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Rural Industries Research Act - Dairy Research Council - Report for - 1988-89 (4th)

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29 September, 1989

The Hon. J.C. Kerin, M.P., Minister for Primary Industries and Energy, Parliament House, CANBERRA. A.C.T, 2600.

Dear Mr. Kerin,

I am pleased to present to you the 1988-89 Annual Report for the Dairy Research Council. The report reflects the major changes which occurred in the dairy industry during 1988-89 and had relevance for dairy research. It also details the activities of the D.R.C.

The report anticipates an exciting and challenging future for dairy industry research and development. In particular, we are looking forward to responding positively to the structural changes proposed for and associated with the incorporation of the Dairy Research Council into the Dairy Research and Development Corporation.

In reporting its activities to the A.D.I.C. Executive, the D.R.C. was aware of the growing conviction by industry that the Council should be incorporated as soon as possible. Farmers expressed their support by agreeing to increase the research levy to be 0.5% of the gross value of production of the dairy industry by 1994. Combined with the Federal Government’s matching grants, it will mean a stronger financial base for a critical element of the dairy industry’s future.

Currently, Council is conducting a major review of the D.R.C’s Five Year Plan, and changes in the level of funding and in the management of research through the D.R.D.C. are being fully considered in this revision.

The 1988-89 programme reported on here totalled $3,615,586, which is a 5% increase on the previous year’s programme.

As the report indicates, there have been positive achievements and some disappointments in the work undertaken and funded during the last financial year.

The Council believes it is continuing to improve its relations with the A.D.I.C. and will be making every effort to do so in the future.

Finally, the Council would like to thank officers of your Department and yourself for substantial support during 1988-89. The Council has also received strong support from officers of A.D.I.C. and that has been particularly welcome.




The Dairy Research Council manages industry research funds provided equally by milk producers, by way of a levy, and by the Federal Government.

Through the management of these funds, the Council has the responsibility to increase both productivity and returns in the dairy industry.

During the year, the Council completed the first three year term of the DRC to operate under the Rural Industries Research Act, 1985.

This act supersedes the Dairy Research Scheme, which was established in 1958 as one of the Rural Industry Research Funds.

The current legislation has had far reaching consequences for the management of dairy research.

Council members are selected for their expertise in many relevant areas, and ability to contribute towards creating a

well balanced dairy research and development programme.

The C ouncil has considerable

autonomy w ithin the bounds of

accountability to the dairy industry and the Government. This has allowed Council to set research priorities, and to act on those priorities. The structure through which this is done is the Five Year Plan.

The Council has strong links with industry, both through its members, and through its consultation and liaison with the Australian Dairy Industry

Conference (ADIC). Also, the

Chairperson formally addresses ADIC each year on the performance and progress of DRC.

This year, ADIC increased the research levy, so that by 1994, it will be equivalent to 0.5 percent of the Gross Value of Production (GVP) of the dairy industry at the farm gate. This will be 3.2 cents a kilogram butterfat. The levy during

1988-89 was 0.68 cents kg/butterfat.


CHAIRMAN Mr Ken Baxter

Deputy Director General, NSW Premier’s Department, and General Manager, Public Management.


Assistant Secretary, Land Resources D ivision, Departm ent of Primary Industries and Energy.


Head, School of Administration and Technology, Hunter Instititute of Higher Education, Newcastle, NSW.

Dr Barry Kitchen

Scientific and Development Manager, Cadbury Schweppes (Aust).

Dr Alick Lascelles

Former Chief, CSIRO Division of Animal Health, private consultant.

Mr Allan Manning

Dairy farmer, Birdwood, SA. President, SA Dairyfarmers Association.

Mr Terry Makin

Dairy farmer, Kyabram, Victoria, Member, North Central Regional A dvisory Board, Departm ent of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

Mr Barry Oates

Dairy farmer, Busselton, WA, President, WA Farmer’s Federation Dairy Council.

Mr Graeme Whitehead

General Manager, Cheese Technology, Murray G oulbourn Co-op Ltd,

Rochester, Victoria.

Dr Drinan, Mr Manning and Mr

Whitehead joined DRC 1 April 1989.

MEMBERS TO 31 MARCH 1989 Prof Frank Annison

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sydney.

Mr Kern Perkins

Dairy farmer, Latrobe, Tasmania.

Mr Ian Teese

Consultant, ACIL Australia.

Council met on four occasions during the year: 27 July 1988 13 October 1988

14 December 1988 21 April 1989


DAIRY RESEARCH COUNCIL MEMBERS Back Row (I to r) Barry Oates, Graeme Whitehead, John Drinan, Terry Makin, Allan Manning Seated Alick Lascelles, Ken Baxter (Chairman), Barry Kitchen

Inset Onko Kingma

DAIRY RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF (I to r) Oliver Cassar (Executive Officer), Bee Fung, Stuart Gray, Bernadette Ramsdale


The Johne’s disease workshop has already resulted in closer co-operation between farmers, researchers and administrators world wide, as this was an international event. A book on Johne’s Disease, which is a world first,

has been published as a result of the workshop.


The year 1988/89 can already be viewed as a watershed year. DRC built on previous initiatives and became even more pro-active, and a number of significant changes were made and initiatives taken by the Dairy Research Council which will affect the dairy industry and dairy research into the 21st century.

However, the most significant initiative was taken by farmers, who voted to increase the R&D levy to 0.5 percent of GVP.

The decision means the dairy industry can take more control of its future. By 1992, R&D funding will be around $15 million a year, and the wise use of these funds offers great scope for the industry to remain one of the most efficient dairy

industries in the world.

This places a great responsibility on DRC. To get maximum benefit from these funds will require management of

the highest order, and based on some of the events of 1988-89, DRC is already preparing itself for the task.

Workshops The Council organised workshops to review past and current work and set priorities in the areas of Johne’s disease, dairy cow nutrition and non- infectious causes of infertility in dairy cows.

The nutrition workshop has helped to set research priorities for future work in pasture assessment, feeding values, com puter sim ulation work, and

integrating feeding and management on farm.

The infertility workshop, as well as setting research priorities, identified an immediate need for extending the existing bank of knowledge about in fe rtility and control of cow

reproduction. As a result, an innovative extension programme has been devised and that will be implemented this year.

In the Economics and Marketing area, a forum was held in October 1988 for researchers in economics to discuss problems in that field. This forum has now become a regular event.

Consultation with Industry During the year, DRC members and staff spoke at many farmer and industry meetings.

The Chairman, Mr Baxter, and Council members reported to and consulted with the ADIC executive and its

Research Task Force on the previous year’s R & D activities and plans for the 1988-89 programme, as required by the enabling act.

Significant amongst other meetings, in Queensland in February, staff and members spoke to a combined

Queensland Dairyfarmers Organisation, Q ueensland D airy Corporation, manufacturers and vendors meeting.


The presentation included an overview of the dairy industry and where research fits into it, what the DRC is and how it operates, and details of specific aspects of current and future research needs.

Members and staff participated in four seminars organised by the UDV, which were attended by a total of 370 dairy farmers in different regions of Victoria. The seminars discussed all aspects of

research with a view to help farmers make an informed decision on raising the research levy.

An informal farmer meeting was held at the Murray Swamps area of South Australia.

Mr Baxter, spoke at a field day attended by 350 farmers at Cobram (Vic) in March, and was a keynote speaker at the UDV Annual Conference at Geelong

in May.

He, with Dr Lascelles, also addressed the executive of DFA prior to the ADIC decision on the research levy.

Addresses were given to four state branches of the Dairy Industry

Association of Australia.

And to round of a very active year, Council members participated in QDO organised research priority setting sessions in all regions of that state.

Levy Increase The ADIC endorsed an increase in the research levy rate to 0.5 percent of GVP. This is to be phased in as follows:

YEAR 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 LEVY (C/KG) 1.3 1.8 2.25 2.75 3.2

% GVP 0.20 0.28 0.35 0.43 0.50

By 1994, the industry will have

approximately $15 million a year for dairy R&D. The 1989-90 budget is about $6.8m.

DRC INCOME 1985/86 to 1993/94


Communication The DRC increased its committment to communication with the appointment, in October 1988, of an information/ research co-ordinator, to assist the council in co m m u n icatin g with

governments, researchers, extension officers, farmers and the general public.

The appointee, Mr Stuart Gray, has a background in radio, television and print media, in research and in the dairy industry.

Consultancies DRC was the subject of three

consultancies in the lead up to the decision to increase the dairy research levy.

The farm research sector was examined by Dr Graeme Rogers, while the

manufacturing sector was examined by Dr Ralph Timms, a leading international dairy manufacturing researcher. Dr Timms’ investigation was a follow up of a review by the Council and the

Executive Officer, of the adequacy of manufacturing R & D facilities in

Australia. Both consultancies were then used as a basis for an overview of dairy industry research by the consultancy

firm, ACIL.

The consultancies offered additional input into assessing the future needs of research and the setting of research priorities.

DRC also commissioned a consultancy into the efficiency of transport, handling and distribution of milk and dairy


In a preliminary report, recommenda­ tions included the use of B-double semi­ trailers, better routing of milk collection, through inter-company co-operation, and changes in charging for transport costs. The report from Henderson Consultants also recommended further

studies into the cost of home delivery, and an economic comparison of the major ways used to distribute market milk premiums.

New Council Members The term of the first Dairy Research Council ended on 31st March. All elected positions became vacant, and as a consequence, three new members were selected. Dr John Drinan, Head, School of A dm inistration and

Technology, at the Hunter Institute of Higher Education, Newcastle (NSW), Mr Allan Manning, dairy farmer from Birdwood, South Australia, and Mr Graeme Whitehead, General Manager, Cheese Technology, Murray Goulbourn Co-op, Rochester, Victoria.

The Chairm an, Mr Ken Baxter,

expressed his thanks to outgoing members, Professor Frank Annison, Mr Ian Teese and Mr Kern Perkins, for the

excellent job performed during their term on the first DRC.

Project Initiatives The Council has recognised there are gaps in the current research capacity in some significant areas.

The area of milk fat research is one major area where Australia’s research capacity has been deficient. To counter this, DRC acted on the recommendation of a DRC initiated consultancy prepared in 1986, and selected a researcher to visit overseas commercial operations and m anufacturing research

establishments, and draw up plans for a milk fat research programme.

To support the effort, DRC purchased a scraped surface heat exchanger unit at a cost of $175,000 (to be

commissioned early in 1990), and has arranged to lease a fat fractionation plant to allow the Food Research Institute at Werribee, and private dairy

manufacturers, to conduct milk fat research.


DRC has been more pro-active in the economics and marketing area as well. Apart from the transport consultancy mentioned above, DRC initiated a

number of projects to develop economic models of the industry. Priorities were set at a workshop held in 1986, and re­ examined at the October forum in Sydney, organised by the Department of Agricultural Economics and Business

Management at the University of New England, Armidale.

Economic modelling is an essential tool for the dairy industry, particularly given the changes which will occur with CER

in 1990, and the end of the Kerin Plan in 1992.

