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Bureau of Meteorology—Report for 2013-14


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2013-14

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

www.bom.gov.au

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report

2013-14

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

www.bom.gov.au

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report

| Low pressure system over southeast Australia

A low pressure system and associated cold front captured by satellite on 24 June.

The system caused very strong winds across much of southeast Australia. In central Victoria, the low caused a storm surge and tidal flooding as well as large waves. Flooding in Melbourne’s beachside suburbs and the Yarra River caused significant disruption to power and transport as well as widespread coastal erosion.

The strong winds caused downed trees, power outages and roof damage, with over 3500 calls to the Victorian State Emergency Service (SES), 1280 calls to the New South Wales SES and 300 calls in South Australia.

Satellite image originally processed by the Bureau of Meteorology from the polar orbiting meteorological satellite Terra, operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

| Further information

For more information concerning this Annual Report contact: Corporate Communication Manager Bureau of Meteorology 6th Floor, 700 Collins Street, Docklands, Victoria 3008 GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001

Tel: (03) 9669 4000 Fax: (03) 9669 4699 Email: publications@bom.gov.au

Other information and contact details are available on the Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov.au

This Annual Report is available electronically at www.bom.gov.au/eiab/reports/ar13-14/index.shtml

| © Commonwealth of Australia 2014

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Bureau of Meteorology. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Design and Delivery Unit, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001. Requests for reproduction of material from the Bureau website should be addressed to AMDISS, Bureau of Meteorology, at the same address.

Design: Bureau of Meteorology Design and Delivery Unit.

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Letter of transmittal

Office of the Director of Meteorology Bureau of Meteorology GPO Box 1289 Melbourne VIC 3001 Australia

Australia’s National Meteorological Service

700 Collins Street Docklands VIC 3008 | Tel: (03) 9669 4000 | Fax: (03) 9669 4699 | www.bom.gov.au | ABN 92 637 533 532

The Hon Greg Hunt MP Minister for the Environment Parliament House CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Minister

In accordance with Section 70 of the Public Service Act 1999, I present the Annual Report of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 2013-14.

Also, in accordance with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines, I certify that the Bureau has prepared a fraud risk assessment and fraud control plan, and has in place appropriate fraud prevention, detection and investigation procedures that meet the Bureau’s needs and comply with the guidelines applying in 2013-14.

It gives me great pleasure to be able to report on the activities, achievements and performance of the Bureau for the 2013-14 financial year. Throughout the year the Bureau has continued its work of observing, analysing and predicting Australia’s weather, climate, oceans, water resources and space weather. Through the dedicated work of individuals and teams, the organisation has sought to find efficiencies by applying new knowledge and making the most of the resources that the Government has invested.

Yours sincerely

(DR ROB VERTESSY) Director of Meteorology 7 October 2014

Contents

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARIES

Letter of transmittal ............................................ i

Our organisation at a glance .............................iv

2013-14 snapshot ...........................................vi

Community impacts........................................ viii

National weather event summary ...................... x

SECTION ONE - OVERVIEW 1

Review by the Director ...................................... 3

Agency overview .............................................. 9

SECTION TWO - PERFORMANCE 13

About our performance framework ................. 14 Performance overview .................................... 16

Hazards, warnings and forecasts .................... 18

Weather forecasting services ........................ 18

Flood forecasting and warning services ........ 28 Hazard prediction services ........................... 31

Aviation and Defence ................................... 38

Environment and research .............................. 42

Climate information services ......................... 42

Water information services ........................... 48

Environmental information services ............... 51 Research and development .......................... 56

Observations and infrastructure ...................... 62

Observing system strategy ........................... 62

Observing network operations ...................... 66

Infrastructure management .......................... 69

Information systems and services ................... 73 Information technology services ................... 73

Systems development and maintenance ...... 75 Environmental information management ....... 78 Digital data delivery ...................................... 81

SECTION THREE - SERVICING AUSTRALIA 85

Services around Australia ............................... 86

New South Wales ........................................... 88

Victoria ........................................................... 90

Queensland .................................................... 92

South Australia ............................................... 94

Western Australia ........................................... 95

Tasmania and Antarctica ................................. 96

Northern Territory ............................................ 97

SECTION FOUR - ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT 99

Corporate governance .................................. 102

International cooperation .............................. 117

People management .................................... 121

Financial resource management ................... 134

SECTION FIVE - FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 139

SECTION SIX - ACCOUNTABILITY REPORTING 211

SECTION SEVEN - GOVERNING LEGISLATION 217

The Meteorological Act 1955 ........................ 218

The Water Act 2007 (extract) ........................ 220

APPENDIX A 226

Agency Resource Statement ........................ 226

APPENDIX B 227

Glossary of acronyms ................................... 227

APPENDIX C 231

Compliance index ......................................... 231

Global Reporting Initiative index .................... 233

Index ............................................................ 236

ContentsLetter of transmittal ............................................ iContents ...........................................................iiOur organisation ..............................................ivat a glance ........................................................iv2013-14 snapshot ...........................................viCommunity impacts........................................ viiiNational weather event summary ................................................. xDr Rob Vertessy ............................................... 2Review by the Director ...................................... 3Agency overview .............................................. 9About our performance framework ................. 14Performance overview .................................... 16Hazards, warnings and forecasts .................... 18Environment and research .............................. 42Observations and infrastructure ...................... 62Information systems and services .................. 73Services around Australia ............................... 86New South Wales ........................................... 88Victoria ........................................................... 90Queensland .................................................... 92South Australia ............................................... 94Western Australia ........................................... 95Tasmania and Antarctica ................................. 96Northern Territory ............................................ 97Corporate governance .................................. 102International cooperation .............................. 117People management .................................... 121Financial resource management ................... 134Accountability reporting ................................ 212Meteorology Act 1955 .................................. 218The Water Act 2007 (extract) ........................ 220Agency Resource Statement ........................ 226GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ....................... 227Compliance index ......................................... 231Global Reporting Initiative index .................... 233Index ............................................................ 236

About this report

Introduction and summaries Includes a quick guide to the Bureau of Meteorology and its performance in 2013-14.

Section one - Overview Includes the Review of 2013-14 by the Director of Meteorology and the Outlook for 2014-15. It also explains the Bureau functions and services, and who uses the services.

Section two - Performance Explains the program structure and how the programs contributed to the Bureau’s planned outcome.

Section three - Servicing Australia Explains the role of the Regional Offices and the achievements in each of the seven operating regions.

Section four - Organisational management Provides details on the management of the Bureau and its operations, people and finances.

Section five - Financial statements Contains the Bureau’s audited financial statements for 2013-14.

Section six - Accountability reporting Details the Bureau’s success in meeting government requirements in areas such as Freedom of Information and sustainability.

Section seven - Governing legislation Includes the Meteorology Act 1955 and relevant parts of the Water Act 2007.

iv Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Our organisation at a glance | Our vision To provide Australians with environmental intelligence for safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity.

| Our focus Over the past decade, the Bureau has responded to the need for new products and services including information on space weather, oceans and water resources while pushing ahead in our traditional strengths of weather and climate. These achievements are the foundation for our future as we move to become the nation’s authority in environmental intelligence.

| Our strategy To enable this transformation we will focus on:

• Our stakeholders • Our products and services • Our people • Our infrastructure • Our operations • Our scientific and technical capability

To succeed we will develop new skills, enhance our infrastructure, leverage our data assets and implement impr

oved business processes. We

will harness new science and technology.

| Our mission • Monitor and report on current environmental conditions • Analyse and explain trends in environmental

data

• Provide forecasts, warnings and long-term outlooks on envir

onmental phenomena that

affect the safety, prosperity and resilience of Australians • Foster greater public understanding and use of environmental intelligence

| Our journey Since the release of our Strategic Plan 2010-15 we have been on a five year journey to transform our agency into one capable of providing a comprehensive environmental intelligence service to the Australian public. We will retain a strong focus on core meteorological services but we also focus on the interactions with our ocean, land and water resources, as well as the ecosystems that depend on them.

| Authority The Bureau of Meteorology operates under the authority of the Meteorology Act 1955 and the Water Act 2007. It is an Executive Agency under the Public Service Act 1999, and a prescribed agency under the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997. The Meteorology Act requires the Bureau to fulfil Australia’s international obligations under the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and related international treaties and agreements.

| Responsible minister and portfolio The Bureau operates within the Environment, Portfolio and reports to the Minister for the Environment, the Hon Greg Hunt MP and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment, Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham.

| Funding basis The Bureau receives most of its funding from the Australian Government ($212.930 million in 2013-14). Additional revenue is derived from the sale of goods and services ($73.882 million in 2013-14). More information can be found in the ‘Financial resource management’ chapter p. 134.

v Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Our outcome Informed safety, security and economic decisions by governments, industry, and the community through the provision of information, forecasts, services and research relating to weather, climate and water.

| Our staff As at 30 June 2014, the Bureau had 1520 ongoing and 215 non-ongoing staff, as well as 305 paid and 6954 volunteer observers who help maintain Australia’s climate record. More detailed information in the ‘People management’ chapter, p. 121.

| Where we work Bureau staff are located across Australia, on remote islands and in Antarctica. The Bureau’s administrative and operational headquarters are in Melbourne. We observe and forecast from the Antarctic to north of the equator, and from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific.

| Our programme The Bureau delivers its outcome through one Government programme which is delivered through five internal portfolios:

• Hazards Warnings Forecasts • Environment and Research • Observations and Infrastructure • Information Systems and Services • Corporate Services

| Performance reporting The Bureau’s success in achieving its outcome is measured against specific deliverables and key performance indicators outlined in the Portfolio Budget Statements 2013-14 for the Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities Portfolio. Its performance against these targets is described in each program chapter.

| The Bureau’s history

1906 Act establishing the Bureau as the authority for providing meteorological services passed by Parliament

1908 Bureau of Meteorology commences operations as a national agency

1945 Establishment of divisional offices in each State (first Regional Offices)

1950 Australia becomes one of the first members of the World Meteorological Organization

1996 Bureau website launched

2002 Bureau becomes an Executive Agency

2004 National Tidal Facility of Australia brought within the Bureau as National Tidal Centre

2005 Major role for the Bureau in expanded Australian Tsunami Warning System

2007 Bureau’s new Water Information function announced

2008 Bureau given responsibility for the Ionospheric Prediction (space weather) Service

2010 Bureau assigned a role in implementing the National Plan for Environmental Information

2014 Bureau starts delivering information via social media and mobile platforms

vi Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2013-14 snapshot | Our eye on the environment: | What we delivered:

63 weather surveillance radars 55

6957 rainfall stations 678 automatic weather stations 9 wind profilers

10 solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring facilities

2 solar observatories

3 total ozone and ozone profiler facilities

16 drifting buoys

45 sea level stations 15

staffed offices

485 271public forecast products 18 916weather and ocean warnings 1816 flood warnings

428 325aviation forecast products 264 regular climate summaries and

reviews

600 000+climate graphs and charts 100+ tsunami bulletins 200+ peer-reviewed scientific papers 18National Water Account region reports 4 millionspace weather forecastssatellites operated by international partners

vii Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| How we performed: | The reach of our services:

99%of scheduled weather, ocean, defence and aviation forecasts delivered as planned 96%of day 1 maximum temperature forecasts accurate to within 3 degrees 93%+radar availability 99%+uptime of internet services 99%+ supercomputer uptime 97%of surveyed users satisfied with the Bureau’s weather and ocean services 85%+satisfaction with climate data and information services

53 billion web hits 485 000 Facebook followers 4.8 millionclicks on Facebook posts or post links 2.8 milliononline climate data service inquiries 44 000live radio broadcasts by weather experts 500+TV interviews on extreme weather 19 500individual purchases made through the online payment gateway $6.6 millionof commercial weather services

°C

$

$

viii Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Community impacts | Our severe weather warnings:

• alert Australians to protect themselves and their property from tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and damaging winds

• warn communities to prepare for flood conditions and make timely evacuations

• support the emergency services in carrying out effective emergency and disaster response

| Our fire weather warnings:

• alert the community to weather conditions conducive to the spread of dangerous bushfires

• assist State and Territory fire agencies to make decisions about total fire ban declarations

• allow emergency services to pre-position personnel and equipment to minimise fire damage

| Our marine and ocean services:

• support safety at sea and informed search and rescue operations

• support business operations in offshore resource, fishing and aquacultur

e industries

• help fishermen, boaties and water sport enthusiasts to stay safe and plan their trips on the water

| Our aviation and defence forecasts and warnings:

• facilitate safe and efficient air travel in Australian air space

• inform aircraft routing and fuel load decisions

• protect aircraft from volcanic ash that might harm engines

• support Australia’s defence operations in Australia and overseas

| Our UV forecasts and heatwave warnings:

• help protect vulnerable Australians against heat exhaustion and heatstroke

• alert health authorities to periods of heightened demand and allowed for preparation of contingency arrangements

• help Australians avoid dangerous UV exposure to protect against skin cancer

ix Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Our climate maps and information:

• help Australians understand the nation’s climate patterns, trends and variations in climate, and climate r elated risks

• report on rainfall deficiencies and support drought assistance programs

• support insurance claims processes

• support the development of infrastructure appropriate to climate conditions

| Our water and environmental information:

• enhance planning and management of water resources

• inform the design of new water infrastructure

• support the management of water allocations and rights

• aid decision making in water supply and irrigation activities

• help in the management of ecosystems

| Our seasonal climate outlooks:

• help farmers make decisions about crop planting, fertilizer application, stock management, fodder and water restocking strategies

• allow emergency managers to prepare the community ahead of the tropical cyclone season

• assist retailers and tourist operators to tailor their activities to seasonal variations

Our forecasts of extreme temperatures, sunlight and wind:

• allow the Australian energy market to forecast power demand, particularly during heatwave conditions

• support sustainable energy generation by informing production potential and energy output estimates

• support activities in the construction and transport industries

| Our everyday weather forecasts:

• help Australians to plan their sporting and outdoor activities

• help individuals and families to organise their trips to school and work

• help event managers to make appropriate plans and prepare contingencies when r

equired

°C

x Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

National weather event summary

New South Wales and ACT

16 Nov: Widespread large hail across the Northern

Rivers and Mid North Coast districts, including 6 cm

hail near Sawtell.

16 Mar: Widespread damaging wind gusts from sever

e

thunderstorms across central and northern coastal

districts, including 62 knots gust at Evans Head.

22 Mar: Thunderstorms with large hail and heavy

rainfall across Sydney Metropolitan and Illawarra,

including golf ball size hail at Menai, and 62 mm of rain

in 30 mins, at Lake Nepean.

24 Mar: Thunderstorms combined with a low off the

Sydney and Illawarra coast produced significant heavy

rainfall and widespread flash flooding.

18 Nov: A tornado at Hornsby in northern Sydney

injur

ed 10-15 people and caused damage to several

buildings including a shopping centre.

23 Nov: Several tornados affected the Northern

T

ablelands around Guyra and Ben Lomond causing

significant damage to one property and trees.

10 Sep: Heat and strong northerly winds contributed to

an early start to the fire season with more than 50 fir

es

alight across the State.

25-28 Sept: Gale-force winds fanned fires across the

State, the worst on the Mid North Coast. Fir

e destroyed

more than 60% of the Barranjoey headland in Sydney’s

Northern Beaches.

17-23 Oct: Intense and destructive period of bushfire

activity across the Blue Mountains, Central Coast,

Lower Hunter and Illawarra, including 200 homes

destroyed in Blue Mountains on the 17th.

Mid Jan-early Feb: Numerous fires burned for several

weeks acr

oss the eastern half of the State.

• Aug: Wettest August since 2003, 33% above

average statewide.

• Oct: recorded the State’s worst bushfir

es since 1968.

• 10-28 May: A record 19 consecutive days above

22°C recor

ded at Sydney Observatory Hill.

Victoria

22 Oct: Winds associated with severe thunderstorms

across the State resulted in fallen trees and house

damage in the northeast. In Ararat damage was

consistent with that from a tornado.

19 Feb: A massive downpour from a ‘supercell’

thunderstorm at Geelong produced 54 mm of rain in

one hour

, causing flash flooding.

13-17 Jan: An extreme heatwave led to several days

of extreme fire danger

. On 17 January, a number of

major fires were ignited that ran for several weeks in the

Mallee, Grampians and Gippsland regions.

9 Feb: Soaring temperatures and wind gusts around

70-80 km/h fires in several Melbour

ne suburbs and

metropolitan fringes and burned into the Morwell-

Hazelwood coal mine in the Latrobe Valley.

26 Sep-2 Oct: Over 6000 requests were made for

assistance to the SES as wind gusts over 100 km/h

brought down trees and interrupted power.

24 Jun: High tides with large waves and wind

gusts up to 110-120 km/h created a storm surge,

causing flooding of the Yarra River at Southbank and

Mornington Peninsula beaches ar

ound Port Phillip Bay.

13-17 Jan: Hottest four-day period on record for the

State. Charlton r

ecorded 46.5°C. Melbourne recorded

four consecutive days above 41°C.

11-23 May: Melbourne set a new record of 13

consecutive days in May with a maximum temperatur

e

of 20°C or more. 14 consecutive nights were recorded

above 10°C.

Queensland

30 Jan-4 Feb and 8-10 Feb: Moderate to Major

flood warnings were issued for Tully

, Murray, Herbert,

Johnstone, Daintree, Mossman, Connors-Isaac and

Gulf Rivers.

19-23 Feb: Moderate to Major flood warnings were

issued for Haughton, Bohle, Bulloo, Paroo, Thomson-Bar

coo-Cooper, Gulf Rivers.

Late March: A major flood warning was issued for

the Bremer River and W

estern, Laidley, Warrill and

Lockyer Creeks. Flood warnings were also issued

for catchments in western Queensland and coastal

catchments on the North Tropical and Central Coasts.

10-14 Apr: Moderate or major flooding occurred in the

majority of catchments between Daintree and Bowen

caused by tropical cyclone

Ita.

| Major events by State

xi Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

10-18 Nov: An almost unbroken run of severe

thunderstorm days was experienced in southeast

Queensland.

16 Nov: Hail, up to softball size was widespread at the

Sunshine Coast.

19 Nov: A rare hail producing severe thunderstorm

impacted Mount Gar

net.

Dec: Several severe thunderstorms bought hail to

localities including Kingaroy, Boonah and Dalveen; and

caused widespr

ead power outages on the 29th.

30 Mar: Thunderstorms across the southeast caused

flash flooding, mainly around the Darling Downs.

25 Apr: A severe thunderstorm across central coast

produced hail the size of cricket balls at Bulahdelah

and caused significant hail damage in Muswellbr

ook.

31 Jan: Tropical cyclone Dylan made landfall near

Bowen as a Category 2 cyclone.

Feb: Tropical cyclone Edna

formed in the Coral Sea but

did not affect the coast.

Feb: Tropical cyclone Fletcher

crossed the Gulf of

Carpentaria coast as a Category 1 system.

11 Apr: Severe tropical cyclone Ita

made landfall near

Cape Flattery as a Category 4 cyclone after reaching

Category 5 offshore.

Mar: Tropical cyclone Hadi

formed in the Coral Sea

and approached the coast near Townsville before

moving eastwards with no impact to land.

Mar: Tropical cyclone Gillian

formed in the Gulf of

Carpentaria but was downgraded to a tropical low

before reaching landfall.

Jan: Mass evacuations were undertaken as a major

fire on North Stradbroke Island bur

nt for more than two

weeks. Around half of the island was burnt.

Jan: The highest tides of the year in late January

coincided with tropical cyclone Dylan. Damage was

largely confined to coastal flooding.

26 Sep: 41.4°C was recorded at Tar oom Post Office.

4-20 Jan: Two major heatwaves.

3 Jan: Queensland’s hottest day on record;

1-17 Feb: Mount Isa recorded more rainfall in this

period than the entir

e calendar year of 2013;

Apr: Warmest night-time temperatures on recor

d,

2.17 °C above the long-term average.

South Australia

14 Feb: Heavy rainfalls and flash flooding to the West

Coast, Eyre Peninsula, the Mid North, Adelaide and the

Riverland. Houses were flooded, topsoil washed away

,

roads cut and bushfire at Bangor was extinguished.

3 Aug: A tornado cut a 1.5 km long swathe of damage

through Kingston, significantly damaging 14 buildings.

14-17 Jan: In heatwave conditions, over 200 fires were

ignited by lightning with 425 000 hectar

es of land burnt.

14 Jan-14 Feb: The Bangor fire in the southern

Flinders Ranges burnt over 35 000 hectar

es. Five

houses, stock, fencing and pasture were lost, much of

the Wirrabara Forest burnt.

17 Jan: A fire at Eden Valley burnt 25 000 hectar

es

in the eastern Mount Lofty Ranges. Five houses,

15 sheds, numerous stock, vehicles and fencing

were destroyed.

20-21 Dec: Adelaide was impacted by severe

downslope southeast winds which caused extensive

tree damage and major disruptions to power.

4 Feb: Eastern suburbs of Adelaide were heavily

impacted by severe winds during the night and early

mor

ning, causing disruptions to the power network and

significant property damage.

Jan-Feb: Lengthy and extensive severe and extreme

heatwaves affected the whole State.

2 Jan: 49.3 °C was recorded at Moomba Airport.

Western Australia

7-13 Feb: A tropical low generated heavy rainfall

through much of the Kimberley, Gascoyne and

Goldfields districts. A rainfall site near Kununurra

r

ecorded 622 mm in 72 hours.

26 Apr: Heavy rainfall led to significant localised

flooding within the Exmouth town site. 237.7 mm was

recorded at Ningaloo Reef.

6 Aug: A suspected waterspout caused damage and

injured six people when it was driven ashore and into a

construction site near North Coogee.

11 Sep: A suspected tornado was reported near

Mandurah, south of Perth.

22 Nov: Tropical cyclone Alessia formed about 390 km

north of Broome bringing strong wind and heavy rain.

30 Dec: Tropical cyclone Christine

a Category 3 severe

tropical cyclone crossed the Pilbara coast between

Roebourne and Whim Creek.

21-22 Sep: Two major storm surges were associated

with fast moving cold fronts raising sea levels above

the

Highest Astronomical Tide by 1.1 m in at Busselton,

1 m at Bunbury and 0.85 m in Perth.

11-12 Jan: A fire at Parkerville in the Perth Hills

destroyed 52 houses.

18 Oct: 44.8 °C recorded at Fitzroy Cr ossing.

27 Dec: 47.4 °C recorded at Eucla.

12 Jan: 31.2 °C highest January minimum recorded at

Pearce RAAF base.

xii Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Tasmania

1 Jul: Damaging winds about southern Tasmania

resulted in power outages to 5400 pr

emises and a

caused a number of boats to break their moorings.

2 Oct: Damaging winds about the west, north and east

caused power outages to 10 000 premises, grounded

flights at Devonport Airport and resulted in falling tr

ees

which blocked roads and railway lines.

9 Feb: Destructive winds gusting to 130 km/h around

Hobart and 150 km/h about Mount Wellington.

5-6 and 13-14 and 18 Aug: Heavy rain caused flash

flooding about the north. Roads and railway lines were

closed and buildingns in Launceston were inundated.

13 Nov: Heavy rain caused flash flooding about

eastern Tasmania. Gray recor

ded 250 mm in the

24 hours to 9 am.

21 Nov: Thunderstorms over the north coast caused

flash flooding in Launceston.

23 Nov: Thunderstorms caused flash flooding in the

Tamar Valley and between Westbury and Deloraine.

A large amount of hail fell at Bur

nie.

28 Nov: Thunderstorms caused flash flooding between

Falmouth and St Helens.

15 Feb: Thunderstorms caused flash flooding about

the Midlands.

28 Jan: Severe to extreme fire dangers wer e recorded

about King Island and southern and southeastern

Tasmania. Bushy Park reached the catastrophic range.

5-11 Feb: Lightning started a fire at Montuama

burning approximately 3400 hectar

es and destroying

several premises.

1 Apr: 31°C recoded in Hobart broke a 127 year

recor

d for April.

6 Aug: 159 km/h wind gust at Mount Wellington.

Northern Territory

1 Feb: Major flood recorded at the Adelaide River.

24 Nov: Tropical cyclone Alessia made landfall near the

mouth of the Daly River as a Category 1 system.

1-2 Feb: A storm surge associated with a monsoon

burst, combined with high astronomical tides, caused

significant coastal erosion and inundation around

Darwin.

24 Nov: Darwin experienced its earliest monsoon onset

on record with Alessia

, the earliest cyclone on record to

make landfall in the Territory.

2013 was the Territory’s hottest year on recor

d.

Severe weather across Australia in 2013-14 by month

NSW VIC QLD SA WA TAS NT

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Jun

Bushfire Cyclone Heatwave Flooding Notable records

Severe thunderstorm Storm surge Strong winds Tornado

LEGEND

Over view

2 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Dr Rob Vertessy DIRECTOR OF METEOROLOGY

3 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

1

Overview

Review by the Director | Introduction

As I reflect on the Bureau’s performance over the past year, I am delighted to see the progress we are making in transforming our service delivery to the community. We have introduced more graphical products on the web, communicated increasingly through social media, provided more video content, and introduced a new mobile website for the flourishing mobile market. All of these developments are helping to get our message across in simpler and more convenient ways. The ever increasing popularity of our website and Facebook presence demonstrates that our users are responding positively to these changes. Our staff are driven by a passion to improve the user experience so that we increase the uptake of our environmental intelligence to enhance day-to-day decision making. Underlying that passion is a firm belief in the intrinsic social and economic value of good environmental intelligence that assists Australian industry, government and the general public. Good situational awareness and foresight regarding our weather, climate, oceans and water resources is something we all need to remain safe, productive and sustainable.

| Severe weather events

In 2013 Australia experienced its warmest year on record, marked by several significant heatwaves that extended into the first quarter of 2014. The warm, dry conditions led to early season fires across the Blue Mountains in New South Wales and an active fire season ensued. The summer was also replete with cyclones, floods and severe storms. As always, our frontline forecasters worked closely with emergency services during these severe weather events to prepare and warn the community, support the media and assist emergency services personnel in the field. Severe weather takes a great toll on communities and businesses, but every year we increase our ability to mitigate those impacts by improving the accuracy and lead time of our forecasts and warnings and enhancing their dissemination to the public.

| New and improved products

We continued implementation of the Next Generation Forecast and Warning System (NexGenFWS), completing a successful roll-out in Queensland. We also commenced implementation in the Northern Territory, with a scheduled go-live date of November 2014. This will bring the NexGenFWS project to a close, allowing every Australian community to enjoy a detailed seven-day weather forecast, a service that was previously only available to those living in capital cities. This technology has revolutionised our weather forecasting process, significantly enhancing our productivity and the resulting public benefit.

We piloted a national heatwave alert service for the first time during the summer, enhancing the climate resilience of the health, energy and transport sectors as well as the general community. We also trialled a thunderstorm tracker in southeast Queensland, an area susceptible to severe convective storms. These two new products will be trialled again in the coming summer so that we can assess user views on their utility and value.

| State of the Climate 2014 report

In March, the Bureau and CSIRO joined forces to publish the third biennial State of the Climate report, assessing the long-term trends in Australia’s climate. Our report focused on climate observations made over the last century, providing insights into changing air and ocean temperatures, rainfall, sea levels, atmospheric composition and weather phenomena such as heatwaves and cyclones. Like the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), our report paints a clear picture of humankind’s impact on the global climate system.

4 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

There was great interest in the report, through traditional and social media platforms, highlighting the strong community interest in climate change and the trust held in the Bureau and CSIRO as climate information providers (see p. 46).

| Government response to the Munro Review

Our last annual report highlighted the Government response to the Munro Review, a review of the Bureau’s capacity to respond to future extreme weather and natural disaster events and to provide seasonal forecasting services. As was noted then, ensuing funding provided by the government has enabled us to bolster weather and flood forecaster numbers and to modernise key forecasting systems. Over the last year, we have commenced development of a new storm surge forecasting system and made further progress in upgrading our flood forecasting system. We have also had productive conversations with the States and Territories regarding the standardisation of the Bureau’s hazard services.

| Realignment

In our last annual report I signalled my intention to realign the Bureau’s organisational structure to enhance our effectiveness and efficiency. Two of the main objectives for the realignment were to bring greater coherence to the way we manage our observations and infrastructure, and our IT and information management functions.

The realignment process was completed at the end of the financial year, with all divisions established in our new structure and leadership and staffing in place. I am pleased with the result and confident that the new arrangements will lift our productivity, reduce operating risks and enhance our efficiency, leading to better outcomes for our users (see p. 109).

This year I have commissioned an internal review of our arrangements for undertaking research and development. The purpose of that review is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of our procedures for specifying, managing and operationalising our research and development.

| Supercomputer announcement

At the heart of the Bureau’s weather forecasting and warning services are complex numerical weather prediction models. These models require sophisticated supercomputers to run at the necessary resolutions and time schedules using available data as inputs. The Bureau has operated a supercomputer since 1988 and they need to be replaced every five to seven years. Our current machine will reach the end of its life in two years time.

Funding for a replacement supercomputer for the Bureau was announced in the 2014-15 Federal Budget. The new supercomputer will raise the Bureau’s computing power significantly (from 0.1 to 1.8 petaflops) and will ensure the continued and improved delivery of forecast and warning services. In the coming year we will procure a new machine and data centre to host it. We expect to install and prepare the machine for operation during 2015-16 and commence a five-year operational cycle in July 2016.

Once operational, this new machine will allow us to run our numerical weather prediction models at much higher resolution and to run them more frequently. We will also be able to run the models many times over in ‘ensemble mode’, allowing us for the first time to ascribe levels of certainty to different weather forecasts. Finally, we will also be able to run very high-resolution models on demand for specific parts of the nation where high-impact severe weather events such as cyclones, floods and fires are being experienced. This will enable us to provide much better guidance in situations where the threats to people and property are great (see p. 77).

5 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

1

Overview

| Appointments and retirements

Over the last year the substantive membership of the Bureau Executive changed as a result of one retirement and one new appointment. In January, we farewelled Dr Neville Smith, the long-standing Deputy Director, Research and Systems. Neville made an outstanding contribution to the Bureau’s research and oceanography activities and provided exemplary executive leadership over a sustained period, including a substantial term as acting Director of Meteorology in 2008-09. In June, we welcomed Dr Lesley Seebeck to the newly established role of Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services. Lesley joins the Bureau with extensive experience in information technology in the Australian Public Service (APS), as well as across industry and academia. In addition, throughout the year Dr Sue Barrell acted as Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services and Dr Barry Hanstrum acted as Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure. Sue and Barry played vital roles in the Bureau’s realignment process, serving as the foundation heads of two new divisions.

| Mobile website launch

A major step forward in the Bureau’s service delivery has been the launch of the mobile website. The website assists in the presentation of the most frequently accessed products from mobile devices and also compiles essential information in the one place. Recognising that over half of the people accessing the Bureau’s website now do so from mobile devices, it is essential that our weather information is presented in a way that suits smartphones and tablets. Since the launch of the our new mobile website in May we have witnessed rapid uptake and received very positive user feedback. While many users are satisfied by a mobile website, many are also keen for a native Bureau app that uses some of the more sophisticated functions of mobile devices, such as push notifications. We are responding to this demand and expect to have a Bureau weather app available for the Windows and iOS platforms by the end of 2014 and for the Android platform by mid-2015 (see p. 83).

| Social media and digital data

The Bureau has made significant progress in expanding its social media presence over the last year. With almost half a million followers, the Bureau is now the most popular APS Facebook page and the second most popular across all levels of government in Australia. In the coming year the Bureau will commence operating a Twitter channel for disseminating important weather information to the community (see p. 81).

| Business development

The business development function within the Bureau has continued to grow over the last year, with the formation of the Business Development Unit. Last year the Bureau earned over $77 million in external revenue, enabling us to extend our national impact by meeting the specific needs of different industry sectors. However, the market demand for environmental intelligence continues to exceed our current capacity to service it, so our strategy is to grow our ability to deliver more cost-recovered and commercial services. We have entered into an alliance with the UK Met Office to grow our business development capability which entails a two-year secondment of Tom Butcher as our Business Development Manager. Tom and his team have undertaken market analyses to determine where we should focus our future business development activity. They have also established policies and procedures that will enable us to better manage business opportunities that we pursue.

6 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Staff excellence

The Bureau is privileged to have many dedicated and skilled staff who excel in their roles. Over the last year, two of the Bureau’s leaders were recognised for their outstanding service. Dr Ray Canterford was awarded a Public Service Medal in the Australia Day 2014 Honours List announced by the Governor-General for outstanding public service in the delivery of weather forecasts and warnings. Mr Bruce Forgan was awarded the 2014 Barry Inglis Medal for outstanding achievements in the field of scientific measurement at the World Metrology Day. I am extremely proud of the accomplishments of these two leaders and the recognition they have gained through two such prestigious awards.

Each year at the Bureau we recognise special individuals by awarding the Australia Day Achievement Medallion. In 2014 two medallions were awarded. Dr Jeff Kepert was recognised for his exemplary scientific research, leadership, and stakeholder engagement skills in the area of severe weather. Dr Howard Jacobs was recognised for his passionate dedication and commitment in project managing the highly successful NexGenFWS project. The Bureau also celebrates exceptional contributions of staff through the annual Bureau Excellence Awards, listed on p. 112.

| International engagement

The Bureau has continued strong engagement with international committees and bodies to support the development and provision of environmental services globally. Involvement in international forums enables the Bureau to benchmark its performance, leverage the ideas and capacities of other nations and contribute to multilateral projects that benefit all nations. We have continued our active participation in the many activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), providing valuable leadership in the WMO Regional Association V (South Pacific) and expert knowledge into several projects focused on international meteorological and hydrological standards and systems.

The Bureau benefits from a number of fruitful bilateral partnerships with overseas agencies, including with the UK Met Office, the China Meteorological Administration, the Korea Meteorological Administration, the Japanese Meteorological Agency, Environment Canada and the US National Weather Service. This year, we hosted a visit by our Canadian colleagues, exchanging information on weather observations technology, environmental modelling, supercomputing and corporate management.

The Bureau has also been active in capacity development projects in the Australian region, supported by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the WMO. A focus of that work has been to assist Pacific Island countries to strengthen their ability to deliver climate and aviation weather services.

| Major projects and improvements

Over the last year the Bureau completed or progressed a number of significant projects. Under the auspices of the eReefs project the Bureau developed and launched the Marine Water Quality Dashboard for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (see p. 55). The dashboard provides daily updated views of marine water quality in the GBR lagoon, using sophisticated remote sensing algorithms developed by CSIRO. Under the Climate and Oceans Support Program in the Pacific, the Bureau enhanced seasonal prediction capacity in Pacific Island National Meteorological Services (see p. 119). We introduced the ENSO Tracker, which assists in the communication of developing El Niño and La Niña events. The Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting Service was extended to many more sites and the Short-term Flow Forecasting System was introduced to registered users in the water industry for evaluation. I was delighted to see the continuing maturation of the National Water Account, particularly the new national summary document that makes this rich information resource more accessible.

7 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

1

Overview

| Workplace health and safety

A particular highlight of the last year was the outstanding progress of the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) team in transforming the Bureau’s safety culture and practices. Significant effort has been focused on the development and dissemination of 55 new policies and procedures. The introduction of a new WHS incident management system and supporting policies have led to the Bureau attaining the quality management standard AS/NZS 4801:2001 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems. This all amounts to great progress that is enhancing the safety and well-being of our people (see p. 128).

The past year also saw the Bureau raise the profile of mental health issues in the workplace through a series of presentations by Professor Kathy Griffiths from the Australian National University, held in the Bureau’s main office in each capital city. We also engaged the Monash University Accident Research Centre to conduct driving training courses across the country.

The Bureau is committed to ensuring best practice health and safety is a focus, noting the range of environments and operations that our work covers. From the remote distribution of our network of offices and observation sites with technical equipment, to the many staff working in an office based environment, the hazards presented by different workplaces need to be managed and communicated and the progress shown in this area is a testament to the hard work of the WHS staff.

| Financial results

The Bureau reported an operating deficit of $73.799 million for the financial year 2013-14, compared to prior year operating deficit of $69.406 million.

Revenue for the year was $290.472 million, of which $212.930 million constituted appropriation from government. Own-source income of $77.542 million, primarily relating to the sale of goods and rendering of services, representing an increase of 5.3 per cent on the prior fiscal period. Overall, there was an increase of 2.4 per cent in total revenue over the prior financial year. While revenue grew by 2.4 per cent, expenditure increased by 3.2 per cent when compared to 2013-14 resulting in an increase in the operating deficit of $4.393 million in 2013-14.

Expenditure for the reporting period to 30 June 2014 equated to $364.271 million and is represented by the Bureau’s investment in: employee benefits (52.6 per cent); supplier costs (26.4 per cent); asset related operating costs such as depreciation and amortisation (19.8 per cent); and other (1.2 per cent). Relative to the previous financial year, organisational operating spend increased by 3.2 per cent and was mostly represented by a growth in employee-related expenditure of $8.617 million (4.7 per cent) for the 2013-14 fiscal period.

The Bureau manages a significant portfolio of assets totalling $637.630 million of which 74.7 per cent is land and buildings; and property, plant and equipment; including major network infrastructure. As part of the Bureau’s ongoing asset investment and replacement program, $57.922 million was invested in asset acquisitions and construction during the course of the financial year. Funding for capital investment was predominantly derived from departmental capital funding of $41.621 million and equity-based funding of $11.909 million, both of which are sourced from government. The balance of investment came from the Bureau’s own source revenue.

For more information on the Bureau’s financial results for the year refer to the ‘Financial resource management’ chapter on p. 134 and the audited financial statements on p. 139.

8 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Outlook 2014-15

In 2014-15, the Bureau will continue to focus on delivering the high quality environmental intelligence that the nation relies on. Our attention will be on user needs in everything we do. Where possible, we will enhance services in order to better meet the needs of the community.

We are also committed to identifying savings and revenue generation opportunities to improve our agency’s efficiency and effectiveness, and to enhance our overall impact fro the nation.

The key priorities for 2014-15 include:

• delivery of the final stage of the NexGenFWS with the public release of the system in the Northern Territory in November 2014;

• implementation of next-generation forecasting systems for flood and storm surge;

• development of a weather app for the Windows and iOS platforms by the end of 2014, and for the Android platform by mid-2015;

• boosting the number of frontline weather and flood forecasters with the implementation of the government’

s response to the Munro Review;

• continuing work with the Attorney-General’s Department and jurisdictions on standardising service delivery to State and T

erritory emergency agencies with the implementation of nationally consistent services for flood, fire and extreme weather;

• development of a climate extremes service including climate monitoring, analysis and forecasting and the improvement of dr

ought-related services through the development of a National Drought Information Service;

• public release of a new short-term streamflow forecasting service;

• development of improved marine information products in line with the Bureau’s r

ecently released

Marine Strategy;

• improving product and service integration, for example through weather forecasts that connect to

climate or environmental insights; and multi week and seasonal forecasting capability;

• continued research and development to improve short-term forecasting capability for rapid-onset extr

eme weather including through the use of ensemble forecasts and enhanced use of observations;

• continuing the sustained program of new and replacement observations equipment and facilities, including key installations of radar replacements and upgrades at W

eipa and Cairns in Queensland,

and West Takone in Tasmania, and installation of a wind profiler at Halls Creek;

• implementing systems for incorporating and gaining benefits from the high-resolution data to be available from the Himawari-8 meteor

ological satellite, to be operational in July 2015;

• responding to the high and growing demand for real-time weather information in a sustainable way,

for example by partnering with external agencies, undertaking further automation and capitalising on advances in observing technologies;

• implementation of the government’s 2014-15 Budget measures including the acquisition of a new super

computer and agreed savings measures;

• implementation of the new Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (PGPA) Act 2013 r

equirements;

• responding to the independent review of the Bureau’s space weather services and our inter

nal

research and development review; and

• coordinating Australia’s participation in the 17th World Meteorological Congr

ess to be held in

Geneva, Switzerland in June 2015.

9 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

1

Overview

Agency overview | Role and functions

The Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau) is Australia’s national weather, climate and water agency. Its expertise and services assist Australians to manage and live within their natural environment, including drought, floods, fires, storms, tsunamis and tropical cyclones. Through regular forecasts, warnings, monitoring and advice spanning the Australian region and Antarctic Territory, the Bureau provides one of the most fundamental and widely used services of government.

The Bureau contributes to national social, economic, cultural and environmental goals by providing observational, meteorological, hydrological, space weather and oceanographic services and by undertaking research into science and environment-related issues in support of its operations and services.

The Bureau website (www.bom.gov.au) is the most visited government website (see p. 82) in Australia.

| Authority

The Bureau operates under the authority of the Meteorology Act 1955 and the Water Act 2007, that together provide the legal basis for its activities. The Bureau must also fulfill Australia’s international obligations under the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and related international meteorological treaties and agreements.

On 1 July 2002, the Bureau became an ‘executive agency’ under the Public Service Act 1999, and on 12 September 2002 it became a ‘prescribed agency’ under the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997.

Under the Public Service Act 1999, the Director of Meteorology has the powers and responsibilities of an agency head, and as of 30 June reports to the Minister for the Environment, the Hon Greg Hunt MP, on high-level climate matters, and to the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment, Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, on all general and water-related matters. (Figure 1). From 1 July 2014 the Bureau will operate under the new Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

Figure 1: The Bureau is an executive agency and statutory body in the Environment Portfolio, reporting to the Minister for the Environment and the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment.

Public Service Act 1999

FMA Act 1997

Meteorology Act 1955

Water Act 2007

International obligations

Secretary

Statutory authorities

Statutory office holder

Department of the Environment

Director of Meteorology

Bureau of Meteorology

Minister for the Environment

Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment

10 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Organisational structure

The Bureau’s Head Office is a centre for administrative and operational coordination, providing national strategic planning, management and coordination of its integrated observations, telecommunications and computing infrastructure as well as its meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic services.

Most of the Head Office is located at 700 Collins Street, Docklands, Melbourne, but parts of the Executive and the Climate and Water Division are located in Canberra.

Figure 2: The basic administrative structure of the Bureau as at 30 June.

Bureau of Meteorology

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts Division

Observations and Infrastructure Division Environment and Research Division

Director of Meteorology

Information Systems and Services Division

Weather Forecasting Branch Observing Strategy and Operations Branch

Corporate Services Division

Western Australia Northern

Territory

South Australia Tasmania and

Antarctica

Victoria New South Wales

Queensland

Flood Forecasting Branch

Infrastructure Management Branch

Hazards Prediction Branch

Bureau National Operations Centre

Research and Development Branch

Climate Information Services Branch

Water Information Services Branch

Environmental Information Services Branch

Information Technology Services Branch

Systems Development and Maintenance Branch

Environmental Information Management Branch

Digital Data Delivery

Finance and Budgets Branch

People Management Branch

Strategy, Parliamentary, International and Communication Branch

Business Development Office

Regions

See p. 99 for more detail on the organisational management of the Bureau.

