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United Nations - World Food Conference, Rome, 5-17 November 1974 - Report of Australian Delegation


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THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

1975— Parliamentary Paper No. 81

UNITED NATIONS WORLD FOOD CONFERENCE

Rome — 5 -1 7 November 1 9 7 4

REPORT OF AUSTRALIAN DELEGATION

Presented by Command 8 April 1975 Ordered to be printed 29 May 1975

THE G O VERNM ENT PRINTER OF AUSTRALIA

CANBERRA 1976

Printed by Authority by the Commonwealth Government Printer

WORLD FOOD CONFERENCE

STATEMENT FOR TABLING IN THE SENATE BY SENATOR THE HON. K. S. WRIEDT, MINISTER FOR AGRICULTURE

The United Nations World Food Conference took place in Rome from 5 to 17 November 1974. It was attended by delegations from 130 countries, most of which were led by Ministers. Representatives of many intergovernmental organisations also took part.

2. The Australian delegation was led by Senator the Honourable K. S. Wriedt, Min­ ister for Agriculture. Attached to this statement, for the information of Honourable Senators, are the texts of the Program of Action adopted by the Conference, consist­ ing of a Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition and

twenty-two resolutions. Copies of the official report of the Conference are available in the Parliamentary Library. Also attached to this statement are a list of the Australian delegation to the Conference and a copy of the speech in the General Debate in the Plenary Sessions of the Conference made by the leader of the Australian delegation.

3. Amongst the decisions of the Conference were four major initiatives.

4. The first of these was a call for the establishment of a new International Fund for Agricultural Development, to ‘finance agricultural development projects primarily for food production in the developing countries’. The resolution, No. XIII, was spon­ sored by a number of countries, including several of the major oil exporters. Australia was one of the co-sponsors of the resolution.

5. The Fund will depend on voluntary contributions and the resolution requested the Secretary-General of the United Nations to convene urgently a meeting of all interested countries and institutions to work out details, including the size of and com­ mitments to the Fund. The Fund is to become operative as soon as the Secretary-

General of the United Nations determines, in consultation with representatives of the countries that have pledged contributions to the Fund, that it holds promise of gener­ ating substantial additional resources for assistance to developing countries and that its operations have a reasonabale prospect of continuity. In order to avoid dupli­ cation, the resolution states that disbursements from the Fund should be carried out through existing international or regional institutions in accordance with the regula­ tions and criteria to be established by the governing body of the Fund.

6. The second major initiative was the call in Resolution No. XXII for the establish­ ment by the United Nations General Assembly o f'a World Food Council, at the min­ isterial or plenipotentiary level, to function as an organ of the United Nations report­ ing to the General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council, to serve as a

co-ordinating mechanism to provide overall, integrated and continuing attention for the successful co-ordination and follow-up of policies concerning food production, nutrition, food security, food trade and food aid. as well as their related matters, by all the agencies of the United Nations system ’.

7. The intention is that the Council should review periodically major problems and policy issues affecting the world food situation, the steps being proposed or taken to resolve them by governments, by the United Nations system and its regional organis­ ations, and to recommend further remedial action as appropriate.

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8. The United Nations General Assembly on 17 December 1974 established the World Food Council, with a membership of 36 nations. Australia is one of the initial members. It is expected that the Council will hold its first meeting in Rome before the end of June 1975.

9. The World Food Conference intended that there should be a close association be­ tween the World Food Council and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation. The Council is to be serviced by a secretariat ‘within the framework of FAO, with headquarters at Rome’. At the same time, an important function of the

World Food Council will be to seek to co-ordinate the efforts of FAO and the many other international agencies whose work has a relationship to the world food situation.

10. The Conference recommended the establishment of two subsidiary bodies to the World Food Council.

11 · One was a Committee on World Food Security, which would be a standing com­ mittee of the FAO Council. Its functions would include keeping the current and pro­ spective demand, supply and stock position for basic foodstuffs under continuous review and dissemination of timely information on developments, reviewing the implementation of the proposed international undertaking on world food security and recommending policy action necessary to remedy difficulties foreseen in assuring adequate cereal supplies for minimum world food security.

12. The other subsidiary committee was a Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programs. The Committee’s functions are to include consultations on food aid pro­ grams and policies, particularly to secure improved co-ordination between bilateral and multilateral food aid.

13. The third major initiative was directed at the establishment of a system of world food security ( Resolutions XVI and XVII). This will comprise a global information and early warning system, operated by FAO, and machinery for ensuring as far as possible that adequate stocks of basic foodstuffs, primarily cereals, are held in the world to provide a safeguard to food supplies in the event of a marked shortfall in world food production in any year.

14. The Conference recognised the complexity and important commercial implica­ tions of these matters, which will be the subject of detailed negotiation in the appro­ priate international forums.

15. The fourth major initiative was a call for an improved policy for food aid (Resolution XVIII). The Conference recommended that all donor countries accept and implement the concept of forward planning of food aid, make all efforts to pro­ vide commodities or financial assistance that will ensure in physical terms at least 10 million tonnes of grains as food aid per year, starting from 1975, and also provide adequate quantities of other food commodities.

16. Other institutional arrangements proposed by the Conference included con­ sideration of whether rearrangements in the United Nations system or new inter­ national bodies might be justified to ensure effective follow-up of the Conference Resolution (No. V) on nutrition, investigation of the desirability of establishing con­ sultative groups along the lines of the Consultative Group on International Agricul­ tural Research for sectors such as extension, agricultural credit and rural develop­ ment, and the organisation of a Consultative Group on Food Production and Invest­ ment in Developing Countries to increase, co-ordinate and improve the efficiency of

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financial and technical assistance to agricultural production in developing countries. The Conference also called for additional emphasis on the need for increased flows of fertilisers and pesticides to developing countries, for greater involvement of women in

the decision-making machinery for food production and nutrition policies, and for the achievement of a desirable balance between population and food supply.

17. The conclusions of the Conference on international trade, stabilisation and agri­ cultural adjustment are set out in Resolution XIX which calls for greater effort to remove obstacles to trade and discriminatory practices, and for governments to devise in appropriate organisations effective steps for dealing with the problem of stabilising

world markets, particularly for foodstuffs, and to afford to developing countries greater opportunities for expansion of trade with special reference to food products.

18. The scope o f the Conference was a broad one. While a good deal of attention was paid to the possibilities of international action to assist the developing countries, it was recognised by the Conference that long-term solutions to the world food prob­ lem depend primarily on success of programs for the expansion of food production in the developing countries themselves. As well as international assistance in many ways to such programs, success will depend largely on actions by the governments of the

developing countries, particularly by giving adequate priority to food production, and the economic and social measures involved in this, when establishing their develop­ ment plans.

19. Australia has already made some responses to the needs of developing countries by expanding its aid programs, by the provision of additional food aid, development funds and the services of experts. Assistance for agricultural development will be given a higher priority in the distribution of Australian aid funds. Policies for Aus­

tralian agricultural production will need to take account of the requirements of developing countries for food imports. Australia will continue to take an active and constructive part in international discussions in the World Food Council, FAO and elsewhere which have a bearing on world food issues.

20. The Australian delegation included Mr A. Smith, National Director of the Free­ dom from Hunger Campaign/Action for Development. The valuable part which non­ governmental organisations are playing in the total Australian contribution to the food needs of developing countries is recognised and appreciated by the Australian Government.

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PROGRAM OF ACTION

DECLARATION ON THE ERADICATION OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION1

The World Food Conference Convened by the General Assembly of the United Nations* 2 and entrusted with developing ways and means whereby the international community, as a whole, could take specific action to resolve the world food problem within the broader context of development and international economic co-operation, adopts the following:

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON THE ERADICATION OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION

Recognising that:

(i) The grave food crisis that is afflicting the peoples of the developing countries where most of the world’s hungry and ill-nourished live and where more than two-thirds of the world’s population produce about one-third of the world’s food—an imbalance which threatens to increase in the next ten years—is not only fraught with grave economic and social implications, but also acutely jeopardises the most fundamental principles and values associated with the

right to life and human dignity as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;3

(ii) The elimination of hunger and malnutrition, included as one of the objec­ tives in the United Nations Declaration on Social Progress and Develop­ ment,4 as well as the elimination of the causes that determine this situation are the common objectives of all nations;

(iii) The situation of the peoples afflicted by hunger and malnutrition arises from their historical circumstances, including social inequalities, including in many cases alien and colonial domination, foreign occupation, racial discrimi­ nation, apartheid and neo-colonialism in all its forms, which continue to be among the greatest obstacles to the full emancipation and progress of the developing countries and all the peoples involved:

(iv) This situation has been aggravated in recent years by a series of crises to which the world economy has been subjected, such as the deterioration in the international monetary system, inflationary increase in import costs, the heavy burdens imposed by external debt on the balance of payments of many developing countries, rising food demand partly due to demographic press­ ure, speculation, and a shortage of and increased costs of essential agricul­ tural inputs;

(v) These phenomena are considered within the framework of the on-going negotiations on the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, and urging the General Assembly of the United Nations unanimously to agree

'Adopted by the Conference at its 16th meeting on 16 November 1974. Resolution 3180 ( XXVIII) of 17 December 1973. 3General Assembly resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 1948. 4General Assembly resolution 2542 (XXIV) of 11 December 1969.

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upon and to adopt a Charter that will be an effective instrument for the estab­ lishment of new international economic relations based on principles of equity and justice;

(vi) All countries, big or small, rich or poor, are equal. All countries have the full right to participate in the decisions on the food problem;

(vii) The well-being of the peoples of the world largely depends on the adequate production and distribution of food as well as the establishment of a world food security system which would ensure adequate availability and reason­ able prices of food at all times, irrespective of periodic fluctuations and vagaries of weather and free of political and economic pressures, and should thus facilitate, amongst other things, the development process of developing countries;

(viii) Peace and justice encompass an economic dimension helping the solution of the world economic problems, the liquidation of under-development, offer­ ing a lasting and definitive solution of the food problem for all peoples and guaranteeing to all countries the right to implement freely and effectively

their development programs. To this effect, it is necessary to eliminate threats and resort to force and to promote peaceful co-operation between States to the fullest extent possible, to apply the principles of non-interference in each others internal affairs, full equality of rights, respect of national indepen­ dence and sovereignty as well as to encourage the peaceful co-operation be­ tween all States, irrespective of their political, social and economic systems. The further improvement of international relations will create better con­ ditions for international co-operation in all fields which should make possible large financial and material resources to be used, inter alia, for developing agricultural production and substantially improving world food security;

(ix) For a lasting solution of the food problem all efforts should be made to elim­ inate the widening gaps which today separate developed and developing countries and to bring about a new international economic order. It should be possible for all countries to participate actively and effectively in the new in­

ternational economic relations by the establishment of suitable international systems, where appropriate, capable of producing adequate action in order to establish just and equitable relations in international economic co-operation;

(x) Developing countries reaffirm their belief that the primary responsibility for ensuring their own rapid development rests with themselves. They declare, therefore, their readiness to continue to intensify their individual and collec­ tive efforts with the view to expanding their mutual co-operation in the field of agricultural development and food production including the eradication of

hunger and malnutrition;

(xi) Since, for various reasons, many developing countries are not yet always able to meet their own food needs, urgent and effective international action should be taken to assist them, free of political pressures, consistent with the aims and objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New Inter­ national Economic Order5 and the Program of Action5 of the sixth special ses­ sion of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

General Assembly resolutions 3201 and 3202 (S-Vl) of 1 May 1974.

The Conference consequently solemnly proclaims:

1. Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop fully and maintain their physical and mental facul­ ties. Society today already possesses sufficient resources, organisational ability and technology and hence the competence to achieve this objective. Accordingly, the eradication of hunger is a common objective of all the countries of the international community, especially of the developed countries and others in a position to help.

