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Air Pollution - Senate Select Committee - Report - Part I - Report

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Report from the

Senate Select Committee on



Brought up and

ordered to be printed 10 September 1969


2 73


Senator G. H. Branson (Western Australia) Chairman

Senator C. L. Laucke (South Australia) Deputy Chairman

Senator the Hon. V. C. Gair (Queensland) (discharged from attendance on 21 August 1968)

Senator G. Georges (Queensland) (appointed 18 September 1968)

Senator R. H. Lacey (Tasmania )

Senator A. G. E. Lawrie (Queensland)

Senator J. A. Little (Victoria) (appointed 21 August 1968 )

Senator J. P. Ormonde (New South Wales) (discharged from attendance on 18 September 1968 )


Page 3- Paragraph 11 - In the se1·enth line of pa ragraph I I . suhstitute 'is' f or 'it'.

Page 14- Paragraph 46-In the fi f teenth lin e of para graph 46, d elete 'that'. Page 55- Paragraph 181- In th e second lin e of item 6 . delete 'set'.

Paragra ph 183-In the fou rth line of paragraph 183 . suhstitute 'them ' for 'it'.

Page 105- Appcndix X - A fter 'A ustra lian Democratic Lahor Party . . V orthern Regional Centre '. add 'N.S.W.'

Printed fo r the Gover n me nt of the Commonwealth by W. G. M URRAY at the G o vern ment Printin g Offi ce . Canberra


1 INTRODUCTION 10 1 Formation of Committee I 0 2 Membership of Committee I 0 3 Officers of the Committee 0 0 1 0 4 Meetings of the Committee 1 0 5 Witnesses and Submissions

I 0 6 Inspections 1 0 7 Scope of the Inquiry 1 0 7 0 I Defini tion of Reference 1 0 7 0 2 Collection of Evidence

1 0 7 0 3 Aims of the Committee

2 NATURE OF AIR P OLLUTION 2 0 1 G eneral 0 0 202 What is Air Pollution 2 0 3 Forms of Air Pollution

2 0 3 0 I General

2 0 3 0 2 Particulate Matter 20303 Sulphur Dioxide 2 0 3 0 4 Carbon Monoxide 20305 Oxidants 0 0 2 0 3 0 6 Radioactive Pollution 2 0 3 0 7 Other Pollutants 2 0 3 0 8 "Smog" and Temperature Inversion 2 0 3 0 9 Photochemical Pollution 2 .4 Sources of Air Pollution

204 0I Natural Sources 2 0 4 0 2 Industrial Sources 2 0 4 0 3 Transportation

2.4 .4 Nuclear Reactions 2 0 4 0 5 Electricity Generation 2 0 4 0 6 Other Sources

3 EFFECTS OF A IR POLLUTION 3 0 I General 0 0 3 0 2 Air Pollution Disasters 3 03 Health 3 0 4 Plant and Animal Life 3 0 5 Economic Cost of Air Pollution 3 0 6 Social Costs of Air Pollution

4 CONTROL OF A IR POLLUTION 4 0 I Natural Elimination of Pollutants 4 0 2 The Importance of Meteorological Processes 4 0 3 Technological Control

4o3oi Urban Planning 4 0 3 0 2 Control Equipm ent 0 0 4 0 3 0 3 Particular Problems

4 0 3 0 4 Standards for Ai r Quality























13 14 15 15


16 I7 2I 2I 22

23 23 23 24 27 29 3I

32 32 32 33 33 34 35 40

27 5

4.4 Legislative Control 4.4. I The Commonwealth 4.4.2 New South Wales 4.4.3 Victoria 4.4.4 Queensland 4.4.5 South Australia 4.4.6 Western Australia

4.4 . 7 Tasmania .. 4.4.8 General Comments on State Legisla ti on 4.5 Costs of Controlling Air Pollution

5 THE ROLE OF THE COMMONWEALTH 5. I The Constitutional Position 5.2 Research and Info rmation .. 5.2. I C.S.I.R.O.

5.2.2 Bureau of Meteorology 5.2.3 Grants for Research and Training 5.3 Financial Assistance to Industry 5.4 Commonwealth- State Cooperation 5.5 Total Environmental Pollutio n

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6. I Conclusions 6.2 Recommendations



Appendix I Extracts from the Journals of the Senate Appendix II Measurements of Deposited Matter in Australia Appendix III Measurements of Smoke Density in Australia .. Appendix IV Measurements of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in

Australia ..

Appendix v Measurement of Air Pollutants near Traffi c Lanes Ill Sydney Appendix VI Radioactive Materials introduced into the Environment and of Greatest Signifi cance in the Assessment of Health

Hazards. (Chapter 2, Report of National Radiation Ad-


4I 42 42 45 47 49

50 52 53 56

58 58 59 59 60 60 6I 62 64

65 65 65



69 70 79



visory Committee, 1962) 90

Appendix VII Radiation Protecti on Standards and Guides. (Chap ter 3, Report of National Radiation Advisory Committee, I965) 94 Appendix VIII Recommended Maximum Concentrations of Atmospheric Contaminants for Occupational Ex posures 97

Appendix IX Recommended Units for Air Sampli ng and A nalysis I04

Appendix X List of Persons or Organisations from whom the Com-mittee Received Evidence, Submissions or Comment I05



The Select Committee has the honour to present to the Senate the follow ing Report.



1 The Committee was appointed by Resolutions of the Senate on 2 and 3 April 1968 with the following terms of reference: to enquire into and report upon air pollution in Australia including (a) causes and effects (b) methods of prevention and control and (c) matters

incidental thereto. (For full text of Senate Resolutions and Senate proceedings see Appendix I) .


2 Pursuant to the Resolution of the Senate of 3 April, the Senate was informed on 30 April and 1 May 1968 that the following Senators had been appointed to serve on the Committee: Senators G. H. Branson, the Hon. V. C. Cair, R. H. Lacey, C. L. Laucke,

A. G. E. Lawrie and J. P. Ormonde.

On 21 August 1968 Senator Gair, at his request, was discharged from attendance on the Committee and Senator J. A. Little was appointed in his place. Similarly on 18 September 1968 Senator Ormonde was replaced by Senator G. Georges.


3 At the first meeting of the Committee, held on 9 May 1968, Senator Branson was elected Chairman and subsequently, pursuant to the terms of the Senate Resolution of 3 April, Senator Branson appointed Senator Laucke as Deputy Chairman.

4 Mr R. W. Jennings, Deputy Usher of the Black Rod was appointed Clerk of the Committee and Mrs M. C. Bayley was appointed Assistant to the Committee.



5 Between 9 May 1968 and 13 August 1969 the Committee held 52 Meet­ ings in all State Capital cities, in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, in Darwin, Northern Territory, and in other centres as follows: N.S.W. Newcastle, Wollongong, Port Kembla.

Vic. Geelong. S.A. Whyalla, Port Augusta, Port Pirie. Tas. Burnie, George Town. These meetings included 36 Public Hearings and 41 deliberative sessions. The Committee also had private discussions with representatives of several organisations and Government Departments.


6 Evidence was heard from 167 witnesses and, in addition, written submis­ sions were received from 39 persons or organisations. Supplementary sub­ missions were received from 12 witnesses who had previously given oral evidence.


7 The Committee carried out inspections of the following establishments: N.S.W.: Boral Ltd Refinery, Matraville, Sydney. Mr J. C. Chapman's residence, Wollongong. Electrolytic Refining and Smelting Company, Port Kembla. Stanton Pipes of Australia Pty. Ltd, Yennora, Sydney.

Queensland: Amoco Australia Pty Ltd, Brisbane. Queensland Air Pollution Control Headquarters, Brisbane. Queensland Cement and Lime Company Ltd, Brisbane. South Australia: Broken Hill Associated Smelters Pty Ltd, Port Pirie. Broken Hill Pty Co. Ltd, Whyalla. Thomas Playford Power Station, Port Augusta.

Tasmania: Associated Pulp and Paper Mills Ltd, Burnie. Australian Titan Products Pty Ltd, Burnie. Comalco Aluminium (Bell Bay) Ltd, Bell Bay. Temco Pty Ltd, Bell Bay.

Victoria: State Electricity Commission of Victoria undertakings in Yallourn. Western Australia: Alcoa of Australia Pty Ltd, Refinery, Kwinana. Australian Iron and Steel Pty Ltd, Kwinana. Cresco Fertilizers (W A) Pty Ltd, Bayswater, Perth.



CSBP and Farmers Ltd, Fertilizers Factory, Kwinana. Swan Portland Cement Ltd, Rivervale, Perth.

Northern Territory: Iron Ore Loading and Storage facilities, Port Area, Darwin. Power Station, Stokes Hill, Darwin. The Shell Co. of Aust. Ltd, Bitumen plant, Port Area, Darwin


1. 7.1 Definition of Reference 8 At the outset the Committee considered it appropriate to define its reference and, after consultation with the Attorney-General's Department, resolved to limit its inquiry to pollution of the atmosphere and not to engage

in an inquiry into pollution levels inside buildings and works. It was con­ sidered that such pollution was more a pro blem of industrial conditions rather than of air pollution proper.

1 . 7 . 2 Collection of Evidence 9 T he Committee advertised its hearings in the major daily newspapers and invited evidence from interested persons and organisations. Evidence was received either by written submissions or by oral evidence and examina­

tion during public hearings. In addition, the Committee received information and views by means of informal discussions with certain persons and organisations, by means of on-site inspections, from the research service of the Parliamentary Library and from the vast amount of written material on the subject of air pollution.

10 Commonwealth and State Government Departments and Authorities, representatives of primary and secondary industry, manufacturers organisa­ tions, associations covering a variety of activities, and individuals made submissions to the Committee. For a list of those persons and organisations

which submitted views or comment to th e Committee see Appendix X.

1 . 7 . 3 Aims of the Committee 11 The Committee decided at the beginning of the inquiry that in vie w of the abundance of technical literature which is already available on air pollution generally and on methods of prevention and control, it should

not attempt a technical report but should attempt to describe in layman's terms what air pollution is, what can be done about it, and what the current position is in Australia. The Report has not been prepared for those inti­ mately connected with air pollution control but it written as an information document for Members of the Parliament and the general public. It is the earnest wish of the Committee, however, that its suggestions will be con­ sidered by those technically involved in air pollution matters as a practical

contribution to the solving of some of the problems, particularly in the administrative field.





12 Air pollution is basically caused by man's insatiable demand for energy-it is during the process of generating energy, whether in the form of heat, electricity or nuclear power and in the industrial use of this energy, that contamination of the natural air resource takes place.

13 Since man first began lighting fires for warmth and cooking he has been contaminating to a height of from 30,000 to 50,000 feet the relatively thin layer of air which surrounds our globe. The burning of coal, oil and natural gas over the years has increased the global concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and although this increase has had no recorded effect on living organisms, it has been suggested by leading scientists that further increases could modify the heat balance of the atmosphere. This could result in marked changes in world climate and ultimately a warming of the earth to such an extent that the arctic ice caps would melt and sea levels would rise by some 400 feet. Many major cities would become

inundated as a consequence. A further possibility was that an overabundance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could upset the carbon/ oxygen balance and interfere with the normal process of plant photosynthesis, which could result in our world exhausting its supply of oxygen. The process of con­

tamination increased sharply as the energy requirements of mankind increased with the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and again fo llowing the general industrial expansion since World War II. Air pollution then can be described as one of the penalties of urban develop­

ment and technological progress. Man has been using the atmosphere as a huge rubbish dump into which is being poured millions of tons of waste products each year. In the United States of America alone it is estimated that 142 million tons of air po ll utants were admitted into the air

in 1966, that is almost 400,000 tons each day.

14 Evidence received by the Committee indicates that an air pollution problem already exists in some parts of Australia and while not yet a problem of the magnitude existing in well known centres of pollution such as London . New York, Los Angeles and Tokyo, a problem which nevertheless warrants urgent planning and action.


15 The Committee in its deliberations found it convenient to adopt a working definition of air poll ution so that overall standards whic h might be obtained in relation to 'clean air' could be realistically examined. T he following definition by Morris B. Jacobs, Associate Professor of Occ upation al


Medicine, Columbia University, because of its simplicity and comprehensive nature, attracted the Committee-'Air pollution can be defined as the act of causing air to contain concentrations of foreign matter in excess of "normal" values and which concentrations adversely

affect the health of human beings, their property and comfort and the comfort or health of animals, or the health of plants.' Source: Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 2nd edition, N. Irving Sax and others, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, p. 71.

16 Normal clean air is a mixture of gases estimated to consist of nitrogen (78.09% ), oxygen (20.94% ), argon (0.93 % ), carbon dioxide (0.03 % ), and small quantities of neon, helium, methane, krypton, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, xenon, nitrogen dioxide and ozone (totalling 0.01% ) . Water vapour is also present in normal air and varies from 1-3% of the total

volume. T his percentage would reduce proportionately the volumes of the other constituents. As the level of gaseous pollutants is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm ) or parts per hundred million (pphm) by volume, the following table is given for ease of reference and comparison:


Oxygen Argon . .

Carbon d ioxide Neon Helium Methane ..

Krypton ..

Nitrous oxide Hydrogen .. Xenon Nitrogen dioxi de Ozone

780,900 209,400 9,300 315

18 5.2 1.0 to 1.2


0 .5 0 . 5 0.08 0.02

0.01 to 0.04

It is well known that the air we breathe contains many pollutants of natural origin, such as sea salt, soil dust, pollens, bacteria, smoke from bush fires and the like, thus it would be unrealistic to hope to achieve perfectly clean air. The Committee's main task therefore was to examine the incidence of man-made pollutants and the best means of controlling

and reducing man-made pollution in the Australian environment.


2 . 3 . 1 General 18 Air pollutants fall broadly into three groups, solid particles or parti­ culate matter, gaseous emissions, and liquid droplets. The larger particles and liquid droplets fall out rel atively quickly and generally close to the

source of emission. Sm all er particles remain suspended in the air and together with gaseous contaminants are dispersed by wind and air currents until absorbed by othe r materials or washed out by rain or snow.


28 1

19 In Australia measurements have been taken of contamination due to particulate matter (dust, ash and other solids), smoke, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, lead and copper, hydrocarbons and atomic fallout. The following paragraphs set out briefly the major pollutants and compare, where possible, the levels which obtain in Australia with overseas experiences.

2 . 3 . 2 Particulate Matter 20 Particulate matter can be subdivided into deposited matter, such as dust, grit and ash, usually consisting of particles between 1 and 300 microns in size, and suspended matter, such as smoke, which consists of fine car­

bonaceous particles generally less than one micron in size. (One micron equals one twenty-five thousandth of an inch). Smoke, soot and dust are the forms of pollution which generate the majority of public complaints as they are the most obvious. The Committee has heard evidence from many individual citizens of heavy dust deposits penetrating homes, of sooty particles fouling household washing on the line, and of a general smoke nuisance usually emanating from industrial sources.

Dust and Solids

21 Dust fall is usually measured in a standard deposit gauge consisting of a one-half gallon jar fitted with a funnel to collect the dust and readings are generally expressed as tons per square mi le per month of thirty days, and are often divided into insoluble solids (combustible matter and ash), and soluble matter. Mr R. P. Murphy, Principal Air Pollution Control Engineer of the N.S.W. Department of Public Health advised the Committee that normal dust fall expected in rural areas, without the influence of dust storms, would be of the order of 3-5 tons/square mile/ month, and that in an outer residential area of Sydney, the expected dust fall would be from 5-7 tons / square mile/month. Dust fall readings as far as they are available throughout Australia appear in Appendix II. But it is pertinent here to mention th at a dust fall of up to 50 tons/ square mile/ month has been recorded in Geelong.

Victoria, 70 tons in Wollongong, 40 tons in Mel bourne, 30 tons in Sydney, 17 tons in Adelaide, and 45 tons in Brisbane. These figures are fo r particular areas of the respective cities and the annual average readings for Sydney. Wollongong and Newcastle for instance give a better appreciation of the overall position (See graph on p. 7 ) .

22 For comparison an average dust fa1l of 40-170 tons per square mile per month is deposited on the industrial areas of Great Britain, and 1-8 tons per month on rural areas, and in the larger, more populated cities of USA a dust fall of 50-100 tons per square mile per month is recorded. In Pitts­ burgh, however, a maximum of 291 tons/ square mile/ month has been recorded.


23 Smoke is the visible result of incomplete combustion of fuels and consists of extremely fine particles of suspended matter. The density of smo ke


:§ 20


i? a;




/ ' "'\-, , ' ' / ' / ' .--·- - ·- /

54 55 56 57 58 59 60


61 62 63 64 65 6 6 67

can vary from the familiar heavy dark plume which emanates from the chimneys of coal burning furnaces and boilers to an almost invisible haze of the kind generally associated with oil fired equipment. The density of smoke is popularly measured in two ways. First, by means of comparing the smoke plume arising from a chimney with a R ingelmann Chart (see illustration on p. 9) which establishes shades of darkness of smoke, and is used for measurements at the source of emission. The second method, and the one mostly used for recording regular smoke density readings , is

by measuring the density by means of a filter and expressing the result in coefficient of haze (COH) units per 1,000 linear feet (see footnote below). A smoke density of less than 1 coh unit represents an almost invisible haze while a density greater than 4 coh units represents a heavy haze. The Com­

mittee was advised that some areas of Sydney experience smoke haze which exceeds 4 cob units for 7% of the year, but average figures are considerably less. Tables of smoke density measurements for the various States, where available, appear in Appendix III.

24 As a pollutant, smoke behaves very much in the same way as a gas and has the same powers of penetration, although the average time for a smoke particle to remain in suspension has been estimated as one to two days.

Note: The COH unit is a measurement of the light transmitted or reflected by particulate deposits, usually on a fil ter paper, and is defined technically as 'that quantity of particulate material which produces an optical density of 0.01 when measured by light transmission at 400 Mu and when compare d the tran smission of dust-free filter paper taken as I 00% .'.



2 . 3 . 3 Sulphur Dioxide

25 Sulphur dioxide is a corrosive acid gas and is largely the product of the combustion of the fossil fuels. coal and oil, and coke, all of which contain sulphur in various quantities. Australia is fortunate in this regard in that its indigenous coal and oil supplies are relatively low in sulphur content and rarely exceed 1% of sulphur. Some Middle East oils contain

up to 6% sulphur and overseas coals up to 4 % sulphur. Some of the sulphur dioxide released during the combustion process is converted to sul phuric acid by the action of water vapour and oxygen in the atmosphere. A small percentage of sulphuric acid may also be created directly in the combustion


26 The concentration of sulphur dioxide in the air is usually measured by passing a sample of air through a liquid absorbent and measuring by chemical analysis the amount absorbed.

27 Although direct medical evidence is conflicting it has been established that sulphur dioxide can be extremely irritating to the upper respiratory tract if present in the air in concentrations of 5 ppm, and that concentrations of 0.5 ppm can cause acute damage to sensitive vegetation during an exposure of a few hours. Sulphur dioxide also attacks metals, masonry, paintwork, textiles, leather and rubber. At the height of the 1952 London Smog (see Paras 78-81) the concentration of sulphur dioxide was 1.34 ppm and in

1962 higher concentrations were recorded. Chicago and Pittsburgh, in the USA , have recorded concentrations of 3.2 ppm, while the average concen­ tration in New York is estimated as 0.24 ppm.

28 In Australia, sulphur dioxide pollution has not generally reached the concentrations experienced overseas. Typical average values are Brisbane. 0. 012 ppm, Melbourne 0.02 ppm, Sydney 0.02 ppm, and Adelaide 0.02 ppm. although peak readings of 0.15 ppm have been recorded at Nunawading,

Victoria, and 2.7 ppm at Matraville, N.S.W. Sulphur dioxide measurements. where available within Australia appear in Appendix IV.

2 . 3 . 4 Carbon Monoxide

29 Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless gas, and together with carbon dioxide and water vapour, is one of th e major components of emis­ sions resulting from the combustion of fuels. Although carbon monoxide is produced by most industrial processes, by far th e most important source from the . air pollution standpoint is the internal combustion engine of the motor vehicle. The toxic effect of carbon monoxide is related to its affi nity for the oxygen carrying component of blood. This affinity reduces

ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the tissues. As in the case of

OXIdants, most of the research into carbon monoxid e pollution has taken place in the United States, and it has been estimated that 2/ 3 of the 60 % of total air pollution in the United States of America attributable to motor vehicles is the result of carbon monoxide emissions.


Ringelmann Chart used by Newcastle (N.S.W.) City Council

The Shade card indicates:





N umber Description

. . Light grey

. . Darker grey

. . Very dark grey ..

. . , Black ..

. ·I . . I • • I Approximate

percentage black on shade card

20 40 60 80


3 4



30 In the Report of the Air Conservation Commission (U.S.A.), published in 1965 , it is stated: 'Los Angeles has set its three alert levels for carbon monoxide at 100, 200, and 300 ppm. Most people experience dizziness, headache, lassitude, and other symptoms at approximately 100 ppm.

Present measurements do not show that this level is often exceeded in cities of the United States. In the commercial and industrial districts of Cincinatti, the concentrations of carbon monoxide have ranged from 0 to 55 ppm, with an average of 9.5 ppm. During extensive measurements in the Los Angeles area the highest concentration was 72 ppm.

Concentrations higher than this occasionally occur in garages, tunnels, behind auto­ mobiles, or in the open atmosphere. For example, maximum instantaneous concentra­ tions of more than 100 ppm were found during several months of observation in Detroit in 1960. Recent measurements in London, on the other hand, suggest that such levels may not be simply sporadic, in Oxford Circus there were frequent periods of

more than 100 ppm.' Source: American A.A.S. Air Conservation Commission 'Air Conservation', 1965. pp. 74-5 .

and Mr W. Gaffney, representing the Australian Automobile Association, informed the Committee that according to a 1967 Shell Research Report­ 'In congested traffic conditions in the USA carbon monoxide levels of from 20 to 370 ppm have been recorded and under similar conditions in England of from 35 to

235 ppm.'

31 A concentration of 100 ppm has been generally accepted as the maximum concentration for eight hour occupational exposures, and this is the standard use in Australia. However, the United States of America recently halved the allowable occupational exposure to 50 ppm. Once again medical evidence as to the lowest concentrations which affect normal healthy humans is not clear. Measurements of carbon monoxide concentrations have been recorded in Australia in New South Wales and during peak hour traffic in Sydney readings of a maximum of 80 ppm have been reached, with an aver­ age value of 50 ppm (See appendix V ) .

2 . 3 . 5 Oxidants

32 Because of their importance in photochemical pollution (See paras 51, 52) oxidants such as nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone are con­ sidered critical pollutants. The oxides are fo rmed in high-temperature com­ bustion of fuels in power plants and internal combustion engines. Ozone, as has been mentioned, occurs naturally in the atmosphere, but additional ozone may be formed by the action of sunlight on nitrogen dioxide in the presence of hydrocarbons. This kind of reaction caused by sunlight is termed a photo­ chemical reaction.

33 The majority of research into the emissiOn of nitrogen oxides has centred in Los Angeles, United States of Americ a, where photochemical


pollution is a major problem and the following maximum allowable con­ centrations of oxidants have been set by the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District:


Oxides of nitrogen Ozone

Maximum concentration ppm.


3.0 0.5


5 .0



10.0 1.5

The warning concentrations have regularly been exceeded in Los Angeles and readings of 0.9 ppm of ozone (1955), 1.73 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (1953) and 3.5 ppm of nitric oxide (1961) have been recorded. Photo­ chemical pollution has also been found in San Diego, San Francisco,

Arizona, New Mexico, Detroit, Philadelphia and New York.

34 The measurement of oxidants in Australia has been carried out on a regular basis by air pollution authorities only in New South Wales, where measurements have been taken since 1966. Mr R. P. Murphy told the Committee in evidence:

'These measurements (of oxidants) have shown that the values rarely reach 3 parts per hundred million, but the average is less than 1 pphm. By comparison typical readings in Los Angeles, where a severe photochemical pollution problem exists, are within the range of 20-40 pphm.'

(See Appendix V).

35 The CISRO Division of Meteorological Physics has monitored the level of ozone concentrations, both at ground level and at higher levels in the atmosphere, at Aspendale, Victoria. This survey had nothing to do with air pollution but was part of a world-wide research programme, under the

auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions, primarily for research on global air movements. The results were, however, referred to the Victorian Clean Air Committee in the following terms: . The highest levels of oxidant concentrati ons measured during each of the

past three years have been (units: parts per million by volume): 0.08 ppm 1 to 2 pm 2 March 1967

0.08 ppm 11 am to 12 noon 17 February 1968

0.11 ppm. 12 noon to 3 pm 30 April 1969

These levels are about twice as high as the maximum concentration accountable by natural processes. The maximum le vel quoted for 1969 exc eeds the only known safety limit for human exposure to ozone concentrations, 0.1 ppm for an eight hour exposure, prescribed by

the American Medical Association.'

2 . 3 . 6 Radioactive Pollution 36 'Radioactive pollution of the atmosphere may be defined as man's con­ tribution to airborne radioactivity beyond the levels that occur in nature as


the result of his use of naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactive substances'. Source: American A.A.S. Air Conservation Commission, 'Air Conservation', 1965 p. 158.

37 Naturally occurring radi ation is mainly caused by the release of radio­ active gases, such as radon and thoron, from soils and rock or by cosm ic radiation acting on the constituents of the atmosphere, and may reasonably be expected to be constant in value. The majority of man-made radioactive

pollution is a product of the 20th century and is caused by: nuclear weapons tests which release material to the atmosphere, ii reactor or nuclear power station accidents which release radioactive materials; and m radioactive waste, in particular from nuclear reactors.

Source: Report by the Nati onal Radiation Adviso ry Committee ( NRAC ) . 19 62.

38 Chapter 2 of the 1962 NRAC Report, which describes in detail the major radioactive pollutants and their possible role as health hazards, is attached as Appendix VI.

39 It is interesting to note that radioactive pollution is the only sec tion of the air pollution problem in Australia in which the Com monwealth is actively involved. The NRAC was appointed by the Commonwealth Govern­ ment in 1957 to provide guidance on any matter pertaining to th e effects of ionizing radiation on the Australian community, and reports regularly to the Prime Minister. Another Commonwealth organ, the Australian Atomic Weapons Tests Safety Committee, has been carrying out a monitoring pro­ gramme of radioactive pollutants since 1957 and the NRAC's reports are largely based on the results of this monitoring programme. The Bureau of Meteorology and the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory are

also involved in the monitoring programme . The major pollu tants wh ich may become hazards to health are strontium 90, caesium 13 7, iodine I 3 I, and carbon 14 and it is these pollutants that the Aust ralian monitoring pro­ gramme, in common with overseas practice, has been designed to record.

40 To date results have shown that levels of radioactive pollu tants in Australia are very low and are not hazardous. In its report of 1965. the NRAC discussed radiation protection standards and guides and the relevant section of the report is attached as Appendix VII.

41 While the present position seems to raise no real cause for alarm. th e announced intention of the Commonwealth Government to est ablish nuclear powered electricity generating stations in Australia may require a revision of standards so that a sufficient safety buffer is built into the Austral ian environment. It is possible, too, that with the anticipated increase in the . of nuclear-powered ships visiting Australian ports, this factor

requrre further standards revision. However, in this regard, the Com­

mittee was pleased to note that Commonwealth-State action has alre ady


been taken to protect the Australian environment, and the following state­ ment was made by the NRAC in its 1965 Report: and State authorities co-operated in preparing rules of navigation

and berthing. As a result, a Common Code has been formulated to apply to visits to Australia of nuclear-powered vessels. This has been accepted by the Commonwealth and all States as a suitable basis for regulating the berthing in Australian ports of nuclear-powered merchant vessels and steps to put it into effect are currently under consideration by the various authorities.

Naval vessels are in a special category. The NRAC has expressed the view that the principles of the Common Code, and especially those relating to radiation hazards, should apply equally to nuclear-powered warships . The only nuclear-powered ships to visit Australia to date have been those of the United States Navy. The measures adopted for those visits were based on the Common Code.

The NRAC is satisfied that the precautions taken were adequate and that there was no resulting exposure of the populati on to io ni sing radiation. An assurance was received that there would be no release of radioactive material from these ships and monitoring by Australian scientists confirmed that none occurred.'

