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Papua - Report - Year - 1960-61


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tliv new Council C ham ber, April, 1061. ( Indigenous observers are sealed I be reconslitiited I vnislalnc ( ouncil Session Ibe

I mill row ot Ibe public na ile ry.)

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C O N T E N T S .

Part I.—G eneral Information— Chapter 1.—Geography-— Area and Location . . . . ..

Topography and Drainage . . . .

Climate . . . . . . ..

N atural Resources . . . . . .

Chapter 2.-—History . . . . . . . . ..

C hapter 3.—People— Population . . . . . . ..

Changes and Movements of Population . . Ethnic Structure . . . . ..

Linguistic Structure . . . . ..

Indigenous Religions .. . . . .

Social S tru c tu re .. .. . . . .

Part II.—Status of the T erritory and its I nhabitants . . ..

Part III.—International and R egional R elations— International .. .. .. .. .. . .

Regional .. .. .. .. . . ..

Administrative Union with Territory of New Guinea . .

Part IV.— G overnment— Chapter 1 .—General Political Stucture . . .. .

Policy and Development Plans .. .

Chapter 2.—Territorial Governm ent— Chief Administrative Officer . . .

Heads o f D epartm ents . . . . .

Legislative Councils or Organs .. .

The Legislative Council . . . . .

Observers . . . . .. .

The A dm inistrator . . .. .

The A dm inistrator’s Council .. .

Statutory and O ther Boards and Committees District Organization . . .. .

Classification o f Areas .. .. .

P atrols. . . . . . .. .

Attacks on Patrols . . .. .

Chapter 3.—Local Government— Native Local Governm ent Councils .

District and Town Advisory Councils . Chapter 4.—Electoral System— Legislative Council . . .. .

Native Local Governm ent Councils .

Chapter 5.—The Public Service— Legislation .. .. .. .

Control, Structure and Staffing .. .

Auxiliary Division . . . . .

Administration Servants .. . . .

Recruitment .. . . . . .

Organization, Classification and Methods . Training . . . . ' . . .

Chapter 6 .—The J u d ic ia ry -Types o f C ourts .. .. ..

Constitution of the Courts .. ..

Judicial Appointments .. .. . .

Fees .. .. .. .. ..

Legal Aid .. .. .. . .

Methods of Trial .. .. ..

Equality of Treatment before the Law .. Penalties .. . . . . ..

Conditional Release .. .. ..

Chapter 7.—Legal System— General .. .. .. ..

Chapter 8.—Maintenance of Law and Order—Police Force— Organization .. .. .. ..

Regular Constabulary .. .. ..

Native Constabulary .. . . ..

Appeals ..

Official Language

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Statistical A ppendices— continued.

Page.

Appendix V III.—Agriculture-— Table 1.— Land Tenure at 30th June, 1961.. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. 199

2. —Land Held under Lease at 30th June, 1961 .. . . . . .. . . .. 199

3. —Leases G ranted during 1960-61 by Classes and Districts .. .. .. . . .. 200

4. — Holdings o f Alienated Land o f One Acre or More used for Agricultural or Pastoral Purposes in Each District at 31st March, 1961 .. .. .. .. .. . . .. 200

5. ·—Principal Commercial Crops showing Holdings, Area under Crop and Production during 1960-61 201

A ppendix IX .— Livestock— Principal Livestock at 31st M arch, 1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Appendix X .—F isheries— Exports o f Shell for Years ended 30th June, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 . . . . . . . . 202

Appendix X I.—F orests— Table 1.— Classification o f Forest Areas at 30th June, 1961 .. . . . . .. .. .. 202

2. ·—Silviculture: Operations to 30th June, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 . . .. . . . . 202

3. —Permits and Licences issued for Harvesting Tim ber from Reservations and other Crown Land Effective at 30th June, 1961 .. .. .. . . . . .. . . .. 203

4. —Annual Tim ber Yield for Years 1955-56 to 1960-61 . . .. .. .. . . 2 0 3

5 ·—Commercial Sawmilling Establishments: N um ber of Establishments and Num ber o f Persons employed in Sawmilling and Related Forestry Activities at 30th June, 1960 and 1961 . . 203 6 . ·—Estimated Sawn Tim ber Production from Logs Harvested under Authorization of the Forestry Ordinance for Years 1955-56 to 1960-61 .. .. . . .. .. . . 204

Appendix XII.— M ineral R eserves— Table 1.— Mineral Leases Held at 30th June, 1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

2. —N um ber o f Mines according to Principal M ineral Extracted and Ownership at 30th June, 1961 .. 204 3. — M int Returns o f Actual Quantity and Value o f Minerals Produced during the Years 1956-57 to 1960-61 .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . 2 0 5

4. —Mineral Prospecting Licences and Petroleum Prospecting Permits and Licences Current at 30th June, 1961 . . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . 2 0 5

5. —W orkers Engaged in Mining and Petroleum Exploration: Average N um ber Engaged 1960-61 . . 205 6 . —Accidents to W orkers in Mines involving Bodily Injury, 1960-61 .. . . . . . . 205

Appendix X III.—I ndustrial P roduction— Table 1.—Summary o f M anufacturing Industry for Y ear ended 30th June, 1960 . . . . . . 206

2.—Generation o f Electric Energy: Installed Capacity and Production for the Years 1958-59, 1959-60 and 1960-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6

Appendix XIV.—Co-operative Societies— Table 1.—Details o f Co-operative Societies for each o f the Years ended 31st M arch, 1957 to 1961 . . . . 207 2. —Co-operative Societies showing Members, Capital and Turnover for the Year ended 31st M arch, 1961 .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

3. —Prim ary Organizations: Activity in Each D istrict during the Y ear ended 31st March, 1961 . . 208 4. — Secondary Organizations: Activity in each D istrict during the Y ear ended 31st March, 1961 .. 208 5. —Tertiary Organizations .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

A ppendix XV.—T ransport and Communications— Table 1.—Postal Articles handled during the Years ended 30th June, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 .. 209 2. —Money Order Transactions during the Years ended 30th June, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 . . 209 3. —Telephone Services a t 30th June, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 .. .. . . . . 209

4. —Telephone Services: Details of Type of Service a t 30th June, 1961 .. .. .. .. 210

5. —Telegraph Services: Number o f Telegraph Stations and Messages Handled during the Years ended 30th June, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961 . . .. .. .. .. 210

6 . — Map showing Airports, Principal Airfields and Air Services. . .. .. facing page . .

7. —Regular Air T ransport Services for the Year ended 30th June, 1961 .. .. . . .. 211

8 . —External and Internal Air and Airmail Services a t 30th June, 1961 .. .. . . .. 211

9. —Schedule o f Aerodromes and Alighting Areas indicating Controlling Authority and Capacity at 30th June, 1961 .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. 212

10. —Port A ctivity: Vessels Entered and Cleared at the Principal Ports during the Year ended 30th June, 1961 . . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. 214

11. —Nationality o f Oversea and Inter-Territory Vessels Entering Papuan Ports during the Year ended 30th June, 1961 .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . 2 1 4

12. —Tonnage of Cargo Handled at Principal Papuan Ports during the Year ended 30th June, 1961 .. 215 13. —Num ber of Vessels Licensed under the Shipping Ordinance 1951-1960 to engage in Maritime Trading in Territory Waters at 30th June, 1961, classified according to Type and Gross Registered Tonnage . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 215

14. —Commercial Fishing Vessels: Num ber and Tonnage of Vessels Registered at 30th June, 1961 .. 215 15. —Vehicular Roads .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 216

16. — M otor Vehicle and M otor Cycle Registrations Effective at 31st December, 1960 .. . . 216

17. —M otor Vehicle Drivers’ and M otor Cycle Riders’ Licences: Num ber Effective at 31st December, 1960 . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. 217

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In such areas there is as yet no permanent organiza­ tion for the administration of law and order and entry is restricted to indigenous people, Administration officers and authorized persons. The administration is thus able to control the rate and extent of contact with the

inhabitants and ensure that development is not only peace­ ful but adequate to their circumstances.

The Administration establishes friendly relations through the patrol system. Advice is sought by the people and disputes are settled.. Medical, educational and economic activities are introduced and a census is taken. The people are thus inducted into the system of law and order and wiih the establishment of continuous supervision control is consolidated and expanded.

Fulfilment of the plan to bring the whole Territory under control by the end of 1963 will depend on the absence of any major emergency which would divert resources of staff and facilities, and the continued availa­ bility of adequately trained and experienced staff. As the Administration extends its control the demands on its services and personnel increase. Not only must the new areas receive adequate attention, but at the same time the peoples of the more developed areas must be given the

intensive guidance, expanded services and more rapid progress in all fields of development which they are coming to expect.

P a t r o l s .

Routine Administration patrols are conducted in all controlled areas by officers of the Department of Native Affairs. The aim is to visit the people as often as possible and to remain with them as long as may be necessary to

deal with any matters which arise. Restricted areas are patrolled as frequently as possible in a similar way, with the aim of consolidating influence and bringing the areas under complete control.

Patrols in restricted areas are led by experienced officers. In unexplored or partly explored country, a preliminary aerial reconnaissance is first undertaken if practicable. The ground patrol makes contact and

establishes friendly relations with the people. This is followed up by later patrols, either from existing stations or from a patrol post established in the area. Similar work is going on from other selected points in the region

and the pattern of patrolling is so organized that patrols from various posts link up with each other until the whole region is covered.

Patrols working in isolated areas are equipped with portable radio transmitting and receiving sets.

Details of the number of patrols carried out in each District are given in Table 5 of Appendix II.

A t t a c k s o n P a t r o l s .

There were no attacks on patrols during the year.

CHAPTER 3.—LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

N a t i v e L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t C o u n c i l s .

The background to the native local government council system is described in Chapter 2 and its development since the establishment of the first council at Hanuabada in 1950 is illustrated in the following table:—

Year ended 30th June. Number of Councils. Number of Councillors.

Approxi-Population Covered.

1951 .. .. .. (a) 1 17 2,500

1952 .. .. .. ( a) 2 30 3,600

1953 .. .. .. (a) 2 39 4,636

1954 .. .. .. ( a) 2 39 4,660

1955 . . .. .. 3 70 8,127

1956 .. .. .. 4 130 18,300

1957 .. .. .. 6 159 24,095

1958 .. .. .. 9 259 55,279

1959 .. .. .. 10 310 67,889

1960 .. .. .. 16 420 97,452

1961 .. .. .. 16 443 103,297

(a) N ative Village Councils established under the Native Village Council Ordinance 1949-1952.

Particulars of the sixteen councils in existence at 30th June, 1961, including dates of establisment, are given in Table 9 of Appendix II.

During the year the Dobu Council was proclaimed in the Milne Bay District and the constitution of the Kiwai Council (Western District) was amended to include addi­ tional villages and to increase the number of councillors from 30 to 32. At the request of the people of the

Moripi and Moveave-Toaripi council areas (Gulf District), these two councils were amalgamated to form the East Kerema Council.

Preliminary work towards the formation of new councils is being carried out in a number of districts and it is expected that additional councils will be established in 1961-62.

F u n c tio n s a n d C o n s titu tio n .—Under the N a ti v e L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t C o u n c ils O r d in a n c e 1949-1960 the Adminis­ trator may establish by proclamation local government bodies endowed with functions over defined areas in rela­ tion to the following matters:—

(a) maintaining peace, order and good government subject to the laws of the Territory; (b) organizing, financing or engaging in any business or enterprise for the good of the community; (c) carrying out any works for the benefit of the |

community; and (d) providing or co-operating with any department or other entity in providing any public or social service.

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To enable them to carry out these functions Councils are empowered to make rules on matters concerning peace, order and welfare which, when approved by a district officer, have the full force of law, and are

authorized to levy rates and taxes and to charge for ser­ vices rendered.

It is an offence for any person to attempt to prejudice the free and effective exercise of the lawful power and authority of a council.

The actual tasks of initial organization and day-to-day supervision are carried out by officers of the Department of Native Affairs, the overall control of councils within each district being the responsibility of the district

officer.

In the early stages of establishing a council the district staff are assisted, where necessary, by officers experienced in such work. Generally, however, administration through councils is viewed as part of the normal duties

of the field staff, who oversee elections, instruct members in their duties, superintend council financial matters and generally advise and help.

The qualifications for voters and the method of voting are referred to in Chapter 4 of this Part.

All members of existing councils have been elected. Any resident of a council area is entitled to stand as a candi­ date. Some women candidates have been nominated and six women are at present members of councils. The

Native Local Government Councils Ordinance permits the nomination of members by the district officer, but this provision has never been used. Tenure of office is for twelve months following the initial elections. Except in the case of the Hanuabada Council which holds its elec­

tions triennially, subsequent elections are at biennial intervals.

A member of a council can be dismissed from office by the Director of Native Affairs, but only after due inquiry has been made and proper precautions have been observed to protect the individual. As yet this power has

not been exercised.

The president and vice-president of each council are elected by secret ballot of the council from among its members.

Executive committees composed of varying numbers of councillors, and usually including the president and vice­ president, are appointed to prepare and later supervise the works programme; to organize festivities and sports days;

to supervise council constables in the execution of their duties; to watch over the care and maintenance of council transport; to consider correspondence other than that of a routine nature; and to perform other limited functions.

Council members are paid allowances from council revenue, the rates being fixed by councillors when draw­ ing up the annual estimates. The annual appropriation for personal allowances of members and wages of council

employees may not exceed one half of the total estimated recurrent revenue without the written approval of the Director of Native Affairs. These allowances are not regarded by the people as salary, but rather as a reimburse­

ment for out-of-pocket expenses incurred by members when engaged in council business. Allowances are also made to members of executive committees.

F in a n c e .—Each council derives most of its revenue from a capitation tax collected annually and taken into account by the council in accordance with the Native Local Government Councils Ordinance. Revenue is

expended by the council in accordance with its approved annual estimates and no part of it goes to the Territorial Government. Tax rates declared by rules of the various councils are given in Table 9 of Appendix II.

Councils may also impose fees in respect of any of the matters coming within the scope of their powers.

An exemption from or reduction of council tax may be granted by a local government council taxation tribunal to a male on grounds of impecunious old age, infirmity or unavoidable hardship; to a female who is the mother of four or more living children or who is caring for three or more young children (either her own or adopted); and to widows, aged women and wives of persons who have

already been granted an exemption.

In September of each year each council holds a series of meetings to prepare its annual financial estimates for the new year to commence on 1st January. Such meetings are attended by representatives of various Administration

departments concerned with local services. Taxation rates for the ensuing year are passed and an estimate is then made of the total revenue the council can expect to receive.