Professor David Leaver Along with Sydney University’s Dairy Research Foundation, DRC funded an all dairy districts tour by David Leaver,

Professor of Agriculture at Wye College, University of London. Professor Leaver is a world renowned dairy nutritionist, and it is estimated he spoke to about

1,600 farmers, as well as many

researchers and extension officers during his trip.

The response to him was very positive, as Professor Leaver had a clear, simple, but worthwhile message. Conversely, he was impressed with Australia’s system for funding rural industry


Project Co-ordination Significant gains have been achieved in the efficiency of manufacturing research by monitoring research programs.

Dr Peter Linklater has acted as a co­ ordinator. He has liaised with

researchers, helped out when problems occurred, and kept Council members informed of the progress or otherwise of DRC funded manufacturing projects.

Technology Transfer Along with Dr Linklater’s role of liaising with researchers, he and the Executive Officer of DRC, Mr Oliver Cassar, have

been active in the area of technology transfer in the manufacturing sector of the industry. Research results have

been taken to the factories, and feedback on the new techniques has been taken back to the researchers.

Also, DRC has taken researchers on factory visits, and helped to bridge the gap between laboratory scale work and

the complexities of full scale production in modern dairy factories.

While this work is important, the results will only be evident in the longer term.

And even though it is a low profile activity of DRC, the fact that it is

happening, and the importance of it, makes it another highlight in a very significant year for the Dairy Research Council.



The research programme is designed to increase farm production efficiency and/or lower farm costs, and to increase the returns from manufactured products through improved and more efficient processes, and through new value added products.

The follow ing sum m aries are of

research supported by the Dairy Research Council during 1988-89. They are divided into four sections, namely Farm, Manufacturing, Economics and Marketing and Education.

Each project is designated by a code prefix and number, according to the organisation carrying out the work. The

key to the codes can be found in the allocation tables.

Total funding for 1988-89 was $3.6m. The chart below shows how this money was distributed amongst the four sectors of research interest, and DRC administration and contingency.

1988-89 PROGRAMME Total Research Budget $3.6m

Economics & Education


lRM research programme

Pastures and Soils Not surprisingly, the largest category of projects supported in the area of Farm based research is in pasture and soil

research. Australia will only retain its comparative advantage in dairying if the industry is at the forefront of research into low cost, pasture based dairy systems.

A CSIRO Division of Entomology project (CS41) is spreading exotic dung beetles throughout dairying districts of NSW, Victoria and Tasmania to achieve dung

burial to improve pasture productivity and reduce fly breeding. In NSW, 17 exotic species have become

established, while seven species are available for southern Victoria and Tasmania.

However, most of the projects are concerned with grass and forage species development and evaluation, and pasture systems.

In Queensland, pastures of pangola grass and a clone of Digitaria have been established and production from each will be compared (DAQ61).

In South Australia, experimental varieties of winter active lucerne, which are high yielding, disease resistant and

have commercial potential, have been identified (DAS1), and some of the

overseas varieties of ryegrasses, from the 120 perennial and 60 short rotation varieties under study, are greatly superior to Tama and Moata, the

ryegrass varieties commonly used in dairying areas (DAS24).

New pasture legumes may be possible for NW Tasmania (DATS), and biological control of a major legume insect pest, the lucerne flea, may be possible with the successful establishment of a predator on the flea, the spiny snout

mite, Neomolgus (DAT15). Also in Tasmania, the potential of ’Matua’ prairie grass for dairying is been assessed (DAT17).

In Victoria, considerable research effort has been put into increasing the amount of legumes in dairy pastures, including the production of pure legume pastures. These studies merge into the animal nutrition category of projects as well. Pure legume pastures increase milk production, but bloat can be a problem.

Irrigation management of legume pastures, the effect of grazing

management and longevity of pastures are being studied at Kyabram Research Institute (DAV2), and incorporated into a milk production system using maize silage (DAV3). It is envisaged that cows will graze pure legume pastures by day,

and fed maize silage on a feedpad at night. The critical combination of the two is being assessed. Pure clover pastures do have some problems such as invasion by grasses, and milk

production losses from sub-clinical bloat (DAV4), and the economic impact of viruses on pasture legume production could be significant, given the losses which have been measured in DAV134.

In the event of an excess of legume pasture been produced, silage techniques for legume pastures are been investigated in DAV127. Studies into the production of maize silage, and


how maize silage compares with dual purpose forage crops such as forage sorghum and summer growing pastures such as kikuyu, are also in progress in NSW (DAN25). W aterlogging in irrigation areas reduces legume and grass production (DAV5).

Other work in these areas include attempts to improve quality and quantity of pasture to reduce dependence on bought fodder and concentrates in South Australia, (UA4), studies to validate new feeding standards for dairy cows (US18), and continuing studies into the mechanism controlling the absorption of nutrients from the gut and

how they are partitioned in mammary and muscle tissues of lactating

ruminants (US14).

Animal Health Many of the animal health programmes funded by DRC are using highly

sophisticated molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques to further knowledge of the diseases which limit dairy cow production, or to develop better and cheaper diagnostic methods of detecting the presence of diseases.

Cow with Johne's Disease

Australia is at the forefront of research into and analysis of Johne’s Disease, a chronic debilitating infectious disease of ruminants (DAV7, CS3). It is estimated to affect 10 percent of dairy herds in

Victoria, and to cost the Australian dairy industry $4.0 million annually. Johne’s is a world wide disease, and the

estimated cost of it in the United States is $1.5 billion annually.

Now, information has been collated into the first book ever to be written on Johne’s disease, as a consequence of a workshop partially funded by DRC in July 1988. The book is available from CSIRO Publications, East Melbourne.

The diagnosis of Johne’s disease is now more widely available, and is relatively quick and simple to perform, following work on the absorbed ELISA test. DARA

researchers expect a Johne’s disease absorbed ELISA kit will be commercially available to laboratories before the end of 1989.


The role pestivirus infection plays in reproductive losses in NSW dairy cattle is being unravelled (DAN2). The pregnancy rate of a group of heifers infected with pestivirus soon after joining was reduced by 50 percent at

day 42. Pestivirus could be a significant cause of the repeat breeder syndrome. A low cost, rapid diagnostic test is also being developed using high technology


In Queensland, work to improve the diagnosis and control of bovine leucosis virus is continuing at the Department of Primary Industries and the University of Queensland (DAQ3, UQ2). The aim is to develop a more efficient diagnostic test and effective vaccine for the disease which causes significant economic losses to dairy producers in south east Queensland. The studies use sophisticated DNA probes and other genetic engineering techniques, but they are still some way from getting the disease under control.

Another disease diagnosis study being funded by DRC also uses DNA

technology. DAV106 is developing a rapid but sensitive test to detect

Campylobacter fetus bacteria in cattle. The bacteria causes Campylobacteriosis, (formally called vibriosis), an infertility problem usually characterised by abortions. It is essential to keep Artificial

Breeding centres free of this disease, so regular testing is carried out at each centre.

Mastitis is still one of the major, ever present diseases of dairy production.

In Western Australia, the role of

management in the incidence of mastitis is under study (DAW1).

The mastitis vaccine has been shown to work in large scale commercial dairy trials, and it is the hands of Arthur Webster Pty Ltd, who is currently

evaluating the commercial viability of the vaccine before developing it for the domestic market. Hoescht has the international rights to the patent. It is

expected that the vaccine should be available for dairy farmer use by the end of 1990, provided there are no

commercial setbacks and that it passes registration in each state.

In the area of preventing diseases, a study in NSW (DAN28) has shown that selenium supplem entation has significantly reduced the incidence of clinical mastitis. However, to date, selenium does not appear to affect the cow’s fertility, though on one farm at Camden, a significant decrease in stillbirths did occur in the selenium treated group.

Another important dairy cow problem is milk fever, and after a delay in finding suitable staff and an essential

diagnostic compound, an innovative study is now under way at the University of Sydney (US17). The research centres around determ ining the role of

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in calcium transport in the lactating ruminant.

Also at the University of Sydney, another molecular study aims to map the gene responsible for producing the B-lactoglobulin protein in milk, and once this is done, Al sires will be genotyped

using the techniques developed in the project (US3).

Genetics and Reproduction The Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme (ADHIS) is still by far the largest project supported by DRC, and

in 1988-89, the total financial support for ADHIS passed the $1 million mark (ADFF1). During the year, new

Australian Breeding Values (ABV's) for milking speed, temperament and likeability were released. An ADHIS survey found that milk production is the

main reason for culling cows, but



70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Year of birth

AB-Bred Friesian


NAT-Bred Friesian

Mean fat plus protein ABV

temperament and milking speed also rated highly in culling decisions.

ADHIS is now entering its sixth year, and in 1989-90, bulls which were bred from animals selected through ADHIS are now becoming available. This should see a great increase in the rate of genetic improvement in the Australian dairy herd.

However, while genetic gain in milk production is important, ideally it should not be at the expense of other important characteristics such as fertility. In NSW, three genetic lines of dairy cows have been selected on the basis of high, medium and low milk fat ABV’s, and the interactions between their production and fertility will be studied (DAN30).

The search is on though for other means of selecting dairy animals with superior commercial traits. In a co­ operative study with Curtin University of Technology, (WA), the WA Department of Agriculture and Victoria’s Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (CUT1),

a new cost and time efficient method for analysing the DNA extracted from semen is being evaluated. The study will determine if identifiable gene sequences are linked to economically important dairy traits, and if successful, a breeding programme based on the technology will be developed.

Also in WA, Murdoch University and the Department of Agriculture are studying improved methods of detecting oestrus, synchronising oestrus and monitoring reproductive activity using a

progesterone enzyme immunoassay (MDU14).

Advanced technology projects are also being funded by DRC. In South Australia, DAS27 has developed suitable culturing techniques for bovine embryos, and work on nuclear transfer, or cloning, is making progress.

At the University of NSW, work on unravelling the structure of the genes which control the production of casein and other proteins in milk is continuing


(UN5). The ultimate aim of this project, which is still in its early stages, is to develop genetically engineered cows which produce milk with a modified composition, for example, an altered fat/protein ratio. The medium term objective is to evaluate the feasibility of genetically engineered cows producing substances such as hormones and pharmaceutical products which have high market value. If it is possible, this could greatly expand the marketing possibilities for the dairy industry.

Farm Management Knowing when it is economical to perform some remedial or preventative treatment is a problem farmers often face.

In Tasmania, the winter corbie, a pasture feeding insect, can seriously reduce pasture availability between May and December, and DAT16 has found that in May, a mean corbie population of just two insects per spade square can

usually cause enough damage to repay the $25 per hectare cost of treatment with fenitrothion.

The role computers play in farm

management is increasing, but they need suitable software or programmes to be of value. DAV125 is looking to improve a simulation model of a dairy farm, and two experiments have

provided a better definition of factors which affect how much dairy cows eat when grazing pasture. In future, this project will test the predictions of the

model for alternative management strategies at one location.

