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Wildlife conservation - Plenipotentiary Conference to Conclude International Convention on Trade in Certain Species of Wildlife, Washington, D.C., 12 February-2 March 1973 - Report of Australian Delegation


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THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1973— Parliamentary Paper No. 64

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

Sum m ary Report of the A ustralian D elegation to the P len ip oten tiary C onference to C onclude an International C onvention o n Trade in Certain

Species of W ildlife

W ashington, D. C.

12 February-2 March 1973

Presented by Command 17 May 1973 Ordered to be printed 31 May 1973

THE GO VERNM ENT PRIN TER OF AUSTRALIA

CANBERRA : 1973

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SUMMARY REPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN DELEGATION TO THE PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE TO CONCLUDE AN

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN CERTAIN SPECIES

OF WILDLIFE

This summary report sets out the background and main outcome of the Conference in relation to Australia’s interests. The following appendices are attached:

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

2.1 2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

Appendix 3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Australian delegation

Statements to the Conference by

Mr Richard Nixon, President of the United States of America

The Honourable Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior Mr Maurice F. Strong, Executive Director UN Environment Program

The Honourable Russell E. Train, Chairman, Council on Environmental Quality and Chairman of the United States Delegation Dr D. F. McMichael, Leader, Australian Delegation

Conference Agenda

Final List of Participants Final Act of the Plenipotentiary Conference to Conclude an International Convention on Trade in Certain Species of Wildlife

Text of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Proposed Additions to Appendices I and II

Conference Resolutions

12839/73—2

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Background to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

The initial move towards an international convention to conserve species of wild animals and plants threatened by international trade was launched at the Eighth General Assembly of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN at Nairobi in 1963.

A draft of such a convention was prepared by IUCN and sent to governments for consideration and comment in September 1967. Subsequent drafts incorporat­ ing amendments were prepared in 1969 and 1971.

The idea of a convention was adopted by the UN Conference on the Human Environment held at Stockholm in June 1972 which recommended that a plenipotentiary conference be called as soon as possible to prepare and adopt a convention on export, import and transit of certain species of wild animals and plants. In November 1972 the United States Government extended an invitation to host such a conference in Washington, D.C.

Australia is appreciative of the work and foresight of the IUCN in preparing the ground for the negotiation of this Convention. It also appreciates the gesture of the United States Government in hosting the Conference.

Representation at the Conference

Eighty-eight States were represented by delegates or observers, and six inter­ national organisations including IUCN also sent observers.

The Australian delegation consisted of:

Representative Dr D. F. McMichael, Secretary, Department of the Environment and Conservation, Canberra

Alternate Representative Dr H. J. Frith, Chief, Division of Wildlife Research, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra

Advisers D. L. O’Connor, First Assistant Comptroller-General, Imports and Exports Division,

Department of Customs and Excise, Canberra Prof. Harry Messel, Head of School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney Dr G. W. Saunders,

Director, Fauna Conservation Branch, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane

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William Hartley, Counsellor (Scientific), Embassy of Australia, Washington, D.C,

G. J. Kelly, Senior Legal Officer, Attorney-General’s Department, Canberra

Stuart H. R. Hume, First Secretary, Embassy of Australia, Washington, D.C.

The Australian delegation played an active role in the Conference. Dr D. McMichael was elected as a Vice-Chairman of the Conference and appointed to the Credentials Committee. Australia was represented by Dr McMichael on the Steering Committee and by Dr H. Frith and Dr G. Saunders on the Committee I

dealing with listing of animals on appendices. Mr William Hartley was elected Chairman of the Committee dealing with listing of endangered plant species, Mr D. O’Connor was elected a joint Chairman of the Committee dealing with customs matters and Mr G. Kelly was elected to the Drafting Committee.

One of the outstanding aspects of the Conference was that due to the skilled chairmanship of Mr Christian A. Herter Jr and the goodwill of all participants any matters in dispute, and clearly there were many, were resolved by negotiation and it was not necessary to call for a vote on any issue. Australia assisted in solving

some of the delicate issues particularly those arising in relation to marine life where strong polarisation of views existed initially between the fishing and non fishing nations.

Members of the inter-departmental committee which prepared the brief for the delegation assisted in resolving Australia’s attitude to various aspects of the Con­ ference. This inter-departmental committee was chaired by the Department of the Environment and Conservation and included the Departments of Foreign Affairs, Customs and Excise, Primary Industry, Overseas Trade, Science, and External Territories, the Attorney-General’s Department and C.S.I.R.O. Assistance in

preparing information for the Australian brief was also provided by the various wildlife authorities in the States and Territories.

Final Act

The Final Act of the Conference contains a summary of the proceedings, the names of the States which participated, the committees established and the resolu­ tions adopted. The Convention itself including the Appendices listing plant and animal species is attached as an appendix to the Final Act.

The purpose of the Final Act is to provide an accurate record of the proceedings of the meeting which can be signed by individuals accredited as members of dele­ gations to the Conference. Signing of the Final Act does not commit any Govern­ ment to adhere to the Convention.

There were two resolutions of the Conference which were not included as part of the Final Act but which are of particular interest to Australia. Firstly, a resolu­ tion that international organisations directly or indirectly involved in the problems of ensuring preservation of wildlife species, provide maximum financial support in

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organising courses of study, in co-operating to develop and implement research programs, awarding scholarships, and making available, to such governments as requested them, experts in these matters so that knowledge in the field of wild­ life and awareness of the need for its conservation may increase according to present and future needs.

The second resolution concerned the inadequacy of world knowledge on the extent to which plant species are threatened, and stated:

‘(1) That the special attention of the Secretariat be drawn to this problem, and that it be requested to initiate such action as may appear approp­ riate, having regard to the recommendations made in the report of Committee II (flora)

(2) That the Secretariat present a report to the next Conference of Con­ tracting States on the progress made with its recommendations for further action’.

Treaty Provisions The main aim of the treaty is to regulate trade in species of wildlife and in particular to ensure international co-operation in controlling or preventing trade in species threatened with extinction.

The Convention avoids interference with legitimate international commerce in those species which are withstanding rational exploitation. An important aspect is that the Convention in no way impedes any state from imposing more restrictive measures than those of the Convention to protect its own wildlife.

A virtual ban is imposed on trade in species which are now considered to be threatened with imminent extinction, while for those species in which trade is a significant factor which could affect their survival, a strong system of inter­ national control is implemented. There are three appendices to the Convention:

‘Appendix I shall include all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade. Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorised in exceptional circumstances.’ Trade in species in Appendix I cannot proceed without both export and import certificates. Australia has listed 33 mammal, 11 bird and 1 reptile species in Appendix I.

Appendix II species are those ‘(a) which although not necessarily now threatened with extinction may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilisation incompatible with their survival and (b) other species which must be subject to regulation in order that trade in specimens of certain species referred to in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be brought under effective control’.

A number of Australian species are listed in Appendix II including crocodiles and green turtles while others were proposed for addition to the list by the Australian delegation in the light of the definition of Appendix II species finally adopted by the Conference.

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These proposed additions are:

Megaleia rufa— Red Kangaroo

Macropus giganteus—Eastern Grey Kangaroo M. fuliginosus— Western Grey Kangaroo M. robustus—Euro M. parryi— Whiptail Wallaby

M. rujogriseus—Bennetts Wallaby M. agilis— Agile Wallaby

Wallabia bicolour— Swamp Wallaby

The Convention provides for an Appendix III to include ‘all species which any Party identifies as being subject to regulation within its jurisdiction for the purpose of preventing or restricting exploitation, and as needing the co-operation of other parties in the control of trade’. Species for Appendix III cannot be listed until States

become parties to the Convention.

A Secretariat, which it is understood will be provided by the United Nations Environment Program, will service the Convention. To the extent and in the manner he considers appropriate, the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program may be assisted by suitable inter-governmental or non­

governmental, international and national agencies and bodies technically qualified in protection, conservation and management of wild fauna and flora.

The Convention also includes provision for each member country to provide a scientific authority and a management authority. The scientific authority means a national scientific authority designated in accordance with Article IX of the Convention and likewise the management authority means a national manage­ ment authority designated in accordance with Article IX. Article IX provides that

each party shall designate for the purposes of the present Convention,

(a) one or more management authorities competent to grant permits or certificates on behalf of that party; and (b) one or more scientific authorities, who will be required to certify that the export or import as the case may be will not be detrimental to the survival

of the species.

Special Aspects of the Convention

Marine Species One of the major problem areas that arose during the Conference related to marine species and introduction from the sea. Some of the nations which rely on fishing were concerned to ensure that this Convention did not prejudice their

rights to continue fishing or override provisions in existing treaties such as the International Whaling Convention. On the other hand some nations sought to impose heavy restrictions on trade in marine species.

The Australian delegation played a major role in reaching compromises on whether the Convention should apply to marine species and whether provisions

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should be included for introductions from the sea. As a result of these com­ promises special provision was made in Article XIV which relates to the affect of the Convention on domestic legislation and international conventions in relation to marine species. Paragraphs 4 and 5 of Article XIV provide:

‘4. A State, party to the present Convention, which is also a party to any other treaty, convention or international agreement which is in force at the time of the coming into force of the present Convention and under the provisions of which protection is afforded to marine species included in Appendix II,

shall be relieved of the obligations imposed on it under the provisions of the present Convention with respect to trade in specimens of species included in Appendix II that are taken by ships registered in that State and in accordance with the provisions of such other treaty, convention or international agreement.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles III, IV and V, any export of a specimen taken in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article shall only require a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction to the effect that the specimen was taken in accordance with the provisions of the other treaty, convention or international agreement in question.’

It should be noted that these exemptions do not apply to species in Appendix I. The five whale species at present placed under moratorium by the International Whaling Commission are listed in this Appendix.

Provisions relating to introduction from the sea were included in the Con­ vention on the basis that ‘introduction from the sea’ was defined as ‘transportation into a State of specimens of any species which were taken in the marine environ­ ment not under the jurisdiction of any State’.

To ensure that these provisions would not affect the positions of parties relating to the law of the sea, paragraph 6, Article XIV provides:

‘6. Nothing in the present Convention shall prejudice the codification and development of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea convened pursuant to Resolution 2750c (XXV) of the General Assembly of the United Nations nor the present or future claims and legal views of any State concerning the law of the sea and the nature and extent of coastal and flag State jurisdiction.’

Special provision was also made in paragraphs 6 and 7 of Article IV relating to introduction from the sea of specimens of species in Appendix II.

‘6. The introduction from the sea of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant of a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction. A certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of introduction advises that the intro­ duction will not be detrimental to the survival of the species involved; and (b) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that any living specimen will be so handled as to minimise the risk of injury,

damage to health or cruel treatment.

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7. Certificates referred to in paragraph 6 of this Article may be granted on the advice of a Scientific Authority, in consultation with other national scien­ tific authorities or, when appropriate, international scientific authorities, in respect of periods not exceeding one year for total numbers of specimens to be introduced in such periods.’

Definition of Species

Another contentious issue arose in attempting to define a specimen. Although it is a relatively simple matter with whole animals or plants, it is essential with parts and products that unrealistic demands are not placed on Customs officers who have the task of identification at the port of entry. For example, it would be impractical for most countries to examine and analyse the transmission oil in imported vehicles to determine whether it contained products from endangered

species listed in the Appendices.

The final definition approved seems the most practical in the circumstances i.e. specimen means:

‘(i) any animal or plant, whether alive or dead; (ii) in the case of an animal: for species included in Appendices I and II, any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendix III, any readily recognisable part or derivative

thereof specified in Appendix III in relation to the species; and (iii) in the case of a plant: for species included in Appendix I, any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendices II and III, any readily recognisable part or derivative

thereof specified in Appendices II and III in relation to the species;’.

Amendment Procedures It was considered important to ensure that satisfactory and adequate amend­ ment procedures were included for the Convention itself and the Appendices. It was recognised that from time to time it would be necessary to add or subtract

species from the Appendices but that this should not be possible for Appendices I and II by unilateral decision. The procedures finally agreed upon provide satis­ factory safeguards to ensure that the rights of individual countries are protected with regard to their native wildlife, and to ensure that all contracting parties

are given the opportunity to participate in the decision on any proposed amendments.

Action Flowing from the Conference The Convention is now open for signing and Australia has the opportunity to decide whether to become a party or not.

If Australia does sign the Convention it will be necessary to take appropriate legislative and administrative actions prior to ratification to comply with the requirements of the Convention and to implement its provisions.

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Firstly it will be necessary for Australia to designate a national scientific authority with the expertise to be able to certify the status of species listed in the various Appendices and recommend on the advisability of allowing the issue of permits.

Secondly, Australia will need to designate a management authority which will be responsible for the issue of permits and also determine satisfactory regulations for the housing and transport of wildlife and holding of illegal imports which may be apprehended.

These actions will be initiated by the Department of the Environment and Conservation in consultation with interested Departments.

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AUSTRALIAN DELEGATION

Representative Dr Donald F. McMichael, Secretary, Department of Environment and Conservation,

Canberra

Alternate Representative Dr H. J. Frith, Chief, Division of Wildlife Research, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization,

Canberra

Advisers D. L. O’Connor, First Assistant Comptroller-General, Imports and Exports Division,

Department of Customs and Excise, Canberra Prof. Harry Messel, Head of School of Physics,

University of Sydney, Sydney Dr G. W. Saunders, Director, Fauna Conservation,

Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane William Hartley, Counsellor (Scientific),

Embassy of Australia, Washington, D.C.

G. J. Kelly, Senior Legal Officer, Attorney-General’s Department, Canberra Stuart H. R. Hume,

First Secretary, Embassy of Australia, Washington, D.C.

Appendix 1

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Appendix 2.1

MESSAGE OF WELCOME FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED

STATES AT THE OPENING SESSION OF THE

PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE TO CONCLUDE AN

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN CERTAIN SPECIES

OF WILDLIFE, 12 FEBRUARY 1973

On behalf of my fellow citizens I extend a warm welcome to the delegates from around the world who have come to the United States to participate in this Endangered Species Conference. I continue to be hopeful about the prospects of international co-operation in the environmental field. It is encouraging that the common search for a better environment can be one of those activities which serves to unify nations, and the United States remains firmly committed to furthering the development of such co-operation.

The rate of extinction of wildlife species is increasing alarmingly around the world. At least one of every ten species of wildlife is subject to serious threat. In the United States alone we consider 15 per cent of the forms of our wildlife to be endangered.

We have taken many important steps to reverse this trend. So have the nations which you represent. But all of us have found that ongoing international trade involving the endangered species is a major threat to these efforts. And all of us are determined to deal with this problem directly through a strong convention backed by vigorous national interest and action. I applaud you for the constructive partnership you have formed to meet a challenge that is everywhere recognised as the responsibility of all nations. You have a historic opportunity to work together for the common good, and I wish you every success in your deliberations.

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Appendix 2.2

WELCOMING REMARKS BY

THE HONOURABLE ROGERS C. B. MORTON, SECRETARY OF THE

INTERIOR, BEFORE THE OPENING SESSION OF THE

PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE TO CONCLUDE AN

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN CERTAIN SPECIES

OF WILDLIFE, 12 FEBRUARY 1973

It is a great pleasure for me to welcome the delegates to this important Conference. You are here today not merely as the representatives of individual nations, but in a true sense as the representatives of mankind in a meeting with his own conscience. In our moulding the world to fit human needs, we have taken upon

our conscience the responsibility for the other species that we threaten, yet are privileged to share the bounties of this planet. Their evolution down the centuries has not equipped them to contest man’s supremacy: if they are to survive it must be owing to man’s self-control.

Today, all men share the bond of concern for the future of our planet. That bond is impervious to geographic, cultural, or ideological influences. Last year at the Stockholm Conference, we crossed the threshhold of an era where all nations and all men agree to work together to save our natural heritage and protect our

environment. What you do at this Conference is an important part of that new international endeavour. For the threat to the wildlife of our earth— the leopards of the Serengeti, the polar bear of the Arctic, the whales under the sea—is in a

sense a part of the threat to mankind from the degradation of his environment.

