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Atomic Energy Act - Australian Atomic Energy Commission - Annual Report and Financial Accounts, together with Auditor-General's Report- Year - 1955-56 (Fourth)


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I !J .) (j .

THE PARLIAUE NT OF THE O O)f~fONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT

OF TilE

AUSTRALIAN ATOMIC ENERGY

COMMISSION.

BEING THE COMMISSION 'S REPORT FOR THE

YEAR ENDED 30TH JU N E, 1956.

Presented pursua11t to Stat ~tte, 24.th Octnbe∑ r, 1956; ordered tu be pri11ted, lsi N ovemb er, l \l5li .

[Cost of Paper :- Preparation , not given; 880 copies; approximate cos of pnntmg and pubhshm~, £.:29-t.j

Priutcu auu PuL i i~ltctl f"r the Go n :tc\.\JJ:::\1' u i the lu~l.\tll:>. WJ: .\I.Tll 01- .\t∑,.;-rn. \I.l.\ !,_, .\. J . . \HTI It tt, Commo nwea lth Go \∑cr ulllCilL l'riutcr , Canlo L∑tTa. (Printed in .lu " trnli n.)

No. 75 LUHO{.;P F J.- F.6527/JG .- l)RJCE :.h.

C O:\DI O ~\\ .E. \ LTH O F .\U TR .\LI.\

AUSTUALIAN ATO~IIC E:\fERGY CO~IMISSION

To the H on. H ow ard Beale, Q .C., :\LP., }.l[inister of State for 'upply, Parliam ent H ouse, C anberra, A .C.T.

Sir,

In accordance w ith Section 3 r of the Atomic E nergy ,\ct, 1953, w e submi t the Fourth Annu al Report of the Au stralian Atomic Encroy Com mi ∑ sion covering D . ' the Comm ission's operations for the financial year ended 30th J unc, 1956.

Financial accounts for the year, with a report on the accounts by the A uditor-Gen eral as required by the A ct, are appended to the report.

W orld developm ents in atomic energy have been going forw ard with gathering mom entum and, during the year, there has been a corresponding progress over a w idening field in Au stralia. After som e erious initi al difficulties production of uranium oxide from R um Jungle was brought up to the designed rate; w ith the approval of the Com mo nwealth G overnment, a m ajor contract ,,∑ as concluderl for the supply by private enterprise of uranium from M ary K athleen in Qu eensland to the United K ingdom Atomic Energy Authority ; w ork began on the Co mmi ssion's reactor and research establishm ent at Lucas H eights and a programm e of research w as adopted ; during the year a bilateral agreem ent vvas signed with the United

States for co-operation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and close collaboration w ith the United Kingdom continued.

There w ere important international developm ents, including the ,,∑ orld conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy at G eneva, which resulted in the release of a g reat deal of information, and there w as further progress towa rds the establishme nt of an International A tomic Energy A gency. D eYe lopme nts overseas have all tended to show that confidence in atomic energy as an instrument of peaceful progress has not been misplaced. On the contrary, the possibiliti es appear greater than ever. T here are few nations which arc not seeking eagerly to benefi L Au stralia enjoys the advantage of an early start and of close and friendly association w ith leaders in this field, but we believe that a greater sustained national effort is needed

to establish our uranium resources and to build up, on a sufficient scale, the equipment, know∑ ledge and skill \\∑hich ,,∑ ill be required in a few ,∑ ears' time if the application of atomic energy is to be "∑ ide pread in .\u tralia.

45 Beach St., Coogee, N .. \\' . 2gth A ugust, rgs6.

... j(J_)j- I

Y ours faithful! ;∑,

]. E . S. STEVE N S, Chairman. J P. BAXTE R , D eputy C hairman. H . I\1. M U RR AY , M emb er.

Page 3

CO N T EN TS

PART PAGE

I INT RODUCTION Outline of activiti es

II THE SEARCH FOR URAN IUM I T

AUSTRALIA General Airborne scintill ograph surveys Ground surveys Scintillograph survey m aps Geological and base m aps R eported discoveries .R ewards for discoveries

Ore treatment research Assistance from U .K. geologists Future survey programme Training of geologists

III U RANI U M MINING DEVELOP "

MENTS

7

9

IO

I I

Activities of mining com panies I 8 Tax exemption for uranium mining IS Negotiations with the U nited Kingdom Ig Mary K athleen I g

South Alligator River area 20

Hea:lth safeguards 20

IV THE RUM JUNG LE UN DER "

TAKING Attainment of rated production 2 I Mining operations 2 I

Operating results 2 I

Purchase of outside ores 2 I

B atchelor township 23

Consolidated Zinc Proprietary Limited 23 The Combined D evelopme nt Agency 23

V THE RAW MATERIALS POSITION

The course of demand 24

World supply of uranium 24

Australian production and requirements ofuranium 25

Thorium 26

VI THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOP "

MENT PROGRAMME Co-operation w ith the U nited Kingdom 27 Thermonuclear power 28

VII LUCAS HEIGHT S RESEAR C H

ESTABLISHMENT The reactor design Progress of Head Wrightson contract The Australian contract \Nork begun at Lucas H eights

R ecent progress Use of facilities by universities

PA RT PA GE

Vlll EXTERNAL R ESEA R CH AND

T R A IN ING

Scholarships and studentships 3-t R esearch contracts 34

University courses in nuclear science 37

IX DEVELOPMENTS OVERSEAS The Un ited Kingdom programme 38

Un ited States developments 39

Other national programm es 40

X ATOMIC ENERGY IN AUST RALIA

Powe r production 42

Isotopes in industry 43

The part of industry 44

XI INTERN AT IONAL REL AT IONS

General 46

Geneva conference on peaceful uses 46 International Atomic Energy Agency 47 " Euraton1 " 48

Bilateral agreem ent w ith U.S.A. 48 Negotiations overseas 49

U nited Nations R adiation Comm ittee 49 Colombo Plan so

XII INFORMATION SERVI CES

Library services 5 r

Presentation of U.S. library 51

Distribution of Geneva conference papers 52

Commission publications 53

Chemex exhibition 53

Model of C alder Hall nuclear power s~ ti o n 53

XIII STATE ACT IVITIES

Commonwealth - States Information Committee 54

Opening of Port Pirie plant 55

XIV GENERAL

Advisory Committee on uranium mining 56

Scientifi c Advisory Com mittee 56 Business Advisory Group 56

Financial accounts 56

R eappointment of Comm issioner 57 Acknowledgments 57

APPENDICES

Appendix A - Financial accounts 58

, B- Studentships and scholarships 59 , C-Atomic Energy Commission 6I

Page 5

Part I

INTRODUCTION

OUTLINE OF ACTIVITIES

I. During the year under review, which was one of steadi ly expanding activity, the Commission, in pursuance of its responsibilities under the Atomic Energy Act I 953, carried out a variet y of tasks, including those referred to specifica lly below :

(a) It continued to encourage and assist private enterprise in the search for uranium and, in doing so, it collaborated, where appropriate, with the agencies of State Governments.

(b) The Commission supervised the overall development of the Rum Jungle uramum undertaking and dealt with a number of policy matters arising from it.

(c) On behalf of the Commonwealth, regular purchases were made from local producers of uranium-bearing ores for treatment at Rum Jungle.

(d) The Commission supervised, on behalf of the Commonwealth, the negotiation of an agreement, whereby Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd. will sell uranium oxide to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority over a term of years.

(e) The Commission adopted a programme of research into the industrial applications of atomic energy, including reactor systems. Through the Australian research team at Harwell in the United Kingdom, a good start was made with the programme during the year.

(f) Contracts were let for the first Australian nuclear reactor to be built at the Commission's research establishment at Lucas Heights. The Commission supervised the progress of the construction work at Lucas Heights and of the manufacture of the reactor core in the United Kingdom.

(g) Arrangements were made to establish an advisory service on the use of radioactive isotopes in industry, agriculture, and so on.

(h) The Commission took part, directly, or indirectl y, in a number of important international negotiations, including the Geneva conference on the peaceful uses of a,tomic energy, the I 2-power conference convened to draft a statute for an Internation al Atomic Energy Agency, and the United Nations Scientific Committee formed to study the effects of nuclear radiation on human health.

Page 7

Part I-IN TROD U CTIO N

(j) A bilateral agreem ent w as negotiated with the United States for mutual co-operation in the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

(k) T he Co mmi ssion gave substantial assistance to the universiti es for research programm es and in other ways. It awarded a numb er of university studentships and scholarships in subjects related to atomic energy.

(l) T he Co mmi ssion has continued to expand its information serv1ces by collecting and distributin g an increasing range of material.

2. A ustralia is now beginning to reap som e of the benefits of atomic energy

developm ent, and new and ever-widening possibiliti es are opening up. The rollow ing pages describe progress during the year in detail. Information on general policy, on the Co mmi ssion's ow n organisation and its plans for the future, has been given in previous annual reports.

Page 8

Pctrt II

THE SEARCH FOR URANIUM IN AUSTRALIA

GENERAL

3∑ In .order to assess the uranium potential of the \ustralian continent and establish sufficient reserves for future national needs, it is necessary to sustain a continuous effort by Commonwealth and State authorities, mining companies and individual prospectors. It is the policy of the Commonw ealth Government to assist and stimulate this effort. Aerial and ground surveys and the publication of map s

and geologica l information provide the prospector with indication s of the most promlSlng areas. Governments also place a wide range of advisory and technical services at the disposal of private prospecting and mining enterprises. The Commonwea lth aims to encourage private enterpris e in this field to the greatest possible extent. It has continued the policy of paying tax-fre e rewards for discoveries of economic significance, and the tax concessions in respect of incom e from uranium mining- originally granted until rg6o- are being extended for a further five years. The Commission has continued to purchase parcels of uranium ore from a number of private producers in accordance with its published buying offer.

4∑ Close collaboration is maintained between the Commonwealth and the States. Both aerial and ground surveys have been made over State as well as Commonwealth territory. For examp le, in conjunction with the Qu eensland Department of Mines, which provided a geologist to assist the work, the

Commonwealth Bureau of Mineral Resources started in May, 1956, regional mapping and prospecting in respect of the Georgetown, Red River and Einasleigh areas, following a scintillograph reconnaissance by Douglas DC3 aircraft. The Bureau also made airborne geophysical surveys in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. In return, State authorities regularly supply the Commonwealth with information (report s, maps, etc.) and assist the uranium industry by carrying out assaying and chemical tests. In the Northern Territor y, aerial and ground operations have been continued on a considerable scale.

5∑ In most of the act1V1t1es discussed in this section, the principal Commonwealth agency is the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, which operates in close consultation with the Atomic Energy Commission. The Commission, in its annual Estimates, provides for the funds for this work. In addition to providing aerial and ground surveys, the Bureau maintains a variety of consultant and laboratory services at Darwin, Melbourne o.nd Canberra and also distributes maps and reports detailing the results of its surveys. Upon request, it carries out radiometri c probing of bore holes, and the repair of radiometric instruments, some five hundred of which were serviced and repaired in Darwin during the year. Assaying work is performed in the Bureau's laboratories in Darwin, and in Canberra and M elbourne, where more specialized equipment is available.

Page 9

Part II-THE SEARCH FOR URANIUM IN AUSTRALIA

A IRBOR NE SCIN TILLOGRAPH SURVEYS

6. The airborne scintillograph survey work was continued during the year, although, for a time, on a reduced scale. Difficult weather conditions led to the postponement of some flights - for example, in high mountainous country between Omeo and Albury in north-eastern V ictoria, where low-level surveying one hundred feet above the terra in was being done by Auster aircraft, it was found necessary

to postpone some of the work because of continuous cloud in the high mountain country. Difficulti es were also encountered in the New England district of New South W ales. Another factor was the need to service the two DC3 aircraft used for these surveys. Each spent five months during the year in the workshops being overhauled, and re-fitted. The benefit will be reaped, however, in the subsequent years. The total area covered by aerial surveys was about 27,8oo square miles

as compared with 46,500 square miles in 1 954-55∑

7∑ The purpose of these surveys is to gain a preliminary knowledge of large areas, this being followed by more intensive ground surveys. Prolonged exploration work, including aerial and ground surveys and prospecting, is needed to establish even the broadest estimate of Australia's uranium resources. The accompanying

map indicates what a very large area has to be covered. Aerial surveys reveal radioactive anom alies which ma y be due to uranium in large or small quantities but ma y also be due to thorium mineralization, the mass effect of granite outcrops, or monazite in alluvial deposits. Radioactivity from uranium occurrences may be masked by soil or scree cover and so may not be detected on the prospecting instruments. The aerial surveys do, however, provide a valuable indication of w here ground exploration may fruitfully be carried out.

8. The number of aircraft engaged in aerial surveys was increased to four with the purchase of an Auster which was brought into service in May, 1956. There are now two DC 3 aircraft used for high-level work and to cover large areas, and two Austers (including one on charter) for detailed low-level surveys and for flying in di.fficult country. Each of the DC3 aircraft has been fitted with a tail boom in wh ich is mounted an airborne magnetometer.

Page 10

Part II-THE SEARCH FOR U RA NIU!\f IN A ST RALIA

g. During the year the following areas were surveyed by airborne scintillograph :-

State or Territory

I

RECONNAISSANCE SURVEYS :

Queensland

Western Australia

Northern Territ ory

DETAILED SURVEYS:

Northern Territory

Queensland

New South Wales

Victoria

GROUND SURVEYS

Location of Area Surveyed

Chillagoe-Einaslei gh

Pilbara

Bamboo Creek

Gregory R ange-Woody Woo:iy Creek

Wilgie Mia

Lake Dund as

Gerald ton-On slow

Moyle R iver North

Adelaide River

Brock's Creek

Mundogie Hill

Wo olwonga

Herberton

Chillagoe- Einasleigh

Mount Isa-Cloncurry

New England

Albury-Omeo

Strathbo gie

Coverage (Sq. miles)

10,000

500

70

350

100

6,700

(in progress)

1,200

180

(in progress)

120

(in progress)

5 10

Selected areas

T est Surveys

IO. The work of ground surveying includes geological surveys of wide area,

and geological, radiometric and geochemical investigations supplemented in places by more intensive operations, such as trenching, drilling and radiometric logging of bore holes.