When the revenue figure has been estimated and the carry-over figure calculated every item of expenditure, whether recurrent or capital, is decided by the full council, all major items being voted on separately. Finally, the

estimates are approved by formal motion and forwarded to the district officer for his approval.

To enable councils to pay increased attention to such preventive measures as environmental sanitation and the improvement of water supplies and to ensure at the same time that the assumption by councils of increasing financial

responsibility for all aspects of public health services in their areas will take place on a sound and uniform basis the Administration proposes to introduce a system of grants-in-aid under which the financial contribution to

health services made by any particular council will depend on the stage of development it has reached. Increasing expenditure by councils on buildings and the salaries of

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M ethods o f T r ia l.

The normal British and Australian procedure governing the methods of trial and ascertainment of facts is followed by the courts of the Territory.

The Jury Ordinance 1907-1956 of the Territory of Papua provides for any person of European descent charged with a capital offence to be tried before a jury of four persons. All other issues both civil and criminal are tried without a jury.

The indigenous people are not subject to trial by jury as it is considered that, in their present state of develop­ ment, a judge sitting alone with the responsibilities of judge and jury, having a wide experience with regard to

judicial practice involving the indigenous community, and assisted as necessary by competent assessors, affords the best assurance of substantial justice for an indigenous person on trial.

A male resident of the Territory of Papua who is of European descent, has reached the age of 30 years, and is a natural-born or naturalized British subject, is quali­ fied to serve on a jury. Persons who have been convicted

of an offence which is punishable by twelve months’ imprisonment are not so qualified. Clergy in holy orders, missionaries and public servants are exempt from jury

service.

E q u a l i t y o f T r e a t m e n t B e f o r e t h e L a w .

One of the basic principles of English law is equal treatment for all in the courts, irrespective of race or nationality, and this principle is always observed through­ out the Territory. The indigenous inhabitants have the right of free recourse to the courts and are guided in

such matters by officers of the Department of Native Affairs and by the Public Solicitor whom they may approach on any matter.

P en a lties.

The penalties which may be imposed by the courts are stated in the ordinances and regulations under which the charges are laid. The penalties so specified are the same for all sections of the population, but in imposing a penalty

in any particular case the courts take into account the background of the offender and the circumstances in which the offence was committed. It has been recognized, nevertheless, that having regard to the structure of their

society it would not be apropriate in many cases to sub­ ject the indigenous people to the full rigour of the criminal law, and a special code, entitled the Native Regulations law, which provides alternative offences, a very simple

court procedure and a lower level of penalties has been in operation since 1939. Changes contemplated in regard to these regulations are discussed in Chapter 1.

Capital punishment by hanging is the extreme penalty irrespective of race, class, creed or person, where a person has been convicted of wilful murder, treason or certain kinds of piracy. Power of clemency is vested in the

Governor-General. In practice no execution may be carried out until all the circumstances of the case, includ­ ing information as to the stage of advancement of the condemned, have been reported to the Minister for Terri­

tories and the exercise of the prerogative of mercy has been considered by the Government. During the period under review, no death sentences were carried out. In 15 cases death sentences w7ere commuted to terms of

imprisonment.

The only offences for which corporal punishment may be imposed in the case of adults are those indictable offences for which such punishment is specifically auth­ orized by the Criminal Code, viz. sexual offences against

females, certain crimes of particular violence, and prison offences. The power to impose corporal punishment for these offences belongs to the Supreme Court; it is rarely exercised and has not been exercised at all in recent

years. Corporal punishment may not be imposed on a female.

In cases of certain offences by male juveniles, courts for native matters may order offenders to be chastised with a light cane or strap. This form of correction is imposed privately and under strict supervision and is

used only where no other form of punishment is con­ sidered appropriate.

Children’s courts, when established, will not be empowered to impose corporal punishment except in cases where offenders are under the age of 14 years and the court, without proceeding to a formal conviction

and punishment may dismiss a charge upon being satisfied that suitable chastisement has been inflicted on the child by its guardian.

The Native Regulations provide that, if the Administra­ tor is satisfied that the continued residence of an indi­ genous inhabitant is detrimental to the peace and good order of any place, he may order his removal and may order him to remain in any specified area.

A person not born in the Territory who has been con- convicted of a criminal offence punishable by imprison­ ment for one year or longer, or whose presence in the Territory is likely to be prejudicial to the peace, order and good government of the Territory, or to the well-being of the indigenous inhabitants, may be deported under the Expulsion of Undesirables Ordinance 1950. Deportation as a penalty, however, may not be imposed by judicial process.

Under the Removal of Prisoners ( Territories) Act 1923­ 1957 of the Commonwealth of Australia, European prisoners may be removed from the Territory to serve their sentences in a prison in Australia and a policy has

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The Papuan people except for those in the early stages of contact, have commonly accepted the use of currency. The Reserve Bank of Australia, in collaboration with the Administration and the trading and savings banks repre­

sented in the Territory, is planning a programme of education covering money, savings, banking and credit. It has also established a special research section in the

Territory, one of the immediate interests of which will be to promote and assist savings and loan societies (known in some countries as credit unions) among the Papuan people.

Legal tender in the Territory is governed by the pro­ visions of the Currency Ordinance 1911, and by the appli­ cation of the Reserve Bank Act.

The foreign exchange regulations of the Commonwealth of Australia apply to the Territory. Foreign exchange requirements of the Territory are met through the central banking system of the Commonwealth and are made

available through the branches of the banks operating in the Territory. There are no restrictions on payments between the Territories of Papua and New Guinea and the Commonwealth, and the only restrictions on exchange

transactions with other countries are those applicable to similar transactions between Australia and those countries.

As the Territory uses the currency of the Common­ wealth of Australia, there are no separate exchange rates between the Territory and other countries. During the period under review there have been no major

fluctuations in exchange rates between Australia and the world countries.

There are four trading banks operating in the Territory. These are the Commonwealth Trading Bank of Australia, the Bank of New South Wales, the Australia and New Zealand Bank Limited and the National Bank of

Australasia Limited. At 30th June, 1961, five branches were maintained by these banks at Port Moresby and Samarai. In addition three bank agencies were operating in Konedobu and Boroko, suburbs of Port Moresby.

Savings bank facilities are provided by the Common­ wealth Savings Bank of Australia, the Bank of New South Wales Savings Bank Limited and the Australia and New Zealand Savings Bank Limited. At 30th June, 1961, four

branches were maitained at Port Moresby and Samarai and 29 agencies were operating at smaller centres.

Rates of interest for bank deposits and advances are the same as those in Australia. The public debt of the

Territory is the amount raised by subscriptions to Private Treaty, Loans, Premium Securities and Territory Savings Certificates (of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea). In 1960-61 approximately £430,000 was raised in the

Territory of Papua and New Guinea by these means. Rates of interest applying in the Territory at 30th June, 1960, are detailed in Appendix VI.

No information is available relating to current accounts maintained by Papuan people. However, in June, 1961, the number of operative savings accounts of indigenous depositors was 25,864, the balances of which totalled

£413,508. There were also 1,179 school savings bank accounts of which the balances totalled £4,643; some of these belonged to Papuan children.

Details are not available of the amounts invested by the indigenous people on fixed deposit and in government securities and loans or of the amount of currency in circulation.

The levels of deposits and advances of cheque-paying banks in 1960-61 and deposits of savings banks at 30th June, 1961, in the Territory of Papua are shown in the following table:—

BANK DEPOSITS.

Particulars. Average June, 1961.

Average 1960-61.

£’000. £’000.

Cheque-paying B anks— N ot Bearing Interest— Australian Governments .. .. Nil Nil

O ther Customers . . .. .. 1,541 1,719

Bearing Interest— Australian Governments .. .. 7 5

O ther Customers— Fixed .. . . . . .. 742 670

Current . . . . . . .. 180 166

Total . . . . .. 2,470 2,560

At 30th June, 1961

Savings B anks .. .. .. .. £1,999,412

BANK ADVANCES.

P a rtic u la rs. A verage A verage

Ju n e, 1961. 1960-61.

£’000. £’000.

Cheque Paying Banks—- Loans, Advances and Bills discounted .. 977 9 3 6

Information is not available regarding the number of loans made and the classification of loans according to the purpose for which they were made.

The Territory has no separate reserves of gold and foreign exchange but relies on the reserves of the Com­ monwealth of Australia.

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body is decided in the light of particular local circum­ stances and it is an established principle that an associa­ tion remains the servant of the societies and that societies

should not become branches of the association.

In 1956-57 a tertiary form of organization was intro­ duced with the formation of a Federation of Native Associations in the Central District.

There was no extension into new areas during the year. There are now 118 societies of which seventeen are single purpose and 101 are dual purpose primaries. There are seven secondary associations with 111 member societies and one federation with five member associa­

tions. Particulars of co-operative organizations and related statistics are given in Appendix XIV.

The emphasis during the year has once again been on consolidation and the strengthening of the financial resources of existing societies. The wisdom of this policy has been underlined by the rapid downward trend of primary produce prices in the world market.

There has been very little recovery in the shell market and there was a decline in world copra prices which caused copra turnover to fall despite a considerable increase in production. Store turnover continued to increase.

Largely owing to a policy of encouraging the fullest possible distribution of available surpluses as a means of emphasizing the business relationship between the society and its members, rebates to members increased by

£8.708 to £20,913. Earlier the practice had grown up among societies of allowing surpluses to accumulate and investing the cash equivalent in fixed assets.

Societies generally have been able to raise sufficient funds from their members but the need sometimes arises for further capital to purchase road or water transport or erect copra driers and store buildings. Registered co-operative societies are eligible to obtain loans of up to

£5,000 under the Native Loans Fund Ordinance 1955­ 1960 and may also negotiate for loans and overdrafts with commercial banking institutions.

The development and expansion of the co-operative movement are still being hampered by the illegal extension of credit, lack of understanding of world market fluctua­ tions and of the need for improved production and

efficiency and for members to give greater support to their societies. Nevertheless, co-operative organizations have so far withstood the increasingly difficult economic situation and have, in fact, made definite advances in certain

respects.

Rising standards of living and education are leading to an increasing appreciation of the value of co-operation and there are signs of a steadily growing knowledge of the operation of societies and co-operative organization

generally.

A delegation attended the Congress of Queensland Co-operatives in 1961 as in previous years. A conference of co-operative officers from both Papua and New

Guinea was held at Port Moresby in May, 1961. This was the second such conference to be held in Papua and New Guinea.

Supervision and Inspection.— Throughout the year visits of inspection were made by the Co-operative Section staff for purposes of supervision, guidance and audit. These visits are essential to avoid malpractices and un­

economic dealings, to assist societies which have got into financial difficulties through gifts to members, perquisites of office, excessive honoraria to office-holders and similar practices, and to assist the people to achieve a better

understanding of the basic principles involved. At the same time care is taken to develop independent habits of thought so that the societies may progress to a stage where they can carry on without close supervision. The policy is

gradually to place greater responsibility on the office­ bearers of the individual groups as trained indigenous co-operative staff become available to them, but it has become apparent that Administration assistance and super­

vision will be necessary for many yeavs to ensure the consolidation of existing societies and the development of the movement generally.

Co-operative Education.—The Co-operative Education Centre at Port Moresby is administered by a Board of Trustees consisting of two European officers of the Administration and two indigenous representatives. The construction of this centre was financed by contributions

from co-operative societies throughout Papua and New Guinea and a grant from the Commonwealth Bank. The teaching staff is provided by the Administration which also meets the boarding expenses of students. Societies pay

the cost of fares and pocket money for students nominated by them. There is a noticeable pride of ownership among societies in relation to this school and members continue to take an active interest in their nominated students.

Instruction given at the education centre covers formal training of inspectors, secretaries and storemen, as well as simpler explanations of such book-keeping and business practices as the preparation of trading accounts and

balance sheets.

The storemen’s courses are of approximately six weeks’ duration and cover basic documentation for the purchase of produce and sale of goods and simple accounting.

The entrance qualification for inspectors and secretaries is Standard 8 or above and the course lasts about five months. Trainees are coached in all aspects of com­ mercial book-keeping with special emphasis on the records

required by both secondary co-operative organizations and their component primary societies. They also receive a full explanation of co-operative principles and their application, co-operative legislation and the rules of regis­

tered organizations.

During the year 39 Papuans and 26 New Guineans attended a storemen’s course at the centre, 40 (including fifteen Papuans) attended an advanced storemen’s course, and 28 (including thirteen Papuans) attended an inspectors’

64

Cash cropping is not regarded as the sole form of activity to be promoted during the current phase of de­ velopment. In areas where commercial agricultural pro­ duction is at present impracticable because of transport difficulties attention is given to improving food production and cultivation methods. In remote areas, agricultural extension officers of the Administration, assisted by the local staff of the Department of Native Affairs, are intro­ ducing and distributing planting material of coconuts, rice, peanuts, maize and cover and shade species to improve subsistence production, and are encouraging the adoption of better methods of planting and cultivation.

The following reports on programmes for the develop­ ment of Papuan agriculture in the various districts show how a balance is being maintained between traditional food cropping and the new modifications, particularly commer­

cial production, and the particular lines along Which the developing economies of Papuan farming communities are being guided.

Northern District.— Six thousand coconuts were planted during the year to bring the total number of trees to 126,000. These are mainly used for subsistence, but 50 tons of copra were produced.

Robusta coffee plantings increased during the year and 327,000 trees have now been planted. Most trees are immature and this year’s production of 24 tons will be greatly exceeded in future years.

Cacao plantings by Papuans now total 275,000 trees. The groves are well maintained and are expected to yield well when they come into full production. Production for the year was eleven tons.

Rubber production is increasing and 14,000 lb. were produced during the year by Papuans.

Milne Bay District.—Fifteen thousand seedling coco­ nut palms were planted bringing the total of palms in the district to 690,000. Copra production by Papuans was 3,500 tons.

Twenty-four thousand Robusta coffee trees and 9,500 Arabica trees were planted during the year bringing the total number of trees owned by Papuans in the district to 207,900 Robusta and 104,000 Arabica trees. Most of

the trees are immature but production of coffee is

beginning, five tons of Robusta and six tons of Arabica coffee being produced during the year.

The village agricultural committees and associations of the district continue to be very useful means of agri­ cultural extension.

Central District.—Further attention was given to pro­ moting cash cropping of coconuts and improving the quality of the copra produced and copra production increased to 827 tons during the year.

Papuans now own 16,000 Arabica and 16,000 Robusta coffee trees, most of which are immature. Six tons of Arabica coffee were produced and production is expected

to increase considerably in the future. Attention was paid to improving the standard of maintenance in coffee groves in the Rigo hinterland and the Kuni and Tapini areas.

The annual commercial production of truck crops increased to approximately 2,000 tons.

