p e r t y .

The purchase of all land which will be inundated by Lake Eucumbene was nearly completed and only minor matters remained to be resolved at the end of the year. A further 1,065 acres were purchased during the year bringing the total area purchased for the Lake Eucumbene storage to 62.815 acres. Several properties which will be affected by the proposed Jindabync Reservoir and Khancoban Pondage and by

flooding in the Lower Tumut River were also purchased. For all ils land purchases the Authority has been able to negotiate settlements on terms acceptable to both parties without using its powers of compulsory acquisition.

25 71

Planning for the removal of Jindabyne Township proceeded and by the end of the year detailed plans for the layout of the new township including its shopping centre were nearing completion. Construction of the township internal roads commenced. Removal of the old Jindabyne Cemetery to a new site, carried out under the provisions of the Jindabyne Cemetery Act 1961 passed by the New

South Wales State Parliament during the year, was completed.

Professor Lindsay Pryor, of the Australian National University, Canberra, was engaged as consultant to the Authority on forestry matters. Several requests for the release of land for afforestation purposes were investigated.

At the new Regional Township of Khancoban a shopping centre of four shops, a supermarket, a service station, a bank and a post office were completed. The shop, garage and supermarket premises were erected by the Authority and subsequently leased to private firms. The bank and post office sites were sold to the owners who erected the buildings. Several sites in the township were leased to religious

bodies and private individuals for the erection of churches and residences. A site was sold to the New South Wales Department of Education for the erection of permanent school buildings. A privately operated hotel/motel commenced trading on a site purchased from the Authority.

I " - · . . y ,


m .& **& £* .

·.· '.-·

" A


. . .

- ·5 a s * ■ ■ -■

w ■-#** * , * J*


< ■ ; * i

tag β = · '.wi.viSstf-i?

'. ' ·-* >

K hancoban I ownshin and W orks

S u p p l y a n d C o n t r o l o f S tcrf.s. P l a n t a n d E q l t p m l n t.

Effective control of stores and assets was maintained during the year, tire annual stocktake revealing an overall discrepancy of only 0.4 per cent, of the total value of stock held, which was an improvement on last year's satisfactory results. Constant attention was necessary to overcome the difficulties inherent in maintaining accurate records of items frequently transferred from one location to another amongst the widely dispersed camps in the mountains.

Additions to the Authority's transport fleet and construction plant involved an expenditure of £800,000 during the year. The past practice of disposing of plant and vehicles after a relatively short operating life was continued, thereby achieving lower operation and maintenance costs, also more favorable disposal prices.


P u b l ic R e l a t io n s.

The Authority's public relations activities were again mainly centred around conducted tours of the Scheme. A number of the regular coach tours has been extended to embrace the new works on the western side of the mountains, involving the provision of meals and overnight accommodation for 3-3, days for each tour. All visitors on coach tours are now taken across Lake Eucumbene on large launches. There has been a marked increase in the interest shown by the public, particularly by school children.


Contractor’s Works Township near Geehi Dam-site during erection.

T r a n s p o r t a n d A ir S e r v ic e s,

The total mileage travelled by vehicles of the Authority’s transport fleet amounted to 5,500,000 miles, the same as the figure recorded for the previous twelve months. The 120 tons capacity Antar Road Train completed the movement of heavy equipment from the Coonia Railhead to Tumut 2 Power- Station.

The Authority’s aircraft continued to play an invaluable part in day to day operations for the speedy transport of personnel, stores, equipment and spare parts between Cooma and Regional Centres, supply dropping to isolated camps and aerial surveys. The swing in construction activities from the Upper Tumut to the Upper Murray area, which is more remote from the Cooma Headquarters, increased the demand for the use of aircraft beyond the capacity of the fleet of two Beaver and one Aero-Commander aircraft. As a result a third Beaver aircraft was purchased in June. During the year 3,615 flights were made to carry 10.953 passengers and 216 tons of freight.

Sa f e t y .

During the year the intensive safety campaign initiated in 1959 was continued under the auspices of the Snowy Mountains Joint Safety Council. As described in earlier Annual Reports, the Council, a voluntary and co-operative association comprising the Commissioner and the Managers of the Major Contractors, co-ordinates the overall safety programme throughout the Scheme. Results achieved, as shown in the following tabulation and graph, continued the general downward trend over

recent years in the number of accidents. As activities on the new contracts commenced new men untrained in the Scheme’s safety practices were introduced into the work force. As forecast, this

27 7 3

resulted in an increase in the severity rate towards the end of the twelve months, the effectiveness of the accident prevention measures being illustrated by the fact that the accident rate was higher amongst newly recruited personnel than was the case with longer term employees who had had the benefit of safety training.


I n d e x .

