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Encouragement of Australian Productions for Television - Senate Select Committee - Report - Part I - Report


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1962-63.

THE PARLIAMEN11 OF 1 1HE OOJf)IONWEALTH OF AU8TRALIA.

THE SENATE.

REPORT

FROM THE

SELECT COMMITTEE

ON

THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVISION. PART I.-REPORT.

-- ----==

Brought up and ordered to be printed, 29th October, 1963.

PrintcJ and Pubii'->hcd for the Govr R:--.:\rf tlf ("(J\I'HJ'-.\\ f-AT ·r H

A. J. AI< I IlL H. Commonv.calth Gu,crnrncnt Printer. C.1;1hcrra. (Printed in Australia.)

No. 304 [GROUP H].-F.ll771/63.-PRICE 4s. 6d.

69

PERSONNEL OF THE COMMITTEE.

Senator V. S. Vincent (Western Australia), Chairman.

Senator H. G. J. Cant (Western Australia).

SenatorS. H. Cohen, Q.C. (Victoria).

Senator T. C. Drake-Brockman, D.F.C. (Western Australia).

Senator G. C. Hannan (Victoria). Senator D. McClelland (New South Wales).

Senator R. C. Wright (Tasmania).

EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNALS OF THE SENATE.

THURSDAY, 29TH NOVEMBER, 1962.

15. ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVISION-SELECT COMMITTEE.-Senator Hannan, pursuant to notice, moved-(1) That a Select Committee of the Senate be appointed to inquire into and report upon the encouragement of the production in Australia of films and programmes suitable for television, and matters incidental

thereto.

(2) That the Committee consist of seven Senators, four to be appointed by the Leader of the Government in the Senate and three to be appointed by the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate. (3) That the Committee have power to send for persons, papers and records, to move from place to place, to sit in open court or in private, and have leave to report from time to time its proceedings and the

evidence taken. (4) That the Committee have power to sit during any adjournment or recess of the Parliament. (5) That the Committee report to the Senate on or before the 30th June, 1963.

Senator McKenna moved an amendment, viz.-At end of paragraph (I), insert the following words, viz.-" and to inquire into and report upon the extent and effects of the influence exercised by the Press, Radio, Film and allied interests on the films, programmes and general development of commercial television ".

Debate ensued. Question-That the words proposed to be inserted be inserted-put. The Senate divided-

Senator­ Amour. Aylett. Bishop.

Cant. Cavanagh. Cohen. Cooke. Drury.

Fitzgerald. Hendrickson. Kennelly. McClelland. McKenna.

Ayes, 22. Senator­ Murphy. Nicholls.

Ormonde. Ridley. Sandford. Toohey. Whiteside. Willesee.

Teller:

Senator O'Byrne.

Amendment negatived accordingly. Original Question-put and passed.

Senator­ Anderson. Branson. Breen. Buttfield. Cooper, Sir Walter.

Cormack. Drake-Brockman. Gorton. Hannaford. Hannan. Henty. Kendall. Laught. Lillico. McMullin, Sir

Alister.

FRIDAY, 7TH DECEMBER, 1962, A.M.

Noes, 25. Senator­ Maher. Marriott.

Paltridge. Prowse. Sherrington. Spooner. Wcdgwood. Wood. Wright.

Teller:

Senator Dame Annabelle Rankin.

20. ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVISION-SELECT COMMITTEE.-The President announced the receipt of letters from the Leader of the Government in the Senate appointing Senators Drake-Brockman, Hannan, Vincent and Wright, and from the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate appointing Senators Cant, Cohen and McClelland, members of the Select Committee on the Encouragement of Australian Productions for Television.

WEDNESDAY, 22ND MAY, 1963.

6. SELECT CoMMITTEE ON THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVIS!0:-1.-Senator Vincent moved, by leave-That the time for bringing up the Report of the Select Committee on the Encouragement of Australian Productions for Television be extended until the 31st October, 1963.

Debate ensued. Question-put and passed.

71

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION

REPORT OF COMMITTEE-PART I.-PUBLIC CONCERN OVER TELEVISION PROGRAMMES-Evidence of Public Concern The Major Criticisms ..

The Effects The Weight of Evidence Major Deficiencies in respect of Certain Programmes The Committee's Attitude

PART lT.-PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS OF THE BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION ACT RELATING TO PROGRAMMES-Introduction .. Statutory Provisions relating to the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and

Commercial Television Recommendations Statutory Provisions relating to the Australian Broadcasting Commission Recommendation

PART Ill.-THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD­

Introduction .. The Board's Interpretation of its Obligations The Discharge by the Board of its Obligations Recommendations

PART IV.-THE COMMERCIAL TELEVISION COMPANIES­

Introduction .. The National Responsibility Interpretation and Discharge of the Statutory Obligations by Commercial Television ..

Recommendations Organization of Commercial Television Recommendations Programmes with Themes of Crime, Violence, Horror and Anti-social Behaviour

Recommendation

PART V.-THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING COMMISSION-Introduction .. Factors affecting more Successful Attainment Recommendations PART VI.-AUSTRALIAN DRAMA­

Introduction .. Inadequacy of the Australian Content in Dramatic Programmes on Television The Cultural and Sociological Consequences The National Economic Consequences The Reasons for the Inadequacy of Australian Television Drama The Economics of Drama Production The Artistic Problem .. Type and Theme of Australian Drama in Plans for an Increase Ways and Means whereby the Australian Content can be increased The Quota System

Section 114 (1.) of the Broadcasting and Television Act Recommendations Proper Utilization of the Nation's Artistic Talent .. Television in relation to Live Theatre and the Artist

Recommendations The Australian Dramatist Recommendations Further Recommendations relating to Dramatists PART VII.-THE AUSTRALIAN FILM INDUSTRY­

Introduction .. Increased Content of Australian Drama-Long Term Factor Early History of Australian Film Industry Present Condition of the Industry Problems facing the Industry The Economic Problem of Film Making

Marketing Problems .. The Technical and Artistic Problem Recommendations Recommendations as to Loan Scheme of Subsidy

Other Recommendations in regard to the Film Industry Finance for the Purpose of the Committee's Recommendations Recommendations

PARAGRAPH

1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

12 19 21

22 23 24 29

32 33

36 40 42 42 43A 43A

44 47 57

58 60 61 65 67 68 73

75 76 79 82 84

85 87 91 92 93

94

96 99 100 101 102

103 107 108 109 110

112 115 116

PAGE

1

1

I

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

4

4

5

5

5

7

7

7

8

10 10 10 11 11

11 11 14

14 15 16 17

17 17 18 19 19 20 21 21

22 22 23 23 23

24

24 25 25 26 26 26

27 28 28 28 29 29

30

73

TABLE OF CONTENTS-continued.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE-continued.

Long Term Policy on Quotas Recommendation Film Production by the Australian Broadcasting Commission Recommendation

PART VIII.-RESEARCH­

Introduction .. Present Nature and Extent of Research Policy of Research Harmful Effects of Television Overseas Research

Recommendations The Ratings Systems ..

PART IX.-CmLDREN'S PROGRAMMES­

Introduction .. Standards relating to Children's Programmes Criticisms of Programmes Recommendations

PART X-RELIGIOUS TELEVISION-Introduction .. Religious Programmes from the Australian Broadcasting Commission Religious Programmes from Commercial Television

Recommendation Committee's Observations

PART XL-OTHER PROGRAMME DEFICIENCIES-News Bulletins-Paragraph 3 (6) of Part I. Panel and Discussion Programmes-Paragraph 3 (7) of Part I. Educative Programmes-Paragraph 3 (8) of Part I.

Programmes of Special Interest to Migrants and Programmes for Minority Tastes and Special Interests-Paragraphs 3 (10) and 3 (13) of Part I.

PART XII.-EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION­

Introduction .. American Television Australian Television Evidence

Conclusions and Recommendations ..

PART XIII.-THE AusTRALIAN TELEVISION CouNciL­

Introduction .. Recommendations Constitution of the Australian Television Council .. Recommendations

PART XIV.-MINISTERIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY RESPONSIBILITY­

Ministerial Control and Responsibility Parliamentary Responsibility The Annual Reports of the Authorities Recommendations Standing Committee of the Senate upon Television

Recommendations

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEE

SUPPLEMENTARY OBSERVATIONS OF SENATOR R. C. WRIGHT

APPENDICES.

PARAGRAPH PAGE

119 31

119 31

120 32

121 32

122 32

123 32

126 34

127 34

132 35

136 35

137 36

141 37

142 37

144 37

151 38

152 39

153 39

160 39

166 40

167A 40

168 41

169 41

172 41

174 41

176 42

177 42

179 43

185 44

196 46

197 46

197 46

198 46

198 46

200 47

205 47

206 47

206 48

208 48

208 48

209 49

210 54

55

A.-Television Programmes: Definitions of Programme Categories and Programmes of Australian Origin 56 B.-Metropolitan Commercial Television Stations: Analysis of Total Transmission Time by Category Groups on the Basis of Programmes being locally produced or imported-Percentages 58

C.-List of Witnesses 59

D.-Principal Provisions of the Broadcasting and Television Act relating to Programmes 61

E.-Television Programme Standards as issued on 1st July, 1956, re-issued 1st July, 1959; and a Statement of Variations 63

F.-Extracts from Annual Reports of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board relating to Defects in Com-mercial Television Programmes 77

G.-Overseas Markets for Australian Television Films 81

H.-Research-A summary of major research studies undertaken in Australia into Sociological and Psychological effects of Television . . 81

REPORT FROM THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVISION.

INTRODUCTION.

On 29th November, 1962, upon the motion of Senator Hannan, the Senate resolved-(1) That a Select Committee of the Senate be appointed to inquire into and report upon the encouragement of the production in Australia of films and programmes suitable for television, and matters incidental thereto.

(2) That the Committee consist of seven Senators, four to be appointed by the Leader of the Government in the Senate and three to be appointed by the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate. (3) That the Committee have power to send for persons, papers and records, to move from

place to place, to sit in open court or in private, and have leave to report from time to time its proceedings and the evidence taken. ( 4) That the Committee have power to sit during any adjournment or recess of the Parliament. (5) That the Committee report to the Senate on or before the 30th June, 1963.

On 7th December, 1962, the President of the Senate announced the names of the Senators appointed to serve on the Committee. The entry in the Journals of the Senate for that day reads-The President announced the receipt of letters from the Leader of the Government in the Senate appointing Senators Drake-Brockman, Hannan, Vincent and Wright, and from the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate appointing Senators Cant, Cohen and McClelland, members of the Select Committee on the Encouragement of Australian Productions for Television.

At the first meeting of the Committee, on 5th February, 1963, Senator Vincent was elected Chairman.

On 22nd May, 1963, the Committee was granted an extension of the time in which to bring up its Report. A resolution was passed in the Senate in the following terms-That the time for bringing up the Report of the Select Committee on the Encouragement of Australian Productions for Television be extended until the 31st October, 1963.

75

The Select Committee so appointed has the honour to present to the Senate the following Report.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE. PART I.-PUBLIC CONCERN OVER TELEVISION PROGRAMMES.

EVIDENCE OF PUBLIC CONCERN.

There is much public concern over television programmes. This concern, as might be expected, comes mainly from the more informed or responsibly minded section of the community, and it is widespread.

2. The disquiet is with programmes from both the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television, although the greater weight of criticism is levied against commercial television.

Perhaps the main distinction between criticism of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television lies in the generalization that, whereas the Australian Broadcasting Commission is trying to provide programmes that are adequate, comprehensive and in the public interest, commercial television is making an inadequate attempt to do this.

The public concern over the respective deficiencies of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television will be further discussed in the parts dealing specifically with each service.

THE MAJOR CRITICISMS.

3. The great weight of evidence which was not adequately answered can be summarized as follows:-(1) There are insufficient Australian-produced programmes-particularly drama. (For a definition of drama see Appendix A.)

(2) There is not enough Australian " indigenous " drama. (3) There is too much imported drama from the United States of America. (4) There is too much drama involving crime, violence and horror.

2

(5) In regard to imported drama, there is a monotony of themes of crime, violence, horror and domestic comedy; in other words, a lack of variety and originality in theme. (6) There is an inadequacy of news, particularly international news in the news bulletins. (7) There is an absence of a controversial or critical element (where appropriate) and in

many cases an immaturity, a dullness and a lack of" polish " in panel and discussion programmes. (8) "Educative " programmes are unattractively presented and dull. (9) Religious programmes are inadequate and unattractive, and are generally presented at

inappropriate times. (10) There is a serious lack of programmes of special interest to our migrant population. (11) There are far too many children's programmes that are unsuitable for children. (12) There is no serious attempt being made to present programmes for the adolescent child. (13) There are insufficient programmes for minority tastes or special interests. In other

words, television programmes are almost entirely designed to cater exclusively for what is regarded as the " majority ".

In considering the above criticisms it is somewhat revealing to peruse an analysis (set out in Appendix B) of the total transmission time of metropolitan commercial television stations which shows the percentages of locally produced and imported programmes under their various category groups.

THE EFFECTS.

4. It should be emphasized that television as a means of mass communication has the greatest sociological impact of any mass medium.

Each licence confers upon the licensee a privileged position in the nature of a monopoly and a national obligation therefore rests upon the licensee to achieve the highest possible standard of programmes.

The Committee cannot avoid the conclusion that there are serious psychological and sociological consequences that can be expected to result from a continuation of the present programme pattern; and also there are harmful effects upon the development of Australian culture in this pattern. These effects will be dealt with by the Committee in subsequent parts of the report.

THE WEIGHT Of EVIDENCE.

5. The major criticisms referred to, particularly in relation to commercial television, were the subject of submissions from a large number of witnesses. The actual number of witnesses who expressed these views and their concern is, however, not as significant as the fact that so many of these people were appearing in a representative capacity. They were speaking on behalf of the large numbers of other Australians whose views in many instances had been previously obtained.

The weight of evidence is, therefore, not only a matter of the number of people who gave evidence. Its real measure is the volume of public opinion that the witnesses represented and upon whose behalf they spoke. A perusal of the list of witnesses giving evidence in a representative capacity (see Appendix C) illustrates the Committee's point. The Committee's observations, conclusions and recommendations in this report are based upon this significant weight of evidence.

A further feature of the proceedings was that there was no evidence of public opinion in general approval of the quality and content of commercial television programmes. This was despite the fact that the Committee conducted its hearings in public; that the appearances of the Committee in the capital cities were given wide publicity; and that the general public was not unaware of the activities of the Committee.

MAJOR DEFICIENCIES IN RESPECT OF CERTA!i'< PROGRAMMIS.

6. The Committee must take heed of the weight of evidence expressing public disquiet at the large amount of imported crime, horror and violence brought into Australian homes through television. So overwhelming was this weight of evidence that these matters are discussed specifically in later sections of the Report. Other major criticisms are also dealt with in succeeding parts of the Report.

THE CoMMITTEE's ATnTuor.

7. There was evidence of a number of other deficiencies which the Committee docs not accept as being adequate evidence of public disquiet.

The Committee, however, accepts the foregoing major criticisms as being fair and well-founded criticism of current television programmes:

The Committee is of the opinion that the defects disclosed in these criticisms can and should be remedied.

3 77

PART H.-PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS OF THE BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION ACT RELATING TO PROGRAMMES.

8. The principal relevant provisions of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1962 within the Committee's terms of reference in relation to programmes are set out in Appendix D.

STATUTORY PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTI:\fG CO"JTROL BOARD AND COMMERCIAL TELEVISION.

9. Section 16 (1.) (c) imposes an obligation upon the Australian Broadcasting Control Board " to ensure that adequate and comprehensive programmes are provided by . . . stations to serve the best interests of the general public;".

It is implied that the primary obligation for this purpose rests upon the commercial television licensees, but Parliament, by using the word " ensure " in relation to the Board, has made it clear that the ultimate and final responsibility of ensuring that this is carried out rests with the Board.

10. The section also defines in a positive manner the broad terms as to w11at are suitable programmes. Programmes are to be " adequate " and " comprehensive " " to serve the best

interests of the general public ".

ll. 1n the Committee's view the clear meaning of the section is as follows:-(1) The expression "adequate" programmes means, inter alia, that programmes should have a high standard of quality-technical and artistic. (2) The expression " comprehensive " programmes means that programmes should have an

overall balance as to subject-matter, content and variety. The Committee accepts the British concept in this respect, namely, that programmes should " inform, educate and entertain ". (3) "To serve the best interests of the general public" means neither to cater almost

exclusively for majority interests, nor to play down almost exclusively to the lowest common denominator of public taste. Expressed in a positive sense it means, inter alia, to serve the widest interests of the general public by including special interests and minority interests. " Best " interests also means, inter alia, to utilize the

tremendous power of television to influence and enrich both the emotional and intellectual values of the people and to improve moral standards in society.

12. The Committee attaches the greatest importance to a proper interpretation of this provision. In view of the very general nature of the existing wording and of the rather limited interpretation now being placed upon its meaning by some commercial stations-The Committee Recommends that section 16 (1.) (c) of the Broadcasting and Television Act

1942-1962 be amended to make it clear that the section has the meaning set out above.

I 3. Sub-sections (1.) and (2.) of section 17 are important in that they provide the Board, in the exercise of its powers and functions, including those under section 16 (I.) (c). with power to make orders and give directions. Such orders, when made, have the force of law. These sub-sections are thus intended to provide the "teeth" for the Board in carrying out its responsibilities.

14. It is also relevant to consider sub-sections (1.) and (2.) of section 99 in relation to section 16. Sub-section (1.) imposes an obligation upon the licensee to conform to the " standards " determined by the Board. The Committee is of the opinion that the section has ob\ ious deficiencies, which opinion the Committee thinks is shared by the Chairman of the Board, Mr. R. G. Osborne. The exnrcssion " standards determined by the Board " means no more than " qualitative standards " and does not extend to a determination by the Board as to content, type, variety or cm'ntry of origin of programmes. This could prove rather embarrassing to the Board in the case of a refusal nn the part of a st:ltion to conform to those " standards" that are now in existence and which go somewhat further than imposing

directions as to quality of programmes. It is submitted that the intention of the legisbture was to provide corresponding obligations upon the stations under section 99 to those of the Board under section 16 (1.) (c).

The Committee Recommends that section 99 (1.) of the Broadcasting and Tr'lnision Act 1942-1962 be amended accordingly.

15. This amendment to section 99 (1.) would clearly impose upon commercicd television licensees the legal obligation to provide "adequate and .comprehensive . ·. . to serve the best

interests of the general public", in accordance w1th the programme reqUJremenb !aiel down by the Board.

16. But in addition for both clarity of obligation and security of rights of the licensee the administration of the Act should employ conditions imposed in cases on They

will be governed by sections 108 and 109. The most fundamental obligations of the particular app!Jcant

4

be translated into conditions written on the licence. The conditions appropriate to be imposed

m each case are a matter for consideration by the Board. They should be considered on original and when the licence falls due for renewal. The Board's failure to employ the procedure of

msertmg appropriate conditions has been largely responsible for the false position of licensees up to date. Applicants have urged their claims to a licence by stating that they would televise a given percentage of Australian productions. This condition has proved delusive because it has not been made a condition of the licence.

If the conditions of licence form a fundamental basis of the Act's administration they will prove an appropriate basis for securing the proper requirements and standards of the Board pursuant to section 17.

Accordingly, the Committee Recommends that conditions be endorsed upon a licence embodying the fundamental obligations of the applicant as set out in its original application for a licence or any application for renewal thereof.

17. Section 114 (1.) requires the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the licensees, as far as possible, to use the services of Australians in the production and presentation of programmes. This policy enactment becomes highly relevant in those sections of the Report relating to Australian content of programmes (see Parts VI. and VII.).

18. The Board has at times adopted a further method of expressing its requirements in regard to programmes. This has been done by a letter from the Postmaster-General to the commercial stations setting out the particular requirement. For example, in August of this year the Postmaster-General instructed certain commercial stations that the content of Australian programmes was to be increased

to an overall figure of 45 per cent. The Postmaster-General clearly has no such power under the Act. Even under section 114 (1.) it could still appear that the Board, in pursuance of its powers under section 16, is the proper authority from which such directions should emanate. Mr. Osborne explained in his evidence that, whilst the Postmaster-General had no such power of direction, the problem was overcome by adding some sort of implied threat in the letter to the effect that " failure to comply with the direction would result in a condition being imposed upon the licence under section 108 ". This method of indirect administration of the Board's powers and functions is open to certain objections. In the first place it abrogates from the Board the power of control that Parliament intended should be used by the Board without ministerial intervention; secondly, it makes use of a ministerial power in an indirect way, which, again, Parliament did not intend. If conditions are to be imposed upon the licence (and clearly the Postmaster-General has such powers), they should be imposed under the provisions of

sections 108 and 109.

The Committee therefore Recommends that the Board at all times adopts the procedure set out in section 17 of the Broadcasting and Television Act in relation to imposition of its requirements upon licensees and that the practice of issuing ministerial requests in the form of letters in lieu thereof be discontinued.

STATUTORY PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING COMMISSION.

19. The Australian Broadcasting Commission's obligations under section 59 are broadly similar to those of the Board. The important expression " to serve the best interests of the general public " is omitted from the section. Presumably the provision, " and shall take in the interests of the community all such measures as, in the opinion of the Commission, are conducive to the full development of suitable broadcasting and television programmes ", is intended to include an obligation to provide programmes " to serve the best interests of the general public ". It is hardly possible to envisage a national service that is not intended to serve the best interests of the general public.

20. It is also submitted that a wider interpretation of this requirement is that the Commission, in its discretion, has a national obligation to encourage and assist in the development of those cultural activities (the expression being used in a wide sense) which may be associated with or incorporated in " suitable " television programmes. For example, the Commission has very properly taken active and successful measures relating to the establishment and maintenance of symphony orchestras.

21. Sub-section (2.) further lends support to the above interpretation. But the sub-section does not go far enough. For example, it is usually not technically possible to telecast a play from a theatre which is simultaneously presenting the drama as a normal" public entertainment". An amendment is desirable to permit the Commission to present drama as public entertainment which is intended 10 be televised from the studio upon a subsequent occasion. A consequential to section 67 would likewise

be advisable in regard to the employment of actors and other artists.

The Committee therefore Recommends that sections 59 67 of the Broadcasting and Television Act be amended accordingly.

5 79

PART III.-THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD.

22. This part deals with the Australian Broadcasting Control Board's interpretation of its statutory obligations and the discharge of its responsibilities with respect to commercial television programmes and the Committee's recommendations thereon.

THE BOARD'S INTERPRETATION OF ITS OBLIGATIONS.

23. In Part II., the Committee has outlined the main provisions of the Broadcasting and Television Act relating to the powers and the obligations that flow from these powers. Even without the amendments to sections 16 (1.) (c) and 99 (1.), which have been recommended by the Committee, the powers of the Board under the former sub-section remain extremely wide and are unfettered by the authority of the

Minister. In the opinion of the Committee, the Board has not only the power but an obligation to make orders and give directions in a positive sense, under section 17, with respect to such matters as quality of programmes, subject-matter of programmes, variety of programmes, overall balance of programmes and the Australian content of programmes. Mr. Osborne, in giving evidence, gave the distinct impression that the Board derives no power and consequently was under no obligation to perform these functions except under the broad heading of " qualitative content " of programmes under the authority of and pursuant to section 99 (1.). As to the other important aspects of programme requirements (within

the context of section 16 (1.) (c)), Mr. Osborne appears to be under the impression that the responsibility for these should be accepted by the Minister. The Committee entirely rejects this interpretation of the Board's functions and obligations. Very wide powers are given to the Board in addition to power to regulate the quality of programmes and these powers are intended to be exercised by it quite independently

of ministerial control.

THE DISCHARGE BY THE BOARD OF ITS OBLIGATIONS.

24. By relying upon section 99 (1.), instead of section 16 (1.) (c), as the basis of the Board's powers, the Board has, in effect, ignored its full obligations under the latter section. This is a proper inference to be drawn from the evidence submitted by the Board itself. In answer to a question from the Committee, reading as follows:-

" What orders or directions, under section 17 of the Broadcasting and Television Act, or any other directives in relation to programmes have been issued by the Board to licensees of commercial television stations generally or to specific licensees ? ",

the Board provided the following reply:­

" Orders or directives of the Board-" No orders or directions under section 17 of the Act relating to programme matters have been issued by the Board to licensees of commercial television stations, but circulars have been sent to stations on the subjects of televising of imported advertisements (15 .11. 60 and 19.4. 61) and on televising of films known as ' tough A's ' (24. 10. 61)."

25. Under the provisions of section 99 (1.) the Board has promulgated a set of Standards which are set out in full at Appendix E.

Mr. Osborne agreed as a general principle that this provision relates only to " qualitative standards or criteria " and the Committee accepts this interpretation. A perusal of the Standards reveals that they go farther than determining standards of quality. But, even so, they fall a good deal .·.hort of prescribing in a positive form a set of requirements to ensure that " adequate and. comprehensive programmes are provided by commercial television stations to serve the best interests of the general public". Admittedly section 99 (1.) does not go far enough for this to be done, but until it is amended

(so as to equate the responsibilities of stations to the responsibilities of the Board under section 16 (1.) (c) ) it appears most desirable to the Committee that-(1) The Standards as existing should be considerably amended to cover the provisions of section 16 (1.) (c); and

(2) The Standards should be more appropriately named and issued as orders under section 17 (1.).

The Committee realizes that, in a free society, there is a grave danger in endeavouring to in detail the constituents of what programmes are or are not" in the best interests of the public··. But the Committee does not insist that the Board should attempt this impossible and undesirable task. A reasonably developed set of Standards and requirements in relation to content and balance pursuant

to section 16 (1.) (c) is highly desirable in view of the threefold functions of a commercial stat1on (dealt with hereafter in Part IV.) 26. The Committee appreciates the difficulties of the Board in carrying out its respomibil!ties under the Act. It has the problem of enforcing more adequate commercial

who have the admittedly difficult threefold function of accepting their basrc respo1N brl!ty because of their monopolistic position; maintaining a high standard of programme (\\'hJch can be very expensive); and making a profit therefrom. 27. Nevertheless, the Committee considers that the Board, particularly in .recent. years, during which time commercial television has become established upon a sound economic basis, could have

discharged its obligations more adequately and effectively.

6

28. For example-(1) The Board appears to have accepted as a major discharge of its responsibility an annual complaint per medium of its annual report as to certain serious defects in commercial programmes. Examples of these complaints are set out in Appendix F. The

commercial stations have ignored these complaints and the Board has" left it at that". Perhaps the attitude of the Board has been adequately summed up by Mr. Osborne when, in answer to a question in regard to the Board's disciplinary powers, he said-" We have proceeded on the basis of consultation and sweet reasonableness with stations."

This complacency on the part of the Board is reflected in a correspondingly complacent attitude on the part of commercial television which will become increasingly difficult to change as time goes on. (2) Early in 1960, the Postmaster-General made a request that at the end of three years'

operations the proportion of Australian programmes televised by any station should be not Jess than 40 per cent. of its total time of transmission. It is admitted by the commercial stations that this request is regarded as a firm direction to be obeyed. Only stations TVW in Perth and GTV and HSV in Melbourne have carried out this direction. All the other stations continue to disobey it. The Board has failed to enforce this directive. (3) The Board should have called frequent meetings of the licensees, pursuant to section 16 (4.),

and pointed out clearly and firmly the unsatisfactory trends in programmes that should and could have been improved. This has not been done. ( 4) It comes as a surprise to the Committee that the Board has neither threatened nor taken disciplinary action against any commercial licensee. This lack of action can only

be explained by the vague and uncertain attitude of Mr. Osborne with respect to the Board's obligations under the Act. In answer to a question upon this matter the Board answered-" Disciplinary action by the Board--

" The Board has not threatened any commercial television licensee with disciplinary action. When breaches of the Programme Standards come under the notice of the Board the matter is taken up with the station management, either verbally or in writing according to circumstances. There is continued consultation between the Board's officers and station managements and a high degree of co-operation is received from stations."

This unsatisfactory situation may be summarized as follows:-(a) The Board in its official reports has expressed dissatisfaction with various aspects of commercial programmes on many occasions. (b) The Board has neither threatened nor taken disciplinary action to rectify these

shortcomings. (c) The Board has proceeded without success for some years "on the basis of consultation and sweet reasonableness ". (d) The Board's lack of a full understanding of its functions and obligations should

not have prevented it from remedying the situation in that in its own judgment the commercial stations have not been complying with its standards. The Committee expresses the view that the Board should have long since abandoned its policy of " sweet reasonableness " and taken much firmer action with the commercial stations in relation to these serious programme defects of which it has from time to time complained. (5) The Board is too inclined to accept the "ratings " system as being its main criterion of

assessment as to suitability, subject-matter, content and quality of programmes. The evidence of Messrs. W. A. McNair and G. H. Anderson might well be studied by members of the Board upon this question. The ratings system as a measurement of quality or of " what the public wants " in television will be dealt with under Part VIII. The Committee has no objection to the "ratings " system as a means whereby a commercial station bargains and sells its programmes. This is the business of the station and the advertising agent. But this system should not be permitted substantially to influence the Board in its judgment of programmes. The Board should have other criteria. For example, most of the evidence now before the Committee could have been previously obtained by the Board and undoubtedly would have materially assisted it in more effectively summing up public reaction to television. Because of the influential role played by the ratings system, the Board has now placed itself in the undesirable situation in which it permits the licensee to "give the public what it (i.e., the station) thinks is good for it". ( 6) Much more research should have been carried out by the Board, not only in relation to

the harmful effects of certain types of programme, but also into the types of programme which are desired, not only by the majority but by minority and special interests. And it is most disappointing that the Board, having financed certain research projects, has failed to take any disciplinary action based upon the findings of these projects. (Further developments of the research question is the subject of Part VIII.)

7

RECOMMENDATIONS.

29. The Committee Recommends-( I) That the Board use the provisions of section 17 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1962 for the purpose of exercising its powers and functions under the Act. (2) That the Board obtain a full clarification of its statutory powers and obligations

particularly in relation to sections 16 (1.) (c), 17 (1.), 99 (1.) and 114 (1.) of the Act: (3) That the Board discontinue the practice of requesting the intervention of the Minister for the purpose of issuing ministerial " requests " to commercial stations in cases where under sections 16 (1.) (c) and 17 (1.) of the Act it should issue orders and accept this

responsibility itself. (4) That the Standards determined under section 99 (1.) of the Act be revised so as to incorporate in a positive sense the provisions of section 16 ( 1.) (c); and that the revised Standards, with a more appropriate title, be issued as orders pursuant to

section 17 (1.). (5) That where a commercial station wilfully neglects to comply with the Board's requirements in relation to programmes appropriate disciplinary action be taken against the licensee in the form of recommendations to the Minister as to suspension or refusal to renew

the licence.

(6) That the Board recommend appropriate conditions upon which a licence may be granted, pursuant to sections 108 and 109 of the Act, in accordance with the Committee's views-as set out in Part II. of this Report. 30. The Committee holds the view that the Board's function is of great importance, particularly in the formative stages of television in this country, and that the Board has exercised inadequate control over the licensees. The Committee holds the further view that, within the composition of the Board, there should be a much more comprehensive representation of the cultural interests of the nation.

31. The Committee accordingly Recommends-that the Board's establishment be varied­ (1) So as to have a chairman, two full-time members and five part-time members. (2) So that the full-time members, and such part-time members as shall be determined, shall constitute the Tribunal for public hearings with respect to applications for and renewal

of licences.

(3) So that the additional members above referred to shall be highly experienced and of high professional reputation in the cultural life of the Australian nation. (4) So that at least one of the new members shall be a married woman.

PART IV.-THE COMMERCIAL TELEVISION COMPANIES.

32. The commercial television station has a threefold function. It has a national responsibility because of its monopolistic and privileged position; it has a statutory obligation to conform to the requirements of the Board; and it also has an obligation to its shareholders which necessitates the sale of its programmes at a profit. The Committee's findings and recommendations are made· having regard

to these functions.

THE NATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY.

33. Every commercial station has a privileged position of having the quasi monopolistic right to telecast programmes under licence from the Crown. Along with a similar right in radio, this privilege is unique in the field of mass communications media. Any person may establish a newspaper, or a theatre or write a novel. But the television station has, in conjunction with the other stations operating

in its area, an exclusive right which imports a responsibility at the national level which it cannot evade. When this privilege is considered in relation to the power of television over and its effect upon the community, this national responsibility amounts to an obligation of the utmost significance.

34. This responsibility cannot be reduced to a set of precise rules or statutory requirements, although the Committee is in no doubt that the managements and directors of television companies arc very well aware of what is meant hy a national responsibility. lt was referred to at length in the Royal upon the introduction of television into Australia (set up in lq5.\) and summarized

in the following recommendation of that

"30. The objective of all television stations must be, rrom the ouhct. l<> provide programme-. which will have the effect of raising the standard of public taste.''

35. The Committee has no hesitation in concluding that commercial stations provide far too many programmes which not only do not have the effect of raising the standard of public taste but have the reverse effect. The answer on behalf of commercial television to this allegation is to the effect that " commercial television is giving the public \\'hat it wants ".

81

8

This phrase carries with it the implication that this is the democratic approach. But the Committee was not impressed by the claim of commercial television that it knows what the public wants. In England, the Pilkington Committee described this attitude as "patronizing and arrogant". This Committee feels that it would have been more helpful if the commercial stations had frankly admitted that the commercial motive-selling advertising at a substantial profit-was the dominant one.

Even if the commercial stations are aware of what the public wants, it is the Committee's firm opinion that this should not be the only criterion of determination of programme policy. It is conceded that it is one of the criteria for that part of policy which consists of pure entertainment, but television has a high duty to raise the standard of public taste, to lead and uplift, to teach, to promote and urge the acceptance of true values. Nowhere in the wide realm of informing or teaching either the child or the adult is the subject or the subject-matter chosen exclusively by popular demand. It may be argued that the only alternative to giving the public what it wants is to give the public what the station management or somebody else thinks is good for it. Both attitudes are equally untenable. The Committee considers that there is an area between these alternatives which could provide a far wider range of subject-matter than at present, which would be "in the best interests of the public", and in which the commercial station could be a little ahead of public taste instead of pandering to the lowest common denominator of so-called popular demand.

INTERPRETATION AND DISCHARGE OF THE STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS BY COMMERCIAL TELEVISION.

36. The second obligation of commercial television relates to the duty of a station to observe the statutory provisions of the Act and the requirements of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board in relation to programmes. The main statutory requirements are contained in the Standards determined by the Board (see Appendix E).

37. There is no evidence that any of the managers of the commercial stations do not understand the nature and purpose of the Standards. The inadequacy of the Standards has already been referred to, but, deficient as they are, the Committee has come to the conclusion that, in a number of cases, the commercial stations are not complying with the Standards.

38. As to the observance of Standards, the Committee submits the following examples of non-observance of these requirements:-(1) Paragraph 3 of the Standards states, inter alia-". . . compliance with these Standards is the least that licensees can do in the fulfilment of

their responsibilities. Television can be an instrument of really significant importance in the life of the nation. Negative regulations may eliminate abuses; only the goodwill and high purpose of those who actually operate the stations and plan the programmes can ensure that television will be used constructively for the welfare of the community. This responsibility will be discharged only by constant vigilance and effort, in order both to avoid possibilities of abuse of the great medium, and what is more important, to ensure and maintain the positive standards of value in television programmes to which the Royal Commission on Television referred. In this way the great opportunities which television presents will be achieved. This

applies particularly to programmes for young people. It is therefore not sufficient that these Standards should be regarded as a formal set of rules to be complied with to the letter; they must also be regarded as a practical guide to licensees and be applied in the spirit which this paragraph has endeavoured to indicate."

The Committee entirely agrees with and supports this statement of principle. It cannot accept the contention that commercial television has in the main implemented this principle with " goodwill and high purpose", and "constructively for the welfare of the community", and has discharged this responsibility with vigilance so as "to secure and maintain the positive standards of value" referred to. The narrow range of foreign subject-matter, particularly in drama, amounting to constant and repeated themes of crime, violence and dreary domestic " situation " comedy is most certainly not a constructive use of television " for the welfare of the community " or a maintenance of the " positive standards of value " of the Royal Commission.

(2) Paragraph 5 of the Standards states-" It should be understood that these Standards are not intended to prevent the televising in good faith, at appropriate times, and in appropriate circumstances of-(a) genuine works of artistic or literary merit; or

(b) serious presentation of moral and social issues.

Such programmes are, indeed, to be encouraged, so long as due warning of the nature of the programme is given, where necessary, both in advance publicity and at its commencement."

Whilst this provision is primarily inten?ed to the right to present certain works _which might otherwise offend against the Standards, It reqmres encouragement of of

genuine works of artistic or literary merit and the of and social Issues. W1th.out

commenting upon the inadequacy and of •. obs_erves that the:e rs a

marked absence of " genuine works of arttstlc or hterary ment , and httle senous presentatiOn of moral and social issues " in commercial television.