2. It is a fundamental responsibility of Governments to work together for higher food production and a more equitable and efficient distribution of food between countries and within countries. Governments should initiate immediately a greater

concerted attack on chronic malnutrition and deficiency diseases among the vulner­ able and lower income groups. In order to ensure adequate nutrition for all, Govern­ ments should formulate appropriate food and nutrition policies integrated in over-all socio-economic and agricultural development plans based on adequate knowledge of available as well as potential food resources. The importance of human milk in this connection should be stressed on nutritional grounds.

3. Food problems must be tackled during the preparation and implementation of national plans and programs for economic and social development, with emphasis on their humanitarian aspects.

4. It is a responsibility of each State concerned, in accordance with its sovereign judgment and internal legislation, to remove the obstacles to food production and provide proper incentives to agricultural producers. Of prime importance for the attainment o f these objectives are effective measures of socio-economic transform­

ation by agrarian, tax, credit and investment policy reform and the reorganisation of rural structures, such as the reform of the conditions of ownership, the encouragement of producer and consumer co-operatives, the mobilisation of the full potential of human resources, both male and female, in the developing countries for an integrated rural development and the involvement of the small farmers, fishermen and the land­ less workers in attaining the required food production and employment targets. Moreover, it is necessary to recognise the key role of women in agricultural pro­ duction and rural economy in many countries, and to ensure that appropriate edu­ cation, extension programs and financial facilities are made available to women on equal terms with men.

5. Marine and inland water resources are today becoming more important than ever as a source of food and economic prosperity. Accordingly, action should be taken to promote a rational exploitation of these resources, preferably for direct human con­ sumption, in order to contribute to meeting the food requirements of all peoples.

6. The efforts to increase food production should be complemented by every en­ deavour to prevent wastage of food in all its forms.

7. To give impetus to food production in developing countries and in particular in the least developed and most seriously affected among them, urgent and effective in­ ternational action should be taken, by the developed countries and other countries in a position to do so, to provide them with sustained additional technical and financial assistance on favourable terms and in a volume sufficient to their needs on the basis of

bilateral and multilateral arrangements. This assistance must be free of conditions inconsistent with sovereignty of the receiving States.

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8. All countries, and primarily the highly industrialised countries, should promote the advancement of food production technology and should make all efforts to pro­ mote the transfer, adaptation and dissemination of appropriate food production tech­ nology for the benefit of the developing countries and to that end they should inter alia make all efforts to disseminate the results of their research work to Governments and scientific institutions of developing countries in order to enable them to promote a sustained agricultural development.

9. To assure the proper conservation of natural resources being utilised or utilisable for food production, all countries must collaborate in order to facilitate the preser­ vation of the environment, including the marine environment.

10. All developed countries and others able to do so should collaborate technically and financially with the developing countries in their efforts to expand land and water resources for agricultural production and to assure a rapid increase in the availability, at fair costs, of agricultural inputs such as fertilisers and other chemicals, high-quality

seeds, credit and technology. Co-operation among developing countries, in this con­ nection, is also important.

11. All States should strive to the utmost to readjust, where appropriate, their agri­ cultural policies to give priority to food production recognising, in this connection, the interrelationship between the world food problem and international trade. In the determination of attitudes toward farm support programs for domestic food pro­ duction, developed countries should take into account, as far as possible, the interest of the food exporting developing countries, in order to avoid detrimental effect on

their exports. Moreover, all countries should co-operate to devise effective steps to deal with the problem of stabilising world markets and promoting equitable and remunerative prices, where appropriate through international arrangements, to improve access to markets through reduction or elimination of tariff and non-tariff

barriers on the products of interest to the developing countries, to substantially increase the export earnings of these countries, to contribute to the diversification of their exports, and apply to them, in the multilateral trade negotiations, the principles as agreed upon in the Tokyo Declaration including the concept of non-reciprocity and

more favourable treatment.

12. As it is the common responsibility of the entire international community to ensure the availability at all times of adequate world supplies of basic foodstuffs by way of appropriate reserves including emergency reserves, all countries should co­ operate in the establishment of an effective system of world food security by:

— participating in and supporting the operation of the Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture;

— adhering to the objectives, policies and guidelines of the proposed inter­ national Undertaking on World Food Security as endorsed by the World Food Conference;

— earmarking, where possible, stocks or funds for meeting international emerg­ ency food requirements as envisaged in the proposed International Undertak­ ing on World Food Security and developing international guidelines to pro­ vide for the co-ordination and the utilisation of such stocks;

— co-operating in the provision of food aid for meeting emergency and nu­ tritional needs as well as for stimulating rural employment through develop­ ment projects.

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All donor countries should accept and implement the concept of forward planning of food aid and make all efforts to provide commodities and/or financial assitance that will ensure adequate quantities of grains and other food commodities. Time is short. Urgent and sustained action is vital. The Conference, therefore, calls upon all peoples expressing their will as individuals, and through their governments and non­ governmental/ organisations, to work together to bring about the end of the age-old scourge of hunger.

The Conference affirms:

The determination of the participating States to make full use of the United Nations system in the implementation of this Declaration and the other decisions adopted by the Conference.

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RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE

RESOLUTION I

Objectives and strategies of food production

The World Food Conference,

Recalling General Assembly resolution 3201 (S-VI) and 3202 (S-VI) of 1 May 1974, concerning the Declaration and the Program of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order and the subsequent ECOSOC resolution 1911 ( LVII) on its implementation, as adopted,

Recalling General Assembly Resolution 3180 (XXVIII) of 17 December 1973 on the World Food Conference,

Recognising that past trends in food production and productivity in the majority of developing countries have been unsatisfactory, for reasons, among others, of inad­ equate socio-economic structures, insufficient investment funds, paucity of trained manpower, and unfavourable trade relations,

Noting that if these trends were to continue the expected increase in the demand for food in these countries will raise their import requirements to unmanageable pro­ portions, aggravate malnutrition and intensify human suffering.

Expressing concern at the inadequate performance of agriculture, including livestock and fisheries, in many developing countries in relation to the targets of the Second United Nations Development Decade and their own national objectives, at the new constraints created by the scarcity of inputs and at the inadequacy of the present level of resources including development assistance flowing to agriculture in these

countries,

Considering that agricultural production in the developing countries requires the availability of inputs at reasonable prices,

.SYre-is/ng that an increase in agricultural productivity and sustained expansion of food production in these countries at a rate much faster than in the past is essential in order to meet the rapidly growing demand for food, due to rising population and incomes,

the requirements for security stocks and the need to raise the consumption by under­ nourished people to universally accepted standards,

Recognising the importance of fish products for the improvement of quality of human diet and the potential for increased fish production especially in developing countries.

Recognising that in many developing countries there is considerable scope for increased production through bringing new land under cultivation or through more intensive use of land already under cultivation,

Recognising that in many developing countries large quantities of food are lost be­ tween the farm field and the consumer and that the deterioration in the nutritional value of food before it reaches the consumer is a serious problem.

Considering that conditions in certain developed countries are favourable for the rapid increase of food production and recognising that some countries can produce more food than they need and thus are able to export; that reliance on this production

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to supply the growing needs of the developing countries and some developed coun­ tries is increasing; that for years these exporting countries have been concerned that production at full capacity could create undesirable surpluses and thus depressed markets, which would deprive farmers of incentives to invest and to produce and that in view of the present and prospective demand for food in the world, such a concern may no longer be relevant,

Stressing the urgent need for greater efforts by the developing countries themselves and for increased regional, sub-regional and international co-operation for agricul­ tural1 development in these countries, as part of the International Development Strat­ egy for the Second United Nations Development Decade,

Stressing the importance, in selecting the measures to be taken to achieve the urgently needed increases in food output, of taking into account the need for the most efficient use of land and water resources, the short and long-term effects of alternative tech­ nologies on the quality of the environment,

Affirming that in order to solve the food problem, highest priority should be given to policies and programs for increasing food production and improving food utilisation in developing countries, so as to achieve a minimum agricultural growth rate of 4 per cent per annum, placing appropriate emphasis on (i) providing adequate supplies of essential inputs, such as fertilisers, pesticides, quality seeds, farm and fishery equip­ ment and machinery', fuel, breeding stock and water; (ii) ensuring sufficient incentives to farmers; (iii) developing rural infrastructures, including storage, processing, trans­ portation, marketing, input supply systems, credit and educational and social ameni­ ties; (iv) conservation and improvement of existing cultivated and cultivable land; (v) reclamation and development of new land; (vi) promoting research training and extension; (vii) progressive social and structural transformation of agriculture; (viii) active participation of the rural population, particularly small farmers and landless workers in the development process; and (ix) providing the necessary financial resources,

1. Resolves that all governments should accept the removal of the scourge of hunger and malnutrition, which at present afflicts many millions of human beings, as the objective of the international community as a whole, and accept the goal that within a decade no child will go to bed hungry, that no family will fear for its next day’s bread, and that no human being’s future and capacities will be stunted by malnutrition,

2. Calls on the government of each developing country to:

(i) accord a high priority to agricultural and fisheries development;

(ii) formulate food production and food utilisation objectives, targets and poli­ cies, for the short, medium and long term, with full participation of pro­ ducers, their families, and farmers ’ and fishermen’s organisations, taking into account its demographic and general development goals and consistent with good environment practices;

(iii) take measures for agrarian reform and a progressive change in the socio­ economic structures and relationships in rural areas; and

1 Including livestock and fisheries.

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(iv) develop adequate supporting services for agricultural and fisheries develop­ ment, including those for education, research, extension and training, mar­ keting, storage and processing, transport, as well as credit facilities and incen­ tives to enable producers to buy the required inputs;

3. Calls on all governments able to furnish external assistance to substantially increase their official development assistance to agriculture in developing countries, especially the least developed and the most seriously affected countries, including capital assistance on soft terms, technical assistance, transfer of appropriate tech­

nology and program loans for imports of essential inputs;

4. Requests governments to make arrangements whereby developing countries will have access to inputs such as fertiliser, pesticides, agricultural machinery and equip­ ment in sufficient quantity and at reasonable prices;

5. Urges governments to respond to the appeal of the Secretary-General of the United Nations for contributions to the Special Program, the urgent implementation of which is essential for ensuring progress in resolving the food problem of the developing countries seriously affected by the economic crisis, and to contribute gen­ erously to the International Fund for Agricultural Development proposed by the

Conference;

6. Urges the developed countries concerned to adopt and to implement agricultural policies which encourage the early expansion of food production while taking into account a satisfactory level of income for producers and world food requirements and the need of maintaining reasonable prices for consumers. Such policies should not impede or delay the increase in food production by developing countries, both for

domestic consumption and for export;

7. Requests all countries to reduce to a minimum the waste of food and of agricul­ tural resources, in particular land, water and all forms of energy; and to ensure the rational utilisation of fisheries resources;

8. Calls on the regional economic commissions to continue their important contribu­ tion to the task of stimulating co-ordinated economic development in their respective regions, by co-operating in the efforts in this direction that the countries in those regions are making;

9. Urges FAO in consultation with UNDP and other relevant international institu­ tions, with due regard for national sovereignty:

(a) to formulate economic, social, physical and biological criteria for selecting suitable additional areas for food production. ( b ) to make an inventory, on the basis of these criteria, of the areas most suitable for additional production,

(c) to make an inventory of resources available for financing additional pro­ duction. and (d) to indicate ways and means for carrying out programs and projects for additional food production;

10. Requests the World Bank, Regional Banks, UNDP, FAO. UNIDO and other in­ ternational agencies, through modification of their existing policies and criteria as ap­ propriate, to substantially increase their assistance for agriculture and fisheries in developing countries, giving priority to programs and projects aimed at benefiting the poorest groups of the population and placing equal emphasis on both economic and

social benefits; simplify and streamline the procedures for the granting of such assistance; and mobilise the support of the entire international community, including non-governmental organisations, for the urgent task of overcoming hunger and

malnutrition.