T w e l v e M o n t h s P e r i o d E n d e d .

3 1 s t D e c e m b e r ,


3 0 t h J u n e ,

1 9 6 0 .

3 0 t h J u n e ,


3 0 t h J u n e ,

1 9 6 2 .(a )

Frequency Rate (b) .. 142 1 17


67 !

Severity Rate (b) . . 11,074 9,878 2,928 4,700

. __________ . ...


1 0 ,0 0 0 —

— I S O

8,000 —

cc 6,000 — — IOO >

u j 4 0 0 0 —

— SO

2,000 -

3 l ’‘ DEC . 3 0 thJUNE

19 6 1 1 9 5 9


N o t e s.—

(a) A large number of new employees was engaged during the year ended 30th June, 1962.

(b) The rates given in the table and on the graph are based on the Standards Association of Australia Code CZ6. The frequency rate represents the number of lost time accidents per million manhours worked. The severity rate represents the number of days lost due to accidents per million manhours worked.

Hitherto the implementation of safety measures was concentrated mainly on construction, but during the year without lessening efforts in that regard special attention was also given to road safety. In this connexion a system of road patrols was introduced to advise drivers of the Authority’s and Contractors’ vehicles on road hazards in the locality, to stress personally the importance of safe driving on the mountain roads and to report any cases of dangerous driving or breaches of traffic regulations.

This resulted in a marked decline in the number of accidents involving the Authority’s and Contractors’ vehicles. The road patrol system also provided private motorists with advice on adverse road conditions where special care was needed and on heavy loads ahead.

Support was also given, in co-operation with the Police Department and the Cooma Branch of the Road Safety Council, to the formation of sub-branches of the Road Safety Council in the construction townships. Sessions on road safety were introduced into the safety training programmes attended by the Authority’s and Contractors’ supervisory personnel.


Apart from the measures emanating from the Council, the Authority, assisted by a Safety Advisory Committee, continued its co-related safety programme for its own employees. The Committee includes representatives of the Australian Workers Union and wages personnel.

The installation of safety seat belts in all the Authority’s vehicles was completed as scheduled by 31st December, 1961. Failure to use seat belts incurs dismissal or other disciplinary action. Investigation into the more severe accidents involving the Authority’s vehicles has illustrated the effectiveness of safety belts. In no case of accidents where safety belts were in use were the occupants seriously injured. Undoubtedly some of these accidents would have involved fatalities or. at any rate, very serious injury had safety belts not been used. Some examples are given below7:—

® The driver of a tip-truck loaded with 5 cubic yards of blue metal lost control of his vehicle. The vehicle left the road and stopped in a culvert with an impact sufficient to drive the front wheels of the vehicle back to the rear wheels. The driver’s seat belt saved him from injury.

® A light 4-wheel drive vehicle rolled 80 feet down the steep slope on the side of one of the mountain roads. Although the vehicle was extensively damaged, the use of safety belts by the driver and his passenger saved them from serious injury.

« A small passenger sedan was involved in a head-on collision with a heavy truck. Extensive damage was done to both vehicles but seat belts worn by the driver and passenger in the sedan enabled them to escape injury.

• A heavy duty dump truck rolled 100 feet down a mountain side after running off a road. The vehicle was wrecked but the driver, wearing a seat belt, survived the accident with only minor injuries.

Following studies carried out in the Authority’s laboratories of strength requirements and other physical characteristics of safety belts, the Standards Association of Australia arranged for the Authority to act as an agent for testing and certifying sample belts manufactured for the commercial market.

Use of “ safety ” footwear continued to be compulsory for the Authority’s personnel. This measure considerably reduced the previous high incidence of accidents attributable to slips and falls.

Of the several other safety measures adopted, the one considered to be the most important is the compulsory attendance at safety courses for Supervisors.

In the previous Annual Report, mention was made of the Snowy Mountains Joint Safety Council’s intention to expand its activities to include a rehabilitation centre at Cooma for the treatment of injured workers to ensure their return to work as quickly as possible. A number of difficulties has been encountered in completing the arrangements for bringing this proposal into operation. For instance, although provision exists in the New South Wales Compensation Act to enable individual employer organizations to qualify for financial assistance from the State Government, representations for assistance have so far been ineffectual. Despite the several difficulties, the Council is proceeding with the arrangements for the establishment of the centre.

M e d ic a l S e r v ic e s.

The Authority’s Medical Services functioned satisfactorily during the year and some 2,100 pre-employment and superannuation medical examinations were carried out at the Authority’s various Medical Centres.

Regular first aid lectures compulsory for all personnel in charge of men, were held at all works centres during the year. The close liaison established in earlier years with the medical services of the Major Contractors and Local Hospital was maintained.