11 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

1

Overview

Davis

Casey

Mawson

Cocos Island

Norfolk Island

Willis Island

Macquarie Island

Lord Howe Island

OFFSHORE BUREAU OFFICES

BUREAU OFFICES

Gove

PERTH

Cobar

Moree

Oakey

Giles

Weipa

HOBART

Albany

SYDNEY

Ceduna

Pearce

Mackay

Mt Isa

Broome

Cairns

Tindal

DARWIN

Mildura

CANBERRA

ADELAIDE

Narrabri

Cape Grim

East Sale

Bungendore

MELBOURNE

Esperance

Geraldton

Carnarvon

Longreach Learmonth

Townsville

Meekatharra

Charleville

Rockhampton

Halls Creek

Port Hedland

Coffs Harbour

Alice Springs

Kalgoorlie

Williamtown

Wagga Wagga

Mt Gambier

BRISBANE Amberley

Woomera

12 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Staff

As at 30 June, the Bureau employed 1520 ongoing and 215 non-ongoing staff. The workforce is geographically dispersed across Australia, its offshore islands and Antarctic Territory, and provides surveillance, forecasts and warning services 24 hours a day, every day of the year. Detailed information on staff and on the management of human resources is provided in the ‘People management’ chapter (see p. 121).

| Stakeholders

The Bureau has a broad range of stakeholders across all sections of the community. It partners with, and provides special services and products for, an extensive range of Federal, State and local government departments and agencies, including those associated with emergency management, fire, aviation and marine safety, agriculture, climate, water, defence and foreign affairs.

In the private sector, the Bureau’s weather, climate and water information supports business decisions in all manner of activities from planting to harvesting, excavation to construction, and planning of operations.

While sector-specific applications of the Bureau’s products and services are essential and benefit all Australians, the general public is itself a particular stakeholder. The usage statistics of the Bureau’s website (see p. 82) make this quite clear. Every day, individuals use the Bureau’s information to make decisions of convenience, such as whether to hang out the washing or go on a picnic and decisions of safety, such as driving more carefully on icy roads or securing animals or property when high winds are forecast. In emergency situations, the Bureau’s services enable individuals, families and communities to make informed decisions about evacuation or preparing themselves for potential or imminent danger.

Other Bureau stakeholders include the relevant government ministers and the Parliament, staff, suppliers and the international meteorological community.

| Global linkages

Weather and climate are global systems. Monitoring and prediction of weather and climate requires access to meteorological information from around the globe. The Bureau contributes to, and benefits greatly from, the observational and research efforts of other nations. International cooperation is thus an essential and integral part of operations. Information on the Bureau’s international activities for 2013-14 is provided in the ‘International cooperation’ chapter (see p. 117).

STAFF AT 30 JUNE

1520 ongoing

215non-ongoing

Pe rfo rm

an c e

14 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

About our performance framework The Bureau operates within the Australian Government’s outcome framework. The outcomes for each agency articulate the government’s objectives for the agency and provide a basis for budgeting and reporting the use of funds appropriated by government.

The Bureau is responsible for the single outcome:

Informed safety, security and economic decisions by governments, industry and the community through the provision of information, forecasts, services, and research relating to weather, climate and water.

To achieve this outcome, the Bureau is responsible for a single government programme: Programme 1.1 Bureau of Meteorology. The performance of this programme is measured by a number of deliverables and key performance indicators (KPIs) as outlined in the Portfolio budget statements 2013-14 (budget related paper no. 1.17) for the then Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities portfolio.

Although the Bureau is responsible for a single government programme, an internal portfolio and program structure provides a logical partitioning of Bureau activities for the purposes of:

• strategic planning and management at the activity level;

• setting and achieving performance goals and targets;

• internal resource allocation and financial monitoring;

• risk management;

• monitoring and reporting on the achievement of planned objectives;

• monitoring the quality and effectiveness of individual deliverables; and

• effective stakeholder management and engagement.

Each Bureau portfolio focusses on a key aspect of the Bureau’s work to achieve its outcome and is

generally delivered by a single division within the Bureau’s organisational structure. Each portfolio is divided into a number of work programs which are generally delivered by branches of the organisation, each with a set of performance targets. These are used to measure and assess the organisation’s achievement of its government-agreed deliverables and KPIs, and therefore its effectiveness in achieving its planned outcome.

The Bureau’s internal portfolio and program structure is illustrated in the following table. This structure has been amended since last year’s Annual Report as part of the Bureau’s realignment project (see p. 109). For convenience, these internal arrangements are simply referred to as ‘portfolios’ and ‘programs’ for the remainder of the report.

15 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Programme 1.1 Bureau of Meteorology

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts p. 18

Environment and Research

p. 42

Observation and Infrastructure

p. 62

Information Systems and Services p. 73

Corporate Services

p. 102

Weather forecasting services p. 18

Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28

Hazard prediction services p. 31

Aviation and Defence p. 38

Climate information services p. 42

Water information services p. 48

Environmental information services p. 51

Research and development p. 56

Observing system strategy p. 62

Observing network operations p. 66

Infrastructure management p. 69

Information technology services p. 73

Systems development and maintenance p. 75

Environmental information management p. 78

Digital data delivery p. 81

Finance and budget (see Financial resource management, p. 134)

Strategy, parliamentary, international and communication (see Corporate governance, p. 102, and International cooperation, p. 117)

People management p. 121

With the exception of those programs within the Corporate Services portfolio, the performance of each program is reported within this section of the report. Each chapter outlines the objective of the portfolio and its programs, and sets out an assessment of performance against targets which contribute to the achievement of the Bureau’s overall deliverables and KPI targets. The Bureau’s performance in terms of its more significant projects and achievements over the course of the year is also provided.

Section 3 contains a report on the activities of each of the Bureau’s regional offices. Each region is responsible for delivering a mix of program functions to their area of operation in support of the Bureau’s program objectives and ultimately the Bureau’s outcome. In particular, the Bureau’s regions have responsibility for leading delivery of regional operational weather services and observing network functions.

The Corporate Services portfolio provides the strategic, structural, and administrative framework upon which the above programs depend, and provides a focus for the coordination of international activities. This portfolio is covered in Section 4: Organisational management, in a format designed to meet the Requirements for annual reports issued by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Bureau program

Bureau portfolios Government programme

16 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Performance overview The Bureau’s performance is measured against the deliverables and KPIs in the Portfolio budget statements 2013-14. A summary of the Bureau’s performance against each of the indicators is provided below, with references to more detailed information.

| Deliverables Deliverable Target

Achieved Details / evidence

Weather, hydrological, oceanographic, marine, solar, space and atmospheric observations recorded for use in preparing forecasts, reports, warnings and other outputs.

Observing network operations p. 66

Weather, marine, climate and hydrological forecasts provided to the Australian community and key sectors, including emergency services, aviation, the Australian Defence Force, mariners, primary producers and water managers.

Weather forecasting services p. 18 Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28 Aviation and Defence p. 38 Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48

Warning services that contribute to maintaining the safety of life and property from severe weather, floods, tropical cyclones, fire, volcanic ash, tsunamis and space weather disturbances.

Weather forecasting services p. 18 Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28 Hazard prediction services p. 31

Maintenance and provision of information for analysis, research and decision making, and fostering greater public understanding and use of environmental intelligence products and services.

Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48 Environmental information services p. 51 Environmental information management p. 78 Digital data delivery p. 81

Publication of reports and provision of advice to governments, businesses and the community, including through the National Climate Record.

Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48 Environmental information services p. 51

Collection, interpretation and dissemination of water resource information including status and patterns of usage reports and forecasts on the future availability of water resources. Compile and maintain the National Water Account and issue national water information standards.

Water information services p. 48

Collection, interpretation and dissemination of water resource information including status and patterns of usage reports and forecasts on the future availability of water resources. Compile and maintain the National Water Account and issue national water information standards.

Research and development p. 56 Systems development and maintenance p. 75 Observing systems strategy p. 62 International engagement p. 117 Corporate governance p. 102 People management p. 121 Financial resource management p. 134

17 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

| Key Performance Indicators Key Performance indicator Target

Achieved Details / evidence

Observations that meet or exceed requirements in terms of accuracy, timeliness, completeness, coverage and accessibility.

Observing network operations p. 66

Forecasts that are accurate, used extensively and satisfy users.

Weather forecasting services p. 18 Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28 Aviation and Defence p. 38 Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48

Warnings that are accurate, timely and effective in influencing responses to impending critical events.

Weather forecasting services p. 18 Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28 Hazard prediction services p. 31

Information products and services that are used extensively and satisfy users, and greater public understanding and awareness of the risks and impact of severe weather events.

Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48 Environmental information services p. 51 Digital data delivery p. 81

High quality reports and advice that effectively informs and influences analysis, research and decision making, and satisfies the needs of these stakeholders and users.

Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48 Environmental information services p. 51

Water resource information reports and forecasts, including the National Water Account, that meets or exceeds requirements in accuracy, timeliness, completeness, and the issuing of national water information standards that satisfy stakeholders and users

Water information services p. 48

Increased accuracy and capacity of products and services, and high levels of stakeholder satisfaction, including international stakeholders, from research and development and international activities, and management and organisational practices.

Weather forecasting services p. 18 Flood forecasting and warning services p. 28 Hazard prediction services p. 31 Aviation and Defence p. 38 Climate information services p. 42 Water information services p. 48 Environmental information services p. 51 Research and development p. 56 Observing systems strategy p. 62 Information technology services p. 73 Systems development and maintenance p. 75 Environmental information management p. 78 International engagement p. 117 Corporate governance p. 102 People management p. 121 Financial resource management p. 134

18 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Hazards, warnings and forecasts The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio provides a range of forecast and warning services covering weather, ocean and tides, flood and short-term streamflow and space weather. The portfolio works closely with State and Territory emergency service organisations in all aspects of disaster mitigation planning, preparation, response and recovery. The portfolio also works closely with national and international disaster mitigation and hazard awareness programs, particularly the Council of Australian Governments Disaster Mitigation Australia Package and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.

The portfolio also provides specialised services under cost-recovery and commercial funding arrangements for stakeholders and users, such as the aviation and maritime industries, the Australian Defence Force and the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Key stakeholders and users include:

• the general public and local communities;

• industry sectors such as aviation, finance and insurance, transport, mining and energy, marine and agriculture;

• the Australian Defence Force;

• Australian, State, Territory and local governments and emergency services agencies; and

• the media.

The Hazards Warnings and Forecasts portfolio consists of four pr

ograms:

• Weather forecasting services;

• Flood forecasting and warning services;

• Hazard prediction services; and

• Aviation and Defence.

The performance of each of these programs during 2013-14, including their contribution towards achieving the Bur

eau’s objectives, is discussed below.

| 1. Weather forecasting services

Objective:

To provide weather forecasts and warnings for the safety and well-being of all Australians, and to enhance weather services through the use of new data sources and forecasting systems.

Weather forecasts and warnings are critical to the protection of life and property in severe weather events. The Bureau’s weather warning services are disseminated through multiple channels to maximise public awareness of potential weather-related risk. The accessibility and utility of weather and warning services delivered via the internet is being enhanced through improved navigation, the availability of data in multiple formats, and new technologies such as mobile devices. The Bureau is committed to improving the effectiveness and accessibility of warnings for all members of the Australian community.

Through this program, relevant weather information and warnings are available to all Australian built on sophisticated forecasting systems and numerical prediction models.

19 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Performance measures Deliverables

• The Bureau’s regional forecast centr es provided continuous 24/7 weather monitoring for all parts of Australia and its marine areas of responsibility, and produced 485 271 forecast products throughout the year. This is a 19 per cent increase in forecasts over last year, mainly due to the expanded number of services provided in Queensland.

in the number of public forecasts issued compared to last year

19% INCREASE OF MORE THAN

Number of public forecasts issued

0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

• A total of 18 916 warnings for hazardous weather and ocean conditions were issued. This was a seven per cent incr ease from last year due to the annual variations in severe weather activity.

• Forecast and warning products continued to be supplied to mariners at sea on HF marine radio and satellite transmission systems, in accor

dance with the Bureau’s responsibilities under the

International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea.

• Implementation of the Next Generation Forecast and Warning System (NexGenFWS) progr

essed as

planned (see p. 21).

• Pilot heatwave (see p. 36) and thunderstorm tracker products (see p. 35)

were launched in

summer to better inform the community of potential hazards and extreme conditions.

• Stakeholder liaison consultative meetings were held with marine and agricultural groups in all States and Territories.

• In accordance with the Government’s response to the

Review of the Bureau of Meteorology’s

capacity to respond to future extreme weather and natural disaster events and to provide seasonal forecasting services (the ‘Munro review’), the Bureau increased its frontline forecaster staff levels and recruited extra trainee forecasters into the 2014 Graduate Diploma in Meteorology (see p. 125). An improved storm surge system is currently being developed.

Key performance indicators

• More than 99 per cent of scheduled forecasts were delivered.

• General public perceptions of the Bureau’s performance, as measured by annual public weather

surveys and web-based feedback mechanisms, indicated a continued high level of overall satisfaction with Bureau services. In particular, a 97 per cent satisfaction rating was recorded from metropolitan and coastal-based respondents, and a 94 per cent satisfaction rating was recorded from the farming community. The overall result of 97 per cent is similar to the previous year’s figure and continues to exceed the 90 per cent target.

20 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• The Bureau’s annual telephone user survey indicated that 84 per cent of respondents felt the Bur eau’s forecasts are usually accurate or better.

• No significant negative feedback on the warning services has been received from key stakeholders.

• No adverse findings were received from any coronial inquests or commissions of inquiry

.

• ISO 9001 Quality Accreditation was maintained for the development and provision of services to shipping for Australia’s ar

ea of responsibility.

Highlights • The NexGenFWS was implemented in Queensland in October, resulting in a significant boost to forecasting services for that State. As a r

esult, 67 locations in Queensland are now receiving a level

of service previously only available in highly populated parts of the southeast. Queenslanders are now also benefiting from the April introduction of the full suite of MetEye services.

A display of MetEye over southern Queensland with an expanded point forecast.

• In May, the Bureau released its first mobile-specific warning and forecast service (see p. 83) on m.bom.gov.au. The service includes the Bureau’s popular rain radar , a current weather report, and

the seven-day forecast based on the outputs of the NexGenFWS. This service uses the digital database and the location search built into mobile devices to provide a forecast down to a six kilometre local scale.

• Several improvements were made to the Bureau’s underlying numerical weather pr

ediction

systems, resulting in the provision of cloud forecasts for fire modelling purposes, increased spatial detail, and improved rainfall forecasts across geographical and seasonal scales, including chance of rainfall and rainfall amounts.

• A pilot graphical heatwave advice service was introduced in January (see p. 36). It maps the pr

edicted location of heatwaves, including severe and extreme heatwaves, for the upcoming four days. This early warning service will enable the community to better prepare in advance of these events.

• A ‘thunderstorm tracker’ service was implemented on a trial basis in December for Brisbane and southeast Queensland. This is an automated graphical service that identifies storms from radar data and plots their expected tracks. This gives the community an immediate prediction of thr

eat in

the coming 10-60 minutes, allowing precautionary action to be taken (see p. 35).

21 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• A Facebook survey was conducted in August to test the public understanding of, and preference for, how the Bur eau describes wind conditions in its forecasts. In less than 24 hours, the Bureau

received almost 300 comments. This feedback is helping the Bureau to improve its products to increase community understanding.

• Work continued with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority and marine safety agencies to promote the new coastal waters forecast and war

ning service for the Torres Strait. The Bureau and

Australian Communications and Media Authority conducted joint promotion activities at boat shows in Townsville, Queensland, and in Sydney, New South Wales.

The next generation in forecasting is here In the 2009-10 federal Budget, the Government announced an allocation of $30.5 million over five years for the national rollout of Next Generation Forecast and Warning System (NexGenFWS). With implementation in Queensland now complete, the Northern Territory is the last remaining region to come online. Forecaster training has commenced in the Northern Territory ahead of the implementation in 2014-15.

The development and implementation of the new forecasting and visualisation systems over the last half a decade have modernised weather forecast production and directly benefited the Australian public. Forecasts are now provided more frequently, with greater detail for any location, benefiting individuals and industry.

Publically, NexGenFWS is very well received. Simon Heemstra, Community Planning Manager, NSW Rural Fire Service said ‘The new information is graphic and it is quite powerful. It is a totally new way to do business. With this new forecasting system, forecasters and fire fighters can see images of the Fire Danger Ratings across the State and watch real time changes of the forecasts. It really is a matter of ‘a picture paints 1000 words’.

Over the last few years, the tireless efforts of many of Bureau staff involved in the NexGenFWS project, and the many innovations the project has brought, have been recognised at both a national and international level. The NexGenFWS and the associated project have won numerous awards during this time. For more information on awards see p. 112.

centres across Australia for which a seven-day forecast is issued

416 A TOTAL OF

The number of centres receiving seven-day forecasts

0 100 200 300 400 500

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

22 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Forecast accuracy Measuring the accuracy of Bureau forecasts is fundamental in monitoring and improving services to the community. Each day the Bureau assesses the accuracy of its forecasts from a number of different perspectives to satisfy the wide-ranging needs of our stakeholders. Observations from the Bureau’s vast network of measuring equipment around Australia are used to check whether each forecast accurately predicted the conditions that eventuated.

During the year, the Bureau developed a new verification portal to monitor its performance in forecasting key weather elements such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, wave heights, riverine flood levels and sun spot activity. Work has commenced in developing new reports for publication to inform stakeholders and users.

Maximum and minimum temperature forecasts A service that most Australians use on a regular basis is the maximum and minimum daily forecast. The accuracy of our one-day forecast continues to improve steadily. Forecasts are deemed to be accurate if they are within three degrees of the observed maximum or minimum temperature. In 2004, almost 93 per cent of forecasts, one day ahead, were accurate according to this measure and this figure has steadily increased over the last decade to over 95 per cent of temperature forecasts considered accurate in 2013-14. These improvements have been achieved by increasing our understanding of the atmosphere and improving how it is modelled in the forecast models; increasing both the spatial and temporal resolution of these models; and increasing the amount and type of observations that the forecast models use. The introduction of improved forecast systems, such as the NexGenFWS, is allowing the Bureau to take full benefit of these improvements.

Rainfall forecasts Of all the weather elements for which forecasts are provided to the public, rainfall is perhaps of the greatest interest. Unfortunately, rainfall is certainly among the most difficult weather elements to predict correctly. Rainfall has the greatest spatial and temporal variability than most other meteorological quantities of interest. The Bureau’s verification results indicate that when rainfall was forecast for the next day, the rainfall range provides a reasonable indication of the amount of rain received.

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Max

Min

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Accuracy of maximum and minimum temperatures

Figure 3: Forecast maximum and minimum temperatures for the next day across all capital cities were accurate to within 3°C more than 95 per cent of the time.

23 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Verification of rainfall for significant events is particularly important as over or under forecasting can have serious implications on affected communities. As an example, the Bureau verified its forecasts for tropical cyclone Ita that made landfall north of Cooktown, Queensland, on 11 April. The rainfall maps (Figure 4) provide a simple means of assessing how well the extent and amount of rain was predicted by the Bureau’s ACCESS numerical weather predictions model for this event. From the maps, it can be seen that moderate to heavy falls were recorded over significant parts of the Cape York Peninsula. The model forecast is in broad agreement with the observations though it appears to have under-forecast rainfall amounts somewhat for the peninsula and also for the rain-bearing systems in the southeast and northwest of the continent.

Wind and wave forecasts for coastal regions Wind forecasts for the next day over coastal areas were correctly predicted to within five knots on eight out of ten occasions. The wind roses provided in Figure 5 show the forecast (purple) and observed (green) wind strengths and directions for the year from Kurnell, New South Wales. There is broad agreement between the two in the dominance of southerly and westerly winds, however, the proportion of southerly winds has been over-forecast and the observed wind speeds were not as strong as the forecasts indicated.

Figure 5: The frequency and strength of wind at Kurnell, New South Wales during 2013-14, with forecast winds shown on the left in purple and the observed winds shown on the right in green.

Figure 4: Daily rainfall amounts (mm) for the 24 hour period to 9 am on 12 April associated with the passage of tropical cyclone Ita. The forecast rainfall amounts are shown on the left and the observed amounts on the right.

Wave height forecasts for the next day in coastal regions were correctly predicted to within half a metre on eight out of ten occasions.

24 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Gale warnings for capital city local waters Gale warnings are issued when wind speeds are expected to exceed 34 knots in popular boating areas. For the 45 gale warnings issued for Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Brisbane, a success rate of 91 per cent was achieved in providing mariners with up to 42 hours advanced notice of dangerous conditions.

Mean sea level pressure from Numerical Weather Prediction models Numerical Weather Prediction models underpin the forecast and warning services of the Bureau. With increasing observation sources, better understanding of the atmospheric science and improvements in the supercomputing infrastructure the Bureau uses we have observed a steady increase in the accuracy of these models. This is shown in Figure 6, using the S1 skill score measure of accuracy for the last 25 years for forecasts of mean sea level pressure, two days ahead, for the Australian region. The lower the score the greater the skill, so the progressive drop in S1 skill score indicates increased skill. The most recent step improvement, indicated by the purple line, was associated with the introduction of the ACCESS model suite in 2010 and the subsequent ACCESS upgrade in 2012.

Figure 6: Accuracy of the predictions of mean sea level pressure over the Australian region (measured as an S1 skill score) from the Numerical Weather Prediction models used by the Bureau. The notable increase in skill around 2009-10 was the result of the introduction of the Bureau’s new ACCESS forecasting model. S1 skill score is a 12-month moving average measure of the error in computer model predictions compared to observed conditions.

S1 skill score of the Bureau's numerical weather prediction models (lower value indicates higher skill)

1990

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

1992 1995 1997 2000 2002 2005 2007 2010 2012

S1 skill score

Flood forecasting and warning In 2013-14 the Bureau issued 355 flood watches and 1816 flood warnings across Australia. The Bureau has established a service level specification in each State and the Northern Territory that explicitly defines the places that flood warnings are issued and the level of service expected. For many locations the specification articulates targets related to lead times (i.e. how much notice is given to communities) and to the accuracy of flood level predictions. The Bureau conducts post-event reviews and verifies whether the specified service levels were met and reports its results to the Flood Warning Consultative Committee in each jurisdiction.

The verification process involves examining whether the predicted water levels and timing matched the observed river rises. A flood verification diagram for an event on 13 November at Fingal, Tasmania is given in Figure 7. The blue line shows the observed river level as the water rose from less than 2.5 metres to a peak of 5.65 metres. This peak was above the

25 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Moderate Flood Level (red line) for this location. The first flood warning for this event was issued at 6.30 am Wednesday morning (vertical purple line) and predicted a peak of 5.7 metres to occur around 9.00 pm (horizontal purple line). The observed river level shows this to be an accurate prediction, both in terms of the level (blue line) reached and the timing of the peak. The service level specification for Tasmania stipulates a 12 hour lead time, which was exceeded in this case as the warning was provided around 15 hours before the peak. The Bureau also provided a warning that was of the correct flood class (moderate). While this is just a single case study, it demonstrates the nature of verification of flood forecasts that the Bureau applies to measure service performance and continue to improve our forecast practices.

Space weather Through its space weather services, the Bureau monitors and predicts conditions in the ionosphere to assist users of HF communications. The ‘T index’ metric is used to measure and predict the level of support the ionosphere gives to HF radio propagation, and varies with solar and geomagnetic activity.

The accuracy of T index predictions is shown in Figure 8. The T index can be seen to vary markedly over the 11 year solar cycle, with a much stronger ionosphere at solar maxima and weaker at solar minima. The errors in prediction can be seen to rise during solar maxima, when the ionosphere is considerably more dynamic in response to stronger, and more difficult to predict, solar and geomagnetic variations.

Figure 8: Accuracy measures of the ‘T Index’ since 1996. The top bar chart shows the mean observed T index for each year, and the following plot shows the forecast mean error between forecast and observation for forecasts with 1, 2 and 3 day lead-times.

ME Mean (x)

Australian T index and forecast mean error

2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996

2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996

Day 3 Day 2 Day 1

-30 0

30 60

90 120

150

-12 -10

-8 -6

-4 -2

0 2

4

Figure 7: A flood verification diagram for a flood event on 13 November at Fingal, Tasmania. This diagram shows the lead time and accuracy of the warning, which provided emergency services and

the Fingal community time to take protective action.

6.5

2.0 13 Nov 00.00 13 Nov 12.00 14 Nov 00.00 14 Nov 12.00 15 Nov 00.00

Moderate flood level Observed river height

Minor flood level

15 Nov 12.00

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

Height (m) Time of first prediction

Predicted level

26 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2013-14 tropical cyclone season Ten tropical cyclones entered the Australian region of responsibility during the 2013-14 tropical cyclone season. This is approximately average for a cyclone season. Six of these systems crossed the coast; Alessia, Christine, Dylan, Fletcher, Gillian and Ita.

Figure 9: Tracks of tropical cyclones in the Australian region during the 2013-14 season. (Note: that the track of Ita is truncated near 160E where it weakened below tropical cyclone intensity).

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160

Alessia Bruce Christine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Jack Ita

Severe tropical cyclone Christine crossed the Pilbara coast as a Category 3 system between Roebourne and Whim Creek around midnight on 30 December. At the time of landfall, a wind gust of 172 km/h was recorded at Roebourne Airport. Christine gradually weakened once it crossed the coast and began to accelerate to the southeast. Heavy rainfall was recorded in the vicinity of the cyclone path, with the heaviest 24-hour fall being 168 mm at Abydos North, southeast of Port Hedland.

Tropical cyclone Dylan developed on 30 January as a Category 1 system approximately 240 kilometres northeast of Townsville. Combined with a ridge of high pressure to the south, Dylan caused increased tides and strong to gale force winds along a large stretch of the Queensland coast in the days leading up to its landfall. It intensified into a Category 2 system prior to crossing the Queensland coast near Bowen during the early hours of 31 January. Heavy rainfall occurred along parts of the central Queensland coast and about adjacent inland areas as the system moved over the interior of the State.

The remaining three cyclones—Alessia, Fletcher and Gillian—crossed the coast as Category 1 systems. Alessia and Fletcher each remained as a Category 1 system for their entire lives, while Gillian temporarily intensified into a Category 5 system in the Indian Ocean, south of Christmas Island.

Left to right: Satellite view of tropical cyclone Christine on 30 December. 24 hours later on 31 December.

27 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Tropical cyclone Ita In early April, as the cyclone season was drawing to a close, a monsoon low that would later become severe tropical cyclone Ita brought heavy rain and flash flooding to the Solomon Islands, tragically killing 22 people and leaving many thousands homeless. The low developed into tropical cyclone Ita on 5 April and moved slowly towards the Queensland coast, taking a swipe at the remote islands of Papua New Guinea on its way. By 10 April, Ita had reached Category 5 and was threatening to be the most powerful cyclone to strike the east coast since Yasi three years earlier.

Tropical cyclone Ita crossed the coast on 11 April in a remote part of the coast at Cape Flattery, north of Cooktown as a Category 4 system, but not before causing significant damage to the resort on Lizard Island. A total of 82 tropical cyclone advisories were issued over six days, including an intense sequence of 66 hourly advisories. Bureau staff were heavily involved in providing briefings to emergency managers to support evacuations, the operation of cyclone shelters and other forms of protection.

As Ita continued to track south as a Category 1 system, it brought significant rainfall (including 900 mm in 48 hours at Bellenden Ker Top) and caused moderate to major flooding in the majority of river systems between the Daintree and Bowen. Flooding in the Daintree and Herbert catchments was particularly significant. In the Daintree, river levels were amongst the highest on record and local sources in the Herbert catchment suggested that between 40 and 50 properties were flooded above floor level. Over 100 flood warnings were issued well in advance of impact.

This level of service, and the quality of information provided, would have been impossible without the dedication and professionalism of the Queensland staff and the many interstate staff who provided assistance.

Track map for tropical cyclone Ita displaying the wind strength from automatic weather stations.

28 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 2. Flood forecasting and warning services

Objective:

To provide high-quality flood forecasting and warning services and short-term streamflow forecasting services.

The Flood Forecasting and Warning Services program monitors and assesses conditions, predicts the behaviour of riverine floods and rapidly disseminates essential flood warning information to local and regional stakeholders. This information underpins wider intelligence about the likely spread of flood waters and the extent of potential damage or disruption. In turn, these factors help to indicate what defensive or evasive actions are most appropriate.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Flood warning services were provided in response to notable flooding acr oss Queensland, the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Tasmania:

- Western Australia experienced significant flooding over the Christmas period associated with tropical cyclone

Christine. Moderate to major flooding was observed in the Ord and Fitzroy catchments and other areas of the Kimberley Region. Further flooding was observed during January and February, most notably across the De Grey catchment.

- In Queensland, tropical cyclone Ita (see p. 27) br

ought significant flooding to the northern

areas in April.

- There were several flood events in the Northern Territory acr

oss the MacArthur, Victoria and

Adelaide catchments in the early months of 2014.

- In Tasmania, approximately 500 flood warnings were issued for a particular wet winter and

spring that brought widespread flooding to key areas, such as Launceston and Longford.

• Real-time rainfall and streamflow data were delivered.

• The Bureau provided forecasts and support to State disaster coordination centr

es for all significant

flood events.

Number issued

Month

0

100 200

300 400

500 600

700 800

900 1000

1100 1200

1300 1400

1500 1600

1700

Warnings Watches

Jul-05 Oct-05 Jan-06 Apr-06 Jul-06 Oct-06 Jan-07 Apr-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Jan-12 Apr-12 Jul-12 Oct-12 Jan-13 Apr-13 Jul-13 Oct-13 Jan-14 Apr-14 Jul-14

29 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• The Flood Warning Consultative Committee in each jurisdiction was convened twice in the year, with a special meeting being convened to discuss the service level specifications (SLS) for

that jurisdiction.

• A number of activities related to the Bureau’s implementation of the Government r

esponse to the

Munro review were completed. This included the recruitment of five new flood forecasters, the development of a training and competency program, and implementation of procedures to provide surge capacity during flood events.

• Effective external liaison and communication during and leading up to flood events were provided

through media interviews and briefings to stakeholders including State emergency authorities. For example, during tropical cyclone Ita, lead hydrologists provided several daily high-profile briefings including for the Premier and Cabinet, the State Disaster Management Group, the State Disaster Coordination Group and the Cairns Disaster District Management Group.

• The development of a short-term streamflow forecasting service has progressed as planned.

Key performance indicators

• Performance feedback from bilateral meetings with jurisdictional emergency services and post-flood-event debriefs has been positive.

• Lead-time targets on key stage-of-flood predictions (e.g. moderate, major or peak level) as documented in the regional SLS were met.

• Relative accuracy of flood predictions (height and timing) as documented in the regional SLS were met.

• Operational readiness of the flood forecasting and warning capability was successfully tested prior to the wet season.

• SLSs relating to the accuracy of flood predictions (height and timing), the reliability of flood pr

edictions (hits, misses, false alarms) and the punctuality of flood prediction updates were largely met across all States and Territories. There was some limited flooding in Western Australia, where the key performance indicators (KPIs) were met. A detailed assessment has not been made as the SLSs against which the KPIs are assessed are being revised.

Highlights • Significant progress was made on the implementation of the Bureau’s Next Generation Flood Forecasting and Warning Systems (HyFS). HyFS is a major investment by the Bureau to upgrade its flood modelling capacity (see p. 30).

• As an outcome of the Government’s response to the Munro Review

, the Bureau has been working

to standardise services delivered to State and Territory jurisdictions. As part of this endeavour, the Bureau has been working with key stakeholders to better define its flood warning services. The Bureau has developed a set of national arrangements that document the current roles and responsibilities for all levels of government. This has been circulated as a consultation draft among key stakeholders including the Australia—New Zealand Emergency Management Committee. The Bureau has also developed jurisdictional SLSs that contain specific details on the location of flood warning services and the associated performance targets. These have been signed in six of the seven State and Territory jurisdictions. The Bureau has developed data sharing agreements to formalise the role played by its data providers, with around half of the planned agreements already signed.

• The Bureau continued to build its national capacity in flood forecasting with the recruitment of five additional fr

ontline flood forecasters. Based in the Bureau’s National Operations Centre, these forecasters join a team that provides much-needed surge capacity for the regional Flood Warning Centres and drives business improvements. The efficacy of this approach was tested by several large flood events in Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Queensland and New South Wales also benefited from support during prolonged flooding events.

30 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• A new training and competency framework has been developed to allow mobility of staff as flood forecasters attain competence in a number of defined roles, pr eparing staff to work in different flood

warning centres across the country.

• The Bureau released a pilot short-term streamflow forecasting service to key stakeholders in

November. This pilot service is currently available for 16 forecast locations across 11 catchments, and provides streamflow forecasts with a lead time of seven days. The Bureau will continue to work with stakeholders to improve and develop the service.

A major milestone in flood forecasting The Bureau is making a significant investment in the implementation of a next-generation Hydrological Forecasting System (HyFS) to provide new and improved flood and short-term streamflow forecasting capability. HyFS uses the Delft Flood Early Warning System framework that has been adopted across the world by national hydrological forecasting agencies such as the US National Weather Service and the UK Environment Agency.

The new system will provide forecasters with an advanced interface that enables them to quickly assess the current rainfall and river levels and use predicted rainfall to forecast flood development or recession. It will support the forecasters in communicating the current flood situation with the public, emergency services and other clients. System tools enable forecasters to more efficiently quality-control the real-time observations that underpin the hydrological forecasting models.

HyFS development reached a major milestone in June with the completion of Stage 2 of the project. HyFS is now a fully-tested-functional system that meets all the business requirements and is ready to be taken to operational implementation. The project is on track for completion by June 2015.

Water industry personnel involved in using the HyFS modelling framework.

31 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

| 3. Hazard prediction services

Objective: To deliver services and warnings for natural hazards such as tsunami, storm surge and space weather events and assessing their likely impact on affected communities.

The role of the Hazard Prediction Services program is to provide tidal services, ocean services and warnings and impact assessments for natural hazards including tsunami, storm surge and space weather events. The program is moving towards addressing ‘all hazards’, including tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and bushfire weather.

The program also has responsibility for implementing the Government’s response to the Munro review of the Bureau’s extreme weather and seasonal forecasting capacity.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JA TWC) bulletins were issued for 69 earthquake/tsunami events. All were ‘No Threat’ bulletins except one issued on 14 June when a marine warning was issued for Cocos Island.

tsunami bulletins issued for Australia during the year

69 A TOTAL OF

Tsunami Bulletins issued for Australia by the JATWC

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

No Threat Threat

• As a Tsunami Service Provider for the Indian Ocean, the JATWC also issued 28 bulletins to National Tsunami Warning Centr es (NTWCs) in the region to assist them with issuing of tsunami warnings to

their respective communities.

• Daily ocean forecasts were provided to the Australian public and specialised users such as Royal Australia Navy (RAN) and Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA).

• Tide predictions for 2015 were prepar

ed and delivered to the Australian Hydrographer, port and

maritime authorities and the Bureau’s tide prediction pages.

• Sea level monitoring and tidal prediction services were provided at 14 locations, supporting the continued operation of the Australian Baseline Sea Level Monitoring Array

. As part of the Pacific

Sea Level Monitoring Project, sea levels continued to be monitored at 12 locations and related information services, (including tide predictions) for 16 locations were provided.

32 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• High-quality space weather services and consultancies were provided throughout the year.

• The implementation of Munro review hazard initiative projects was undertaken accor

ding to plans.

Supporting projects for a pilot heatwave forecast service, graphical severe weather warnings, and a pilot automated thunderstorm alerting system were also initiated.

Key performance indicators

• Daily ocean forecasts were delivered as planned. Only one delay occurred during the year despite a number of disruptions to some satellite data feeds.

• Tide predictions for around 415 locations were issued and displayed on the Bur

eau’s tides portal.

• The Bureau’s public survey for summer 2014 found overall user satisfaction with the Bureau’s

ocean-related services is 97 per cent. More specific feedback indicates continuing issues with legibility of ocean charts on the public website. There was very positive feedback on the Bureau’s new tide prediction portal.

• Stakeholder engagement via social media was effective with posts on tidal services reaching close to 80 000 people, of whom 5000 people interacting through ‘likes’, comments, shar

es and clicks.

• Stakeholder liaison objectives in tsunami and ocean related services were achieved through participation in consultative meetings and expert gr

oups across all levels of government and

relevant user groups.

• An increasing volume of high-quality space weather products continued to inform and influence stakeholder analysis, resear

ch and decision-making.

• The accuracy of ionospheric forecasts for HF radio was 8.1 per cent above the target of 80 per cent (as measured by the days per month when the observed and predicted daily T index ar

e within

20 units of each other).

• Over 174 million hits on the Bureau space weather services web pages were received, which is 24 per cent above the target of 140 million.

• There were more than 60 000 space weather service customers, which is more than twice the

30 000 target.

locations in Australia for which tide predictions are available online

415 A TOTAL OF

Number of tide prediction sites available on the web

0 100 200 300 400 500

2012

2013

2014

33 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Highlights • Significant enhancements were made to the Bureau’s new tide prediction portal, including the provision of State-based entry points, phases of the moon and predictions for many new sites (see p. 37). Annual tide prediction tables can now be downloaded in PDF format for around 415

primary locations.

• Observation and forecast data from the Bureau’s ocean for

ecast model OceanMAPS were provided

to the CSIRO task team formed to assist the AMSA in the search for the missing Malaysian Airlines flight MH370. The ocean forecasts were also passed to AMSA together with advice on the best use of the available information.

• The Bureau’s OceanMAPS prediction system was enhanced during the year with the ingestion of data fr

om new satellites (altimetry from the SARAL/AltiKa satellite and sea surface temperature from METOP-B). New ensemble forecast products, based on the statistical properties of forecasts from consecutive days, were developed and were made available for users from the RAN and AMSA. These products provide improved skill and quantify the level of uncertainty in the ocean forecasts.

• The Bureau entered into a meteorological service arrangement (MSA) with the RAN for the sustainment of ocean for

ecasting services. This arrangement provides a framework and operating basis for cooperation, coordination and maintenance of operational ocean services provided by the Bureau in support of Navy operations.

• The Bureau played an important part in creating an online toolkit called Tsunami: the ultimate

guide, with other members in the Australian Tsunami Advisory Group. This authoritative, Australian-focused toolkit is highly visual and appealing with an emphasis on videos, interviews, animations and maps (see p. 34).

• Australia, through the Bureau and Geoscience Australia (GA), has played an important part of the international ef

fort to improve the products and services of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC). These efforts were ratified at the 25th Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System meeting in September, with operational implementation agreed for 1 October 2014. The new, more accurate products should reduce any conflict between Australia’s tsunami warnings and over-warnings previously provided for the whole Pacific region by PTWC.

• The most significant tsunami event during the year was associated with the magnitude 8.2 earthquake recorded on 1 April in northern Chile, followed by aftershocks as large as magnitude

7.7. Tsunami waves up to 2.1 metres were observed in Chile and reached faraway places such as Hawaii and Japan with up to 0.6 metre wave amplitude. Threat advices over a large proportion of the Pacific Ocean were provided by PTWC, and marine warnings were issued for Japan and Hawaii by their respective warning authorities. The JATWC correctly issued a ‘No Threat’ bulletin for Australia, 18 minutes after the earthquake. Very small tsunami waves of up to 10 cm amplitude were observed on the Australian east coast and Norfolk Island.

• The Bureau led training in two Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (IOTWS)

Tsunami Standard Operation Procedures workshops as part of the ongoing effort to improve the effectiveness of the system. One workshop was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, in September and the other in Hyderabad, India, in June. The workshops successfully trained representatives from 20 Indian Ocean countries.

• A number of projects were initiated under the new Munro Hazards Initiatives Pr

ogramme (MHIP) to

boost the Bureau’s capacity to respond to extreme weather and natural disasters. These included:

- a project to boost frontline forecasters (meteorologists);

- a project to develop and implement an advanced storm surge forecasting system;

- a project to identify a harmonised and standardised set of services across the State and T

erritory jurisdictions (in conjunction with a Standardisation of Services Taskforce formed by the Australia—New Zealand Emergency Management Committee; and

- a project to provide a pilot national heatwave forecast service (see p. 36)

.

34 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• A review of the Bureau’s Space Weather Services commenced in February, in accordance with the Government’s response to option 20 of the Munr o review. Two external reviewers were engaged

in April (Professor Paul Cannon from the University of Birmingham and Dr Terry Onsager from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and a discussion paper was prepared to assist stakeholders and users in understanding the scope of the service and its potential future developments. Extensive stakeholder feedback on the service was received during June. The reviewers are scheduled to deliver their report to the Director in August 2014.

• A new Severe Space Weather Service warning was implemented to give users advanced warning

of large space weather events and their likely impact on specific technologies.

The ultimate guide to tsunamis The Bureau was a significant contributor to a national project to promote the Australian tsunami warning system, to raise public and community awareness about tsunami threats, and to provide authoritative tsunami resources for school education. The main outcome of the project was an online toolkit called Tsunami: the ultimate guide hosted on the Australian Emergency Management Knowledge Hub website (www.emknowledge.gov.au/connect/ tsunami-the-ultimate-guide/#/).

The project was funded through the National Emergency Management Projects grant program to the Australian Tsunami Advisory Group (ATAG) with members from the Bureau, State and Territory emergency agencies, GA, the Attorney General’s Department and Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA). SLSA managed the project which was successfully completed in December.

The online toolkit covers topics including tsunami basics, tsunami threats to Australia, Australia’s tsunami warning system and the types of warnings provided and how to prepare for a tsunami. It was designed and created through an iterative, collaboration process with ATAG and brought together scientific experts from the Bureau and GA, emergency practitioners, community organisations and publishing professionals to ensure an authoritative, Australian-focused and nationally consistent resource.

The resource is highly visual with an emphasis on videos, interviews, animations, maps, interactive photo slideshows and graphics in an effort to appeal to target audiences. Each item within the resource will be individually downloadable for use by teachers in classrooms or school children at home, and also for dissemination by emergency agencies or community organisations via social media and other websites.

35 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

On track for better thunderstorm warnings On 10 December, a trial ‘Thunderstorm Tracker’ product was launched on the Bureau’s public website. Thunderstorm Tracker illustrates the location of thunderstorms over southeastern Queensland and indicates their expected position at 10, 20 and 30 minutes into the future. Brisbane was chosen for the trial as the city experiences around 30 severe thunderstorms per year—twice that of any other Australian capital city.

Thunderstorm Tracker uses weather radar data to detect areas of intense rainfall. Using radar scans updated at six-minute intervals, the system provides the most up-to-date forecast possible on thunderstorm locations and their predicted movement.

The product was developed in response to community demand for real-time advice and short-term forecasts for the location of thunderstorms, to support decisions to protect vulnerable property and to allow affected people to seek shelter. This product is not a warning. It will fill the gap between general forecasts to the public and the severe thunderstorm warning service that provides very specific short-term warnings for severe thunderstorms based on interpretation of meteorological information by frontline forecasters.

Feedback from users is being gathered via the Bureau website to assess the utility of the service as well as to identify potential improvements. If the trial is deemed successful, the service will be developed further and extended to other vulnerable capital cities.

The trial service is available at www.bom.gov.au/qld/forecasts/brisbane-thunderstorms.shtml

Sample image of the Thunderstorm Tracker product. Current thunderstorm locations are represented by the shaded oval with the concentric arcs indicating where the thunderstorm will be in 10, 20 and 30 minutes.

36 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Hot new product A new pilot heatwave service was operated from 8 January to 30 April, providing seven-day forecasts of areas likely to be affected by heatwave. The daily service maps the predicted location of heatwaves at three levels of heatwave intensity—heatwave, severe heatwave and extreme heatwave—over the forecast period.

Assessment of heatwave intensity relates to high maximum and minimum temperatures that are unusual for each location’s long-term climate, combined with recent exposure to heat. Unusually hot conditions that occur after a relatively cool period will be more intense than the same event which occurs after a warm period.

Heatwave severity forecasts provide the community with guidance on the relative intensity of heat events for each affected location in Australia. Forecast maps of heatwave severity provides the community, business sectors and health and emergency services early advice that will allow them to activate adaptive responses.

This service was reviewed by emergency and health services stakeholders at a national workshop in April. The service has gained good support as a national guide to heatwave severity, and a tool for activation of emergency response plans. Stakeholders will continue to be consulted in the development of the service and will help the Bureau assess the pilot in terms of its value and potential improvements.