2 . 3 . 7 Other Pollutants

42 There are a great many other pollutants produced by a whole range of industries which, while having no overall significance, may be of importance for particular situations or particular regions. Areas in the vicinity of fac­ tories with poor emission control may experience contamination by sulphur

trioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, acid aerosols, fluorides, ammonium sulphate and other salts. Metal effluents can also be a problem, for example lead and beryllium compounds, which are known to have toxic effects. 43 Unburned hydrocarbons, such as methane, which are emitted from motor vehicles and oil refi neries are important in photochemical pollution


Aerial Application of Pesticides and Fertilizers

44 Although the Committee received little direct evidence, except in Darwin, on the application of pesticide sprays or dusts as a factor in air pollution, some studies of this problem, mos tly in connection with DDT, have been undertaken overseas and Dr K. W. Edmondson, of the Common­ wealth Department of Health, advised the Committee that the Department had in hand a research project to determine levels of pesticide contamination in food. The evidence the Committee received in Darwin, from Mr W. P. Walsh, President of the Northern Territory Conservation Association,

referred mainly to the spraying of insecticides for the control of mosquitoes and amounted to a complaint of nuisanc e rather than a submission on deleterious effects. 45 The question of pesticides and fertilizers as air pollutants arises when

ai r is used as the vehicle to carry these materials to the target during spraying, dusting and fumigating operations. and involves the amount of material which fails to reach the target. This amount can be quite substantial, for example, during the aerial spraying of pesticides and fertilizers during adverse


20750/69- 2

meteorological conditions, when 5 to 70% of sprays and 40 to 80 % of dusts may drift off target.

46 DDT, which is one of the family of chlorinated hydrocarbons (includ­ ing dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, chlordane and lindane ) retains 50% of its effectiveness for from 10 to 15 years, and although insoluble in water is readily soluble in fats. As a result DDT tends to build up in concentrations in the fatty tissues of humans, animals and birds. Dr Robert L. Metcalf,

Professor of Entomology in the University of California, is quoted as stating the position in the following terms: 'DDT now appears to be present, in small amounts, in almost all creatures. Con­ centrations have been found to run as high as 118 parts per million in the breast

muscles of bald eagles, 7.5 ppm in human infants, and 150 parts per billion in penguins caught in Antarctica. Surveys have shown that U.S. inhabitants have an average fatty­ tissue concentration of 4 to 7 ppm of DDT which, while apparently harmless, is clearly undesirable.'

Source: Still, Henry. 'The Dirty Animal', N.Y. Hawthorn Books, 1967, p. 245.

By comparison, that a completely healthy worker in a DDT factory was found to have 648 ppm of the chemical in his fatty tissues.

4 7 There is no evidence that the normal use of pesticides has resulted in the death of humans, but some doctors believe that insecticides may be a contri­ butory cause of lethal blood diseases such as leukemia and anaemia. There is ample evidence of DDT causing death in fish, birds and animals. The

major problem with DDT is in its effect on the whole ecological system, and the following example was given in Time Magazine (July 11, p. 3 7). 'A bizarre case of ecological damage from DDT occurred in Borneo after the World Health Organisation sprayed huge amounts of the pesticide. The areas geckos. or lizards, feasted on the house fl ies that had been kill ed by DDT . The geckos, in turn, were devoured by .local cats. Unhappily, the cats perished in such large numbers from DDT poisoning that the rats they once kept in check began overrunning whole vill ages'.

2 . 3 . 8 'Smog' and Temperature Inversion 48 The term 'smog', which was apparently coined in 1905 by the late Dr H. A. Des Voeux, founder-president of the National Smoke Abatement Society in Great Britain, is often applied to air pollution. In its original usage smog referred to the combination of smoke and fog wh ic h typi fi es the ai r

pollution problem in London. However, the term is now also used to describe air pollution generally, including the kind of photochemical pollution experienced in Los Angeles. although this type of poll ution is not related to smoke or fog.

49 Both the smoke-fog and photochemic al air pollution conditions are intensified by a meteorological phenomenon kn own as a 'temperature inve r­ sion'. Normally, the temperature of ai r decreases with hei ght at a constant and determinable rate known as the 'lapse rate'. The average lapse rate is

3.5 o fahrenheit per 1,000 feet. In normal condi tions thi s which act as natural ch imneys for dispersing air pollu tants.

Dunng conditions of temperature inversion. a layer of warm ai r forms at a


higher altitude thus trapping a layer of cold air relatively close to the ground. The result is a parcel of stable air, without updrafts, in which pollutants are contained and because of the 'lid' effect of the layer of warm air, the pollutants cannot escape. Heavy concentrations of pollutants then build up

until the inversion layer is eventually dispersed. In London, the inversion layer forms at from 100 to 200 feet above roof level, whereas in Los Angeles, the inversion forms at 100 to 1,900 feet on days of severe pollution. Temperature inversions usually last overnight and disperse during the morn­

ing as the sun warms the earth and re-establishes the normal lapse rate in the air temperature. However when pollution builds up in sufficient concentra­ tions, the natural warming process of the sun is inhibited and this may prolong the stability of the lower air levels so that the temperature inversion may persist for long periods. 50 The Committee was informed in evidence that the whole east coast of Australia, and Canberra, are subject to regular temperature inversions, and

together with our abundant sunlight, this could lead in the future to a photo­ chemical pollution problem of the Los Angeles type.

2 . 3 . 9 Photochemical Pollution 51 The incidence of photochemical pollution first became evident in the early 1940's when Los Angeles became subject to a new form of air pollution, which is best described by Haagen-Smit and Wayne in the following terms:

'. . . a phenomenon accompanied by eye irritation, plant damage, haze, ozone formation and a characteristic odour. The typical smog episode occurs in warm sunny weather and produces an atmosphere with a high oxidant value, due largely to ozone but in part to organic peroxides. Oxidant measurements show a definite daily rhythm,

with a maxi mum during the daytime, and values ne ar zero at night'. Source: A. J. Haagen-Smit and Lowell G. Wayne in 'Air Pollution' ed. A. C. Stern, 2nd Edition, Vol. 1. p. 165.

52 Photochemical pollution is the re sult of a series of complex chemical processes caused by the action of sunlight on oxides of nitrogen in the pre­ sence of the hydrocarbon group of organic substances (including olefins) and aldehydes. The end products of these processes include ozone and a number of organic nitrogen compounds such as peroxyacyl nitrates. When

concentrations of this toxic mixture in the air reach sufficiently high levels, the results have proved to be damage to plants, irritation to the eyes an d respiratory tract, deterioration of rubber, and a general decrease in visibility due to haze. Although photochemical poll ution is always associated with Los

Angeles, it may occur in any city where the ri ght combination of pollutants is emitted into the atmosphere in the ri ght climatical and topographical situation. As was noted in the previous section, Australia is not immune to this kind of pollution.


53 Air pollution in some degree can be caused by almost every industrial process and the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District has listed over 400 potential air pollution producing industrial uses and operations ranging



from abattoirs to zinc refining. However, as was mentioned in the introduc­ tory paragraphs, the major air pollution problems throughout the world, and this applies to Australia, too, arise from the combustion of fuels . Industries which do not necessarily burn large quantities of fuel may give off emissions which have local impact only, for example fluoride emissions from phosphate fertilizer manufacturing plants. Apart from industry, other general sources of

pollution may be listed under the following broad headings: Nat ural processes Transportation (motor vehicles, railway locomotives, aircraft, shipping) Electrical power generation Agricultural uses of fertilisers and pesticides Nuclear reactions Waste disposal (incineration) and domestic heating

54 The following paragraphs give a short summary of the pollutants which are emitted to atmosphere in Australia from the various sources. Com­ parisons, where relevant, are drawn with overseas experiences. The table below, prepared by the United States Department of Health Education and

Welfare, shows air pollution contributions by various sources in the United States of America: TOTAL AIR POLLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES BY SOURCE IN THE YEAR 1966


Motor vehicles . . Industry Power plants Space heating Refuse disposal . .

All Sources

2 . 4 . 1 Natural Sources

.. I

Tons of pollutants

(mill ions) 86 23 20





( % ) 60 .6 16.2 14.1

5. 6 3. 5


55 Many pollutants arise from natural processes, such as spray from ocean surfaces which can result in salt particles being transported many miles in­ land; dusts and gases (including sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide) from volcanic eruptions; smoke and the normal combustion products from fores t

and grass fires; gases and odours (such as hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans) by organic decomposition ; and ai rborne micro-organisms such as

bactena, spores, viruses and pollens. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide occur as natural constituents of the atmosphere.

2 . 4 . 2 Industrial Sources

56 In Australia, the majority of air pollution from industrial sources is caused by the combustion of coal, coke and oil in boilers, kilns and furnaces.


The resultant emtsstons are largely smoke, dust and fly ash, and sulphur dioxide. Acid smuts are emitted by some oil-fired installations. Small quan­ tities of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, aldehydes and organic acids are also released during the combustion process. Apart from what may be

termed the general combustion pollutants listed above, specific industries may in addition cause the emission of a variety of other pollutants. The follow­ ing table, while not purporting to cover all industrial emissions, presents a summary of the types of emissions from various industrial sources:


Iron and Steel manufacture

Mineral-Ore, crushing and gri nding (wet and processes)

Copper product ion

Lead recovery from scrap

Aluminium production

Cement production

Chemical-Acid production

Alkali production

Fertil izers production

Petroleum processing

Ceramic Production-Bricks, tiles, pi pes


Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Nitrogen I Sulphur dioxide dry ' Dust and grit

Water vapour


Fumes of vapourised solids and gaseous decompo-sit ion Carbon monoxide Sulphur oxides

Nitrogen oxides Oxi des of arsenic, lead, zinc, copper Ore particles Tar vola tiles

Mercaptans Organic sul phides Fluoride gases Particulate matter Cement dust

Water vapour Sulphur d ioxide

Vapours of acids, such as hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric, sulphuric Nitrogen oxi des Dusts of ammonia and lime Chlo rine

Dusts Sul phur compounds Acid gases Sulphur oxides Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides Aldelhydes Ammonia Particulate matter Smoke, soot, sulphur oxides, fluoride gases, hydro­

gen chloride, salt fume

57 The various forms of transport, road, rail, air and sea, all contribute to the air pollution problem. In Australia, however, with the change from coal fired to diesel-electric locomotives almost completed the importance of


rail transport as a source of air pollution has diminished. The following paragraphs discuss air pollution from transportation modes under the head­ ings of motor vehicles, aircraft and shipping.

Motor Vehicles

58 Of the various methods of transportation the motor vehicle is by far the most important factor contributing to air pollution problems. Emissions from petrol-engined motor vehicles, particularly hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, are the prime source of the reagents which make up the photo­

chemical pollution of Los Angeles and other American cities. Carbon mon­ oxide, which is toxic in large concentrations, is the largest emission by volume from petrol engines. Specific measurements of pollutants from motor vehicles have been carried out in Australia only in Sydney. Although results have shown that the situation in Sydney is not as critical as that which exists in Los Angeles, if controls are not exercised now it is only a matter of time

before such a situation does exist.

59 Dr G. J. Cleary, in a paper presented to the inaugural meeting of the NSW Branch of the Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand in 1966, stated that: 'by the year 1998, Sydney could have the start of a Los Angeles type air polluti on problem and manifes ted by reduced visibility, eye irritation, plant damage, rubber

cracking and similar effects.'

This estimate, according to Mr W. A. Gaffney, Chief Engineer of the NRMA, appeared conservative, and Mr Gaffney said in evidence to the Committee: To infer, as Cleary has, that Sydney will not face a Los Angeles type of problem until the year 1998 scarcely appears to be rea listic, even if the r ates of growth which

he assumes are accepted, and they are almost certainly under estimated.'

and this view is supported by Mr R. P. Murphy of the NSW Department of Health, who told the Committee: '. . . a photochemical problem could be expected to develop at some future time. On the basis of United States experience on vehicle densit ies and population,

this could be expected to occur in Sydney about 1992.'

The point is that informed people agree that if th e current rate of growth of population and motor vehicle usage in Sydney continues, then Sydney will be faced with a photochemical pollution problem in less than 30 years.

60 There are three sources of pollution from motor vehicles, the fuel supply system ( carburettor and fuel tank ), the crankcase an d the exh aust system. The approximate ratio of emissions is as follows: Fuel supply system

Crankcase Exhaust system

10% 30% 60%

From these sources, in motor veh icles withou t emission controls and in average condition, the exhaust system is responsible for almost all emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, lead and particulate matter, and for approximately 46% of the total hydrocarbons. The fuel supply system emits


about 24% of the hydrocarbons, while the remaining 30% of hydrocarbons emanates from the crankcase, together with a small percentage of carbon monoxide. It has been estimated that for every 1 ,000 gallons of petrol burned the following weights of exhaust products are discharged:

I I Est imated

I weight (tons) 1 Weight (pounds) j for total petrol I

per I ,000 gallons 1 consumption in



Australia 1967

--------------------:1- ________ , ________ _


Ca rbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides . . Sulphur compounds Aldehydes Organic acids Ammonia

Solids (particulate matter)

2,500 250 83 6 .3

4 . 2 1.7 1.7 0.25







2,000,000 200,000 65,000 5,000

3,000 1,000 1,000 200

6 1 Dr G . J. Cleary has estimated th at in the County of Cumberland, which encompasses the Sydney metropolitan area, the above rates of emission would result in the discharge of 8 71 tons per day of carbon monoxide, 8 7. 1 tons of hydrocarbons and 29 tons of nitrogen oxides. Although there are no figures available which compare vehicle emissions with emissions from other sources in Australia, the following table relating to measurement in

the USA would probably approxim ate the proportions in Australia:

Type of pollutant

Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide . . Nitrogen oxi des Sulphur oxides

Lead compounds Particulates

All pollutants

Motor vehicle ('000,000 tons)

12.0 66.0 6 .0 1.0

0 .2 1.0

86. 2

Other sources ('000,000 tons)

7 .0 5 .0

7 . 0 25 .0

I} 11 .0

55. 0

All Motor

sources I vehicles. as ('000,000 proportiOn tons) I of total ( %)

19.0 63.1

71.0 92 .9

13 .0 46.1

26.0 3 .8

12.2 8 .3

141.2 60. 6

62 Dies el engines, which are mostly used to power heavy transport, buses and railway locomotives, although some cars are diesel powered, do not cause the emission of pollutants to the same levels as the petrol engine. The diesel engine may emit large volumes of dark. evil-smelling smoke which, although unpleasant, does not constitute a health hazard. Emission of excessive smoke from diesels is due mainly to poorly maintained and

adjusted fuel injection equipment, overloaded vehicles or engines of insuffi­ cient power for the loaded weight of the vehicle. A comparison of exhaust emissions from petrol and diesel en gines, according to driving mode, is


given in the following table, which is based on motor vehicles in Great Britain·

Engine operation Idling I Accelerating Cruising I Decelerating

------------------- ----------1----------1---------- ----------

______ T_YP _e_o_f_e_n_ g_i n_ e _____ l __ n __ *_1 __ P _t __ l __ n ___ I ___ P __ __ n ___ ___ P ____ n ______ P __

Carbon monoxide(%) ..

Hydrocarbons (ppm) ..

Ox ides of nitrogen (ppm) .. Aldelhydes (ppm) . . . .

Sulphur dioxide (%) . .

Trace 7 .0 0. 10 I 3.0 Trace 4 .0 Trace 3.0

220 820 110 700 55 500 160 I 4.400

60 30 850 I ,050 250 650 30 20

10 30 20 I 20 10 10 30 300

The average concentration of S02 in the ex haust is about 18 ppm for diesel engi nes and 6 ppm for petrol engines

* D: Diesel. t P: Petrol.

Note : Further comment on motor vehicle emissions is incl uded in paragraphs 11 5- 128.


63 The contribution of aircraft to the total air pollution problem is rela­ tively small even though the large jet aircraft le ave spectacular trailing plumes of dark smoke on take off and landing. A representative of the Department of Civil Aviation informed the Committee that--

' estimates made in the USA, where extensive jet exhaust emission studies have been made and are continuing, show that aircraft do not contribute more th an one to two per cent of the total atmospheric contamination present in a large metropolitan area.' And in a report by the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District published in 1965-

. . it is concluded that aircraft of all kinds were responsible for approxi­

mately 1.6% of the total emissio n of air contaminants in Los Angeles County during 1964. It is of interest that this area included 16 active airports, 6 of them ranking among the 25 busiest airports in the USA.'

64 In the absence of any measurements of aircraft emissions in Australi a, it is reasonable to assume that the position is certainly no worse than that in the U.S.A. and that aircraft contribute less than 2% of total air con­ taminants in urban areas around airports. With the increasing use of pure jet aircraft it is possible that emission levels will actually decrease as the jet engine is more efficient than the piston engine in its combustion of fuel , and consequently emits lower concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydro­ carbons and oxides of nitrogen.

65 The characteristic smoke trails of jet ai rcraft are composed of fine ly divided, unburned soft carbon particles of from 0.01 to 1.0 microns in diameter. Because of the small particle size, which is conducive to efficient light scattering, relatively small amounts of carbon particles can cause significant obscuration.


66 Although shipping, especially coal-fired ships, can cause loc al smoke pollution and other combustion emissions , its im portance in the overall air pollution problem is not considered great, as the majority of emissions from


ships is discharged at sea. The use of heavier crude oils, with a fairly high sulphur content, in ships boilers can cause local contamination by sulphur dioxide to rise significantly in harbour areas.

2 . 4 . 4 Nuclear Reactions 67 There are very few sources of radioactive pollution within Australia. The Australian Atomic Energy Commission maintains two small atomic reactors, which are used for research purposes and the production of isotopes, at Lucas Heights near Sydney. Both installations will always be free from emissions unless an accident occurs. Natural sources and fallout from atomic

weapons tests ( see paras 36-41) are the only sources of contamination at the present time, but the possibility of accidental radioactive pollution will increase when nuclear powered electricity generating plants are operating in Australia. However, the Committee was informed by officers of the

Australian Atomic Energy Commission in evidence that-'the modern nuclear power station is essentiall y a "clean-air" plant. This is largely due to the fact that their potential danger to public health was recognised from the very beginning and every precaution is taken to minimise the risk.'

2 . 4 . 5 Electricity Generation 68 It has been estimated that 10 % of all man-made air pollution in indus­ trialised communities is caused by fossil-fuelled power plants. As maj or users of coal and fuel oil, the power generation authorities throughout

Australia are certainly responsible for a large percentage of the total air pollution burden emitted in the Australian environment. 69 The consumption of black coal for electricity generation in Australia in 1967-68 was 11.36 million tons or 48 % of the total black coal usage of 23.66 million tons. Brown coal consumption fo r electricity generation

was 17.29 million tons, and fuel oil consumption was 196.84 million gallons. The following table shows the consumption of black coal by industrial groups.


1967-68 Industrial groups I 1963-64


I ('000 tons) ('000 tons)

Iron and steel .. i 5,452 7,131

Electricity generation I 8,639 11 ,364

Railway- Locomotives

.. ,

1,454 563

Town gas .. I 1,443 1,079

Cement .. . • I 91 4 798

Metallurgical coke (other) .. I 346 469

Ships' bunkers .. •. I 150 14

Other consumers I 2,587 2,246 • • I


Tota l I 20,985 23,664 • • I

70 E missions from power stations are the normal combustion products listed in paragraph 56 and it was stated by representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in evidence that-'a 1000 MW power plant operated at 80% capacity factor and burning 15% ash coal

would produce approximately 350,000 tons of ash a year, most of which would escape


?0. 7 ._ ....,

from the combustion chamber. To reduce the amount finally dispersed to atmosphere, grit arrestors and precipitators are necessary. . . . Generally hi gh efficie ncies are specified-up to 99.5 %-but even if this efficiency is achieved, roughly 1,500 tons of dust per 1,000 MW would be released to the atmosphere each year.'

It was also stated with a 1000 MW station burning 0.5% sulphur coal 18,000 tons per annum of sulphur dioxide would be released each year, and that an oil-fired 1000 MW station using 3.5 % sulphur oil would dis­ charge over 100,000 tons of oxides (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ) each year.

7 1 Although the Committee does not suggest that the A ustralian air pollution problem yet warrants such drastic action, it is interesting to note that New York and New Jersey will require by legislation the use of fuels with a maximum sulphur content of 0.3 % by 1971. Further information

relating to emissions from power plants is included in paragraphs 113-114.

2 . 4 . 6 Other Sources

72 Other sources of air pollution include the disposal of waste (both indus­ trial and domestic) by incineration; the aerial application of pesticides and fe rtilizers, and domestic heating (both household and commercial).

73 Incineration of waste can cause quite severe local problems as most municipal incinerators are relatively old installations and are ineffici ent in operation. The result is emission of smoke, dust, sooty deposits and the usual combustion products, largely sulphur dioxide. Although most municipal authorities use sanitary land-fill as the prime method of disposing of wastes, the position must arise in the future when low-lying ground within economic distances of urban areas will not be available. The fitting of control devices

to existing incinerators and the use of modern, well designed plant for future needs, should overcome the problem.

74 Domestic heating, because of Australia's overall mild climate, does not pose the problems that are evident in London, for example. The 1952 London Smog was largely the result of emissions from black coal burned in open grates in homes. There is very little use of coal for home heating in Australia. The fuels mostly used are coke, briquettes (manufactured from

brown coal), and oil, and while all these fuels discharge sulphur dioxide and other combustion products, it is not considered that the total volume of emissions from heating is signific ant, except perhaps in Canberra, which has a cold winter climate and experiences regular temperature inversions which can last up to 18 hours per day. A change to natural gas for domestic heating would generally reduce emissions from this source, particularly in relation to sulphur dioxide, although nitrogen oxide emissions would still

be present.

75 The aerial distribution of pesticides and fertilizers was discussed in paras 44-47.




76 Although high concentrations of individual pollutants are known to be toxic, for example carbon monoxide and hydrogen fluoride, detailed effects of the relatively low levels fo und in normal air pollution are not known . In circumstances where particularly high levels of pollutants have been

recorded it is universaly agreed that air pollution can be blamed fo r an increased incidence of death and illness. The Committee was unable to obtain any real evidence on the relationship between air pollution and health in the Australi an environment and material the Committee has read on overseas experiences is in many ways inconclusive and conflicting.

77 One of the reaso ns for the lack of conclusive evidence both overseas and in Australia is the extreme compl exity of the problem. Pollution levels have to be considered in conjunction with a wide variety of factors, including climate, population density, smoki ng habits, standards of living and occu­

pational status. It is obvious that much basic research needs to be done on these problems and in the words of the Report of the United States Sub­ committee on Science, Research and Development-'There is li ttle research going on in envi ronmental epidemiology and for the most

part it is impossible to draw conclusions which will stand up. There are schemes sug­ gested to obtain reliable data. More support for such work is urgently needed.' Source: Environmental Pollution: A ch allenge to Science and Technology. Report of Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development to the US House of

Representatives Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1966, p. 17.


78 Several air pollution disasters in this century, notably those occurring in the Meuse Valley, Belgium, 1930, Donora, Pennsylvania, 1948 and London, 1952, have foc ussed attention on the effects of the deterioration of the air qu ality of a community and have proved beyond doubt that air pol­

lution can damage the health of people, animals and plant life. But how air pollution brings about this st ate of affairs has not been proved.

79 The three episodes had in common a combination of high level emissions from industrial and domestic sources and a persistent low level temperature inversion . Wide-spread illness and deaths in excess of normal rates resulted during the periods of 'smog'. The following table on page 24

summarises the probable causes and effects.


29 9


Suspected sources of I E . . s t Excess

. . . miSSion presen Effect on health deaths

major emissions

_M_e_u- se-V-al-le-y---l- 1- ro_n_an _ d_s- te _e_ l -w-o-rk- s I

1-4 December zinc works

1930 glass works

D onora 26-30 October 1948 14,000 popula­


London . ·I

5-9 December 1952 I

8,500,000 popu-lation

potteries, lime kilns, power sta­ tions, phosphate works I


Zinc smelting works I and heavy industry



Domestic heating I

from burning coal



Sulphur dioxide (1)



sulphuric acid mist, fluorides, particu­ late matter

Irritation of all ex­ posed membranes chest pain, cough, I eye and nasal irri­ tation

Sulphur di oxide (2), I Irritation of respira-particulates tory tract, cough,


and nasal irri-


' !

Sulphur dioxide (3), 1 1

Irritation of respira-1


smoke, particu- tory tract, cyano-

lates I sis, fever, excess ,

fluid in lungs I

( 1) Estimated concentration of sulphur dioxide-9 . 6-38 .4 ppm.

(I) Estimated concentration of sulphur dioxide- 0. 5- 2.0 ppm. (3) Measured concentration of sulphur di o xi de- 1.34 ppm.




80 Apparently, most of the people who died in all three disasters had a previous history of respiratory ailments, and while there is no doubt that air pollution was responsible for the illness and death recorded in these disasters, it is not clear just which ingredient or combination of ingredients of the

pollution can be held responsible. In the words of Meetham-'None of the incidents left incontrovertible proof that one particular form of pollution was the outstanding harmful ingredient. The various official committees agreed that the smog mortality was due to irritati on of the respiratory tract of persons already suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular disease. It has been said that the fatalities would have been very much fewer in the absence of sulphur oxides and acids though some medical authorities are not fully satisfied by the evidence at present available.'

Source: A. R. Meetham, 'Atmospheric Pollution, its Origins and Preventions', 3rd revised edition, 1964, p. 231.

81 The graph on page 25, which records smoke and sulphur dioxide levels and the number of deaths during the London disaster in December 1952, clearly shows the relationship between air pollution and death in this instance.


82 The Committee's attention was drawn by Mr R. F. X . Connor, M.P .. gave evidence before the Committee, to an investigation into air pollu­

tiOn and effects on health which was carried out in the Port Kembla, NSW, area in 1962 by Dr A. Bell and Dr J. L. Sullivan, then officers of the Division of Occupational Health, NSW Public Health Department. The survey was taken over three areas, designated Area 'A', the area most affected by sulphur



Source: Interi m Report of U.K. Committee on Air Pollution (Beaver Committee), 1953.




..... ,.,


I .] 4 s



6 7 8 9 10 II 1.1 14 IS






U nits--Sulphur Dioxide . . Concentration in parts per million parts of air* (mean of ten sites) . Smoke Concentration in milligrams per cubic metre of air

(mean of twel ve sites) .

Temper ature Degrees Fah re nhei t (noon readings on Air Ministry roof) . Deaths Total number occurring each day.

------ ----------------------- .. NoTE: I part per million parts by vo lume of air equals 2.86 milligrams of Sulphur Dioxide per cubic metre of air at >N .T.P. 25

- u- 1

- I

dioxide; Area 'B', subject to moderate levels of sulphur dioxide; and Area 'C' the control area subject to average levels of sulphur dioxide. Results are summarised in the following table: RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION MORBIDITY SURVEY OF PORT KEMBLA

so2 (ppm) I



Mean yearly Mean win ter Mean summer

. . I


I Highest monthly mean H ighest daily mean .. I

Health effects

Males examined . .

Past hi story of respiratory condition ( %) Past medical diagnosis of chronic bronchitis ( %) .. . .

Cough and phlegm all year(%) Mucoid or mucopurulent sputum ( %) Females examined .. Past history of respiratory condition


Past medical diagnosis of chronic bronchitis ( %) .. Cough and phlegm all year( 0.Q .. Mucoid or mucopurulent ( %)

Area A

AreaB Area C

Station A I Station A2

0.031 0.036 0.018 0.009

0. 021 0.012 0.017 0.013

0.050 0.072 0.023 0.008

0.069 0.090 0.033 0 .021

0. 246 0. 600 0.1 80 0 . 155

Area A AreaB Area C

245 159 127

29 26 23

14 6 5

45 42 38

65 58 53

203 114 99

32 19 27

7 1 2

32 25 12

58 55 44

As in most other surveys of this type the results were inconclusive, and Dr Bell said in the report: 'It must not be assumed that this investigation has conclusively proved a cause and effect relationship between the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in East Port Kembla

and atmospheric pollution.'

However, there appears to be a world-wide correlation between hi gh levels of air pollution and a high incidence of a number of diseases. The degree of correlation is certainly sufficient to attribute some cases to pollution. Diseases correlated in this way include bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy. asthma, pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer.

83 A comparison of death rates from pneu monia and bronchitis in Eng­ land and Wales in 1952 shows a defin ite relationship between the air polluted urban areas and deaths from these diseases.




Urban areas with a population of-I

Cause of death


I Rural

I 100,000 50,000 Under areas

I and i

to 50,000 I over I 100,000 I I i I Pneumonia . . .. . . I 47 . 90 39.22 35.75 31.55 Bronchitis .. .. . . . . I 61.56 53.82 48.77 36.94 Other respiratory diseases (excluding influenza) . . . . . . 11.19 i 9.71 10.60 9. 66 I I I Total . . .. .. I 120. 65 102. 75 I 95.12 78.15 I 84 A similar study, carried out in Australia by the National Health and Medical Research Council in 1962, into illnesses treated in metropolitan and non-metropolitan medical practices produced the following results: INCIDENCE OF VARIOUS EPISODES OF ILLNESS SEEN IN METROPOUTAN AND NON-METROPOUT AN MEDICAL PRACTICES-AUSTRALIA 1962 Asthma .. . . . . . .