C o m m u n ic a t io n s.

As the Authority's operations extend over an area of some 3,000 square miles, a modern and fast communication system is essential. For this reason the Authority has installed at its Head Office in Cooma and at all Regional Townships and work sites automatic telephone exchanges, all of which are interconnected by radio telephone links.

The backbone of this system is a 24-channel radio trunk, expandable to 48 channels, between a radio station at Cooma and one at Khancoban on the western side of the mountains. The system operates in the very high-frequency (VHF) band using frequency modulation (FM), and requires a line-of-sight path between transmitters and receivers. It was therefore necessary to insta! intermediate

29 7 5

repeater stations at elevated positions at Wambrook, Cabramurra and Mount Youngal. At these stations the trunk system is tapped to feed VHF/FM branch radio links to working sites; these links can be readily moved from site to site as the progress of the Scheme demands. For short distances, connexions are made by suspended multi-core cables which can also be moved as required.

The radio stations at Wambrook, Cabramurra and Mount Youngal also house the repeater stations for mobile radio networks serving some 300 radio telephones installed in motor vehicles, aeroplanes, launches, snow clearing plant and at certain fixed locations. These mobile radio telephones have proved indispensable for operational and general administrative purposes, in particular under emergency and extreme weather conditions.

During the year under review, additions were made to the communications system to serve construction operations on the Snowy-Murray Development. Fifty mobile radio telephones were purchased; a 400-line automatic telephone exchange was installed in the regional office at Khancoban; the capacity of the automatic exchange at Island Bend was increased, whilst that of the Cabramurra exchange, where construction is finished, was reduced.

Communication facilities were provided for the two main civil engineering contractors at their work centres at Bella Vista, Bogong Adit and Geehi on the western side of the mountains, and at Snowy Adit, Island Bend and Eucumbene on the eastern side.

C o m p u t in g a n d D a ta P r o c e s s in g .

The electronic computer “ Snowcom ” operated satisfactorily during the year. The number of technical staff trained in its use rose to 50. The increasing use being made of this computer by officers of the various sections of the Authority for the solution of their technical problems will probably necessitate two-shift operation.

The much larger National-Elliott 405 Computer was delivered to Cooma in June, 1962, and commissioning is in hand. It will be used for pay-roll, stores, costing and other financial and accounting services, as well as for engineering and scientific calculations.

Lake Eucumbene.


U se of L a nd A ffected by P erio d ic F l o o d in g .

With Tumut I and Tumut 2 Power Stations in operation some areas of low-lying river flats in the Tumut Valley were adversely affected by periodic flooding. In view of the resulting decline in the productive capacity of the flooded land, the Authority investigated the possibility of introducing a form of land use more suitable to the conditions created by power station releases. In this regard considerable work was carried out in consultation with Professor Pryor of the Australian National University into the suitability of timber production for the affected areas. The Tumut Valley is considered to have climatic and soil conditions ideally suited to some types of commercial softwoods and if experimental work, commenced during the year, is successful it is hoped to establish an industry which will assist the well-being of the district.

R ecreational F acilities A ssociated w ith the S n o w y Sc h fm e.

The Authority continued to co-operate with State Departments and local organizations to ensure that the fishing and wild life interests of the Snowy Mountains Area are protected and developed. As mentioned in the 1960-61 Annual Report, arrangements were made in conjunction with the New South Wales Chief Secretary's Department for the establishment of colonies of native fauna on some of the

islands on Lake Eucumbene. Kangaroos, emus and koalas were placed on the islands during the year.

A Land Use Committee was set up to advise the Authority on the most appropriate type of development on the foreshores of the Scheme’s water storages. The Committee members are Professor Denis Winston, Professor of Town and Country Planning, University of Sydney, Mr. Bruce Small, President of the Urban Land Institute of Victoria and Mr. R. Simms, the Authority’s Property Officer.

C ivil D efence.

A start was made on establishing on a voluntary basis a civil defence organization. The co-operation of the Authority’s Contractors, which is essential if such an organization is to work effectively throughout the Snowy Mountains Area, was sought and obtained. The Authority appointed a Civil Defence Officer to organize civil defence matters, initially on a full-time basis. He attended a course on civil defence at Mount Macedon, Victoria, after which he gave a series of evening lectures to the Authority's and Contractors' personnel and arranged for the appointment of volunteer wardens, monitors, rescue and welfare squads at Cooma and in each Regional Centre. Training of these groups is proceeding. The keenness shown by the Scheme’s personnel in preparing themselves for active civil defence measures has been outstanding.

31 77

F in a n c e.