Training in the science and practice of milking is also supported by DRC. On- farm training in milking machine operation, design and selection were conducted by staff at the National Training Centre - Milking Equipment. Technical courses were conducted at the centre.

The most accessible information is made available via a national 008 telephone number. Farmers, advisors and related industry personnel, can get technical information on milking

machines, mastitis and dairy design for the cost of a local telephone call on 008 335334. Two to three calls are made each day through this service.

Dissemination DRC supports the development of the Australian Rural Research in Progress (ARRIP) database (DPI1). In 1988-89, all

CSIRO rural research projects were included and the transfer of project data from departments of agriculture in Tasmania, Victoria and Queensland was completed.

At the farm level, Mr Jack Green continues as the National Dairy Extension Officer. He liaises with research institutes, department of agriculture and dairy factory officers and

farmers, and provides information at farmer meetings in all parts of the country.

A nother im portant means of

disseminating information is through organised workshops. These inform researchers and extension people of the latest information in a particular area, look for gaps in the current knowledge, and devise strategies for correcting any deficiencies. Details of the three

workshops supported by DRC are given in highlights of 1988-89.


Ultrafiltration plant used in the preparation of milk for cheese manufacture. CSIRO Dairy Research Laboratory, Highett, Victoria.



The comparative advantage Australia has in dairy farm production can only be maintained if the capacity of the manufacturing sector is at least equal to that of the manufacturing sectors of other dairying countries. If the

Australian manufacturing sector is more innovative, competitive and efficient compared to other dairying countries, returns to all sectors of the industry will

be good.

If the Australian manufacturing sector is not innovative, competitive and efficient, then everyone suffers.

However, through research, the dairy manufacturing sector is taking on the challenges of the future and quickly responding to the market place.

Many of the dairy manufacturing procedures involve the use of bacteria to alter the composition of the milk. The bacteria cause changes in the flavour

and texture of milk constituents to produce a large range of fermented products. In cheese production, bacteria are used to start lactic acid fermentation and hence they are known as starters.

The search is always on for new

bacteria, or ways to change existing useful bacteria to produce more and better products, or to make production of existing products more efficient.

However, bacteria are subject to destructive attacks from virus like organisms called bacteriophage, or

phage. Phage resistance is an

extremely important characteristic for cheese starters or bacteria used in cultured or fermented products.

Project CS18 aims to control

bacteriophage which are active against starters. Existing phage, both those that do and do not destroy useful bacteria, are being characterised, and when new phage arise, they will be compared to the existing strains.

Another project at the University of Melbourne (UM2) is also attempting to improve the phage resistance of starter bacteria, this time by using recombinant DMA technology. The aim is to introduce phage resistance genes into the starter bacteria. So far, four phage

determinants have been identified. These will be introduced into a

commercial lactococcal starter strain, and increased phage resistance has been observed.

The project also aims to study the genetic control of converting the milk sugar lactose, into lactic acid. Once this is understood, it is hoped that the rate of lactic acid production can be

increased by introducing new high production genes into the slow acid producing bacteria.

Some lactic acid producing bacteria also produce a chemically complex, polysaccharide/glycoprotein material, called ’mucus’. Using mucus producing bacteria can increase the efficiency of production, as well as the quality, of fermented milk products such as yoghurt. However, mucus production is

unstable, and this has prevented wider use of these bacteria.

DAV123 aims to increase the reliability of mucus production. Of twenty strains


of Streptococcus thermophilus studied, eighteen produced a mucus capsule. Four strains have been selected for further studies to determine the factors w hich cause increased mucus

production and reduced instability.

It is estimated that the successful application of this work will greatly benefit the fermented milk products industry, by reducing the amount of total solids needed to produce quality yoghurt and other cultured milks, and by reducing, or completely eliminating the need to use stabilisers.

Cheese Manufacture M aking cheese involves quite a

complicated process, and there are plenty of opportunities for things to go wrong. One problem which occurs quite regularly, but in a random fashion, is the appearance of white crystalline deposits on the surface of Cheddar cheese. Researchers in Queensland (DAQ2) have identified the crystals as calcium lactate DL-pentahydrate, and it appears that the conversion of L-lactate into a mixture of L and D lactate is critical in the formation of the crystals. The study is now concentrating on trying to delay this conversion. Lactate crystals are only an appearance problem, they do not change the quality of cheese at all.

Improving the production efficiency of cheese making is a constant theme in dairy manufacturing research. DAV119 has found that ultrafiltered skim milk is more effective at increaing throughput than evaporated milk or skim milk powder when used in the production of a range of specialty cheese types.

The project has demonstrated gains in plant capacity in the production of Fetta, Cottage, Mozzarella and Cheddar cheeses, using ultrafiltered skim milk as a supplement. The texture of the cheeses is improved as well.

Also, seasonal factors affecting the production of Cottage cheese have

been controlled by using ultrafiltered skim milk. This technique has been tried commercially, and a cottage cheese produced in this manner won first prize in its class at the Royal

Melbourne Show in 1988.

While control over the complex process of cheese production is not always possible, knowing just what did happen during cheese production can help determine what the final quality of the cheese will be. The process control system is helping to improve the quality of cheese, and now the group (CPCG1) working in this area is incorporating a system to identify in which vat a

particular cheese was made. This will allow manufacturers to identify which cheeses have been produced under ideal conditions, and which therefore could command a premium price, particularly on local markets.

Process Development One significant consequence of cheese production is the production of whey, the water component of milk in which

is dissolved a number of minerals, proteins and lactose. Despite much research over many years, the disposal of whey still causes problems. However now, a number of new processes are being applied to whey constituents, resulting in valuable new products.

The CS6 project has isolated whey proteins, broken them down into protein fractions, and tested them in food formulations. They have been tested in meringues, frankfurters and salad dressings. Inconsistencies in

performance of the whey protein fractions requires the extension of pilot scale studies. More applications for the fractionated proteins will also be


A nother w ay of adjusting the

composition of milk is by passing it through special membranes which selectively block or transfer milk constituents.


Two such processes are now accepted as standard in dairy manufacture. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration are used to produce a range of adjusted

milks which have gained strong market acceptance.

However, this technology is by no means exhausted, and CS7 is studying new membrane processes. Names such as ultraosmosis, counter diffusion, microfiltration and demineralisation membranes may soon be added to the dairy manufacturer’s vocabulary.

This project is also investigating the use of reverse osmosis to reduce the water content of milk, and therefore the costs associated with the transport of milk.

DRC also supports workshop services in a number of projects at the CSIRO Dairy Research Laboratory, Highett (CSS).

And while lactic acid bacteria are beneficial in dairy manufacture, bacterial contaminants are a major problem for dairy foods.

There is a considerable research effort to control or at least reduce the impact of bacteria which spoil dairy products.

One project, CS42, in an attempt to extend the shelf-life of dairy products, is investigating the changes in the atmosphere of packed food, by altering

the concentration of carbon dioxide surrounding the food.

David Healey concentrating milk with a rotary evaporator, DRL.


This modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is being tested to extend the effective life of cottage cheese, a product which only has a short shelf life.

However, the atmosphere can also affect the quality of the cottage cheese, so a balance between that and retarding spoilage has to be found.

The project will also look at the

response of relevant pathogenic micro­ organisms to the modified atmosphere. It is im portant to know that a

preservation technique in h ibits important pathogens as well as spoilage organisms.

While milk has to be properly handled to prevent pathogens and spoilage bacteria developing, it naturally contains components which have anti­ bacterial properties. These components are only present in sm all

concentrations, but they can be

recovered. DAQ1 has found optimal methods of separating out two minor constituents of whey which have anti­ bacterial activity against pathogens such as Staphylococcocus aureus.

Future research will concentrate on working up the separation procedure to pilot plant scale of operation. The aim is to incorporate the anti-bacterial proteins into a preparation to cure or prevent bacterial scours in piglets.

As mentioned, disposing of whey is a major problem, but despite its

reputation as being a difficult waste product, whey does contain many useful proteins and minerals. However, separating out these useful components is not easy, and there is still a lot of research to be done in this area.

Progress has been made in a number of areas and CS22 has been involved in the setting up and operating of a hydrolysis plant in Victoria. It was

originally installed to treat whey, but it has been used for other hydrolysis processes.

Take-over activity of the factory which contains hydrolosis plant has led to the plant been mothballed. Market research

and a sales drive is being conducted in South East Asia before the plant is brought back into production.

Another programme (DAV121) is trying to develop high fructose syrups from the lactose in whey and UF milk permeates. If the excess lactose in whey and UF

milk permeate were converted to glucose and galactose, which makes it sweeter, the gross value of the product could exceed $25 million.

Also, if the lactose could be

economically removed from whey and UF milk permeate, the disposal problem associated with them would be greatly reduced.

However, the sweetness of the syrup has only reached about 60 percent of the level of normal sugar in fruit juice drinks, whereas 80 to 90 percent sweetness was expected.

The use of whey proteins in two types of animal feed supplements is being researched in DAV103. One system binds bentonite with microbes produced on whey to form a m icrobial

p rotein/bentonite com plex. This produces a protected true protein feed.

The second feed supplement is a urea, lactose, bentonite complex which can be used as an energy and slow release non protein nitrogen source.

Quality Control Work in this area is looking at

developing rapid tests to determine bacterial contamination (DAV118), and maximising the shelf-life of pasteurised

dairy products (DAQ63).


The rapid test project is using high technology to detect gram negative bacteria in milk by raising mono-clonal antibodies and linking them to an

enzyme detection system.

The project is also developing ways to detect spoilage bacteria in milk, and to predict the shelf life of pasteurised milk.

Meanwhile, the Queensland project has found that the storage temperature of pasteurised milk is the most important determinant of its shelf life. Milk lasts significantly longer when stored at 1 to 3 degrees Celsius compared to storage temperatures of between 7 and 12


To pack pasteurised milk aseptically only gives an advantage if the raw milk is of high quality and the storage

temperature is kept low.

Research into the storage stability of non-fat milk powders which have had protein levels adjusted by adding cheese whey and skim milk permeate

is an important aspect of project CS37. The adjusted non-fat powders have been tested in a range of products to

assess variation in flavour and other basic characteristics. It has been found that the method of blending the

components before processing can have a significant influence on the properties of the final powders. These powders can be used to adjust the protein levels of a range of dairy and other processed foods.

Milk Fat Utilisation The current community awareness of the high level of fat in the average diet, has led consumers to demand and buy

low fat dairy products.

This leaves the dairy industry with a problem of disposing the milk fat left over from the production of low fat products.

However, DRC has provided significant funds for milk fat research and has selected a researcher to take on the development of this area.

Now, the industry has a person who has visited milk fat research laboratories around the world, and he is developing a team with expertise in milk fat

research. Also DRC has purchased some expensive milk fat research equipment to be installed at Werribee

in 1990.

The aim is to improve the demand for, and price of, milk fat. Cake cream shelf- life experiments are under way, and the research effort will increase dramatically

when the new research equipment is installed.