9

83

(3) Paragraph 7 (a) (ii) of the Standards states-" In the presentation of television programmes, certain basic requirements must always be observed. These are-

(a) No programme may contain any matter which is-

(ii) likely to encourage crime or public disorder; ".

The following table supplied by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board shows the percentage of time devoted to various types of drama in peak time. The preponderance of crime drama is, in the opinion of the Committee, in most cases very much too high and can only be deemed to be " likely to encourage crime or public disorder", particularly in the case of the adolescent viewer who is, of course, a normal viewer in peak time.

pi''

ATN TCN HSV GTV BTQ QTQ

ADS NWS TVW TVT

Station.

.. ..

. . . .

.. . .

0. ..

0. . .

. . . .

0. . .

0. 0.

. . 0.

. . . .

Average ..

METROPOLITAN COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATIONS. PERCENTAGE OF TIME DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF DRAMA IN PEAK TIME.

(Four-week Period 3rd June, 1963, to 30th June, 1963.)

Serious. Adventure. Crime. Domestic. Western.

I Total Drama as Percentage Miscellaneous. of Total Transmission in Peak Time.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.

.. 1.79 19.64 28.57 1. 79 3.57 25.00 80.36

. . 0 • 25.00 21.43 23.21 14.29 3.57 87.50

. . .. 9.82 7.14 11.61 28.57 35.71 92.85

.. . . 10.71 24.11 21.43 13.39 14.29 83.93

. . .. 16.07 21.43 10.71 23.21 21.43 92.85

. . .. 16.52 31.70 18.75 6.25 16.07 89.29

• 0 .. 8.93 14.29 21.43 25.89 17.86 88.40

. . 0. 11.61 32.14 19.64 7.14 11.61 82.14

. . .. 2.68 25.89 17.86 17.86 7.14 71.43

. . .. 16.07 11.61 13.39 30.36 12.50 83.93

.. 0.18 13.71 21.83 15.98

I

17.05 I

16.52 85.27

(4) Paragraph 8 of the Standards reads, inter alia, as follows:-" The following particular applications of the preceding standards refer to a number of aspects of programmes on which great care is needed in production:-(a) No programme should contain matter which, if imitated, could be harmful to the

well-being of individuals or of the community; this includes such sequences as those which-(i) demonstrate any techniques of crime in such a way as to invite imitation; (ii) are likely to incite any person to crime, violence, or anti-social behaviour;

(iv) display in detail any form of violence or brutality.

(n) The deliberate use of horror for its own sake, and sound or visual effects likely to cause unnecessary alarm should not be permitted."

Here again the amount and type of programmes depicting crime, horror and violence shown to the Australian family during peak time is, in the opinion of the Committee, an undoubted breach of the provisions of these Standards. (5) Finally and perhaps the most serious criticism of commercial television springs from the

problem of children's programmes. The Standards state-" It is recommended that there be regular sessions for children designed-(a) to impart a broader knowledge of the history and potentialities of our country and of current affairs;

(b) to foster an appreciation of such cultural pursuits as music, painting, ballet, the theatre and literature; (c) to encourage interest and active participation in simple scientific investigations such as botanical, geological and other pursuits; and (d) by the use of the great examples from the Bible, and from history, biography and

literature, to impart a real appreciation of the spiritual values and of the qualities of courage, honour and integrity which are essential to the full development of the individual, and of national greatness. "It is further recommended that programmes be designed to cater for children's propensities for sport and for hobbies such as handicrafts and the care of animals."

10

Perhaps because the Standards are here more adequately and positively defined, the neglect to observe them is more apparent. None of the subjects, in the four categories enumerated in the Standards, is included by many stations in "regular sessions for children ", and the neglect thereof on the part of the commercial stations and the lack of <>upervision on the part of the Board is equally unsatisfactory. (Children's programmes are more fully dealt with in Part IX.).

39. The attitude of comparative indifference to the Standards of some-though not all-of the commercial stations is most unsatisfactory. Whilst some stations have tried unsuccessfully to comply with the Standards, other have adopted the attitude that the commercial function (the sale of programmes and advertising time) is the main purpose of the company and that national responsibility and statutory obligation are incidental to this purpose. The Committee does not accept this attitude. It is of the opinion that each function must be regarded as equally important, and fnrthermore it sees no reason why each cannot be pursued successfully. This attitude of some of the commercial stations is regarded by the Committee as distinctly unfortunate and unhelpful, as standing in the way of practical co-operation with the Board. Some of the stations did not concede the threefold responsibilities of commercial television above referred to. Indeed, Sir Frank Packer went so far as to say that he did not think the Committee was " dealing with a real problem ". And again, on the question of the meaning of the expression "adequate and comprehensive" programmes in section 16 of the Act, the same witness said: " This is an instruction to the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and not to me. This does not say what I have to do.".

RECOMMENDATIONS.

40. The Committee is of the opinion that henceforth the programmes of the commercial stations must more effectively conform to the Standards not only to the letter, but also in the spirit in which these Standards are framed. The Committee believes that the stations have sufficient sense of national pride to achieve more success in this respect; but if they continue to remain indifferent, the Board must be prepared to use the wide disciplinary powers which it now possesses and which are provided by the legislature.

41. The Committee concludes that neither the Board nor the commercial stations were aware of the weight of responsible public opinion which is condemnatory of commercial television as this IS the first opportunity which the general public has had of expressing its view. Most major television licences are held or controlled by newspaper interests. This may account for the fact that little serious criticism of programme matter appears in the press. The Committee recommends that the members of the Board and the commercial executives study the evidence carefully. It believes that, if this is done, this informed and responsible criticism will not be ignored by the industry. In this respect, the Committee places considerable emphasis upon the importance of informed public opinion and feels that the industry

should have frequent opportunities of assessing the views of the public.

The Committee therefore Recommends-(!) That applications for a licence renewal should be heard in public. At such hearings, members of the public or group representatives should have the right to appear and submit criticism of television programmes so as to oblige the applicants to defend

and justify their efforts. (2) That an annual television convention be organized by the proposed Australian Television Council (discussed in Part XIII.) at which organized public debates and discussion between the public and the industry shall be held; again giving the public an

opportunity to be heard and placing the industry (the Commission, the Board and commercial television) in a position to justify and defend its efforts. In this respect the Committee notes that in the United States of America public opinion has been effectively focused upon the problems and shortcomings of the industry by the initiative of the former Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, Mr. Newton Minow, in calling a conference and holding a public seminar upon such questions, and the effectiveness of this action was generally accepted by the representatives of the industry.

ORGANIZATION OF COMMERCIAL TELEVISION.

42. The commercial stations have formed a body known as the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations. They are also combined into smaller " network " groups of associated stations mainly for the purpose of purchasing overseas programmes. It does not appear that either the main federation or the network associations has given adequate consideration to the ways and means whereby the licensees can more effectively comply with the Standards. In view of the fact that the " networks " decide to a substantial extent the actual programmes which are ultimately imported by the stations, the Committee comiders that at both " network " and national level a greater interest should be taken in the matter of programme standards.

The Committee therefore Recommends that the federation and the network associations give consideration and constant attention towards a more satisfactory compliance with the Standards.

11

85

43. Licences of commercial <:tations are. after the first five years, renewable annually. The Committee has recommended elsewhere in this report certain changes in the programme policy of commercial stations, inclt.;ding a progressive increase in the dramatic content of Australian programmes. The Committee appreciates th

The Committee accordingly Recommends that, for the reasons stated above. the renewal period of a television station licence be extended from one to three years after the first five years.

PROGRAMMES WITH THEMES OF CRIME, YlOLENCE, HORROR AND ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR.

43A. Having regard to the very strong weight of evidence and to the various complaints of the Board in its annual

The Committee Recommends that the overall volume of programmes depicting themes of crime, violence, horror and anti-social behaviour be considerably reduced, particularly in programmes televised by the majority of the commercial stations; and that the Board issue a positive requirement to the commercial stations under the provisions of section 17 of the Act to ensure compliance with its instructions in this respect.

PART V.-THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING COMMISSION. 44. The Australian Broadcasting Commission has accepted its statutory obligations to provide a national television service and the Committee believes that the Commission has a real understanding of its responsibility.

45. The question of the extent to which the Commission is succeeding in its aims is another consideration. The informed public criticism of programmes referred to in Part I. applicable to the Commission is accepted by the Committee as one measure of the extent to which the Commission has failed to achieve the Standards envisnged in secticn 59 of the Act.

The Committee proposes to examine the problem so as to decide whether and to what extent the Commission can more fully achieve the purposes for which it was established.

46. A consideration of the achievements of the Commission should have regard to the statutory provisions. In this respect, the obligation of the Commission is fairly straightforward vis-a-vis the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and commercial television. The Commission does not face the complicated combination of two distinct statutory provisions such as the Board encounters under

sections 16 and 99. Again, unlike commercial television, the Commission has only one function and it has no responsibility to earn dividends for shareholders. In the above two respects the Commission does not face the difficulties of the Board and the commercial stations.

FACTORS AFFECTING MORE SUCCESSFUL ATTAINMENT.

47. The Committee accepts the view of the Commission that one of the hampering factors in the presentation of better and more Australian programmes is Jack of finance and is of the opinion that a much larger annual vote is essential before the national service can adequately fulfil its obligations. The Committee does not propose to recommend a figure in relation to this increase but, with -the exception

of the matter considered in the next paragraph, examines the question in greater detail in Parts VI. and VII.

48. At Part VIL the Committee that the Australian Broadcasting Commission

should commence upon an increa:oed progn1.:mne of film production including films for export. This is regarded as urgent and of high priority. The Cornrnittee learns with some disquiet that it takes the Anstraiian Broadcasting Commission anything from three to five years to effect the completion of the planning and construction of the building of, fur example, a new studio. The Commission sets out

the reasons for the delay as (1) The proposed building is discussed with the Department of Works, the Australian Broadcasting Commission being responsible for the functional aspects of the plan and the Department of \Yorks for tl1e architectural When a basic sketch

plan is agreed on rot ghly estimated by the Department of Works it is submitted to the Postmaster-Gcner;:! and the Trc:l\ury for inclw;ion in Design C. where its cost r·.pected to exceed £250.000. ffadmitted to Jiq the propos:li is developed in more (·.tail by tiL o 1' \\" irb and :t is prepared for to

the Joint Fark11m:ntary CoJJlillittce en ;'ublic Works. (2) After the Committee ha-, ill' cstigated the proposal and prepared its report on it. if the report is favorable Jt is then submitted for inclusion in Design List B. (3) When admitted to Design Li: t B. the Department cr Works authorized to prepare

working dra\, ings, sp::-ciilcations and a bill of quantities. The followmg financial year, if the doccrmentation is completed. it may be aumitted lo the Works Programme; otherwise it is adrniil•:d to Lhl .'\ and, all going \\ell, it \\ill be admitted to

the Works Progn.lllli11C lhe iuliOI'•ll1g year. F.11771/63.-2

12

The building be e_xpected to from H- to 2-!- years to complete, depending on

the constructiOn details, after which a further 3 to 4 months would be required to install the equipment. (5) Generally speaking, it would require 3 months for the preliminary discussions with the of Works, 6 to 12 months for the dealings with the Parliamentary

Committee, 6 to 12 months for documentation. Thus in ordinary circumstances, after the approach t? the Department of Works, the Australian Broadcasting

CommissiOn must walt for from 3 to 5 years before it actuallv has the studio in service. ,

(6) Understandably, the Australian Broadcasting Commission needs to have a strong case before it can effectively submit proposals for a building costing several hundred thousand pounds. As its programme activities are financed by Annual Appropriation, it is not practicable to make any firm plans for programme expansion beyond the first year or two. Thus, the actual requirements for additional studio accommodation only become " firm " one or two years before the accommodation is needed, so there is an inevitable lag of two or more years before the requirements can be met. (7) Even if the projects are small enough not to require investigation by the Joint

Parliamentary Committee on Public Works, they take 2-!- to 3 years to complete. The Committee is not examining the matter of delays in public works and it therefore does not feel that it would be appropriate to do more than invite the attention of all concerned to this extremely unsatisfactory situation.

49. But additional finance is not, in the Committee's view, the only problem; nor will it provide the complete answer. A question which interested the Committee was the attitude of the Commission towards commercial television. The Commission, perhaps too conscious of the larger audiences attracted by commercial television, is somewhat inclined to imitate the type of programme being presented by commercial television so as to compete with the latter service. Whilst the Committee acknowledges the existence of the present policy as envisaged in the Act, namely, that the two services are intended to compete with each other, it points out that competition as measured in the relative sizes of audience is no more important than the degree of appreciation of the audience. Quality, variety and imaginative presentation of programmes are also desirable fields in which to compete.

50. One of the consequences of the above tendency on the part of the Commission has been a failure of the national service to cater adequately for minority and special interests, an obligation upon which the Committee places very great importance. The minority and special interests which are virtually ignored can of course amount to a very extensive list, depending upon the size of the minority and the nature of the special interest.

The Committee does not propose to suggest to the Commission the types of programme vYhich might be included in such a list. It, however, feels obliged to draw the attention of the Commission to this general deficiency and suggests that the matter should receive the consideration of the Commission.

51. A fourth and perhaps the most important factor of all relates to the inadequacy of Australian drama. This question is dealt with in Part VI., but certain aspects are considered appropriate for some comment in this Part. The Committee in Part VI. (paragraph 74) refers to the qualitative inadequacies of drama produced in Australia. This criticism likewise applies to productions of the Commission. Without going into the reasons for this, it is freely acknoVvledged that lack of funds appropriated for each production is one cause of the trouble. In regard to funds, it is most interestmg to compare the amounts spent by the

Commission on music and drama. The comparative figures for two consecutive years are as follows:-

Direct programme expenses, including artists' fees, for both radio and TV : Expenses Gramophone records

Salaries for musicians (including members of symphony and

staff (including producers, writers, &c.) ..

Music 1960--61.

£

126,606 57,526 22,755

206,887

7

Music

£

143,025 54,725

I 24,849

I 222,599 I 799,538

---------

Drama

I

Drama

1960-61. 1961· h2.

£ £

92,573 100,()32 19,967 19,488

112,540 I 119,520 I 4(,,(,12 [

47. 70J

-----

999,125 1,022,137 159,152

it will be noted that the Australian Broadcas.ting spends al:out s.ix _ as much upon

music as it does upon drama. A mterestmg aspect. of the L omn,lbsion s policy concerns

the visit to Australia of '.Vorld-famous artists. The CommisSIOn _ rceenLJ; ;tllnllllllccd the names of 26 overseas conductors, musicians and singers of world repute who \\Ill take rart 111 the I 964 cclc.bnty concert season. The Commission also invited Mr. Ro.d Serhng to 0-ustral.w to l,ccturc, on wnt_lllg. But no actors of world repute are visiting Australia this year at the ll1vltatwn of the I he

13

Committee in this notes ":ith consi.derable approval the announcement by Messrs. J. C. Williamson Sir John. Gielgud will shortly be visiting Australia. It is visits by such great

artists as this which are so Important at the moment to the Australian theatre. It 1s therefore not that. musical programmes. of the Australian Broadcasting Commission are of world class

whilst Its drama has not achwved an equal standard. In the Committee's opinion, a more

proportiOn of the resources of the Commission should henceforth be devoted to drama. It

is not mtended to be Commi.ssion should spend less money upon music, but it does appear

be a fact the C?mm1ss1on s h1gh standards are being achieved at the e):pense of an equally

sectiOn of Its programmes wh!ch 1s below standard. What is intended is that an increasing

allocatiOn of funds should be made available to the Commission and that this increase should not be used to preserve the existing imbalance of funds now being apportioned by the Commission for music and drama respectively.

52. A fifth factor concerns the relationship of the Commission with the " live " theatre. The evidence indicates that there is too little collaboration between the professional theatre and the Commission. The Committee considers this to be unfortunate and, without wishing to place the responsibility upon either party for this situation, it is of the opinion that a very active association between

these important institutions is essential in the development of a healthy, indigenous culture. The professional and semi-professional theatre, including the Elizabethan Theatre Trust, and the Commission all appear to be working somewhat independently of each other. Insofar as this may sug12:est an element of disharmony it can only result in adverse consequences in a country that, in any case, lacks

adequate artistic resources of high quality in the theatre. For example, Messrs. J. C. Williamson Theatres Ltd., within two years has presented the following stage productions in Australia:-Sentimental Bloke Piccadilly Bushman

Who'll Come A-Waltzing Season at Sarsaparilla Multi-coloured Umbrella Pirates of Penzance

Gondoliers Mikado Constant Wife Odd Man In

Woman in a Dressing Gown and Goodnight Mrs. Puffin. They were all of a standard which would warrant their presentation on the television scJTC11 and could have been arranged for television production with a minimum of expense. The Committee given to

understand that neither the Australian Broadcasting Commission nor commercial television was interested enough to approach the producing company for the television rights. In a country where good Australian drama is so rarely seen on television, it does seem to the Committee that the Commission could consider utilizing the artistic resources of Australia to better advantage. This collaboration between

stage and the television industry exists in other countries. For example, the Stratford (Canada) Festival last year presented a fine production of The Pirates ofPenzance. The Canadian Broadcasting Commiss](ln, thereupon, in collaboration with the festival authorities, took the production to Toronto \\here it was telecast in the Canadian Broadcasting Commission's studio (and incidentally sold to AustLdia). This

illustration of collaboration is not unique in Canada. Apart from the large amount of professional drama presented in Australian theatres, a yearly festival takes place in Adelaide and Perth. Tile Australian Broadcasting Commission on occasions uses these festival productions for presentation on television. But, even so, 1t is suggested that a great many more of the productions from the professional

theatre in Australia could be converted into satisfactory television programmes.

53. A sixth factor concerns the tendency of the Commission towards concentrating its dramatic productions in Sydney and The is a':"are of the factors that have

this policy necessary. But it also believes that the time Is overnl?e for a deccntra/JzatJon

of effort. Since the Committee commenced its work, one production has ongmated 111 Perth and another in Brisbane. This is a start but is far too modest. It is suggested that the statute an obligation

upon the Commission to utilize the nation's artistic and other in State. A

of dramatic production in Sydney and Melbourne may be very n:uch m the mtercsts of these CJtles, but it is neither in the "interests of the community" nor "conduc1ve to the full de\elopmcnt of su1tabk programmes ". 54. A seventh factor concerns the relationship of the CommisJion to the iilm industry. 1 his

will be discussed in Part VII. 55. An eighth factor concerns weaknesses in the presentation of certain types of pro:;rammc:, of Australian origin of a non-dramatic nature. These are dealt with in Part XI. of this Report. 56. The Committee gave some consideration to the membership of the Broadc:.J:,ting

Commission. The Commission consists of seven commissioners, at leaot one of \\hom L'> n.:quJrcd be a woman. Since the advent of the Committee notes that ther? has bec.n no mcrease In

the number of commissioners. Without reflecting in any way upon the capacity of md1ndual members

87

14

of the Commission, the Committee is of the opinion that seven commissioners is an inadequate number to shoulder the heavy and varied responsibilities of both radio and television throughout the continent of Australia. It also occurs to the Committee that more commissioners of high repute and experience in the cultural life of the nation should be included in the composition of the Commission.

57. The Committee Recommends-(!) That the inadequacies of programmes referred to in Parts I. and XI., where applicable, be given consideration by the Commission. (2) That the Commission give consideration to the greater utilization of Australian

professional theatrical productions in its television programmes. (3) That the Commission adopt a more extensive policy of decentralization in regard to dramatic productions. ( 4) That the Commission place more emphasis, qualitatively and quantitatively, upon

dramatic productions and ensure that progressively the existing imbalance in the apportionment of financial resources between music and drama be rectified. (5) That the Commission give immediate consideration to extending an invitation to stage artists of world repute including directors to visit Australia from time to time. (6) That the composition of the Commission be increased to ten commissioners and that

the commissioners to be appointed be representative of the cultural life of Australia and comprise either men or women of the highest reputation and experience in this field.

PART VI-AUSTRALIAN DRAMA.

58. The expression " drama " means drama as defined in the Fifteenth Annual Report of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board for the year ended 30th June, 1963, at page 87, as follows:-"Drama­ Serious

Adventure

Crime and Suspem;e

Includes classical drama, works of major contemporary dramatists, and other dramatic productions which appear to have lasting values. Plays not in a western setting, with a main focus on action; includes such themes as science fiction and espionage. concerned with the commission and detection of illegal actions.

in which the main focus is on action, also plays in which suspense is predominant, with or without a crime element.

Domestic and Comedy Plays dealing with domestic life or family relations; includes situation comedy.

Western ..

Other

Plays utilizing nineteenth century American western settings. Plays which do not fall specifically under other headings."

" Australian drama " means drama produced in Australia, irrespective of where the drama was written. "Indigenous drama" means drama written and produced in Australia.

59. Drama is recognized as having the greatest psychological and emotional impact upon the audience of all types of television programmes. A programme in " dramatic" form is therefore the most powerful weapon of all in its effect upon the moral standards of the community and in influencing its values. Equally as important as this sociological impact is the fact that drama is the most popular of all forms of television entertainment. Most of the " peak " viewing hours in television throughout the world are consequently taken up with the telecasting of drama. This twofold significance thus renders a consideration of drama of the utmost importance in an examination of this subject. The following table clearly shows the role played by programmes of a dramatic nature in Australian television:--

PERCENTAGE OF TIME OCCUPIED BY VARIOUS TYPES OF PROGRAMME, COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATIONS.

Drama ..

Light Entertainment Sport News Family Information Current Affair;, The Arh Education

Programme Type. 1962 -6) (·a pi tal City Stations.

-------·---· ---

Per cent. 54.5 22.R 4.R

4.2 7.7 I. 5

3.4 0.3 O.X

Annual Report of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board for year ended 30th June, I 963.)

15

. . "peak" viewing period is between 7.30 p.m. and 9.30 p.m. and the table below sets out the of of programmes transmitted by commercial television stations in the capital cities

dunng this penod.

AVERAGE TIME DEVOTED BY COMMERCiAL TELEVISION ST\TIONS TO EACH CATEGORY, EACH WEEK, IN HOURS AND MINUTES--PERCENTAGES ARE SHOWN IN PARENTHESIS-IN PEAK TIME FOR THE FOUR-WEEK PERIOD, 3Ro JUNE, TO 30TH JUNE, 1963.

i

Station. : Dran1a.

Light Enter- Sport. Ne\VS. Family. Information.

---------------- ----

ATN 11-15 2--00 0-15

(80. 35) (14.29) (1. 79)

TCN 12-15 1--45

(87. 50) (12.50)

HSV 13--00 1-00

(92. 86) (7. 14)

GTV 11-45 2-15

(83. 93) (15 .07)

BTQ .. i 13-00 1-00 I

(92.86) (7. 14)

QTQ 12-30 1-30

(89 .29) (10.71)

ADS 12-23 2-30 0--07

(88. 39) (8. 93) (0. 89)

NWS 11-30 2-30

(82.24) (17.86)

TVW 10-00 3--00 0-15 0-15

(71 .42) (21 .43) (l. 79)

i (1. 79) TVT .. I 11--45 2-15 I I (83 .93) (16.07) 1·u_,6 1- ,_, ----'i Average 0-02 I 0-03 (85.26) I (13.21) (0. 18) (0 .45) I I (Source: Australian Broadcasting Control Board.) i I I I

Current Affairs.

0-15 (1.79)

0-30 (3.57)

The Art.'. Educatil1nai.

0-30 (3. 57)

'i

------------0-05 i 0-03 i (0.54) ! (0. 36) i i

The above figures speak for themselves. More than half the total transmission time of each station throughout Australia is taken up by drama and drama comprises 85 of every 100 hours of" peak" viewmg time. These figures illustrate the main reason why the Committee attaches such significance to the drama content of programmes and therefore to the Australian content of dramatic programmes.

INADEQUACY OF THE AUSTRALIAN CONTENT IN DRAMATIC PROGRAMMES ON TELEVISION.

60. An examination of the proportion of Australian drama in relation to imported drama reveals that the Amtralian content is most inadequate. Even more inadequate is the proportion of indigenous drama to all other drama. It is so minute as to be almost non-existent. The virtual acceptance of this situation by two responsible bodies such as the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the

Australian Broadcasting Control Board is a matter of some concern to the Committee. A revealing 5tatement is shown in the following table indicating just how inadequate is the Australian content of dramatic programmes televised by Metropolitan Commercial Television Stations:-

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TRANSMISSION TIME DEVOTED TO DRAMA BY METROPOLITAN COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATIONS.

April, 1961 April-June, 1962 June, 1963

Period.

A u-;ualian Dram.t.

1.06 I. 17 0.90

(Source: Australian Broadcasting Control Board.)

Imported Drama.

56.02 54.34 51.02

There are no available figures to indicate what proportion of Australian drama is up by indigenous drama. It can only be assumed that it is too minute to warrant a separate statistical place in the reports of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. The Commission has a small development programme for increasing studio in

Sydney and Melbourne which has not yet been approved by the Government. This will provide only a very small overall increase in the Australian content. The Board has no plans at aiL One or two

89

16

of the managers of the commercial stations showed a genuine and commendable concern for this state of affa}rs-far more concern in fact than the Board. The Committee learnt with great satisfactiOn that, smce the commencement of this inquiry, General Television Corporation Pty. Ltd., GTV--9, has announced that it pr

THE CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES.

. 61. The C?mmittee, in emphasizing the present position as very serious, is confirmed in its ?Y the weight of informed public opinion from wide sections of the community. The undesirable

sociOlogical and cultural consequences that can be expected from a continuance of this state of affairs are apparent to many Australians and should need no emphasis by this Committee. Perhaps the greatest danger lies in its effect upon the rising generation (the adult population having grown up without television), who, day after day, are not only receiving anything but the most inadequate picture of Australia, her

national traditions, culture and way of life, but in its place are recipients of a highly coloured and exaggerated picture of the way of life and morals of other countries (mainly the United States of America). The following table demonstrates clearly the dominance of the United States of America in the supply of dramatic productions telecast in this country:-

1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963

Year ended 30th June.

FILMS IMPORTED FOR TELEVISION.

United States of America.

Per cent. 75 80 88 88 85 84 83

Britain.

Per cent. 18 10 9

10 12 15 17

(Source: Annual Reports of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board.)

Other Countries.

Per cent. 7

10 3

2

3

1

That this undesirable influence has already had its ill effects is the opinion of many who gave evidence. They expressed the view that many Australians, particularly young Australians, already prefer American drama to Australian productions of equivalent artistic merit because they have by now American values and a preference for that particular form of the American way of life which

is depicted by American television progranm1es. Further evidence of this is discernible in the pronounced American accents sometimes affected by Australian radio and television announcers.

62. A further serious consequence resulting from the small proportion of Australian drama is the position in regard to the Australian actor. From the end of World War II. until the introduction of television, the prospects of an Australian actor obtaining employment in his own country were reasonably good. Although the Australian theatre could hardly be said to be in a flourishing condition, A ustraiian radio offered a fair level of employment. It is noteworthy that Australian radio drama became a flourishing enterprise during and for some years after the war. It developed and flourished because the outbreak of war precluded the importation of American radio programmes. Australian radio was faced with producing radio drama in Australia or ceasing to exist. It commenced to produce a large volume of radio drama; and it was not long before Australian productions were artistically and technically as good as anything in the world. With the announcement of the introduction of television,

the world of Australia was optimistic of further opportunities for the creative work of Australian actors and producers. It was a most unfortunate state of affairs that followed the introduction of television. Radio drama declined until it became insignificant in a quantitative sense and the anticipated large-scale development of television drama in Australia did not eventuate. It was a particularly bad oversight on the part of the responsible authorities. Large numbers of Australian actors were unable to find employment. They took other types of work or left Australia in very large numbers for Britain, America and the Continent. Our actors are still leaving Australia because they cannot earn a living in Australia. They almost invariably do well overseas. The situation would be Gilbertian if it were not so serious. In Australia we have the spectacle of a substantial proportion of our theatrical talent going overseas to obtain employment. There they assist in the production of television programmes which are then purchased for telecasting in Australia. Messrs. J. C. Williamson Theatres Ltd. supplied the Committee with a sigmficant picture of the manner in which the company's theatrical enterprises have been denuded of some of their best talent. In the last five years this company alone has lost 52 actors and 22 actresses. They have left Ailstralia and are permanently residing and working overseas. Many of them have had considerable success both on stage and screen.

17 91

63. A similar dismal pictt're is presented in regard to the Australian dramatist. Unable to earn a living in Australia, he too his country and succeeds overseas. \Ve even have the

sorry spectacle of Australien: dramatisb living in Australia, unable to sell their work in Australia either to or to commercial television, actually making large incomes by selling their scripts to

Bntam and Amenca.

64. Australia cannot afford to continue to lose her best actors and dramatists. Their loss to the Commonwealth has been a sad blow to the healthy development of our culture.

THE NATIONAL EcoNOMIC CoNSEQUENCEs.

65. The unfC?rtunate consequences of the situation are not only cultural; there are adverse effects upon the natwnal economy to be noted. Australia uses millions of pounds of overseas exchange every year for the purpose of importing television films and since the advent of television over £17,000,000 have been used in this way, as set out hereunder:-

OVERSEAS EXCHANGE INVOLVED IN THE IMPORTATION OF FILMS FOR TELEVISION.

i

Year ended 30th June.

I ----- ---··-

! 1957. 1959. 1960. 1961. 1962. 1963. Total. _________ ! 1 ___ 1958_. _I ----

Exchange £A.m. ..

I

0.3 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.3 4.5 4.4 17.3

Most of the above foreign exchange is spent in America. We are one of her best customers.

66. Australia is one of the few countries which does not protect its local television programme industry. This question will be dealt with at length in Part VII. but it is mentioned here in order to summarize the position thus far-We are virtually subsidizing the American television film industry; neglecting our own;

importing large quantities of television programmes and exporting that precious and irreplaceable commodity, our Australian artist. The Committee proceeds with a consideration of the problem with this most undesirable picture as a background.

THE REASONS FOR THE INADEQUACY OF AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION DRAMA.

67. There arc other aspects of the problem which we now propose to discuss-the reasons for the situation. THE ECONOMICS OF DRAMA PRODUCTION.

68. The internal economics of drama production must be considered against two important economic factors. In the first place, drama is generally speaking the most expensive of the television programmes to present. And secondly, the overall production costs of drama necessarily involve a high incidence of loss. This is an unavoidable state of affairs. Sir Frank Packer told the Committee in evidence that-

"Trade papers in America estimate there will be available 82 pilots in new film shows this year bui the number of new programmes required by the three nel.works-C.B.C., A.B.C. and N.B.C.-are only c;timated to be 29. This means 53 pilots of the new shuws made and presented for will not be proceeded with. The pilots will go back inlo the vaults and may never be proceeded with. Some may be brought out and tried again next year but !he majority of them

will probably never be proceeded with."

" Show business " must have failures because of the unpredictability of public appeal and reaction. Capital invested in" show business " will always remain "risk " capital involving a very high proportion of losses. In this respect, it is not unlike the incidence of loss associated with " risk " capital involved in the search for oil.

69. It is sometimes argued that the reason why there is virtually no Australian television drama is that America can produce television programmes much cheaper than Australia. This is actually incorrect. For example, the average production of a one-hour dramatic series film in the United States of America costs from approximately sn,ooo to $200,000. Corresponding productions on film in

Australia would cost between £9,000 and £22,000.

70. The same situation applies to the cost of British productions.

71. So far as costs of production are concerned, the Australian producer has his American and British counterparts at an advantage. But this advantage is reversed when it comes to the marketing and sale price of programmes. America and to a Jesser Britain have .enormous home markets plus considerable overseas over \\ hich to spread their of prod uctwn. and to make a profit. Australia on the other hand, has and always will have (111 relatiOn to these countnes) a very home

market which to recoup the initial costs of production and to make a profit. Furthermore, Australia has no overseas market and makes virtually no attempt at selling m

18

Whilst there is no evidence the American programmes arc "dumped " upon the Australian market, it is obvious to the Committee that the American producer has already made his profit in America before he sells in Australia. 72. Most of the commercial television companies are not iinancially "geared " to cater for a substantial increase in Australian drama. Whilst they can import programmes from oversc2s at about one-fifth of the price of the local production, they can, understandably, sec no reason for a change in the status quo.

Furthermore, the commercial stations have not been required to increase the Australian elrama by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board. Steps to enforce on these stations a progressively

mcreased drama content could have been taken by the Board years ago. The present policy of including all types of programme from " quiz" and news services to sport and variety in the 40 per cent. unofficial Australian quota has had the inevitable effect of permitting the commercial stations to ignore the drama content and to comply with the quota by filling it with the cheapest programmes, which naturally excludes drama. Recently the Postmaster-General increased this quota from 40 per cent. to 45 per cent. as from

the beginning of 1964. But again no reference was made to the drama content of programmes. Unless and until drama is made the subject of a special quota within the overall quota, the industry will continue to ignore this most significant deficiency in programmes. Whilst the situation is allowed to remain as it is, Australia can never hope to compete with either America or Britain. With only a small duty payable upon the importation of television programmes, and with no other restriction upon importation, other than with to "commercials", the future prospects of increasing the Australian content are not promising.

THE ARTISTIC PROBLEM.

73. There are other reasons for the small Australian content. They can be classified as artistic factors. 74. The Committee heard a good deal of evidence from some very experienced and knowledgeable witnesses in regard to the standard of production and presentation of Australian drama. A television programme is no different in this respect from " live " theatre. It is " show business " and must stand or fall by the artistic quality of its presentation. Australian drama must be able to compete with the

British and American programmes which will be seen on the same television screen and on the same night. Notwithstanding the criticism by the Committee of, for example, the "Westerns " as poor drama, there can be no doubt about their quality as productions. They are, like most American and

British prcductions seen by Australian television ac·dienccs, technically of world class. The Committee is forced to admit that far too many Australian dramatic programmes do not reach this standard of excellence; and it is futile for demands to be made for more Australian drama unless it is able to compete in an artistic sense with the best British and American programmes. The v1eakncsses of the Australian production and the reasons therefor may be outlined as follows:---

(1) At the moment, some Australian actors do not possess the finish, polish and sophistication of their British and American counterparts. This is acknowledged to be due not only to a lack of proper training bet more importantly to inexperience through lack of continuity of employment. There is no doubt that the Australian is potentially as good as the British actor; but it is palpably unfair to expect him to match the

British or American standard when he is in most cases a " part-time ., artist with infrequent engagements compared with his overseas fully employed counterpart. (2) Far too many of our best actors have gone overseas. This situation has already been dealt with; but we can hardly expect world quality performances in a country that

has been denuded of so many of its finest artists.

(3)

(4)

(5)

The Australian production suffers from lack of skilled and experienced direction. In this field, we also keep on losing fine artists who would have enriched our theatres if they had stayed in their own country. The producers and directors who remain here suffer in the same way as do our actors from inexperience due to a lack of

sufficient work and are therefore placed at the same disadvantage l'i.l-rl-ris their overseas counterparts. Direction is a crcati\e ftmction and the actual number of top class directors in the vvorld is comparatively small. We have far too few directors who could be called " good directors " and none of the very highest class. L) ntil we have more good direction and one or two top class men in we cannot expect

to produce world class drama consistently. Australian artistic standards of production also su11cr from the competitive impact of the low-priced American and British programmes. . [n a desperate to with the cheaper overseas production, the Austr<:lwn producer Js forced to plan h1s

budget "on a shoe string''. This means insuflicient the employment

of too many below average actor\ and the undcrpaym:nt of the actor h

''lumped" by the industry vvith the average perftlrmcr f,lr purpo,es of remuneration. The result is an indifferent production by world stand;: t"ds. It should be mentioned here that AtJstralian studio and the standard of work

of stage and studio technicians arc good by world The technician of

course more regularly employed (upon other types of programmes) and has acqUired a fine reputation throughout the world.

19 93

(6) A problem associated with dramatic standards is a tendency towards complacency m the mdustry. Far too many people are accepting the present situation of a lower standard of production as inevitable. This is a dangerous and defeatist attitude in any artistic enterprise. Given an opportunity and some encouragement, the

Australian production can improve and ccmpete with the world's best. (7) Again, the Australian production suffers because of the situation in regard to Australian dramatists. Here again, Australian culture has received a further blow in the departure of so many script writers overseas.

The of our local dramatists, naturally, vary a good deal.

The best resident dramatists are rarely employed by the television industrv but make good incomes selling their work overseas. Those writers who do write for Australian production are underpaid and suffer from the same complaint as do our actors and producers- a shortage of work and therefore a lack of proper technique and experience. The Australian dramatist can produce work of a high order if given a proper opportunity in his own country.

The usual scale of payment for an Australian scriptwriter, which includes fees paid by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. is at the rate of £200 for a one-hour drama plus repeat fees within Australia.

The corresponding fees in Britain which have been agreed to by the British Broadcasting Corporation are as follows:--(a) Minimum fee within Britain-£A.300 plus repeat fees of 50 per cent. of the original fee.