As required under Section 3 2 b (1) of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Power Act 1949-1958, financial statements for the year ended 30th June. 1962, are attached to this Report as Appendices 1 to III. These financial statements are in the form approved by the Treasurer and are based on the financial provisions of the Agreement between the Commonwealth and the States of New South Wales and Victoria concerning the Snowy Mountains Scheme.

In accordance with Section 3 2 b (2) of the Act. the financial statements have been submitted to the Auditor-General for the Commonwealth who has certified as to their correctness. The Auditor- General has also issued a certificate in accordance with Clause 15 (2) (zb) of the Common wealth-States Agreement as to the Authority’s net cost of production for the financial year.

Funds to meet the Authority’s capital expenditure are provided from annual Appropriations by the Commonwealth Parliament. The funds so advanced are treated as loans to the Authority and interest is charged at the effective Commonwealth long-term bond rate at the time each advance is made. Up to 30th June, 1962, the annual Appropriations have been made from Consolidated Revenue under “ Capital Works and Services” . As from 1st July, 1962. however, approximately half the Authority’s capital expenditure will be financed by the Commonwealth from a loan obtained from the International

Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The loan is for an amount of approximately £45,000,000 and is related to the Authority's capital expenditure on the Murray 1 Stage during the period from 1st July, 1961. to the completion of construction of that Stage in about September, 1966.

The following table shows the total of advances made from Consolidated Revenue by the Treasurer to the Authority for each financial year since the Authority was constituted, together with the interest rate obtaining at 30th June of each year:—

S E C T IO N 5.— F I N A N C E A N D E C O N O M I C S .

Y e a r e n d e d 3 0 t h J u n e .

A d v a n c e R e c e iv e d

( t o n e a r e r £).

I n t e r e s t R a t e 3 0 th J u n e

( P e r C e n t .) .

1950 195! 1952 1953

1954 1955 1956

1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962

£ £ s. d.

2.497.435 3 2 6

6.076,814 3 4 3

10,393,000 3 15 0

13,600.000 4 10 0

13,170,000 4 10 0

13,200.000 4 10 0

15.146.000 5 1 9

18,000.000 5 0 0

18,350.000 5 0 0

24.000.000 5 0 0

28,250.000 5 0 0

18,500,000 5 7 6

16,010.000 5 0 0

Total .. .. .. 197,193,249

The Authority’s capital indebtedness to the Commonwealth at 30th June. 1962, was £234,179.953 comprising £197.193.249 for advances and £37.672.361 for accumulated interest, less repayments totalling £685,657.

The total net capital expenditure to 30th June. 1962, on Permanent Works was £194,226,917, and related interest which had accumulated during construction was £37.655.604.

Details of the total net capital expenditure to 30th June. 1962. are—

Permanent Works in Operation, comprising the following “ Stages — Guthega Project 60.000 kW. . . . .

Tumut 1 Project 320.000 kW. . . . .

Tumut 2 Project 280.000 kW. . . . .

Permanent Works not in Operation . . . .


13.144.439 56,966,050 60.364,000


130,474,489 63.752.428

Total 194,226,917


The Superannuation Fund comprises investments of £1,332,380 in Commonwealth loans to provide for the Authority’s liability to its staff under the Commonwealth Superannuation Act. Funds invested plus accrued interest on those funds to 30th June, 1962, equal the Authority’s accrued liability of £1,348,712 which is based on an assessment by the Commonwealth Actuary.

Other assets include a net £3,055,097 for Construction Plant, Vehicles and Tools and Equipment at cost, less charges to Permanent Works in respect of accured depreciation to date.

Revenue for year ended 30th June, 1962, was £3,413,824 being the equivalent of the Authority's net cost of production which is met by the Commonwealth Department of Interior and the Electricity Commissions of New South Wales and Victoria in the due proportions prescribed in the Commonwealth/ States Agreement. The net cost of production comprised the cost of production of £3,446,415 for all electricity produced, less £32,591 for the electricity used by the Authority during April/June, 1962, for construction purposes. Prior to April, 1962, electricity for construction purposes was purchased by the Authority from the Electricity Commission of New South Wales as a separate transaction in accordance with the Guthega Agreement.

Interest which is the main component of the cost of production amounted to £2,806,607 or 81 per cent, of the cost of production for 1961-1962.

The cost of production includes an annual charge for maintenance which is transferred to the Maintenance Equalization Account to meet the costs of maintenance as they are incurred. For the year ended 30th June, 1962, this charge was £8,495 more than the actual costs, thus increasing the credit balance of the Maintenance Equalization Account from £9,034 at 1st July, 1961, to £17,529 at 30th June,


A comprehensive and effective internal audit was maintained over all accounting activities throughout the year and included the regular verification of cash, stores, and other assets.

O v era ll E conom ics o f T h e S chem e.