I I. In the Darwin-Katherine area of the Northern Territ ory, the Bureau

of Mineral Resources carried out a regional geological survey over an area of about 6,500 square miles. This work, which has been supplemented by closer geological and geophysical investigation of a number of prospects, has provided much additional knowledge of the region.

I 2. In I 956 regional geological mapping was started in two additiona l areas

in the Katherine-Darwin area, one in the Davenport R anges, Northern Territory, and one in the Einasleigh region, Queensland.

Page II

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Part II-THE SEARCH FOR U RA 11Ui\1 IN AUS TRALIA

I 3∑ Reserves and prospects investigated on the ground by the Bureau during

the period include

N orthern T erritor y

Tasmania :

Coronation Hill R eserve, Grove Hill, The Eighty Mile (George C reek Area), Central Creek, Fleur-de-Lys (Brock's Creek), George Creek R eserve, Charlotte River R eserve and l\tfanton D am R eserve ;

Avoca and Blue Tier.

14. Groups of the most intense anomalies in the Bamb oo Creek area, located in the recent aerial survey of the Pilbara region of \1\Testern Australia were examined more closely by a ground party. Radiom etric surveys we re carried out in the Brodribb, Brock's Creek and Charlott e River areas of the No rthern T erritor y by Landrover equipped with radiometric recorder.

SCINTILLOGRAPH SURVEY MAPS

15. During 1954-55 print ed sheets were issued showing radiometric anom alies on line maps and also on photo mosaics in respect of W yndham-H all's Creek area. These proved most useful, and the series was continued in 1955-56 with the issue of the following :-

Northern Territor y

New South Wales : Darwin- Anson Bay. Broken Hill.

16. The following one-mile maps were re-issu ed as composite radioactive anomaly and total magnetic intensity maps

Ban Ban

Burnside

Florina

Katherine

Lewin Springs

Mt. Hayw ard

Mt. Todd

R eynolds River

Tipperary

1 7∑ During the year maps of the following sixteen areas covered by airborne

scintillograph surveys were distributed in dye-line form :-New South Wales Tenterfield - Emmaville- Deepwater.

Tasmania :

Western Australia

Smithton-Table Cape, Trowutta-Burnie, Beaconsfield, Balfour, M agnet-Valentines Peak: Moina, St. Helen's, B en Lomond-Snow Hill, Zeehan-Murchison, Qu eenstown Distri ct, Ro yal George District , Commonwealth Creek.

Gregory Range- Wood y Wood y Creek, Lake Dundas, Wilgie Mia.

18. A preliminary map of the Mundogie Hill area was posted at the D arwin office of the Bureau as soon as it was available. The principl e of this system 1s to make the tentative results of airborne surveys available as soon as possible.

19. A number of other maps are in preparation, includin g some of areas covered by the surveys listed above. The results of these surveys are sent to the Departments of Mines in the respective States and Commonwealth territor ies as soon as they are available.

Page 13

Part II-THE SEARCH FOR URANIUM IN AUSTRAL IA

20. The accomp anymg m ap shows the areas covered by airborne surveys

up to the end of the period under review.

GEOLOGICAL AND BASE MAPS

2 r. A considerable amount of detailed geological mapping has been carried

out in conjunction with survey activities. Since it is important for the information

to be m ade available to the public as quickly as possible, preliminary field

compilations based on uncontrolled photo mosaics are distributed, and, later,

these are replaced by controlled base maps produced by the National Mapping

Section.

22. During the year the field compilations distributed included the following

areas in the Northern Territory :-Burnside

D aly River

Goo dparla North

Mt. Evelyn

R eynolds River

Muldiva Creek

Goodparla South

Mt. Hayward

Mundogie Hill

Randford HiJI

also two field compilations on different scales of the South Alligator River area

of the Northern Territor y.

23. In conjunction with its aerial survey activities the Bureau of Mineral

R esources carried out for the National Mapping Council systematic Shoran "

controll ed aerial photography of the Jim Jim Creek, Mt. Evelyn, Mt. Partridge,

Mt. Stow, Mundogie Hill and parts of the Goodparla North and Goodparla South

one-mile sheets. This work, besides extending the national cartographic records,

is of direct assist ance to the uranium search programme by providing data for the

preparation of base maps on which to plot the results of geological and geophysical surveys.

REPORTED DISCOVERIES

24. There was a diminution m

the numb er of reported discoveries of

uranium ore occurrences as compared w ith the previous year, those for the

twelve months under review being :-

State or T errit ory

N ew South Wa les

Queensland ∑

' "~es t e rn Au stralia

T asm ania

Northern T errit ory

I

T otal

N o. of

R eported Discoveries

I

3

2

2

2

-1 0

25. None of these discoveries has yet been proved to be commercially important, but further investigations are being carried out.

Page 14

Part II-THE SEARCH FOR RANI M IN AUSTRALIA

REWARDS FOR DISCOVERIES

26. During the year the rewards shown in the table below were paid. In addition, claims are under consideration in respect of several other discoveries.

Recipient

W . R . Cairns

R . T. Norris

M etals Exploration N.L.

G . Polkinghorne

Amount of I

R eward

£250

£!00

£250

Location of Di covery

M osquito Creek, near Tennant C reek. :\.T.

Pandanus Creek, N .T .

Malbon, C loncurry Min eral Field, Qu eensland.

Mundi Mundi , near Broken Hill, N .S.\'\' .

27. At the close of the period, payment of the following rewards was also being considered and they were subsequently paid

R ecipient

C. Walton

United Uranium Ltd.

North Australian Uranium Co.Ltd.

M. J. Sheil

A. Chwalczyk

R. Tucker

Amo unt of I

Reward

£!0 ,000

£so o

£400

£250

£so

Location of Discovery

Mar y K athleen, Qu eensland.

El Sharana, South Alligator River, :"'.T.

South Alligat or Ri,∑e r, :"J.T.

Milo Lease, C loncurry Min eral Field, Qu eensland.

Storey's Creek, hear R ossardcn, Tasmania.

An chor Min e, Lottah, T asm ania.

28. The reward of £24,500 to Mr. C. W alton for the Mary K athleen discovery is additional to a previous reward of £500 for the sam e discovery, thus bringing the total to the maximum payable for a particular discovery under the reward conditions announced in April, 1953. The maximum reward has been

paid once previously-to Mr. J. White, who discovered the Rum Jungle deposit. The reward to Mr. M.]. Sheil is also in addition to a previous payment of £IOo.

ORE TREATMENT RESEARCH

29. At Rum Jungle laboratory, research continued on current and future treatment problems. Also, a pilot plant was erected and equipped to enable test work to be carried out on a larger scale.

30. Various aspects of treatment of uramum ores are being investigated in other establishments with the help of funds provided by the Commission. The Division of Industrial Chemistry, Commonwealth Scientific and Industri al Research Organisation, carried out important work on the " Resin-in-pulp " process for

the chemical treatment of uranium ore, using ores from the Northern Territory and Queensland. In this research, the Division has mad e use of a pilot plant financed largely by the Commission. The Bureau of Mineral Resources has been carrying out investigations on uranium ores. In addition to the work financed by the Commission, valuable help in this field has been contributed by the South Australian Department of Mines.

31. In the Melbourne University, research is being undertaken on ore flotation. Queensland University is investigating the extraction of uranium from ores, and the N.S.W. University of Technology is wo rking on the extraction of purified uranium nitrate.

Page IS

Part II-THE SEARCH FOR URANIUM IN AUSTRALIA

32 . H elpful advice on the treatment of ores has also been received from the U nited Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the United States Atomic Energy Co mmi ssion and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.

ASSI STANCE FROM UNITED KINGDOM GEOLOGISTS

33∑ Under arrangements previously made by the Commission with the U nited Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, a senior uranium geologist of that organisation and another geologist worked with the geological section of the Bureau of Min eral Resources throughout the year. They assisted in mapping and prospecting, in inspections of deposits and prospects in most States, and in a reconnaissance of the Hall's Creek-Wyndham area in Western Australia. The senior of these two geologists also inspected uranium occurrences in the Mount

lsa-Cloncurry district of Queensland and in New South Wales and Tasmania, and reported on them direct to the Commission. They also made reconnaissance surveys by determining the uranium content of stream waters. The Commission gratefully acknowledges the action of the Authority in making the services of these

two experienced m en available for the Australian search programme.

FUTURE SURVEY PROGRAMME

34∑ The aerial and ground surveys will be carried on and further maps completed. The programme will benefit from the completed overhaul and re " equipment of the Douglas aircraft.

35∑ The activities in the first half of 1956-57 will include-

(a) regional geological surveys of the Marrakai and Woolwonga areas and the D avenport Range in the Northern Territory and the Einasleigh " G eorgetown area in Queensland ; examination of further radioactive anom alies in the Einasleigh-Georgetown region of Queensland, previously detected from the air, and the assessment of various uranium prospects in the Northern T erritory, Queensland and New South Wales ;

(b) reconnaissanc e scintillograph and aeromagnetic surveys in the Davenport Range, the J ervois Range and Calvert Hills area of the Northern Territory, and the Geraldton-Onslow region and Kalgoorlie-Southern Cross region, W estern Australi a ; also in north-eastern Tasmania, in eastern Victoria

and in the Emmaville region of New South Wales ;

(c) detailed aerial surveys at Adelaide River and Tennant Creek m the Northern Territory and in the Broken Hill district, New South Wales;

(d) follow-up scintillograph surveys in some regions in which reconnaissance surveys have already been carried out ;

(e) ground radiometric surveys in the Darwin-Katherine area and other parts of the Northern Territory as required ;

Page 16

Pat∑ t II-THE SEARCH FOR RANIUM IN A STRALIA

(f) services will be provided for prospectors and others ; they w ill include geological and radiom etric surveys, bore hole logging, and repair of instruments ; diam ond drillin g of uranium prospects in the orthern T erritor y will be carried out as required ;

(g) laboratory services will include radiometric assays, equipment design and construction, equipment m aintenance and the m aintenance of standards.

TRAINING OF GEOLOGISTS

36. As part of the Commi ssion's programm e of asststm g 111 exploration and in the development of uranium mining, it has, over the past three years, provided funds for the training of geologists and geophysicists, and this plan has been carried further in the year under review. T en universit y scholarships have been aw arded for undergraduates studying for science degrees in these subjects. These scholarships

are held in the Universiti es of Sydney, Qu eensland, W estern Au stralia and T asmania.

Page 17

Part III

URANIUM MINING DEVELOPMENTS

ACTIVITIES OF MINING COMPANIES

37∑ Uranium prospecting and development in a number of.arcas continued to be carried on by companies formed for the purpose, as well as by individual prospectors and syndicates. The main areas of activity have been the Northern Territor y and the Mount Isa-Cloncurr y region of western Queensland.

38. In the Northern Territory two companies within reasonable distance of Rum Jungle mined ore- for the most part on a small scale- and delivered parcels from time to time for treatment in the Rum Jungle plant. The chief area of new exploration and development activity was at the South Alligator River, where exploration work was carried out by several companies. They endeavoured to establish additional deposits of ore, .and tested by developmental work the potential of deposits already found. In order to speed up the development of this district, a large area of land held under reservation in the northern regions of the A lli gator River area was thrown open for application. The biggest single development in uranium mining during the year under review was the decision to establish a large treatment plant at Mary Kathleen, near Mount Isa, in an area w here a number of significant prospects have been reported. This region enjoys the benefit of capita l and technical advice from a large overseas mining company.

39∑ Some company activity is going on in other States. In Victoria, mineral search licenses were restri cted to Crown Land, but in December legislation was passed whereby they might be issued in respect of both Crown and private land, subject to the question of compensation being first settled in respect of any private land. South Australia has removed restrictions on private operations, and some inter est is being displayed by private enterprise in the possibilities of uranium mining in that State. Through State organizations and the companies themselves, the Commission keeps in close touch with mining developments.

TAX EXEMPTION FOR URANIUM MINING

40. To give further practical encouragement to uranium mining, the 1955-56 Commonwealth Bud get provided for an amendment to Section 23D. of the Income Tax Assessment Act.

41 . The effect of the legisl ation is to extend the previous exemption of profits

derived from uranium mining operations to all taxpayers who are residents of Australia , and to apply the exemption to profits arising from the treatment of the ore up to the stage at which it passes from the ownership of the taxpayer by whom it was mined, whether the treatment operations are carried out on the propert y on which the ore was mined or elsewhere in Australia. By extending the exemption

to all taxpayers who are residents of A ustralia, the legislation abolishes the previous condition that the exemption should be available only to companies in which not less than three-quarters of the voting power is controlled directl y or indirectl y by persons who are resident.

Page 18

Part III- U RA N IUM MINI NG DEVELOPME N TS

42. The tax concessions we re granted until rg6o, but in the belief that this period would not allow sufficient time to a com pany to erect a treatment plant, to enter production, and to gain a wo rthw hile advantage from the concession, Cabinet, in February last , decided that the period of exemp tion should be extended to the 30th June, r g65. This decision was implem ented by legislation w hich came into effect on 2oth June. These new provisions should furnish a useful incentive for privat e capital t o enter the uranium mining industry.

NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE UNITED KINGDOM

43∑ The United Kingdom has been interested in the possibili ty of purchasing uranium oxide by direct negotiations with mining comp anies operating in A ustralia. At the invitation of the Commonw ealth, a United Kingdom mission cam e to Australia in November to negotiate with comp anies having good prospects of being able to deliver substanti al quantiti es of uranium oxide in the near future. These were the companies working the M ary K athleen deposit, near Mt. Isa in

Western Queensland, and the deposits in the South A lligator River area of the Northern Territory.