Peak extreme heatwave conditions are shown for Queensland during early January.

Southeast Australia in mid-January.

37 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

A swell of new tidal sites The information available on the Bureau’s tide prediction portal—introduced in 2012-13 —is continuing to grow; 14 new tidal locations, two new tidal stream locations, and 15 upgraded supplementary locations have been added. Some of the new sites to be added include Apollo Bay, Victoria; Lizard Island, Western Australia; Burketown and Normanton, Queensland; and Cape Beatrice and Cape Don, Northern Territory. This brings the total number of tide prediction locations available on the portal to 415.

The Bureau now operates close to 50 real-time tide gauges, and has access to the sea-level data collected by an increasing number of State and privately-owned tide gauges. The combined network provides extended coverage around Australia that stretches into the Indian Ocean, Antarctica and Pacific Island countries.

Although we often think tides are uniform and simply follow the passage of the moon, analysis of tidal data is necessary to quantify the gravitational effects of the earth, moon and sun.

The Bureau must also account for a large number of distinct astronomical tidal frequencies, some of which differ by cycles of ten years or longer, while others are compounded by frictional effects in shallow water. The shape and depth of ocean basins and surrounding coastlines can also influence tidal movements.

The variation in tides across Australia is considerable, from large tides of up to 12 metres in northwest Australia to the smaller tides below one metre found in Port Phillip Bay in Victoria. Most locations experience two high and two low tides per day, but some locations, notably those across southwest Australia and the Gulf of Carpentaria, only receive one of each. Larger twice-daily ‘spring tides’ often occur around the time of the full or new moon, while seasonal variations in sea level can amount to well over half a metre at some locations.

Tidal information is used for a range of purposes, from navigation, shipping and port operations, to coastal surveying and mapping, fisheries management, police and insurance investigations, assessment of renewable energy and recreational activities. It helps inform coastal development and the management of marine ecosystems, and is important in advising communities of potential hazards such as extreme high tides, strong currents, flooding and inundation. Accurate tidal data also assists scientists to better monitor and detect tsunamis, storm surges, ocean circulation and climate variability.

Inundation of low-lying lagoon area on Tuvalu, South Pacific during a high astronomical tide.

38 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 4. Aviation and Defence

Objective: To provide quality assured meteorological products and services for aviation and the Australian Defence Force, including volcanic ash advisories.

Aviation and Defence is the primary provider of environmental intelligence, including meteorological and oceanographic services, to the aviation sector (throughout the Australian flight information regions) and to the Department of Defence.

Services provided by Aviation and Defence enhance the operations of both the aviation industry and the Department of Defence, through the provision of accurate, timely and relevant environmental intelligence, including meteorological and oceanographic services. Services include the provision of forecasts, real-time observations and climatological data, meteorological training and professional advice to assist decision-making processes and support operations and activities.

Performance measures Deliverables

• All services were maintained and routinely delivered on time.

• The Bureau’s Aeronautical services handbook

received two updates during the year with refined

policies, procedures and product specifications based upon the best international practice and requirements from the aviation industry.

• Warnings and advices for volcanic ash events were provided to meet aviation industry

requirements. A major eruption of Kelut in Java occurred in mid-February, causing significant aviation re-routing over western Indonesia and the Indian Ocean. The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre received positive feedback from the aviation industry over its handling of this situation.

• The development of a new agreement between the Bureau and RAN supports the ongoing delivery of a global ocean forecasting capability to the Department of Defence.

428 000 MORE THAN

Forecasts and warnings for aviation users

0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

aviation forecasts and warnings issued during the year

39 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Key performance indicators

• Surveyed Australia Defence Force officers, including aircrew and trainee pilots, generally rated the accuracy and timeliness of the Bur eau’s weather forecasts as excellent, with 95 per cent satisfied

with weather services provided, which is five per cent above target.

• A survey of Airservices Australia staff at Sydney Airport demonstrated that our major aviation client considers that our services are accurate, timely and reliable; 74 per cent of Airservices staf

f

surveyed felt the service provided was always or mostly effective. Aviation Weather Services will be working with Airservices to identify areas where the services provided can be improved to meet requirements.

• At least 99 per cent of routine services were delivered on time.

• Major parts of the Bureau’s aviation function successfully obtained certification or re-certification to ISO 9001:2008

(see p. 110).

• Aviation consultative working group meetings were held in August and February and a Defence consultative meeting was held in January

.

Highlights • The Bureau conducted two collaborative decision-making trials with Airservices, Qantas and Virgin Australia to test the potential of forecasts specifically tailor

ed to air traffic management in recovering

aircraft movement capacity at major airports lost due to adverse weather. Based on the success of these trials, subsequent trials are planned to inform a business case for funding the operational production of these services.

• The four-year Improved Volcanic Ash Detection and Prediction pr

oject gathered significant

momentum, with improved detection of volcanic ash provided through new satellite imagery processing algorithms. The implementation of a volcanic ash module (VAM) within the new data visualisation and product generation system will support a more efficient volcanic ash forecasting process and will reduce the IT support requirements and training time for forecasters.

• An exchange of letters finalising the Scheme of Cooperation for contingency backup arrangements between the Bureau’s Volcanic Ash Advisory Centr

e (VAAC) in Darwin and its counterpart VAAC

in Tokyo was completed. A Memorandum of Understanding with New Zealand on backup-contingency arrangements with the VAAC Wellington was also developed.

• Through its Aviation Weather Cameras project, the Bur

eau successfully trialled a new camera and

display solution that provides forecasters with improved situational awareness, resulting in improved accuracy and better responsiveness to changing weather conditions. Based on the success of this trial, a new project will now be formed to manage the rollout of cameras to selected major and regional airports.

• A review of the Bureau’s Aviation W

eather Services was undertaken to determine the most

cost effective and efficient model of aviation service delivery. The review team (including Bureau aviation managers, an international aviation consultant and an industry representative) visited each forecasting centre and met with major clients such as Airservices, Qantas and Virgin Australia. The review team is scheduled to present a report to the Bureau’s Executive early in 2014-15. A review of aerodrome forecasts was also undertaken in 2013-14 (see p. 41).

• A number of specialised operational services were provided to Defence, including:

- onsite meteorological support for combat exercises;

- frequent and detailed forecasts for the Border Protection Command / Australian Maritime

Security Operations Centre; and

- additional forecasts, briefings and outlooks for Search and Rescue, including for the search for missing flight MH370.

• A new meteorology office at RAAF Base Amberley was commissioned by the Senior ADF Officer, Air Commodore T

im Innes and Director Dr Rob Vertessy to provide services to local defence units.

40 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Air Commodore Tim Innes (left) and Director Rob Vertessy (right) with Shannon Symons and Graham de Hoedt from the Bureau at the opening of the new office at RAAF Base Amberley, Queensland.

A strategic alliance was signed by Director Rob Vertessy (left) and Dr Alex Zelinsky, the Chief Defence Scientist, to explore mutual interests in defence and meteorological sciences. It will enable the Bureau and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation to combine skills and experience, and work together to undertake a long-term program of collaborative activities.

Memorandum of Understanding with the Royal Australian Navy and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation The Bureau’s relationship with the Department of Defence was strengthened through the development of an updated, overarching, strategic partnering agreement and the establishment of a suite of Memorandums of Understanding (MOU).

MOUs were ratified with the Royal Australian Navy (through the Chief of Navy), with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (through the Chief Defence Scientist) and with Defence Support and Reform Group (through Head Defence Support Operations).

The strategic partnering agreement and MOUs expand the Bureau’s role as a provider of environmental intelligence to the Department of Defence.

41 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

A new approach to aerodrome forecasts The Bureau has undertaken a review of its aerodrome forecasts (known as ‘TAFs’) in response to aviation industry requests and to meet International Civil Aviation Organization quality management requirements. The purpose of the review is to consider how the Bureau can better align services with funding attribution, respond to changing user requirements (recognising that many of these services commenced some decades ago) and improve the quality of its services.

A draft report with a number of proposed service changes was released for three months of industry consultation. 52 submissions were received from airport owners and operators, airlines, industry bodies, government agencies and members of parliament. A review panel with representatives from Airservices Australia, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development and the Bureau was established to formally review and assess all submissions. The review panel considered the safety and operational impacts of the proposed changes and developed a final review report.

The final report includes 15 recommendations and is expected to result in some aerodromes receiving enhanced services and some seeing a loss of TAF service. Many aerodromes will see no change. In addition to the service changes, 76 aerodromes will receive additional observational infrastructure over the next five years to improve the accuracy of forecasts and to provide additional information for pilots.

The review has also established a methodology for determining which aerodromes should be funded by the aviation industry (through a meteorological service charge) and the level of service required. Where services are not covered under this arrangement, the aviation industry or individual operators can request the provision of aerodrome forecasts on a contractual (cost recovered) basis. Currently five aerodromes in Australia are receiving TAF services on a contractual basis.

The final report is expected to be released early in 2014-15 with most anticipated changes likely to occur around November 2014.

Sites covered by the TAF Review.

30 APRIL 2014

ROTTNEST ISLAND

JULIA CREEK RICHMOND (QLD)

MAITLAND (NSW)

COONDEWANNA

CHRISTMAS CREEK

FORTESCUE DAVE FORREST BARIMUNYA

LOMBADINA

NEWMAN

Contractual TAF

42 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Environment and research The Environment and Research portfolio develops and applies advanced scientific knowledge related to weather, climate, oceans and hydrology to build world-class systems and prediction services to support decision-makers in government, industry and the community.

The portfolio consists of four programs:

• Climate Information Services;

• Water Information Services;

• Environmental Information Services; and

• Research and Development

The performance of each of these programs during 2013-14, including their contribution towards achieving the Bur

eau’s outcome, is discussed below.

| 1. Climate information services

Objective:

To publish the National Climate Record and to provide high-quality and timely climate data, information and advice to assist decision-making, with particular emphasis on the emergence of climate conditions leading to social, environmental and economic stress.

The Climate Information Services program is the authoritative source for climate information in Australia. It assists governments, industries and communities in managing the impacts of climate variability and change by providing information on unusual or extreme events, including their severity and causes, as well as intelligence on the likelihood of these events continuing in the weeks and seasons ahead.

Key stakeholders and users include:

• the agriculture, marine, water management, emergency services, and energy and services sectors;

• Australian, State and local governments and their agencies;

• international organisations including the World Meteorological Organization and Pacific Island National Meteor

ological Services;

• the research sector; and

• the media.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Observational data were entered into the Australian climate data archive as soon as possible after r eceipt, enabling efficient online access for all climate data users. The archive was also expanded

with the recovery and digitisation of past records.

• All priority observational data and maximum and minimum temperature data were quality-controlled within thr

ee working days.

• The Australian Climate Observations Reference Networks (ACORN) homogeneous climate datasets were maintained and widely used. Incremental impr

ovements were made to the temperature,

evaporation and cloud datasets.

43 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• More than 600 000 maps and graphs were made available online, covering various climate elements, variations and trends.

• Four ‘Special Climate Statements’ were issued providing a detailed summary of the extreme climatic events that occurr

ed during the year.

• 264 regular monthly, seasonal and annual climate summaries and reviews were issued.

• The Annual Climate Statement 2013, Annual Climate Report 2013 and the biennial

State of the

Climate 2014 were published.

• Key El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators and indices were routinely monitored and

reported on the Bureau’s website through the ENSO Wrap-up.

• A new ENSO Tracker giving early alert to the possibility for El Niño or La Niña was introduced on the Bureau website in May

.

• Regular and timely monthly predictions of rainfall and temperature were provided thr

ough the

Seasonal Climate Outlook, outlooks for tropical cyclones and advice to bushfire outlooks.

• Climate information and advice were provided to a range of stakeholders, with staff attending over 180 meetings with national and State and T

erritory stakeholder organisations and agencies.

• Products showing climate risk for design purposes were prepared for clients as r

equested on a

cost-recovery basis. These included climate zone mapping and estimates of return periods for particular events (e.g. a 1 in 25-year drought).

• There was a high demand for climate advice in the form of briefings and responses to requests fr

om federal and State and Territory governments and agencies as well as industry groups. In light of the increased likelihood of El Niño in 2014, the Bureau proactively briefed key agencies on the developing situation.

• Support for international projects and activities continued successfully through the Climate and Ocean Services Pr

ogram in the Pacific (COSPPac) project (for more information see the ‘International cooperation’ chapter, on p. 117).

Key performance indicators

• User satisfaction was slightly above the target of 85 per cent with 85.4 per cent of users rating climate data and information services as ‘good’ to ‘very good’. The program’s net promoter

score—a measure of customer loyalty—increased from +57 to +59.6.

• There was a continuing high demand for briefings and presentations at the national and State and Territory levels. The Bur

eau was involved in the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Outlook Conference in March and the following regional outlook conferences. Feedback was consistently positive. The monthly National Climate and Water briefings continued to attract strong interest. A survey of attendees indicated 100 per cent would recommend the briefings to a colleague and that the briefings are meeting their objectives.

increase in net promoter score compared to last year

2.6% A TOTAL OF

Climate information net promoter score

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

2012-13

2013-14

44 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• Seasonal climate outlooks continued to show reasonable results during the past year with an overall outlook accuracy for Australia at 60 per cent. Throughout much of the year , the ‘forecast

skill’, a measure of the performance of the forecast model against outcome, was highest for minimum temperature, but this was exceeded in late spring when maximum temperature outlooks reached nearly 90 per cent accuracy.

• Rainfall predictions were affected by the unusually early collapse of a negative Indian Ocean Dipole in August that was not for

ecast by the Bureau’s POAMA climate model or other international models surveyed by the Bureau. However, late spring rainfall outlooks had high accuracy across the continent, particularly over New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia, where accuracy rates were around 90 per cent.

• 3.02 million hits on the climate data online system were recorded, which is an eight per cent incr

ease from 2012-13.

• 97 per cent of requests for climate data were serviced within ten days, seven per cent above the target.

• 100 per cent of rainfall records were digitised within three days of r

eceipt.

• 4000 stakeholder requests were actioned to provide expedited quality control and r

esolution of

network issues affecting data quality.

Highlights • The Bureau continued to monitor Australia’s climate, with frequent temperature extr emes observed during 2013-14. The Bureau provided daily summaries and statistics of weather events in a climate context, and issued special climate statements for nationally significant climate events. Monthly

and annual climate summaries provided additional information to a broad range of users (across all sectors of the economy) exposed to risk from the occurrence of extreme events. Stakeholders were well informed of the emergence of drought conditions across parts of eastern Australia through the regular Drought Report.

• The Bureau’s online Seasonal Climate Outlook had a major redevelopment. Market resear

ch into

the needs of key stakeholders informed the redesign, to improve the comprehension, usability and accessibility of the outlooks. The service will be further strengthened by the addition of one-month outlooks early in 2014-15. This will be a first step towards bridging the difference between weather forecasts and seasonal predictions, and the ultimate aim of a truly seamless forecasting system spanning days to years.

• The biennial State of the Climate report, jointly produced by the Bureau and CSIRO, was released

in March (see p. 46). The report summarises the current state of the science on climate change, and provides observations of Australia’s climate over the past 110 years. The State of the Climate is distinguished from many international reports in presenting an Australian focus, drawing on the

hits on climate data online

MORE THAN

Views of climate data online

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

3 million

million

45 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

extensive data holdings of the Bureau and CSIRO. The report and supporting material was made accessible online and, together with media interviews, resulted in strong outreach.

• The Bureau began work to enhance its drought-related information services, including through the

provision of tools and technologies, to support the Australian Government’s new National Drought Policy. Stakeholder workshops were held in most States and Territories, with representatives from sectors and organisations sensitive to drought, as well as individual farmers. These workshops were essential to the Bureau’s understanding of the information needs and requirements of those at risk from drought, and to assist in scoping and planning an enhanced Australian drought information service. A tool was developed to analyse rainfall by location, over time, to provide a climatic basis for loan applications to the government’s Drought Concessional Loans Scheme.

• The Bureau completed the first phase of a project to modernise it’s climate data services w

ith the

implementation of an online payment system, a national phone service, an automated storm service, a certified extract tool and a new feedback channel. As well as providing an improved service to the public, this project has greatly increased the efficiency of handling climate data requests.

Supporting government drought planning In February, after touring drought-affected areas of Queensland and New South Wales, the Prime Minister announced a major new relief package which included $280 million for a Drought Concessional Loan Scheme. The scheme provides low interest loans to eligible farm businesses to aid recovery from the effects of drought. Eligibility for the loans is primarily based on the severity of rainfall deficiencies over each individual landholder’s property over the past two years. The Bureau was given the task of preparing individual rainfall assessments to support decisions around the delivery of the funds from the scheme.

The Bureau worked closely with the Department of Agriculture to develop a web-based self-service system called the Australian Rainfall Deficiency Analyser. The system enables landholders to conduct a rapid assessment of the severity of rainfall deficiency experienced on their own properties. The system also generates a specific rainfall deficiency report for

each landholder—a required component of every loan application. The report enables the relevant State agencies to quickly assess the eligibility of each application.

The Australian Rainfall Deficiency Analyser was developed and launched within three months of the request from the Department of Agriculture. The fast development of the service enabled the Queensland and New South Wales State governments to release the scheme as planned in June.

The Australian rainfall deficiency analyser.

46 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

State of the Climate 2014 The Bureau and CSIRO published the State of the Climate 2014 report in March. This was the third in the biennial series, and provides a summary of observations of Australia’s climate and an analysis of the factors that influence it, including the enhanced greenhouse effect. The report made extensive use of climate data collected by the Bureau, drawing heavily on the homogenised station and gridded datasets. These data enable understanding of past change and, when combined with scenarios from climate models, provide insights into the likely future changes in Australia’s climate.

The report highlighted an Australian climate that is undergoing many changes. Key facts from the report include:

• Australia’s climate has warmed by 0.9°C since 1910, and the frequency of extreme weather has changed, with mor

e extreme heat and fewer cool extremes.

• Average rainfall across Australia has increased slightly since 1900, with the largest incr

eases since 1970 occurring in the northwest.

• Rainfall has declined since 1970 in the southwest, dominated by reduced winter rainfall. Autumn and early winter rainfall has mostly been below average in the southeast since 1990.

• Extreme fire weather has increased, and since the 1970s the fire season has lengthened

across large parts of Australia.

The report serves to highlight the risks and opportunities that are presented by Australia’s variable and changing climate. Such information can be used to inform planning and decision-making, and to increase Australia’s societal resilience.

The release was met with significant media and community interest. Over 500 articles were published in the online media and about 300 interviews given on each of radio and television. Social media was also particularly active with over three million impressions arising from 47 tweets and two Facebook posts. These reached over 30 000 people and attracted about 700 likes.

For a copy of the report, go to http://www.bom.gov.au/state-of-the-climate/

1910

1.25

1.50

1.75

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

-0.25

-0.50

-0.75

-1.00

-1.25

1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Temperature anomaly (°C)

Sea surface temperature Surface air temperature

Surface air temperature ten-year average Sea surface temperature ten-year average

Australia’s climate has warmed since 1910, especially since 1950, with the trend occurring against a background of year-to-year climate variability.

Warming over Australia has been consistent with warming in the surrounding oceans.

Departure from 1961-1990 climatological average

Figure 10: Time series of anomalies in sea-surface temperature and temperature over land in the Australian region. Anomalies are the departures from the 1961-1990 average climatological period. Sea-surface temperature values are provided for a region around Australia (from 4°S-46°S and from 94°E-174°E).

47 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

2013-14 heatwaves 2013-14 was notably warm over Australia. Temperatures were 1.11°C above the 1961-1990 average, exceeding the previous record by about 0.2°C. Late winter-spring was significant, with Australia’s hottest winter day on record on 31 August recording an average maximum temperature of 29.92°C.

Australia also experienced its hottest September on record with averaged monthly mean temperatures 2.75°C above the 1961-1990 average, more than a full degree ahead of the previous September record, set in 1983. The record warmth led to a rapid and early end to the poor snow season while significant heatwaves affected large parts of Australia. For example, Alice Springs experienced 20 consecutive days above 30°C from 27 August to 15 September. The heat also led to an early start to the bushfire season, particularly in eastern New South Wales.

Summer also saw two notable heatwaves. The first, which occurred around the New Year, affected mainly central and eastern inland areas of Australia; and the second, in mid-January to mid-February, affected the southeast. During the second of these events, Melbourne set records with four consecutive days of 41°C and above, and two consecutive minimum temperatures of above 27°C. In Adelaide, a record five consecutive days of 42°C and above were recorded. Victoria and South Australia experienced a number of large bushfires during this period with significant impacts on electricity and water supplies, and on health and emergency services.

An exceptional warm spell affected large parts of Australia during May. The unusual warmth was concentrated in the southeast of the continent, affecting Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Canberra and Hobart. This event, coming at a cooler time of the year, had particular impacts on retail spending patterns and led to unusual growth of plants and pastures at a time when these are usually dormant.

Special Climate Statements were published for each of these four events, informing media coverage and supporting decision-making across sectors including health and emergency services. Two- to four-week Predictive Ocean Atmospheric Model for Australia (POAMA) forecasts were also trialled during these events, demonstrating significant potential to predict these extremes some weeks in advance.

Aug

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

-6.00 Jul Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Temperature anomaly (°C)

Australian Daily Mean Temperature Anomalies for 2013-14

Departure from 1961-1990 average

Figure 11: National daily mean temperature anomalies for 2013-14; these highlight the dominating warmer-than-average conditions during the year, and notably warm conditions in August-October and in late May.

48 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 2. Water information services

Objective:

To enable better water-related decision-making through the publication of accurate, relevant, timely information and accounts on the status of Australia’s water resources.

Better water policy and management decision-making via improved water information are key objectives of the National Water Initiative, the national blueprint for water reform agreed by the Council of Australian Governments. Under the Water Act 2007, the Bureau is required to provide free public access to high-quality, nationwide water information to support these decisions.

The water information products and services provided by the Bureau generate benefits for a wide range of users across government, industry and the community. Some of these benefits include improved water infrastructure design, enhanced water markets, improved planning aimed at the sharing of scarce water resources, and improved water and environmental flow management. The water data being provided to the Bureau by State and Territory organisations around Australia is providing the raw ingredients for the Bureau to develop a range of value-added water information products that are freely available to the public.

Key stakeholders and users of these services include:

• agriculture and water management sectors;

• the Australian Government and its agencies;

• State and local governments and their agencies; and

• local communities and the general public.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Ten national industry guidelines for water information were published in August.

• Water data files for lead water agencies from the previous 12 months was collected and ingested into the Australian W

ater Resources Information System.

• Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) 1.2 was released in December. Export tools ar

e undergoing

testing prior to release of WDTF 2.0.

• The National Water Account 2012 region r

eports were published from July to September.

• The National Water Account 2012 Summary was published in September and the

2013 Summary

was published in June.

• The National Water Account 2013 region r

eports were published from February to June.

• The Australian Water Resources Assessment 2012 was published in October.

• Work has continued on deriving Intensity Frequency Duration (IFD) products for rainfall and flood events that occur between one and 100 years.

• Water accounting stakeholder activities were undertaken as planned, with the National Water Account Committee meeting on thr

ee occasions in November, February and June.

• A web-based dashboard providing information on water market activity has not been completed as planned; however, 25 water markets information stakeholders wer

e surveyed and an information

gap analysis was conducted in May and June to obtain user needs for web-based reporting.

• The Australian Water Accounting Standard 2: Assurance engagements on general purpose water accounting reports (AW

AS 2) was published in February.

49 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• The revision of the ‘Water Accounting Conception Framework’ was completed and approved by the Water Accounting Standards Board on 1 May .

• No metadata standards were published in 2013-14. The Bureau is working with stakeholders to complete guidelines for water quality metadata for publication in 2014-15.

The Coal River at Richmond Bridge, Tasmania.

Key performance indicators

• Twenty-five organisations actively contributed to the development and governance of standards and guidelines through their involvement in the Water Information Standards Business Forum and

technical reference groups, well above the target of 15.

• There was a slight increase in unique visitors to online resources r

elating to standards, with 11 864

unique visitors in 2013-14 compared to 11 490 in 2012-13.

• The development phase of the Australian Water Accounting Standards was completed.

• The Bureau is currently compiling and analysing survey information from data providers to assess

whether it has met the 80 per cent target of data received conforming to the guidelines.

• The National Water Account 2013 Summary was r

eleased in June. National Water Account region

reports are being released up to six months earlier than previous years.

• The percentage of total Australian water usage reported in the National Water Account 2013

was

70-80 per cent, well above the 65 per cent reported in 2010.

• The number of unique visits to the Australian Water Resources Assessment 2012 web pages was significantly gr

eater the previous Australian Water Resources Assessment 2010. Interest in the National Water Account 2012 web pages has also increased steadily of the last few years.

• The Bureau’s IFD rainfall design information was revised and released on 1 July

. Interest in the

product has continued to grow with a steady and significant rise in website traffic.

increase in web hits on the Bureau's rainfall design information

32% MORE THAN

Rainfall design information web hits

0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

50 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• The National Groundwater Information System (NGIS) database was implemented in March 2013. There wer e 47 email requests for NGIS data during 2013-14.

• Water storage product web page views have steadily increased and the total downloads of the water storage iPhone application is now over 53 000.

Highlights • Ten national industry guidelines for hydrometric monitoring were published on the Bureau’s website in August. The guidelines present industry best practice and combine practical guidance on site establishment, instrument systems, data management and training, as well as specific

r

ecommendations for application of acoustic Doppler instrumentation. The guidelines are the result of extensive industry consultation coordinated by the Bureau over more than two years. The project was championed by individuals within lead water agencies in New South Wales and Queensland, with the strong support and involvement of the Australian Hydrographers Association.

Burrinjuck Dam spillway, New South Wales.

• The Australian Water Accounting Standard 2: Assurance engagements on general purpose water accounting reports was published in February in a joint release by the Bur eau, the Water

Accounting Standards Board and the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board. The release of this assurance Standard is an international first and a positive demonstration of collaboration between government agencies.

• Four key enhancements were achieved in the National Water Account 2012:

- the addition of the Daly region in the Northern Territory, an important tr

opical area with

significant environmental and cultural water values that is under considerable development pressure;

- the inclusion of regional summaries in each water accounting report;

- the preparation of a national summary report; and

- the release of the Companion guide to the account.

• The National Water Account 2013 was released within twelve months of its reporting period.

This is the first time this has occurred, significantly increasing its timeliness and value to users.

• The NGIS Phase 3 project was completed on time and on budget by 30 June. The Australian Groundwater Explorer has been r

eleased into the production environment and will be formally

launched later in 2014.

51 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• The technical production process behind the Bureau’s water accounting and assessment pr oducts continues to improve. A new algorithm to estimate actual evapotranspiration measures from MODIS satellite data has been implemented. This data on evaporation and plant transpiration from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere will be in future water resource assessments. A new version of the AWRA modelling system (version 3.5) was installed and used in the production of the National Water Account 2013.

• The Climate Resilient Water

Sources (CREWS) project agreement has been signed by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination Australia, CSIRO and the Bureau. The project is progressing well against schedule and will contribute to the security of water supplies for present and future generations.

• Data from a total of 310 of Australia’s major surface water storages was collected and published with over 98 per cent available online.

| 3. Environmental information services

Objective:

To improve access to authoritative sources of environmental information for decision-makers in government, industry and the community.

The National Plan for Environmental Information (NPEI) initiative is the first step toward a long-term commitment to reform Australia’s environmental information base and build critical National Environmental Information Infrastructure (NEII). The initiative supports the environmental information needs of the Australian Government in the first instance.

The NPEI initiative has adopted a whole-of-government approach to coordination and prioritisation of the way the government collects, manages and uses environmental information. The initiative is being implemented jointly by the Bureau and the Department of the Environment.

The Bureau has also partnered with the Department of the Environment, Geoscience Australia and the CSIRO to deliver the Bioregional Assessment Technical Programme (BATP) unbiased, baseline assessments on the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining operations on Australia’s water resources. This activity is aligned with the Bureau’s strategic goal of providing environmental intelligence services that inform decisions by government, industry and the community.

water storages in the online water storage product

A TOTAL OF

Water storages reported in the online storage product since its release

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

310

52 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The BATP began in March 2013 and will run until 30 June 2016. During this timeframe the Bureau will support a suite of related activities including the design and build of an information platform to allow users to access the information generated. The publication of scientific information and processes will be used to increase transparency and community confidence in government decision-making processes. Outputs of the BATP will be used to assist the Independent Expert Scientific Committee, established under the Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation Amendment Act 2012. The committee provides advice to government decision-makers.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Two NEII-compliant web data services were delivered by the Bureau:

- the Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric; and

- the gridded data surfaces of the eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard.

• Development of a national environmental information catalogue was deferred to 2014-15 due to the diversion of resour

ces to complete the Marine Water Quality dashboard (see p. 55).

• The development of a National Environmental Information Explorer system was not completed as planned; however, a pr

ototype was developed and delivered for the BATP.

• The NEII Reference Architecture was published in June.

• The Guide to Environmental Accounting for Australia, a resource that describes the envir

onmental

accounting process and sets directions for implementation, was published in December. It has been provided to over 200 stakeholders and has received endorsements from key government agencies, accounting firm Deloitte and the Institute of Chartered Accountants.

• An Australian Environmental Accounting Implementation Plan was not developed. As an outcome of the 2014-15 Budget, the Bureau will no longer further develop environmental accounting

methods from 1 July 2014. Other components of the NPEI initiative will continue unchanged with a continued focus on improving the quality and accessibility of environmental information in Australia.

• A three-year ARC Linkage project agreement was signed with the Australian National University in August to investigate the integration of satellite observations into envir

onmental accounts. An initial

peer-reviewed paper was published in January and work has commenced on integrating advanced remote sensing data into carbon and water cycle information systems relevant to environmental management.

• An operational Marine Water Quality dashboard under the eReefs initiative was released in March.

It provides timely, reliable information supporting the management of the Great Barrier Reef (see p. 55).

• The Bureau of Meteorology Marine Strategy 2014-19 was agreed to and published in June.

• Delivery of bioregional assessments was behind schedule with four reports released. Context statements wer

e released for the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, along with statements for the Galilee, Gloucester and Namoi subregions.

Mareeba rock wallaby and joey, Granite Gorge, Queensland. Photo courtesy of Ian Ashton.

53 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Key performance indicators

• In accordance with targets, the Guide to Environmental Accounting in Australia was endorsed at the seventh meeting of the Australian Gover nment Environmental Information Advisory Group in

December. The guide has been cited in numerous publications including by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the Australian environmental-economic accounts, 2014. The guide describes accounting process and pathways for implementation. Environmental accounting provides a powerful way to factor Australia’s unique natural estate into policy and decision-making.

• Key stakeholders have indicated a high level of satisfaction with the eReefs operational platform. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority is currently using the eReefs dashboard to investigate

water quality objectives, to revise water quality improvement plans, and to assess the priority of management action for catchments across the Reef. The dashboard website is currently receiving around 500 visits per month (see p. 55).

• Four bioregional assessment reports were released in June. The scope and timing for the

development of the information platform was agreed by the collaboration partners in May.

Grass trees flowering after fire, Drajurk State Forest, Victoria. Photo courtesy Amanda Ashton.

A cap cloud sits over a peak in the Snowy Mountains, New South Wales; this region covers a variety of climatic regions which support several distinct ecosystems.

54 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Highlights • The first reports from the BATP were r eleased in June. The reports provide water-related data, information and insight that will inform decisions by government, industry and the community on the development, management and regulation of coal-based resources.

• The second issue of eXchange, an electronic communique designed to improve awareness and coor

dination of environmental information activity across the government, was released in April to approximately 660 stakeholders. This was a 20 per cent increase in readership from the first issue. Agency interest in contributing to eXchange is strong and it continues to be well received by readers.

• Publication of NEII: Reference Architecture provided stakeholders with a high-level technical

description of a system for enhancing the discovery, access and re-use of national environmental information. Some 80 individuals across a number of agencies were consulted on its development.

• A feasibility study to underpin

the development of a National Air Quality Data Service was completed. The Bureau worked with State and Territory air quality data custodians to examine data availability and licensing issues, and to consider IT infrastructure requirements. A national air quality data service would contribute to a whole-of-government National Clean Air Agreement and support human health impact studies.

Spinifex pigeon at Kings Canyon, Northern Territory. Photo courtesy of Ian Ashton.

in readers of eXchange from the first edition to the second

20% AN INCREASE OF

eXchange readers

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

1st edition

2nd edition

55 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Reef information in a dash The eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard is a tool that provides access to a range of water-quality indicators for the Great Barrier Reef, and is used to provide important information to reef managers. The tool uses near-real-time data, as well as historical data with more than ten years of records on:

• sea surface temperatures;

• chlorophyll levels;

• suspended sediments; and

• dissolved organic matter.

This allows reef managers to compare current r

eadings with past conditions, to gain a better

understanding of context and trends.

In the wake of tropical cyclone Ita, the dashboard was used to provide a new way of considering the impact of cyclones on the reef. The information presented showed clear evidence of elevated nutrients in the coastal water affected by the cyclone. Now, in addition to the physical characteristics of these storms, the Bureau is able to publish information about the environmental changes caused by extreme events. The dashboard is available at www.bom.gov.au/marinewaterquality/.

The dashboard showing chlorophyll concentrations.

56 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 4. Research and development

Objective:

To apply advanced scientific knowledge related to weather, climate, oceans and hydrology and meet the current and future system and service needs of the Bureau with a focus on the development and application of a world-class coupled climate and earth system simulator.

Research and development in the Bureau addresses high-priority service needs by building a national capability in weather, climate, water and ocean prediction. The development of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) continues to underpin advances in weather forecasting, ocean forecasting and the climate prediction services provided by the Bureau. With support from Australian universities and international agencies, especially the United Kingdom Met Office, the advancement of the ACCESS Earth system models are continuing to enhance the ability of the Bureau to predict extreme events that affect Australia.

Within the Research and Development program, the Bureau is also continuing to improve its understanding of atmospheric processes through modelling and observation, and is applying this knowledge to weather and climate prediction systems for advanced forecasting and environmental services. This includes prediction and monitoring of severe weather and environmental hazards, and seasonal and long-term climate patterns.

Research is primarily delivered through the joint Bureau-CSIRO Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR) and the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA), also with the CSIRO.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Development and trials of a major upgrade of the Bureau’s ACCESS models (APS2) are continuing, with system verification showing impr oved forecast skill over the Southern Hemisphere within the

global model. • Development of the ACCESS-based seasonal prediction system (POAMA3) is continuing with a number of efficiency improvements performing significantly better than expected.

• Development of Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE) tools and formatters as part of the Next Generation Forecast and War

ning System (NexGenFWS) implementation was completed. This included improved hazard, sea state and precipitation tools. A major upgrade to the gridded Operational Consensus Forecasts system, incorporating higher resolution grids, additional fields, and other enhancements, was implemented in June.

• A new version of the tropical cyclone model ACCESS-TC went operational in the APS1 suite in December. It has been performing very well compared to other inter

national numerical weather

prediction (NWP) systems according to internal verification and benchmarking conducted by collaborators at Shanghai Typhoon Institute. ACCESS model evaluation workshops were held in September and March.

• A new, low-cost cloud radar was installed in Darwin that has proved highly effective in cloud detection, with a view to better r

epresenting cloud processes in prediction models.

• The Bureau hosted and participated in the international High Altitude Ice Crystals - High Ice Water Content experiment in Darwin fr

om 14 January to 15 March which is leading to improved

understanding and prediction of ice crystals in the atmosphere. Processing and analysis of experimental results is currently being undertaken.

57 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• Initial published studies characterising the benefits of GPS radio occultation data on numerical weather prediction forecasts have documented the utility of GPS radio occultation in ACCESS.

• A prototype space-based wind observation system has been completed that provides hourly data for use in NWP forecasts. This system is now r

eady for transfer into operations to improve

forecasting performance.

• An initial study into the use of space-based observations to improve moisture analysis in support of Nowcasting and severe weather for

ecasting has been published.

• Development of advanced imager data from the new Himawari-8 satellite is being tested in collaboration with the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

• Real-time, quality-controlled sea surface temperature and air-sea flux data from satellite and in situ observations have been pr

ovided to the IMOS ocean data portal repository in accordance with milestones.

• A major upgrade to the operational global ocean forecasting system (OceanMAPS-3) has been completed and is ready for operational trials.

• The Bureau’s prediction of solar radiation using ACCESS is being refined with the evaluation of

12 months of past predictions leading to better partitioning of direct and diffuse components of the forecasts.

Numerical Weather Prediction implementation and upgrades in the Bureau since 2009-10

Model Outputs 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Expected

2014-15

ACCESS-G Weather prediction at a global scale

APS0 APS1 APS2

ACCESS-R Weather prediction at a regional scale

APS0 APS1

ACCESS-C Weather prediction at a city scale

APS0 APS1

ACCESS-TC Tropical cyclone prediction APS0 APS1

AUSWAVE-G Wave prediction APS0 APS1

AUSWAVE-R Wave prediction APS0 APS1

T2 Tsunami Scenario database

Precomputed tsunami forecasts and associated warnings

T2 T2

extension

OceanMAPS Ocean prediction at a global scale v1.1 v2.0 v2.1,

v2.2

v2.2.1 v3.0

POAMA Multi-week

to Seasonal prediction

P24 M24

LEGEND implemented upgraded scheduled

58 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• Milestones for a number of externally funded projects were met, notably under the Victorian Climate Change Initiative, the Australian Climate Change Science Program and the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science Adaptation Program (PACCSAP).

• An improved national landscape water balance model was developed and applied to over 300 catchments across Australia.

• Improved methods for forecasting streamflow over lead times from days to months wer

e

implemented for an increased numbers of sites for which these forecasts are available.

Freshwater turtle at Bundaberg, Queensland. Photo courtesy of Ian Ashton.

Key performance indicators

• A total of 186 journal publications were peer-reviewed compared to 190 publications in the previous period. Other publications include 14 CAWCR technical reports, five issues of CAWCR Letters and

several major project reports.

• Over 100 presentations were given by CAWCR staff at national and inter

national conferences.

• CAWCR hosted 48 national and international meetings, workshops and conferences, including two major inter

national events.

• Internal and external feedback on the development of the GFE as part of the NexGenFWS has been largely positive. The system has performed effectively during several tr

opical cyclone events

in two States. National and international awards for NexGenFWS reflect the utility of the enhanced Bureau services and the new methods to access the services (see p. 114).

• Several staff received awards for their scientific achievements (see p. 112)

.

• Project milestones have been met within many research projects including the APS1 implementation.

• Final reports and papers for the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) pr

ojects were

delivered as planned.

• Strong stakeholder and user satisfaction with research outcomes has been expressed by the Royal

Australian Navy (on ocean forecasting improvements), the Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, the aviation industry and the United States Los Alamos National Laboratory (on technical support delivered through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program).

• CAWCR scientists have played an important role in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’

s (IPCC) Fifth assessment report (AR5). Authors from the Bureau performed roles including coordinating lead author, lead author and contributing author. Scientists in CAWCR were involved extensively in reviews of the AR5, including of the Synthesis Report.

• The ACCESS coupled model runs submitted for AR5 and the related Coupled Model Intercomparison Project have been used in ar

ound 100 studies and assessments of the

simulations. Results show ACCESS performing in the top tier of the climate models in terms of simulating both the climate mean state and climate extremes. Over 90 per cent of agreed WIRADA deliverables for the year were submitted and reviewed within the year.

• WIRADA research outputs for the year included 32 peer-reviewed confer

ence papers, 14 peer-

reviewed journal papers and two book chapters. A further 25 research papers and articles on space weather were written and published during the year.

59 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Highlights • Improved rainfall estimates are now available to provide more accurate inputs to short-term river flow forecasts. Careful quality control and advanced spatial and temporal modelling methods ar

e

applied to rain gauge observations to produce the improved rainfall estimates. These can then be used to provide flow forecasts that are more consistent than those produced with current techniques. These and other improvements in flow forecasting continue to aid the Bureau in delivering more accurate flow forecasts for more sites over longer forecast time periods.

• The operational implementation of the complete APS1 version of the Bureau’s NWP suite was finalised in the October, when the last r

emaining component, the 4-km resolution city (ACCESS-C)

systems, was declared operational. With this achievement, all components of the previous APS0 suite were decommissioned, and NWP operations were able to benefit from the streamlining of the suite that occurred from APS0 to APS1. The APS1 global model (ACCESS-G), continues to be ranked amongst the best performing systems (in comparison to international systems) across the Australian region. In seasonal forecasting, POAMA-2.4M continues to provide valuable support for generating seasonal outlooks, particularly in the context of a potentially developing El Niño.

• Significant progress has been made in the development of the next version of the ACCESS NWP models, APS2, which features enhanced model r

esolution, improved model physics, and support

for a larger array of observations. In addition to these upgrades, APS2 will provide an entirely new component, namely a global ensemble system running at 60-km resolution. This system will play a key role in the provision of probabilistic and risk-based forecasting, and will also underpin NWP data-assimilation in the future (see p. 57). Looking beyond APS2, development and evaluation of the very high resolution (1.5 km) NWP component of the Strategic Radar Enhancement Project (SREP) project continued, culminating in a successful stakeholder workshop in June.

• Developments this year have enabled the delivery of the Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric (the Geofabric) in multiple formats through a single linked data system. This opens up the Geofabric to a wider audience and allows specific parts to be incorporated dir

ectly into water

resources analysis systems. As part of the Geofabric project, the Bureau engaged with government stakeholders to provide national identifiers for features such as rivers and catchments within the environment.data.gov.au domain. This delivers consistent identifiers for features that will not change through time, even when the relevant authorities or organisations that oversee them undergo change. These advances help to deliver on the Bureau’s goal of providing consistent, authoritative and ground-breaking methods to improve the information used in making decisions on Australia’s water resources.

• The first phase of the development of a virtual Climate and Weather Science Laboratory (CWSLab) was completed with

the porting of the ACCESS modelling framework to the National Computational Infrastructure supercomputer (Raijin). In conjunction with National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) project partners, this initiative is designed to reduce the technical barriers to the use of ACCESS by researchers in a range of fields, and to enhance community collaboration in ACCESS development. The increasing impact of ACCESS across a wide range of applications was reflected in the presentation of the 2013 CSIRO Medal for Science Achievement to the cross-organisational ACCESS development team (see p. 113).

Tree fern, Tarra Bulga National Park, Victoria. Photo courtesy of Amanda Ashton.

60 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Long-term benefits from new short-term forecasting techniques Development and verification of high-resolution modelling techniques continued during

the year through SREP. One of the main objectives of the project is to improve short-term forecasts for disaster mitigation through assimilation of radar data into numerical weather prediction models.

The Bureau currently uses radar data almost exclusively for Nowcasting—predicting what will happen during the short-term (the next several hours) over scales of a few kilometres. Nowcasting systems use high-resolution radar data to provide a detailed forecast for the next hour or two. These techniques are crucial because NWP, which is used for predictions beyond the Nowcasting period, is of greatest value beyond the first six hours of the forecast period.

Through the science component of SREP, the Bureau is undertaking research into ingesting and using radar observations directly in NWP models to enhance their functionality in forecasting extreme weather, especially on the shorter (less than six hours) timescales. Unlike existing NWP models that may take approximately six hours to assimilate data and ‘spin up’, the trial SREP system incorporates high-resolution radar data on a rapid update cycle in which the model’s starting conditions are continually refreshed by the latest observations.

This development effort was reviewed and tested at a series of successful stakeholder workshops that brought together the required expertise across a range of fields including NWP, radar quality control and quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting. The development of forecaster support systems for model visualisation, product generation and verification were also tested to ensure strong alignment of system development and forecasting requirements.