The design of the Scheme makes provision for the full use of the waters of the Snowy Mountains Area for production of peak load electricity and at the same time provides for the desirable division between the Murray and Murrumbidgee Valleys of the Snowy River waters diverted inland for irrigation. All costs are allocated against production of electricity and no charge is made for the supply of water for irrigation. The concept of the Scheme is based on the maximum long term benefits to the community by providing both electrical energy and water for irrigation. This precludes the cheapest

possible development of the hydro-electric potential of the Snowy Mountains Area. It would therefore be incorrect to compare the Snowy Mountains Scheme with any other project designed solely for the production of electricity, whether it be elsewhere in Australia or overseas.

The supply of peak load electricity from the Scheme enables the State Electricity Commissions to take full advantage of large and efficient thermal units located on the coal-fields and which, for maximum economy, are operated on base load. As peak load electricity is more costly to produce than high capacity factor or base load electricity, the type and value of the electricity provided must

be taken into account when making cost comparisons.

Capital charges (interest and repayments) represent about 90 per cent of the cost of production of electricity from the Scheme. The progressive changes in interest rates during the last eleven years from 3 | per cent, to a maximum of 5| per cent, and now 5 per cent, has therefore had a marked effect on the estimated cost of energy production. These higher interest rates, and an increase in the general

level of construction costs since the Scheme started, have to some extent been offset by modifications in design and improvements in construction technique and peak load energy is being produced and will continue to be produced at competitive rates. The Scheme which is, in fact, the cheapest available source of peak load electricity, whether thermal or hydro, in south-eastern Australia, will produce peak load electricity of an average capacity factor of about 25 per cent, at an estimated cost of about one penny per kilowatt hour. Since the two Tumut stations have been in full production the cost of peak load energy from Tumut I. Tumut 2 and Guthega has been 0.91 d/kWh. The long term average for these stations will be about 0.97 d/kWh.

Peak load production cost figures are not available for either New South Wales or Victorian electricity production. However, having regard to the published bulk supply rates it is evident that the cost of thermally produced peak load energy must be considerably greater than one penny per kilowatt hour. With the completion of large stations on the coal-fields generating costs will

undoubtedly fall and. although this will have some effect on the cost of peak load energy, the present margin in favour of Snowy electricity is adequate to take care of any such reduction in costs.


7 9

On the basis of electricity benefits alone the economics of the Scheme are sound. If account is taken of the supply of irrigation water its economics are greatly enhanced. It is estimated that the Scheme, including Blowering Reservoir, will provide sufficient additional water to justify an increase in the normal annual supply for irrigation of approximately 1,100,000 acre feet to the Murrumbidgee and 800,000 acre feet to the Murray, a total of 1,900,000 acre feet, an amount sufficient to irrigate an area of at least 1,000 square miles. As already mentioned, no charge is made to the States for the supply of this irrigation water to the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers. From figures published by the Irrigation Commission of New South Wales and the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission of Victoria it can be shown that the additional water made available will amount to £30,000,000 per annum in terms of increased primary production. Experience overseas has shown that commercial and industrial activity and increased revenue from taxation quickly follow widespread stimulation of agriculture through irrigation, which thus has substantial indirect benefits. Studies of irrigation schemes in the United States of America show that in general the indirect benefits have exceeded the direct benefits. A similar relationship between indirect and direct benefits would probably apply equally well under Australian conditions.

The comprehensive examination of the economics of the Scheme by economists and engineers of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development related not only to the ability of the project to pay its own way, but also to its part in assisting the overall economic development of the country. The World Bank is a financial institution conducted to show a profitable return on its investments. The fact that the detailed and independent investigation by the Bank has resulted in a loan of $100 million being made available to the Commonwealth for financing the Snowy Mountains

Scheme is further and conclusive evidence of the overall economic soundness of the Scheme.


S E C T IO N 6.— G E N E R A L M A T T E R S .

Blo w e r in g D a m .

As pointed out last year, under the terms of the Commonwealth-States’ Agreement, the State of New South Wales is required, as soon as is practicable, to arrange for the construction of storage works at Blowering or such other site on the Tumut River as may be determined.

Until this regulating storage is available, the additional water now being released through the Tumut power stations during the winter months, i.e., outside the irrigation season, has no value for irrigation. Furthermore, adverse effects of power station releases on many properties in the Lower Tumut will continue until the storage works are constructed. For these reasons the Authority remains seriously concerned that a start has not been made on the construction of these works.

T he U n ited S tales Bureau of R ec l a m a t io n .

During the year the Bureau again gave valuable assistance. In addition to completing certain current work on engineering designs and specifications for some of the structures of the Snowy-Murray Development, the Bureau continued to make available the services of two senior engineers to provide technical training and assistance on the design of major works and the administration of major civil engineering contracts.