RESOLUTION II

Priorities for agricultural and rural development

The World Conference,

Recognising that self-reliance, relying on the masses of people, tapping fully the potentialities of the country and striving in accordance with each country’s respective conditions for the maximum possible degree of self-sufficiency in basic foods, is the fundamental approach to the solution of the food problem of developing countries,

Recognising the urgent need for expanding and improving the productivity base of agriculture through fuller and more efficient utilisation of land and water resources, through application and adaptation of improved technology consistent with the local ecological conditions, and through agrarian reforms and other appropriate socio­ economic changes in the organisation of rural communities,

Recognising the vital importance of mobilising the people through their organisations for rural development, and particularly of involving small farmers and landless labourers in the planning and operation of programs aimed at improving their living standards and those of their families and at a more equitable distribution of income,

Stressing the severe problem of rural unemployment and under-employment,

Emphasising the critical need for the strengthening of the administrative capacity of government organisations and of rural infrastructures, down to the village level including housing and health services, agricultural extension and communication and other family well-being services, and for greatly expanded rural education and tech­ nical and vocational training programs, particularly the need for universal literacy,

Recognising the important role of women in rural life, in the production, processing, marketing and consumption of food, in family nutrition, in decisions on family size and child spacing and in child care and education, the need to involve them fully in the process of rural development, and the implications thereof for education and extension,

Affirming that a determining element in rural development and in reducing rural un­ employment is the capacity of the rural community to expand, intensify, and diversify its activities in crop production, animal husbandry, forestry, fisheries, agro-allied and other rural-based industries and public works programs, and that in support of these the necessary production structure and infrastructure need to be established,

Noting that no single pattern of social, economic or institutional set-up can be appli­ cable to all countries, that the concept of integrated rural development is sufficiently flexible for countries to design operational strategies appropriate to their own circum­ stances, and recalling the efforts made in promoting the concept of integrated rural development,

1. Calls on governments to bring about appropriate progressive agrarian reforms in accordance with the political objectives and administrative capabilities of each coun­ try, adequate means of information and motivation and other institutional

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improvements in rural areas aimed at employment and income generation, at organ­ ising, activating and assisting the rural population, including nomads, for partici­ pation in integrated rural development and at eliminating exploitative patterns of land tenure, credit and marketing systems where they still prevail, calls on them to improve credit marketing and inputs distribution systems and recommends that exist­ ing and experienced institutions and organisations in the developed countries should

be mobilised as much as possible to take part in agricultural development work, and also to make all efforts to carry out Economic and Social Council Resolution 1707 (LIII) on Agrarian Reform;

2. Invites governments to promote the development of co-operative organisations and other associations for the mass of farmers and rural workers for agricultural and rural development and for generating greater self-reliance, self-sufficiency and motivation;

3. Requests all governments to intensify their efforts in both formal and non-formal education of rural people with emphasis on what is relevant to their needs, taking into account the special role of women in agriculture and rural life in many societies, and to aim at the elimination of illiteracy within a decade;

4. Calls on each country to identify and implement with greater financial and policy support such food production and rural development programs as are best suited to its specific national and regional characteristics and circumstances and which are required to achieve its national and international food production objectives, bearing in mind the development of appropriate technology, and the establishment of price

relationships which will lead to increased incomes;

5. Calls on UNDP, IBRD, FAO and other international and bilateral agencies to review their criteria for financial, technical and other assistance for integrated rural development; to give greater importance to social criteria so as to implement broader

and longer-range programs of rural development; and if necessary improve their technical and administrative capacity for implementing these programs;

6. Urges governments, UNDP and the other international and bilateral agencies to co-operate in accelerating the planning and implementation of integrated rural development programs and to devote greatly expanded resources to these activities;

7. Calls on FAO and other United Nations organisations concerned to collect, evaluate and disseminate the results and experience from past and on-going rural development programs, to determine the suitability of these programs in bringing about both expanding agricultural production and social integration.

RESOLUTION III

Fertilisers

The World Food Conference,

Recognising the vital role of fertilisers in increasing food production, the urgency of eliminating the current global shortage of fertilisers, and the necessity of ensuring on a continuing basis the adequate and regular supply of fertilisers to all countries,

Recognising further that the present international prices of fertilisers reflect to a con­ siderable extent their scarcity value and are threatening food production efforts in developing countries,

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Noting the recent increased activity of the international community in respect of ferti­ lisers, including the establishment of the FAO Commission on Fertilisers, the Inter­ national Fertiliser Supply Scheme, the International Fertiliser Development Centre in the U.S.A., the important activities of the IBRD and UNIDO and the funding oper­ ations of the United Nations Emergency Operation,

Taking note of the Economic and Social Council resolution 1836, of the proposal by Sri Lanka and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and of the proposal by Mexico, which were designed to ensure the availability of scarce and essential agricultural inputs such as fertilisers,

Taking note of the growing awareness of the importance of fertilisers as an appropri­ ate instrument for external assistance in increasing food supplies in developing coun­ tries, both on a bilateral and multilateral basis,

Stressing the need for increased and co-ordinated international efforts to improve fer­ tiliser availability, particularly to developing countries, and define the elements of an effective international fertiliser policy,

Recognising also that increasing availability and applications of fertiliser in develop­ ing countries need to be promoted in conjunction with the use of other inputs and rural services, and taking into account the Conference Resolutions on related inputs such as pesticides and seeds,

1. Recommends that during the current period of supply shortages and high prices, the international organisations and bilateral aid agencies significantly intensify their effort to meet the needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most seriously affected by economic crisis, through increased material and financial support to the International Fertiliser Supply Scheme and by stepping up bi­ lateral efforts, so as to bridge the gap in supply as estimated by the Scheme from time to time;

2. Calls upon developed countries, international agencies and others in a position to do so to extend assistance in the form of grants and concessional loans to enable developing countries to import urgently needed fertilisers and raw materials;

3. Recommends that FAO, UNIDO and IBRD jointly organise a program to assist developing countries to improve the efficiency of their fertiliser plant operations co­ ordinating with agencies providing assistance for this purpose;

4. Urges international institutions, developed countries and others in a position to do so to provide financial assistance, technical assistance, technology and equipment on favourable terms, to build required additional fertiliser production capacities in appropriate developing countries that possess oil and natural gas, phosphate rock and/or other natural resources such as coal, in other developing countries where specific local factors justify such investments, and also to assist all developing coun­ tries with storage facilities, distribution services and other related infrastructures;

5. Requests that interested countries and parties actively explore the possibilities for setting up co-operative ventures in the fertiliser field among countries producing ferti­ liser raw materials, countries with established fertiliser production industries and fertiliser-consuming countries with a view to the promotion of more economic and stable fertiliser production and supply systems, and to consider any other measures that may be needed to channel adequate investments into the fertiliser field;

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6. Requests the FAO Commission on Fertilisers, in collaboration with the member states of the United Nations and the other international organisations concerned, such as UNIDO and IBRD, to undertake as a matter of urgency an authoritative analysis of the long-term fertiliser supply and demand position in order to provide the elements of a world fertiliser policy which would include the overall aim of avoiding cyclical imbalances between supply and demand, help ensure that fertiliser prices are

stabilised at reasonable levels and would enable developing countries to obtain ferti­ lisers they need for their food and agricultural production;

7. Requests that all countries should introduce standards for ensuring fertiliser qual­ ity and policies and measures for the promotion of the most efficient and effective use of available fertilisers including the application of mineral fertilisers as well as alternative and additional sources of plant nutrients such as organic fertilisers, legume

crops and other means of biologically fixing nitrogen and recycling of wastes and combining fertiliser use with other improved agricultural practices; it also recom­ mends that each fertiliser-consuming nation call upon its citizens voluntarily to reduce non-critical uses of fertiliser toward making available more fertilisers for food pro­

duction in developing countries.

8. Recommends the intensification of international efforts in the transfer of technical knowledge, particularly on the intermediate level, in order to increase production and to make more effective use of fertilisers, including the improvement of extension ser­ vices and training of farmers in all countries, as well as research on methods to aug­

ment soil fertility and plant growth through the development of improved mineral fertilisers, greater utilisation of locally available plant nutrients, of different types of organic fertilisers, biological fixation of nitrogen, on micro-elements, and on food crop varieties that are efficient in the uptake of plant nutrients from the soil.

RESOLUTION IV

Food and agricultural research, extension and training'

The World Food Conference, Recalling the General Assembly Resolution 3202 (SV1) of 1 May 1974, relating to the Program of Action concerning the Establishment of a New International Econ­ omic Order, as adopted,

Recalling further the General Assembly Resolution 3168 (XXVIII) of 17 December 1973, by which the Assembly requested the strengthening of economic, scientific and technical co-operation between member states,

Considering that co-ordinated basic and applied research conducted in, or for the benefit of, the developing countries, in all fields of food and agricultural develop­ ment, both technical and socio-economic, is vital to increasing food, agricultural and fisheries production and the optimum utilisation of resources, and must therefore enjoy high priority at the national, regional and international levels,

Expressing its concern at the inadequate amount of basic and particularly of applied research directed to developing new agricultural technology suited to the needs of developing countries, especially tropical and sub-tropical areas; as well as at weak­ nesses in adaptive research, training, and extension to achieve more effective transfer

and utilization of both existing and new technology, especially in fields related to food 1

1 Agriculture is here taken as including production of plants, livestock, and fish.

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production and utilisation under the local environmental, agricultural, and socio­ economic conditions in each country,

Noting that much of current research both lacks co-ordination and makes inadequate use of important information already available from research in ecologically compar­ able regions,

Recognising that the paucity of trained technical personnel at various levels required both for the conduct of research and for the transmission of the results of research to agricultural producers is a major constraint in increasing agricultural production; and

recalling the recommendations on this subject made by the First World Conference on Agricultural Education and Training (Copenhagen 1970),

Affirming its conviction that strengthening research, technical training, and the exten­ sion and dissemination of research results to all agricultural and marine producers, and especially to small farmers and fishermen in line with the national goals of developing countries, must be accorded a priority merited by its crucial role in provid­ ing new means of increasing food and agricultural production,

1. Urges all governments to evaluate the scope and organisation of their national agricultural research, training, and extension programs, and their linkages with relevant universities, international and regional institutions, and agro-industry research efforts, with a view to taking all necessary measures (including additional financial provision) to strengthen national programs to cover priority areas of food and agricultural production more adequately, including inter alia environmental and socio-economic considerations;

2. Invites countries which enjoy a high level of development of scientific agriculture to ensure that no onerous conditions or limitations are placed on the transfer of agri­ cultural technology, which might impede its ready acquisition and assimilation by the developing countries;

3. Requests the concerned national, regional and international research institutions to intensify their efforts to examine the possibilities of new as well as traditional food crop, livestock and fisheries production systems, and the potential for the develop­ ment of water resources and the efficient use of land, water, fertiliser and other inputs for significantly increasing food production in the developing countries; to improve the nutritional quality of both conventional and non-conventional foods; to inves­ tigate the problems connected with opening up of new lands in the light of diverse land use requirements, ecological and tenure systems and the need to conserve soil fertility; and, in close co-operation with extension services, to develop studies aimed at a better understanding of the motivation of the rural populace and thus to assist them in improved participation in the benefits to be gained from the application of research results;

4. Recommends the strengthening and expansion of programs relating to the survey, conservation and effective utilisation of agricultural resources, particularly of soil, water and-plant and animal genetic resources; and urges the rapid establishment of a global network of plant genetic resource centres and the extension of this to animal genetic resources;