Approximately 1,000 lb. of dry rubber were produced by Papuans during the year.

Gulf District.—Papuans have produced 38,247 lb. of lubber under an Administration sponsored scheme which began during the year at Cupola, near Kerema. Several groups of Papuans have attended special courses in budd­ ing and plantation management at Bisianumu and Itikinumu rubber plantations in the Central District and modern high yielding clonal seed has been made available to Papuans interested in planting rubber.

There was a marked increase in copra production during the year, production totalling 1,828 tons. Ex­ tension workers continued to give attention to the improve­ ment of both the standard of maintenance of coconut groves and the quality of copra produced.

The planting of Robusta coffee in suitable areas is being encouraged by extension workers. Over 7,000 trees have now been planted and sufficient nurseries for 50.000 trees have been established.

Southern Highlands District.—There was an increase in agricultural extension patrolling in the district during the year and good contacts were made with four groups which had not previously been contacted by agricultural extension workers.

The growing of Arabica coffee is being encouraged, 5.000 trees having been planted out in groves, and nur­ series to provide 70,000 seedlings have been established.

Experimental plantings of pyrethrum and tobacco have been made to determine their suitability as cash crops in the district.

Western District.-—Agricultural extension work has aimed at the improvement of copra quality and the dis­ tribution of rice, peanuts, maize and vegetable seeds to improve subsistence agriculture. Trial plantings of Robusta coffee have been made in all sub-districts.

Copra production was steady at 60 tons, but was of higher quality than previously.

Three thousand eight hundred Robusta trees have been planted in the District.

Survey of Indigenous Agriculture. A survey of indigenous agriculture in Papua and New Guinea was begun in December, 1960, as part of the 1960 World Census of Agriculture. The data will also be used for purposes of planning and administration. The scope of the survey covers all indigenous agriculture

excepting certain recognised types of commercial pro­ duction which are the subject of ancillary surveys.

68

as soon as feasible. At the present time all agricultural extension stations produce seed for use in the district where they are located and patrolling officers of the Extension Service and the Department of Native Affairs

officers distribute this seed to isolated Papuan farmers; the more advanced farmers who are in contact with the sta­ tions purchase seed at cost. The Kapagere Station in Rigo Sub-District concentrates on the production of bulk quan­

tities of seed of peanuts, maize and other subsistence crops which are distributed throughout the Territory.

( h ) Surveys and R esearch W ork.

G en era l.

Research and investigation into all aspects of scientific agriculture in the Territory are the responsibility of the Division of Plant Industry. The special technical sections, except those engaged in livestock research, are attached to

this Division and laboratories are located at strategic centres throughout the Territory. The Division is de­ centralized, with a very small proportion of its staff at head-quarters and the remainder placed at the various

research and experiment stations. Its main activities are— (i) soil and land use surveys; (ii) chemical and biochemical research and services; (iii) crop improvement and agronomic experiments with

all Territory crops; (iv) the provision of technical services and research in plant pathology and economic entomology; (v) plant introduction and the testing of new crops and

new varieties which may show promise in the Territory; and (vi) the promulgation and administration of plant quarantine legislation.

There are two experiment stations for plant industry research and also a plant introduction and quarantine station.

The experiment stations—The Bisianumu Rubber Centre on the Sogeri Plateau and the Agricultural Experi­ mental Station at Epo, both of which are in the Central District—act as centres not only for research but also for

agricultural extension in all phases of appropriate crop husbandry and foster by demonstration and advice the rational development of agriculture m the districts which they serve. The rubber station at Bisianumu investigates

all aspects of the rubber industry. The experimental Station at Epo is situated in the dry belt of Papua and is concerned primarily with rice. The range of crops under observation and study is being extended, however, and includes Manila hemp, sisal and coffee, in addition to such annual crops as peanuts, cotton, castor beans and sun­ flowers. The Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station is at'Laloki near Port Moresby.

At Port Morseby there are major laboratories for re­ search in agricultural chemistry, plant pathology, ento­ mology and soil science.

Resources Surveys.

Land Use and Regional Resources Survey.·—The Land Use and Regional Resources Survey Team of the Com­ monwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization is carrying out resources surveys which will gradually cover the whole Territory of Papua and New Guinea. These surveys are more in the nature of a reconnaissance than a detailed survey on which sub-division and the details of land use can be planned. They permit the land to be classified into broad types on the basis of topography, soils,

vegetation, rainfall and other factors, and are followed by more intensive surveys by the Soil Survey Section of the Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries of those land types which the resources survey indicates as being

most promising. Surveys have been made in the Northern District and in the Southern Highlands.

Soil Survey Work.—The work of the Soil Survey Sec­ tion falls into three broad categories— (i) reconnaissance surveys; (ii) surveys of Crown land for planned sub-division;

and

(iii) base surveys of districts irrespective of land owner­ ship.

Detailed soil surveys were made in the Sogeri Plateau in the Central District and the Murua River area in the Gulf District. At Sogeri, some 4,500 acres were investigated for agricultural potential in connexion with the eventual

resettlement of people to be displaced by the Sirinumu Dam construction. Throughout the area, the topography is rolling to steep with acid, red loam soils developed from basalts. These soils are the principal rubber soils of Papua. At the Murua River area, a total of 8,680 acres were investigated for the purpose of providing the basic information necessary for the formulation of a develop­ ment and settlement scheme. The principal soils in the area are the Murua River light clays developed ‘ in situ ’ on mudstones and the Name alluvial series of sandy loams; these later have the base saturated character in common with much of the alluvials of the southern Papuan coast. The potential in the area is for food cropping on the alluvials and rubber on the mature soils.

Agricultural Chemistry.

During the year 1,190 soil analyses, 510 plant leaf analyses and 29 water analyses were undertaken together with a miscellaneous group which included coconut waters, fodders, produce and phytochemical and other materials. The soil analyses were made in connexion with surveys in

the Central and Northern Districts of Papua, and included some analyses done in connexion with surveys in the Eastern Highlands, Morobe and New Britain Districts of the Territory of New Guinea.

Further work was carried out on the role of sulphur in the nutrition of Territory crops and the occurrence of sulphur deficiencies in coffee and tea has been confirmed. Additional trials are being conducted with these crops and also with copra where a sulphur deficiency is suspected.

)

76

F is h e r ie s D e v e l o p m e n t and R e se a r c h .

The main points of the Fisheries Action Plan were pub­ lished in the 1956-57 report.

Improved facilities and additional staff at the marine biological station at Kanudi, near Port Moresby, have per­ mitted technical training to be continued at a high level and the standard of fishing gear being developed is im­ proving rapidly. The main improvements are in the field of modern net designs being used with success in Aus­ tralia and in older techniques adaptable to the local fishing craft. The Kanudi station is being constructed in stages of which the first two, involving the erection of a gear technology building and a laboratory, have been completed.

A large part of the technical work is directed to imple­ menting the programme of fisheries development and instruction is given in modern fishing techniques using cotton and synthetic netting materials. Further experi­ ments in new designs of fish nets and traps are being con­ tinued with particular reference to local requirements.

Although there are extensive areas of soft bottom, mud or sand and weed, extensive trawling tests on the south coast of Papua have not yet revealed any trawling grounds of commercial importance. This method of survey is, however, being continued.

Three University graduates, assisted by three skilled European technical assistants, are carrying out marine and fresh water fishery investigations.

In addition to the skilled technical assistance given to fishermen and village fishing groups, loans under the Native Loans Fund Ordinance 1955-1960 are made to approved groups and organizations for the purchase of equipment such as small vessels, outboard motors and fish­

ing gear.

Pond Fisheries.·—Since their introduction in 1954, Tilapia mossambica have thrived in ponds and natural swamps in lowland areas and fish up to 2 i lb. are not uncommon. At higher altitudes, however, the growth

rate, though not the breeding rate, decreases and few fish more than i lb. in weight have been recorded.

Tilapia has proved quite successful as a biological con­ trol for mosquito larvae. They have been introduced into a number of swamps and lagoons carrying large con­ centrations of mosquito larvae in areas where other

measures for mosquito control are not practicable, especially in the Western and Gulf Districts.

Two important species of pond-cultured tropical fish, Trichogaster pectoralis and Osphronemus gouramy have been introduced in the Territory. Both species are most suitable for cultivation under lowland conditions, and giant gouramy which have been liberated in the lagoon at

Bomana have grown to more than three pounds in weight.

The Singapore carp which were introduced to the Bomana experimental ponds have shown a low growth rate and have not reproduced. This species thrives in the cooler temperatures of the highlands regions and is not

> suitable fish for lowland areas.

An experimental introduction of trout at 1,200 feet alti­ tude was made at Kokoda in a river near the base of Mount Victoria (Northern District). Conditions appear to be satisfactory as the mountain streams in this locality fall rapidly from a considerable altitude and water tem­ peratures are below the normal for 1,200 feet. Food organisms, however, although plentiful, are small.

Preservation.— Experiments to improve the standards of fish preservation are continuing.

An officer from the Division attended a six weeks’ course on fish preservation in Manila and on his return an elementary fish preservation course was arranged for Papuans at Daru. Thirty-two fieldworkers from the Divi­ sions of Agricultural Extension and Fisheries, all of whom

successfully completed the course, now have an adequate basic knowledge of fish preservation principles and tech­ niques and will be able to give sound advice to fishing communities.

Handbook of New Guinea Fishes.—A handbook being prepared by the Division of Fisheries and Oceanography of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization is expected to be published in 1962-63. In

addition to fishes of Papua and New Guinea, the book will relate to fish from Netherlands New Guinea and the British Solomon Islands Protectorate.

T r a in in g .

Twenty-three fishery assistants are at present being trained by the Fisheries Division. Training covers a minimum period of three years and involves a study of fish and shell species together with the problems of river, estuary and reef fishing, the construction and repair of different types of fishing gear, seamanship and fishing operations.

Those who pass their examinations may proceed to more complex training leading to qualifications which will enable them to give instruction in villages on fishing methods and the preparation of fish for market, to take charge of station and field work, to design and operate

new gear and to manage fisheries vessels up to 60 feet in length.

Two assistants, now classed as fishery field workers, have reached a good standard and are competent to give elementary training in a wide field of fishery work, sea­ manship, boat and engine maintenance and minor repairs.

Depending on the qualifications they obtain the assistants will be stationed at various places in the Territory where they can best assist local fishermen, or will be attached to technical personnel for survey work,

Two Papuans are attending the South Pacific Com­ mission’s Regional Boat Building Course of twelve months’ duration in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate.

The training of Papuan fishermen continued during 1960-61 and direct assistance was given to a number of groups of fishermen in catching and marketing fish.

78

G e o p h y s ic a l A c t iv it ie s.

The Port Moresby Geophysical Observatory records routine seismological, geomagnetic and ionospheric data which are distributed to world data centres and other overseas organizations. The observatory is controlled and operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of Mineral

Resources which provides the required staff of four geo­ physicists and two technical officers.

Radio sounding of the ionosphere was placed on a routine basis following a test period of observations last­ ing several months. The level of seismic activity recorded during 1960-61 was consistent with the high seismicity of

the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Increased awareness of the effects of damaging ground motion on structures was demonstrated by the requests received from construction authorities for information to facilitate aseis- mic design of structures in the more active areas. Statis­

tical analyses of the occurrence of large earthquakes which have occurred in both Territories since 1906 were made to permit a closer definition of areas most susceptible to damaging ground motion.

Ionospheric observations recorded in Port Moresby were used to determine the cause of partial failure of some radio communication circuits operated in the Terri­ tory by other Government authorities.

G eo l o g ic a l A c t iv it ie s .

Geological services are provided by resident officers seconded to the Administration from the Commonwealth Bureau of Mineral Resources and operating within the Department of Lands, Surveys and Mines. Three geolo­ gists staff the headquarters office at Port Moresby.

In addition a regional geological survey party of the Bureau of Mineral Resources carries out each year a survey of an area which may contain minerals of economic value. This year one such party completed a survey of Fergusson and Goodenough Islands, which contain

igneous intrusive rocks of the acid and basic types, but no ore deposits of economic importance were discovered.

Much of the time of the resident staff has been taken up with geological work associated with the siting of major installations of the Port Moresby hydro-electric scheme.

Geological supervision has been provided for the testing by diamond drilling of the Laloki copper-iron sulphide ore-body near Port Moresby.

Supervisory assistance was also given in a diamond drilling programme carried out in connexion with an investigation of the Luluai copper bearing ore-body on Woodlark Island, Milne Bay District. Results so far have not indicated any deposits of economic value.

The Kulumadau gold mining area of Woodlark Island has been examined and a preliminary magnetic survey has yielded results requiring further investigation.

Assistance was given to Pacific Island Mines Limited who are carrying out extensive prospecting work on a gold bearing area on Misima Island, Milne Bay District. Costeaning work carried out by the company was mapped and recommendations were made for further work in the area.

Investigation of the possibilities of locating a marketable deposit of pumice on Fergusson Island is continuing.

The resident geological section has provided advisory services to government departments and to the public, particularly in the identification of rocks and minerals and in the location of groundwater supplies.

M in e r a l R e s o u r c e s.

The extent of mineral resources has not yet been fully explored and it is not possible to estimate the future duration.

VULCANOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES.

Volcanic centres with a potential for reactivation have been kept under surveillance by officers of Vulcanological Observatory, Rabaul. Investigations of reports of abnormal activity this year have been carried out at Mount Lamington, Mount Victory, Goropu Crater and Mount

Dayman. Routine observation work began at Mount Lamington in December, 1960, with the installation of two-component water-tube tiltmeters. This equipment has been installed in the instrument station at Agenahambo on the north-western slopes of the volcano. Preparations have been made for the construction of instrument blocks at Mount Victory, where evidence of anomalous seismic movements requires comprehensive investigation.

CHAPTER 7.—INDUSTRY.

The aim of the Administration is to promote secondary industries to the extent that they will be compatible with the progress of the economy of the Territory without dis­ rupting social conditions or introducing harmful elements.

Manufacturing industries at present consist mainly of those industries which are engaged in processing local materials to bring them to a marketable or exportable form. Examples are the preparation of rubber sheets, production of copra, fermenting and drying of cacao and coffee, and the processing of timber, including saw­

milling.

Industries other than those concerned with the initial processing of local raw materials include printing, boat­ building, furniture-making, brewing, baking and the manu­ facture of paints, twist tobacco, cordials, biscuits, and building materials including concrete bricks and pipes.

Such services as air and sea transport, building con­ struction, engineering and slipways which help to promote industrial expansion are being increasingly developed.

80

Details of postal articles handled and money orders issued and paid are contained in Appendix XV.