Acute upper respi ratory infection .. Infl uenza .. . . . . . .

Pneumonia .. . . . . . .

Bronchitis .. . . . . . .

Other diseases of respiratory system . .

Proportion of certain episo des of illness to all episodes seen in-

Metropolitan t" prac 1ces

% 0. 95 11.19 3 . 16

0.94 3.47 2 . 34




Metropolitan practices

% 0.66 8 .82 1.97 0.78

3.56 2.22


Ratio of Metropolitan to Non­ Metropolitan

% 1.44 1.26 1.60

1.21 0.97 1.05

Total di seases of the res piratory system I 21 . 60 17.35 1. 24

Source: Report on a National Morbidity Survey : February 1962 to January 1963, National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra 1966, p. 23.

85 The victims of air pollution are usually the newborn, the elderly and the infirm as those in normal health are able to adjust to quite high varia­ tions in contamination levels.

86 As well as the im pact of specific pollutants on health, air pollution can also have deleterious effects by obscuring effective sunlight. Mr A. Gilpin pointed out that 'this tends to reduce resistance to infection and retard recovery from illness'. ('Control of Air Pollution' , A. Gilpin, 1963 p. 1 0.)


87 Much of wh at was said above al so applies to the effects of air pollution on plant and animal life. Too little is known of tolerance limits of the


various life forms to individual pollutants and air pollution generally. It is recorded that the Donora and London incidents resulted in the death of numbers of cattle, and animals may be expected to suffer similarly to human beings. Grazing animals are known to be sensitive to fluorine emissions as the fluorine tends to accumulate in grass and fluorosis causes animals' teeth to deteriorate so that they cannot feed. Mention has already been made of the build up of DDT concentrations in all forms of animal life (see

paras 46, 47).

88 In evidence to the Committee, representatives of the NSW Citrus Growers' Council, raised the problem of dust pollution arising from traffic and blow-off on unsealed roads and the effects on citrus orchards. Mr J. W. Turpin told the Committee:

'It is generally accepted that a coating of dust will interfere with photosynthetic efficiency and as such have direct effect on tree health and productivity. It also affects the appearance of fruit and the accumulation of dust in the fruit fur of peaches and in bunches of grapes, detracts from their value on fresh fruit markets. Heavy dust deposits from roadways has also been observed to retard the sizing of canning peaches on the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area.

General observations on pome fruit indicate that dust deposits on leaves and fruit increases the difficulty in maintain ing adequate control of the two spotted mite tetrany­ chus cirticae. Both the dust and heav y mite popul ation adversel y affect fruit size and colour, and also lead to an unsightly residue that cannot effectively be removed from

the stem end cavity of apples by conventional brushing equipmen t.

Dust and grit are serious problems in the drying of grapes in the dried fruit industry. While some of this grit accumulates during harvest and from operations around the drying racks, .billowing dust drifts or blows from unsealed roads onto the drying fruit. As the grapes shrivel during drying, dust and grit become embedded into the fruit and are

most difficult to remove during processing in the packing sheds.'

89 The problem of dust from unsealed roads is a matter of State priorities and the availability of funds for road purposes, but it does appear to the Committee a problem which State Governments should examine closely when establishing road-sealing programmes. The Comm ittee did not receive evidence that air pollution levels existing in Australia had severe adverse effects on any other commercial crops, although Mr J. H. Brooks, of the United Farmers and Woolgrowers Association of NSW said in evidence-

'Several instances could be demonstrated, within the immediate location of our industrial cities, where fruit and vegetable crops have suffe red a degree of productive inefficiency. Instances of these occurrences can be cited to your Senate Committee as the Botany/Matraville areas of the Ci tv of Svdnev, the Vales Poin t area in the Ci tv of N ewcastle region, and several instanc"es in -the -Ci ty of Greater Wollongong, where of the topography of these particular localities in New South Wales the y expenence air pollution.

Association appreciates that, at this poi nt in ti me, some aspects of

su?missio? will have no serious immed iate repercussions, we look to your Senate Com­ to. tmp!ement the necessary steps to safe-guard the future development of primary

mdustry m this country by introducing every precautionary measure poss ible.'


90 Sulphur dioxide and fluorine compounds are known to have phytotoxic or plant damaging effects. The components of the Los Angeles photo­ chemical pollution and emissions of ethelane, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and mercury also cause damage to a variety of plants

and crops.


91 There have been many estimates of the cost of air pollution to com­ munities, notably in the United Kingdom and the USA and all estimates have been surprisingly high. Of course, no monetary value can be attached to the cost of illness and death, but in the 19 58 Report of the WHO E xpert Committee on Environmental Sanitation are listed the following items as costs of air pollution to which a monetary value can be attached:

1. direct medical costs 2. lost income resulting fro m abse nteeism from work 3. decrease d productivity 4. increase in travel costs and time of travel due to reduce d visibility 5. increase in costs of artificial illumination

6. repair of damage to buildings and oth er structures 7. increased costs of cleaning 8. losses due to damage of crops and orn amental vegetation 9. losses due to injury to animals of economic importance 10. decrease of real estate values 11. extra costs of manufa cture because of pollution from outside sources

12. loss of dust, vapour, or ga s per se which, if collected, might be of economic value. To this list might be added los ses due to the ineffic ient combustion of solid, liquid, and possibly, gaseous fuels.

92 In 1954 the Beaver Committee estimated that the total cost of air pol­ lution in Britain was £stg250 million per annum, representing £stg5 per head of the population. This figure was made up of £stg 150 million in direct costs and £stgl 00 million in indirect costs resulting from loss of efficiency, but did not include an estimated loss of from £stg25 million to £stg50 million from the inefficient combustion of fu el. The di rect costs were itemised as




Laundry . .

Painti ng and decorating . . . .

Cleaning and de preci ation of bui ldin gs other than houses . .

Corrosion of metals . . . .

Damage to textiles and other goods ..

£stg million per annum 25 30

20 25 52.5

Total . . £stg 152.5

The total was rounded off to £ 150 million. Source : Report of Committee on Air Pollution (U.K.), HMSO, Cmd. 9322, 1954, p. 44.



Mr Gilpin, in the foreword to his book 'Control of Air Pollution,' states that this figure was subsequently revised by Sir Hugh Beaver to not less than £stg400 million.

93 Estimates of costs in other areas, while not documented as thoroughly as the British figure, include Greater New York, $16 per head per annum; Chic ago, $20 (both for 1953) and the current figure of $65 per head per annum for the whole of the United States. This represents a staggering annual cost of $12,000 million.

94 It is of interest that in Pittsburgh, USA, where an energetic programme of smoke abatement began in the 1940s, an actual annual saving of $27 million had been effected by 1952. The estimated saving was made up as follows:

Cleaning. painting, depreciation of buildi ngs .. Laundry, household and personal .. Lighting ..

Damage to merchandise, storage for protection Injury to plants and shrubs Savings in fuel and other costs fo r manufac­ turing plants ..



12,138,000 6,700,000 3,475,000 195,000




95 As far as the Committee is aware there are no total cost estimates for air pollution in Australia. In answer to questions asked by the Committee, however, the NSW Citrus Growers' Council gave the following details in relation to the costs of pollution to the citrus industry by dust from unsealed roads:

'In terms of overall cost to the citrus producing industry, having in mind expendi­ ture on insecticides to combat pests generated to an increased degree by the dust, and potential loss of export quality citrus and the corresponding depressing effect in the overall economy of the industry, the losses which could be incurred by the existing

level of plantings, could reach $5,000,000.'

The figure of $5,000,000 represents almost 10% of an estimated gross indus­ try income of $51.4 million in 1967-68.

96 If the total cost to Australia were only $5 per head per annum the annual cost to the nation would be of the order of $60,000,000. The Com­ does not suggest that $5 per head is a realistic fig ure of the cost of

atr pollution in Australia but simply puts it forward to show how costly relatively little air pollution can be to the community.

!he Committee believes that an in vestigation into the cost of air pollu­

tion m Australia should be undertaken without delay because it is onl y through an awareness of the costs involved that all sections of the communit\· be prepared to meet the not inconsiderable costs of cleaning the air.

ev.tdenced by the Pittsburgh experien ce, in the long term, it will most cer­ be cheaper in terms of real costs, and social costs, to clean up ou r environment.



98 There are many intangible costs or disabilities to be considered in rela­ tion to air pollution. There is an aesthetic loss in living in a polluted environ­ ment where housewives wage a losing battle against dust infiltration, and the view is despoiled by a smoky, hazy atmosphere landmarked by grimy

buildings. In a polluted atmosphere general living conditions are degraded, and although there is no monetary cost to be attached to this loss of amenity. the cost in terms of individual well being and happiness is very real. Meetham makes the point very well in his book 'Atmospheric Pollution its Origins and Prevention':

'The harmful effects of atmospheric pollution are so widespread and varied that they are difficult to summarise. There is no doubt whatever that atmospheric pollution in the concentrations in which it is at present allowed to occur, particularly in urban causes dam age to property and makes living conditions generally less pleasant, nor that concentrations sometimes occur which can be held directly responsible fo r immediate

serious damage to plants and even loss of life . . For many people, the advantages of living near to places of work and the amenities of a town no longer outw eigh the disadvantages. Very high on the list of disadvantages is that of dwelling, with wife and children, within the smoke pall in which the wage earner is generally required to work.'

Source: Meetham, A. R., 'Atmospheric Pollution its Origi ns and Prevention', London, Pergamon Press, 1964, p. 240.

99 The Committee firmly believes that the atmosphere forms a common natural resource and as such should remain as free as possible from con­ taminants which degrade its quality, and hopes that eventually a clean environment will be considered the precious and inviolate right of the peoples of the world.


30 7


4. 1 NATURAL ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS 100 When a pollutant is released into the atmosphere its dispersion and deposition are controlled entirely by meteorological processes, and much of pollution control at that point consists of designing smoke stacks suffi­ ciently high to achieve adequate mixing of the effluents with atmosphere by the meteorological processes. This mixing is a complex, incompletely under­ stood process and is dependent on small-scale turbulence in the atmosphere, thermal convection currents, and variations in wind speed both in the short term and diurnally.

101 Depending on the nature of the pollutant and the manner in which it is dispersed by meteorological factors, pollutants are eli minated naturally fro m the atmosphere in the following ways: • by fallout or deposition on the ground or sea

• by wash-out or precipitation in rain or snow • by absorption by the ocean and other materials • by chemical change which then results in elimination by one of the three above processes


102 Before any programme of air pollution control can be designed, it is essential to establish the meteorological pattern for the particular area. Mr A. J. Shields, Regional Director of Meteorology in Queensland, stated in evidence to the Committee:

'At any city or town for which air pollution problems are being investigated or for which air pollution potential needs to be established, the following questions on atmospheric stability require an answer: 1. What is the average height of the low level temperature inversion

2. In what months is it most common, and how frequently does it persist during a particular day on the average 3. How often does the low level temperature inversion persist throughout the day and on how many occasions does it persist for two, three, fo ur consecutive days,


4. What is the relation between the occurrance of low le vel temperatu re inversions and light wind conditions from various wind directions 5. What are the humidity, cloud and solar radiation conditions associated with light winds and inversions.

103 Knowledge is needed, too, of the wind patterns which cities and towns can develop within their own boundaries and of the general wind pattern, particularly in the lower 2,000 feet of the atmosphere, so that calculation of concentrations of pollutants down wind from known sources of pollution can


be made. Mr Shields also suggests the following three main areas where detailed climatological data could be applied to air pollution: 1. In the planning and design phases of give minimum air pollution effects

2. F or the direct application to the control phase requiring limitation of the emission of pollutants during extreme situations 3. As a necessary background for the development of a weather fore­ casting system for the guidance of air pollution authorities when the

imposition or lifting of the control of emissions are involved

104 An understanding of the meteorology of the area which it is proposed to control is absolutely necessary before any kind of standard can be set for the limitation of emissions from particular sources or complexes of sources, for example the calculation of chimney heights. For these reasons the Com­

mittee is convinced of the need for the establishment of an Australia-wide network of monitoring stations for the gathering of the necessary micro­ meteorological data, for the continuous measurement of air pollutants, and for the setting up of a predictive service to warn of extreme air pollution



105 At the present time man has the technical knowledge to control the emission into the atmosphere of most contami nants to the stage where overall levels of pollution are within acceptable limits. The limiting factor, of course, on the implementation of all possible control measures is one of cost, and the

question of the cost of ai r pollution control is discussed fully in section 4.4.

4 . 3 . 1 Urban Planning

106 Most of the small pockets of serious air pollution which exist in Australia are the result of lack of sufficient urban planning. This is probably due to the fact that it is only in recent years, since the 1952 London Smog, that any real consideration has been given to ai r pollution problems in Australia. The Committee received a great de al of evidence which showed

that, in many areas, industry had been established well outside residential districts only to be engulfed by expanding residential development-this is clearly the fault of the planners. The situation has also occured where adjoin­ ing municipalties have different zoning cl assific ations applying to areas on opposite sides of the municipal border. As a result zoned industrial areas of one muncipality adjoin zoned residen ti al areas of another municipality.

107 From the air pollution viewpoint it is essential that general urban planning extend over the whole metropolitan area of cities and towns so that individual municipal authorities have to comply with an overall plan. Air pollution, unfortunately, does not recognise muni cipal or other political boundaries.



108 In the past, industrial development has been allowed to take place in areas which are, because of meteorological considerations, completely unsuit­ able for industrial usage. Two cases in point are the Parramatta River Valley in Sydney and the Brisbane industrial complex, also situated in a river valley. Both areas suffer from poor natural ventilation and pollution tends to build up because of inadequate dispersion. Mr Shields said in evidence before the Committee:

'Town planning authorities, where such exist, and those responsible for the actual design of specific projects on the other hand, are prone to be only vaguely aware of their meteorological requirements,_ and are not always fully aware of the data now available, or how it should be correctly applied to their particular problems.'

On past performances, the Committee is inclined to agree with him, but it is to be hoped that with the increasing awareness of the dangers of air pollution, planing authorities in future will be better informed. The Committee is in complete agreement with Mr R. P. Murphy who stated in evidence:

'National and regional planning authorities should provide for representation from air pollution authorities throughout the whole process of planning.'

109 Apart from the general practice of placing industry in appropriate zones, the Committee is of the opinion that the establishment of green belts around industrial areas is of great importance. While it is uneconomical and impractical to raze large areas of ground around existing industrial areas for this purpose, it is possible and desirable to provide green belts, which aid in the dilution and removal of pollutants, on the perimeters of future industrial areas.

4. 3 . 2 Control Equipment

110 Smoke stacks are the oldest and most obvious type of air pollution control equipment. The purpose of a stack is to ensure that emissions are delivered to atmosphere at a height sufficient to reduce ground level con­ centrations of contaminants to acceptable levels. Calculations of suitable stack heights are extremely complex and need to take into account the type, temperature and exhaust velocity of the effluent, local meteorological con­ ditions, and geographical features. Stack heights of up to 1 ,000 feet are fairly common in the United States, and the highest stack in Australia and in the southern hemisphere has been constructed by the Electrolytic Refinine

and Smelting Company for its copper smelting plant at Port Kembla, South Wales. This stack is 650 feet high. The importance of high stacks is related to their ability to pierce low level temperature inversions so that pollutants are not trapped below the inversion layer and are able to be dispersed by meteorological process.

111 Particulate matter, grit and dust, can be controlled at the source of emission by various methods. The most common being: 1. gravity in settling chambers 2. centrifugal force in cyclones and impeller collectors

3. filtration in bag filters


4. electrical attraction in electrostatic precipitators 5. liquid scrubbing, such as spray chambers

Gaseous Emissions can be controlled by: 1. combustion, as is sometimes done for carbon monoxide and odorou s contaminants 2. liquid scrubbing which dissolves the gas in water There are many other types of equipment used for controlling air pollution,

but those listed above are representative of the equipment in common use in Australia.

4 . 3 . 3 Particular Problems 112 Although, as has been mentioned, man is technologically equipped to control most emissions of pollutants, there are two particular areas in which the Committee has been informed that problems have arisen.

Precipitation of Fly Ash from Certain Coals 113 The first is in relation to some types of coal mined in New Sout h Wales, Queensland and South Australia and mainly used for electric ity generation. The fly ash which is produced by these coals, when used in pulverised form, is not easily controlled by electrostatic precipitators designed

on the basis of overseas experience. In electrostatic precipitators, ash particles are given an electrical charge which attracts them to collecting plates carrying an opposite charge. The collected ash is then cleared by 'rapping' the plates so that the ash fa lls into receptacles below. Coals from the southern New South Wales coalfield and fr om West Moreton in Queensland, particularly.

produce an ash with a high resistivity to the electrical charge, resulting in a loss of collection efficiency in the precipitators. The Leigh Creek co al in South Australia is a problem because of its high ash content. These considerations necessitate the installation of larger equipment with a higher efficiency factor than would normally be required.

114 In this connection, the CSIRO was consulted by the New South Wal es Electricity Commi ss ion to assist in determining satisfactory specifications for electrostatic precipitators used to control fl y ash from New South Wales coals. Mr R. W. Hinde, Assistant Secretary, Industrial and Physical Sciences,

CSIRO, informed the Committee that in addition to the above problem: The D ivisi on is currently embarking on a longe r term research programme on electrostatic precipitation wi th three main ai ms : ( i) to relate variations in phys ical an d chemical characteristics of fly asbes with

preci pitation efficiencies; ( ii ) to dete rmine those characteristics of a coal which will enable precipitation efficiency to be predicted ; and (iii) to develop economic methods of modifying fly ash characteristics to improve


M otor V ehicle Emissions 115 The second problem in rel ation to emtsswn controls concerns the internal combustion engine. Although all States have now agreed, as the


"21 1 vl

result of a decision of the Australian Transport Advisory Council at its meeting in Darwin, in July this year, to legislate for the control of crankcase emissions from motor vehicles from 1 July 1970, there is no readily ava ilable and economic method of controlling exhaust emissions, which represent 60% of the total emissions from motor vehicles. As stated in paragraph 60, emissions from exhaus t systems contain almost all the carbon monoxide,

nitrogen oxides, lead and particulate matter, and approximately 46% of the hydrocarbons generated by motor vehicles.

116 Control of crankcase emiss ions is rel atively cheap and suitable control devices are already fitted to the majority of vehicles sold in Australia today. However, although a great deal of research has been done in the USA on methods of controlling exhaust emissions, and a partial solution has been found for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon em is sions, a solution has yet

to be found for the simultaneous control of emissions of the oxides ot nitrogen.

117 It is of interest that several witnesses have come forward to the Com­ mittee with suggested answers to the problem. Mr T. M. Cosway, proprietor of Power-Jets Pty Ltd, and Mr D. McWade, submitted devices wh ich attacked the problem at its source, the engine itself, rather than in the exhaust system, which is the line of approach of most of the American studies. Both devices, which are relatively cheap, were designed to control pollution by improving the combustion of the fuel, as perfect combustion eliminates noxious emissions . Mr Cosway's device, for which he claims

a combustion efficiency of 98% , is an improved water-injector, a type of device which has often been used to improve engine performance. The Committee understands that the new injector overcomes the normal dis­ advantages experienced with this type of device where excess water in the combustion chambers can cause rust and corrosion in engines with cast iron pistons.

118 The device designed by Mr McWade involves a new principle in that it improves combustion by injecting heated air into the ai r intake of the carburettor, with the resultant reduction in all noxious combustion com­ pounds. Test figures show that carbon monoxide emissions are reduced to less than 1% during the cruisin g phase of car travel as aga inst an avera ge 3-5% for cars not fitted with the device. The results of of the McWade device are summarised on page 37.

119 The Committee, whil e it is not technically competent to judge the merits of these devices, was im pressed by the evidence of two who have tried to do something to alleviate air poll ution from motor veh icles. and commends the devices to the air pollut ion authorit ies in each State for evaluation. If either or both devices are technically feasi ble and do not

adversely affect the performance or drivability of motor vehicles. then Austra­ lia will have contributed to the producing of an economic answer to a vexin g air pollution problem.




Test vehicle from car park without unit. Holden I 86HR automatic, mileage 18, 000 Test I, @ 500 r.p. m. in 'D'

Carbon monoxide- 6.00 % Test 2, @ 2,000 r. p.m. in 'N' Carbon monoxide- 2.75 % State of exhaust pipe : Dark grey to black.

Odour: Highly polluted These figures are normal for thi& model

With unit fitted, Holden 186HR auto­ matic, mileage 32,000

Test I, @ 500 r.p.m. in 'D' Carbon monoxide-3.25 % Test 2, @ 2,000 r.p.m. in 'N' Carbon monoxide---2.00 % State of exhaust pipe: Light grey to white

no visible evidence of hydrocarbon deposits. Odour: Absolutely clean, no smell

Previous tests show the carbon monoxide percentage dropped further after use of the unit for 50 miles or over. Tests taken on 8 December 1968 , after a journey of 116 miles, gave the following results: Test I , @ 500 r.p. m.- 2.50% carbon monoxide

Test 2, @ 2,000 r. p.m.- 1.00 % carbon monoxide

120 A report of a New South Wales Inter-Departmental Committee on The Emission of Air Pollutants from Petrol and Diesel Powered Motor Vehicles was very kindly made available to the Committee by the Hon. H. H. Jago, M.L.A., Minister for Health and the Hon. M. A. Morris, M.L.A., Minister for Transport, in New South Wales The report is most comprehen­ sive and supports the comments made in this report on motor vehicle emis­ sions. Included in the New South Wales report is a description of tests made relating to the reduction of carbon monoxide emissions by a simple adjust­ ment of the idling mixture screw or jet adjusting nut of carburettors. These

tests, which were conducted by the New So uth Wales Air Pollution Control Branch, showed that on a random selection of cars in Sydney the carbon monoxide concentration in the exhau st during id ling ranged from 0.2% to more than 10% , with 78% of veh icles recording in excess of 2.5% and

39 % in excess of 6 % . By simply adjusting the idling mixture it was found that in most cases the carbon monoxide content of exhaust gases during idling could be reduced below 1% for manual gear change cars and to approximately 2% fo r automatic cars. Minor reduction occurred for other driving modes. The report states that 'as the period that engines are idling

may account for from 25 % to 40% of the total time with cars operating in central city areas, any reduction of carbon monoxide emissions during idling would improve the overall (pollution) si tuation'. Based on the results of these tests a recommendation fo r a regulation under the Motor Traffic Act prescrib­ ing th at the carbon monoxide concentration in exh aust gases from motor vehicles during idling should not exceed 3 % was proposed but not agreed

to, but will be the subjec t of fu rther discussion between Mr Jago and Mr Morris. 37

121 A further submission on reducing motor vehicle emissions related to the use of liquid propane (L.P.) gas instead of petrol or diesel fuel. M r B. Ward Powers, who made the submission, stated: 1. L.P. gas (liquid propane gas ) turns to carbon dioxide and water vapour- there

are no unpleasant and dangerous fumes, and no carbon monoxide. 2. L.P. gas can be us ed readi ly in internal combustion engines which are at present using petrol or diesel fu el. A converter unit is fitted under the bonnet and a modification made to the carburettor. The engi ne then performs as well as on

petrol (or diesel fuel s as the case may be). The cost of the conversi on is speedily recouped as the engine has a longer life because of using gas not liquid fuel. 3. Hundreds of vehicles in Austra.Jia already run on L.P. gas, mostly fork lift tr ucks used in confined spaces. It would be a very simple matter to encourage

people to convert their road vehicles to use L.P. gas. 4. In some overseas countries the use of L.P. gas in ordinary road ve hicles is an accepted thing. In Japan for example buses a nd taxis run on L.P. gas, which they obtain from bowsers very similar to our petrol pumps at service stations. 5 . There are already at least six makes of conversion kits at present on the

Australian market, for converting engines to run on L. P. gas. 6. High quality L.P. gas ( which is the type used in gas cylinders for caravans, homes in country areas , portable barbecues, etc.) will be available in large quantity in Australia from the major oil companies in the very near future as

a result of the development of Australia's oil reserves. This will be very suitable for internal combustion engines. 7. The effect on overall air poll uation of any substantial change to L.P. gas as a fuel for road vehicles can be gauged from published reports of the drop in the

level of city air pollution during the petrol strike (from an average de ns ity of 53 parts per million to on ly 24 ppm on Monday July 15-reported in the "Herald", T uesday July 16) .'

Unfortunately, Mr Powers departed from Australia shortly after forwarding his submission and the Committee was unable to pursue this question with him. However, the Committee considers that the use of L.P. gas as fuel for internal combustion engines should be examined in detail by the appropriate authorities.

122 Another answer to the problem, of course . is to eliminate the internal combustion engine altogether. Much study overseas is cu rrently being under­ taken into steam and electric powered vehicles as alternatives. both of which would reduce the pollution problem. At the present stage, it appears that the electric car is not yet a feasible alternative to the petrol driven vehicle, whereas practical steam cars, without the disadvantages of those produced in the

1920s, for example slow starting and short range, are undoubtly a re alistic alternative.

123 The Committee receive d evidence from Mr E. Pritchard, Chairman of Directors of _Pritchard Steam Power Pty Ltd, relatin g to a steam engine, suit­ able for use m motor vehicles, wh ich his company had desi gned and buil t and in his motor car. Mr Pritchard has also given before a

Umted States Senate Committee on the Electric Vehicle and other Alter­ natives to the Internal Combusion engine. While it was still under test , results so far were extremely encouraging. Mr Pritchard advised the Committee that


tests carried out on a steam car in the United States of America showed the following emissions (figures for petrol cars are included for comparison).

Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides . . I .. I

Emissio ns from steam engine

30-40 ppm 0. 3% 25-33 ppm

Emissions from petrol engine at cruising speed

500 ppm 4% 650 ppm

124 On the question of cost, Mr Pritchard estimated that a mass produced steam car, powered by his engine, would cost slightly more than a comparable petrol driven car with manual gears and less than a car with automatic trans­ mission. The steam car, of course, requires no gearbox at all.

125 The Committee had the opportunity of inspecting the Pritchard engine as installed in the car and was impressed by its compactness. Although we in Australia will most likely have to await developments in America, as our motor car industry is largely dominated by American design, before decisions .are made regarding steam cars, the Pritchard engine does appear to be a

logical answer to motor vehicle emissions.

126 As an example of the extent to which the petrol engine will have to be modified if it is to continue as the prime source of automotive power, the following summary of emission limits wh ich will apply in California by the 1970s is given, compared with emission levels sought by the American Ford­

Mobil programme on which $7,000,000 is being spent.

Hydro- Carbon Oxides of

carbons monoxide nitrogen

ppm % ppm

Present standards in California I 275 1.5 350

1970 standards . . . . 180 1. 0 350

*Ford-Mobil programme objec- tive 65 0 .5 175

* This programme is now referred to as the Inter Industry Emissions Control Programme.

127 A further factor which should be taken into consideration in regard to motor vehicle emissions is the designing of road systems. Mr N. W. F. Fisher, Deputy Chief, Evaluation, Transport Planning Division, Common­ wealth Bureau of Roads , advised the Committee-

'As automobile emissions (except for nitrogen oxides) are greatest when the vehicle is idling, decelerating and accelerating, pollution can be substantially limited by reducing traffi c congestion. For example, a rise in the average speed from 20 to 30 mph, or from 20 to 40 mph, would reduce pollutant emission by about one-third and one-half respectively. The significance of this point is shown by the latest comprehensive data on traffic speeds in Australian capital cities as gi ven in the table below.



Sydney .. Melbourne Brisbane Adelaide Perth ..

Hobart ..


All State Capital Cities . ·I

Miles of road with speed less than 20 mph

142 205 29 27

33 6


Proportion of all arterial roads

% 15.7 18.9 7.5

8.7 9 .2

8 .3


Source: Commonwealth Bureau of Roads- Results of Australian Roads Survey, 1967-68 (unpublished).

128 The Committee accepts this evidence, and urges road planning authorities to give full weight to air pollution considerations when designing road systems.

4 . 3 . 4 Standards for Air Quality 129 In air pollution control there are two basic kinds of standards which can be applied. One is a medical standard relating to the maximum levels of the various pollutants allowed to be present in the atmosphere which , for a given exposure, can be tolerated without harmful effect. Such standards have been prescribed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia (See appendix


130 The second type of standard is related to maximum allowable emissions of pollutants from particular sources which it is expected will result in acceptable ground level concentrations. Standards of this type have been included in most State regulations concerned with air pollution. A full discussion of State control legislation appears in section 4. 4.