This DRC initiative promises to be a very important one for the future.



All farmers work within an economic framework. Some aspects of this are quite simple, such as income must be greater than costs to remain in

business. Others aspects can be quite complex, such as structuring whole farm plans and budgets to meet bank

requirements for investment.

Outside this framework, farmers have to work within a broader economic policy and institutional framework. One part of this framework is the regulations and standards required by State and Federal governments. Another part is national agricultural and dairy industry policies. These policies, often developed by the

industry itself, have major

consequences for the individual farmer. It is therefore important that the impact of economic policies and institutional arrangements on farmers be carefully researched.

DRC supports research into these policy and institutional issues and has developed a small portfolio of projects in this area. The purpose of this

research is to provide information to farmers and the industry which can help in making decisions in a wide range of areas such as on-farm investment opportunities, industry trade strategies, introduction of CER and industry options after the withdrawal of the Kerin Plan.

For example, DAV137 is studying the impact of the Kerin Plan and alternative policies to assist in the policy making process and in industry negotiations.

The project is reviewing current levels of production and price levels, and assessing the impact of increased New Zealand trade in dairy products on the Australian dairy industry.

A model of the dairy industries in both Australia and New Zealand is being developed. However, developing the framework for the model is proving to be difficult because of gaps in the information needed for the model.

Economic research can also help to understand the complexities of dairy product markets. UNE1 is developing a model of the dairy industry in the

Eastern states. A data base has been compiled on milk and dairy product prices, processing costs, freight rates consumption and production trends and dairy product stocks, and the data are being used to test various aspects of the model.

Again this project is finding that there is a lack of relevant information and previous research in the area.

Another project conducted by the Institute of Applied Economic and


Social Research at the University of Melbourne (UM6) is attempting to use a forecasting model of the Australian economy, with special linkages to the dairy industry, to explore the impact of economic policies on the industry.

And the Australian Bureau of

Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) is developing another model to evaluate Australian dairy policies. Models for the processing sector and farm level supply for Victoria, New

South Wales and Queensland have been constructed. Farm level models for Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania will be constructed during


Market Research Knowing just what the consumer wants is important in any food industry, and DRC supported two economics projects

in this area.

A University of Sydney study (US6) is attempting to find out how different factors influence consumer buying decisions.

A second objective of the project is to assess the effectiveness of dairy product promotion campaigns. Fluid milk sales and advertising expenditure data gathered for the last ten years will be analysed.

Another project, conducted by the Australian Dairy Corporation (ADC1), is analysing the trade in Australian dairy products which takes place outside of

the supermarket chains. There is very little information available on this segment of the domestic market. The available estimates have been made from small sample surveys, so they vary widely.

The Australian Dairy Corporation is also setting up a dairy industry reference database (ADC2). All the reference and

bibliographical material contained in dairy industry libraries in Australia will be put into a computer database. The information will be readily available to

industry through key-word search facilities and regular updating of author, title and subject catalogues.

Nutritional Research DRC also supports studies into human nutrition.

The basis and validity for a widely held belief that milk produces mucus is being studied at the University of Adelaide (UA6). The work has shown that there

is little real evidence that milk does produce mucus, but it does not explain the large number of otherwise healthy people who claim that, for them, milk feels mucousy.

Further studies will see if this claim can be measured, or whether it is a

subjective response to milk.

‘ '

■ : | gg



Lower Left: Kyabram Research Institute researchers visiting Ellinbank.

Lower Middle: Dr Kees Versteeg, Food Research Institute, Werribee.

Upper Left: M r Terry Dr Chris Grainger D/I

U pper Right: DARft| pastures at Ellinbanki Centre Left: Tim A/ewl Centre Middle: Prof fill

τβπ Mason DARA,

inspecting clover

of Agriculture, SA. /ersity of Adelaide.

Centre Right: Dr Graeme Rogers, DARA. Lower Right: DRC members inspecting research projects, Mutdapilly Research Station, Qld.



which lim it root growth and



DRC is very conscious of the need to train the researchers of tomorrow and consequently is supporting a number of post graduate students, who are studying a range of topics across the spectrum of dairy industry research.

DRC also supports travel and study grants for more narrowly specified learning experiences for dairy

researchers and industry personnel, and it financially supports dairyfarmer organisations to provide farmer/worker training awards.

The aim of providing funds for

educational purposes is to raise the capacity for the generation, application and adoption of new knowledge and techniques within the industry.

Also, work in high priority research areas can be accelerated by attaching studentships to particular projects, and by providing study or travel grants to key workers.

Research Fellowships and Postgraduate Studentships Two DRC studentships are studying agronomy. Cameron Gourley is studying the biological and chemical conditions which occur between plant roots and soil. Particular emphasis is being placed on specific soil conditions such as pH and soil physical conditions

Richard Stockdale, who is working at the Kyabram Research Institute, is studying pure legume pastures and how to integrate them with maize silage (DAV3).

And why pure legume pastures produce more milk is the topic Gina Drane is researching. Her studies so far suggest that the higher milk yields of clover fed cows, compared to grass fed cows, is

due to a higher feed intake, and a better nutrient supply to productive tissues, particularly the mammary gland.

Dairy cow reproduction is a very

important aspect of well managed herds. Michael Larcombe started his PhD studies by developing a computer model to analyse the effect of calving pattern on milk production. Since then, he has extended that programme to include other aspects of dairy herd reproduction and farm management.

In Western Australia, Gavin Ramsay is examining the main management effects on reproduction, and where improvements can be made using new reproductive techniques.

One of the new reproductive techniques is being studied by Brendon Irvine. He aims to develop embryo cloning techniques based on embryonic stem cell lines. To do this though, he has to develop a number of techniques, including getting sufficient embryonic tissue for experimentation, and then separating and cultivating embryonic stem cells.

Another exciting area of research is the high tech investigation of genes. Kian Tee is studying, with the aim of

molecular genotyping and mapping, the beta-lactoglobulin gene. Ray Clarke is characterizing the genes coding for

bovine milk proteins.


research fellow ship and three

postgraduate studentships.

Debra Taylor holds the research fellowship. She is working on increasing the bacteriophage resistance of starter bacteria by using recombinant DNA techniques.

Barry McGookin’s studies aim to improve the storage stability of full cream milk powders by using natural anti-oxidant systems in milk.

Darren Taylor is studying a special mucus produced by some lactic acid bacteria. The aim is to increase and stabilise the production of the mucus, as it helps in the production of

fermented milk products.

And Albert Mooshi is studying the functional properties of a syrup which contains fructose and hydrolysed lactose from whey and UF milk


Robert Passey, one of the two DRC Research Fellowship holders, is working in a similar area, but his studies have the ultimate aim of creating transgenic animals which produce in their milk, commercially valuable pharmaceutical proteins such as enzym es and

hormones. This research forms part of project UN5.

Animal disease related topics are the subject of two studies. David Mitchell is researching the biology and

immunogenicity of the rotovirus gene encoding the outer capsid antigen. The aim of the project is to make a vaccine against rotovirus induced scours.

Richard Brandon is investigating the genetics and immunology of the Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV), and of the host for the disease Enzootic Bovine Leukosis.

BLV is a retrovirus which causes significant disease problems in cattle and sheep in Queensland.

In the area of dairy manufacturing research, DRC is supporting one

Postgraduate student Barry McGookin using a Radiometer Titra Lab


Study Grants Study grants provide assistance for researchers, extension officers and factory technologists to visit other research groups, to study new

techniques or to investigate how to transfer new technology to industry.

In 1988-89, three study grants were funded. Kevin Kelly and Samuel Blaikie were helped with their agronomic studies at the University of Melbourne, and Julia Beusekom, from Holland studied thermophilic organisms in membrane concentration of milk, at Werribee Food Research Institute.

Travel Grants Five travel grants were awarded during the year.

Ken Philips was supported to attend the Texas A & M University to develop computer packages for use by farmers and extension officers. The specific aim

is to develop a herd improvement package.

Dr Alan Frost was able to attend a mastitis conference in Austria, as well as visit other European research centres working on mastitis, and DRC contributed to the Dairy Industry Association of Australia Travelling Scholarship, which was awarded to David Haberfield, of Albury. He will go to New Zealand to study specialty cheese production and energy

management in cheese factories.

Stuart Marshall attended the Third International Conference on Fouling and Cleaning in Germany. Of particular interest to the Australian dairy industry were a number of papers on new

membrane processes.

Professor David Leaver’s Australian trip was also funded through the DRC travel grants (see highlights).



A number of projects were completed during the year. In some cases, the research has continued in a more directed form. Other projects were overtaken by events and abandoned

while many have achieved their objectives and have terminated.

The largest project to be completed during the year was the Queensland Department of Primary Industries research into milk production from

Nitrogen fertilised raingrown grass pastures (DAQ49). The four year study on 12 commercial farms showed an increase in milk production, increased per cow yields and a strong positive

response to N, leading to a substantial increase in farm gross margins. A video of the on-farm impact of this study has been made by Queensland DPI.

Other pasture related work was also completed in Tasmania. Only extremely short or extrem ely long w inter

defoliation intervals resulted in reduced winter herbage yields at three sites in north-west Tasmania (DATS). The optimal winter grazing rotation is

between 40 to 80 days.

Response curves were determined for the effect of grazing intensity and pre­ grazing pasture in spring on rate of pasture growth, net herbage

accumulation and senescence (DAT1).

A mite predator of the Lucerne flea has been successfully established in NW Tasmania (DAT15).

In South Australia a study into the extent, lim itations and problems associated with soil acidity is being jointly funded by DRC and the Wool

Research and Development Council (DAS21). The overall project is not finished, but the specific DRC funded

part of the project has shown that widespread nutrient deficiencies are associated with acid soils in high rainfall areas. A full report will be completed this year.

Another project in South Australia DAS21, started developing a dairy cow culling and replacement computer model, but because of developments with other computer models in other states, it has been abandoned.

But in Western Australia, a whole farm programming model of dairy farms has been developed (DAW13). The Western Australian Dairy Farm Model (WADFM)

allows farmers to determine their most profitable farm strategies, as well as allowing industry to identify areas of research which are likely to give a good

return on investment.

The programme is being used in Tasmania and Victoria

In Victoria, studies of the Paspalum Leaf B light (LU4) have revealed that

paspalum dry matter production is reduced by 20 to 25 percent when infected by the leaf blight. The root

mass is also reduced, and this may reduce re-growth. It was determined that the spores of paspalum leaf blight are spread through cows saliva.

A wide ranging study at Ellinbank on the nutrition of the grazing cow (DAV97) has shown that the basal level of feeding and the cow’s potential to produce milk


were the major factors affecting the change in milk production when the level of feeding was changed. Also, the

substitution rate of pasture for

supplements such as hay, silage and concentrates, was mainly affected by the basal level of pasture intake.