Carriage of Mails.—Surface mails are conveyed to and from Australia by ship at approximately weekly intervals. Some ships from eastern ports call at Port Moresby en route to Australia and provide a surface mail link addi­ tional to the regular Australia-New Guinea shipping ser­ vice provided by vessels of the Burns Philp Line and the New Guinea-Australia Line.

Surface mails are conveyed to and from Netherlands New Guinea by ships on the N.V. Koninklijke Paketvaart- Maatschappij Line. Exchanges are made approximately once in every three weeks.

Air mail services operate to and from Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne six times weekly. In addition there is a weekly service from Cairns and a fortnightly service from Townsville. These services, particulars of which are given in Appendix XV., are linked at Port Moresby with internal air services.

Weekly air mail exchanges between Port Moresby and Hong Kong were introduced on 7th April, 1959, and these connect with internal services to and beyond New Guinea. The frequency of exchange was increased to twice weekly on and from 29th March, 1960. Particulars of these services may be found in Appendix XV.

Within the Territory mails are conveyed principally by aircraft, but small ships and road transport are also used.

The Universal Postal Convention (Ottawa 1957) applies to the Territory.

A parcel mail exchange operates between the Territory and the United States of America. The arrangement for the exchange of uninsured parcels with Netherlands New Guinea, introduced on a trial basis for six months from

1st April, 1960, is now being placed on a permanent basis and the constitutional approval of the Netherlands Government was awaited at 30th June, 1961.

Postal Charges.—Internal surface rates of postage are prescribed from time to time. From 1st December, 1959, the rate for first-class mail matter was fixed at 5d. for the first ounce and 3d. for each additional ounce. Other rates apply to mail matter according to classification and weight.

Letter category articles and other categories of mail matter in letter form not exceeding ten inches in length, five inches in width, and three-sixteenths of an inch in thickness, are conveyed by air free of air mail fee to the post office nearest the office of delivery when such treatment ex­ pedites delivery of the articles. Business papers, printed papers, merchandise, newspapers, periodicals and books

the dimensions of which exceed those referred to above, if to be conveyed by air, may be accepted at letter rate, air parcel rate or the rate for the category to which they belong plus an air-mail fee of 3d. per ounce. The rate

applicable depends on the weight of the article. Parcels

posted within the Territory are conveyed by air free of sur­ charge if the weight of the article does not exceed one pound. Parcels weighing more than one pound, if conveyed by air, continue to be surcharged one shilling a pound after

the first pound. Parcels posted overseas, prepaid at surface rate of postage, and for delivery at territory destinations to which air carriage is the only means ol conveyance, are surcharged at the rate of ninepence a pound or portion thereof. All other classes of mail matter

received from overseas and mail matter posted within Papua for delivery in overseas countries are transported within the Territory by the first available shipping or air service.

Charges for private boxes range from £1 to £8 per annum according to the size of the box and the location of the post office. For private bags a basic rate of £1 10s. per annum applies but the rate is increased proportionately with the frequency of the service.

In accordance with the rules of the Universal Postal Union governing international postal services, literature for the blind is exempted from all postal charges.

New Issues of Postage Stamps.— A new issue of postage stamps in the denominations 5d., 8d., and 2s. 5d., depicting local industries was made throughout Papua and New Guinea on 10th November, 1960. The 5d. stamp is green in colour and pictures cacao pods on a branch. A view of the plymill at Bulolo is featured on the 8d. stamp which is blue in colour. A herd of poll Shorthorn cattle on the Baiyer River Livestock Station near Mount Hagen has been used for the design of the 2s. 5d. stamp. A

second new issue of postage stamps in the denominations 5d. and 2s. 3d. was made on 10th April, 1961, to com­ memorate the reconstitution of the Legislative Council. The same design, depicting a view of the Legislative Council Chambers, Port Moresby, was used for both stamps which were printed by photogravure process in two colours.

T e l e p h o n e a n d R a d i o T e l e p h o n e S e r v i c e s .

The internal telephone and radio telephone services are owned and operated by the Administration. All external telephone and radio telephone circuits are owned and operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission

of Australia.

Continuous telephone service is available at Port Moresby, Samarai and Sogeri. The total number of tele­ phones in use increased from 2,837 to 3,076 during the year. Details of services provided are shown in

Appendix XV.

Rentals for exclusive telephone services are as follows:— (a) Measured Rate Service.—Subscribers connected to, and within a radius of 25 miles of, an

82

Radio and Telephone Technicians.—The minimum edu­ cational qualification for admission to this course is Stan­ dard 9. The course is a five-year one, the first two years being spent full-time at the college and the remainder

mainly in the field. At 30th June, 1961, seven trainees from Papua were in training.

Communications Trainees.—This category includes tele­ graphists and teleprinter operators. The desirable entry qualification is Standard 9, although a minimum of Stan­ dard 7 has been accepted in some cases. The length of the course varies from three to four years, spent partly in the college and partly in the field. At 30th June, 1961,

there were four communications trainees from Papua.

Postal Trainees.— Clerical assistants (Auxiliary Divi­ sion) and postal officer assistants possessing Standard 9 or higher educational qualifications may undergo the Postal Assistant Training Long Course of three to four years’ duration. Training is given in all aspects of the operation and management of a post office. Approximately half of the course is devoted to training in the field and the re­ mainder to study at the college. Successful completion of the course will qualify trainees for advancement to the position of postal assistant. At 30th June, 1961, six trainees

were attending this course in Port Moresby.

Postal officer assistants with a qualification lower than Standard 9 receive on-the-job instruction, and selected persons attend a short term training course of eight weeks’ duration. Fourteen trainees have successfully completed this course.

Linemen.—Training has so far been limited mainly to providing sixteen weeks’ refresher courses for Administra­ tion servants, but when enough students at Standard 7 or above are available a lineman’s course of from two to three years, depending on the past experience and educational

standard of the trainees, will begin. At 30th June, 1961, nine linemen trainees from Papua were attending the college.

R a d i o B r o a d c a s t i n g S e r v i c e s .

Medium and short wave programmes are broadcast to Papua from the Australian Broadcasting Commission Stations 9PA and VLT6 at Port Moresby.

Radio receiving sets are not licenced in the Territory at the present time. The introduction of a system of licensing is still under consideration.

R o a d s .

Except for coastal shipping and a few inland waterways, road transport provides the only alternative to air trans­ port and substantial sums of money for roads and other basic services necessary for economic advancement will continue to be provided. Terrain and climate, however, make the construction and maintenance of roads extra­ ordinarily difficult.

The construction of major roads and bridges is carried out by the Commonwealth Department of Works and the Department of Public Works, contracts being let by these departments to private enterprise for road construction and maintenance.

Most roads are of improved earth construction with gravel, &c., in the weaker sections. Bituminous surfacing is used in the main towns, whilst in the coastal regions some roads have been well constructed with crushed coral. In some areas the indigenous people co-operate with the Administration in the construction of roads.

Major works undertaken in 1960-61 were the develop­ ment and extension of roads in and near Port Moresby; access roads in the Sangara area; the Oro Bay-Popondetta road in Northern District; the Kunimaipa-Tapini road in

Central District; and the Mendi-Mount Hagen road link­ ing the Southern and Western Highlands.

Bridgework was carried out on the Oro Bay-Popondetta Road in the Northern District and on bridges in the Southern Highlands District. Work was completed on the Kemp Welch River Bridge near Rigo.

In other areas roads and bridges received maintenance and attention to improve communications with and among the people.

Much of the road and bridge work undertaken during the year has resulted in improved roads and increased facilities in some of the less developed areas.

Expenditure on road and bridge maintenance and con­ struction during the year totalled £533,520. This figure does not include expenditure on roads laid down in timber logging operations under the provisions of the Forestry

Ordinance.

On 30th June, 1961, there were 1,763 miles of vehicular road in use. Of these 727 miles were suitable for heavy and medium traffic and 1,036 miles for light traffic only. Particulars of mileages of vehicular roads by district are

given in Table 15 of Appendix XV., and statistics of motor vehicle registrations and drivers’ licences are shown in Tables 16 and 17.

S e a b o r n e S h i p p i n g a n d I n l a n d W a t e r w a y s .

Regular services are maintained between the Territory and Australia by ships of the Burns Philp Line, and the New Guinea-Australia Line, which call at Port Moresby and Samarai with passengers and cargo. Two small ships of the Karlander (N.G.) Line leave Australia approxi­ mately monthly calling at Port Moresby with general cargo. Calls at Port Moresby are also made by vessels of the China Navigation Line on their south-bound voyages from Japan and Hong Kong to Australia. Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij Line ships operate a service from Singapore via Netherlands New Guinea ports to Port Moresby and return. Ships of the Austasia Line main­ tain a six-weekly cargo service from Australia calling at

8 6

W o r k s A c t i v i t y .

As stated in earlier reports, many buildings such as schools, hospital wards, market buildings and other struc­ tures directly beneficial to the indigenous people, are built by the people themselves, with the encouragement of Administration officers, in areas where a potential to

carry out permanent public works has not yet been estab­ lished. In such cases, labour and local materials are con­ tributed by the community concerned and the Administra­ tion assists with the provision of other essential materials

and by advice and supervision. In town areas, on the other hand, construction must in general conform with standard practices.

The following major school projects were begun during the course of the year:— P ercentage com pleted School. at 30th June, 1961.

P e r cent.

Post-primary Boys’ School, Kerema . . 75 Secondary School, Boroko, Stage 2 . . 10 Teachers’ Training College, Wards Strip, Stage 2 . . . . . . 20

Primary (A) School, Boroko . . 20

As part of the programme to step up educational advancement throughout the Territory additional primary (T) schools, teacher accommodation and ancillary buildings were completed in all districts.

CHAPTER 1.— GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

S o c i a l a n d R e l i g i o u s B a c k g r o u n d a n d C u s t o m s

o f t h e P a p u a n s .

The basic unit of social organization is the family. In many cases families form part of wider relationship groupings, such as clans, sub-clans and lineages. In general, cultural contact with European civilization has resulted in little fundamental alteration to the traditional social structure. Dependence on a subsistence economy,

with its limited range of individual wealth, is found in all except the most urban areas, and the Papuans have a strong love for their traditional tribal lands. Their ownership of these lands is strictly safeguarded and res­ pected by the Administration.

In normal village life there is work for all those capable of working. All who work share in the products, while Papuan custom makes provision for those who through age or infirmity cannot work. Field officers of the Depart­ ment of Native Affairs show the people how they may best utilize locally available materials and improve their methods of housing. Medical patrols of the Department of Public

Health give instruction in improved sanitation, preven­ tive medicine and disease-control techniques. Officers of both the Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, and the Department of Native Affairs demonstrate

Roadworks at the Papuan Medical College, Taurama, Port Moresby, which is estimated to cost £349,000, were begun. Design of the school is well in hand and tenders are scheduled to be called in 1961-62.

The item “ Other Buildings ” includes the Post and Telegraph Training School at Boroko, Port Moresby, and accommodation for Papuans in all districts.

P l a n n e d E x p e n d i t u r e 1961-1962.

Public works projects planned for 1961-62 include:— £

Residences, hostels and quarters . . . . 586,940

Offices . . ·. ·· ·â–  ·· 114,310

Hospitals and ancillary buildings . . . . 183,410

Schools and ancillary buildings . . . . 436,000

O ther buildings . . . . . . . . 479,790

R oads . . . . . · ■ ■ . . 291,250

W harves and beacons . . . . . . 8,000

Bridges .. . . . . . . . . 76,770

Aerodrom es . . . ■ . . . . 8,000

Hydro-electric development . . . . . . 473,650

Power houses . . .. . . . . 8,000

Electrical reticulation . . . . . . 71,350

W ater supply and sewerage . . . . . . 140,530

Grants-in-aid to missions and other voluntary organizations for construction work on tuber­ culosis hospitals, hansenide colonies and pre­ school play centres . . . . .. 26,090

2,904,090

CONDITIONS.

improved methods of agriculture to the people and encour­ age them to plant aditional crops to improve their diet, overcome nutritional deficiencies and provide a surplus for sale. Forestry officers show how best to utilize timber resources and encourage the practice of various forms of erosion control and reforestation. With increasing economic development more and more Papuans are enjoy­ ing improved living standards.

There are many variations in customs and practices. These are increasingly influenced by Christian mission teachings and European culture. The people are readily receptive to the evangelistic work of the missions and

the Christian way of life has been accepted by large sections of the population. In many cases, however, traditional magico-religious beliefs and practices persist, even in Christian communities.

N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s .

Apart from the various religious mission societies established in the Territory, which engage in work of a social nature, the following organizations engage in social activities:— ex-servicemen’s associations and sporting and

social clubs formed by the Papuan people; the Red Cross and Junior Red Cross, the Boy Scouts, Girl Guides and women’s clubs in which all sections of the community take an interest; and various associations, sporting bodies and

clubs formed by non-Papuans,

PART VII.— SOCIAL

90

Generally speaking polyandry is not practised among the Papuans. Polygyny is practised but to an ever- decreasing extent. The only satisfactory method of re­ ducing the incidence of polygyny is by a gradual and fully integrated system of social change so that polygyny, as a

preferred form of marriage, tends to disappear as the structure of society changes and livelihood, prestige and power are no longer based on the old norms. By this means monogamy will be established on a sound basis. An additional factor which necessitates care in dealing with this matter is the need to safeguard the rights of women who have entered into polygamous marriages and of the children of such marriages.

L eg al C a pa c ity.

Under the laws of the Territory women have equal rights with men. They can sue or be sued, may own or dispose of property, enter into contracts or practise any profession. A wife is not responsible for her husband’s

debts but a husband is liable for his wife’s debts.

In Papuan custom women’s legal capacity is varied to some extent by tribal requirements, but they may own and inherit various forms of property and in a number of places this includes land. They have the rights of access to the courts and of franchise in native local government council areas.

P u b l ic O f f ic e s

In general women have equal rights with men to hold public office, exercise public functions and exercise voting rights. Particulars regarding the latter are given in Chapter 4 of Part IV.

E m p l o y m e n t .

The Public Service of the Territory essentially makes no distinction between the sexes in appointments to the various classified positions, but certain positions, e.g., nursing, are traditionally reserved mainly for women. Opportunities for Papuan women to enter the service of the Administration are still largely limited by a lack of education and training, but the impact of accelerated teaching, nursing and infant and maternal welfare train­ ing can already be observed.

The only legal restrictions imposed on the employment of women are contained in the Native Employment Ordinance 1958-1960. the Native Womens Protection Ordinance 1951-1957, and the Mining Ordinance

1937-1959. Papuan laws and social customs in many centres place restrictions on the employment of women outside their tribal areas.

The minimum wage rates prescribed by the Native Employment Ordinance and the Administration Servants Ordinance are the same for both men and women.