Ultimately SREP will provide improved rainfall estimation and short-term forecasts for heavy rainfall events that will inform planning and preparedness to mitigate the impacts from severe weather events.

Thunderstorm Interactive Forecast System showing thunderstorm cell tracks using motion vectors.

61 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Catching butterflies with ensemble forecasts The atmosphere is a chaotic system, with the implication that very small changes in its state can potentially grow very rapidly—the ‘butterfly effect’. This has obvious ramifications for weather forecasting, which relies on mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather forward in time from a presumed known ‘initial state’.

As the degree of chaos varies in both time and space, some forecasts are more reliable than others. Understanding which forecasts are more reliable in advance and quantifying the probability of a particular forecast are the goals of ensemble forecasting.

In an ‘ensemble’ NWP system, sets of weather prediction models are run in parallel. Each run is distinguished by small variations in the initial state that lead to differences in the final output (or forecast). Each model run produces a slightly different forecast, and the difference between these forecasts provides a measure of forecast confidence. Where the forecasts diverge greatly, the forecast confidence is lower and, conversely, when the forecasts are similar, the forecast confidence is high.

Figures 12 and 13 above show the results of ensemble forecasts using data from tropical cyclone Ita which made landfall in April. The light green line is the predicted cyclone position over the following 72 hours from the Bureau’s current tropical cyclone model (ACCESS-TC), with a dot for every six hours from the initial location, which is marked by a cross. The ‘cloud’ of colours around the cyclone track is derived from the research APS2 ensemble system that provides an estimate of the probability that the cyclone will get close to a particular point. The more compact the cloud, the greater the probability of the forecast. The red areas show greater likelihood with colours fading to green-blue as the forecast confidence reduces over time.

The two forecast plots shown are starting from different stages in Ita’s life-cycle. On 10 April (Figure 12), when the cyclone vortex was still well out to sea, the fuzziness of the ensemble cloud indicates a high degree of uncertainty in the forecast, and there was a significant risk that the tropical cyclone may have taken a much more westerly path, crossing the York peninsula and placing Mornington Island at risk. On 11 April (Figure 13) around the time the tropical cyclone was crossing the coast, the area of the ‘ensemble cloud’ is much reduced, suggesting that the range of scenarios for tropical cyclone movement that need to be considered was also much reduced.

From left: Figure 12 and Figure 13.

62 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Observations and infrastructure Meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic observations gathered by the Bureau make an important contribution to the welfare of the nation. They not only underpin the Bureau’s essential weather warnings and routine weather, climate and water services; they also inform countless decisions within industry, for the environment, and for the safety and lifestyle of the Australian community. Observations are also stored for future use as part of Australia’s national climate record.

For this reason, the Bureau invests a significant proportion of its resources in the taking and recording of observations. It strategically plans, builds and operates the observing network and maintains significant technical, engineering and science capability. Regular monitoring and review of the Bureau’s observing systems is undertaken to assess performance and fitness for purpose. Key activities undertaken within the portfolio include:

• the replacement of obsolete systems and the introduction of new technologies through the capital investment pr

ogram;

• systematic inspections and maintenance of observing infrastructure;

• rapid response and return-to-service for damaged or faulty equipment; and

• regular liaison with users of the data to ensure continued appropriateness, relevance, timeliness

and accuracy.

The Observation and Infrastructure portfolio consists of three programs:

• Observing System Strategy;

• Observing Network Operations; and

• Infrastructure Management.

The performance of each of these programs during 2013-14, including their contribution towards achieving the Bur

eau’s outcome, is discussed below.

| 1. Observing system strategy

Objective:

To plan for continued and future meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic and space weather observations to meet the needs of governments, industry and the community; supporting the nation’s climate record; providing warnings and weather forecasts; research; and meeting national and international obligations.

The Bureau’s composite observing system applies a range of technologies and a highly trained, specialised workforce that are deployed across Australia and its territories to deliver observations that meet the needs of its users. The Observing System Strategy program takes a medium- to long-term view of the observing network to ensure the Bureau’s observing system is ‘future-fit’ to meet weather, climate, water and environmental information needs.

To achieve its objective, the program undertakes strategic, network-focused studies based on user requirements, advances in technology and existing capability. Subsequent reviews and activities translate the strategies into ‘build’ and ‘operate’ requirements for the other areas of the portfolio.

As a vision for the future of the observing network, the Observing System Strategy has been developed and will be supported by an accompanying roadmap and implementation plan. The strategy will help the Bureau maintain and improve service levels while:

63 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• adopting and assimilating new technologies;

• implementing more efficient systems and processes;

• adjusting to the expected future resource levels;

• continually improving delivery efficiencies; and

• facilitating both management and cultural change to ensure continued high performance consistent with a world-leading meteorological service.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Strategic studies relating to ground-based remote sensing, upper-air observations, marine observations, the engineering framework and asset management have informed the Observing System Strategy.

• The development of a risk-based asset replacement plan for 2014-15 and beyond was commenced, and an Asset Life-cycle Plan will be initiated with a focus on radar in 2014.

Key performance indicators

• All strategic studies have been finalised as planned.

Highlights • The 4th Asia-Oceania Meteorological Satellite Users Conference (see p. 65) was hosted by the Bureau in Melbourne in October. This annual event provides a forum for the research and operational satellite communities to exchange information, cooperate in satellite activities, and

improve satellite data use.

• The Bureau has collaborated with the United Kingdom Met Office in a demonstration project to promote and test the use of the W

eather Observations Website (WOW) in Australia (see p. 64). WOW

is a self-lodgement tool provided by the Met Office that allows the public to upload and share weather data and provides a community engagement and education tool (bom-wow.metoffice.gov.uk/).

• A network requirements and capability review was undertaken to assess the capabilities and associated management and support structur

es required to support and sustain the Bureau’s

future field-based observations networks. From a large and thorough consultative process, the review resulted in the development of an actionable, people-centered model for implementation.

• A strategic engineering and life-cycle management study has been completed.

• The Bureau has completed extensive planning in relation to the forthcoming Himawari-8 meteorological satellite. The satellite will be launched by the Japan Meteor

ological Agency (JMA)

in the second half of 2014, and will enter operations in mid-2015. Data from Himawari-8 will significantly enhance the Bureau’s space-based observing capability with associated increases in communications and data storage volumes. As part of this planning, the Bureau hosted a visit by a JMA delegation in June to discuss areas of potential collaboration.

• The Bureau of Meteorology Marine Strategy 2014-19 includes the goal of providing ‘a sustained nationally coor

dinated network of marine observations’, recognising the critical role that external partners, both existing and new, have in assisting the Bureau to achieve its marine service objectives.

64 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Weather Observation Website The Weather Observation Website (WOW) combines science, geography and technology to let weather enthusiasts become part of the action in recording and reporting on Australia’s weather. Users can provide measured observations from their own instruments, simply upload a weather photo, or submit a quick observation such as ‘it is raining now’ or ‘there is a thunderstorm’.

The purpose of WOW is to promote community-sharing of weather data to achieve a higher density network of weather observations, which can also potentially assist forecasters and offer deeper engagement with the community. Most WOW sites are found in Australia’s more populated areas, although remote and smaller townships are beginning to come on board.

Since its release in February, over 180 personal automatic weather stations have been connected to the site, and are continuously submitting weather information.

An example of how the data collected on WOW are adding to the Bureau’s own intelligence on weather events was seen during tropical cyclone Ita, which made landfall near Cape Flattery in northern Queensland on 12 April. In the area surrounding Cairns, a cluster of six WOW automatic weather station sites was adding to the information collected by the Bureau’s own observing network. The Bureau’s station at Mareeba recorded accumulated rainfall of 41.6 mm and 91.6 mm respectively on 12 and 13 April. Nearby WOW sites at ‘Gorge Creek Orchards’ and ‘Rangeview, Tolga’ recorded for each day 49.6 mm and 130.4 mm; and 33.2 mm and 101.6 mm respectively, capturing more extreme rainfall than was recorded at the Bureau’s own station. Both rainfall rate (1-hour rainfall) and rainfall accumulation (24-hour rainfall, in this case from 9.00 am) can be viewed as either a graph or table in WOW.

Reading the rain gauge for manual submission of daily accumulated rainfalls to WOW.

Rainfall levels recorded around Mareeba on 12-13 April

0 30 60 90 120 150

13 April

12 April

Rangeview, Tolga Gorge Creek Orchards Mareeba

65 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Regional cooperation in satellite data use While most observing instruments provide weather observations at a single location, meteorological and earth observation satellites provide frequent and extensive observational information across broad areas of the globe, particularly across the oceans where other observational techniques are limited. Since the first meteorological satellites monitoring the Asia-Oceania region were launched in the 1970s, the sophistication of satellite sensors and the applications of satellite data have continued to increase.

To continue this development, the 4th Asia-Oceania Meteorological Satellite Users Conference was hosted by the Bureau in October, with over 100 participants from across the region. The annual conference provides a forum for research and operational satellite user communities in the Asia-Oceania region to exchange information, cooperate in satellite activities and improve satellite data use.

The Bureau has participated in the event since it was first held in Beijing.

in 2010, and has co-sponsored the conference since the Tokyo conference in 2011, along with the Japan Meteorological Agency, the China Meteorological Administration, the Korean Meteorological Administration and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

The conference featured presentations from world leaders in the field of satellite meteorology and leading scientists and forecasters from around the world. Satellite operators provided the latest information on current and upcoming satellite missions, while forecasters and scientists presented results on advanced and innovative uses of satellite observations. Presentations by Bureau participants included sea surface temperature measurement, satellite-derived solar radiation mapping, volcanic ash services, high-impact weather applications of satellite-derived precipitation estimates and the benefit of satellite observations on numerical weather prediction.

The Bureau’s Facebook page has been instrumental in promoting the system and engaging with the public. In a typical month, WOW-related Facebook posts reach over 100 000 Australians and directly engage with several thousand. This has translated to an Australian contribution of approximately 10 000 WOW site visits and 3 million weather observations every month.

Over the next year many other improvements are planned for WOW. www.bom.gov.au/wow-support

Warrumbungle National Park, New South Wales. Photo courtesy of Alice Baker and James Gilbert.

66 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 2. Observing network operations

Objective:

Manage resources, budgets and systems to deliver the agreed observations program through the composite observations network.

The Bureau’s composite observing system delivers a diverse range of observations collected by a highly trained, specialised and widely distributed workforce, and from a range of technologies from radars to rainfall stations, drifting buoys to dedicated observatories, and satellites to ships at sea. To the extent possible, the network is designed to be truly multifaceted, providing observations across a range of application areas including weather, climate, hydrology, oceans and space.

The program operates and maintains a resilient observations network to deliver the national observing program, both centrally and through the regions. As well as taking and recording observations, the Observing Network Operations program ensures that:

• the network is operated efficiently and effectively;

• quality management is performed on data from both manual and automated systems; and

• the operational integrity and resilience of the observational networks are maintained.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Observations were collected from 55 staffed offices across Australia and its territories.

• Observations were received from 63 weather surveillance radars, 827 surface observations sites including 678 automatic weather stations, 6957 rainfall stations, 5324 hydr

ological monitoring

stations, nine wind profilers, ten solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring facilities, and three total ozone and ozone profiler facilities. The number of observing sites was generally on target or slightly above the planned range.

in the number of Automatic Weather Stations in the Bureau's Observing Network since 2010.

4% INCREASE OF Number of Automatic Weather Stations

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

67 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• Space-based meteorological observations continued to be collected by ground stations across Australia and its territories. The r eception and processing of satellite data have improved from

2012-13 levels through the replacement of satellite reception hardware and systems at selected sites.

• The baseline air pollution station at Cape Grim in north-western Tasmania continued to take detailed measurements of the chemical composition of the atmospher

e. Annual reports on

atmospheric composition, which are relied upon by scientific research organisations for analysis, were also delivered.

• The Bureau maintained it’s marine observations networks via drifting buoys, ships in the Australian volunteer observing fleet, volunteer ships measuring ocean profiles, wave-rider buoys, and

Australian and internationally located automatic sea-level and tsunami monitoring stations including deep-ocean tsunameter buoys.

• Measurements from solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring and total ozone/ozone profiler facilities

were successfully obtained.

Key performance indicators

• Upper air profiles from weather balloon releases were in accor dance with the program’s focus on high-quality observations in support of climate records, forecasting requirements, severe weather and international obligations.

• 96.5 per cent of all automatic weather station (AWS) sites were visited as part of planned maintenance and inspection regimes, meeting standar

ds introduced in 2012-13 to assist with the

tiered prioritisation of site inspection and maintenance visits.

• Key observing networks performed above expected levels and the performance target of 95 per cent. The AWS network delivered 98.7 per cent of expected outputs and wind profilers deliver

ed

99 per cent, as did the tsunami monitoring network.

• Real-time radar data coverage was available for 93.4 per cent of the time during the period. The result is slightly below the

95 per cent target due to outages from radar component failures at several sites. Services at Kalgoorlie and Carnarvon in Western Australia and at West Takone in Tasmania were also temporarily unavailable during the installation of new radar components at these locations.

• The target of having 95 per cent of radars returned to service within three days of outage was achieved.

of river-height stations used to deliver the flood warning service are owned by third parties. The Bureau is developing Data Sharing Agreements to formalise this exchange of data.

90% OVER

Ownership of river-height stations in the Bureau's hydrological monitoring network

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Third party owned

Bureau owned

68 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Highlights • A new framework for managing regional deliverables and budgets through work packages was introduced,

aiding national and regional resource planning, inventory and procurement management as well as the prioritisation of service and aviation requirements.

• A significant restructure of observing systems management occurred with all observing networks now coor

dinated through the Observations and Infrastructure portfolio. In particular, this change has brought hydrographic and space weather observations into the Observations and Infrastructure portfolio.

• As part of the science program undertaken at the Cape Grim baseline air pollution station, nine operational science sub-programs were deliver

ed for the year. These included studies on spectral

radiation, particulates, non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases and reactive gases. These studies were developed with the close collaboration of a number of scientific research organisations, including the CSIRO, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the University of Wollongong. Cape Grim data together with its scientific analysis was heavily utilised in the 2013 Intergovernmental panel climate change fifth assessment report (IPCC AR5) and the 2014 WMO ozone assessment, as well as numerous scientific journal articles.

• A significant capital program, including the installation of ceilometers, barometers and communications systems across selected sites, was deliver

ed to meet aviation industry requirements.

• The Australian tsunami network continued to be maintained with a mission undertaken in the Tasman Sea in May that successfully restored services at two stations in the ar

ea. A return-to-

service visit for the Coral Sea tsunameters is planned for later in 2014. The core tsunameter network comprises six stations configured as three pairs for backup, with one pair in each of the following areas: Indian Ocean, Coral Sea and Tasman Sea.

A wandering buoy

When a tsunami buoy from the United States drifted into waters near Willis Island in Queensland, the Bureau was called upon to assist. Operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) the buoy had come loose of its moorings and drifted far from home. The Bureau worked with NOAA and the Australian Maritime Safety Authority to salvage the buoy.

69 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

| 3. Infrastructure management

Objective:

To maintain a robust and sustainable national observations infrastructure and capability to meet Bureau needs.

The Bureau’s observations infrastructure includes a substantial inventory of complex technical facilities distributed across the Australian region, including territories in Antarctica and the Indian and Pacific oceans. The infrastructure operated today is largely automated, apart from a small number of advanced environmental monitoring systems that require specialised human input.

This program is tasked with ensuring that the infrastructure and equipment supporting the Bureau’s composite observing system operates at maximum efficiency and effectiveness. This is achieved through a function of systems design-and-build, quality assurance, capability improvement, and the consistent delivery of infrastructure upgrade and replacement.

These activities are undertaken by science and technical staff whose backgrounds are predominantly in physics, meteorology and metrology, and who are supported by teams of project managers, procurement specialists and business management.

The function also maintains close links with other Bureau program capabilities to ensure there is a clear pathway for transition from plan and build into operations. This includes understanding the interface between the equipment outputs and the requirements of Bureau scientists.

Safety considerations are a major factor in the design and operation of observational infrastructure as it frequently comprises large and complex equipment that operates around the clock, often in rural or remote locations. Close consultation is maintained with work health and safety professionals and operational managers to ensure that safety is taken into account at all stages of the plan, build and operate life cycle of observing facilities.

Performance measures Deliverables

• Across the observing network, major pieces of Bureau observing infrastructure were upgraded or replaced as scheduled.

• A number of systems-improvement projects were completed as planned.

• A strategic procurement plan was released in April to guide the medium to long-term procur

ement

activities of the portfolio. The plan highlights the tendering schedules and procurement strategies for 47 significant procurement categories, in addition to numerous lower-value goods and services.

• A radar audit was conducted to identify the critical paths for radar maintenance. Measures to address the audit’s findings ar

e being implemented in 2014-15.

• Quality checks and assessment of observational data were performed through scheduled calibration of field equipment.

• A new business process for procurement was introduced in December

. The process provides a

standardised and consistent approach to the management and communication of procurement activities, including the recording and registration of all contract agreements.

• Twelve contracts or deeds of standing offer were signed for the provisions of equipment and facilities

including barometers, rain gauges, radar domes, the Weipa radar tower and signal generators.

70 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The Kalgoorlie radar As part of the radar replacement project, the radar at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, has undergone a significant upgrade to weather watch technology. The new facility is adjacent to the previous radar site, at the Kalgoorlie Meteorological Office. This is part of an ongoing schedule of work to procure and renew operational radar capability for the benefit of enhanced forecasting and weather warning services.

This high-resolution, state-of-the-art Doppler radar has a ‘nowcasting’ capability to monitor events including floods and thunderstorms. The Bureau can now better warn the community about the potential impacts of severe weather as these events unfold. This new radar also offers continuous radar imagery, which previously was unavailable for two hours each day due to the tracking of weather balloons in the upper atmosphere.

The new radar is delivering benefits to Kalgoorlie-Boulder and the wider Goldfield Region, ensuring continuation of radar services well into the future. A range of industries rely on the information provided by the Bureau in the planning of weather sensitive activities such as agricultural producers in crop-spraying; construction workers in planning, painting or concreting; and operations in the mining and resources sector. The Kalgoorlie radar has good coverage in all directions, due mainly to the flat topography of the area.

Photo courtesy of local Kargoorlie observer Jenny Feast.

71 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Key performance indicators

• Delays in procurement, lease negotiation and the engagement of contractors meant the capital program expenditur e was underspent by more than five per cent.

• The program achieved its target on aviation industry-funded projects, with expenditure within five per cent of allocated funds.

Highlights • A number of innovative solutions were implemented during the year to improve data quality and processing. These included:

- the design, development and testing of a calibration process for equipment sensors to meet national standards;

- the installation of a system to assess and reset an AWS system remotely; and

- the establishment of a radar quality process to review and assess radar and wind profiler data.

• Project delivery of major observing facilities included the replacement of the Kalgoorlie radar and the commissioning of wind profilers at Cof

fs Harbour and Cairns. These profilers provide vertical

profiles of wind with much greater frequency than traditional weather balloon flights. The installation of AWSs at Nerriga in New South Wales, and at May Downs and Lake Julius in Queensland, was completed as part of the Strategic Radar Enhancement Project (SREP).

• Safety consideration has been a major focus this year. A more efficient, automated upper-air balloon r

elease and tracking system including equipment for hydrogen gas generation was commissioned at Giles meteorological office in remote Western Australia. A further 16 automated balloon release and tracking systems were upgraded to further comply with operational safety standards.

• The delivery, acceptance and testing of a microwave radiometer was completed in December at Sydney Airport. In collaboration with Bureau r

esearch scientists, the program is developing

algorithms to improve the alignment of the radiometer data with the observations returned by satellite. This will enable a more accurate picture of temperature and water profiles from observing sites to improve the availability of real-time information for forecasting.

• The initial implementation of a satellite data processing framework capable of acquiring and analysing imagery from the next generation of geostationary satellites was completed. This framework is based on the US National and Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’

s (NOAA)

Geostationary Cloud Algorithm Test-bed (GEOCAT) processing software and incorporates a number of meteorological and aviation products including cloud properties and volcanic ash detection. New and improved applications will be developed over the coming years to ensure that the Bureau will be able to take full advantage of the improved spatial and temporal resolution of this imagery.

• The three-year, $4.2 million Observations Network Upgrade Project (ONUP) came to a successful close in December

. Under this project, the Bureau completed the technical upgrade and refurbishment of all 13 tide gauges in the Pacific tsunami and sea-level monitoring network. The project also delivered upgrades to a network of 12 land-monitoring geodetic stations. As many of these facilities were more than 20 years old, their refurbishment has enabled the continued collection of high-quality sea-level and geodetic data from the Pacific region.

72 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Positioning Melbourne observations for the future Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment, officially commissioned the new Melbourne weather station at Olympic Park in November. The new station was made possible through the Bureau’s partnership with Melbourne & Olympic Parks, which made a suitable, long-term position available within the sporting precinct.

The new weather station is the fourth in a history of official Melbourne sites that began in 1858 with its location at Flagstaff Gardens. In 1863, it was moved to the Melbourne Observatory (now in the Botanic Gardens), and then in 1908 it was moved to the Royal Society of Victoria in Latrobe Street. The Latrobe Street observation site will be run concurrently with the new site for a period to ensure continuity of data.

City buildings can impact on weather instrumentation, particularly wind measurements, which were ceased in 2009 at the Latrobe Street site. The new station will restore wind observations for the city, contribute to the Bureau’s weather prediction models and the observations will be available around the clock on the Bureau’s website. Importantly, the data will also be used by forecasters in real time, especially during extreme events when they will be critical to the issuing of warnings of damaging and destructive winds or gusts from severe thunderstorms.

From left: Andrew Collins (Bureau), Director Rob Vertessy, Tarini Casinader (Bureau) with Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment, officially opening the new Melbourne weather station.

73 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

Information systems and services The Information Systems and Services (ISS) portfolio provides an information and communications technology (ICT) capability that enables the Bureau to develop, generate and deliver products and services to the Australian community. It does this by providing highly resilient and reliable systems that operate continuously and seamlessly in support of the Bureau’s operations. It also provides advanced computer processing and data-storage facilities that support leading-edge forecasting and climate research.

Substantial in-house development and maintenance supports the Bureau’s highly specialised data-gathering networks, numerical weather prediction models, forecasting systems, and product dissemination platforms. These include management of a 100-teraflop supercomputer, a 16-petabyte large-scale data storage system, and a website currently servicing more than 50 billion hits per annum. In December, the Bureau celebrated 50 years of computing.

This new portfolio commenced operation in October, when the Bureau’s ICT-related functions were brought together through the realignment project (see p. 109) to improve connectedness, enhance capability and build responsiveness in meeting the needs of stakeholders. The portfolio’s four programs are:

• Information Technology Services;

• Systems Development and Maintenance;

• Environmental Information Management; and,

• Digital Data Delivery.

The performance of each of these programs during 2013-14, including their contribution towards achieving the Bur

eau’s outcome, is discussed below.

| 1. Information technology services

Objective:

To provide information, computing and communications solutions that effectively and reliably support weather, climate, ocean and water products and services.

The Bureau’s operations are underpinned by an ICT infrastructure designed to meet its diverse, complex and sophisticated requirements. Systems must operate constantly in order to meet community needs and expectations, especially during severe weather events. This is a significant challenge, given the Bureau’s expanding suite of products and features, and the continuous modernisation and expansion of the platforms. High-performance computing capacity and other computing solutions are always in demand to facilitate exploiting advances in scientific knowledge. At the same time, forecast systems and supporting observational networks are expanding in coverage, resolution and throughput.

Performance measures Deliverables

Key projects delivered as scheduled include:

• establishment of a new website front page;

• support for the rollout of the Next Generation Forecast and Warning System (NexGenFWS)

graphical forecast editor (GFE) in Queensland and preparations for rollout in the Northern Territory;

74 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• transition of the Visual Weather application from test mode into operations;

• upgrade of storage and backup systems, Weathernet v3, and a number of office-based systems; and

• completion of the Windows 7 / Security rollout (Phase 2).

Key performance indicators

• The performance of operational systems, as indicated by system uptime, met or exceeded targets.

System Target Result

Operational AIFS systems 99.8% 99.9%

Mid-range systems services 99.8% 99.9%

High performance computing 99.5% 99.9%

Internet services 99.5% 99.9%

Weathernet trunk connections 99.9% 99.9%

• Less than five per cent of changes required unscheduled downtime.

• Feedback showed that a high number of system users (96 per cent) were satisfied with services provided.

Highlights • The Bureau’s supercomputer mid-life upgrade was completed successfully in December. As a r esult of the upgrade, processing speed has more than doubled, greatly improving the capacity of the computer and the speed at which operational models can be run.

• Field offices and radar sites were provided with access to redundant communication links so that critical weather data can continue to be gather

ed, even when extreme weather events compromise

the primary circuits.

• The Bureau’s internet links were made mor

e secure through the transition to the Secure Internet

Gateway (SIG), Phase 1.

• The ICT Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Plan was finalised. The plan outlines procedures to be implemented in the event of an unplanned disruption to the Bureau’

s systems and

highlights work still required to eliminate vulnerabilities in the Bureau’s infrastructure.

• In May, the Regional Meteorological Data Communications Network (RMDCN) connection was upgraded. The network provides impr

oved throughput of meteorological and related data for

exchange with its Global Telecommunications System counterparts: China, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and the Republic of Korea. The RMDCN will also be used by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for gathering information into its information system (WIS).

uptime of the Bureau's supercomputer

A RESULT OF

Supercomputer uptime

0 20 40 60 80 100

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

99.9%

75 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

| 2. Systems development and maintenance

Objective:

To effectively manage and support the Bureau’s operational weather, climate, water and environment application systems, and to plan and develop or acquire systems aligned with organisational and ICT strategies, using a project management and IT capability framework.

The Systems Development and Maintenance (SDM) program supports, maintains and manages the Bureau’s large suite of operational scientific, technical, engineering and mathematical (STEM) applications. The main applications are:

• foundation systems that collect, receive, format and distribute model data, observations, forecasts, and radar and satellite data used by downstream systems and which deliver Bur

eau products and

data nationally and internationally;

• high-response systems that operate in a high-demand environment to support Bureau forecasters

preparing seven-day forecasts and warnings—these are 24/7 operations that have high volume

Secure Internet Gateway The first phase of the Bureau’s transition to the Secure Internet Gateway (SIG) was completed in June. The SIG is now the Bureau’s preferred path to the internet. The establishment of the SIG is part of the Australian Government’s Gateway Reduction Program, which is intended to reduce the number of access points to the internet among government agencies and to strengthen security against cyber-attacks.

The SIG now provides the Bureau with filtered access to the internet. The transition to SIG was undertaken in small, controlled steps, due to the multiple data centres and security environments within the Bureau’s own ICT environment, and without noticeable impact upon the Bureau’s delivery of forecast and warning services.

The second phase of the transition, which extends into 2014-15, will involve outsourcing a number of functions to SIG, including the oversight of firewalls, email systems and web filtering.

Part of the Bureau’s 16 petabytes of data storage.

76 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

data inputs and intensive data manipulation and visualisation requirements, and generate over 10 000 product outputs daily, in multiple formats;

• environmental intelligence systems that have longer-term prediction timeframes, and emphasise data discovery and analysis, mapping solutions, r

eporting and decision support; and

• external systems that operate under contract for the Australian Defence Force, the Fiji Meteorological Service and the Indonesian Meteor

ological Service.

The lifecycle of SDM applications is closely governed, from business case through to development, operations, upgrade and retirement. The program works closely across the Bureau to ensure systems comply with platform, architecture, data and usability standards and directions.

Performance measures Deliverables

The program delivered:

• CMSS server capability established at the second data centre;

• cutover of Northern Territory Regional Office systems to a virtualised Linux cluster;

• cutover to the Services Information Management System national product database for all States’ Australian Integrated Forecast System (AIFS) systems;

• implementation of the NexGenFWS GFE in Queensland;

• implementation of Visual Weather in all States;

• key applications such as the new experimental heatwave product launched in December (see p. 36) and the eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard launched in Mar

ch (see p. 55); and,

• a refresh of the Seasonal Climate Outlook and development of the Climate Resilient Water Sources

Mapping (CREWs) product, both of which are undergoing accessibility testing with Vision Australia before public release.

Completion of a number of deliverables was delayed, including:

• the introduction of Common Alerting Protocol (CAP), now targeted for implementation late in 2014; and

• enhanced flood warnings, to sub-catchment level, now scheduled for implementation late in 2014.

Key performance indicators

• Operational uptime: Category 1 systems (highest priority) averaged an uptime of 99.7 per cent (target: 99 per cent).

• There were four on-call team support calls (target: less than ten per week). No operational release r

ollbacks were required (target: zero rollbacks).

• Sixty-six per cent of planned software projects were completed (target: 90 per cent).

• Stakeholder satisfaction with the services provided was not assessed due to re-alignment of the Bureau’

s organisational structure. Surveys are to be re-introduced in 2014-15.

Highlights • Staff worked extensively on the technical implementation of the GFE in Queensland, as part of NexGenFWS (see p. 21).

• Significant stakeholder assessment was undertaken in developing the interface for the eReefs Marine Quality Dashboard and backend facilities to incorporate data from satellites and other sour

ces (see p. 55).

77 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

New supercomputer on its way In a significant boost to Australia’s weather forecasting capabilities, the Government formally announced funding for the acquisition of a new supercomputer in June. At a presentation in Melbourne, the Hon Greg Hunt, MP, Minister for the Environment, and Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister, described the importance of the new supercomputer for the continued and improved delivery of the Bureau’s forecast and warnings services.

The significance and usefulness of the supercomputer and the products that depend on it were attested to, not only by Director Rob Vertessy, but by representatives of key stakeholder agencies: Joe Buffone from the Country Fire Authority and Commodore Brett Brace from the Royal Australian Navy.

After the formal announcement, Minister Hunt and Senator Birmingham spoke to forecasters at the Bureau’s Victorian Regional Office about the importance of supercomputing and the potential benefits of the advanced modelling that the new supercomputer will bring. In particular, it was noted that the increased capability will provide weather forecasts that are more accurate, specifically about small-scale weather features such as the location and timing of severe thunderstorms, localised wind changes in bushfire situations, and the location of rainfall leading to better flood warnings.

Acquisition of the new supercomputer will begin before the end of 2014, with the new system scheduled to begin operation in mid-2016 when the existing machine reaches the end of its useful life. Improvements in forecasts and warnings will be delivered incrementally over the five-year lifespan of its operation.

From left: Director Rob Vertessy, the Hon Greg Hunt MP, forecaster Geoff Feren, and Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham.

78 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| 3. Environmental information management

Objective:

To undertake environmental information collation, storage, management and provision to efficiently and effectively support weather, climate, ocean and water products and services.

This program manages the Bureau’s environmental data across their life cycle through transmission of observations, storage, management, quality control, archival and provision to users. The program ensures data are discoverable, accessible and well documented, and also provides the capability to preserve and reference data over the long term.

The program is responsible for:

• development and maintenance of a data framework including principles, policies and procedures that govern management of Bur

eau environmental data;

• development of data standards and compliance processes to ensure the effective management of

environmental information owned or hosted by the Bureau;

• network monitoring, digitisation, quality control, data recovery and records management of

environmental observations;

• provision of a secure environmental data warehouse;

• environmental information modelling;

• specification of applications to provide access to environmental data;

• data cataloguing to support improved access to and discovery of environmental information; and

• participation in international projects and activities that support the Bureau’s envir

onmental

information management.

Performance measures Deliverables

The Environmental Information Management program successfully delivered:

• mechanisms for the provision of streamflow data through Water Data Online, which is curr

ently

available to registered users;

• quality management system (QMS) refurbishment and automation, and the enhancement of quality control algorithms for new data types;

• a warehouse and warehouse data ingest capacity within the Australian Water Resources

Information System 2;

• the release of Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) 1.2 in December (a month behind schedule);

• the Australian Groundwater Explorer product (previously National Gr

oundwater Information System

Online) that will be publically launched in 2014-15;

• a review of existing data policies;

• a plan for the automated provision of metadata from the Bureau to the WMO WIS;

• consolidation of operational Oracle databases to ensure licence compliance and efficient use of hardware r

esources; and

• a requirements analysis for a modernised climate database.

79 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

A number of deliverables were not completed as scheduled including:

• the alpha release of the WDTF 2.0 was not delivered in June; however, initial analysis by stakeholders is underway and export tools ar

e currently being tested prior to release;

• the Geofabric V3 release of two drainage divisions was delayed as a result of slow delivery of input datasets; and

• development of a GIS2Web strategic directions paper was delayed as an assessment of current spatial data services has led to a br

oadening of the project.

Key performance indicators

• 99.9 per cent uptime to the Bureau internet services uptime (target: 99 per cent).

• 99.9 per cent uptime to the WMO Global Telecommunications System was achieved (target: 99 per cent).

• 100 per cent of maximum and minimum temperature data qualities were controlled within three

working days (target: 99 per cent).

• 97 per cent of monthly rainfall returns were quality controlled within the pr

escribed period of six

months (target: 100 per cent).

• 91 per cent of the

offline water data requests were completed within two weeks (target: 90 per cent).

• 100 per cent of all of the previous 12 months of incoming water data files were ingested into Australian Water Resour

ces Information System (AWRIS) and processed into the Time Series Data Management System (TSDMS) (target: 99 per cent).

• 26 data provision compliance investigations were undertaken during the year (target: 10 investigations).

• Increase in usage of environmental information products was achieved, for example web page views have incr

eased to 14 000, with 3000 data downloads. Offline requests, such as those by telephone, were steady.

• Of the total priority observational data, 100 per cent was QMS quality controlled and met key user requirements.

• Approximately 104 000 digital daily rainfall values were recovered fr

om paper records and included

in the Bureau’s rainfall record. Approximately 7300 daily maximum and minimum temperatures were recovered and restored to the Australian climate record through the quality control.

Highlights • A set of strategic data and information principles was developed and published and officially launched in May (see p. 80).

uptime of the Bureau's internet services

A RESULT OF

Internet services uptime

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

99.9%

80 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The Bureau’s data and information framework The Bureau is an information-rich agency with vast collections of data about Australia’s environment across land, sea, air, water and space. As well as supporting the delivery of the Bureau’s essential services, this information is a critical national resource that must be managed effectively for current and future generations. For these reasons, robust data and information management is a must.

To enhance the Bureau’s data and information capability, a new standards-based data and information framework is being developed with new strategies, policies, procedures and standards to improve the efficiency of environmental information management across the Bureau.

The framework will enable the Bureau to meet operational, scientific, research and compliance requirements in new and innovative ways. It will also underpin the Bureau’s national and international leadership in the management and use of data and information.

As an important first step, a set of strategic data and information principles was developed and published to guide key elements of the framework. These principles will ensure the Bureau:

• remains a trusted, authoritative source of environmental intelligence;

• delivers value to government, the community, industry and stakeholders;

• makes its data and information easily discoverable and usable over time;

• maintains robust life cycle management and governance; and

• encourages innovation and leadership in data management.

The principles were launched in Canberra on 30 May at an event attended by the Director General of the National Ar

chives of Australia, the Australian Information Commissioner and representatives of other key scientific and partner agencies.

The Data and information framework principles document is available online at: www.bom.gov.au/inside/BoMDataFramework_Final.pdf.

From left: Patrick Ferry (Bureau), David Fricker (Director General of National Archives of Australia), Sue Barrell (Bureau), Professor John McMillan AO (Australian Information Commissioner) and Tony Boston (Bureau) at the launch of the Data and information framework principles.

81 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

• Spatial data and services were developed for the Queensland release of the NexGenFWS. These data included forecast and fir e districts, coastal waters and warnings, metropolitan areas, local

effects and forecast places; and spatial web data services (GIS2Web) of the forecast grids. Queensland residents can now access and visualise forecast grids up to seven days for their location or region via various products and through MetEye application.

• A revised version of MetEye was released in July with several patch releases during the year to impr

ove performance, function and usability.

• Geofabric web services were launched in November and the Geofabric Sample Tools released in April. The hydr

ologic features developed from Geofabric can now be incorporated into systems and applications using the Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) standards. In addition, tools for deriving catchments based on user-defined points are available.

• The AWRIS TSDMS is in production and is the first national compilation of stream level and flow r

ecords. The system provides a single, nationally consistent view of data that is updated on a daily basis. The system provides data to products such as Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts and Water Data Online. The TSDMS contains data from 18 000 lead water agency monitoring sites across many water regulations data categories. The system will continue to expand though the inclusion of further data providers.

• The Water Data Transfer Format developed by the Bureau continues to be used by organisations acr

oss Australia to supply the Bureau with up-to-date information about usage and resources. The format was updated to support the collection of information about water market activity.

| 4. Digital data delivery

Objective:

Provide strategic direction for channel capability and services whilst managing day-to-day digital operations.

The Digital data delivery program supports the Bureau’s operational weather, climate, water and environment services by providing user interfaces and other digital solutions for the web and mobile users. The program’s role includes developing and maintaining the Bureau’s public, defence and aviation services’ digital presence. It also undertakes market research and benchmarking to understand user needs and ensure that all new products and services assist users in making effective decisions.

Performance measures Deliverables

In addition to providing the ongoing management of core channel services, including online services, social media, customer care and advertising, the Digital data delivery program successfully delivered:

• a three-year roadmap for the delivery of new products and services;

• a new enterprise service model to enable the delivery of new digital products and services in line with user needs; and

• a new monitoring solution to provide early warning of web and product outages.

Although not completed, the program made significant pr

ogress in:

• replacing the Bureau’s intranet with a new enterprise engagement solution (a new solution was pr

ocured and is scheduled for rollout during 2014-15); and

• developing a customer care centre to manage external enquires, which will be deliver

ed in 2014-15.

82 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Key performance indicators

• The mobile strategy and roadmap was presented to the Bureau’s Executive in December as planned.

• The online shop and payment gateway solution was delivered in November prior to the commencement of 2014 Australian Weather Calendar sales.

• Mobile apps for the Windows phone and Apple iPhone are currently in development but were not

delivered as planned and are now scheduled for implementation during 2015-16.

• The Bureau did not meet the scheduled June delivery of a new enterprise engagement solution; however, the successful vendor of the tender process is working with the Bur

eau towards

implementation.

Highlights • The new payment gateway and e-commerce solution was delivered.

• The Bureau’s mobile website was successfully delivered, providing mobile device users with quick

and user-friendly access to the Bureau’s latest observations, forecasts and warnings and the popular weather radar.

Web hits by month 2013-14

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Jun 13 Aug 13

Sep 13 Oct 13

Nov 13 Dec 13

Jan 14 Feb 14

Mar 14 Apr 14

May 14 Jun 14

Billion

hits on the Bureau's website during November

MORE THAN

6 billion

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

0

JAN JAN JUL 2004 JUL 2005

JAN JUL 2006

JAN JUL 2007

JAN JAN JUL 2008 JUL 2009

JAN JUL 2010

JAN JAN JUL 2011 JUL 2012

JUL 2013

JAN JUL

2014

Web hits (billions)

Web hits by month July 2004-July 2014

83 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2

Performance

m.bom.gov.au Australia’s most trusted weather website has gone mobile.

m.bom.gov.au, the new mobile weather website, has made it quicker and easier for users everywhere to check Australia’s official weather forecasts.

The mobile weather website is a condensed and reformatted version of the full website, and is customised for small screens. The site makes the most searched weather information— current local weather, weather forecasts, warnings and the popular rain radar—quicker and easier to access, to help users plan their day.

Because information is based on the Bureau’s Next Generation Forecast and Warning System, it is the only mobile weather service currently available that provides pinpointed forecasts using a 6 km grid, giving Australians the most accurate localised information as they move around.

The mobile site will become the default option when users access the Bureau website on a mobile device; however, users will have the option to load the full website if they prefer.

The new website allows smartphone users—who now make up the majority of overall visitors to the Bureau website—to more readily access weather information.

The mobile website is the Bureau’s first major product specifically developed for smartphone users. The Bureau is currently exploring other mobile products and services, including mobile device apps.

84 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• The first year of commercial advertising on www.bom.gov.au was successfully completed with no visible r eduction in website usage since its introduction and very few complaints. Advertisements

appear on about 360 pages across the Bureau website but are excluded from pages associated with warnings and public safety. Over 700 approved advertisers are active on the Bureau website.

• The Bureau’s presence on YouT

ube has increased with 17 new videos published on the site. These vary from explaining new products (such as the mobile website and the weather observations website [WOW]), outlining severe weather events (such as tropical cyclones Ita and Christine) and providing updates on climate patterns and trends (such as the Annual climate statement 2013).

• As at 30 June, the Bureau had 485 000 Facebook followers. During the year, the Bureau made 438 posts which r

eceived 552 315 likes and shares, with a reach of 42 762 377 views. Almost five million clicks were made on posts and post links.

Numbers of videos posted to the Bureau's YouTube channel

more vidoes posted on the Bureau's YouTube channel compared to last year

A TOTAL OF

13

0 5 10 15 20

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Followers of the Bureau's Facebook page

increase in Facebook followers compared to the end of the previous financial year

MORE THAN A

2000%

0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000

2012

2013

2014

S ervicing Austr al

ia

86 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Services around Australia A large number of the Bureau’s services are delivered through its network of Regional Offices. The seven regions correspond to the five mainland States, the Northern Territory and Tasmania and Antarctica. Each region has a Regional Office, led by a Regional Director. These offices are responsible for most of the operational and service activities in the State or Territory. Regional Directors work closely with program managers to support the achievement of program objectives and must effectively integrate all of the program activities.

Each Regional Office is responsible for delivering weather, climate and water services and operates a regional forecasting centre and a flood-warning centre. The offices work closely with the media to communicate with the general public and to ensure warnings are widely broadcast. Regions also manage observation programs and oversee the staffed field offices.

Regional staff undertake extensive stakeholder liaison, with particular focus on State and local government and emergency services agencies. The Regional Offices form part of their various State and Territory emergency management and disaster mitigation networks. In several jurisdictions, the Bureau is the only commonwealth agency represented on State emergency management committees.

Each Regional Office also convenes a number of formal consultative arrangements with user groups to ensure the Bureau’s products and services are responsive to the needs of clients and the general public. While some groups support emergency management activities, such as fire weather consultative committees, others support industries that are particularly weather-sensitive. Agricultural consultative committees, for example, include participants associated with the agricultural sector, such as farmers, irrigators, industry representatives and relevant government agencies. Arrangements vary depending on the types of industries and predominant severe weather susceptibilities.

A long and active fire season in southeastern Australia The 2013-14 fire season was long and active across southeastern Australia. Following increased rainfall from the La Niña events of 2010-2012, many areas had high fuel loads These fuels had gradually dried out, aided by Australia’s second warmest winter on record for maximum temperatures, and its warmest September on record. These conditions were attributed to high pressure systems during winter being positioned further south than usual, resulting in warm and dry conditions and limiting the impact of cold fronts and low pressure systems across the mainland. Together with significant heatwaves over the Christmas/New Year period across central and eastern Australia, significant fire conditions were experienced over much of southeastern Australia.

Bilpin, New South

Wales in October. Photo

courtesy of M.Hunter.

87 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

In New South Wales, an intense and destructive period of bushfire activity was seen across the Blue Mountains, Central Coast, Lower Hunter and Illawarra. Two hundred homes were destroyed in the Blue Mountains on 17 October. In South Australia, a record 308 district fire weather warnings were issued on 60 days between October and April, which was the highest number issued in one season for that State. In Victoria, a large fire affected the Northern Grampians region in January, along with other large fires in South Australia and northwest Victoria. In February, driven by the worst fire weather conditions since Black Saturday in 2009, a fire in the Latrobe Valley spread into the Hazelwood coal mine near Morwell. The burning was uncontrolled for over a month and caused smoke-related health concerns in the local area. The Bureau provided 91 separate spot-fire forecasts for the Hazelwood mine fire.