The work has produced mathematical equations predicting the partitioning of feed energy to milk energy, and the substitution rate of pasture for

supplements. These equations form part of a dairy farm computer model which is being evaluated on commercial farms.

Manufacturing Three manufacturing based projects conducted by the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs were completed during the year. DAV105

investigated the benefits of

concentrating milk by reverse osmosis. A pilot plant was successfully operated in two commercial environments. More than 120 trials concentrated two million

litres of milk to test the reduction in transport costs to selected markets. The costing data is being analysed as part of a Masters in Agricultural Economics studentship at CSIRO’s Dairy Research


Another part of this study was to

evaluate low temperature evaporation as a means of concentrating milk. It was found that low temperature evaporation is not a suitable alternative to reverse osmosis in most applications.

A nother experim ent, DAV 100

investigated proteinase negative starters for cheesemaking. These organisms do not grow normally and are therefore protected against

bacteriophage attacks. The

experimenters concluded that the complexity of producing and monitoring the proteinase negative starters will limit their application to the Australian dairy

industry. It was also concluded that the cost of producing them centrally is also restrictive.

However, the project did produce results leading to a new method for accelerated maturation of Cheddar and Parmesan cheeses. The new method competes with existing accelerated maturation systems, but it is less expensive and the

researchers believe it is probably superior. -

A new method for selecting

cheesemaking starters which have an increased resistance to bacteriophage, along with resistance to non-phage inhibitors in milk has been developed in

DAV83. The study produced

circum stantial evidence that the lactoperoxidase system is a cause of sporadic non-phage inhibition of starter

organisms. However the researchers did not get a clear indication of what triggers the lactoperoxidase system.

In Queensland, studies on the

extension of milk shelf life by higher pasteurisation tem peratures and aseptic packaging found that the storage temperature of the milk after pasteurisation had more effect on the shelf life than did the pasteurisation conditions used. Standard

pasteurisation conditions (72C/15s) resulted in a shelf life of 40 and 22 days when the milk was stored at three and seven degrees respectively. More severe treatments did not improve shelf-life.





PROJECT TITLE END TO 1987-88 1988-89

CSIRO Improvements in detection of Johne’s d is e a s e ........ . . . . CS3 87/89 30,882 41,012

Cropping and distribution of dung beetles................. . . . CS41 88/91 0 40,000

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES, QUEENSLAND Molecular cloning of BLV a n tig e n s .............................. . . DAQ3 87/90 9,000 11,000

Quality assessment of forage spe cie s.......................... . DAQ61 88/91 0 8,600

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY, CANBERRA Australian rural research da ta b a se .............................. . . . DPI1 87/89 1,168 1,400

NSW AGRICULTURE & FISHERIES Silage for summer growing forages ............................. DAN25 85/89 84,968 35,338

Se supplementation on production and fe rtility.......... . . DAN28 86/89 13,581 15,900

Role of pestivirus infection in reproductive lo s s ........ . . . DAN2 87/90 27,001 37,976

Nutrition and genetics on fertility of dairy c o w s ........ DAN30 88/90 0 3,900

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA Overseas ryegrass cultivar assessm ent...................... . .DAS24 85/91 30,789 32,090

Breeding disease and pest resistant lucerne ........... . . DAS1 87/90 8,787 9,046

Embryo viability for identical calves production . . . . . . DAS27 88/91 0 13,500

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA Epidemiology of mastitis ............................................... . . DAW1 86/89 31,456 14,925

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL AFFAIRS, VICTORIA A rapid method for Bovine Campylobacteriosis . . . . .DAV106 86/89 19,780 31,362

Development of legume production systems (part A) . DAV2 87/91 20,233 28,250

Milk production on legume pasture/maize (part B) . . . DAV3 87/90 25,649 43,850

Clover pasture for milk production.............................. DAV4 87/90 80,539 57,530

Waterlogging limitations to pasture production......... . DAV5 87/90 17,341 18,500

Improved detection of bovine Johne’s d ise a se ......... DAV7 87/90 22,803 38,253

Development for technology for legume s ila g e ......... . DAV127 88/91 0 12,000

Impact of viruses on pasture legume productivity. .. DAV134 88/91 0 10,000

Simulation model of dairy farm ..................................... DAV125 88/91 0 35,805

Training in the science practice of m ilk in g ............... DAV135 88/89 0 9,000

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY, TASMANIA Biological control of lucerne flea in NW Tasmania . .DAT15 84/89 23,929 10,899

Impact of insect damage to pastures.......................... . . DAT16 86/89 23,697 18,532




Evaluation of pasture legumes in NW Tasmania . . . . . . DAT6 87/90 7,522 9,054

Evaluation of ‘matua’ prairie grass.............................. . . DAT17 88/95 0 14,284

Ameliorating damage to irrigated pasture s o ils ......... . . DAT22 88/92 0 8,198

UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND Bovine leukaemia virus in tumour development . . . . . . . UQ3 87/90 10,35010,300

UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES Cloned DNA for Bovine case in s.................................. . . . . UN5 79/90 107,934 93,531

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY Physiology of nutrient partitioning .............................. . . US14 85/89 137,515 36,827

Mapping of B-Lactoglobulin g e n e ................................ . . . . US3 87/90 18,005 10,950

Feeding standards for grazing cows .......................... . . . US18 88/91 0 15,000

Vitamin D metabolites in milk fe v e r ............................ . . .US17 88/91 0 18,025

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Workshop on factors affecting herd reproduction . . . . . . . UM5 88/89 0 14,200

UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Improving rainfed pasture production and quality . . . . . . . UA4 87/89 36,718 26,132

CURTIN UNIVERSITY Use of DNA markers in dairy bull selection ............. . . . CUT1 88/90 0 9,958

MURDOCH UNIVERSITY Methods for improved management of reproduction . . MDU14 86/89 31,480 14,000

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY FARMERS FEDERATION A.D.H.I.S........................................................................... . . ADFF1 81/89 1,145,030 293,450

Dissemination of research results .............................. . . ADFF3 86/89 148,723 26,500

Farm Programme Total $1,179,077

FARM RESEARCH Total Budget $1.18m





CODE END TO 1987-88 1988-89

Control of bacteriophage in cheese factories .......... . . . CS18 87/90 311,470 32,796

Properties of WPC & lactose-hydrolysed products . . . . CS22 81/89 255,250 29,849

Protein adjusted non-fat milk po w d ers....................... . . . CS37 85/89 97,829 35,083

Evaluation of protein isolates ....................................... . . . . CS6 87/89 45,592 54,186

New membrane process developm ent........................ . . . . CS7 87/90 7,701 19,700

Engineering/process bay fa c ility ..................................

Modified atmosphere packaging to extend shelf life . . . . CSS 87/90 71,357 98,125

of cottage cheese.................................................... . . . CS42 88/90 0 19,503

UHT — M icro p la n t....................................... . . . CS44 88/90 0 16,000

HPLC e q u ip m e n t................................................................... CS45


88/89 0 57,000

Minor components of milk & dairy p ro d u c ts ............. . . . DAQ1 87/90 49,734 83,330

Lactate C rystals............................................................... . . . DAQ2 87/89 10,167 10,000

Maximise shelf-life of pasteurized dairy products........ DAQ63 88/90


0 33,240

Utilization of whey in animal fe e d in g .......................... . DAV103 85/89 82,818 32,260

Testing for bacterial contamination ............................ DAV118 86/89 47,725 51,000

Specialty cheese production......................................... DAV119 86/89 64,561 43,700

Fructose syrups from w hey........................................... . DAV121 86/89 60,515 44,735

Polysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria.......... . DAV123 88/89 0 5,500

Increased milkfat utilisation........................................... . DAV131 88/91 0 277,500

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Cheese starter bacteria using recombinant DNA . . . . . . . UM2 86/89 92,459 56,456

CHEESE PROCESS CONTROL GROUP Improved process control in Cheddar cheese.......... .CPCG1 86/89 115,665 35,000

UNITED MILK TASMANIA Recovery of food products from whey permeates . .

M a n u f a c t u r in g P r o g r a m m e T o t a l

. . . UMT2 87/90 52,612 73,143

$ 1 ,1 0 8 ,1 0 6

MANUFACTURING R & D Total Budget $1.2m

Product Development Cheese Manufacture


v.'-y Milk Fat Whey Utilisation

Quality Control

Milk Powders





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL AFFAIRS, VICTORIA Impact of Kerin Plan on dairy industries......................DAV137 88/91 0 39,953

UNIVERSITY OF NEW ENGLAND Spatial equilibrium analysis of milk production......... . . . UNE1 87/90 19,261 40,272

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY Product demand and effectiveness of promotion . . .........use 87/90 37,049 41,206

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Modelling milk sector: ORANI MILK .......................... . . . . UM6 88/89 0 5,000

UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Does milk produce m u cu s? ................................................. UA6 87/89 19,000 18,500

A.B.A.R.E. Model for evaluation of Australian dairy policies. .. . . . . BAE1 87/90 6,677 46,000

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY CORPORATION Domestic non-supermarket trade in dairy products . . . .ADC1 88/89 0 19,500

HENDERSON CONSULTANTS Transport, handling and storage of dairy products . . . . . HEN1 88/89 0 25,000

E c o n o m ic s & M a r k e tin g P r o g r a m m e T o ta l $ 2 5 0 ,4 3 1



1 9 8 8 - 8 9 E D U C A T IO N T O T A L A P P R O P R IA T IO N $ 1 4 6 ,6 8 7



ADM INISTRATIO N, CONSULTANCIES A N D CONTINGENCIES DRC o p e ra tio n s ................................................................. . DRC1 233,000

Publications and a d vertising.......................................... . . . . DRC2 8,000

DPIE financial services & Selection Com m ittee . . . . . . . DRC3 47,000

Technology tr a n s fe r .......................................................... . . . DRC10 189,900

C onsultancy - re DRC reorganisation.......................... ......... ACM 8,000

Overview consultancy ta s k ............................................ ......... ACI2 50,000

Review of research strategies and d ire c tio n s ........... ......... GR1 50,000

R & D c o n tin g e n c y .......................................................... . . . . DRC5 345,385

T O T A L P R O G R A M M E 1 9 8 8 - 8 9 : $ 3 , 6 1 5 , 5 8 6


DAIRYING RESEARCH TRUST FUND Statement of Receipts and Payments for the period 1 July 1988 to 30 June 1989*


($ )

1,894,603 Balance as at 1 July 1988 RECEIPTS 1,115,439 Commonwealth Contributions 1,637,358 Dairy Research Levy

2,229 Penalties 23,625 Sale of Assets & Produce 258,116 Interest on Investment


1,520,620 1,778,653 402 62,606



($) 2,671,348

3,036,768 TOTAL RECEIPTS 3,808,592


278,869 Commonwealth Organisations 819,148 State Departments 945,544 Universities & Research Institutions 219,000 Administration

11,750 Publications & Advertising 79,070 Technology Transfer 21,524 DPIE/Selection Committee Fees

2,374,905 GROSS EXPENDITURE LESS 114,883 Refunded grants

2,260,022 NET PAYMENTS

2,671,349 TRUST FUND BALANCE AT 30 JUNE 1989

490,557 1,160,939 1,079,417 233,000

8,000 189,900 35,386



These balances are represented by:

Cost: Investments

1,584,000 - Fixed Deposits 949,719 - Bills/NCDs/Notes 137,629 Cash at Bank


Face Value

476,00000 2,918,58200




476,000 2,918,582 71,678


‘ This statement was consolidated from Department of Primary Industries and Energy records.