O rg a n iza tio n fo r t h e A d v a n c e m e n t o f W o m e n .

The main agencies for advancement in the field of women’s activities have been the Administration and voluntary organizations, such as the Christian missions, the Red Cross and the Girl Guides, which are now taking an increasingly active part in this work.

Co-ordination between the Administration and the volun- tray organizations is achieved through a central advisory committee (made up of representatives of the Administra­ tion, the various agencies and the indigenous people),

which was set up in 1957 to stimulate the advancement of women and is assisted by district sub-committees consti­ tuted on similar lines. Through the medium of this consultative machinery a comprehensive programme of

education and advancement has been developed, the success of which is illustrated by the increase in the number of women’s organizations and training pro­ grammes and by the increasing participation of women

in various aspects of public life.

The Department of Native Affairs now has four female welfare officers stationed in the Territory, of whom two are in the Central District and one each in the Gulf and Milne Bay Districts. There are also four Papuan female assistants, all of whom are at present stationed in the Central District. These officers assist in the formation of

women’s clubs, organize training courses for club leaders and arrange for the supply of teaching aids. The welfare officers also visit female prisoners in corrective institutions, arrange programmes for women in urban housing settle­ ments and run sewing classes and sporting activities. The Senior Welfare and Development Officer from the Depart­ ment of Native Affairs headquarters visits districts in which welfare officers are not yet stationed.

The training courses include instruction and advice in preparing club programmes and the use of visual aids and give particular attention to the ways in which the whole family may be involved in club activities. The Department of Native Affairs provides funds for the payment of

demonstrators and instructors and supplies equipment where necessary. During the year courses involving nearly three hundred leaders were held at Kwikila, Kairuku, Abau,

Popondetta and Daru. The Women’s Interests Officer of the South Pacific Commission assisted with the course at Daru and also spent two weeks in the Milne Bay

District visiting women’s organizations. During the year a centre was opened at Ahioma in the Milne Bay District for the training of Papuan assistants.

Added impetus will be given to the efforts being made to raise the status of women by the recent appointment of two women members to the Legislative Council—Miss Alice Wedega, a Papuan, who has been very active in all matters connected with the advancement of women, especially in the

Milne Bay District of Papua, and Mrs. Roma Bates, a European, of Madang, who is a member of the Madang Sub-Committee for the Advancement of Native Women.

92

(ii) education of the indigenous people; (iii) promotion of an association between the non-indigenous and indigenous com­ munities favourable to the indigenes’

own advancement and good relations between the races; (iv) the association of both non-indigene and indigene in the development of the

resources of the Territory in order to sustain a high standard of living and improved services; (b) to protect the indigenous worker against unfair

treatment, damage to his health, or deteriora­ tion in his traditional standards; (c) to ensure that the employer and worker honour their obligations.

Pursuit of these aims involved continued Administration control of the recruitment of agreement labour and super­ vision of employment. These aims and the measures to implement them must continue to apply for some time to come to a large proportion of the people, mostly rural

workers, whose interests can best be served by the super­ vision of the Administration.

At the same time it has been necessary to make proper provision for the growing body of more highly skilled workers that has come into being as a result of various factors—the spread of education, the opening of technical schools, the inauguration of the apprenticeship system, the

employment of the better educated workers in various services and utilities in which they receive on-the-job training, and the general development of the economy. The Administration has introduced successive amendments to labour legislation affecting the various classes of skilled

and unskilled workers it employs. The general purpose of these amendments was to raise the standard of the indigenous employee, to give him improved conditions and improved wages and to introduce higher rewards for

higher skill. Provision has also been made for the entry of indigenes into the Territorial Public Service, either through the Auxiliary Division, which is a training division, or by direct appointment to the other divisions of the

Public Service on the basis of the same entry qualifications as those required of Europeans. Information on the Public Service is contained in Part IV, Chapter 5.

Other legislative measures relating to the wider employ­ ment field have dealt with apprenticeship, industrial safety, the minimum age for employment at sea, workers’ com­ pensation, the protection of indigenes entering into job contracts, and the establishment of a Native Employment

Board to inquire into and advise the Administrator on matters relating to employment and wages. In association with a number of these measures, the provisions of which

are described below under “ Labour Legislation ”, the Legislative Council in 1958 enacted a completely new Native Employment Ordinance one of the main effects of which, apart from the introduction of further improve­

ments in working conditions, was the recognition of a class of freely-engaged labour consisting of those indigenous workers who were capable to a large extent of protecting their own interests.

To keep pace with the changes occurring, a Department of Labour has been created to take over from the Depart­ ment of Native Affairs the function of administering labour legislation. While the new department will con­ tinue to exercise, in respect of the unsophisticated agree­ ment worker, the protective and supervisory functions

previously carried out by the Department of Native Affairs, the more advanced workers are being encouraged to act and think for themselves and to accept some responsibility in the process of determining the terms and conditions of their employment.

In the past two years, indigenous workers have shown an awakening interest in the formation of trade unions and in improving wages and employment conditions. Their interest has already taken the form of joining in collective negotiations with employers and concluding industrial agreements covering two main urban areas, while at 30th lune, 1961, negotiations in relation to a third

area were in progress. In the light of these and other recent developments, the aims of labour policy as expressed in 1956 have now been enlarged by the addition of the following principles:—

(a) to facilitate the growth of industrial organizations and to provide for their legal recognition; (b) to encourage good industrial relations; (c) to provide an orderly method for the determina­

tion of wages and terms of employment; (d) to assist in ensuring that the worker has stable employment and that industry has efficient

labour;

(e) to provide and encourage technical and vocational training directly related to the prospective market for labour; and (f) to ensure protection and compensation in respect

of all occupational hazards.

Legislation embodying these new aims of policy will shortly be introduced.

L a b o u r L e g is l a t io n .

The conditions of employment and welfare of indi­ genous workers in paid employment are governed by the Native Employment Ordinance 1958-1960, the Trans­ actions with Natives Ordinance 1958, the Workers' Com­

pensation Ordinance 1958-1960, the Native Emigration Restriction Ordinance 1955-1958, the Administration Servants Ordinance 1958-1960, the Mines and Works Regulation Ordinance 1935-1956, the Minimum Age

(Sea) Ordinance 1957-1958, the Native Apprenticeship Ordinance 1951-1960, the Industrial Safety (Temporary Provisions) Ordinance 1957, the Public Service (Auxiliary Division) Regulations and other civil service legislation such as the Police Force Ordinance and Regulations. The

first four of the above ordinances came into operation on 6th October, 1960, and the Administration Servants Ordinance on 1st December, 1960. (The Native Labour Ordinance 1950-1956 and the Transactions with Natives

Ordinance 1893-1952 were repealed by the Native Employment Ordinance and the Transactions with Natives Ordinance respectively.)

9 8

There are very tew undertakings which operate regu­ larly at night and such work is almost entirely restricted to loading and unloading ships, attending copra driers, operating telephones and radio services, and police and

hospital duties.

I n d u s t r ia l H o m e w o r k .

There is no industrial homework apart from the occupa­ tion of the indigenous people in some areas in local handicrafts.

I n d u s t r ia l Sa f e t y .

Provisions relating to industrial safety are included in the Explosives Ordinance 1928-1953, the Mines and Works Regulation Ordinance 1935-1956, the Electricity Supply Ordinance 1951, and the Industrial Safety ( Temporary Provisions) Ordinance 1957. The latter ordinance con­ tains general provisions relating to the safety of all workers except those engaged in mining, who are covered by the Mines and Works Regulation Ordinance.

A comprehensive draft law to provide appropriate indus­ trial safety, health and welfare measures for all workers came before the Legislative Council in June, 1961, and is being examined by the Council.

C o m p u l s o r y L a b o u r.

The Papua and New Guinea Act 1949-1960 prohibits forced labour except in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning Forced and Compulsory Labour. The Native Regulation Ordinance provides for

the compulsory planting and cultivation of food crops in an area which has been declared by the Administrator to be liable to a famine or deficiency in food supplies. Such work is excluded from the term “ forced or com­ pulsory labour ” by definition in Article 2 of International Labour Organization Convention No. 29—Forced Labour. It was not necessary to declare any area during the year. There are no other statutory provisions in respect of compulsory labour.

T r a in in g o f Sk il l e d and o t h e r W o r k e r s.

The technical training schools, both Administration and mission, as part of their functions prepare students for apprenticeship. Students who do not enter apprentice­ ship are given two additional years of trade training on completion of which they are qualified to take positions as improvers or trade assistants and engage in simple contract work for their communities. At 30th June, 1961, 272 students were attending technical training schools.

As indicated in the relevant chapters of this report, vocational training is provided by various Public Service departments, in particular, the Departments of Public Health, Native Affairs, Posts and Telegraphs, Customs and Marine, Forests, and Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries,

and on-the-job training is also carried out in private industry. The training of officers of the Public Service is described in Chapter 5 of Part IV.

Plans for the training ship on which Papuans will be given higher level training for service in coastal vessels are well advanced. On completion of the courses these trainees will be eligible to qualify by examination for a Coastal Master’s Certificate, a Coastal Officer’s Cer­ tificate or a Coastal Engineer’s Certificate.

Land has been acquired near Port Moresby for the establishment of an artisan training centre in ship repair trades and a school of nautical training. Meanwhile the training of seamen and engine-room operators at the

Nautical Training School, Hollandia, Netherlands New Guinea, is continuing. A group of trainees completed a ten months’ course in pre-sea training at the Hollandia School at the end of 1960 and joined the crews of Adminis­ tration and privately owned coastal ships in the Territory. A second group entered the School in April, 1961.

The Native Apprenticeship Ordinance 1951-1960 pro­ vides for apprenticeship in specific trades leading to the granting of trade certificates. Apprenticeship is controlled by an Apprenticeship Board consisting of seven members

of whom three are representatives of interests outside the Administration, and four are officers of the Administra­ tion. In addition, the board has a permanent executive officer. The apprenticeship scheme enables apprentices who complete their indentures and pass their final trade examinations to gain recognition as skilled tradesmen, and

industry benefits by the establishment of fixed standards. As the level of standards in primary education is raised, apprenticeship standards also will be raised. The appren­ ticeship system in operation is based on the same principles as those which have applied in Australian industry for many years.

The courses of training, which are defined by panels of experts in the various trades, include both theoretical and practical work and are designed to suit Territory conditions. All apprentices receive on-the-job training and additional training at the technical education centre, where they also continue their general education in English and arithmetic.

Trades provided for under the scheme are classified as either first class or second class. First class trades are those which have an equivalent in other countries and require a five-year period of training. Second class trades are those which are suited to Territory requirements but have no equivalent elsewhere, or in which a shorter period of training (four years) can give the level of com­ petence needed in the Territory.

The following trades, all of which except driver-mechanic and radio telegraphist, are first class trades, have so far been covered:— Bookbinder;

Carpenter and Joiner; Draughtsman; Driver—Mechanic; Fitter— Machinist;

Machinist—Wood;

104

The main activity is concentrated in the Milne Bay District. A post-operational survey is being conducted in the D ’Entrecasteaux Islands to determine the effectiveness of the control measures. Spraying operations are being carried out in the Misima Island area and by the end of June, 1961, an area of 1,560 square miles and approxi­ mately 29,000 people were, being protected in this district.

As a biological control, Tilapia have been released into swamps and lagoons carrying large numbers of mosquito larvae and in areas where spraying is not a practical pro­ position. This applies, in particular, to the great bodies

of water in the Western and Gulf Districts. These

experiments are continuing and at this early stage it is not possible to draw accurate conclusions as to the effects of this stocking.

A changeover from voluntary to paid spray men was made during the year. Health education activities con­ tinued to play a vital part in the campaign and were expanded during the year. The village aid post network

is being used effectively to obtain the co-operation and enthusiasm of the village people in all districts.

Departmental malaria control field supervisors under­ take an intensive eight weeks’ course of training at the Department’s Malaria Control School at Minj in the Western Highlands District, which also conducts courses of training for personnel engaged in the campaign.

Routine malaria control measures in the form of mechanical fogging, oiling and drainage were continued in urban areas. Malaria suppressives are issued free of charge to Papuans and to Administration personnel. The infant, child and maternal welfare services, aid posts and hospitals play a considerable part in distributing suppressives to the indigenous population.

Tuberculosis Control.— Mobile tuberculosis x-ray units conducted mass examinations in the Central, Gulf and Milne Bay Districts during the year. Arrangements were made to establish a central laboratory at Lae in the

Territory of New Guinea to handle all bacteriological examinations for tuberculosis patients in the Territory.

In-patient therapy was provided at Administration and mission hospitals including special tuberculosis hospitals at Gemo Island, Gesila, Kairuku and Embogo. Out-patient services were expanded during the year and now operate

in the Milne Bay, Gulf, Central and Western Districts. In addition to therapy these services provide a review service for patients discharged from treatment. Complete regional case history registers were established and are operating satisfactorily.

Arrangements have been made for a planned health education campaign in relation to tuberculosis and the improvement of housing. Two thoracic surgical units visited Port Moresby and operated on 25 patients from Papua, including one European.

Venereal Disease.—The incidence of this disease is very low. Treatment is available at all hospitals.

Hansen's Disease.—There are five hansenide colonies located as follows—

District. Colony.

Patients at 31st March, 1961.

Western District .. .. Balimo .. 53

Southern Highlands D istrict .. Tari .. 41

Southern Highlands District .. Mendi .. 27

Central D istrict .. .. Gemo .. 80

Milne Bay .. .. .. U buia .. 115

During the year 203 patients were admitted to these colonies, 176 were discharged and three patients died. In addition domiciliary treatment is available at all Administration and mission hospitals and aid posts and during the year 217 patients were treated at these institu­ tions.

The Hansen’s disease out-patient clinic at Orokolo (Gulf District) continued operations under the management of the London Missionary Society. The clinic services a group of villages where the disease is endemic and at the end of the year 161 patients were receiving treatment. The centre is being developed as a pilot project in field treatment and this scheme will be extended gradually to other similar areas.

Medical Research.—The Division of Medical Research is under the control of an Assistant Director and consoli­ dates and co-ordinates all aspects of medical research within the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. The results of research are applied in each Territory as appropriate.

Malaria surveillance is being carried out in the Wingei area of the Sepik District of New Guinea following resi­ dual spraying. In association with this a study is under way to determine the effect of the spraying on mortality in

the various age groups, on birth weights, growth rates, haemoglobin levels, and various clinical indices. With the assistance of workers in Australia and abroad, studies are being made of possible changes in serum protein patterns, haptoglobins and virus antibody patterns which may follow the anti-malarial spraying.

Research into filariasis is being continued by a medical research officer from the Sydney School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. This work includes surveys and assessment of control by the use of diethylcarbamezathine.