Fires burn across

Victoria in January.

Fire approaching houses

at the Blue Mountains,

New South Wales in

October. Photo courtesy

of R. Poole.

The Bureau’s fire services are essential for facilitating emergency responses during periods of high fire danger and during active fires. Decisions on fire danger ratings and fire bans, the activation of fire plans, evacuation of communities, fire-fighting methods and the safety of fire fighting personnel, are made daily during the fire season based on the Bureau’s advice. Forecasts for hazard reduction burns are also prepared outside the main fire season.

Severe fire seasons provide a significant challenge to the Bureau in terms of managing frontline forecasters and support staff in order to meet around-the-clock service demands. To meet these demands, the Bureau is increasing its abilities to move staff around the country, place staff in jurisdictional emergency control centres and capitalise on international relationships.

This season, US National Weather Service meteorologists worked in regional forecast centres in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania for up to six weeks to provide valuable surge capacity across the most intense periods of the fire season in January and February.

88 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

New South Wales The New South Wales Regional Office is based in Sydney. It is responsible for delivering Bureau services across New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, in the coastal waters and surrounding high seas, and for Norfolk and Lord Howe islands. Observing and meteorological information offices are located in Canberra, Williamtown, Sydney Airport, Wagga Wagga, Cobar, Moree, Coffs Harbour, Norfolk Island, and Lord Howe Island. Defence forecasting offices are located at Williamtown and within the Defence joint operations centre at Bungendore. Specialised aviation forecasts are provided by employees at the Canberra meteorological office and the Sydney airport meteorological unit. A meteorologist is out-posted to the NSW Rural Fire Service to provide enhanced briefing and information services.

The diversity of NSW weather and climate reflects its many landscapes, from the highest alpine areas in Australia to some of the country’s most productive agricultural areas, like the Murray-Darling Basin. NSW is impacted by heatwaves, drought and bushfires as well as intense coastal storm systems and severe thunderstorms and hail storms. Weather on the coastal strip, on which much of the NSW population is based, is influenced by the steep coastal escarpment and ranges which accentuate heavy rains and bring major flooding to coastal rivers.

Highlights

• The Regional Forecasting Centre provided over 900 detailed forecasts to assist in the suppr ession of bushfires across the State during September and October. This included major fires across the Blue Mountains where a state of emergency was declared during a two-week period.

• Weather briefing services were provided for competitors and organisers of the 69th Sydney to Hobart yacht race. The fleet of 94 yachts was assisted by detailed for

ecasts of wind, waves and

swell, as well as the accurate prediction of a gale-force cold front through eastern Bass Strait.

• A two-tiered hazardous surf service was introduced in July to advise rock fishermen of hazar

dous

conditions. The service uses standardised phrases relating to large and powerful surf. The warnings were also included in appropriate coastal waters forecasts and district and town forecasts.

• A drought services workshop was held in June, with 20 stakeholders attending the workshop to share their needs for drought-monitoring and pr

ediction information to support decision-making

within their organisations.

• Monthly webinars for NSW primary industry partners were delivered.

• The Bureau presented at the Floodplain Management Association’s annual general meeting held at Deniliquin in May

.

• Input was provided to the Hawkesbury-Nepean Plain Management Review, and meetings were held with Sydney Catchment Authority to impr

ove communication and liaison protocols during floods.

• A flood-simulation exercise workshop was held for the State Emergency Management Committee and used a simulation for the major evacuation of up to 90 000 people in the Windsor-Richmond- Penrith area of the Hawkesbury-Nepean V

alley.

Infrastructure

• A new automatic weather station (AWS) was installed at High Range in the southern highlands to help support forecast and war ning services and also to provide rainfall verification for radar-based

rainfall estimation.

• The upgrade of 40 per cent of AWS sites to a new messaging format achieved an improvement in the meteorological data used to support for

ecasts and warnings.

• A new boundary-layer wind profiler was installed at Coffs Harbour to make high temporal resolution upper wind measur

ements in support of forecast and warning services.

89 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

• Three weather radars and two automatic weather balloon releasers (autosondes) were upgraded to improve safety for Bureau technical staff.

• The reliability of the data transmissions that support forecast and warning services was improved

through:

- the upgrade of two key radio telemetry repeaters and gateways for flood warning rainfall and river data in the Georges and Namoi valleys;

- the installation of one VSAT and twelve BGAN transmitters at remote offices to use as backup communications in order to minimise outages; and

- the upgrade of the Inverell flood warning system with ALERT radio telemetry.

• Aviation safety was improved through the installation of two new and five upgraded ceilometers, which measur

e cloud height at key locations

Bargo, New South Wales in October. Photo courtesy of R. Poole.

90 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Victoria Victoria can experience significantly changeable and challenging weather events, including extreme fire weather, floods, damaging wind and rain events, and severe thunderstorms, in all seasons. The Bureau’s Victoria Regional Office is responsible for delivering services across the State, including for the bays and coastal waters, and for keeping the observing and data communications network operational. The region bases the majority of its 60 employees in its main office in Melbourne, with smaller groups located at Mildura, East Sale and at Melbourne Airport. Together, they are responsible for a range of observing, maintenance, and forecasting functions operating round the clock, every day of the year.

The region’s infrastructure includes 87 AWSs, two wind profilers, five radars and the Crib Point Satellite Earth Station. Bureau forecasters embedded within Victoria’s State Control Centre in Melbourne work closely with State emergency services authorities to manage critical hazardous events such as fires and floods.

Highlights

• Flood watch and warning services for the Gippsland Lakes in southeastern Victoria became operational in August, following agr eement of service levels with all partners and stakeholders

including the East Gippsland and West Gippsland catchment management authorities and the Victorian State Emergency Service.

• A new flood warning service commenced in September for Nathalia on the Broken Creek in northeast V

ictoria, enabling the community to receive earlier advice and take informed protective action when required.

• The Governor of Victoria, His Excellency the Hon Alex Chernov AC QC and Mrs Chernov wer

e

among more than 220 people in over 30 different groups who visited the Melbourne Regional Forecasting Centre to learn more about Bureau operations.

His Excellency the Hon Alex

Chernov AC QC, Governor

of Victoria, and Mrs Chernov

(centre) with Andrew Tupper

(left) and Vicki Middleton (right)

when they visited the Bureau’s

National Operations Centre

and the Victoria Regional

Office in June.

91 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

• A service level specification was signed off by the Bureau and the Victorian Flood War ning Consultative Committee to formalise flood-forecasting and warning services within the State.

• During the 2013-14 fire season, 650 spot forecasts for ongoing fires and 188 forecasts for planned

hazard reduction burns were issued to fire agencies and emergency managers. These included 91 forecasts for the Hazelwood coal mine fire near Morwell which began in February and continued for several weeks (see p. 86).

• The Bureau worked closely with State agencies to respond to a recommendation of the Victorian

Flood Review to develop a performance assurance regime for Victoria’s total flood warning system.

• Over the fire season, a new method for preparing high priority wind change forecast maps, using the

Bureau’s date visualisation software, was trialled. It allows products to be delivered more quickly and with greater precision and consistency for use in planning by fire management agencies.

Infrastructure

• A new Melbourne city weather station at Melbourne & Olympic Parks was formally commissioned by Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Envir onment

in November. It will provide improved observations to Australia’s second largest city (see p. 72).

• An AWS at Nilma North near Warragul was officially opened by the Baw Baw Shire Council Mayor at a local cer

emony in February. It will provide the community with detailed information about weather events in their area.

• Renewed regional water monitoring partnership agreements outlining shared management of water monitoring networks for the Norther

n, Gippsland and South West regions of Victoria were signed

in April between the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries, the Bureau and other water monitoring partner agencies.

• Backup communication via satellite was installed at eight AWSs across Victoria, improving the

reliability of data transfer from these facilities to the Bureau.

Nilma North celebrates its own weather station The Bureau joined with the local community and officials from Baw Baw Shire Council to officially launch their own AWS at Nilma North in February. Through a natural disaster resilience grant and a ten-year maintenance contract with the Bureau, the Council installed an AWS to improve availability of local data, particularly for severe weather events. This is the second Victorian AWS to be installed under such an agreement between the local community and the Bureau. The data, which is available on the Bureau’s website, now contributes to the 85 Bureau-owned sites located across the State, as well as a network of other sources such as satellites and radar, that provide the basis for the Bureau’s forecasting, warning and climate monitoring services.

The Bureau’s Victorian

Regional Director Tarini

Casinader (left) with local

resident Noel Renshaw (centre)

and Baw Baw Shire Council

Mayor Murray Cook (right) at

the official launch of the Nilma

North AWS.

92 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Queensland The Queensland Regional Office is based in Brisbane. It includes a tropical cyclone warning centre and a commercial weather services unit, and is responsible for delivering Bureau services across the State. The region’s meteorology extends from the deep tropics through to temperate regimes, coastal waters that include the Great Barrier Reef, the Torres Strait Islands, and the surrounding high seas. The large, dispersed population is vulnerable to risks posed by tropical cyclones, flooding, severe thunderstorms and bushfires. The State’s strong agricultural sector grapples with droughts and other broad-scale impacts of climate, making accurate weather and climate forecasting vital. Observing and meteorological information offices are located in Weipa, Cairns, Townsville, Mackay, Rockhampton, Mount Isa, Longreach, Charleville, Oakey, Amberley, Willis Island, and Brisbane Airport. Staff maintain strong working relationships with the emergency services sector and each year they cooperatively deliver a pre-season disaster mitigation campaign, with workshops held in many cyclone and flood-prone centres around the State.

Highlights

• In October, the Next Generation Forecast and Warning Service was launched, which significantly increased services to the community. MetEye was subsequently launched in April by Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment (see p. 21).

Deputy Director Ray

Canterford (left) and

Senator the Hon Simon

Birmingham review the

new MetEye products

for Queensland.

• The region held its biennial Regional Managers’ conference in May. The theme ‘Working Together, Driving Results’ highlighted the importance of close links within the region, across borders and with

national programs. • The eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard, was released in March. Each day it publishes

information about the water quality on the Great Barrier Reef based on data collected by satellites (see p. 55).

• The region celebrated International Women’s Day with guest speaker Dr Jenine Beekhuyzen

promoting positive female role-modelling to encourage and raise awareness of technology career options for young women. The Griffith University lecturer and PhD student is co-author of the book, Tech girls are chic not just geek. The presentation was videocast across the country to all Bureau staff.

93 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

• A pilot internal executive leadership coaching program was developed and implemented within the region, in collaboration with Griffith University , to strengthen regional leadership capabilities.

• The Bureau assisted the Australian Maritime Safety Authority and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the recovery of a NOAA tsunami buoy adrift in the waters near W

illis Island. The Bureau’s Cairns office was used as a base to store equipment and the buoy itself.

• A pre-season severe

weather preparedness campaign was held which included Bureau involvement in Geoffrey Robertson’s hypotheticals programme on ABC Radio in October and Townsville’s ‘Cyclone Sunday’ community day in November. Again in Townsville in May, the Bureau took part in another hypothetical event organised by Green Cross Australia. The event simulated a Category 5 cyclone striking the city and aimed to increase the awareness and resilience of the community.

Infrastructure

• The Strategic Radar Enhancement Project verification network AWS became operational at May Downs and Lake Julius. This equipment will allow better links between the radar data and the rainfall amounts r

ecorded on the ground.

• New ceilometers and/or visibility meter equipment were installed at Lockhart River, Kowanyama and Tr

epell, to support safe aviation operations.

• In August, an AWS and new equipment to continuously sample upper-level winds was installed in Cairns. The boundary-layer wind pr

ofiler and the associated AWS allowed the subsequent

cessation of upper air weather balloon flights.

• The new replacement Mount Isa Meteorological Office commenced operations in October.

• New communications infrastructure was installed across the Coral Sea AWS network. The new and mor

e robust infrastructure passed its first test during tropical cyclone Dylan.

• The new Amberley Meteorological Office was opened by Director Rob Vertessy and Air Commodor

e Tim Innes of the RAAF in May.

Air Commodore Tim Innes with Director Rob Vertessy and Rob Webb, Queensland Regional Director (right) with

Bureau and RAAF staff at the opening of the new office at RAAF Base Amberley.

94 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

South Australia The primary climatic and hazardous weather conditions of concern to South Australia include bushfires, thunderstorms with local hail and flooding, drought, gales and periods of extreme heat. The South Australian Regional Office provides forecasts, warnings, information and liaison services for these conditions from its main office in Kent Town, Adelaide. Field observing offices are located at Ceduna, Woomera, Mount Gambier, and Adelaide Airport. The region hosts the National Tidal Centre and manages the staff and infrastructure at the Giles meteorological office situated in eastern Western Australia.

The region’s operations also include the installation and maintenance of observing and communications systems to facilitate the ongoing collection, preparation, dissemination and archiving of weather, climate, and water observations—as well as forecasts for South Australia.

Highlights

• A regional research stakeholder workshop was conducted on 12 August to discuss environmental research activities and areas for futur e research to meet needs of the agricultural, marine and

emergency services sectors.

• The Bureau participated in Greenhouse 2013 held in Adelaide in October. The confer

ence provided

national and international dialogue on the evolving state of the atmosphere and oceans.

• A regional drought stakeholder workshop was held in Adelaide in March to explore dr

ought sector

information requirements.

• A national heatwave services review workshop was held in Adelaide in April. It brought together health and emergency services stakeholders and resulted in the formation of a new heatwave

services reference group to inform the Bureau in the development of future heatwave services (see p. 36).

• Two new flood models were developed for the Bremer and Angas catchments, providing quality

flood-forecasting services for those areas.

• A tides workshop was held in Adelaide in October, providing training in tidal and sea-level science, sea-level measurement and practical tidal analysis and pr

ediction to representatives of port

authorities and maritime agencies from around Australia.

Infrastructure

• Five new real-time rain stations were installed to improve flood forecasting and war ning across the Gawler, Torrens and Onkaparinga basins.

• Three rain gauges in the Bremer and Angas catchments were upgraded to improve the

rain-monitoring network and the quality of flood-forecasting models for those catchments.

Fires burn at Rockleigh, South

Australia on 16 January. Photo

courtesy of the Stirling Country

Fire Service.

95 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

Western Australia Western Australia is susceptible to a wide range of severe weather events throughout the year. The warmer months are characterised by heavy rain and tropical cyclones in the north, and extreme heat and bushfires in the south. During the cooler months, bushfires are experienced in the north, while cold fronts with destructive winds and heavy rain are common in the south. Bureau services across the State, in the coastal waters region and surrounding high seas, and for Christmas and Cocos islands are delivered from the West Australian Regional Office in Perth.

The Regional Office, which moved to new energy-efficient premises in Ord Street in June, includes a tropical cyclone warning centre and a commercial weather services unit that provide tailored services to the resource sector in the State’s north. The office also hosts the Perth regional programme office of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO and the Secretariat for the Intergovernmental Coordination group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System. Observing and meteorological information offices are located at Albany, Esperance, Kalgoorlie, Meekatharra, Geraldton, Carnarvon, Learmonth, Port Hedland, Broome, Halls Creek, Cocos Island, and Perth Airport. A Defence forecasting office is located at Pearce RAAF base and a meteorologist is out-posted to the Department of Fire and Emergency Services State operations centre to provide enhanced briefing and information services.

Highlights

• Significant 24/7 meteorological support was provided to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority Rescue Coordination Centr e in relation to the ongoing search for the Malaysian Airlines plane

MH370 in March and April.

• A series of State-level risk assessment workshops (tropical cyclone and flood) based on the National Emergency Risk Assessment Guidelines were held with the State Emergency Management Committee.

• Forecast and warning services were provided for:

- five named tropical cyclones in the western region, the most significant being severe tr

opical

cyclone Christine;

- numerous fires requiring State emergency coordination gr

oup activation, including the

Parkerville-Stoneville fire in the Perth Hills; and

- many dangerous cool-season cold fronts, including the tornado at Coogee in August.

• A drought workshop was held in May with representatives from acr

oss the State Government, the

Western Australia Farmers Federation, CSIRO and the community-based organisation Wheatbelt Natural Resource Management. The workshop explored drought-sector information requirements to better manage drought risk.

• A fire weather webinar service commenced for the Department of Parks and Wildlife. This service provides Bur

eau forecasters with the ability to transmit forecasts to regional areas on a daily basis via a web service.

Infrastructure

• The Serpentine radar, which serves the Perth metropolitan area, was upgraded to Doppler capability in June, allowing Perth r esidents to access real-time wind measurements in and around Perth.

• The Kalgoorlie radar was upgraded in May, and is now a dedicated weather watch radar. Previously ther

e were breaks in weather monitoring when the radar was used for tracking weather balloons.

96 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Tasmania and Antarctica Tasmania experiences a broad range of weather conditions, with the incidence and severity varying across the State. Southern and eastern areas are prone to bushfire from October to March, while the north of the state is particularly prone to major river-flooding brought on by cold fronts and low pressure systems bringing heavy rain. Gales, severe thunderstorms, flash-flooding and tsunamis generated on the Puysegur Trench and in the Pacific can also impact upon the State. While Tasmania has more reliable rainfall than most other parts of Australia, it still does experience drought, particularly in the eastern third of the State. The Bureau services Tasmania and Antarctica from its Regional Office based in Hobart, with small forecasting offices operating at the Davis and Casey Antarctic bases during the austral summer period. There are also observing offices at Mawson, Davis, Casey, Macquarie Island, and at Hobart Airport. The regional forecasting centre located in the Hobart Regional Office is responsible for delivering services across Tasmania and its coastal waters. The Regional Office supports Bureau staff based at Casey and Davis stations, and is also responsible for delivering weather services in the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) and other services required by the Australian Antarctic Program (AAP), such as support for intercontinental flights. It manages the Bureau’s observational program in Tasmania, the Antarctic, and on Macquarie Island. The Regional Office also provides some administrative support to the baseline air pollution monitoring station at Cape Grim.

Highlights

• The Bureau attended Agfest in May and shared a display tent with the Australian Broadcasting Commission. Agfest is one of Australia’ s biggest agricultural shows and provides an opportunity for

the Bureau to display its products to the rural community.

• A drought workshop was held in Hobart in May to gather intelligence on the information needs of those exposed to drought risk in order to scope an enhanced Australian dr

ought information service.

• Consultation was held with stakeholders through meetings of the Bureau’s consultative committees on fir

e weather, flood warning, primary industries, and marine weather services.

• Initial discussions were held between the Bureau and the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) with a view to drawing up a Memorandum of Understanding between the two organisations.

• The Bureau supported search and rescue efforts in Antar

ctica, including recovery of the Akademik

Shokalski, a ship with 74 passengers on board that became icebound near the Mertz glacier and the recovery of three injured people following a helicopter crash on the very remote Amery ice shelf. Due to unusually heavy ice conditions, forecasters were also deployed aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in order to best assist a long-range helicopter resupply of Australia’s Mawson station.

Infrastructure

• The weather watch radar at West Takone in northwestern Tasmania was r efurbished. Extensive works included replacing the equipment shelter and emergency backup generator. The West Takone radar provides weather watch over northwestern Tasmania, with coverage extending beyond Launceston. These refurbishments will ensure the continued reliability of radar coverage for these areas.

• Communication channels were upgraded between Australia and Antarctica and within Tasmania itself. This has not only incr

eased the Bureau’s ability to transfer data to and from Antarctica, but has also allowed for backup communications with AWSs.

• A new telephone application, ‘Sitrep’, was written by one of the Bureau’s Tasmania-based

technicians. The application helps keep track of staff travelling to remote locations and ensures that management knows where they are, and whether they are safe.

• The Launceston weather information office was closed in May and the position transferred to the regional forecast centr

e to boost frontline forecaster numbers.

97 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

3

Servicing Australia

Northern Territory Every year, parts of the Northern Territory experience significant wildfires, severe thunderstorms and widespread flooding, and all coastal areas are within the bounds of a tropical cyclone landfall impact. On average, between November and April every year the Northern Territory experiences two to three cyclones. Servicing the Territory is the Bureau’s Northern Territory Regional Office based in Darwin. It includes a tropical cyclone warning centre and hosts a World Meteorological Organization regional specialised meteorological centre and an International Civil Aviation Organization-designated volcanic ash advisory centre for the aviation industry. Other observing and meteorological information offices are located at Alice Springs, Gove Airport, Tindal RAAF base and Darwin Airport. The Regional Office is responsible for delivering Bureau services across the Territory and nearby islands, in the coastal waters, and for the surrounding high seas. Regional staff specialise in tropical Asia-Pacific meteorology. The office also provides support for the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research Darwin research station at Gunn Point, and the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at Darwin Airport.

Highlights

• A meeting of the Territory’s Flood Warning Consultative Committee was held in May to agr ee and sign off on flood-warning service level specifications.

• The Darwin tropical cyclone warning centre experienced its busiest season in a decade with tr

opical cyclones Alessia, Fletcher and Gillian threatening the region during the cyclone season (see p. 26). The Bureau worked closely with Northern Territory emergency services to provide timely and valuable warnings to the community.

• The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre issued 1528 volcanic ash advisories during the year, the highest number since operations commenced in 1993. Major eruptions during this period occurr

ed

at Indonesia’s Mount Kelut and Sangeang Api, the latter of which brought ash clouds over northern Australia, disrupting hundreds of flights within Australia and internationally.

• The ‘high ice water content-high altitude ice crystal’ field campaign was hosted and supported from January to March with a view to improving aviation services that ar

e vulnerable to ice crystals

in the atmosphere. Representatives from NASA, the US Federal Aviation Administration, Transport Canada, Boeing, Environment Canada and the Bureau sampled areas of high ice concentrations in the tropical atmosphere.

• The Darwin Weekly Tropical Climate Note, which provides tr

opical forecasts on intra-seasonal

timescales, continued to grow its subscription rate from around 150 subscribers at the start of 2013-14 to 861 subscribers at year’s end.

• Stakeholder engagement activities with climate-sensitive sectors were pursued, with the Bureau actively participating in the Northern T

erritory Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource

Economics and Sciences annual conference, a drought information workshop with primary industries, a research and development forum with the Australian Mango Association, and the Northern Territory Cattlemen’s Association’s annual conference.

Infrastructure

• The Tindal radar dome was refurbished in June, providing much-improved radar data quality to people in the Katherine region.

• Several ICT upgrades occurred that have improved regional business continuity, cr

eated power

savings, and increased capacity to manage greater volumes of data into the future.

• Satellite communications systems were installed at the Warruwi radar and at several remote A

WS sites in order to improve communications, provide greater backup capability and reduce operating costs.

98 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Formalising Australia’s flood-forecasting and warning arrangements This year the Bureau and its partners have worked to strengthen arrangements for flood warning services provided to the Australian community. While the Bureau’s flood warning services are largely delivered through its regional offices, the need for consistent and clear arrangements across the nation has become increasingly apparent.

Arrangements for providing flood warning services across Australia have been the subject of various reviews in recent years that have identified the need to ensure these arrangements are better understood and communicated. These reviews include the Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry and the Victorian Floods Review that examined the flood events of 2010-11 and the Review of the Bureau of Meteorology’s capacity to respond to future extreme weather and natural disaster events and to provide seasonal forecasting services (The Munro Review) commissioned by the Australian Government in 2011.

In response to these findings, the Bureau has worked with the flood warning consultative committee in each jurisdiction to develop service level specifications that clearly outline shared goals, service levels and performance targets. These specifications are supported by documented national arrangements for flood forecasts and warnings, and by data-sharing agreements to facilitate the exchange of vital river height and rainfall data on which flood forecasting and warning relies.

The Bureau is also working with jurisdictions through the Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee Taskforce on the Standardisation of the Bureau of Meteorology’s Services under the Law, Crime and Community Safety Council of the Council of Australian Governments to further formalise national flood arrangements.

Developments this year are one part of the Bureau’s continuous improvement regime for its flood-forecasting and warning service. These initiatives include an increase in frontline flood forecasters, an improved configuration for the operations of the flood-forecasting team nationally and a major investment in upgrading our flood-modelling system.

Yarra River at Dights Falls, Victoria. Photo courtesy of Alison Pouliot.

Organisational management

100 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

New South Wales Region Regional Director Stephen Lellyett (A/g)

Bureau of Meteorology Organisational Chart

Director of Meteorology and Chief Executive Officer Dr Rob Vertessy

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts Division Deputy Director Hazards, Warnings

and Forecasts Dr Ray Canterford

Environment and Research Division Deputy Director Environment and Research

Graham Hawke

Information Systems and Services Division Deputy Director Information and Services and Chief

Information Officer Dr Lesley Seebeck

Corporate Services Division Deputy Director Corporate Services and Chief Operating Officer

Vicki Middleton

Observations and Infrastructure Division Deputy Director Observations and Infrastructure

Barry Hanstrum (A/g)

Weather Forecasting Branch Assistant Director Ann Farrell (A/g)

Climate Information Services Branch Assistant Director Neil Plummer

Information Technology Services Branch Assistant Director Barry Nugent (A/g)

Finance and Budgets Branch Assistant Director and Chief Finance Officer

Trevor Plowman

Observing Strategy and Operations Branch Assistant Director Dr Anthony Rea (A/g)

Flood Forecasting Branch Assistant Director Dr Dasarath (Jaya) Jayasuriya

Water Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Ian Prosser

Systems Development and Maintenance Branch Assistant Director Jo Pitt (A/g)

People Management Branch Assistant Director Chris Stocks

Infrastructure Management Branch Manager Dr Bruce Forgan

Hazards Prediction Branch Assistant Director Alasdair Hainsworth

Environmental Information Management Branch Assistant Director Tony Boston

Digital Data Delivery Manager Richard Denver

Strategy, Parliamentary, International and Communication Branch Assistant Director

Carey Robinson

Business Development Office Manager Tom Butcher

Bureau National Operations Centre Centre Director Dr Andrew Tupper

Environmental Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Louise Minty

Research and Development Assistant Director Dr Peter May

Northern Territory Region Regional Director Todd Smith (A/g)

Tasmania and Antarctica Region Regional Director John Bally

Queensland Region Regional Director Rob Webb

Victoria Region Regional Director Tarini Casinader

South Australia Region Regional Director John Nairn (A/g)

Western Australia Region Regional Director Mike Bergin

Effective 30 June 2014

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4

Organisational management

New South Wales Region Regional Director Stephen Lellyett (A/g)

Bureau of Meteorology Organisational Chart

Director of Meteorology and Chief Executive Officer Dr Rob Vertessy

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts Division Deputy Director Hazards, Warnings

and Forecasts Dr Ray Canterford

Environment and Research Division Deputy Director Environment and Research

Graham Hawke

Information Systems and Services Division Deputy Director Information and Services and Chief

Information Officer Dr Lesley Seebeck

Corporate Services Division Deputy Director Corporate Services and Chief Operating Officer

Vicki Middleton

Observations and Infrastructure Division Deputy Director Observations and Infrastructure

Barry Hanstrum (A/g)

Weather Forecasting Branch Assistant Director Ann Farrell (A/g)

Climate Information Services Branch Assistant Director Neil Plummer

Information Technology Services Branch Assistant Director Barry Nugent (A/g)

Finance and Budgets Branch Assistant Director and Chief Finance Officer

Trevor Plowman

Observing Strategy and Operations Branch Assistant Director Dr Anthony Rea (A/g)

Flood Forecasting Branch Assistant Director Dr Dasarath (Jaya) Jayasuriya

Water Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Ian Prosser

Systems Development and Maintenance Branch Assistant Director Jo Pitt (A/g)

People Management Branch Assistant Director Chris Stocks

Infrastructure Management Branch Manager Dr Bruce Forgan

Hazards Prediction Branch Assistant Director Alasdair Hainsworth

Environmental Information Management Branch Assistant Director Tony Boston

Digital Data Delivery Manager Richard Denver

Strategy, Parliamentary, International and Communication Branch Assistant Director

Carey Robinson

Business Development Office Manager Tom Butcher

Bureau National Operations Centre Centre Director Dr Andrew Tupper

Environmental Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Louise Minty

Research and Development Assistant Director Dr Peter May

Northern Territory Region Regional Director Todd Smith (A/g)

Tasmania and Antarctica Region Regional Director John Bally

Queensland Region Regional Director Rob Webb

Victoria Region Regional Director Tarini Casinader

South Australia Region Regional Director John Nairn (A/g)

Western Australia Region Regional Director Mike Bergin

Effective 30 June 2014

102 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Corporate governance | Corporate governance framework

The Bureau’s corporate governance framework is designed to provide a sound basis for decision making, to define mechanisms for accountability and stewardship, and to promote both leadership and strategic direction for the Bureau.

Corporate governance within the Bureau is based around:

• The legislative foundation provided by the Meteorology Act 1955, the W

ater Act 2007, the Public

Service Act 1999 and the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997;

• a clearly defined executive and management structure;

• a mechanism for stakeholder input and review through a number of theme-based advisory and consultative committees;

• sound procedures for risk management and fraud control;

• an internal audit plan that addresses key business and financial risks to improve Bureau business

and management practices;

• an audit committee focusing on fraud, risk management, internal audit and oversight of the preparation of the Bureau’

s financial statements;

• a program-based planning and reporting framework;

• detailed asset-management policies and guidelines; and

• a service charter setting out the standards of service to the community.

| The Executive

The Director of Meteorology and the five Deputy Directors form the Bureau’s Executive. The role of the Executive is to consider and promulgate decisions on program, policy, financial and people management issues across the Bureau and to provide leadership under the authority of the Director. The Executive has responsibility for setting strategic policies and priorities and for optimising the use of resources.

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Dr Rob Vertessy

Director of Meteorology

Rob was appointed Director in September 2012 and has formal charge of the Bureau under the Meteorology Act 1955. He has the responsibilities and powers of an Agency Head under the Public Service Act 1999 and the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, as well as responsibilities under the Water Act 2007. Rob gained a Bachelor of Arts with First Class Honours and a PhD in Geomorphology from the Australian National University. He was formerly the Deputy Director with responsibility for climate and water matters. Prior to his appointment to the Bureau, Rob was CSIRO’s Chief of Division, Land and Water for around three years. He joined the CSIRO in 1987 where he held various scientific, research and management roles.

Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts

Ray started his career at the Bureau in 1974 when he was dux of the Graduate Diploma of Meteorology course. He has a Bachelor of Science with Honours and a PhD in Physics, and was awarded a Fulbright Postdoctoral Fellowship in 1979, which gave him the opportunity to work as a visiting scientist with the US National Weather Service. In his role as Deputy Director, Ray heads the Hazard, Warnings and Forecasts Division. Ray has joint line management responsibility for the Regional Directors, who head the Regional Offices in each State and the Northern Territory, and for the Bureau’s National Operations Centre.

Dr Ray Canterford PSM

Dr Lesley Seebeck Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services and Chief Information Officer

Lesley joined the Bureau in June from the Department of Finance, where she was responsible for oversight of government information technology investment, assurance, capability and skills. Prior to that, Lesley was responsible for the Department of Finance’s policy and budget oversight of defence, intelligence and national security. She also worked in the Department of Defence, the Office of National Assessments, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, as an IT and management consultant in private industry, and as an academic at two universities. Her PhD in Information Technology considered the temporal behaviour of complex adaptive systems. She has an MBA, a Masters in Defence Studies and a BA in Applied Science (Physics). In her new role, Lesley heads the Information Systems and Services Division of the Bureau.

104 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Mr Graham Hawke

Deputy Director, Environment and Research

Graham joined the Bureau in April 2013 from Southern Rural Water, Victoria. Graham’s qualifications include a Bachelor of Engineering and a Master of Engineering Science from Monash University, as well as a Master of Business Administration and a graduate of the Australian Institute of Company Directors. During his career Graham has served in both the public and private sectors working in business development. He is also a Chartered Professional Engineer and a member of Engineers Australia. Within the Bureau, Graham leads the Environment and Research Division.

Acting Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure

Barry graduated from the University of Western Australia with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1977 and completed the Bureau’s Graduate Diploma in Meteorology course in 1979. He was appointed to the Regional Director, New South Wales position in May 2004 and interim Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure in July 2013. In this position, Barry oversees the Observations and Infrastructure Division, as well as the regional observation functions undertaken by the Regional Offices in each State and the Northern Territory.

Mr Barry Hanstrum

Ms Vicki Middleton

Deputy Director, Corporate and Chief Operating Officer

Vicki oversees the Corporate Services Division and is responsible for the Bureau’s Corporate Services portfolio, with functions including strategic planning, finance, corporate real estate, human resources, corporate communication and legal services. Vicki has extensive Australian Public Service (APS) and private sector management experience across environmental regulation, transport security, industry and regional development, and community services. Prior to joining the Bureau, Vicki most recently worked with the then Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPaC), where she was responsible for regulatory reform.

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| Governance arrangements

As at 30 June 2014, the Bureau comprised:

• an Executive (Director of Meteorology and five Deputy Directors);

• five divisions: Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts; Envir

onment and Research; Observations

and Infrastructure; Information Systems and Services; and Corporate Services. Each division is responsible for delivering a portfolio of work within the Bureau’s program structure (see p. 15);

• eighteen branches and a number of business units, each responsible for a single program or major project within the organisation;

• the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR)—a joint r

esearch operation with

the CSIRO;

• the Bureau National Operations Centre (BNOC);

• seven Regional Offices located in the State capital cities and Darwin; and

• offices across Australia, the offshore islands and Antarctic T

erritory and two staffed solar

observatories.

The Regional Directors are integral to the Bureau’s management framework. They report to the Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, on regional weather services and to the Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure, on regional observing operations.

In addition to the general division and branch structure, there are a number of specialist roles attached to senior positions, including:

• Chief Operating Officer, performed by the Deputy Director, Corporate;

• Chief Information Officer, performed by the Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services; and

• Chief Financial Officer, performed by the Assistant Director, Finance and Budgets.

The organisational structure of senior staf

f in the Bureau as at 30 June is shown on p. 100.

| Committees

The Executive is the highest level decision-making body within the organisation. Executive meetings are chaired by the Director and generally held on the first and third Wednesday of each month.

The actions of the Executive are supported by senior management meetings, which involve the Executive, all Assistant Directors (program managers) and the Regional Directors. These meetings are generally held on the second and fourth Wednesday of each month. As well as reporting on progress with program implementation and risk, senior managers respond to key issues that are referred by the Executive.

Supporting the management of the Bureau are several specifically focused committees that report to the Executive. The current committees and their roles are as follows:

Commitee Roles

Agency Security Committee Reviews the Bureau’s performance in meeting the mandatory security requirements under the government’s Protective Security Policy Framework.

Audit Committee Oversees internal audit activities, implements and monitors

an effective audit service, assesses compliance with applicable laws and regulations, supports reliable financial and management reporting, and oversees fraud control and risk.

106 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Commitee Roles

Business Continuity Management Committee Supports and advises the Executive on business continuity processes and the development of a business continuity

work program.

Capital and Operating Expenditure Committee Monitors the asset investment and replacement program to ensure optimal delivery and use of available resources.

Bureau Work Health and Safety Committee

Oversees and coordinates the Bureau’s compliance with the Work, Health and Safety Act 2011 and its implementation, including the development of policies, promotion of safe work practices and reviewing, monitoring and reporting functions.

Channel Management Framework Steering Committee Advises the Channel Management Framework Project and provides a key avenue for communication and engagement

between the project and clients. It is also the first point of escalation for business related issues.

Data Information Standing Committee Oversees the development of whole-of-Bureau data and information principles and guidelines, and provides guidance for improved coordination and facilitation of working arrangements.

Environmental Sustainability Management Committee

Supports the implementation of the Bureau’s Environmental Sustainability Management Policy.

Heritage Management Committee Oversees the preparation, implementation and ongoing review of Commonwealth Heritage Management Plans, including reporting against the Bureau's Heritage Strategy.

Library Advisory Committee Provides advice to the Executive and guidance to the Chief Librarian on matters relating to library services.

Meteorological Authority Committee Oversees the Bureau’s Meteorological Authority responsibilities and provides advice to, and informs, the Executive.

Meteorological Authority Quality Management Review Committee Monitors and certifies compliance with applicable World Meteorological Organization, ISO 9001 and International Civil

Aviation Organization standards.

National Crisis Management Team Implements the National Crisis Management Plan during periods of crisis.

People Management Committee Provides high-level strategic policy and direction for the development and improvement of people-related organisational effectiveness.

Staff Consultative Committee Provides a formal forum for unions and staff representatives to meet with the Director and other senior Bureau management to address workplace relations and related issues.

The Bureau also has a large number of project committees to oversee the development of major initiatives and their effective implementation.

| Partnerships

The Bureau has a number of partnerships with other Commonwealth agencies to manage the delivery of common outcomes through distributed responsibilities. Supervisory or management committees currently in place to oversee these collaborations are:

• the CAWCR Supervisory Committee, comprising the CAWCR Director and senior repr

esentatives

from the Bureau and the CSIRO;

Partnering with the ABC The relationship between the Bureau and the ABC took another step forward with the Bureau’s Director, Dr Rob Vertessy, and ABC Managing Director, Mark Scott, signing a nationwide Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in October.

The Bureau and the ABC have been strong partners ever since radio broadcasts began in Australia in 1932. Together they have played a vital role in keeping the community informed through regular weather crosses, seasonal climate updates and science programs, as well as during critical events such as tropical cyclones, bushfires and floods.

While there have been previous agreements in some States, the MoU is the first national agreement between the ABC and the Bureau. It paves the way for an even closer working relationship that now includes digital outputs as well as radio and television. It encompasses specialist areas such as education, the environment and science, in addition to general news and current affairs programs.

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Organisational management

• the Collaborative Head Agreement Committee, jointly chaired by the Director of Meteorology and the Geoscience Australia Chief Executive Officer, which covers all joint ventures, including tsunami warnings, between the two agencies; and

• the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) Management Committee, comprising repr

esentatives from the Bureau and the CSIRO.

The Bureau also has:

• a strategic partnering agreement for the provision of meteorological and oceanographic services to support the Department of Defence;

• a collaborative heads of agr

eement with the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) that will provide the basis for cooperation in a number of areas including water data provision to MDBA, cooperation on the Murray-Darling Basin component of the National Water Account and collaborative work around environmental accounts; and

• a nationwide memorandum of understanding with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).

ABC Managing Director, Mark Scott and Director Rob Vertessy signing the MoU.

108 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| The Audit Committee

The Audit Committee provides independent assurance on risk, controls and the compliance framework and reviews the Annual Financial Statements. It operates under the Audit Committee Charter. The Audit Committee was established in compliance with section 46 of the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997. It functions in an oversight and review role and reports to the Director. The Committee is chaired by the Deputy Director, Environment and Research and is supported by the Risk Subcommittee and a Financial Statements Subcommittee.

The Audit Committee held five meetings during 2013-14 on 16 August, 4 October, 10 December, 21 February and 16 May.

During the year, the Committee reviewed and made recommendations to the Director on five audits performed by the Bureau’s internal auditors, Deloitte. The audits were:

• Regional Site Visit—Adelaide;

• Business Continuity Management;

• ‘Dtect’—Data Analysis of Employee Leave and Follow-up of Results;

• Workplace Health and Safety; and

• Information Technology Security and Continuity Governance Service Warnings.

| Corporate planning and evaluation

Operational planning continues to be undertaken on a program basis, supported by divisional and Executive planning workshops. In addition, an annual senior managers’ planning conference provides opportunities for collaboration in developing, testing and disseminating plans.

Business continuity and risk management functions are integrated with operational planning to enhance the effectiveness of these activities through joint coordination.

The evaluation of performance against plans is an important component of the annual planning cycle. Progress achieved against program plans is regularly monitored through Senior Managers’ Meetings and reports to the Executive. Performance against enterprise-level key performance indicators is presented in the annual report.

In 2013-14, the Queensland, Victorian and Tasmanian regions each held a scheduled biennial planning conference to prioritise regional objectives and discuss operational matters amongst their management teams. The Bureau’s other regions will hold planning conferences in 2014-15.

| Risk management

The Bureau applies an integrated enterprise risk management framework in all planning and decision-making activities, to facilitate the achievement of objectives and create an environment where all staff assume responsibility for managing risk.

In 2013-14, risk-management training was provided in the Bureau’s Head Office and the Queensland and Victorian Regional Offices. Guidance was also provided for individual projects and major procurement processes.

In 2014, Comcover benchmarked the Bureau’s risk management framework against all other participating agencies, and found that the Bureau is performing well compared to the wider service. The Bureau ranked in the top three amongst its ‘self-select peer group’ (i.e. agencies with similar risk drivers) in five of the ten risk elements. This result has seen the Bureau awarded an 8.36 per cent discount off its general insurance premium in 2014-15.

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| Business continuity

The Bureau continued to strengthen and mature its business continuity management system (BCMS) in 2013-14. The Bureau’s BCMS is based on the international standard ISO22301: Business continuity management systems requirements 2012. The BCMS serves to improve the Bureau’s resilience and supports the effective response to business disruptions and crises.

The Bureau’s business continuity policy sets out its commitment to effective business continuity management, and contains clearly identified responsibilities for these activities across the organisation. Ultimate responsibility for maintaining effective arrangements lies with the Bureau’s Executive, supported by the Business Continuity Committee, which has strong senior management membership.

Key outcomes achieved in 2013-14 include:

• receiving ‘structured’ maturity state rating for the business continuity element of the 2014 Comcover Benchmarking survey;

• implementing a new crisis management communications system using Noggin OCA as the service provider; and

• having BCMS documentation reviewed by a business continuity professional peer from Australia Post.

| Fraud control

The Bureau’s Fraud Control Plan, last updated in June, provides the basis for the Bureau’s fraud prevention, detection, and investigation activities and is consistent with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines 2011.

The Bureau also provided input to the annual Fraud Against the Commonwealth Survey undertaken by the Australian Institute of Criminology.

| Realignment project

The Bureau’s realignment project was completed in 2013-14. The objective of the project was to improve service delivery to its stakeholders by:

• enhancing capability in areas of identified need, such as information technology and infrastructure;

• better aligning accountability with decision-making authority; and

• better balancing management workloads across different programs.

The Bureau's performance in the Comcover Risk Management Benchmarking Survey

APS Average Bureau of Meteorology

0 2 4 6 8 10

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

above the APS average in the Comcover Risk Management Benchmarking Survey

14% A RESULT OF

110 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The Bureau has now made high level changes in its programs and organisational structures to facilitate improved operations and delivery of services, and for greater connectedness throughout the Bureau.

Key changes include:

• creating a new Information Systems and Services Division;

• restructuring the Observations and Engineering Division to form the Observations and Infrastructure Division;

• incorporating of Flood Forecasting and Warning Services into the Hazards, W

arnings and Forecasts

Division; and

• having regions report jointly to the Observations and Infrastructure and the Hazards, W

arnings and

Forecasts Divisions.

| Meteorological authority ISO certification

The Bureau commenced its quality management journey in 2006 and achieved certification of compliance with the AS/NZS ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management Standard (QMS) in December 2007 for the delivery of its aviation weather services. Since then, the Bureau has progressively extended its quality management approach to the delivery of other weather services, for example, marine weather services achieved certification in March 2013.

In June, the Bureau’s Meteorological Authority achieved certification of compliance with AS/NZS ISO 9001:2008 with the Lloyds Register of Quality Assurance. This was a milestone for the Bureau, as it is the first known Meteorological Authority in the world to achieve certification of compliance in its own right.

The benefits of implementing a QMS and achieving ISO certification are significant despite the initial effort and resources required. Apart from significantly improved documentation and procedures, it embeds a continuous improvement process in the organisation.