Management Expenditure by the Australian Dairy Corporation on account of The Dairy Research Council July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989

Credit balance held by ADC at 1/7/88 $10,329

Amount received by ADC from the Dairying Research Trust Fund in 1988-89 233,000


Amount refunded by ADC to the D.R.T.F. 10,329

Management expenses incurred by the ADC 1988-89: Members’ fees and travel 88,410

Salaries and oncosts 80,135

Travel expenses 3,701

Office equipment 3,267

Telephone & telex 4,438

Postage & freight 925

Stationary & photocopying 5,233

General expenses 8,574

Patents,consulting 1,575

A.D.C. overheads 15,600

Total expenditure 1 July 1988 to 30 June 1989

Credit balance held by the Australian Dairy Corporation







CSIRO CS3: Improvements in the diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle ORGANISATION: Division of Animal Health, Parkville PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. Wood OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr L. Corner, Dr A. Milner AIM: To develop and evaluate new diagnostic methods for the detection of Mycobacteriam paratuberculosis infections in cattle, using the absorbed ELISA and interferon assay in Johne’s disease infected herds.

CS41: Cropping and distribution of exotic dung beetles ORGANISATION: Division of Entomology PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr M. Tyndale-Biscoe AIM: To accelerate the spread of exotic dung beetles throughout the dairying areas of NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. The purpose is to achieve dung burial on heavily grazed pastures, thereby improving pasture productivity and reducing bushfly breeding.

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES, QUEENSLAND DAQ3: Molecular cloning of BLV protective antigens ORGANISATION: Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. Cowley, Dr P. Young OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr F. Eaves, Mr J. Molloy AIM: To clone the gene (env) encoding the protective antigen (viral envelope gp51-gp30 glycoprotein complex) of the Australian isolate of bovine leucosis virus (BLV). Suitable promotor sequences will be added to obtain good expression of the env gene in a host-specific virus vector. Monospecific or monoclonal antibodies to gp51 and gp30 will be produced to characterise the antigenicity of the expressed gp51-gp30 complex.

DAQ61: Assessing the quality of selected forage species ORGANISATION: Mutdapilly Research Station PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr T. Cowan and Mr K. Lowe OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr D. Minson and Dr B. Hacker (CSIRO) AIM: Compare milk production by cows grazing pangola grass and a clone of Digitaria selected for high digestibility.

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY, CANBERRA DPI1: Development of Australian Rural Research in Progress (ARRIP) database ORGANISATION: Bureau of Rural Resources PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr D. White OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mrs L. Lovie AIM: To update and expand the ARRIP Database to the point where it embraces all publicly funded rural research and as much of non-publicly funded rural research as well.


AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES, NSW DAN2: The role of pestivirus infection in reproductive loss in dairy cattle ORGANISATION: Division of Animal Health PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. Kirkland OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr D. Kennedy, Dr A. Shannon, Miss S. Richards AIM: To study the role of pestivirus in early embryonic mortality. To monitor the incidence of virus infection in heifers from joining and subsequently up to three years. To examine the impact of pestivirus infection on reproduction in commercial dairy herds. To develop rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of pestivirus infection.

DAN25: Production of high quality silage from summer-growing forages ORGANISATION: Agriculture Research Institute, Wagga Wagga PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr A. Kaiser, Mr E. Havilah AIM: To determine the relative productivity of silage systems based on summer-growing pastures (eg. kikuyu grass) dual-purpose forage crops (grazing/conservation, eg. forage sorghum), and special-purpose forage crops (eg. maize), in terms of the quantity and quality of silage produced per hectare.

DAN28: The effect of selenium supplementation on the production, fertility and health of dairy cows ORGANISATION: Division of Animal Health PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr D. Ryan OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr P. Healy, Mr B. Christie AIM: To examine the significance of selenium supplementation to dairy cattle health and production. Fertility, production and clinical mastitis effects are being studied in 12 NSW commercial dairy herds where half of each herd has been treated with selenium pellets.

DAN30: Effects of nutrition and genetics on fertility of dairy cows ORGANISATION: North Coast Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr B. Hamilton OTHER RESEARCHERS: S. Spence AIM: To assess the fertility of dairy cows within populations of three genetic lines selected on the basis of high, medium and low milk fat production and to investigate the effects of level of nutrition on fertility within each genetic line.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA DAS1: Breeding persistent disease and pest resistant lucerne for irrigated areas ORGANISATION: Northfield Laboratories PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr I. Kaehne AIM: To breed high-yielding persistent disease-resistant winter active lucerne adapted to areas infested with a broad spectrum of pathogens.

DAS24: Overseas ryegrass cultivar assessment ORGANISATION: Animal Industry Branch PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr T. Newbery OTHER RESEARCHERS: K. Boyce, B. Bartsch AIM: To assess the potential of overseas ryegrass cultivars for use on dairy farms in Australia.

DAS27: Improving embryo viability for production of identical calves ORGANISATION: Division of Animal Services and Dept Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Adelaide PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr B. Bartsch, Dr R. Seamark OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr D. McLean, Dr G. Stevens, Mr P. Lewis, Mr K. McLaughlin, Dr R. Ashman, Mr S. Walker AIM: To develop suitable techniques for culturing cattle embryos to allow more efficient development of embryo manipulation techniques.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA DAW1: The roles of management and a staphylococcal vaccine in the epidemiology of mastitis ORGANISATION: Animal Health Division PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr P. Martin AIM: To identify associations between management factors and different udder infections. To document the epidemiology of individual mastitis infections under different management conditions in commercial herds. To evaluate the staphylococcal vaccine developed by CSIRO under different management conditions.


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AFFAIRS, VICTORIA DAV2: Pure legume pastures for irrigated dairy farms PART A - The development of legume production systems ORGANISATION: Kyabram Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr W. Mason OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr K. Kelly AIM: To develop the technology necessary to produce, maintain and utilize pure legume pastures under irrigation. To develop whole-farm feed production systems. To incorporate information obtained from these experiments into current dairy farm model(s) to assess a range of strategies. To evaluate and develop methods of increasing clover content of existing perennial pastures under irrigation.

DAV3: Pure legume pastures for irrigated dairy farms. PART B - The development of a milk production system based on legume pasture and maize. ORGANISATION: Kyabram Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr C. Lemerle OTHER RESEARCHERS: C. R. Stockdale, Dr L. Sandies AIM: To develop productivity relationships for cows fed legumes and supplemented with maize silage, to increase the productivity of cows on irrigated pasture in northern Victoria, and to better utilize legume pastures through the use of a supplement less likely to reduce fibre utilization in the rumen.

DAV4: Growth and utilization of clover pasture for milk production ORGANISATION: Ellinbank Dairy Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr G. Rogers, Dr A. McGowan OTHER RESEARCHERS: P. Moate, G. O ’Brien, J. Stewart, T. Clarke AIM: To investigate methods for improving the growth and utilisation of clover pasture for dairy production.DAV5: Waterlogging limitations to irrigated pasture production

DAV5: Waterlogging limitations to irrigated pasture production ORGANISATION: Kyabram Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr W. Mason OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr S. Blaikie AIM: To quantify effects of waterlogging on pasture dry matter production, to examine the growth of pasture roots under defined soil conditions, to test a range of legume species, to investigate ameliorative procedures to overcome soil-related limitations to pasture yield.

DAV7: Improved detection of bovine Johne’s Disease - evaluation of an absorbed ELISA test as a means of establishing diagnosis of herd infection status ORGANISATION: Veterinary Research Institute, Attwood and Parkville PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr A. Milner OTHER RESEARCHERS: K. Coates, W. Mack, I. Gill, J. Hill.P. Wood, P. Sheldrick AIM: To evaluate the use of a novel ELISA-based antibody test (the absorbed ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in cattle under field conditions.

DAV106: Development of a rapid method for the diagnosis of bovine Campylobacteriosis ORGANISATION: Veterinary Research Institute, Parkville PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr M. Panaccio OTHER RESEARCHERS: M. Withers, N. Asaf, M. Yeow AIM: To utilize DNA technology to develop a rapid, sensitive method to detect the presence of Campylobacter fetus strains of bacteria in bovine specimens.

DAV125: Improvement of a simulation model of a dairy farm ORGANISATION: Ellinbank Dairy research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr C. Grainger OTHER RESEARCHERS: J. Taylor, I. Robinson AIM: To provide data for a simulation model of a dairy farm on factors affecting the intake of pastures, and

grazing management factors affecting the growth of pasture.

DAV127: Development of the technology for making legume silage ORGANISATION: Kyabram Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr C. Lemerle OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr D. Crake



AIM: To determine the optimal stage of maturity and dry matter content of white clover, persian clover, sub­ clover, red clover and lucerne in terms of quality of silage fermentation. To evaluate the use of additives to ensure better fermentation where dry matter content is suboptimal or sugar buffering capacity is inadequate. To establish the value of legume silages for animal production and to integrate them into a package of technology suitable for farmers.

DAV134: Impact of viruses on pasture legume productivity ORGANISATION: Plant Research Institute, Burnley Gardens PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr R. Garrrett OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr P Ridland AIM: To assess the economic impact of viral infections on subterranean and white clover pasture production, to advise on cultivar evaluation and breeding priorities, and to advise farmers on pasture management strategies that reduce virus impact in pastures and seed-crops.

DAV135: Training in the science and practice of milking ORGANISATION: National Training Centre - Milking Equipment PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. Furphy OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr B. Kefford, Mr M. Brown AIM: To improve knowledge of the science and practice of milking through training courses and help with design and selection of sheds and machines through a national 008 phone number.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, TASMANIA DATS: Introduction and evaluation of pasture legumes in NW Tasmania ORGANISATION: Pasture & Field Crops PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. Gillard OTHER RESEARCHERS: A. Bishop AIM: To evaluate a range of perenial pasture legumes, other than white clover, for use in dairy pastures in NW Tasmania.

DAT15: Investigations into the biological control of lucerne flea in Tasmania ORGANISATION: Entomology Section PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. Ireson OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr K. Carl, Mr F. Affolter AIM: To collect the predator the spiny snout mite Neomolgus capillatus (Kramer) in north-west France and introduce it to Tasmania. To release suitable numbers of Neomolgus to enable field establishment in pastures infested with the lucerne flea. To assess the survival and spread of Neomolgus under Tasmanian conditions and ultimately the ability of established populations to control lucerne flea.