It is ironic that men can move so rapidly in doing harm to the environment and so slowly in protecting it. This Conference had a long incubation period, going back at least a decade to the original efforts of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1963.

But time is moving on for many species, it is moving against the future of our wildlife. The rate of extinction has been on the rise dramatically. Of the recorded extinctions of mammals over the last two thousand years, fully half have met their final fate within the last sixty years. It is sad to acknowledge to ourselves that

during the ten years we have been preparing for this meeting, perhaps 8 per cent of all recorded mammal extinctions have taken place. My fellow citizens of the world our task is urgent.

Our task is by its very nature a truly international endeavour. In the final analysis, each country must carry the burden of protecting its own wildlife. But we have found that so long as international trade in wildlife is not controlled, the individual country, acting alone, is not able to act effectively to protect its

native species which are threatened or endangered. If the demand is not controlled, the supplier nation cannot move effectively to protect itself. And even if one country acts to control its own demands— as the United States has in its Endangered Species Protection Act of 1969 and the Lacey Act—the demand will

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merely move from that country to another, and the market still creates the same insoluble problem for the supplier country. Experience make it clear: unless we all act together to control trade in the endangered species, none of us will be able to act as effectively as we must to protect what is precious and is our own.

Therefore, you do have a vital and urgent task before you at this Conference. In concluding this Convention, you are performing an honourable duty before future generations. You are showing man’s responsibility in safeguarding the fragile legacy of the wild species of our world.

In welcoming you on behalf of the United States Government, I assure you that the people of this country— and truly all the peoples of the world— salute you in what you are doing.

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Appendix 2.3

WELCOMING REMARKS BY MR MAURICE F. STRONG, EXECUTIVE

DIRECTOR, UN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM, CONFERENCE TO

CONCLUDE AN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE

IN CERTAIN SPECIES OF WILDLIFE, 12 FEBRUARY 1973

Mr Secretary, Excellencies, Distinguished Delegates, as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, it was my privilege to take an active part in the extensive consultations involving more than 100 governments which preceded that Conference. This was an integral part of the

preparations for the Conference; but it was also in a very real sense the beginning of an action process which was designed to initiate and accelerate action on certain key issues which did not have to be confined to the consideration given them by the Conference itself.

The intensive work done by governments in the two years preceding the Conference thus made it possible for them to reach agreement on, (1) a Declaration containing 26 Principles to guide the conduct of nations towards each other in the environmental era, (2) an Action Plan consisting of 109

Recommendations for a series of co-operative international actions as part of a concerted international attack on man’s basic environmental problems and, (3) measures for organisation and financing to permit implementation of the program. These formed the basis for the action taken subsequently by the General Assembly

in establishing the United Nations Environment Program and the UN Environment Fund.

It also made possible substantial progress on several significant international conventions including in particular the completion of a convention establishing a World Heritage Trust and the Convention controlling the dumping of toxic substances into the oceans which was agreed in principle at Stockholm and

completed at the inter-governmental meeting held for this purpose in London last October.

In a very real sense the meeting which you are now beginning represents the continuation of the action process which the preparations for Stockholm initiated. Recommendation 99 of the Action Plan included a recommendation, ‘that a plenipotentiary conference be convened as soon as possible, under appropriate governmental or intergovernmental auspices to prepare and adopt a convention

on export, import and transit of certain species of wild animals and plants.’ The implementation of this recommendation was included amongst the objectives of the environmental management activities established as part of the Action Plan.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the Govern­ ment of the United States for convening this meeting to provide governments with an opportunity of acting on this recommendation. This initiative is another example of the leadership which the United States has given in the environmental

field and the outstanding contribution it made to the success of the Stockholm Conference.

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I am grateful for the privilege of participating in this meeting and associating myself with the important work you are undertaking here. You may be assured that our secretariat will do everything we can to assist and facilitate your work.

There was a time when the protection of wildlife was considered as an idiosyncratic preoccupation of a few special interest groups. But our new ecological awareness makes us realise that just as the accelerating scale and intensity of man’s activities on Planet Earth is creating grave threats to many species of wildlife, the same activities are creating risks for man himself. So while it is only right and just for man to be interested in the fate of other creatures on this earth, it is also both wise and necessary for him to see their plight as an integral part

of the risks to his own well being.

And many of the species of wildlife that are faced with the greatest threats are precisely those which constitute important economic resources for nations to whom these resources can make important and much needed contributions to economic development. So the Convention which you will be considering here must also be seen as a necessary measure for the wise stewardship and use of a significant economic resource.

In order to meet the objectives of Recommendation 99 of the Stockholm Action Plan, in the concrete terms of environmental management, whatever agreement is reached at this meeting must be facilitated through international co-operation; and the specific actions called for will need to be implemented by the signatory countries.

The solution of local problems will help and is often indispensable to the solution of international problems. But the primary thrust of this proposed Convention is to mobilise international support for the correction and prevention of some environmental risks and abuses that cannot be solved without international

co-operation. It is already clear that in many cases local laws and regulations are not in themselves sufficient to withstand the lure of the profits to be made of the illegal taking of wildlife. Effective international controls are therefore necessary to support local laws.

This indeed is the spirit of the entire Action Plan for the Human Environment. A close and complimentary relationship between national and international action is imperative if nations are to progress towards better management of the complex system of inter-acting relationships which determine the health of world ecosystems while at the same time preserving the essential integrity of the sovereign states involved. My foremost hope is that this Conference will conclude a strong Convention for the protection of endangered species, that most countries will find it possible to join the signatory members of such a Convention and that the

Convention will have the full support of all governments and inter-governmental organisations. I pledge my support of these objectives.

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Appendix 2.4

REMARKS BY THE HONOURABLE RUSSELL E. TRAIN, CHAIRMAN, COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, AS CHAIRMAN OF THE UNITED STATES DELEGATION, AT THE OPENING OF THE PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE

TO CONCLUDE AN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN ENDANGERED WILDLIFE 12 FEBRUARY 1973

Mr Chairman, fellow delegates, ladies and gentlemen: as Chairman of the host country delegation, let me first add my sincere welcome to that of President Nixon and Secretary Morton.

This Conference represents another milestone in the history of international environmental co-operation. The need to protect endangered species of life is a global need, one that is of legitimate concern to all peoples and all nations. It is a matter of urgency that we proceed now with expedition to develop a convention which can come into force at an early date. I am confident that we shall achieve

this goal.

We are demonstrating here that nations of diverse interests, in differing stages of development, and with differing national priorities, can work together co­ operatively and effectively for the protection of our global environment. We bring different perspectives to bear on these problems, but we have in common an

overriding self-interest in maintaining the health of the natural systems of the earth. We hold these in trust for the future.

This Conference is of particular personal significance to me. My own career in environmental activities came about through an initial strong interest in African wildlife. Concern for its survival led first to my participating in the founding of the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation in 1959, which I then headed. The

Fundation’s programs emphasised education to help the newly independent coun­ tries of Africa develop the capacity to manage their own wildlife and national park resources. My subsequent broadening concern with wildlife and environmental problems on a world-wide basis led to Executive Board Membership on the Inter­

national Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and Vice-Presidency of the U.S. World Wildlife Fund, of which I was a founder. Thus I followed with great interest the IUCN Conservation Conference in Arusha, Tanzania, in 1961, where my colleague and fellow delegate, Dr Lee Talbot,

chaired a group which proposed an international convention on trade in endangered species. Two years later, I participated in the IUCN General Assembly in Nairobi when it was decided that IUCN would take steps to initiate the convention we are meeting here to conclude. In 1969, as Under Secretary of the Interior, I testified in strong support of the Endangered Species Protection Act, which called

for this Conference. Consequently, I view the occasion of this Conference with very great personal satisfaction. Secretary Morton in his opening remarks clearly presented the need for international action to protect endangered species through control on trade. He

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spoke of the need for urgency. This point can hardly be over-emphasised. The pace of bureaucracies is slow and deliberate, but the pace of exterminations is rapid and accelerating. The rate of extermination of mammals has increased 55 fold during the past century and a half. Our records of mammal exterminations

extend back about 2,000 years, yet about half of these losses have taken place during the past 60 years. Think of it— 50 per cent of the total exterminations in only the last 3 per cent of this period— and we have been deliberating this con­ vention for over ten of these years. The longer we continue to delay action the more losses of our irreplaceable plants and animals we assure.

Recognising this real urgency, and in response to the specific recommendation of the Stockholm Conference as well as our own Endangered Species Act of 1969, our Government has convened this as a plenipotentiary conference. It is our hope that the resulting convention, so long under consideration already, can be

signed without delay.

Also recognising the real urgency involved, we have accepted and endorsed the proposals that the convention come into force following ratification by ten nations, rather than a larger number which would almost certainly involve further delay.

I would emphasise that the basic objective of this proposed convention is conservation—to help assure that presently endangered species do not become extinct, and that species presently safe do not become endangered.

The convention would seek to accomplish this through an effective system of control over trade in threatened species. We all recognise that trade is not the only factor operating to endanger species, but it is a very important factor in a number of cases. Trade involves movements both of live specimens and of their parts and products. To be effective, this convention absolutely must cover both.

Trade in products of animals has been a major factor in past exterminations and present endangerment. Some species of little importance in the live animal trade are endangered almost solely because of the demand for their products. This is as true today for the great trade in crocodile hides as it was during the last century for trade in bird feathers.

Consider, for example, three endangered species which have been proposed for protection under this convention. The figures speak for themselves. In 1969, prior to enforcement of specific national controls, the United States imported the whole, raw hides of 7,934 leopards, 1,885 cheetahs, and 113,069 ocelots. These incredible figures are a shocking indictment of man’s greed— and woman’s vanity. The figures, with the present status of these species, testify eloquently to the need for this convention, and to the absolutely essential requirement that

the convention cover products as well as live specimens.

But control of the trade in live specimens is no less imperative. Few people are aware of the tremendous volume of trade in live animals for the pet trade, zoos, and medical research. In 1971 the United States imported 89,000 live mammals, 770,000 live birds, 573,000 live amphibians, 2 million live reptiles,

and 98 million live fish! It should be clear to all that the stocks of many wild species simply cannot continue to meet this enormous demand, and it has already led to the near extinction of many species. In 1970 over 550 cats of species now

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proposed for Appendix I of this convention were imported, live, into the United States. These included cheetahs, snow leopards, tiger cats, marguays and ocelots. In the same year 2,397 primates representing eight species on the proposed Appendix I were imported, including 150 golden lion marmosets— a total roughly

equal to the present estimated total wild population. One can only feel a sense of outrage at such statistics. They represent a truly black page in mankind’s history. And, while I have made reference to figures for my country, proportional

volumes of such imports can be found for most other consumer countries.

In the light of such figures, there simply cannot be any serious question of the need for control of this trade. When the United States initiated national controls, serious questions were raised about their practicality and workability. We have now had seven years experience with such controls over both live animals and all

products of listed species. We have found that such a system can work. In the opinion of our specialists who operate our system, the import and export permit system proposed in the working paper would be more easily implemented than the one which we presently operate. In the discussions in the coming days, our

specialists will be available to share our experience in practical implementation. We recognise, of course, that any system of controls presents problems, but we are convinced that they are not insoluable. In fact, enforcement of the proposed convention should offer far less problems than the enforcement of controls on

currency, drugs and gems, which nearly all nations currently operate.

Since the basic objective of the convention is conservation of the world’s endangered wildlife, it is clear to us that the controls must apply to all endangered wildlife, regardless of whether or not they originated within a nation’s sovereign territory. In part, the trade controls proposed by this convention operate when

endangered species, or their products, are transported across international borders. From the standpoint of the species— and consequently of this convention— it makes no difference whether the trade involves movement into a state of a specimen which originated within another state or which originated outside of

any such state. Consequently, we regard the inclusion under this convention of specimens admitted from the sea, from outside any state of origin, as absolutely essential.

Many endangered species, such as the blue whale, hawksbill turtle, monk seals, and some sea birds, are found in, on, or over international waters all or part of each year. Some such species which are involved in trade are completely unpro­ tected. Others have some protection by other international agreements, such as

the International Whaling Convention. However, in such cases, the existing agree­ ment for the most part, only involves those nations immediately involved in or interested in exploitation of the species in question— and sometimes not all such

nations, as in the case of the whaling convention— and they deal primarily with methods and levels of exploitation, but not trade. The proposed convention poten­ tially would cover all nations and would deal with trade, not actual exploitation. Consequently, it would be complimentary to and supportive of those few existing

other agreements.

It should also be noted that Article 12 of the working paper specifically pre­ cludes this convention from infringing upon other international agreements.

19

12839/73—3

The world’s endangered wildlife, including both animals and plants, are not uniformly threatened. Some species are in critical danger. Other species are not yet critically threatened but are likely to become so unless adequate control is enforced over their trade. Consequently we support the concept of an Appendix I, listing the critical cases, and an Appendix II, for the potentially endangered ones.

Appendix I species are in such short supply that no trade at all should be allowed, except for purposes of propagation where such trade will not further endanger the species, and where the objective is to increase its numbers for ultimate reintroduction into the wild. These specimens would require both export

and import permits, since such a dual system is deemed essential to protect those few highly vulnerable species. For the less vulnerable Appendix II species, trade would be controlled, not prohibited, and an export permit only would be required.

We have endorsed the proposal by the Government of Kenya that the con­ vention should include an Appendix III. This allows a nation to list species which it wishes to protect because it considers the species endangered within its borders, even though it may not be endangered elsewhere. In essence, the provision of Appendix III means that the signatory nations agree to respect the conservation laws of the other countries by refusing to import certain species which have been taken illegally in the country of origin. This is an international extension of the Lacey Act, an American law prohibiting import of specimens taken illegally in their country of origin. We have found this system workable, and the provision

of uniform export permits, called for by the convention, would make the system considerably more easily enforced than it is at present.

I wish to emphasise here that the appendices cannot be static things. As our knowledge increases and as the status of various species changes, we will need to amend and re-amend the lists. Further, as we come to know more about the status of the other living things with which we share the earth, we may need to include more types of plants and animals. The appendices which we decide upon at this Conference, therefore, really represent only starting points. At the same time, we believe that the appendices should only contain species which are affected, or are likely to be affected by trade. They are not to be a catalogue of all

endangered species.

We are breaking new ground with this convention. We should not under­ estimate the difficulty of our work during these next three weeks, yet we must not over-estimate it either. In the working paper we have the results of nearly ten years of consideration and revisions representing contributions from many national governments and individuals. It is not perfect, and my delegation, among others, will suggest some minor changes. However, the paper provides a thorough and well thought out basis for our deliberations.

I am confident that we will bear in mind the urgency of the problem that faces us, and that we will produce an agreed convention, of which we can be proud, and for which those who follow us can be grateful. We have an historic opportunity.

20

Appendix 2.5

OPENING REMARKS TO THE PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE TO CONCLUDE AN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN CERTAIN SPECIES OF WILDLIFE, WASHINGTON, D.C.

MARCH 1973 BY DR D. F. McMICHAEL, SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION, LEADER OF THE AUSTRALIAN DELEGATION

On behalf of Australia, I would like to congratulate you, Sir, on your election as Chairman of this Conference. I assure you that you will receive every co­ operation from the Australian delegation to achieve the aims of this Conference, with which the Australian Government is in full agreement. Australia commends

the action of the United States of America, in calling this Conference so promptly in response to the Stockholm resolution. In particular we appreciate the pioneering work of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in the drafting of the earlier documents, on which the present Draft

Convention is based.

This matter is of particular interest and relevance to Australia. We are well aware of the uniqueness of much of Australia’s flora and fauna, and of its import­ ance to scientists, indeed people generally, throughout the world. The Australian Government is anxious to ensure the survival of all native species which inhabit

the Australian continent. I believe that Australia has, during recent decades, acted responsibly in this regard, both through the State conservation agencies, and through the Commonwealth Department of Customs and Excise, and has

achieved effective control over trade in endangered species. Nevertheless it wel­ comes the assistance of other nations which will follow from the conclusion of this Convention, and in turn will be happy to play its part in assisting other nations to protect and preserve their faunas and floras.