44∑ The Mary Kathleen deposit w as the prospect in the m ost advanced stage of development, and negotiations for a sales contract were comm enced between the United Kingdom representatives and those of M ary K athleen Uranium Ltd. At the outset of these negotiations the Commonw ealth stipul ated that, in addition to any tonnage purchased from this source, a m arket should be reserved for a specified tonnage and period, for the benefit of the companies in the South A lligator River area. The Commonwealth also reserved the right to acquire, for defence purposes, any part of the uranium produced under such contracts.

45∑ These negotiations culminated in a contract for the sale of a substantial tonnage of uranium oxide to the United Kingdom - a contract having important benefits for Australia . It will result in an immediate inflow of capital and a substantial addition to national exports over a period of years, thus helping the Australian balance of payments. At the sam e time, a stimulus is being given to the development of Western Queensland and the Northern T erritor y.

MARY KATHLEEN

46. The Mary Kathleen deposit is being developed by M ary K athleen Uranium Ltd. in which the Rio Tinto Compan y Ltd., of London, is a m aJor shareholder. Exploration work has confirmed the existence of a large body of ore which lends itself particularl y w ell to mining by open-cut me thods.

47∑ Although the Australian inter est in the undertaking is substantial, all but a small part of the capital will be provided from England. Some £r o million will be required for the development of the mine, erection of a treatment plant and township, and for the establishment of roads, w ater supply, etc. Production of uranium oxide is expected to begin early in rgsg, and the value of the output during the currency of the contract will exceed £40 million. Mining ami development during this contract ma y well disclose further ore bodies in the Mary Kathleen leases.

Page 19

Part III- U RANIUM MINING DEVELOPME NTS

48. In addition, the Com monwe alth Government has stipulated that Mary K athleen Uranium I td. shall treat in its plant a certain tonnage of ores purchased from other producers in the district, provided that such ores lend themselves to the treatment m ethods in use. This should give valuable encouragement to leaseholders and prospectors throughout the district, and m ay lead to further discoveries.

0 TH ALLIGATOR RIVER AREA

49∑ A lthough som e rich ore has been found in the South A lli gator River area, no one of the companies operating there had, at the time of these negotiations, proved suffici ent to justify the construction of a treatment plant. As the United Kingdom has agreed to reserve a substantial market for oxide from this area if adequate ore reserves can be proved by the end of 1957, the companies concerned have been encouraged to push ahead with a vigorous prospecting programm e.

HEAl -TH SAFEGUA RD S

50. As the result of the conference of representatives of the Commonwealth, States, and mining organizations convened by the Commission in D ecember, I 954, suitable standards have been established for the protection of the health of

persons engaged in the mining and treatment of uranium ore and its products. The conference agreed that it could be accepted as a safe rule that adequate protection against radiation hazards was provided by proper ventilation controls, and by the use of dust prevention and removal m ethods in accordance with good

mining practice, together with the personal hygiene measures already accepted as necessary in this industry. A general code of working practices and a system o[ m easurem ent and sampling have been drawn up and circulated to all the H ealth D epartments and Mines D epartments of the States and Commonw ealth which have adopted the code.

Page 20

Pctrt 1 V

R UM JUN GL E UN D ERTAI (ING

ATTAINMENT OF RATED PRODUCTION

.sr. It is gratifying to record that within the period under review, the monthly output of uranium oxide at Rum Jungle reached the level for which the plant had been designed. At the outset many operating difficulties were encountered " a fact which is not surprising in a new and unfamiliar operation. The restricted production in the early months, with consequent small returns from the sale of oxide, caused some financial stringency, and temporary accommodation had to be arranged. The more serious troubles have now been overcome, and the enterprise is upon a sound economic basis. Although suitable shipping space from Darwin is often difficult to secure, shipments of the product overseas have proceeded at frequent and fairly regular intervals.

MINING OPERATIONS

52. Extraction of both ore and overburden from the open-cut at White's Mine proceeded throughout the year at a satisfactory rate, except for a brief period in February when operations were interrupt ed by the temporary flooding of the floor of the open-cut, because of torrentia lly heavy rains on the catchm ent of the

East Finniss River.

53∑ During the dry season advantage wa taken of the favourable working conditions to stockpile an adequate supply of ore under cover. This provision enabled the treatment plant to continue in operation throughout the wet season without interruption from any lack of ore supplies, and avoided the difficulty

previously experienced in handling wet ore in the plant.

OPERATING RESULTS

54∑ Thanks to the improvement in the operating processes, there has been a steady increase both in the tonnage of ore milled and in the recovery of uranium oxide concentrate . At first, troubles in the filtration and leaching sections of the plant were the main causes of the low rate of treatment and of low recoveries. These were due to the sticky nature of the material from the shallow horizons of

the open-cut, and the tendency of the clay present to blanket the filters. The unexpectedly high rate of acid consumption in treating the near-surface ores was also a serious handicap. Pending an increas e- already planned- in the capacity of the acid-making plant at the mine sulphuric acid was obtained from abroad. It was not possible to secure the requisit e amount from Australian sources for a variety of reasons. An imm ediate improvement in output resulted, ∑ and the new plant will make possible the manufacture, at Rum Jungle, of all the acid required.

PU R CH ASE O F OUTSIDE O R ES

55∑ Deliveries of uranium ore from the Adelaide River mine of the Australian Uranium Corporation N .L. continued throughout the year. In addition, some small parcels of ore were received from Brock's Creek Uranium N.L., and tiom the Milo Syndicate, operating in the Mount Isa area.

Page 21

White's open-cut at Rum Jungle. Ph otograph: Australian Atomic Energy Commission.

The finished product emerging from the plant at Rum Jungle. Photograph : Consolidated .(in c P ty. Ltd.

Page 22

Part IV - RUM J NGLE U~DERTAKING

BATCHELOR TOWNSHIP

56. Further improvem ents w ere m ade during the year to Batchelor township. The last of the tents was remov ed and twentv-four addition al two -man huts toaether ' J ' 0 with an ablution block, w ere completed, and six new houses built. In July, 1955, the swimming pool was completed, and has proved mo st popular. The township is becoming attractive, with services and conveniences of a high standard for a settlement of this kind. These improvements are important to the success of the undertaking, since they help to build up a satisfied and stable labour force and reduce labour turnover.

CONSOLIDATED ZINC PTY. LTD. ∑

57∑ The arrangement whereby Consolidat ed Zinc Pty. Ltd., through its wholly owned subsidiary, Territory Enterpris es Pty. Ltd., operates the Rum Jungle undertaking on behalf of the Commonwealth has continued to function satisfactoril y during the year. under review. Thanks to the enthusi asm and co-operation of

Consolidated Zinc Pty. Ltd.∑ and Territor y Enterpri ses Pty. Ltd., production has reached a satisfactory stage within a comp arativel y short time. The Co mmi ssion acknowledges this achievement with gratitud e.

THE COMBINED DEVELOPMENT AGENCY

58. As the enterprise came into production , it becam e evident that the agreement concluded in January, 1953, with the Combined D evelopment A gency would need revision. Capital expenditure was higher than had originally been expected, and the Agency agreed to advance the addition al funds. Several other

matters had also arisen, such as the treatment, in the Rum .Jungle plant, of ores purchased from other producers. A supplementary agreem ent has been drawn up to cover these points and is expected to be signed shortly.

59∑ The Agency has kept in close touch with activiti es at Rum Jungle, and its mining, treatment, and accounting experts have visit ed Au stralia from time to time to discuss particular problems, with satisfactory results.

Work zn the open-cut at Rum Jungle. Photograph: Consolidated ,(in c P IJ'∑ Ltd.

Page 23

P art V

TH E R A W M A TERI A LS PO SITIO N

THE COURSE OF DEMAND

6o. Governments are still the only significant buyers of uranium, and secrecy has been maintained regarding quantities purchased and prices paid. There is thus nothing which can be called a world market, although the United States Atomic Energy Commission in May announced a significant change in price policy, designed as a preliminary step towards the establishment of a normal commercial

market. Adopting the principle that in such a market uranium concentrate rather than ore will be the primary commercial product, the United States Commission has established a concentrate price instead of an ore price. The standard price of $8 per pound of uranium oxide is to be paid for mill concentrates of specified grade produced by domestic mills from dom estic ores. The American buying offer has also been extended from 1962 until the end of 1966, by which time It IS expected that the uranium industry will be able to make a reasonable appraisal of the commercial market.

61. The demand is still dominated by military requirements, but an indication that this position may eventually change is given by the refusal of Gov ernments in most other countries to enter into new commitments at this stage to buy uranium which ma y be forthcoming after 1962. By that time, however, the civil demand will in all probabilit y, be expanding fairly rapidl y. The requirements of uranium for peaceful uses are already becoming appreciable, notably in Britain, which is faced with the need of securing adequate supplies for its programme for nuclear power.

62. In the United States, too, the number and variety of m ajor undertaking s is striking. After a preliminary period of tri al, these developmental projects will, no doubt, lead to a number of important power projects which will also requir e considerable quantities of uranium for the initial inventory. The eagerness being displayed by many other countries all over the world to adopt nuclear power as soon as it can be seen to be reasonably economical, is another indication of future demand.

W OR LD SU PPLY O F U R ANIUM

63. An officia l American estimate places the reserves of the producing areas of the free world at approximately one million tons of uranium oxide, and perhaps twice that quantity. This does not include low-grade deposits which are not economic today. Upon completion of projects now under way or definit ely planned, according to this estimate, production of the free world should exceed 30,000 tons a year of uranium oxide.

64. The United States has been the leading producer of the Western world, with ore production of some 3,ooo,ooo tons a year, which is planned to increase to 5,ooo,ooo or 6,ooo,ooo tons. But production elsewhere is rising rapidly.

Page 24

Part V - THE R AW MATERIAL~ PO~I T lO N

65. As a result of recent discoveries, new countrie s have been com ing to the fore as major producers of uranium. South Africa has m ade \'ery rapid progress. In that country uranium is recovered from gold ores as a by-product. It has therefore been possible to expand uranium production quickly by the construction of treatment plants in proximity to certain gold mines. Costs of production are low because the uranium need bear no mining charges. Sixteen uranium treatment plants will be in operation by the end of 1956.

66. Canada, as the result of the discovery of large though low -grade deposits, IS fast becoming the principal producer of uranium. The mo st important new

discoveri es have been in the Blind River area of Southern Ontario. The deposits extend over a length of thirt y miles and comprise man y millions of tons of ore. They are of low grade in comp arison w ith many deposits elsewhere, and the recovery of uranium would probably be excessive ly costly in any but a large scale operation.

A numb er of mills of very considerable ore capacity are being built or planned to handle this ma terial. .

67. Active prospecting and developm ent i s proceeding in many countries. The world picture is one of expanding supply, but it is necessary to keep up exploration and development work if supplies are to be assured for future years.

AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTION AND REQUIREMENTS OF URANIUM

68. With the Rum Jungle undertaking operating at the designed level of output, Radium Hill in production , and Mary K athleen Uranium Limited preparing to produce a substantial tonnage, the Australian output of uranium oxide is showing steady expansion. The whole of this production is committed either to th e Combined Development Agency or to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. During the year, an enquiry was also received from another country desiring to buy oxide, and this is under consideration. In considering contracts for the sale to other countri es of uranium products, however, the Commission has in mind the need to ensure that Australia's ow n future requirements shall not

be prejudiced .

6g. Australian needs of uranium are diffi cult to assess at this stage. It is not easy to predict with confidence how mu ch nuclear power generating capacity the country ma y wish to install in the next decade, since much has still to be learnt about costs and other matters discussed in a later part of this report. C hanges in the design of nuclear power reactors, too, may substantially vary the uranium fuel requir em ents for a given pow er output. The picture, however, is gradually

becoming clearer. British and American experience in nuclear power should provide invaluable guidance over the next few years, and the Commission's research establishment will assist in working out the practical applications of this experience in this country. On e thing appears certain however, and that is that, in view of future dome stic needs, and of the present demand from overseas, it is necessary that the search for uranium and the development of new sources should continue.

Page 25

Part V- THE R AW MATERIALS POSITION

THORI M

70. Thorium ma y assum e considera ble importance in the nuclear energy field. It is envisaged as a fuel for some of the m ore advanced types of nuclear reactors wh ich may be built in the future. The possibilit y of using thorium in " breeder" sy terns is being investigated. E ventuall y, it might be the principal fuel for certain kinds of reactors. Even if these researches prove successf ul however, it is expected

that uranium will still be w idely used for m any years to com e. It is not expected that thorium wou ld supersede uranium, but rather that the two wo uld be used in conjunction.

71. Hitherto, Brazil and India have supplied most of the world's requirements, but thorium is to be found in m any countries, includin g Australia. World supplies of thorium are uncertain, though it is widely distributed. The most common source is monazite w hich occurs in sm all quantiti es in certain beach sands. Monazite is found in small amo unts in ~ssoc i atio n w ith the minerals currently being extracted from beach sands at various points on the coast of ew South Wales and Qu eensland. At present, how ever, thorium is recovered- if at all- as a by-product of the extraction

of rutil e and zircon, and is not being mined in Australia for its own sake. The Commission has m ade a survey of Australian monazite production and of reserves , and is considering what action may be required to ensure supplies of this material for Australian use in the future.