5. Recommends the stepping-up of co-operative goal-oriented basic research pro­ grams, involving research centres of developed countries, international and regional research institutes, and suitable institutions in developing countries on problems relat­ ing to the development of appropriate technology for increasing productivity,

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improving marketing and reducing costs of production; examples of such research are: biological nitrogen fixation, utilisation of solar and geophysical energy, pro­ duction physiology for raising yield ceilings, plant introduction and genetic breeding using wide germ plasm resources, and development of new human and animal food

sources;

6. Recommends that the concerned national and international institutions intensify basic and applied research regarding

(i) the impact of different ecological conditions, particularly climate, weather, and their variability, on agricultural production in various climatic zones and particularly in tropical and climatically marginal (e.g. semi-arid and arid) land areas;

(ii) the application of meteorological information and knowledge in planning agricultural research and land-use and management systems, including the development of alternative cropping strategies to suit different weather con­ ditions so as to minimise the adverse effects of aberrant weather and encour­

age production patterns in tune with the climatic potential;

7. Recommends the rapid expansion of applied research in national, regional and in­ ternational research centres, so as to bring about a continuing rise in the economic yield and nutritional value of plants and farm animals, taking into account the need to improve biological efficiency so as to economise in inputs, without detriment to the

long-term production potential of specific farming systems;

8. Recommends that research, possibly on a regional basis, be undertaken in order to develop coastal fisheries and marine and inland aquaculture to the fullest; and urges developed fishing nations to provide developing countries with the necessary technical assistance for the exploitation, management, processing and marketing of

these resources;

9. Recommends the following early action with a view to reinforcing and improving the co-ordination of research efforts directed to these goals and the rapid dissemi­ nation of results to agricultural producers:

(i) that FAO undertake the systematic collection and dissemination of data on current research, and the results of research already carried out in the developing countries, and that additional resources be provided for this pur­ pose and for permitting the exchange of experience and data between exist­ ing centres;

(ii) that the resources of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, co-sponsored by FAO, UNDP and the World Bank, be substan­ tially enlarged to enable it to augment the number and scope of international and regional research programs in and for the developing countries, with the objective of complementing and helping to strengthen research in the

developing countries through promoting co-operative research networks, as­ sisting in adaptive research at the national level and in training programmes, and the dissemination of research information at all levels; and further recommends that the Technical Advisory Committee and the Consultative

Group study the feasibility of an international program on the use of remote sensing techniques in agriculture, including the use of data from Earth Resources Satellites;

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(iii) that consideration shall be given by FAO, UNDP and the World Bank to establishing a co-ordinated program for the improvement of extension systems;

(iv) that extensive adaptive research programs be developed involving testing in farmers’ fields the economic and technical viability of new technology and thereby tailoring recommendations to suit specific locations, farming situ­ ations and socio-economic conditions; and subsequently the organisation of widespread on-farm demonstrations ranging from small plot demonstrations to whole villages or water-shed demonstrations; and that whole village or other appropriate pilot projects be developed and implemented jointly by agricultural and social scientists so as to bring about an understanding of the institutional and socio-economic requirements of new technology;

(v) that priority be given to, and increased resources made available for, the development of agricultural education and training at all levels, in order that the required training programs can be provided—including training of research and extension workers in management techniques, special basic and in-service technical training for graduate and middle-level extension person­ nel, and farmers ’ training, including programs for rural women and children, aiming at the achievement of an integrated educational system for the rural population within an appropriate political and social framework;

(vi) that all countries co-operate in special measures aimed at reducing the loss of specialised technical personnel from the developing countries;

(vii) that means be found to facilitate the acquisition by developing countries, under favourable terms, of the equipment required for agricultural research and experimental development activities, including better access to the world’s germ plasm resources; and

(vfii) that to support these recommendations, national, regional and international resources devoted to agricultural research, extension and training in and for developing countries should be increased severalfold in real terms by 1985.

RESOLUTION V

Policies and programs to improve nutrition

The World Food Conference, Considering that large numbers of people, particularly the less advantaged in many countries, lack adequate and appropriate food resulting in adverse effects on their health, their development and their ability to learn and work for basic livelihood; whereas overconsumption among the affluent not only impairs their health but also contributes to reducing the food availability for less advantaged groups and further­ more, large food resources are used to feed animals,

Recognising that malnutrition is closely linked to widespread poverty and inadequate social and institutional structures, and that its effects are aggravated by infectious dis­ eases and the lack of environmental sanitation; and that increased agricultural pro­ duction and increased incomes may not by themselves lead to improved nutrition; and that to this end a more just and equitable distribution of food and incomes is essential, among nations as well as within countries among their various social categories,

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Recognising that information on food consumption patterns and on their conse­ quences for the nutrition and health status of the majority of the population in developing countries is insufficient and inadequate, and that improved knowledge about how to prevent malnutrition through better use of available food resources, including human milk, is essential,

Considering the relationship which often exists between child and mother, malnu­ trition and too-close pregnancies,

Recognising that food and nutritional aspects are generally not sufficiently taken into account in the formulation of national development plans,

Considering the need for improving nutrition in all countries and that the present con­ sumption patterns of the affluent need not be taken as a model,

Recommends

1. That all governments and the international community as a whole, in pursuance of their determination to eliminate within a decade hunger and malnutrition, formu­ late and integrate concerted food and nutritional plans and policies aiming at the improvement of consumption patterns in their socio-economic and agricultural plan­

ning, and for that purpose assess the character, extent and degree of malnutrition in all socio-economic groups as well as the preconditions for improving their nutritional status;

2. That FAO, in cooperation with WHO, UNICEF, WFP, IBRD, UNDP and UNESCO, assisted by PAG, prepare a project proposal for assisting governments to develop intersectoral food and nutrition plans; this proposal to be communicated to the FAO Council at its m id-1975 session through its Food and Nutrition Policy Com­

mittee, and to the governing bodies of the other interested agencies;

3. That governments, with their own resources, supplemented with food, financial and technical assistance from multilateral or bilateral external sources, and in dose co-operation with agricultural production programs initiate new or strengthen exist­ ing food and nutrition intervention programs, on a scale large enough to cover on a continuing basis a substantial part of the vulnerable groups;

4. That governments include nutrition education in the curricula for educational programs at all levels and that all concerned in the fields of agriculture, health and general education be appropriately trained to enable them to further the nutrition education of the public within their domains;

5. That governments strengthen basic health, family well-being and planning ser­ vices and improve environmental conditions, including rural water supplies and the elimination of water-borne diseases; and provide treatment and rehabilitation of

those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition;

6. That governments consider the key role of women and take steps to improve their nutrition, their educational levels and their working conditions; and to encourage them and enable them to breast-feed their children:

7. That governments review special feeding programs within the context of their food and nutrition strategies to determine desirability and the feasibility of undertak­ ing such new programs, or improving existing ones, particularly amongst the vulner­ able groups (children, pregnant and nursing mothers), but also for school children.

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workers and others; such programs should promote increased local food production and processing, thereby stimulating local initiative and employment, and should also include an element of nutrition education;

8. That the international agencies, non-governmental agencies and countries which are in a position to provide funds and foods for this purpose, should provide assist­ ance to governments who request such aid in order to introduce in the period 1975-76 emergency programs for supplementary feeding of a substantial number of the mal­ nourished children, with due attention to basic health and other essential services for the welfare of all children at risk;

9. That governments should explore the desirability and feasibility of meeting nutri­ ent deficiencies, through fortification of staples or other widely-consumer foods, with amino-acids, protein concentrates, vitamins and minerals, and that, with the assist­ ance of WHO in co-operation with other organisations concerned, governments should establish a world-wide control program aimed at substantially reducing deficiencies of vitamin A, iodine, iron/folate, vitamin D, riboflavine, and thiamine as quickly as possible;

10. That FAO, in association with other international and non-governmental organisations concerned, undertake an inventory of vegetable food resources other than cereals, such as roots, tubers, legumes, vegetables and fruits, including also those from unconventional sources, and that it study the possibility of increasing their pro­ duction and consumption, particularly in countries where malnutrition prevails;

11. That governments take action to strengthen and modernise consumer education services, food legislation and food control programs and the relevant aspects of mar­ keting practices, aiming at the protection of the consumer (avoiding false and mis­ leading information from mass media and commercial fraud, and that they increase their support of the Codex Alimentarius Commission;

12. That the joint FAO/WHO food contamination monitoring program, in co­ operation with UNEP, be further developed in order to provide early information to the national authorities for appropriate action;

13. That a global nutrition surveillance system be established by FAO, WHO and UNICEF to monitor the food and nutrition conditions of the disadvantaged groups of the population at risk, and to provide a method of rapid and permanent assessment of all factors which influence food consumption patterns and nutritional status;

14. That governments consider establishing facilities and funds for applied nutrition research related to economic, cultural, social and medical aspects of production, processing, preservation, storage, distribution and utilization of food and that FAO, WHO and UNICEF arrange for an internationally co-ordinated program in applied nutritional research including establishing priorities, identifying appropriate research centres and generating the necessary fundings;

15. That governments should associate wherever practicable non-governmental organisations whose programs include nutrition-related activities with their nu­ tritional efforts, particularly in the areas of food and nutrition programs, nutrition education and feeding programs for the most vulnerable groups.

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R E SO L U T IO N VI

World soil charter and land capability assessment

The World Food Conference,

Noting that land resources are limited and that of the total land area of the world only a small percentage is currently used to feed the world population which is likely to double by the end of the century,

Considering that meeting the food requirements of mankind, including the eradi­ cation of malnutrition, entails:

— the intensification of crop production including multiple cropping, wherever this can be safely accomplished,

— the bringing into cultivation of new lands, wherever conditions' for sustained cropping prevail, with a view to considerably increasing the land areas used for food production,

— the establishment and better utilisation of grasslands,

Conscious o f the dangers of soil degradation resulting from inadequate measures for intensifying crop production and grazing, particularly in areas which are exposed to water and wind erosion, or salinity and alkalinity,

1. Recommends that governments apply appropriate soil protection and conser­ vation techniques in conjunction with the measures they take to intensify crop pro­ duction and grazing and bring new lands into cultivation;

2. Recommends that FAO, UNESCO and UNEP, in co-operation with WMO and other competent international organisations, and in consultation with governments concerned, prepare without delay an assessment of the lands that can still be brought into cultivation, taking proper account of forestry for the protection of catchment

areas of land required for alternative uses. Such an assessment should take into account primarily the hazards of irreversible soil degradation as well as the order of magnitude of costs and agricultural and other inputs required;

3. Urges that the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations select the most appropriate ways and means to establish a World Soil Charter which would be the basis for an international co-operation towards the most rational use of the world’s land resources.

RESOLUTION VII

Scientific water management: irrigation, drainage and Hood control

The World Food Conference,

Recognising the vital role of water in agricultural development and consequently of completing projects under construction, improving existing irrigation systems and developing new irrigation facilities in developing countries.

Recognising that extending the area under assured irrigation has become particularly urgent, since variability in weather and climate is becoming an increasingly important factor in influencing the world food situation.