The proposed Convention, as drafted, which advocates a rational, scientific approach to the control of international trade in wildlife has Australia’s general support, though we believe that there are some aspects of the Draft which could be improved, and which would help to strengthen the Convention, and make it

more likely to receive general approval and acceptance. We are particularly con­ cerned about the species which are to be included in the initial appendices, and the procedures whereby species are added to, or removed from, these appendices in the future. We shall be proposing several amendments to cover these and other

points during the next three weeks. Finally, I would endorse and commend to all participants the view expressed in the Preamble to the present Draft Convention—that the people within the sovereign nations are and should be, the best protectors of that wildlife which occurs within their own national borders, such wildlife being precious to them most particularly.

Let us remember that the primary purpose of this Convention is to develop an international machinery which will assist each nation to give its own wildlife the most effective protection.

21

Appendix 3.1

AGENDA

I. Welcoming Addresses

II. Designation of Temporary Chairman III. Election of Chairman and Vice-Chairmen

IV. Election of Credentials Committee V. Adoption of Agenda

VI. Adoption of Conference Rules of Procedure VII. Opening Statements

VIII. Organisation of Work 1. Election of Drafting Committee 2. Election of Committee I (Appendices— Animals) 3. Election of Committee II (Appendices—Plants) 4. Election of Committee III (Permit Forms) XI. Adoption of Report of Credentials Committee

X. Negotiation of the Convention XI. Adoption of the Convention

22

Appendix 3.2

FINAL LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

(This document is a listing of all participants registered up to 5.30 p.m. Tuesday, 27 February, who have submitted written credentials to the Secretariat.)

OFFICIAL DELEGATIONS Australia Afghanistan Representative Amanullah Hassrat

Counsellor Embassy of Afghanistan 2341 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Algeria Alternate Representative S. A. Hadj-Mokhtar Counsellor

Embassy of the Republic of Guinea 2221 Columbia Road, N.W. Wasington, D.C. 20008 Adviser

A. Mekideche Third Secretary Embassy of the Republic of Guinea 2221 Columbia Road, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20008

Argentina Representative Jorge Del Aguila Agricultural Attache Embassy of the Argentine Republic

1600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representatives Dr Juan C. Godoy Director of Hunting and Conservation of Fauna

The Ministry of Agriculture Buenos Aires Marcelo Eduardo Huergo Second Secretary

Embassy of the Argentine Republic 1600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Representative Dr Donald F. McMichael Secretary Department of the Environment and

Conservation Canberra

Alternate Representative Dr H. J. Frith Chief, Division of Wildlife Research Commonwealth Scientific and

Industrial Research Organization P.O. Box 84, Lyneham A.C.T. 2601

Advisers D. L. O’Connor First Assistant Comptroller General Imports and Exports Division

Department of Customs and Excise Canberra Prof. Harry Messel Head of School of Physics University of Sydney

Sydney Dr G. W. Saunders Director, Fauna Conservation Queensland Department of Primary

Industries William Street Brisbane, Queensland 4000 William Hartley

Counsellor (Scientific) Embassy of Australia 1601 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

G. J. Kelly Senior Legal Officer Attorney-General’s Department Canberra

23

A dvisers— continued Stuart H. R. Hume First Secretary Embassy of Australia

1601 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Austria Representative Η. E. Arno Halusa Ambassador of Austria 2343 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Dr Wilhelm Breustedt Deputy Director Federal Ministry of Finance Vienna

Bangladesh Representative A. M. A. Muhith Economic Minister Embassy of the People’s Republic

of Bangladesh 1223 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Alternate Representative A. R. Choudhury First Secretary Embassy of the People’s Republic

of Bangladesh 1223 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Belgium Representative Leo Storm First Secretary Embassy of Belgium 3330 Garfield Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Roger Coustry Agricultural Counsellor Embassy of Belgium

3330 Garfield Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Pierre Colot Attache Embassy of Belgium

3330 Garfield Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Bolivia Representative H.E. Edmundo Valencia-Ibanez Ambassador of Bolivia Suite 213

1145-19th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Alternate Representatives Hugo Duchen First Secretary (Financial) Embassy of Bolivia Suite 213

1145-19th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 Dr Juan Jose Loria Minister Counsellor Embassy of Bolivia Suite 213

1145-19th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Botswana Representative H.E. Amos M. Dambe Ambassador of Botswana

1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representative Samuel A. Mpuchane First Secretary Embassy of the Republic of Botswana

1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

24

Brazil Representative Celso Diniz Minister Counsellor

Brazilian Embassy 3006 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Advisers Adelmar Faria Coimbra Filho Brazilian Institute of Forest Development

Rioi de Janeiro

Rodrigo Luis de Andrade Brazilian Institute of Forest Development Rio de Janeiro

Mario Grieco Second Secretary Brazilian Embassy 3006 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Luis Pereira de Souza Neto Third Secretary Ministry of External Relations Brasilia

Burundi Representative Felix Magenge Charge d’Affaires and Counsellor

Embassy of the Republic of Burundi 2717 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Cameroon Representative H.E. Francois-Xavier Tchoungui Ambassador

Embassy of the United Republic of Cameroon 2349 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Michel Koss Epangue Counsellor Embassy of the United Republic of

Cameroon 2349 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Thaddeus Nkuo First Secretary Embassy of the United Republic of Cameroon

2349 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Canada Representative Dr M. L. Prebble Special Adviser, Renewable

Resources Department of the Environment Ottawa

Advisers Dr N. S. Novakowski Staff Specialist Department of the Environment

Ottawa

Miss Jane Caskey Department of the Environment Ottawa

Dr George Argus Associate Curator of Vasculuar Plants Museum of Natural Sciences

Ottawa

W. P. Molson Head, Export Controls Section Export and Import Permits Division Department of Industry, Trade and

Commerce 112 Kent Street Ottawa

25

Advisers— continued Raymond Orr First Secretary Embassy of Canada

1746 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Central African Republic Representative H.E. M. Michel Adama-Tamboux Permanent Representative to the

United Nations 386 Park Avenue, South Room 1614 New York, New York 10016

Alternate Representative Richard Levy Technical Expert Director of Hunting Ministry of Waters, Forests, Hunting

and Fishing Bangui

Colombia Representative Jamie Lopez-Reyes Counsellor Embassy of Colombia 2118 Leroy Place, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Dr Jorge I. Hernandez Chief of Wildlife Research INDERENA Bogota Francisco Jose Sardi First Secretary Embassy of Colombia 2118 Leroy Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Costa Rica Representative Mr Herbert Nanne Wildlife Biologist Ministry of Agriculture San Jose

Cyprus Alternate Representative Joseph J. Stephanides Second Secretary and Consul Embassy of Cyprus 2211 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Czechoslovakia Representative Vojtech Vala Third Secretary Embassy of the Czechoslovak

Socialist Republic 3900 Linnean Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Dahomey Representative Saturnin Soglo Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of

Dahomey 2737 Cathedral Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Denmark Representative H.E. Gunnar Seidenfaden, Ph.D. D.Sc. Ambassador at Large Ministry of Foreign Affairs Copenhagen

Adviser Dr Christian Vibe Museum of Zoology Universitetsparken 15 Copenhagen 2700

Dominican Republic Representative Lie. Libbyn Gloria Milan Minister Counsellor Embassy of the Dominican Republic

1715-22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

26

Egypt Representative Ahmed T. Khalil Minister Plenipotentiary

Egyptian Interests Section Embassy of India 2310 Decatur Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Mohamed Salam First Secretary Egyptian Interests Section

Embassy of India 2310 Decatur Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

El Salvador Representative H.E. Colonel Julio A. Rivera Ambassador of El Salvador

2308 California Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Dr Juan Scaffina Minister Counsellor Embassy of El Salvador

2308 California Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Lie. Ricardo Μύηοζ Gutierrez Counsellor (Economic, Financial, and Commercial) Embassy of El Salvador

2308 California Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Finland

Representative Erkki Kivimaki First Secretary

Alternate Representative Eero Salovaara Attache Embassy of Finland

1900-24th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Embassy of Finland 1900-24th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

France

Representative Jean Gabarra Deputy Director of the Board of General Affairs at the Economic

and Financial Department Foreign Ministry Paris

Alternate Representatives

F. Surbiguet Office of the Legal Adviser Foreign Ministry Paris

Jacques Bigay Magistrate Ministry of Justice Paris

Advisers Grout de Beaufort Charge de Mission Ministry for Environmental Affairs

Paris

Michel Gillard Deputy General Secretary Ministry for Environmental Affairs Paris

Eugene Neveu Technical Counsellor Ministry of the Economy and Finance Paris

27

German Democratic Republic Representative Hans Karl Oskar Stubbe Professor in Genetics Honorary President of Academy East German Academy of

Agricultural Sciences of the German Democratic Republic 4325 Gatersleben

Alternate Representative Andrej Florin Third Secretary Ministry of Foreign Affairs East Berlin

Germany, Federal Republic of Representative Dr Hans-Hermann Heitmuller (in absence of Dr Herbert Dreher)

Director, Division Resources & Forest Service Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry Bonn

Alternate Representatives Mrs Ursula Daldrup Director Federal Ministry of the Interior Bonn lost R. Wilke Counsellor (Forestry) Embassy of the Federal Republic

of Germany 4645 Reservoir Road, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007 Dr Wilhelm Rogner Federal Ministry of Food,

Agriculture and Forestry Bonn Dr Manfred Birmelin First Secretary Foreign Office Bonn

Advisers Helmut Donhauser Director Ministry of Finances Bonn Wolfgang Burhenne Secretary General (Elected) Inter-Parliamentary Working Center Bonn

Ghana Representative Anthony Korsah-Dick First Secretary Embassy of Ghana 2460-16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Greece Representative Stephanos Th. Hourmouziadis Commercial Counsellor Embassy of Greece 2221 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Pantelis Karoussos Commercial Secretary Embassy of Greece 2221 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Guatemala Representative H.E. Julio Asensio-Wunderlich Ambassador of Guatemala

2220 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Julio Chocano Minister Counsellor Embassy of Guatemala 2220 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

28

Adviser Prof. Jorge Ibarra Director of the Natural History Museum of Guatemala City

6aC F-3G F, 13 Guatemala

Guyana Representative Sydney Paul Mittelholzer First Secretary Embassy of Guyana

2490 Tracy Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Philip N. Chan Second Secretary Embassy of Guyana

2490 Tracy Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Miss Sybil A. Pollard Second Secretary

Embassy of Guyana 2490 Tracy Place, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Honduras Representative Lie. Roberto Jones Fajardo Alternate Representative

Organisation of American States 408 Ellsworth Drive Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

India Representatives T. P. Singh Secretary to Government of India

Ministry of Agriculture Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries New Delhi

K. L. Lahiri Inspector General of Forests and Ex-officio Additional Secretary to the Government of India

Ministry of Agriculture New Delhi

Alternate Representative Girish Dhume First Secretary (Commercial) Embassy of India

2107 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Indonesia

Representative H.E. Sjarif Thajeb Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia

2020 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Alternate Representative A. Habir Minister Embassy of the Republic of

Indonesia 2020 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Advisers Walman Sinaga Head of the Agency for the Conservation of Nature and

Wildlife Department of Agriculture Jakarta Adian Silalahi

Third Secretary Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia 2020 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20036

Iran

Representative Dr Hassan Izadi Counsellor Imperial Embassy of Iran

3005 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

29

Alternate Representative Nasser Shirazi Counsellor Imperial Embassy of Iran 3005 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Israel Representative Eliezer Efrati Scientific Counsellor Embassy of Israel

1621-22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Italy Representative Vincenzo de Benedictis Minister Embassy of Italy

1601 Fuller Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representative Dr Franco E. Fiorio Scientific Counsellor Embassy of Italy

1601 Fuller Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Advisers Prof. Ruggero Tomaselli Director Institute of Botany University Pavia

Dr Lamberto Leporati Chief of the Hunt Division Ministry of Agriculture and Forests

Bologna

Japan Representative Toshio Yamazaki Minister

Alternate Representative

Chusei Yamada First Secretary Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations

866 United Nations Plaza New York, N.Y. 10017

Advisers

Yasuo Tomoda Deputy Head Wildlife Protection Division Nature Conservation Bureau Environment Agency 3-1-1 Kasumigaseki Chiyoda-ku Tokyo

Ryuzo Oyama Deputy Head First Ocean, Fisheries Division Fishery Agency Tokyo

Isao Sakamoto Deputy Head Forest Products Section Forestry Agency

Tokyo

Atsushi Tokinoya Deputy Head Social Affairs Division United Nations Bureau Ministry of Foreign Affairs Tokyo

Takashi Ichikawa Second Secretary Embassy of Japan 2520 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Embassy of Japan 2520 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

30

Advisers— continued Katsuhisa Hirayama Textile and General Merchandise Policy Division Textile and General Merchandise

Bureau Ministry of International Trade and Industry Tokyo

Masayoshi Kusuda Social Affairs Division United Nations Bureau Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Tokyo

Kota Hokketsu Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Tokyo

Kazuo Irie Ministry of International Trade and Industry Tokyo

Shiryo Kitano Executive Director and Secretary- General The Tropical Forestry Association of

Japan Tokyo

Susumu Matsuoka First Secretary (Agriculture) Embassy of Japan 2520 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20008

Tatsuo Nakajima First Secretary Embassy of Japan 2520 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20008

Yoshio Nishida The Ministry of International Trade and Industry Tokyo

Hideo Omura Director, Whales Research Institute Adviser, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

Tokyo

Jordan Representative Sultan N. Lutfi Second Secretary Embassy of the Hashemite Kingdom

of Jordan 2320 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Kenya Representatives Η. E. Leonard Oliver Kibinge Ambassador of Kenya

2249 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Perez Olindo Director, Kenya National Parks Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife Nairobi

Alternative Representative Dr A. O. Adede Legal Department Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nairobi

Adviser David Gichero First Secretary Embassy of Kenya

2249 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Khmer Republic Representative Mrs Neary Seng Counsellor

Embassy of the Khmer Republic 4500-16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20011

31

Korea, Republic of Representative Ho Eul Whang Minister Embassy of Korea 2320 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative

Kae Chul Lee Counsellor Embassy of Korea 2320 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Adviser

Sung Oh Shin Third Secretary Embassy of Korea 2320 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Lebanon

Representative

Η. E. Najati Kabbani Ambassador of Lebanon 2560-28th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Joseph Akl Counsellor Embassy of Lebanon 2560-28th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Miss Leila Chehab Third Secretary Embassy of Lebanon 2560-2 8th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

A dviser

Melhem Salman Cultural Counsellor

Luxembourg Representative Η. E. Jean Wagner Ambassador of Luxembourg 2210 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Malagasy Republic Representative Η. E. Henri Raharijaona Ambassador of the Malagasy Republic 2374 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Joseph Andriamampianina Chief Nature Protection Service Madagascar Bernardin Rajonhanes First Counsellor Embassy of the Malagasy Republic 2374 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Malawi Representative Callisto M. Mkona Charge Malawi Embassy 2362 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Mauritius Representative Η. E. Pierre Guy Girald Balancy Ambassador of Mauritius 2308 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Embassy of Lebanon 2560-2 8th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

32

A dviser Chitmansing Jesseramsing First Secretary Embassy of Mauritius

2308 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Mexico Representative Francisco Vizcaino Murray Under Secretary

Ministry of Health and Welfare for Improvement of the Environment S.S.A. Mexico 1, D.F.

Alternate Representatives Andres Rozental Second Secretary Delegation of Mexico to the

Organization of American States 2440 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 C. Ing. Fiacro Martinez Martinez

Director General of Wildlife Bureau of Forestry and Wildlife Resources Aquiles Serdan #28

Seventh Floor Mexico 1, D.F.

Dr Enrique Riva-Palacio Chief of the Department of Natural Resources Under-Secretariat of the Improvement

of the Environment Mexico 1, D.F.

Abraham Sheimberg Commercial Counsellor Embassy or Mexico 2829-16th Street, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20009 Gilberto Lopez Lira Director of Oceanography Department of Marine (Navy)

Mexico 1, D.F.

Enrique Sanchez Palomera Secretary of the Technical Council Office of the Under Secretary for Improvement of the Environment

Mexico 1, D.F.