(b) Minimum fee for world rights for one hour-£A.625 plus re-run fees of up to 30 per cent. of original fee. Australia is one of the few countries in the world which does not accept the royalty principle in relation to the writing of television drama. Whilst some fault lies with the dramatist who all too frequently displays an appalling lack of business acumen in relation to the sale of his work, there is at least an equal responsibility upon the Commission, the Board and commercial television to accept and implement the principle of royalty payments. (8) Finally, in dealing with artistic factors it is appropriate to mention the significance of

" star" talent in relation to the successful development of Australian drama. The industry generally, including the Commission. does not place much importance or emphasis on the " star " so far as actors and dir;;ctors in drama are concerned. This is understandable. A " star" actor or producer can command higher fees and the

" shoe string" budget does not permit this. But, whether we like the notion of the "star" or not, it is impossible to create a prosperous television industry without it. From the time of Shakespeare and Burbage, Henry Irving and Ellen Terry, the theatre audience has demanded " star " performers. People go to the theatre not only to see the play but to see the " star ". Stardom is not always a matter of talent,

unfortunately, but is concerned with the public psychology of "audir:nce appeal". To expect an Australian actor, who has not been "elev<,tec ·· to "stardom ", irrespective of his fine qualities, to compete in television with an accepted American "star", of inferior quality, is an unreal approach to "show business".

TYPE AND THEME OF AuSTRALIAN DRAMA IN PLANS FOR A"' INCREASE.

75. A further factor relating to the Australian content should be mentioned at this stage. The Committee has postulated that any increase in Australian drama can only be achieved if the a1 quality of the Australian production is able to compete with what we describe .. world ".

A further necessary ingredient relates to the type or content of progran11nc to be produced. We have heard evidence (which we accept) that any attempt to the Amtralian content by providing

programmes that merely repeat the traditional themes and ploh in their foreign idiom \\ill

fail and cannot otherwise be justified either artistically or ae-.,thetically. Fllr example. an attempt to produce an American" Western " in Australia will fail because of its inability to the plot successfully in an American idiom. _drama ITIL_Ist be produced m the Idw1::

so that, if a producer wishes to make a "Western m :\ustralia. 1t must be an Au\lralwn Wc,tcrn complete with Australian plot and atmosphere, portraymg the of life C\ en _dO\\ n to the

speech of the actor. At the same time, the must the _underlying quality of unJ\crsaiity

in relation to theme and artistry so as to render 11 acceptable mternatwnallv.

WAYS AND MEANS WHEREBY THE AUSTRALIA'\ Co:-. II'- I CA "- Bl I "CfU ,\S!D.

76. Two level'> of increase should be considered, namely--(1) An" interim" stage involving an increased production bascJ primarily upon programmes for exhibition within Australia; and (2) An increased production based upon prospective oversea'·

20

The former concept would not be of considerable proportions and would not impose a significant burden upon the industry. It could be achieved fairly quickly, having regard to the existing capital and Jrtistic reso;;rces of the industry. But it would not increase the Australian drama content very signiHcantly and 1t should therefore be regarded as an interim measure only, a sort of " gearing-up " process or initial stage in the planning of much larger production. It would also give time to the industry to gain experience and also to solve the difficulties in relation to the artistic standards which are a prerequisite to any large-scale increase.

The latter concept not only involves the television industry but also heavily involves the Australian film industry. Full consideration of this matter is therefore more appropriately included in Part VII. relating to the latter industry.

77. The Committee considers that, in relation to the interim stage, the resources of commercial television are adequate to enable it at least to treble the content of Australian drama within the next three years. This increase would mean that whereas the present percentage is 3. l per cent. of total time devoted to programmes of Australian origin, the figure would progressively be increased to at least 9 per cent. by 1966. The Committee is aware that this increase could mean, in some cases, increased capital expenditure for studios and equipment and for the training of additional technicians and perhaps artists to the required standard. For this reason the Committee considers a three-year period as being appropriate.

The Committee considers that the suggested increase to at least 9 per cent. represents approximately the amount of Australian drama that can reasonably be expected to be produced and sold for local consumption only having regard to the sale price as compared with overseas programmes. Any funner increase can only be expected through the implementation of a plan for sales overseas (see Part VII.).

78. This interim plan will necessitate-(l) A determination within the Australian Broadcasting Control Board's overall quota of a specific quota for drama. (2) The adoption by the Australian Broadcasting Commission of an immediate plan and a

consequential increase in capital expenditure for that authority to achieve an increase in the production of drama.

THE QUOTA SYSTEM.

79. The interim and the long term plans involve the implementation of the quota system. Most witnesses strongly favoured the idea, although some were unaware of the difficulties involved. All commercial television witnesses and a few others were opposed to the notion upon principle, although most of those who argued against quotas were prepared to admit that they accepted the principle of

protection for local industries other than television. There is nothing unusual about quotas. They are already applied in relation to the production of television " commercials " and are an acknowledged success. Again, quotas are already applied to the broadcasting of Australian music under section 114 of the Act. The only criticism of this provision was that it had not as yet had the effect of producing any Australian music of outstanding quality; but it was not denied that it had had the effect of encouraging Australian masical composition.

Fmthcrmore, most of the witnesses opposing the notion of quotas were aware that the policy was in operation (in some form or another) in other countries for the protection of the local television industry. The following table lists the proportions of local and imported television productions in certain overseas countries:-

LOCAL AND IMPORTED T.V. PRODUCTIONS.

Country.

--------------

Canada Italy Japan Philippines .. United Kingdom--

(!) Commc:rciul Network (2) B.B.C. United Sta:cs (1) National Network,

(2) Local Stations West Germany

-------

I

I

I

.. ,

.. t

.. I

-----------------

Local T.V. Production.

Per cent. 55 75-85 65

50

86 90

100 95 80

Imported T.V. Production.

Per cent. 45 25-15 35

50

14 10

5

20

I

I

II

21 95

And again, the Committee points out that the principle of the quota is already applied by the Board to the extent of 40 per cent. as to the overall proportion of Australian programmes of any type.

And finally, the Committee emphasizes the fact that local television progran1mc production is virtually unprotected in a country where protection for local industry has been of the essence of government policy since Federation.

For these reasons the Committee accepts the principle of the establishment of quotas for Australian drama.

80. The Committee is conscious of the inherent dangers associated with quotas. In some countries a high quota has had the effect of lowering the artistic standard of drama. In Britain this decline in quality (quota quickies) was gradually overcome. There is no reason why this mistake should be made here. And again, the Committee realizes that the quota must be realistic and related to the prodc:ctive capacity of the industry-both qualitatively and quantitatively; suggestions that the Australian content, irrespective of other factors, should be raised quickly to 50 per cent. are therefore regarded impracticable. In this respect the Committee recalls the inefficacy of the statutory provision in the

New South Wales Cinematograph Films (Australian Quota) Act imposing a quota of Australian film in cinemas. This quota is incapable of being complied with as there are insufficient films available.

81. The Committee is therefore of the opinion that a quota­ (1) should be imposed progressively;

(2) should be related to the potential supply of programmes of good quality which are available at a reasonable price;

(3) should not include drama of poor quality (quota quickies); and

( 4) should make special allowances for drama of high quality or drama which, because of its type, has been more than usually expensive to produce.

These flexible factors should neither be beyond the capacity of the Board to administer nor of the industry to comply with.

SECTION 114 (1.) OF THE BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION AcT.

82. Section 114 (1.) of the Act reads as follows:-" The Commission and licensees shall, as far as possible, use the services of Australians in the production and presentation of broadcasting and television programmes."

83. There is some doubt as to whether the Board has any responsibility in the matter of the operation of this section. Mr. Osborne was of the opinion that any obligation arising out of this section was the responsibility of the Minister and not of the Board. The section is, in any case, a r&ther vague and uncertain provision, and the Committee is of the opinion that it would be unwise to usc the section

in its present form for the estcJJishment of quotas. At the same time the Committee is of the opinion that this section should form the legislative basis for the imposition of quotas, including quotas in rcspt:ct of drama.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

84. The Committee therefore Recommends-(!) That section 114 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1962 be amended so as to provide that-

(2)

(3)

(a) The Commission and the licensees shall have a positive duty to use the services of Australians in the production and presentation of programmes as provided by this section; (b) The Minister by regulation shall have the power to fix quotas for the Australian

Broadcasting Commission and the licensees in respect of the dramatic content of Australian programmes; and (c) The Minister, upon the recommendation of the Board in any particular case, may grant exemption or impose special conditions in regard to quotas

applicable to particular licensees where the licensee can establish the fact that a compliance with the quota would be impossible of performance. That the Minister, in pursuance of the above recommendation, determine a quota in respect of the dramatic content of Australian programmes at not less than 9 per cent.

of total time devoted to programmes of Australian origin to be imposed over the next ensuing three years.

That in the implementation of the above quota due regard be had to the factors set out in paragraph 81 hereof; and that the quota include a proportion of indigenous drama and that the component to be aimed at be approximately one-third of the Australian content of drama.

22

PROPER UTILIZATION OF THF NATION'S ARTISTIC TALENT.

The Australian artist, herein referred to, includes the actor, the producer, the director and the

dramatist, including those technically known as "script writers".

86. The recommended increases in Australian content will give greater scope for the employment of the Australian artist. But two important factors now emerge as being relevant to the problem-(1) Any increase in content must not be at the expense of artistic quality. On the other hand, it is essential that the quality of Australian productions must be improved.

This condition precedent becomes increasingly important when considering the matter of the export of Australian programmes as discussed in Part VII. A progressively increasing Australian content is therefore closely related to the necessity of improving artistic standards and the Committee now gives some consideration to this matter. (2) The problem of improving the quality of Australian television drama must necessarily

involve a consideration of the same problem within the Australian " Live " Theatre. Qualitative standards in television are merely a reflection of the standard of the Live Theatre. This is axiomatic in that the same artists are employed in both enterprises. It was the unanimous view of the witnesses associated with the Australian theatre that-

(a) the Live Theatre will continue to provide the supply of artists for television; (b) an expanding production of television drama cannot be achieved without a corresponding growth within the Live Theatre; (c) the Australian theatre is neither expanding nor is it achieving a desirable level

of high artistic standard.

TELEVISION IN RELATION TO LIVE THEATRE AND THE ARTIST.

87. The Committee is not directly concerned with the problems of the Live Theatre. But, having regard to the factors already mentioned, it is hnpossible to separate the stage and the television industry when considering problems relating to artistic standards. In this context we must recognize the prob}ems of the stage as being basic to the problems of television.

RS. The first common problem relates to the remuneration of the Australian actor. Most Australian actors are paid in accordance with the Actors' Equity Award. After reviewing these rates of payment and other conditions of employment, the Committee has no hesitation in expressing the view that the scale of fees for actors is far too low. An Australian actor, not being a leading actor, even if continuously engaged in successive productions, and having regard to certain other relevant factors, cannot earn as much per week as an unskilled labourer. This deplorable situation is one of the reasons why so many of our ambitious young actors depart for overseas or are forced into other employment. Our leading Australian actors are not very much better off. In comparison with overseas actors of equivalent status, they are paid ridiculously low fees. Whilst the Committee appreciates the fact that the matter of basic rates of payment is a matter for arbitration, it feels obliged to express the view that /\ustralia can never hope to build up a highly qualified body of competent actors unless their remuneration

bears some proper relationship to the high degree of skill and artistry that is required of this profession.

89. The second common problem relating to the actor and the producer is concerned with the lack of continuity of employment. Only a meagre proportion of our best actors are in continuous employment. Increased opportunity for employment will be one of the desirable consequences flowing from the employment of the Committee's recommendations relating to quotas. But even these measures

do not provide the final answer for the actor. Full utilization of the nation's artistic talent cannot be achieved through television alone. The Live Theatre is the real home of the actor and the prcducer. It is also the training ground for these artists. At the moment, we have a real shortage of Live Theatres in Australia. The Committee is aware of the considerable efforts of the long-established professional companies and, more recently, of the Elizabethan Theatre Trust in maintaining the present level of :lctivity in the theatre. But the efforts, for example, of the Elizabethan Theatre Trust are limited and

its policy of assistance to only a few selected theatre groups has been criticized and appears open to question. The demand for more activity in the theatre, even within the context of the Committee's inquiry, is so Important as to render it desirable in the opinion of the Committee for a much wider national policy in regard to some form of common assistance to all those reputable theatre groups that have established a reputation for high quality productions. Only in this way can the nation's artistic talents

be utilized.

90. A further common problem, and one directly related to television, concerns the training of actors and producers. It is axiomatic that these artists can only achieve the necessary training and experience through the Live Theatre. This is a basic need that must be fulfilled. The need for some basic training in the training school has also been stressed and the Committee is of the opinion that

more adequate training is essential in a country so removed from the artistic centres of the world. The Committee is aware of the good work of the National Institute of Dramatic Art in this regard but is of the opinion that the nation needs more than one full-time training school for its actors.

23

97

91. For the above reasons, and having regard to the fact that the television industry has a vested interest in the healthy development of the Live Theatre-The Committee Recommends-(!) That representatives of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Australian

Broadcasting Control Board, commercial television, the Professional Theatre and Actors' Equity should confer upon the matter of improved rates and conditions of employment for actors. (2) That a comprehensive policy with respect to assistance to reputable and competent theatre

groups be adopted. The Committee suggests the following guiding principles in relation to assistance:-(a) That assistance be made available on a "production " basis in the following cases, namely: to cover reasonable losses in the presentation of new

indigenous drama; to cover a reasonable proportion of losses in the presentation of drama of high quality; to cover reasonable losses in " experimental " drama. (b) That assistance be made available for the establishment and maintenance of

drama schools. (c) That assistance be made available to offset the high cost of travel of theatre groups, both inter and intra State. (3) The granting of taxation deductions for a period not exceeding one year of up to 150

per cent. of the salaries paid to visiting artists of world reputation whose remuneration is at a higher level than is customary in Australia. (4) Appropriate taxation exemptions to visiting professional artists of high quality for a period not exceeding one year. This recommendation and the recommendation

in (3) above are intended by the Committee to apply only during the formative stages of Australian dramatic productions. (5) Scholarships for young actors and producers of high promise and ability be made available so as to provide overseas training of the most experienced type (subject to conditions

relating to the return of the artist to Australia). (6) Funds for the above purposes to be made available upon the recommendation of the proposed Television Council.

THE AUSTRALIAN DRAMATIST.

92. The problem of the Australian dramatist has been already covered and the Committee's recommendations are made against the following background:-(1) Far too little indigenous drama is being produced by Australian dramatists. (2) Far too little indigenous drama is being produced on the stage or upon television.

(3) Too many of Australia's best dramatists are not being employed in Australia. ( 4) The remuneration of scriptwriters is far too low. (5) Our dramatists cannot be expected to produce good quality work without adequate experience and encouragement.

93. One of the depressing features of indigenous drama is that the dramatist iinds great diHiculty in pursuading the theatre or the television indus try to produce his plays. On the one hand, the Committee is told that it is almost impossible to find a good Australian drama for the stage or television. The dramatist, on the other hand, maintains that, unless and until a play is produced, it is almost impossible to evaluate the merits of what might be considered a good drama. There can be no doubt about the scarcity of good quality drama being produced. But there is also some merit in the point of view of

the dramatist. There have been two recent and significant cases of this where two Australian plays were rejected both by the Elizabethan Theatre Trust and the Adelaide Festival of Arts. Some enthusiasts in Adelaide thereupon, with great diif1culty, achieved their production in the Adelaide amateur theatre. The public reaction was extremely favorable; so much so, that the Elizabethan Theatre Trust revised its previous attitude and assisted in the further production of these plays. The plays referred to arc

" Ham Funeral '' by Patrick White and " The One Day in the Y car " by A idn Scymolir. They arc now regarded as two of the best plays recently written. These are quoted here merely

to establish the point, which was also emphasized in evidence, that there should be at le,t:,t one experienced theatre group in Australia devoted e\clusivelv to the presentation of indigenous drama. It is surprising that the Elizabethan Theatre Trust has not long since taken action along these lines. It is long overdue.

It is accordingly Recommended-(1) That the Australian Broadcasting Commission take the initiative in this matter and invite the co-operation of the Elizabethan Theatre Trust and any other interested professional group of repute in the matter of the establishment uf a theatre for the production of

indigenous drama.

24

(2) That the management of the undertaking be under the joint control of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the Elizabethan Theatre Trust but that the widest possible interests should be represented in the controlling body, which should include representatives of Australian dramatists and the professional theatre. The Committee does not envisage the establisrment of a large and expensive theatre but considers a

small, intimate theatre would be more appropriate. (3) That funds be jointly provided by the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Elizabethan Theatre Trust and the proposed Television Council. (4) That commercial television have equal opportunities with the Australian Broadcasting

Commission of purchasing the television rights of the productions. (5) That the first theatre be established in one of the larger States but that a long term policy of expansion into the remaining States be not overlooked.

FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS RELATING TO DRAMATISTS.

94. The Committee further Recommends-(!) That a substantial cash prize be made available each year for the best production of an Australian play suitable for television. That the prize be made available to the theatre group, the artists and the dramatist. (2) That the Commonwealth Literary Fund be utilized and, if necessary, its policy broadened

so as to provide funds for the encouragement of the dramatist, including such matters as awarding fellowships and assistance in the publication of plays. (3) That the proposed Television Council assist in the provision of funds for play writing competitions, especially for plays suitable for television. ( 4) That the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the Australian Broadcasting Control

Board confer upon the rates of remuneration and other conditions relating to dramatists and, in consultation with the representatives of the writ('rs' associations, endeavour to agree upon a minimum scale of fees and a set of conditions that, having regard to living standards in Australia, should compare with those appertaining in

Great Britain. ( 5) That the Government give consideration immediately to the ratification of the International Convention relating to copyright.

95. The Committee heard much diverse evidence from various writers on the question of the establishment of a school for writers of creative drama. Some writers held the view that the art of creative vvriting could not be taught; others argued that the university should establish such schools; certain writers held strong views that a school for dramatists could only assist the writer if it were to be incorporated within the organization of the film or television studio, after the manner of the British

Broadcasting Corporation. There are two associations of writers in Australia, the Fellowship of Australian Writers and the Australian Radio, Television and Screen Writers' Guild. The Committee suggests that these bodies confer and endeavour to agree upon a common policy with respect to this matter. Meanwhile, because of the conflicting evidence the Committee does not feel disposed to make a recommendation thereon.

PART VII.-THE AUSTRALIAN FILM INDUSTRY. 96. In Part VI. the Committee considered the function and significance of the live theatre in relation to television, and endeavoured to show that healthy and expanding Australian television drama can only be expected to succeed in association with a correspondingly vigorous expansion and a qualitative improvement of standards in the theatre.

97. A second governing factor in the development of Australian drama for television is associated with the Australian film industry; and whilst the Committee is not directly concerned with the problems of that industry it cannot avoid the conclusion that, as in the case of the theatre, an adequate development of drama for television can only be achieved with the building up of a corresponding degree of expansion of the film indmtry.

98. This conclusion is fortified by the following important considerations-(!) The only way in which Australia can produce television programmes which can compete in price with their overseas counterparts is for the film industry to embark upon a programme of production for overseas export, so as to spread the cost of production

over an ever-widening field. In no other way can prices to the television exhibitor be reduced. (2) If Australia is to export television programmes it is probable that the most acceptable recording medium will be upon photographic film. This does not exclude the possibility

of other recording media being used. The expression "film", therefore, in this part also includes videotape, telerecording or similar media.

25

99

(3) There is an increasing demand for world standard television programmes in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The Committee was told that the television programming industry throughout the world has a " voracious appetite and that it is getting larger". Although some countries (e.g., the United States of America, Canada and Britain) have " quotas " in relation to imported programmes, evidence supports the view that films of high quality can be sold in almost every country, includincr the Communist countries. It depends upon the quality and type of

In regard to the potential of an overseas market, the Committee communicated with certain Australian representatives in a number of overseas countries, reauesting them to investigate this question. At Appendix G a summary of the reports from certain of our overseas representatives is set out. It will be noted that there is an apparent market for high quality television films in many of these countries. New

television services in South-East Asia are now coming into operation and the importance to Australia cannot be over-emphasized of ensuring that an adequate and comprehensive image of the Australian nation is properly presented by television to the peoples of these nations. This particular function of Australian television was very forcibly placed before the Committee by Dr. Darling-

" . . We have a clear function and Australia has a clear function in our particular part of the world to develop programmes, particularly on the educational side, which can be of value in the new television establishments of our neighbours to the north. I think this matter of what kinds of programmes are available to the new television

institutions in, say, Bangkok, Malaya, Singapore and Indonesia when it gets television, is probably of greater importance than almost anything that we can think of as far as we ourselves are concerned. I do not think that ought to be lost sight of."

The Committee has no hesitation in strongly recommending that his views be endorsed and acted upon by both the television and film industries. This is a national obligation of great significance and the Committee notes that the Australian Broadcasting Commission has already endeavoured to produce some non-dramatic programmes for export to our Asian neighbours. But the Commission's resources

are far too inadequate for this work and should be strengthened. The Committee is of the opinion that commercial television has failed to achieve the desirable in this objective and recommends that commercial television likewise should accept some responsibility in this field. The Committee is of the

opinion that the Australian Broadcasting Control Board also should interest itself in this aspect and require to be informed annually of the extent to which commercial licensees have contributed to this purpose. ( 4) All other considerations notwithstanding, there is an unanswerable case for Australia

to export her best television programmes in quantity overseas. A free interchange of this important cultural medium is essential in that the rest of the world should have the opportunity of appreciating and evaluating the creative artistry and culture of the Australian nation (as in other artistic and cultural enterprises, e.g., literature and

painting). Likewise the Australian artist cannot give proper expression to his creative ability unless he can compete internationally. To force the Australian to create only for Australians and to be" inward-looking" will result in an acceptance of a parochial set of values and inferior standards. This is what is happening at the moment in A--ustralian drama (including film and television programmes).

INCREASED CoNTENT oF AusTRALIAN DRAMA-LONG TERM FACTOR.

99. As the only way to obtain cheaper supplies of television programmes is through the establishment of an export market in films, it follows that any substantial increase in the content of Australian television dramatic programmes is very closely related to and in fact dependent upon the extent to which Australia can develop her film industry and sell her films overseas. This is the long

term factor referred to at paragraph 76 of Part VI. and is basic to any substantial increase in the Australian content of television drama. It is against this background that the Committee now examines the problems relating to the development of the Australian Film Industry and the prospects of selling A Listralian films overseas.

EARLY HISTORY OF AusTRALIAN FIL\1 hocSTRY.

100. The rise and fall of the Australian film industry is a melancholy spectacle for contemplation by Australians. One often hears it said that "Australia can never make films", and that the business of film making is" best left to those countries (meaning the United States of America) \\ho can do it better than we can". The Committee rejects the sentiments so expressed. lt is not generally known

that Australia produced the world's first motion picture (" Soldiers of the Cross" in !90 l ). that from the beginning of the century until the immediate post World War I. years Australia \\as one of the leading producers in the world of full-length ("feature") films, that no less than 19R full-length "fc::tture" films were made in and exported by Australia during that period and that these films \\ere made by Australian artists, directors and producers. With the advent of sound and the" take-0\ er " of Australian

cinemas by American interests, the industry virtually collapsed. It has remained in a state of near

26

extinction ever since. In recent years, Australian studios have produced less than one " feature '' film per year. They still produce some of the best documentary films in the world; but if it were not for the directive issued by the Government in 1960 whereby the importation of advertising "commercials " was virtually prohibited, the film industry would now be extinct. This directive has virtually the effect of a quota. These facts are mentioned to emphasize the point that this country has already demonstrated that it can make world quality films and export them and the only reason why it did not continue to do so is that the industry was left unprotected and squeezed out of business by an overseas industry which was heavily protected in its own country.

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE INDUSTRY.

101. The following information supplied by representatives of the industry is intended to illustrate tbe present size and capacity of the film industry:-

Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Adelaide

Total

DISPOSITION AND SIZE OF MAIN PRODUCING ORGANIZATIONS.

Locality.

; '""' '"""" oo "'"·/ ""''"m "-'"'" '""· /''"'" ((oo '""" ' 00 "•ff). i ___ T_o-tal_. ---

! 5 I 8 I 13 26

I . 6 I 3 9

· · 1 3 I 2 5 • • I 1 1

I •• I 5 18 18 41

(1) Documentary films are the most commonly attempted production, particularly in the case of" small" companies (15 out of 18), although almost all producers (35 out of 41) have made documentaries. (2) Training films for industry and schools and television advertising films are the next

most commonly attempted productions (28 out of 41 producers operate in these two fields). (3) The dominating position of Sydney organizations in the production of all types of film is clearly illustrated. (4) Six hundred and ten films (other than television "Commercials") were produced during

the year 1961-62, which amounted to a total of 125 hours running time. The industry claims that it is not running to capacity. If the industry were running on a full-time basis (i.e., all personnel fully employed), the present output could be doubled.

It is notable that this increase would represent an increase of more than 100 per cent. of Australian dramatic productions on commercial television stations (provided, of course, this increase were devoted exclusively to drama). The transmission time devoted to Australian drama by commercial television stations in capital cities during April-June, 1962, averaged only 49.6 minutes per week. If the Australian film industry were being used to capacity in the production of Australian drama, the increase would represent an additional 72 minutes per week.

(S) Ten of the main film production organizations are regarderl by the representatives of tl1c industry as at present having the knowledge, capacity and necessary resources to make programmes of a dramatic nature for television.

PROBLEMS FACING THE INDUSTRY.

102. In the opinion of the Committee, the re-establishment of the film industry involves a consideration of various problems that might be classified as economic, artistic and technical factors.

THE EcoNOMIC PROBLEM oF FILM MAKING.

103. There arc various economic and financial that beset the industry. The first one

relates to the cnst of production which, spread over the srna!l Australian home market, renders the price to the exhibitor so much higher t_han the _sale of an imp_orted fil_m of !->imilar type. Thic.. impossible situation has d1scussed 111 Part v l. and no further elaboration except

to repeat that an Australian tclevJsJOn company can purchase an Amencan programme for as low a' one-fi.fth of the price of an progr!-lmm_e of similar type. This can hardly be regarded

as providing any incentive for the Australian f1lm the courage

and the enthusiasm of the Australian film producer and h1s and techn1c1ans 111 endeavounng to cope with such an obstacle. 104. At the moment the industry is unprotected and entirely at the mercy of unrestricted and powerful overseas competition, and fo: the reasons _hcrein!Jefore the Committee

strongly recommends that some form of protectiOn should be 1mmedwtely forthcommg. A great deal

27 1 01

of evidence from witnesses who could be described as " impartial " was heard in favour of some form of protection the film industry. It wa5 pointed out that the economy of the nation is based upon adequate protection for local industry and that in the case of an industrY with a strong cultural element there was an even greater responsibility to protect it. Opposition to the principle of protection came almost exclusively from representatives of the commercial television stations and advertising agencies. Although some of these gentlemen were unable to explain why. on the one hanJ they approved of the policy of protection for Australian industry generally but, on the other hand. disapproved of a form of protection for the film industry. Responsible and experienced representatives of the industry claimed

that the interests of the industry could best be served by the Government making available loan money for these purposes. The Committee considered the imposition of a heavier tariff upon imported film, which now attracts a small" revenue" tariff, but, in its opinion, to be effective for the purpose of assisting the Australian industry, such a tariff would need to be excessive. The Committee is of the opinion

that the needs of the industry will be best met by a joint policy of the imposition of the quota in favour of Australian programmes and the grant of a loan scheme of subsidy in the manner hereinafter set out. The Committee points out that assistance by \\ ay of subsidy is not unusual in other countries. In fact, most countries which have already established their own film industries have at some stage used this form of protection.

105. A further problem confronting the industry is one of insuftkient capital, particularly working capital, to cover the cost of production of particular films. The industry is fairly well equipped with capital plant equipment and facilities for the production of film and sees no difficultv in either hiring or purchasing additional plant and equipment. But for the reason set out in para.uaph I 03, and because of the inevitably high incidence of los<> that nwst always be with enterprises of an artistic

nature (a state of affairs that exists throughout the whole world), the industry can be expected for at least some time to come to experience great difliculty in attracting an adequate amount of capital. Having regard to the fact that the incidence of loss and failure will be great, that Australia's competitors in this field are already well established and that large investments of" risk " capital will be required, the Committee recommends that certain taxation incentives and concessions be applied in accordance

with the recommendations hereinafter set out. The Committee points out that these recommendations do not involve the Commonwealth in any loss of existing revenue. They are concessions in respect of income and profit that is not yet being earned and will otherwise '10t be earned.

106. A further financial problem is that or the time-lag between production and the receipt of payments, particularly from overseas sales. Evidence before the Committee is that producers who have succeeded in selling films overseas do net commence receiving payments for as long as twelve months from date of production and it could be several years before the stage is reached where costs are covered.

Yet another problem, which, in fact, appears to be an anomaly, seems to be in relation to sales tax as applied to the film industry. A standby or duplicate negative made from an original negative, in order to make bulk copies of a particular film, although not normally sold, is taxable. Some types of sound recordings are taxable. If a company produces a film as a speculation, tax is payable on the

production even though it may never be sold. Exposure meters. essential as part of every camera man's equipment, are taxable because it is contended they arc aids to knowledge and not aids to manufacture. Micrometers measure length and are tax free but exposure meters which measure light are taxable.

MARKETING PROBLEMS.

107. One of the basic prerequisites to the successful regeneration of the film industry lies in overcoming the difficultit's associated with the marketing of films overseas. The Committee emphasizes the point that the various forms of encouragement and assistance recommended t'or the indL,qry have been framed so as to enable it to produce films for export, and produce them in larl:!e numbers. That

a market exists for the right kind of film of high quality not But the Committee heard a

good deal of evidence from film producers anJ other intnested and bighly qualificJ 11 anJ cannot escape the conviction that there exists a wide field o,r disagreement oy per'><21b c:mn-:cted 11 1th the Australian industry upon several important aspects of overseas marketing. l-or C\amplc. there 1s a conflict in the evidence as to what are the ··right·· tyrcs of dramatic film 11hieh 11 ill attract overseas

buyers. Some witnesses held the .view that '· Au"tralian themes·· can he overseas. Others arc of the opposite opinion. The Committee suggcsh that 11hd't a :,trong lucal atmu,rhere m1ght he acceptable in other countries, the "theme" must have a basic dill\ ehal1ty that 11 11! render 1t to other

people. There also ,u be a conOict of 0pinion ·'I' 111 the f•.lrm .. in 11 hich

Some producers expressed the vic11 that him" cotdd he: ,,,Jd on·· pJ!,,t . <•tiler, held to the

opinion that at least some completed arc hclorc a -ale can he m:tdc. .·\t::alll. there

is a variation in the view as to whether producer or h1:-. repre:,enta\I\t: !!') mcr-,eas Ill

order to effect a sale, or 'Whether good agenh can do a\ ''ell. The-,c and other

are matters that require much further and it is beyond the c·ommittce\ to de this.

It is more properly a respon:,ioility of the indu-,try ihell' in collaboration \lith the \LtfT> ,11 our oversea• representatives of the Departn'cnt of fradc. \,the po:,-,IOiilt\· "I JJKre:blilt' :\u-,trakt .\export income is an important feature of the <:xpansion qf the: indu,tr:. the ( omm1ttee reco!llmench the Government sponsor an overseas compri,i,lg -,e;eetcd and cxpcnenL·ccl reprc,entat11e-, t;f the

F.ll7711 63.-3

28

industry, who m collaboration with the Department of Trade can carefully examine and re-port to the Government and the industry upon the wide range of questions relating to marketing about which some doubt now exists. In this way the industry can become more adequately informed and overcome the possibility of losses which could otherwise be serious.

THE TECHNICAL AND ARTISTIC PROBLEM.

l 08. The Committee was imformed that, so far as technical personnel are concerned, Australia is well supplied with an adequate number of highly skilled camera men, studio and other technicians, who are quite up to world standard. The problem of the film artist (actor, producer, director, dramatist and script editor) is, however, the identical problem as that existing iTJ the live theatre and the television studio and there is no necessity to repeat the Committee's views and conclusions already expressed. The actual purpose of the recommendations set out in the following paragraph is to build up the industry on the basis of local artists who ultimately will be the major section of the employment. But, during the initial years, the industry badly requires the servi\es of at least some artists of high world repute in the above categories. Their major role would be to assist our local artists in gaining experience by working in close association with them. But the salaries of these overseas arti<>ts would be an expensive item in that the fees paid to outstanding overseas artists are very much higher than are paid to our best local artists.

For example, a film director of high reputation in Europe would expect to receive at least ten times the salary that a good Australian director earm. Bvt this problem must be faced as it must in the live theatre and in television. An additional practical difficulty emerges when overseas artists are approached to come to Australia. Our country, whether we like it or not, is very remote, in an artistic sense, from the great European and American cultural centres. No great artist can afford to spend too much time away from these great centres of artistic activity. He would soon find himselfforgotten ifhe did. The Australian entrepreneur constantly finds difficulty in persuading great artists to visit Australia except for very short periods. The Committee therefore sees this as a twofold problem. Not only should there be some form of encouragement to the Australian industry in regard to seeking key personnel from overseas, but this

encouragement should be extended to the overseas artist himself.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

109. The Committee therefore Recommends-(1) That (as has been recommended in respect of the theatre and television industry) the employer of overseas film artists of high repute who pays higher salaries than those normally paid in Australia should be entitled to a deduction of up to 150 per cent. of

the salary paid in respect of such artist for a period not exceeding one year; and (2) Taxation exemptions for such artists should be granted for the same period in respect of income earned in Australia. In this respect it is pointed out that a similar exemption already exists for visiting sportsmen; and the Committee feels that if sportsmen are

entitled to such an exemption, it would not be too much to extend this important concession to actors, directors and other artists.

These recommendations are intended by the Committee to apply only during the formative stages of re-establishment of the film industry.

RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO LOAN SCHEME OF SUBSIDY.

110. The Committee Recommends that loans be made to film producers for "approved" productions and broadly in accordance with the policy. at present operating in Great Britain. Although the British scheme includes all classes of film, there IS no reason why its local operation cannot be restricted to television film alone. In 1948 the British Government set up the National Film Finance Corporation and in 1949 passed legislation to provide it with £5,000,000 to commence operations. The Corporation received applications for from producers, the proposed script and budget, approved (or rejected) the loan and took a hen over and undertaking as security. 1t is

interesting to note that. after the 2t years of operatiOns, this corporation received 426 inquiries for assistance and regarded 244 of these as worthy of further inquiry and investigation. The end result was as follows:-Approved for loan 93

Rejected outright . . · . . . 51

Failed to comply with N.F.F.C. conditions 83

Withdrawn after approval 10

Still under consideration 7

244

I

lr.

29

103

llOA. The following more recent information is available with respect to the National Film Finance Corporation:-"The Corporation made a loss for the year of £219,867 compared with profits of £49,564 and £18,441 for the two previous years. The main factors contributing to this regrettable setback in the Corporation's progress are that shares of profits received during the year from successful films decreased from £323,952 for the previous year to £116,384; that the provision made for losses on loans is still high at £227,807 (the provision for the previous year being £219,531); and that a further deterioration in the interest account has occurred, the adverse balance for the year amounting to £86,200.

The year's loss of £219,867 has increased the accumulated deficiency to £4,282,853 at 31st M:arch, 1963."

It is noted that since the commencement of the scheme that the sum of £22,661,565 has been advanced, of which the sum of £13,187,655 has been repaid to date.

111. The suggested outline of the Australian scheme is as follows:-(1) The proposed Television Council to consider applications for assistance, make recommendations for such assistance to the Minister and be responsible for the administration of any assistance to producer companies on a project basis. (2) Complete script to be approved by the Television Council together with the production

budget as submitted by the producer. (3) No loan shall exceed 50 per cent. of the production budget approved by the Council. (4) Upon approval by the Television Council, one-half of the loan to be paid to the producer company provided such producer company takes out a fidelity bond with a reputable

insurance company to complete the programme within a specified period, say one year. (5) Upon completion of the programme, the balance of the loan to be paid to the production company, provided the Television Council approves its general standard and agrees

it has satisfactorily translated the script. (6) On all net sales the first amounts shall be applied to recoup that proportion of the budget not covered by the loan to the production company. Thereafter all net sales to be applied pound for pound to the production company and Commonwealth loan equally

until whole of initial subsidy is repaid including Bank Rate Interest. Payments of interest shall be regarded as a long term repayment at the discretion of the Television Council. (7) The Television Council, in considering applications for assistance, shall have regard to

the potential capacity and ability of the producer company to carry out the production and shall regard the quality thereof as being of the utmost importance in giving its approval for assistance.

OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS RFGARD TO THE FILM INDUSTRY.

112. The Committee Recommends, for reasons already advanced, the following assistance to Australian companies engaged in producing films:-(1) By excluding from the taxable income of producing companies the profit resulting from sales of films overseas.