Carey Robinson, Sue O’Rourke and John Darnley with the Meteorological Authority compliance certificates.

| Heritage strategy

The Bureau continues to demonstrate its commitment to heritage values through its efforts to record and preserve significant parts of its own history in delivering meteorological services to the Australian community.

The Bureau is in the process of merging its Heritage Committee with the Environmental Sustainability Management Committee, to provide a streamlined approach to natural, cultural and built heritage issues.

The Bureau has continued to build on its heritage strategy (based on Commonwealth heritage management principles) by including heritage targets in its Environmental Management Plan. A streamlined flow chart was developed to highlight the importance of heritage issues and to assist with the identification and assessment of any heritage values at the early stages of project planning.

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Organisational management

Left to right: A Steiger-Vortex rainmaker gun, one of ten used by the Queensland Government Meteorologist, Clement Wragge, at Charleville in 1902; Recovered by Bureau staff in 1972.

In the past year the Bureau has applied for the registration of the ‘Melbourne Instrument Enclosure’ with Heritage Victoria and the Commonwealth Heritage Register as part of the decommissioning of the site.

| Service charter

The Bureau’s service charter sets out the standards of service that clients can expect from the Bureau, their rights and responsibilities and how to find out more about the organisation. The current charter can be accessed through the Bureau’s website at www.bom.gov.au/inside/services_policy/serchart.shtml.

| Complaints

The Bureau invites feedback, including complaints and criticism, through its offices across Australia and also through a web feedback facility. Approximately 28 formal written complaints about the Bureau’s services were received through Regional Offices during the year. Any specific suggestions were considered and the issues raised were responded to and resolved by the Regional Director concerned.

Over the year, the web feedback facility logged 612 messages classified by the sender as ‘criticism’. Each of these was redirected to the appropriate area of the Bureau for response and resolution as appropriate. This feedback provides useful insight into the Bureau’s outputs and informs the development of new and revised products and services.

| Ethical standards

During the reporting period, the Bureau continued to demonstrate its commitment to the APS Values and Code of Conduct by:

• promoting the revised APS Values, Code of Conduct and Employment Principles, which took effect

on 1 July 2013, through communication with staff and training activities;

• referencing the Values and Code of Conduct in selection criteria for all Bureau positions;

• including briefing information on the APS Values, Code of Conduct and Employment Principles in induction packages and training sessions provided for new employees;

• making available to all employees an online information and training course covering the APS

112 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Values, Code of Conduct and Employment Principles. Completion of this online course was a requirement for all staff following the amendments to the Public Service Act 1999 in July 2013;

• delivering 30 ‘shared culture’ workshops and information sessions for managers. These interactive, team-based workshops provide an overview of the APS employment framework and the Bur

eau’s

conduct and performance requirements, and key messages from the publication ‘Respect: promoting a culture free from harassment and bullying in the APS’;

• providing an online training course titled ‘Accountable and ethical decision-making’;

• endorsing the public interest disclosure framework, which took effect in January, thr

ough

communication with staff and supporting policy documents;

• giving employees access to information on ethical standards via the Bureau’s intranet, and also thr

ough the APS Commission’s website;

• issuing APS Code of Conduct guidelines for Bureau staff, and providing guidance and policies with r

espect to the ‘Duty of care’, ‘Making public comment’ and the ‘Performance of outside work/employment’;

• initiating disciplinary processes when allegations relating to breaches of the APS Code of Conduct wer

e reported;

• making available a review of action process, as provided for in Section 33 of the Public Ser

vice Act

1999, to aggrieved employees; and

• attending external network meetings in relation to performance and conduct issues.

| External scrutiny

In this reporting period, the following matters were resolved:

• In March, the Bureau was party to a General Protections Application lodged in the Fair Work

Commission by an employee whose employment was terminated in February 2014 for a breach of the APS Code of Conduct. The matter was settled following a conciliation hearing by the Commission.

• Two complaints were lodged against the Bureau in the Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC). One complaint, by a former Bur

eau employee, contained allegations of sex discrimination,

marital status discrimination and sexual harassment under the Sex Discrimination Act 1984. The other complaint, by a current Bureau employee, contained allegations of racial discrimination in employment and racial hatred, under the Racial Discrimination Act 1975. Both of these complaints were terminated by the AHRC as there was no reasonable prospect of these matters being settled by conciliation.

• The Bureau was called to give evidence in a matter lodged in the Administrative Appeals Tribunal by a former employee. The former employee’s compensation claim, originally r

ejected by Comcare,

succeeded on appeal to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal.

| Celebrating excellence: 2013-14 awards

Public Service Medal Dr Ray Canterford, Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, was awarded the Public Service Medal for outstanding public service in the delivery of weather forecasts and warnings. His leadership and collaboration across all jurisdictions and internationally has significantly improved the capacity of the Australian community to prepare for and respond to natural hazards such as tropical cyclones, floods, bushfires and tsunamis. Ray’s collaborative ethos has led to the establishment of highly effective working arrangements across multiple emergency service organisations. He led the Bureau’s submissions to major natural disaster inquiries including the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and the 2011 Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry.

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Australia Day Achievement Medals Howard Jacobs was recognised for his passionate dedication and commitment in managing the implementation of the Next Generation Forecasts and Warning System (NexGenFWS)—one of the largest projects ever undertaken in the Bureau. His detailed knowledge of geospatial data, ICT standards and infrastructure was crucial to the successful development of MetEye, as was his knowledge of the legal and policy issues regarding accessibility. Other web-mapping systems in the Bureau have been built using the design and the tools Howard developed. Howard has raised the external profile of the Bureau by nominating the NextGenFWS project for awards across a range of disciplines within government and industry (see below). Nearly all these nominations resulted in commendations or awards, including one for achievement and excellence in project management.

Howard Jacobs (centre) with Jeff Kepert receiving their awards. Pictured with Alasdair Hainsworth (left) Director Rob Vertessy (second left) and Peter May (right)

Jeff Kepert was recognised for his exemplary scientific research, leadership and stakeholder engagement skills. Jeff has made profound contributions to our understanding of tropical cyclones, bushfire weather and data assimilation and is recognised internationally for his expertise in these fields. Jeff has rebuilt CAWCR’s fire weather research capability, building on the critical work of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) team and making CAWCR the go-to organisation for high-impact weather simulations. He also has a great ability to influence and communicate with stakeholders and groups of industry representatives to gain their commitment to investing in scientific research. This has resulted in:

• government funding—through the Bushfire and National Hazards CRC—to conduct r

esearch on

extreme fire weather and tropical cyclones for eight years; and

• oil and gas industry funding support for research using high resolution modelling to improve tr

opical

cyclone forecasts off the Northwest Shelf.

2013 CSIRO Medal for Science Excellence In October, CAWCR scientists from the Bureau and CSIRO won the prestigious CSIRO Medal for Science Excellence for their development of the ACCESS. This award recognises the outstanding and sustained teamwork in building this world-class weather and climate simulation capability. The development of this model, which formed the basis of Australia’s contribution to the Intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report, was also recognised in this award.

Barry Inglis Medal Bruce Forgan was awarded the 2014 Barry Inglis Medal for outstanding achievements in the field of scientific measurement. The Barry Inglis Medal acknowledges and celebrates outstanding achievement in measurement research and/or excellence in practical measurements by an individual (or group) in the fields of academia, research or industry in Australia and is presented by the National Measurement Institute. Bruce was awarded the Barry Inglis Medal for his instrumental role in the establishment of the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station.

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Anton Hales Medal Julie Arblaster was awarded the 2014 Anton Hales Medal for research in earth sciences by the Australian Academy of Science. Julie has been involved in, and initiated, distinguished research in the earth sciences with a focus on aspects of the workings of the global climate system and its sensitivity to change.

Spatial Excellence Awards The Next Generation Forecast and Warning System project was once again recognised when it won the Victorian Spatial Excellence Awards for Technical Excellence in September. The project attained the Technical Excellence award for spatial developments at the Asia-Pacific Spatial Excellence Awards (APSEA) in April at Parliament House, Canberra. This award recognises products or projects that implement spatial solutions to an exceptionally high technical standard, overcoming significant technical challenges and delivering outstanding results for the end users.

On the same night, the Bureau was also awarded the J K Barrie Award, which is conferred to the category winner exhibiting the highest level of overall excellence. This is the most prestigious award that the Australian and New Zealand spatial industry offers. Feedback from the APSEA judging panel, which comprised industry peers, authorities, associates and advisors, reinforced that the Bureau ‘had produced something very robust and incredibly useful that touches most Australians’.

The development has also been recognised internationally and the Bureau was awarded the Geospatial World Technology Innovation Award (Meteorology). This award was presented at the Geospatial World Forum 2014 in May in Geneva.

Presenter (left) with Ann Farrell and Howard Jacobs accepting the award at the Geospatial World Forum 2014.

World Meteorological Day Awards The awards recognised outstanding contributions from individuals and groups and were presented in three categories:

Director’s choice

• Bruce Forgan from the Observations and Infrastructure Division was recognised for his significant contribution to developing a cultur e of excellence in scientific measurement and calibration in the

Bureau; and

• The Munro Review Team, including Joanne Cameron, Ann Farrell, Alasdair Hainsworth, Grace Hsu,

Dasarath Jayasuriya, Peter May, James Phillips, Trevor Plowman, Anthony Rea, Carey Robinson and Rajesh Singh were recognised for their outstanding leadership and the effort that supported and informed the Government response to the independent review of the Bureau of Meteorology’s capacity to respond to future extreme weather and natural disaster events and to provide seasonal forecasting services (the ‘Munro review’).

115 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Organisational management

Innovation

• Bryan Hodge from the Information Systems and Services Division was recognised for his work with the Bureau’ s remote sensing network and Weathernet infrastructure as well as communications

networking across Pacific Island installations.

Overall Excellence Award

• Joel Blake from the Observations and Infrastructure Division was recognised for his outstanding dedication and commitment in delivery of the observations component of the Bur eau’s asset

program and network operations;

Joel Blake (left) accepting his Excellence Award from Director Rob Vertessy.

• Tanya Jacobson from the Environment and Research Division was recognised for her tenacity in managing significant change in a positive manner and encouraging this in others; and

• The Climate Data Services Team, including Bertukan Biadeglgne, Belinda Campbell, Maree Carroll, Louise Garbers, Melanie Harris, Ana Knight, Ceri Lovitt, Ian Muirhead, Clinton Rakich, Lesley

Rowland, Cathy Toby, David Walland, Pat Ward and Vanessa Webb, was recognised for delivering an innovative modernisation project that provides high-value, customer-focused data to a wide range of customers and industries.

Additionally 16 staff were presented with 30-year long service awards at Head Office in Melbourne on 21 March, with Regional Offices joining in via video links.

World Calendar Awards The 2014 Australian Weather Calendar was recognised at the World and National Calendar awards in Chicago. The awards have been running for more than 20 years and attract entries from around the world. The calendar received the following awards:

• Runner up—Calendar of the year;

• Gold—Best colour separations; and

• Bronze—Best scenic/other photography.

116 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Traditional Knowledge Project The Climate and Oceans Support Program for the Pacific (COSPPac) team were recognised at the Greenhouse 2013 Conference for work they presented on the Traditional Knowledge Project with the Samoa Meteorological Service. The team partnered with the Samoa Meteorological Service in a pilot project where traditional weather knowledge from communities is collated, verified and used to make seasonal forecasts accessible and useful to community members.

Sunny Seuseu (Samoa Meteorological Service) and Roan Plotz the Bureau’s traditional knowledge scientist.

Richard, Ed, Judith, Kate and Scott Bowden with their 100-year Volunteer Rainfall Observer award.

Bureau Work Health and Safety Award Darren Hunt and Scott Tremethick from South Australia, in conjunction with the Bureau’s training centre, were acknowledged for their excellence in developing the Working safely with electricity and lock out tag out (isolation) e-learning modules. David Parker from Tasmania/Antarctica was highly commended for the development of the Sitrep application.

Volunteer Rainfall Observer Awards The Bureau recognises the dedicated and sustained commitment of its long-serving voluntary rainfall observers. In 2013-14, awards were presented to:

• the Bowden family from Bothwell, Tasmania (for 100 years of service);

• Mr Ralph Spinner from Mount Nelson, Tasmania (for 50 years of service);

• Mrs Anne Gilfillan of Hazelton, South Australia (for 50 years of service);

• Mr Ian Ross of Glen Gillian, South Australia (for 50 years of service); and

• Mr Peter Haeusler of Bundaleer Station, Queensland (for 50 years of service).

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Organisational management

International cooperation | Introduction

International cooperation is critical to the operational success of the Bureau. Monitoring and predicting the state of the atmosphere requires participation in the international systems that collect and exchange global environmental information. International collaboration also ensures that the Bureau can benefit from scientific, technological and operational developments and expertise in other countries. Through these engagements, the Bureau is able to achieve a more robust operational service, strengthen its capabilities, build its profile and reputation, and foster goodwill and collaboration with key partners.

Much of this collaboration takes place within the framework of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialised agency of the United Nations. Australia, through the Bureau, is a very active participant in the WMO, making a strong contribution to its work programs and activities. The Bureau and Australia benefits significantly through its international engagement, for example, through access to meteorological data from WMO members and meteorological satellite operators.

To further enhance the value of its international activities, the Bureau has developed an international engagement strategy that sets out the priorities for future engagement that align with the Bureau’s overall organisational objectives. The main areas of emphasis in the plan are multilateral engagement with key intergovernmental bodies (such as the WMO), strengthened partnerships with important bilateral partners, and a focus on international collaboration in technological and scientific capability, such as numerical weather prediction and satellite meteorology.

| Multilateral activities

Significant contributions from the Bureau to WMO programs and related activities continued this year.

In July, the Director Rob Vertessy attended the first session of the Intergovernmental Board on Climate Services that was established to oversee the implementation of the Global Framework on Climate Services. This major initiative seeks to improve the provision of science-based climate prediction, applications, and services for all nations. The Bureau’s participation in the implementation will help ensure that Australia’s interests are represented and that the maximum national and regional benefits are obtained.

As a substantial contributor to meteorological policy, scientific and technological programs in the surrounding region, Australia has a major role in WMO Regional Association V, the group of 23 member countries in the central and south Pacific and South-East Asia responsible for the coordination of meteorological, hydrological, and related activities within the region. The body meets every four years, and its 16th session was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, in May. The Bureau delegation, led by the Director, contributed very actively to the session, including taking a lead role in identifying the priorities and future plans for the region over the next four years.

The Bureau was also actively engaged in the 66th session of the WMO Executive Council held in Geneva, Switzerland, in June. The main focus of the session was on preparations for next year’s 17th session of the World Meteorological Congress, the peak intergovernmental body for global meteorological cooperation which meets every four years. Australia was very active during the Council session, including taking a lead role in important budget and strategic planning proposals that will be decided upon at the congress.

The Bureau continued its role as the national focal point for the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), including coordination of Australia’s input to the 47th IOC Executive Council in Paris, France, to be held in July 2014. In this role, the Bureau sponsored and drafted a resolution proposing the establishment of the

118 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

2nd International Indian Ocean Expedition, a major scientific initiative to enhance society’s knowledge of the Indian Ocean, including its influence on regional and global climate variability and change.

On behalf of the Australian Government, the Bureau is a major partner in supporting and maintaining two decentralised offices of the IOC: the Perth Program Office, and the Secretariat for the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System. Both are hosted by the Bureau in its Western Australia Regional Office in Perth.

| Activities in our region

The Bureau gives high priority to meteorological cooperation in the Southwest Pacific and Southeast Asia, and assists other countries where possible. As one of the leading meteorological and hydrological agencies in the region, the Bureau is looked upon as a source of expertise and is an active contributor to capacity development programs. The strengthening of weather, climate and water services can help nations mitigate the impact of extreme events that can have enormous human and economic costs. For example, below shows the extent of losses in the South-West Pacific over recent decades.

The human losses and economic costs from severe weather disasters in the South-West Pacific (1970-2012). Source: The Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes (1970-2012) published by the World Meteorological Organization, 2014.

In partnership with the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and the WMO, the Bureau this year conducted the third phase of the Public Sector Linkages Program-funded International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management activity. This three-year capacity development program has assisted national meteorological agencies in ten Pacific Island countries to provide services to the civil aviation industry that meet the required ISO 9000 series of quality-assurance standards. A critical success factor for achieving this compliance is a rigorous auditing schedule conducted by qualified auditors. To meet this need, the third and final phase of the program involved the delivery of a ‘lead auditor training course’. This training enhanced the skills and knowledge of the participants and has resulted in the establishment of a core team of highly qualified internal auditors from Pacific Island countries who will be active in monitoring and strengthening the quality of meteorological and related services in the region.

Also under the DFAT Public Sector Linkages Program, the Bureau provided training to 12 Pacific Island national meteorological agencies to strengthen their capacity to connect to and operate the WMO Information System (WIS). The WIS is a global, real-time telecommunications network that is used for exchanging operational meteorological and related data and information within and between countries.

(in US$ billion)

(1970-2012)

Total reported economic losses

0.00 - 0.05

>0.05 - 0.45

>0.45 - 1.90

>1.90 - 18.2

>18.2 - 68.0

No data or d isputed countries/territories

Australia

Indonesia

United States (Hawaii)

Total number of reported deaths (1970-2012)

0 - 55

>55 - 355

>355 - 840

>840 - 12 000

>12 000 - 42 000

No data or disputed countries/territories

Indonesia and Philippines More than half of South-W

in the South-W

Map of reported disasters and their related deaths (1970-2012) Map of reported disasters and their related economic losses (in US$ billion, 1970-2012)

More than 60% of overall economic losses in South-West Pacific were reported in Australia, including the 1981 drought (US$ 15.2 billion), the 2011 floods (US$ 7.5 billion) and several tropical cyclones

such as in 1974 or in 1978 (more than US$ 3.5 billion each)

A forest fire in 1997 led to losses of more than US$ 11.4 billion

Hurricane Iniki in 1992 cost US$ 8.2 billion

est Pacific disasters were

reported in these two countries; over 46 000 deaths were reported (93% of total people killed est Pacific), mainly due to tropical cyclones such as in the Philippines in 1991 (5 956 deaths) or

in Indonesia in 1973 (1 650 deaths)

119 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Organisational management

A particular focus of the training has been helping countries to make the transition to the new, more comprehensive and efficient data formats that are being implemented within the WIS, and to assist in their establishment of national centres for data exchange under the WIS framework.

| Climate and Ocean Support Program in the Pacific (COSPPac)

COSPPac is a four-year DFAT-funded program (July 2012 - June 2016: $31.5 million) being implemented by the Bureau in partnership with 14 Pacific Island countries, to develop enhanced climate, ocean and tidal services for Pacific Island communities and governments. The program supports the meteorological agencies and relevant lands and survey departments in each country to develop and disseminate user-focused products and services such as tidal calendars, seasonal rainfall outlooks, a malaria early-warning system and visualised ocean data. These services assist governments and communities to better prepare for drought or severe wet periods, extreme tidal events, disease, water shortages, decreased hydropower supply and food security threats.

Development of these services is supported by a comprehensive training and development schedule that provides a range of learning opportunities focused on climate, oceans and tides, and also communicates science to communities and decision-makers. In the last year, training opportunities have included in-country workshops, regional teleconference discussion groups, mentoring attachments and whole-of-region workshops with participants from each partner country. The content of each training opportunity is designed to match the capacity-development priorities of each country—with some national meteorological agencies focusing on developing scientific research skills, while others have prioritised the development of new climate and oceans services for specific sectors, or to work more closely with local communities so that they can interpret seasonal outlooks or tidal forecasts.

Another major component of COSPPac is the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring Project. This project maintains and calibrates the Pacific tide gauge and land monitoring networks and is delivered by the Bureau in partnership with Geoscience Australia and the Applied Geoscience and Technology Division of the Secretariat for the Pacific Community based in Fiji. In the last year, six tide gauge sites were refurbished (Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Cook Islands, Republic of Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and Tuvalu), while another seven tide gauges and geodetic monitoring stations underwent routine maintenance and calibration. In addition, the project’s first portable tide gauge system was installed in Tonga in September, and a real-time data display tool for the Pacific tide gauge network was launched in May, allowing the Pacific community to monitor daily sea level fluctuations, severe tidal events, tsunami activity, and weather conditions in real time.

Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program

Implementation of a number of projects continued under the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program delivered by the Bureau, providing scientific information about climate variability and trends. This program enables Australia’s international neighbours to adopt appropriate adaptation strategies and make informed decisions, and helps support Australia’s foreign aid program.

During the year, the focus has been on communicating new science findings on climate variability, extremes and change in the western tropical Pacific. In particular, country reports have been updated with new information on current climate observations, trends and future climate projections using the latest global climate model, aligned with current international terminology and methodology.

A suite of customised communication products has been developed to facilitate the use of latest PACCSAP science findings by target end-users in the western tropical Pacific.

Pacific adventures of the climate crab The Pacific adventures of the climate crab is an animation designed to raise awareness of the science behind large-scale climate processes such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and associated natural climate variability and extremes in the western tropical Pacific.

It uses a culturally sensitive format and non-technical language to describe the El Niño and La Nña phases of ENSO and their impacts on Pacific Island countries and local communities.

The animation features the climate crab as an entertaining but otherwise informative character designed to educate viewers and also encourage discussion around how Pacific Island countries can access climate and weather forecast information, communicate and work proactively with other stakeholders and take early action to prepare for future El Niño and La Niña events. Addressing the ‘ups and downs’ of ENSO-related extreme climate events can also help adaptation to human-induced climate change.

The animation is part of a resource ‘toolkit’ designed to help facilitators and educators link the science-based information in the animation to decision-making and action at the local community level. It may assist those working in fields such as climate change adaptation, disaster risk management, urban and community planning, community health, food and water security, agricultural management, environmental protection and natural resource management.

The Pacific adventures of the climate crab and the associated toolkit were funded under the PACCSAP program, and were developed by the Bureau and the CSIRO in collaboration with the Red Cross and support from the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazard Department and Secretariat of the Pacific Community-German Society for International Cooperation Ltd Climate Change Program.

All resources are available on the PACCSAP website at www.pacificclimatechangescience.org/climatecrab.

120 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The Pacific adventures of the climate crab.

121 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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People management Aligning people with organisational capabilities to deliver value and improved services to government and citizens

The Bureau’s staff are central to the successful achievement of its objectives. Its operations are resource-intensive and include a diverse workforce of over 1700 employees across Australia, its offshore islands and Antarctica. Many of these are shiftworkers who maintain the Bureau’s round-the-clock nationwide weather-watch every day of the year.

Over the past decade, the Bureau has continually responded to the need for new products and services by building and sustaining capabilities across a broad range of scientific, technical, ICT and corporate professional roles. During 2013-14, the Bureau reviewed and realigned its organisational structure to enable improved responsiveness and greater connectedness between its various functions (see p. 109). The organisational change to a five-division structure was developed and implemented under the leadership of a senior executive project director.

The Bureau continued to invest in targeted talent attraction, development and diversity strategies at all career levels, using social media and actively participating in events with universities, Australian Public Service (APS) agencies, schools, local communities, and industry professional organisations.

Recruitment and development activity in 2013-14 focused on the Government’s initiatives to increase the number of frontline meteorologists and hydrologists over the next four years. This included hiring the 23 graduates of the 2014 Graduate Diploma in Meteorology course.

staff in the Bureau's most common age bracket of 51-55

291 A TOTAL OF

Numbers of staff in each age bracket

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

>71

66-70 61-65

56-60 51-55

46-50 41-45

36-40 31-35

26-30 21-25

16-20

2013-14 2012-13

| Staff turnover and retention

There were 1736 staff members employed by the Bureau at the end of 2013-14, three less than the previous year. Voluntary employee-initiated separations remained low compared to other APS agencies. The employee-initiated separation rate (the percentage of staff resigning, transferring to other APS agencies or retiring) during 2013-14 was 4.4 per cent. The APS average as reported in the State of the service report 2012-13 was 6.3 per cent.

122 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Workforce snapshot

2012-13 2013-14 Difference

Employment

number of staff employed 1739 1736 -3

total employee expenditure $182.808 million $191.425 million $8.617 million

The diversity of our workforce

women (% of the total workforce) 28.1 29.0 0.9

people with a disability (% of total workforce) 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders (% of total workforce)

0.8 0.9 0.1

staff with English as a second language (% of total workforce)

15.1 14.9 -0.2

Staff health and well-being

work occupational health and safety incident reports 287 400 +113

number of health and safety representatives 45 41 -4

Training and education

% of staff undertaking supported studies 5.2 3.8 -1.4

| Productivity gains

Enhancements to the Bureau’s e-recruit system in 2013-14 have enabled greater efficiency in the processing and tracking of staffing requisitions.

The Bureau’s realignment project also took place during 2013-14, with the aim of improving the Bureau’s overall efficiency and effectiveness. A high-level realignment of the Bureau’s structure facilitated improved operations and delivery of services. The transition of people to roles in the new structure was supported by regular open forums and dedicated working groups, and supported by skills development in change leadership.

| Employee census

Results from the APS Commission’s 2013 Employee Census were very positive and showed the Bureau had high levels of job engagement, strong team interactions, good supervisor engagement and agency pride. This reflects the strong commitment of Bureau staff to their work and workplaces.

The 2014 Staff Census was conducted in May and June. A record 80 per cent of Bureau staff responded to the survey, up from a 68 per cent response rate in 2013, and well above the 2014 APS agency average of 66 per cent. Survey results will form the basis of census action plans to be delivered in 2014-15.

above the APS average

12% BUREAU RESPONSE RATE

FOR THE APS CENSUS IS

Census response rate, APS compared to the Bureau

APS average response rate Bureau response rate

0 20 40 60 80 100

2013 survey

2014 survey

123 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Organisational management

Enterprise agreement, individual flexibility agreements, common law contracts and determinations.

In accordance with the terms of the Bureau Enterprise Agreement 2011-2014, a salary increase of two per cent became payable on 1 July 2013. The nominal expiry date of that agreement was 30 June 2014. On 28 March 2014, the Australian Government Public Sector Workplace Bargaining Policy was released, enabling the Bureau to put in place arrangements to negotiate a new agreement.

As at 30 June, 1711 Bureau staff were covered by the enterprise agreement. Salary ranges under the agreement are shown on p. 132, while non-salary benefits are outlined in the next section. At 30 June, there were 17 individual flexibility agreements pursuant to the enterprise agreement, providing allowances and flexibility in working arrangements.

The payment of salary and administration of conditions for the Director is derived from the relevant Remuneration Tribunal determination. The Bureau has a senior executive service (SES) remuneration framework that applies to its SES (and equivalent) staff. At 30 June, there were 21 common law contracts for the Director and SES (and equivalent) staff.

During the year, the Director made one determination under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act 1999 in relation to the terms and conditions of employment applying to an APS employee within the Agency.

| Non-salary benefits

Non-salary benefits for staff include:

• flexible working arrangements, including flextime, executive level time off in lieu, part-time and home-based work;

• provision for leave, including: recreation leave, long service leave, personal/carer leave,

compassionate leave, war service sick leave, pregnancy leave, maternity leave, adoption leave, supporting partner leave, parental leave, study leave, employee-funded extra leave, ceremonial leave, defence leave, jury service leave and community leave (with and without pay);

• study assistance;

• the Employee Assistance Program;

• the flexible remuneration packaging scheme; and

• provision of business-related equipment.

| Performance pay

Two individual flexibility agreements provide for performance pay (see p. 132).

| Commitment to human rights

The Bureau operates within the context of Australia being a signatory to the seven key human rights treaties, with human rights being protected and promoted through a range of domestic legislation, policies and practices, and independent bodies.

In keeping with Australia’s human rights framework, the Bureau aims to promote a human rights culture. This is based on an expectation that all staff adhere to the APS values of being impartial, committed to service, accountable, respectful and ethical, and avoid making assumptions based on personal characteristics or behaviour. It also ensures the Bureau is a safe and respectful workplace that reflects the diversity of the people whom it serves, and is consistent with its obligations under APS Values, APS Employment Principles and the APS Code of Conduct, as contained in the Public Service

124 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Act 1999. The Bureau has continued to provide updated training relating to these obligations. A series of workshops titled ‘Towards a shared culture’ is provided for staff nationally to enhance and reinforce their understanding of how diversity and respect are demonstrated in the workplace.

| Workplace diversity

A number of activities were conducted during the year to recognise the diversity of the Bureau’s workforce. Some of the highlights were as follows:

• International Women’s Day celebrations were held at the Bur

eau’s Head Office on 7 March and at

the Queensland Regional Office on 10 March. The Melbourne event was an opportunity to hear about the diversity, talent, backgrounds and experiences of some of our female staff.

• The expanded Harmony Day festivities held on 21 March enabled staff at several locations around the country to celebrate.

• The importance of good mental health was acknowledged in September, with all staff being made aware of the national ‘R U OK Day’ of action dedicated to encouraging all staf

f to make the time to

interact with family, friends and colleagues and to ask, ‘Are you okay?’

• The Human Rights Commission briefed harassment contact officers on their role, and on federal human rights and discrimination laws, coverage of the law, and the complaints process.

• Childcare and eldercare kits were updated for all staf

f to access, and information about the kits was

released in November.

• A member of the Bureau’s Executive participated in the APS Disability Champions Network.

Strengthening relationships: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander initiatives

Through its Reconciliation Action Plan 2012-2014, the Bureau aims to deepen its relationships with communities to facilitate the sharing of knowledge for mutual benefit; to show respect for the traditional lands, language and culture of the first Australians; and to increase education, employment and career development opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

increase in the number of women in the Bureau compared to last year

1% ALMOST A

Staff by gender and classification (for the Bureau's most common staffing classifications)

Female Male

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Trainee

Research Scientist

Information Technology Officer

Technical Officer

Professional Officer

Administrative Service Officer

Senior Executive Service

125 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Organisational management

During the year, the Bureau achieved a number of milestones, including:

• partnering with an elder from the Brambuk community to discuss how Indigenous weather knowledge can be used in community-based Indigenous languages projects at the biennial Puliima National Indigenous Language and T

echnology Forum in Melbourne;

• creating a new coastal waters forecast and warning service for the Torr

es Strait, along with a

dedicated webpage to promote marine safety and reduce boating incidents;

• promoting its Indigenous Weather Knowledge website at the Baany to Warrna Ngargee (W

ater to

Water Festival) in Mount Martha;

• attending the Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute in Melbourne and the Nyuwandan Gatjabak (Our Future Careers) Celebration Day in Shepparton to pr

omote Indigenous career

pathways at the Bureau;

• supporting and sponsoring NAIDOC week events;

• launching the Maung seasonal calendar during Reconciliation Action Week (see p. 126)

;

• collaborating with Yolngu Radio to produce a series of weather and climate information in the languages of the Yolngu people;

• engaging its second Indigenous graduate;

• promoting its first employee from the Indigenous Australian Government Development Programme;

• advancing its first Indigenous cadet to progress through its Graduate Meteorology pr

ogram and

onto the weather forecasting frontbench;

• providing support for two Indigenous cadets undertaking tertiary physical science degrees and one Indigenous cadet undertaking a double science and engineering degree;

• delivering Indigenous awareness training to water accounting team members and to weather forecasting staff undertaking the 2014 Graduate Meteor

ology program; and

• joining the APS Indigenous Champions Network.

| Training and development undertaken and its impact

The Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre (BMTC) continued to deliver training to support the Bureau’s frontline forecasting capability as well as delivering specialist in-service training to support operational competency, licensing and compliance requirements.

High priority recruitment into the Bureau’s Graduate Diploma in Meteorology course continued, with 15 students graduating in 2013, including three from the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and two from overseas national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHS). A further 31 students were enrolled in the 2014 course, including three from RAN and five from overseas NMHS. The course is strongly focused on the skills required in the workplace, with learning outcomes based on those articulated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and functional competencies agreed to by the relevant program within the Bureau. Recognition of the quality of the programs is evidenced by external participation and accreditation of the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology by the Victorian Registration and Qualifications Authority.

Throughout the year, 1081 Bureau staff received specialised technical in-service training including 188 staff who received training to support the Bureau’s ICT capability. Major achievements included the training and assessment of 31 forecasters in the Queensland Regional Office and the commencement of training for 26 forecasters in the Northern Territory Regional Office to support the implementation of the Bureau’s Next Generation Forecast and Warning System. Competency assessments to support the Bureau’s Aeronautical Meteorological Forecaster cohort were also completed across the country to allow aviation services to be delivered in accordance with WMO and International civil aviation organisation requirements.

Building relationships: Indigenous weather knowledge When tropical cyclone Monica crossed the Arnhem Land coast, about 40 km west of Maningrida, on the morning of 24 April 2006, it was one of the most severe tropical cyclones ever recorded to make landfall in Australia. Monica flattened native woodlands, damaged roofs and property across a 350 km front from Maningrida to Jabiru, and brought massive storm surges of up to five metres to coastal areas. It also happened to cross the coast in what the Bureau described at the time as a ‘radar gap’, since closed by the construction of a high-resolution Doppler radar on South Goulburn Island approximately 300 km east of Darwin.

The Bureau’s relationship with the Warruwi people, the traditional owners of the Goulburn Islands, was instrumental in achieving the successful delivery of the project. The new technology complements traditional knowledge of weather systems, and the local community both supported the radar’s construction and found it exciting.

More than 5200 residents live within the radar’s coverage radius, including most of West Arnhem Land, and it combines with the Tindal radar near Katherine to provide full coverage of Kakadu National Park and rainfall information for residents and visitors.

From the relationships that the Bureau established with the Maung people of Warruwi, a number of murals representing the salt and freshwater elements of the surrounding area were created by the local community and installed at the base of the radar.

Stemming from the Bureau’s presence in Warruwi, a seasonal calendar representing the intricacies of weather and environmental phenomena observed in Maung country has been developed and is now hosted on the Bureau’s Indigenous Weather Knowledge website. This calendar represents a precious and irreplaceable heritage, the value of which is being increasingly recognised and appreciated.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander calendars recognise the complexity and diversity of weather over the Australian continent and are finely tuned to local conditions and natural events. Unlike the European calendars containing four traditional seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter, the Indigenous calendars often include five, and sometimes seven, distinct seasons. Some of the knowledge presented is of a purely observational type, recording how various plants and animals react to the weather around them at the time. The Maung people, the traditional custodians of the land, historically told the weather by flowers and plants and knew tropical cyclones were on the way when the wind turned the leaves upside-down.

For more information on Indigenous weather knowledge and calendars see www.bom.gov.au/iwk/

126 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Maung seasonal weather calendar.

127 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Organisational management

More than 380 participants undertook leadership, management and professional development training courses covering a broad range of topics including leadership, strategic thinking and emotional intelligence. Each course was aligned to the Australian Public Service Commission (APSC) capability framework. 61 staff participated in the Bureau’s ‘Masterminds’ mentoring program, while work health and safety training continued to be a key priority, with 1083 staff attending WHS training or completing online modules. New online courses on business processes and financial compliance were undertaken by 574 staff.

As part of a strategy to provide greater access and training opportunities to the Bureau’s geographically distributed staff, BMTC continued to develop its online training capabilities. Online modules were developed and published in collaboration with the United States Cooperative Program for Meteorological Education and Training (COMET) including a tropical cyclone intensity analysis module to support the Bureau’s tropical cyclone forecaster competencies.

The BMTC continues to be a participating member in the European Met Computer Aided Learning (Eumetcal) program. BMTC also continues its role as a ‘centre of excellence’ in the CGMS-WMO Satellite Virtual Laboratory program and now delivers monthly online forecast discussion and training sessions to international NMHS stakeholders in Asia and the Pacific. In addition, five days within the Bureau’s Advanced Forecaster Course were conducted online to Bureau forecasters, in support of new system and service enhancements. The course was also open to an international audience.

All of these forums provide valuable opportunities for the exchange of expertise and training material, including access to courses and an electronic library of resources.

staff undertaking the Bureau's Graduate Diploma in Meteorology course in the class of 2014

23 A TOTAL OF

Number of Bureau trainees undertaking the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology

0 5 10 15 20 25

2005 2006

2007 2008

2009 2010

2011 2012

2013 2014

Students of the first Bureau training course for weather observers, 1938-39.

128 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Work health and safety

Work, health and safety management system In 2013-14, the Bureau continued to provide current and relevant tools and information to assist staff in conducting their work safely. A major focus has been the maintenance of a comprehensive work health and safety (WHS) system to measure and report on progress with a view to improving and sustaining health and safety outcomes for the Bureau.

In April, an audit of the Bureau’s Work Health and Safety Management System (WHSMS) confirmed its compliance with the AS4801 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Standard. Achieving compliance was an immense undertaking by staff and managers, and entailed supporting the development and rollout of WHSMS documents and processes over a three-year period.

The WHSMS now includes:

• Work Health, Safety and Well-being Statement of Commitment (policy document);

• a three-year strategic plan, underpinned by annual plans outlining specific objectives, initiatives, actions and benefits;

• a suite of 55+ supporting policies and procedures;

• risk management processes integrated into the Bureau’s organisational risk management;

• comprehensive monthly and annual reporting to the Executive;

• a suite of e-learning training programs addressing high risk areas, specifically Lock-out T

ag-out,

Working Safely with Electricity, and Fatigue Management, as well as inclusion of WHS components in other Bureau training courses (e.g., corporate and managers induction programs and the Graduate Meteorology course); and

• established, robust consultation processes, including a complete review of work groups and worker

representation health and safety representatives (HSRs).

The Bureau has become a workforce of managers, supervisors and staff that is not only engaged in WHS but is also more empowered to tackle WHS issues. WHS procedures and guidance material assist managers and staff in its improved management, and also provide the foundations for local ownership and implementation of the processes that ensure all staff conduct their work mindfully, and with health and safety prioritised. The WHS culture at the Bureau is one in which all staff are able to both consider and speak their mind openly on WHS matters.

Work health and safety performance results Lead WHS indicators accomplished include:

• publication of the WHS policy / statement of commitment and objectives;

• continued compliance and currency of health and safety management arrangements; and

• 68 management and HSR / worker representatives appointed to health and safety committees, equating to four per cent of the Bureau’

s workforce.

Lag WHS indicators include:

• no incidents were notified to Comcare under section 38 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011

;

• the Bureau received no notices from Comcare;

• no ‘provisional improvement notices’ were issued by HSRs;

• 400 WHS incidents were registered;

• 22 staff accepted compensation claims (1.2 claims per 100 staff); and

• Nine lost-time compensation claims (0.5 claims per 100 staff), with a $23 000 average cost per compensation claim.

129 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

4

Organisational management

The following statistics relate to Bureau staff as at 30 June 2014

Number of employees

Age range

16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 65-70 >71

2 41 149 218 249 238 270 291 168 87 18 5

Staff employed under the Public Service Act 1999

Full time Ongoing

Full time

Non-ongoing

Part time Ongoing

Part time Non-ongoing

Total

Male 1044 129 38 21 1232

Female 349 48 89 17 503

TOTAL 1393 177 127 38 1735

Staff by location, gender and classification

HOA SES ASO PO TO GSO ITO PAO RS TR TOTAL

NSW and ACT

Female 19 44 5 6 74

Male 1 3 10 89 33 30 166

Total 1 3 29 133 38 36 240

VIC

Female 5 140 101 16 37 11 10 320

Male 10 81 257 73 3 197 34 17 672

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

500

# Compensable injuries based on date injury accepted

* In 2009-10 the Bureau ran a successful campaign to increase the profile of the importance of incident reporting, which has been sustained through to 2013-14.

2013-14 2012-13 2011-12 2010-11 2009-10* 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 2002-03

WHS incident reports and compensable injuries

Total reports Compensable injuries

130 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

HOA SES ASO PO TO GSO ITO PAO RS TR TOTAL

Total 15 221 358 89 3 234 45 27 992

QLD

Female 3 14 12 29

Male 1 13 46 53 1 3 117

Total 1 16 60 65 1 3 146

SA

Female 1 12 4 17

Male 1 12 23 22 1 3 62

Total 1 13 35 26 1 3 79

WA

Female 3 13 10 1 27

Male 1 8 51 41 1 102

Total 1 11 64 51 2 129

TAS

Female 3 10 5 18

Male 5 19 26 4 54

Total 8 29 31 4 72

NT

Female 3 11 4 18

Male 5 25 28 2 60

Total 8 36 32 2 78

Total

Female 0 5 172 205 56 0 44 0 11 10 503

Male 1 16 134 510 276 5 240 0 34 17 1233

Grand Total

1 21 306 715 332 5 284 0 45 27 1736

HOA: Head of Agency; SES: Senior Executive Service; ASO: Administrative Service Officer; PO: Professional Officer; TO: Technical Officer; GSO: General Service Officer; ITO: Information Technology Officer; PAO: Public Affairs Officer; RS: Research Scientist; TR: Trainee.

Senior Executive Service (SES)

*SES 1 **SES 2 SES 3 Head of Agency TOTAL

Male 12 3 1 1 17

Female 3 2 0 0 5

Total 15 5 1 1 22

* Director of CAWCR & Deputy Director of CAWCR are SES Equivalent ** Head of CAWCR is an SES 2-equivalent position.

SES Recruitment 2013-14

Transfers within Bureau of Meteorology Promotions within Bureau of Meteorology

Secondments/ Recruitment from outside Bureau of Meteorology

1 0 3

131 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

4

Organisational management

Separations during 2013-14

Transfer or Promotion SES 1

non SES 4

Termination of Temporary Employment SES 0

non SES 54

Resignations SES 2

non SES 37

Retirements SES 1

non SES 31

Invalidity Retirements SES 1

non SES 2

Voluntary Redundancy SES 0

non SES 6

Deaths SES 0

non SES 0

Termination of Employment SES 0

non SES 1

Total 140

Inoperative staff as at 30 June 2014

Leave Without Pay SES 0

non SES 20

Maternity Leave SES 0

non SES 8

Compensation SES 0

non SES 1

Long Service Leave SES 0

non SES 15

Sick Leave SES 0

non SES 1

Public Interest Employment SES 0

non SES 0

Recreation Leave SES 0

non SES 1

Parental Leave SES 0

non SES 0

Time Off In Lieu SES 0

non SES 0

Study Leave SES 0

non SES 0

Total 46

132 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Adult rates of pay, effective from 1 July 2013

APS Classification Salary range ($)

Cadet APS - Work Placement 43 119 to 46 106

Cadet APS - Full Time Study 23 604 to 26 087

Trainee APS 46 877 to 49 933

Graduate APS 53 372

APS level 1 43 119 to 47 982

APS level 2 49 786 to 54 564

APS level 3 55 174 to 60 428

APS level 4 61 845 to 67 820

APS level 5 68 944 to 75 139

APS level 6 76 025 to 86 438

Executive Level 1* 92 560 to 112 622

Executive level 2** 112 622 to 173 705

* Includes Public Affairs Officers **Includes Research Officers

Performance Pay

The Bureau had one staff member eligible to receive performance pay. Such payments made in the 2013-14 financial year relate to the performance in the 2013-14 financial year.

1. The number of APS employees at each classification level who received performance pay:

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents (b) Executive Level 2

0 1

2. The aggregated amount of such performance payments at each classification level:

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents (b) Executive Level 2

$- $13,476

3. The average bonus payment and the range of such payments at each classification level:

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents (b) Executive Level 2

$- $-

4. The aggregate bonus payments for the Bureau as a whole is $-.

Fatigue management Fatigue management continued to be an area of significant focus, with numerous initiatives implemented and progressed over the year. In this context, the Bureau concentrated on shift work, working through severe weather events such as fires, floods and cyclones, driving long distances and planned field work.

All Bureau staff were able to participate in a consultation process through a series of focus groups, an online staff health and well-being survey and individual interviews.