DAT16: Measuring the impact of insect damage to dairy pastures ORGANISATION: Entomology Section New Town Research Laboratories PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. McQuillan OTHER RESEARCHERS: R. Dobos AIM: To describe and measure the damage caused by the winter corbie over three years at six sites and to calculate the appropriate economic thresholds at which treatment becomes viable.

DAT17: The evaluation of 'Matua' prairie grass for use on dairy farms in Tasmania ORGANISATION: Elliot Research Station PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Miss J. Belton OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr P. Michell, Dr W. Fulkerson AIM: To evaluate the potential of ’Matua’ prairie grass for use on dairy farms in north-western Tasmania, addressing management strategies, suitable companion legumes, responsiveness to fertilizer application and tolerance to Tasmanian pasture pests.

UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND UQ3: Role of bovine leukaemia virus tumour development in sheep and calves and relative infectivity at various stages of the disease ORGANISATION: Queensland Institute of Medical Research PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Professor M. Lavin OTHER RESEARCHERS: J. Coulston, R. Brandon, H. Naif, M. Gatei, Dr S. Khan AIM: To study the role of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) in the preleukaemic, leukaemic and tumour phases of bovine leukosis in cattle and experimentally infected sheep.


UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES UN5: Expression of bovine milk protein genes in transgenic animals ORGANISATION: School of Biochemistry PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr A. Mackinlay

AIM: To characterize the genes encoding the major bovine milk proteins, along with the further characterization of several lines of transgenic mice carrying constructs based on the s1-casein gene.

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY US3: Molecular genotyping and mapping of the B-lactoglobulin gene ORGANISATION: Faculty of Agriculture PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr C. Moran OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr M. Tee

AIM: To develop a molecular diagnostic technique for genotyping protein variants at the B-lactoglobulin locus. To genotype A.I. sires using this technique. To use the genetic variation detected in this way to map the B- lactoglobulin gene in cattle.

US14: Physiology of Nutrient Partition in Cows ORGANISATION: Faculty of Agriculture PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Assoc. Prof. G. McDowell, Dr J. Gooden AIM: To gain an understanding of physiological and nutritional factors which control the partitioning of nutrients

in muscle and mammary tissues of lactating ruminants.

US15: Feeding standards for grazing cows ORGANISATION: Faculty of Agriculture with NSW Agriculture & Fisheries PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr R. Kellaway, D. Heptonstall, J. Read

OTHER RESEARCHERS: Associate Prof. M. Szantar, Dr R. Tussell AIM: To validate new Australian feeding standards for dairy cattle, to measure nutrient intake by grazing cows, and to measure substitution rates with grazing cows.

US17: The role of Vitamin D metabolites in the development of milk fever ORGANISATION: Faculty of Agriculture PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Professor D.R. Fraser OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr G. McDowell, Dr J. Gooden AIM OF RESEARCH: To investigate whether intestinal mucosa and bone in cows with milk fever are insensitive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and are thus unable to supply sufficient calcium to prevent clinical hypocalcaemia. To determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D enhances the flow of calcium into milk and may thus contribute to the development of hypocalcaemia.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE UM5: Non-infectious factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy herds ORGANISATION: Faculty of Veterinary Science PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Prof. I. Caple OTHER RESEARCHERS: Workshop involving 25 experts from around Australia. AIM: To review the current knowledge on non-infectious factors affecting reproductive performance of Australian dairy herds, recommend priorities for dairy cattle reproduction research, and publish the reviews and the


UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE UA4: Improving rainfed pasture production and quality ORGANISATION: Waite Agricultural Research Institute PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr E. Carter OTHER RESEARCHERS: Ms D. Mobsby

AIM: To help dairy farmers improve the productivity and quality of their pastures and reduce their dependence on costly purchases of fodder and concentrates. The main problems relate to pasture management and the need for pasture renovation and the establishment, or re-establishment, of more-productive pastures and forage crops.

CURTIN UNIVERSITY CUT1: Use of DNA markers in the selection of dairy bulls ORGANISATION: Curtin University of Technology, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Department of Agriculture & Rural Affairs, Victoria


PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr J. Wetherall, Dr M. Carrick, Dr M.E. Goddard OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr D. Groth, Ms N. Lintorn-Terry, Mr P. Donelly, Ms P. Madgwick AIM: To identify a series of genetic markers in cattle based on use of DNA probes. To determine whether any of those markers are linked to genes with a large effect on economically important traits in dairy cattle. To devise breeding programmes based upon these markers to increase the rate of genetic improvement in dairy cattle.

MURDOCH UNIVERSITY MDU14: New methods of improved management in dairy cows ORGANISATION: School of Veterinary Studies, with Department of Agriculture, Western Australia PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. Williamson, Dr G. Sawyer AIM: To improve methods of detecting oestrus and monitoring reproductive activity and pregnancy in dairy cows.

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY FARMERS FEDERATION ADFF1: Australian dairy herd improvement scheme PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. McQueen OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr M. Jeffries AIM: To improve the genetic merit of the Australian dairy herd by determining breeding values for production and other important dairy cow characteristics.

ADFF3: Dissemination of research results PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. Green AIM: To inform dairy farmers of all aspects of research and development in the dairy industry, particularly on farm R & D which can be adopted by farmers.


CSIRO CS6: Evaluation of Protein Isolates ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr R. Pearce OTHER RESEARCHERS: S. Claughton, R. Shanley, N. Archer AIM: To produce new and valuable protein products from dairy whey, and to detail a functional evaluation of the protein isolates in model foods and food formulations.

CS7: New Membrane process development for the dairy industry ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr S. Marshall OTHER RESEARCHERS: M. Free, T. Buningh AIM: To demonstrate the viability of reverse osmosis in the dairy industry. To examine the most promising of a range of new membrane processes, especially microfiltration and membrane based demineralization.

CS8: Engineering/Process bay facility ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr B. Trerice OTHER RESEARCHERS: R. Grinstead, E. Green AIM: To provide support for other DRC funded projects where workshop modifications or construction of new equipment is required for the Process Bay and laboratories. To assist in the preparation and operation of equipment in the Process Bay for DRC projects and perform routine analytical work.

CS18: Control of bacteriophage in cheese factories ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr R. Hull AIM: To study the origins of disturbing phages active against Cheddar cheese starters, how they arise, and the mechanism by which they attain virulence. To use bacteriological and biochemical techniques in studying the mechanism of phage resistance in factory-derived starter cultures.


CS22: Functional properties of whey protein concentrates and lactose-hydrolyzed products ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr J. Hayes OTHER RESEARCHERS: I. Mitchell, J. Hardham, R. Birkett

AIM: To introduce a completely automated lactose hydrolysis system to the Australian Dairy Industry. To develop a system capable of hydrolysing lactose in all dairy products, eg. lactose in skim and full-cream milks, wheys and permeates from various sources, yoghurt and ice cream.

CS37: Protein adjusted non-fat milk powders ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, Dairy Research Laboratory PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr F. Kieseker OTHER RESEARCHERS: D. Healey, P. Clarke AIM: To adjust the protein content of milk powders using whey and milk permeate or whey protein concentrates and study the effect of processing and the influence of these adjustments on the chemical, physical and functional

properties of the powders. CS42: The use of modified atmosphere packaging to extend the shelf life of cottage cheese and related dairy products

ORGANISATION: Division of Food Processing, North Ryde PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr M. Eyles OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mrs J. Davey, Mr M. Rooney AIM: To determine whether modified atmosphere packaging can extend the shelf life of cottage cheese by inhibiting the micro-organisms responsible for spoilage of the product.

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES QUEENSLAND DAQ1: Minor constitutents of milk - their commercial exploitation ORGANISATION: Queensland Food Research Laboratories PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr D. Dionysius OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr P. Grieve, Mrs A. Houlihan, Dr P. Blackall AIM: To investigate minor components of milk for their potential commercial exploitation as value-added products.

DAQ2: White crystalline deposits in Cheddar cheese ORGANISATION: Queensland Food Research Laboratories PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr I. Fedrick

OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr S. Kwee AIM: To id e n t if y t h e c r y s ta l d e p o s it s o n C h e d d a r c h e e s e a n d h o w t h e y d e v e lo p , a n d to d e v e lo p e f fe c t iv e c o n t r o l

m e a s u r e s .

DAQ63: Maximizing the shelf-life of pasteurized dairy products ORGANISATION: Queensland Food Research Laboratories PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr D. Schmidt OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mrs S. Cromie, Mr T. Dommett AIM: To develop processing, packaging and storage protocols which will maximize the shelf-life of pasteurized

milk, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate and cream.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA DAV103: Utilisation of whey in animal feeding ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr N. Guirguis AIM: To produce specific animal feed supplement from permeate in the form of microbial protein/bentonite complexes. To develop a semi-solid fermentation system as a viable system to produce fermented feed supplement from permeate. To examine alternative carriers for whey products to improve its nutritional and monetary values.

DAV118: Rapid test methods for bacterial contamination ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr M. Shirazi, H. Craven

AIM: PART I - to develop (10-15 min) techniques to detect gram negative bacteria in milk by raising monoclonal antibodies and linking these antibodies into an enzyme detection system. PART II - To develop and evaluate rapid methods for (i) detection of spoilage bacteria in milk and (ii) prediction of pasteurised milk shelf life.


DAV119: Improvements for specialty cheese production ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISORS: Dr M. Hickey, Dr K. Versteeg OTHER RESEARCHERS: B. Manser, J. Portagallo, A. Bernard!, M. Mildenhall AIM: To improve technology of production for a range of specialty cheeses using skim milk concentrates: to maximise production capacity and to minimise seasonal variation effects in manufacture.

DAV121: Fructose syrups from whey and milk UF permeates ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr K. Versteeg, Dr J. Hourigan OTHER RESEARCHERS: Miss J. Owen, Mr A. Mooshi AIM: To study the technical and economical feasibility of producing fructose syrups from whey or milk UF permeate.

DAV123: Improved quality and economy of fermented milk production through applications of polysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr H. Roginski OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr D. Taylor AIM: To investigate genetic and biochemical determinants of polysaccharide production by selected lactic acid bacteria.

DAV131: Increased milkfat utilisation ORGANISATION: Food Research Institute, Werribee PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr K. Versteeg, Dr T. Hung, T. Taylor OTHER RESEARCHERS: W. Thiedeman, F. Plasc AIM: To increase the demand for milkfat by meeting market requirements which cannot be met at the moment, and thereby increasing demand and improving the price structure.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE UM2: Construction of improved cheese starter bacteria using recombinant DNA techniques ORGANISATION: Biochemistry Department PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr B. Davidson, Dr A. Hillier OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr I. Powell, D. Taylor AIM: To improve the genetic properties of cheese starter bacteria, particularly phage resistance and acid production, using recombinant DNA technology.

CHEESE PROCESS CONTROL GROUP CPCG1: Improved process control in cheese manufacture PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr P. Linklater AIM: To apply to commercial cheese manufacture our scientific understanding of syneresis and lactic acid fermentation and to obtain improved process control.