131 On the basis of selecting standards which will allow effective and equitable control of air pollution, the Committee considers that, ideally , primary ambient air quality standards, based on current medical knowledge of the effects of pollution, should be adopted throughout Australia. From the air quality standards, secondary, specific standards for emission levels from particular sources or processes in particular areas could be evolved. In this way, specific standards could vary from place to place, depending on considerations of local meteorology, topography and concentrations of pol­ lutants, so long as the overall ambient air quality standards were complied with.

132 The Committee appreciates that on present knowledge of air pollutants and their effects, particularly in Australia, the fixing of arbitrary emission levels without reference to specific ambient air quality criteria is certainly


the simplest and probably the safest approach to the problem. However, as our knowledge of all aspects of air pollution increases, the Committee commends the above approach to all air pollution authorities.

133 In coming to its conclusion the Committee was guided by the principles and definitions set out in the report of the WHO Inter-Regional Symposium on Criteria for Air Quality and Methods of Measurement, held in Geneva in 1963 . The relev ant sections of the report are quoted below:

'Criteria for guides to air quality are the tests which permit the determination of the nature and magnitude of the effe cts of air pollution on man and his environment. G uides to air quality are sets of concentrations and exposure times that are associated with specific effects of varying degrees of air pollution on man, animals,

vegetation and on the environment in general. In the light of present knowledge, guides to air quality may be presented as four categories of concentrations, exposure times and corresponding effec ts . These four categories are defined by limiting values which may vary for a given pollutant according

to the anticipated effect or the criteria used and in relation to other co-existing pollutants a nd the relevant physical factors, and which take into account the varying responses of different groups of human beings. The Symposium agreed to define the four categories iu terms of the following levels:

Level I. Concentration and exposure time at or below which, according to present knowledge, neither direct nor indirect effects (including alteration of reflexes or of adaptive or protecti ve reactions) have been observed. Level II. Concentrations and ex posure ti mes at and above which there is likely to

be irritation of the sensory organs, harmful effects on vegetation, visibility reduction, or other adverse effects on the environment. Level IU. Concentrations and exposure times at and above which there is likely to be impairment of vital physiological functions or changes that may lead to chronic

diseases or sh ortening of life. .

Level IV. Concentrations and exposure ti mes at and above which there is likely to be acute illness or death in susceptible groups of the population. For some known pollutants, it may not be possible to state concentrations and exposure times corresponding to all four of these levels because (a) the effects

corresponding to one or more of these levels are not known to occur with the substance in question, or (b) exposures producing effects corresponding to certain levels also pro­ d uce more severe effects, or (c) the present state of knowledge does not permit any valid quantitative assessment (e. g., of threshold levels for carcinogenic substances) .

The possibility that some poll uta nts may have mutage nic effects must be borne in mind; however, at the present time, too little is known about this subject to permit classification of such pollutants in the above categories'. In a later report by a WHO Expert Committee on Atmospheric Pollutants, the following comment was made:

'Emission standards are obviously related to the concentrations of pollutants that will be found in the ambient air, but since this relationsbip is largely dependent upon local meteorological and other factors, international standardisation of emissions of pollutants is virtually unattainabl e and the prescription of such standards must be left

to the dis<:retion of individual governments or local administrative authorities'.

4. 4 LEGISLATIVE CONTROL 134 Although there is no Commonwealth legislation dealing with air pollution, all States except Tasmania have broadly similar legislation to


3 17

control air pollution and are actively engaged in control programmes. In Tasmania, an inter-departmental committee is at present considering the problem of pollution with a vie w to recommending to the Tasmanian Government what steps should be taken for the implementation and administration of control measures.

4 . 4 . 1 The Commonwealth

135 The Commonwealth, except in some fragmentary areas where air pollution may impinge upon an existing Commonwealth power, such as air navigation, is competent to legislate directly for air pollution control only in relation to its Territories. It is considered that of the Territories, only the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory have potential air pollution problems. Dr K. W. Edmondson, Assistant Director-General, Department of Health, advised the Committee :

The question of air pollution legislation for the Commonwealth Territories has been considered. The matter has arisen because of the construction of a bitumen plant and iron ore handling facilities in Darwin. No pressing problem was considered to ex ist and, although legisl ation bas been listed for preparation, planning will not commence fo r some time because of more urgent matters. Testing in the Australian Capital Territory is carried out from time to time and as yet no problem has been


136 The Committee considers that legislation should immediately be promulgated to control air pollution in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. This opinion is not expressed because there is an urgent need for such legislation but because the Committee feels that the Commonwealth should take an immediate and active interest in air pollution matters. The promulgation of Commonwealth legislation in this field could. with the research and other resources available to Federal Government. provide a model for future State action.

4. 4 .2 New South Wales

Legislative Provisions

137 The Clean Air Act of New South Wales was enacted in 196 1 and was the result of six years study of the air pollution problems in the State and overseas practices. Modelled largely on the British Alkali Act, which, despite its title, controls all major industrial proc esses, the New South Wales legislation in brief contains the following provisions:

(i) An Air Pollution Advisory Committee be set up to advise the Department of Health on regulations , administration of the Act or on any matter rel ating to the prevention, abatement or mitigation of air pollution. (ii) Certain premises constituting the major sources of air pollution be

required to be licensed and pay a fee . These premises are listed in the schedule to the Act and are termed the 'scheduled premises'.


(iii) With the scheduled premises the Act is to be implemented by the Department of Health. (iv) With the non-scheduled premises the Act is to be implemented by Local Councils although the Department can take action where

necessary. (v) Regulations can be gazetted which prescribe limits of emission of air pollutants. (vi ) Where limits are not prescribed, the Act requires that the best

practicable means of preventing air pollution be used. This principle is also applied on occasions, as circumstances dictate, where limits are prescribed.

13 8 Scheduled premises, for which annual licence fees varying from $1 0 to $1,000, depending on the type of operation are payable, include premises used for-• the manufacture of cement, ceramic products, chemicals, coke, gas,

petroleum products • melting, casting and plating of ferrous and non-fe rrous metals • grinding and milling of rock, ores, minerals, chemicals or natural grain products

• smelting of ores to produce metals • recovery of metals from scrap materials

139 Incinerators, boilers and furnaces burning more than one ton of combustible material per hour and fue l burning equipment and industrial plant operated by the Railways and Government Transport Departments are also scheduled premises.

140 Regulations prescribing emtsston standards from various industrial operations came into force for scheduled premises in 1965 and for unscheduled premises in 1966. Limits for smoke emissions are described in terms of Ringelmann shades ( See illustration p. 9 ) and for other emissions

in grains per cubic foot of fl ue gas. ( 1 grain equals 1 seven thousandth of one pound). Typical emission standards are: • Smoke from clay products kilns is not to exceed Ringelmann shade 2, except that for 10 minutes in each hour Ringelmann shade 3 is

allowed. Continuous periods of smoke up to shade 3 are allowed where the nature of the products require it. • Nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen from nitric or sulphuric acid manu­ facturing plants are not to exceed the equivalent of two grains ?f

nitrogen dioxide per cubic foot. In other plants the limit is one gram per cubic foot. • Particulates, such as dust and fly ash from boilers, are not to exceed 0.2 grain per cubic foot except in the case of metal fumes, which are

not to exceed 0.1 grain per cubic foot.


3 19

141 The emission standards are based on the concentrations of contami­ nants in the exhaust gases of a plant at the completion of any process and before dilution with air or any other gas.

142 Provision is made for exemptions from compliance with em iss ion li mits in certain circumstances. The then Minister for Health, the Hon. W. F. Sheahan, M.L.A., stated in 1964 that exemptions may be granted if: • a contravention of an emission standard occurs as the result of circum-­

stances beyond the control of an occupier of any premises • it is not practicable to comply immediately with a prescribed em iss ion standard and that a period of time is necessary to enable an occupier of premises to obtain and install suitable equipment to control

emissions within the prescribed standard • it is not technologically practicable for control of an emission standard to be achieved and that all practicable means are being used to redu ce it to the lowest possible level

143 In addition to control of emission limits, the Act em powers the Department to prescribe chimney heights. This is done to ensure that the ground level concentrations of pollutants which are emitted from particular sources do not exceed acceptable levels although 'acceptable levels' are not

defi ned.

144 The Clean Air Act, however, does not override the provisio ns of the Maritime Services Act, the Sydney Harbour Trust Act, the Navigati on Act, the Motor Traffic Act or the Transport Act, and consequently has no authority over shipping and motor vehicles. The Senate Committee regards

this as an important omission and this view is supported by evidence from the New South Wales Air Pollution Advisory Committee, which stated: 'T he Committee is of the opinion that legislation requi ring improvements in smoke and fume emissions from motor vehicles is necessary. Initially, the standards set need

not be stringent, but they should be of a nature which will induce into control



145 The Air Pollution Advisory Committee set up by the Act has no executive authority. Its fun ction is to advise and make recommendations to the Minister for Health and the Department of Public Health on air pollution matters. The Director-General of Public Health is Chairman of the Committee and the other eleven members include:

• two officers of the Health Department • an officer of the Department of Local Government • a chemical engineer • a fuel technologist • a representative of the Sydney University • a representative of the University of New South Wales • a representative of the New South Wales Chamber of Manufactures


• a representative of the Metal Trades Employers' Association • two representatives of the New South Wales Trades and Labour Council

146 For the day to day administration of the Act an Air Pollution Control Branch of the Division of Occupational Health was established. The Branch has a staff of 25 officers including engineers, chemists, and field and labora­ tory assistants. Mr R. P. Murphy, Principal Air Pollution Control Engineer,

advised the Committee: 'As the emission limits prescribed in New South Wales are based on the concen· tration of a contaminant in the exhaust gases from a plant, it is necessary, for successful implementation of the legislation, to carry out regular chemical and dust emission tests in the exhaust flues. Many hundreds of stack emission tests have been made in New South Wales since the Regulations were gazetted, and the order of emissions from

almost all types of plant emitting air pollutants is now known. This has involved the setting up of two tests teams, one to measure the emission of solid particles and the other to measure chemical emissions.'


14 7 In describing the effects of the Clean Air Act on the air pollution situation in New South Wales, Mr Murphy said: 'The testing programme that is being conducted, together with the general require­ ment that approval of any new install ation is required before construction commences,

is resulting in industry taking the necessary steps to control the emission of air pollutants. Certainl y, much more has to be done before a satisfactory standard is achieved at all works, but the progressive installation of control equipment on existing plant is occurring, and all new pl ants are properly equipped before operations com­

mence. In regard to new plants, equi pment which is capable of achieving outlet con­ centrations of air pollutants well below the prescribed standard, has frequently been required before approval has been granted. This policy ensures that design develop­ ments in air poll ution control equipment are incorporated in new plants, so ensuring

that the lowest practicable emissions occur.'

148 Reference to the results of the monitoring programme (See Appendixes II, Ill, and IV for tables) certainly shows an improvement in the overall picture, particularly in dust fall (where a reduction of the order of 40% has occurred in the Sydney area since 1955 ) and smoke density; and except for industrial areas, there has also been a decline in sulphur dioxide


4.4.3 Victoria Legislative Provisions

149 Victoria, in 1957, was the first State in Australia to enact clean air legislation. The 1957 Act was the result of a private member's Bill and replaced in 195 8 by Government inspired legislation, based on the Bnt1sh Clean Air Act. The main provisions of the Victorian legislation are:

• Emission from industrial chimneys of smoke darker than a specified shade for periods in excess of limits fixed by regulation is prohibited. • New industrial fire places shall be as far as practicable smokeless.


207 50/69--4

3 ·) 1 " "- I

• Emission of air impurities from industrial fire places shall be reduced to a minimum. • Provisions are made for the establishment of a Clean Air Committee whose functions briefly are to investigate air pollution problems and

report and make recommendations on them to the Minister. • Power is given to make regulations, e.g. , laying down the standards of emission from chimneys, fixing minimum height for chimneys, requiring equipment to arrest air impurities and record smoke emission . • Regulations may also provide for specific exemptions and for giving

effect to any recommendation of the Clean Air Committee.

150 There are no provisions for the licensing of premises, and the payment of licence fees as in New South Wales but the Clean Air Committee can make recommendations to the Minister in relation to the abatement of pollution by railway locomotives, ships, aircraft, and vehicles propelled by the combustion of fuel. The Victorian legislation is mainly concerned, as is the British Clean Ai r Act, with emissions fr om combustion processes.

151 Regulations were made in 1958, 1961 and 1965 and the consolidated Regulations provide for control of emissions from various sources, similar to the provisions in New South Wales.


15 2 The twelve man Clean Air Committee, which is comparable to the Air Pollution Advisory Committee in New South Wales is an advisory body and its membership is composed of: • Chief Health Officer of the Department of Health, who shall be

Chairman • Chief Boiler E ngineer of the Department of Mines • Chief Chemist of the Gas & Fuel Corporation of Victoria • a representative of the Trades Hall Council • a representative of the Victorian R ailways Commissioners • a representative of the CSIRO • a professor or teacher of physics in the Unive rsity of Melbourne • a professor or teacher of mechanical engineering in the University of

Melbourne • a chief chem ist of an oi l company • a representative of the ceramic industry • a representative of the metallurgical industry

153 The Clean Air Act is admin istered by th e Com mission of Publ ic Health. which has delegated some powers in relation to sm oke emissions to the municipal authorities. As in New Sou th Wal es a separate section of the Health Department deals with air polluti on matters and is known as the Cle an Ai r Section of the Engineeri ng Divi sion . However, the Victorian se ction has


limited staff (six persons), and complaints on this apparent understaffing were received by the Committee. For example, Mr A. J. Tye, Secretary, Clean Air Council of Victoria, told the Committee in evidence-'Obviously these officers cannot even attempt a serious and thorough check on

conditions throughout Victoria. Calls from municipal councils are often answered by a visit some days later-long after the pollution problem has abated. As a result, help is not available when it is needed, and these later visits represent a complete loss of valuable time. M uni ci pal councils and the community are very much aware that a Clean Air Section which is denied the funds and manpower can only render a decimal value service. '

154 T he functions of the Clean Air Section as described in evidence by Mr J . F. McDonnell, Chief Engineer of the Department of Health, are: • An engineering review of designs for all proposed industrial pl ants from which air pollutants to the outside atmosphere are likely to be

emitted, pursuant to the provisions of the Clean Air Regulations 1965 • Investigations into complaints of air pollution from existing industrial plants • Collection and preparation for the Clean Air Committee and the

Commission of Public Health of information on technical and legisla­ tive aspects of atmosp heric pollution and its control • Conducting the atmospheric pollution monitoring survey • Advice to industry and assistance to Councils on methods of abating

air pollution from new and existing industrial plant

155 The Committee is in clined to agree with the criticism that a Clean Air Section of 6 persons can hardly be expected to cope with the air pollution problems of a State as highly industrialised as Victoria, even though the control of smoke emissions has been delegated to municipal authorities.


156 Reference to the emrss10n levels recorded for smoke, dust fall and sulphur dioxide (see Appendixes II, III and IV) shows that, since the imple­ mentation of the Clean Air Act in 1961 , a slight decrease in levels has occurred in some areas, whereas in other areas the situation has remained static, despite an overall incre ase in industrial activity. In few areas has the

position worsened.

4 . 4 . 4 Queensland

Legislative Provisions 157 A Clean Air Act was passed by the Queensland Parliament in 1963 followina a report by an investigation committee which carried out a survey of air in the G reater.._ Brisbane area and in Ipswich in 1959-60.

The Queensland Act is broadly similar to the New South Wales Legislation but there are some important di stinctions, e. g., the Queensland Air Pollution Council has executive as well as advisory func tions, the local authorities


have no responsibilities under the Act, and the Act embraces railway loco­ motives, motor vehicles and shipping. The Clean Air Act provides inter alia for: • A Clean Air Council to be set up to carry out investigations into air

pollution problems; and to advise the Minister for Health and make recommendations in relation to--(i) abating air pollution by railway locomotives, ships, aircraft and vehicles propelled by the combustion of fuel; (ii) amendment and administration of the Act and Regulations; (iii) the prevention, abatement and mitigation of air pollution. • Scheduled premises to be licensed and fees paid. • A Director of Air Pollution Control to be Chief Administrative Officer,

responsible to the Minister for Health and the Council for the administration of the Act. • The Council, subject to the Minister, to administer the Act in relation to both scheduled and unscheduled premises. • Regulations for prescribing emission limits for air pollutants and fees

payable by scheduled premises can be made. • Applications for new plant and exemptions from emission limits to be approved by the Council.

158 Scheduled premises include any premises used for brick, tile or pottery manufacture, coal or oil gas works, metallurgical works, oil refineries and sugar mills, as well as premises which have boilers capable of burning more than one ton of coal or its equivalent per hour. Fuel burning equipment operated by the Commissioner for Railways is also included in scheduled premises. The unscheduled premises include all premises where industrial processes are carried out.

159 Regulations prescribing emission limits for air pollutants (including smoke, dust, fly ash and other solid particles, acid gases, acid mists, hydrogen sulphide, chlorine, nitrogen oxides and metals or compounds of metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, antimony, cadmium and mercury) came into force on 1 August 1968. The Regulations also prescribe licence fees, ranging from $10 to $1,000 per annum, to be paid by scheduled premises.


160 The Queensland Air Pollution Council with the Director of Ai r Pollution Control administer the Clean Air Act, subject to overall control by the Minister for Health, and are directly responsible to the Minister. The Council consists of ten members as follows:

• A Chairman, nominated by the Minister (at the present time the Senior Health Officer of the Department of Health is Chairman) • 3 members nominated by the Minister • 2 engineers, nominated by the Commissioner for Railways and the

Commissioner for Electricity Supply


• a representative of the Local Government Department • a representative of the Brisbane Chamber of Commerce • a representative of the Queensland Chamber of Manufactures • one member nominated by the University of Queensland

161 The Air Pollution Control Division has a limited staff at the present time but intends to recruit sufficient personnel so that the provisions of the Act, which currently cover only Greater Brisbane and Ipswich, can be extended to include Gladstone, Townsville and Mount Isa.

R esults

162 It is considered that there has been insufficient time since the imple­ mentation of the Clean Air Act and Regulations to establish whether anv change has yet occurred in air pollution in Queensland. However, th e Committee considers that the Clean Air Act, together with the manner in

which it is being administered, should contribute to an improvement in the air pollution problems in Queensland.

4 . 4 . 5 South Australia

Legislative Provisions

163 South Australia has no Clean Air Act as such, but the Health Act was amended in 1963 to allow for measures to be taken for the control of air pollution. In general structure the legislation is very similar to the Victorian Act and has no provision fo r the licensing of premises. The main

provisions are: • A Clean Air Committee to carry out investigations into problems of air pollution and air impurities and to advise and make recom­ mendations to the Minister (for Health) relating to Regulations • power to make regulations regulating sources of emission and pre-

scribing standards of concentration or limits of emission of pollutants

164 Regulations will come into force in the near future and it is expected that they will provide for the control of dark smoke emissions without pre­ scribed limits fo r emiss ions of other pollutants.

165 In giving evidence before the Committee, Dr P. S. Woodruff, Director­ General of Public Health in South Australia, made the following comments: 'The Committee's associatio n of powers avail abl e under the Health Act with powers needed for effective control has indicated that fundamental changes are needed in

available powers for better results. These incl ude : (a) The need for power to require that "All" or "Best practicable means" of control be exercised to provide sufficient flexibility to cope with the many variables influencing pollution and its effects. (b) A better association of "Clean Air" legislation with other legislation bearing

on this si tuation-such as the Local Government Act, Motor Vehicles Act, Noxious Trades Act and other statutes in force.


(c) Whilst the Central Board of Health is to administer the legislation overall, it is felt that the Clean Air Committee should have a defined statutory role in "advising" or "recommending" what constitutes "Best practicable means" of control (if available ) with respect to such things as chimney heights and types, control equipment, and control measures generally.'


166 The Clean Air Committee, as in New South Wales and Victoria, is an advisory body. It has eleven members who are made up as follows: • The Director-General of the Public Health • The Principal Medical Officer (Public Health)

• The Chief Inspector of Boilers and Factories • The Consulting Engineer, Department of Labour and Industry • and six members nominated by-the United Trades and Labour Council of South Australia

the South Australian Railways Commissioner the Electricity Trust of South Australia the University of Adelaide the South Australian Gas Company the South Australian Chamber of Manufactures • A representative of local government interests 167 The South Australian Department of Health administers the Health Act in relation to air pollution largely th rough its Occupational Health Section . The Section consisted of a Medical Officer (Occu pational Health) Scientific Officer (Chemical) and Scientific Officer (Physical), and in 1966 a Fuel and

Chemical Engineer, to act as Engineer-Air Pollution. was added. The latter officer was appointed to act as Technical Execu tive Officer of the Clean Air Committee and advise and recommend on control legislation and equi pment and technical aspects of clean air legislation.


168 Dust fall measurem ents. whic h began in 196 I. show a gradual red uc­ tion in values over the last seven years and Dr Woodruff informed the Com­ mittee that this was due to 'changes in fuel usage and the technology of usage, economic conditions and the activities of the Clean Air Committee in con­

junction with officers of the Department of Publi c Health'.

169 The only other emissions for whi ch readings are recorded are smoke and sulphur dioxide, and me as urement of pollutants commenced in 1964.

4. 4 . 6 Western Australia Legislative Provisions

170 The Clean Air Act, which wa s assented to in 1964, is almost identical to the New South Wales legislation, although, as in Queensland , the Air Pollution Council has certain executive powers as well as ge neral advisory


functions. The Act relates to all forms of transport as well as industrial sources of pollution and includes provisions for: • An Air Pollution Control Council to carry out investigations into air pollution problems; initiate and advise the Minister on means of pre­

venting, abating or mitigating air pollution; make recommendations to the Minister for amending the Act and Regulations; grant or refuse applications for licences • A Scientific Advisory Committee to advise and assi st the Cou ncil in

relation to the prevention abatement and mitigation of air pollution and the granting of licences • The Council to administer the Act 'subject to the Minister and the payment of licence fee s • The prevention of dark smoke emiss ions fro m premises and vessels • Regulations relating to control equipment and standards of emissions 171 Regulations were gazetted in 1967 prescribing licence fees of fro m $20 to $200 per annum for scheduled premises, and also limitations on emissions of solid particles and dark smoke. Chimney heights are al so

controlled by the Regulations. 172 In relation to emission standards, Dr D. D . Letham, Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee, said in evidence: 'When the Act was being drafted investi gations revealed that standards of emission

for many em issions va ried sometimes quite considerably around the world so it is our intention to incorporate a minimum number of specifie d standards of emission and these may be incorporated into legislatio n as we gain experience. I think I could say this will be done as we gain local experience. We are bearing in mind that standards could vary f rom place to place because of diffe rences in local conditions.'


173 The Air Pollution Control Council has a membership of 13 and includes: • The Commissioner of Public Health (Chairman) • an officer of the State Electricity Commission

• an officer of the Department of Industrial Development • an officer of the Town Planning Department • an officer of the Local Government Department • an officer of the F actories Branch of the Depart ment of Labour • an officer of the Mines Department • a representative of the University of Western Australia • a representative of the Trades and Labour Council • a representative of the Local Government Association • three representatives of the Western Australian Chamber of

Manufactures 174 Under the provisions of the Act this Council is as sisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee which consists of a medical practitioner from the


3 ?7 ._ I

Department of Health, a fuel technologist, an engineer from the Public Works Department, a meteorologist, a chemist from the University of Western Australia and two representatives from the Chamber of Manufactures. 175 For day to day administration of the Act the Department of Health has a Clean Air Section under an Engineer (Clean Air) and with a projected staff of about six persons.


176 Because of the short time which has elapsed since the Regulations came into force it is difficult to assess the direct results of the clean air legislation; but as industry meets the requirements of the Act, the position can only improve.

4 . 4 . 7 Tasmania 177 As mentioned in paragraph 134, Tasmania is the only State without formal clean air legislation but an Inter-departmental Committee on Industrial Hygiene, consisting of the Secretary fo r L abour, the Director of Mines and the Director of Public Health, has been directed to investigate air pollution and-

1 . Recommend appropriate legislation to deal with it. 2. Decide what organisation, staff and facilities would be needed to administer such legislation. 3. Recommend how much an organisation could best co-operate with

Government Departments. The Department of Health is managing the investigation on behalf of the Committee. A programme for measuring ash and dust deposits and sulphur dioxide emissions is being under taken to establish the extent of the problem.

178 At the present time there are provisions for the control of smoke nuisances, dust nuisances and effluvia from certain industrial sources under the Local Government Act. Other sources of pollution may be controlled under the provisions of the Mines Act which states in section 78-

'The owner, agent, or manager, of any works shall take approved measures to prevent the emission of dust or fumes to the detriment of human, animal or vegetable life.'-and 'works' is defined as 'any battery, crushing mill, ore-concentrating works, cyanide or chlorination works, smelting works, metal refining, or other

works wherein operations are carried on for the treatment of mine products. whether such works are connected or not with any mine.' The splitting of responsibility, between the Local Government and Mines Departments causes difficulties in administration, and Dr A. D. Ross, Director of Public Health. advised the Committee in evidence:

'The Local Government Act is administered by Local Authority Inspectors, who do not have automatic entry to places under the Mines Act provisions. For this reason there is often an apparent reluctance to take a case on smoke nuisance under the Local Government Act when there is a nearby "works" producing more smoke or fumes and which apparently cannot be dealt with similarly. In the past there has been not enough come and go between the Public Health Division and the Mines Department principally


because each has been pre-occupied with other matters and has tended to leave the field to the one administering the Act which seems to have immediate relevance. This is a pity because although the Mines Department has chemical engineers, these have been mainly concerned with matters other than "health" and have not had the benefi t of enough of the Public Health Division's views as to the biological and ecological effects of certain poll utions.'

1 79 It is expected that the Inter-departmental Committee will make its recommendations to the Tasmanian Government during 1969.

4 . 4 . 8 General Comments on State Legislation 180 As can be seen in the previous paragraphs, there are quite a number of differences in the various state clean air acts, in the Councils or Com­ mittees which are set up to administer the legislation, and in the provisions of the regulations to control emissions. Although it is recognised that it is the prerogative of each State Government to organise its own air pollution control programme and the necessary administrative functions, the Committee

has, as the result of a close examination of all State legislation, come to some conclusions as to model legislative provisions and administrative arrangements. 181 The Committee therefore offers the following suggestions for the consideration of State Governments.

1 That a common structure for air pollution control administration be adopted in accordance with the chart below:

Scientific Advisory Committee

Minister for Healt h

.._____,___.... I

Clean Air Council

Director of Air Pollution Control

Clean Air Division


Municipal Authorities

Head of Department of Health

Department of Health


2 That the membership of the Clean Air Council (which should be the policy-making body, concerned with for the

amendment and administration of the Act and Regulations, the scale of fees for scheduled premises, and general policy matters) should include: • The Head of the Department of Health, as Chairman

• An officer of the Local Government Department • An officer from each Government Department or Authority whose operations contribute to air pollution emissions (e.g. Department of Mines, Road and Rail Transport Departments, Electricity and

Gas Authorities) • An officer of the State or Town Planning Authority • A representative of the road planning or construction authority • An officer of the Primary Industry Department • An officer of the Industrial Development or Decentralisation

Department, where applicable • A representative of each of the metallurgical, ceramic, mineral, petroleum, chemical and cement industries (nominated by the Chamber of Manufactures where particular industry associations

do not apply)


• 3 representatives of the Chamber of Manufactures • Two representatives of the Trades and Labour Council 3 That the Scientific Advisory Committee, which should advise the Council on technical matters generally, and on types and specifica­

tions of control equipment, standards fo r ambient air quality and pollutant emission levels, should include in its membership: • A medical practitioner from the Departinent of Health • A fuel technologist • A combustion engineer • A meteorologist • A chemist • Representatives of the Universities from the Engineering, Physics,

Chemistry or Environmental Health Departments, where appro­ priate • A representative of the CSIRO, if available • A representative of the municipal health inspectors 4 That there should be a Director of Air Pollution Control in charge

of an autonomous division of the Department of Health and respon­ sible directly to the Minister fo r Health through the Clean Air Council for the day to day administration of the Clean Air Act and Regulations. 5 That the Municipal Authorities, through their Health and Indus­

trial Inspectors, be utilised by the Director of Air Pollution Control. for assistance in the recording of air pollution measurements, and for the channelling of local complaints regarding pollutant emissions to the Clean Air Division.