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Noting that considerable ground and surface water resources are yet to be exploited and that available evidence on benefit/cost is favourable to their development and utilisation,

Noting that a large number of irrigation schemes are operating at low levels of efficiency,

Noting also that extensive irrigated areas have gone out of cultivation or their pro­ duction capabilities have been reduced due to waterlogging, salinity and alkalinity,

Noting that colossal damage to crops by floods has become an increasingly recurring phenomenon in some regions, calling for urgent action with respect to control measures,

Noting that efficient water conservation and use will be essential for increasing agri­ cultural production in semi-arid and arid areas, as well as for desert creep control,

Considering that the principal obstacles to fully exploiting the potential water resources and adopting effective drainage and flood control measures are shortage of financial resources, equipment and trained manpower, to ensure regional co­ operation and to evolve ecologically sound policies,

1. Recommends urgent action to be taken by governments and international agen­ cies such as FAO and WMO to implement the following:

(a) Undertake, wherever needed, exhaustive climatic, hydrological and irri­ gation potential, hydro-power potentials and desert creep surveys; ( b ) Rapid expansion of irrigation capacities in areas where surface water and/or groundwater reserves are available for rational exploitation, so as to facilitate

both the improvement of productivity and intensity of cropping; (c) Development of techniques for the safe utilisation of brackish water for food production in areas where sweet surface/ground water is not available; (d) Reclamation of areas affected by waterlogging, salinity and alkalinity and

prevention of salinisation of irrigated areas; (e) Identification of groundwater resources, exploration of the economic feasi­ bility of using non-conventional sources of water and research and develop­

ment efforts in the most economical use of water with such techniques as drip and sprinkler irrigation in arid areas where shortage of water, rather than land, is the limiting factor in crop production; (f) Sound exploitation of groundwater resources, water harvesting and conser­

vation in the soil profile and in run-off farm ponds together with techniques for the efficient use of the water thus made available in semi-arid and in drought-prone areas; (g) Flood protection and flood control measures, including watershed manage­

ment and soil conservation to mitigate the damage to crops in high rainfall and flood-prone areas; to render where feasible, the flood-free period into a major cropping season through development of lift irrigation and ground­ water exploitation; (h) Establishment of suitable drainage systems and appropriate steps to control

salinity in swampy areas as well as in areas exposed to tidal inundation; (i) Taking all necessary measures and developing techniques to combat desert creep;

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2. Calls on international institutions and bilateral and multilateral aid agencies to provide substantially increased external assistance to enable the developing countries to undertake rapidly action set out under paragraph 1;

3. Urges governments and international agencies to assess and make appropriate arrangements for meeting the energy requirements for irrigation and to encourage intensive research on using solar hydro-electric power, geo-thermal and wind energy in agricultural operation;

4. Urges governments and international agencies to strengthen and where necessary to initiate national and regional research and training in all aspects of water tech­ nology related to specific farming systems and to improve the administration and management of water delivery systems.

RESOLUTION VIII

Women and food

The World Food Conference,

Considering that the major part of the required increase in food production must occur in the developing countries if the present tragedy of starvation and malnutrition for uncounted millions is not to continue,

Recognising that rural women in the developing world account for at least fifty per cent of food production,

Knowing that women everywhere generally play the major role in procurement and preparation of food consumed by their families,

Recognising the important role of the mother in the health development of the future generation through proper lactation, and furthermore that mothers in most cultures are the best source of food for their very young children.

Reaffirming the importance of the World Health Assembly resolution on lactation in May this year,

1. Calls on all governments to involve women fully in the decision-making machin­ ery for food production and nutrition policies as part of total development strategy; 2. Calls on all governments to provide to women in law and fact the right to full access to all medical and social services, particularly special nutritious food for

mothers and means to space their children to allow maximum lactation, as well as education and information essential to the nurture and growth of mentally and physically healthy children;

3. Calls on all governments to include in their plan provision for education and training for women on equal basis with men in food production and agricultural tech­ nology, marketing and distribution techniques, as well as consumer, credit and nutrition information;

4. Calls on all governments to promote equal rights and responsibilities for men and women in order that the energy, talent and ability of women can be fully utilised in partnership with men in the battle against world hunger.

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R E S O L U T IO N IX

Achievement of a desirable balance between population and food supply

The World Food Conference,

Recognising that the increasing demand for food is related in particular to the unpre­ cedented population growth, which has doubled the world’s population in a single generation,

Realising that despite improved agricultural technology an appreciable share of the human race continues to be seriously undernourished, and that many millions face actual starvation,

Bearing in mind that land and water resources are limited and further that due to underdevelopment of such resources in developing countries it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the food needs of a rapidly growing world population.

Recalling that in recent months in Bucharest a consensus was reached on a World Population Plan of Action,

Stressing that the increases in supply of food can be achieved only by economic development,

Now calls on all governments and on people everywhere not only to make every poss­ ible effort to grow and equitably distribute sufficient food and income so that all human beings may have an adequate diet—a short-range goal which priority and the best techniques might make possible—but also to support, for a longer-term solution, rational population policies ensuring to couples the right to determine the number and spacing of births, freely and responsibly, in accordance with national needs within the context of an overall development strategy.

RESOLUTION X

Pesticides1

The World Food Conference,

Recognising that pesticides are in short supply, particularly in developing countries, and are important inputs for improving agricultural and livestock production, storage and distribution, and in health,

Recognising the need for adequate measures to ensure the production and supply of appropriate pesticides and application equipment at reasonable prices and to increase the efficiency of pesticide use,

Noting the urgent need to examine alternative methods of pest control, including cul­ tural practices and biological control,

1. Recommends that international co-ordination be established to facilitate the sup­ ply for developing countries or their common control organisations with a maximum

1 Includes insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, rodenticides, avicides, growth regulators and other pest control measures.

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assurance under favourable economic conditions of necessary pesticides and equip­ ment and advice on their efficient and safe use, including wherever possible the en­ couragement of local manufacture, and the establishment of adequate revolving reserve stocks to cater for any emergencies;

2. Recommends a co-ordinated program including the necessary elements of supply, information, training, research and quality control, to increase the efficiency of pro­ tection measures;

3. Recommends a strong continuing program of research into the mechanism of resistance in both plants and pests, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas on the development of integrated pest management for major cropping systems, on the residual effects of pesticides in soils, water, crops, livestock, environment and human habitat;

4. Calls on FAO in co-operation with UNEP, WHO and UNIDO to convene on an urgent basis an ad hoc consultation, including member governments and industry, to recommend ways and means to give effect to the intentions of this resolution, includ­ ing the supply-demand information that FAO has been collecting, the investment required in pesticides and equipment supply, the standardisation of regulatory pro­ cedures and environmental rules and examination of alternative methods of pest con­

trol, and to take follow-up action.

RESOLUTION XI

Program for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis

The World Food Conference, Recognising the importance of African animal trypanosomiasis as a major limiting factor to rural development in general and animal production in particular in a large number of African countries,

Taking note that progress in trypanosomiasis and tsetse control techniques now makes possible the implementation of large-scale operations,

Recognising that the effective implementation of an internationally co-ordinated pro­ gram for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis could open up vast areas of land for animal and crop production thus providing the potential for greatly increased animal protein and other food supplies both to overcome deficits in the African conti­

nent and to provide surpluses for export,

Recognising the socio-economic benefits which would accrue to rural populations from such a program, including a significant contribution to the control of human trypanosomiasis,

Taking note that trypanosomiasis and tsetse control should be considered as the first phase of an integrated plan of economic development to be followed by projects covering appropriate land and water conservation and utilisation, including forestry, pasture improvement, livestock management, animal health, livestock marketing and

processing, as well as training in their various fields, 1

1. Recommends that FAO in co-operation with the governments of the countries concerned, interested international organisations and specialised research institutes, and with the support of bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies, launch as a

25

matter of urgency a long term program for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis as a project of high priority;

2. Calls fo r immediate establishment of a small co-ordinating unit at FAO head­ quarters to start the first phase of the program devoted to training, pilot field control projects and applied research, in preparation for future large-scale operations;

3. Recommends that FAO take immediately the necessary steps to mobilise the funds and services required for the program.

RESOLUTION XII Seed 1 industry development

Recognising the urgent need to increase agricultural production in many countries to meet worldwide food demand,

Recognising the importance which a secured supply of viable seeds of high genetical and physical purity of high-yielding and adapted varieties has to increasing crop pro­ duction and productivity,

Affirming therefore that the development of seed industries should be given high pri­ ority in national agricultural development strategies,

Stressing the need that some countries experiencing frequent emergencies such as drought, flooding, typhoons, etc., which cause severe crop damage, will have to establish adequate regional and/or national seed reserve stocks to satisfy the need of adequate seed supplies for the subsequent season,

Stressing the increasing international linkages in crop research and in the trade of seeds and the need to guard against introduction of seed-borne pests and diseases,

1. Urges the governments of developing countries to make short and long-term commitments of manpower, institutional and financial resources for seed industry development in their national agricultural development plans;

2. Requests interested countries and parties to introduce policies and measures for the production, processing, quality control, distribution, marketing, legislation, pro­ motion and education of farmers in the utilisation of quality seed;

3. Recommends that the international assistance of the FAO Seed Industry Develop­ ment Program be strengthened, so that national seed production and utilisation efforts, both for domestic use and exports, including the training of competent techni­ cal and managerial manpower, can be furthered to meet demands.

RESOLUTION XIII

International Fund for Agricultural Development

The World Food Conference, Recognising the need for substantial increase in investment in agriculture for increas­ ing food and agricultural production in the developing countries.

Recognising that provision of an adequate supply and proper utilisation of food are the common responsibility of all members of the International Community, and

“Seed ’ in this resolution refers to both sexually and vegetatively propagated planting materials.

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Recognising further that the prospects of the world food situation call for urgent and co-ordinated measures by all member countries.

Resolves that:

1. An International Fund for Agricultural Development should be established immediately to finance agricultural development projects primarily for food production in the developing countries;

2. All developed countries and all those developing countries that are in a pos­ ition to contribute to this Fund should do so on a voluntary basis; 3. The Funds should be administered by a Governing Board consisting of representatives of contributing developed countries, contributing developing

countries, and potential recipient countries, taking into consideration the need for equitable distribution of representation amongst these three categories and ensuring regional balance amongst the potential recipient representations; 4. The disbursements from the Fund should be carried out through existing inter­

national and/or regional institutions in accordance with the regulations and criteria to be established by the Governing Board;

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations should be requested to convene urgently a meeting of all interested countries mentioned in paragraph 3 and institutions to work out the details, including the size of, and commitments to, the Fund;

6. The Fund should become operative as soon as the Secretary-General of the United Nations determines, in consultation with representatives of the coun­ tries having pledged contributions to the Fund, that it holds promise of gener­ ating substantial additional resources for assistance to developing countries

and that its operations have a reasonable prospect of continuity.

RESOLUTION XIV

Reduction of military expenditures for increasing food production

The World Food Conference, Recalling General Assembly Resolution 3180 (XXVIII), which stipulates that the principal purpose of the World Food Conference is to devise ways and means by which the international community as a whole may deal concretely with the world

food problem.

Recalling further General Assembly Resolution 3121 (XXVIII), establishing that the contributions to the World Food Program must be augmented by substantial ad­ ditional contributions from other sources,

Stressing heading 2 ‘Food ’ of General Assembly Resolution 3202 ( VI), on a Program of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order,

Considering also General Assembly Resolution 2667 (XXV), 2831 ( XXVI) and 3075 (XXVIII) ‘Economic and social consequences of the armaments race and its ex­ tremely harmful effects on world peace and security’,

Recalling also General Assembly Resolution 3093 (XXVIII), on "Reduction of the military budgets of States permanent members of the Security Council by 10 per cent and utilisation of part of the funds thus saved to provide assistance to developing countries’,

27

Noting FAO Resolution 3/73 which recognises that the guaranteeing of world food security is the joint responsibility of the entire international community,

Considering with concern that there is a severe world food crisis which must be confronted energetically by all states,

Recalling with equal concern that the Report of the Group of Experts on Disarma­ ment and Development (A/9770) estimates that more than 200 000 million dollars are spent annually for military purposes, which shows the enormous disproportion between the military expenditures and the present goals of agriculture development aid,

Calls on the states participating in the Conference to take the necessary measures for the most rapid implementation of the Resolutions of the General Assembly and other organs of United Nations pertaining to the reduction of military expenditures on be­ half of development, and to allocate a growing proportion of the sums so released to the financing of food production in developing countries and the establishment of reserves to deal with emergency cases.