(2) By providing other tax concessions, such as the fast write-off of capital ass.ets or special depreciation allowances. (3) By lifting sales tax completely from all purchases of either materials or film stork and all products manufactured by film producers pertaining to film production other than

final release prints.

113. The Committee Recommends the following encouragement to the Australian investor:­ (!) By allowance in his personal income tax assessment of all calls on shares subscribed in Australian film-producing companies' capital, by way of total deductions. (2) By receipt of tax-free dividends from his investment, in particular, by maintaining the

the tax-free content of profits from overseas sales (see paragraph 112 (2.) above).

114. The Committee further Recommends-(1)

(2)

That the overseas organization of the Department of Trade should include skilled personnel in the field of film distribution whose services could be utilized in regard to advertising and marketing Australian films overseas. That ways and means should be discussed with State governments as to the manner in

which they can assist the Film Industry at State level (e.g., provision of land, studio buildings, &c.).

FINANCE FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE COMMITTEE'S RECOMMENDATIONS.

115. The Committee is well aware of the fact that its recommendations entail the provision of additional finance and submits the following views thereon.

30

I 16. The Committee adopts the attitude that the recommendations all basically relate to the problem of increasing the Australian content in television programmes, particularly the most important and expensive section of such content, namely drama. This is not only a matter of urgency: it is a matter of responsibility on the part of the nation and its government. The greatest financial responsibility for these important activities should therefore be accepted by the Government.

Accordingly the Committee Recommends that funds from consolidated revenue be made available for all purposes connected with the recommendations, provided that the appropriations do not exceed the sum of £1,000,000.

Whilst it is difficult to assess with any accuracy the total cost involved in the various

recommendations contained in this report, the Committee is of the opinion that the maximum financial commitment in any one financial year would not exceed the above sum.

117. The Committee notes that the public revenue has been very considerably increased through the advent of television.

The table below sets out the amount of revenue provided by way of sales tax and excise duty on television sets and tubes each year since the inception of television in Australia:-

1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

Total

------------------------------ ------ -------

Year.

I

I

I

. . I

Sales Tax on Sets (excluding Tubes).

£A.m. 2.0 6.5 6.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 6.5

42.0

Excise Duty on T.V. Tubes. Sales Tax and Excise Duty.

I ,

' I £A.m. 1

o.2 1

1.3 2.0 2.9 2.0 2.0 2.1

£A.m. 2.2 7.8 8.0 l0.9

9.0 8.0 8.6

--------------------12.5 54.5 ------- ------ ----------- ---------- ------Thus television has provided through sales tax and excise duty revenue totalling £54,500,000 in only seven years of operations. The figure for the last financial year ended 30th June, 1963, was £8,600,000, and there is no reason to believe that this figure will not be maintained. The increased taxation due to the expected increased activity in the theatre and the film industry will likewise add to public revenue and, with the eventual increase in the export of films and the consequential decrease in the import of films, the overseas exchange position should likewise benefit considerably. 118. But notwithstanding the responsibility attaching to the Government, the Committee feels that there is also a degree of responsibility which should be accepted by the television industry and eventually by the film industry itself. The television industry clearly has a national obligation to share in the financial burden of providing an adequate Australian content in its programme<>. Licensees with monopolies of public television services can and must expect to assume the public responsibilities commensurate with such privileges. It is accordingly Recommended that the annual licence fee payable under section 4 of the Broadcasting and Television Stations Licence Fees Act 1956 be increased in the following After the first three years of cperation-(1) For the first £100,000 of the gross earnings of the station from the televising of advertisements or other matter Nil (2) For the next £400,000 of these earnings 2% (3) For the amount by which these earnings exceed £500,000 4% This is even then a very small charge upon revenue compared with the rates introduced in Britain as a result of the Pilkington Report of 1962 and implemented by the TC'levision Act 1963 which prescribed the following rental payments by programme contractors:-"For the first one-and-a-quarter million pounds of the gross advertising receipts of the programme contractor for the 12-month accounting period .. "For the next eight million pounds of those gross advertising receipts " tor the amount by which those gross advertising receipts exceed the aggregate of the said st11·n-; of one-and-a-quarter million and eight million pounds Nil 221% 40%" The capacity of the Australian industry to bear the recommended charges is demonstrated by its profit history up to date. The relevant figures in respect of the industry are set out below. .

31 105

. The financial results of the operations of the four metropolitan stations of Sydney and Melbourne smce they commenced service are as under:-

1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62

Year. T(ltal Re,·enue.

£

I, 190,950 2,978,502 5,923,973 8,245,345 10,389,597

9,895,833

(Source: Australian Broadcasting Control Board.)

Total E·q:'enditure.

£

I

3,035.399 4,973,280 6,501,920 8,188,654

7,830,411

Net Result Loss(-) Profit(+).

£

-551,214 -56,897 +959,693 +1,743,425 +2,200,943 +2,065,422

. The latest available figures showing net profit and dividend payable for all metropolitan commercial stat10ns are a<> follows:-

ATN TCN

GTV

HSV

BTQ QTQ ADS

NWS TVW TVT

Statlon. Net Pro6t.

£

395,655 332,192 *

357,0!8 *

205,157 *

103,193 74,705 60,074

!64,250 173,439 76,127

* Figures not available.

Dividend.

Per cent. 20 20 20 20

20 17! I?!

7t

6t

8

Financial Year.

1962-63 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62

1962-63 1961-62 1962-63 1962-63 1962-63 1962-63

(recommended) 15 20 15

1962-63 1962-63 1962-63

---··-- - ··--·----

The film industry should expect to assist in this national undertaking for its own sake. It is not suggested that at the moment it is in anything like the condition to contribute more to public revenue: the reverse is the case. But when this industry becomes established and in a flourishing condition the situation should be reviewed so that the prosperous element can in some small way assist in the greater expansion of the national enterprise.

LoNG TERM PoucY oN QuoTAS.

119. Finally the Committee propo<>es to make a further recommendation upon quotas with respect to the Australian dramatic content of programmes. It will be noted that in Part Vl. the Committee recommended a short term policy or interim stage in relation to a quota of up to at least 9 per cent. of total time devoted to programmes of Australian origin within three years and the opinion that a higher quota could not be expected without a decrease in the sale price of Australian programmes. This problem of an economical price for local programmes is the basic problem discussed in this Part and

it is dependent upon the extent to which the film industry succeeds in establishing a healthy export trade. But if and when this desirable situation commences and an effect is seen (for this or any other reason) in the disparity between local and imported prices of television programmes, the quota should thereupon be reviewed.

The Committee therefore Recommends that the matter of quotas be kept constantly under review and that they be increased, having regard to the extent of increases in the supply of programmes and the comparative cost of local and overseas programmes. The Committee feels that it would be unwise at this stage to fix the ultimate on maximum limits with respect to Australian content. This question

contains unknown and long term considerations; but we feel that an ideal to be aimed at would be about 50 per cent. Australian-produced drama, having regard to the various economic, cultural and other factors involved. In this ideal figure of 50 per cent., the Committee considers that it is important that a proper balance be maintained between Australian programmes and good quality programmes from

overseas.

32

FILM PRODUCTION BY THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CoMMISSION.

120. The Australian Broadcasting Commission has limited facilities for the production of film and in the opinion of the Committee they are quite inadequate for the role of the Commission in television. In this respect Sir Charles Moses was inclined to adopt the attitude that the Commission should " hasten slowly" and that the production of dramatic films for export wa') being far too ambitious at the moment and that well-produced documentaries should be the first consideration. The Committee does not accept this attitude as being adequate in the circumstances. Australia has been " hastening slowly" and producing documentaries (many of high quality) for many years. It is an urgent matter for the

consideration of the Australian Broadcasting Commission that it should embark upon a long term programme of films for export including dramatic films. If the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation can do it successfully, there is no reason why its Australian counterpart should not do likewise. 121. The Committee therefore Recommends that the Australian Broadcasting Commission, as incidental to its main functions, in planning its film production should make films which are suitable for both the local and export markets.

PART VIII.--RESEARCH.

122. The Committee's observations on the subject of research are made against the following background:-(1) Television is the most powerful of all the mass communication media and its potential dangers and benefits are correspondingly great.

(2) The importance of research into the sociological and psychological effects of television therefore cannot be over-emphasized.

PRESENT NATURE AND EXTENT OF RESEARCH.

123. Both the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the Australian Broadcasting Control Board maintain research sections within their organizations. The Board has also made funds available for individual research work at certain universities and, as a consequence, some excellent research studies have been produced. A summary of the major research studies which have so far been undertaken in

Australia is set out in Appendix H. The Committee heard a good deal of evidence in relation to research from a number of witnesses; it is indebted to some valuable and thoughtful submissions from Professor K. F. Walker, Dr. W. J. Campbell, Dr. A. G. Maclaine, Mr. R. J. Thomson and Mr. S. D. Forsey. After studying the volume and nature of the research work already produced and listening to the evidence,

the Committee considers that-(1) The amount of research already carried out in Australia has been totally inadequate, having regard to the importance of the subject and to the general nature of the findings thus far arrived at. (2) The Board, in collaboration with some of the universities, has done some interesting

and valuable work in the field of research; the Commission bas virtually done little in the field of true scientific research, its activities being mainly limited to questions relating to programme analysis and audience appreciation. But the overall picture presented by the research activities is that the research is rather of a sporadic nature; that there is no attempt at the co-ordination of this work at a national level, or even as between the activities of the Board and the Commission; and that some important

aspects of research have not as yet been commenced. For example, little or no research has been attempted as to the best uses that can be made of television. Such questions should affect programme policies to the same extent as research into the harmful effects of television. 124. Upon the nature and extent of current research Professor Walker had this to say:-" Two unfortunate results follow from the fact that researchers have as yet been unable to provide many definite answers to the kind of practical questions which various responsible people in the community ask about the psychological and social effects of television. One is that the industry and those concerned with the provision of television services heave sighs of relief and take refuge from some of the awkward issues involved with comforting statements that their programmes have not been proved to have any of the ill-effects which have been feared. The other unfortunate re:>ult is that, in the absence of established fact, we have only a confusion of personal opinion and prejudice which can easily be exploited by the commercial interests who pursue their own objectives. . . . It seems clear that much of the research on the effects of television, particularly the earlier work, has failed to produce clear-cut results because of the influence of other factors, which have not been adequately taken into account. It is also clear that public opinion has sometimes mat!e television a scapegoat for many other forces at work in our society. On the other hand, one cannot help but be struck by the fact that television can be an important contributory factor. This has been shown by the researches which have demonstrated that under certain conditions and with certain groups of people, particular kinds of televi,ion programmes do have a definite effect on their outlook and behaviour. . . . In my opinion, there is evidence both from the research studies and from our own experience of the power of television, to make it essential that the community resi-;t till: temptation to adopt an ostrich-like attitude and actively seek to put this medium to the best possible uses for the communitv. . . . The first essential is to increase the amount of research which is being done on the effects of

telcvi-,ion in Australia. l do not know the precise amount that has been spent on such research to date, but I am sure that it is minute compared with the investment which commercial interests have put into television and with the expenditure on other aspects of television by the Government. Five or ten times as much research would not be too much in the next Jive years and. personally, I see no reason whatever why the industry itself should not contribute to the cost of this research.

33

107

M:1ny other industries contribute to rcsc::1rch which will incre::1se their efficiency ::1nd benefit the community. . . . Since televi,;ion docs not operate in a vacuum. we can only estimate its etfects accurately when we have a fuller ::1ppreciation of the other forces active in the C<)mmunity. Thi-; means that the necessary research must have a much wider scope than the previous research and it sho,dd be linked \v ith the programmes of psychological and social research which are being

pursued in universities and elsewhere. independently of the activities of those employed upon research on television. . . . You could have an advisory committee of some sort, which would be worth having, but its impact would be relatively small unless it were backed by a continuous programme of research and discussion. I might bring out this point here: I would like any such organization to be truly national. I mean to have activities in every State of the

Commonwealth, again pursuing my theme that people are influenced by the things that happen around them and not by the things that happen thousands of miles away. There are some differences, T gather-although T am not well informed about television programmes in the other States because I pay only short visits there-between the Au,tralian States in this respect. fn any case, people will feel that there are. In order to get the total impact on these problems that T have mentioned, research, discussion and anything that is done needs to be done in every State."

125. Dr. Campbell, who has produced some outstanding research studies, made the following comment upon the subject:-.. I think that a number of things can be said with confidence:-(a) people, and especially children and adolescents, are affected by the experiences which they encounter;

(b) in these days, and, again, especially for children and adolescents, television, provides an appreciable proportion of these experiences; on a simple time basis, those young people with television sets in their homes (and this is by far the majority in the larger metropolitan areas) are probably, on an average, watching television for 10-15 hours per week (the equivalent of 2-3 school days). (c) despite the fears of many people, it can be said that on the negative side, television as presently programmed,

is not adding appreciably to the problems that young people face in growing up;

(d) however, and this is the point which I would like to consider, television, as presently programmed, is not making any great contribution to the development of our children and adolescents, or to the wider understanding of our adult population; in other words, we have in television an excellent medium for fostering the development and understanding of the viewers but we seem to be letting the opportunity slip by.

"In taking up this issue further, however, I would like to say-(a) I do not believe that every experience ought to be saturated with 'education ' in a sense of the

word; television provides good entertainment in many instances, and the enjoyment which flows from this ought not to be dismissed as non-educational; (b) many experiences which contribute greatly to our development and understanding of our own society are, in a sense, 'timeless ' and ' placeless '-they need not pertain to Australia in this twentieth

century; the studies of ancient Greek and Roman cultures are excellent examples of this kind; (c) nevertheless, there is still much merit in presenting some programmes which are specifically designed to help our particular Australian viewers. (d) This 'specific designing' would seem to involve-

(i) a knowledge of content and thematic analyses; (ii) a knowledge of psychological or developmental needs at different age-levels; (iii) an ability to match contents and themes with the needs of viewers, and it might take one of two forms-

(i) the modification of existing programmes; or (ii) the production of new programmes. (e) Modification of Existing Programmes.-Many of the current programmes have been produced elsewhere; we are not concerned with how satisfactorily they meet the needs of these other cultures, but to be of

greatest value to us they frequently require modification; this, in many instances, means merely a shift in focus from, say, presenting a comprehensive account of something (even, e.g., the culture of ancient Greece) to presenting those elements which are of special significance to us in a form which permits the significance to be clearly appreciated; this modification requires a special knowledge of Australian culture and Australian viewers. (f) Production of New Programmes.-It is unlikely that modification of existing programmes would satisfy all

· the needs of viewers, and in many instances the most effective approach would be to produce new programmes of our own; (I do not believe, however, that new programmes produced in Australia are necessarily better than modification of other programmes, or even other programmes accepted without modification-it all depends upon the extent to which they achieve our particular goals).

(g) Su![gestions.-Tn simple terms, we need: to clarify our goals; and to identify those programme clements which will contribute to the achievement of these goals; and to proceed to the task of ensuring that the£e elements feature attractively in at least some of the programmes telecast. (i) Goals.-These seem to be adequately stated in the Australian Broadcasting Control Board's

'Television Programme Standards', Melbourne, 1956, paras. 10-15. (ii) Identification of Elements.-We know from the work of Martin, Emery. Thom

would contribute to the goals among different age groups. Here is an important

34

POLICY OF RESEARCH.

126. The Committee had the advantage of a valuable discussion upon the nature and extent of current research with Professor W. D. Borrie, who is the chairman of the Social Science R:::search Council of Australia. Professor Borrie suggested that a prerequisite to a comprehensive and co-ordinated programme of research into television at a national level would be a research project to be carried out upon the research needs of television. In other words, the first step to be taken should be an investigation

into what are the necessary projects and priorities for future research. That this first step has never been taken is not surprising in that no one authority is responsible for the overall planning of research at a national level. But the impact of television upon the nation is so great that this investigation should not be delayed any longer. Professor Borrie indicated that the Research Council might be prepared to

undertake this work. The Committee is most appreciative of Professor Barrie's kind suggestion and offer of assistance.

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF TELEVISION.

127. There was strong evidence before the Committee indicating a considerable degree of public disquiet concerning the harmful effects of television, particularly upon children. This disquiet is a matter of concern to the Committee and cannot be ignored. Witnesses giving evidence on behalf of commercial television adopted several attitudes in regard to this criticism. Most of the<>e witnesses admitted to being aware of the public concern hut in answer thereto put forward three arguments which can broadly be summarized as follows:-

(1) That, because a harmful effect has not been conclusively established, either per medium of research findings or otherwise, the television authorities need not be concerned with it;

(2) That the public concern is not widespread but is only a view held by a small section of the public; and

(3) T n any event, in relation to children's programmes, the children prefer the type of programme now being telecast.

The Committee wishes to point out that in relation to children's programmes and adult programmes that children would normally see, the public criticism as to harmful effects was invariably directed towards the commercial stations.

128. In regard to the first of these arguments, the Committee is well aware that, whilst there is undoubtedly adequate scientific proof on the harmful effects of certain programmes, there is no conclusive proof in relation to many other alleged harmful effects of other types of programmes. There is, for example, undoubted proof of the harmful effects upon young children of the excessive viewing of television. This harmful sociological effect, resulting in a lack of social interaction, is adequately established by

Dr. Campbell and others. And again, there is the effect of certain classes of programme of horror and violence which tends to aggravate criminal tendencies of thought and behaviour that are already present in certain classes of juvenile viewers. And further, Dr. Thomson draws attention to the " stereotyping of outlook " in adolescent viewers, caused by the degree of monotony of crime, violence and similar programmes, presented in endless series throughout the year. These are all established conclusions; but there is also little conclusive scientific proof in relation to the alleged harmful effects of many other types of programme. And, equally as important, there is no adequate proof and no research attempted thereon as to what types of programmes are of benefit and value to the young Australian. But there must be a policy one way or the other for the purpose of deciding the type of programme to be presented.

Upon the evidence both scientific and otherwise before the Committee it can come to only one conclusion, namely, that as tekvision is the greatest and most powerful weapon in the worldininfluencing the values and moral standards of society, there is grave danger in adopting the attitude that, because specified harmful effects have not been conclusively established, the television stations need not be

concerned with it. Jt is a fallacy, in the opinion of the Committee, that merely because the admittedly inadequate scientific research in Australia has not conclusively established a harmful effect or trend in a particular case, it can be assumed that the effect is not only not harmful but is, in fact, beneficial.

129. The second argument offered in support of commercial television programmes for children was that the public disquiet was not widespread. Mr. Osborne on behalf of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board offered this as an answer to the admitted criticism. The Committee strongly refutes this argument. Admittedly, the criticism comes only from a section of the general public. But it comes from the responsible and thoughtful element of the schools, parents' organizations.

and social groups. But, as against this weight of evidence, there is no section (however

small) of the public that supported the policies of the commercial stations and the passive approval of them hv the Board. The commercial stations and the Board are dearly not entitled to assume that all those who did not speak against the programmes and who remained silent are in favour of them. This is a fallacious argument which the Committee does not accept. The inescapable fact cannot be avoided that a significant and informed-if small-section of the public opinion has utterly condemned the policies of commercial television in relation to children andju:veniles (including those adult programmes which are normally watched by children) and the Committee has no hesitation in accepting this evidence.

35

109

130. The third argument offered in support of commercial television programmes was to the effect that " the children prefer the type of programme that is being offered ". The Committee considers this to be an unfortunate and dangerous attitude and utterly devoid of responsibility. It is the equivalent of accepting the proposition that children should receive the type of instruction at thei;· schools that they prefer. The Committee does not consider it necessary to argue this point further. Its weakness and its inherent danger are obvious to all responsible sections of the community.

131. In order to make research fruitful, it is necessary that there shculd be proper publication of the findings that have been scientifically determined in relation to the effects of television upon young people. It is the opinion of the Committee that the general public arc almost completely unaware of these findings and of the serious implications therein involved. The Board docs not publicize the f1ndings other than by brief references thereto in its annual reports. The general public does not read those reports. In the final analysis, it is the parent that should be encouraged to make the decision as to what his child should or should not see. A ..veil-presented documentary programme from the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television, illustrating the harmful and the beneficial effects of the various programmes already the subject of authoritative research in Australia, should assist parents in their determination.

OVERSEAS RESEARCH.

132. A tremendous amount of research has naturally been done in Great Britain and America. Specialist witnesses in this matter were careful to point out to the Committee that, whilst some assistance and guidance must obviously be expected from the efforts of overseas research, it is imperative that Australia should pursue its own line of research and not rely too m1Jch upon the results of similar investigations elsewhere. Factors such as local national characteristics, different social and economic

structures and other different matters will all combine to render overseas research of considerable interest hut not necessarily acceptable to Australian conditions.

133. It seems clear to this Committee that the question of research into television at a national level, including the assessment of the power of the medium, its impact upon the total population and other related questions, is not at the moment being attempted, probably because neither authority feels inclined to accept this overall responsibility.

134. The Committee considers it inadvisable for the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the Australian Broadcasting Control Board to ccntinue to bear such responsibility as they now aJsume for national research. Both authorities are very closely aligned to the services over which they have control and it if therefore unfair to expect either body to be able to investigate the highly complex matter of national research over the programmes of the other. Furthermore, neither

to apply an objective attitude towards the shortcomings of its own programmes. And again, it is doubtful if either body is in the position to co-ordinate the research that must be mainly carried out by those organizations which are best equipped for this work, namely, the universities. The Committee therefore feels that the proposed Television Council should be charged with this re<;ponsibility in the manner

set out in the recommendations.

135. It is not intended that the Board and the Commission should cease all research. In fact, it is most desirable that these bodies should continue with research work, but at a level more in keeping with their own responsibilities with respect to programmes, advertising problems (as afTecting the Board), audience appreciation and related questions.

136. The Committee Recommends-(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

That the Minister through the agency of the proposed Television Council be given the responsibility for the co-ordination of research at the national level. That national research be commenced and that the Social Science Research Council be invited to commence work on a project upon the r;;search needs of television, and

that necessary funds be made available to the Council for this purpose. That the proposed Television Council review the overall question of national research and its possible co-ordination through the Social Science Research Council and universities throughout Australia which might be interested in the light of the

findings established by the Social Science Research Council under recommendation (2) hereof. That the Board and the Commission continue to accept for re,earch at the

level of their respective activities. That the Commission and the Board cause to be produced and prc-,cntccl from time to time, both on the Australian Broadcasting Commission net\\ ork and co1<1mercial stations, an up-to-date and well-documented and illustrated programme showing the

harmful and beneficial effects of upon children in the scientific

research field undertaken by the authorities. That fuller details of all research work be in the annual reports of the Board

and of the Commission and that both authorities set out in their reports the action that has been or is proposed to be taken in pursuance of the research findings for that particular year.

36

(7) That the Board and the Commission take adequate steps to ensure that educational authorities be kept fully informed from time to time concerning current research findings in relation to research into children's television or adult programmes which children might reasonably be expected to watch. ( 8) That, where authoritative research findings endorsed by the Board indicate that certain

programmes are objectionable or that there are undesirable trends in programming or that harmful effects might be expected from them, the Board shall take positive measures to rectify the situation.

THE RATINGS SYSTEMS.

137. Although the ratings systems are not strictly speaking in the nature of scientific research, it is appropriate to refer to them in this section. It is, however, not the purpose of the Committee to investigate the working of the systems; nor does the Committee wish to interfere with the systems or with the rights of the parties concerned to conduct or to use such systems. The sole purpose of mentioning

the systems is to comment upon some of the rather extraordinary attributes that have been claimed for them by the representatives of commercial television in their evidence.

138. One of the major arguments in the case put forward by commercial television in support of programme policies is that, in effect, the ratings systems prove-(1) That the programmes presented by commercial television are" what the people want". Said Mr. A. S. Cowan on behalf of the commercial stations-

" They (i.e. the ratings) constitute a responsible effort to find out what the people want in programming which is consistent with the obligation of a commercial station."

(2) That the viewing public does not want anything different from what it is now being given; and (3) That existing programmes are satisfactory as to quality, type and

13I. Actually, the systems establish none of these things, and the Committee rejects these arguments and has no hesitation in «aying that the commercial stations are attributing to the ratings systems a research function and a capacity to evaluate public opinion that they do not possess and were never intended to establish. The ratings systems do one thing only, namely, to determine the relative popularity of one particular programme as against another at a given point in time; and even in this determination there are inherent weaknesses, depending upon whether the two programmes have identical "time slots". In rejecting the rather extraordinary attributes claimed for the ratings systems by commercial television, the Committee is fortified by the evidence of Messrs. Anderson and McNair (the proprietors of the two organizations that carry out the investigations). Both gentlemen were quite frank about what their systems actually proved. The following excerps from the Minutes of Evidence illustrate this point:-

Chairman: Your research, broadly speaking-correct me if I am wrong-does one thing, I take it: It endeavours to measure the relative popularity of one programme as against another at some point in time? A1r. AfcNair: Yes. I think it is quite important when you say "at some point in time". Chairman: Has your organization ever made any attempt to obtain from an audience the type of programme it prefers, a programme which perhaps might not be exhibited at the one point of time, instead of merely comparing the programmes that are available for viewing? That is to say, do you ever attempt to conduct any research

into the type of programme an audience would like, instead of measuring merely the relative popularity of programmes have been already presented for the audience to either take or leave?

Mr. McNair: We have attempted to do that, but it is almost impossible to do that scientifically.

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

Chairman: Would it be correct to say that your research goes no further than merely obtaining a comparison between one programme and another at a given point of time? Mr. Anderson: That in essence is so. We record what they do, not what they think. Senator J.fcCle!land: As a result of viewers completing these television diaries, have you or your company been able to gauge whether or not, generally speaking, Australians are satisfied with the type of material presented to them over television ?

Afr. Anderson: No. We only measure what they actually do with the material that is available for them to view. Chairman: Would you be good enough to say something about the following question that I put to you? What trends would you suggest could be expected to be gleaned from the analyses that you prep:1re with respect to programmes? By " trends " 1 mean in relation to the type, quality standard or variety of programme, or the public acceptance of it. What trends could you reasonably be expected to glean from your analysis, if any?

/'vfr. Anderson: I do not think you could obtain a trend on programme types at all for the reason that you may have a very good drama on at a particular time and on a particular day against which is a mediocre western, let us say. The drama will be very popular on that day, but a similar type of drama at the same time on, say, the next day may have a very good film up against it and it will get a low rating. So I do not see how our figures can help in giving trends of programme types.

140. As a means of enabling television stations to sell programmes, the Committee concludes that the systems are, no doubt, very effective. As a research study into "what the people want", or that the audience wants nothing better, or that the quality of existing programmes is good-or bad for that matter-the ratings systems are irrelevant and should be excluded from the argument on these important questions.

37 1 1 1

PART IX.-CHILDREN'S PROGRAMMES. 141. A great deal of the evidence presented to the Committee related to the question of children's programmes.

STANDARDS RELATING TO CHILDREN'S PROGRAMMES.

142. Paragraphs 14, 15 and 16 of the Television Programme Standards determined by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board impose special requirements on commercial licensees to endeavour to meet the proper television needs of the younger generation. The paragraphs referred to are as follows:-" 14. Programmes specially directed to children must comply not only with the General Standards and the standards for Family Programmes, but also with the following special standards:-

(a) All scripts must be carefully written, having in mind the needs of the particular age groups for which the programmes are intended; (b) All stories must reflect respect for law and order, adult authority, good morals and clean living. The theme must stress the importance of mutual respect of one man for another, and should emphasize the

desirability of fair play and honorable behaviour. Cowardice, malice, deceit, selfishness and disrespect for law must be avoided in the delineation of any character presented in the light of a hero. (c) In programmes in which children appear as artists, particular attention should be directed to avoiding the possibility of encouraging precocity in such children, who may be tempted to " show off" in front of

the studio or home audience. (d) Contests and offers which encourage children to enter strange places and to converse with strangers for any purpose present a definite element of danger to children and should be avoided.

" 15. It is recommended that there be regular sessions for children designed-(a) to impart a broader knowledge of the history and potentialities of our country and of current affairs;

(b) to foster an appreciation of such cultural pursuits as music, painting, ballet, the theatre and literature;

(c) to encourage interest and active participation in simple scientific investigations such as botanical, geological and other pursuits; and (d) by the use of the great examples from the Bible, and from history, biography and literature, to impart a real appreciation of the spiritual values and of the qualities of courage, honour and integrity which are

essential to the full development of the individual, and of national greatness. It is further recommended that programmes be designed to cater for children's propensities for sport and for hobbies such as handicrafts and the care of animals.

" 16. Programmes Unsuitable for Adolescents.-Certain types of programmes, either because of their themes or the method of treatment of the themes, may tend to produce in adolescents a false or distorted view of life. These programmes, because they deal with certain types of social and domestic problems, some aspects of crime, or other themes which are suitable only for persons of more mature judgment, should not be televised before 8.30 p.m."

143. There was a particularly strong body of evidence, representing the widest possible cross­ section of the viewing public, which was critical of children's programmes. The Committee in accepting this evidence stresses the fact that the Standards referred to above have been neither adequately carried out by commercial television nor enforced by the Board.

CRITICISMS OF PROGRAMMES.

144. The Committee points out that children are the most important section of the viewing public in that they are most likely to be affected by the impact of television. It is against this background that the Committee summarizes the main complaints with respect to children's programmes. (1) There is insufficient care and attention generally being given to children's programmes.

(2) That whilst programmes designed for the child of tender years (under five) are generally of a satisfactory nature, the recommendation of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board appearing in paragraph 15 of the Standards has been overlooked, if not completely ignored in some instances, by commercial licensees for viewers aged between

six and sixteen. (3) That too much of the material viewed by the six to sixteen age group places undue emphasis upon violence of a sadistic nature: On the other hand, advent<,-.:- which are exciting and which contain no such taint are available on film specially

designed for children and are all too infrequently used. This criticism \'.as mainly directed at some of the commercial stations. (4)

(5)

(6)

That television, as presently programmed, is not making any material contribution tm\ards the beneficial development of the emotional and intellectual values of Australian children, particularly in regard to adolescents. That commercial licensees are repeating too often and within too short a period serial

productions procured from overseas. That by attempting to cater for too wide an age bracket (six to sixteen) with the one programme, licensees cannot possibly satisfactorily meet the proper needs of the younger generation of viewers. This criticism applies both to the

Broadcasting Commission and to commercial television.

38

(7) That programmes for the adolescent from the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television are generally inadequate. They too frequently consist of " variety " entertainment. Too little attempt is made to stimulate and entertain the adolescent in programmes depicting our history and traditions and the nation's culture, or to foster an appreciation of cultural pursuits or even to encourage the young Australian in learning how to play healthy sport. !45. The Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board told the Committee that, with the approval of the Minister, the Board has appointed an Advisory Committee on Children's Television Programmes. According to both the Board's 1962 Annual Report and the evidence adduced, this Advisory Committee met once only in the financial year 1961-62 and on two occasions since that time.

146. The Select Committee has been told that the effects of television on children take a long time to develop and are very difficult to detect except over a long period. Further that if it becomes clear as a result of long: term research that these results are adverse then it will be too late to do anything to correct the problem for a whole generation of children.

147. In her book "Television and the Child", Dr. Hilda Himmelwait of the Nuffield Research Foundation makes the affirmative statement that all programmes entertain and all programmes provide the child with some information.

148. Unfortunate as it may be, the Committee must take heed of the general unanimity in the expression of opinion found in the weight of evidence of those closest to and speaking on behalf of the younger viewers. The Committee finds that children's programmes by and large fail to cater adequately for the six to sixteen age bracket and that immediate action is required if the real needs of the younger generation and those charged with their welfare are to be met.

149. At paragraph 113 of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board's 1962 Report the following is set out:--.. 113. The kinds or programmes teieviscd for children have not changed significantly during the year under review, although in sume instances slightly more time is being given to dance and rhythm entertainment of the type to which teenagers appt:ar to be partial. lt is perhaps correct to suggest that in this field stations are not so much following public taste as leading it. While recognizing and welcoming those parts of children's programmes which have some constructive value, the Board is of the opinion that too much time is still being given to programmes which may entertain children, and ma)' occcny their leisure hours, but are unlikely to leave them the better for their viewing. Some aspects of these programme's are regarded by the Board's Advisory Committee on Children's Television Programmes as likely to be dam:wi;cg • o the c:1ild's standards or v;: I ues, especially i 11 competitive programmes where the prizes are given either regardless of the relation of their retail cost to the degree of skill required of the successful competitor, or for a performance of too

little merit. ..

The above paragraph also sets out the Committee's views on this very important matter. 150. The Committee has been told that the basic problem underlying children's television programmes is the fundamental divergence of aims between those primarily interested in the welfare of children and the commercial interests of television licensees and their shareholders. Possibly it is

because of this differentiation that a number of witnesses with overseas experience in the industry (artists, producers, writers, distributors) expressed the opinion that generally speaking there is a dearth of good quality children's programmes available throughout the world and that Australia has an excellent opportunity not only to satisfy its own deficiencies in this connexion but also to capture a sizeable overseas market with such productions. Some enterprising Australian producers already are aware of this

potential and even at this stage some indigenous productions especially catering for children have made an impact in overseas countries.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

1 51 . The Committee Recommends-(]) That the proposed Australian Television Council meet frequently to rev1ew children's television programmes. (2) That the Australian Broadcasting Control Board impose a further obligation on

commercial licensees not to repeat too frequently those programmes procured from overseas " which may entertain children, and may occupy their leisure hours, but are unlikely to leave them the better for their viewing". (J) That the family time period be extended by half an hour; and that the time for commencing

the showing of programmes classified " AO " be postponed by half an hour, in an effort to reduce the number of children viewing programmes of crime, violence and horror. (4) That the Australian Commission and the licensees provide programmes

which will cater specifically for three age groups of children, viz. (a) 5 and under (h) 6 to 11 and (c) 12 to 16.

( 5) That in any application made by a producer to the Australian T clcvision Council for assistance, the Council give top priority to good quality programmes catering for the proper tastes of the younger generation. (6) That more consideration be given by both the Commission and the licensees to the

provision of adequate and comprehensive programmes for the adolescent.

39 113

PART X.-RELIGIOUS TELEVISION.

!52. The Committee heard a good deal of evidence concerning the matter of religious programmes, the main points of which are outlined hereunder.

RELIGiOUS PROGRAMMES FROM THE AUSTRALIA:-.1 BROADCASTING COM\USSION.

153. The Committee proposes to deal with the subject, in relation, firstly, to the Australian Commission and, secondly, to the commercial channels, as the programmes and the

organization in regard thereto are somewhat different in each case.

154. The Commission's programmes are entirely controlled by the Commission from Sydney (through the Commission's Director of Religious Services who is himself a clergyman). There is an advisory committee of selected members of the various churches whose function it is to advise the Commission in matters relating to religious television. The Committee meets once a year at Sydney. At no other time are the views of the churches formally placed before the Commission. This policy was generally criticized by both clergy and laymen. It was best, and very moderately, expressed by the

Rev. Father E. J. Storman, Rector of St. Thomas More College, University of Western Australia, when he said in his evidence on the efficacy of the advisory committee-" I do not think the effect was very far-reaching. My own experience was limited to two years' service on the committee. I have every reason to be grateful to those who invited me to be on it. One had the impression, ho-wever­ this was no fault of the members of the staff of the A.B.C.-that the more important proposals that we made sometimes would have involved so many changes and had such repercussions in a highly complicated organization that they were listened to, but on the whole they were shelved."

155. Religious programmes were also criticized by Father Storman when he said-" I have a few more remarks to make specifically concerning religious television. I make them with the greatest assurance, insofar as I have had certain experience of this work myself, though not as much perhaps as many other people. I feel that there is room here for a much greater use of our local resources in the way of confrontation of speakers from different communions engaged on a common subject, where they can speak across their barriers. I feel there is much more room for panel discussion than we have so far cared to use. I am thinking there more particularly of the A.B.C.

On the national channels, l have been very impressed by some overseas films on religious discussions actually shown by the A.B.C. in Australia. 1 think we have some distance to go before we catch up to them, but looking around Au,;tralia and knowing the scene in Australia as well as I do, l feel confident that the resources do exist here if they are intelligently tapped. I think it is quite essential, though, that vagueness and mere tentative and inconclusive talk be eliminated from

our religious programmes because people feel that that is too fumbling for them and does not belp them. l feel that a good deal more imagination is required in the organization of our religious programmes and that drama could lw usee! much more efficiently than it has been. Occasionally, a dramatic representation h

This evidence is quoted because it represents not only a reasonable opinion but also the weight of opinion in relation to the Commission. 156. Further general criticism on programmes was that there should be a church telecast every Sunday morning. This appears again to the Committee as a reasonable suggestion.

157. And again a criticism concerning the Commifsion's programmes was made that at times, church telecast services which are recorded were inappropriate to the particular Sunday on which they were shown (e.g. a Lenten service and sermon telecast at Easter!).