Following a series of workshops and robust consultation, 18 recommended actions were identified and a phased action plan agreed. The plan includes strategies for helping people avoid harm to their health, safety and welfare, as well as tools for managers, supervisors and staff designed to prevent and manage fatigue.

As of 30 June, 11 of the 18 recommended actions were completed, while the remaining seven are in progress.

Education was a key theme over the year, and a number of initiatives were progressed to ensure staff are better educated and informed about the causes of fatigue, recognising signs and symptoms of fatigue, the effects of fatigue and sleep deprivation, as well as strategies to prevent and manage fatigue.

Fatigue management is also included in new staff inductions and relevant Bureau training courses. All staff are required to complete the Introduction to Fatigue Management program, with additional modules provided for drivers, shift workers, supervisors and families.

Fatigue management has been proactively driven by the Bureau to ensure the implementation of a robust, holistic and effective fatigue risk management system. The system today is dynamic, based on the involvement and recommendations from Bureau staff at all levels, and is continually being enhanced to support continuous improvement.

133 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

4

Organisational management

Staff are often required to travel long distances and work in remote locations.

134 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Financial resource management | Financial management issues

The 2013-14 financial result for the Bureau was an operating deficit of $73.799 million, compared to a deficit of $69.406 million in 2012-13. The main drivers for the increase were increased employee costs of 4.7 per cent and consumable goods of 4.3 per cent.

Revenue Operating revenue for the Bureau for 2013-14 was $290.472 million, an increase of $6.874 million, or 2.4 per cent, above that of the previous financial year.

The Bureau’s operations are funded primarily from government appropriation. Revenue from government amounted to $212.930 million in 2013-14, an increase of 1.4 per cent above that of the prior period. Key drivers for funding changes were largely the result of:

• the 2013-14 Government response to the Munro review;

• the 2013-14 Budget Measure website advertising;

• the 2010-11 Budget measure A National Plan for Environmental Information - establishment;

• the Water for the Future initiative announced in the 2007-08 Budget;

• the 2009-10 Budget Measure Next Generation Weather Forecast and War

ning System - national

rollout and Strategic Radar Enhancement Project - establishment; and

• economic parameter adjustments offset by increases in the efficiency dividend.

Government appropriation contributed 73.3 per cent to the Bur

eau’s total operating revenue.

The Bureau also derives ‘own-source income’ noted as all revenue apart from appropriation. In 2013-14, own-source income totalled $77.542 million, an increase of $3.875 million or 5.3 per cent above that of the prior financial year. This includes revenues from sale of goods and services of $73.882 million and other income of $3.660 million.

derived from own-source income

$77m MORE THAN

Sources of revenue

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 $ million

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Revenue from Government Other revenue

$ $ $ $ $ $

135 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

4

Organisational management

Expenditure The Bureau’s operating expenditure for 2013-14 was $364.271 million, representing an increase of $11.267 million or 3.2 per cent above that of 2012-13.

The Bureau’s largest outlay was expenditure associated with staffing resources at $191.425 million, or 53 per cent of its total operating spend. Supplier costs of $96.152 million accounted for 26 per cent of the total operating spend. These included:

• observations consumables;

• lease costs associated with premises;

• costs associated with travel; and

• communication and software services costs.

Asset-associated operating costs were $72.228 million for depreciation and amortisation, or 20 per cent of operating costs. Other substantial costs included meeting Australia’

s contributions to the

World Meteorological Organization and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and foreign exchange losses.

Total resources

“(1)

Budget* 2013-14”

$’000

“(2)

Actual** Expenses 2013-14”

$’000

“Variation (Col (2) minus Col (1))”

$’000

Budget*** 2014-15

$’000

TOTAL PRICE OF ADMINISTERED PROGRAM 0 0 0 0

TOTAL PRICE OF DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS 353,200 364,271 11,071 356,917

Revenue from Government

(Appropriation) for Departmental Outputs 213,325 218,203

(Appropriation) for Departmental capital budget 41,794 44,551

(Appropriation) for Departmental non-operating

- equity injections 14,592 9,842

(Appropriation) for Administered expenses 0 0

Revenue from other sources 75,408 70,409

TOTAL FOR OUTCOME 1 "(Total Price of Output Groups and Administered expenses) ****

345,119

343,005

2013-14* “2013-14 Actual” “Variation (Col (2)

minus Col (1))”

2014-15***

Average Staffing Levels (Ex capitalised asl) 1,536.0 1,509.0 -27.0 1,450.0

* As per 2013-14 Portfolio Budget Statements. ** As per the 2013-14 Financial Statements. *** As per 2014-15 Portfolio Budget Statements. **** The Departmental Capital Budget was introduced in 2010-11 and appropriation for depreciation was removed from output group expenses.

136 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Purchasing All purchasing of property and services was conducted in accordance with the Australian Government Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, Commonwealth procurement rules (CPRs), and internal policy, procedures and guidelines.

During 2013-14, the Bureau complied with the mandatory procurement procedures outlined in the CPRs. The Bureau’s open tender opportunities and Annual Procurement Plan were advertised on AusTender. The plan outlines expected tender opportunities for the upcoming financial year and provides an early alert to the marketplace of these opportunities. The Bureau’s Annual Procurement Plan is available from the AusTender website at www.tenders.gov.au.

Details of contracts with a value of $10 000 (inclusive of GST) were published on AusTender, excluding those in the exempt category.

The Bureau also complied with the mandatory requirements to publish all contracts valued at $100 000 (inclusive of GST) or more entered into during 2013-14 and the 2013 calendar year in accordance with the Senate Order on Government Agency Contracts.

Asset management To deliver its services to the Australian public, the Bureau manages an asset base valued at $528 million excluding inventories and cash, prepayments and receivables.

Asset Amount

Land and buildings $122 million

Property, plant and equipment $355 million

Intangible assets $52 million

Inventories $10 million

Cash and receivables $87 million

Several asset management initiatives were undertaken during 2013-14, including:

• a revaluation of the Bureau’s property plant and equipment asset class undertaken by Rodney

Hyman Assets Services Pty Ltd; and

• stocktakes at the Tasmanian, South Australian, West Australian, Northern Territory

, New South

Wales, Queensland and Victorian Regional Offices, at the Canberra office, and at the Campbellfield warehouse in Victoria.

increase in expenditure compared to last year

3.6%

A TOTAL OF

Bureau expenditure

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 $ milion

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Employees Suppliers Other Depreciation

137 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

4

Organisational management

The Bureau’s asset investment and replacement program was continually monitored throughout the year to ensure optimal delivery and use of available resources. This monitoring was conducted via monthly executive meetings and the Bureau’s Capital and Operating Expenditure Committee.

in assets were operated and maintained to deliver services to the Australian community

$520m MORE THAN

Asset base

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 $ million

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Land and buildings Property, plant and equipment

Inventories Cash and receivables Intangible assets

During 2013-14, the Bureau invested $58 million in asset acquisition and construction. Major components of the 2013-14 asset investment and replacement program included:

• a new high-resolution weather radar at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, commissioned in May,

providing continuous radar service coverage for the region;

• the commissioning of boundary layer profilers at Coffs Harbour in New South Wales and Cairns

in Queensland that provide vertical profiles of wind with much greater frequency than traditional weather balloon flights;

• the installation of automatic weather stations at Nerriga, New South Wales, May Downs and Lake Julius in Queensland as part of the Strategic Radar Enhancement Project;

• the installation and commissioning of a remote balloon launcher and hydrogen generator at Giles, South Australia;

• the upgrade of existing remote balloon launcher at Perth Airport in Western Australia;

• the installation of an automatic weather station at Yanakie, Victoria, funded by the Victorian State Gover

nment;

• completion of the Bureau’s supercomputer mid-life upgrade;

• continued roll-out of desktop computer replacements, delivering reliable end-user systems to employees;

• completion of phases 1 and 2 of a rebuild of the national communications network Weathernet. These pr

ovided the capacity, stability and back-up required by the Bureau’s operations, especially under emergency conditions; and

• modernisation of the data communications systems for the weather station network, including centralised data management. This allows staff to monitor the performance of the complete automatic weather stations network fr

om a central point at the Bureau’s Head Office.

Investments in property and leasehold management in 2013-14 included:

• a new meteorological office with modern facilities and communications replaced the old office at Mount Isa, Queensland;

• relocation of West Australian Regional Office in Perth;

138 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• general refurbishment of the Meekatharra, Cape Grim, Cocos Island, Mackay, Alice Springs and Townsville meteor ological offices, the Queensland Regional Office and the Learmonth space

weather facility office in Western Australia;

• upgrade of the desalination pump and generator fuel tank on Willis Island; and

• various structural fit-outs at the Bureau’s Head Office in Melbourne to enable higher workpoint density.

Consultants The selection and engagement of consultants was treated in the same way as the procurement of other property and services and was conducted in accordance with the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, CPRs, and internal policy and procedures.

Three new consultancy contracts were entered into, involving expenditure of $203 775.80 (inclusive of GST). Details of these consultancies are provided in Section 6: Accountability reporting on p. 211.

Exempt contracts The CPRs require the details of certain agency agreements and Commonwealth contracts to be published on AusTender. The CPRs also allow the chief executive of an agency to direct that such details not be published where it is established that the details of an agency agreement or Commonwealth contract (including standing offers) are exempt under the Freedom of Information Act 1982.

In 2013-14 no contracts or standing offers arranged by the Bureau were exempted by the Chief Executive from being published on AusTender on this basis.

Australian National Audit Office access clauses The Bureau’s standard tender documentation and contracts include clauses that provide the Auditor General with access to information held by contractors. During 2013-14, all contracts entered into by the Bureau included such access clauses. Standard access clauses have been developed for inclusion in tender documentation and contracts to provide staff from the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) and the Bureau access to information held by contractors, including third-party subcontractors for the purpose of audits. For details of standard clauses that provide the ANAO with access to contractors’ information, refer to: www.finance.gov.au/publications/anao-access-to-contractor-information/docs/ ANAO_Access_Clauses_With_Header.12.12.07.pdf

Expenditure on legal services Total expenditure on legal services was $1.002 million (exclusive of GST). Expenditure on internal legal services was $0.440 million, which includes direct salary expenses and corporate overheads. Total expenditure on external legal services was $0.562 million, entirely spent on solicitor services. There was no expenditure on counsel services.

F in ancial statemen ts

140 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

141 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

142 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

143 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

NET COST OF SERVICES

Expenses

Employee benefits 3A 191,425 182,808

Suppliers 3B 96,152 92,216

Depreciation and amortisation 3C 72,228 74,090

Losses from asset sales 3D - 34

Finance costs 3E 512 524

Write-down and impairment of assets 3F 1,920 1,498

Foreign exchange losses 3G 163 78

Other expenses 3H 1,871 1,756

Total expenses 364,271 353,004

Own-Source Income

Own-source revenue

Sale of goods and rendering of services 4A 73,882 73,259

Other revenue 4B 3,497 356

Total own-source revenue 77,379 73,615

Gains

Gains from sale of assets 4C 31 -

Foreign exchange gains 4D 132 52

Total gains 163 52

Total own-source income 77,542 73,667

Net cost of services 286,729 279,337

Revenue from Government 4E 212,930 209,931

Deficit (73,799) (69,406)

OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

Items not subject to subsequent reclassification to net cost of services

Changes in asset revaluation surplus 149,613 -

Total other comprehensive income 149,613 -

Total comprehensive income / (loss) 75,814 (69,406)

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

144 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION as at 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

ASSETS

Financial Assets

Cash and cash equivalents 6A 1,953 1,195

Trade and other receivables 6B 85,222 84,944

Other financial assets 6C 5,726 911

Total financial assets 92,901 87,050

Non-Financial Assets

Land and buildings 7A,C 121,686 80,570

Property, plant and equipment 7B,C 354,520 269,145

Intangibles 7D,E 52,199 44,430

Inventories 7F 10,034 10,068

Other non-financial assets 7G 6,290 6,439

Total non-financial assets 544,729 410,652

Total assets 637,630 497,702

LIABILITIES

Payables

Suppliers 8A 16,752 13,495

Other payables 8B 37,604 35,099

Total payables 54,356 48,594

Non-Interest Bearing Liabilities

Other non-interest bearing liabilities 9A 2,292 1,863

Total non-interest bearing liabilities 2,292 1,863

Provisions

Employee provisions 10A 72,893 72,197

Other provisions 10B 21,224 20,382

Total provisions 94,117 92,579

Total liabilities 150,765 143,036

Net assets 486,865 354,666

EQUITY

Contributed equity 487,194 430,808

Reserves 243,400 93,786

Accumulated deficit (243,729) (169,928)

Total equity 486,865 354,666

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

145 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY for the period ended 30 June 2014

Retained Earnings Asset Revaluation Surplus Contributed Equity/Capital

Total Equity

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

Opening balance

Balance carried forward from previous period

(169,928) (100,522) 93,786 93,786 430,808 380,098 354,666 373,362

Adjustment for rounding

(2) - 1 - - - (1) -

Adjusted opening balance

(169,930) (100,522) 93,787 93,786 430,808 380,098 354,665 373,362

Comprehensive Income Deficit for the period (73,799) (69,406) - - - - (73,799) (69,406) Other comprehensive income

- - 149,613 - - - 149,613 -

Total comprehensive income

(73,799) (69,406) 149,613 - - - 75,814 (69,406)

Transactions with owners

Contributions by owners

Equity injection - Appropriations

- - - - 14,592 8,984 14,592 8,984

Departmental capital budget

- - - - 41,794 41,726 41,794 41,726

Total transactions with owners

- - - - 56,386 50,710 56,386 50,710

Closing balance as at 30 June

(243,729) (169,928) 243,400 93,786 487,194 430,808 486,865 354,666

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

146 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY CASH FLOW STATEMENT for the period ended 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

OPERATING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Appropriations 296,513 297,636

Sales of goods and rendering of services 86,335 82,972

Net GST received 5,917 3,668

Total cash received 388,765 384,276

Cash used

Employees (194,694) (182,222)

Suppliers (108,321) (110,927)

Section 31 receipts transferred to OPA (80,630) (86,330)

Total cash used (383,645) (379,479)

Net cash from operating activities 11 5,120 4,797

INVESTING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment 31 179

Total cash received 31 179

Cash used

Purchase of property, plant and equipment and intangibles (57,922) (55,538)

Total cash used (57,922) (55,538)

Net cash used by investing activities (57,891) (55,359)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Contributed equity 53,529 51,313

Total cash received 53,529 51,313

Net cash from financing activities 53,529 51,313

Net increase (decrease) in cash held 758 751

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period

1,195

444

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period

6A

1,953

1,195

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

147 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY SCHEDULE OF COMMITMENTS as at 30 June 2014

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

BY TYPE

Commitments receivable

Net GST recoverable on commitments 10,372 11,072

Total commitments receivable 10,372 11,072

Commitments payable

Capital commitments

Property, plant and equipment 1 (7,794) (8,517)

Total capital commitments (7,794) (8,517)

Other commitments

Operating leases 2 (94,942) (92,473)

Purchase orders and vehicles 3 (14,302) (23,603)

Total other commitments (109,244) (116,076)

Total commitments payable (117,038) (124,593)

Net commitments by type (106,666) (113,521)

BY MATURITY

Commitments receivable

Capital commitments

Property, plant and equipment1

Within 1 year 634 642

Between 1 to 5 years - 40

Total capital commitments 634 682

Other commitments

Operating lease income2

Within 1 year 2,042 1,894

Between 1 to 5 years 4,574 4,872

More than 5 years 2,005 1,626

Total operating lease commitments 8,621 8,392

Other3

Within 1 year 1,013 1,048

Between 1 to 5 years 104 950

Total other commitments 1,117 1,998

Total commitments receivable 10,372 11,072

Commitments payable

Capital commitments

Within 1 year (7,794) (7,848)

Between 1 to 5 years - (669)

Total capital commitments (7,794) (8,517)

Operating lease commitments

Within 1 year (22,521) (20,899)

Between 1 to 5 years (50,357) (53,662)

More than 5 years (22,064) (17,912)

Total operating lease commitments (94,942) (92,473)

Other commitments

Within 1 year (13,127) (13,103)

Between 1 to 5 years (1,175) (10,500)

Total other commitments (14,302) (23,603)

Total commitments payable (117,038) (124,593)

Net commitments by maturity (106,666) (113,521)

148 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY SCHEDULE OF COMMITMENTS as at 30 June 2014

Note: Commitments are GST inclusive where relevant. 1

Property, plant and equipment commitments are primarily contracts for purchases of radars and IT equipment.

2 Operating leases included are effectively non-cancellable and include:

Nature of lease General description of leasing arrangements

Leases for office accommodation Lease payments are subject to increases in accordance with terms as negotiated under the lease. The periods of office accommodation leases are able to be renewed at the Bureau’s option as allowed under the lease terms.

Special Purpose Premises Lease payments are subject to increases in accordance with terms as negotiated under the lease. The periods of special purpose premises leases are able to be renewed at the Bureau’s option as allowed under the lease terms.

3 Other commitments relate to contracts for goods and services in respect of which the contracted party has yet to provide the goods and services r

equired under the contract.

The above schedule should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

149 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY SCHEDULE OF CONTINGENCIES as at 30 June 2014

2014 $’000

2013 $’000

Contingent assets

Claims for damages or costs 61 3,252

Lease incentives 29 29

Total contingent assets 90 3,281

Quantifiable Contingencies

Contingent assets

The Bureau of Meteorology has a number of claims with Comcover in respect of property damage.

A claim to the value of $61,000 (2013: $3,252,000) has been lodged with Comcover for assessment, relating to storm damage to Bureau of Meteorology’s property at Culgoora. The estimate is based on information provided by Bureau staff to the Comcover assessor.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s current lease for its New South Wales Regional Office entitles it in the future to a lease incentive of $29,000. This incentive is not available until fit out works on Level 16 of the premises are complete. The expected date of completion is in the first half of 2014-15 financial year.

Contingent liabilities

At 30 June 2014, the Bureau of Meteorology had no contingent liabilities. (2013: No contingent liabilities were disclosed).

The above schedule should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

150 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED SCHEDULE OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

NET COST OF SERVICES

Expenses

Other expenses 16A 15 -

Total expenses 15 -

Income

Revenue

Non-taxation revenue

Sale of goods and rendering of services 17A 879 11

Other revenue 17B 396 708

Total revenue 1,275 719

Net contribution by services (1,260) (719)

Surplus 1,260 719

Total comprehensive income 1,260 719

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

151 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED SCHEDULE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES as at 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

ASSETS

Financial assets

Cash and cash equivalents 18A - -

Trade and other receivables 18B 266 253

Other financial assets 18C 443 206

Total financial assets 709 459

Total assets administered on behalf of Government 709 459

LIABILITIES

Payables

Other payables 20A 24 8

Total payables 24 8

Total liabilities administered on behalf of Government 24 8

Net assets 685 451

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

152 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED RECONCILIATION SCHEDULE

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

Opening assets less liabilities as at 1 July 451 345

Net contribution by services

Income 1,275 719

Expenses

Payments to Non-CAC Act bodies (15) -

Transfers (to)/from the Australian Government

Appropriation transfers to OPA

Transfers to OPA (1,026) (613)

Closing assets less liabilities as at 30 June 685 451

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

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Financial statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED CASH FLOW STATEMENT for the period ended 30 June 2014

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

OPERATING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Sale of goods and rendering of services 1,025 260

Net GST received 1 337

Total cash received 1,026 597

Net cash flows from operating activities 21 1,026 597

Net increase in cash held 1,026 597

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period - 16

Cash to Official Public Account

Cash transfers to Official Public Account (1,026) (613)

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period 18A - -

This schedule should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

154 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS for the period ended 30 June 2014

Table of Contents - Notes

Note Description Page

1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies 155

2 Events After the Reporting Period 164

3 Expenses 165

4 Own-Source Income 167

5 Fair Value Measurements 168

6 Financial Assets 171

7 Non-Financial Assets 173

8 Payables 180

9 Non-Interest Bearing Liabilities 181

10 Provisions 181

11 Cash Flow Reconciliation 183

12 Senior Executive Remuneration 184

13 Remuneration of Auditors 189

14 Financial Instruments 190

15 Financial Assets Reconciliation 193

16 Administered - Expenses 194

17 Administered - Income 194

18 Administered - Financial Assets 195

19 Administered - Non-Financial Assets 195

20 Administered - Payables 195

21 Administered - Cash Flow Reconciliation 196

22 Administered - Financial Instruments 197

23 Administered Financial Assets Reconciliation 200

24 Appropriations 201

25 Special Accounts 206

26 Compensation and Debt Relief 208

27 Reporting of Outcomes 209

28 Net Cash Appropriation Arrangements 210

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

1.1 Objectives of the Bureau of Meteorology

The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian Government controlled entity. It is a not-for-profit entity.

The Bureau of Meteorology is responsible to meet one outcome:

“Informed safety, security and economic decisions by governments, industry and the community through the provision of information, forecasts, services and research relating to weather, climate and water”.

The continued existence of the Bureau of Meteorology in its present form and with its present programs, is dependent on Government policy and on continuing funding by Parliament for the Bureau of Meteorology’s administration and programs.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s activities contributing toward this outcome are classified as either departmental or administered. Departmental activities involve the use of assets, liabilities, income and expenses controlled or incurred by the Bureau of Meteorology in its own right. Administered activities involve the management or oversight by the Bureau of Meteorology, on behalf of the Government, of items controlled or incurred by the Government.

The Bureau of Meteorology is the national meteorological authority. Its mission is to provide Australians with the environmental intelligence they need to manage and live within their natural environment, encompassing the atmosphere, oceans, waters and land. To achieve this, the Bureau of Meteorology:

• Provides forecasts, warnings and long-term outlooks on weather, climate, water and other envir

onmental phenomena;

• Monitors and reports on current environmental conditions; • Analyses and explains trends in environmental data; and • Fosters great public understanding and use of environmental intelligence.

Under its Strategic Plan 2010-15, the Bureau of Meteorology will continue to r

efine its range of products and services and

improve accessibility to better meet the needs of Australians, increasing the contribution it makes to their safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity by:

• Designing and delivering products and services to maximise the value to Australia; • Pursuing operational improvements to continue to deliver efficient and effective outcomes; • Closely engaging with stakeholders, including governments, industry and the community, to better inform the Bureau of Meteor

ology’s priorities and activities; • Creating and maintaining a high-performing and diverse workforce, with a culture of innovation and service, and a workplace that keeps staff safe and fulfilled professionally; • Modernising and extending the capability of operational infrastructure, including information and communication

technologies, observing systems and facilities; and • Extending its understanding of, and ability to forecast, Australia’s climate, land and water resources, and the ecosystems

that depend on them.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s work directly informs decisions by governments, industry and the community and supports all Australians, the Australian Defence Force and key sectors such as emergency management, aviation, transport, water management, agriculture and environmental management. The Bureau of Meteorology’s program of activities is facilitated by supporting functions including information technology, research and development, data systems, and corporate and business units.

The Bureau of Meteorology faces a number of challenges as the demand for its services continues to rise. The increasing incidence and severity of extreme weather events in Australia, along with greater community awareness of the risks, is stretching the Bureau of Meteorology’s ability to respond to the expectations of stakeholders and users. As the community’s preference for receiving information via the internet and mobile communication devices continues to grow, the Bureau of Meteorology must look at delivering products and services in new ways that build on and enhance its current service access for all Australians. The Bureau of Meteorology must also carefully manage its information communication technology and infrastructure assets to ensure they continue to effectively support the delivery of frontline services.

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1.2 Basis of Preparation of the Financial Statements

The financial statements are general purpose financial statements and are required by section 49 of the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997.

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with:

a) Finance Minister’s Orders (FMOs) for reporting periods ending on or after 1 July 2013; and b) Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) that

apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. Except where stated, no allowance is made for the effect of changing prices on the results or the financial position.

The financial statements are presented in Australian dollars and values are rounded to the nearest thousand dollars unless otherwise specified.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an Accounting Standard or the FMOs, assets and liabilities are recognised in the balance sheet when and only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Bureau of Meteorology or a future sacrifice of economic benefits will be required and the amounts of the assets or liabilities can be reliably measured. However, assets and liabilities arising under executor contracts are not recognised unless required by an accounting standard. Assets and liabilities that are unrecognised are reported in the Schedule of Commitments or the Schedule of Contingencies.

Unless alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard, income and expenses are recognised in the Statement of Comprehensive Income when and only when the flow, consumption or loss of economic benefits has occurred and can be reliably measured.

The Australian Government continues to have regard to developments in case law, including the High Court’s most recent decision on Commonwealth expenditure in Williams v Commonwealth (2012) 288 ALR 410; as they contribute to the larger body of law relevant to the development of Commonwealth programs. In accordance with its general practice, the Government will continue to monitor and assess risk and decide on any appropriate actions to respond to risks of expenditure not being consistent with constitutional or other legal requirements.

1.3 Significant Accounting Judgements and Estimates

In the process of applying the accounting policies listed in this note, the Bureau of Meteorology has made the following judgements that have the most significant impact on the amounts recorded in the financial statements:

• The fair value of land and buildings has been taken to be the market value of similar properties as determined by an independent valuer. In some instances, Bureau of Meteor

ology buildings are purpose-built and may in fact realise more

or less in the market; and • The liabilities for annual leave and long service leave have been determined by reference to an actuary’s assessment as at 30 June 2014.

No accounting assumptions or estimates have been identified that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to

carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next reporting period.

1.4 New Australian Accounting Standards

Adoption of new Australian Accounting Standard Requirements No accounting standard has been adopted earlier than the application date as stated in the standard.

The following new standards, revised standards, interpretations and amending standards were issued prior to the signing of the statements by the Director of Meteorology and Chief Financial Officer, were applicable to the current reporting period and had a financial impact on the Bureau of Meteorology.

AASB 13 Fair Value Measurement - December 2012 (Compilation) AASB 119 Employee Benefits - December 2012 (Compilation)

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

All other new standards, revised standards, interpretations and amending standards that were issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board prior to the signing of the statement by the Director of Meteorology and Chief Financial Officer, and are applicable to the current reporting period have been considered and are not expected to have a material future financial impact on the Bureau of Meteorology.

Future Australian Accounting Standard Requirements Of any new standards, revised standards, amended standards or interpretations that have been issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board prior to the sign off date that are applicable to the future reporting period and are expected to have a future material impact on the Bureau of Meteorology’s financial statements, it is determined AASB 1055 Budgetary Reporting will impose additional disclosure requirements.

1.5 Revenue

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when:

a) the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer; b) the Bureau of Meteorology retains no managerial involvement or effective contr

ol over the goods;

c) the revenue and transaction costs incurred can be reliably measured; and d) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Bureau of Meteorology.

Revenue fr

om rendering of services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of contracts at the reporting date. The revenue is recognised when:

a) the amount of revenue, stage of completion and transaction costs incurred can be reliably measured; and b) the probable economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Bureau of Meteorology.

The stage of completion of contracts at the r

eporting date is determined by reference to the proportion that costs incurred to

date bear to the estimated total costs of the transaction.

Receivables for goods and services, which have 30 day terms, are recognised at the nominal amounts due, less any impairment allowance account. Collectability of debts is reviewed each month end. Allowances are made when the collectability of the debt is no longer probable.

Resources Received Free of Charge Resources received free of charge are recognised as revenue when, and only when, a fair value can be reliably determined and the services would have been purchased if they had not been donated. Use of those resources is recognised as an expense. Resources received free of charge are recorded as either revenue or gains depending on their nature.

Contributions of assets at no cost of acquisition or for nominal consideration are recognised as gains at their fair value when the asset qualifies for recognition, unless received from another Government agency or authority as a consequence of a restructuring of administrative arrangements (refer Note 1.7).

Revenue from Government Amounts appropriated for departmental appropriations for the year (adjusted for any formal additions and reductions) are recognised as Revenue from Government when the Bureau of Meteorology gains control of the appropriation, except for certain amounts that relate to activities that are reciprocal in nature, in which case revenue is recognised only when it has been earned. Appropriations receivable are recognised at their nominal amounts.

1.6 Gains

Resources Received Free of Charge Resources received free of charge are recognised as gains when and only when, a fair value can be reliably determined and the services would have been purchased if they had not been donated. Use of those resources is recognised as an expense.

Resources received free of charge are r

ecorded as either revenue or gains depending on their nature.

Contributions of assets at no cost of acquisition or for nominal consideration are recognised as gains at their fair value when the asset qualifies for recognition, unless received from another Government entity as a consequence of a restructuring of administrative arrangements (refer to Note 1.7).

Sale of Assets Gains (or losses) from disposal of assets are recognised when control of the asset has passed to the buyer.

158 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1.7 Transactions with the Government as Owner

Equity Injections Amounts appropriated which are designated as ‘equity injections’ for a year (less any formal reductions) and Departmental Capital Budgets (DCBs), are recognised directly in contributed equity in that year.

Restructuring of Administrative Arrangements Net assets received from or relinquished to another Government entity under a restructuring of administrative arrangements are adjusted at their book value directly against contributed equity.

Other Distributions to Owners The FMOs require that distributions to owners be debited to contributed equity unless it is in the nature of a dividend.

1.8 Employee Benefits

Liabilities for ‘short-term employee benefits’ (as defined in AASB 119 Employee Benefits) and termination benefits expected within twelve months of the end of reporting period are measured at their nominal amounts.

The nominal amount is calculated with regard to the rates expected to be paid on settlement of the liability.

Other long-term employee benefits are measured as net total of the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period minus the fair value at the end of the reporting period of plan assets (if any), out of which the obligations are to be settled directly.

Leave The liability for employee benefits includes provision for annual leave and long service leave. No provision has been made for sick leave as all sick leave is non-vesting and the average sick leave taken in future years by employees of the Bureau of Meteorology is estimated to be equal or less than the annual entitlement for sick leave.

The leave liabilities are calculated on the basis of employees’ remuneration at the estimated salary rates that will be applied at the time leave is taken, including the Bureau of Meteorology’s employer superannuation contribution rates to the extent that the leave is likely to be taken during service rather than paid out on termination.

The liabilities for annual leave and long service leave have been determined by reference to the work of an actuary as at 30 June 2014. The estimate of the present value of the liability takes into account attrition rates and pay increases through promotion and inflation.

Separation and Redundancy Provision is made for separation and redundancy benefit payments. The Bureau of Meteorology recognises a provision for termination when it has developed a detailed formal plan for the terminations and has informed those employees affected that it will carry out the terminations.

Superannuation Staff of the Bureau of Meteorology are members of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS), the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS), the PSS accumulation plan (PSSap), Australian Government Employees Superannuation Trust (AGEST) and other external schemes.

The CSS and PSS are defined benefit schemes for the Australian Government. The PSSap and AGEST are defined contribution schemes.

The liability for defined benefits is recognised in the financial statements of the Australian Government and is settled by the Australian Government in due course. This liability is reported in the Department of Finance’s administered schedules and notes.

The Bureau of Meteorology makes employer contributions to the employees’ superannuation scheme at rates determined by an actuary to be sufficient to meet the current cost to the Government. The Bureau of Meteorology accounts for the contributions as if they were contributions to defined contribution plans.

The liability for superannuation recognised as at 30 June 2014 represents outstanding contributions for the final pay fortnight of the financial year.

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Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1.9 Leases

A distinction is made between finance leases and operating leases. Finance leases effectively transfer from the lessor to the lessee substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of leased assets. An operating lease is a lease that is not a finance lease. In operating leases, the lessor effectively retains substantially all such risks and benefits.

Where an asset is acquired by means of a finance lease, the asset is capitalised at either the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of minimum lease payments at the inception of the contract, and a liability recognised at the same time and for the same amount.

The discount rate used is the interest rate implicit in the lease. Leased assets are amortised over the period of the lease. Lease payments are allocated between the principal component and the interest expense.

Operating lease payments are expensed on a straight line basis which is representative of the pattern of benefits derived from the leased assets.

1.10 Finance Costs

Finance costs relate to the unwinding of the discount associated with the provision for the “make good” of certain assets.

1.11 Fair Value Measurement

The Bureau of Meteorology deems transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy to have occurred at the end of the reporting report.

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any recurring fair value measurements transferred between Level 1 and Level 2 for assets and liabilities to disclose for the period 2013-14.

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have an administered assets or liabilities other than those disclosed in Notes 18 to 20, that require separate disclosure in a fair value measurement note.

1.12 Cash

Cash is recognised at its nominal amount. Cash and cash equivalents includes:

a) cash on hand; b) demand deposits in bank accounts with an original maturity of 3 months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and subject to insignificant risk of changes in value; c) cash held by outsiders; and d) cash in special accounts.

1.13 Financial Assets

The Bureau of Meteorology classifies its financial assets in the following categories:

• financial assets at fair value through profit or loss; • held-to-maturity investments; • available-for-sale financial assets; and • loans and receivables.

The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition. Financial assets ar

e recognised and derecognised upon trade date.

Effective Interest Method The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset, or, where appropriate, a shorter period.

Income is recognised on an effective interest rate basis except for financial assets that are recognised at fair value through profit or loss.

Financial Assets at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss where the financial assets:

a) have been acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the near future; b) are derivatives that are not designated and effective as a hedging instrument; or c) are parts of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Bureau of Meteorology manages together and has a r

ecent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking.

Assets in this category are classified as current assets.

160 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are stated at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest earned on the financial asset.

Available-for-Sale Financial Assets Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated in this category or not classified in any of the other categories.

Available-for-sale financial assets are recorded at fair value. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognised directly in reserves (equity) with the exception of impairment losses. Interest is calculated using the effective interest method and foreign exchange gains and losses on monetary assets are recognised directly in profit or loss. Where the asset is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, part (or all) of the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in the reserve is included in surplus and deficit for the period.

Where a reliable fair value cannot be established for unlisted investments in equity instruments, these instruments are valued at cost. The Bureau of Meteorology has no such instruments.

Held-to-Maturity Investments Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity dates that the group has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity investments. Held-to-maturity investments are recorded at amortised cost using the effective interest method less impairment, with revenue recognised on an effective yield basis. The Bureau of Meteorology has no such instruments.

Loans and Receivables Trade receivables, loans and other receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as ‘loans and receivables’. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method less impairment. Interest is recognised by applying the effective interest rate.

Impairment of Financial Assets Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period.

• Financial assets held at amortised cost - if there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred for loans and r

eceivables or held to maturity investments held at amortised cost, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying amount is reduced by way of an allowance account. The loss is recognised in the Statement of Comprehensive Income.

• Available-for-sale financial assets - if there is objective evidence that an impairment loss on an available-for

-sale financial

asset has been incurred, the amount of the difference between its cost, less principal repayments and amortisation, and its current fair value, less any impairment loss previously recognised in expenses, is transferred from equity to the Statement of Comprehensive Income.

• Financial assets held at cost - if there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred the amount of the impairment loss is the dif

ference between the carrying amount of the asset and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate for similar assets.

1.14 Financial Liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities. Financial liabilities are recognised and derecognised upon ‘trade date’.

Financial Liabilities at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent fair value adjustments are recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.

Other Financial Liabilities Other financial liabilities, including borrowings, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. These liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognised on an effective yield basis.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability, or, where appropriate, a shorter period.

Supplier and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced).

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1.15 Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are not recognised in the Statement of Financial Position but are reported in the relevant schedules and notes. They may arise from uncertainty as to the existence of a liability or asset or represent an asset or liability in respect of which the amount cannot be reliably measured. Contingent assets are disclosed when settlement is probable but not virtually certain and contingent liabilities are disclosed when settlement is greater than remote.

1.16 Schedule of Contingencies

Except as disclosed in the Schedule of Contingencies, the Bureau of Meteorology does not have any other contingent liabilities or assets to report.

1.17 Schedule of Administered Items - Commitments / Contingencies

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any administered commitments nor any administered contingent liabilities or assets to report.

1.18 Acquisition of Assets

Assets are recorded at cost on acquisition except as stated below. The cost of acquisition includes the fair value of assets transferred in exchange and liabilities undertaken. Financial assets are initially measured at their fair value plus transaction costs where appropriate.

Assets acquired at no cost, or for nominal consideration, are initially recognised as assets and income at their fair value at the date of acquisition, unless acquired as a consequence of restructuring of administrative arrangements. In the latter case, assets are initially recognised as contributions by owners at the amounts at which they were recognised in the transferor’s accounts immediately prior to the restructuring.

1.19 Property, Plant and Equipment

Asset Recognition Threshold Purchases of property, plant and equipment are recognised initially at cost in the Statement of Financial Position, except for purchases costing less than $2,000 which are expensed in the year of acquisition (other than where they form part of a group of similar items which are significant in total).

The initial cost of an asset includes an estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. This is particularly relevant to ‘make good’ provisions in property leases taken up by the Bureau of Meteorology where there exists an obligation to restore the property to its original condition. These costs are included in the value of the Bureau of Meteorology’s leasehold improvements and relevant assets with a corresponding liability recognised as a provision for ‘make good’ (Note 10B).

Revaluations Following initial recognition at cost, land, buildings, property, plant and equipment were carried at fair value less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Valuations were conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure that the carrying amounts of assets do not differ materially from the assets’ fair values as at the reporting date. The regularity of independent valuations depended upon the volatility of movements in market values for the relevant assets.

The Bureau of Meteorology undertook a review of three of its asset classes (land, buildings, property, plant and equipment and leasehold improvements) during the 2013-14 financial year. Revaluation adjustments were made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment was credited to equity under the heading of asset revaluation reserve except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that was previously recognised in the surplus/deficit. Revaluation decrements for a class of assets were recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reversed a previous revaluation increment for that class.

As at 30 June 2014, a revaluation conducted by an independent valuer has been finalised.

Any accumulated depreciation as at the revaluation date was eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the asset restated to the revalued amount.

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Conduct All valuations are conducted by an independent qualified valuer.

Depreciation Depreciable property, plant and equipment assets are written-off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives to the Bureau of Meteorology using, in all cases, the straight-line method of depreciation. Leasehold improvements are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvements or the unexpired period of the lease. Leased assets are amortised over the period of the lease.

Depreciation rates (useful lives), residual values and methods are reviewed at each reporting date and necessary adjustments are recognised in the current, or current and future reporting periods, as appropriate.

Depreciation rates applying to each class of depreciable asset are based on the following useful lives:

2014 2013

Buildings on freehold land 5 to 50 Years 5 to 50 Years

Leasehold improvements Lease term Lease term

Property, plant and equipment 2 to 50 Years 2 to 15 Years

The aggregate amount of depreciation allocated for each class of asset during the reporting year is disclosed in Note 3C.

Impairment All asset classes were assessed for impairment at 30 June 2014. Where indications of impairment exist, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment adjustment made if the asset’s recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount.

The recoverable amount of an asset is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset. Where the future economic benefit of an asset is not primarily dependent on the asset’s ability to generate future cash flows and the asset would be replaced if the Bureau of Meteorology were deprived of the asset, its value in use is taken to be its depreciated replacement cost.

At 30 June 2014, no indicators of impairment were found for assets (2013: impairments were found and appropriately treated and reported).

Derecognition An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

1.20 Intangibles

The Bureau of Meteorology’s intangibles comprise software licences, purchased software, and internally developed software. The software is carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Software is amortised on a straight-line basis over its anticipated useful life. The useful lives of the Bureau of Meteorology’s software is 3 to 10 years (2013: 3 to 10 years).

All software assets were assessed for indications of impairment as at 30 June 2014. There were no impairments found.

1.21 Inventories

Inventories held for sale are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Inventories not held for resale are valued at cost, or estimated replacement cost, unless they are no longer required, in which case they are valued at net realisable value.

Costs have been assigned to inventory quantities on hand at balance date using the average cost basis.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s inventory holding consists of Publications held for sale and items utilised in the installation of sites, or the repair/maintenance of its equipment.

The inventory is held to ensure that repairs/maintenance can be made at short notice to keep the operational equipment in service. The range of inventory held consists of items which can be utilised across a significant part of the operational network and as such is not limited to a specific piece of equipment. When items of inventory are sold or utilised to make repairs/maintenance to equipment, the carrying amount of the items are recognised as an expense.

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Items held for the purposes of major spare parts or as stand-by equipment are classified in the Bureau of Meteorology’s accounts and records as Property, Plant and Equipment in accordance with AASB 116.

1.22 Taxation / Competitive Neutrality

The Bureau of Meteorology is exempt from all forms of taxation except Fringe Benefits Tax (FBT) and the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

Revenues, expenses and assets are recognised net of GST except:

a) where the amount of GST incurred is not recoverable from the Australian T

axation Office; and

b) for receivables and payables.

Competitive Neutrality The Bureau of Meteorology has no operations which are captur

ed under Competitive Neutrality Arrangements such as

Australian Income Tax Equivalent payments to the Government.

1.23 Foreign Currency

Transactions denominated in a foreign currency are converted at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Foreign currency receivables and payables are translated at the current exchange rates as at balance date. Associated currency gains and losses are not material.

1.24 Reporting of Administered Activities

Administered revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows are disclosed in the administered schedules and related notes.

Except where otherwise stated below, administered items are accounted for on the same basis and using the same policies as for departmental items, including the application of Australian Accounting Standards.

Administered Cash Transfers to and from Official Public Account Revenue collected by the Bureau of Meteorology for use by the Government rather than the Bureau of Meteorology is administered revenue. Collections are transferred to the Official Public Account (OPA) maintained by the Department of Finance. Conversely, cash is drawn from the OPA to make payments under Parliamentary appropriation on behalf of Government. These transfers to and from the OPA are adjustments to the administered cash held by the Bureau of Meteorology on behalf of the Government and reported as such in the schedule of administered cash flows and in the administered reconciliation schedule.

Revenue All administered revenues are revenues relating to ordinary activities performed by the Bureau of Meteorology on behalf of the Australian Government. As such, administered appropriations are not revenues of the individual entity that oversees distribution or expenditure of the funds as directed.

Revenue is generated from advertising on the Bureau of Meteorology’s website. Administered advertising revenue is recognised when advertisements are displayed. Collectability of debts is reviewed at end of the reporting period. Impairment allowances are made when collectability of the debt is judged to be less rather than more likely.

Receivables Where receivables are not subject to concessional treatment, they are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Gains and losses due to impairment, derecognition and amortisation are recognised through profit and loss.

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2 Events After the Reporting Period

Departmental

There was no subsequent event that had the potential to significantly affect the ongoing structure and financial activities of the Bur

eau of Meteorology.

Administered

There was no subsequent event that had the potential to significantly affect the ongoing structure and financial activities of the Bur

eau of Meteorology.

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Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

3 Expenses

3A Employee Benefits

Wages and salaries1 137,303 130,358

Superannuation

Defined contribution plans 11,077 9,950

Defined benefit plans 18,106 16,376

Leave and other entitlements 20,385 19,893

Separation and redundancies1 3,776 5,419

Other 778 812

Total employee benefits 191,425 182,808

1. Separation and redundancies include all costs associated with staff separations, including annual leave, long service leave and penalty on separations which is also reflected in prior year.