RESOLUTION XV

Food aid to victims of colonial wars in Africa

The World Food Conference, Recalling resolution 3118 (XXVIII) of the General Assembly of the United Nations regarding assistance to populations in colonial territories and other relevant United Nations resolutions,

Recalling resolution 1892 (LVII) of the Economic and Social Council on the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and Peoples,

Noting with satisfaction the decisions adopted by the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth sessions of the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Program for provid­ ing assistance in all its forms to these territories,

Bearing in mind the progress achieved so far in the process of total independence of territories under Portuguese administration,

Taking into account the repressive measures employed by the former fascist- colonialist Portuguese regime during the wars of national liberation in Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Angola,

Gravely concerned about the destruction and devastation of the agricultural potential of these countries and the serious food shortage prevailing in these countries,

Aware that the populations in these countries have been deprived in the past of any assistance from the United Nations or from the United Nations family of organis­ ations due to the former Portuguese policy, 1

1. Requests the Director-General of FAO and the Executive Director of WFP to take immediate action to intensify food aid to the populations of Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Angola, Sao Tome and Principe;

2. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations and all the executive heads of organisations within the United Nations system to take all necessary measures to

28

assist the national liberation movements or the governments of these countries to for­ mulate a comprehensive plan of national reconstruction;

3. Invites all governments and non-governmental organisations to give their assist­ ance to compensate for the manifold damage arising out of the struggles for national liberation.

RESOLUTION XVI

Global information and early-warning system on food and agriculture

The World Food Conference,

Recognising that the capacity of Governments to take prompt and appropriate measures to deal with food shortages would be enhanced by the furnishing by all countries of timely and adequate information concerning the current and prospective crop and food situation, and further recognising the growing interdependence of

countries in this respect,

Stressing the urgent need for establishing on a world-wide basis a Food Information and Early Warning System which would aim at (a) identifying countries and regions where acute food shortages and malnutrition problems are thought to be imminent; (b) monitoring world food supply-demand conditions so as to enable governments to take timely and appropriate measures; and (c) contributing to the effective function­ ing of the proposed International Undertaking on World Food Security,

Recognising the important role of a comprehensive and timely flow of information and forecasts on the situation and prospects for agricultural production, import requirements, export availabilities, livestock health, inputs and trade in meeting the requirements of world food security and market stability, at equitable and remunera­

tive prices in a constantly changing food and agricultural situation,

Noting that a world information system requires a regular supply of reliable reports and observations,

Recognising that the areas most severely affected by food shortages, for which it is particularly important to have timely and adequate information, are often those which do not possess the necessary resources and techniques to supply the informa­ tion needed for the proper functioning of the System and recognising also that the problem of inadequate food information and data collection in developing countries is largely a result of inadequate institutions,

Noting that the governments of all major food producing and consuming countries have expressed their willingness in principle to participate in expanding the existing information arrangements into a more comprehensive and global system, and also noting the importance of strengthening the information functions of FAO, Inter­

national Wheat Council and other international organisations concerned with food and agriculture,

Welcoming the action being taken by FAO to strengthen its food information and early warning systems following a decision by the FAO Conference in 1973, 1

1. Resolves that a Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as the ‘System’) should be established and agrees that FAO is the most appropriate organisation to operate and supervise the System;

29

2. Requests FAO, in co-operation with other concerned international organisations, particularly the International Wheat Council, to formulate arrangements necessary for the establishment of the System, and to submit them for final approval by govern­ ments participating in the System;

3. Requests all governments to participate in the System and extend full co­ operation, on a voluntary and regular basis, by furnishing as much current informa­ tion and forecasts as possible, including current information and forecasts obtained from the statistics and regular studies which are published, initially on basic food product, including in particular wheat, rice, coarse grains, soybeans, livestock prod­

ucts and, to the extent practicable, other important food products and other relevant aspects of their food supply and demand situation affecting world food security, such as prices and production of inputs and equipment required for agricultural pro­ duction, the food industry and livestock health, taking account of and respecting in full the sovereign rights of governments in this regard;

4. Requests governments to take steps, where necessary, to amplify and otherwise improve their data collection and dissemination services in these fields; and further requests FAO, WMO, WHO, the Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics and other multilateral and bilateral sources to urgently assist interested governments with technical and financial assistance on particular aspects in strengthening existing

arrangements for data collection and dissemination in the fields of food production, nutritional levels at various income levels, input supplies, meteorology and crop/ weather relationships, on a national or regional level as appropriate, and to co­ ordinate this action with that of the World Food Council provided for in Conference resolution XXI on arrangements for follow-up action;

5. Requests that the information thus collected be fully analysed and disseminated periodically to all participating governments, and for their exclusive use; it being understood that, where requested, certain information provided by governments would be disseminated in aggregate form particularly in order to avoid unfavourable market repercussions;

6. Requests the World Meteorological Organisation, in co-operation with FAO (a) to provide, as a part of the System, regular assessments of current and recent weather on the basis of the information presently assembled through the World Weather Watch, so as to identify agriculturally significant changes in weather patterns; (b) to expand and establish joint research projects particularly in arid and semi-arid areas, to investigate weather/crop relationships taking account of the effect of soil moisture conditions; (c) to strengthen the present global weather monitoring systems in regard to the adequacy of meteorological observations, and data processing systems, at the national and regional levels, in order to make them directly relevant to agricultural needs; and (d) to encourage investigations on the assessment of the probability of ad­ verse weather conditions occurring in various agricultural areas, and on a better

understanding of the causes of climatic variations.

RESOLUTION XVII

International Undertaking on World Food Security

The World Food Conference, Stressing the urgent need for ensuring the availability at all times of adequate world supplies of basic foodstuffs particularly so as to avoid acute food shortages in the

30

event of widespread crop failure, natural or other disasters, to sustain a steady expan­ sion of food consumption in countries with low levels of per capita intake, and olfset fluctuations in production and prices,

Recognising that very low levels of world food stocks, primarily cereals, pose a serious threat to consumption levels and make the world too dependent on the vagaries of weather,

Welcoming the progress already made through FAO towards developing a common approach for attaining the objectives of world food security, and noting that all major food producing and consuming countries support these objectives,

Reaffirming the common responsibility of the entire international community in evolving policies and arrangements designed to ensure world food security, and in particular in maintaining adequate national or regional stocks as envisaged in the proposed International Undertaking on World Food Security,

Recognising that universal participation of all producing and consuming countries is essential for the achievement of the global objectives of world food security, and stressing the importance of adherence to the objectives, policies and guidelines of the proposed International Undertaking by all governments, taking account of its volun­

tary nature and the sovereign rights of nations,

Recognising the difficulties currently faced especially by the developing countries in building up stocks through lack of adequate domestic supplies in excess of current consumption needs, the present high prices of foodgrains in world markets and the constraints imposed by serious balance of payments difficulties, which require an im­

mediate increase in the food production of the developed countries while the develop­ ing countries are simultaneously assisted to increase their food production and build up their own stocks,

1. Endorses the objectives, policies and guidelines as set out in the text of the proposed international Undertaking on World Food Security,1 invites all govern­ ments to express their readiness to adopt them and urges all governments to co­ operate in bringing into operation the proposed International Undertaking as soon as

possible; 2. Calls fo r the early completion by the FAO bodies of the operational and other practical arrangements required for the implementation of the proposed Inter­ national Undertaking, including the examination of practical economic and adminis­

trative problems involved;

3. Invites governments of all major food, primarily cereals, producing, consuming and trading countries to enter as soon as possible into discussion in appropriate inter­ national forums, with a view to accelerating the implementation of the principles con­ tained in the proposed International Undertaking on World Food Security, and also with a view to studying the feasibility of establishing grain reserves to be located at

strategic points;

4. Urges governments and the concerned international and regional organisations to provide the necessary technical, financial and food assistance in the form of grants or on specially favourable terms to develop and implement appropriate national food stocks policies in developing countries, including the ex-tension of storage and

1 E/CONF.65/4, chapter 14, annex A.

31

transport facilities, within the priorities of their national development program, so that they are in a position to participate effectively in a world food security policy.

RESOLUTION XVIII

An improved policy for food aid

The World Food Conference, Recognising that, while the ultimate solution to the problem of food shortages in developing countries lies in increased production in these countries, during the interim period food aid on grant basis and any additional food transfers on conces­ sional or agreed-upon terms to developing countries will continue to be needed, pri­ marily for meeting emergency and nutritional needs, as well as for stimulating rural employment through development projects,

Stressing the importance of evolving a longer-term food aid policy to ensure a reason­ able degree of continuity in physical supplies,

Noting that, contrary to earlier expectations, the year 1974 has failed to bring the good harvest needed for the replenishment of stocks and re-establishment of a reasonable degree of security in world food supplies, and expressing concern that most developing countries will not be able to finance their increased food import bills in the immediate period ahead,

Stressing that food aid should be provided in forms consonant with the sovereign rights of nations, neither interfering with the development objectives of recipient countries nor imposing the political objectives of donor countries upon them,

Emphasising further the paramount importance of ensuring that food aid is provided in forms which are voluntary in nature and are consistent with the agricultural development plans of recipient countries with the ultimate aim of promoting their long-term development efforts and ensuring that it does not act as a disincentive to local production and cause adverse repercussions on the domestic market or inter­ national trade, in particular of developing countries,

Taking note with interest of the work of the General Assembly at its twenty-ninth ses­ sion on the subject of strengthening the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator, in particular in relation to disaster preparedness and pre-disaster planning.

Recognising the need to increase the resources of the World Food Program, so as to enable it to play a greater and more effective role in rendering development assistance to developing countries in promoting food security and in emergency operations, and also recognising the need to increase the resources of UNICEF, to enable it to play a greater role in meeting the food needs of children in emergency operations,

1. Affirms the need for continuity of a minimum level of food aid in physical terms, in order to insulate food aid programs from the effects of excessive fluctuations in pro­ duction and prices;

2. Recommends that all donor countries accept and implement the concept of for­ ward planning of food aid, make all efforts to provide commodities and/or financial assistance that will ensure in physical terms at least 10 million tons of grains as food aid a year, starting from 1975, and also to provide adequate quantities of other food

commodities;

32

3. Requests that interested cereals exporting and importing countries, as well as cur­ rent and potential financial contributors, meet as soon as possible to take cognisance of the needs and to consider ways and means to increase food availability and financ­ ing facilities during 1975 and 1976 for the affected developing countries and, in par­

ticular, for those most seriously affected by the current food problem;

4. Urges all donor countries to (a) channel a more significant proportion of food aid through the World Food Program, (b) consider increasing progressively the grant component in their bilateral food aid program, (c) consider contributing part of any food aid repayments for supplementary nutrition programs and emergency relief, (d) provide, as appropriate, additional cash resources to food aid programs for com­

modity purchases from developing countries to the maximum extent possible;

5. Recommends that the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Pro­ gram, reconstituted as recommended in Conference resolution XXI on arrangements for follow-up action, be entrusted with the task of formulating proposals for more effective co-ordination of multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental food aid pro­ grams and of co-ordinating emergency food aid;

6. Recommends that governments, where possible, earmark stocks or funds for meeting international emergency requirements, as envisaged in the proposed inter­ national Undertaking on World Food Security, and further recommends that inter­ national guidelines for such emergency stocks be developed as a part of the proposed

Undertaking to provide for an effective co-ordination of emergency stocks and to ensure that food relief reaches the neediest and most vulnerable groups in developing countries;

7. Recommends that a part of the proposed emergency stocks be placed at the disposal of the World Food Program, on a voluntary basis, in order to increase its ca­ pacity to render speedy assistance in emergency situations.