158. Finally, there was a complaint by Dr. P. Jones of Melbourne, Chairman of the Melbourne Diocesan Committee for Catholic Radio and Television, -who, in criticising the religious "discussion " programmes bad this to say-" But more important, the selection of persons is something which we find disturbing. There is, apparently, a

policy of not asking advice from anyone outside the Commission. Time and again we have bet:n amazed at the inept selection made. Our Diocesan Committee has never been approached for suggestions or advice. On the contrary, the experience of a number of our institutes which have opened their doors to the A.B. C. for documentaries !lees been that once the permission to be there is given, any otTer of help or suggestions is regarded as unwanted interfen;ncc. The

results have often been lamentable. This is also true of studio discussions. The image of the clergy by these programmes is regularly that of men chosen for their voice and generally for their schoht'itic attainments rather than men who arc primarily engaged in pastoral work and who serve God working among the people. The result is a general impression of back-room theology rather than religion in modern life.''

159. The Con·,mittee is of the opinion that the could qLite c:l:-ily rectify these

shortcomings by the simple of enabling the churches to put their point of view i•1

RELIGJOLS PROGRA\1'1-Il:S TLLLVISio:--..

160. Th,.:rc is no statutory provision in the and Television Act relating to the

telecasting of religious programmes by the Commission. Commercial stations, however. are covered by section 103 of the Act \', hich reads as "A licensee sh

such periods as the BoarJ determines and, if the Board :,o dir·ects, shali uo so

40

161. It may be noted that this section only authorizes the granting of free time for the broadcasting or televising of Divine Worship or other matter of a religious nature. Mr. Osborne referred to complaints that the Sunday morning programme " Sunday Magazine " on HSV7 includes a commentary on political subjects. He said that the Advisory Committee on Religious Television Programmes had considered the complaints and had expressed the view that the commentaries concerned were within the meaning of the section. The Committee considers that great care should be exercised by the churches in the use of such free time in order to observe the letter and spirit of the Act.

162. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board has determined the following " Standard " pursuant to the Act:-"The following principles should be applied in the allocating of time for the televising of religious matter (other than sponsored religious matter):-

(a) Time should be allocated for the televising of matter of a religious nature to the extent of at least 1 per cent. of the normal weekly hours of service, and with a minimum of 30 minutes each week, to be scheduled either as a complete unit occupying the whole time allocated; or as a series of programmes on one or more days of the week, with a minimum of five minutes for each programme; (b) Station time as allocated shall be provided, free of charge, to the church or religious body concerned, but

reasonable charges may be made to cover costs other than those of a programme presented in, and using the normal facilities of, a studio under the control of the licensee. (c) Time should be allocated among the various churches and denominations as far as practicable in proportion to the number of adherents to each denomination in the area served by the station as shown in the

latest Census; such arrangements should be made by mutual agreement between the licensees and representatives of the churches and denominations and should have regard to the suitability for televising of the services or other religious matter proposed to be televised. (d) Religious programmes should be presented only by responsible persons or bodies, and should not contain

statements ridiculing any form of religious belief."

163. It will be seen that, although the station time is free, the churches are required to provide their own programmes at their own expense.

164. The main cause of complaint so far as the commercial programmes are concerned was the question of the " time slots " for religious programmes. The complaints were summed up by the Rev. E. A. C. Gundry of Perth, of the Christian Television Association of Western

Australia, when he said-" One minority interest which receives possibly the best treatment on commercial T.V. is religion. Even so, it 2dds np to

165. It is a fair conclusion to be drawn from section 103 of the Act that the Parliament intended religious services to be televised during such times as would not exclude children, aged persons, or the family unit from their participation. At the moment these classes of people are experiencing difficulty in viewing nightly " epilogue ".

166. The Board has an advisory committee on religious telecasts. It meets more frequently, though too infrequently in the Committee's opinion, than its counterpart in the Australian Commission. The matter of more appropriate time slots for the religious telecasts requires a proper investigation.

And The Committee Recommends that this question be proceeded with and that due regard be had to the interests of children and aged and sick people.

167. A further criticism to which the Committee invites attention concerns the unattractive presentation of those programmes entitled " Epilogue " or " Quiet Time ". Most people " turn off the knob " when this programme is reached; not because the programme has a religious flavour, but because it is unimaginative and dull. The primary responsibility for the content of programmes and the personality of the performers lies with the churches. The station is required only to give free time, but usually assists with the studio presentation. The Committee invites the attention of the churches to this deficiency, which could be overcome by a greater realization of the fact that a religious television programme is as much " show business " as any other performance on television.

CoMMITTEE's OBSERVATIONS.

167 A. The Committee's examination of religious programmes on television was necessarily incomplete. No elaborate investigation has been undertaken on the subject and the views of other sections of the community would need to be sought before any fundamental changes were to be recommended, other than the above suggestions.

41 115

PART XI.-OTHER PROGRAMME DEFICIENCIES. NEWS BULLETINS-PARAGRA.PH 3 (6.) OF PART I.

168. The Committee heard some evidence that both the commercial and the Australian ComJ?ission's news services were by contrast with radio inadequate, particularly with

respect to mternatlonal news. There is a statutory obligation imposed upon both the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and the Commission to ensure that programmes are " adequate and comprehensive" (see sections 16 and 59 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1962, Appendix D). The treatment of overseas news can hardly be regarded as either " adequate " or " comprehensive " and to that extent falls short of being a reasonable compliance with the statutory obligation.

PANEL AND DISCUSSION PROGRAMMES-PARAGRAPH 3 (7.) OF PART I.

169. As these programmes are also included, but to a lesser extent, in commercial television the Committee's remarks here apply to both services. The Committee received general criticism regard to these programmes (with some exceptions) to the effect that they lacked the attractive presentation techniques of overseas programmes and were merely dull; that they lacked a mature controversial and critical element and a sophistication and that, in relation to the " question and answer " type of programme, in certain cases questions that were regarded as too controversial had been " censored ".

170. It is apparent to the Committee that in some cases the station has been over anxious to avoid controver-;y in portraying a controversial subject and the programme has consequently degenerated into a dull discussion; and in some other cases the station has not ensured that all .;;ides of an argument are faithfully presented to the audience, a requirement that is of the essence of mature controversy.

171. In regard to the "question and answer" type of programme, the Committee is at a loss to under<>tand why in the case of, say, an eminent visiting artist who is being interviewed, the" interrogator" is so frequently lacking mature experience. This is more noticeable in commercial television, where the interrogator's knowledge of the subject is so scanty as to make the interview a somewhat boring series of

rather elementary questions and answers. These criticisms are accepted as fair criticisms by the Committee and can and should be rectified by proper and experienced direction on the part of the television industry.

EDUCATIVE PROGRAMMES-PARAGRAPH 3 (8.) of PART l.

172. The programmes here referred to are those that are not specifically educational but are of an " educative " nature, originating in Australia.

173. Such programmes include the " University of the Air " programme and other programmes on current affairs, the sciences and the arts. Commercial television does very little in this field so that the criticism as to quality relates mainly to the Australian Broadcasting Commission. The major criticism, which the Committee accepts, was that these programmes, with some noteworthy exceptions, are presented

in an unattractive and dull manner. An " educative " programme can also be highly entertaining and thereby attract a large audience; but a university professor, unskilled in the art of presenting his subject upon the television screen and speaking in an unattractive manner, sometimes even reading his script, can turn the audience away by converting an absorbing and highly exciting subject into a dullschool room lesson. Admittedly, the problem also involves a proper degree of specialized training on the part of the

performer, but this should not be beyond the scope of the directing and technical personnel of the Australian Broadcasting Commission.

PROGRAMMES OF SPECIAL lNTEREST TO MIGRANTS AND PROGRAMMES FOR MINORITY TASTES AND SPECIAL INTERESTS-PARAGRAPHS 3 (10.) AND 3 (13.) OF PART I.

174. The Committee has no hesitation in accepting the strong criticism that there is a serious lack of programmes of special interest to our migrant population, particularly with respect to migrants who are in the process of adjusting themselves to our way of life. The criticism applies to both the Australian Broadcasting Commission and commercial television. It was argued, but not very seriously, that as these programmes would have to be in the respective native languages of the migrants, and as

there is a prohibition in such cases against the use of foreign languages, it was not possible to meet the requirements of our migrant population. The weakness of that argument is of course the importance of providing programmes for our migrants in our own language. This general criticism. in the opinion of the Committee, is a serious one; and one that not only presents a challenge to us as Australians but

one that must be accepted by our television industry.

175. This deficiency in our programmes forms actually a part of another major criticism, namely a failure to cater for minority tastes or special interests among audiences. This \veakncss flows from one definite defect in our programmes, namely, an inclination to cater exclusively for what is regarded as the " majority". This is more pronounced in commercial television which virtually makes no attempt to cater for minority interests. The and interests _of wh_ich are virtually

ignored can of course amount to a very extensive hst, dependmg upon the stze of the mmonty or the nature of the special interest. The Committee invites the attention of the statutory authorities to a consideration of the rectification of this deficiency.

42

PART XII.-EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.

176. American experience shows that television can make an important contribution to solve any arising. in education. crises provide a unique opportunity for State and Federal

co-operatiOn. It IS a matter of satisfactiOn that the authorities in both fields are concentrating attention on the problems which have to be managed. In the early use of television for-( a) indirect education by enrichment programmes,

(b) direct television instruction at the university, secondary and primary level, and (c) adult educational programmes,

probably lies the chief field for producing Australian programmes. The rewards are perhaps beyond our present conception.

The Committee brings together a few records of progress made.

AMERICAN TELEVISION.

177. " E.T.V., for all the praise it gets from the critics is now approaching a decisive period. From its small and tentative beginning a decade ago, when its first outlet (Station WQED in Pittsburgh) went on the air, it has grown to a network of 70 stations with a potential audience of some 50,000,000.

"Its often halting and amateurish techniques have turned into a professionalism that is evident, even if it is not always polished. Where, five years ago, only 4 of the nation's major cities had their own E.T.V. stations, to-day only three major cities (Baltimore, Cleveland and Los Angeles) are without them."

(Business Week-January, 1963, page 112.)

178. In Henry Cassirer's Report to UNESCO (1960) " Television Teaching To-day" his conclusions as to American schools were stated as follows:-" Conclusion. " What, then, is the place of television jn the American school? First of all, it remains the administrator's tool. Although efforts arc made to involve teachers at every stage, from planning to final evaluation, the dominant point of view remains that of admmistrators who see in television a way to improve the overall performance of the school system rather than a me:m;; of enriching the individwd cla,sroom lesson. When nressures arc great and funds are short, school

boards are slow to spend money on the enrichment of lessons wl1ere these are already considered adequate.

"Television is welcomed because of its power of penetration. Subject supervisors find that through television they may simultaneously influence teaching in numerous classrooms, while formerly they had dissipated their efforts by working larg<:iy with individual teachers. Television is valued not only for its direct contribution to classroom lessons but c.ilso because of its impact on teacher training, as we shall have occasion to point out in a later chapter. Through

television it is for school systems to work together on a regional, or even national scale in a common search for better educational resources.

'·Secondly, it appear:; thc\t tekv[sion makes a more obvious contribution to elementary schools than to high schools. rn elementary schools, where teacC]er:; are overburdened by a multiplicity of tasks, there is generally a lack of staff and facilities to teach such subjects as science, modern languages, art or music. Most teachers welcome the aid they receive from the television teacher and find it relatively easy to adapt classroom procedures to broadcast schedules, because they themselves control the hours at which their pupils study different subjects.

"ln high schools television meets with far more resistance, though many American educators would argue that high school education is in much greater need of improvement than that in elementary schools. First of all, individual high schools find it more difficult to fit their' bell schedules' to the programme schedules of television stations. Beyond this, the high t;chool teache; is, at least theoretically, better trained in subject matters and therefore less ready to welcome

the television teacher into his classroom. Significantly, it has frequently been found that the well-qualified teacher is often more prepared to accept outstanding television programmes than other teachers who feel that their authority and competence may be challenged in the eyes of the children. Finally, high schools expect a degree of specialization in television presentation which i:; not ca:.ily met in programmes addressed to many different types of schools, frequently even to a number of age levels.

"Television is in the United States more to for deficiencies than to provide new re:,ources for

educ,ttion which make a contribution to the best of schools. Such an approach has the strength of frank, self-critical examination which prep:.u-e:; the ground for overcoming present handicap> as rapidly and as effectively as is possible with the use of modern tccilnlque:;. But it also has the limitation of assuming that this is necessarily the most suitable wa.1 to ren1cdy the present situ;!tion and that the value of television lie'i in rhe long run in such emergency relief.

"The place of tclcvi,ion in Amer.ican schools is thus conditioned by rresent limitations. in facilities and filii: qualified teaching :;t;:ff. But current practice 111dtcates that th1s 1s by no means the lu111t of telcvi:,lon s s1gntlicancc 111 education. When Philadelphia elementary schools see programmes 111 wh1ch a number of e.xperts flOill thctr :,peclalitcd knowledge to giH· pupils a more vi.:w of the interdcr.:ndencc of knowledge. the' c.\pcncncc a unique

contribution of television (and perhaps radio). When poets or sctcnltsls ;,pcaJ... dtrectly to. the clllld:Tn.

channel of co:nmtmic,ttion has hccn opened which b cl(lscd to the bulk of public schooh 111 the prc-tclcvhl<>n age.

"] ..:Ie,i:,i<'ll is not merely a substitute traditional ways of leaching. It b a medium with it> own fl.'>ychologlc,!l and emotional appc:!l. able to transcend barriers of time and place of disciplines and But the stiCcc.-,sful

exploration of the:,c contributions is hi1mpercd a;, long as there 1s a co;Jfltct between ll!lll1cdtatc needs and h>ng-r,tngc·

objectives.''

43 11 7

He reports that controversy as to the use of television in colleges and universities is unresolved, but adds-. "But now American education, through educational television can have a thousand images of a great physicist speakmg to students all across. com:try. And through recordings, there is the further opportunity to go on having such talks long after the man Is tired, sick or even dead. These thousand images would not displace the same number professors, nor the many thousands of questions that students would be stimulated to ask. It would only present

Immediately to all the challenge of the best. It would make possible a kind of conservative virtue transcending the present educational frontiers of space and time. '

" Once this ch_allenge intellectual is met, once the needs are recognized and opportunities to meet these needs constructiVely envisaged, many barriers of resistance to television are likely to fall."

AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION.

179. The Hon. John Bloomfield, the Minister for Education in Victoria, has published his booklet "Screens and Gowns " (1963). It concerns itself with some aspects of university education overseas. As the use of the new instructional media in universities it records persuasive evidence as to the effectiveness of these aids to teaching. Its significance can best be conveyed by the comments, in the foreword, of Lord Hailsham, the Minister for Science in London-

" 1 believe that the material he has acquired establishes that the use of the methods he has been studying is not just a gimmick-but an important teaching tool at whatever level of instruction."

180. In the preface, Professor Sir Mark Oliphant says-" Mr. Bloomfield has examined these questions. He shows that the achievement of the aims of education for the future demands an enormous increase in the number of teachers required at all levels and asks how these are to be provided. He concludes that the number of gifted teachers is small and will always be below the need if the traditional patterns of

teaching and training are retained. However, he shows very convincingly that despite these difficulties every individual can experience the stimulus of contact with the best of teachers, can be rewarded by increasing appreciation of art, drama and literature, and can enjoy the spoken word of the greatest of men. Television, radio, films and slides, recordings of voices and music, and other visual aids, can bring to all the very best in education. What is more, the costs of such aids to education will be small, because they will be shared by so many. Education will become what it should be, a unified activity of all mankind, where nations and races will share their cultures, their technologies and their geographies, through interchange of this educational material.

"This analysis of the educational problem of our times, made by a skilled and devoted Minister for Education, cannot fail to convince all concerned-and that is every intelligent citizen-that the new techniques will revolutionize our approach to education. It is impossible to ignore his conclusions. The traditional reactionary response to all reform in education must not be allowed to prevent or delay their rapid introduction at every level of education."

181. Professor Sir Keith A. Murray in the Introduction refers to the increasing demands for "more and higher education exerting mounting pressures on governments, administrators and teachers ". He says there must come the reconsideration of teaching methods. He says that " wastage " in the universities " is now widely held to be correlated to teaching methods ". He refers to the Committee

set up by the University Grants Committee of Great Bntain in March, 1961, and records that "one of their earliest conclusions has been that the uses of new techniques in teaching, including audio-visual aids, are likely to have a very significant contribution to make to university teaching methods of the future".

182. Dr. J. R. Darling has gone on record as follows:-"Educational television can mean either enrichment and enlightenment of the ordinary programmes·by the inclusion in them of serious philosophical, historical, scientific and aesthetic content (that is to say, something I ike the Third Programme on radio of the B.B.C.); it may mean something like live plays, opera, drama or debates introduced with the idea of educating the public rather than merely entertaining them. Or, again, you can mean adult education of a more

and series of courses designed for the instruction of adults, to contmue their education, but without specific

university courses behind them or any credits attached to them .. This is slightly more serious and more academic than the first. Or it can mean school and university programmes designed to be used In connexion With ordmary school and university courses, not as a substitute for but as an enrichment of those c_ourses. Finally, _it can mean straight-out university and school courses, either designed as a preparation for cx1stmg university exammatlons. or for credits which will at least be recognized by the universities . .

"The Pilkington Report, without specifically doing so, does virtually announce its English preferences for the first types rather than for the last. 1 take the opposite view; l take the first three for granted as the common responsibility of both the Australian Broadcasting Commission and of the commercial stations, and believe that It IS the fourth, that h, the direct instructional television, which is the important subject to study."

He concluded-" We must learn how to do it in our own country and then pas:; it on and u,c it in South-Ea't A:·d

183. The subject of educational television has for the first time a place in the Australian Broadcasting Control Board Report for the year ended 30th June, 1963. The Report comments-" 229. For some time the Board has been aware that the use of television for educational purposes was a matter of increasing public interest. Preliminary discussions were held in 1960 with the then Chairman ot the Broadcasting Commission, the late Sir Richard Boyer, and representatives of the University .. These were

concerned mainly with long-range plans to ensure that the development of an eJucatHlllal telcv IS Ion .,ci' Ice, II mtroduccd, would not be adversely affected by other sporadic or unco-ordmated development.'>.

F.11771/63.-4

44

"230. During 1961 the subject was under continuous examination, and in May, 1962, the Board reported to the Minister on the steps which it considered necessary as a preliminary to reaching decisions on the establishment of such a service. These were, first, that educators and educational authorities should be invited to state their views on the need for an educational television service, on the range of its activities, and on the manner in which it might be controlled and

operated; secondly, that a small expert committee should be appointed to examine the matter in detail, in the light of the body of opinion expressed by the educators and the educational authorities, and to report to the Board on its findings. With expert guidance of this type the Board would be in a better position to recommend to the Minister the form which such a service should take. It was recognized that some amendments to existing legislation governing television would

be necessary to authorize the establishment of a specifically educational service. "231. In September, 1962, the Board distributed a letter containing a series of questions to nearly 300 institutions, organizations and persons concerned with educational policy and practice. Replies were receives to about 42 per cent. of the letters, most of them containing useful and constructive comments. In the examination of these replies the Board has been very greatly assisted by the Commonwealth Office of Education. The special knowledge of that Office has made possible a more complete understanding of the many viewpoints expressed in the replies to the Board's letter.

" 232. In a matter of such complexity it was to be expected that the response would be uneven, as some of the matters raised in the Board's letter were themselves the subject of known conflicting views. Although no consensus of opinion emerged from the replies the views expressed on a number of major issues were substantially consistent. These included the following:-

(i) the use of television in education is inevitable; (ii) television cannot be regarded as a substitute for teachers; (iii) television is a valuable means of enrichment in education (as distinct from direct teaching according to a syllabus); (iv) television can assist in the teaching of particular subjects at school and university levels;

(v) television has significant values in adult education; (vi) a special educational television service is or will soon be necessary; a single station may be insufficient to provide for the educational needs of its service area; (vii) existing television services (national and commercial) could be used to provide a variety of programmes

with some educational aspects; (viii) existing television services should be used experimentally to ascertain the greatest values of television as an educational medium. At the time of writing this report the matter was under discussion with the Minister."

184. It is a matter for comment that the subject is not referred to in the annual reports of either the Australian Universities Commission or the Commonwealth Office of Education; although it is recorded that several Australian universities are applying quotas to exclude students. In the year ended 30th June, 1963, 1,224 were excluded. And during the three years 1963-66 the university student numbers are expected to increase by 40 per cent.

EVIDENCE.

185. The Committee received evidence from a number of educators well qualified to speak on the subject. Opinions varied. We mention some of the most significant in an attempt to summarize current thought on the matter. 186. Dr. Darling assessed the potential of television as a medium for teaching as follows:-

" Q. What is your own assessment of the potential of television as a medium of teaching? First of all, its peculiar advantages and any disadvantages? "A. The disadvantage is that there is no come-back of the pupil to the teacher. Education in its fullest sense derives from the interplay of teacher and pupil with question and answer. If you are in a class taught by a good teacher you can stick up your hand and say, 'I do not understand.' A television programme goes on and you cannot stop them. In New York State there is a closed circuit system by means of which every pupil has a button and can stop the film. Television instruction is not a substitute for what I call 'final education'. But before you get to final education there is information and instruction and both of those can be given on television. Where there is a real shortage of good teachers, for instance in theory in physics and chemistry, in Australia at present a great deal of instruction might be better given

by a really good teacher on television than by a number of bad teachers in the classroom."

187. Mr. A. W. Anderson, Senior Lecturer in Experimental Education and Mr. T. A. Priest, Senior Lecturer in the Philosophy of Education at the University of Western Australia, stated their views that the three functions of television were properly stated by the Pilkington. Report to be-" to inform educate and entertain ". They made the point " that Australians, as a relatively isolated people have urgent need to be informed about other parts of the world (people, customs, &c.)". They emphasized the other aspect too-

" We consider it to be of the utmost urgency that every means be adopted to enable the people of the Asian countries and of Australia to increase their mutual understanding. We consider that Australian television programmes shoul J become geared to this need.''

The Committee quotes one further passage of their evidence-" Some educationalists and members of the public, guided more by enthusiasm than by common sense, claim that the use of television can solve many current educational problems .. However, it is our opinion that. unless television. as an audio-visual aid, is used intelligently and integrated sat1sfactonly wllh other atds and methods m schools, usc may well result in wasted time and thus increase our ex1stmg problems. The value of any aJd ts to

the use made of it by the teacher. For this reason extreme care be taken to co-ordmate televJSJon serv1ces w1th school courses, if school television is to be more than regulated entertamment.

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"We do not believe that it is necessary to consider providing a separate educational channel at present."

188 .. Professor K. F. Walker, the Professor of Psychology of the University of Western Australia, however, satd-" I leave to others to discuss the general value of T.V. in education, but would wish to add my own opinion that it would pay if the Australian universities were to develop closed circuit television on quite a big scale. Programmes could

be made for use throughout all the Australian universities, where of course they would be supplemented by comment and discussion led by the staff of each particular university. In many subjects it would be possible to use such programmes.''

189. Mr. F. R. Chappell, Senior Lecturer in Education at the University of Tasmania, gave evidence. The Committee sets out three excerpts from his evidence-" I think that a quotation from Mr Helge Sivertsen, Minister of Education for Norway, is very applicable It reads as follows:-

' In the rapidly changing world in which we live the audio-visual media are no longer aids, but perhaps the major channel of expression and contact in our societies-they are the language of our new world. Their rapid development will determine new tasks not only in our school education, but also in our out-of-school education and in all our cultural policy.' I agree with that statement. It is my belief that television is the most potent of the audio-visual aids and it is now the chief agent of cultural change in Australia. I think it has superseded the newspaper and the cinema as the chief agent."

Later he said-" Thirdly, we come to television and education. I feel that the plans made for education in television are largely substantiated by experiments and experience, at least in the United States and in some other countires, if not here. The shortage of mathematics and science teachers could be overcome by means of television. The shortage of properly educated and trained teachers could partly, at least, be overcome by providing in-service training courses on general television channels which would reach teachers at their schools or places of residence."

Mr. Chappell also said-" The provision of an educational channel ought to be given preference to further increasing the number of commercial channels. An education and high quality cultural channel would provide ample scope for school, technical college and university programmes and also give evening viewers a welcome escape to sanity from some of the very light

programmes, similar to the two-programme: advantages of A.B. C. Radio. As a rapidly developing and relatively affiuent country Australia needs to take advantage of television techniques for spreading education rapidly and widely to the homes of students without the need for providing more buildings and more teachers locally. I should like to see the encouragement of the commercial stations to experiment with educational programmes."

190. Mr. V. R. Long, Director of Education in Department of Education, Tasmania, permitted himself this statement-" I think we will rapidly come to the realization that we cannot afford not to use T.V."

191. Dr. W. J. Campbell, Reader in Education at the University of Queensland, and Dr. A. G. Maclaine, Lecturer in the Department of Education at the University of Sydney also gave evidence of interest on the psychological aspect of television education; and Mr. Brian Parke, the Country Extension Tutor of the Department of Adult Education at the University of Western Australia, gave evidence on-

(1) The encouragement and elevation of Australian content in television broadcasting. (2) The general elevation of present programme standards. (3) Tbe uses to which educational television programmes, particularly for adults, may be put, and the conditions for making their uses effective.

(4) The inter-relationship between increasing Australian content and increasing educational content in Australian television. 192. Miss Myra Roper, formerly Principal of the University Women's College, Melbourne, gave evidence of educational television in the United States of America and Britain and said " extraordinarily

little is being done so far as the viewer knows " in Australia. She summarized the advantages of educational television as-" (1) Eases University staff and accommodation shortages. . (2) A good teacher on television is better than a poorer one m person.

(3) More students prefer television classes to crowded lecture rooms. (4) Adult" part-timers" examination results have been very good. (5) Viewers of general education courses have steadily increased.",

and urged that "for instructional T.V., i.e. specific teaching of subjects at secondary levels, a national policy is essential." 193. Mr. W. A. Dargie, whose pre-eminence as an artist should not obscure our memory that he was a teacher, said-

" Therefore the conclusion seems to be inescapable that, unless uniform curricula were to be introduced on a nationwide basis and uniform time-tables imposed in every would be impossible and I would expect any experienced educationist to pale at this latter suggestion-purely educatiOnal programmes can only be of '>"alue 1f transmitted outside of existing school hours.

"I would divide these programmes into two classes-(!) Programmes for the assistance of leaving and students: designed and produced b\ the local Department of Education in co-operation with an ex1stmg televiSIOn station; and (2) Programmes designed as in-service courses for secondary school teachers."

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194. The State Directors of Education have the question under active consideration. Television for use in education is, it is understood, the principal topic for consideration by the Conference of State Directors of Education in Sydney this month.

195. The Committee has collected these references as some indication to the Senate of the degree to which a discussion of this matter has been developed.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

1 actual scope a1_1d method of use of television in education is the province primarily

for consrderatwn by the educatiOnal authorities and for determination by the governments concerned. But the Committee records its conclusion that educational television in the sense of enrichment and enlightenment of ordinary programme-s by the inclusion of-(a) serious, philosophical, historical, scientific and aesthetic content,

(b) plays, opera, drama and debates, and (c) adult educational programmes, should, as a matter of course, be taken for granted, as the common responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and the commercial stations; and that straightout university and school courses on television should be provided as a special urgent res;ponsi@ility. fn this the Committee supports the opinion of Dr. Darling.

The Committee Recornmends-(1) That in no circumstances should all channels be allotted without making provision for a special channel for educational instruction. (2) That direct instructional television should have pre-eminence in future teacher planning

at tertiary, secondary and primary and adult educational levels. (3) That care should be taken to ensure co-ordination of th€ efforts of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Australian Broadcasting Control Board and educational authorities on this subject.

PART XIII.-THE AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION COUNCIL. 197. At various parts of this Report, the Committee has referred to the setting up of an Australian Television Council in cormcxion with certain recommendations. In pursuance of these

recommendations-The Committee Recommends the setting up of an advisory council to be called the Australian Television Council for the purpose of carrying out the following functions:-(1) To submit such advice to the Minister as he require from time to time in relation

to non-technical questions arising out of the operation of the Act. (2) Under the direction of the Minister, to administer the operation of the loan-subsidy scheme of the film industry (see Part VII.). (3) Under the direction of the Minister to be responsible for the planning and co-ordination

of a nc;tional programme of research (see Part VIII.). (4) Under the direction of the Minister to administer such matters as the awards of scholarships to writers and other artists, assistance to the theatre and other forms of assistance recommended under Parts VI. and VII.

CONSTITUTION OF THE AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION COUNCIL.

198. The Committee Recommends-(!) That the members of Council be appointed by the Minister. (2) That the Council consist of seven members-(a) four to be persons of high repute and in the nation's cultural life,

one of whom shall be the chairman; (b) one to be a member of the Australian Broadcasting Commission; (c) one to be a member of the Australian Broadcasting Control Roard: and (d) one to be an officer of the DepartmeHt of the Treasury. (3) That a full time Secretary be appointed to the Council.

199. It may be noted that the setting up of the Australian Television Council· ( l) is not intended in any .way to superimpose a new having control .the

Australian Broadcastmg Control Board or tile Australian Broadcastmg Conumsswn, nor is it intended to subtract from the functions of those two authorities. It ts_ intended that the Council amongst other things should provide a single channel ol advice to the Minister upon co.mmon both; . . . . .

(2) does no more than provide the adm.inistra!tve. macluncry thtt vanous \\ hiCh are included in the recommendatiOns ot Re13ort and m pespect of which no othe1 authority is responsible or can conveniently ee made resf)onsible.

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PART X1V.--MfNISTERIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY RESPONSIBILITY. MINISTERIAL CONTROL AND RESPONSIBILITY.

The le?is!aturc has set up the Broadcasting and Act the Australian

CommiSSion and the Australian Broadcasting Control Board as independent statutory

authontws, both of which have extensive discretionary po\\t.:rs already discussed. The {, not competent to interfere with the Commission or the J3oard in the exercise of their discretion even though he may think that a particular action is unwise. 291. the Commission and the Board enjoy considerable acttonomy in performing

many ot their functions under tht> Act, the Governor-General remains, by virtue of section 61 of the Constitution, responsible for the maintenance of the laws of the Commonwealth, including this Act. The Governor-General has entrusted administration of the Act to the Postmaster-General, is also referred to as " the Minister " in some sections of this Act.

202. It follows, therefore, that it is the duty of the respomible Minister to satisfy himself that the provisions of the Act are being observed in accordance with the expressed intention of the Parliament. For example, if, in exercising its powers under section 16 in relation to commercial broadcasting stations and commercial television stations, the Board failed to consult representatives of those stations as sub-section (4.) required and the fact became known to the Minister, "the Minister could quite properly, and indeed should, direct the Board to consult according to law.

203. The constitutional responsibilities of the Minister do not require the two authorities to answer to him every time they take action under the Act. Parliament has shown its trust in the Board and the Commission by the very extent of the pmvers conferred upon them and this is a position which the Minister must respect. If, however, he has reasonable grounds for believing that either body is exceeding its powers or failing to carry out its duty under the Act, as distinct from exercising its discretion in a way which he does not like, he may properly seek to rectify the position. As Minister administering

the Act, he should convey his views to the erring authority, or draw the attention of Parliament to any failure of the authorities to observe the law. -

204. It is in cases where the Minister deems it necessary to convey his views and requirements to either of the authorities that the Committee is most interested. The Committee learns with some surprise that in these cases the Minister has no one within his department with the duty of advising him on these matters. Mr. F. P. O'Grady, the permanent head of the Postmaster-General's Department informed the Committee that he submits advice to the Minister only upon questions relating to technical

aspects of the Act. Questions, far example, relating to programme standards or content would lie outside this field. The Committee was informed that the Minister receives advice upon these non-technical questions from the Board or the Commission. This of course is very desirable in appropriate cases. But in other ca3es it appears most undesirable that the authorities should provide

the sole source of advice to the For example, upon a question relating to the proper exercise of the powers of either authority in relation to programme standards or content, the Minister should not have to rely exclusively upoa advice from the authority concerned. And again, it appears desirable that the Minister should receive advice from some source other than the authority in a case where a

question has arisen which adversely affects that authority. In these and other cases the Committee suggests that the Minister should give consideration to including within his Department officers with specialized knowledge of the non-technical aspects of television who competent tc advice to him. Alternatively, the Minister shouLd give consideration to obtammg such expert adv1ce from

an independent source. In this latter circumstance, the Committee is of the opinion that the most appropriate body to extend this advice would be the Australian Television Council.

PARLIAMENTARY RESPONSIBILITY.

205. The Committee has already referred to the fact that the Parliament has set up. the two statutory authorities with a high degree of independence. This imposes the Parliament .a s1gnificant responsibility to ensure that the authorities. function in manner by the legislature ... In

other words Parliament must accept the ulttmate responstbtl!ty for the effectiveness of authont1es. The Committee cannot avoid the conclusion that Parliament might have been far more act.1ve in a scrutiny of the work of the authorities. So Parliament in the future mamtam a

intensive investigation into the affairs of the authont1es, the Comm1ttee makes the recommendatiOns set out in the following paragraphs.

THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE AUTHORITIES.

206. Both authorities submit annual reports to the Postmaster-General which arc tabled in Parliament. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board's report is generally adequate and contains much valuable information. Some sections could be more informative. For (1) At paragraphs 192 and 193 of t.he Board's for the year 1962-63 the. work of the

Advisory on Pr?grammes 1s bnefly and

part of the Committee's report IS set out m App.end1x H. of that report. Ad\I.sory Committee draws attention to various undes1rable features m children s tcle\ISion programmes. But the Board's report is quite silent upon the Board

the views of its Committee, and, more importantly, what actwn It to take

to remedy the position.

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(2) At paragraphs 222, 223 and 224 of the Board's report the Board very briefly refers to the research work of Messrs. David Martin, A. K. Olley, Professor I. F. Clark and Mr. R. J. Thomson. Other than stating that these gentlemen carried out certain research upon various matters, the report is silent upon the findings, or again, more importantly, upon whether the Board accepts these findings and has taken action

to remedy the position.

The Committee accordingly Recommends that the report of the Board should be more comprehensive in relation to such matters referred to above so that a more informative survey of the Board's work is presented to the Parliament.

207. The annual reports of the Australian Broadcasting Commission are considered by the Committee to be altogether inadequate for the purposes for which they are intended. The annual reports amount to no more than a review, suitably illustrated, of the programmes presented for the year. The report is deficient in many respects. For example no mention is made of any plans that the Commission might have for improvement or development of its services.

The Committee Recommends that future annual reports be made more comprehensive so that Members of Parliament and the general public are kept fully informed of all the activities of the Commission.

STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE SENATE UPON TELEVISION.

208. It is the opinion of the Committee that the Parliament has not been kept fully informed upon all aspects of the activities of the statutory authorities. The best method of so informing Parliament of the work of the authorities is through the medium of a Standing Committee of the Senate. The Committee accordingly Recommends that action be taken to set up a Standing Committee of the Senate upon all aspects of television.

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SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 209. RECOMMENDATIONS.

PART II.

123

1. That section 16 (1) (c) of the Broadcasting and Telel·ision Act -1962 (hereinafter referred to in this Summary as "the Act") be amended so as to clarify its meaning. (Paragraphs 11 and 12.)

2 .. That 99 of the Act be amended so as to provide corresponding obligations up em the commerc1al televlSlon statwns under that section to those of the Australian Broadcastine Control Board (hereinafter referred to in this Summary as '" the Board ") under section 16 ( 1) (c). (Paragraphs !--l­ and 15.)

3. That conditions be endorsed upon a licence embodying the fundamental oblil!ations of the applicant as set out in its original application for a licence or any application for thereof.

(Paragraph 16.)

4. That the Board at all times adopts the procedure set out in section 17 of the Act in relation to imposition of its requirements upon li(;ensees, and that the practice of issuing the ministerial requests in the form of letters in lieu thereof be discontinued. (Paragraph 18.)

5. That sections 59 and 67 of the Act be amended so as to give the Australian Broadcasting Commission (hereinafter referred to in this Summary as " the Commission") power to pre.:;ent drama as public entertainment that is intended to be televised from the studio upon a subsequent occasion. (Paragraphs 19-21.)

PART III.

6. That the Board use the provisions of section 17 of the Act for the purpose of exl?rcising its powers and functions under the Act. (Paragraph 29 (1).)

7. That the Board obtain a full clarification of its statutory powers and obligations particularly in relation to sections 16 (1) (c), 17 (1), 99 (1) and 114 (1) of the Act. (Paragraph 29 (2).)

8. That the Board discontinue the practice of requesting the intervention of the Minister for the purpose of issuing ministerial "requests " to commercial stations in cases where under section 16 (I) (c) and 17 (1) of the Act it should issue orders and accept this responsibility itself. (Paragraph 29 (3).)

9. That the Standards determined under section 99 (1) of the Act be revised so as to incorrorate in a positive sense the provisions of section (16) (1) (c); and that the revised Standards, with a more appropriate title, be issued as orders pursuant to section 17 (1 ). (Paragraph 29 ( 4).)