6 . That those States which do not have a system of licensing scheduled premises institute such a system and that set licence fees should be on the scale adopted in New South Wales and Queensland. 7 That staffing of the Clean Air Division be such that a realistic

programme of monitoring air pollutants and inspection of emission sources can be maintained. 8 That air pollution from all sources, including all modes of transport , be controlled by Air Pollution Authorities.

182 It can readily be seen fr om the foregoing paragraphs that the Senate C ommittee has not suggested anything really new or anything impractical. All States already have some parts of the suggested structure, but no one State has what the Committee feels is an ideal structure which incorporates

the best elements of the various State administrations. The suggested mem ­ bership of the Clean Air Council is based on the membership of existing councils, but includes urban planning authorities, who appear only on the Western Australian Air Pollution Control Council in the person of an office r of the Town Planning Department. This suggestion is made to overcome

the problems outlined in section 4 . 2 . 1 and for much the same reasons those states which have a Department of Indust rial Development or a Department of Decentralisation are urged to give them a seat on the Air Pollution Council.

183 The Committee was impressed by the functions of the Western Aus­ tralian Scientific Advisory Committee and suggests that this kind of Com­ mittee could relieve Air Pollution Councils of the weight of technical work and leave it free to consider and rec om mend on general policies .

184 The suggestion relating to a Director of Air Pollution Control was inspired by the Queensland organisation which is headed by such an officer. The Committee considers that an autonomous Division of a Health Depart­ ment headed by a D irector of Air Pollution Control responsible to the Minister, would be a much more effective body than the small clean air sections which most state organisations hide within their Health Departments. with the resultant disadvantage of having to compete for funds with other

sections of the Department.

185 In general, under ex isting provisions in State legislation, the Acts and Regulations are being administered sympathetically. Evidence from both industry and State administrations has emphasised that compliance with regulatory measures is achieved by means of co-operation rather than coercion. The position is best described in the words of the Hon. W. F.

Sheahan who said in 1964 in relation to the administration of the New South Wales Clean Air Act and Regu lations: 'I am firmly convinced that a reas onable approach by my Department will achieve as much if not more than the mechanical application of the Reg ulations. The Air

Pollution Control Branch contains engineering and scientific experts who have specialised in the field of air pollution control. They will be charged with the responsibility of carry­ ing out my policy of persuasion and co-operation as a means of furthering the interests


of clean air and they will be available to give advice where needed on control problems. Naturally, the first responsibility is to achieve a cleaner and where necessary pressure will be applied. However, occupiers will not be subj_ected to pres­ sure in those cases where technical problems are such that 1t may reqmre considerable investigation and time to bring about control of air impurities .. Only a_fter all_ possi?Ie avenues have been explored and in the last resort will consideratiOn be gtven to mvokmg the penal provisions of the Act.'

186 The Committee applauds this attitude by both State Governments and industry in air pollution control.

4. 5 COSTS OF CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION 187 Throughout the enquiry the Committee received a great deal of evidence on the high cost of implementing emission control measures in many industries. The question of cost is one of the limiting factors in obtaining clean air. In some industries, particularly smaller industries established well before clean air legislation was in force, the cost of fitting control equipment can be more than the capital value of the plant which is causing the emission of pollutants. With new plants, which must comply with existing regulation requirements, the problem is not usually as great, as it is generally a cheaper exercise to design control equipment into a plant rather than to add the equipment to existing plant. Nevertheless, all control measures are fairly costly.

188 A few examples of ac tual cost figures which were obtained in evidence will graphically illustrate the problem.

189 The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, in respect of its industrial complex in New South Wales alone, has already spent $25 million, and expects to spend a further $4.9 million in the next few years, on air pollution control measures. Although some of this expenditure relates to

plant improvements, which results in some cases in reduced pollution emissions, the great bulk of it is purely for air pollution control.

190 Stanton Pipes Division, Stewarts and Lloyds Australia Pty Ltd, of Yennora, Sydney, manufacturers of cast iron pipes from steel and iron scrap, have been required to spend $369,261 on air pollution control equipment. The equipment required was a wet disc scrubber, the purpose of which was to reduce fluoride and other emissions to the limits prescribed by the New South Wales regulations. No suitable equipment of this type was available either in Australia or from overseas sources and the scrubber plant was designed and built in Australia. The Committee was informed that the annual cost of running and maintaining this equipment was of the order of $50,200, made up of electricity, $36,000; water $2,700; transferal of waste $1,500; and maintenance $10,000.

191 The Victorian State Electricity Commission has installed electrostatic precipitators to control dust emissions at a cost of $9 million in its new Hazelwood power station in the Latrobe Valley. This represents 4t % of the


total cost of the power sation. In New South Wales the cost of installing pre­ cipitators in the new Munmorah power station is estimated at $12 million out of a total cost of $140 million.

192 The Chief Engineer of Sulphuric Acid Pty Ltd in South Australia estimated that to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from the plant to accept­ able levels would necessitate the erection of a chimney stack of approximately 200 feet which would cost in the order of $60,000-$80,000. The 650 feet high stack erected by the Electrolytic Refining and Smelting Company Ltd at

Port Kembla to comply with air pollution control requirements cost almost $1 million.

193 In relation to a cement company in Perth, Dr D. D. Letham informed the Committee in evidence: 'This cement works has been the source of many complaints of dust over the years and is required to install effective equipment to control dust emissions. They have called

for tenders and it seems that it will cost the company not less than $300,000 to buy, install and adapt their existing plant to this dust control equip ment. At the present time the total value of their plant is estimated to be $723,000. This includes plant which is 40 years old. In fact the portion of the plant to which the dust control equipment will be attached is valued at only $115,000.'

194 The high cost of air pollution control raises the question of 'who should pay'. Should the particular industry, as the polluter, be expected to pay the total cost or should the community, as those who desire clean air, be expected to contribute to the cost of cleaning the air. The Committee attempts

to answer these questions in the succeeding secti on.



5. 1 THE CONSTITUTIONAL POSillON 19 5 In Australia, a federation of six sovereign states, there are constitu­ tional disabilities in regard to the control and administration of air pollution in a uniform manner throughout the Commonwealth. Each State Govern­ ment has the responsibility of making laws for the control of air pollution within its own boundaries, as pollution of the environment is not included in s. 51 of the Constitution as one of the areas in which the Commonwealth has legislative authority. The Commonwealth has this power only in relation to its Territories (see para. 135) but to date has not legislated for control of

air pollution. The Committee has already expressed the opinion that clean air legislation should immediately be promulgated for the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. (See para. 136).

196 Many witnesses suggested that the Commonwealth Government should assume complete responsibility for air pollution control in Australia, but this could not be done unless the states surrendered their powers in this field to the Commonwealth. The Committee considers that such action is neither

likely nor desirable, but that the Commonwealth Government should concern itself with air pollution because it is a national problem.

197 A precedent exists in the United States of America, a federation of States like Australia, where the Federal Government passed Clean Air Legislation in 1955, 1959, 1963, 1966 and 1967, and has established its role in air pollution in six main areas:

(i ) To prepare or recommend research programmes for devising methods of controlling air pollution and for ascertaining the effect of air pollution on human health. (ii) To encourage co-operative ac tivities by State or local governments. (iii) To collect and dissemi nate information relating to air poll ution . (iv ) To conduct research to devise and develop methods of preven tion

and abatement and to support such work. ( v) To conduct research surveys, and investigations concerning any specific problem of ai r pollution, upon request of any State or local governmental air poll ution control agency. (vi) To make grants and en te r in to contracts fo r surveys, study, resea rch

training and demonst ration pro jects.

198 The policy of the Un ited States Federal Government in air poll ut ion control is expressed in th e preamble to the 1963 Clean Air Act in the following terms: . 'That the prevention and control of air pollution at its so urce is the primarv resp onsi-.

bllity of States and local governments. ·


That Federal financial assistance and leadership are essential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, regional. and local programmes to pre vent and control ai r pollution.' Over $US400 million has been made available by the United States Govern­

ment for federal air pollution control efforts fo r the American fiscal years 1968 to 1970. 199 It is the unanimous opinion of the Committee that the Commonwealth Government would be acting in the best interests of the Australian nation

if it adopted a similar attitude to the control and prevention of air pollution in Australia. 200 The following paragraphs offer some suggestions as to the most appro­ priate areas for the Australian Commonwealth to undertake activities related to air pollution control, research and administration.


201 As the inquiry progressed the Committee became increasingly aware that one of the major problems confro nting those dealing with the control of air pollution was the lack of basic knowledge on many aspects, not only in Australia but also overseas. There is much research yet to be done on

the effects of various pollutants on human, animal and plant life and at what levels of contamination these pollutants have a deleterious effect. The establishment of national standards fo r air quality also requires a tremendous amount of work. It did not surprise the Committtee, therefore, that when

asked how the Commonwealth could best aid the State administrations in air pollution matters, many witnesses suggested that the Commonwealth could make a real contribution in the field of di rect research, in grants for air pollution research and in co-ordination of research programmes. The Committee agrees with this sugges tion and discusses in the succeeding para­

graphs the possible roles of two Commonwealth organisations in providing research and information on air pollution.

5 . 2 . 1 The CSIRO

202 At the present time the CSIRO is engaged in research which relates to some aspects of air pollution. The work being done in relation to the resistivity of fly ash ( para 114) and ozone concentrations in the atmosphere (para 35) has already been mentioned. In addition, the Division of Mineral

Chemistry is examining the effects of sulphur in coal and the Division of Applied Chemistry has made a study of bushfires, including the movement of smoke and its effect on visibility. In discussing other areas in which CSIRO has special skills relevant to air pollution investigations, Mr R. W.

Hinde, Assistant Secretary, Indust rial and Physical Sciences, informed the Committee: 'E ffective clean air legislation must involve regulations to specify limiting amounts of any pollutant. Such legislation presupposes simple and reliable methods for sampling air and for analysing the sampl es. Accurate methods are already available, but many of these could be improved. CSIRO has considerable expert knowledge of instrumental measureme nts. for exam ple in the D ivi sion s of Physics and Applied Physics (the National


Standards Laboratory) and the Division of Chemical Physics. The Divisions of Radio­ physics and Applied Chemistry have developed sampling devices for collecting particles in the air. A number of other Divisions have analytical expertise which could be revelant ro specific problems.'

203 The Committee was advised that CSIRO was competent to undertake research into air pollution matters within its existing framework although it was suggested that the Executive of CSIRO would be unlikely to recom­ mend the establishment of a separate Division to do purely air pollution research. This was because of the wide range of skills and knowledge which would have to be utilised from existing Divisions within CSIRO. However, it is the opinion of the Committee that a separate Division should be estab­ lished within the CSIRO and the necessary funds provided so that other projects can continue at existing levels. It is not suggested that CSIRO carry the whole burden of air pollution research, but that the functions of an Air Pollution Division within CSIRO should include:

1. Basic research into air pollution problems of particular relevance to Australian conditions. 2. The examination of overseas studies and practices for application to local problems. 3. Particular research studies recommended by the appropriate authority

(see para. 216).

5 . 2 . 2 The Bureau of Meteorology

204 The importance of meteorological processes in air pollution was discussed in section 4. 2 and the Committee suggested the need for a national network of monitoring stations to gather the required meteorological data. It would be a function of the Bureau of Meteorology to establish such a network. Mr A. J. Shields advised the Committee that depending on the degree of sophistication required the initial cost of establishing a monitoring network in Queensland would range from $54,500 to $222,500 and annual running costs from $8,000 to $45,000. Mr Shields suggested that it may be possible to avoid a detailed investigation in many areas that have a pollution problem if the climate for these areas could be synthesised and results from monitored areas applied. The Committee again stresses its belief that a national meteorological monitoring network should be established by the Bureau.

5 . 2 . 3 Grants for Research and Training

205 Several Universities and other institutions are already carrying out research and training programmes related to air pollution. The University of Melbourne in its Industrial Science Department has undertaken studies in the of acid smuts in brick kilns, methods of scrubbing gases .

absorption of sulphur oxides on carbons, and th e fo rmation of nitrogen oxides.

206 In the University of New South Wales work has been done by the School of Chemical Engineering on the formation and emission of soot and


acid sm uts; the composition of smoke produced in the burning of fuel oil and coal; the formation and presence of carcinogenic hydrocarbon components; sulphur and the production of sulp huric oxides and acid vapours in com­ bustion gases; the emission and control of particulate solids emissions from

fu el burning plant, and the control of undesirable emissions in the disposal of solid wastes by incineration.

207 Professor H. Bloom, of the Chemistry Department of the University of Tasmania, informed the Committee that his Department was about to commence a programme of air sampling throughout Tasmania by means of a sophisticated mass spectrometer. Various Technical Institutes run courses for municipal health inspectors which relate in part to training in

clean air problems. All of these projects suffer from lack of funds, and the Committee considers it appropriate for the Commonwealth to participate in this phase of air pollution programmes by making grants available for approved research programmes and training courses for air pollution pe r­ sonnel. It is suggested that approval for these grants be recommended to the

appropriate authorities by the proposed Commonwealth-State Air Pollution Bureau or Advisory Committee. ( See paragraph 216).

5. 3 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDUSTRY 208 It was suggested in evide nce by many witnesses that the Common­ wealth Government should accept some of the burden of the cost of con­ trolling air pollution by granting financial assistance to industries which

are compelled to expend large sum s on control equipment. As can be seen from the examples given in paras 187-194, the majority of air cleaning pro­ cesses is non-productive. However, it is realised that in some industries there may be savings effected by the recovery of commercial products as by­

products of effl uent control. A case in point is the recovery of sulphur, which may be utilised by the fertilizer industry, from the efflu ent of oil refineries.

209 Most of the suggestions put to the Committee for Commonwealth assistance were related to taxation concessions of one form or another for control equipment, and fall mainly in three areas: (i ) accelerated depreci ation allowance for air pollution control plant;

( ii ) application of investment allowance deductions to control plant; and (iii) removal of sales tax on control plant. 21 0 Other suggestions included direc t grants, long-term low-interest loans, removal 0f customs duties on imported equipment and government owner­

ship of control equipment. Mr D. A. Phillips, representing the Victorian Chamber of Man ufactures informed the Committee that, in answer to a questionnaire circulated by the Chamber among Victorian companies, 40% of the companies favoured the extension of the 20% taxation investment allowance to expenditure on air pollution control equipment; 34% favoured

a faster rate of deprec iation allowance on such equipment when installed;

20750 /69- 5 61

25% favoured direct government grant to finance the installation of such equipment; and 1% favoured low-interest loans to finance the equipment. Thus most companies favoured either an extension of the investment allow­ ance or a faster rate of depreciation allowance on control plant.

2 11 The normal depreciation allowance applies only to plant used in earning assessable income and allows the cost of the plant to be written off over its estimated useful life. The allowance does not usually include buildings unless they are an integral part of the plant. In this way, chimneys, except those attached to brickmaking and tile kilns, gasmaking retorts and some smelting works, are not usually classified as plant but as buildings. To the Committee this seems to be an anomalous position, because whether the chimney is an integral part of the manufacturing process or not, the plant could hardly function without it.

2 12 Although it is not within the province of this Committee to define federal taxation policy, the Committee is of the opinion that a good enough case has been made out to warrant an examination by the Government of the proposals put forward by industry for some form of financial concession for air pollution control equipment, including chimneys. Industry considers that it is reasonable to expect a community which wants clean air to bear a pro­ portion of the costs involved and one way of achieving this object is for the Commonwealth to allow taxation and customs duty concessions for control equipment.


2 13 It is apparent that, within the exis ting constitutional framework, joint Commonwealth-State action is the only way in which uniformity of policy and standards can be attained in air pollution matters.

214 In this regard the Committee received suggestions for various types of Commonwealth-State organisations. Dr M. H. Gabriel, Chairman of the Queensland Air Pollution Control Council, proposed that a Sub-Committee of the Public Health Committee of the National Health and Medical Research Council could act as a means of establishing regular contact between air pollution personnel in the States and with Commonwealth health personnel and a free interchange of info rm ation. Mr H. Hartmann. President of the

Victorian Branch of the Clean Air Soci etv of Austral ia and New Zealand suggested that a federal advisory body be ;et up consisting of of the Commonwealth Government, CSIRO. State air pollution administra­ tions, industry, Universities. the Health Surveyors Institute. and the Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand. The SU!!!!ested fu nc ti ons for such a body were the 'standardisation of legislation. of control and

co-ordination of research on a nation;! basis'.

215. While the C?mmittee can see merit in both these su ggestions it was neither was comprehensive en ough in its representation to

achieve the aims desired.


216 In the Fifth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Environmental Sanitation it is stated: 'The administrative control of atmospheric pollution can be most effectively developed into appropriate law at a national level through the action of a committee of persons

representing public health administration, fuel usage, industrial hygiene, agriculture, science, industry and town planning.'

The Committee agrees with the principles expressed in this statement and suggests that an appropriate Commonwealth-State Advisory Committee should include: • A representative of the Commonwealth Department of Health

• A representative of each State's clean air administration • Representatives of State and Federal Town Planning Authorities • A representative of the Bureau of Meteorology • A representative of CSIRO and representatives of Government Agric ultural Departments, extractive and manufacturing industries, electricity generating authorities, gas and oil industries, and Universities, who should be co-opted or invited as


and that the functions of such a body should include: • The co-ordination of Commonwealth and State activities in air pollution research and control measures, by recommending and advis­ ing on standardisation of policies and techniques • The establishment of uniform standards for the measurement of

pollutants and the recording of data • The making of recommendations for grants to educational institutions undertaking research or the training of personnel in air pollution prob­ lems, including the measurement of pollutants, their effects on human,

animal and plant life; and methods of prevention and control.

217 The Committee is indebted to Mr V. J. Bahr, then Regional Director of the Bureau of Meteorology in the Australian Capital Territory, upon whose submission the above administrative arrangement was largely based.

21 8 The necessity for uniform standards for air quality was discussed in section 4.3.4, but the Committee sees also a need for national standards to be adopted for the measurement of pollutants and for the recording of such data. A WHO Expert Committee on Atmospheric Pollutants stated-'that agree­ ment between nations on nomenclature and methods of measurement of air

pollution is obviously desirable if the resu lts of research work in different ccuntries are to be compared'. This is equally true in relation to the Austra­ lian States and the Commonwealth. The Standards Association of Australia informed the Committee that it would be will ing to undertake the task of drawing up standards for the me asurement of pollution. As a guide for the consideration of uniform units of measurement for air pollution, units

recommended by WHO for international use are attached as Appendix IX.


Although these units are metric units, most scientific studies are already mea­ sured in terms of the metric system and with the possibility of Australia changing to this system, it is considered that the recommended units are practical and appropriate.

219 In regard to co-ordinated research programmes in air pollution, the Committee is of the opinion that the need for such co-ordination is self­ evident. It would be tragic if Australia's already thinly stretched research capacity was wasted by duplication of research projects by the States and the Commonwealth.


220 It was brought home to the Committe many times during the enquiry that air pollution is but one small part of man's contamination of his environ­ ment. Pollution of the water resources of the world, pollution of the soil, and in this mechanised world of ours, pollution of the environment by the noise of man's activities, are all parts of the same problem. In some cases, such as

the use of wet-scrubbing methods to clean exhaust gases from industry, the curing of an air pollution problem can lead directly to the creation of a problem of water pollution.

221 That the Commonwealth Government is aware of the total environ­ mental pollution problem is evidenced by the fact that, concurrently with this Committee's activity, a Senate Select Committee is enquiring into water pollution, and a Select Committee of the House of Representatives is investigating the noise level around airports. The Committee therefore con­ siders that, in any future arrangements for the study of pollution problems, cognisance should be taken of the total environment and the interaction of the different fa cets of what is virtually one problem.




Although the Committee expresses views and conclusions throughout its Report, it reiterates certain specific conclusions, as follows: 1. That an air pollution problem exists in Australia today, and that the potential dangers will be far greater and more costly to remedy

unless urgent co-ordinated action is taken immediately. (Paras 14, 95-97) 2. That the Commonwealth should enact clean air legislation for its Territories. (Paras. 136, 195)

3. That a more uniform approach to the problem by the States and the Commonwealth is essential. (Paras. 213-219) 4. That the Commonwealth Government should take an active interest in air pollution matters by-

(i) acting as a co-ordinator of State and Commonwealth Govern­ ment activity. (Paras. 216, 219) (ii) undertaking basic research in air pollution in Australia, and making grants to the appropriate institutions and authorities

for air pollution research and personnel training. (Paras. 201-3, 207) (iii) making available increased tax relief to industry and others involved in expenditure on air pollution control equipment and

its maintenance. (Paras. 208-212) 5. That action must be taken to abate and control motor vehicle emissions, and that while these emissions have been partially con­ trolled, no complete solution to the problem is yet available. (Paras.

59, 115-116) 6. That, without prejudice to the inquiries or findings of other Par­ liamentary Committees which have yet to report to Parliament, consideration be given to the co-ordination of studies of the total

environmental pollution problem-that is air pollution, water pollu­ tion, soil pollution and noise pollution. (Paras. 220-221)

6. 2 RECOMMENDATIONS The Committee therefore recommends-1. That the Commonwealth should immediately enact legislation for the control of air pollution wit hin its Territories. (Paras. 136, 195)

2. That the Commonwealth Government initiate a conference between Commonwealth and State Governments to discuss the establishment of a Commonwealth-State Bureau of Air Pollution. (Para. 213)


34 1

3. That such Bureau should include: • The Director of the Commonwealth Department of Health, or his representative • The Directors of the appropriate State Government Departments

administering air pollution control, or their representatives • The Directors of Town Planning, or their equivalents, of each State and the Commonwealth, or their representatives • The Director of Meteorology, or his representative • The Chairman of the CSIRO, or his representative • Representatives of extractive and manufacturing industries,

electricity generating authorities, gas and oil industries, and Universities which have undertaken studies directly related to air pollution, should be co-opted or invited as required (Para. 216) 4. That the functions of such Bureau should include:

(i) The co-ordination of Commonwealth and State activities in ai r pollution research and control measures by recommending and advising on standardisation of policies and techniques. (Para. 216) (ii) The establishment of uniform standards for the measurement

of pollutants and the recording of data. (Paras. 216, 218) (iii) The making of recommendations for grants to educational institutions and other bodies undertaking research or the training of personnel in air pollution matters, including the measurement

of pollutants, their effects on human, animal and plant life, and methods of prevention and control. (Paras. 205-6, 216) 5. That a Division of Air Pollution be established within the CSIRO to undertake basic research into air pollution problems of particular

relevance to Australia; to examine overseas studies and practices for application to the Australi an situation; and to undertake studies recommended by the Bureau of Air Pollution. (Para. 203) 6. That the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology be charged with

the responsibility of establishing a national network of monitoring stations for the collection of meteorological data specifically for air pollution needs, the continuous measurement of air pollutants, and eventually of setting up a predictive service for the warning of potential air pollution hazards. (Para. 204) 7. That, in view of the special importance of emissions from motor

vehicles in the overall air pollution problem, urgent consideration be given by the appropriate Commonwealth and State authorities to ways and means of bringing about the abatement and event ual control of those motor vehicle emissions which contribute to pollution of the air. (Paras. 29, 58-9 , 115)

8 · 1 That the Commonwealth Government give consideration to the granting of financial relief to industry and others involved in


expenditure on air pollution control equipment and its maintenance by means of tax and duty concessions, with particular reference to the extension of the taxation investment allowance and to accelerated depreciation allowances. (Paras. 208-212)

8 . 2 That the taxation laws in respect to allowances for buildings and plant be reviewed, particularly in relation to the definition of chimneys. (Para. 211 )


7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Committee desires to thank the Clerk of the Committee, Mr R. W. Jennings, and the Assistant Clerk, Mrs M. C. Bayley, for their capable and untiring efforts on behalf of the Committee at all times. It also records its indebtedness to the Government Printer and his staff, officers of the Parlia­

mentary Reporting Branch and other Parliamentary Departments who assisted in the preparation of this report and accompanying papers.

The Committee wishes to record its appreciation and thanks to all witnesses and to those persons and organisations, including the Common­ wealth and State Governments and their Departments, and particularly the Clean Air Sections of the State Health Departments, who assisted the Committee so willingly in its inquiry.

The Senate, Canberra

9 September 1969


G. H. BRANSON Chairman



TERMS OF REFERENCE: 2 APRIL 1968 AIR PoLLUTION- SELECT CoMMITT EE : Senator Henty, pursuant to notice moved­ (1) That a Select Committee be appoi nted to inquire into and report upon air pollution in Australi a, including (a) causes and effects, ( b) methods of

prevention and control , and (c ) matters incidental thereto. (2) That the Committee consist of Senators to be appointed by a subsequent resolution. ( 3) That the Committee have power to send for persons, papers and records, to

move from place to place, to si t in open court or in private, and have leave to report from time to time its proceedings and the evidence taken and such interim recommendations as it may deem fit. ( 4) That the Committee ha ve power to sit during any adjournment or recess of

the Parliament. (5) That the Committee report to the Senate on or before 31 December 1968. ( 6) That the foregoing provisions of this resolution, so far as they are

inconsistent with the Standing Orders, have effect notwithstanding anything contained in the Standing Orders. Debate ensued. Questi on-put and passed.

CONSTITUTION OF COMMITTEE: 3 APRIL 1968 AIR PoLLUTION-SELECT COMMITT EE: Senator Henty moved, by leave-(1) That the Select Committee on Air Polluti on cons ist of six Senators, three to be appointed by the Leader of the Government in the Senate, two to be

appointed by the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, and one to be appointed by the Leader of the Australian Democratic Labor Party in the Senate. (2) That the Committee elect as Chairman one of the members appointed by the

Leader of the Government in the Senate. (3) That the Chairman of the Committee may from time to time appoint another member of the Committee to be the Deputy Chairman of the Committee, and th at the member so appointed act as Chairman of the

Committee at any tim e when the Chairman is not present at a meeting of the Committee. ( 4) That. in the event of an equality of voting, the Chairman, or the Deputy Chairman when acting as Chairman. have a casting vote. ( 5 ) That fou r members of the Committee. including th e Chairman or Deputy

Chairman. constitute a quorum of the Committee. ( 6) That the foregoing prov isi ons of th is resolution. so far as they are

inconsi stent with the Standing Orde rs. have effect notwithstanding anything contai ned in the Standing Orders. Ques ti on-put and passed.

EXTENSION OF TIME FOR REPORT: 26 NOVEMBER 1968 AIR PoLLUTI ON SELECT CoM MITTEE- Se nator Lauck e moved, by leave-That the date fo r presenting the Report of the Select Com mittee on Air Pollution be extended to 30 September 1969. Debate ensued. Question-put and passed .


"2 L·.-'-' . '


MEASUREMENTS OF DEPOSITED MATTER IN AUSTRALIA ( l) New South Wales ( 2) Queensland ( 3) South Australia ( 4 ) Victoria Note: The following tables of measurements were supplied by the clean air sections of the relevant State Health Departments and are in the form in which they were presented to the Committee. Measurements of deposited matter have been made in

Western Australia, largely in relation to specific sources, but the .figures are not included as instruments used for measurement di ffer from those used in other States. Consequently the recordings would not be comparable with those for the other States.


MEAN DEPOSIT GAUGE RESULTS, 1967 (Tons per square mile per month)

Location of gauge

Art Gallery .. ..

Central Railway .. ..

Darlington .. . .

George Street North ..

Martin Place .. ..

Paddington . . . .

Potts Point .. ..

pyrmont .. .. ..

Redfern . . .. ..

Ultimo .. .. ..

Town Hall .. . .

Auburn, Asquith Street .. Auburn, Parramatta R oad .. Chester Hill, Banool Street .. Georges Hall, Birdwood Avenue

Banks town, Calidore Street .. Bankstown, Civic Centre Greenacre, Noble Avenue Panania, Lambeth Road Padstow, Stuart Street Botany, Banksia Street Botany, Coward Street Botany, Denison Street Botany, Dudley Street Botany, Stephen Road Burwood, Lucas Road Burwood, Sheras A venue Enfield, Mitchell Street p unchbowl, Leigh Avenue Belfield, Lincoln Street














. .




. .


. .


. .

. .

. .

. .





. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .


. .