Ing. Victor Marquez D. Adviser of the Under-Secretary of Fisheries Secretary of Industry and Commerce

Mexico 1, D.F.

Miguel Angel Garcia Lara Chief Office of Environmental Pollution Mexican Petroleum Agency (PEMEX) Mexico 1, D.F.

Jorge Munguia Barcena Director General for Operations Office of the Under Secretary for Improvement of the Environment

Mexico 1, D.F.

Juan Jose G. Rosell-Abitia Counsellor Office of the Under Secretary for Improvement of the Environment.

Mexico 1, D.F.

Mongolia Representative H.E. Tsevegzhavyn Puntsagnorov

Ambassador Permanent Representative to the United Nations 6 East 77th Street New York, N.Y. 10021

Alternate Representative Gendengyn Nyamdo Head of the Department of Legal and Treaties Affairs Foreign Ministry

Ulanbator

Adviser Prof. Naniragiyn Dava Mongolian State University Ulanbator

33

Morocco Representative Omar Belkora Counsellor Embassy of Morocco

1601-21st St, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representative Abdelhaq Lahlou Attache Embassy of Morocco

1601-21st St, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Netherlands Representative Gustaaf W. J. Pieters Counsellor (Agriculture) Embassy of the Netherlands 4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Wiebrand Dijkstra First Secretary (Agriculture) Embassy of the Netherlands 4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20068

Advisers Dr A. C. van Bemmel Scientific Adviser Museum of Natural History Leiden

Baron Gerhard C. M. van Pallandt Second Secretary Embassy of the Netherlands 4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Niger Representative H.E. Abdoulaye Diallo Ambassador of the Republic of Niger 2204 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

A Iternate Representatives Oumarou G. Youssoufou Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of Niger 2204 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Mrs Monique Hadiza First Secretary Embassy of the Republic of Niger 2204 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Nigera Representative A. M. Oseni Director of Forestry Federal Department of Forestry Ibadan

Alternate Representative G. N. Onuekwusi Acting Comptroller of Customs Board of Customs and Excise Harvey Road, Yaba, Lagos

Pakistan Representative Lt. Col. Mohammad Waheed Hashmi Attache Embassy of Pakistan 2315 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Tariq Osman Hyder Second Secretary Embassy of Pakistan 2315 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Panama Representative Miss Marina Mayo Third Secretary Embassy of Panama, 2862 McGill Terrace, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

34

Paraguay Representative H.E. Miguel Solano-Lopez Ambassador of Paraguay

2400 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Dr Gilberto Caniza Counsellor Embassy of Paraguay

2400 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Peru Representative Ing. Juan Francisco Filomeno Chavez Assistant Director for Conservation

of Wildlife of the General Direction of Forestry and Hunting of the Ministry of Agriculture Fima

Philippines Representative H.E. Eduardo Z. Romualdez Ambassador of the Philippines

1617 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Alternate Representatives Jesus Alvarez, Jr Officer-in-charge, Parks and Wildlife Office Department of Agriculture and

Natural Resources Manila Romeo A. Arguelles Commercial Attache

Embassy of the Philippines 1617 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Poland Representative Jerzy Strebski Commercial Attache

Embassy of the Polish People’s Republic 2640-16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Portugal Representative Antonio Cabrita Matias Minister Counsellor Embassy of Portugal

2125 Kalorama Road, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Jose M. D. S. Saldanha Lopes Director of the Wildlife and Fisheries Services

Lisbon Jose F. L. Rosario Nunes Researcher Overseas Zoological Research Center

Lisbon

Rwanda Representative Jean-Marie Gatabazi Cultural Attache

Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda 1714 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Senegal Representative H.E. Andre J. Coulbary Ambassador of the Republic of

Senegal 2112 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C., 20008

Alternate Representatives Biram a Fall Commercial Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of

Senegal 2112 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

12839/73—4

35

A Iternate Representatives— continued Momar Fall Counsellor

Embassy of the Republic of Senega] 2112 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Sierra Leone Representative H.E. Philip J. Palmer Ambassador of Sierra Leone

1701-19th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representative Claudius J. Thomas Second Secretary Embassy of Sierra Leone

1701 -19th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

South Africa Representative H.E. Johan S. F. Botha Ambassador of South Africa

3051 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Dr Stefanus Schoeman du Plessis Director of Nature Conservation of the Transvaal Provincial

Administration Pretoria

Dr Douglas Hey Director of Nature Conservation of the Provincial Administration of the Cape of Good Hope Cape Province

Secretary of the Delegation J. H. de Klerk Third Secretary Embassy of South Africa

3051 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Spain Representative H.E. Angel Sagaz Ambassador of Spain 2700-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Alternate Representatives Jose Sierra Commercial Counsellor Embassy of Spain 2700-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Emilio Barcia First Secretary (Economic Affairs) Embassy of Spain 2 700-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Juan Arencibia Commercial Attache Embassy of Spain 2700-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Sudan Representative Mohamed Osman Abu Seneina Director of Game Preservation

Department Sudan Preservation Department Khartoum

Alternate Representatives Dr El Rayah Omer Hassaballa Deputy Director of Game Preservation Department Sudan Preservation Department Khartoum

Momoun Yousif Abdel Gadir Third Secretary Embassy of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007

36

Swaziland Representative H.E. Dr S. T. Msindazwe Sukati Ambassador of the Kingdom of

Swaziland 4301 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

A Iternate Representatives Absalom V. Mamba First Secretary Embassy of the Kingdom of

Swaziland 4301 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Malachia B. Lukhele

Finance and Administrative Attache Embassy of the Kingdom of Swaziland 4301 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Sweden Representative Leif Leifland Minister Plenipotentiary Embassy of Sweden

600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037

Alternate Representatives Bengt Ehn Head of Division The Royal Agricultural College

Stockholm Jan Martensson Head of Division Ministry of Agriculture

Stockholm Ulf Weinberg Head of Section The National Swedish Board of

Environmental Protection Stockholm

Adviser Erik Belfrage Secretary of Embassy Embassy of Sweden 600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037

Switzerland Representative H.E. Felix Schnyder Ambassador of Switzerland

2900 Cathedral Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Dr Peter Gafner Federal Veterinarian’s Office Bern

Adviser Rudolf Stettler Counsellor Embassy of Switzerland 2900 Cathedral Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Tanzania Representative Martin A. Kivumbi Third Secretary Embassy of the United Republic of

Tanzania 2010 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

Thailand Representative Thanom Premrasmi Deputy Director-General of the

Royal Forest Department Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Bangkok

37

Alternate Representative Pong Leng-ee Head of National Wildlife Management

Royal Forest Department of Thailand Bangkok

Togo Representative H.E. Epiphane Ayi Mawussi Ambassador of the Republic of Togo 2208 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representatives Parfait Dagba Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of Togo

2208 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 William Adjoyi Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of Togo 2208 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Tunisia Representative Moncef Riahi Second Secretary Embassy of Tunisia, 2408 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Abdelaziz Ghodbane Attache Embassy of Tunisia

2408 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Turkey Representative Mete Basci Agricultural Attache Embassy of the Republic of Turkey

2523 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Representatives Ivan Maksimov Deputy Chief of the Main

Administration on Protection of Nature, Reservations and Hunting Grounds Ministry of Agriculture Moscow K. G. Tretyakov, Counsellor on Trade Embassy of the Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics 1125-16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

United Kingdom Representative P. R. Odgers Deputy Under Secretary of State Department of Education and

Science Elizabeth House York Road London S.E. 1

Alternate Representatives E. C. Appleyard Assistant Secretary Department of Education and

Science London James F. Barnes, Counselor (Scientific) British Embassy

3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Advisers Dr Duncan Poore Director Nature Conservancy of the

Natural Environment Research Council Evenlode, Stonesfield, Oxen

38

A dvisers— continued Mrs D. Biggam Customs and Excise Her Majesty’s Treasury

162 Chaplin Road, Wembley Middlesex HAO 4ut G. L. Lucas Principal Scientific Officer

Royal Botanic Gardens Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Kew, Richmond, Surrey

Miss Μ. I. Rothwell First Secretary Foreign and Commonwealth Office London

M. R. Eaton Assistant Legal Adviser Foreign and Commonwealth Office London

Dr Patrick Fallon Science Liaison Officer British Embassy 3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Dr John Frazer Head of International Communication Division National Environmental Research

Council (Nature Conservancy) 20 Belgrade Square London S.W. 1

United States Representatives The Honorable Rogers C. B. Morton

(Chairman, ex-officio) Secretary of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 The Honorable Russel E. Train Chairman, Council on

Environmental Quality Executive Office of the President Washington, D.C. 20506

Christian A. Herter, Jr. Director, Office of Environmental Affairs and Special Assistant to the Secretary

Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520

Alternate Representatives Curtis Bohlen Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks

Department of Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 David Challinor, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary for Science

Smithsonian Institution 1000 Jefferson Drive, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20560

The Honorable Wymberley DeR. Coerr Special Adviser Office of Environmental Affairs Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520 William Conway

General Director New York Zoological Society Bronx Park

Bronx, New York 10460 The Honorable Donald L. McKernan Special Assistant to the Secretary

for Fisheries and Wildlife Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520 The Honorable

Nathaniel Reed Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks Department of the Interior

Washington, D.C. 20240 William E. Scheele Executive Director World Wildlife Fund

910-17th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006

39

A Iternate Representatives— continued

Lee Talbot, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Council on Environmental Quality Executive Office of the President

Washington, D.C. 20506 David H. Wallace Associate Administrator for Marine Resources

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20230

Congressional A dvisers The Honorable John D. Dingell United States House of

Representatives Washington, D.C. 20515 The Honorable George A. Goodling, United States House of

Representatives Washington, D.C. 20515

Advisers Richard Banks, Ph.D. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 Clark Bavin Bureau of Sport Fisheries and

Wildlife Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 Earl B. Bay singer Bureau of Sport Fisheries and

Wildlife Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 Gerard Bertrand, Ph.D. Council on Environmental Quality Executive Office of the President Washington, D.C. 20506

Miss Martha Carbone Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520 Roland C. Clement Vice President National Audubon Society

1130-5th Avenue New York, N.Y. 10028 Bruce B. Collette National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20230 Dr Thomas Elias, Ph.D. Administrator of the Cary

Arboretum New York Botanical Garden Traver Road, Pleasant Valley New York, N.Y. 12545 Raymond Fosberg Smithsonian Institution

1000 Jefferson Drive, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20560 Mrs Prudence I. Fox National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20230 John Gottschalk National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20230 Henry Heymann

(Secretary of Delegation) Office of the Special Assistant to the Secretary for Fisheries and Wildlife Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520 Michael Huxley Smithsonian Institution

1000 Jefferson Drive, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20560

40

Advisers— continued

Howard S. Irwin, Ph.D. New York Botanical Gardens Bronx, New York 10458 Clyde Jones, Ph.D.

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240

Wayne King, Ph.D. New York Zoological Society Bronx Park Bronx, New York 10460

Michael J. Matheson Officer of the Legal Adviser Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520

Paul K. McCarthy Bureau of Customs Department of the Treasury Washington, D.C. 20220

William M. McQuade Office of the Legal Adviser Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520

Richard Parsons National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Commerce

Washington, D.C. 20230 Keith Schreiner Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife

Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 Marshall Stinnett Bureau of Sport Fisheries and

Wildlife Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240 John P. Trevithick

Bureau of International Organization Affairs Department of State Washington, D.C. 20520

Gilbert H. Wise, V.M.D. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Department of Agriculture

Washington, D.C. 20250

Upper Volta Representative H.E. Telesphore Yaguibou Ambassador of the Republic of

Upper Volta 5500-16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20011

Venezuela Representative Dr Gonzalo Medina Padilla Biologist and Chief of Wildlife

Division Ministry of Agriculture Caracas

Viet-Nam, Republic of Representative H.E. Tran Kim Phuong Ambassador of the Republic of

Viet-Nam 2251 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Alternate Representative Nguyen Cong An First Secretary

Embassy of the Republic of Viet-Nam 2251 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 2000,8

Adviser Le Quang Minh First Secretary Embassy of the Republic of

Viet-Nam 2251 R Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

41

Zambia Representative H.E. Unia G. Mwila Ambassador of the Republic of

Zambia 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Alternate Representative Ferdinand E. Mwanza First Secretary Embassy of the Republic of Zambia 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

OBSERVER COUNTRIES

Chad H.E. Lazare Massibe Ambassador of the Republic of Chad 1132 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037

Ecuador Dr Arturo Lecaro Minister Embassy of Ecuador 2535-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 200Q9

Hungary Dr Pal Vigh Agricultural Attache Embassy of the Hungarian People’s

Republic 2437-15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Ivory Coast H.E. Timothee Guetta Ahoua Ambassador of the Republic of Ivory Coast 2424 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Emmanuel Nouama

Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of Ivory Coast

2424 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Jean Batigne Technical Counsellor Embassy of the Republic of Ivory

Coast 2424 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Jamaica A. R. Weston Third Secretary Embassy of Jamaica

1666 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009

Kuwait Ali Hassan Attache Embassy of the State of Kuwait 2940 Tilden Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008

Norway Bjprn V. Gabrielsen Second Secretary Embassy of Norway 3401 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007

OBSERVER ORGANIZATIONS

European Communities

Council Jacques Bocquillon Brussels Belgium

Commission Dieter Obst Brussels Belgium Ivo Du Bois Washington, D.C.

42

Customs Cooperation Council Ben L. Irvin Chief, Appraisement Branch Division of Appraisment and

Collection Office of Operations Bureau of Customs 2100 K Street, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20226

Food and Agriculture Organization Dr H. R. Cottam FAO Liaison Officer for North America

1325 C Street, S.W., Room 1574 Washington, D.C. 20437

International Council for Bird Preservation Dr Warren King Executive Assistant to the President

Office of the Secretary Smithsonian Institution 100Q Jefferson Drive, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20560

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Sir Peter Scott Chairman, Survival Service

Commission International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Slimbridge, Gloucester, England

Richard Fitter Member, Survival Service Commission International Union for Conservation

of Nature and Natural Resources London, England Prof. Richard Gardner IUCN Representative to the United

Nations Columbia Law School New York, N.Y. Dr Raymond F. Dasmann

Senior Ecologist IUCN Secretariat

1110 Merges, Switzerland Dr Francoise Burhenne-Guilmin Legal Officer IUCN Secretariat

Bonn, Germany Kenneth Berlin Columbia Law School New York, N.Y.

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Prof. Dr Giulio Pasetti Chief International Standards

Division United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Paris, France

CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT

Secretary General Francis J. Seidner

Assistant Secretaries General John K. Mutinda Frank G. Nicholls

Technical Secretaries Sir Hugh F. I. Elliott Harry A. Goodwin John W. Grandy Collin Holloway

Precis Writers Jack Bails James Engel Paul Gladdys Gilbert D. Kulick David Riley Larry C. Thompson Norrell Wallace

Press Officers Miss Simone Poulain John Stuart, Jr.