Research into neo-natal tetanus and an investigation into the efficiency of active immunization with tetanus toxoid of mothers in pregnancy is being continued.

The register of tumor cases being compiled by surgeons situated in the main centres, has yielded much important information particularly in regard to the advanced nature of some of the pathological conditions found.

Research is still being directed to the disease known as kuru. The Department of Public Health provides assist­ ance to research workers from the Adelaide University and

106

Local milk production is increasing and all dairy cows are tested for tuberculosis. Dairies are frequently in­ spected. There are two slaughterhouses situated outside Port Moresby and slaughtering is controlled by the De­ partment of Public Health in co-operation with the Division of Animal Industry of the Department of Agri­ culture, Stock and Fisheries.

Control of Pests Dangerous to Health.—Efficient pest eradication equipment is available at all main towns and at a number of smaller centres.

Rodent control is constantly exercised, the Department of Public Health employing trappers, encouraging trapping by others and giving free issues of rat poison.

Private pest exterminators usually attend to the spraying of dwellings for insect infestation but the Administration carries out spraying in some cases.

P r e v a l e n c e o f D is e a s e s.

Principal Diseases.—The principal diseases and con­ ditions for which patients were admitted to hospital during the year were malaria, pneumonia, gastro-enteritis and tuberculosis.

The pneumonias (coccal, bacterial and virus) cause more deaths than any other disease, in so far as a single cause can be given in almost universal cases of multiple infection. Morbidity from pneumonia is probably higher than reports

indicate, as many village people undoubtedly suffer relapses without notification being given or re-admission to hospital being sought.

Tuberculosis, while more common in the coastal areas than in the interior, is decreasing owing to modern methods of treatment including the use of B.C.G. vaccine, case-finding and thoracic surgery.

Principal Causes of Death.—The pattern recorded in hospitals has not altered substantially from that of the preceding year and pneumonia, malaria, gastro-enteritis and pulmonary tuberculosis were the chief causes of death.

Table 7 of Appendix XIX. sets out for the indigenous population during the period under review the incidence of principal diseases treated and the principal causes of death in Administration hospitals and important case mor­

tality rates in percentages.

Vital Statistics.—There are still no valid vital statistics available. Information being obtained by the increasing number of local government councils will in future years provide a basis for such statistics.

P r e v e n t iv e M e a su r e s.

Vaccination.— Stress is continually placed on preven­ tive medicine and all suitable vaccines are provided free of charge. Immunization against pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus is given to as many children as possible attending

Administration and mission maternal and child welfare clinics.

A large proportion of the population has received T.A.B. vaccine. Vaccination with the Salk vaccine has begun as part of a campaign against poliomyelitis and approximately 4,350 injections were given during the year.

Control of Infectious and Contagious Diseases.— Com­ pulsory notification of infectious diseases and the pre­ cautions to be taken against the spreading of diseases are prescribed principally in the Health Ordinance 1912-1960 and Health Regulations, the Pure Food Ordinance

1952-1957, the Quarantine Ordinance 1953 and Regula­ tions, and the Suppression of Hansen’s Disease Ordinance 1952-1953.

Quarantine.— Medical officers are stationed at each port of entry and quarantine procedures are applied to all overseas ships.

Full quarantine procedures are carried out on aircraft making international flights via the Territory.

M e d ic a l T r a in in g .

The Division of Medical Training of the Department of Public Health is responsible for the training of Admini­ stration medical staff within the Territory.

Assistant Medical Practitioners.—The Papuan Medical College, which is associated with the Port Moresby General Hospital, provides a course of training for assist­ ant medical practitioners, consisting of a preliminary

year and five years of further study along the lines estab­ lished at the Central Medical School, Suva. Eight male students from Papua progressed to the first year of studies after completing the preliminary year and are studying

chemistry, zoology, botany, physics and sociology. Five male and one female student are in the second year of the course and are studying anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, sociology and normal psychology. One

female and one male in the first year of the course in 1960 did not continue their studies.

Entrance to the first year of the course is limited to students who have passed the Queensland Junior Public Examination or its equivalent; other students must under­ take at least one year of preliminary training.

Nurses.— General nursing training is given at the Port Moresby General Hospital (Taurama). The course fol­ lows the Australian pattern and successful female students are designated territorial nurses.

At the 30th June, 1961, 48 males and 52 females, including eight female students from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, were in training.

In April, 1961, eight females and seven males from Papua graduated as territorial nurses and are now under­ going training for post-basic certificates in obstetrics and as medical assistants respectively.

Aid Post Orderlies.—The training of aid post orderlies -—male Papuans who staff the medical service at the village level—is one of the most important parts of the overall

A ssistant m ed ical p ra c titio n e rs in tra in in g a t the P a p u a n M ed ic a l C o lleg e.

108

N u t r i t i o n .

Most of the people live in rural areas and if a variety of local foods is eaten an adequate diet can be obtained. Usually, however, the protein intake is low.

The indigenous staple foods are yams, sweet potato, taro, banana, sago and tapioca. The main imported staple food eaten is brown or vitamin-enriched white rice. Wheatmeal is imported and used as a subsidiary food. Of the locally grown foods, yams and taro are the most nutritious. Sweet potato, especially the yellow orange varieties, is particularly high in vitamins. Tapioca, banana and sago have a low thiamin and protein content. For­

tunately, in areas where sago is eaten as the staple food, fish and green vegetables are also available. Tapioca is not a popular food and is eaten only when other foods are lacking. In areas where banana is the staple food a

variety of vegetables is also grown and forms part of the diet.

No part of the Territory is subject to famine although at times there may be local food shortages due to drought, local outbreaks of pests or disease, or miscalculation by the inhabitants as to the area to be planted as food gardens. Field officers of the Departments of Native Affairs, and Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries can usually anticipate food shortages and encourage the people to correct the position by establishing larger areas of garden.

Improvement of food resources is in the main carried out by the Division of Extension and Marketing of the Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, the activities of which are reported in Chapter 3 of Part VI. The increasing number of crops grown as a result of

Administration encouragement is overcoming local food shortages by spreading the risk of crop failure over a greater range of species and by widening the use of stor­ able cereals and pulses in what was formerly a root crop

economy.

The Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries is also promoting the development of fisheries and the intro­ duction of animal husbandry into the farming system to ensure a larger source of protein.

Better methods of fishing are also being taught and improved types of fishing gear are being supplied to the people. Experimental work on the introduction and breed­ ing of various species of fish in ponds has continued.

Pigs are being bred and distributed to the people to improve the strain of local stock.

When stores are within reach, imported foods such as bread, butter, fortified margarine, meat, rice, sugar, tea, milk, biscuits, soft drinks, &c., may be bought as a supple­ ment to local foods. In the larger centres such as Port Moresby and Samarai, people who do not have gardens

buy a large percentage of their food from local supplies at the markets. Bakeries are encouraged to use wholemeal flour.

A ration scale prescribed by the Native Employment Ordinance and Regulations provides for an adequate diet for workers. Except as indicated below it is compulsory for employees to be issued with this ration which allows

for local foods to be used when available; alternatively imported foods including brown rice, wheatmeal and meats are issued.

Outside areas covered by industrial agreements prescrib­ ing cash wages and in cases where officers of the Depart­ ment of Native Affairs are satisfied that an employee is competent to purchase adequate food or he has enough food from his own gardens, he is allowed to receive pay­

ment of cash in lieu of rations and to make his own pur­ chases. In urban areas where employees are employed under an urban wage agreement, rations are issued in

respect of the dependants of the employee only. Allow­ ance is made in the employee’s wages for the purchase of his individual foodstuffs.

Surveys have been carried out in several areas and, where it has been found necessary, advice has been given as to how nutrition can be improved.

Whenever possible attention is given to the diets of infants, children and expectant mothers, and parents are encouraged to grow food crops which are suitable for infants and children. Leaflets and posters with pictures and simple script on infant feeding have also been pub­ lished and distributed and a textbook on infant feeding and simple instructions for lectures and demonstrations have

been compiled for use in girls’ schools and women’s clubs and in the training of infant welfare workers.

N a r c o tic D r u g s.

Narcotic drugs are not manufactured or produced in the Territory or exported from the Territory. Importation is controlled by the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance 1952­ 1960. (Power to control the importation of dangerous drugs also exists under the Customs Ordinance, but in practice it is the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance that is used.) Labelling, distribution and sale are controlled under the Poisons and Dangerous Substances Ordinance 1952-1958*.

The Medical Ordinance 1952-1960 provides for the regis­ tration of pharmacists and the Pharmacy Ordinance 1952­ 1953 for the control of the practice of pharmacy.

The importation of dangerous drugs is not permitted without a licence from the Administrator. Adequate safe­ guards are prescribed for the receipt, storage and sale of these drugs and their use is strictly limited.

There is neither traffic in nor abuse of narcotic drugs and there are no known cases of addiction.

The following conventions relating to narcotics have been applied to the Territory:— International Opium Convention 1912; International Convention relating to Dangerous

Drugs, with Protocol 1925; and * S tatem ents in previous rep o rts th a t these aspects w ere controlled

u n d e r the D angerous D rugs O rdinance were incorrect.

110

T r a in in g and R e se a r c h.

Both practical and theoretical training in the building and associated trades is given at the technical schools and under the provisions of the Native Apprenticeship Scheme. Indigenous artisans employed by the Administration and the missions in the construction of hospitals, schools and other buildings, receive practical training on the job. Village communities wishing to erect buildings, using local or imported materials and local labour are advised by the Administration on the most suitable method of construc­ tion and design. The operation of co-operative societies

has further expanded the building activities of the indi­ genous people. Detainees at Bomana Corrective Institution are trained in the production and use of stabilised bricks.

Experiments with building materials and techniques are being continued. The aim of these experiments is to ascer­ tain what building materials can be manufactured cheaply from local resources, in particular by unskilled or semi­

skilled operators, and to develop simple construction pro­ cedures. Materials which have proved satisfactory include bricks and blocks of various types; pise and stabilized earth have also given good results. By using these materials and simplified methods of construction in part of its own

building programme, the Administration hopes to encour­ age others to follow suit.

A desire to improve their standards of housing is becom­ ing evident among the indigenous people as a result of economic progress and it is expected that they will make increasing use of the new building practices to replace their own.

CHAPTER 9.— PREVENTION OF CRIME AND TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS.

F ac to r s R e s p o n s ib l e fo r C r i m e .

Apart from sporadic tribal fighting in the areas which have not yet been brought under full Administration con­ trol, there are no special factors responsible for serious crime and the incidence of such crime continues to be low.

L eg isl a t io n .

The Corrective Institutions Ordinance 1957-1959 and Regulations provide for the administration of corrective institutions and for the education of persons under detention.

D e p a r t m e n t a l O r g a n iz a tio n.

The Controller of Corrective Institutions is responsible for the management of all institutions and all detainees are deemed to be in his custody. At 30th June, 1961, there were 37 corrective institutions and a staff of 40 European

male officers, 10 female and 250 male warders. (Under the Corrective Institutions Ordinance all warders must be indigenous.) Institutions are divided into three categories •—central, district and subsidiary. The central institution

is located at Bomana. District institutions are at Daru, Kerema, Mendi, Popondetta and Samarai and subsidiary institutions are at various suitable locations. Stage 1 of the reconstruction of the Daru Institution was completed

and final arrangements made for improved standards of accommodation at Samarai.

At the Bomana Institution, situated on the Laloki Rivei some twelve miles from Port Moresby, agriculture and animal husbandry are carried out on a large scale. Trade training is provided in brickmaking, bricklaying, welding,

milling, carpentry, tinsmithing, motor maintenance and the operation of heavy equipment. Playing fields, power and water reticulation, septic systems and hospital facilities are provided. Specialist medical attention is readily avail­ able. Four large buildings in brick have been undertaken to provide modern standards of accommodation for detainees, warders and their dependants.

Land has been set aside in the Northern District for institutional purposes and applications have been made also for land for the same purposes in the Central and Gulf Districts.

Four officers of the institution service have been appointed to Bomana. At subsidiary institutions where corrective institution officers are not available, members of the Department of Native Affairs are vested with the powers, duties and obligations of corrective institution

officers. As far as possible, officers are recruited from within the Public Service.

Members of the Royal Papua and New Guinea Con­ stabulary who previously undertook all prison duties are being progressively relieved of those responsibilities at a steady rate. All police have been relieved of prison duties at Bomana and postings have been made to district and

subsidiary institutions.

All officers and warders are given special training at Bomana for an initial period of three months in institution management and care of detainees, training, correction and rehabilitation. Officers and warders selected for service in

New Guinea undergo a further six months’ training at central institutions in that Territory. Officers and warders selected for service in Papua complete nine months’ train­ ing at Bomana. Subsequently officers and warders may

serve in either Territory as required.

C l a ssific a t io n o f D e t a in e e s.

Detainees are committed to the institution nearest the place where sentence was imposed, but those serving a long-term sentence may be transferred to a central insti­ tution for more effective supervision, training and specialist

medical treatment. Detainees may also be transferred before release to the institutions nearest to their homes to help them re-establish their family relationships and assist them in their rehabilitation. (Under the Removal of Prisoners ( Territories) Act 1923-1957 Europeans sen­

tenced to imprisonment for a term of more than six months are transferred to a prison in Australia and dis­ charged from prison there on completion of their sentence.)

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Remissions.— Male detainees serving a sentence of more than three months are eligible for a remission of eight days a month while females serving a sentence of more than one month are eligible for a remission of ten days a month. Detainees serving a life sentence have their sen­ tences reviewed at the end of twelve years after conviction. Another review is made three years later when the detainee

may be released.

Training, A menities and Rehabilitation.

Training is given in technical trades such as motor maintenance, plumbing and tinsmithing, carpentry, brick­ making, bricklaying, building and sawmilling, in the opera­ tion of heavy equipment and in agriculture, animal hus­ bandry and forestry. Training is given at Bomana in

brickmaking, plumbing, woodworking and joinery. Special funds are provided to buy equipment and training materials and close liaison is maintained with the Departments of

Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Public Works, Forests and Education. Formal education is at present given only to juvenile offenders. These departments examine detainees who have become proficient in various pursuits. Training records are maintained for long-term detainees. The question of formal education for selected adult detainees is under examination.

Recreations include football, cricket, basketball, base­ ball and handicrafts. Detainees may buy or be given books, magazines, religious literature and additional toilet and stationery items. They may also correspond with relatives and friends at frequent intervals. Motion pic­ tures and the supply of suitable library books for the main institutions are arranged through the Division of Exten­ sion Services.

On discharge, indigenous detainees usually return to their villages. Sustenance is provided for the journey and land, sea or air transport is provided free if the discharged person elects to return to his village within a month of his release.