Insoluble I solids dust-fall

14.5 17 .1 13.5 12.3 15.9

7. 7 13. 7 25.0 14.7 14.2 14.3 11. 8 10. 6

8 .6 6.8 7. 9 5.0 7.1 7.0 10.1

9 .2 9 .6 20.0 10. 8 15.3 10.4 I 1.1

8.2 8.0 7.8










Combus- 1 tible I


4.5 4.5 3.8 3.9

4.6 2.5 4.8 6.9 3. 9 4. 3 4. 7 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.5 1.6 2. 2

1.9 3.0 3.4 3. 1 6. 5 3.3 4.1

3 .I

3.0 2. 7 2.2 2.5







10.0 12.6 9. 7 8.4 11.3

5.2 8.9 18 . 1 10 .8

9.9 9.6 8.2 7.5

5.7 4 .3 5.4 3.4 4.9

5.1 7 .1 5. 8 6. 5 13 .5

7 .5 11.2 7. 3 8.1

5.5 5. 8 5. 3



Soluble matter

7.2 5. 7 10.6 7.3

7.2 5. 9 7.9 7.4 9.5 8.5 11.2

3.3 4.2 3.6 2.6

3. 7 3.3 3.5 4.1 4 .0 8.6 9. 8 12 .4

7.9 9.7 4.1 4. 1 3. 7 3.3 4.4

Insoluble solids 1966

17.4 16 .9 10. 2 15.3 19.3

9.7 13.9 28 .6 18.3

15.0 13.8 14.4

11.5 11. 6 7.9 9 .9

6.9 8 . 5 7.7 9 .6 11.5 11. 0 12.4 11. 3 15. 3

9. 8 9 .1 7.5 10. 5


New South Wales: Mean Deposit Gauge Results, 1961-continued

I Combu- 1 Insoluble Soluble Insoluble L ocation of gauge solids stible Ash solids dust-fall matter matter 1966 Ashbury, Trevenar Street .. .. 8.0 2.2 5.8 3. 6 8.5

Concord, Cabarita Baths .. .. 14.0 8.5 5.5 5.1 15.7

Concord, Leigh Avenue .. .. 9.4 3.2 6.2 5.1 9.1

Mortlake, T urner A venue .. .. 13.6 6.9 6. 7 5 . 7 10.2

D rummoyne, Cary Street .. .. 12.3 4 .2 8 .1 6. 5 13.4

Fivedock, Duke A venue .. .. 7.7 2.8 4.9 4.1 7.8

F ivedock, Fairlight Street .. .. 6.2 2.2 4.0 3.4 7 .2

Abbotsford, Montrose Road . . 11.2 4.5 6.7 7.2 11.8

Fairfield, Civic Centre .. .. 9.6 2.0 7.6 2.3 10.8

Smithfield, Shopping Centre . . 13.2 2 .4 10.8 3.3 14.7

G uildford, Byron Road . . . . 7.3 3.2 4.1 5.2 8.4

Merrylands, Birmingham Street .. 7.8 2.5 5.3 3.6 10.0

Hunters Hill, Council Chambers .. 8.5 3. 6 4.9 5.7 9.0

Hurstville, Council Chambers .. 7.2 2.2 5.0 4.0 7 .4

West Pymble, Lofberg Road .. 6. 1 1. 9 4.2 3.9 6.2

Annandale, Johnston Street .. 12.3 3.6 8.7 3.9 12.3

Balmain, Birchgrove Road .. . . 17 .2 9.1 8 .1 7.9 15.6

Balmain, Johnston Street .. .. 14.1 4 .4 9.7 7.4 10.8

Leichhardt, Macaulay Street .. 5.9 2.1 3.8 3.5 6.1

Rozelle, Callan Park .. . . 10.3 3. 7 6. 6 3.7 14 .3

Rozelle, Quirk Street .. . . 14. 9 4.4 10.5 3.9 11.2

Manly, Council Offices .. . . 9 .8 3.1 6.7 11.7 9 .2

Stanmore, Douglas Street .. .. 17.7 5.5 12.2 7.6 16. I

Sydenham, Unwins Bridge Road .. 10.1 2. 8 7. 3 4.4 8.3

Cammeray, Carter Street .. . . I 6.1 2.2 3.9 5.7 7.7

Crows Nest, Pacific Highway .. 7. 7 2.5 5.2 8.4 7. 9

Chiftey, Carnegie Circuit . . . . 17.5 3. 6 13.9 6.8 17.0

Little Bay, Prince Henry Hospital .. 9.2


3. 3 5. 9 I 20.9 13.5

Maroubra Junction, Cobham Avenue 9 .5 3. 5 6.0 6.2 13.8

Matraville, Baird Avenue .. . . 12.1 I 4. 8 7.3 8.8 12.7 Matraville, Jersey Road .. . . 18 .0 !

4. 3 13.7 10.6 18. 1

Randwick, Avoca Street .. . . 7.3 2.2 5 . 1 12.0 8.3

Banksia, Gardiner Aven ue .. .. 4. 8 1.4 3.4 4.2 6 .1

N orth Ryde, Wicks Road .. .. 6 .3 2.2 4. 1 5.1 6.4

N arembum, Dalleys Road .. .. 9 .0 3.0 6.0 5.1 10.4

Naremburn, Will iam Street .. 5. 3 2.5 2.8 4.8 5.5

Double Bay, New South Head Road .. 6 .2 2.4 3.8 6.3 7.9

Watson Bay, Cliffe Street .. . . 5.9 2 .1 3.8 11.3 5.4

North Rocks, Lawndale Avenue .. 7 .I 2.2 4.9 4.3 7.2

Black town, Ci vic Centre .. . . 7. 8 1. 7 6.1 3 . 6 14.3

Thomleigh, Sefton Road .. . . 13. 9 2.8 11.1 4.2 8.1

Sutherland, Milburn Road .. . . 8 .5


2. 5 6 .0 3.4 7.0

Woo1ooware, Harnleigh Avenue .. 8.4 1.6 6.8 3.9 16.5


Dundas, Wyuna Place 7. 7 2.9 4 .8 3.8 8. 3

Guildford , Macarthur Street 13 .0 3. 6 9.4 6 . 1 12. 7

Harris Park, A lice Street 10 .9 3. 6 7. 3 3.8 11.1

N orthmead, F rances Street 6.0 2. 1 3. 9 3.3 8 . 3

Parramatta, Iron St reet 9.2 2. 9 6.3 2. 6 7.7


Lithgow, Mort Street 11. 1 2. 8 8.3 2.1 16.3

Lithgow, Macaulay Street 7.4 2.1 5.3 2. 1 11. 9

Lithgow, Martin i Parade 3. 3 1.1 2.2 1.6 10.6

Lithgow, Geordie Street 15 . 9 4 .4 II. 5 3.1 19.3


New South Wales: Mean Deposit Gauge Results, 1961-continued

Insoluble Combus- Insoluble

Location of gauge solids tible Ash

Soluble solids

d:.Ist-fall matter matter 1966

I I ! I I


Wollongong, Stewart Street 13.2 3.6 9.6 16.2 15.6

Wollongong, New Dapto Road 18.9 4.5 14.4 5.9 16.2

North Wollongong, Kiera Street 15.1 4. 1 11.0 6.3 12.1

Wollongong, Bligh Street .. 20.5 8.4 12.1 8.0

Primbee, Korrongulla Crescent 17.2 4.1 13.1 9.1 20.2

Port Kembla, Sornrne Street 14 .9 4.1 10.8 17.4 20.1

Port Kembla, Jubilee Street 20.2 5.0 15.2 8.3 26.4

Port Kembla, Wentworth Street 23.8 4.5 19.3 12.5 20.3

Port Kembla, Military Road 37.4 7.7 29.7 16.0 33.9

Cringila, Shellharbour Road 38.7 9.5 29.2 10.2 32.4

Cringila, Monteith Street .. 26.1 5.2 20.9 7.1 29.4

Cringila, Sheffield Street 13.4 3.0 10.4 7.1 14.0

Warrawong, Lake Heights Road 16. 6 3.5 13.1 5.3 28.0·

Warrawong, Flagstaff Road 37. 7 8.2 29.5 6.7 61.2

Warrawong, Taurus Avenue 24.6 6.0 18.6 8.1 34.7

Lake Heights, Northcliffe Drive 21.2 5.5 15.7 7.5 20 .4

Dapto, Princes Highway 10.6 2.4 8.2 3.6 10.1

Dapto, Yorkshire Road 9.9 2. 6 7.3 4.5 10.7

Coniston, Bridge Street 28.4 6.0 22.4 7.2 32. 7

Unanderra, Farnborough 7.8 2.4 5.4 5.1 7 .9"

Port Kembla Hospital 22.8 6.1 16.2 13.7


Newcastle, City Hall 15.1 6.8 8. 3 31.5 19.1

Newcastle, Hall Street 25.5 14.0 11.5 22.3 19.8

Newcastle, Scott Street 19.1 8.6 10.5 23.3

Stockton, Fullerton Street 16. 9 6.5 10.4 18.4 20.0·

Stockton, Pembroke Street .. 15.9 6.9 9.0 22.6 27.6

Carrington, Public Works Department 14.6 8.0 6.6 23.6 13.0

Tighes Hill, Kings Road 28.7 9.9 18.8 20.3 48 . 6·

Mayfield East, Walsh Street 27.0 9. 1 17.9 15.8 34.2

Mayfield, lngall Street 25.6 9.1 16.5 13.8 29 .9·

Mayfield, Carrington Street 28.5 8. 7 19.8 15.5 33.4

Mayfield, St Andrews Church 17.7 12.1 6.7 18.8 21.1

Mayfield, Fitzroy Street 20.5 7 .2 13.3 14.9 24.4

Mayfield, Maitland Road (S.S.) 14.3 5.0 9.3 15.1 15.1

Waratah, Lorna Street .. 13.6 6.1 7.5 12.8 15.7

Broadmeadow, Broadmeadow Road .. 15.0 6. 9 8.1 15.2 19 .8

Merewether, Macquarie Street 13.8 7. 8 6.0 30.3 12 . 6

Adamstown, Brisbane Water Road 8.9 5.2 3. 7 11. 2 10.6

Kotara, Park A venue 12. 6 5.1 7 .5 8.7 13. 2

Kotara, Seaview Street 11. 1 5. 0 6.1 10.9 16.0·

Kotara, Woodlands Avenue 14.4 7.5 6. 9 10.0 14.0

Kotara, Gregory Parade 18.4 8.5 9.9 12.2 15.4

Wallsend, Crest Road 10.4 4 .4 6.0 11.3 12.1

Wallsend, Drury Street 26.8 6.3 20.5 13 .9 14.8


Speers Point, Albert Street .. 8.0 2.4 5. 6 6.9 9. 3

Argenton, Victoria Street .. 14.3 5.2 9.1 8. 1 18 .0

Boolooroo, Fourth Street 9.1 2.4 6.7 6.8 11.8

Cockle Creek, Rescue 8.0 2.3 5.7 7.5 7.7

Rathmines, Fishing Point Road 12.2 2. 6 9. 6 5. 4 17.2

Balmoral, Bournville Road . . 16.5 2.7 13.8 5.2 22. 5


New South Wales: Mean Deposit Gauge Results, 1967-continued

Location of gauge

I Insoluble I Cm:nbu s- Soluble I solids j tible Ash

Albion Park, Princes Highway Albion Park, O' Keefe Crescent Albion Park, Caldewood Road Shell harbour, Wentworth Street

dust-fall i matter


9.0 1.9

7.7 2.2

7.8 2. 3

8.6 3.0


7 . I

5.5 5.5 5. 6

FALLOUT D EPOSIT GAUGES RESULTS, 1969 (Tons per square mile per month)


I I I Site I January I February I Marc h April I I I I I I . . I I I M ayne .. . . . . 7.1 12. 1 10.8 I 8.7


4.0 3.4 4.2 8. 9



Insoluble solids 1966

13.2 8.2 12 .6 7.8

I Average

10. 7

Eagle F arm . . I 7.0 14.2

20. 4 10.4


11.9 19.5 12 .6

I 18.6 I 12.9

14.3 13 . 1

Pinkenba Bank (N.S.W.) Pinkenba B.C.C. Nundch G eebung Chermside ..

G range Mitchelton . . Petrie Terrace Toowong Silkstone

Ipswich Darra Oxley Sherwood

Woolloongabba Yeronga Rock lea Holland Park Camp Hill ..

Murarrie Morningside . .

I .. I

10 .5 6. 1 5.5 9.7 6.5 10.4

5.0 7.4 5.6 4.1

5. 8 16.2 4 .8 11. 8

7.8 5.7 4 .8 4. 7

5.3 7. 2 4. 2

6.9 20 .6 8.6 15. 2

8.5 16.0 1

27.0 17 .0 10. 7 11.6

7.6 20.4 9.4 9.0

8.9 15.7 8.0 14.0

7.8 8.6 7 .6


8.8 21.3 12.0 8.0

8.4 11. 4 8.5 5. 1 I

6. 9 18.4 6. 8 9. 3 15. 0

7.2 7.5 II. 1 5 .I

6.7 6. 9

6.1 10.4 10.0 14.7 10 .3

9.9 11.2 7.5 6.6 45.8

9.2 6.2 6.9 11. 5

7.9 10.4 5.0 10.2


15. 6 9.1 19.0 12.2

8.8 5.7 13.8 14.2

5.6 6.3 37.5 11.2 11 . 8

15.3 12.3 12 .3 9.3 10.5

9.5 8.9

7.6 15.1 9.8 11.6

11.3 11.9 10.0 6.8

6.6 27.7 8.3 9.6 10.8 10.5

8 .1 9.9 6.7 8.4 6. 6

'") / 9




Tons per square mile Average rate per month

Location of gauge

Insoluble Combustible Ash Soluble

matter matter matter

Adelaide Metropolitan Area-Adelaide . . .. .. 14.4 2 .8 10 .9 4 . 5

Beverley . . .. .. . . 12.3 2.8 9.5 4 . 6

Beverley .. .. . . . . 11.3 2.4 9.6 5 .2

Birkenhead .. . . .. 14 .2 3. 5 10.7 6.7

Birkenhead . . . . . . 19 . 5 5.9 12.3 7.7

Birkenhead . . .. .. 18.4 3.2 15 .0 6. 3

Birkenhead . . . . .. 11.5 2.7 7.8 5.2

Black Forest . . .. . . 7. 1 2.2 4.9 4.3

Black Forest . . . . .. 10.4 2.6 7.7 6. 5

Black Forest .. .. .. 8.2 2.3 5.9 4 .6

Black Forest . . .. . . 9 .5 2.1 7. 3 4 . 5

Black Forest . . .. . . 7.1 2.5 4 .7 3.9

Black Forest . . .. . . 7. 5 1.6 4.0 3.7

Black Forest . . . . .. 6.9 2.0 4.7 4 .8

Clarence Gardens . . .. 8.1 2.8 8.8 4 .0

Clarence Park . . .. . . 9.4 1.2 6.7 4 .3

Colonel Light Gardens .. .. 10.3 2 .1 7.8 7. 9-

Findon .. .. . . . . 9.2 1.9 7.3 4.1

Flinders Park . . . . .. 9.3 2.1 7.2 3.6

Hammersmith . . . . .. 7.4 2.0 4.9 4.0

Hammersmith .. . . . . 8.2 2.0 6.2 5 .8

Hammersmith .. .. . . 9.0 2.7 6.2 4 . 1

Hamrner5mith .. .. . . 10.3 4.4 5.9 7.1

Islington Sewage Farm .. . . 10.6 2.9 7.7 5.4

Kent Town . . . . .. 10 . 3 2.4 7.9 3.9

Largs Bay . . . . .. 15.4 3. 3 11.9 8.3

Linden Park . . .. . . 5.7 1.9 4.4 3.4

Mansfield Park . . .. .. 10 .0 2.1 7.4 6.7

North Adelaide, Lower .. . . 8. 8 2.0 4.9 4 .0

North Adelaide . . .. . . 6.0 2. 2 4 .7 4.9

Port Adelaide . . .. . . 10 . 6 2.7 7.9 5 . 3

Prospect .. . . .. .. 7.1 1. 9 5. 3 4.3


Wayville Showgrounds . . .. 14 .5 3.5 10.8 5 .7

Woodville South .. .. . . 12 .6 2.5 11.0 4.4

ort Stanvac Area-Christies Beach .. . . . . 15.4 5.2 9. 6 8.8

Hallets Cove . . .. . . 5. 7 1.7 3. 9 4 .7

Morphett Vale (four months-gauge removed) .. . . . . 1.5 1.6 3.0 4 . 5 Morphett Vale .. . . . . 8. 0 2. 5 5 .3 4 .0 Morphett Vale .. . . . . 7.2 2.3 4.7 4 . 3 O'Halloran Hill .. . . . . 7.2 2.5 4 .6 5.4 O'Sullivans Beach .. . . 8.5 2.8 5.5 6.5 Reynella .. .. . . 9. 1 4.0 5.0 6.6 Reynella .. .. . . 4.9 2.0 2.9 4.9 Reynella .. . . . . 6.3 2. 1 4 . 1 3.9 Reynella .. .. .. 6. 4 2.0 4 .3 4 . 1 74

""5" -<, 'I ........ '" .

South Australia: Deposit Gauge Results, July 1965 to June 1966--continued

Tons per square mile Average rate per month

Location of gauge

I Combustible \ Insoluble Ash Soluble matter 1 matter I matter I

Angaston Area-

I Angaston I 29.1 6.5 22.6 4.0 Angaston ' 16.3 4. 1 12.1 4.5 Angaston I 20.2 5.0 15.1 5.1 Angaston I 24.8 5. 9 18.8 6. 7 Angaston I 13.0 3.5 12.0 4 .1 I Mount Gambier Area- I Mount Gambier I 10. 7 5.3 5.4 6.0 Mount Gambier I 8.6 3.9 4.6 6.9 Mount Gambier 5.5 2.6 2.9 5.7 Mount G ambier I 8.5 4.0 5. 3 7.2 Mount Gambier I 10 . 3 4. 6 6.5 6.6 Salisbury Area-Parafield Aerodrome I 12.6 2.4 10.1 3.6 Salisbury 8.6 2. 1 6.4 3.1 Salisbury I 8.5 1.8 6.5 2. 8 Salisbury I 10.9 2.5 8.3 3.5



Municipality number

II Melbourne .. . .

12 Melbourne .. . .

13 Melbourne .. . .

14 Melbourne . . . .

15 Melbourne .. . .

21 Dandenong . . . .

22 Dandenong . . ..

23 Dandenong .. . .

81 Heidelberg . . . .

82 Heidelberg . . . .

91 Broad meadows . . . .

92 Broad mead ows . . . .

101 Footsc ray . . ..

102 Footscray .. ..

103 Footscray . . . .

111 Willi amstown . . . .

112 Williamstown . . . .

113 Williamstown . . . .

121 Altona .. .. . .

122 Altona .. . . . .

141 Brunswick . . . .

142 Brunswi ck . . . .

151 Collingwood .. . .

161 Richmond . . . .

162 Richmond .. . .

171 Sunshine . . . .


WATER INSOLUBLE MATTER (SUMMARY 1960-1967) (Yearly mean values in long tons per square mile per month)


Location type 1960 1961 1962 (height) (ft)

- - - - - -

City North West . . . . C1 - 15 10 . 5 9 . 7 8. 1 City West . . . . C-50 12 .0 11 . 7 9 . 1 City North East . . . . C-5 27.1 25.4 22 .8 Carlton . . . . . . C-30 13.5 12 .4 10 . 1 Jolimont .. .. . . RC-20 7. 8 7.6 7.4 South . . . . . . Ru- 20 2 .4 2.8 2.6 East . . . . . . l- 15 6 .0 6 . 1 5 .0 North . . . . . . R- 14 5. 8 5 . 2 3.9 Alphington . . . . Rl-10 7 . 5 9.7 6 . 6 Heidel berg . . . . R- 5 8 . 1 9 .2 10 .7 Fawkner . . . . . . 1- 20 15 . 2 11 . 5 10.4 Campbellfield . . . . Rul- 16 6 . 6 6 .9 7. 9 Town Hall . . . . C-40 8 . 3 9.4 9 .4 West Footscray . . .. R-12 7. 4 6 .9 6.1 Yarra ville . . . . R-15 6 . 9 5.8 4.8 Town Hall . . . . C-45 . . 19.0 14.4 Spotswood . . . . 1- 60 . . 11.7 8.9 West Newport .. . . R-5 . . 9.5 9.9 Shire Hall . . . . C-14 .. 7.9 6 . 5 Altor.a North . . . . IR- 16 . . 4 .0 4 . 3 West . . . . .. lR- 13 . . . . 8 . 5 East . . . . .. R- 16 . . . . 3 .8 Technical School . . .. I-45 . . . . 6 . 1 North .. . . . . l- 1 1 . . . . 7 .4 South . . . . . . I- 14 . . . . 6 .8 Albion .. . . . . R- 9 . . .. 7 .0 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

---- --------10.3 10.5 10.0 10.8 8 . 9 10 . 1 11. I 12.6 9 .8 9 . 3 25 . 5 28. 8 28 .9 34 . 9 33 .9 10.6 10. 2 12 .7 11 .8 11.2 6.9 8.9 7. 3 6 .9 7.6 2 .3 2 . 9 4 . 5 4.5 3.4 4 . 7 5 .9 6. 5 5.5 6 .8 4.9 4 . 3 4. 5 4.4 4 .8 . . . . . . .. . . 9.9 . . . . . . .. 9.9 5 . 5 5.4 . . .. 10 . 2 9.1 8. 1 . . .. 9.4 6.7 7 .7 7.2 8 . 3 6.0 6 . 2 8.6 10 . 7 8 . 1 5.7 6.0 6.8 6.5 7 . 5 15.2 16 . 7 15.1 17 . 2 12.6 9.1 8 .8 9 .9 11.0 13.5 9 .9 9 . 1 9.6 9 .0 10.0 6.1 6 . 5 7. 1 5 .8 4.0 5 .0 4 .6 6.0 5 .0 4 . 1 8.5 10.4 11.2 9 .0 8 . 3 4 .2 10 .8 5.1 6.0 6. 7 6 . 5 . . . . . . . . 7.2 8.7 8 .2 7.6 8. 6 7 . 1 13.9 . . . . . . 9.7 10 .7 11.2 9.8 9. 5



"' 0


Site num ber

172 181 182 191 241 242 251 252 26 1 262

271 28 1 28 2


Suns hine .. . .

Port Melbourne . . . .

Port Melbourne . . . .

South Melbourne .. . .

Preston . . . . . .

Preston .. . . . .

Coburg .. . . . .

Coburg .. . . . .

Oak leigh . . . .

Oak lei gh .. . .

Nunawading . . . .

Northcote .. . .

Northcote .. . .

Victoria: Melbourne Metropolitan Area- continued


Location type 1960 1961

(height) (ft)


Brooklyn . . . . R- 12 . . ..

Town Hall . . .. C-40 .. ..

A. P. Industries .. . . 1- 12 . . ..

Middle Park . . . . R- 30 . . ..

Preston Central . . . . R60- . . . .

Keon Park . . . . R- IO . . . .

North . . . . . . R- 12 .. ..

South . . . . . . R-60 . . ..

Swimming Pool . . . . I- ll .. . .

North . . .. . . 1- 7 . . ..

Town Hall .. .. C- 19 .. ..

Central .. .. .. C- 19 .. . .

North . . .. .. CR-15 .. ..

1962 1963 1964


7.5 9.9 10.7

10.9 13.0 12.4

10.4 11.4 10.2

10.4 7.8 7.7

.. 7.4 7 .I

. . 5.2 6 .8

. . 7.7 7.4

. . 6.4 6 .4

. . . . 8. 8

. . .. 6 . 6

.. . . 10.1

. . . . 11.0


I . . 8.6

1965 1966


10.4 9.2

12 .2 8 .4

10.5 8.7

13.1 7.9

7.1 6.9

6.4 7.0

7 .6 6.9

6.8 7.7

8 .I 6. 7

8.9 5. 7

8 .5 7 .3

8.9 9.5

9.3 8.0



8.2 15.6 18.6 6 .6

6.2 5.4 5.9 7.0 6.5 6 .4 6.0 9 .0 6.3


01 (..0


Muni cipali ty


31 Moe .. . . . .

32 Moe . . . . . .

33 Moe . . . . . .

34 Moe . . . . . .

35 Moe .. . . . .

36 Moe . . . . . .

4 1 Morwell .. . . . .

42 Morwe ll . . .. . .

43 Morwell .. .. . .

51 Traralgo n .. . .

52 Traralgo n .. . .

53 T raralgo n .. . .

54 Traralgo n . . ..

55 Traralgo n .. ..

61 Narracan .. . .

131 Barrabool .. . .

132 Barra boo! . . ..

133 Barra boo I . . . .

201 N. & Chil well . . . .

202 N. & Chilwe ll . . . .

2 11 Geelong Wes t . . . .

22 1 Geelong Cit y . . . .

23 1 I Co ri o . . . . . .


WATER INSOLUBLE MAITER (SUMMARY 1960-1967) (Yearly mean values in long tons per square mile per month)


Location type 1960 1961 1962

(height) (ft)

- - - ---

North I . . . . . . Ru- 16 12 .4 13 . 1 10 . 5

North 2 . . . . . . R-13 15.0 14 .7 12.0

Central . . . . . . C-16 24 .2 24.2 I I. 5

South 1 .. . . . . R- 17 11. 6 8.0 4. 8

South 2 .. . . . . 1- 17 7 .9 8 .0 6. 8

New borough . . . . R- 14 15 .4 15 .4 11.5

West . . . . . . Ru- 12 3 . 3 3 .4 3.4

Central . . . . . . R- 9 5 .2 5.2 4 .9

East . . . . . . Ru- 30 3 .9 4.3 4 . 1

South . . . . . . R- 16 10 .2 11.7 14 .2

Central . . . . . . R- 12 7 .7 7. 1 8. 0

North West . . . . R- 25 6 .0 5 .6 4 . 5

South East . . . . R- 16 8 .0 8 .4 7 .6

No rth East . . . . Ru- 15 14 . 7 6 .7 6. 6

Yall ourn North . . .. R- 20 9 . 3 7 . 9 6 . 9

An glesea South West . . R- 13 . . . . 4 . 5

Anglesea North . . .. Ru- 13 . . . . 4 .0

Waurn Ponds . . .. Ru- 10 . . . . 1.9

New town West . . . . R- 14 . . . . . .

Newtown North . . . . Rl- 12 . . . . 12 . 3

Gee long West . . .. R- 16 . . . . 4 .8

Town Hall . . .. C-55 .. . . 7 .4

Shire Offices . . . . RI- 18 . . . . 7 .8

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

- ------------ --

14 .0 11. 9 10 .9 11 .8 12 . 1

11. 8 10.4 11.5 8 .7 10 . 5

14.7 10.3 11.2 8 . 7 11 .4

4.9 7 .6 7.3 10 . I . .

6 .8 7.8 7.0 9.5 7 . 1

14.6 13.9 15.3 .. 12 . 3

4.5 5.2 10.4 6.6 6 .0

6. 2 5 .6 7.0 7.0 5.3

5.6 5 . 8 7 . 9 9.2 7 . 5

10 . 5 11.0 11 . 2 .. . .

6.4 8 .2 7.3 9 .4 6 .0

5.4 5 . 2 5.1 6 .9 4 . 6

7.2 11. 8 14 .4 13 . 6 10 .0

8.0 8 .5 8 . 1 11.4 8 .7

8. 9 9 . 2 14 .6 14 . 7 10 .8

4 .2 . . . . . . . .

4 .2 . . . . . . . .

2.7 18 .6 4 .4 4.6 5 .9

4 .2 6 . 1 6.9 6 .9 5 .0

38.4 48 .2 36.0 30.1 23 . 3

3.6 4.4 4 . 2 6.1 8.4

7.8 7 . 6 8 .8 8 . 3 7 .0

9 . 6 9 . 5 11 . 6 8.9 9.4



( I) New South Wal es ( 2) Queensland ( 3) South Australia ( 4) Victoria N ote: T he following tables of measurement were supplied by the clean air sections of the relevant State Health Departments and are in the form in which they were presented to the Committee.




January ary

Sydney Town Hall .. Av. 1.0 0.8

HD 1.5 1.9

Redfern Town Hall Av. 0 .7 0 .7

HD 1.6 1.8

Paddington Town Av. 0 .6 0 .5

Hall HD 1.4 2 .3

00 0

*George Street, Av. 0 .8 0.9

Sydney HD 1.5 1.9

North Sydney Av. 0 .5 0 .8

HD 1.0 1.5

Botany Town Hall .. Av . . . ..

HD .. . .

City Hall, Newcastle Av . ' .. . .

HD . . . .

Bolton Street, Av. . . ..

Newcastle HD .. ..

• Hemeon paper tape sampler used at this Site. Av. = Average. HD = Highest D ai ly.