Security Officer James M. McDermott

43

Deputy Security Officer Charles Holland

Conference Officer Bernard A. Femminella

Administrative Officer Mrs Irene Scher

General Services Officers Randolph Coyle IV Donald S. Gaither

Documents Officer Miss Irene C. Piechowicz

Deputy Documents Officer Miss Mary Haslacker

Documents Assistants Miss Karen T. Gardner Miss Maureen Lewis

Registration and Information Officer Miss Margaret A. Roberts

Assistant Registration and Information Officer Mrs Elizabeth H. Walker

Stenographic Services (English) Mrs Barbara Berger Mrs Consuelo Cheney Mrs Geraldine Gardner Miss Marsha Hardy Miss Mary Eleanor Hoult Mrs Arletha Jones Miss Jean Krussell Miss Cary Moss Miss Violeta Ortega Mrs Carolyn Pittman Miss Linda Scher Miss Nancy P. Snow Miss Amalia Szatko Miss Beryl Wright

Language Services Officer

Theodore H. Leon

Deputy Language Services Officer for Translations

Mrs Marcella Woerheide

Chief Interpreter

Donald Barnes

Interpreters

Peter Adrian

Dimitri Arensburger John Barber Mrs H. Bruns Mrs Georgine Colby Miss Marisa de la Vega Jose DeSeabra Roland Enos Miss Barbara Greig Mrs Monique Harway Anthony J. Hervas Mrs Mara Holmes

Miss Michele MacKellar Sam Maggio Ms. Nataly Martin Ferando Morales-Macedo Cyril Muromcew Mrs Colette Nijhof Mrs Juanita Falcon-Pickering Jean-Claude Porson Mrs Sophie K. Porson Miss Estele Rojo-Vilar Anthony Sierra

Miss Lidia Valdivia Mrs Stephanie Van Reigersberg Eugene S. Serebrennikov Mrs Hortensia Von Bredow Dimitry Zarechnak

44

T ranslator-Reviewers Robert Assa Julio Juncal

Translators Francois Eloquin Dr Marie-Brigitte Foster Jean-Louis Hirsch

Alex Koppius Mario Montenegro Cesar A. Orantes

Stenographic Services (Bilingual) Miss Evelyne Elbert Mrs Jacqueline Ferrer

Mrs Jacqueline Flynn Miss Patricia Haggerty

Miss Peggy Haggerty

Mrs Martha Juncal

Mrs Andree Maggio Mrs Renee Mahaler

Migual Scandiffio

Electronic Officers Forrest L. Headley Glenn H. Sorenson Ted Vallone

Arthur Young

45

Appendix 3.3

FINAL ACT OF THE PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE TO CONCLUDE

AN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON TRADE IN

CERTAIN SPECIES OF WILDLIFE

WASHINGTON, D.C.

Final Act of the Plenipotentiary Conference to Conclude an International Convention on Trade in Certain Species of Wildlife, Washington, D.C.

The Representatives of the Governments of the Plenipotentiary Conference to Conclude an International Convention on Trade in Certain Species of Wildlife met at Washington, D.C. from 12 February to 2 March 1973, for the purpose of preparing and adopting a convention on export, import and transit of certain species of wild fauna and flora. The Conference met in fulfilment of the recommendations stated in Resolution 99.3 of the United Nations Conference on

the Human Environment held in Stockholm, June of 1972, which state as follows: ‘It is recommended that a plenipotentiary conference be convened as soon as possible, under appropriate governmental or intergovernmental auspices, to prepare and adopt a convention on export, import and transit of certain species of wild animals and plants.’

The Conference was convened by the Government of the United States of America. Governments of the following States were represented at the Conference:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, German Demo­ cratic Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Korea, Republic of, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mala­ gasy Republic, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands,

Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, Vietnam, Republic of, and Zambia.

The Governments of Chad, Chile, Ecuador, Hungary, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kuwait and Norway were represented by Observers.

The following international organisations were represented by Observers:

Customs Co-operation Council, European Communities, Food and Agricul­ ture Organisation, International Council for Bird Preservation, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.

46

The Conference elected as Chairman, Mr Christian A. Herter, Jr (United States) and as Vice Chairman, Dr Francisco Vizcaino Murray (Mexico), Prof. Dr Drs h.c. Hans Karl Oskar Stubbe (German Democratic Republic), H.E. Ambassador S. T. Msindazwe Sukati (Swaziland), Dr Donald F. McMichael

(Australia) and Minister Abdul Habir (Indonesia). Dr Donald F. McMichael (Australia) was appointed Rapporteur.

The Secretary-General of the Conference was Mr Francis J. Seidner, U.S. Department of State, and Mr Frank Nicholls, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and Mr John K. Mutinda (Kenya) were Assistant Secretaries-General. Technical Secretaries were Sir Hugh Elliott

(IU CN ), Mr Harry A. Goodwin (IUCN), Mr John W. Grandy IV (National Parks and Conservation Association) and Mr Collin Holloway (IUCN).

The Conference established the following committees:

Credentials Committee

Swaziland— Chairman

Mexico— Vice-Chairman

Australia Indonesia German Democratic Republic

Drafting Committee

Dr Duncan Poore (United Kingdom)— Chairman

Mr Andres Rozental (Mexico)—Vice-Chairman

Argentina

Australia Brazil

Denmark France German Democratic Republic

Germany, Federal Republic of

Indonesia

Japan

Kenya Korea, Republic of Malagasy Republic

Netherlands South Africa Spain

Sweden

Switzerland Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

United States

Steering Committee

United States— Chairman Secretary-General (ex officio)

Australia German Democratic Republic

Indonesia

Mexico

Swaziland

47

Argentina

Committee I (Appendices—Animals)

Prof. Jorge Ibarra (Guatemala)— Chairman

Mr Perez Olindo (Kenya)— Vice-Chairman Korea, Republic of

Australia Mexico

Brazil Mongolia

Canada Netherlands

Colombia Panama

Costa Rica

Philippines South Africa

Denmark

Sudan

France Sweden

Germany, Federal Republic of Thailand

Indonesia Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Italy United Kingdom

Japan United States

Argentina

Committee II (Appendices—Plants)

Mr William Hartley (Australia)— Chairman

Mr Romeo A. Arguelles (Philippines)— Vice-Chairman

Korea, Republic of

Brazil Mexico

Canada Mongolia

Denmark Netherlands

Guatemala South Africa

Indonesia Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Italy United Kingdom

Japan United States

Kenya

Committee III (Customs Matters)

Dr D. L. O’Connor (Australia)— Mr Atsushi Tokinoya (Japan)— Chairmen

Mr Andrej Florin (German Democratic Republic)—Vice-Chairman

Australia Austria Brazil

Canada France Germany, Republic of Indonesia Kenya

Korea, Republic of Mexico Netherlands Sudan Switzerland United Kingdom United States

A number of ad hoc committees were appointed to deal with special problems as the need arose.

48

The Conference convened in twenty-three Plenary Sessions.

Following its deliberations, the Conference adopted the text of a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The Conference accepted the offer of the Government of the Swiss Confederation to act as Depositary Government.

The Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program has indicated he will be able to provide Secretariat services for the Convention. To the extent and in the manner he considers appropriate, he may be assisted by suitable intergovernmental or non-governmental, international and national agencies and

bodies technically qualified in protection, conservation and management of wild fauna and flora.

The Convention has been opened for signature by the States participating in the Conference in Washington, this day until 30 April 1973, and thereafter shall be open for signature at Berne until 31 December 1974.

In addition to adopting a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the Conference adopted the following resolu­ tions which are annexed to this Final Act:

Resolution to Include the Chinese Language;

Resolution to Include the Russian Language;

Resolution on Article XII.

The original of this Final Act, the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Govern­ ment of the Swiss Confederation which shall transmit certified copies thereof to all States which participated in the present Conference.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Representatives have signed this Final Act.

DONE in Washington, on the second day of March of the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-three.

RESOLUTION TO INCLUDE THE CHINESE LANGUAGE

THE CONFERENCE, Noting that the Chinese language text of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora must be properly prepared and included as an authentic text of this Convention,

RESOLVES:

That the Government of the United States, as host to the Conference, shall be invited to arrange for the preparation of the text of the Convention on Inter­ national Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in the Chinese language and, communicate such Chinese text to all States participating in this

Conference with a statement that any comments or suggestions regarding the conformity of the text with other authentic texts are to be communicated to

49

the Government of the United States within one month after the date on which the text is transmitted to the participating States. The Government of the United States shall thereupon take into account any comments and suggestions received during the said one month period and, after resolving any inconsistencies, shall transmit the Chinese language text to the Depositary Government which shall include that text in the text of the Convention.

RESOLUTION TO INCLUDE THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

THE CONFERENCE,

Noting that the Russian language text of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora must be properly prepared and included as an authentic text of this Convention,

RESOLVES:

That the Government of the United States, as host to the Conference, shall be invited to arrange for the preparation of the text of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in the Russian language and, communicate such Russian text to all States participating in this Conference with a statement that any comments or suggestions regarding the conformity of the text with other authentic texts are to be communicated to the Government of the United States within one month after the date on which the text is transmitted to the participating States. The Government of the United States shall thereupon take into account any comments and suggestions received

during the said one month period and, after resolving any inconsistencies, shall transmit the Russian language text to the Depositary Government which shall include that text in the text of the Convention.

RESOLUTION ON ARTICLE X II

THE CONFERENCE,

Noting that Article XII of the Convention on International Trade in Endan­ gered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora contemplates that the United Nations Environment Program shall assume Secretariat responsibilities upon entry into force of the Convention;

Aware of the fact that this assumption of responsibilities could be considered and determined at the June 1973 meeting of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program;

Recognising that adequate preparations must be made to ensure that the Contracting States may make an informal and well-considered choice in the event the United Nations Environment Program is unable to assume those

responsibilities;

1. Expresses the hope that the Governing Council will approve the under­ taking of Secretariat functions by the United Nations Environment Program;

50

2. Decides, in the event the United Nations Environment Program has not assumed Secretariat functions by 1 September 1973, to invite any Parties to the Convention to communicate to the Depositary Government proposals concerning the possibility of another existing agency assuming the responsi­

bilities of the Secretariat for consideration at the first Conference of the Contracting States;

3. Requests the Depositary Government to transmit to the Contracting states such proposals as are received at least ninety days in advance of the first Conference;

4. Invites the Depositary Government to assume Secretariat responsibilities on an interim basis pending consideration of this matter at the first Confer­ ence of Contracting States if the United Nations Environment Program has not done so when the Convention enters into force. The Depositary Gov­

ernment may request the assistance of intergovernmental or non­ governmental, international or national agencies and bodies technically qualified in protection, conservation and management of wild fauna and

flora.

51

Appendix 3.4

PREAMBLE

The Contracting States,

Recognising that the wild fauna and flora in its many beautiful and varied forms are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and the generations to come;

Conscious of the ever-growing value of wild fauna and flora from aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational and economic points of view;

Recognising that peoples and States are and should be the best protectors of their own wild fauna and flora;

Recognising, in addition, that international co-operation is essential for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade;

Convinced of the urgency of taking appropriate measures to this end;

Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE I

Definitions

For the purposes of the present Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) ‘Species’ means any species, subspecies, or geographically separate population thereof;

( b) ‘Specimen’ means:

(i) any animal or plant, whether alive or dead; (ii) in the case of an animal: for species included in Appendices I and II, any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendix III, any readily recognisable part or

derivative thereof specified in Appendix III in relation to the species; and (iii) in the case of a plant: for species included in Appendix I, any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof; and for species

included in Appendices II and III, any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof specified in Appendices II and III in relation to the species;

(c) ‘Trade’ means export, re-export, import and introduction from the sea;

( d ) ‘Re-export’ means export of any specimen that has previously been imported;

(e) ‘Introduction from the sea’ means transportation into a State of specimens of any species which were taken in the marine environment not under the jurisdiction of any State;

52

(/) ‘Scientific Authority’ means a national scientific authority designated in accordance with Article IX; (g) ‘Management Authority’ means a national management authority desig­ nated in accordance with Article IX;

(h) ‘Party’ means a State for which the present Convention has entered into force.

ARTICLE II

Fundamental Principles 1. Appendix I shall include all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade. Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorised in exceptional circumstances.

2. Appendix II shall include:

(a) all species which although not necessarily now threatened with extinction may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilisation incompatible with their survival; and (b) other species which must be subject to regulation in order that trade in

specimens of certain species referred to in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be brought under effective control.

3. Appendix III shall include all species which any Party identified as being sub­ ject to regulation within its jurisdiction for the purpose of preventing or restricting exploitation, and as needing the co-operation of other parties in the control of trade.

4. The Parties shall not allow trade in specimens included in Appendices I, II and III except in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention.

ARTICLE III

Regulations of Trade in Specimens of Species included in Appendix I 1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix I shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article.

2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species; (b) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State

for the protection of fauna and flora; (c) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment; and

53

(d) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that an import permit has been granted for the specimen.

3. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix 1 shall require the prior grant and presentation of an import permit and either an export permit or a re-export certificate. An import permit shall only be granted when the follow­ ing conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of import has advised that the import will be for purposes which are not detrimental to the survival of the species involved;

(b) a Scientific Authority of the State of import is satisfied that the proposed recipient of a living specimen is suitably equipped to house and care for it; and

(c) a Management Authority of the State of import is satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes.

4. The re-export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant and presentation of a re-export certificate. A re-export certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that the specimen was imported into that State in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention;

(b) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment; and

(c) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that an import permit has been granted for any living specimen.

5. The introduction from the sea of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant of a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction. A certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of introduction advises that the intro­ duction will not be detrimental to the survival of the species involved; (b) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satified that the proposed recipent of a living specimen is suitably equipped to house and

care for it; and (c) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes.

ARTICLE IV

Regulation of Trade in Specimens of Species included in Appendix Π

1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix II shall be in accord­ ance with the provisions of this Article.

54

2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species; (b) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State

for the protection of fauna and flora; and (c) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

3. A Scientific Authority in each Party shall monitor both the export permits granted by that State for specimens of species included in Appendix II and the actual exports of such specimens. Whenever a Scientific Authority determines that the export of specimens of any such species should be limited in order to main­

tain that species throughout its range at a level consistent with its role in the ecosystems in which it occurs and well above the level at which that species might become eligible for inclusion in Appendix I, the Scientific Authority shall advise the appropriate Management Authority of suitable measures to be taken to limit

the grant of export permits for specimens of that species.

4. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior presentation of either an export permit or a re-export certificate.

5. The re-export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant and presentation of a re-export certificate. A re-export certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that the specimen was imported into that State in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention; and (b) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that any

living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

6. The introduction from the sea of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant of a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction. A certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Scientific Authority of the State of introduction advises that the intro­ duction will not be detrimental to the survival of the species involved; and (b) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that any

living specimen will be so handled as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

7. Certificates referred to in paragraph 6 of this Article may be granted on the advice of a Scientific Authority, in consultation with other national scientific

55

authorities or, when appropriate, international scientific authorities, in respect of periods not exceeding one year for total numbers of specimens to be introduced in such periods.

ARTICLE V

Regulation of Trade in Specimens of Species included in Appendix ΠΙ

1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix III shall be in accord­ ance with the provisions of this Article.

2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix III from any State which has included that species in Appendix III shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met:

(a) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State for the protection of fauna and flora; and

( b ) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

3. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix III shall require, except in circumstances to which paragraph 4 of this Article applies, the prior presentation of a certificate of origin and, where the import is from a State which has included that species in Appendix III, an export permit.

4. In the case of re-export, a certificate granted by the Management Authority of the State of re-export that the specimen was processed in that State or is being re-exported shall be accepted by the State of import as evidence that the provisions of the present Convention have been complied with in respect of the specimen concerned.

ARTICLE VI

Permits and Certificates

1. Permits and certificates granted under the provisions of Articles III, IV, and V shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article.

2. An export permit shall contain the information specified in the model set forth in Appendix IV, and may only be used for export within a period of six months from the date on which it was granted.

3. Each permit or certificate shall contain the title of the present Convention, the name and any identifying stamp of the Management Authority granting it and a control number assigned by the Management Authority.

4. Any copies of a permit or certificate issued by a Management Authority shall be clearly marked as copies only and no such copy may be used in place of the original, except to the extent endorsed thereon.

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5. A separate permit or certificate shall be required for each consignment of specimens.

6. A Management Authority of the State of import of any specimen shall cancel and retain the export permit or re-export certificate and any corresponding import permit presented in respect of the import of that specimen.

7. Where appropriate and feasible a Management Authority may affix a mark upon any specimen to assist in identifying the specimen. For these purposes ‘mark’ means any indelible imprint, lead seal or other suitable means of identifying a specimen, designed in such a way as to render its imitation by unauthorised

persons as difficult as possible.

ARTICLE VII

Exemptions and Other Special Provisions Relating to Trade

1. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to the transit or trans-shipment of specimens through or in the territory of a Party while the specimens remain in Customs control.

2. Where a Management Authority of the State of export or re-export is satisfied that a specimen was acquired before the provisions of the present Convention applied to that specimen, the provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to that specimen where the Management Authority issues a certificate to that effect.

3. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to specimens that are personal or household effects. This exemption shall not apply where:

(a) in the case of specimens of a species included in Appendix I, they were acquired by the owner outside his State of usual residence, and are being imported into that State; or (b) in the case of specimens of species included in Appendix II:

(i) they were acquired by the owner outside his State of usual residence and in a State where removal from the wild occurred; (ii) they are being imported into the owner’s State of usual residence; and (iii) the State where removal from the wild occurred requires the prior

grant of export permits before any export of such specimens; unless a Management Authority is satisfied that the specimens were acquired before the provisions of the present Convention applied to such specimens.

4. Specimens of an animal species included in Appendix I bred in captivity for commercial purposes, or of a plant species included in Appendix I artificially propagated for commercial purposes, shall be deemed to be specimens of species included in Appendix II.

5. Where a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any specimen of an animal species was bred in captivity or any specimen of a plant species was artificially propagated, or is a part of such an animal or plant or was

57

derived therefrom, a certificate by that Management Authority to that effect shall be accepted in lieu of any of the permits or certificates required under the provisions of Articles III, IV or V.

6. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to the non-commercial loan, donation or exchange between scientists or scientific institutions registered by a Management Authority of their State, or herbarium specimens, other preserved, dried or embedded museum specimens, and live plant material which carry a label issued or approved by a Management Authority.

7. A Management Authority of any State may waive the requirements of Articles III, IV and V and allow the movement without permits or certificates of specimens which form part of a travelling zoo, circus, menagerie, plant exhibition or other travelling exhibition provided that:

(a) the exporter or importer registers full details of such specimens with that Management Authority;

(b) the specimens are in either of the categories specified in paragraphs 2 or 5 of this Article; and

(c) the Management Authority is satisfied that any living specimen will be so transported and cared for as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

ARTICLE VIII

Measures to be Taken by the Parties

1. The Parties shall take appropriate measures to enforce the provisions of the present Convention and to prohibit trade in specimens in violation thereof. These shall include measures:

(a) to penalise trade in, or possession of, such specimens, or both; and

( b) to provide for the confiscation or return to the State of export of such specimens.

2. In addition to the measures taken under paragraph 1 of this Article, a Party may, when it deems it necessary, provide for any method of material reimbursement for expenses incurred as a result of the confiscation of a specimen traded in violation of the measures taken in the application of the provisions of the present Convention.

3. As far as possible, the Parties shall ensure that specimens shall pass through any formalities required for trade with a minimum of delay. To facilitate such passage, a Party may designate ports of exit and ports of entry at which specimens

must be presented for clearance. The Parties shall ensure further that all living specimens, during any period of transit, holding or shipment, are properly cared for so as to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

4. Where a living specimen is confiscated as a result of measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article:

58

(a) the specimen shall be entrusted to a Management Authority of the State of confiscation;

(b) the Management Authority shall, after consultation with the State of export, return the specimen to that State at the expense of that State, or to a rescue centre or such other places as the Management Authority deems appropriate and consistent with the purposes of the present Con­ vention; and

(c) the Management Authority may obtain the advice of a Scientific Authority, or may, whenever it considers it desirable, consult the Secre­ tariat in order to facilitate the decision under sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, including the choice of a rescue centre or other place.

5. A rescue centre as referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article means an institu­ tion designated by a Management Authority to look after the welfare of living specimens, particularly those that have been confiscated.

6. Each Party shall maintain records of trade in specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III which shall cover:

(a) the names and addresses of exporters and importers; and

(b) the number and type of permits and certificates granted; the States with which such trade occurred; the numbers or quantities and types of speci­ mens, names of species as included in Appendices I, II and III and, where applicable, the size and sex of the specimens in question.

7. Each Party shall prepare periodic reports on its implementation of the present Convention and shall transmit to the Secretariat:

(a) an annual report containing a summary of the information specified in sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 6 of this Article; and

(b) a biennial report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken to enforce the provisions of the present Convention.

8. The information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article shall be available to the public where it is not inconsistent with the law of the Party concerned.

ARTICLE IX

Management and Scientific Authorities

1. Each Party shall designate for the purposes of the present Convention:

(a) one or more Management Authorities competent to grant permits or certificates on behalf of that Party; and (b) one or more Scientific Authorities.

2. A State depositing an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall at that time inform the Depositary Government of the name and address of the Management Authority authorised to communicate with other Parties and with the Secretariat.

59

3. Any changes in the designations or authorisations under the provisions of this Article shall be communicated by the Party concerned to the Secretariat for transmission to all other Parties.

4. Any Management Authority referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article shall if so requested by the Secretariat or the Management Authority of another Party, communicate to it impression of stamps, seals or other devices used to authenticate permits or certificates.

ARTICLE X

Trade with States not Party to the Convention

Where export or re-export is to, or import is from, a State not a party to the present Convention, comparable documentation issued by the competent authorities in that State which substantially conforms with the requirements of the present Convention for permits and certificates may be accepted in lieu thereof by any Party.

ARTICLE XI

Conference of the Parties

1. The Secretariat shall call a meeting of the Conference of the Parties not later than two years after the entry into force of the present Convention.

2. Thereafter the Secretariat shall convene regular meetings at least once every two years, unless the Conference decides otherwise, and extraordinary meetings at any time on the written request of at least one-third of the Parties.

3. At meetings, whether regular or extraordinary, the Parties shall review the implementation of the present Convention and may:

(a) make such provisions as may be necessary to enable the Secretariat to carry out its duties;

(b) consider and adopt amendments to Appendices I and II in accordance with Article XV;

(c) review the progress made towards the restoration and conservation of the species included in Appendices I, II and III;

(d) receive and consider any reports presented by the Secretariat or by any Party; and

(e) where appropriate, make recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the present Convention.

4. At each regular meeting, the Parties may determine the time and venue of the next regular meeting to be held in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article.

5. At any meeting, the Parties may determine and adopt rules of procedure for the meeting.

60

6. The United Nations, its Specialised Agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not a Party to the present Convention, may­ be represented at meetings of the Conference by observers, who shall have the

right to participate but not to vote.

7. Any body or agency technically qualified in protection, conservation or management of wild fauna and flora, in the following categories, which has informed the Secretariat of its desire to be represented at meetings of the Confer­ ence by observers, shall be admitted unless at least one-third of the Parties present

object:

(a) international agencies or bodies, either governmental or non-governmental, and national governmental agencies and bodies; and

(b) national non-governmental agencies or bodies which have been approved for this purpose by the State in which they are located. Once admitted, these observers shall have the right to participate but not to vote.

The Secretariat

ARTICLE XII

1. Upon entry into force of the present Convention, a Secretariat shall be provided by the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme. To the extent and in the manner he considers appropriate, he may be assisted by suitable inter-government or non-governmental, international or national agencies and bodies technically qualified in protection, conservation and management of wild

fauna and flora.

2. The Functions of the Secretariat shall be:

(a) to arrange for and service meetings of the Parties; (b) to perform the functions entrusted to it under the provisions of Articles XV and XVI of the present Convention; (c) to undertake scientific and technical studies in accordance with programs

authorised by the Conference of the Parties as will contribute to the implementation of the present Convention, including studies concerning standards for appropriate preparation and shipment of living specimens and the means of identifying specimens; (d) to study the reports of Parties and to request from Parties such further

information with respect thereto as it deems necessary to ensure implemen­ tation of the present Convention; (e) to invite the attention of the Parties to any matter pertaining to the aims of the present Convention; (/) to publish periodically and distribute to the Parties current editions of

Appendices I, II and III together with any information which will facilitate identification of specimens of species included in those Appendices; (g) to prepare annual reports to the Parties on its work and on the imple­ mentation of the present Convention and such other reports as meetings

of the Parties may request;

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(Λ) to make recommendations for the implementation of the aims and provi­ sions of the present Convention, including the exchange of information of a scientific or technical nature;

(/) to perform any other function as may be entrusted to it by the Parties.

ARTICLE XIII

International Measures

1. When the Secretariat in the light of information received is satisfied that any species included in Appendices I or II is being affected adversely by trade in specimens of that species or that the provisions of the present Convention are not being effectively implemented, it shall communicate such information to the

authorised Management Authority of the Party or Parties concerned.

2. When any Party receives a communication as indicated in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall, as soon as possible, inform the Secretariat of any relevant facts insofar as its laws permit and, where appropriate, propose remedial action. Where the Party considers that an inquiry is desirable, such inquiry may be carried out by one or more persons expressly authorised by the Party.

3. The information provided by the Party or resulting from any inquiry as specified in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be reviewed by the next Conference of the Parties which may make whatever recommendations it deems appropriate.

ARTICLE XIV

Effect on Domestic Legislation and International Conventions 1. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt:

(a) stricter domestic measures regarding the conditions for trade, taking possession or transport of specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III, or the complete prohibition thereof; or (b) domestic measures restricting or prohibiting trade, taking possession, or

transport of species not included in Appendices I, II or III.

2. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the provisions of any domestic measures or the obligations of Parties deriving from any treaty, convention, or international agreement relating to other aspects of trade, taking, possession, or transport of specimens which is in force or subsequently may enter

into force for any Party including any measure pertaining to the Customs, public health, veterinary or plant quarantine fields.

3. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the provisions of, or the obligations deriving from, any treaty, convention or international agree­ ment concluded or which may be concluded between States creating a union or regional trade agreement establishing or maintaining a common external customs control and removing customs control between the parties thereto insofar as they relate to trade among the States members of that union or agreement.

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4. A State party to the present Convention, which is also a party to any other treaty, convention or international agreement which is in force at the time of the coming into force of the present Convention and under the provisions of which protection is afforded to marine species included in Appendix II, shall be relieved

of the obligations imposed on it under the provisions of the present Convention with respect to trade in specimens of species included in Appendix II that are taken by ships registered in that State and in accordance with the provisions of such other treaty, convention or international agreement.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles III, IV and V, any export of a specimen taken in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article shall only require a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction to the effect that the specimen was taken in accordance with the provisions of the other

treaty, convention or international agreement in question.

6. Nothing in the present Convention shall prejudice the codification and develop­ ment of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea convened pursuant to Resolution 2750 C (XXV) of the General Assembly of

the United Nations nor the present or future claims and legal views of any State concerning the law of the sea and the nature and extent of coastal and flag State jurisdiction.

ARTICLE XV

Amendments to Appendices I and II 1. The following provisions shall apply in relation to amendments to Appendices I and II at meetings of the Conference of the Parties:

(a) Any Party may propose an amendment to Appendix I or II for considera­ tion at the next meeting. The text of the proposed amendment shall be communicated to the Secretariat at least 150 days before the meeting. The Secretariat shall consult the other Parties and interested bodies on

the amendment in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 of this Article and shall communicate the response to all Parties not later than thirty days before the meeting.

(b) Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties present and voting. For these purposes ‘Parties present and voting’ means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Parties abstaining from voting shall not be counted among the two-thirds required for adopt­

ing an amendment.

(c) Amendments adopted at a meeting shall enter into force ninety days after that meeting for all Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article.

2. The following provisions shall apply in relation to amendments to Appendices I and II between meetings of the Conference of the Parties:

(«) Any Party may propose an amendment to Appendix I or II for considera­ tion between meetings by the postal procedures set forth in this paragraph.

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(b) For marine species, the Secretariat shall, upon receiving the text of the proposed amendment, immediately communicate it to the Parties. It shall also consult inter-governmental bodies having a function in relation to those species especially with a view to obtaining scientific data these bodies may be able to provide and to ensuring co-ordination with any conservation measures enforced by such bodies. The Secretariat shall communicate the views expressed and data provided by these bodies and its own findings and recommendations to the Parties as soon as possible.

(c) For species other than marine species, the Secretariat shall, upon receiving the text of the proposed amendment, immediately communicate it to the Parties, and, as soon as possible thereafter, its own

recommendations.

( d ) Any Party may, within sixty days of the date on which the Secretariat communicated its recommendations to the Parties under sub-paragraphs (b) or (c) of this paragraph, transmit to the Secretariat any comments on the proposed amendment together with any relevant scientific data and information.

(e) The Secretariat shah communicate the replies received together with its own recommendations to the Parties as soon as possible.

(/) If no objection to the proposed amendment is received by the Secretariat within thirty days of the date the replies and recommendations were communicated under the provisions of sub-paragraph (e) of this para­ graph, the amendment shall enter into force ninety days later for all

Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article.

(g) If an objection by any Party is received by the Secretariat, the proposed amendment shall be submitted to a postal vote in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs ( h), (/) and (/) of this paragraph.

(h) The Secretariat shall notify the Parties that notification of objection has been received.

(z) Unless the Secretariat receives the votes for, against or in abstention from at least one-half of the Parties within sixty days of the date of notification under sub-paragraph (h) of this paragraph, the proposed amendment shall be referred to the next meeting of the Conference for further consideration.

(/) Provided that votes are received from one-half of the Parties, the amendment shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties casting an affirmative or negative vote.

( k) The Secretariat shall notify all Parties of the result of the vote.

(/) If the proposed amendment is adopted it shall enter into force ninety days after the date of the notification by the Secretariat of its acceptance for all Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article.

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3. During the period of ninety days provided for by sub-paragraph (c) of paragraph 1 or sub-paragraph (/) of paragraph 2 of this Article any Party may by notification in writing to the Depositary Government make a reservation with respect to the amendment. Until such reservation is withdrawn the Party shall

be treated as a State not a party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the species concerned.

ARTICLE XVI

Appendix III and Amendments thereto

1. Any party may at any time submit to the Secretariat a list of species which it identifies as being subject to regulation within its jurisdiction for the purpose mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article II. Appendix III shall include the names of the Parties submitting the species for inclusion therein, the scientific names of the species so submitted, and any parts or derivatives of the animals or plants

concerned that are specified in relation to the species for the purposes of sub­ paragraph ( b) of Article I.

2. Each list submitted under the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall be communicated to the Parties by the Secretariat as soon as possible after receiving it. The list shall take effect as part of Appendix III ninety days after the date of such communication. At any time after the communication of such

list, any Party may by notification in writing to the Depositary Government enter a reservation with respect to any species or any parts or derivatives, and until such reservation is withdrawn, the State shall be treated as a State not a Party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the species or part or derivative

concerned.

3. A Party which has submitted a species for inclusion in Appendix III may withdraw it at any time by notification to the Secretariat which shall communicate the withdrawal to all Parties. The withdrawal shall take effect thirty days after the date of such communication.

4. Any Party submitting a list under the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall submit to the Secretariat a copy of all domestic laws and regulations applic­ able to the protection of such species, together with any interpretations which the Party may deem appropriate or the Secretariat may request. The Party shall,

for as long as the species in question is included in Appendix III, submit any amendments of such laws and regulations or any new interpretations as they are adopted.

ARTICLE XVII

Amendment of the Convention 1. An extraordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the Secretariat on the written request of at least one-third of the Parties to consider and adopt amendments to the present Convention. Such amendments shall be

adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties present and voting. For these purposes

65

‘Parties present and voting’ means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Parties abstaining from voting shall not be counted among the two- thirds required for adopting an amendment.

2. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated by the Secretariat to all Parties at least ninety days before the meeting.

3. An amendment shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted it sixty days after two-thirds of the Parties have deposited an instrument of accept­ ance of the amendment with the Depositary Government. Thereafter, the amendment shall enter into force for any other Party sixty days after that Party deposits its instrument of acceptance of the amendment.

ARTICLE XVIII

Resolution of Disputes

1. Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of the provisions of the present Convention shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved in the dispute.

2. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.

ARTICLE XIX

Signature The present Convention shall be open for signature at Washington until 30 April 1973 and thereafter at Berne until 31 December 1974.

ARTICLE XX

Ratification, Acceptance, Approval The present Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Government of the Swiss Confederation which shall be the Depositary Government.

ARTICLE XXI

Accession The present Convention shall be open indefinitely for accession. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary Government.

ARTICLE XXII

Entry into Force 1. The present Convention shall enter into force ninety days after the date of deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, with the Depositary Government.

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2. For each State which ratifies, accepts or approves the present Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the present Convention shall enter into force ninety days after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance,

approval or accession.

ARTICLE XXIII

Reservations 1. The provisions of the present Convention shall not be subject to general reserva­ tions. Specific reservations may be entered in accordance with the provisions of this Article and Articles XV and XVI.