Page 26

Pctrt VI

THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPME NT PROGRAMME

CO-OPERATIO N WITH TH E UN ITE D KI NG DOM

72. T he arrangements m ade for co-operation m research and development in September, 1954, between Australia and the U nited Kingdom have been wo rking sm oothly, and have proved mos t fruitful. A considerable saving in time and in m oney has been effected in the construction of the Commission's Lucas H eights

research centre by the generous action of the British authorities in supplying the plans and specification s for the research reactor. In addition , invaluable expe.rience has been gained by the A ustralian scientific team working at H arwell and other Briti sh establishments. T he United Kingdom Atom ic Energy A uthority is short

of accomm odation and laboratory facilities and it has not been easy for it to find a place for our scientists. Work under the research programm e will be transferred progressively to A ustralia as laboratory space becom es available at Lucas Heights.

73∑ After careful preliminary thought and investigation, the lines of the A ustra lian research programme have been determined and a good beginning mad e

A mem ber of the Commission's scientific staff, D r. O'Connor, manipulating apparatus inside a "glove " box" in the laboratories of the Atomic E nergy R esearch E stablishment, H arwell, England.

By courtesy of the A .E.R .E ., H arwell,

Page 27

Part vr THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

with the actual work. Some twenty promising methods of producing nuclear p0,,∑e r are pos ible, but much research and development work is needed before the be t can be selected. No country in the world has the technological resources to im∑es tigatc all possible methods of producing nuclear power, and it has therefore been a g.reat advantage to Australia, in determining its own lines of research, to have establi shed formal and informal links for the exchange of information with Britain and other countries of the westerq world working in the nuclear energy fie I d.

THERMON CLEAR POWER

74- At the Atoms for Peace Conference at Geneva in August, 1955, both Britain and the United States announced that their scientists were working on the problem of controllin g and harnessing for peaceful purposes the energy released by the fusion or thermonuclear process. Russia has also given fairly detailed

information of similar investigations which she has been carrying out. These announcem ents have aroused widespread interest. In particular, they have raised the question whether thermonuclear power is likely to supersede the pow er derived from uranium and thorium in nuclear fission reactors.

75∑ The fission process mak es use of the heavy elements, whereas in the thermonuclear process, atoms of som e of the lightest elements, such as heavy hydrogen, would be fused together at extremely high temperatures to form new atoms and liberate energy. Scientists are devoting increasing effort to seeking methods for producing and maintaining thermonuclear reactions under controlled condition s.

76. Even after the basic scientific problems have been solved, there will still be m any formidable technical and industrial obstacles to overcome. It is generally believed that man y years must elapse between the day when the scientist propounds a feasible solution and the day of economically competitive pow er from

this source.

77∑ Nevertheless, the long-range possibilities do appear considerable and the Commission is maintaining a close interest in the work being carried out in this field.

Page 26

Pctrt VII

LUCAS HEIGHTS RESEARCH ESTABLISHME NT

THE R EAC TOR D ES IGN

78. Under the agreement Au stralia made \\∑ ith the nited Kingdom in 1~54 for the exchange of infOrmation concerning the industrial and other peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority agreed to m ake available full details of one of its mo st mod ern research reactors, at present und e 1 ~ construction at H arwell. This reactor is a heayv water moderated hirrh neutron .. ' b flux, materials testing and research reactor.

79∑ Early in 1955, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission sent a sma ll team of scientists and engineers to Harw ell under the direction or its C hief Scientist, Mr. C . N. \tVatson-Munro , and its Chief Engineer, Dr. G C. J D alton, to study the design and expected performance of this reactor and to determine it∑ uitability as a researc h tool for the A ustra lian nuclear energy programm e. A decision was quickly reached that this reactor was quite suitable for the Australian programm e, and the construct ion of a reactor of this type on the site of the Commission's research laborator ies at L ucas H eights, about twenty miles south-west of Sydney, was begun on 24th O ctober.

So. A reactor construction project consists of two m am parts. Firstly, there is the fabrication and assembly of the components of the reactor it. elf, and secondly, the construction of buildings to house the reactor and associated services.

8 r. The design, ma nufacture and assembly of a nuclear reactor is a highly specialized undertaking, and on the advice of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy A uthorit y, the Commission placed a contract with the only British firm which had had previous experience with this type of heavy 1-vater research reactor, and w hich was currently engaged in the construct ion of the reactor at Harwell. The

firm chosen was H ead Wr ightson Processes Ltd. and a contract for a m aximum of £A937,500 was placed in June, 1955. The firm undertook to comp lete the erection of the reactor by June, 1957, and began the fabrication of the compo nents immediately. Head Wrightson Processes Ltd. also have orders for three reactors

of sim ilar design for the Un ited Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

PROGRE SS OF RE AC TOR CO NT R ACT

82. Som e of the more highly specialized compone nts of the reactor, such as the graphite reflector, are being supplied under sub-contract by the Industrial Group of the U nited Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Direct contract are being made with the Authorit y for the supply of enriched uranium fuel elem ents and w ith

the United States Atomic Energy Commi ssion for the supply of the heavy water needed as a neutron moderator in the reactor. Wher e the Commission has encountered difficulty in securing certain materials, such as stainless steel, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authorit y has rendered assistance, w hich is greatly appreciated, by providing supplies out of its ov;n stocks.

Page 29

1. Floor platmg 2. Graphire rcncctOI 3. Alum inium- tank support ring 4. T op shield ring 5. T op plate (outer section) 6. 2-in. vertical experime ntal facility 7. Co arse control rod with drive 8. Safety rod with drive 9. T op plate (removable section) 10. C ooling coils for alum inium -tank top shield 11. Fuel elem ent 12. 4 in. X 2 in.( " obround ")oval horizontal experi-

m ental facility going right through reacto r 13. 6-in. vertical experim ental facility 14. Alum inium -tank top shield 15. 4-in. vertical experimental f acilit y 16. Cooling coils in steel-tank top shield I 7. Steel-tank top shield (low er) 18. Steel-tank ,top shield (upper) 19. Aluminium tank

II 12 I) 14 15 16 17 18 19

20. 2!-in. air-suction ma nifold 40. Shield wa lls

21 . H elium expansion main 4 1. 9-in. heavy-water inlet expansion joint

22. C 0 2 purge connexion 23. Therm al-column boral l ining 24. T hermal column

42. 9-in. heavy-wa ter inlet pipe 43. B ottom casing plates 44. Packs under steel tank

25. T hermal-colum n graphite reflect or 26. Thermal-colum n cooling coils 27. 7-in. heavy-water outlet pipe 28. A djusting wedges for steel tank 29. l-in. steel-tank drain-pipe 30. l-in. heavy-w ater overflow pipe 31. l-in. aluminium -tank drain-pip e 32. 10-in. cooling wa ter pipes 33. L.ead mu ff arauncl 10-in. cooling w ater pipes 34. 7-in. heavy-wa ter outlet expansion joint 35. Heavy-wa ter coolers 36. 10-in. heavy-water inlet header to coolers 37. Bottom structure 38. 10-in. heavy-wa ter outlet header 39. Shut-dow n heavy-wa ter circulating pum ps

45. Bottom liner stool 46. 4-in. air-suction m anifold 47 12 in. x 8 in. horizontal experim ental facility in graphite 48. JO-in. vertical experimental facility in graphite 49. 4-in. horizontal experimental facilit y 50. Concrete biologic al shield 51. Outer casing plates 52. Top s tr uc~ ur e

53. Steel t ank 54. Bora I lining in steel tank 55. Lead therma l bond 56. Lead shield with cooling coils 57. 6-in. mo rtuary hole

Vertical cross-section diagram through B ritish DID 0 reactor which zs the prototype for the HIFA R reactor being built at Lucas H eights. By courtesy of Mr. H . J. G rot;:, U .K .A .E .A . and of the B ritish N uclear E nergy CoJif erencl.

Page 30

Part VII- L CAS HEIGHTS RE SEA RCH ES TABLI SH tENT

83. Head \tVrightson's construct ional contracts for the m any hundreds of components that m ake up the reactor have had to be placed w ell ahead with sub-contracting m anufacturing firms, with the exception of orders for a few minor items not required until the later assembly stage . In order to m eet the scheduled delivery dates, it has been necessary t9 place some of the contracts (particularly for fabricated structural steel) in w estern Europe. Shipment of core compo nents

to Australia began in February, rgs6, and will continue till the end of the year. The construction of the core components has been up to schedule, and assembly of the reactor at Lucas H e.ights began in Ma y.

THE AUSTRALIAN CONTRACT

84. Immediately the contract had been placed for the reactor, plans for the associated buildings - generously supplied by the Briti sh Ministry ofWorks- were sent to Australia, and tenders invited both for the reactor buildings and for the laborator y buildings which were to be erected simultaneously on the r6o-acre site

at Lucas Heights. The successful tenderer was Hutcherson Bros. Pty. Ltd., of Sydney. This firm, which had a long and successful record on large building prqjects, was awarded on the roth O ctober, 1955, a contract for the simultaneous erection of research laboratories and reactor buildin gs. While m aking these arrangements the Commission received, and continues to receive, the greatest

assistance from other Commonwealth and State Governm ent authorities, wh ich, among various forms of assistance, constructed several miles of temporary connections to make available at the site telephone services and electricity and water supplies.

Foundations for Australia' s first nucl"ar reactor at Lucas H eights. P hotograph: A ustralian Atomic Energy Commission.

Page 31

Part VII- LUCAS HEIGHTS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT

WORK BEGU N AT LUCAS HEIGHTS

85. With the exception of a sm all nucleus, all labour for the project has been recruit ed by the contractors through the Commonwealth Employment Service.

86. Within six weeks of comm encing work on the project, the contractor had cleared and fenced the site and erected and occupied a site office for the use of the contracto r, the architects and the Commission. Complete on-site control of the project is intended, to ensure effici ency in construction and liaison between all parties.

87. Early progress was rapid, and on 23rd November the Minister for Supply, the H on. H owa rd Beale, Q.C., M .P., visited the site and saw the excavations for the foundations of Australia's first nuclear reactor.

88. Very shortly after the awarding of the building contract, however, the Co mmi ssion e n co~ n te r e d the first and most serious of three major set-backs to the progress of the Lucas H eights undertaking.

8g. The Commonwealth Governm ent- in keeping with its economic policy-- " reduced its capital works programme, and, as a result, commencement of construction of the m ain laboratory buildings was deferred until the rstJuly, 1956, at the earliest. Without these buildin gs it will not be practicable to operate the reactor at full power, nor adequately to develop the research programme. This will necessitate

a large Australian scientific team consisting of over 40 chemists, chemical engineers, m etallurgi sts, physicists, engineers and others, remaining in the United Kingdom at H arwell, where laboratory space is already greatly overcrowded because of the rapidly expanding British programme of research.

go. Progress continued on schedule until early in January, when unprecedented rain caused the second m ajor set-back and virtually brought work to a halt. The third set-back occured when unionists at Lucas Heights claimed that they should receive a "site allowance", and a strike resulted in the latter half of March . It ∑was settled on 2oth April, rg56.

RECENT PROGRESS

91. Considerable progress was m ade during the months of May and June. W ork on the perm anent I oo,ooo gallon elevated water storage tank had reached the halfway mark, and the construction of the main roadway within the site had been nearly completed. The construction of the main store, effluent control building and boilerhouse had begun.

92. In the reactor group, the concrete foundation s of the reactor buildin g had been finished, the assembly of the reactor had comm enced and the sealed steel building to surround the reactor was well advanced.

Page 32

Part VII- L UCAS HEIGHT S RE SEA R CH ESTABLISHl\IE~T

93∑ The wa lls and roof of the laboratory wing of the reactor group had been completed and the steel framework of the radioacti\∑ w ing erected. T he wa lls and roof of the buildin g to be used for processing special m aterials (temporarily used by H ead \'\ 'rightson Processes as a store and \\∑ork hop) had been completed, also the foundations of the cooling tower and the framework of the w ater pumphouse.

D espite climatic and industrial trouble s, progress on the Luca H eights project was well in keeping with the schedule laid down at the start, except for the main laboratories which were deferred for the reason already given.

94- Towa rds the end of M ay, how ever, it was necessary to reduce the rate of expenditur e, pending a decision by the Gov ernment on the funds to be allocated to the Commis sion for capital works during the financial year 1956-57. Th is curtailment unfortunately involved retrenchm ent by the contractor of a portion of his labour force.

USE OF FACILITIES BY UNIVERS ITIES

95∑ In 1955, the Commission gave all \ustralian universities an outline of the kind of facilities w hich wo uld be installed at Lucas H eights. A lthough the e faciliti es are primarily intended for use in the Commiss ion's own research programm e, it will be possibl e to mak e some of them available for use by university research workers doing work on unClassified projects. Each universit y was asked to supply a reasonably detailed programm e of research related to atomic energy, w hich wo uld

require use of the Commission's establi shm ent, together w ith som e indication of the space required and the university staff involved.

96. The Commi ssion's offer met with an excellent response, and in D ecemb er representatives of the universities discussed details with the Co mmi ssion, which is now preparing plans for the establishment of a co-operative organisation designed to enable the universit ies to m ake the best use of the research faciliti es.

The research establishm ent from the main entran r:e. P hotograph : Australian .∑ ltomic E nerg)' Co mmission.

Page 33

Part VITI

EXTERNAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING

SC HOLAR SHIP S AND ST DENTSHIP S

97. R eports from overseas suggest that the development of atomic energy m ay be seriously hamp ered by an acute shortage of scientists and engineers. Gov ernment and private organizations have expressed concern at the relatively sm all numb er of technologists available not only for work in the atomic energy field, but Lor mod ern industry as a who le.

g8. The Comm ission is aware that similar difficu lti es exist in varying degrees in this country and that the developm ent of atomic energy will increase the shortage. It is endeavouring to alleviate the position to some extent, by providing assistance for the university training of scientists and engineers in those fields which are important to atomic energy. This assistance takes the form of undergraduate scholarships and post-graduate studentships.