As mentioned in previous Annual Reports, the co-operation and assistance the Snowy Scheme has received over the years from the Bureau of Reclamation has been an important factor in the successful execution of the Authority’s task.

The Authority is now able to carry substantially the whole of its design programme with its own resources.

W o r k for o th er O r g a n iz a t io n s.

During the year the Authority again carried out a considerable amount of work for other Departments and Organizations. Brief details are as follow:—

Department o f External Affairs.—Authority’s personnel, working on the Mekong River Project in South-East Asia as part of Australia's assistance under the Colombo Plan, completed geological investigation of the Sarnbor dam site in Cambodia. The party returned to Australia and at the end of the year a report on the investigations was

being prepared. Following requests from North Borneo and Sarawak for assistance from the Australian Government under the Colombo Plan, one of the Authority’s engineers visited these countries in October, 1961, for preliminary discussions. Field investigations and studies of hydro-electric potential in North Borneo and Sarawak followed this visit and will continue for a period of about one year.

At the request of the Department of External Affairs, representatives of the Authority attended the ECAFE Regional Symposium on Dams and Reservoirs—Tokyo —September, 1961—and the ECAFE Regional Seminar of Natural Resources and Electrical Power Development—Bangkok—December, 1961.

Commonwealth Department of Works.—The Authority provided technical advice on certain geological and design aspects of the Port Moresby Hydro-electric Development in Papua and undertook hydraulic model studies. A report on the design of the outlet works at Canberra Lakes Dam was prepared and issued. Advice was given on foundation problems encountered during the excavation for the dam. Approximately 1,600 feet of diamond drilling was carried out at damsites on the Cotter and Queanbeyan Rivers.

Irrigation and Water Supply Commission o f Queensland.—Construction drawings were completed for the Borumba Dam spillway and a design report was issued to the Commission. Photogram metric surveys were also made in the construction stages of the dam.

Work was commenced on the design of the spillway for Callide Dam for which hydraulic model studies had previously been completed.

Hydro-electric Commission, Tasmania.—Photogram metric surveys were carried out to provide large-scale mapping of projects under investigation by the Commission.

National Association o f Testing Authorities.—The Authority agreed to assist the Association in the assessment of laboratories for registration.



Australian Coal Research Association.—Preliminary photo-elastic studies of stability problems in coal mines were undertaken.

Commonwealth Department o f National Development.—A survey party and a Wild T4 Astronomical Theodolite were again made available to the Department for surveys in Queensland.

Electricity Commission o f New South Wales.—A further ten miles of the Lob's Hole to Goobarragandra transmission line access track were constructed for the Commission.

Consultative S ervices.

The Authority continued its practice of obtaining the services of eminent consultants for periodical discussion and advice on major engineering problems. During the year advice was obtained from a number of such experts, including—

Mr. Roger Rhoades, Consulting Geologist, San Francisco, and Professor E. A. Rudd, Consulting

Geologist, University of Adelaide

Mr. Raymond A. Hill. Consulting Engineer, Los Angeles

Mr. J. Donovan Jacobs, Consulting Engineer, San Francisco

Mr. E. S. Clayton, formerly

Commissioner, Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales

A number of the staff of Australian Universities continued as Consultants for work in various specialized fields. These include Professor J. W. Roderick for problems related to the design of civil engineering works, Dr. j . M. Bennett for advice on the use of high speed automatic computers, Professor R. L. Aston for survey problems and Professor Lindsay Pryor for advice on the use for timber production of land in the Tumut Valley affected by water discharges from Tumut I and Tumut 2

Power Stations.

General geological problems associated with current and future works.

Engineering planning associated with the overall development of the Scheme and specific design problems.

Practical problems associated with tunnelling and underground works.

Advice on and inspection of soil conservation work.

A dvisory C ommittee on A esthetics of M ajor St r u c t u r e s.

Whilst the primary objective in the design of structures is to achieve optimum economy consistent with safety and durability, it is also important that structures have a pleasing appearance and are in harmony with their general surroundings. An Advisory Committee for this purpose was set up some years ago, the members being Professor Denis Winston, Professor of Town and Country Planning,

University of Sydney, Mr. D. C. MacLurcan of Fowell, Mansfield and MacLurcan, Sydney, and Mr. 1. L. Pinkerton, Engineer-in-charge of the Authority’s Civil Engineering Design Division. Included in the designs reported on by the Committee during the year were those for the Murray 1 Power Station.

Intern a tio n a l a n d other C ommissions on T ec h n ic a l S u b jec ts.