10. That where a commercial station wilfully neglects to comply with the Board's requirements in relation to programmes, appropriate disciplinary action be taken against the licensee in the form of recommendations to the Minister as to suspension or refusal to renew the licence. (Paragraph 29 (5).)

11. That the Board recommend appropriate conditions upon which a licence may be granted, pursuant to sections 108 and 109 of the Act, in accordance with the Committee's views- -as out in Part II of this Report. (Paragraph 29 (6).)

12. That the Board's establishment be varied-(1) (2)

(3)

(4)

So as to have a chairman, two full time members and five part time members. So that the full time merr,bers, and such part time members as shall be determined, shall constitute the Tribunal for public hearings with respect to applications for and renewal of licences.

So that the additional members above referred to, shall be highly experienced and of high professional reputation in the cultural life of the Australian nation. So that at least one of the new members shall be a married woman. (Paragraph 31.)

PART IV.

13. That applications for a licence renewal should be heard in public. (Paragraph 41.)

14. That an annual television convention be organized by the National Tclc\ j,io.n

Council (discussed in Part XIII.) at which public and discusston bet\:cen the public:

and the industry shall be held; again giving the to be and placl!1g the mdu"try

(the Commission, the Board and commercial television) m a positiOn to JUSttfy and defend tb efforts. (Paragraph 41.) 15. That the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations and the network associati

16. That the renewal period fer a station licence be extended from one to thr·:c: year-;.

after the first five years. (Paragraph 43.)

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17. That the overall volume of programmes depictmg themes of crime, violence, horror and considerably reduced, particularly in programmes televised by the majority

ot the commeroal statwns: and that the Board issue a positive requirement to the commercial stations under the provisions of section 17 of the Act to ensure compliance with its instructions in this respect. (Paragraph 43A.)

PART V.

18. That the inadequacies of programmes referred to in Parts I and XI, where applicable, be given consideration by the Commission. (Paragraph 57.)

19. That the Commission give consideration to the greater utilization of Australian professional theatrical productions in its television programmes. (Paragraph 57.)

20. That the Commission adopt a more extensive policy of decentralization in regard to dramatic productions. (Paragraph 57.)

21. That the Commission place more emphasis, qualitatively and quantitatively, upon dramatic productions and ensure that progressively the existing imbalance in the apportionment of financial resources between music and drama be rectified. (Paragraph 57.)

22. That the Commission give immediate consideration to extending an invitation to stage artists of world repute including directors to visit Australia from time to time. (Paragraph 57.) 23. That the composition of the Commission be increased to ten commissioners and that the commissioners to be appointed be representative of the cultural life of Australia and comprise either men or women of the highest reputation and experience in this field. (Paragraph 57.)

PART VI.

24. That section 114 of the Act be amended so as to provide that-( I) The Commission and the licensees shall have a positive duty to use the services of Australians in the production and presentation of programmes as provided by this section; (2) The Minister by regulation shall have the power to fix quotas for the Commission and

the licensees in respect of the dramatic content of Australian programmes; and (3) The Minister, upon the recommendation of the Board in any particular case may grant exemption or impose special conditions in regard to quotas app1icable to particular licensees where the licensee can establish the fact that a compliance with the quota

would be impossible of performance. (Paragraph 84.)

25. That the Minister, in pursuance of the above recommendation, determine a quota in respect of the dramatic content of Australian programmes at not less than 9 per cent. of total time devoted to programmes of Australian origin to be imposed progressively over the next ensuing three years. (Paragraph 84.)

26. That in the implementation of the above quota, due regard be had to the factors set out in paragraph 81 hereof; and that the quota include a proportion of indigenous drama and that the component to be aimed at be approximately one-third of the Australian content of drama. (Paragraph 84.)

27. That representatives of the Commission, the Board, commercial television, the Professional Theatre and Actors' Equity should confer upon the matter of improved rates and conditions of employment for actors. (Paragraph 91.) 28. That a comprehensive policy with respect to assistance to reputable and competent theatre groups be adopted. The Committee suggests the following guiding principles in relation to assistance:-

(]) That assistance be made available on a " production " basis in the following cases, namely-to cover reasonable losses in the presentation of new indigenous drama; to cover a reasonable proportion of losses in the presentation of drama of high quality; to cover reasonable losses in "experimental" drama. (2) That assistance be made available for the establishment and maintenance of drama

schools.

(3) That assistance be made available to offset the high cost of travel of theatre groups, · both inter and intra State. (Paragraph 91.) 29. The granting of taxation de?uctions for a perio? not exceeding one of up t.o 150 per cent. of the salaries paid to visiting art1sts of world reputatiOn whose remuneratiOn 1s at a h1gher level than is customary in Australia. (Paragraph 91.)

30. Appropriate taxation exemptions to visiting professional artists of high quality for a period not exceeding one year. (Paragraph 91.) 31. Scholarships for young actors and of high prom!se and be available

so as to provide overseas training of the most expenenced type (subJeCt to condJtJons relatmg to the return of the artist to Australia). (Paragraph 91.)

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125

32. Funds for the above purposes to be made available upon the recommendation of the proposed Television Council. (Paragraph 91.)

33. That the Commission take the initiative in this matter and invite the co-operation of the Elizabethan Theatre Trust and any other interested professional group of repute in the matter of the establishment of a theatre for the production of indir,enous drama. (Paragraph 93.)

34. That the Management of the above undertaking be under the joint control of the Commission and the Elizabethan Theatre Trust. (Paragraph 93.)

35. That funds be jointly provided by the Commission. the Elizabethan Theatre Trust ::md the proposed Television Council. (Paragraph 93.)

36. That commercial television have equal opportunities with the Commission of purchasing the television rights of the productions. (Paragraphs 93.)

37. That the first theatre be established in one of the larger States but that a long term policy of expansion into the remaining States be not overlooked. (Paragraph 93.)

38. That a substantial cash prize be made available each year for the best production of an Australian play suitable for television. That the prize be made available to the theatre group, the artists and the dramatist. (Paragraph 94.)

39. That the Commonwealth Literary Fund be utilized and, if necessary, its policy broadened so as to provide funds for the encouragement of the dramatist, including such matters as awarding fellowships and assistance in the publication of plays. (Paragraph 94.)

40. That the proposed Television Council assist in the provision of funds for play writing competitions, especially for plays suitable for television. (Paragraph 94.)

41. That the Commission and the Board confer upon the rates of remuneration and other conditions relating to dramatists and in consultation with the representatives of the writers' associations, endeavour to agree upon a minimum scale of fees and set of conditions that, having regard to living standards in Australia, should compare with those appertaining in Great Britain. (Paragraph 94.)

42. That the Government give consideration immediately to the ratification of the International Convention relating to copyright. (Paragraph 94.)

PART VII.

43. That (as has been recommended in respect of the theatre and television industry) the employer of overseas film artists of high repute who pays higher salaries than those normally paid in Australia should be entitled to a deduction of up to 150 per cent. of the salary paid in respect of such artist for a period not exceeding one year. (Paragraph 109.)

44. Taxation exemptions for such artists should be granted for the same period in respect of income earned in Australia. In this respect it is pointed out that a similar exemption already exists for visiting sportsmen; and the Committee feels that if sportsmen are entitled to such an exemption, it would not be too much to extend this important concession to actors, directors and other artists. (Paragraph 109.)

45. That loans be made to film producers for " approved " productions. (Paragraph 110.)

46. That the outline of the loan subsidy scheme be as follows:-(1) The proposed Television Council to consider applications for assistance, make recommendations for such assistance to the Minister and be responsible for the administration of any assistance to producer companies on a project basis.

(2) Complete script to be approved by the Television Council together with the production budget as submitted by the producer. (3) No loan shall exceed 50 per cent. of the production budget approved by the Council. (4) Upon approval by the Television Council, one half of the loan to be paid to the producer

company provided such producer company takes out a fidelity bond with a reputable insurance company to complete the programme within a specified period. say one year. (5) Upon completion of the programme, the balance of the loan to be paid to the production

company provided the Television Council approves its general standard and agrees it has satisfactorily translated the script. (6) On all net sales the first amounts shall be applied to recoup that proportion of the budget not covered by the loan to the production company. Thereafter all net

sales to be applied pound for pound to production company and Commonwealth loan equally until whole of initial subsidy is repaid, including Bank. Rate. Interest. Payments of interest shall be regarded as a long term repayment at the discretiOn of the Television Council.

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(7) The Television Council, in considering applications for assistance, shall h,ave regard_ to the potential capacity and ability of the pro_ducer, company to ?arry out and shall regard the quality thereof as bemg of the utmost Importance m g1vmg Its approval for assistance. (Paragraph Ill.) 47. That the following assistance be made available to Australian companies engaged in producing films-

(1) By excluding from the taxable income of producing companies the profit resulting from sales of films overseas. (2) By providing other tax concessions, such as the fast write-off of capital assets or special depreciation allowances. (3) By lifting sales tax completely from all purchases or. materials or fill? stock and all

products manufactured by film producers pertammg to film productJOn other than final release prints. (Paragraph 112.)

48. That the following encouragement be made available to the Australian investor-(1) By allowance in his personal income tax assessment of all calls on shares in

Australian film producing companies' capital, by way of total deductiOn. (2) By receipt of tax-free dividends from his investment, in particular, by maintaining the tax-free content of profits from overseas sales. (Paragraph 113.)

49. That the overseas organization of the Department of Trade should include skilled personnel in the field of film distribution whose services could be utilized in regard to advertising and marketing Australian films overseas. (Paragraph 114.) 50. That ways and means should be discussed with State Governments as to the manner in which they can assist the Film Industry at State level (e.g., provision ofland, studio buildings, &c.). (Paragraph

114.) 51. That funds from consolidated revenue be made available for all purposes connected with the recommendations. (Paragraphs 115 and 116.) 52. That the annual licence fee payable under section 4 of the Broadcasting and Television Stations Licence Fees Act 1956 be increased in the following manner:-

After the first three years of operation-(!) For the first £100,000 of the gross earnings of the station from the televising of advertisements, or other matter Nil

(2) For the next £400,000 of these earnings (3) For the amount by which these earnings exceed £500,000 2 per cent. 4 per cent.

(Paragraph 118.)

53. That the matter of quotas be kept constantly under review and that they be increased, having regard to the extent of increases in the supply of programmes and the comparative cost of local and overseas programmes. (Paragraph 119.) 54. That the Commission, as incidental to its main functions in planning its film production, should make films which are suitable for both the local and export markets. (Paragraphs 120 and 121.)

PART VIII.

55. That the Minister through the agency of the proposed Television Council be gtven the responsibility for the co-ordination of research at the national level. (Paragraph 136.) 56. That national research be commenced and that the Social Science Research Council be invited to commence work on a project upon the research needs of television, and that necessary funds be made available to the Council for this purpose. (Paragraph 136.)

57. That the proposed Television Council review the overall question of national research and its possible co-ordination through the Social Science Research Council and universities throughout Australia which might be interested in the light of the findings established by the Social Science Research Council under recommendation 56, above. (Paragraph 136.)

58. That the Board and the Commission continue to accept responsibility for research at the level of their respective activities. (Paragraph 136.)

59. That the Commission and the Board cause to be produced and presented from time to time both on the Commission network and commercial stations, an up-to-date and well documented and illustrated programme showing the harmful and beneficial effects of television upon children as established in the scientific research field undertaken by the authorities. (Paragraph 136.)

60. That fuller details of all research work be published in the annual reports of the Board and of the Commission and that both authorities set out in their reports the action that has been or is proposed to be taken in pursuance of the research findings for that particular year. (Paragraph I 36.) 61. That the Board and the Commission take adequate steps to ensure that educational authorities be kept fully informed from time to time concerning current research findings in relation to research into children's television or adult programmes which children might reasonably be expected to watch. (Paragraph 136.)

53 127

62. That where authontative research findings endorsed by the Board indicate that certain programmes are objectionable or that there are undesirable trends in programming or that harmful effects might be expected from them, the Board shall take positive measure'> to rectify the situation. (Paragraph 136.)

PART IX.

63. That the proposed Australian Television Council meet frequently to review children's television programmes. (Paragraph 151.) 64. That the Board impose a further obligation on commercial licensees not to repeat too frequently those programmes procured from overseas "which may entertain children, and may occupy their leisure hours, but are unlikely to leave them the better for their viewing ". (Paragraph 151.)

65. That the family time period be extended by half an hour; and that the time for commencing the showing of programmes classified "AO" be postponed by half an hour, in an effort to reduce the number of children viewing programmes of crime, violence and horror. (Paragraph 151.) 66. That the Commission and the licensees provide programmes which will cater specifically for three age groups of children, viz., (a) 5 and under (b) 6 to 11, and tc) 12 to 16. (Paragraph 151.)

67. That in any application made by a producer to the Australian Television Council for assistance, the Council give top priority to good quality programmes catering for the proper tastes of the younger generation. (Paragraph 151.) 68. That more consideration be given by both the Commission and the licensees to the provision of adequate and comprehensive programmes for the adolescent. (Paragraph 151.)

PART X.

69. That an investigation be made by the Board into the time slots for the religious programmes known as "Epilogue". (Paragraph 166.)

PART XII.

70. That in no circumstances should all channels be allotted without making provision for a special channel for educational instruction. (Paragraph 196.) 71. That direct instructional television should have pre-eminence in future teacher planning at tertiary, secondary and primary and adult educational levels. (Paragraph 196.)

72. That care should be taken to ensure co-ordination of the efforts of the Commission, the Board and educational authorities on this subject. (Paragraph 196.)

PART XIII.

73. That an advisory council be set up to be called the Australian Television Council for the purpose of carrying out the following funrtions :-(1) To submit advice to the Minister as he may require from time to time in relation to non-technical questions arising out of the operation of the Act.

(2) Under the direction of the Minister, to administer the operation of the loan-subsidy scheme of the film industry (see Part VII.). (3) Under the direction of the Minister to be responsible for the planning and co-ordination of a national programme of research (see Part VIII.). ( 4) Under the direction of the Minister to administer such matters as the awards of scholarships

to writers and other artists, assistance to the theatre and other forms of assistance recommended under Parts VI. and VII. (Paragraph 197.)

74. That the members of the Council be appointed by the Minister. (Paragraph 198.)

75. That the Council consist of seven members-(1) four to be persons of high repute and experience in the nation's cultural life, one of whom shall be the chairman; (2) one to be a member of the Australian Broadcasting Commission; (3) one to be a member of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board; and

(4) one to be an officer of the Department of the Treasury. (Paragraph 198.)

76. That a full time Secretary be appointed to the Council. (Paragraph 198.)

PART XIV.

77. That the Annual Report of the Board to Parliament should be more comprehensive. (Paragraph 206.) 78. That the Annual Report of the Commission to Parliament should be more comprehensive. tParagraph 207.)

79. That a Standing Committee of the Senate be set up upon all aspects of television. (Paragraph 208.)

54

PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEE. 210. The Committee held public hearings in Canberra and in all State capital cities in order to obtain the benefit of the opinions and experience of a wide cross section of the Australian community and of those with special knowledge in all centres. Apart from those who appeared as specialists in response to invitations from the Committee, members of the public responded to the general invitation to give evidence extended through advertisements in the newspapers. At these hearings oral evidence was received from 139 witnesses.

211. In addition written submissions were received from individuals and on behalf of many organizations from which the Committee derived much information for the purpose of the formulation of its recommendations on many aspects covered by this Report. 212. The Committee wishes to record its appreciation and thanks to all witnesses and to those persons and organizations referred to above who assisted the Committee so willingly in its inquiry.

APPRECIATION.

213. The Chairman and members of the Committee express their deep appreciation to Mr. K. 0. Bradshaw, who acted as Secretary to the Committee. Mr. Bradshaw's ability and untiring devotion to his voluminous duties were particularly appreciated during the closing stages of the Committee's work. The Committee's thanks and appreciation are likewise extended to Mr. H. C.

Nicholls, the Assistant Secretary to the Committee, and to those members of the staff of the Senate, without whose untiring efforts the presentation of this report could not have been achieved in time.

The Senate, Canberra. 29th October, 1963.

V. S. VINCENT,

Chairman.

55 129

SUPPLEMENTARY OBSERVATIONS OF SENATOR R. C. WRIGHT. PARAGRAPHS 30, 91 AND 98. I do not think that a recommendation for much larger appropriations out of general revenue is warranted.

In my view this industry, on both the national side and the commercial side should be financed out of its own resources, i.e., television licence fees and the turnover tax on television advertising revenue.

It is from these sources that in my view any loans to be made on the recommendation of the Television Council should be made.

PARAGRAPHS 91, 109, 112, 113 AND 116.

l dissent from the recommendations in­ paragraph 91 (2.) (a) and (c), (3.), (4.) and (6.); paragraph 109; paragraph 112 (2.) and (3.); paragraph 113; paragraph 116.

PARAGRAPH 56.

I am not satisfied that a numerical increase in the personnel of the Australian Broadcasting Commission is justified.

PARAGRAPHS 74 (7.) AND 88.

I do not subscribe to the majority views in these paragraphs as to remuneration. I think it is proper to leave such matters to ordinary processes and in the event of difference to arbitration.

PARAGRAPH 93.

I do not think recommendations 93 (1.) and (3.) have sufficient relationship to television to come within the scope of this reference.

REG. C. WRIGHT.

56

APPENDIX A.

TELEVISION PROGRAMMES.

The Australian Broadcasting Control Board's statistical system for the analysis of television programmes is based on 29 categories divided into nine major groups. The following definitions of programme categories and programmes of Australian origin appear in the Fifteenth Annual Report of the Board for the year ended 30th June, 1963.

Drama­ Serious

Adventure

Crime and Suspense

Domestic and Comedy

Western Other

Light Entertainment­ Cartoons

Light Music ..

Personalities and Oddities

Quiz and Panel Programmes

Talent Programmes

Variety

Sport­ Events Other

News and Services

Family-For Children

Family Living and Shopping

Information-Agriculture and Industry

Foreign Lands and Peoples

Nature and Science Miscellaneous

Current Affairs-

DEFINITION OF CATEGORIES.

Includes classical drama, works of major contemporary dramatists, and other dramatic productions which appear to have lasting values. Plays not in a western setting, with a main focus on action; includes such themes as science fiction and espionage. Plays concerned with the commission and detection of illegal actions, in

which the main focus is on action, also plays in which suspense is predominant, with or without a crime element. Plays dealing with domestic life or family relations; includes situation comedy. Plays utilizing nineteenth century American western settings. Plays which do not fall specifically under other headings.

Matter predominantly in the form of animation or partial animation, excluding that which occurs in children's programmes. Programmes in which popular music of the present and past generations is the predominant element. Programmes about people in the news, unusual occupations, and other

matter treated primarily as entertainment; including programmes built around the personality of the master of ceremonies. Programmes built around a game or contest of wits, with or without prizes or penalties; excludes amateur talent contests. Programmes containing an element of competition at the amateur level in

any field of performance except sport. Programmes containing a mixture of comedy sketches, music, dancing, gags and patter, &c., where the element of competition does not occur.

Simultaneous or delayed presentation of sporting events. Sporting previews, summaries, news and talks, in which replays of events may be used incidentally; also includes demonstrations of sporting techniques. Programmes reporting on current or recent happenings; newsreels,

weather and other service reports; excludes news commentaries.

Regular programmes which include a variety of items directed to or presented for children. Programmes concerned with family activities and the family as users of consumer goods and services; includes programmes dealing with

marketing, cooking, house and garden, hobbies and care of pets; health, physical fitness, personal safety; shopping guides.

Programmes concerning the origins, activities or developments of the major occupational groups. Programmes, most of a descriptive type, concerning the lands and peoples of any country other than Australia and its territories. (Excludes

programmes primarily concerning political and controversial issues.) Programmes portraying any aspects of science. Programmes containing miscellaneous information which cannot be adequately classified elsewhere.

Australian Activities and 1-Ieri- Progranunes concerned with Australian history, national events, festivals tage and public gatherings.

Political Matter

Religious Matter Social and Human Relations and Controversial Matter

Programmes occurring during the " election period " and on polling days of Australian general elections and by-elections. All programmes originated by or for recognized religious bodies. Programmes dealing with economic and other problems of modern society;

history or biography where the event is presented primarily to inform rather than to entertain; includes all news commentaries and political and controversial matter except Australian electioneering programmes and election results.

The Arts­ Fine Arts

Dance and Ballet

Serious Music and Opera

Educational-School and Youth Education

57 131

APPENDIX A-continued.

Programmes concerning painting, sculpture, graphic arts, readings of prose and poetry; literary and other art criticism. Programmes presenting ballet and other forms of the dance as an independent art form. (Note.-Ballroom dancing, ballet, and similar

presentations which are incidental to other programmes are regarded as part of those programmes.) Programmes presenting lasting music regardless of form, period or country of origin; includes opera and progranunes devoted to music of a

particular country.

Programmes designed as an aid to the teaching of children and adolescents; includes all kindergarten sessions.

DEFINITION OF PROGRAMMES OF AUSTRALIAN ORIGIN.

A programme is regarded as being of Australian origin if-(i) it originates in the studio of an Australian television station, or by means of the station's outside broadcasting equipment, whether televised simultaneously or as a delayed transmission; (ii) it is produced by an Australian television station other than the station in whose programmes it appears

whether presented in recorded form or relayed from another station; or if (iii) it is made by an Australian organization other than a television station, or by a production unit associated with an Australian television station.

ATN TCN HSV GTV

BTQ QTQ ADS NWS

TVW TVT

Station.

*Average

APPENDIX B.

METROPOLITAN COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATIONS.

A:-lALYSIS OF TOTAL TRANSMISSION TIME BY CATEGORY GROUPS ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMES BEING LOCALLY PRODUCED OR IMPORTED-PERCENTAGES.

(Four Week Period 3rd June, 1963 to 30th June, 1963.)

DrcUl1il. Sport. I Light Entertainment. I , News. Family. Information. Current Affairs. The Arts. Education. Overall

. I I I i ' I : i I I I lmportcd.j Local.:___! Imported.j_Local. :Imported. Local. Local. Imported.\ Local.

11

Imported. Local. Imported.

I : I ' • I 'I I I i I 1.05 55.54 i 14.96 5.32 I 0.46 0.13 I 3.42 10.97: 0.26 I 1.01 ! 1.97 0.64 .. I 0.53 3.74 . . 36.57 63.43 51.23 j 17.71 3.371 3.78 2.68. 3.78 6.12, 1 0.54 · 4.72 1.21 0.54 .. 4.32 40.97 59.03 0.96 48.88 I 19.05' 6.58 4.62 0.93 1. 4.80 8.22 0.90 I 3.34 1.72 .. I I . . . . 40.99 59.01 51.40 1121.66[, 4.17 I 5.14' 0.61 5.70 I 6.82' i, 0.48; 2.29 0.46 0.31 I .. . 42.88 57.12 2.85 44.25 28.7o 6.85 1 t.33 2.18 4.24 1.63 2.18 2.96 t.52 o.98 .. · o.33 .. .. I 40.27 59.73 61.82119.091 5.97 II 0.66 4.09 3.:.-l7 2.07 I .. I 1.16 1.27 .. .. .. .. 30.28 69.72 1.19 40.95 23.72. 6.54: 4.3o 3.57 2.10 3.68 .. 1 1.oo: 1.68 1.16 o.11 .. t.3o 38.68 61.32 58.88 I 16.11 4.11 6.35 1.90 I 8.11 1.90 l ' 1.53 0.79 0.32 .. .. I .. 36.22 63.78 1.79 1 32.60! 21.36: 7.65 3.04 2.48 5.99 11.31 1 2.43 0.79: 1.79 5.29 1.38 .. .. 2.10 51.67 48.33 !.731 54.49 'I 7.07 I 3.88 4.54 4.00 4.19 'I ... 10.92 I 4.61 .. 0.92 ': 2.04 1.15 .. 0.46 .. 30.49 69.51 ·----------,1---i-----------'---- ' _______ ! ______ _ , 0,90' 51.02. 19.171 5.41 '1 3.29 I 1.621 4.04 Ill 7.09! 0.78 0.56! 0.94 2.57 1.06 0.141 0.13 1.28 .. 139.04 60.96 I I I I I I * Hased on average total transmission time ( Jll metropolitan commercial stations). (Source: Australian Broadcasting Control Board.) Vt 00

59

APPENDIX C. LIST OF WITNESSES.

ALEXANDER, H., General Secretary, Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia. ALLSOP, R. C., Television Consultant.

133

ANDERSON, A. W ., Senior Lecturer in Experimental Education, Faculty of Education, University of Western Australia. ANDERSON, G. H., Governing Director, Anderson Analysis Pty. Ltd. ANDREWS, Judge D. G., President, Queensland Council for Children's Films and Television. BAKER, D. G. S., Associate Producer, Eltham Film Productions Pty. Ltd. BALLANTYNE, C. S., Producer. BARNARD, Mrs. E., Librarian and writer. BARRY, J. V., Manager, Cine & T.V. Division, Swift and Bleakley Pty. Ltd. BASIL-JONES, Dr. Margaret, New South Wales Association of University Women Graduates. BEAL, Mrs. V. F., Mothers' Union of the Anglican Church in the Diocese of Brisbane. BEDNALL, C. B., O.B.E., Managing Director, General Television Corporation Pty. Ltd. (G.T.V. 9). BENJAMIN, Hon. Phyllis J., M.B.E., Member of the Legislative Council of Tasmania. BIRM:AN, J., Deputy Director, Adult Education Board, University of Western Australia. BoDDINGTON, N. A., Victorian Division, Australian Film Producers' Association. BoURKE, Monsignor J. E., Director of Catholic Education in Western Australia. BoYD, R. G. P., Author. BRODIE, I. M., Chairman, Visatone Television Pty. Ltd.

BROWNE, T. S., Young Liberal Movement of Western Australia. BURNE, L. S., Chairman of Directors, Kinetone Productions Pty. Ltd., BuRTON, Father K. C., Secretary, Catholic Radio & Television Committee of the Archdiocese of Sydney. CAIRNS, K. S., Director of Herald-Sun Television Pty. Ltd. and Manager of Station H.S.V. 7. CAMPBELL, Dr. W. J., Reader in Education, University of Queensland. CHAPPELL, F. R., Senior Lecturer in Education, University of Tasmania. CowAN, A. S., General Manager, Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations. CowEN, Professor Zelman, Dean of Faculty of Law, University of Melbourne. CRAWFORD, H. W., Managing Director, Crawford Productions Pty. Ltd. CURNOW, Mrs. C., Secretary, Queensland Council for Children's Films and Television. DARGIE, W. A., O.B.E., Director, T.V. Victoria, Ltd. DARLING, Dr. J. R., C.M.G., O.B.E., Chairman, Australian Broadcasting Commission. DARNTON, J. L., Sales Manager, A.T.V. (Australia) Pty. Ltd. DAVIES, W. L. C., General Manager, Southern Television Corporation Ltd. (N.W.S. 9).

DERWIN, C. J., General Manager, Newcastle Broadcasting and Television Corporation Ltd. (N.B.N. 3). DICK, N. A., Manager, General Television Corporation (G.T.V. 9). DoNNELLY, Mrs. D. J., Housewife. DoNNELLY, R. P., Parents & Friends' Federation of West Australia. DRAKE-BROCKMAN, Mrs. H. F. Y., Authoress. DWYER, J. C., Director, National Catholic Radio and Television Centre. EDEN, K. T. G., Vice-Chairman, Victorian Division of Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia.

EvANS, A. E., Managing Director, Northern Television Ltd. (T.N.T. 9). FARNSWORTH, L. W., Managing Direction and Chief Executive Officer, George Patterson Pty. Ltd. FARRAR, L. W., Executive Director, Australian Film Producers' Association. FITTON, Miss D., O.B.E., Founder and Director of the Independent Theatre, Sydney.

FoRSEY, S. D., Psychologist. FROST, Mrs. P. I., President, Victorian National Council of Women. GALLAGHER, L. T., Lee Gallagher Enterprises T.V. Productions. GARLICK, R. J., Vice-President, Federation of Victorian Film Societies. GEORGE, Mrs. H. M., Member of Tasmanian Council for Children's Films and Television. GoFFAGE, J. W. P. (Chips Rafferty), Actor and Producer. GoRDON, B., Sales Director, Desilu Sales Incorporated.

GREENWOOD, Mrs. I. A., State Vice-President, Women's Service Guilds of Western Australia. GUNDRY, Rev. E. A. C., Rector of St. Paul's Anglican Church, Beaconsfield, Western Australia. HAAG, S., Executive Director, Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust. HANEMAN, Dr. D., Senior Lecturer in Physics, University of New South Wales.

HARRIS, M. H., Managing Director, Australian Book Review. HEALEY, C. 0., O.B.E., T.D., Headmaster of Sydney Grammar School, and Chairman, Headmasters Conference of Independent Schools of Australia. HERRON, N. P., School Teacher. HoDGSON, Mrs. D. V., Women's Service Guilds of Western Australia.

HoLMES, C. W., Film Director. HoLT, B., Federal Director, Australian Association of Advertising Agencies. HouGHTON, D. H., President, Australian Radio, Television and Screen Writers' Guild. HuTcHISON, N., Director of Drama and Features for the Australian Broadcasting Commission. HuTToN, R., Actor. JOEL, J., Managing Director, Screen Gems Pty. Ltd. JoNEs, B., Private citizen. JoNES, J. J., President, Commonwealth Council of the Fellowships of Australian Writers.

JoNES, Rev. Dr. Percy, Chairman, Melbourne Diocesan Committee for Catholic Radio and Television. KELSO, Brig. P. W. A., E.D., Federal Vice-President, Australian Association of National Advertizers. KING, C. M., Proprietor of Rentalitc Studios, Rentalite Electric, Rentalite Recordings and the Zenith Entertainers Training Academy.

F.ll771/63.-5

60

APPENDIX C-continued.

KwAST, Miss Sascha van der, Actress. LLEWELLYN, J., Actor. LLEWELLYN, Mrs. V. W., Theatrical Agent. LLOYD, T. K., Hon. Treasurer, Western Australian Association for Children's Films and Television. LOBASCHER, B. L., Independent Producer of Films. LoNG, V. R., Director of Education, Department of Education, Tasmania. LoRD, R. T., General Manager, Television Wollongong Transmissions Ltd., (WIN 4).

MACARTNEY, R. R., General Manager, Brisbane T.V. Ltd. (B.T.Q. 7). McCALLUM, J. N., Managing Director, J. C. Williamson Theatres Ltd. MAcDoNALD, K. A., General Manager, Television Broadcasters Ltd. (A.D.S. 7). MciNTYRE, H. C., Director, Waratah Film Productions Pty. Ltd. McKAY, J. W., General Manager, Queensland Television Ltd. (Q.T.Q. 9). MACLAINE, Dr. A. G., Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Sydney. McNAIR, W. A., Managing Director, McNair Survey Pty. Ltd. McRAE, E. G., Managing Director, Tasmanian Television Ltd. (T.V.T. 6). MILLER, Hon. B. K., M.L.C., Deputy-Leader of the Government in the Legislative Council of Tasmania. MILLER, M. D., Mrs., (Mary Durack), Writer. MILLINGTON-DRAKE, J. M. H., Director, Visatone Television Pty. Ltd. MILLS, Miss May, O.B.E., Senior Vice-President, Film and Television Council of South Australia. MIRAMS, R. H., Pacific Film Productions. MooRE, J. F. H., Representative of Tasmanian Council for Children's Films and Television. MoRCOM, E. G., President, Victorian Division, Australian Film Producers' Association. MosEs, Sir Charles, C.B.E., General Manager, Australian Broadcasting Commission. MURPHY, M. R., Proprietor of Supreme Sound Studios. NEARY, J. E., Producer. NICHOLSON, Mrs. J., Writer. NIXON, L. K., Producer. O'GRADY, F. P., Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs.

OsBORNE, R. G., C.B.E., Chairman, Australian Broadcasting Control Board. OsWIN, J. H. M., General Manager, Amalgamated Television Services Pty. Ltd., and Artransa Park Television Pty. Ltd., and Manager of Station A.T.N. 7. PACKER, Sir Frank, Chairman, Television Corporation Ltd. (T.C.N. 9). PARKE, B., Country Extension Tutor, Department of Adult Education, University of Western Australia. PATON, Lady Alice, President, Australian Council for Children's Films and Television. PLANT, Mrs. K., Secretary, Waterside Workers' Federation Women's Committee, Fremantle Branch.

PORTER, B. T., Producer, Visatone Television Pty. Ltd. PORTER, E. E., Managing Director, Eric Porter Productions Pty. Ltd. PoULSEN, H. W., Managing Director, Cameracraft Film Productions Pty. Ltd. PRIEST, T. A., Senior Lecturer in Philosophy of Education, Faculty of Education, University of Western Australia. RADCLIFFE, J. V., Chairman of Directors, Waratah Film Productions Pty. Ltd. RAMSON, Dr. W. S., Canberra Fellowship of Australian Writers, RAPHAEL, M. L., Director, Movie Film Workshop and Acting Group. REEs, L., Acting Assistant to the Director of Drama and Features, Australian Broadcasting Commission. ROBERTSON, W. M., Assistant Director of Technical Education for New South Wales. RoPER, Miss M. E., Educationalist. RosE, Mrs. L. M., President, Canberra Fellowship of Australian Writers. RoWBOTHAM, D. H., Drama Critic, Brisbane Courier Mail. RUHEN, 0., Writer. RYAN, P. V. C., Director, Eltham Film Productions Pty. Ltd. SHANN, Mrs. E., Convenor of Standing Committee for Television Radio and Cinema, Victorian National Council of Women. SLEDGE, K. G., Managing Director, Visatone television Pty. Ltd. SQUIRES, Mrs. D. R., Women's Service Guilds of Western Australia. STEPHENS, Mrs. P. B., Director of Brisbane Repertory Theatre. STEWART, C. J., Pacific Film Productions. STORMON, Rev. Father E. J., Rector, St. Thomas More College, University of Western Australia. STRATTON, Miss A. G., Young Liberal Movement of Western Australia. TASKER, D. H., Director, Christian Television Aswciation of Victoria. TERRY, P., Paul Terry Enterprises Pty. Ltd. TILDESLEY, Miss E. M., M.B.E., Director, British Drama League in Australia. TREASURE, B. S., Acting General Manager, T.V.W. Ltd. (T.V.W. 7). TRICKET, A. J., Management Consultant UNDERHILL, Mrs. M. D. (Mary Wilton), Secretary, Victorian Chapter, Australian Radio, Television and Screen Writers'

Guild.

UREN, N. A., President, Western Australian Association for Children's Films and Television. WALKER, K. F., Professor of Psychology, University of Western Australia. WALKER, R. R., Deputy Managing Director, George Patterson Pty. Ltd. WEST, M. L., Author. WETZEL, H. E. R., Technical Director, Visatone Television Pty. Ltd. WHEATLAND, C. M., General Secretary, The Professional Musicians' Union of Australia. WIGMORE, L. G., Canberra Fellowship of Australian Writers. WILLIAMS, Mrs. M.G. J., President, Waterside Workers' Federation Women's Committee, Fremantle Branch. WoLNIZER, C. E., Independent producer of films for cinema and television.

61

APPENDIX D.

PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS OF THE BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION ACT RELATING TO TELEVISION PROGRAMMES.

135

"16.-(1.) The functions of the Board are- Powers and functions of

(a) to ensure the provision of services by broadcasting stations and television stations in accordance Board. with plans from time to time prepared by the Board and approved by the Minister; (b) to ensure that the technical and operati?n of such stations are in accordance with (Ll

such standards and practices as the Board considers to be appropriate; substituted by

. No. 33, 1956,

(c) to ensure that adequate and comprehensive programmes are provided by commercials. 8; broadcasting stations and commercial television stations to serve the best interests of the general public; and s. s.

(d) to detect sources of interference, and to furnish advice and assistance in connexion with the prevention of interference, with the transmission or reception of the programmes of broadcasting stations and television stations, and shall include such other functions in relation to broadcasting stations and television stations as are prescribed.

(2.) The Board may make recommendations to the Minister as to the exercise by the Minister of any Substituted by power under Part IV. of this Act. amended by No. 33, 1956,

s. 62 and Second Schedule.

(3.) The Board shall have power- Substituted by

f b' d' · f h · - h . . . No. 33, 1956,

,a) su to any trectlon o t e Mmister, to determme t e sttuatlon and operatmg power of a •- 8. broadcasting station or television station; (b) subject to any direction of the Minister, to determine the frequency of a broadcasting station and the frequencies of a television station, within bands of frequencies notified to the Board

by the Postmaster-General as being available; (c) to determine the hours during which programmes may be broadcast or televised; (d) to determine the conditions subject to which advertisements may be broadcast or televised by licensees;

(e) subject to any direction of the Minister, to regulate the establishment and operation of networks of commercial broadcasting stations or of commercial television stations and the making of arrangements by licensees for the provision of programmes or the broadcasting or televising of advertisements; and (f) to conduct examinations as to the competency of persons to operate the technical equipment

of broadcasting stations and television stations and to charge fees in respect of those examinations. (4.) In exercising its functions and powers under this section in relation to commercial broadcasting Substituted by stations and commercial television stations, the Board shall consult representatives of those stations. 1956,

(5.) The Board shall have power, subject to the approval of the Minister and of the Treasurer, to provide financial assistance and other assistance to commercial broadcasting stations, for the purpose of ensuring that programmes of adequate extent, standard and variety are provided in the areas served by those stations."