2. Any State may, on depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, enter a specific reservation with regard to :

(a) any species included in Appendix I, II or III; or

( b) any parts or derivatives specified in relation to a species included in Appendix III.

3. Until a Party withdraws its reservation entered under the provisions of this Article, it shall be treated as a State not a party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the particular species or parts or derivatives specified in such reservation.

ARTICLE XXIV

Denunciation Any Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Depositary Government at any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the Depositary Government has received the notification.

ARTICLE XXV

Depositary 1. The original of the present Convention, in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Depositary Government, which shall transmit certified copies thereof to all

States that have signed it or deposited instruments of accession to it.

2. The Depositary Government shall inform all signatory and acceding States and the Secretariat of signatures, deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, entry into force of the present Convention, amendments thereto, entry and withdrawal of reservations and notifications of denunciation.

3. As soon as the present Convention enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary Government to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorised to that effect, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Washington this third day of March, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-three.

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APPENDIX I

Interpretation:

1. Species included in this Appendix are referred to:

(a) by the name of the species; or

( b) as being all of the species included in a higher taxon or designated part thereof.

2. The abbreviation ‘spp.’ is used to denote all species of a higher taxon.

3. Other references to taxa higher than species are for the purposes of information or classification only.

4. An asterisk (*) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates that one or more geographically separate populations, sub-species or species of that taxon are included in Appendix II and that these populations, sub-species or species are excluded from Appendix I.

5. The symbol ( - ) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates the exclusion from that species or taxon of designated geographically separate populations, sub-species or species as follows:

— 101 Lemur catta — 102 Australian population

6. The symbol ( + ) followed by a number placed against the name of a species denotes that only a designated geographically separate population or sub-species of that species is included in this Appendix, as follows:

+ 201 Italian population only

7. The symbol ( f ) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates that the species concerned are protected in accordance with the International Whaling Commission’s schedule of 1972.

68

FAUNA

Mammalia

Marsupialia Macropodidae Macropus parma

Onychogalea frenata O. lunata Lagorchestes hirsutus Lagostrophus fasciatus

Caloprymnus campesiris Bettongia penicillata B. lesueur B. tropica

Phalangeridae Wyulda squamicaudata

Burramyidae Burramys parvus

Vombatidae Lasiorhinus gillespiei

Peramelidae Perameles bougainville

Chaeropus ecaudatus Macrotis lagotis M. leucura

Dasyuridae Planigale tenuirostris

P. subtilissima Sminthopsis psammophila S. longicaudata Antechinomys laniger

Myrmecobius fasciatus rufus

Thylacinidae Thylacinus cynocephalus

Primates Lemuridae Lemur spp. -101

Lepilemur spp. Hapalemur spp. AUocebus spp. Cheirogaleus spp.

Mirocebus spp. Phaner spp.

Indriidae Indri spp.

Propithecus spp. Avahi spp.

Daubentoniidae Daubentonia madagascariensis

Callithricidae Leontopithecus (Leontideus) spp.

Callimico goeldii

69

Cebidae Saimiri oerstedii

Chiropotes albinos us Cacajao spp. Alouatta palliata (villosa) A teles geoffroyi frontatus A. g. panamensis Brachyteles arachtwides

Cercopithecidae Cercocebus galeritus galeritus

Macaco silenus Colobus badius rujomitratus C. b. kirkii Presbytis geei P. pileatus P. entellus Nasalis larvatus Simias concolor Pygathrix nemaeus

Hylobatidae Hylobates spp.

Symphalangus syndaetylus

Pongidae Pongo pygmaeus pygamaeus

P. p. abelii Gorilla gorilla

Edentata Dasypodidae Priodontes giganteus ( = maximus)

Pholidota Manidae Manis temmincki

Lagomorpha Leporidae Romerolagus diazi

Caprolagus hispidus

Rodentia Sciuridae

Castoridae

Cynomys mexicanus Castor fiber birulaia Castor canadensis mexicanus

Muridae Zyzomys pedunculatus

Leporillus conditor Pseudomys novaehollandiae P. praeconis P. shortridgei P. jumeus P. occidentalis

70

Murid ae— continued

P. fieldi Notomys aquilo Xeromys myoides

Chinchillidae Chinchilla brevicaudata boliviana

Cetacea Platanistidae Eschrichtidae Balaenopteridae

Platanista gangetica Eschrichtius robustus (glaucus) f

Balaenoptera musculusf Me gap ter a novaeangliaef

Balaenidae Balaena mysticetusf

Eubalaena spp.t

Carnivora Canidae Canis lupus monstrabilis

Vulpes velox hebes

Viverridae Ursidae

Prionodon pardicolor Ursus americanus emmonsii U. arctos pruinosus U. arctos + 201

U. a. nelsoni

Mustelidae Mustela nigripes

Lutra longicaudis {platensis / annec- tens) L. felina L. provocax Pteronura brasiliensis A onyx microdon Enhydra lutris nereis

Hyaenidae Felidae

Hyaena brunnea Felis planiceps F. nigripes F. concolor coryi

F. c. costaricensis F. c. cougar F. temmincki Felis bengalensis bengalensis

F. yagouaroundi cacomitli F. y. fossata F. y. panamensis F. y. tolteca

F. pardalis mearnsi F. p. mitis

71

Felidae— continued

F. wiedii nicaraguae F. w. salvinia F. tigrina oncilla F. marmorata F. jacobita F. {Lynx) rufa escuinapae Neofelis nebulosa Panthera tigris* P. pardus P. uncia P. onca Acinonyx jubatus

Pinnipedia Phocidae Monachus spp.

Mirounga angustirostris

Proboscidea Elephantidae Elephas maximus

Sirenia Dugongidae Trichechidae

Dugong dugon— 102

Trichechus manat us T. inunguis

Perissodactylia Equidae Equus przewalskii

E. hemionus hemionus E. h. khur

E. zebra zebra

Tapiridae Tapirus pinchaque

T. bairdii T. indicus

Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros unicornis

R . sondaicus Didermocerus sumatrensis Ceratotherium simum cottoni

Artiodactyla Suidae Sus salvanius

Babyrousa babyrussa

Camelidae Vicugna vicugna

Camelus bactrianus

72

Cervidae Moschus moschiferus moschijerus

Axis (Hyelaphus) porcinus annami- ticus A. (Hyelaphus) calamianensis A. (Hyelaphus) kuhlii

Cervus duvauceli C. eldi C. elaphus hanglu

Hippocamelus bisulcus H. antisiensis Blastoceros dichotomus Ozotoceros bezoarticus Pudu pudu

Antilocapridae Antilocapra americana sonoriensis

A . a. peninsularis

Bovidae Bubalus (Anoa) mindorensis

B. (Anoa) depressicornis B. (Anoa) quarlesi Bos gaurus B. (grunniens) mutus

Novibos (Bos) sauveli Bison bison athabascae Kobus leche Hippotragus niger variani

Oryx leucoryx Damaliscus dorcas dorcas Saiga tatarica mongolica Nemorhaedus goral

Capricornis sumatraensis Rupicapra rupicapra ornata Capra falconeri jerdoni

C. f. megaceros C. f. chiltanensis Ovis orientalis ophion O. ammon hodgsoni

O. vignei

Tinamiformes Tinamidae

AVES

Tinamus solitarius

Podicipediformes Podicipedidae Podilymbus gigas

73

Proccllariiformes Diomedeidae Diomedea albatrus

Pelecaniformes Sulidae Fregatidae

Sula abbotti Fregata andrewsi

Ciconiiformes Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae

Ciconia ciconia boyciana Nipponia nippon

Anseriformes Anatidae Anas aucklandica nesiotis

Anas oustaleti Anas laysanensis Anas diazi

Cairina scutulata Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Brant a canadensis leucopareia Branta sandvicensis

Faiconiformes Cathartidae Vultur gryphus

Gymnogyps californianus

Accipitridae Pithecophaga jefferyi

Harpia harpy fa Haliaetus l. leucocephalus Haliaetus heliaca adalberti Flaliaetus albicilla groenlandicus

Falconidae Falco peregrinus anatum

Falco peregrinus tundrius Falco peregrinus peregrinus Falco peregrinus babylonicus

Gailiformes Megapodiidae Cracidae

Macrocephalon maleo Crax blumenbachii Pipile p. pipile Pipile jacutinga Mitu mitu mitu Oreophasis derbianus

Tetraonidae

Phasianidae

Tympanuchus cupido attwateri

Colinus virginianus ridgwayi Tragopan blythii Tragopan caboti

74

Phasianidae— continued Tragopan melanocephalus

Lophophorus sclateri Lophophorus Ihuysii Lophophorus impejanus Crossoptilon mantchuricum

Crossoptilon crossoptilon Lophura swinhoii Lophura imperialis Lophura edwardsii Syrmaticus ellioti Syrmaticus humiae Syrmaticus mikado

Polyplectron emphanum Tetraogallus tibetanus Tetraogallus caspius Cyrtonyx montezumae merriami

Gruiformes Gruidae Grus japonensis

Grus leucogeranus Grus americana Grus canadensis pulla Grus canadensis nesiotes

Grus nigricollis Grus vipio Grus monacha

Rallidae

Rhynochetidae

Otididae

Tricholimnas sylvestris

Rhynochetos jubatus Eupodotis bengaleensis

Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Numenius borealis

Tringa gutdjer

Laridae Larus relictus

Columbiformes Columbidae Ducula mindorensis

Psittaciformes Psittacidae Strigops habroptilus

Rhynchopsitia pachyrhyncha Amazona leucocephala Amazona vittata Amazona guildingii

Amazona versicolor

75

Psittaciformes— -continued Amazona imperialis

Amazona rhodocorytha Amazona petrei petrei Amazona vinacea Pyrrhura cruentata Anodorhynchus glaucus Anodorhynchus leari

Cyanopsitta spixii Pionopsitta pileata Aratinga guaruba Psittacula krameri echo Psephotus pulcherrimus Psephotus chrysopterygius Neophema chrysogaster Neophema splendida

Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Cyanoramphus auriceps forbesi Geopsittacus occidentalis Psittacus erithacus princeps

Apodiformes Trochilidae Ramphodon dohrnii

Trogoniformes Trogonidae Pharomachrus mocinno mocinno

Pharomachrus mocinno costaricensis

Strigiformes Strigidae Otus gurneyi

Coraciiformes Bucerotidae Rhinoplax vigil

Piciformes Picidae Dryocopus javensis richardsii

Campephilus imperialis

Passeriformes Cotingidae Cotinga maculata

Xipholena atro-purpurea

Pittidae

Atrichornithidae Muscicapidae

Pitta kochi

Atrichornis clamosa

Picathartes gymnocephalus Picathartes oreas

76

Muscicapidae— continued

Sturnidae

Meliphagidae

Zosteropidae Fringillidae

Psophodes nigrogularis Amytornis goyderi Dasyornis brachypterus longirostris Dasyornis broadbenti littoralis

Leucopsar rothschildi

Meliphaga cassidix

Zosterops albogularis Spinus cucullatus

Urodela Cryptobranchidae

Salientia Bufonidae

Atelopodidae

AMPHIBIA

Andrias ( = Megalobatrachus) david- ianus japonicus Andrias ( = Megalobatrachus) david- ianus davidianus

Bujo superciliaris Bufo periglenes Nectophrynoides spp. Atelopus varius zeteki

Crocodylia Alligatoridae

Crocodylidae

Gavialidae

REPTILIA

A lligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis Melanosuchus niger Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis

Caiman latirostris Tomistoma schlegelii Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis Osteolaemus tetraspis osborni

Crocodylus cataphractus Crocodylus siamensis Crocodylus palustris palustris Crocodylus palustris kimbula

Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis Crocodylus intermedius Crocodylus rhombifer Crocodylus moreletii

Crocodylus niloticus Gavialis gangeticus

77

Testudinata

Emydidae Batagur baska

Geoclemmys ( = Damonia) hamiltonii Geoemyda ( = Nicoria) tricarinata Kachuga tecta tecta Morenia ocellata

Terrapene coahuila

Testudinidae Geochelone ( = Testudo) elephant-

opus

Geochelone ( = Testudo) geometrica Geochelone ( = Testudo) radiata Geochelone ( = Testudo) yniphora

Cheloniidae Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata

Lepidochelys kempii

Trionychidae Lissemys punctata punctata

Trionyx ater Trionyx nigricans Trionyx gangeticus Trionyx hurum

Chelidae Pseudemydura umbrina

Lacerttiia Varanidae Varanus komodoensis

Varanus flavescens Varanus bengalensis Varanus griseus

Serpentes Boidae Epicrates inornatus inornatus

Epicrates subflavus Python molurus molurus

Rhynchocephalia Sphenodontidae Sphenodon punctatus

Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae

PISCES

Acipenser brevirostrum Acipenser oxyrhynchus

Osteoglossiformes Osteoglossidae Scleropages formosus

78

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Coregonus alpenae

Cypriniformes Catostomidae Chasmistes cujus

Cyprinidae Probarbus jullieni

Siluriformes Schilbeidae Pangasianodon gigas

Perciformes Percidae Stizostedion vitreum glaucum

Naiadoida Unionidae

MOLLUSCA

Conradilla caelata Dromus dramas Epioblasma ( =Dysnomia) fiorentina curtisi Epioblasma ( =Dysnomia) fiorentina

fiorentina Epioblasma {=Dysnomia) sampsoni Epioblasma ( =--Dysnomia) sulcata perobliqua Epioblasma ( =Dysnomia) torulosa

gubernaculum Epioblasma (=Dysnomia) torulosa torulosa Epioblasma (=Dysnomia) turgidula Epioblasma (=Dysnomia) walkeri

Fusconaia cuneolus Fusconaia edgariana Lampsilis higginsi Lampsilis orbiculata orbiculata

Lampsilis satura Lampsilis virescens Plethobasis cicatricosus Plethobasis cooperianus

Pleurobema plenum Potamilus (=Proptera) capax Quadrula intermedia Quadrula sparsa

Toxolasma (=Carunculina) Cylindrella Unio (Megalonaias/ ? / ) nickliniana

79

Unionidae— continued Unionidae— continued Unio (Lampsilis/? / ) tampicoensis tecomatensis Villosa ( =M icromya) trabalis

Araceae

FLORA Alocasia sanderiana Alocasia zebrina

Caryocaraceae Caryocar costaricense

Caryophyllaceae Gymnocarpos przewalskii

Melandrium mongolicum Silene mongolica Stellaria pulvinata

Cupressaceae Pilgerodendron uviferum

Cycadaceae Encephalartos spp.

Microcycas calocoma Stangeria eriopus

Gentianaceae Prepusa hookeriana

Humiriaceae Vantanea barbourii

Jugiandaceae Engelhardtia pterocarpa

Leguminosae Ammopiptanthus mongolicum

Cynometra hemitomophylla Platymiscium pleiostachyum

Liliaceae Aloe albida

Aloe pillansii Aloe polyphylla Aloe thorncroftii Aloe vossii

Melastomaceae Lavoisiera itambana

Meliaceae Guarea longipetiola

Tachigalia versicolor

Moraceae Batocarpus costaricense

80

Orchidaceae Cattleya jongheana

Cattleya skinneri Cattleya trianea Didiciea cunninghamii Laelia lobata Lycaste virginalis var. alba Peristeria elata

Pinaceae Abies guatamalensis

Abies nebrodensis

Podocarpaceae Podocarpus costalis

Podocarpus parlatorei

Proteaceae Orothamnus zeyheri

Protea ordorata

Rubiaceae Balmea stormae

Saxifragaceae (Grossulariaceae) Ribes sardoum

Taxaceae Fitzroya cupressoides

Ulmaceae Celtis aetnensis

Wdwitschiaceae Welwitschia bainesii

Zingiberaceae Hedychium philippinense

APPENDIX II

Interpretation:

1. Species included in this Appendix are referred to:

(a) by the name of the species; or

(b) as being all of the species included in a higher taxon or designated part thereof.