99∑ Nineteen undergraduates at seven Australian universities hold scholarships awarded by the Comm ission. The scholarships are in geology, geophysics, m etallur gy and chemical engineering. The nam es of scholars and other details are set out in Appendix " B ". Eight of the present scholarships were awarded during r 955-56. They were selected from a field of about r 50 applicants. Apart from a large increase in applications compared with previous years, it was gratif ying

to find m any outstanding students among the candidates.

roo. At present thirt y-one universit y graduates are studying under the Commission's scheme for post-grad uate research studentships . Appendix " B " contains the nam es of these studentship holders and the fields in which they are carrying out their rese:nch studies. Sixteen of the thirty-one studentships were

awarded in 1955-56. They were chosen from som e fift y outstanding applicants.

1 or. The excellent response in terms of numb ers of applicants and their quality

rs encouraging. It suggests that the Commission's efforts to increase the supply of trained scientists is attr acting young men of high calibr e to those fields which are important to future development.

RE SEA RCH CONTRACTS

102. R esearch in the universiti es on particul ar subjects within the atomic

energy programm es is contributing to the development of atomic energy in this country. It is also providing a greater spread of knowledge in this field and creating groups of technologists capable of m eeting Australia's future needs.

Page 3-4

Pa1∑t VIII-EXTERNAL RE SEA RCH AND TRAINING

103. During the period new research contracts were arranged, involving a total contribution to the universities by the Commission of £38,700. These contracts are as follows :-

Universify

Sydney

M elbourne

Ade laide

Qu eensland

Tasmania

N .S.W . Univers " ity ofT cchnology.

Research Subject

Ch em ical engineering research into dispersions " and slurr ies of high density materials. Ga s turbine s and heat transfer problems (a suppleme ntary grant to that mad e in 1954-55). The effect of atomic pow er developm ent on

elect rical powe r distribution system s. ∑ Chemical and m etallurgica l research into refractor y m aterial s which might be suitable as

fuels for high temp eratur e reactors. Flotation of orcs w ith applications to orcs containing uranium. Chemical engineering research into heal transfer

to boiling liquid s. '

Th e treatment of uranium ores (a supplem entary grant to that mad e in 1954-55\. Construction of a m ass spectrometer. D eYc lopment of large neutron counters not at

present available in Au stralia . Chemical engineering research into the properties of boilin g sodium metal. l\1ethods of extracting purifi ed uranium nitrat e "

from orcs. Con structi on of a nuclear reactor simulator.

Directing Professor Fun ds Allocated

------ ------- ---

Professor T . G. Hunter

Professor G . G. M cD onald

Professor D. M. My ers I

Professor J. S. And erson, and Professor H. K. V\. orner.

A ssociate Professor H . H. Dun-1

kin. 1 Professor E. C . R. Spooner ! Professor F. T. M. VVhite

A ssociate Professor I. Lauder Professor A . L. M cA ulay

£1,ooo

£8.ooo

£1,ooo

£4 ,000

£3,000

£700 £4,000

Professor .J. P. Baxter

Professor J. P. Baxter 1

£5,ooo

£2,000

Professor R. E . V owe ls £2,000

104. 'Vorlc under the five research contracts concluded in 1954-55 is developing satisfactorily. These are referred to in the immediately following paragraphs.

105. In the University of Sydney, Professor T. G. Hunter, Professor of Chemical Engineering, is investigating the refining of spent reactor fuel, with parti cular reference to the regeneration of solutions of fission products in molten metals by extraction vvith fused metallic salts. The initial experimental work is being carried out on the extraction of radioactive silver from molten lead, tin or bismuth.

ro6. Professor G. G. McDonald in the D epartment of Mech anical Engineering of the University of Sydney, has constructed a considerable part of the apparat us and equipment necessary for his research into heat transf er within nuclear reactors and gas turbines. The equipment required is somewh at large and extensive but good progress has been made with the work.

107. In the University of Melbourne, Professor ]. S. Anderson has made rapid progress with the establishment of laboratory facilitie s and the development of apparatus and equipment for handling radioactive chemicals. These resources are now being used for research into the study of chem ical effects associated with beta disintegration and recoil phenomena. R esearch has been initiated also into chemical s':parati c∑n processes and analytical methods involving tracer techniques.

108. Under the direction of Professor F. T. 11. \t\ hite, the Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering of the University of Queensland is carrying out investigations into the extract ion of uranium from ores. Good progress has been made with this work. Apparatus and equipment have been obtained or constructed and the research programme is well under wav.

Page 35

Part VUI- .EXTE R .A L H ESEA H t:H AN D TH A IN ING

109. In the .\\' . niversity of Technology, Professor R . H . M yers is directing research in the chool of Metallurgy into the welding and gas content of reacti\∑ e m etals, ga -metals kinetics and the preparation of alloy powders. Among other advance in this project, pure uranium m etal has been produced in Au stralia, it i believed for the first time. It \\∑ as produced from Australian ore.

SampLing concentration s of uranium ore from a smaLL hydraulic cycLone at the Universify of Qu eensLand under an A .E.C. research contract.

Photograph: Unil∑ ersity of Q ueensland.

Page 36

Part VIII- EXTERNAL RESEARCH AND TRAINI~G

UNIVERSITY COURSES IN NUCLEAR SCIENCE

I IO. Australi an universiti es are now considering the establishm ent of

post-graduate and other courses in nuclear science and technology. A numb er of the universiti es concerned have discussed these m atters w ith the Commission, which has offered to assist in planning post-graduate courses in nuclear science or engineering. The Commi ssion has also indicated that suitable arrangem ents

might be made for certain members ofits scientific staff to deliver lectures on subjects of which they possess special knowledge.

I I I. The Commi ssion has m ade clear that it does not intend to enter the

teaching field, but desires only to ensure that the limited teaching resources available at present in Australi a for atomic energy subjects should be used to the best national advantage.

Page 37

Part IX

DEVELOPMENTS OVERSEAS

THE UNITED KINGDOM PROGRAMME

I r '2. The magnitude of the British atomic energy programme is becoming

more and more clearly evident as the demands which it is making upon industry and finance multiply. There is general confidence, however, that it will result in corresponding benefits to the nation. It is estimated that by 1965, the nuclear power statio ns planned by the Central Electricity Authority may be saving five to six million tons of coal a year, and meeting a quarter of Britain's requirements of new generating capacity . Given a reasonably quick mastery by industry at large of the necessary techniques, the United Kingdom authorities estimate that nuclear pow er station capacity installed by 1975 might be about ro,ooo to 15,000 m egawat ts~ saving about forty million tons of coal a year. The saving in coal is

IS by no m eans the only important aspect of the programme.

r I 3∑ The plans of the British Central Electricity Authority provide for the construction of twelve nuclear power stations with a total capacity of I ,500 to '2,ooo megawatts over a period of ten years. Sites have been chosen for three stations. Construction of these is to begin in I957 and the first power is to be supplied

by I96o or I961. In addition, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority also has an extensive programme of reactor construction for purposes of research and development and for the production of plutonium. Some electricity will also be generated. The Atomic Energy Authority's first full-size station at Calder Hall--which is designed primarily to produce plutonium- is now almost complete and will supply some 6o megawatts of electricity to the C .E .A. in October, I956. This station is now being quadruplicated. Since the close of the period under review, further additions to the programme have been announc~d.

r I4. The construction of nuclear power stations makes far-reaching demands for materials and equipment. Power stations in Britain will be built by private industry for the electricity authorities which will own and operate them. The Atomic Energy Authority gives technical advice and considerable help in training

the staff of industrial firms. In order to embark on atomic energy work, leading engineering and electrical firms have formed groups which will undertake contracts in association.

I I 5∑ There is constant investigation into the possibilities of new applications

of atomic energy, one group having been formed in February, I956, to work on nuclear energy for marine propulsion. For naval purposes, marine nuclear power plants have been found successful, although for the time being they are regarded as uneconomic for commercial purposes.

I I 6. An indication of the widening interest in atomic energy is the construction of what will be the first private ly owned reactor in Britain, which should be operating by the end of I957, for a large electrical company. According to Sir Christopher Hinton, of the Atomic Energy Authority, nuclear engineering by I 975 will involve business in the home market amo 1mting to some £300 million a year.

Page 38

Part IX- DEVELOPMENT OVER EAS

1 q. The foundation of all this i an ex ten ive programme of basic and applied

research. H arwell is the major establishment for this work, but in addition to H arwell and its subsidiaries, there is the Industria l Group at Risley engaged on research and development- princip ally applied. The group is responsible for design and production under the programm e. On e of the chief functions of H arwell is to investig ate various forms of nuclear reactors, and several new research and protot ype reactors have recently been added to its list. The " fast breeder " reactor being built at Dounreay in Scotland is well advanced. There is also a great deal of research work being done on the production and use of isotope and in various

technical fields closely related to atomic energy, such as m etallurgy, chemistry and electronics.

UNITED STATES DEVELOPMENTS

I I8. There is not the same pressm g uecd in the United States for the establis hm ent of nuclear power stat ions ; nevertheless, there is a great eagerness in that country to push ahead with nuclear developments. Work is being undertaken on a scale possibl e only in a country w ith vast industrial and financial resources. It is not expected that a nuclear power piant will be operating in the United States under commercially com petiti ve condition s before I965. evertheless, thousands of millions of dollars are being spent by the Government and by industry for the sake of gaining knowledge and experience.

I rg. There is an extensive programm e of reactor development embracing research reactors, demonstration pow er reactors and reactor s for full scale power stations. The United States Atomic Energy Commission, in collaboration with industr y, has undertaken a five year program m e for the construction of five

demonstration pow er reactors, each of a different type, at a total cost of about $240 million. The largest w ill produce about 6o megawatts of electric power- about the same as the output of C alder H all in Britain. The other four are smaller. The first three reactors in this programm e are due for completion by the end of

I956 and the remaining two by 1958.

r 20. These five reactors are only a part of the American programme. There is also a heavy and increasing investm ent in num erous research reactors, and a number of power corporations also have m ajor projects in hand in various parts of the country. The United States Atomic Energy Commission has gran ted licences for the following :-

E lectrical Planned

R eactor T ype Powe r L e,∑el C ompletion

(MW ) D ate

-- ----

Boiling Water 5 1957

Pressurised V\later 140 1959

Boiling Wat er 180 1960

Fast Breeder I 0 1959

Pressurised vVater 134 1958

Aqueous Homo geneous 150 1962

Sodium Graphite 75 1959

* R epresents total private partic ipati on ; U .S .. -\.E.C. contribution not available. t Tot available.

Estimated Cost (S million )

4-0

55∑0

45∑0

*55-0

*40∑5

t

27-2

Page 39

Part IX- DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS

121. In addition to licensing the above, the United States Atomic Energy

Commission is con idering applications from seven other power authorities for somew hat sma ller reactors, of a combined electrical capacity exceeding roo megawatt .

1_2. lt 1s the policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to

seek the fullest possible industrial participation in atomic energy developments. Among other phases of the work in which industry is being invited to take part are the production of refined uranium compounds, the recovery of uranium by processing of scrap, and the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements. R ecently, tenders were called for the manufacture of reactor fuel elements, and

no les than twelve firms submitted tenders.

I 23. The nited States Navy is keenly interested in the possibility of applying

atomic energy for ship propulsion since the success of the atomic submarine, "Nautilus". The application of atomic energy to aircraft is more difficult; nevertheless, the development of reactors for aircraft has been stated to be the econd highest priority project of the United States Air Force.

I 24. The use of isotopes is expanding rapidly and the United States Atomic

Energy Commission estimates that American industry is saving some $200 million a year by the use of isotopes. Far-reaching programmes of basic research are also being carried out in a large number of university, industrial and government establishments throughout the country.

OTHER NATIONAL PROGRAMMES

I 25. Many other countries have now given atomic energy a prominent

place in their plans. There is a general keen inter est and rivalry in developing atomic pow er for hom e industry , in the use of isotopes and, in many cases, in plans to manufacture nuclear power plant and equipment for export. There is also extensive international collaboration, which is noted in more detail in a later section of this report.

I 26. Among the countri es which should be m entioned is Canada, which,

in addition to its very large uranium mining industr y, has built plant to produce uranium metal, and is carrying out important investigations into power reactor design. C anadian authorities consider that no substantial requirement for nuclear pow er is likel y to arise before rg6 r -63 at the earliest, because of considerable

undeveloped water power in some areas, cheap fossil fuel in others, and because of the size or nature of power systems in less favoured regions. Nevertheless, Canada has taken a leading part in the development of atomic energy and has had for some years now an extensive research and development programme. Following

the completion of a large research reactor costing some $30 million, work is in hand for another, known as the Nuclear Power Demonstration reactor, due to be finished in I958. This will be a small nuclear powe r station, of the heavy-water type, as a forerunner to subsequent large plants. Canada is also a major producer of iso∑ cvpes and has had, for a number of years, important programmes of research into various aspects of atomic energy.

Page 40

Part IX- D EVEL OPME l\T OVERSEAS

127. On e interesting result of the Gene\∑a Conference last year was to bring to light Russian work in the atomic energy field. The papers submitted to the conference indicated a high scient ific standard, and it was revealed that the first nuclear power station in the 'vVOrlcl was built in the Soviet Un ion in I9S4- Ru ssia has an extensive programme of research and cle\∑ elopment, one of the chief aims

being to establish economical power supplies for the western portion of the country, w here the best of the coal and hydro-electric resources vvill be fully com mitted in a few years' time.

r 28. In the early stages, large electric power-plants are being planned, m ainly as a m eans of gaining experience. Five large experimental power stations using reactors of three different types are plannecl for the five-year period ending in r g6o, the first of them being due to com e into operation at the end of rgs8. Future

plans also include the comp letion in rgsg-6o of several " pilot" plants each w ith an electrical capacity of so to 70 m egawatts, w hich w ill m ake it possible to select the best types. The needs of these reactor projects for enriched fuel, and military requirem ents of fissile m aterial , indicate the construction of a diffusion plant early

in the programme. In addition to work on reactors there has been a great deal of activity in other fields such as isotopes. These are being w idely used in industry and agricultur e. For the Ru ssian programme to have advanced so far, it is evident that shortage of m an-power or funds has not been allowed to hamp er it.