" 17.-(1.) For the purpose of exercising its powers and functions under this Act, the Board shall have orders, &c. power to make such orders, give such directions and do all such other things as it thinks fit. (2.) Orders made by the Board- {?48,

(a) shall be in writing; a. 6.

(b) shall not be deemed to be Statutory Rules within the meaning of the Rules Publication Act 1903-1939; and (c) shall have the force of law.

(3.) The provisions of sections forty-eight and forty-nine of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901-1941 shall apply to orders made by the Board in like manner as they apply to regulations. (4.) A person shall not contravene or fail to comply with any provision of an order made by the Board which is applicable to him.

(5.) A direction given by the Board may be given orally or in writing. (6.) A direction given orally shall be given to the person required to comply with the direction and thereupon that person shall comply with the direction. (7.) Where a direction is given orally, the Board shall, within twenty-four hours thereafter, record the direction in writing.

(8.) A copy of a direction given in writing shall be served personally or by post on the person required to comply with the direction and thereupon that person shall comply with the direction." " 59.-(1.) Subject to this Act, the Commission shall provide and shall broadcast or televise from Functions of transmitting _made available by the comprehensive programmes

and shall take m the mterests of the commumty all such measures as, m the opimon of the Commission, are substituted by conducive to the full development of suitable broadcasting and television programmes. 1956•

62

APPENDIX D-continued.

(2.) Where the Commission considers it necessary for the proper carrying out of its objects or for Amended by any purpose incidental thereto, the Commission may make arrangements for the holding of, or may organize ;:"il3• 1956 •

or subsidize, any public concert or other public entertainment provided-(a) the whole or part of the concert or entertainment is broadcast or televised; or

(b) the concert or entertainment is held in co-operation with an educational, religious or other non-commercial institution and no charge for admission is made by the Commission."

"67. The Commission shall endeavour to establish and utilize, in such manner as it thinks desirable Bands and in order to confer the greatest benefit on broadcasting or television, groups of musicians for the rendition of orchestral, choral and band music of high quality." s. 20.

"99.-(1.) A licensee shall provide programmes and shall supervise the broadcasting or televising of Prosr.ammes. f h . · · h f · bl h h · Substituted by programmes rom Is station m sue manner as to ensure as ar as practlca e, t at t e programmes are m No. 33, I956, accordance with standards determined by the Board. s. 40.

(2.) If the programmes broadcast from a commercial broadcasting station or televised from a commercial television station are not, in whole or in part, in accordance with the standards determined by the Board, the licensee shall, if so directed by the Board, vary the programmes so that they shall conform with those standards.

(3.) The Minister may, from time to time, by notice given by telegram or in writing, prohibit a licensee from broadcasting or televising any matter, or matter of any class or character, specified in the notice, or may require the licensee to refrain from broadcasting or televising any such matter.

(4.) A licensee shall, upon request by the Board, make available to the Board or an authorized officer any writing, record, film or other material or device used in connexion with or for the purposes of a programme."

"101. Where the Board has reason to believe that any matter (including an advertisement) which it Censorship. is proposed to broadcast or televise is of an objectionable nature, that matter shall be subject to such censorship as the Board determines." s. 40.

" 108.-(1.) The Minister may, during the currency of a licence, by notice in writing to the licensee, variation of vary or revoke any of the conditions upon which the licence is granted (not being conditions applicable by of virtue of section one hundred and twenty-nine of this Act) or impose further conditions. substituted by No. 33, 1956,

s. 43.

(2.) The Minister shall give not less than fourteen days' notice in writing of his intention to vary or Sub-section (1.) revoke a condition or to impose a further condition under the last preceding sub-section, and shall specify in the notice the variation proposed or the condition to be revoked or imposed. s. 62 and Second Schedule. "109. Before exercising any power under this part, the Minister shall take into consideration recommendations that have been made by the Board as to the exercise of that power."

any Minister to consider recommenda­ tions of Board. Inserted by No. 33, 1956,

s. 43.

" 114.-(1.) The Commission and the licensees shall, as far as possible, use the services of Australians Encouragement in the production and presentation of broadcasting and television programmes. (2.) Not less than five per centum of the time occupied by the programmes of the Commission, and Substituted by not less than five per centum of the time occupied by the programmes of a commercial broadcasting station,

1956 •

in the broadcasting of music shall be devoted to the broadcasting of works of composers who are Australians.

(3.) In this section, Australian means a person who was born or is ordinarily resident in Australia."

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APPENDIX E.

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD.

TELEVISION PROGRAMME STANDARDS.

Determined by the Board in pursuance of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956.

1ST JULY, 1956.

137

497 CoLLINS STREET, MELBOURNE. RE-ISSUED 1sT JULY, 1959.

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CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTORY

General Programme Standards

Special Provisions for Family and Children's Programmes Family Programmes Children's Programmes Programmes Unsuitable for Adolescents

Films used in Television-Classification

Televising of Religious Matter

Televising of Political Matter

Programmes containing Matter of a Medical Nature

News and Newsreel Programmes

Televising of Sporting Events

Transmission of Telephone Conversations

Transmission of Personal Messages

Use of Foreign Languages

Contests ..

Advertising Acceptability of Advertising Matter Advertising Time Standards Week-day Advertising

Sunday Advertising Advertising on Christmas Day and Good Friday Medicine Advertisements

APPENDIX-Notes on Censorship of Matters of a Medical Nature.

Paragraphs.

1-5

6-9

10-11 12

13-15 16

17

18-19

20-20a

21

22

23

24

25-26

27

28-32

33-34 35

36-47 37-44 45-46 47

48-49

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TELEVISION PROGRAMME STANDARDS.

INTRODUCTORY.

Sub-sections (1.) and (2.) of Section 99 of the Broadcastmg and Televrsion Act 1942-1956 Provide that:-" (1.) A licensee shall provide programmes and shall supervise the . televising of programmes from his station in such manner as to ensure, as far as practicable, that the programmes are in accordance with standards determined by the Board.

" (2.) If the programmes . . televised from a commercial television station are not, in whole or in part, in accordance with the standards determined by the Board, the licensee shall, if so directed by the Board, vary the programmes so that they shall conform with those standards." This document has therefore been prepared, after consultation with licensees and other interested bodies, for the purpose of setting out in a convenient form a statement of general programme standards to be observed by licensees. In its preparation the Board has been greatly assisted by similar statements of standards or " Codes " prepared in other countries, particularly the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

2. Wherever television has been established it has exerted a very powerful influence on the community, adults and children alike. As a medium for entertainment, information and education it will reach a great number of persons of all ages, of all educational backgrounds, and of many religious faiths, in the privacy of their homes. Responsibility for the selection of programmes to be seen and heard in each home must to some extent lie with the viewer; but it is reasonable for the viewer to assume that the programmes offered will reach standards which have been determined having regard

both to the nature of the medium and the obligation to use it in the best interests of the Australian community. It is therefore the responsibility of licensees to ensure that programmes which fail to reach those standards are not broadcast. 3. Much of what follows is necessarily of a negative nature and may indeed be regarded as almost self-evident applications of the over-riding obligation of licensees to avoid those errors of taste which can cause offence to sections of the public or be harmful to the young people who will make up a large part of the television audience; but the need for a clear statement of programme standards has been demonstrated by the experience of other countries. Compliance with these standards is the least that licensees can do in the fulfilment of their responsibilities. Television can be an instrument of really significant importance in the life of the nation. Negative regulations may eliminate abuses; only the goodwill and high purpose of those who actually operate the stations and plan the programmes can ensure that television will be used constructively for the welfare of the community. This responsibility will be discharged only by constant

vigilance and effort, in order both to avoid possibilities of abuse of the great medium, and what is more important, to secure and maintain the positive standards of value in television programmes to which the Royal Commission on Television referred. In this way the great opportunities which television presents will be achieved. This applies particularly to programmes for young people. It is therefore not sufficient that these Standards should be regarded as a formal set of rules to be complied with to the letter: they must also be regarded as a practical guide to licensees and be applied in the spirit which this paragraph has endeavoured to indicate.

4. Section 16 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provides that the functions of the Board shall be, inter alia, " to ensure that adequate and comprehensive programmes are provided by . commercial television stations to serve the best interests of the general public." The Board will accordingly be anxious to provide opportunities to licensees and other interested bodies for consultation and discussion with a view to ensuring constant review of these Standards in the light of developments so that the objective stated in this section of the Act may be achieved. In these discussions the Board expects to have the benefit also of the assistance and advice of its Advisory Committees on certain aspects of programmes.

5. It should be understood that these Standards are not intended to prevent the televising in good faith, at appropriate times, and in appropriate circumstances of-(a) genuine works of artistic or literary merit; or (b) serious presentation of moral and social issues.

Such programmes are, indeed, to be encouraged, so long as due warning of the nature of the programme is given, where necessary, both in advance publicity and at its commencement.

GENERAL PROGRAMME STANDARDS.

6. Fundamentally these Standards require the observance in television programmes of­ (a) ordinary good taste and common sense; (b) respect for the individual opinions of the public; (c) proper regard for the special needs of children; and (d) respect for the law and social institutions.

7. In the presentation of television programmes, certain basic requirements must always be observed. These are--(a) No programme may contain any matter which is-(i) blasphemous, indecent, obscene, vulgar or suggestive; or of doubtful propriety; (ii) likely to encourage crime or public disorder;

(iii) likely to be injurious to community well-being or morality; (iv) contrary to Jaw; (v) undesirable in the public interest because it includes matter of the same general nature as that referred to in the preceding sub-paragraphs. (b) To preserve decency and decorum in production, and so avoid embarrassment or offence to viewers at

home, the presentation of all performers must be within the bounds of propriety. Special care must be taken as regards costuming, movements of dancers and others, and selection of camera angles. (c) Programmes which contain matter that is not generally suitable for viewing by children must not be broadcast atltimes when large numbers of children are likely to have access to television receivers (see paragraphs

10 to 16.)

66

8. The following particular applications of the preceding standards refer to a number of aspects of programmes on which great care is needed in production:-(a) No programme should contain matter which, if imitated, could be harmful to the well-being of individuals or of the community; this includes such sequences as those which-

(i) demonstrate any techniques of crime in such a way as to invite imitation; (ii) are likely to incite any person to crime, violence, or anti-social behaviour; (iii) deride or otherwise discredit the law and its enforcement, or significant social institutions; (iv) display in detail any form of violence or brutality. (b) Dramatic productions should not simulate the presentation of news or special events in such a way as to

mislead or alarm viewers. (c) While the serious presentation of religious issues is to be encouraged, attacks on any established religious faiths or beliefs should not be permitted. (d) Any programme which includes a portrayal of religious rites should ensure the accurate presentation of

those rites and correct and dignified treatment of the religious dignitaries and officers in their various callings. (e) Respect should be maintained for the sanctity of marriage and the importance of the home. Divorce should not be treated casually or as a convenient solution to marital problems. (f) The use of intoxicating liquor should not be displayed prominently in programmes, and should generally

be avoided except when necessary for the development of plot or characterization. (g) The portrayal of, and reference to, drunkenness and addiction to drugs or narcotics should be limited to the needs of the plot and characterization, and not presented as desirable. (h) Reference to mental or physical afflictions should be treated with great care, to avoid offence to sufferers

of similar ailments. (i) While certain forms of gambling may form an accepted part of the social structure, it is undesirable to transmit scenes or sequences which unduly emphasize betting or might tend directly to promote interest in gambling. (j) The presentation of superstitious or pseudoscientific beliefs associated with the foretelling of the future is

not desirable, except as required for development of plot, when it must be treated with discretion. (k) Reference to sex relations should be treated with discretion; reference to illicit sex relations should be avoided where possible, and should on no account be presented as commendable. (l) The presentation of cruelty, greed, selfishness, unfair exploitation of others, and similar unworthy

motivations should not be made in a favourable light. (m) The condoning of crime and the treatment of the commission of crime in a frivolous, cynical, or callous manner should not be permitted. (n) The deliberate use of horror for its own sake, and sound or visual effects likely to cause unnecessary alarm

should not be permitted.

9. The use of correct English in all programmes is important; but appropriate idiom and colloquialism may be employed sparingly when necessary for special characterization. Care should be taken to avoid the use of objectionable words or words which though originally acceptable have acquired undesirable or offensive implications.

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S PROGRAMMES.

10. At certain times of day, particularly in the late afternoon and early evening, and during week-ends and holidays, the television audience is likely to contain large numbers of children and young people. Programmes to be televised at these times should therefore be wholly suitable for viewing by children though not necessarily directed exclusively to them. There are special problems to be faced and special responsibilities to be discharged in the production and presentation of programmes during these periods. These arise mainly from the overriding consideration that children are very vulnerable to the impact of television. The child's education and training receive very close supervision, both by his parents and by the State, so that by the time he reaches maturity he may be able to fit into the complex adult world with a minimum of difficulty. To achieve this goal, the child must gradually acquire a sound standard of values, self-discipline, and an appreciation of adult responsibilities. In the course of his development he is brought into gradual contact with the good and not-so-good aspects of life, so that the training he has received will enable him to cope with the various experiences he will encounter. Just as a good parent would not expose his child to an aspect of life for which the child is not equipped, so the television broadcaster must ailow for the likely composition of his audience at these times of day. At the same time it must be remembered that during these periods there are great opportunities for good in television, in enlarging the horizons of children and in cementing family ties and associations. It is earnestly hoped that television stations will make the most of these opportunities.

II. It is therefore necessary to make special provisions in these Standards in respect of programmes to be televised between 5.00 p.m. and 7.30 p.m. on week days, and at any time before 7.30 p.m. on Saturday and Sunday. Programmes to be televised during these times must be of one or other of the foiiowing classes and must comply in ail respects with the relevant standards applicable to these classes:-

(a) Family Programmes, which are suitable for viewing by persons of all ages, and which will not produce any undesirable effects on children;

(b) Children's Programmes, which are specially designed for children in various age groups.

As large numbers of young persons are likely to be viewing television programmes on public holidays and during other holiday periods it is important that care be exercised in the selection of programmes for transmission at any time before 7.30 p.m. on all such days.

67

141

12. Family Programmes.-These must be selected and presented with great care. It is imperative that parents feel secure in allowing children to see these programmes without supervision, and that family groups of all ages may view them with complete confidence. To ensure that this objective is achieved, it is necessary for the foregoing General Standards to be scrupulously observed, and in addition for the following special provisions to be complied with:-

(a) The selection of subject-matter and treatment of themes should be wholesome and fresh in outlook. On no account should the more sordid aspects of life be presented in such a way that they appear to play a greater part in life than they actually do. (b) The following in particular should be avoided:­

(i) torture or suggestion of torture. (ii) horror or undue suspense; (iii) the use of the supernatural or superstition so as to arouse anxiety or fear; (iv) other matter likely to lead to undesirable emotional disturbances in children (e.g., hysteria and

nightmares).

(c) Dramatic action should not be over-accentuated, particularly by suggestions of excessive violence. Morbid sound effects intended to anticipate or simulate death or injury should not be used. (d) Particular attention should be paid to the treatment of child or animal characters, as children's imaginations can be readily over-stimulated by suggestions of ill-treatment of such characters. (e) Children readily imitate speech and pronunciations heard in sound broadcasting and television programmes.

They should be encouraged in the art of correct speech and pronunciations, and slang and incorrect English should be avoided, except when necessary for characterization, when a minimum amount of appropriate vernacular may be employed. The provisions of this paragraph do not prevent the presentation of normal sporting fixtures or news bulletins.

13. Children's Programmes.-lt is desirable that each station which proposes to originate children's programmes should provide for these programmes to be supervised by a person who is specially qualified for this type of work and who would be directly responsible for the meticulous supervision necessary in the preparation and presentation of all such programmes.

14. Programmes specially directed to children must comply not only with the General Standards and the standards for Family Programmes, but also with the following special standards:--(a) All scripts must be carefully written, having in mind the needs of the particular age groups for which the programmes are intended;

(b) All stories must reflect respect for law and order, adult authority, good morals and clean living. The theme must stress the importance of mutual respect of one man for another, and should emphasize the desirability of fair play and honorable behaviour. Cowardice, malice, deceit, selfishness and disrespect for law must be avoided in the delineation of any character presented in the light of a hero. (c) In programmes in which children appear as artists, particular attention should be directed to avoiding the

possibility of encouraging precocity in such children, who may be tempted to " show off" in front of the studio or home audience. (d) Contests and offers which encourage children to enter strange places and to converse with strangers for any purpose present a definite element of danger to children and should be avoided.

15. lt is recommended that there be regular sessions for children designed---(a) to impart a broader knowledge of the history and potentialities of our country and of current affairs; (b) to foster an appreciation of such cultural pursuits as music, painting, ballet, the theatre and literature; (c) to encourage interest and active participation in simple scientific investigations such as botanical, geological

and other pursuits; and (d) by the use of the great examples from the Bible, and from history, biography and literature, to impart a real appreciation of the spiritual values and of the qualities of courage, honour and integrity which are essential to the full development of the individual, and of national greatness. It is further recommended that programmes be designed to cater for children's propensities for sport and for hobbies such as handicrafts and the care of animals.

16. Programmes Unsuitable for Adolesc<'nls.-Certain types of programmes, either because of their themes or the method of treatment of the themes, may tend to produce in adolescents a false or distorted view of life. These programmes, because they deal with certain types of social and domestic problems, some aspects of crime, or other themes which are suitable only for persons of more mature judgment, should not be televised before 8.30 p.m.

FILMS USED IN TELEVISION.

17. lt is the responsibility of the Commonwealth Film Censorship Board to examine all rilms imported into Australia. In consequence of arrangements made with the Chief Film Censor, all imported films (and such other films and types of films as may be speciried from time to time) will be cla,sificd for usc in tclcvi>ion in accordance with the relevant provisions of these Standards. The classifications to be applied will be as follow'>:--

(a) Unrestricted for television. (Symbol' G ');

(h) Not suitable for children. (Symbol' A');

(c) Not to be televised before 8.30 p.m. (Symbol 'AU'); (d) Not suitable for television.

Programmes classified as" Not suitable for children"(' A') are those which do not comply with the special standards for Family and Children's Programmes, and must not be televised during periods to which those standards apply. Programmes classified as " Not to be televised before 8.30 p.m." (' AO 'J arc those to which reference is made in paragraph 16.

F.ll771/63.-6

68

TELEVISING OF RELIGIOUS MATTER.

18. Section 103 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provides that-" A licensee shall . . televise from his station Divine Worship or other matter of a religious nature during such periods as the Board determines and, if the Board so directs, shall do so without charge."

19. The following principles should be applied in the allocating of time for the televising of religious matter (other than sponsored religious matter):-(a) Time should be allocated for the televising of matter of a religious nature to the extent of at least 1 per cent. of the normal weekly hours of service, with a minimum of 30 minutes each week, to be scheduled either

as a complete unit occupying the whole time allocated; or as a series of programmes on one or more days of the week, with a minimum of five minutes for each programme; (b) Station time as allocated shall be provided, free of charge, to the Church or religious body concerned, but reasonable charges may be made to cover costs other than those of a programme presented in, and

using the normal facilities of, a studio under the control of the licensee. (c) Time:should be allocated among the various Churches and denominations as far as practicable in proportion to the number of adherents to each denomination in the area served by the station as shown in the latest Census; such arrangements should be made by mutual agreement between the licensees and

representatives of the Churches and denominations and should have regard to the suitability for tele­ vising of the services or other religious matter proposed to be televised. (d) Religious programmes should be presented only by responsibile persons or bodies, and should not contain statements ridiculing any form of religious belief.

TELEVISING OF POLITICAL MATTER.

20. Sections 116 and 117 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provide, in relation to commercial television stations, that:-" 116.-(2.) • . . a licensee shall not . . televise a dramatization of any political matter

which is then current or was current at any time during the last five preceding years. "(3.) If, during an election period, a licensee . . . televises election matter, he shall afford reasonable opportunities for the . . . televising of election matter to all political parties contesting the election, being parties which were represented in either House of the Parliament for which the election is being held at the time of its last meeting before the election period.

(4.) . . . a licensee shall not, at any time between the end of an election period and the close of the poll on the day on which the election is held . . televise election matter. "(5.) Nothing in this section requires a licensee to . . televise any matter free of charge. " (6.) In this section-

, election ' means an election of a member or members of either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth or of a State; 'election matter' means matter of any of the following kinds, namely:-(a) matter commenting on, or soliciting votes for, a candidate at an election;

(b) matter commenting on, or advocating support of, a political party to which a candidate at an election belongs; (c) matter commenting on, stating or indicating any of the issues being submitted to the electors at an election or any part of the policy of a candidate at an election or of the

political party to which such a candidate belongs; and (d) matter referring to meetings held or to be held in connexion with an election; • election period ' means the period commencing on the day of the issue of the writ or writs for an election and ending at midnight on the Wednesday next preceding the day of the poll. " 117.-(1.) . . . the licensee concerned . . . shall cause to be announced the true name of

every speaker who, either in person or by means of a sound recording device, delivers an address or makes a statement relating to a political subject or current affairs for . . . televising. "(2.) If the speaker is not the author of the address or statement, the name of the author shall be included in the announcement.

" (3.) If the address is delivered or the statement is made on behalf of a political party, the name of the party shall be included in the announcement. "(4.) The announcement shall be made after the address or statement if it contains one hundred words or less or before and after the address or statement if it contains more than one hundred words.

" (5.) . . . the licensee . . . shall keep a record of the name, address and occupation of the

author of each such address or statement and shall furnish to the Board any particulars of the record which the Board by notice in writing requires."

20A. After consultation with the Attorney·General's Department, the Board has prepared the following explanation of the expression " dramatization of political matter " for the guidance of licensees of both broadcasting and television stations:-" The expression ' Dramatization of political matter ' includes any method of presentation or production

of broadcast or television material dealing with a subject of a political nature which involves or includes-( a) a representation by means of characters (whether named or not, and whether presented visually, by still or animated cartoon or picture or otherwise, or aurally, or visually and aurally) of a past or imaginary event, speech or conversation, whether the characters portrayed are real

or imaginary people; (b) any statement, address, or dialogue containing simulated voices.

143

69

"The expression does not, however, include any visual or aural presentation of dialogue or discussion between actual persons not purporting to represent other persons, or the use of quotations or of factual pictures."

The Board, in providing this explanation, does not purport to give an authoritative ruling on the interpretation of the Act; such a ruling could only be given by a Court in the light of the actual facts of a particular presentation.

PROGRAMMES CONTAINING MATTERS OF A MEDICAL NATURE. 21. Section 122 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provides that a licensee shall not televise a talk on a medical subject unless the text of the matter has been approved in writing by the Director-General of Health, or by a medical officer in a State to whom the Director-General has delegated this power, or, on appeal to the Postmaster-General as provided in the Act, by the Postmaster-General. The Director-General of Health has issued notes for the guidance of persons concerned with the preparation of such matter for television purposes (see Appendix).

NEWS AND NEWSREEL PROGRAMMES.

22. A station which undertakes to provide a news or newsreel service should observe the following principles:­ (a) News should be presented accurately and impartially; (b) Each news session should be well-balanced and reasonably comprehensive; (c) Commentary and analysis should be clearly distinguished from news; (d) Good taste should guide the selection and presentation of news. Morbid, sensational, or alarming details

not essential to factual reporting, especially in connexion with stories of crime or sex, should be avoided. News should be televised in such a manner as to avoid panic and unnecessary alarm; (e) Pictorial representation of news should be carefully selected to ensure fairness, and should not be misleading or sensational; (f) No advertising matter should be offered as news, or included in the contents of a news programme or

newsreel. This does not prevent the televising of short advertisements during natural breaks between recognized sections of a news programme; but no advertisement in the form of a "story", or which could be mistaken by viewers for a news item, should be accepted.

TELEVISING OF SPORTING EVENTS.

23. Section 115 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provides that:-the holder of a licence for a commercial television station shall not televise, either directly or by means of any recording, film or other material or device or otherwise, the whole or a part of a sporting event or other entertainment held in Australia, after the commencement of this section, in a place to which a charge is made for admission, if the images of the sporting event or other entertainment originate from the

use of equipment outside that place." The following rules should also be observed in relation to the televising of sporting events:-(a) All State or local laws concerning descriptions of, or the publication of information relating to, sporting events should also be observed;

(b) inforn1ation concerning betting or betting odds, including totalisator dividends, in respect of any race meeting (including a trotting meeting) should not be televised prior to the conclusion of the last event on the programme of that meeting; (c) advertisements soliciting business concerning forecasts of results of sporting events should not be televised.

This rule does not prevent the televising of programmes containing forecasts and summaries of sporting events.

TRANSMISSION OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS. 24. The privacy of telephone conversations is protected by the Telephone Regulations made under the Post and Telegraph Act 1901-1950, and such conversations, whether on wire or radio circuits or both, may not be included in any television programme unless, in special circumstances, permission has been granted by the Board in consultation with the Postmaster-General's Department, and the concurrence of all parties to the conversation has been obtained.

TRANSMISSION OF PERSONAL MESSAGES.

25. Messages intended primarily for individual listeners should not normally be included in television programmes (see section 112 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956). lt is, however, permissible to transmit certain messages, under certain conditions, without contravention of the relevant statutes. The Board, in conjunction with the Postmaster­ General's Department, has determined those conditions to be as follows:-

(a) Urgent messages to persons whose present \vhereabouts arc unknown, or who are temporarily isolated owing to breakdown of normal communication channels, may be transmitted; provided that such messages are verified and approved by a senior officer of the Police Force, or his deputy; (b) In extreme emergency, and in the absence of any suitable or approved authorizing officer, a station manager

may assume reponsibility for accepting and transmitting messages of an urgent and essential nature which he considers to be in the public interest. A record of such messages should be retained by the station for at least six months after the date of transmission; (c) Birthday and cheerio calls may be transmitted only during periods selected by the station for the purpose. No person, whether employed by a television station or not, should transmit any message containing information of a personal nature relating either to himself or to an individual listener, except within the provisions of paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) above.

26. Programmes which arc based on the exchange of letters, or include answers to clo not necessarily cvnf1ict with the conditions stated above, but such letters or as arc transmitted should he of general interest, and not limited in their application to any one listener.

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USE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

27. The use of foreign languages in programmes should be kept to a minimum, and should be avoided in the presentation of advertisements. If a language other than English is used in a programme the matter conveyed in a foreign language should be preceded or followed by an adequate translation into English, except in the following instances:-(a) programmes designed for use in schools, or for other educational purposes;

(b) brief incidental dialogue in dramatized or similar programmes where the development of the programme requires the usc of a language other than English; (c) programmes of a national nature which are broadcast on special occasions;

(d) periods of local emergency during which it may be beneficial to convey warnings or instructions on safety measures in one or more foreign languages as well as in English. These rules do not apply to the performance of musical items; or to the broadcasting of religious services.

CONTESTS.

28. Any contest included in a programme or in an advertisement must offer the opportunity for all contestants to win on the basis of ability and skill, and not merely on chance.

29. All rules and conditions of contests, including commencing and closing dates, should be clearly and fully announced at the beginning of the contest, and thereafter adequately summarized on each occasion. The names of winners should be released as soon as possible after the close of the contest. The conditions of all contests must meet the requirements of Federal and State laws.

30. All spoken or visual references to contests, or prizes or gifts offered in connexion with contests, which constitute substantial advertisements either for the sponsor of the programme containing the contest or for other persons or organizations, should be regarded as part of, and included, in the total time allowances for advertising as set out in paragraphs 37-46 of these Standards.

31. Where a contest is included in a programme which is recorded in advance of the date of transmission, the closing date for the contest must be fixed so as to provide reasonable opportunity for any person viewing the programme to send in an entry to the contest before that date. In the case of a continuing contest which closes immediately on receipt of a correct answer, the licensee must ensure the immediate notification of the fact to avoid useless expenditure of time and

money by viewers in the submis:,ion of entries which no longer have any chance of winning.

32. All programmes should be designed to attract audiences on their merits. Any programme planned to draw audience solely in the hope of individual gain or reward is undesirable.

ADVERTISING.

33. Section 100 of the Broadcasting and Act 1942-1956 provides that:-"(1.) Subject to this Act, a licensee may televise advertisements.

"(2.) A licensee intending to televise advertisements shall publish particuhm of his adver-tising charges. "(3.) A licensee shall not, without reasonable cause, discriminate against any person applying for the use of his advertising service.

"(4.) A licensee shali comply with such standards as the Board determines in relation to the . televising of advertisements. "(5.) A licensee shall not televise on a Sunday except in such manner and in

accordance with such conditions as the Board determines." As was pointed out in paragraph 2 of these Program11e Standards, television will reach persons with widely varying interests and opinions in the privacy of their homes. It is therefore most important that, in addition to being honest and truthful, ail advertising matter which is televised should comply with the General Programme Standards set out in preceding paragraphs and be generally acceptable for viewing in the home. Methods suitable for other media may be write unsuitable for television, and particular attention is invited to the necessity for examining all advertising techniques to ensure that the spirit and purpose of these Standards are fulfilled. The attainment of quality in presentation applies no less to advertising

than all other parts of the programme.

34. It is therefore the responsibility of licensees to ensure that the following practices are observed in the preparation and televising of all advertising matter:-(a) the content, presentation and pbcement of all advertising matter must comply witl1 the General Programme Standards. Very great care and judgment should be exercised in respect of advertisements to be

televised during times when large numbers of children or adolescents may be likely to be viewing. All advertisements televised during such periods must conform to the priciplcs stated in paragraphs J O, 11, 12, 14 and 16, and must especially avoid taking advantage or the natural credulity and sense of loyalty of children; (b) advertising matter should be presantcd with courtesy and good ta:,te, or annoying materiuJ

such as blatant sound cffect'i, persistent repetition, and words and phrases implying emergency should be avoided; every effort should be made to keep the advertisement in l1armony with the content and general tone of the programme in which it appears; (c) advc:tising matter should contain no claims intended to disparage competitors, competing products, or other

imlusu professions or institutions; (d) advertisements on Sundays must comply with the foregoing standards and are also subject to special conditions set out in paragraphs 45 and 46 of these Standards; (e) advertisements containing political matter arc s;ubject tv the provisions of sections 116 and 117 of the

Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 (see paragraph 20 above)

71 145

ACCEPTABILITY OF ADVERTISING MATTER.

35. In the application of section 100 of the Act lic€nsees should observe the following standards for the acceptability of advertising matter and the sponsoring of programmes:-(a) all advertising matter must comply with the laws of the Commonwealth and the relating thereto: (b) a licensee should refuse the facilities of his station where he has good reason to doubt the integrity of the

advertiser, the truth of the adverti·;ing or the compliance of the advertiser with the spirit and purpose of all legal requirements that apply to the advertiser; (c) a licensee may refusll to permit the u:;e of advertising matter. or the advertising of products and services, which he has good reason to believe would be objectionable to a substantial and responsible section

of the community. (d) the advertising of alcoholic liquor calls for particular care. It should be directed only to the adult audience, and no children or adolescents should be allowed to participate in the presentation of these advertisements. Liquor should not be advertised in proximity to children's sessions, or at other times when the television

audience may be expected to include a large proportion of young people. Such advertisements should not be televised between 5.00 p.m. and 7.30 p.m., Monday to Saturday inclusive, nor at any time on Sunday. Licensees should ensure that all liquor advertising, and especially that associated with sporting events (when large numbers of adolescents may be viewing) is presented in good taste and with restraint; (e) Because some products (esp01eially those of a personal nature) are unsuitable for inclusion in programmes

which may be viewed in the family circle, great discretion and care should be applied in the acceptance and presentation of advertisements of such products. Products which are generally regarded as unsuitable for conversation in mixed groups should not be advertised; (f) advertisements relating to betting or gambling are subject to the provisions of the laws of the State in

which the advertisement is to be televised. Such advertisements should not be televised in proximity to children's sessions, at times when the audience may be expected to include a large proportion of young people, between 5.00 p.m. and 7.30 p.m., Monday to Saturday, or at any time on Sunday; and when transmitted at other times should be presented in good taste and with restraint. Advertisements

soliciting businass concerning forecasts of results of sporting events should not be televised; (g) advertisements for fortune-telling or similar superstitious or pseudo-scientific practices should not he accepted; (h) the advertising of firearms and associated equipment should be treated with discretion and all such

advertisements should make reference to the legal conditions under which firearms may be aquired or owned; (i) advertising by institutions or enterprises which, in courses of instruction, make exaggerated claims for the opportunities awaiting those who enrol for their courses should be avoided; (j) advertisements for money-lenders should be avoided; and advertisements for any form of speculative

finance should be closely examined before acceptance to ensure the bona fides of the advertiser and that his advertisement and business comply in all particulars with the law.

ADVERTISING TIME STANDARDS.

36. For the purpose of calculating the time occupied by advertising matter, this expression includes:-(a) all advertisements-1 for goods and services whether by means of words or of visual presentation or both, and whether in the form of direct announcements, slogans, descriptions or otherwise, as well as any identifiable reference in the course of the programme to any goods or services, whether of the advertiser

or not; and

(b) all visual and sound effects (including music) associated with such advertisements.

WEEK-DAY ADVERTISING.

37. The following time standards apply to the televising of advertising matter by a commercial television station on any day except Sundays, Christmas Day, and Good Friday.

38. In programmes which are sponsored either by one advertiser or by several advertisers jointly, the time devoted to all advertising matter should not exceed the following periods:-(a) in programmes exceeding 15 minutes in duration, a period calculated at the rate of one and a half minutes in each 15 minutes of programme, or part thereof;

(b) in programmes Rot exceeding 15 minutes in duration, the following periods:­

In a 5 minute programme, 1 minute. In a 10 minute programme, 1 ± minutes. In a 15 minute programme, 2 minutes.

39. In each sponsored programme the periods available for advertising, as set out in the preceding sub-paragraphs, may be used either for a single advertising announcement occupying the full period, or for several shorter advertisments, at the discretion of the licensee.

40. A period equal to 30 seconds in each 30 minutes of programme transmission time should be reserved for station identification and items of national interest or importance; under normal conditions not more than one minute should be so occupied at any one time. If not required for items of national interest or importance these periods may be used for spot advertisements subject to the provisions of paragraph 42.

41. Spot advertisements may be included in "announcement programmes", which are individual advertisements, at the rate of one minute of advertising matter in each period of advertisements should be so spaced that no period of consecutive advertising exceeds two minutes. may be of any duration up to two minutes.

designed to contain five minutes. Such Spot advertisements

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42. Programmes should be so arranged that no more tMn three advertisements occur consecutively, either within a single programme unit, or at the break between two programmes. (For the purposes of this paragraph the brief announcement or visual presentation of a sponsor's name and business at the beginning or end of a programme is not regarded as an advertisement.)

43. Backgrounds, scenery, or properties which show the sponsor's name, or his product, or the name of his product, or his trade mark or slogan, should be used only incidentally. They should not obtrude on programme interest or entertainment. " On camera " shots of this nature should be brief and not too frequent, having regard to the need for maintaining a proper programme balance.

44. Paragraphs 38, 41 and 42 do not apply to proq;rammes which take the form of a shopping guide, market information, or other material which provides a special service to viewers and in which advertisements provide an informative and integral part of the programmes; but-( a) such programmes should not be televised between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m.;

(b) the time occupied by any such programme should not exceed 30 minutes at any one time; (c) the time occupied by an advertisement for any article should not exceed two minutes; (d) an interval of at least one hour should separate each such programme; (e) not more than three hours should be occupied by such programmes in any period of seven days.

SUNDAY ADVERTISING.

45. In addition to the general provisions of these Standards, the following special provisions apply to the televising of advertisements on Sundays:-(a) in the application of this paragraph, the expression " advertising matter " does not include a brief announcement or visual presentation of a sponsor's name and business at the beginning and end of

sponsored programmes ; (b) advertising matter in sponsored programmes shall be calaculated at the rate of, and may not exceed in the aggregate, one minute in each ten minutes of sponsored programme time; but no advertisement shall exceed three minutes in length, and the number of advertisements shall not exceed two in any period

of 15 minutes; (c) the total time occupied by spot advertisements shall not exceed six minutes in any period of one hour, and the time occupied by such advertisements shall not exceed two minutes in any period of 15 minutes; (d) the interval between advertisements, whether within the framework of one programme or in adjacent

programmes or periods shall not be less than three minutes; (e) the price of any article or service shall not be mentioned more than once in each advertisement relating to that article or service; (f) no advertisements relating to alcoholic liquor shall be televised; (g) sub-paragraphs (c) and (d) do not apply to a session containing a group of advertisements in the form of

a shopping guide. Such programmes may be televised in conformity with the principles specified in paragraph 44.