MONTHLY SMOKE DENSITIES 1967 (Coh units per 1,000 lin ft)

March I April May June July August


1.3 1.8 2.6 1.9 2 .2 2.1

2.5 4 .5 4 .1 4 . 3 3.6 4.9

1.0 1.4 2.2 1.5 2.3 1.7

2. 1 2.1 3. 1 2 .8 4 .0 2.6

0 .9 1.2 1.9 1.8 1.6 I. 3

2 .5 2 .5 2.9 3.6 2.9 4 .0

0.9 1.1 1.6 I. I 1.5 1.4

1.9 2 .2 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.5

0.7 I .1 1.3 0 .8 1.1 1.3

1.1 2 .5 2.4 I . 5 2 . 1 1.9

0.8 1.2 1.5 0 .7 1.4 1.0

1.9 2.3 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.5


. . 1.2 2.3 1.5 1.8 1.9

.. 2 .9 5.3 4 .6 5.0 4 .0

. . I . 5 1.4 0 .6 1.6 I . 7

. . 4 .4 3 . I 3.0 5.0 4.8

Septern- October No vern- Decem- Yearly ber ber ber average

1.0 0 .9 0 .8 1.0 1.5

2.0 J .6 1.4 2 .2 . .

1.7 0 .8 1.0 0 .9 I. 3

2.6 1.8 1.9 1.9 ..

1.3 0 . 5 0 .5 0 .6 I. I

2.1 I. 7 1.2 1.0 . .

1.2 I. I 0 .9 0 .8 1.1

2.1 1.9 I . 8 1.7 ..

0 .3 0 .3 0 . 5 0 .4 0 .8

1.4 1.0 1.2 0 . 7 ..

1.1 1.1 0 .6 0.5 1.0

2.6 2. 8 1.5 1.3 . .

1.3 0 .6 0 . 5 0 .6 1.3

3.3 2 .2 2 .0 1.9 . .

1.5 0 .9 1.3 0 .9 1.3

3.7 2.2 2. 7 2. 0 ..






Site January February 1 March April May June I Average



Laboratory (Adelaide I

Street}- I

I I COH/1,000 ft 0.3 0 .3


0.4 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.4

ug/rn3 9 10 12 10 13 19 I 11

Queen Street-


COH/ 1,000 ft 0. 5 I 0. 5 0. 8 1.0 1.1 0 .8

ug/rn 3 14 I 15 24 3\ 37 24


I COH/1,000 ft 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.6 I 0.3

ug/rn 3 15 10


5 12 7 16 10

Eagle Farm-COH/1,000 ft 0.2 0.3 0. 3 0.7 0.3

ug/rn 3


5 9 9 19 10

Myrtletown-COH/1,000 ft 0 . 2 0. 3 0.3 0 . 5 0.3

ug/m 3 I 3 8 6 15 8


I 0.2 COH/ 1,000 ft 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 2 0.2 0.4

ug/rn' 2


2 4 5 12 5

Hamilton-COH/ 1,000 ft 0.5 0. 8 0.7



15 23 19 I I


35 7

00 N


Adelaide Metropolitan Area-Thebarton .. . . Av.


F ort Largs .. . . Av .


Woodville North . . .. Av.


Richmond . . . . Av.


Bi rkenhead .. . . Av.


Rosewater .. . . Av .


West Terrace . . .. Av.


Hindmarsh .. . . Av.


Country Areas--Port Augusta West . . Av.


Port Augusta . . . . Av.


Port Pirie . . . . Av.


• Less than 0 . I. Av. = Average.

January February

0. 1 0 . 1

0 . 3 0 . 3

0 . 1 0 . 1

0 .2 0 . 2

0 .2 0 .2

0 .3 0 . 3

0 . 1 0.1

0 . 3 0 . 3

0 .2 0 .2

0.4 0 . 3

• •

0 . 1 0.1

. . . .

.. . .

.. . .

. . ..

. . ..

. . . .

0 . 1 0 . 1

0 .2 0 .2

• 0 . 1

0 .3 0 .2



COH units per 1,000 linear feet

March April May June July August

0 .2 0 .3 0.2 0 . 3 0.3 0 . 3

0 .4 0 . 9 0 .4 0 .6 0 .4 0.4

0 . 1 0 . 2 0 .2 0 .2 0 . 1 0 .2

0 . 3 0.4 0 .4 0 . 6 0 .4 0.4

0 .2 0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 3 0 .2 0 .3

0 .4 0.4 0 .4 0.7 0 .5 0. 6

0 .2 0 . 3 0 . 3 0.3 0 . 3 0 . 3

0 .4 0 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 5 0 .5

0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 2 0 . 3 0. 2 0. 3

0.5 0.4 0 . 5 0 .8 0 .4 0 .6

• • • * • • 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 . . . . . . 0.4 0.3 0 . 3 .. . . . . 0 .7 0 . 6 0 .5 . . .. . . . . 0 .4 0.4 .. . . . . . . 0 .9 0 . 6 . . .. 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 . . . . 0 . 3 0 . 1 0.2 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1 0.1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0.1 0.4 0 .2 0 .2 0 .2 0 . 3 0 . 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 3 0 .4 0 . 3 0 . 3 0 . 3 0 .2 HDR = Highest Daily Reading.

Sept-October Nov- Dec-

ember ember ember

0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 2

0 . 3 0 . 5 0.4 0 . 3

0 .2 0 . 1 0.1 0 . 1

0. 3 0 .4 0 .4 0 .2

0 .2 0 . 1 0.2 0 . 1

0 . 3 0.4 0 . 3 0 . 3

0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1

0.4 0 . 5 0 . 3 0 . 3

0 . 2 0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 1

0 .4 0 .4 0 . 5 0 .3

0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 •

0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 2 0 .2

0 . 3 0 .2 0.2 0 . 2

0.4 0 . 5 0 .4 0 . 3

0 . 3 0 . 3 0 .2 0 . 1

0.6 0 . 5 0 .4 0 . 5

0 . 1 * 0 . 1 * 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 • .. 0 .2 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 • 0 . 2 0 .2 0 . 3 0 . 1

00 w



Municipality I

Area Month January (location) type

Footscray .. .. c Mean 0. 2

HD 0.6

Brunswick . . .. IR Mean *

HD *

Richmond . . . . I Mean 0.1

HD 0 .4

--- South Melbourne .. I Mean 0. 2 HD 0.5 Altona . . .. I R Mean 0.1 HD 0.1 Northcotc .. RC Mean * . . HD • I Nunawading . . c Mean 0.1 HD 0.3 --- Oakleigh Ml2 .. R Mean 0.1 HD 0.3 • Not in operation. t Meter not reading. HD = Highest Day. COh unit/1000 linear feet lO" xOD L Febru-

March ary

0.2 0.2

0.5 0. 5

* •

* *

0.2 0.2

0.7 0.4

0.2 0.1

0 .5 0.3

0.0 0.0

0. 3 0 . 2


* • I

* *

I 0.1 0.1

0.3 0.2

0. 1 0.1

0.3 0.3

t Out of order.

April May June July August



0.3 0.4 0.5 0. 5 0.4 0.3 0.4

0. 7 1. 0 1.5 1. 9 1. 0 0.5 0.6

* • * * 0.3 0.2 0.2

* * * * 0.7 0 .5 0 .3

0.4 t 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0. 2

1.2 t 0. 9 0. 7 1. 3 0.7 0. 5

0. 2 0 . 3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0. 2

0.6 0 . 8 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6

0 . 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0. 1 0.1

0.3 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2

* * * • 0 . 2 0.2 t


I * * *

0 . 5 0.4 t

0 .1 0.2 0.2 0. 2 0.2 0.1 0 . 2

0.3 0. 5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.3

0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0 .2 0 . 2

0.7 1.0 1.4 1.1 0.9 0.4 0.3


0.2 0.5

0.1 0 . 3

0.2 0.4

0.1 0.4

0.05 0.2

0.1 0.3

0.1 0.2

0.1 0.4

Decem ber -

0. 2 0.5

0.2 0.4

0.2 0.3

0.2 0.4

0.1 0.2

0.1 0 . 2

0.1 0.2

0.1 0.3

0 .)





( 1) New South Wales (2) Queensland ( 3) South Australia ( 4) Victoria Note: The following tables of measurement were supplied by the clean air sections of the relevant State Health D epartments and are in the form in which they were presented to the Committee.



Sydney Town Hall ..

Red fern Town Hall

00 Paddington Town v. Hall

North Sydney

Botany Town Hall ..

Newcastle City Hall

Bolton Street, Newcastle

Av. = Average.

Month January

Av. 1.5

HD 4. 2

Av. 6. 4

HD 8.8

Av. 1.7

HD 3.5

Av. 1.2

HD 2. 0

Av. ..

HD . .

Av. . .

HD . .

Av. ..

HD . .



I A"'""

Febru- March April May June July October ary


1. 0 1.6 1.2 3 . I 1. 7 2. 0 2.2 2.8 2.1

3 .I 6.8 5.1 6. 2 6.0 4 .6 4.3 7. 5 5. 1

6.0 3.9 4.1 5.4 4. 4 5.2 5 .I 5.9 4.9

10.3 7.9 6. 7 7.9 6. 3 8.8 9.0 9. 0 8.4

2 .9 1.8 1. 2 2.5 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.6

4 .4 3. 3 2.8 4.0 3.4 4.0 4.0 5.5 4.3

0.9 1.2 1.4 1.4


0.9 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.8

1.2 2 . 1 3.1 2. 2 1.4 2.2 2 .5 2 .0 1.8


. . 0 .6 0.7 1.0


0.6 0 .8


0.9 I

0.7 I


. . 1.4 1.5 1.9 I. 3 2.4 1.4 1.4 1.4


.. . . 0.0 1.4 1.5 1. 8 2.1 1.1 1. 2

. . . . 0.0 2.8 2.5 3.8 3.2 2.6 2.8

0.7 .. 1.5 1.8 1.0 1.5 2 .3 1.6 1.6

1.9 . . 2.4 2.6 2.3 3.0 4.3 4.0 4.9

HD = Highest Daily.

Novem- Decem-ber ber

2.1 2.3

6.4 4.6

5.3 6.3

9.2 10.8

2.8 5.0

7.2 8.7


1.0 0.8

2.1 1.5



0.6 I


1.0 1.2

1.8 0.9

3.0 1.5

1.8 1.5

4. 7 3.0

Yearly average

2.0 ..

5.2 ..

2 .5 ..

1.2 ..


0 .8 . .

1.3 ..

1.5 ..





w 3





0 /

i 2 r-,----- ------ " ' · -----·--·-·--·- "'""" ·-·- ·- - . ...)'<''- - - --- -


City .. ..

Hemmant .. . .

Lytton .. . .

Myrtletown ..

Hamilton .. . .



SULPHUR DIOXIDE AVERAGES, 1969 (Parts per 100 million)

January February March April May

1.2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3

3.5 1.3 1.2 0.6 0 .3

. . 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.4

.. . . 1.7 1.0 0.6

.. . . . . . . 0 .9



1.1 0 .5 0 .1 0.5


' 1969


1.2 0 .8 0 .8 1.0



Adelaide Metropolitan Area-Thebarton . . . . A v.

Fort Largs

Woodville North . .




West Terrace

H ind marsh

Country Areas­ Port Augusta West

Port Augusta

Port Pirie


.. Av.


.. Av.


.. Av.


.. Av.


.. Av.


.. Av.


. . Av.


. . Av.


.. Av.


.. Av.




Parts per one hundred million

January February! March

1.7 3. 1 1.2 2.9

1. 2 3 .I

1. 5 1.9 2.0 6.5 3.6


3.2 5.5 1.9



0.9 2.2 0.9 2.5

1.4 5. 5 I .3

2.4 1.3 2.7 14 .5 20 .7

2 .6 7.9 0. 5 4.2

1.2 3.9 0.9 2.8

1. 6 4.3 1. 3 4.3

1.6 5.6 5.7 12.7

1.8 4.1 1.9 26.2

1.0 2.0 1.0 2.4

1.8 12.3 1.1 2. 8

0.9 3.8 4 .9 10 .0

1.9 6.4 2.5 20.4

0.8 1.8 0.6 1.4 0. 8

1. 7 0 .6 1.9 0.9 3.1 3.0 5. 5

1.1 2.6 1.3 2.4 4.5 16.1

0.6 2.6 0.6 1. 8 0.8

2.3 0.6 2 .0 0.8

2.3 2.6 7.5 1.6

3. 0

0.6 1.1 0.7 3.4 2.9 8.9

0.6 1.1 0 .5 1. 3 0.4 0.9 0.4

1.2 0.4 2. 6 2.0 5. 7 I

1. 2 2.0 0.2 I


0. 7 2.1 0.5 1.8 4.1 27.3

0.6 1.1 0.3 1.8 0.5

1.2 0. 2 0. 8 0.4

1.1 2. 3 4.8 0.8

1.3 0. 3 0.9

0.6 1.0 0 .5 1.2 0.7 4 .2

Av. = Monthly average. HDR = Highest Daily Readings.

0.7 2.3 0. 4 1. 8 0.5

1.0 0.3 1.0 0.3

1.1 0. 9 5.4 1.0

1.8 0.3 0.8

0. 8 3.0 0.8 2.3 0.6 3.1

0.8 2.6 0.5 1.7 0.7

1.8 0. 5 2.2 0.3

1.3 1.5 7.0 1.0 1.9 0.3

1. 4

1. 2 4.6 1.2 3.9 1.8 10.2

0 . 8 1.7 0.7 2.4 0.5

1.0 1.1 5.2 0 .8

3.5 0.8 2.4 1.4 2.9

1.0 4.1

2.6 5.0 2.4 5.5 1.7 6. 8

0.5 1.2 1.2 3.8 0. 5

1.3 0.9 4.5 1.0 4.6 0.4 2.1 0.9

2.5 1.1 3.3

1.9 6.6 1.8 3.9 1.3 5.4

00 00



Municipality Area

Month January (location) type

Footscray .. . . c Mean 0.9

HD 3.4

Brunswick . . .. IR Mean *

HD *

Richmond . . . . I Mean 0 .04

HD 1. 8

So uth Melbou rn e .. I Mean 0 .05

HD 2.3

Altona . . . . R Mean 0 . 1

HD 0 .7

Northcote RC Mean • .. . . HD *

Nunawading . . c Mean 0 . 5

HD 2. 5

Oak leigh M I 2 . . R Mean 0.2

HD 1.7

* Not m ope ratiOn. t Meter not readmg. HD = Hi ghes t Day.


Febru- March April ary

3.6 3.8 2.8

7.8 8.8 7.8

* * *

* * *

2.3 3.4 4 .4

7 . I 8.2 11 . 5

2.9 2.4 2.0

6.5 4 .2 3.8

1. 5 1.2 0 .9

2.6 2. 3 3.1

* * •

* * *

4. 1 3.6 2 .8

15 .0 6.3 6.0

1.8 1.8 1.7

4.4 3.5 3.6

:j: Out of order.

May June July August

Septem- October Novem-

ber ber

3.2 2.3 1.7 1. 9 2.2 1.8 2. 1

6.7 3.7 4 .2 4 . 3 3. 8 4 .7 4 .4

* * * 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.4

* * * 4 . 3 3.0 3. 3 2 .8

t 2.8 2. 5 3.0 3 . I 5 .I

t 7 .0 4 . 7 4 .9 5. 9 9.7 8.0

2 .0 1. 8 1.7 2 . 1 1.5 2.2 1.5

4 . 1 4. 2 3.2 3.5 2 .7 4 .8 3. 9

0 .8 1.2 1.5 0 .6 0. 9 1.1 0 .7

2.3 2 .5 2.9 1.8 1. 8 1.7 2.6

* • • 1.5 1.2 t 0 .7

* * * 4.4 2 .2 t 2.6

2 .4 1.9 1.3 1.2 1.8 3.2 3.0

5.7 4.1 2.2 2.5 3.2 8. 3 10. 6

1.3 1.9 1.8


0. 9 1.8 1.5 1. 9

3.0 3. 3 3.0 2 .9 3.6 2.9 4 .2


3.2 5. 8

1.4 2. 3

3.0 7 .9

1.2 4 . 1

0 .5 1.6

0 . 5 1.6

2.4 6.1

1.2 2 .2




Stationary test


I No. of


I Low samples

Peak hour traffic i or off-peak I



Carbon monoxide .. j ppm I Range 14-80 I 0.00-22 193

Aldehydes as formaldehyde

Nitric oxide

Nitrogen dioxide

Non-toxic particulates

Lead . .

Hydrocarbons as methane



. .



I I ppm I I I I ppm I I I




microgram per cum

I microgram I per cu m ppm

1 Average

! Range I Average I Range Average I Range

Average I I I


Range Average

Range Average

Range Average


50.00 I I

I o.00-0.14 I o .00-0 .o1 0 .04 I 0.00-1.10 I 0.00-0.08 0 .33 0.05 I o.o2-0. 19 1 o.o2-0 .o3 0 .08 I 0.025 I 56--144 I 34-93 79.00 65.00 o.60-4.8o I o .20-1.5o



8-16 13.00










Driver inhalation exposure-Ci ty

46--70 53.00

0.08-0.10 0.09

0.18- 0.24 0.21

0.08-0.ll ..





5- 60 20.00



(Report of National Radiation Advisory Committee, 1962, Chapter 2)


4. The three sources which can contribute su bstantial quantities of radioactive materials to man's environment are: 1. nuclear weapon tests which release material to the atmosphere,

ii . reactor or nuclear power station accidents which release radioactive materials, iii. radioactive waste, in particula r from nuclear reactors. T he Committee believes that neither the operation of nuclear reactors, nor the disposal of radioactive waste, at present constit utes a hazard to the Australian

population. This report will , therefore, be confined to problems rel ating to fallout over Australia from nuclear weapon tests; the radioactive materials of importance are strontium 90, caesium 137, carbon 14 and iodine 131. Small quantities of the first three substances can reach Australia as global fallout from high yield explosions held any­

where in the world. Iodine 131 , however, because it decays very rapidly (one half is gone in 8 days), could onl y reach Australia in significant concentrations from a test ite close by, located to the west of the continent, and at approximatel y the same latitude. As information about these radioisotopes is constantly accruing from widespread and intensive research, the reasons for their particular significance, and certain pertinent information about them, are recapitulated here by way of introduction.

5. Strontium 90 has a radioactive half-life of 28 years and a half-li fe in the body of 16 to 18 years''' It is chemicall y si mi lar to calcium, is absorbed from the gut and is deposited with calcium in th e skeleton; however, these phys iological processes, when utili zi ng a calcium-strontium mixture, discriminate against strontium in favour of calcium. The consequences of this discrimination are outlined below.

6. In the disintegration of strontium 90. beta-rays are emitted whi ch can penetrate tiss ue for about one qu arter of an inch, and as a consequence: 1. its effects are confined to th e bones and th e bone marrow,

11 . its presence in the body can be measured on ly by examining bone ti ss ues.

111. it has no effect on man or animals until after it is ingested .

7. Strontium 90 in fallout is deposited on both soil and herbage. It is absorbed by plants from the soil in which they grow and through the surfaces of their leaves. In the uptake of strontium and calcium by th e roots of plants there is little discrimination between the two elements so th at. if soils a re rich in avail able calcium, the strontium

90 is diluted and less is absorbed by the plants growing in them. Leaf absorption of strontium 90 by plants has no relation to the calcium content of the oi l.

8. About 80 % of the intake of strontium 90 by the Australia n popul ation is from milk and the remai nder from other foodstuffs. In th e ph ys iological processes by which

* The half-life of a radioisotope in the body is dependent on both it r3dioactive decay and the ra te at which it is eliminated from the tissues of the body by biologica l processe ; the elimin3tion of strontium proceeds very slowly, while that of caesium, iodine and carbon, is rapid.


milk is_ p roduced by grazing animals, there is definite discrimination against strontium, the ratio of strontium 90 to calc ium in milk from grazing animals being about one tenth to one eighth of that in the pasture grasses.

9. M an discriminates, throughout life, against strontiu m in utilizing the calcium and strontium in his diet. T he process by which these materials are absorbed from the diet and deposited in bone are, however, infl uenced by age, there being less discrimination in infants than in other age groups. T his, coupled wi th the more rapid growth and turnover of bone has resul ted in the younger age groups showing the highest levels of strontium 90 in their skeletons. Consequently, in assessing possible hazards to the population

ari si ng from the contamination of the environment with this radioisotope, infants are the most important age group.

10. Strontium 90 from fallo ut is present in the environment in such infinitesimal quantities that it can be measured only by the radi ation which it emits. For biological materials, the quantity of strontiu m 90 in a particular sample is usually expressed as micro-micro-c uries per gram of calc ium. The activity of one curie is approximately equal to that of one gram of radium ; a m icro-mic ro-curie is then approximately equi valent to one-millionth part of one-m illionth of o ne gram of radium.

As an example of the use of these units, research in E ngland has shown that the average national di et in 1959 contained about 9-micro-micro-curies of strontium 90 per gram of calcium. In view of the d isc ri m inati o n aga inst strontium 90 in the passage from diet to bone, the bones of young English chil dren in 195 9 would be expected to contain between 2 and 31 mi cro-micro-curies of strontium 90 per gram of calcium, depending on their age. A ctuall y. th e bones of child ren 3 to 5 years old had an average of 2, and those ch il dren I year o ld an average of 3. micro-mic ro-curies per gram of

calcium , in d icating close agreement wit h the es timate and confirming the validity of the methods now used.

11. The International Commissio n on Rad iologic al Protection recommends maximum permissible levels in the body for various radio isotopes to which man may be exposed. T hese levels include a margi n of safetv to th e extent that adverse effects would not be detectabl e in the individ ual, nor would they be of significance in large popula­

ti o ns exposed to them. The Commission's reco mmended ma ximum permissible level for strontium 90 is equivalent to a level in bone. averaged o ver the population, of 67 m icro-mic ro-curies of strontium 90 per gram of calcium. with a maximum in any individual member of 200. **

T he N ational Radiation Ad vi sory Com mittee recommends the adoption of these levels for th e Australian populati on.

12. C aesium 137 has a radi oactive half-life of 30 vears but a very much shorter half-life in the bodv of 70 to 140 da\·s.'' It is chemic a!!\: sim il ar to potassium, is readily absorbed from the .out and is thr oughout soft tissues of the body. e -can

13. T he of caesium 13 7 resul ts in the emi,sio n of gamma-rays which

travel consider; ble di stances and penetrate t issue s dee ply: cons equently: 1. caesiu m 13 7. deposited in the environment, may increase the level of external

r adi ati on to whi ch man is exposed. 11. all bod y tissues . incl ud ing the gonad s. will be irrad ia ted to some extent.

11 1. the degree of internal contamination with caesium 137 can be measured ex­

ternall y to th e body.

** T he C ommissio n has rec ommended, for ind ividuals ex po< ed occupat ion ally, a of

2 mi cro-curie' of strontium 90 in the body. T hi s body conte nt is eq uiYalent to a of

2.000 mic ro-micro-curie' of stro nti um 90 per gram of calcium in bone. The C ommtsst?n recommended that the permi,;sib!e ave rage le vel fo r the general populat io n for contammatiOn wtth stront ium 90 and other radioisotope; should not exceed one-thirtieth of that _ rec_ oi?mend_ ed as permis,ible for indi vidtuh who Jre exposed occupat i ' nllly. level in any m the

population not e xceed one-tenth of the ma xi mum all owed for those ex posed occupatiOnall y. "' See footnote to page 90.


'}6' ..J /

14. Caesium 137 in fallout enters the soil but is held there in forms which are almost unavailable to plants so t•hat its occurrence in plant or animal products that are used in man's diet depends mainly on the surface contamination of plants. The extent of this contamination depends on the rate at which caesium 137 is deposited.

After absorption through the surface of plants, caesium 137 is freely dispersed but tends to accumulate in tu bers and other pl ant storage depots. Some 50 to 60% of the caesium 137 in human diets is derived from milk, about 25 % from meat, and the remainder from vegetables, cereals and fruit.

15. Carbon 14 has a radioactive half-life of nearly 6,000 years and a half-iife in the body of about I 0 days.* Carbon is an essential constituent of all forms of plant and animal life and so carbon 14 can be incorporated into the structure of organic molecules and become part of living tissue.

16. The radioisotope decays with the emiSS IOn of low energy beta-rays which can penetrate tissue for only a small fraction of an inch ; after ingestion, carbon 14 is distributed more or less uniformly throughout the body and so: i. it may affect any living cell but only when in, or in immediate proximity to, it,

ii. its presence in the body can be detected only by the analysis of body tissues.

17. Carbon 14 occurs in nature; it is produced by the bombardment of nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere by cosmic ray neutrons. It has always been associated with the stable form of carbon in very minute and essentially constant proportions. The dose to the whole human body due to natural carbon 14 has been calculated to be about 0. 001 rem per annum.* *

18. Carbon 14 is also fo rmed by the absorption in t•he atmosphere of neutrons produced in the explosion of nuclear weapons, whether of the fi ssion or fusion type. Carbon 14 from this source is also mi xed with, and diluted by, stable carbon atoms in man's environment and so makes a small addition to the level of naturally occurring carbon 14.

19. Iodine 131 has a radi oactive half-life of 8 days and a half-life in the body of 4 to 7 days.* It is readily absorbed from the gut and is concentrated in the thyroid gland. However, because of its rapid decay, iodine 131 is of possible consequence only shortly after a nuclear explosion or in the neighbourhood of a large-scale accident at a nuclear reactor. In fission products wh ich reach the stratosphere, iodine 131 decays completely and never reaches the earth's surface.

20. Iodine 131 decays wit•h the emission of both beta- and gamma rays, but because it accumulates in the th yroid gl an d, i. its effects are largely confined to that organ, ii. its presence in the body can be detected by external means, although analysis

of the particular tissue is more precise, iii. when deposited in the environment. it can contribute, for a short time, to the level of external radiation to which man is exposed; however, possible danger to man arises mainly from the ingestion of fresh milk from animals which have

grazed on contaminated pasture s.

2 I. In considerati on of any effects which might arise from a sustained level of 131 in the diet. resulting fro m an exte nsive series of nuclear weapon tests, the

Umted Kingdom Medical Research Council recommended that the average radiation dose to the thyroid of the general population should not exceed 1 rem per year, which

**The rem is a unit of radiation dose lo tissue. The biologica l da mage produced by a dose of

A l rem any . type of is equivalent to that caused by a standard quantity of X-radiation.

cc?rdmgly, m expressmg doses in rem, account is taken of the relative effectiveness of the particular type of radiation in causing bi ological damage. * See footnote to page 90.


accords with the recommemlations uf the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

Because iodine 131 reaches man"s diet mainl y through fresh milk from animals which have grazed on contaminated pastures, it is appropriate to indicate dietary le vel s in terms of milk. The United Kin gdom Medical Research Council concluded that the recommended maximum permissible radiation dose of 1 rem per annum would not he exceeded in any age group of the population, if the average concentration of iod ine 13 I

in milk did not exceed 130 micro-micro-curies per litre over a period of one year or proportionately higher concentrations for shorter periods. The National Rad iat ion Advis,1fy Committee recommends that the levels estah lis hc: d by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the United King d,Jm Medical Research Council be adopted for Australia.

22. Following the extensive series of nuclear weapons tests conducted in lhc last quarter of 1961 by the Soviet Union, widespread sampling of milk in the United Kingdom shov.ed that. fur a tim e during th e test se ries, the daily concenlratiu n of iodine 131 in milk did nse above the average annual level of 13 0 micro-micro-cu i ics

iodine 131 per litre of milk. As ex pecte d. however, the concentration decreased rapidl y at the conclusion of the test series and in December, 1961, was approximately one-fifth of that level.

23. Extensive information ahout iodine 131 in the environment and in man was obtained in England following an accident at a nuclear reactor at Windscale in 1957 which resulted in the release of a vast quantity of iodine 131. The level of iodine 13 1 in local milk rose to a maximum of 1.4 micro-curies (one-millionth of a curie) per

litre 3 days after the accident and declined rapidly thereafter. The use of local milk for human consumption \\ as restricted until the content of iodine 131 was less than U.l micro-curies per litre. Over the greater part of the area this h ad occurred in 3 to 4 weeks. The contribution of iodine I 31 to the diet from eggs, vegetables, meat and drinking water collected in the locality. was much less than that from milk.

24. The United Kingdom Medical Research Council's Committee on Protection a gainst Ionizing Radiatio; adopted a total emergency dose of 25 rem from iodine I 3 I to the thyroids of memhers of t·he general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated as a result of an accident to a nuclear reactor. The highest dose of radiation to the thyroid of a child in the Windscale area was 16 rem and to that of an adult 4 rem.