During the year the Authority took over the secretarial work of the Australian National Committee of the International Commission on Large Dams, an organization established to stimulate interest and promote knowledge in the design, construction, maintenance and operation of dams over 50 feet in height. The Commissioner, in his capacity of Vice President of the Afro-Australasian group

and Chairman of the Australian National Committee attended the 20th executive Meeting of the International Commission held in Moscow in June, 1962, and whilst overseas visited hydro-electric- projects in the United States of America, Great Britain and U.S.S.R.

Authority’s Engineers have played an active part in the following organizations and activities:—

The World Power Conference The International Commission of Irrigation and Drainage The International Congress on High Tension Transmission Systems The Water Research Foundation The Water Resources Conference The Electricity Supply Association of Australia.


T e c h n ic a l Papers a n d A rticles of S c ie n t if ic Va l u e .

A number of papers and articles, prepared by the Authority’s technical staff, was published during the year including— A. G. N. Bray and Murray 1 Power Station—Selection of Characteristics for Main W. Diesendorf Plant. Conference Papers, p. 1—Institution of Engineers,

Australia—Annual Conference 1962.

J. A . Callow and K. W. Mackley Impulsive Overvoltages on Secondary Circuits of 330 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformers. C.I.G.R.E. 1962 Paper No.


R. L. Parsons Ventilation of Underground Power Stations. Conference Papers, p. 29. Institution of Engineers, Australia, Annual Conference 1962.

W. Diesendorf (Editor) The Snowy Mountains Scheme Phase I, The Upper Turn ut Projects—Horwitz Publications Inc.

J. G. W. Urbahns Road Design in the Snowy Mountains Area. Conference Paper, p. 126. Institution of Engineers, Australia, Annual Conference, 1962.

J. A. S. McLeod .. Choosing between Surface and Underground Power Stations for the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Conference Papers, p. 135. Institution of Engineers, Australia, Annual Conference, 1962.

J. R. Hunter and W. P. Hartwig The Design and Construction of the Tooma-Tumut Project of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Conference Papers, p. 151. In­

stitution of Engineers, Australia, Annual Conference, 1962.

T. D. J. Leech and E. B. Pender Experience in Grouting Rock Bolts. International Congress of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering—Paris, 1961.

K. E. Andrews, 1. L. Design, Construction and Commissioning of Tumut 1 Power Pinkerton, A. C. H. Station. Journal, Institution of Engineers, Aust. Vol. 35, Frost, and A. G. N. July-August., 1961—pp. 29-34. Bray



The Authority’s construction activities will continue to be concentrated on the first and major stage of the Snowy-Murray Development with the object of bringing the first four units of Murray 1 Power Station into operation prior to the winter of 1966 and of enabling the first diversion of the Snowy River into the Murray catchment to be made early in 1966.

Contracts have already been awarded for construction of the Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel, Island Bend Dam, Snowy-Geehi Tunnel, Geehi Dam, Murray 1 Pressure Tunnel, and the major items of electrical and mechnical equipment for the 760,000 kW. Murray 1 Power Station. Tenders have been invited for the remaining works of the first stage of the Snowy-Murray Development comprising the

Murray 1 Pressure Pipeline and the Murray 1 Power Station. It is anticipated that contracts will be placed for the construction of the latter wmrks early in the 1962-63 financial year.

Office and field investigations will continue with the aim of bringing about further improvements in the arrangement and design of the remaining projects and of ensuring optimum development of the water resources of the Snowy Mountains Area.

The Authority will continue to keep abreast of the increasing world-w'ide interest in the extension of hydro-electric developments by pumped storage installations and the possible application of diffusion blasting techniques to engineering works.

S E C T IO N 7.— F U T U R E P R O G R A M M E .

W. HUDSON, Commissioner.

3 , 4 1 3 , 8 2 4

3 , 4 1 3 , 8 2 4

£ 3 , 4 1 3 , 8 2 4

( λ ) I n c l u d e s t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e G u t h e g a P r o j e c t u p t o 3 1 s t M a r c h , 1 9 6 2 , p u r s u a n t t o t h e G u t h e g a A g r e e m e n t w h i c h w a s t e r m i n a t e d a s f r o m 1 s t A p r i l , 1 9 6 2 .

(6 ) T h i s d e d u c t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e p e r i o d 1 st A p r i l , 1 9 6 2 , t o 3 0 t h J u n e , 1 9 6 2 . P r i o r t o 1 s t A p r i l s u c h e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y w a s s u p p l i e d b y t h e E l e c t r i c i t y C o m m i s s i o n o f N e w S o u t h W a l e s a n d p a i d f o r b y t h e A u t h o r i t y a s a s e p a r a t e t r a n s a c t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e

w i t h t h e G u t h e g a A g r e e m e n t .