I 29. In Western Europe, France is taking a prominent place, and has a

number of research reactors in operation. E lectric pow er is now being produced, in small amounts, for the first time, and by rgs8 at least five new reactors and one plutonium plant w ill be comp leted. By rgsg, it is expected that r20 to I so m egawatts of power from nuclear sources will be available in that country.

Holland and B elgium, the Scandinavian countrie s, India and Japan, are amon g other nations actively developing atomic energy with a view to cheap dom estic power in the future and, in som e cases, to the eventual export of materials and equipment.

I 30. This widespread interest mu st be welcomed. The field is so vast, and

there are so many divergent lines of investigation that no one country, how ever great its resources, could possibl y undertake more than a fraction of the wo rk. These national efforts, although they contain a strong element of rivalry, have also resulted in fruitful co-operation and, w ithin certain lim its, in the pooling of

results-all of which should lead to the rapid development of atomic energy.

Page 41

Part X

ATOMIC ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA

POWER PRODUCTION

13 I. The demand for electric power in Australia is doubling every eight or nine years, owing to the increasing use per capita and to the population growth. The need for new sources of power is gradually becoming more evident, especially in those parts of the country which are distant from good coal or hydro-electric

resources. A survey of Australia's power resources was prepared by the Department of N ational D evelopment for the Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The survey showed that total coal reserves were amp le in quantity to m eet all power requirements in Australia for some decades to come, but the coal

is not always to be found where it is needed. New South Wales, Queensland and W estern Au stralia have large deposits of black coal. In Victoria brown coal is very plentiful. Tasmania still has some hydro-electric potential to develop. South Australia, however, has very little in the way of coal reserves and .may be faced with a rather acute power problem in ten or fifteen years. The more remote parts of the larger States are also short of economical power.

I 32. On a cost basis, atomic energy does not yet appear to be competitive

with energy from conventional fuel sources, save in places where conventional fuels m ay be abnormally expensive. Technical changes in the atomic energy field, however, are taking place very rapidly, and there is a general belief that costs will be brought down substantia lly.

I 33∑ Costs are at present a matter of considerable uncertainty. The British

power programme is based on the assumption that the nett cost of nuclear power will be o.6d. (sterling ) per kilowatt hour. This price (o.75d. Australian ) is not attr active wh en compared with the cost of about o.6d. for electricity produced under favourable circumstances from new, efficient, coal-burnin g stations in Australia.

I 34∑ Estimates of costs for nuclear power, however, involve numerous

assumptions which can only be tested over the ensuing years. One of these is the life of the reactor and the rate at which depreciation should be allowed. Another is the optimum period of use for the uranium fuel elements before they are withdrawn from the reactor. Operation of a reactor and the supply of fuel involve a great deal of chemical processing work, the cost of which, on a commerc ial scale, is difficult

to assess in advance. Plutonium is formed in the reactor and can be extracted from the spent fuel elements. The quantity and grade of plutonium produced depends on the type of reactor and its method of operation. Power-producing reactors will produce a certain amount of plutonium which, depending on its composition, may have a high value for military purposes. Later, plutonium will be used as concentrated fuel in new types of power reactors. Its commercial value is expected to be considerable, but this, too, is difficult to forecast at present. The Commission's research reactor at Lucas Heights will help to clear up som e of these doubts by

testing materials and by research on reactor systems.

Page 42

Part X - ATOJ\1lC ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA

I 35∑ Of the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear power stat ion, a relatively

high proportion goes to rheet capita l charges, because the present cost of installation is greater than that of a coal-burnin g stat ion. Consequently, a nuclear power station must operate continuously to be economical, and as m atters stand at present, it mu st also have a substantial output. This m eans that it must be emp loyed as

a base load stat ion. At this stage, therefore, a nuclear pow er station is not economical for the normal small system .

I36. There ma y be areas, how ever, such as a remote region in w hich there is a large mining project, in which a small nuclear power station could be profitabl y employed, but the unit cost of pow er wo uld be relatively high.

ISOTOPES IN INDUSTRY

I37∑ A field offering wide scope lor imm ediate development is that of the industri al applications of radioactive isotopes. These isotopes can already be procured from overseas in a wide range. L ater this supply will be supplemented by isotopes produced at Lucas Heights. R adio-isotopes have a great variety of uses in m edicine, agriculture and industr y, for research, treatment, and production

purposes. They have proved particularl y valuable in the technical control of industrial processes.

I 38. On e of the simplest of these applications is the use of gamm a rays as

substitutes for X-rays in radiography. Instead of a m assive and very expensive X-ray machine, all that is required is a small radioactive source, with suitable shielding against the radiations ; no power is required aqd gamma radiography can be carried out in inaccessible areas and in positions in which the normal X-ray m achine could not be used.

I39∑ As the intensity of radiation is reduced in proportion to the thickness of m aterial through which it passes, an isotope radiation source can be used in a thickness gauge continuousl y to " watch " and m easure the thickness of paper, plastic film, m etal sheeting, tyre fabric or cigarette " rod ", as it passes out of the mill or rollin g m achine. Not only can the gauge do this, but the information can be fed back electronicall y to the control of the m achine. In this w ay, completely

automatic m achines for making rubberis ed rayon or nylon tyre fabric, abrasive papers, gummed paper, cigarettes and sheet m aterials are now operating abroad, notably in the U .S.A. In an application very similar in principle to the thickness gauge, radio-i sotopes can be used to examine the completeness of filling of packaged products. It is a very simple matter to construct a system w hich automatically rejects fault y packages on a production line. This method is now applied to soap powd ers, pharm aceuticals, canned goods, toothpaste tubes, and so on. The

machines can be set to detect variations of -lath inch in the level of a canned liquid or the absence of one tablet in a pharmaceutical pack of twenty.

I40. R adio-isotopes, because of the great sensiti vity and ease with which " they can be detected, are being extensively used in following the path or flow pattern of m aterials in industri al processes. The short half-life tracers commonly used for such purposes are only available when an experimental reactor is available

locally. The Commission's reactor at Lucas H eights w ill produce such radio " isotopes .

Page 43

Part X - A TOJ\tlC E!'IERGY lN A STR A LJ A

141. ::\ow that radio-isotopes are becoming abundantly available, new

applications are arising, w hich ma y eventually becom e m ore important than any previou ly de\∑eloped . These applications include the use of radiation for sterili sation and insecticida l purposes (particularly for food preservation), and the use of radiation to promote or catalyse useful chem ical reactions, not feasible under conventional methods. Extensive investigat ions in these subjects are going on in the United States and are commencing also in England. It has been show n that radiation from isotopes can be used to cold-sterili se food to enable it to be kept for prolonged

periods. orne diffic ulties are being experienced, such as changed flavour and colour, but it is confidently expected that m any of these will be eventually overcome. Such treatment does not give rise to any danger from radioactivity. A development wh ich may be important to Australia, is the fact that the useful lif e of chilled m eats can be considerably prolonged by a very m oderate " pasteuri sation " dose of

radiation, without change of flavour or odour.

142. R adiation may also be effect ively applied in cold sterili sation of hospital m aterials as a substitute for steam sterili sation of equipment, bandages, blankets, and so on. It has been used extensively already for sterili sation of antibiotics , such as penicillin , which cannot be heat sterilis ed owing to their chemical instabilit y.

143. The production of the well know n plastic" Polythene " requir es expensive equipment which will stand very high pressures and temp eratures. It has been show n in the nited States that in the presence of gamm a radiation, " Polythene " can be m ade easily at low pressures and temp eratures. Other possible uses of radiation include rapid vulcanisation of rubber, m anufacture of insecticides, m odification of plastics and the∑ preparation of new oil and fuel additiv es.

r 44∑ T o encourage the wider application of i sotopes, the Commi ssion has set up an Isotopes Section in A ustralia. T his is headed by Dr. J. N . Gregory, wh o has been wo rking on this subject al H an-veil. C omm encing in the latter half of 1956, Dr. Gregory w ill visit industria l establishm ents and other places throucrhout Australia where isotopes might usefully be employed. This Isotopes Section w ill provide a technical advisory service {or industry and agricultur e and scientifi c research organisations.

r 45∑ There are a great many ∑factories m A ustralia w here isotopes could profitably be used. A w ide variety of special devices will be needed to apply them to particular industrial processes, and there will be scope for A ustralian firms dealing in control instruments and the like, to emb ark on the production and servicing of such equipment.

THE PART OF INDUSTRY

146. Industry, as the major user, stands to gam from the successful .establishm ent of nuclear povver. In addition, however, there will be opportuniti es for industry to play a direct part in the developm ent of atomic energy in A ustralia by undertaking w ork under contract, supplying ma terials, com ponents and

equipment and carrying out metallurgical and chem ical processing. Experience in the United Kingdom and the U nited States has shown that although Governments have to date played the leading part in initiating atomic energy developm ents,

Page ´

Pa1∑ t X - ATOMIC ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA

a great and growing field is being created for private enterprise. Mu ch of this work is highly specialized, extrem ely exacting, and involves new techniques. In (he early years, i t is probable that for economic reasons the greater part of this wo rk will be done overseas and that the bulk of atomic equipment and m aterial w ill

be imported. In Britain, leading comm ercial and engineering firms have combined into groups, caterin g for the needs of the national atomic energy programm e. They are thereby gaining valuable experience, and, later on, will be in a strong position to export m aterial s.

I47∑ In Australia there are, however, firms capable of carrying out som e portion of the work. It is the policy of the Commi ssion to encourage, w herever possible, any firm wishing to enter this field, and which m ay pesire information or advice.

Page 45

Part XI

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

GENERAL

I 48. Important international discussions took place during the year on a

numb er of politi cal and scientific aspects of atomic energy. In these, Australia played an active part. The great value to this country of the arrangements concluded in I 954 for co-operation with the United Kingdom has been noted in a previous part of this report. Less formal, but no less cordial, relations have been

m aintained w ith other Commonwealth countries, notably Canada and South Africa, and helpful exchanges of information have resulted. An outstanding development was the conclusion of a bilateral agreement with the United States related to the civil uses of atomic energy.

I 49∑ In October, the Commission was glad to welcome a delegation

representing the Atomic Energy Commission of Thailand, which paid a short visit to enquire into atomic energy matters in Australia.

GENEVA CONFERENCE ON PEACEFUL USES

I 50. Following the initiative taken in December, I 953, by the President of

of the United States, the United Nations in November, 1954, resolved on the holding of an International Scientific Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The Conference was convened in Geneva on 8th August, 1955, seventy-two nations being represented. The Australian delegation was as follows :-

Page 46

D elegates-Professor J. P. Baxter, Australian Atomic Energy Commission (Leader of the delegation ). Professor M. L. E. Oliphant, Australian National University and member

of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Mr. R. L. Harry, Permanent delegate to the European Office of the United Nations. Dr. C. E. Eddy, Commonwealth Department of H ealth, Director of the

Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory. Mr. S. E. Huddleston, Assistant Manager, Electricity Trust of South A ustralia.

Advisers-Mr. C. N. Watson-Munro, Chief Scientist of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. G. C . .J. Dalton, Chief Engineer of the Australian Atomic Energy

Commission. Dr. G. L. Miles, Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Mr. K. F. Alder, Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Mr. V. J. F. Brain, Chairman of the Electricity Authority of New South

Wales.

Mr. R. G. Thomas, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Mr. D. L. Anderson, Department of National Development. Mr. T. Sykes, Electricity Commission of New South Wales. Mr. D. R. Griffiths, Electricity Trust of South Australia.

Part XI- INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

I 5 r. More than one thousand scientific and technical papers were presented,

of which Australia presented five on the following subjects (a) "An Account of Atomic Energy Developments in Australia", prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission.

(b) "The Natural Occurrence of Uranium and Thorium in Australia", prepared by the Bureau of Mineral Resources.

(c) " The Use of Radio Isotopes in Australia ", prepared by Dr. C. E. Eddy, Commonwealth Department of Health.

(d) "Acid Pressure Leaching of Uranium Ores", by Mr. P. M. G. Gray Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

(e) " Electric Power in Australia, I 955-2004. ", prepared by the Department of National Development.

I52. This conference was the first of its kind ever held, and has been hailed as an outstanding success. A very large amount of information was released which previously had been closely guarded. In addition to the fact that some information became generally available for the first time, the comparison of results achieved by different countries working independently provided a valuable check. There was a free discussion and exchange of views which delegates found extremely stimulating.

I 53∑ In addition to the formal proceedings, several nations, including the

United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France and Canada, staged exhibitions of progress in atomic energy.

I 54∑ A certain amount of information on atomic energy will no doubt continue

to be kept secret for commercial or military reasons, but this conference marked a turning point in international relations, as the greater part of the atomic energy field has now been thrown open to normal commercial enterprise.

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY

I 55∑ This Agency for the promotion of peaceful uses of atomic energy was originally proposed by President Eisenhower in I 954, and subsequently endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations. During I955, a draft statute for the Agency was widely circulated among interested nations for comment. The Agency is designed to provide for exchange of information, equipment, and fissile material.

It will also arrange for aid in designing and testing materials and equipment, for nations seeking assistance in atomic energy undertakings. A system of safeguards, including inspection, has been embodied in the draft statute to guard against misuse or diversion to military purposes of materials supplied. After the Agency has been ∑ constituted it is intended that it should conclude an agreement with the United

Nations, establishing a suitable relationship between the two organisations.