20750167-7 93

3C ,


(Report of National Radiation Advisory Committee, 1965, Chapter 3)


24. Unless man is willing to forgo the benefits-social, medical and economic­ which the use of ionising radiation in various fields confers, there must be a compromise between possible deleterious effects of exposure to ionisin g radiation and the advantages to be gained. It is implicit in making such a compromise, however, that all unnecessary exposure to radiation should be avoided.

25. The potential exposure of man to ionisin g radiation falls mainly into two categories: • Exposures which can be subjected to direct control, among which are exposures of patients during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medical and dental

practice. • Exposures from uncontrolled sources, examples of which might be an accident to a nuclear reactor that could release radio active material to the environment, and nuclear weapons tests that can cause fallout.

26. Radiation exposure which can be subjected to direct control also includes that received by certain individuals in their normal occupation and that which may arise for members of the general population through such work; for example, through the disposal of small amounts of radioactive substances to the environment. It is possible

to lay down and control conditions under which radioactive materials and equipment emitting ionising radiation are used, so that the radiation exposure of individuals and of the general population does not exceed prescribed levels.

27. Designation of these levels is undertaken by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (I.C.R.P.) . It leaves to national authori ties the responsibility of introducing the detailed technical regulations, recommendations or codes of practice best suited to the needs of their individual countries.

28. In Australi a. the N.R.A.C. has examined, and accepted , the recommendations of the I.C.R.P. The Committee endorses th e action of the National Health and Medical Research Council (N.H. & M.R.C.) in publishing in 19 64, Radiation Protection Standards for Austral ia based on the l.C.R.P. recommend ation. The N.H. & M. R.C. also publishes from time to time codes of practice relati ng to various fie lds of application of ionising radiation.*

29. The radiation protection standards of the I.C.R.P. are de termined on the bas is of limiting radiation doses to levels which wi ll involve accep table risks to the individual and to the population at large. T hese are call ed permissible doses. The I.C.R.P. and the N.H. & M.R.C. have made recommendati ons wi th respec t to maximum permissible dose fo r those whose radiation exposure is subjected to direct co?trol. The implication of a maximum permissible dose is that it must be capable of

bemg controlled. Specifically the maximum permissible doses do no t include radi ation exposure received as a patient or that arising from natural radiation.

* The following codes have been published : Code of 'Practice for the C ontrol and Safe H andling of Seale d Ra dio active Sources used in R adiation Therapy (other t han Teletherapy ) ( !962). Code of Practice for N ursi ng Staff Ex po,cd to Ionising Radiatio ns from R adioactive

(1965). Code of Practice on the U se of Ionising Radiations in Secondary Schools (1 965) .


30. It is inappropriate to define maximum permissible doses for the radiation exposure of patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medical ;; nd dental practice. The dose delivered will vary significantly from one individual to another and will be determined by the nature and extent of the diagnostic and thera­

peutic procedures dictated by the health of the individual. On the other hand, it is essential to avoid unnecessary exposure of patients in the application of ionising radiati on in medical and dental practice.

31. The benefits to the health of the individual and the community derived from the use of ionising radiation by the medical and dental professions must constantly be evaluated in terms of possible deleterious effects. It was in this context tha t the N .R.A.C. undertook, in conjunction with Commonwealth health authorities, a re-examination of

the use of ;..- ray survey s in tuberc ulosis case-fi nding programmes. In the wa1·.

members of the medical and dental professions should, indiv idually and collect ive ly . regularly assess the policies, techniques and eq uipment employed in the appli cati o n of io ili sing radiati on .

32. It is inappropriate to defi ne maximum permissible le vels of radiation exposure for individuals or for the general population for sources of ionising radi :..ti o n which cannot be subjected to d irect co ntrol. H owever, it is both appropriate and valuable to derive radiation protection guides fo r such exposures based on the maximum permissible

levels defined by l.C.R.P. for the general population. T he magnitude of such a guide could depend on the actual or potential uncontrolle d source of ra:diation exposure . R adiation protection guides are kept under co ntinuous revi ew to take account of develop­ ments in scientific knowledge on which they a re based, and of any special circumstances.

33. Radiation protection guides could be formulated for use in the event of a large­ scale, accidental release of ra:di oactive material to the environment, or for purposes of designing installations in which very large sources of radio activity are present. T he development of such gui des involves the assessment. in each instance, of many questio ns

including the siting of the installation, the size of th e populatio n potentially or actually exposed, an evaluation of the benefits which the provi sion of the installation would confer and of the counter-measures which, in the event of an accident, are practicable and reasonable on the basi s of the potential radiation exposure.

34. Environmental contaminati on arising from global fallout from nuclear weapons tests is usually beyond any measure of national control. However, counter-measures to limit the radiation exposure of a population co uld be ins tituted, for example, in the extreme event of very high levels of fall out. Counter-measures might include modificati on

of dairyi ng and agricultural practi ce, of marketing procedures, or of the constituents of the diet of the populati on . Such extreme action would involve major decisiom lest the counter-measures themselves constituted a gre ater hazard than the actual radiation exposure. Radi ation protection guides are of value to national authorities responsible

for monitoring and assessi ng levels of fallout in this country.

35. The level of strontium 90 (SrH" ) in human bone is the most valuable singl e index of the possible total hazard from long-lived radioactive material in fallout. Iodine 13 1 (1 131 ) ingested with fresh m ilk consti tutes the most important hazard from newly produced fallout ; this is especially true for ve ry young children because of the small er size of thyroid gland, the larger intake of liquid milk and longer expectation of life.

In view 0f this the N.R.A.C. had adopted radiation protection guides for Australia for these two radioactive isotopes.

36. H aving considered the information available, especially that provided by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council the N.R.A.C. is of the

opinion that Sr9 0 in fal lout from nuclear we apons te sts would not constitute a significant threat to the health of the A ustralian community, provided that its concentration in bone, averaged over the whole population, does not exceed 67 pCi:j: Sr9 0 per gramme of calcium and provided that the maximum concentration in bone of any individ ual


3 7 ' !

member of the population does not exceed 200 pCi Sr90 per gramme of calcium. These values§ are recommended for application in Australia as radiation protection guides for Sr9o in fallout from nuclear weapons tests.

37. In its 1962 Report. the N.R.A.C. recommended the adoption for Australia of a maximum concentration of F 3 1 in milk of 130 pCi per litre averaged over

a period of one year or proportionately higher concentrations for correspondingly shorter periods. At the time, th is was th e level accepted by the U.K.M.R.C. It was estimated that this maximum permissible concentration, if maintained for a year, would give rise to a radiation dose to the thyroid gland of very young children of the order of

1 rem in the year. The radiation dose fo r older persons would be lower because of the larger size of the thyroid gland and the smaller intake of fresh milk.

38. Recently, the U.K.M.R.C. reviewed its earlier assessments in the light of new data on the uptake of iodine in the thyroid gland of young children. It adopted as 'acceptable' a level of P 3 1 in milk of 200 pCi per litre7. In view of this revision, the N.R.A.C. has now re-examined its earlier recommenda­ tion and believes that J131 in fallout from nuclear weapons tests would not constitute a significant threat to the health of the Australian community provided that its concen­ tration in liquid milk does not exceed 200 pCi F 3 1 per litre averaged over a period of a year or higher concentrations for correspondingly shorter periods. This value II is recommended for application in Australia as a radiation protection guide for F 31 in fallout from nuclear weapons tests.

t Curie (Ci ) is the unit of measurement of radioactivity. A number of submultiples of this unit are in common use, especially in describing levels of fallout in the environment: Millicurie (mCi) is one-thousandth of a curie. Microcurie (p.Ci) is one-millionth of a curie.

Picocurie (pCi)r is one-million-millionth of a curie. § U.N.S.C.E.A.R., in its 1962 and 1964 reports, gave 0.001 4 and 0.0007 rem per year as the dose rates to cells lining bone surfaces and bone marrow respectively, resulting from a concentration of 1 pCi Si110 per gramme of calcium in bone. Accordingly, the annual radiation doses to cells lining bone surfaces from the r adiation protection guides or 67 and 200 pCi Sr"' per gramme of calcium would be approximately 0.09 and 0.28 rem. The radiation doses to bone marrow would be half of these values. By way of comparison, the average annual natural radiation dose to cells lining bone surfaces and bone marrow was estimated by U.N.S.C.E.A.R. in its 1962 report to be 0.13 and 0.12 rem respectively.

II In its report of 1964, U.N.S.C.E.A.R. presented a fo rmula fo r the total accumulated radiation dose to thyroid gland from fl" in diet. On this basis, the thyroid glands of very young children would receive an annual radiation dose of about 0.85 rem, if the children consume 0.7 litre of milk per day containing 200 pCi !1 31 per litre, the radiation protection guide.




Recommended by the Occupational Health Committee of the N ational Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, March, 1961


The values in this schedule are based on the threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, and on recommenda­ tions of other authorities. They are intended as guides in the control of health hazards. not as fine lines between safe and dangerous concentrations. They represent conditions to which it is believed, workers except hyperse nsitive persons, may be exposed without adverse effects for eight hours a day for five days in a week. Most processes involve

variable exposures. and in ge neral, fluctuating exposures which never greatly exceed the scheduled limit are permissible if the average concentration does not exceed the limit. The amounts by which a sched uled li mit may be occasionally exceeded fo r a period without injury to health depend on several factors such as the nature of the contaminant

and the tissue response to high concentrations, the frequency and duration of high concentrations and whether the effects are cumulative. Similar considerations apply to the lower permissible limits necessary if the exposure is longer than the periods of a normal working week.

For mixed contaminants the permissible concentration of each is usually less than when it is the sole contaminant. The limits are not intended for use, or for modification for use, in the evaluation or control of community air pollution, or air pollution nuisances.

Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetic anh yd ride Acetone Acrolein

Acry lonitrile All yl alcohol All yl chloride All yl propyl disulphide Amm onia .. Amyl acetate (all isomers) Amyl alcohol (a ll isomers)

Aniline Arsine Benzol (benzene) Benzyl chloride




Recommended values

ppm( a) I Ap proximate I mg/cu m(b)

--, 200 10 360 25 20 1,200 5 500 0.5 20 5 5 2 100 200 100 5 0.05 25 1 1.2 45 12 15 12 70 1,050 360 20 0.2 80 5


Gases and Vapours-continued


Boranes other than pentaborane Bromine Butyl acetate (all isomers) Butyl alcohol (all isomers) • Butyl cellosolve

Butylamine Carbon dioxide Carbon disulphide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride *Cellosolve .. *Cellosolve acetate

Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Chlorine trifl uoride Chlorobenzene (monochlorobenzene) Chloroform C hloropicrin Cresylic acid and individual cresols Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclopropane Diacetone alcohol a - Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene

I, 2-Dichloroethylene sym. Dichloroethyl ether Diethylamine Diisobutyl ketone

N-Dimethylaniline Dimethylformamide I, I- Dimethylhydrazine Dimethyl sulphate

I, 4-Dioxane Ethyl acetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Ethylamine E thylbenzene Ethyl bromide Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate Ethyl silicate Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene diamine Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride .. Ethylene imine Ethylene oxide . . . .

Ethylidene chloride (1, I-dichloroethane) F luorine . . . . . . . .

F ormaldehyde


Recommended val ues

ppm( a)

0.05 0. 1 200 IOO 50


5,000 10 50 25 200 100


0.1 0.1 75 50 O.I 5

400 100 100 400

50 50 75 200


25 25 5

20 0.5 1

100 400 25 1,000

25 100 50 1,000

400 100 100 2

10 25 100 5

10 100 0.1 5

Approxima te mg/cu m(b)


0. 7

950 300 240 15 9,000

30 60 160 740 540


0 . 3

0.4 350 240 0.7


1,400 410 400 690 240 300 450 790

90 75 150 25

60 I


360 1,400 100 1,900

45 440 220 2,600

1,200 300 850 7

30 190 400 9

20 400 0.2 6

Gases and Va pours-continued

*Freon 12 Furfural Gasoline (petrol) Hydrazine ..

H ydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride H ydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride

H ydrogen peroxi de Hydrogen selenide H ydrogen sulphide Iodi ne

Isopropylam ine Methyl acetate


Methylal (dimethoxy methane) Methyl alc ohol (methanol) *Methyl amyl alcohol Methyl bromide

Methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone) *Methyl cellosolve *Methyl cellosolve acetate Methyl chloride

Methylene chloride . . Methyl et hyl ketone (2- butanone) Methyl formate Methyl isobutyl ketone

Methyl propyl ketone (2- pentanone) Monomethyl aniline (N- methyl ani line) Naphtha (coal tar) .. Naphtha (petroleum)

N ic kel carbonyl Nitric acid ..

Nitrobenzene Nitrogen dioxide ('nitrous fumes') Nitroglycerine Nitrotoluene (all isomers)

Octane Ozone Pentane Perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene)

Phenol Phenylhyd razine Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) .. Phosphine ..

Phosphorus trichloride Propyl acetate (both isomers) Propyl alcohol (both isomers) Propyl ether (all isomers)

Pyridine Quinone Stibine (antimony hydride) Styrene monomer (phenyl ethylene)

Sulphur dioxide Sulphur hexafluoride


• • I

Recommended values

I A . -

ppm{ a) \ pprox1mate mgfcu m(b)

1,000 5,000

5 20

500 2,000

1 1. 3

5 17

5 7

10 11

2 1. 6

1 1. 4

0 .025 0. 1

20 30

0 . 1 I

5 12

200 610

400 1,200

100 130

25 100

20 80

100 410

25 80

25 120

100 210

500 1,750

200 590

100 250

100 41 0

100 350

2 9

100 400

500 2,000

0.001 0.007

10 25

I 5

5 9

0.5 5

1 6

500 2,3 50

0.1 0.2

500 1,480

100 680

5 19

5 22

1 4

0. 05 0. 07

0.5 3

200 84e

400 980

500 2,100

10 30

0.1 0.4

0.1 0. 5

100 420

5 13

1,000 6,000

I.- Gases and Vapours-continued

Recommended values

Substance I

ppm( a) I Approximate 1 mg/cu m(b)

---------------- 1:-- 1- 11 Sulphur monochloride 6 0.25 35 380 Sulphur pentafiuoride 0. 025 I, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloroethane 5 Toluol (toluene) 100 Toluidine (all isomers) Tolylene-2, 4--diisocyanate Trichloroethylene Triethylamine Turpentine Vinyl chloride 'White Spirit' dry cleaning flui d Xylol (xylene) NoTEs: (a) Parts of gas or vapour per million parts of air by volume. (b) Approximate milligrams per cubic metre of air. 0.1 100 25 100 500 500 100 9


540 100 560 1,300 3,000


*These names are either trade marks or commonly used names, and a full chemical description of the compounds to which they refe r is given in the Appendix to the Schedule. t Concentration in mg/cu m will vary according to the molecular weight of the compound concerned.


*Ald rin ..

Anti mony *ANTU Arsenic Barium (soluble compounds)

Benzidine Beryllium Cadmium Calcium arsenate . . *Chlordane


Chloronaphthalenes, N.E.I. ..

Chromic acid and chromates (as Cr03 ) Cyanides (as CN) . . . .

*2, 4- D ..

*D.D.T. . .

*Dieldrin Dini trobenzene Dinitrotoluene


Recommended value

Milligram of dust, fume or mist per cubic metre of air

0 . 25 0.5 0. 3 0. 5 0.5 0.015 0.002 0.1 0.1


0. 1


10 I

0. 25 I

1. 5

H.- Toxic Dusts, Fumes and Mists-continued


I Recommended value I I

Milligram of dust, fume or mist


per cubic metre of air


D initro-Q-<:resol . . Ferrovanadium .. Fluorides, N.E.I. Hexachloronaphthalene Iron oxide fume .. Lead arsenate

Lead compounds , N.E.I., as lead *Lindane Lit hium hydride .. Magnesium oxide fume *Malathion

Ma nganese compounds Mercury and its inorganic compounds (as Hg) Mercury : organic compounds (as Hg) • Methoxychlor

Molybdenum compo unds, soluble .. Molybdenum compounds, insoluble Naphthylamine (alpha and beta) Nicotine *Parathion

Pentachlorodiphenyl and its oxide Pentachloronaphthalene Pentachlorophenol and its salts p- Phenylenediamine Phosphoric acid .. Phosphorus pentachloride .. Phosphorus, yellow

Picric acid Pyrethrum Rotenone Selenium compounds (as Se) Sodium ftuoroacetate (1080 ) Sodium hydroxide Strychni ne

Sulphuric acid *TEDP ..

Tellurium compounds (as Te) *TEPP ..

Tetry l *Thiram . . Titanium dioxide .. *Toxaphene

Trinitrotolue ne Uran ium (soluble and inso luble compounds) .. Vanadium dust (as V) Vanadium fu me (as V) Zinc oxi de Zirconium compounds

l 0. 2


2 .5 0 . 5 15 0 .1 5

0 .15 0 . 5 0.025 15 15


0. 1 0.01 15 5

15 0 .01 0. 5 0.1 0. 5

0.5 0 . 5 0 .1 I


0. 1

0 .1 2


0.1 0 . 1 2

0 .1 5 1

0.2 0 . 1

0.05 1. 5 5

15 0 .5 1. 5 0 .05 0 . 5 0. 1

10 5

Nons : *These names are eithe r trade marks or commonly used names, and the chemical name or descrip-tion of the compounds to which they refer is gi ve n in the Appendix to the Schedule.

N.E.l. - Not elsewhere included.

10 1



(I) Dust in Coal M ines-The New South Wales Proclaimed Standard (1958), the main provisions of which are-( a) The following average dust concentrati ons of particles under five microns by Owen's dust counter. depending on the free-sil ica content of the parent rock.

(At least twelve dust samples are to be taken .)

Free-silica content of parent rock

U p to 10 per cent Over 10 per cent and not exceeding 20 per cent Over 20 per cent and not exceeding 30 per cent Over 30 per cent and not exceeding 40 per cent Over 40 per cent and not exceeding 50 per cent Exceeding 50 per cent

Average dust concentration (Particles per cubic centimetre of air)

700 600 500 400 300 200

(b) N ot more than 10 per cent of the samples taken are to exceed double the appropriate standard gi ven in the above table. (c) A formula makes provision fo r the normally low free-silica conten t of the intake air to the place being tested.

(2) Siliceous Dusts-

(a) Free Si lica I per cent to 10 per cent (b) Free Si lica 10 per cent to 50 per cent (c) Free Si lica over 50 per cent

Particles per cubic centimetre of air

700 400 200

(3) Asbestos Dust-Five (5) million particles per cu bic foot of air. (4) Talc Dust-400 particles per cubic centimetre of air. (5) Mica Dust-400 particles per cubic centimetre of air. (6) Mineral Dusts N.E.I.-700 particles per cubic centimetre of air.

The above figures are based on counts taken with the Owens' Jet Dust Counter except in the case of asbestos and other fibrous dusts, for whi ch an impinger should be used. If any other instrument is used the standard adopted should be one that is correlated with the above figures.

In regard to the siliceous dusts, free silica determinations should be made on air-borne dust when possible, but when this is not p racticable, the determination should be made on the parent material.



Butyl mercaptan Cyclohexylamine Ethyl mercaptan Methyl mercaptan Acid chlorides, N.E.I.

Acid halides, N.E.I. . .


Cyclic amines, nitro and halogen derivatives, N.E.I. Iso cyanates, organic, e.g. in 'Desmodur', •moltopren' , etc., 'plastic foams' Organic phosphates, pyrophosphates, phosphites, phosphorates and

their thio-derivatives, N. E.I. Pentaborane Teflon decomposition products Triorthocresyl phosphate

N OTES : (a) Parts of gas or vapour per million parts of air by volume. (b) Approximate milligrams per cubic metre of air.

N.E.I.- Not elsewhere included.


Recommended values

10 20 250 50


0.5 1

0 . 1

0.005 0.005

I Approximate 1 mgjcu m'

I 35 80 600 100 0 .1 0. 01


3 7 '-'


UNITS RECOMMENDED BY WHO FOR AIR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS (Research into En vironmental Pollution, Repo rt of Five WHO G roups, Geneva, 1968, p. 20. )


Particulate contaminants (liquid or so lid) of known composition

Suspended or airborne partic ulate matter

G ases or vapours

Gas volumes

Volume emission rates

Mass emission rates


Air sa mpling rates



Visi bil ity

Light transmission

Light refl ection

Pa rticle size

Recommended units

Mi ll igra ms per cubic metre (mg/m 3 )

Milligra ms per cubic metre (mg/m 3 )

Milligrams per cubic metre I (mg/m 3) 1


Cubic metres (m 3 ) at stand- I ard co nditions(b)

Cubic metres per second




Kilograms per second (kg/s)



Metres per second (m/s)

Cubic metres per minute I (m3/min) or cubic centi­ metres per minute (cm 3 / min) I

Degrees Celsius (0C)

M ill ibars (mb) o r

met res of mercury Hgl

Kilometres (km)


'11 ' 1

m1 1 -1 (mm I

Percentage transmittance ( % T)

Percen tage refl ectance ( %R)

Micro ns (f:L)(IO •m)

j Alternative or derived units

Micrograms per cubic metre (f:Lg/m')

Micrograms per cubic metre (f:Lg/m 3)

Micrograms per cubic metre (f:L g/m 3)(a)(b)

Grams per second (g/s)

Lit res per minute (litres/min)

Wavelength of light Milli micro ns (mf:L)(IO -' m) Angstroms (A)(IO 10m)

NOTE: Time of day should be spec ifi ed in terms of the 24- ho ur clock, e.g., 15.00 hours, not 3 p.m.

(a) p pm may be used as a n additional unit of concentration but the original results should a lways be expressed in mgJm• or f:L!!- 'm3 as well ; ppm by vol ume multiplied by molecular weight- 10•

yields p.g/m 3 at standa rd conditions. (b) 'Standard conditions' means 0 °C and standard pressure, i.e., 700mm/ Hg or 10 13.25 millibars.




Amoco Australia Pty Limited Ampol Refineries Limited A nderson, R., Esq ui re Apex Club, George Town, Tasmani a

Atkinson, C.. Esquire Austral -Paci fi c Fertil izers Li mited Australian Automobile Association Australian Carbon Black Pty Limited

Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Limited Australian Clay Products Association A ustralian Democratic Labor Party, Northern Regional Centre Australian Commonw ealt h Carbide Li mited

Australian Federatio n of Air Pilots Aust ralian Titan Products Pty Limited Bakers Creek and D istri ct Progress Association Boath, D. W ., Esquire Bora! Limited Bosman, L. L., Esquire. M.P.

B.P. Australia Limited Broken Hill Associated Smel ters Pty Limited Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited Burnie Enviro nmental Poll ution Investigation Committee Burnie Ratepayers Association Chipperton, Cr. L. H. Chrysler Australi a Limited

Chamber of Manufactures of New South Wales Chambers. E . W .. Esquire Clean Air Council of Vi ctoria Cl ean Air Society of Austral ia and New Zealand (N.S.W. Branch) Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand (Victorian Branch) Comalco Al umin iu m (Bell Bay) Limited Communist Party of Australi a. Newcastle and Northern N.S.W. District

Connor, R. F. X .. Esquire, M.P. Corcoran. Mrs Y. Darwin Chamber of Commerce Edmonds. M. J., Pty Limited

Electrolytic Refining and Smelting Company of Australia Pty Limited Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia Limited Emu Motels Pty Limited Everingham, Dr D. N .. M .P.

Figuerola . Miss A. Finch, F. H. , Esq uire Fl aherty. Dr G. N. Ford Motor Company of Australia

Forest Ac tion Co-operative Society Limited, N.S.W.


G arden Hill Progress Association, N.S.W. General Motors-Holden's Pty Limited Hancock Bros Pty Limited (Sawmillers) Haritos, K. J., Esquire

Hawker-Siddele y Bu ildi ng S ... ppli es Pty Limited Hayden, W. G ., Esquire, M .P . Higbed , D. J ., Esquire Ingham Dis trict Research Promotion Bureau Jeho vah's Witnesses in Australia

Jessop, D . S., Esquire, M.P. Jones, C. K., Esquire, M .P . Jones , J . R., Esquire Jones, Mrs M. C.

Katz, Mrs D. M. Kerin, Mr and Mrs D. J . Kelly, L. B., Esquire, M.L.A., N.S.W . Labour Councii of New South Wal es Lamont, R., Esquire

Leeton District Citrus Growers' Association Local Government Association of New So uth Wales Mi ddleton, E. J ., Esquire, B.Sc., A.R.A.C. I. M idland Brick Company Pty Limited

:-.1obil Oil Australia Limited Muston, Mrs L. McNabb., J. F . K ., Esquire McWade. D. R., Esquire

New So uth W al es Citrus G ro wers' Co uncil Noble, Mrs N. Nolan, E . R., Esquire North Wes t Acid Pty Limited Northern Territory Conservation Association O'Connell, The Hon. H . D .. M .L. C., N .S. W. Oxley Progress Association

Petersen, W. G., Esquire, M.L.A., N.S.W. PGH Industries (Qld) Pty Limited Pinkenba Progress Association Port Pirie Trades and Labour Counc il

Power-Jets Pty Limited Powers, B. Ward, Esquire, J.P .. B.D .. B.Comm. , T h.L. , Dip.R.E., A.S.T.C . (Acctg), A.A.S.A. Pritchard Steam Power Pty Li m ited Queensland Cement and Lime ( 'ompany Limited

Ransom, Miss L. Sayers, L. S., Esquire Scholes, G. G., Esquire, M.P. Shell Group of Companies in Australia Simpson, J. C ., Esquire Smith, E . M., Esquire Snug Progress Association

South Australian Gas Co mpany South Coast Trades and Labour Council, N.S.W. South East Queensland Federation of Progress Associations Standards Association of Australia

Stanton Pipes Div ision, Stewarts and Lloyds (Australia) Pty Limited Sullivan, Dr J. L. Sulphuric Acid Pty Limited, South Australia


Swan Portland Cement Limited Swan Quarries Limited Tasmania Electro Metallurgical Company Pty Limited Tasmanian Farmers F ederation

Truman, T. R., Esquire United Farmers and Woolgrowers Association of New South Wales University of Melbourne, Department of Industrial Science University of New South Wales, School of Chemical Engineering University of Tasmania, Department of Chemistry

Victorian Ch amber of Man ufactu res Von P aleske, Mrs R. D. Wade, W. A., Esquire, M.L.A., N.S.W. Wallace, R. V ., Esquire

Waters id e \Vorkers Federatio n. South Coast Branch, N.S.W. Whitworth, Mrs B. Wingrove, F. W., Esquire Wilson, R. H., Esquire

Wleitzel, F., Esquire Wunderlich Limited Yeo, C. W ., Esquire.


Commonwealth-Atomic Weapons Tests Safety Committee, Department of Supply Attorney-General's Department Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Department of National Development

Bureau of Meteorology, Department of the Interior Commonwealth Bureau of Roads Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Department of Air

Department of Civil Aviation Department of H ealth Department of Primary Industry D epartment of Shipping and Transport

Department of Supply Department of the T reasury Department of Works Forestry and Timber Bureau, Department of N ational Development

Joint Coal Board, Department of N ational Development N orthern Territory Administration, Department of the Interior T axation Branch, Department of the Treasury State-

Air Pollution Advisory Committee, N ew South Wales Air Pollution Control Council , Wes tern Australia Department of Agriculture, N ew South Wales D epartment of Health, Queensland

Department o f Health, Victoria Department of P ublic Health. New South Wales Department of Public H ealth, T asmania Department of Publi c Health. South Australi a

Elec tricity Trust of South Australia G overnment Chemical Laboratories, Western Australia H ydro-Electric Commission, Tasmani a .

Inter-Departmental Committee on Industrial Hygiene, Tasmama South Australia State Planning Authority


Southern Electricity Authority of Queensland State Electricity Commission, Queensland State Electricity Commission, Victoria State Electricity Commission, Western Australia


Altona Shire Council, Victoria Bankstown Municipal Council, N.S.W. Box Hill City Council, Victoria Botany Municipal Council, N.S.W. Brunswick City Council, Victori a Burnie Municipal Council, Tasmania Coburg City Council, Victoria Corio Shire Council, Victoria

Fcotscray City Council, Victoria Geelong City Council, Victoria Geelong West City Council, Victoria George Town City Council, Tasmania Keilor City Council, Victoria Leichhardt Municipal Council, N .S.W. Newcastle Ci ty Council, N.S.W. Newtown and Chilwell City Council, Victoria

Oakleigh City Council, Victoria Port Adelaide City Corporation, South Australia Port Stephens Shire Council, N.S.W. Preston City Council, Victoria South Barwon Shire Council, Victoria Willi amstown City Council, Victoria

207S0/69 108