Both the Corrective Institutions Branch and the Depart­ ment of Native Affairs assist in finding employment for discharged persons. The Department of Native Affairs investigates any problems discharged persons may have,

arranges continued medical treatment, if this should be necessary, and provides general after-care and assistance.

J uvenile D elinquency.

The number of juvenile offenders sentenced to imprison­ ment in the Territory is very small. Any detainee known or believed to be under eighteen years of age is classified as a juvenile offender and is segregated from adult detainees. Special steps are taken to ensure that such segregation does not amount to solitary confinement and,

under the Corrective Institutions Regulations, arrange­ ments are made through the Department of Education for the removal of juvenile offenders from a corrective institu­ tion to a school or other establishment for training and education.

The Child Welfare Ordinance has been passed by the Legislative Council, and on coming into force, will establish new and separate procedures for dealing with juvenile offenders. Only in exceptional circumstances will

juvenile offenders come within the jurisdiction of the Controller of Corrective Institutions.

PART VIII.— EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT.

CHAPTER 1.— GENERAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.

L egislation.

The education system of the Territory is governed by the Education Ordinance 1952-1957 and Education Regu­ lations, the basic provision of which is that the control and direction of secular education in the Territory are the

responsibility of the Administration. The Native Appren­ ticeship Ordinance 1951-1955 regulates apprenticeship training and examinations. The Education Ordinance provides for the following:—

(1) the establishment by the Administrator of schools, pre-school centres and other educational activities;

(2) compulsory registration, recognition, or exemp­ tion of all schools conducted by educational agencies other than the Administration;

(3) grants to be made by the Administration to mis­ sions and other educational agencies; (4) the conduct of schools by native authorities sub­ ject to the approval of the Director of Educa­

tion;

(5) the declaration of compulsory attendance of chil­ dren at schools in specified areas; (6) the determination of the language or languages to be used in schools;

(7) the establishment of an education advisory board to advise on educational matters and consist­ ing of the Director of Education, four mem­ bers appointed by the Administrator to repre­ sent the missions and other voluntary educa­ tional agencies in the Territory, and such other members, not exceeding four, as the Adminis­ trator appoints; and (8) the appointment of district education committees

of not more than five members including at least one mission representative.

G eneral P olicy.

The broad objectives of educational policy include the following:— (a) the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of the Territory;

(b) a blending of cultures; and

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District education officers are responsible for the local administration and supervision of educational activities in the six districts of the Territory and have considerable autonomy in adapting the syllabi to the needs of the people in the various parts of their districts. They are also given considerable freedom in the placing of staff within the district. A conference of district education officers and inspectors together with headquarters staff, is

held in Port Moresby each year, and provides an

opportunity for the discussion of all aspects of education. Both administrative and professional topics are discussed and the Director is kept in touch with his field staff and the field staff have a direct contact with head-quarters.

District education committees appointed by the Admini­ strator under the Education Ordinance and consisting of not more than five members (one of whom must be a mission representative) have been established in the Central and Milne Bay Districts. Papuan observers have

been appointed to attend meetings of the committees and take part in the discussions.

The Education Advisory Board, whi a consists of the Director of Education, other departmental officers, and representatives of the missions, meets at least twice a year. It discusses and advises the Administrator on all aspects of educational policy and provides a useful means of co-operation between the Administration and the mis­ sions in the solution of education problems. The first indigenous member of the Board, Mr. Boski Tom, of New Ireland, was appointed in 1960 as an Administration representative. Mr. Boski Tom, a teacher, has been an officer of the Auxiliary Division since 1957 and is also a member of the New Ireland District Advisory Council in the Territory of New Guinea. Meetings of the Board are usually attended by native observers.

Apart from the Education Advisory Board, liaison between the department and the missions is maintained through the Executive Officer for Mission Relations and the headquarters staff of the department, and also through meetings of the district education committees. The prin­ cipal missions have appointed liaison officers to keep in

touch with the department and with district education officers.

I n spe ctio n of Schools.

Schools are inspected regularly to maintain and improve their standards; to raise the professional standards of teachers; and in the case of mission schools to establish whether the conditions for registration and recognition exist.

There are three regional inspectors of schools. They are assisted by the district education officers who carry out inspections of schools of lower academic level, both Administration and mission, within their districts. The work of the inspectors and district education officers is supplemented by that of area education officers who are

responsible for the in-service training of all indigenous teachers and for conducting refresher courses, seminars, and conferences in association with Administration and mission teacher training officers and teachers.

In 1960 an additional inspector, the Inspector of Girls’ Schools, who is based in Rabaul, was appointed.

P lans and P rogra m m es.

The immediate programme of educational development includes the following:—

(1) concentration on the development of a primary school system in which all children living in controlled areas will learn to read and write English; (2) guidance and assistance to the missions to

improve the efficiency of their schools up to the point where their standards are acceptable to the department; (3) recruitment and training of teachers; (4) increases in supervisory staff; (5) development of manual training at all levels and the provision of technical training at special schools to meet the growing needs of the people; (6) provision of secondary education for all those who are capable of profiting by it; (7) stimulation of interest in education among girls and women; (8) identification of all aspects of education with community interest and the correlation of elementary training in agricultural science with general education at all stages; (9) increased use of such media as films, radio and local newspapers; and (10) provision of tutorial classes and correspondence

tuition for members of the Auxiliary Division of the Public Service seeking higher academic qualifications and for Administration servants seeking admission to the Auxiliary Division.

Progress continued during the year along the lines of the plan approved in 1958-59 to establish universal primary education by an expanded programme of teacher training, including in-service training, and by continuous

efforts on the part of inspectorial and supervisory staff to promote the efficiency of all schools whether Administra­ tion or mission. Plans to recruit and accommodate greatly increased numbers of expatriate teachers and to train them in the Territory are being put into effect. One aim of these plans, which envisage the annual recruit­ ment of an additional 200 expatriate teachers, is to enable promising indigenous students, who might otherwise be diverted to Course “ A” teacher training to proceed with their general education and ultimately to a higher level

116

In the field of adult education, the number of women’s clubs increased from 97 to 156. Libraries are maintained by the Division of Extension Services to meet the needs of the indigenous people for reading material.

At 30th June, 1961, 913 students throughout the Terri­ tory were receiving either direct day and evening class tuition or studying by correspondence with the Pre-Entry and Auxiliary Training Branch of the Department of Education. Of these 198 were taking studies at the secondary level and 715 at post-primary level.

N o n -G o v e r n m e n t S c h o o l s.

All non-governmental schools in the Territory are con­ ducted by missions, which play an important part in the education system. In particular they are responsible for most of the elementary village education. Many mis­

sionaries have spent long periods in the Territory and have a detailed knowledge of the educational needs of particular areas. Under the Education Ordinance all non-government

schools, except religious institutions engaged exclusively in training religious personnel, are required to be registered, recognized or exempted by the Director of Education. A

registered school is one which complies in every way with the requirements of the ordinance; a recognized school is one which has reached a satisfactory standard but has not yet complied fully with the requirements of the ordinance; schools not coming within either of these categories may be granted an exemption on such conditions and for such

period of time as the Director of Education thinks appro­ priate. The purpose of this classification is to enable many schools at present below the level required for recognition under the ordinance to continue operations and thus to

make some contribution towards the education of the indi­ genous population until better schools can be provided for them. Many of the exempt schools are in primitive areas. The agency in charge of an exempt school, how­

ever, is under an obligation to raise the standard of the school as soon as possible. The Education Ordinance prescribes that schools for

which registration or recognition is sought must comply with certain standards regarding the constitution of the controlling authority of the school, the management of the school, the suitability of school buildings, the number and

qualifications of the teachers, the suitability of the curri­ culum and the quality of the teaching. This control also ensures that there is a co-ordinated approach in providing for the educational needs of an area.

The inspection of all mission schools which have applied for registration or recognition was begun in 1956-57 and has continued ever since. Mission authorities have made considerable efforts to comply with the requirements of the

Education Ordinance and this has resulted in increased efficiency. To assist the missions in their educational work the Administration applies a system of financial grants-in-aid based on the professional qualifications of teachers. In addition to the assistance provided in respect of fully quali­ fied teachers a grant of £30 is paid for the maintenance

during his training year of each indigenous teacher- trainee who has passed the departmental entrance examination. Administration trainees sit for the same

examinations and successful candidates are awarded teachers’ certificates enabling them to qualify for registra­ tion and to teach in either mission or Administration schools.

Non-indigenous teachers in mission schools must submit acceptable diplomas and certificates before registration is granted. In some cases proof of proficiency in English is also required. Special qualifying courses were estab­ lished in previous years to assist missionaries with long experience but no formal teaching qualifications, and the

final course of this nature was given at the end of 1960. As from 1961 all teachers must either hold suitable pro­ fessional qualifications or enrol for the “ E ” Course train­ ing. Provision is made for up to ten teachers to be

nominated by missions in each course for this latter training.

The system of educational grants-in-aid for missions, which operates in the case of schools following the Admini­ stration syllabus or other approved equivalent syllabus, was extended during the year to cover part-time teachers and teachers engaged in approved educational supervisory or administrative duties, and to provide assistance in respect of students enrolled in Standard 7 or Standard 8 in

approved post-primary schools and payment of travelling allowance in certain cases for supervisory teachers. The following assistance is provided:— (i) £400 per annum for each registered European

teacher engaged full-time in teaching or approved educational supervisory or admini­ strative duties, and assistance on a pro rata basis in respect of such part-time teachers; (ii) £120 per annum for each indigenous teacher

holding the “ C ” Class Teacher’s Certificate. (iii) £100 per annum for each indigenous teacher holding the “ B ” Class Teacher’s Certificate. (iv) £80 per annum for each indigenous teacher

holding the “ A ” Class Teacher’s Certificate. (v) £30 per annum maintenance allowance for each student undertaking the one-year teacher­ training course. (vi) £20* for each technical student undertaking a

full-time technical training course, such assistance being provided for a maximum period of three years beyond Standard 6. (vii) £20 per annum for each student enrolled in

Standard 7 or Standard 8 in approved post­ primary schools. (viii) A travelling allowance of 12s. 6d. per day for each supervisory teacher for each day spent

on supervisory duties in schools away from the home school, paid only where a grant-in­ aid under (i) is not made. (ix) Provision of adequate classroom materials to

permit the efficient conduct of schools regularly staffed by teachers under (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) above. * Incorrectly stated as £30 in the 1959-60 report.

118

C o m pu lso ry E ducation.

The Education Ordinance 1952-1957 provides that attendance at schools may be declared compulsory in certain areas, but no such action has been taken yet. A pilot project was begun in 1959 at Yule Island, in the Central District, where there are enough schools to cater for all children. The project is continuing, with great success, and the scheme will be extended to other areas as conditions continue to improve. As in the past, the enthusiasm of the indigenous people continues to be such that no compulsion is required to induce children to attend school.

School F e e s.

Education is free at all stages of instruction.

G ir ls’ E ducation.

It has been difficult to persuade the native people to move from their traditionally conservative attitude towards the educational advancement of women and girls, but prejudice is gradually breaking down as indigenous women fill more and more positions as teachers

and nurses, shop assistants and typists and otherwise take a more prominent part in social life. Boys and girls at primary level follow the same syllabus except that from Standard 1 onwards the girls may be taught sewing and in Standards 5 and 6, domestic science. At 30th June,

1961, the total enrolment of Papuan girls in Adminis­ tration schools was 3,637, an increase of 1,403 over the enrolment at the 30th June, 1960. At the same date there were 20,078 Papuan girls attending mission schools,

ncluded in the mission schools total were 85 girls receiving post-primary instruction, of whom 23 were studying for teaching qualifications.

Both the Administration and the missions conduct post- prs nary girls’ schools which provide courses in domestic science, mothercraft, laundry work and sewing, in addi­ tion to general school subjects. There are two Adminis­

tration girls’ schools, one at Kerema, Gulf District, and the other at Port Moresby, with classes up to and including post-primary level.

The Department of Education has prepared and dis­ tributed syllabi for home economics for Standards 5-9 and for sewing up to Standard 9, and a new syllabus for domestic science including midwifery is in the course of preparation.

Girls have won some of the scholarships for study in Australia and six Papuan girls are at present attending Port Moresby High School. Women with the prescribed qualifications are eligible for admission to the Public Service.

Scholarships and A llo w a n c es.

The Administration assists parents to send their child­ ren to secondary schools in Australia. An allowance of £145 per annum plus annual return fare is made in respect of non-indigenous children. Through a special scholarship scheme selected mixed-race children receive, in addition, up to £200 per annum subject to a means te s t.

The Administration scholarship scheme for indigenous children provides selected pupils with the full cost of education in Australian schools including board, tuition, fares, clothing, equipment and incidental expenses.

The system of scholarships and allowances was intro­ duced in 1954 when secondary education was not pro­ vided in the Territory. The availability of secondary education in the Territory has affected the flow to Aus­ tralian secondary schools having regard to the overall increase in numbers of students.

The following table shows the number of children receiving educational assistance for secondary schooling in Australia at 30th June, 1960, and 1961:—

— 1960. 1961.

E uropean . . .. .. . . 313 359

Papuan .. .. .. .. 43 43

Mixed-race . . .. .. .. 42 50

398 452

Boys . . . . . . . . 222 243

Girls . . . . . . . . 176 209

398 452

Thirteen European children are studying under privately endowed scholarships valued at £50 per annum each.

Guidance officers of the Department of Education visit Australian schools and advise Territory students, paying special attention to Papuan students. Secondary school­ ing is discussed in more detail in Chapter 3 of this Part.

S chool B u ilding s.

The native people have continued to give material help in the construction of school buildings, especially class­ rooms and residences for Papuan teachers. Their work is assisted by the grant of funds by the Administration to cover procurement of materials not generally avail­ able from local resources. In some areas local govern­ ment councils are constructing permanent buildings with assistance from the Administration in the form of super­ vision of construction and often provision of skilled labour. Where the native people assume responsibility for the provision of educational establishments, the Department of Education supplies teachers and equipment free of cost, and fully operates the school.

In 1960-61, the school building programme consisted of two sections— a programme of major works undertaken by construction companies, and a more extensive pro­ gramme of low-cost buildings. The former included construction of facilities for technical students at Idubada, Port Moresby, for the secondary school at Sogeri and the Port Moresby High School, for post­

primary schools at Kila Kila and Kerema and for the

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CHAPTER 2.— PRIMARY EDUCATION.

Str u c tu r e and Organization.