46. Special care should be taken to ensure that advertisements are presented in good taste and with discretion. Sensational presentation and prolonged emphasis on the goods or services advertised should be avoided. Advertisements relating to medicines and medical or toilet preparations should be kept strictly within the bounds of good taste, and demonstrations of goods and services relating to personal hygiene, underclothing and the like should be avoided.

ADVERTISING ON CHRISTMAS DAY AND GOOD FRIDAY.

47. If advertisements are televised on Christmas Day or Good Friday they should be selected and presented with discretion. No advertisements should be televised before 6.00 p.m. and thereafter the standards for advertising on Sundays should not be exceeded.

MEDICINE ADVERTISEMENTS.

48. Section 100 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956 provides that a licensee shall not televise an advertisement relating to medicine unless the text of the proposed advertisement has been approved by the Director-General of Health or by a medical officer in a State to whom the Director-General has delegated this power. Any person may appeal to the Postmaster-General from any decision of the Director-General of Health or of his duly authorized delegates.

49. The Director-General of Health has issued notes for the guidance of licensees and advertisers on this subject, which are set out in the Appendix to these Standards.

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APPENDIX

TO THE TELEVISION PROGRAMME STANDARDS OF THE

AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD.

COMMONWEALTH DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH.

NOTES ON CENSORSHIP OF MATTERS OF A MEDICAL NATURE

UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF THE

Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956.

147

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NOTES FOR ADVERTISING AGENCIES AND OTHERS WHO PREPARE MEDICAL ADVERTISEMENTS OR TALKS ON MEDICAL SUBJECTS FOR BROADCASTING OR TELEVISION PURPOSES.

The control of advertising matter and talks on medical subjects is provided for in the following sections of the 8roadcasting and Television Act 1942-1956:-" Section 100.-(1.) Subject to this Act, a licensee may broadcast or televise advertisements. " (6.) A licensee shall not broadcast or televise an advertisement relating to a medicine unless the text

of the proposed advertisement has been approved by the Director-General of Health, or, on appeal to the Minister under this section, by the Minister. "(7.) The Director-General of Health may delegate to a medical officer of a State his power under this section to approve the text of an advertisement.

"(8.) Any such delegation is revocable in writing at will and does not prevent the exercise of a power by the Director-General of Health. "(9.) A person may appeal to the Minister from any decision of the Director-General of Health or of a delegate of the Director-General of Health under this section.

"Section 122.--(1.) Except as prescribed, a person shall not broadcast or televise a talk on a medical subject unless the text thereof has been approved by the Director-General of Health, or, on appeal to the Minister under this section, by the Minister. " (4.) Any person may appeal to the Minister from any refusal of the Director-General of Health or a delegate of the Director-General of Health to approve of the text of a talk on a medical subject." It should be noted that the Act does not indicate any standards upon which the Director-General of Health is to give or withhold his approval. The Act leaves the decision to the absolute discretion of the Director-General.

Experience has shown that considerable difficulties will be avoided by the publication of a guide to standards which will help in the preparation of advertisements and talks on medical subjects. These standards are offered for the guidance of those interested and do not limit the absolute discretion vested by the Act in the Director-General. It is also to be noted that the approval of the Director-General of Health does not remove the requirement that the General Programme Standards laid down by the Australian Broadcasting Control Board must be observed.

CENSORSHIP OF ADVERTISEMENTS BY DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF HEALTH. Is Required for-Mixtures, powders, tablets, lozenges or any product to be taken by mouth for therapeutic use. Drops or paints, such as eye, ear or nose drops, throat paint, &c.

Ointments, cream, pastes or powders for therapeutic use externally. Liniments or any product to be rubbed on. Injections. Tooth paste or any type of dentrifice claiming cure of decay or mouth conditions. Hair restorers. Antiseptic or disinfecting tablets, lotions, gargles or dressings-as applied to the human patient. Slimming or weight reducing measures. Foods which claim to assist " regularity " or other health problems. But is Not Required for­

Beauty Creams. Depilatories. Baby Powders or Talc Powders. Sterilizing agents for false teeth. Antiseptics or disinfectants, as applied to floors, walls, &c. Deodorants. Foods which claim only to provide a balanced diet or to give calorific value.

GUIDE TO STANDARDS.

A.-TRUTH GENERALLY.

I. No matter shall be included which in any way departs from truth as to the composition, character, or action of a product or method of treatment or its suitability for the purposes for which it is recommended. No untruthful implications should be imported into any advertising matter.

2. When any testimonial is used, it must have been honestly obtained and must be limited to the actual views of the user. No testimonial should be used which has been paid for. No testimonial given by a foreign doctor should in any way be used so as to imply that the doctor is a British doctor.

No testimonial given by a person holding the title of " doctor", who is not a doctor in medicine, should be used without a definite statement of the profession or cult in which this person holds the title. In the case of any testimonial, the person using it may be called upon to furnish the original.

3. Any statement or testimonial given by a doctor in medicine should be accompanied in the advertising matter by the reference to the original publication in which the statement appeared.

4. Where any reference to a published statement is used the person using it may be called upon to furnish the original reference. Any reference to a published statement will be disallowed if the passage has been removed from its context so that its original sense is distorted, or so that it is applied to support the advertiser's interests in a manner not contemplated by the original author.

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5. Any implication that a product or method of treatment is used or recommended generally by doctors, dentists or hospitals will not be allowed.

6. No manufacturer or distributor of proprietary medicines should without authority use any title, description ur address which may lead persons to believe that the product recommended emanates from any hospital or official source, or is otherwise than a proprietary medicine advertised by a particular manufacturer for the purpose specified.

B.--DECENCY AND ETHICS.

7. No spoken or pictorial representation may be used which dramatizes distress or morbid situations involving ailments or sickness or which conveys the suggestion that harmful consequences may result from the medicine not being used. No spoken or pictorial representation of vivisection will be allowed.

8. No advertisement should contain any matter which would lead persons to believe from the symptoms described that they are suffering from any serious ailment.

9. No description of any proprietary medicine should be used which describes graphically or repellantly any bodily functions or matters which are generally not considered acceptable topics of conversation in mixed social groups. For example, and without limiting the scope, the use of the following words or expressions will not be permitted:­ Bad breath, bladder disorders, bowels, diarrhoea, excreta, flushing the kidneys, festers, scabs, intestines,

piles, urine, body odour, sour stomach. Advertisements relating to contraceptives will not be permitted.

10. No advertisement should contain any intimation that-(a) the person advertising is prepared to diagnose by correspondence diseased conditions or any part1cular diseased conditions in a human being; (b) the person advertising is prepared to receive from any person a statement of his or any other person's

ill health with a view to advising as to, or providing for the treatment of such ill health by correspondence.

11. No person should issue any advertisement claiming to cure chronic or incurable ailments or for use in conditions in which self-medication presents a risk.

12. No person should advertise any preparation which contains drugs in dangerous quantities, or which contains any drug which by law of any State in Australia is obtainable only on a doctor's prescription.

13. An advertisement should not contain any guarantee of" money back".

14. No advertisement should contain any matter which could be regarded as claiming that any course of treatment of proprietary medicine is efficacious for the prevention or cure of a serious disease which properly should be under the care of a medical man, and in particular, no person should advertise or offer for sale to the public any course of treatment or proprietary medicine which is directly or by implication held out as being effective-

(a) For the treatment of diseases of the kidneys, cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, epilepsy, fits, locomotor ataxia, gastric ulcer, varicose veins, gallstones, high or low blood pressure or diseased arteries, apoplexy or " stroke ", lupus, paralysis, hernia or rupture; (b) For the cure of amenorrhoea, blindness, or any structural or organic ailment of the auditory system; (c) For developing the bust or raising the height; (d) For removing sexual weakness or impotence or increasing virility or reproductive power;

(e) For procuring miscarriage or abortion; (f) For the treatment of conditions or habits associated with sexual excess or indulgence or of any ailment associated with those habits. 15, In the case of any preparations stated to contain vitamins, the advertiser may be requested to furnish information as to the name of each vitamin present in the preparation and the quantity (expressed in international units or milligrammes) of each vitamin in a stated quantity of the preparation.

16. Reference to alcohol as a medicine will not be permitted either by direct advertisement or by implication.

17. No derogatory reference whether spoken or visual will be allowed for advertising purposes to any physical or mental affi.iction or deformity. Any reference to such infirmities must avoid bringing ridicule or offence to the sufferers or their families.

18. Advertising material should contain no claims intended to disparage competitors, competing products or other industries, professions or institutions.

19. Actual methods of treatment shall not be depicted as part of an advertisement relating to any course of treatment or proprietary medicine.

20. The appearance of a patient receiving treatment, or under the influence of a drug or hypnotism will not be approved for advertising purposes.

21. The appearance of a patient implying or testifying to the cure of any condition will not be approved.

C.-TRUTH IN 10 MEDICAL A.DVERTISI',"C.

22. The word "cure" or any visual implication the medicine will definitely cure the condition

described, will very rarely be justified. The usc of this v.ord and such pictorial matter will be critically examined.

23. Advertisements should not contain-(a) General statements not properly qualified: (h) Statements directly stating or implying that "all" of a certain group of disea<;c<; will he cured by the preparation;

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(c) Statements directly stating or Implying that "all" diseases are due to a particular cause. For example-(a) " All skin rashes and blotches, not overlooking rheumatism, neuritis and other similar functional disorders. All these complaints are the direct result of improper eating of

foods and the improper combination of foods". (b) "If your body has the right food, and digests that food properly, then you will be perfectly healthy".

24. Statements should not be used in respect of any preparation that is" the best", "the most successful", "safest ", " quickest ", or containing any similar use of superlative adjectives involving comparison with other remedies, or departures from the strict truth.

Examples of expressions which should not be used are-" The only preparation" which will achieve a certain result; "A certain" or "unfailing" remedy for any particular purpose; " Nature's own remedy "; "Australia's national remedy", " One dose will immediately " Never fails ";

...

" You can always depend on "·

" Used by more persons than any other preparation of its kind "; " There's nothing better than . "·

"There's nothing like . . .";

" The ideal remedy ".

One particular form of advertising should not be used. This form attempts to convey the impression that the preparation is a secret held by the manufacturers as the result of years of devoted and persistent research on the part of eminent scientists who are at last able to present the nation with wonderful results.

An alternative method of conveying the same ideas and equally to be avoided is that the formula is one that is "centuries old", "was known to the ancients "-and it is occasionally suggested that it has been lost for centuries and only just now rediscovered.

Variants of this kind of advertising are-

"

is a new scientific preparation perfected by over 50 years' scientific research "; men of science have for years searched for . . . at last they have found it"; unique formula adopted after years of research by highly skilled chemists "; originated in a centuries-old oriental formula ".

25. Certain words, such as "vitality", which are capable of an interpretation possibly not intended by the advertiser, should not be used.

26. There shall be no implication that the announcer is a doctor or dentist nor shall the background or set imply in any way that the announcement is being made from the professional rooms of a doctor or dentist or from a hospital.

ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR GUIDANCE OF ADVERTISERS AND BROADCASTERS.

(a) Broadcasting-(i) All approvals for Broadcasting script will be for a definite period only. The period will be indicated by the Director-General in his approval. (ii) Broadcasting scripts should reach the Director-General at least ten days before the projected date of

broadcasting.

(iii) Broadcasting script must be sent in duplicate so that an approved copy may be returned to the sponsor while the original is held by the Director-General. (iv) Extra copies should not be sent. (v) Space should be left at the bottom of each page of script in order that any written approval or stamp by

the Director-General may be inserted without covering the actual script.

(b) Television-All material proposed for medical advertising by television will require to be submitted in a form that allows the relationship of the visual and sound contents one to the other to be clearly understood. A large proportion of television advertising will be by " stills " or by films.

For "stills", approval may be sought when the preliminary sketches have been drawn or when the slides or art work are complete.

For films being manufactured in Australia, in view of the preparation necessary and the cost involved, it is suggested that the advertisers might consult the Director-General at the commencement, when little expenditure has been incurred but when the treatment has been decided on, and at one or both of the following intermediate stages in the preparation of material if required:-

(!) When the screen play, shooting script or story board has been finalized. (2) When the film has been completed but before the sound track has been added.

Films which have been imported into Australia in completed form will of necessity require to be submitted to the Director-General in that form. These films will have been subject to censorship by the Commonwealth Film Censorship Board on importation. The approval by that Board for the use on televisio;l of films which deal with matters of a medical nature, whether for advertising or other purposes, will be given subject to the subsequent approval of the Director-General of Health in the terms of his authority under the Act.

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APPENDIX £-continued. AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD. INFORMATION PREPARED FOR THE SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE SENATE ON THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTIONS FOR TELEVISION.

Television Programme Standards. The Television Programme Standards published on 1st July, 1956, and re-issued on 1st July, 1959, are the only programme standards determined by the Board in pursuance of section 99 of the Broadcasting and Television Act 1942-1962, but minor variations have been made to several sections of the Standards since the re-issue on 1st July, 1959, as follows:-

(i) the special provisions of paragraph 11 relating to time periods for the televising of family and children's programmes have been extended to include the periods of programme transmission before 8.30 p.m. on any day (this was notified to station ATN Sydney on 7th October, 1958, and to station GTV Melbourne on 30th June, 1960.) (ii) the descriptions of the film classifications set out in paragraph 17 of the Standards have been varied as

follows:-(a) Unrestricted for television (symbol ' G ')-Films classified G are not unsuitable for children, and may be televised at any time; (b) Not suitable for children (symbol' A ')-Films classified A are unsuitable for children, and may

not be televised between 5.00 p.m. and 7.30 p.m. on week days, or before 7.30 p.m. on Sunday and Saturday; (c) Not to be televised before 8.30 p.m. (symbol 'AO ')-Films classified AO are suitable only for adults and may not be televised before 8.30 p.m. on any evening; (d) Not suitable for television.

For the purposes of these definitions the word " children " is taken to mean children under 16. (This was notified in Fourteenth Annual Report.) (iii) paragraph 23 (b) has been varied to meet circumstances in Victoria and Western Australia arising from alterations to State law concerning the broadcasting of information relating to totalisator dividends

during the progress of a race meeting or trotting meeting. The sub-paragraph now reads:-" Information concerning betting or betting odds, including totalisator dividends, in respect of any race meeting (including a trotting meeting) should not be televised at any time prior to the conclusion of the last event on the programme of that meeting, unless the televising of such information

at an earlier time is expressly permitted by the law of the State in which the television station is situated, and then only the type of betting information specified by the State law must be televised." (Notified in Circular to stations dated 31st August, 1961.)

APPENDIX F.

TYPICAL EXTRACTS FROM ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CONTROL BOARD, RELATING TO DEFECTS IN COMMERCIAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMES. Extract. 1956--57.

1. Page 40, paragraph 133.-The Board is not yet, however, satified that all the programmes televised during the Family and Children's Programme period comply fully with the spirit of the special conditions which apply to them or that licensees and advertisers have always given proper consideration to the objective of presenting, within this period,

matter which is suitable for viewing by persons of all ages and will not produce any undesirable effects on children. In this connexion, the Board wishes to direct the attention of licensees especially to sub-paragraph 34 (a) of the Standards which requires licensees to exercise very great care and judgment in respect of advertisements televised during the periods indicated and to take precautions to avoid the exploitation of the natural credulity and sense of loyalty of children. The small number of complaints from the public concerning

programmes which are viewed by children is perhaps an indication that the commercial television stations have been able to avoid most of the errors of taste and other mistakes in judgment which are likely to happen in an industry developing rapidily with relatively inexperienced staffs. Nevertheless, it is necessary to recognize that the programmes seen on commercial television stations do not represent the highest achievement of which the

medium is capable, particularly in respect of those programmes which arc designed for and directed to children. The techniques of television programme planning and production in this field can, of course, only be mastered after years of experience and continuous effort and experiment.

1957-58.

2. Page 34, paragraph 111.-The effect of audience measurement surveys on the arrangement of programme schedules is unfortunately evident. It is a matter for regret that licensees have been influenced by these surveys, sometimes, it would seem, against their better judgment. In the process of competition for the available audience, several

programmes of real merit have disappeared, or have been transferred to relatively poor viewing times and replaced by a programme, similar in character to that being televised at the same time by a competing station. This was noticeable during one period when feature films were televised simultaneously from several stations. More recently the national and commercial stations in Sydney have simultaneously transmitted Western adventure programmes. This arrangement of programmes is not the best interest of viewers as it deprives

them of an adequate choice of programme, and may also deny them the opportunity to see a desired programme. It has also been found by licensees, through audience measurement surveys, that the public generally prefers imported films to local live productions. The consequent re-arrangement of programmes has, to some extent at least, led to the removal of live programmes from peak viewing periods, and even caused some live programmes

to be abandoned altogether.

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3. Page 44, paragraph 145.-Section 118 of the Act provides that a licensee shall not televise matter which is blasphemous, indecent or obscene. The Board has, in the Television Programme Standards, provided that no programmes may contain any matter which is vulgar or suggestive. During the year, no programmes have come under the notice of the Board which contravened the provisions of the Act, although there were several occurrences which were regarded,

both by the Board's officers and by viewers, as vulgar or suggestive. Live programmes which include variety and dancing acts of the music-hall type have occasionally been considered to fall below accepted standards of good taste, particularly when performers appearing before a studio audience strive to gain expressions of appreciation. There have also been occurrences in which regular programme personalities have introduced jokes, comments or actions capable of bearing a double-meaning; that the less desirable meaning had not

been missed was made evident by the audience. These matters have been brought to the notice of the stations concerned, which have undertaken to avoid recurrences.

1958-59.

4. Page 37, paragraph 97.-Another very important factor in securing the observance of the Standards is the system of classification by the Commonwealth Film Censorship Board of films for television, which is referred to in paragraph 107. The result is that, on the whole, the negative provisions of the Standards are observed. It cannot, however, be said that there is as yet much evidence of the positive values to which the Royal Commission on Television referred in its Report (1954) and to which the Board itself has repeatedly referred in previous Reports. This is a disappointing feature of Australian television programmes, which may perhaps be partly explained by the fact that, since the commencement of service, there has been a period of very rapid growth in which programme development has proceeded without any very clear policy. Sincere efforts are undoubtedly being made by stations to improve programmes, and, with the steady growth in revenue which is now evident, it is to be expected that these efforts will be increasingly successful.

1960-61.

5. Page 40, paragraph 100.-There have been some changes in programmes, partly due to the increased experience of stations in presenting Australian programmes and partly due to the nature of the available overseas television films. In local programmes greater skill has been evident in production, although there is still some difficulty in obtaining adequate scripts. Australian stations have exercised considerable care in selecting overseas films for purchase, and consequently many of the programmes which have been so strongly criticized by Government and industry authorities in the United States of America have not been seen here. Nevertheless the changing character of the programmes which in the United States of America are included under the heading of" adventure ", but which have been in the Board's programme analysis as" crime and suspense" (see paragraph 102), is apparent, in that there is now a much less sharp distinction between " clean adventure ", western and crime detection programmes than a few years ago. There has been an increasing tendency for programmes to include crime and crime detection as basic themes.

6. Page 42, paragraph 106.-0ne aspect of children's programmes which has aroused some adverse criticism is the tendency to award prizes for work of too little merit, or prizes which are of too great value in relation to the age-group concerned. The Board has pointed out, in paragraph 10 of the Television Programme Standards, that if a child, by the time he reaches maturity, is to be able to fit into the complex adult world with a minimum of difficulty, he must gradually acquire a sound standard of values. It seems unlikely that the award of large money prizes for relatively unimportant displays of normal school efficiency will contribute to a sound standard of values for young people. The Committee notes that this has subsequently been the subject of complaint in other reports.

7. Page 43, paragraph 111.

The need for discretion was especially apparent with films classified " A " as that classification is extremely wide, and is applied on the basis that such a film is suitable for the medium of television, but is not suitable for children. The Board has been concerned that some licensees appear to have relied solely on the censorship classification when scheduling films. Discussions with the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations are proceeding with a view to ensuring a satisfactory arrangement of programmes within the framework of existing classifications and in accordance with the principles of the Standards. In the course of these discussions the Board has received assurances from the representatives of the Federation that great care would be exercised by all stations in the scheduling of film programmes classified" A", with a view to ensuring that programmes in this category which arc considered, for various reasons, to be unsuitable for older children, would not be televised in the early evening. The Committee notes that the substance of this complaint has been repeated in other reports.

1961-62.

8. Page 46, Paragraph 110.-The tables in Appendix " F" have served to several matters concerning the arrangement of programme schedules. The first of these concerns the amount of time occupied by programmes dealing with crime and suspense; that is, programmes concerned with the commission and detection of illegal actions, and those in which suspense is predominant. Metropolitan commercial stations (i.e., those in the State capital cities) devoted 14.85 per cent. of their programme time to these subjects. For country stations the figure was

14. 65 per cent. A breakdown of these figures shows that crime and suspense programmes occupied nearly 36 per cent. of peak time (7.30 to 9.30 p.m.) on metropolitan stations and about 21 per cent. on country stations. As between different metropolitan stations, the greatest proportion of peak time so occupied was 52 per cent.

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and the least 25 per cent. The Board recognizes that these figures probably reflect the nature of the programmes which are available for purchase overseas, and consequently refrains from further comment at present. A study of the incidence of such programmes on different days of the week shows a heavy concentration (22 per cent.) on Thursday and a minimum on Sunday (8 per cent.). fhe Committee notes that the substance of this complaint has been repeated in other reports.

9. Page 46, paragraph 111.-The tables also show that while about one-third of peak time was occupied by crime drama, another 50 per cent. was occupied by other types of drama, leaving rather less than one-sixth of these two-hour periods from 7.30 p.m. to 9.30 p.m. for all other types of progranune. The Board does not intend to specify the amounts or proportions of time which should be devoted to any type of programme, but it is obliged to consider whether such concentrations of a limited range of programmes are consistent with the underlying requirement to provide adequate and comprehensive programmes.

10. Page 47, paragraph 113.-The kinds of programmes televised for children have not changed significantly during the year under review, although in some instances slightly more time is being given to dance and rhythm entertainment of the type to which teenagers appear to be partial. It is perhaps correct to suggest that in this field stations are not so much following public taste as leading it. While recognizing and welcoming those parts of children's

programmes which have some constructive value, the Board is of the opinion that too much time is still being given to programmes which may entertain children, and may occupy their leisure hours, but are unlikely to leave them the better for their viewing. Some aspects of these programmes are regarded by the Board's Advisory Committee on Children's Television Programmes as likely to be damaging to the child's standards of values, especially in competitive programmes where the prizes are given either regardless of the relation of their retail cost to the degree of skill required of the successful competitor, or for a performance of too little merit.

11. Page 52, paragraph 131.-In paragraph 114 of the Board's Thirteenth Annual Report an extract from the Committee's report was quoted, dealing with the subject matter and treatment of general programmes. The quotation concluded by expressing the strong conviction of the Committee that no programme should irrespoqsibly deny the Christian ethic, or diminish the teaching and beneficial intention of religious programmes. In this context it is interesting

to read, in the Report on Religious Programmes on Independent Television (England) (July, 1961 ), the opinion that-Religious programmes must reflect the Christian view of man. But unless the so-called secular programmes also do this, the assumption on which two or three hours of broadcasting each week

is based is inevitably submerged beneath those on which the other 50 or so operate. The Committee considers that the principle underlying these two comments deserves more thought than it appears yet to have received from those who plan television programmes.

12. Page 54, paragraph 138.-The emphasis in Australian material is still on programmes such as light variety, quiz and informal afternoon sessions. The Board recognizes that there is a place for this type of material but it would like to see a more general interest by stations in the production of programmes with greater intrinsic merit. Up to

the present the production of Australian programmes which require any appreciable amount of advance planning and rehearsal has been sporadic. Much credit is due to the few stations which have made consistent efforts to present this type of programme and to the advertisers who have been prenared to back their faith in Australian programmes by continued sponsorship of them. lt appears likely that the prospects of an

increase in the quantity and quality of Australian programmes lie largely in the exchange, between stations of locally produced programmes, as in this way production costs can be shared and the requirements of some national sponsors can be satisfied. Up to the present time it has been the practice for Sydney and Meli;ourne stations to produce the majority of Australian programmes interchanged in this manner. It is to be hoped that with the benefit of almost three years of operation some other capital city stations will be able to contribute an increasing amount of Australian programmes of acceptable standard to the system of inter-state programme exchange.

1962-63.

13. Page 53, paragraph 175.-ln the Board's Fourteenth Annual Report reference was made to the use of important and controversial social and moral issues as central themes for dramatic series produced in the United States of America. This tendency continued during the past year in the programme series which carried over from the previous production season, and was reinforced by some newly-introduced programmes, one of which centred upon the highly sensitive area of mental illness. The Board regards these types of program•nes as lq:itimate devices for

presenting social problems bcfor::: mature audiences who arc capable of seeing the central issue through the heavy emotional overlay inherent in dramatic treatment. At the S.lme time, however. the Board feels that such program;ncs arc capable of creating serious misco.1ccptions in the mind,; o:· im111atun; viewers about important aspects of life, ;md it has stres<:;ed the need for the careful selection of the time and circumstances or presentation of this type of programme. Most stations have demonstrated an awareness of this requirement but some have chosen to capitalize on the current popularity of these progmmmes by telecasting them in the heart

of peak viewing time. It is perhaps significant of this attitude that many programmes which are scheduled to commence at 7.30 p.m. or :3.30 p.m. on Australian stations rarely appear in American television before 9.00 p.m. or 10.00 p.m. The Board would find far less reason for concem about these programmes if they were televised at later times, as in America. The cause of the Bo,trd's co;1cern is clearly shown in the diagram

on page 56 from which it is apparent that large number.; of immature persons view programmes which commence at 7. 30 p.m. or 8. 30 p.m.

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14. Page 55, paragraph 181.-In the Fourteenth Annual Report special reference was made to the amount of crime drama which wa televised during peak viewing hours. Comparable figures for 1962-63 indicate that rather less time has been so occupied during the year under review. (See Table 6A, Appendix" G ".) Programmes in medical settings have occupied approximately 5 per cent. of the peak viewing hours averaged over all stations. The distribution of programmes during these hours is shown in Table 3 of Appendix "G ". The choice of programmes is to a very great extent controlled by the type of programme which happens to be popular in the United States of America. While this may be unavoidable in the relatively early stages of a television service, it cannot be regarded indefinitely as satisfactory in a service which should be predominantly Australian in outlook.

15. Page 57, paragraph 188.-In the past a reasonable supply of films at children's level was available from American sources. In recent years, however, American film producers have almost entirely deserted the field of children's programmes to concentrate on films having appeal to a wider audience. Australian stations, in order to fill those sections of children's viewing time not occupied by locally produced programmes, tend to rely on re-running imported children's film series which have been in this country for a considerable time, or telecasting " G " classified films of the western, domestic and comedy-drama type not expressly produced for child audiences. The

repetition of good programmes for children has much to recommend it. The Board appreciates the difficulties of licensees in this matter but at the same time feels that the situation could be converted to the advantage of the Australian community by greater use of the local material recommended in paragraph 15 of the Standards in a form designed-

(a) to impart a broader knowledge of the history and potentialities of our country and of current affairs;

(b) to foster an appreciation of such cultural pursuits as music, painting, ballet, the theatre and literature; (c) to encourage interest and active participation in simple scientific investigations such as botanical, geological and other pursuits;

(d) by the use of the great examples from the Bible, and from history, biography and literature, to impart a real appreciation of the spiritual values and of the qualities of courage, honour and integrity which are essential to the full development of the individual, and of national greatness; and

(e) to cater for children's propensities for sport and for hobbies such as handicrafts and the care of animals.

16. Page 57, paragraph 189.-The Board is especially concerned that some stations televise films classified as unsuitable for children in the immediate proximity of progmmmes specially designed for children-presumably on the grounds that the films are televised outside the limits of the 5.00 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. period. Although these matters are dealt with by the Board whenever they are discovered, it is opportune to repeat here that programmes to be

televised at times when the audience is likely to contain large numbers of children and young people should be wholly suitable for viewing by children. Figures extracted from recent reports issued by the McNair Survey indicate that in cities where a children's session is televised before 5.00 p.m. approximately three-quarters of the audience between 4.00 p.m. and 5.00 p.m. consists of children and young people. To schedule films classified " A " at such times is clearly inconsistent with the Standards.

17. Page 58, paragraph 193.-The Committee (The Advisory Committee on Children's Television Programmes) has presented its Third Report to the Board. Some preliminary information from this report, which was then in the course of preparation, was published in the Board's Fourteenth Annual Report, concerning guidance to parents in the selection of programmes for their children; the quality of children's programmes comperes; and competitions and prizes in programmes. A special sub-Committee has been formed by the Federation of

Australian Commercial Television Stations to examine all aspects of the Committee's report which expresses concern about other aspects of children's programmes as well as those already mentioned. For example, it is felt that some stations have allowed their children's programmes to become repetitive and unimaginative; and that there has been a regrettable reduction in live content, in some cases to as little as fifteen minutes per day. The Committee also views with some disquiet that certain comperes appear to have been relegated to children's sessions from other programmes in which they have failed to hold public interest. If this is correct it is unlikely to have much value in lifting the standard of children's programmes. In any case it appears to be a far cry from what was envisaged by the Board in paragraph 13 of the Standards, which stresses the

desirability of employing specially qualified persons for this work. This trend, however, is not universal and the Committee records its pleasure at the action of station managements which have recognized the need for experienced personnel for children's programmes.

The Committee notes that the substance of this complaint was made in several earlier reports.

18. Page 64, paragraph 228.-The Board has found it necessary to question the suitability of some items in newsreel programmes. The practice of bringing to television screens close-up pictures of accidents is, in the Board's view, an example of sensationalism which is inconsistent with the application of good taste and common sense in the selection of programme matter.

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APPENDIX G.

OVERSEAS MARKETS FOR AUSTRALIAN FILMS FOR TELEVISION.

In a letter to Australian representatives in overseas posts the following question was asked:-" What prospects are there for the sale of Australian television film of the proper artistic and technical quality? To what extent would the import ' quota ' affect prospective sales? " Some relevant replies are set out hereunder.

Belgium-The prospects for Australian television film of adequate artistic and technical quality are theoretically equal to those of any other foreign country. However, linguistic difficulties, and limited screening time of Belgium television (on an average of between 3 and 4 hours per night), competition in the supply of programmes from countries closer than Australia and the fact that viewers are increasingly able to receive transmissions direct from neighbouring countries (notably France and Netherlands) would appear to be serious limiting factors in the sale of Australian television films to Belgium.

Britain-So far as the marketing of Australian television films in Britain is concerned, this would appear to be largely a question of salesmanship on a competitive basis of good quality.

Italy-Australian films of high artistic and technical standards which were also adapted to the Italian taste could find a market. They would of course find the competition strong and they would stand or fall on their merits. Possibly, the arranging of exchanges by the A.B. C. and R.A.I. would prove the best method.

Japan-There could be a market for good quality Australian films. The great majority of foreign films shown are of United States origin and the television companies are now looking away from the United States and towards less familiar countries. We understand that the television companies would like Australian films such as-

Documentaries " News in Depth " stories, e.g. Four Corners Animals Natural science

Sports.

The films should be suitable for use on half-hour programmes, i.e., 26 minutes plus commercials.

New Zealand-Australian films of good quality would certainly be considered for purchase.

Singapore-The Australian Commission supplies T.V. Singapura with Australian News and Information Bureau films free. Eight have been screened since 22nd May. The Australian Broadcasting Commission Singapore office has discussed the supply of programmes with TV Singapura. Agents of Australian commercial companies have also sounded

the market, but no agreements have yet been reached. Prospects of eventual sale are difficult to assess at this infant stage; they would depend largely on price and competition from other countries and normal commercial supply and demand. The multi-racial composition of the population and the fact that the bulk of the people do not speak or understand colloquial English well must also be considered.

Sweden-Australian television film would need to compete with other foreign films available, particul«rly American and British. Sveriges Radio told us that Australian films most likely to be of interest were actualities, documentaries and children's films.

Thailand-Australian programmes are acceptable and welcome on T.V. in Thailand--especially if provided free. Thai T.V. has shown some interest when commercial inquiries from Australia have been referred to them but the financial return for such programme support films would not be large.

On the other hand the popularity of feature drama productions (mostly American) would indicate that good Australian film productions might also find a market if channelled through the Bangkok Advertising agents rather than throught the T.V. stations.

APPENDIX H.

RESEARCH INTO THE SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TELEVISION.

A s:1mmary of the major research studies that have been undertaken in Australia is set out hereunder:­

(!) Audience Research (Social effects of television)-" Pre-Television Social Survey": The interests and activities of families in Sydney.-(]. F. Clark and A. K. Olley, School of Applied Psychology, University of N.S.W.). A study begun in 1956 to determine the existing pattern of domestic habits and attitudes before the introduction of television. (Published in 1958 for limited circulation.)

"Post-Television Social Survey": The effects of television upon the interests and activities of families and persom in Sydney.-(A. K. Olley, School of Applied Psychology, University ofN.S.W.). (Published in 1962 for limited circulation.)

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" Leisure time activities of Sydney Adolescents ":-A study begun in 1956 to determine existing adolescent behavior patterns, and the way in which they and their families spend leisure time.-(W. J. Campbell and D. Dunphy, Department of Education, University of Sydney). This study provided the pre-television data which was combined with a post­ television study to produce the following item.

" Television and the Australian Adolescent ":-(W. J. Campbell, Department of Education, University of Sydney). A study of sociological and other effects of television on Sydney adolescent viewers. (Published 1962-Angus and Robertson.) " Growing up in Karribee ":-A study of child growth and development in an Australian rural community.­ Carried out during 1957-59 before television was available in the area. (W. J. Campbell, Department of Education, University of Sydney.)

"Experimental Investigation into the Operation of the Visual Process" :-(W. M. O'Neil, Department of Psychology, University of Sydney). A preliminary technical report on this study has been issued. (Unpublished.) "ColiUl).unications Study among Brisbane Children" :-(D. W. McElwain, Department of Psychology, University of Queensland). This study, designed as an excursion into the interaction and complementary values of different mass media in the assimilation of information by children, became a useful pre-television study based on children's attention to radio. (Unpublished.)

(2) Programme Research (Psychological effects of Television)-" Psychological Effects of the Western Film ":-(F. E. Emery and David Martin, Department of Audio-Visual Aids, University of Melbourne). Primarily a methodological study; its principal value lies in the theories it expounds on the measurement of effects. (Published 1957, Audio-Visual Aids Department, Melbourne).

" Television Crime Drama ": rts impact on children and adolescents.-(R. J. Thomson, Department of Audio­ Visual Aids, University of Melbourne). This was designed as an experimental study of the impact of crime drama on children in a limited age range (15-16 years). (Published 1960-Cheshire, Melbourne.) "Television Crime Drama Report 1960 ":-(R. J. Thomson, Department of Audio-Visual Aids, University of

Melbourne). A sequel to the previous item designed to expand the pattern of knowledge over a wider age group (10-18 years). (Unpublished.) "Television Tension Programmes" :--A study based on a content analysis of Western, crime and adventure programmes televised by Melbourne stations during 1960-61.-(David Martin). This study was an expansion and development of research work originally undertaken in connexion with the Thomson studies listed above. It consists

of thematic and content arralyses of tension drama programmes, with special attention to their likely effects on children. (Published by the Board, 1963, for limited circulation.) " Longitudiral Analysis of Four High Rating Programmes" :-(David Martin). A sequel to the previous item, in which tension and tension relief drama programmes were analysed over a period with the object of testing the stability of

prototype chancters and the likely beneficial effects of tension relief programmes. (Unpublished, but much of the data included in "Television and the Australian Adolescent".)

(3) Other Research---" Social Control of Television" :--(Leicester Webb, Australian National University). A study of the possible implications on Australian programmes of Cabinet's grant of television licenses for the first two stages of television development. (Public Administration, V. xix, No. 3, Sept. 1960, p. 193.)

" Objectives of the Melbourne University Television Research Project ":-(F. E. Emery, Department of Audio­ Visual Aids, University of Melbourne). Some observations on communications Research. (Visual Aids Review, 1956, V. 2, No.1). "Teaching by Television" :-(Queensland Department of Education, Faculty of Education, Australian Broadcasting Commission and Queensland Teachers' Union). An Experimental evaluation of television as an educational medium in Queensland schools, 1963.

(4) Research studies made by the research staff of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board include­ (a) Analysis of Child/Adult Audience Ratio, 1958. (b) Viewing Preferences of School Children, 1959.

(c) A study of racial prejudice and minority groups in relation to the moral acceptability of a programme, 1959. (d) The AO Television Film Classification. (An attempt at a coherent and structured psychological approach to the pragmatic terms of the Television Programme Standards.) 1959.

ln addition the research staff undertakes a continuous analysis of television programmes, the results of which are published in the Board's Annual Reports, commencing 1961-62.

(5) Research studies carried out by the Research and Statistics section of the Australian Broadcasting Commission include­ (!) Patterns of taste and determiners of viewing. (2) Efficacy of programmes. (3) Size and pattern of audiences. (4) Shifts in the balance of programming.

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