UNITED MILK TASMANIA UMT2: Development of a process for the biological recovery of food acid from whey permeate ORGANISATION: United Milk Tasmania in collaboration with CSIRO PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr Ralph Crabtree AIM: To genetically modify microorganisms. To mutate, select, screen and isolate organisms to biologically

recover food acid from whey permeate. To study fermentation conditions and chemical analysis of food acid product.



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA DAV137: Impact of the Kerin Plan and alternatives on the Australian dairy industry ORGANISATION: Rural Policy and Marketing PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr M. Taylor OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr C. Wilcox, Dr J. Sullivan, Ms A. Greenwood AIM: To provide an economic analysis of the alternative policy scenarios for the future, and to assist in the policy making process and in negotiations. To consider the industry-level as well as the farm-level impacts.

UNIVERSITY OF NEW ENGLAND UNE1: Spatial equilibrium analysis of liquid milk production and distribution ORGANISATION: Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr R. Powell OTHER RESEARCHERS: Mr A. Davidson AIM: To develop and construct a regional spatial equilibrium model for the Eastern Australian liquid milk market such that all levels of the marketing chain are adequately modelled. To use the model to examine the existing

industry production and distribution systems and the effects of modifying regulations on the liquid milk industry, the effects of likely changes on supply and rationalisation of processing.

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY USB: Developments in dairy product demand and the effectiveness of promotion ORGANISATION: Faculty of Agriculture PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Prof. B. Fisher OTHER RESEARCHERS: Ms R. Macintosh AIM: To analyse the characteristics of demand at the consumer level for dairy products by type and to identify the characteristics of the products which are most important in influencing buying decisions. To assess the

effectiveness of recent dairy promotion campaigns in New South Wales. To Assess the impact of any on-going promotion campaigns at the consumer level with the aim of combining the data collected under objectives (1) and (2) to analyse the net returns to producers from promotion.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE UM6: ORANI-F-MILK: A forecasting model with particular relevance to the dairy industry ORGANISATION: Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Prof. P. Dixon OTHER RESEARCHERS: D. Johnson AIM: To investigate the feasibility of constructing a general equilibrium forecasting model of the Australian economy with particular relevance to the dairy industry.

UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE UA6: Sensory analyses of the milk-mucus belief ORGANISATION: Department of Community Medicine PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr C. Pinnock OTHER RESEARCHERS: Dr R. McBride, M. Kestin, Dr R. Moorhead AIM: To determine whether an effect claimed by milk-mucus believers is a real, demonstrable sensory effect, or if it is based only on psychological factors or folk belief.

AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS BAE1: A model for the evaluation of Australian dairy policies PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr S. Beare OTHER RESEARCHERS: M. Lembit, V. Topp, R. Simpson AIM: To analyse issues that are of importance to the Australian dairy industry, especially free trade with New Zealand and the removal of current domestic marketing arrangements.

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY CORPORATION ADC1: Non-supermarket trade in Australian dairy products PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr C. Phillips, C. Jeffery OTHER RESEARCHERS: L. Johnson


AIM: To investigate the non-supermarket trade in dairy products in Australia to develop a better understanding of the supply channels operating between manufacturers and particular user groups and how these channels impact on current dairy product usage. To examine the factors influencing the demand for dairy products among individual user groups and assess likely developments in each market sector (particularly with reference to

NZ and CER).

ADC2: Dairy industry reference database PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Mr R. Lacey OTHER RESEARCHERS: L. Baker, J. Werkmeister AIM: To develop a computerised catalogue of all the reference and bibliographical material contained in the dairy industry libraries in Australia (the Union Catalogue). To provide industry participants with a more flexible access to, and reporting of, information through the provision of key-word search facilities and regular updating and publication of author/title, subject catalogues.


Name Place of study Course of study or area of research

RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP AWARDS D Taylor University of Isolation and characterisation

Melbourne of modification restriction

system on starter bacteria

R Passey University of To create transgenic animals with

New South Wales altered milk protein composition

POSTGRADUATE AWARDS D Mitchell Macquarie Molecular biology of the major

University surface antigens or rotaviruses

R Brandon University of Investigation of the onset of

Queensland Enzootic Bovine Leucosis and its

early detection

G Drane University of Effects of nutrient intake on

Sydney metabolite utilisation in muscle,

mammary glands and liver

R Clarke University of Characterisation of genes coding

New South Wales for bovine milk proteins

M Larcombe University of Development of a model to predict

Melbourne the effects of calving patterns on

milk production

G Ramsay Murdoch New methods for improved

University management of reproduction in dairy cattle

A Mooshi Hawkesbury Functional properties of syrups

Agricultural containing fructose and hydrolysed

College lactose from whey and milk UF permeates

K Tee University of Molecular genotyping and mapping

Sydney of beta-lactoglobulin gene

B McGookin Royal Melbourne Study of natural antioxidant

Institute of systems of milk




Name Place of study Course of study or area of research

B Irvine University of Development of embryo cloning

Adelaide techniques based on totipotent

(embryonic stem) cell lines

R Stockdale University of Feeding value of annual legumes

New England alone and with maize silage

C Gourley University of Development of pasture species for

Minnesota U.S.A.

poor soils

STUDY GRANTS K Kelly University of Agronomy and management of high

Melbourne legume content pastures under irrigation

S Blaikie University of Increasing productivity of

Melbourne irrigated pastures for dairying

J Beusekom Food Research Thermophilic organisms in

Institute, Werribee

membrane concentration of milk

TRAVEL GRANTS K Phillips Texas A & M Develop herd improvement packages

University, U.S.A.

for dairyfarmers

D Leaver Australia Address meetings of dairy producers/

extension officers/nutritionists in the area of dairy cow nutrition/feeding

A Frost Europe To attend and report on the

mastitis meeting in Austria and visit other European research centres

D Haberfield New Zealand Production of specialty cheese,

energy management,effluent disposal and daily testing of butterfat

1 S Marshall Germany Third International Conference on

Fouling and Cleaning in Food Processing

FARMER TRAINING AWARDS Queensland Queensland Bookkeeping courses for farmers and

Dairyfarmers Organisation

funding for keynote speakers

South Adelaide Course in presentation and

Australian Dairyfarmers’ Association

negotiation techniques

South New Zealand Hosted study tour to New Zealand

Australian for eight on-farm training scheme

Dairyfarmers’ Association



Aust.Bur.Agric. & Res. Econ.

Aust. Dairy Corp.


CSIRO Animal Health,


Dairy Res.Lab

Div.Food Proc.


DEPT.OF PRIM.IND.QLD. Animal Research

Dairy Hus/Breed


Wagga Res.lnstit.

North Coast Ag.lnst.

DEPT. OF AG. & RURAL AFFAIRS VIC Kyabram Res.lnstit.

Ellinbank Res.lnst.



Plant Res.lnstit.

Food Res. Insitit.

DEPT. OF AGRIC. TAS Past./Fields Crops/ Elliot Res.Station Entomology Section

DEPT.OF AGRIC. SA Plant Services Div.

Animal Ind.Branch

Animal Obst/Gynaec.

DEPT. OF AGRIC. WA Animal Health Div.

University of Queensland

University of New England

University of New South Wales

University of Sydney

University of Melbourne

University of Adelaide

Curtin University

Murdoch University

GPO Box 1563 Canberra ACT 2601 Tel (062) 46 9484 Fax (062) 46 9699 1601 Malvern Road Glen Iris VIC 3146 Tel (03) 805 3777 Fax (03) 885 5885

1601 Malvern Road Glen Iris Vic 3146 Tel 522 3777 Fax 529 8518

Private Bag No 1, PO, Parkville. 3052. Tel (03) 342 9787 Fax (03) 347 4042 CSIRO GPO Box 1700, Canberra ACT 2601. Tel (062) 46 5319 Fax (062) 47 0217

PO Box 20 Highett Vic 3190 Tel (03) 556 2211 Fax (03) 532 0003 PO Box 52 Nth Ryde NSW 2113 Tel (02) 887 8333 Fax (02) 887 3107

Bureau of Rural Resources, DPIE, Barton ACT 2601. Tel (062) 73 1109 Fax (062) 73 1215

665 Fairfield Road, Yeerongpilly, OLD, 4105. Tel (07) 892 9413 Fax (07) 892 5374 Mutdapilly Research Stn M S 825 Ipswich OLD 4305 Tel (075) 67 2100 Fax (075) 67 2124

PO Box Box K220, Haymarket NSW 2000 Tei (02) 217 5130 Fax (02) 217 5484 Cent. Vet. Lab. Roy Watts Road, Glenfield NSW 2167 Tel (02) 605 1511 Fax (02) 605 2282.

Private Mail Bag, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 Tel (069) 23 0999 Fax (069) 23 0809. Wollongbar NSW 2480 Tel (066) 24 0200 Fax (066) 28 1744

R.M.B. 3010 Kyabram Vic 3620 Tel (058) 52 2488 Fax (058) 52 2861 R.M.B. 2460 Warragul 3820 Tel (056) 26 1209 Fax (056) 26 1437 475-485 Mickleham Road Attwood Vic 3049 Tel (03) 333 1200 Fax (03) 333 2471

Park Drive Parkville 3052 Tel (03) 347 2322 Fax (03) 347 0747 Burnley Gardens, Swan St Burnley Vic 3121 Tel (03) 810 1511 Fax (03) 819 5653

Sneydes Road Werribee Vic 3030 Tel (03) 742 0111 Fax (03) 742 0201

Private Bag 20 Burnie Tas 7320 Tel (004) 36 3130 Fax (004) 34 1335 GPO Box 192B Hobart Tas 7001 Tel (002) 78 4333 Fax 341335

Northfield Lab. Box 1671 GPO Adelaide SA 5001 Tel (08) 266 8333 Fax (08) 226 0476. GPO Box 1671 Adelaide SA 5001 Tel (08) 227 3040 Fax (08) 226 0476

Box 1671 GPO Adelaide SA 5001 Tel (08) 266 8315 Fax (08) 223 1978

PO Box 1231 Bunbury WA 6230 Tel (097) 25 5255 Fax (097) 25 4136 Bramston Tee. Herston Brisbane Old 4006 Tel (07) 253 6222 Fax (07) 252 5499 Agric. Economics & Business Armadale NSW 2351 Tel (067) 73 2200 Fax (067) 73 2205

PO Box 1 Kensington NSW 2033 Tel (02) 687 2033 Fax (02) 662 2918 Faculty of Agriculture, NSW 2006 Tel (02) 692 2222 Fax (02) 692 4203 Vet Clin. Centre Princes Highway Werribee 3030 Tel (03) 741 3500 Fax (03) 741 0401 Waite Ag.Res.lnstit. Glen Osmond SA 5064 Tel (08) 372 2213 Fax (08) 338 1757

GPO Box U 1987 Perth WA 6001 Tel (09) 350 7374 Fax (09) 458 4661 South Street Murdoch WA 6150 Tel (09) 332 2643 Fax (09) 332 2507