As mentioned in Chapter 1 of this Part, primary

schools fall into two main groups—primary (T) and primary (A)— which are distinguished by the curricula they follow. The former group follows a syllabus specially designed for Papuan pupils while the latter follows an Australian syllabus. The two curricula reach a common point at Standard 7. Papuan pupils who have a competent grasp of English and are considered on general grounds to be capable of competing on reasonably equal te. ms with non-Papuan pupils may attend primary (A) schools and twenty-one (sixteen male and five female) are at present doing so.

The Administration assists non-Papuan children in isolated parts of the Territory, where schooling facilities are not available, to undertake correspondence courses of instruction with the departments of education of the several Australian states, and 255 children at secondary and primary levels are being catered for in this way.

The development of the Papuan people requires differential treatment of the following groups:— (a) children in urbanized areas; (b) children in areas of frequent contact with

Europeans;

(c) children in areas of limited contact; and (d) children in areas of minimum contact.

The syllabus for primary (T) schools in the first group approximates to that of the primary (A) schools and the object is eventual integration of the two types.

In the other groups, a varying degree of local adaptation is introduced based on the level of sophistication of the people and the need and opportunity for the use of English. Even in areas of minimum contact where the use of Melanesian Pidgin or the local vernacular as a medium of instruction is permitted, the teaching of oral English is insisted upon and a very simple syllabus in oral English has been prepared specifically for use in these schools.

Policy.

The basic policy in the field of primary education for the Papuan people is to provide them with an education which is closely related to their lives and which will pre­ pare them for the changes resulting from European contact.

Emphasis is placed on literacy in English with the object of making this the universal language in the Territory. Basic technical, manual and agricultural skills are taught in relation to school environment in order to assist students to adapt themselves to changing conditions and

to raise their living standards. The agricultural skills taught stress possible variety and improvement in sub­ sistence and commercial cropping. At the same time emphasis is placed on the best elements of Papuan culture, particularly through music, art, handicrafts, dancing, social studies and sports.

C u r r ic u l u m .

English is the language of instruction in all Adminis­ tration schools, although in a few cases Papuan languages may be used in the lower grades as an introductory medium concurrently with the teaching of oral English, provided they are wholly replaced by English at the end of Standard 2. In some mission schools literacy in the

vernacular has been an objective, but all registered and recognized schools also teach English with the object of securing sufficient fluency to enable it to be used solely in Standard 3. There has been a noticeable trend in mission schools towards teaching English at the outset by the direct method even in the preparatory grade. The syllabus provides for English to be the medium of instruction in Standard 3 and subsequent standards so

that all indigenous students will be fluent in English by the end of Standard 6.

The curriculum is designed to fit a Papuan child for life in a rapidly changing society— a society in which technical innovation and social changes are going hand in hand. The core of the curriculum is training in the basic skills of communication and mathematics. Considerable

attention is given to the provision of a wide range of experience of the modern world and its social institutions. The curriculum includes gardening, nature study, manual arts, art and music. In each of these the syllabus lays stress on retaining the best of the present Papuan achieve­ ment while at the same time introducing new aspects.

In 1960 a Syllabus Revision Committee was constituted to draft a new syllabus for primary (T) schools. In 1961 the new syllabus is being used in certain selected schools as an experiment and it has been forwarded to curriculum research organizations and other interested persons both within and without the Territory. It will be further reviewed by the committee at the end of the 1961 academic year and it is expected that the revision will be approved for use in schools in 1962. All matters affecting courses of study in primary schools are now referred to the com­ mittee and it is at present investigating the recommenda­ tions made in the Pitman Report on the Teaching of English and the inclusion of temperance instruction in the ethics and morals syllabus.

Primary (A) schools follow the curriculum laid down by the New South Wales Department of Education for such schools.

M ethods o f T eaching E nglish to P apuans.

The experience of the Department of Education in teaching English to Papuan pupils over a period of years has established certain firm conclusions regarding teaching techniques. There is a consensus of opinion among world authorities that literacy in the vernacular should precede literacy in a metropolitan language. Many mission schools in Papua have followed this practice, which is feasible when the work of the mission is con­ centrated in one linguistic area.

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In areas where there are no councils, village com­ munities have also assisted in establishing and maintaining new schools. In many cases where there is a lack of departmental finance, or materials, or of skilled craftsmen to execute the building, the village people build the school with local materials, to be replaced by permanent build­ ings as soon as the obstacles mentioned can be overcome. Councils and village communities also assist in providing

additions to existing schools. In some primary (T) schools, regularly constituted parents and citizens’ associations have been formed with the same constitution and generally the same body of

rules as those drawn up for similar organizations associated with primary (A) schools. These organizations present the opinions and views of the parent body to the staff of the schools and to the Department of Education, and raise funds for the purchase of items of school equipment that are not normally supplied to the school by the department. For such purchases a pound for pound subsidy is paid by the Administration. In other schools with less sophis­ ticated communities the department encourages the forma­ tion of school councils which function in the same way

as the parents and citizens’ associations but without a formal constitution.

CHAPTER 3.—POST-PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

P olicy.

Post-primary, secondary and higher education will be made available to all students who qualify by satisfactorily completing their primary education and who possess a good knowledge of the English language. The secondary education objective is to be achieved by using the facilities

available in both the Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia. In the section Basis of Establishment of Schools in Chapter 1 it was noted that post-primary education in the Territory is available through post-primary and secondary schools and also at technical training centres which follow the post-primary general syllabus. Post-primary schools provide three years of education beginning at Standard 7 and finishing at Standard 9 with a Territory­ wide examination which is acceptable for entry to the

Auxiliary Division of the Public Service. Secondary schools at present have two streams of instruction— one in the purely Papuan boarding schools leading to the Queensland public examinations; the other in integrated non-residential high schools leading to the New South

Wales public examinations. The trend is to integrate all secondary education and follow a syllabus leading to the New South Wales public examinations. The secondary schools give instruction to students who have successfully

completed the primary (A) school course, and to selected students who have completed Standard 7 of the post­ primary school course. Details are given in Chapter 1 of the education allowances and scholarships which assist children to attend secondary schools in Australia.

Papuan education beyond primary level continues to expand steadily.

The following tables show the numbers of pupils receiving post-primary and secondary schooling at 30th June, 1961:— Post-primary.

Papuan.

Total.

Male. Female.

Standards 7, 8, 9 .. .. 576 159 735

Secondary.

Asian. European. Mixed- race. In­ digenous.

Total.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Male.

l Female.

(a) In Australia .. 194 165 18 32 31 12 452

(b) In Papua .. 34 43 257 6 340

Total .. 228 208 18 32 288 18 792

Additionally 913 indigenous students are receiving tuition through the Pre-entry and Auxiliary Training Branch, 715 students being enrolled for the courses in post-primary subjects and 198 in secondary subjects.

Cu r r ic u l u m .

The post-primary and secondary schools do not provide vocational training but the courses are designed to enable students to undertake subsequent courses of training which will fit them for various types of employment.

A system of vocational guidance has been established with headquarters at Port Moresby. Officers of this section visit post-primary and secondary schools to give aptitude tests and advise pupils regarding their choice of

career. Students at technical training centres follow the post­ primary schools general syllabus with the addition of specialized training in the various trades.

A ttend ance at Schools Beyond P rimary L e v e l.

Attendance at these schools is good. Students reaching the entrance standard are keen to continue their education.

CHAPTER 4 —INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

There are no universities in the Territory and some years must elapse before their existence can be justified. Qualified students has access to universities in Australia, and numbers of students from the Territory are enrolled for various courses. The Public Service Institute arranges

tutorial classes in various centres in a number of subjects to enable residents to undertake matriculation and university studies.

F a c in g p a g e 125.]

A dult e d u ca tio n g roup receiving in s tru c tio n in fu rn itu re m a k in g .

128

L an gu ag es.

As explained in Part I. of this report the linguistic pattern of the Territory is extremely varied. There are approxi­ mately 165 languages, many of which, however, are inter­ related; less than twenty are used for educational purposes.

Most of these languages have only a limited vocabulary and as media of education have little practical value. Even those that have been reduced to writing are largely lacking in words essential to modern technology, though

they are quite rich in folklore and traditional tales. Their conversion to educational purposes is limited to simple grammars and readers.

English has been adopted by the Administration as the universal medium of education and communication, assisted in more remote areas by the use of Police

Motu. Administration schools do not teach reading and writing in the vernacular languages as a rule, though they are sometimes used for explanatory purposes in the early stages of teaching English. The Administration does

not publish school books in the vernacular or trade languages.

Most mission schools teach literacy in a vernacular language, before beginning the study of reading and writing in English. This procedure is approved by the Department of Education, subject to two conditions—

(a) that simple oral English be taught concurrently with literacy in the vernacular or a trade language; (b) that the vernacular used should be the children’s

own mother tongue and not an indigenous language foreign to the locality.

To assist mission schools to achieve the first of these conditions the L, M. Syllabus of Oral English was pro­ duced and published in 1959 by officers of the Education Department. This syllabus contains a programme of

simple conversational English suitable and sufficient for children at an elementary level of education and should ensure uniformity of standards in mission schools.

The Summer Institute of Linguistics has carried out investigations of the language patterns in areas designated by the Administration. The Institute has conducted short courses for Administration officers in the technique

of learning indigenous languages. A number of officers from various departments, including education officers, were seconded to attend these courses, and were posted to selected areas where local languages will be used as

preliminary media of communication and instruction.

S u p p l y o f L it e r a t u r e .

The library service referred to in Chapter 1 of this Part, together with the various news sheets and other reading material published by the Administration and the missions, provides the main source of literature for the population.

P u b l ic L ib r a r ie s.

In addition to the facilities referred to in the previous paragraph, public libraries are established at Port Moresby and Samarai. These libraries which have a total stock of 21,000 books and 3,600 registered readers operate a lending

service to country readers.

T h e a t r e s a n d C in e m a s .

There are no legitimate theatres in the Territory but amateur dramatic societies frequently stage performances.

Commercial cinemas operate in the Territory and are attended by all sections of the public.

The Administration film service is described in Chapter 7. Privately owned projectors are used by missions, company organizations and individuals for the education and entertainment of all sections of the local population.

1 3 0

STATISTICAL SUMMARY.

APPENDIX I.—POPULATION.

— 1956-57. 1957-58. 1958-59. 1959-60. 1960-61.

Papuan population— Enumerated .. .. .. .. 309,896 334,395 366,691 410,478 446,308

Estimated .. .. . .. .. 149,500 144,200 104,200 83,040 67,340

Total .. .. . .. .. 459,396 478,595 470,891 493,518 513,648

Non-Papuan population— European .. .. .. .. .. 7,071 7,518 7,801 (a) 00

Non-European .. .. .. .. 1,051 1,037 997 (a) 00

Total .. .. .. .. .. 8,122 8,555 8,798 9,885 9,794

(Tables 1 and 2, pages 136 and 138)

( a ) N o t available.

APPENDIX II.—ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT.

— 1956-57. 1957-58. 1958-59. 1959-60. 1960-61.

Total Public Service staff in Papua .. ..

(Table 1, page 141)

531 715 823 1,083 1,449

Village officials (Papuan) .. .. ..

(Table 8, page 176) Native local government councils—

6,327 6,213 5,963 5,632 6,055

Number of councils .. .. .. .. 6 9 10 16 16

Number of councillors .. .. .. 159 259 310 420 443

Population in council areas .. .. ..

(Table 9, page 177) Department of Native Affairs—

24,095 55,279 67,889 97,452 103,297

Number of patrols .. .. .. .. 152 145 198 224 315

Number of patrol days .. .. ..

(Table 5, page 175)

3,478 3,052 4,222 5,221 6,465

Square Miles. Square Miles. Square Miles. Square Miles. Square Miles.

Area under Administration control .. .. 69,500 69,980 70,980 75,340 00

Area under Administration influence .. .. 10,596 11,100 10,100 8,180 00

Area under partial Administration influence .. 7,992 7,700 7,700 5,830 00

Area penetrated by patrols .. .. .. 2,452 1,760 1,760 1,190 00

Unrestricted areas .. .. .. .. 88,254

Restricted areas .. .. . . ..

(Table 6, page 176)

5,380 4,760 4,760 4,760 2,286

(a) This classification has been abandoned and the terms “ restricted ” and “ unrestricted areas ” adopted.

1 8 0

APPENDIX II.—continued.

14. E xecutive a n d A dvisory O r g a n iza tio n s at 30th J u n e, 1961.

Name. Statutory or other Basis of Establishment. Functions. Composition.

Medical Board .. Medical Ordinance 1952­ 1957 Registration of medical and dental practitioners and

other medical personnel; administration of profes­ sional ethics

Chairman: Director of Public Health Members: Two qualified medical practitioners; two graduates

(other than in medicine, surgery or dentistry) of recognized uni­ versities; the Secretary, Depart­ ment of Law. A registered

dentist is co-opted as a member when the Board is considering an application for registration as a

dentist

Education Advisory Education Ordinance 1952- Advice to the Administrator Four representatives of missions’ Board 1957 on all aspects of education

in the Territory

voluntary education agencies and not more than four other mem­ bers

District Education Education Ordinance 1952- Advice to the Administrator A maximum of five members, one Committees 1957 on district education

matters

of whom is a mission representa­ tive

Papua and New Guinea Papua and New Guinea Determination of the Copra Two representatives of the copra Copra Industry Sta­ bilization Board Copra Industry Stabiliza­

tion Ordinance 1954—1959 Fund Bounty producers of New Guinea, one

representative of the copra pro­ ducers of Papua, an officer of the Department of the Treasury and one other member

Papua and New Guinea Copra Marketing Board

Papua and New Guinea Copra Marketing Board Ordinance 1952-1957

Marketing of copra .. Chairman and five members—two representatives of the copra pro­ ducers of New Guinea, one representative of the copra pro­ ducers of Papua, the Director of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries and one other member

Rubber Board .. Rubber Ordinance 1953 .. Consideration of appeals

against the classification of rubber for export

Three representatives of the rubber producers and two officers of the Public Service

Central Advisory Com­ mittee for the Educa­ tion and Advance­ ment of Women

Administrative direction.. Planning and advice on pro­ motion of advancement of women

Chairman: Executive Officer (Social Development). Ten members, including four officers of the Administration, one Girl Guide, a representative of the mixed race people, two mission representa­ tives and two indigenous

representatives. The committee has power to co-opt representa­ tives

Native Apprenticeship Native Apprenticeship Ordi- Advice on the development Seven members, three of whom are Board nance 1951-1960

!

and provision of facilities for trade training of in­ digenous youth in the

Territory

not employees of the Common­ wealth or a Commonwealth instrumentality and are not officers of the Administration

Administration Supply and Tenders Board Treasury Ordinance 1951­ 1960

Control of purchase, supply and disposal of stores, and letting of contracts for works and services

Three officers of the Public Service