RESOLUTION XIX

International trade, stabilisation and agricultural adjustment

The World Food Conference,

Recognising the interrelationship between the world food problem and international trade, and the role which international trade based on mutual and equitable benefits can play in solving the world food problem, including its development aspects,

Bearing in mind that the instability in the world agricultural markets, as reflected in excessive fluctuations of prices and the uncertainty about availability of agricultural products in world markets, benefits neither the producer nor the consumer countries and has negative impacts on their economies, particularly of developing countries,

Bearing in mind also that this instability seriously affects the planning of export opportunities and of import requirements,

Considering the need for stability in world markets for food, taking full account in this respect of the interests of developing importing countries which cannot afford high prices for their imports and the interests of developing exporting countries to have increased access to markets for their exports and recalling in this connection the Inter­

national Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade and the

33

United Nations General Assembly Program of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order,

Recognising the role of on-going activities of UNCTAD, GATT, FAO, the Inter­ national Wheat Council and other international organisations which have a direct or indirect concern with the questions of expansion and access to markets and pricing policy,

Emphasising the urgent need for food deficit developing countries to have available food imports at stable and reasonable prices,

Endorsing the view that increasing interdependence of the economies of individual countries necessitates a global concept of agricultural adjustment,

Bearing in mind that the international trade of agricultural and especially food prod­ ucts has been restricted by various tariff and non-tariff barriers as well as by other res­ trictions which impose a heavy burden on the balance of payments, particularly of developing countries, and that these problems have been aggravated by inflation and monetary crises,

Bearing in mind that the foreign exchange earnings of the majority of developing countries are predominantly dependent on exports of agricultural and food products and recognising that the share of these developing countries in the world agricultural exports, already modest, is continually declining,

Bearing also in mind that the provision of agricultural inputs at reasonable and stable prices has a fundamental effect upon enhancing stability in the markets of agricultural products exported by developing countries,

Underlining the importance of national measures such as agrarian reforms, market organisation, development of infrastructure, etc., for allowing the benefit of possibili­ ties created by trade expansion to accrue to the poorer sections of the rural population,

1. Calls upon all governments to co-operate in promoting a steady and increasing expansion and liberalisation of world trade with special reference to food products and an improvement in the welfare and living standards of all peoples, in particular those of developing countries; accordingly, requests all governments to co-operate, inter alia, towards the progressive reduction or abolition of obstacles to trade and all discriminatory practices, taking into account the principle of most-favoured nation treatment as applicable in GATT, and towards the improvement of the international framework for the conduct of world trade; to these ends, co-ordinated efforts shall be made to solve in an equitable way the trade problems of all countries, taking into account the specific trade problems of the developing countries;

2. Urges governments to take measures aimed at securing additional benefits for the international trade of developing countries so as to achieve a substantial increase in their foreign exchange earnings, the diversification of their exports, the acceleration of the rate of growth of their trade, taking into account their development needs, an improvement in the possibilities for these countries to participate in the expansion of world trade and a balance more favourable to developing countries in the sharing of

the advantages resulting from this expansion, through, in the largest possible measure, a substantial improvement in the conditions of access for the products of interest to the developing countries and, wherever appropriate, measures designed to

34

attain stable, equitable and remunerative prices particularly for food and agricultural products;

3. Calls upon all governments to co-operate in taking measures to prevent speculat­ ive practices aimed at destabilisation of markets and attaining of extra profits;

4. Calls upon governments to devise in the appropriate organisations effective steps for dealing with the problem of stabilising world markets particularly for foodstuffs, and especially through international arrangements aimed inter alia at increasing food production, particularly in developing countries, alleviating food shortages, ensuring

food security, and promoting prices which are remunerative to producers and fair to consumers, and which give particular attention to the interests of developing coun­ tries as importers and exporters;

5. Urges UNCTAD to intensify its efforts in considering new approaches to inter­ national commodity problems and policies and in elaborating further the proposals for an overall integrated program for commodities, with particular reference to food­ stuffs to give priority consideration to recommendations including a timetable of work

for appropriate action at an early date;

6. Requests the responsible international bodies to give the highest possible priority to speed up the consultations and negotiations within agreed time limits for reaching agreements on reduction or elimination of barriers and restrictions in international trade and enabling substantially improved access of agricultural and food products of

developing countries to the markets of developed countries in accordance with basic objectives guiding the comprehensive multilateral trade negotiations within the framework of the GATT as agreed upon in Tokyo, including the concept of non­ reciprocity and of special and more favourable treatment through differential

measures in favour of developing countries through negotiations, where this is feas­ ible and appropriate;

7. Requests all developed countries to implement, improve and enlarge their schemes under the Generalised System of Preferences and to consider its extension to food and agricultural commodities, including those which are processed or semi- processed;

8. Urges the governments participating in the intensive ad hoc consultations on com­ modities, as well as other governments, to make determined efforts to achieve sub­ stantial and concrete results in the fields of access to markets and pricing policy, and recommends to all Governments to take concrete action on proposals made in the

intensive consultations which are accepted by them;

9. Calls upon governments of developed countries, in the determination of attitudes towards farm support programs for domestic food production, to take into account as far as possible the interests of the food exporting developing countries, in order to avoid detrimental effects to their exports;

10. Requests the developed countries to enable and facilitate to the extent possible the expansion of food and agricultural imports from developing countries, in com­ petition with domestic production, thus providing a fair and reasonable opportunity to increase their export earnings and to allow developing countries which export to these developed markets to plan their production and exports on a forward basis; 1

1 1. Reaffirms the importance given by the member countries of the FAO to inter­ national agricultural adjustment and the need for governments to work together

35

toward greater consistency in their national and regional policies bearing on future changes in food and agriculture;

12. Requests that FAO take full account of the discussions and decisions of the World Food Conference in formulating and implementing the proposed strategy of the international agricultural adjustment;

13. Requests the governments of developed countries and international organis­ ations concerned to increase the field assistance to the developing countries in export promotion activities and mechanisms, and in training of agricultural marketing and trade personnel, taking due account of the diversification process and development needs;

14. Calls upon countries and organisations concerned to devote special attention to the solution of the problems facing developing countries in the matter of transpor­ tation of foodstuffs;

15. Invites the developing countries to expand their mutual economic co-operation and invites the developed countries and the international organisations concerned to maintain and expand their support for economic co-operation among developing countries;

16. Stresses the need for measures assuring the poorer sections of the rural popu­ lation of their share in the opportunities and benefits offered by trade expansion;

17. Requests the World Food Program and other international organisations con­ cerned to give priority to the use of cash resources available for multilateral or bilat­ eral food aid for purchases in developing countries at competitive world market prices and terms;

18. Urges the developed countries and other countries concerned and international financial institutions concerned to give favourable considerations to the provision of adequate assistance to developing countries in cases of balance-of-payments difficul­ ties arising from fluctuations in export receipts or import costs, particularly with regard to food;

19. Requests the governments of all countries and international organisations con­ cerned, when considering all the subjects contained in this resolution, to give the highest possible priority and the most favourable terms to the least developed, land­ locked and island developing countries and to developing countries most seriously affected by economic crises.

RESOLUTION XX

Payment of travel costs and other related expenses to representatives of national liberation movements

The World Food Conference, Recalling resolution 1892 (L VII) of 8 August 1974 of the Economic and Social Coun­ cil, and in particular paragraph 2(d),

Recalling further resolution XX of the World Population Conference,

Decides to request the General Assembly to defray all travel costs and other related expenses of representatives of the national liberation movements who have par­ ticipated in the World Food Conference.

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RESOLUTION XXI

Expression of thanks

The World Food Conference, Recognising the gravity of the world food problem and national and international efforts to find adequate solutions thereof,

Convinced that the World Food Conference which took place at Rome from 5 to 16 November 1974 represents a major contribution to the efforts of the United Nations as well as the international community to find urgent solutions to the immediate and long-term problems of food shortages, hunger and malnutrition,

Expresses its deep appreciation to the President of the Republic of Italy, Mr Giovanni Leone and to all the people of the Republic of Italy for hosting the World Food Con­ ference at Rome, and for their generous hospitality and great contribution to the suc­ cessful completion of the work of the Conference.

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FOLLOW-UP ACTION

RESOLUTION XXII1

Arrangements for follow-up action, including appropriate operational machinery on recommendations or resolutions of the Conference

The World Food Conference,

Recognising that an assurance of adequate world food supplies is a matter of life and death for millions of human beings,

Appreciating the complex nature of the world food problem, which can only be solved through an integrated multi-disciplinary approach within the framework of economic and social development as a whole,

Considering that collective world food security within the framework of a world food policy should be promoted and its concept further defined and elaborated, so that it should foster the acceleration of the process of rural development in developing coun­ tries as well as ensure the improvement of international co-operation,

Appreciating the need to co-ordinate and strengthen the work of the international agencies concerned, and to ensure that their operational activities are co-ordinated in an effective and integrated world food policy,

Recognising in particular the need for improved institutional arrangements to increase world food production, to safeguard world food security, to improve world food trade, and to ensure that timely action is taken to meet the threat of acute food shortages or famines in the different developing regions,

1. Calls upon the General Assembly to establish a World Food Council, at the min­ isterial or plenipotentiary level, to function as an organ of the United Nations report­ ing to the General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council, to serve as a co-ordinating mechanism to provide overall, integrated and continuing attention for

the successful co-ordination and follow-up of policies concerning food production, nutrition, food security, food trade and food aid, as well as other related matters, by all the agencies of the United Nations system;

2. Takes note of the fact that inter-agency meetings between the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the heads of the specialised agencies provide an oppor­ tunity for considering necessary constitutional amendments to improve the function­ ing of the United Nations system;

3. Requests that the present resolution be taken into account in such consultations with a view to facilitating its early implementation:

4. Recommends that:

(a) The World Food Council should consist of . . . members, nominated by the Economic and Social Council and elected by the General Assembly, taking into consideration balanced geographical representation. The Council should invite the heads of United Nations agencies concerned to attend its sessions;

'Adopted by the Conference at its 16th meeting on 16 November 1974.

38

( b ) The Council should elect its President on the basis of geographical rotation and approve its rules of procedure. It should be serviced within the frame­ work of FAO, with headquarters at Rome; (c) The Council should review periodically major problems and policy issues

affecting the world food situation, and the steps being proposed or taken to resolve them by governments, by the United Nations system and its regional organisations, and should further recommend remedial action as appropri­ ate. The scope of the Council’s review should extend to all aspects of world food problems in order to adopt an integrated approach towards their sol­ ution; (d) The Council should establish its own program of action for co-ordination of

relevant United Nations bodies and agencies. While doing so, it should give special attention to the problems of the least developed countries and the countries most seriously affected; (e) The Council should maintain contacts with, receive reports from, give advice

to, and make recommendations to United Nations bodies and agencies with regard to the formulation and follow-up of world food policies; (f) The Council should work in full co-operation with regional bodies to formu­ late and follow-up policies approved by the Council. Committees to be estab­

lished by these regional bodies should be serviced by existing United Nations or FAO bodies in the region concerned;

5. Recommends further that the FAO establish a Committee on World Food Secur­ ity as a standing committee of the FAO Council. The Committee should submit periodic and special reports to the World Food Council. The functions of the Com­ mittee on World Food Security should include the following:

(a) to keep the current and prospective demand, supply and stock position for basic foodstuffs under continuous review, in the context of world food secur­ ity, and to disseminate timely information on developments; (b) to make periodic evaluations of the adequacy of current and prospective

stock levels, in aggregate, in exporting and importing countries, in order to assure a regular flow of supplies of basic foodstuffs to meet requirements in domestic and world markets, including food aid requirements, in time of short crops and serious crop failure; (c) to review the steps taken by governments to implement the proposed Inter­

national Undertaking on World Food Security; (d) to recommend such short-term and long-term policy action as may be con­ sidered necessary to remedy any difficulty foreseen in assuring adequate cereal supplies for minimum world food security;

6. Recommends further that the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Program be reconstituted so as to enable it to help evolve and co-ordinate short-term and longer-term food aid policies recommended by the Conference, in addition to discharging its existing functions. The reconstituted Committee should be called, and

function as, the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programs. The Committee should submit periodical and special reports to the World Food Council. The func­ tions of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programs should include the following: .