I 56. Australia has been one of the sponsors of the Agency and one of the

participants in a I 2-power working level conference which opened in Washington on 28th February to consider the draft statut e of the Agency in detail. Australia was represented by its Ambassador in Washington and members of his staff, who were most active throughout in presenting Australia's views, and who maintained

close touch with the Commission which supplied advice on technical aspects.

Part X I- I 'TE R A TIO 'AL UELATIO S

15 7∑ T he lengthiest part of the discussions related to the constitut ion of the

Board or c.;0 ,∑ ernors of the Agency. It proved diffi cult to ensure a position of due influence to supplying countries- i.e., the countri es mos t advanced in atomic energy technique or producers of source m aterials, such as Australia- w hile giving adequate recognition to the claims of others, and to the principle of equitable geographical distribution wh ich som e nations desired. The revised draft statute ,,∑ ill be pre -en ted to a full-scale international conference in Septemb er, I 956, and if

it is adopted and duly ratified, the Age ncy should begin its operations in I957∑

∑∑ E U R A TO 1 "

158. Th e countri es of western Europe have been anxious to pool their resources 111 the atom ic energy field so far as possible, since m any of them lack the m eans of

setting up m aJor atomic energy installations of their own. In January, representatives of France, W estern German y, Italy, Belgium, Holland and Luxemburg, at a m eeting of the A ction Commi ttee for a United Europe, discussed m eans of establishing a European Atomic Communit y, more familiarly known as " E uratom ". They issued a joint declaration callin g for a European Commission for Atomic Energy w ith suprem e pow ers of control. All nuclear materials in the

territories of memb er nations would becom e the exclusive property of the Co mmi ssion, which would allocate them. The Commission would also authoris e construct ion and operation of nuclear installations. This organisation w ould be open to all European countri es.

I 59∑ T he Euratom proposal has com e in for som e strong cnt1c1sm on the

score that it is attemp ting too mu ch. A less ambitious project is that put forward by the O rganisation For European Economic Co-operation, which has been exploring the possibilit ies of a less s.weeping organisation for the co-ordination of effort in this field in western E urope.

BILATERAL A GREEMENT WITH U.S.A.

160. Du ring the period under review, the Co mmon wealth Government

approved of negotiations being conducted with the United States for a bilateral agreem ent for the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Since the passage of the United States Atomic Energy Act, 1954, m any nations have taken advantage of Am erican readiness to conclude bilateral agreem ents with friendly countri es. Mo st of the agreem ents so made, how ever, have been restri cted to the exchange of unclassified inform ation and of m aterials for research purposes. D oubtless, A ustralia could also have secured such a pact, but it w as considered preferable to seek an arrangem ent mu ch w ider in scope, som ew hat on the lines of those m ade with the U nited States by the United Kingdom and Belgium. Events have fully vindicated

this decision. The proposal raised som e problem s for the Am erican authoriti es, wh ose goodw ill and readiness to m ake adjustments to their ow n programm e, however, has given practical proof of t he value to the v,rorld of President Eisenhowe r's " Atom s for Peace" policy. The agreem ent signed on 22nd June is mu ch more far-reaching

than the earlier research agreem ents referred to above. It opens the way to the supply from the nited States, either from governme ntal or private sources, of information, equipment, m aterials and fuel for use in a programm e of industrial

Page 48'

Part XI-INTERNATIO AL RELA TIO _ 'S

nuclear power. The benefits to Australia of such an arrangem ent with a country possessing the wealth of scientifi c and industrial experience and resources of the nited States are very great. Before the negotiations had been formally opened, the United States had undertaken to sell to the C ommi ssion a quantit y of heavy water required for the Lucas Heights reactor.

NEGOTIATIONS OVERSEAS

I 61. At the beginning of the period under review , the Minister for Supply, the Hon. Howard Beale, Q.C., M.P., discussed in the United Kingdom arrangem ents for co-operation between Australia and the United Kingdom on atomic energy, and the negotiations which were then in train for the sale of uranium oxide from

the M ary Kathleen mine in Queensland to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. He then visited Canada and the United States. In Washington, where he was joined by the Chairman of the Commi ssion, he discussed with the United States Atomic Energy Commis sion the question of a bilateral agreem ent

between Australia and the United States, after which formal negotiations we re∑ comm enced and carried forward by the Australian Amb assaoor, Sir Percy Spender.

r62. The Minister also discussed with the Combin ed D evelopment Ag ency various aspects of the Rum .Jungle operations and the question of the future supply and demand for raw materials. In May, 1956, the Chairman of the Commi ssion, Sir .Jack Stevens, visited the United States and the United Kingdom, in order

to comp lete these negotiations and to discuss various aspects of co-operation with the two countries. H e also assisted the Ambassador in the final discussions which led to the signing of the bilateral agreement, and had further talks with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority on the practic al working of the co-operative

arrangements between the United Kingdom and Australia.

UNITED NAT IONS RADIATIO N COMMITTEE

I63. On the 3rd D ecember, 1955, the G eneral Assembly of the United N ations approved the establishm ent of a Scientific Committee to co-ordinat e and disseminate information concerning the effects of nuclear radiation on human health and safety.

I 64. Fifteen member nations took part in the first m eeting of the Commi ttee m March, rgs6. A ustralia nominated the following representativ es

Representati ve : Dr. C. E. Eddy, Director, Commonw ealth X -ray and Radium Laboratory.

First Alternat e : Mr. C. N. vV atson-Munro , Chief Scientist , Australian Atomic Energy Commission.

Second Alternate : Professor J. P. Baxter, D eputy Ch airman, Au stralian Atomic Energy Commission.

Consultant s : Dr. G. L. Miles

Dr. J. N. Gregory

Dr. A. R. \V. Wil on I I J Australian Atomic Energy Commi ssion.

Page 49

Part XI-INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

165. tits first m eeting on the 14th March, I956, the Committee unanimously elected ustralia's repre entative, Dr. C . E . Eddy, as its Chairman. The subsequent death in June of Dr. Eddy- a distinguished and experienced scientist -was a heavy loss to the Committee and to A ustralia.

I 66. The object of the Committee is to receive and collate radiological information supplied by memb ers of the United Nations or memb ers of the specialised agencies, to study and assess it, and to report its conclusions to the United Nations.

r 67. The Committee will recommend uniform standards and methods for

sample collection, instrumentation, procedures, etc. It will m ake yearly progress reports and by Ist July, 1958, or earlier, will prepare a summary of the reports received on radiation levels and radiation effects , together with its own evaluation of these.

COLOMBO PLAN

r 68. In October last, the United States announced to the meeting of the

Colombo Plan nations that it was prepared to contribute to the establishment of a regional nuclear training centre in Asia. The United States would contribute funds for training Asian students in the peaceful uses of atomic energy and for laboratory faciliti es and equipment, including a nuclear reactor for research. Later, it was announced that Manila had been selected as the site of the proposed training centre.

REACTOR FOR INDIA

I 6g. Canada has also announced that it will present India with a large nuclear reactor which is to be " availab le for use of scient ists from other countries".

Page 50

Part XII

INFORMATION SERVI<:ES

LIBRARY SERVICES

I 70. The number of report s and other docum ents received by the Commission's

library has greatly increased during the year. The libr ary now contains the largest and most comprehensive collection in Australia of material concerning atomic energy. This is appreciated by the increasing numb er of organizations and individuals who m ake use of the faciliti es offered by the library.

I7 r. The regular distribution of the library's accession lists has continued and the list of recipients has grown considerably during the year ; it now includes some seventy organizations and individu als.

PRESENTATION OF U.S. LIBRARY

I 72. As a part of its " Atoms for Peace" programm e originally conceived

by President Eisenhower, the United States donated libr aries of books, reports

The Minister for Supply, the H on. H ow ard B eale, Q .C., M.P., accepting from the United States Consul-General, Mr. D onald K ennedy, books and technical papers from the United States Atomic Energy Commission.

A ustralian Official P ho tograph.

P~ge 51

Part Xll- lNF OHM A TION SERVIl:ES

and other documents to a number of friendly countri es. Australia was included in this eli tribution .

r 73∑ t a short ceremony at the Co mmi ssion's offices on the 30th September,

1955, the Co nsul-Ge neral for the United States, Mr. Donald D w ight K ennedy, presented a technical l ibrary on atomic energy, w hich was accepted on behalf of the Commom" :ealth by the Minister for Supply, the Hon. H oward Beale, Q. ., ~I.P .

r 74∑ T he library, covering the who le range of atomic energy science and

technology, comprises some 6,500 publications, reports and abstracts, with about 55,000 index cards, and w ill occupy about 250 feet of shelving space.

DI ST RIB UTI O N OF GENEVA CONFE RE NCE PAPER S

r 75∑ A number of sets of pre-prints of the papers presented at the G eneva

Con ference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy has been received by the Commiss ion. E ach full set contains over r,IOO reports, man y of w hich are themselves substantial docum ents.

1 76. On e set has been provided for each State Governm ent and a set has

also been deposited in the Parliamentary Library in Canberra.

Pari of the Commis sion's stand at the Chem ex Exhibition showing model of CaLd er HalL reactor. Photograph: Australian Atomic Energ) " Commission.

Page 52

Part XII- INFORM A TIO N SE RVICE S

I 77. These report s describe the latest developments in the atomic energy

field and cover all aspects of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology.

COMMISSION PUBLICATIO NS

q8. A revised edition of the pamphlet" Prospectin g and Mining for Uranium in A ustralia " is now being prepared for early publication . Thi pamp hlet is issued jointl y by the Australian A tomic Energy Commission and the D epartment ofNational D evelopment. The revised edition will contain a considerable am ount of new

m aterial and a new set of coloured photographs depicting uranium minerals found in Australia.

I 79∑ The Commission is preparing a booklet entitled " R adio-isotopes in

Industry and R esearch " describin g the industrial uses of radioact ive isotopes. This booklet is intended for distribution to those engaged in industry, agriculture and mining. It describ es the ways in w hich radio-isotopes can be emp loyed to improve productivit y, increase efficiency and reduce waste in a wide range of industrial and agricultur al activiti es.

CHEMEX EXHIBITION

180. The Commi ssion was an exhibitor in the 1956 C hem ex Exhibiti on held in Melbourne from the roth to the 26th M ay. T he Commiss ion's exhibit ∑ covered all aspects of atomic energy work from the search for, and mining of, uranium to the industri al and other uses of radio-isotopes, and the production of electr ic pow er from nuclear sources. The display included also an architectural model

of the Commission's atomic energy research establishment at Lucas H eights near Sydney, and other material relatin g to the Commission's programme, including its support of research and training in the universities.

MODEL OF CALDER HALL NUCLEA R POWER STATION

181. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy A uthority has kindly lent the Commission a perspex mod el of the atomic power station now nearing completion at C alder Hall in England.

182. This model, which is of fine craftmanship, formed an important part of the Commission's exhibit at the Chem ex Exhibition in Melbourne and will be displayed at other exhibitions in various parts of Australia.

Page 53

Part XIII

STATE ACTIVITIES

COMMONWEALTH-STATES INFORMATION COMMITTEE

183. The Commonwealth-States Committee for the Exchange of Information concerning the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy was formed as a result of exchanges of views between the Prime Minister and the Premiers of the States, late in I955∑ The Committee held its first meeting in Sydney on the rgth January, 1956.

184. The Committee is not concerned with policy decisions but will ensure

that the States are kept fully informed about developments in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. It will also provide opportunities for the preliminary discussion of problems in such fields as the generation of power from nuclear sources.

185 . Information will be exchanged between the Atomic Energy Commission and the States on such aspects of nuclear energy as-Power generation ;

The use of radio-isotopes ; Mining and treatment of uranium and related substances ;

Health and safety matters.

Those nominated to attend the first meeting of the Committee were

Page 51

Representing the Common wealth Government-Sir Jack Stevens, Chairman, Australian Atomic Energy Commission, CHAIRMAN; Professor ]. P. Baxter, Deputy Chairman, Australian Atomic Energy

Commission ;

Mr . H. M. Murray, Commissioner, Australian Atomic Energy Commission;

Mr. B. Hartnell, First Assistant Secretary Department of National Development.

Representing N ew South Wales-Mr. V.]. F. Brain, Chairman, N.S.W. Electricity Authorit y ;

Mr. E.]. Kenny, Under Secretary, Department of Mines ;

Professor R. H. Myers, N.S.W. University of Technology;

Professor D. M . Myers, University of Sydney, (Professor D. M . M yers was unabie to attend the first meeting).

Representing Victoria-Mr. W. B. Nelson, Planning Group Chairman, State Electricit y Commission ;

Mr. E. D. Connor, Tests Engineer, Victorian Railways.

Part XIII-STATE ACTIVITIES

Representing South Australia -Mr. K. H. Milne, Chief Engineer, Electricity Trust of South Australia;

Mr. S. E. Huddleston, Assistant Manager, Electricity Trust of South Australia.

Representing Q_u eensland-Mr. ]. A. Holt, Co-ordinator General of Public Works ;

Mr. Neil Smith, Commissioner for Electricity;

Professor H. C. Webster, University of Queensland.

Representing Western Australia -Mr. F. C. Edmondson, General Manager and Chief Engineer, State Electricity Commission ;

Mr. ]. Hood, Director, Government Laboratories, Department of Mines.

Representing Tasmania-Mr. A. H. Be~amin, Chief Electrical Engineer, Hydro-Electric Commission ;

Mr. M. R. Dunster, Electrical Investigations Engineer, Hydro-Electric Commission.

OPENING OF PORT PIRIE PLANT

I 86. In South Australia, the treatment plant erected at Port Pirie by the

State Government for the extraction of the uranium oxide from the uranium bearing concentrates derived from mining operations at Radium Hill, commenced operations in mid-August I955∑

187. Although until early in 1956 the South Australian Government assumed complete responsibility for the development of radioactive minerals in the State, legislation has been passed through the State Parliament that will allow private interests to develop and exploit the uranium deposits in the Mount Victoria district some seventy miles from Radium Hill. Full use is to be made of the facilities at

Radium Hill and Port Pirie in recovering the uranium oxide from the ores won in this locality.