2. The abbreviation ‘spp.’ is used to denote all the species of a higher taxon.

3. Other references to taxa higher than species are for the purposes of information or classification only.

4. An asterisk (*) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates that one or more geographically separate populations, sub-species or species of that taxon are included in Appendix I and that these populations, sub-species or species are excluded from Appendix II.

81

5. The symbol ( # ) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon designates parts or derivatives which are specified in relation thereto for the purposes of the present Convention as follows:

# 1 designates root

# 2 designates timber

+fc designates trunks

6. The symbol ( —) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates the exclusion from that species or taxon of designated geographically separated populations, sub-species, species or groups of species as follows:

— 101 Species which are not succulents

7. The symbol ( + ) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon denotes that only designated geographically separate populations, sub-species or species of that species or taxon are included in this Appendix as follows:

- j - 201 All North American sub-species

+ 202 New Zealand species

+ 203 All species of the family in the Americas.

82

FAUNA

MAMMALIA

Marsupialia Macropodidae Dendrolagus inustus

Dendrolagus ursinus

Insectivora Erinaceidae Erinaceus frontalis

Primates Lemuridae

Lorisidae

Lemur catta

Nycticebus couoang Loris tardigradus

Cebidae

Cercopithecidae

Cebus capucinus

Macao a sylvanus Colobus badius gordonorum Colobus verus Rhinopithecus roxellanae

Presbytis johnii

Pongidae Pan paniscus

Pan troglodytes

Edentata Myrmecophagidae Myrmecophaga tridactyla

Tnmandua tetradactyla chapadensis

Bradypodidae Bradypus boliviensis

Pholidota Manidae Manis crassicaudata

Manis pentadactyla Manis javanica

Lagomorpha Leporidae Nesolagus netscheri

Rodentia Heteromyidae

Sciuridae

Dipodomys phillipsii phillipsii Ratufa spp. Lariscus hosei

Castoridae Castor canadensis frondator

Castor canadensis repentinus

Cricetidae Ondatra zibethicus bernardi

83

Canidae Cams lupus pallipes

Canis lupus irremotus Canis lupus crassodon Chrysocyon brachyurus Cuon alpinus

Ursidae Ursus ( Thalarctos) maritimus

Ursus arctos -f- 201 Helarctos malayanus

Procyonidae

Mustelidae

Viveridae

Ailurus fulgens

Maries americana atrata Prionodon linsang Cynogale bennetti Helogale derbianus

Felidae Fells yagouaroundi*

Fells colocolo pajeros Fells colocolo crespoi Felis colocolo budini Fells concolor missoulensis Felis concolor mayensis Felis concolor azteca Felis serval Felis lynx isabellina Felis wiedii* Felis pardalis* Felis tigrina* Felis ( = Caracal) caracal Panthera leo persica

Panthera tigris altaica ( = amurensis)

Pinnipedia Otariidae A rctocephalus australis

A rctocephalus galapagoensis A rctocephalus philippii A rctocephalus townsendi

Phocidae Mirounga australis

Mirounga leonina

Tubulidentata Orycteropidae Orycteropus afer

Sirenia Dugongidae Trichechidae

Dugong dugon

Trichechus senegalensis

84

Perlssodactyla Equidae Tapiridae

Rhinocerotidae

Equus hemionus* Tapirus terrestris

Diceros bicornis

Artiodactyla Hippopotamidae

Cervidae

Choeropus liberiensis Cervus elaphus baclrianus Pudu mephistophiles

Antilocapridae

Bovidae

Antilocapra americana mexicana Cephalophus monticola Oryx (tao) dammah Addax nasomaculatus

Pantholops hodgsoni Capra falconeri* Ovis ammon* Ovis canadensis

Sphenisciformes Spheniscidae

AVES

Spheniscus demersus

Rheiformes Rheidae Rhea americana albescens

Pterocnemia pennata pennata Pterocnemia pennata garleppi

Tinamifonnes Tinamidae Rhynchotus rufescens rufescens

Rhynchotus rufescens pallescens Rhynchotus rufescens maculicollis

Ciconiiformes Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae

Ciconis nigra Geronticus calvus Platalea leucorodia

Phoenicopteridae Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis

Phoenicoparrus andinus Phoenicoparrus jamesi

Pelecaniformes Pelecanidae Pelecanus crispus

85

Anscrifomies Anatidae Anas aucklandica aucklandica

Anas aucklandica chlorotis Anas bernieri Dendrocygna arborea Sarkidiornis melanotos Anser albifrons gambelli

Cygnus bewickii jankowskii Cygnus melancoryphus Coscoroba coscoroba Brant a ruficollis

Falconiformes Accipitridae Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis

Aquila chrysaetos

Falconidae Spp·*

Gallifomies Megapodiidae Megapodius freycinet nicobariensis

Megapodius freycinet abbotti

Tetraonidae Phasianidae

Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus Francolinus ochropectus Francolinus swierstrai Catreus wallichii Polyplectron malacense Polyplectron germaini Polyplectron bicalcaratum Gallus sonneratii Argusianus argus Ithaginus cruentus Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi

Graiformes Gruidae Balearica regulorum

Grus canadensis pratensis

Rallidae Otididae

Gallirallus australis hectori Chlamydotis undulata Choriotis nigriceps Otis tarda

Charadiiformes Scolopacidae Numenius tenuirostris

Numenius minutus

Laridae Larus brunneicephalus

86

Columbiformes Columbidae Gallicolumba luzonica

Goura cristata Goura scheepmakeri Goura victoria Caloenas nicobarica pelewensis

Psittaciformes Psittacidae Coracopsis nigra barklyi

Prosopeia personata Eunymphicus cornutus Cyanoramphus unicolor Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae

Cyanoramphus malherbi Poicephalus robustus Tany gnat hus luzoniensis Probosciger aterrimus

Cuculiformes Musophagidae Turaco corythaix

Gallirex porphyreolophus

Strigiformes Strigidae Otus nudipes newtoni

Coraciiformes Bucerotidae Buceros rhinoceros rhinoceros

Buceros bicornis Buceros hydrocorax hydrocorax Acer os narcondami

Piciformes Picidae Picus squamatus flavirostris

Passeriformes Cotin gidae Rupicola rupicola

Rupicola peruviana

Pittidae Hirundinidae

Paradis aeidae Muscicapidae Fringillidae

Pitta brachyura nympha Pseudochelidon sirintarae

Spp.

Muscicapa ruecki Spinus yarrellii

87

AMPHIBIA

Urodela Ambystomidae Ambystoma mexicanum

Ambystoma dumerillii Am by stoma lermaensis

Salientia Bufonidae Bujo retiformis

Crocodylia Alligatoridae Caiman crocodilus crocodilus

Caiman crocodilus yacare Caiman crocodilus fuscus (chiapa- sius) Paleosuchus palpebrosus Paleosuchus trigonatus

Crocodylidae Crodocylus johnsoni

Crocodylus novaeguineae novae- guinae Crocodylus porosus Crocodylus acutus

Testudinata Emydidae Testudinidae

Clemmys muhlenbergi Chersine spp. Geochelone spp.* Gopherus spp. Homopus spp. Kinixys spp. Malacochersus spp. Pyxis spp.

Testudo spp.*

Cheloniidae Caretta caretta

Chelonia mydas Chelonia depressa Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Lepidochelys olivacea

Dermochelidae Pelomedusidae

Dermochelys coriacea

Podocnemis spp.

Lacertilia Teiidae Cnemidophorus hyperythrus

88

Iguanidae

Helodermatidae

Varanidae

Conolophus pallidus Cololophus subcristatus Amblyrhynchus cristatus Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillei

Heloderma suspectum Heloderma horridum

Varanus spp.*

Serpentes Boidae

Colubridae

Epicrates certchris cenchris Eunectes notaeus Constrictor constrictor Python spp.*

Cyclagras gigas Pseudoboa cloelia Elachistodon westermanni Thamnophis elegans hammondi

PISCES

Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae Acipenser fulvescens

Acipenser sturio

Osteoglossiformes Osteoglossidae Arapaima gigas

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Stenodus leucichthys leucichthys

Salmo chrysogaster

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Plagopterus argentissimus

Ptychocheilus lucius

Atheriniformes Cyprinodontidae Cynolebias constanciae

Cynolebias marmoratus Cynolebias minimus Cynolebias opalescens Cynolebias splendens

Poeciliidae Xiphophorus couchianus

89

Coelacanthiformes Coelacanthidae Latimeria chalumnae

Ceratodiformes Ceratodidae Neoceratodus forsteri

Naiadoida Unionidae

MOLLUSCA

Cyprogenia uberti Epioblasma ( = Dysnomia) torulosa rangiana Fusconaia subrotunda Lampsilis brevicula Lexingtonia dolabelloides Pleorobema clava

Stylommatophora Camaenidae

Paraphantidae

Papustyla (== Papuina) pulcherrima

Paraphanta spp. + 202

Prosobranchia Hydrobiidae Coahuilix hubbsi

Cochliopina milleri Durangonella coahuilae Mexipyrgus carranzae Mexipyrgus churinceanus Mexipyrgus escobedae Mexipyrgus lugoi Mexipyrgus mojarralis Mexipyrgus multilineatus Mexitfvauma quadripaludium Nymphophilus minckleyi Paludiscala caramba

Lepidoptera Papilionidae

INSECTA

Parnassius apollo apollo

Apocynaceae

FLORA

Pachypodium spp.

Araliaceae Panax quinquefolium

90

Araucariaceae Araucaria araucana

Cactaceae Cactaceat spp. — 203

Rhipsalis spp.

Compositae Saussurea lappa # 1

Cyatheaceae Cyathea (Hemitelia) capensis i t 3

Cyathea dredgei i t 3 Cyathea mexicana # 3 Cyathea (Alsophila) salvinii # 3

Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea # 1

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbis spp. — 101

Fagaceae Quercus copeyensis i t 2

Leguminosae Thermopsis mongolica

Liliaceae Aloe spp.*

Meliaceae Swietenia humilis i t 2

Orchidaceae Spp.*

Palniae Arenga ipot

Phoenix hanceana var. philippinensis Zalacca clemensiana

Portulacaceae Anacampseros spp.

Primulaceae Cyclamen spp.

Solanaceae Solanum sylvestris

Sterculiaceae Basiloxylon excelsum i t 2

Verbenaceae Caryopteris mongolica

Zygophyllaceae Guaiacum sanctum # 2

91

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES

OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA

EXPORT PERM IT No............

(Date)

Exporting Country: Valid Until:

This permit is issued to:..................................................................................................

address:..................................................................................................

who declares that he is aware of the provisions of the Convention, for the purpose

of exporting:........................................................................................................

(specimen(s), or part(s) or derivative(s) of specimen(s))1

of a species listed in Appendix I

Appendix II Appendix III of the Convention as specified below.

(bred in captivity or cultivated in...............................................................................)*’

This (these) specimen(s) is (are) consigned to:............................................................

address:................................................... country:................................................

at on

(signature of the applicant for the permit)

a t......................................... on

{stamp and signature of the Management Authority issuing the export permit)

1 Indicate the type of product 5 Delete if not applicable

92

Description of the specimen(s) or part(s) or derivative(s) of specimen(s), including any mark(s) affixed:

Living Specimens

Species

(scientific and common name) Number Sex

Size

(or volume)

Mark (if any)

Parts or Derivatives

Species

(scientific and common name) Quantity Type o f Goods Mark (if any)

Stamps of the authorities inspecting:

(a) on exportation (b) on importation* * This stamp voids this permit for further trade purposes, and this permit shall be surrendered to the Management Authority.

93

Appendix 3.5

PROPOSED ADDITIONS TO APPENDICES I AND II

The following species were nominated for Appendices I or II by the indicated States, but were received too late to be considered within the time limitations dictated by the Conference. These species will undoubtedly be nominated, under the amendment procedures provided for in Article XIII, as soon as the present Convention comes into force. In the interim, it was proposed, and accepted by the Conference, that these lists should be recorded in the documentation of the present Session. In this manner, such lists will be available for study prior to future proposals for amendment of the appendices.

Species which already appear in Appendices I or II, as prepared by the present Conference, are marked by an asterisk.

Proposed additions to the appendices, submitted by the Delegation from A Igeria:

MAMMALIA Gazella dorcas Cervus elaphus barbarus Ammotragus lervia

FLORA

Abies numidica Pistachia atlantica Cupressus dupregiana

Proposed additions to Appendix II, submitted by the Delegation from Australia:

The following members of the family Macropodidae have entered legal trade. The biology of each has been well studied and the management of populations is adequate. Nevertheless, the Delegation from Australia believes that inclusion in Appendix II would assist national conservation, programs, and is not inappropriate in light of the revised definitions.

MAMMALIA Megaleia rufa Macropus giganteus M. fuliginosus M. robustus M. parryi M. rufogriseus M. agilis

Wallabia bicolor

94

Proposed additions to the appendices, submitted by the Delegation from Cameroon:

MAMMALIA

* Caracal caracal Hyemoschus aquaticus * Pan troglodytes Redunca fulvorufula

Colobus guerezas Loxodonta africana L. pumilio Giraffa Camelopardalis * Gorilla gorilla * Acinon jubatus

* Trichechus senegalensis * All Lemur spp. * Orycteropus afer * Diceros bicornis

AYES

Struthio camelus Balaeniceps rex Sagittarius serpentarius All Aegypiinae species

Proposed additions to Appendix I, submitted by the Delegation from Kenya: MAMMALIA Hippotragus niger

H. equinus Alcelaphus buselaphus facksoni A. b. cokii Kobus kob thomasi

Cephalophus sylvicutor Otocyon megalotis Colobus spp. Dendrohyrax arboreus

Heterohyrax brucei Procavia johnstoni P. syriacus Tragelaphus strepsiceros

T. buxtoni Capra ibex

AYES

All Podicipedidae species All Ardeidae species All Scopidae species

95

All Ciconiidae species All Plataleidae species All Scolopacidae species All Musophagidae species

All Strigidae species All Charadriidae species Phoenicopterus ruber roseus Phoenicoparrus minor Choriotes kori struthiunculus Neotis houglinii N. cafra jacksonii Sagittarius serpentarius * Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis

Proposed additions to the appendices, submitted by the Delegation from Malagasy Republic: APPENDIX I MAMMALIA

Lemur catta

APPENDIX II MAMMALIA Eupleres spp. Cryptoprocta ferox Fossa fossa

REPTILIA

Acrantophis madagascariensis A. dumerlii Sanzinia madagascariensis

Proposed additions to Appendix II, submitted by the Delegation from Mexico: MAMMALIA Agouti paca nelsoni

AYES

Phoenicopterus ruber ruber Crax rubra * Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyrcha

Proposed additions to the appendices, submitted by the Delegation from Peru: APPENDIX I MAMMALIA

* Vicugna vicugna * Cacajao rubicundus

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Speothos venaticus Tremarctos ornatus Gebuella pygmaea

AVES

* Pterocnemia pennata

APPENDIX II MAMMALIA

Lama guanacoe

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Appendix 3.61

CONFERENCE RESOLUTION [Proposed by Committee II (Flora)]

RESOLUTION

THE CONFERENCE, Recognising that the lengthy period of preparatory work which preceded the present Conference was primarily concerned with endangered species of animals rather than of plants,

Noting that the proposals for the inclusion of plant species in the Appendices to the Convention available for discussion at this Conference are very limited both botanically and geographically, and that they could not be held to be fully representative of the range of plant species endangered by trade,

Recognising that the botanical expertise represented among the delegates to the Conference is inadequate to permit critical evaluation of all the proposals submitted, especially insofar as they may be affected by, or have effects on, international trade,

Noting that the procedures set out in Article XV of the Convention are only apt to cover such alterations to Appendices I and II as may be needed to deal with additions, deletions, or alterations to lists which already confirm most of the endangered species in the groups concerned, and, that,

Recognising that, to cover the situation in plants, there is an urgent need to establish procedures to ensure that a continuing review is maintained of plant species threatened by trade on a world-wide basis,

RESOLVES:

(1) That the special attention of the Secretariat be drawn to this problem, and that it be requested to initiate such action as may appear appropriate, having regard to the recommendations made in the report of Committee II (Flora).

(2) That the Secretariat present a report to the next Conference of Contracting States on the progress made, with its recommendations for further action.

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