(a) to provide a forum for intergovernmental consultations on national and international food aid programs and policies, with particular reference to

39

possibilities of securing improved co-ordination between bilateral and multilateral food aid;

(b) to review periodically general trends in food aid requirements and food aid availabilities;

(c) to recommend to governments, through the World Food Council, improvements in food aid policies and programs on such matters as program priorities, composition of food aid commodities and other related subjects;

7. Recommends further that the Governing Board of the proposed International Fund for Agriculatural Development should submit information periodically to the World Food Council on the programs approved by the Board. The Board should take into consideration the advice and recommendations of the Council;

8. Recommends that the World Food Council should receive periodic reports from UNCTAD, through the Economic and Social Council, on the world food trade situ­ ation, as well as on the effective progress to increase trade liberalisation and access to international markets for food products exported by developing countries. UNCTAD

should take into consideration the advice and recommendations of the Council on these matters. The Council should also seek to arrange for the receipt of relevant information from the GATT. In its recommendation on food trade matters, the Coun­ cil should pay particular attention to the resolutions and recommendations of the

Conference;

19. Requests the FAO to initiate urgent steps, through its Commission on Fertilisers, for following-up on Conference resolution III on Fertilisers, and to take appropriate initiatives with respect to fertilisers, pesticides, fungicides and herbicides, working in­ close co-operation with UNIDO and IBRD, and other agencies. The FAO Com­ mission on Fertilisers should submit periodic reports to the World Food Council, and should be guided by the advice and recommendations of the Council;

10. Requests FAO to examine its ability to follow up on Conference resolution XVI on the Global Information System and Early-Warning System in Food and Agricul­ ture, with a view to recommending to the FAO Council, at its sixty-fifth session in 1975, any new arrangements which may be necessary with respect to its activities in this field, and to initiate whatever other arangements may be necessary to facilitate global coverage as called for by the above-mentioned resolution, drawing upon the help in this regard of ECOSOC, if necessary, as well as that of the International Wheat Council and other organisations. Periodic reports on progress should be sub­ mitted to the World Food Council;

11. Requests the Economic and Social Council to consider on an urgent basis, and make recommendations, whether or not rearrangements in the United Nations sys­ tem or new institutional bodies may be justified in order to ensure effective follow-up on Conference resolution V on nutrition, examining nutritional activities within bodies such as the United Nations, the specialised agencies, in particular FAO and WHO, UNICEF and the World Food Program, and also giving appropriate attention to nutritional programs being conducted on a bilateral basis;

12. Requests the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and the Technical Advisory Committee to assume leadership in following up on the research aspect of Conference resolution IV on research;

40

13. Requests FAO, IBRD, UNDP and other relevant international organisations and interested governments to investigate the desirability of introducing an organisa­ tional approach, along the lines of the Consultative Group—Technical Advisory Committee for Agricultural Research, for other sectors such as extension, agricultural credit and rural development;

14. Requests the IBRD, FAO and UNDP to organise a Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries (CGFPI), to be composed of bi­ lateral and multilateral donors and representatives of developing countries, chosen as in the case of the CGIAR, to be staffed jointly by the IBRD, FAO and UNDP, and invites this Consultative Group to keep the World Food Council informed of its

activities to increase, co-ordinate and improve the efficiency of financial and technical asistance to agricultural production in developing countries;

15. Recommends that the main functions of the CGFPI should be (a) to encourage a larger flow of external resources for food production, (b) to improve the co­ ordination of activities of different multilateral and bilateral donors providing finan­ cial and technical assistance for food production and (c) to ensure a more effective use

of available resources;

16. Anticipating the possibility that such measures as may be agreed to provide financial assistance to developing countries for procurement of food and necessary food production inputs, particularly fertilisers and pesticides, and for investment in food production and distribution systems, may not fulfil all needs, requests the Development Committee established by the IBRD and IMF to keep under constant review the adequacy of the external resources available for these purposes, especially to the less advantaged countries, and to consider in association with the CGFPI new

measures which may be necessary to achieve the required volume of resources transfers.

41

MEMBERS OF THE DELEGATION Leader

Deputy Leader and Representative

Representatives

Alternative R ep resen tatives

Senator the Honourable K. S. Wriedt, Minister for Agriculture, Canberra

Mr R. S. Swift, O.B.E., Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture Canberra

H.E. Mr J. E. Ryan, Ambassador to Italy, Rome

M rD. Thomas, Adviser to the Minister for Agriculture, Canberra

M rG. E. Pettit, Assistant Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Canberra

Mr C. F. Teese, Minister (Commercial), Australian Mission to the United Nations, Geneva

Mr P. Kelloway, Assistant Director-General, Australian Development Assistance Agency, Canberra

MrG. M. Percival, Counsellor (Agriculture), Australian Mission to the European Communities,

Brussels

Mr J. K. Baker, Director, Commodity Policy Branch, Department of Overseas Trade, Canberra

Mr N. Stuparich, Head, Aid and Development Section, Department of the Treasury, Canberra

Mr J. D. Christian, First Secretary (Agriculture), Australian Embassy, Rome

42

Special Adviser

Mr P.T. O ’Sullivan, Second Secretary, Australian Embassy, Rome

Mr A. Smith, National Executive Director, Australian Freedom from Hunger Campaign, Sydney

43

AUSTRALIAN DELEGATION TO THE

UNITED NATIONS WORLD FOOD CONFERENCE

ROME, ITALY, 5-16 NOVEMBER 1974

Address by the Australian Minister for Agriculture, Senator K.S. Wriedt at the World Food Conference, Plenary Session, Rome, Italy, 6 November 1974

The Australian Government approaches the World Food Conference with a sense of urgency. We believe that the Conference could be the first step in a new strategy designed to rid the world of hunger and malnutrition.

Australia comes ready to co-operate and contribute to this end, both at the Confer­ ence and in all the action that will flow from it.

The major new initiatives required demand the attention and effort on the part of every government represented at this Conference. There is no room for any section of the world community to throw the onus of finding solutions on to other sections of the world community. All must make their own contributions.

Expansion of Food Production in the Developing Countries Australia fully endorses the emphasis that has been placed by the Secretary-General and the Preparatory Committee on the expansion of food production in the develop­ ing countries. The Australian delegation will take an active and a constructive

approach to the detailed examination of this question by the first committee of the Conference. At this point, I would express support for the views expressed by the Sri Lanka delegation that the approach of Committee I to questions of fertilisers should be specific and tangible.

It must be left to governments of the developing countries to set priorities in economic and social development within their countries which ensure an adequate priority within those programs for food production, and which improve the effectiveness of the systems of food distribution.

Other countries which have the resources and capacity have the responsibility of help­ ing the developing countries in their task. This means assistance with money, essential inputs and knowledge. The size of the task and the vital necessity for success demand the involvement of all countries with the capacity to contribute to those programs. Amongst those countries there should be an equitable sharing of costs.

Problems of efficient distribution within developing countries and minimising post­ harvest losses are referred to in Chapters V and VI of the Assessment Document. The Australian delegation sees it as important that the discussions in the first Committee of the Conference should give adequate attention to these issues.

Policies and Programs for Improving Nutrition National food and nutrition policies are very much a matter for the countries con­ cerned. Australia is ready to consider sympathetically any proposals for assistance in supplementary feeding of vulnerable groups through programs designed in co­ operation with recipient governments.

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World Food Security

Australia places high importance on the action proposals presented to the Conference under the heading of World Food Security. We are aware of all of the inhibitions and the complexities and we know that action, in this field especially, will result only from approaches which take account of the realities of the situation.

Nevertheless we see it as imperative that ways be found of providing for the world some security cover for its food supplies.

We offer the strongest possible support to the world food security proposals. These include expanded and improved food information and early warning systems, the proposals for an international system of national grain reserves, and expanded and

better co-ordinated flows of food aid.

Workable and enduring arrangements for world food security will be best achieved if discussions and negotiations take account of the commercial implications of these ar­ rangements for the participating countries.

Nevertheless the central and overriding need for some measure of security for the world’s food supplies must be regarded as paramount by all countries whose partici­ pation is necessary if the arrangements are to be effective.

Trade Matters

Australia is generally sympathetic to the aspirations of the developing countries in trade matters. We do not see this Conference as a trade negotiating forum. At the same time we hope that the conference will give a beneficial impetus to negotiations elsewhere, in ways which will be to the overall benefit of the developing countries and

the whole international community. It would be wise for conclusions or resolutions of this Conference to be stated in terms which would not prejudge the outcome of trade negotiations elsewhere.

To some extent the third committee will have a delicate task. While its discussions on trade matters must be directed towards the aim of increasing the capacity of develop­ ing countries to be more self-reliant in food matters, the committee will have to bear in mind that the capacity of the developed countries—both to supply the food import

needs of the developing countries and to provide necessary flows of aid—must be maintained.

I n s t i t u t i o n s

Our approach is that the fullest use of existing institutions, effectively co-ordinated and adapted where necessary, would be preferable to the creation of new institutions. However, we certainly would not oppose the establishment of new institutions if there is wide support for them in the Conference, especially from those countries which can

make significant contributions to the solving of the world’s food problems.

Let me now state specifically what Australia is doing and proposes to do.

We have not waited for the World Food Conference to do what we can.

Two years ago we lifted our production targets to figures above what had been our highest-ever production and provided increased financial incentives to our farmers.

We have now removed all production restrictions for next year and provided further financial incentives.

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Last year we liberalised credit facilities for developing countries hit by price increases. We are continuing those arrangements for next year.

To the full extent that our present harvest allows, we will allocate as much wheat as we can to developing countries facing shortages.

In recent years we have maintained our quantitative level of food aid despite higher prices. This year we have increased this quantity by about half.

We will further strive to adopt an expanded three year commitment along the lines announced by Canada.

With Canada we accept the setting of a minimum target of world aid flows of about ten million tons of food grains a year.

We will substantially increase our assistance to agricultural production in developing countries. This year we have increased our budget provision for development assist­ ance by 3 1 per cent to US$443m. This represents about 0.6 per cent of GNP. Practi­ cally all of our aid is provided as grants, without strings.

In future an increasing proportion of our total aid disbursements will be devoted to rural development.

We are willing to provide additional experts to assist developing countries. We will do whatever we can towards meeting the need for the transfer of technology to develop­ ing countries.

We have allocated an additional US$52m aid this year for the UN Special Program.

We welcome the Canadian announcement of an immediate allocation of 50m dollars of aid to be used in ways which will make an effective impact on the present critical situation.

Australia undertakes to make available a proportionate amount for similar purposes.

Mr President, Australia looks to this Conference to point the way to effective action. We believe that in an overall strategy designed to rid the world of hunger and malnu­ trition, the success or failure of the Conference will depend on whether or not it per­ suades all governments represented here to contribute to the greater efforts needed to deal with the problem.

The Australian Prime Minister has a deep personal commitment to international co­ operation and the cause of assisting the developing nations.

The whole of the Australian delegation will go from the Conference with a sharper awareness of the world’s food needs and with a genuine intention to do all we can.

When the lines of action have been laid down by the Conference, Australia will be found ready to play its full part in whatever further steps are necessary to carry the action forward.

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