Pace 55

Part XIV

GENE RAL

ADV ISORY COMMITTEE ON RA 'I 1 MI 'lNG

I 88. During the year this Committee reviewed various matters relating to the Commis sion's policy and practices on ore purchasing, rewards for discoveries, prospecting and exploration, and similar matters. The Commission acknowledges gratefully the practical help which has always been forthcoming from the members of this Committee.

SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

I 8g. Professor E . \V. Titt erton, Professor of N uclear Physics in the R esearch School of Physical Sciences of the Australian National University, was appointed a m emb er of the Commission's Scientific Advisory Committee, during the year. The Commission is fortunat e in being able to avail itself of the knowledge and experience∑of the distinguish ed members of this Committee.

I go. The Scientific Advisory Committee has held three meetings during the year to consider and advise upon various aspects of the Commission's programme of research and development, including its schemes for undergraduate and post-graduate trainin g. ∑ ∑

B US INESS ADVISORY GROUP

rgr. The Bu siness Adv isory Group m et in November, and discussed the economics of nuclear pow er, in the light of information from the Geneva Conference, and the Commission's uranium mining policy in Australia. The Commission, in its everyday activiti es, is now encountering a variety of commercial and industrial problems on which the help and advice of members of the group is of considerable value and is gratef ully acknowledged. In particul ar, such matters as the establishment of advisory services for industr y and the education and training of technicians and scientists are of great inter est to both parties and will be the subject of continued study and discussion.

rg2. The Commission records with deep regret the death of Mr.]. I. Carroll, C.M.G., D.C.M ., shortly before the end of the period. The loss of a man of Mr. Carroll's w ide attainments, experience and vision, leaves a gap which cannot easily be filled.

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS

I93∑ As required by Section 3I of the Atomic Energy Act, 1953, financial accounts for the year ended 30th June, 1956, are annexed as Appendix A. In accordance w ith the Act, the accounts are accomp anied by the report of the Auditor-General.

Page 56

Part XIV - GENERAL

REAPPOINTMENT OF COMMISSIONER

194. Mr. H. M. Murray was reappointed in April as a part-time member of the Atomic Energy Commission for a further term of three years. Mr. Murray is General Manager of the Mount Lyell Mining and Raihvay Company Ltd. and a well-known Australian mining engineer.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

195. The considerable progress achieved during the period would not have been possible without the loyal support of the Commission's own staff. Both the scientific and non-scientific members of the staff have displayed the utmost enthusiasm and initiative in m eeting the new problems which are constantly arising.

196. The Commission is deeply conscious of the debt which it owes to m any persons and other organizations . These include governmental and private agencies both in Australia and abroad, universities and industrial organizations . It is, unfortunately, not possible to mention all of them by nam e in the pages of this

report, but the Commission wishes to express its appreciation of their valuable help.

Page 57

Appendix A-FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS

AUSTRALIAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

Statements of Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th June, 1956

Receipts: Receipts from Commonwealth Treasury Other R eceipts .. Commonwealth Bank Ov erdraft (go :6 :I956)

Payments: Salaries and payments in the nature of salary General expenses-( 1) Travelling and subsistence

(2) Office requisites and equipment (3) Incidentals

Research Exploration and development Purchase of Uranium Ore Capital works and services Rum Jungle Project Advances Commonwealth Bank Overdraft (I :7 :I 955)

N.J. MUIR, Accountant,

£

3.790,794 g8,442 290,332

£4,I I9,569

£

33,732

£ s. d.

9.598 6 I I

3,767 0

7,04I I2 I I 20,406 2I6,909 369,472

37.428 I,I6I,868 2,004,982 I3,797

260,970

£4,119,569

J. E. S. STEVENS, Chairman,

s. d.

0 I I

I2 6

7 IO

3

s. d.

0 5

I9 I I

I9 0

8 IO

I3 4

17 IO

I2 9

5 4

3 IO

I 3

Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Australian Atomic Energy Commission.

The above Statement of R eceipts and Payme nts has been examined and is in agreem ent w ith the books of the Commiss ion. In my opinion it is a correct statement of the cash transactions of the Commission for the year ended 30thjune, 1956. H. C. NEWMAN,

29th Augusi, 1956. Auditor General for the Commonw ealth.

Page 58

Appendix B-STU DENTSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS

Post-graduate Research Studentships

R esearch Student

M. H. Brennan, B.Sc. J. A. Broomhead, B.Sc. G. H . Derrick, B.Sc. J. A. Lehane, B.Sc.

D. M. Slade, M.Sc. M. R. Smith, B.Sc.

C. A. Angell, B.Sc. D. L. Baulch, B.Sc. L. M. Fitzgerald, B.Sc. G . L. Hanna, B.Sc. A. M. Segar, B.Sc. F. G. Thomas, B.Sc.

J. K. Cathro, B.E.

J. C. Lill, B.E.

J. G. Matthew, B.Sc. R . W. Smyth, B.E. R. Staker, B.E. G. M . Tostevin, B.E.

E. J. McKeague, B.E. (Min .) R. P. Hildebrand, B.Sc. B. Zerner, B.Sc.

B. R . F. Kend all, B.Sc. M . R . Meharry, B.Sc. G . W . Raynes, B.E.

K . G . McCracken, B.Sc.

L. A. Cambey, B.Sc.

F. Lawson, B.Sc.

B. G. Madden, B.Sc.

G. G. Madgwick, B.Sc.

G. R. Wallwork, A.S.T.C., B.Sc. Miss H. Waterman, B.Sc.

Univ e rsi~ y Field of Research

Sydney Physics

Sydney Chemistry

Sydney Physics

Sydney Physics

Sydney Chemical Engineering

Sydney Chemistry

Melbourne Metallurgy

Melbourne Chemistry

Melbourne Metallurgy

Melbourne Metallurgy

Melbourne Physics

Melbourne Chemistry

Adelaide Metallurgical and Chemical

Engineering

Adelaide Metallurgical and Chemical

Engineering

Adelaide Chemical Engineering

Adelaide Mechanical Engineering

Adelaide Chemical Engineering

Adelaide Mechanical Engineering

Queensland Mining and Metallurgical

Engineering

Queensland Chemistry

Queensland Chemistry

\Vestern Australia Physics Western Australia Physics Western Australia Mechanical Engineering

Tasmania Physics

N.S.W. University of Applied Physics Technology N.S.W. University of Chemical Engineering Technology N.S.\1\ T. University of Chemical Engineering

Technology N .S.W. University of Chemical Engineering T echnology N.S.W. University of Metallurgy

Technology N.S.W. University of Chemistry Technology

Page 59

SdwLar

B. Bamb er C. D. Branch ~I. L. Brisk

R. \V. 1errick B. cnven

J. !\I. Bannister

P. S. C layton P. C. Stone

P. G. A lfredson R . Bryan R. S. H. Fardon J. R. Pollard

\. J. Flavelle D . J. Forman

D. H . Green

M. G. Bu chhorn

G. Gu est

J. W. K able

N . R. McDonald

Page 60

Appendix B-e untinued

Un det∑graduate Scholarships

University

Sydney Sydney Sydney Sydney Sydney

Me lbourne

Adelaide Ad elaide

Qu eensland Qu eensland Qu eensland Qu eensland

\ 1Vestern Australia

Western Australia

Tasmania

N.S.W. University of Technology N.S.W. University of Technology

.S. W. Universit y of T echnology N .S.\tV. University of T echnology

Subject in w!ti c!t Sc!toLars!tip A warded Geophysics Geology Chemical Engineering Geophysics Geophysics

Metallur gy

1etallurgy Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering Geology Geology Geophysics

Geophysics Geology

Geology

l\1etallur gy

Metallurgy

Metallurgy

Metallurgy

Appendix C-AUS TRALIAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

Secretmy:

The i\1ini ster of State for Supply : The H on. H oward Beale, Q.C., M.P.

Chairman :

Sir Jack Stevens, K.B.E., C .B., D.S.O., E .D., F.A.S.A.

D eputy Chairman :

Professor]. P. Baxter, O.B.E., B.Sc., Ph.D. (Birm.), F.A.A.S., A. f.I. Chem .E., F.R.A .C .I., M.I.E. Aust.

Commissioner :

H . M. Murray, B.Sc., B.Mct.E., M.A .I.M.M.

Chief Scientist :

P. C. Greenland, M.A., B.Ec. C. N. Watson-Munro, O .B.E., M.Sc., A.M.I.E.E.

Principal Field E ngineer : ]. C. Webb, M.Sc., Dip. M et. Min ., F.G.S., M .I.Min.E., M .I.E., M.A.I.M.1V1.

Commercial Manag er : R . L. Crivelli, B.A., B.Com.

Accountant : . ]. Muir, A.A.S.A., A.C.I.S.

T echnical Secretmy : I. J. ∑ w. Bisset, t!.Sc., A .Inst.P.

Information Officer: A. D . Thom as, 1V1.Sc., \.lnst.P.

London Liaison Officer: 0. 0 . Pulley, B.Sc., B.E., Ph.D., F.Inst.P., A.M .I.E.E., A.M.I.E. Aust.

D eputy Chief Scientist : G. C.]. D alton, B.Sc., B.E., D.Phil., M.I.E.N.Z., M. I.Mech.E.

Leader in Metallurgy : K. F. Alder, M .Sc., A.I.1V1., A .M.A.I.M.M.

Leader in Chemistry : G. L. 1V1iles, B.A., M .Sc., Ph.D., A.Inst. P., F.R .I.C., F.R.A.C.I.

Leader in Isotopes : ]. N . Gregory, D .Sc., F .R.A.C.I.

Leader in Chemical Engineering : C. L. W . Berglin, B.Chem.E., M .I. Chem .E., M.A.I.M.M ., A.M.I.E.Aust.

Senior M echanical Engineer: Vv. H . R oberts, D.S.C ., M.M E .. A.M. I.E.

A DVIS ORY COMMITTEES App ointed under Section 20 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1953.

A dvisory Committee on Uranium Mining MEMBERS H . M. Murray, B.Sc., B.Met.E., M.A.I.M.M., Chairman . F. S. Anderson, C.B.E., B.Mech.E ., M.A .I.M.M., M.I.E.Aust Julius Kruttschnitt, Ph.B. (Y ale).

H . G. R aggatt, C.B.E., D.Sc.

Fu nction: To advise the Commission on matters relating to uranmm mmmg and the treatm ent of uranium ores.

Page 61

!tppcndix C-antinued

Scientific Advisory Committee

:\Il.\lBE R S Professor J. P. Baxter, O.B.E ., Ph.D. (Birm.), F.A.A.S., A.M.I.Chem.E., F.R .. \.C.I., :\I. I.E.A ust., Chairman. Pro!Cssor J. S. An derson, Ph.D.(Lond.), M.S c., A.R.C.S., D.I.C., F.R.S.,

F .. \ .. '\.S. \'. J. F. Brain, B.E., M. I.E.Aust., M.I.E.E., M .A .I.E.E. Professor T. G. Hun ter, D.Sc., Ph.D.(Birm.), M.I.Chem.E., F.Inst.Pet., F.R.i\ .C.I. Professor L. H . Martin, C.B.E, Ph.D.(Cantab.), F.A.A.S., F.Inst.P. Professor R . H. My ers, lVI.Sc., Ph.D., A.I.M., A.M.Aust.I.M.M., A .R.A .C.I. Professor M . L. E . Oliphant, B.Sc.(Ad el.), M.A., Ph.D.(Cantab.), LL.D.(St.

And rews), D.Sc.(Me lb., T oronto, Belf., Birm. and N.S.W. Univ. Tech.), F.R.S., F.A.A .S., F.Inst.P. Professor E. W . T itt erton, Ph.D., Dip.Ecl.(Birm.), F.A.A.S. F. W. G . Wh ite, C.B.E., M.S c., Ph.D.

Functio1t: T o advise the Commi ssion on scientific matters relating to atomic energy research and developme nt.

Business Advisory Group

lVIE MBER S Sir Jack Stevens, K.B .E., C.B., D.S.O., E.D., Chairman. Sir John A lli son, M anaging Director, Permewan Wright Ltd. K . G . Begg, C hairman, Imperial Ch emical Industries of Australia and New

Zealand Ltd. Sir H arry Brown, C.M .G., M .B.E. D r. H . C. C oom bs, G overnor, Commonw ealth Bank of Australia. C. W. Goodm an, Ge neral Manager for Au stralia, The English Electric Co. Ltd. D r. R . W . H arman, G eneral M anager, Colonial Sugar Refining Co. Ltd. H . H ey, C hairman of Directors, Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Australasia Ltd. L. A. Ho oke, Ma naging Director, Am algamated Wireless (A'sia. ) Ltd. D r. L. F. L oder, C.B.E., Director-General, Commonwealth Department of

Work s.

Sir D aniel M cV ey, C.M .G., M anaging Director, Metal Manufactures Ltd. H. C. C. M arshall, General M anager, Bank of New South Wales. M alcolm S. Moore, D eputy Federal President, Australian Institute of l\1anagem en t. A. E. Mo nk, President, A ustralian Council of Trade Unions. J. M. New m an, C hairman of Directors, Mount Morgan Limited.

R . G . C . Parry-O kedcn, C hairman and M anaging Director, Lysaght's Works Pty. Ltd. j. L . Pctton, O .B.E., ChartcrcJ A ccountant and C ::)lnpany Director. S. P O\~ ell, C hartered l\. cc :) ~ nta nt ;:m el Co mpan y Director.

C. York Syme, Ch airman of Directors, The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd.

Fu11ctio11: To advise the C ommi ssion on problem s associat ed with the application of atomic energy to industry and on the industrial effort required to support an industrial atomic energy programm e.

Page 62