(c) W ith regard to am ounts pay r e d u c t i o n i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e A u t l —. . . . · ' -— ■ — — ----- --- — - , . — · — .' .· ..· ■ ' V. v ,— .I............. — . -- ------ — -------------------- --- ------- — ------ — . . . . V. >. 1 — v. I 1 v. I i , v '/IIIIIII'.I,..· [ [I ιι·...ιι,ι.ι, r in I tv, tin I 111 v ι, v 11 . i> , I 11V 11H 1II 11| me illlllllll IV uavauic IU L 1IV 1 1 11111 III II

e x c e e d s w h a t t h e t o t a l c o s t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o t h a t E l e c t r i c i t y C o m m i s s i o n i f a l l i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s h a d b e e n s u p p l i e d f r o m u n d e r t a k i n g s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n . T h e C l a u s e a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r a n y s u c h r e d u c t i o n t o b e r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e E l e c t r i c i t y C o m m i s s i o n i

a s u b s e q u e n t y e a r o r y e a r s w h e n t h i s s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y .

V ith r e g a r d t o a m o u n t s p a y a b l e t o t h e A u t h o r i t y b y t h e E l e c t r ic i ty C o m m i s s i o n s o f N e w S o u t h W a le s a n d V i c t o r i a , C l a u s e 15 ( 3 ) o f t h e A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h a n d t h e S t a t e s o f N e w S o u t h W a l e s a n d V i c t o r i a p r o v i d e s f o r a

I t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e A u t h o r i t y 's n e t c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n p a y a b le ^ b y a n E l e c t r i c i t y C o m m i s s i o n i n a f i n a n c i a l y e a r i f t h e c o s t t o j h e ^ E l e c t r i c i t y C o m m i s s i o n i n t h a t fin a n c ia l^ y e a r f o r a l l i t s e l e c t r i c i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e a m o u n t p a y a b l e t o t h e A u t h o r i t y ,

W. H U D SO N B.Sc. (Eng.), M .lnst.C.E., Commissioner.


V. J. W. SKERMER, Auditor-General for the Commonwealth, 15th October, 1962.

= m




S t a t e m e n t o f E x p e n d i t u r e f r o m A d v a n c e s R e c e i v e d f r o m t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h D u r i n g Y e a r E n d e d

3 0 t h June, 1962.

Last Year £ £ £

2,593,738 Salaries . . .. .. .. .. . . . . ■. 2,627,443

2,588,869 Wages . . . . . . .. . . .. . . · . 2,357,349

1,235,642 General Expenses .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 963,759

169,191 Purchase of Properties . . .. . . .. . · . · 212,489

1,643,946 Stores and Materials . . .. .. .. .. .. 1,746,144

9,491,811 Contracts for Construction of Major Civil Works .. . . .. 6,990,651

483,522 Contracts other than for Major Civil Works . . . . . . . · 751,478

506,615 Construction Tools, Plant and Equipment . . . . . . . . 967,705

1,236,346 Permanent Plant and Equipment .. . . .. . . .. 1,115,894

119,949,680 Less—


Expenditure originally charged to Capital Account and transferred during the year to Revenue Account in respect of maintenance and operation of 202,289 “ Stages ” in operation (a) . . . . .. .. . . 296,800

9,747,391 Total Expenditure on Capital Account . . . . .. ..



Cash receipts on Capital Account— (i) Charges to Commonwealth Departm ents and others for work 385,654 performed and/or services provided . . .. . . 346,652

210.044 (ii) Rents .. .. . . . . . . .. .. 237,577

430,291 (iii) Mess Charges .. .. . . .. .. .. 444,997

289,926 (iv) Miscellaneous .. . . . . .. .. .. 382,818

1,315,915 1,412,044

18,431,476 Net Expenditure on Capital Account . . .. . . ..



( 68,524) (Increase) Decrease during the year in Cash at Bank and in Hand on Capital Account 14,068

£ 18,500,000 Advances received from the Commonwealth during the year ended 30th June, 1962 .. .. . . . . .. .. .. £16,010,000

( a ) T h e e x p e n d i t u r e r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t s o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e o n s a l a r i e s , w a g e s , s t o r e s , & c ., a l l o c a b l e t o m a i n t e n a n c e a n d o p e r a t i o n ,

e x p e n d i t u r e s o a l l o c a t e d is r e c o v e r e d i n i n c o m e f o r e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l i e d . F o r d e f i n i t i o n o f a “ S t a g e ” s e e f o o t n o t e ( a ) t o t h e B a l a n c e S h e e t .

T h e

K. SEE, B.Ec., A.A.S.A.,

Business Manager.

W. H U D SO N , B.Sc. (Eng.), M .Inst.C .E.,


By Authority: A. J. .Ar t h u r , Commonwealth Government P rin te r, Canberra.