3B Suppliers

Goods and services supplied or rendered

Consultants 103 676

Contractors 16,703 10,093

Communication and consumables running the observing network 31,070 33,618

Communication and IT related consumables - other 11,301 9,348

Property operating expenses 7,845 8,926

Other 6,450 11,139

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 73,472 73,800

Goods supplied in connection with

Related parties 137 1,368

External parties 6,259 6,070

Total goods supplied 6,396 7,438

Services rendered in connection with

Related parties 1,440 12,206

External parties 65,636 54,156

Total services rendered 67,076 66,362

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 73,472 73,800

Other suppliers

Operating lease rentals in connection with

External parties

Minimum lease payments 21,416 17,118

Workers compensation expenses 1,264 1,298

Total other suppliers 22,680 18,416

Total suppliers 96,152 92,216

166 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

3C Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation

Property, plant and equipment 50,198 54,407

Buildings 4,914 5,097

Total depreciation 55,112 59,504

Amortisation

Intangibles

Computer software 17,113 14,582

Other 3 4

Total amortisation 17,116 14,586

Total depreciation and amortisation 72,228 74,090

3D Losses from Asset Sales

Land and buildings

Proceeds from sale - (165)

Carrying value of assets sold - 164

Property, plant and equipment

Proceeds from sale - (14)

Carrying value of assets sold - 49

Total losses from asset sales - 34

3E Finance Costs

Unwinding of discount 511 524

Other 1 -

Total finance costs 512 524

3F Write-Down and Impairment of Assets

Impairment on financial instruments 5 -

Impairment of property, plant and equipment 1,377 1,242

Impairment of inventories 538 256

Total write-down and impairment of assets 1,920 1,498

3G Foreign Exchange Losses

Non-speculative 163 78

Total foreign exchange losses 163 78

3H Other Expenses

Contributions to World Meteorological Organization and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

1,871

1,756

Total other expenses 1,871 1,756

167 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

4 Own-Source Income

Own Source Revenue

4A Sale of Goods and Rendering of Services

Sale of goods in connection with

Related parties 406 717

External parties 1,906 1,914

Total sale of goods 2,312 2,631

Rendering of services in connection with

Related parties 12,562 19,250

External parties 59,008 51,378

Total rendering of services 71,570 70,628

Total sale of goods and rendering of services 73,882 73,259

4B Other Revenue

Recoveries of expenditure 203 176

Resources received free of charge - ANAO 82 107

Assets and inventory recognised for the first time

Property, plant and equipment, inventory 53 65

Insurance refunds 3,157 3

Other 2 5

Total other revenue 3,497 356

Gains

4C Gains from Sale of Assets

Property, plant and equipment

Proceeds from sale 31 -

Carrying value of assets sold - -

Total gains from sale of assets 31 -

4D Foreign Exchange Gains

Non-speculative 132 52

Total foreign exchange gains 132 52

4E Revenue from Government

Appropriations

Departmental appropriation 212,930 209,931

Total revenue from Government 212,930 209,931

168 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 5 Fair Value Measurements

The following tables provide an analysis of assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value.

The different levels of the fair value hierarchy are defined below.

Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at measurement date.

Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

5A Fair Value Measurements

Fair value measurements at the end of the reporting period by hierarchy for assets and liabilities in 2014

Fair value measurements at the end of the reporting period using

Fair value $'000

Level 1 inputs $'000

Level 2 inputs $'000

Level 3 inputs $'000

Non-financial assets Land 17,699 - 17,699 - Buildings on owned land

13,312 - 13,312 -

Buildings on non owned land

94,010 - - 94,010

Property, plant and equipment

326,708 - - 326,708

Vehicles 214 - 214 -

Total non-financial assets

451,943 - 31,225 420,718

Total fair value measurements of assets in the statement of financial position

451,943 - 31,225 420,718

169 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 5B Valuation Technique and Inputs for Level 2 and Level 3 Fair Value Measurements Level 2 and 3 fair value measurements - valuation technique and the inputs used for assets and liabilities in 2014

Category (Level 2 or Level 3) Fair value Valuation technique(s)

1

Inputs used Range

(weighted average)

2

$'000

Non-financial assets Land Level 2 17,699 Market Approach based on comparable sales in an active

market.

Not Applicable. Not Applicable Buildings on owned land

Level 2 13,312 Market Approach based on comparable sales in an active

market.

Not Applicable. Not Applicable

Buildings on non owned land

Level 3 94,010 Cost Approach, Depreciated Optimised Replacement

Cost, current replacement cost of an asset less accumulated depreciation calculated on the basis of such cost to reflect the already consumed economic benefits, expired economic benefits or obsolencence of the asset.

Lengths of Leases for the occupied land, valuation assume current most probable lease length.

Not Applicable

Property, plant and equipment

Level 3 326,708 Cost Approach, Depreciated Optimised Replacement

Cost, current replacement cost of an asset less accumulated depreciation calculated on the basis of such cost to reflect the already consumed economic benefits, expired economic benefits or obsolencence of the asset.

Physical obsolescence (useful lives), valuation has been conducted based on a combination of historic useful lives of the assets and future potential useful lives.

Not Applicable

Vehicles Level 2 214 Market Approach based on comparable sales in an active

market.

Not Applicable

1. No change in valuation technique occurred during the period. 2. Significant unobservable inputs only. Not applicable for assets or liabilities in the Level 2 category. Recurring and non-recurring Level 3 fair value measurements - valuation processes Bureau of Meteorology procured valuation services from Rodney Hyman Assets Services Pty Ltd (RHAS). AON Services Pty Ltd (AON) provided valuation services for the land and buildings. The

Bureau of Meteorology have relied upon a valuation model(s) provided by the AVO. The Bureau of Meteorology tests the procedures of the valuation model at least once every twelve months. RHAS and AON provided written assurance to the Bureau of Meteorology that the valuation model(s) developed comply with AASB 13.

Recurring Level 3 fair value measurements - sensitivity of inputs The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of the Bureau of Meteorology’s Property Plant and Equipment assets is physical obsolenscene, this being expressed as an assets useful life. Significant increases (decreases) in this input in isolation would result in a significantly lower (higher) fair value measurement.

170 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 5C Reconciliation for Recurring Level 3 Fair Value Measurements

Recurring Level 3 fair value measurements - reconciliation for assets

Non-financial assets

Buildings

2014 $'000

Property, plant and equipment 2014 $'000

Total

2014 $'000

Opening balance 54,527 190,061 244,588

Total gains/(losses) recognised in other comprehensive income

1

35,880 106,972 142,852

Purchases 1,329 38,558 39,887

Sales - 1 1

Settlements 2,274 (8,884) (6,610)

Closing balance 94,010 326,708 420,718

1. These gains/(losses) are presented in the Statement of Comprehensive Income under changes in asset revaluation reserve.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s policy for determining when transfers between levels are deemed to have occurred can be found in Note 1.

171 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

6 Financial Assets

6A Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash at bank 1,864 1,101

Cash on hand 38 36

Cash held by outsiders 51 58

Total cash and cash equivalents 1,953 1,195

6B Trade and Other Receivables

Goods and services receivables in connection with

Related parties 1,596 2,432

External parties 7,499 6,491

Total goods and services receivables 9,095 8,923

Appropriations receivables

Existing programs 69,777 72,730

Departmental capital budget 1,352 1,179

Equity injection 3,311 628

Total appropriations receivables 74,440 74,537

Other receivables

GST receivable from the Australian Taxation Office 1,765 1,512

Total other receivables 1,765 1,512

Total trade and other receivables (gross) 85,300 84,972

Less impairment allowance

Goods and services (78) (28)

Total impairment allowance (78) (28)

Total trade and other receivables (net) 85,222 84,944

Trade and other receivables (net) expected to be recovered

No more than 12 months 85,222 84,944

Total trade and other receivables (net) 85,222 84,944

Trade and other receivables (gross) aged as follows

Not overdue 83,858 82,942

Overdue by

0 to 30 days 1,034 1,509

31 to 60 days 125 379

61 to 90 days 4 20

More than 90 days 279 122

Total trade and other receivables (gross) 85,300 84,972

172 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

Impairment allowance aged as follows

Not overdue

More than 90 days (78) (28)

Total impairment allowance (78) (28)

Credit terms are net 30 days (2013: 30 days).

Reconciliation of the Impairment Allowance Movements in relation to 2014

Goods and Services 2014 $'000

Total 2014 $'000

Opening balance (28) (28)

Amounts written off 5 5

Increase recognised in net cost of services (55) (55)

Closing balance (78) (78)

Movements in relation to 2013

Goods and Services 2013 $'000

Total 2013 $'000

Opening balance (18) (18)

Increase recognised in net cost of services (10) (10)

Closing balance (28) (28)

6C Other Financial Assets

Accrued Revenues - Goods and services 5,726 911

Total other financial assets 5,726 911

173 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

7 Non-Financial Assets

7A Land and Buildings

Land

Fair Value 17,699 13,202

Total land 17,699 13,202

Buildings on freehold land

Work in progress 408 -

Fair value 107,322 82,672

Accumulated depreciation (3,743) (15,304)

Accumulated impairment losses - -

Total buildings on freehold land 103,987 67,368

Total land and buildings 121,686 80,570

No indicators of impairment were found for land and buildings.

No land or buildings were expected to be sold or disposed of within the next 12 months.

7B Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment

Work in progress 41,444 37,881

Fair value 326,922 353,221

Accumulated depreciation (13,846) (121,951)

Accumulated impairment losses - (6)

Total property, plant and equipment 354,520 269,145

No indicators of impairment were found for property, plant and equipment.

Four properties (land and buildings) have been identified for future sale within the next 12 months.

Revaluation of non-financial assets All revaluations are conducted in accordance with the revaluation policy stated at Note 1.19.

The Bureau of Meteorology undertook a review of its asset classes during the 2013-14 financial year.

A revaluation on the Bureau's asset classes of land, buildings and property, plant and equipment was undertaken during the 2013-14 financial year. The revaluation date was 30th April 2014.

174 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Note 7C Reconciliation of the Opening and Closing Balances of Property, Plant and Equipment

Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of property, plant and equipment for 2014

Land

($’000)

Buildings

($’000)

Total land and buildings ($’000)

Other property, plant and equipment ($’000)

Total

($’000)

As at 1 July 2013

Gross book value 13,202 82,672 95,874 391,102 486,976

Accumulated depreciation and impairment

- (15,304) (15,304) (121,957) (137,261)

Total as at 1 July 2013

13,202 67,368 80,570 269,145 349,715

Additions

Purchase - 1,372 1,372 38,590 39,962

Revaluation and impairments recognised in other comprehensive income

4,497

38,056

42,553

107,060

149,613 Impairments recognised in net cost of services

- (184) (184) (1,193) (1,377)

Depreciation - (4,914) (4,914) (50,198) (55,112)

Transfers of assets between classes

- 2,289 2,289 (8,884) (6,595)

Total as at 30 June 2014

17,699 103,987 121,686 354,520 476,206

Total as at 30 June 2014 represented by Gross book value 17,699 107,730 125,429 368,366 493,795 Accumulated depreciation and impairment

- (3,743) (3,743) (13,846) (17,589)

Total as at 30 June 2014

17,699 103,987 121,686 354,520 476,206

175 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of property, plant and equipment for 2013

Land

($’000)

Buildings

($’000)

Total land and buildings ($’000)

Other property, plant and equipment ($’000)

Total

($’000)

As at 1 July 2012

Gross book value 13,217 79,365 92,582 360,042 452,624

Accumulated depreciation and impairment

- (10,237) (10,237) (69,245) (79,482)

Total as at 1 July 2012

13,217 69,128 82,345 290,797 373,142

Additions

Purchase - 601 601 55,874 56,475

Impairments recognised in net cost of services

- - - (1,242) (1,242)

Depreciation - (5,097) (5,097) (54,407) (59,504)

Transfers of assets between classes

- 2,885 2,885 (21,828) (18,943)

Disposals

Other (15) (149) (164) (49) (213)

Total as at 30 June 2013

13,202 67,368 80,570 269,145 349,715

Total as at 30 June 2013 represented by Gross book value 13,202 82,672 95,874 391,102 486,976 Accumulated depreciation and impairment

- (15,304) (15,304) (121,957) (137,261)

Total as at 30 June 2013

13,202 67,368 80,570 269,145 349,715

176 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

7D Intangibles

Computer software

Computer software - in progress 16,901 149

Internally developed - in use 81,475 74,832

Purchased 32,025 30,512

Accumulated amortisation (78,220) (61,084)

Accumulated impairment losses - -

Total computer software 52,181 44,409

Other intangibles

Other 50 50

Accumulated amortisation (32) (29)

Total other intangibles 18 21

Total intangibles 52,199 44,430

No indicators of impairment were found for intangibles.

No intangibles are expected to be sold or disposed of within the next 12 months.

177 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Note 7E Reconciliation of the Opening and Closing Balances of Intangibles

Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of intangibles for 2014

Computer software purchased ($’000)

Computer software internally developed ($’000)

Other intangibles

($’000)

Total

($’000)

As at 1 July 2013

Gross book value 30,512 74,981 50 105,543

Accumulated amortisation and impairment

(20,671) (40,413) (29) (61,113)

Total as at 1 July 2013

9,841 34,568 21 44,430

Additions

Purchase or internally developed

2,453 15,839 - 18,292

Amortisation expense

(3,208) (13,905) (3) (17,116)

Transfers of assets between classes

655 5,938 - 6,593

Total as at 30 June 2014

9,741 42,440 18 52,199

Total as at 30 June 2014 represented by Gross book value 33,643 96,758 50 130,451 Accumulated amortisation and impairment

(23,902) (54,318) (32) (78,252)

Total as at 30 June 2014

9,741 42,440 18 52,199

178 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of intangibles for 2013

Computer software purchased ($’000)

Computer software internally developed ($’000)

Other intangibles

($’000)

Total

($’000)

As at 1 July 2012

Gross book value 25,301 60,450 50 85,801

Accumulated amortisation and impairment

(16,444) (30,058) (25) (46,527)

Total as at 1 July 2012

8,857 30,392 25 39,274

Additions

Purchase or internally developed

400 399 - 799

Amortisation (4,226) (10,356) (4) (14,586)

Transfers of assets between classes

4,810 14,133 - 18,943

Total as at 30 June 2013

9,841 34,568 21 44,430

Total as at 30 June 2013 represented by Gross book value 30,512 74,981 50 105,543 Accumulated amortisation and impairment

(20,671) (40,413) (29) (61,113)

Total as at 30 June 2013

9,841 34,568 21 44,430

179 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

7F Inventories

Inventories held for sale

Finished goods 26 93

Total inventories held for sale 26 93

Inventories held for distribution 11,171 10,899

less Provision for obsolescence (1,163) (924)

Total inventories held for distribution 10,008 9,975

Total inventories 10,034 10,068

During 2014 $76,602 of inventory held for sale was recognised as an expense (2013: $93,237).

During 2014 $3,237,492 of inventory held for distribution was recognised as an expense (2013: $3,716,854).

No items of inventory were recognised at fair value less cost to sell.

Total inventories are expected to be sold or distributed in:

No more than 12 months 2,490 1,937

More than 12 months 7,544 8,131

10,034 10,068

7G Other Non-Financial Assets

Prepayments 6,290 6,439

Total other non-financial assets 6,290 6,439

Other non-financial assets expected to be recovered

No more than 12 months 5,555 5,966

More than 12 months 735 473

Total other non-financial assets 6,290 6,439

No indicators of impairment were found for other non-financial assets.

7H Assets Not Recognised Historical meteorological data has not been recognised as an asset due to difficulties in the application of control criteria.

For historical meteorological data to be recognised as an asset the following criteria need to be met:

• the weather data must generate future economic benefits; • the cost of collecting and maintaining the data can be reliably measured; • the data can be separately identifiable as an asset; and • the Bureau of Meteorology maintains control of the data.

The Bureau of Meteor

ology provides meteorological data to the public at no cost. From this point the Bureau of Meteorology has no control over and cannot regulate the information. The above criterion, control of the asset is not met. For this reason the Bureau of Meteorology does not recognise historical meteorological data as an asset.

180 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

8 Payables

8A Suppliers

Trade creditors and accruals 16,747 13,490

Operating lease rentals 5 5

Total suppliers 16,752 13,495

Suppliers expected to be settled

No more than 12 months 16,752 13,495

Total suppliers 16,752 13,495

Suppliers in connection with

Related parties 977 1,809

External parties 15,775 11,686

Total suppliers 16,752 13,495

Settlement was usually made within 30 days.

8B Other Payables

Wages and salaries 4,939 4,980

Superannuation 892 -

Separation and redundancies - 409

Deferred revenue 26,323 23,720

Statutory payable 1 1

Other 5,449 5,989

Total other payables 37,604 35,099

Other payables expected to be settled

No more than 12 months 33,300 29,789

More than 12 months 4,304 5,310

Total other payables 37,604 35,099

181 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

9 Non-Interest Bearing Liabilities

9A Other Non-Interest Bearing Liabilities

Lease incentives 2,292 1,863

Other non-interest bearing liabilities expected to be settled

No more than 12 months 336 300

More than 12 months 1,956 1,563

Total other non-interest bearing liabilities 2,292 1,863

The Bureau of Meteorology has received lease incentives by way of entering property operating leases.

10 Provisions

10A Employee Provisions

Leave 72,414 71,768

Other 479 429

Total employee provisions 72,893 72,197

Employee provisions expected to be settled

No more than 12 months 479 20,066

More than 12 months 72,414 52,131

Total employee provisions 72,893 72,197

182 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

10B Other Provisions

Provision for restoration (make good) 21,224 20,382

Total other provisions 21,224 20,382

Other provisions are expected to be settled

More than 12 months 21,224 20,382

Total other provisions 21,224 20,382

Provision for Restoration 2014 $'000

Provision for Restoration 2013 $'000

As at 1 July 2013 20,382 17,867

Additional provisions made 541 1,991

Amounts used (210) -

Unwinding of discount or change in discount rate 511 524

Total as at 30 June 2014 21,224 20,382

The Bureau of Meteorology has three hundred and sixty four agreements (2013: three hundred and twenty one) for the leasing and licensing of premises and land which have provisions requiring the Bureau of Meteorology to restore the premises and land to their original condition at the conclusion of the lease. The Bureau of Meteorology has made a provision to reflect the present value of these obligations.

183 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

11 Cash Flow Reconciliation

Reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents as per statement of financial position to cash flow statement

Cash and cash equivalents as per

Cash flow statement 1,953 1,195

Statement of financial position 1,953 1,195

Discrepancy - -

Reconciliation of net cost of services to net cash from operating activities

Net cost of services (286,729) (279,337)

Revenue from Government 212,930 209,931

Adjustments for non-cash items

Depreciation / amortisation 72,228 74,090

Assets recognised for the first time - (65)

Loss on disposal of assets - 34

Net write down of non-financial assets 1,377 1,498

Finance costs on investing activities 512 524

Gain on disposal of assets (31) -

Movements in assets and liabilities

Assets

Decrease / (Increase) in operating receivables 2,831 (2,069)

(Increase) in GST receivables (253) (46)

(Increase) / Decrease in accrued revenue (4,815) 1,456

Decrease in inventories 34 1,516

Decrease in prepayments 149 310

Liabilities

Increase / (Decrease) in suppliers payables 3,257 (4,606)

Increase / (Decrease) in other payables 2,505 (726)

Increase in lease incentives 429 1,701

Increase in employee provisions 696 586

Net cash from operating activities 5,120 4,797

184 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $ 2013

$

12 Senior Executive Remuneration

12A Senior Executive Remuneration Expenses for the Reporting Period

Short-term employee benefits

Salary 4,167,232 4,768,072

Other 26,524 41,057

Total short-term employee benefits 4,193,756 4,809,129

Post-employment benefits

Superannuation 732,763 723,286

Total post-employment benefits 732,763 723,286

Other long-term benefits

Annual leave accrued (71,757) 74,996

Long service leave 241,919 386,438

Total other long-term benefits 170,162 461,434

Termination benefits

Retirement benefits - -

Total termination benefits - -

Total senior executive remuneration expenses 5,096,681 5,993,849

Notes:

1. Note 12A was prepared on an accrual basis (therefore the performance bonus expenses disclosed above may dif fer from the cash 'Bonus paid' in Note 12B).

2. Note 12A excludes acting arrangements and part-year service where total remuneration expensed as a senior executive was less than $195,000.

Additional Information for Disclosure The Bur

eau of Meteorology and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have combined their research resources to run the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR). As part of the CAWCR management arrangements, the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO provides a 50% co-contribution of the costs of the CAWCR Director's office of $306,407 per annum. The current Director has been appointed under the Bureau of Meteorology conditions of service and for disclosure purposes is reported as a Bureau of Meteorology Executive remunerated staff member.

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5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 12B Average Annual Reportable Remuneration Paid to Substantive Senior Executives during the Reporting Period

Average annual reportable remuneration paid to substantive senior executives in 2014

Average annual reportable remuneration

1

Substantive senior executives No.

Reportable salary

2 $

Contributed superannuation

3 $

Reportable allowances

4 $

Bonus paid

5 $

Total reportable remuneration $

Total reportable remuneration (including part-time arrangements) Less than $195,000

5 108,622 15,451 - - 124,073

$225,000 to $254,999

10 207,912 36,273 54 - 244,239

$255,000 to $284,999

4 228,731 41,308 - - 270,039

$285,000 to $314,999

2 256,727 45,269 - - 301,996

$315,000 to $344,999

1 280,366 51,571 - - 331,937

$345,000 to $374,999

1 343,785 27,829 - - 371,614

$435,000 to $464,999

1 402,138 62,690 - - 464,828

Total number of substantive senior executives

24

186 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Average annual reportable remuneration paid to substantive senior executives in 2013 Average annual reportable remuneration

1

Substantive senior executives No.

Reportable salary

2 $

Contributed superannuation

3 $

Reportable allowances

4 $

Bonus paid

5 $

Total reportable remuneration $

Total reportable remuneration (including part-time arrangements) Less than $195,000

5 104,122 8,057 - - 112,179

$195,000 to $224,999

2 189,405 29,834 - - 219,239

$225,000 to $254,999

11 206,187 32,338 - - 238,525

$255,000 to $284,999

3 229,159 35,085 - - 264,244

$285,000 to $314,999

1 261,551 39,308 - - 300,859

$315,000 to $344,999

1 287,889 40,544 - - 328,433

$405,000 to $434,999

2 368,175 46,404 - - 414,579

Total number of substantive senior executives

25

1. This table reports substantive senior executives who received remuneration during the reporting period. Each row is an averaged figure based on headcount for individuals in the band.

2. ‘Reportable salary’ includes the following:

a) gross payments (less any bonuses paid, which are separated out and disclosed in the ‘bonus paid’ column); b) reportable fringe benefits (at the net amount prior to ‘grossing up’ for tax purposes); c) reportable employer superannuation contributions; and d) exempt foreign employment income.

3. The ‘contributed superannuation’ amount is the average cost to the Bureau of Meteorology for the provision of superannuation benefits to substantive senior executives in that reportable remuneration band during the reporting period.

4. ‘Reportable allowances’ are the average actual allowances paid as per the ‘total allowances’ line on individuals’ payment summaries.

5. ‘Bonus paid’ represents average actual bonuses paid during the reporting period in that reportable remuneration band. The ‘bonus paid’ within a particular band may vary between financial years due to various factors such as individuals commencing with or leaving the Bureau of Meteorology during the financial year.

187 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 12C Average Annual Reportable Remuneration Paid to Other Highly Paid Staff during the Reporting Period

Average annual reportable remuneration paid to other highly paid staff in 2014

Average annual reportable remuneration

1

Other highly paid staff No.

Reportable salary

2 $

Contributed superannuation

3 $

Reportable allowances

5 $

Bonus paid

6 $

Total reportable remuneration $

Total reportable remuneration (including part-time arrangements) $195,000 to $224,999

14 179,753 26,779 10 963 207,505

$225,000 to $254,999

1 190,243 35,529 - - 225,772

Total number of other highly paid staff

15

188 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Average annual reportable remuneration paid to other highly paid staff in 2013 Average annual reportable remuneration

1

Other highly paid staff No.

Reportable salary

2 $

Contributed superannuation

3 $

Reportable allowances

5 $

Bonus paid

6 $

Total reportable remuneration $

Total reportable remuneration (including part-time arrangements) $195,000 to $224,999

7 175,041 26,522 - - 201,563

$225,000 to $254,999

1 201,568 29,985 - - 231,553

Total number of other highly paid staff

8

1. This table reports staff:

a) who were employed by the entity during the reporting period; b) whose reportable remuneration was $195,000 or more for the financial period; and c) were not required to be disclosed in Tables B or director disclosures.

Each row is an averaged figure based on headcount for individuals in the band.

2. ‘Reportable salary’ includes the following:

a) gross payments (less any bonuses paid, which are separated out and disclosed in the ‘bonus paid’ column); b) reportable fringe benefits (at the net amount prior to ‘grossing up’ for tax purposes); c) reportable employer superannuation contributions; and d) exempt foreign employment income.

3. The ‘contributed superannuation’ amount is the average cost to the Bureau of Meteorology for the provision of superannuation benefits to other highly paid staff in that reportable remuneration band during the reporting period.

4. The movement between 2013 to 2014 of seven highly paid staff includes the following reasons:

a) an increase of one for 2014 due to higher duties; and b) a decrease of six for 2013 due to the revised threshold from $180,000 to $195,000.

5. ‘Reportable allowances’ are the average actual allowances paid as per the ‘total allowances’ line on individuals’ payment summaries.

6. ‘Bonus paid’ represents average actual bonuses paid during the reporting period in that reportable remuneration band. The ‘bonus paid’ within a particular band may vary between financial years due to various factors such as individuals commencing with or leaving the entity during the financial year.

189 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

13 Remuneration of Auditors

Financial statement audit services were provided free of charge to the

Bureau of Meteorology by the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO).

Fair value of the services received

Financial statement audit services 82 107

Total fair value of services received 82 107

No other services were provided by the ANAO of the financial statements.

190 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2014 $'000 2013

$'000

14 Financial Instruments

14A Categories of Financial Instruments

Financial Assets

Loans and receivables

Cash and cash equivalents 1,953 1,195

Trade receivables 9,017 8,895

Total financial assets 10,970 10,090

Financial Liabilities

Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost

Supplier payables 16,752 13,495

Total financial liabilities 16,752 13,495

14B Net Gains or Losses on Financial Assets

There is no gains or losses from financial assets not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2014 (2013: $Nil).

14C Net Gains or Losses on Financial Liabilities

There is no gains or losses from financial liabilities not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2014 (2013: $Nil).

14D Fair Value of Financial Instruments

A comparison between the fair value and carrying amount of the Bureau of Meterology's financial assets and liabilities is not disclosed because the Bureau of Meteorology considers that the carrying amounts reported in the Statement of Financial Position are a reasonable approximation of the fair value of these financial assets and liabilities.

191 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

14E Credit Risk

The Bureau of Meteorology is exposed to minimal credit risk as loans and receivables consist of trade receivables. The maximum exposure to credit risk is the risk that arises from potential default of a debtor. This amount is equal to the total amount of trade receivables (2014: $9,095,000 and 2013: $8,923,000). The Bureau of Meteorology has assessed the risk of the default on payment and has allocated $78,000 in 2014 (2013: $28,000) to an impairment allowance account.

The Bureau of Meteorology has policies and procedures that guide debt recovery techniques that are to be applied.

Credit quality of financial assets not past due or individually determined as impaired

Not past due nor impaired 2014 $’000

Not past due nor impaired 2013 $’000

Past due or impaired 2014 $’000

Past due or impaired 2013 $’000

Cash and cash equivalents 1,953 1,195 - -

Trade receivables 7,653 6,893 1,442 2,030

Total 9,606 8,088 1,442 2,030

Ageing of financial assets that were past due but not impaired in 2014

0 to 30 days $’000

31 to 60 days $’000

61 to 90 days $’000

90+ days $’000

Total $’000

Trade receivables 1,034 125 4 201 1,364

Total 1,034 125 4 201 1,364

Ageing of financial assets that were past due but not impaired in 2013

0 to 30 days $’000

31 to 60 days $’000

61 to 90 days $’000

90+ days $’000

Total $’000

Trade receivables 1,509 379 20 94 2,002

Total 1,509 379 20 94 2,002

192 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

14F Liquidity Risk

The Bureau of Meteorology’s financial liabilities are payables and other non-interest bearing liabilities. The exposure to liquidity risk is based on the notion that the Bureau of Meteorology will encounter difficulty in meeting its obligations associated with financial liabilities.

This is highly unlikely as the Bureau of Meteorology is appropriated funding from the Australian Government and the Bureau of Meteorology manages its budgeted funds to ensure it has adequate funds to meet payments as they fall due. In addition, the Bureau of Meteorology has policies in place to ensure timely payments are made when due and has no past experience of default.

Maturities for non-derivative financial liabilities 2014

On

demand $’000

within 1 year $’000

between 1 to 2 years $’000

between 2 to 5 years $’000

more than 5 years $’000

Total $’000

Payables - Suppliers - 16,752 - - - 16,752

Total - 16,752 - - - 16,752

Maturities for non-derivative financial liabilities 2013

On

demand $’000

within 1 year $’000

between 1 to 2 years $’000

between 2 to 5 years $’000

more than 5 years $’000

Total $’000

Payables - Suppliers - 13,495 - - - 13,495

Total - 13,495 - - - 13,495

The Bureau of Meteorology has no derivative financial liabilities in either 2014 or 2013.

14G Market Risk

The Bureau of Meteorology holds basic financial instruments that do not expose the Bureau of Meteorology to market risks. The Bureau of Meteorology is not exposed to ‘currency risk’, ‘interest rate risk’ or ‘other price risk’.

193 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

15 Financial Assets Reconciliation

Total financial assets as per statement of financial position

92,901

87,050

Less: non-financial instrument components

Appropriations receivable 6B 74,440 74,537

GST receivables 6B 1,765 1,512

Accrued Revenue 6C 5,726 911

Total non-financial instrument components 81,931 76,960

Total financial assets as per financial instruments note 10,970 10,090

194 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

16 Administered - Expenses

16A Other Expenses

Administrative expense 15 -

Total other expenses 15 -

17 Administered - Income

Revenue

Non-Taxation Revenue

17A Sale of Goods and Rendering of Services

Advertising 879 11

Total sales of goods and rendering of services 879 11

17B Other Revenue

Recovery of grants upon acquittal 396 708

Total other revenue 396 708

195 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

18 Administered - Financial Assets

18A Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash on hand or on deposit - -

Total cash and cash equivalents - -

18B Trade and Other Receivables

Goods and services receivables in connection with

External parties 266 253

Total trade and other receivables (net) 266 253

Trade and other receivables (net) expected to be recovered

No more than 12 months 266 253

Total trade and other receivables (net) 266 253

Trade and other receivables (gross) aged as follows

Not overdue 71 -

Overdue by

0 to 30 days 74 253

31 to 60 days 121 -

Total trade and other receivables (gross) 266 253

Credit terms are net 30 days (2013: 30 days).

18C Other Financial Assets

Accrued Revenues - Goods and services 443 206

Total other financial assets 443 206

Other financial assets expected to be recovered

No more than 12 months 443 206

Total other financial assets 443 206

19 Administered - Non-Financial Assets

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any Administered Non-Financial Assets for 2014 (2013: $Nil).

20 Administered - Payables

20A Other Payables

GST payable 24 8

Total other payables 24 8

Other payables expected to be settled

No more than 12 months 24 8

Total other payables 24 8

196 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

21 Administered - Cash Flow Reconciliation

Reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents as per administered schedule of assets and liabilities to administered cash flow statement

Cash and cash equivalents as per

Schedule of administered cash flows - -

Schedule of administered assets and liabilities - -

Discrepancy - -

Reconciliation of net cost of services to net cash from operating activities

Net cost of services 1,260 719

Movements in assets and liabilities

Assets

(Increase) in net receivables (13) (253)

(Increase) in accrued revenue (237) (206)

Decrease in GST receivable 16 337

Net cash (used by) operating activities 1,026 597

197 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

22 Administered - Financial Instruments

22A Categories of Financial Instruments

Financial Assets

Loans and receivables

Cash and cash equivalents - -

Receivables for goods and services 266 253

Total financial assets 266 253

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any Administered Financial Liabilities for 2014 (2013: $Nil).

22B Net Gains or Losses on Financial Assets

There is no gains or losses from financial assets not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2014 (2013: $Nil).

22C Net Gains or Losses on Financial Liabilities

There is no gains or losses from financial liabilities not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2014 (2013: $Nil).

22D Fair Value of Financial Instruments

A comparison between the fair value and carrying amount of the Bureau of Meteorology's financial assets and liabilities is not disclosed because the Bureau of Meteorology considers that the carrying amounts reported in the Administered Schedule of Assets and Liabilities are a reasonable approximation of the fair value of these financial assets and liabilities.

198 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

22E Credit Risk

The administered activities of the Bureau of Meteorology were not exposed to a high level of credit risk as the majority of financial assets are ‘goods and service receivables’. The maximum exposure to credit risk is the risk that arises from potential default of a debtor. This amount is equal to the total amount of trade receivables (2014: $266,000 and 2013: $253,000). The Bureau of Meteorology has assessed the risk of the default on payment and has allocated $Nil in 2014 (2013: $Nil) to an impairment allowance account.

The Bureau of Meteorology has policies and procedures that guide employees on debt recovery techniques that are to be applied.

Credit quality of financial assets not past due or individually determined as impaired

Not Past Due Nor Impaired 2014

$’000

Not Past Due Nor Impaired 2013

$’000

Past due or impaired

2014 $’000

Past due or impaired

2013 $’000

Cash and cash equivalents - - - -

Receivables for goods and services 71 - 195 253

Total 71 - 195 253

Ageing of financial assets that were past due but not impaired in 2014

0 to 30 days $’000

31 to 60 days $’000

61 to 90 days $’000

90+ days $’000

Total $’000

Receivables for goods and services 74 121 - - 195

Total 74 121 - - 195

Ageing of financial assets that were past due but not impaired in 2013

0 to 30 days $’000

31 to 60 days $’000

61 to 90 days $’000

90+ days $’000

Total $’000

Receivables for goods and services 253 - - - 253

Total 253 - - - 253

199 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

22F Liquidity Risk

The Bureau of Meteorology’s financial liabilities are payables. The exposure to liquidity risk is based on the notion that the Bureau of Meteorology will encounter difficulty in meeting its obligations associated with financial liabilities. This is highly unlikely as the Bureau of Meteorology is appropriated funding from the Australian Government. The Bureau of Meteorology also manages its budgeted funds to ensure it has adequate funds to meet payments as they fall due and in addition, the Bureau of Meteorology has policies and procedures that resources are available to ensure timely payments are made when due and has no past experience of default.

22G Market Risk

The Bureau of Meteorology does not hold basic financial instruments that exposes it to market risks. The Bureau of Meteorology is not exposed to ‘currency risk’, ‘interest rate risk’ or ‘other price risk’.

200 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

Notes

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

23 Administered Financial Assets Reconciliation

Total financial assets as per administered schedule of assets and liabilities 685 451

Less: Non-financial instrument components

Accrued revenue 18C 443 206

GST payables 20A (24) (8)

Total non-financial instrument components 419 198

Total financial assets as per administered financial instruments note

266

253

201 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 24 Appropriations

24A Annual Appropriations (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

Annual Appropriations for 2014

Appropriation Act FMA Act Total

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriation applied in 2014 (current and prior years)

$’000

Variance

1

$’000

Annual

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriations reduced

$’000

Section 30

$’000

Section 31

$’000

Section 32

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services

255,119 - - 80,630 - 335,749 (337,121) (1,372)

Other services

Equity 14,592 - - - - 14,592 (11,909) 2,683

Total departmental

269,711 - - 80,630 - 350,341 (349,030) 1,311

Administered

Ordinary annual services

Administered items

- - - - - - - -

Total administered

- - - - - - - -

1. Reasons for material variance in Departmental

2014 $’000

2013 $’000

Variance $’000

Cash on hand 1,953 1,194 759 Appropriations Receivable

74,440 74,537 (97)

Movement in GST Receivable

1,765 1,511 254

Appropriation Quarantined (not formally reduced)*

395 - 395

78,553 77,242 1,311

The annual appropriation and appropriation applied in 2014 also include an amount for Departmental Capital Budgets which is disclosed at Table 24B.

* The government has quarantined the Bureau of Meteorology’s revenue by $395,000 for the Government Savings Initiative. At law the appropriation had not been amended before the end of the reporting period. The quarantined amount is included in the Annual Appropriations for ordinary annual services, however as the Bureau of Meteorology cannot acccess these funds, this amount has been excluded from the Appropriations Receivables amount (Note 6B).

202 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Annual Appropriations for 2013

Appropriation Act FMA Act Total

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriation applied in 2013 (current and prior years)

$’000

Variance

1

$’000

Annual

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriations reduced

$’000

Section 30

$’000

Section 31

$’000

Section 32

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services

253,059 (1,402) - 75,685 - 327,342 (328,434) (1,092)

Other services

Equity 8,984 - - - - 8,984 (9,073) (89)

Total departmental 262,043 (1,402) - 75,685 - 336,326 (337,507) (1,181)

Administered

Ordinary annual services

Administered items

- - - - - - - -

Total administered - - - - - - - -

1. Reasons for material variance in Departmental

2013 $’000

2012 $’000

Variance $’000

Cash on hand 1,194 444 750

Appropriations Receivable

74,537 76,515 (1,978)

Movement in GST Receivable

1,511 1,464 47

77,242 78,423 (1,181)

The annual appropriation and appropriation applied in 2013 also include an amount for Departmental Capital Budgets which is disclosed at Table 24B.

The government has reduced the Bureau of Meteorology’s revenue by $274,000 for the new fire service agreement and $1,128,000 for the Government Savings Initiative. At law the appropriation had not been amended before the end of the reporting period. The formal reduction of appropriations (Instrument to Reduce Appropriations (No. 1 of 2013-14)) occurred on 16 August 2013.

203 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 24B Departmental Capital Budget (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

2014 Capital Budget Appropriations Capital Budget Appropriations applied in 2014

(current and prior years)

Appropriation Act FMA Act Total Capital

Budget

Appropriations

$’000

Payments for non-financial assets

3

$’000

Payments for other purposes

$’000

Total payments

$’000

Variance

$’000

Annual Capital Budget

$’000

Appropriations reduced

2

$’000

Section 32

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services - Departmental Capital Budget

1

41,794 - - 41,794 (41,621) - (41,621) 173

1. Departmental and Administered Capital Budgets are appropriated through Appropriation Acts (No.1,3,5). They form part of ordinary annual services, and are not separately identified in the Appropriation Acts. For more information on ordinary annual services appropriations, please see Note 24A: Annual Appropriations.

2. Appropriations reduced under Appropriation Acts (No.1,3,5) 2013-14: sections 10, 11, 12 and 15 or via a determination by the Finance Minister.

3. Payments made on non-financial assets include purchases of assets, expenditure on assets which has been capitalised, costs incurred to make good an asset to its original condition, and the capital repayment component of finance leases.

2013 Capital Budget Appropriations Capital Budget Appropriations applied in 2013

(current and prior years)

Appropriation Act FMA Act Total Capital

Budget

Appropriations

$’000

Payments for non-financial assets

3

$’000

Payments for other purposes

$’000

Total payments

$’000

Variance

$’000

Annual Capital Budget

$’000

Appropriations reduced

2

$’000

Section 32

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services - Departmental Capital Budget

1

41,726 - - 41,726 (42,240) - (42,240) (514)

1. Departmental and Administered Capital Budgets are appropriated through Appropriation Acts (No.1,3,5). They form part of ordinary annual services, and are not separately identified in the Appropriation Acts. For more information on ordinary annual services appropriations, please see Note 24A: Annual Appropriations.

2. Appropriations reduced under Appropriation Acts (No.1,3,5) 2012-13: sections 10, 11, 12 and 15 or via a determination by the Finance Minister.

3. Payments made on non-financial assets include purchases of assets, expenditure on assets which has been capitalised, costs incurred to make good an asset to its original condition, and the capital repayment component of finance leases.

204 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

24C Unspent Annual Appropriations (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

Departmental

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2011-12 360 603

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2012-13* - 76,506

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2012-13 25 25

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2013-14* 73,478 -

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2013-14 2,925 -

Total departmental 76,788 77,134

Administered

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2011-12 - -

Total administered - -

* Includes cash on hand: 2014 $1,953,000 (2013: $1,195,000).

205 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

24D Reduction in Administered Items (‘Recoverable GST exclusive’)

Reduction in Administered Items for 2014

Ordinary Annual Services

Amount required - by Appropriation Act Act (No.1)

Total amount required Total amount appropriated

Total reduction

Outcome 1 - - - -

1. The Bureau of Meteorology did not receive an Administered Appropriation in 2014.

Reduction in Administered Items for 2013

Ordinary Annual Services

Amount required - by Appropriation Act Act (No.1)

Total amount required

Total amount appropriated

Total reduction

Outcome 1 - - - -

1. The Bureau of Meteorology did not receive an Administered Appropriation in 2013.

206 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

25 Special Accounts

25A Special Accounts (Recoverable GST exclusive)

Services for Other Entities and Trust Monies (SOETM) Account1

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

Balance brought forward from previous period 246 337

Increases

Other receipts 976 469

Total increases 976 469

Available for payments 1,222 806

Decreases

Payments made to suppliers (884) (560)

Total decreases (884) (560)

Total balance carried to the next period 338 246

1. Appropriation - Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, section 20(1).

Establishing Instrument: Financial Management and Accountability Determination 2008/06 - Services for other Entities and Trust Moneys - Bureau of Meteorology Special Account Establishment 2008.

Purpose: To enable the Bureau of Meteorology to make payments on behalf of the United States Air Force (USAF).

25B Compliance with Statutory Conditions for Payments from the Consolidated Revenue Fund

Section 83 of the Constitution provides that no amount may be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund except under an appropriation made by law. The Department of Finance and Deregulation provided information to all agencies in 2011 regarding the need for risk assessments in relation to compliance with statutory conditions on payments from special appropriations, including special accounts.

During 2013-14, the Bureau of Meteorology reviewed its plan and associated exposure to risks of not complying with statutory conditions on payments from appropriations. The plan involved:

- identifying each special appropriation and special account; - determining the risk of non-compliance by assessing the difficulty of administering the statutory conditions and assessing the extent to which existing payment systems and processes satisfy those conditions; - determining procedures to confirm risk assessments in medium risk cases and to quantify the extent of non-compliance,

if any, in higher risk situations; - obtaining legal advice as appropriate to resolve questions of potential non-compliance; - considering legislative or procedural changes to reduce the risk of non-compliance in the future to an acceptably low

level; and - undertaking a review of each transaction to ensure no breach occurred.

207 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

The agency identified one appropriation involving statutory conditions for payment, comprising:

- one special account - Services for Other Entities and Trust Monies (SOETM) Account.

During 2012-13 additional legal advice was received that indicated there could be breaches of Section 83 under certain

circumstances with payments for long service leave, goods and services tax and payments under determinations of the Remuneration Tribunal. The Bureau of Meteorology has reviewed its processes and controls over payments for these items to minimise the possibility for future breaches as a result of these payments. The Bureau of Meteorology has determined that there is a low risk of the certain circumstances mentioned in the legal advice applying to the Bureau of Meteorology. The Bureau of Meteorology is not aware of any specific breaches of Section 83 in respect of these items.

The work conducted during 2013-14 has identified no issues of non-compliance with Section 83 of the Constitution.

208 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

26 Compensation and Debt Relief

Compensation and Debt Relief - Departmental No ‘Act of Grace’ payments were expended during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No waivers of amounts owing to the Australian Government were made pursuant to subsection 34(1) of the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 (2013: Nil).

No payments were provided under the Compensation for Detriment caused by Defective Administration (CDDA) Scheme during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No ex-gratia payments were provided during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No payments were provided in a special circumstance relating to APS employment pursuant to section 73 of the Public Service Act 1999 (PS Act) during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

Compensation and Debt Relief - Administered No ‘Act of Grace’ payments were incurred during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No waivers of amounts owing to the Australian Government were made pursuant to subsection 34(1) of the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 (2013: Nil).

No payments were provided under the Compensation for Detriment caused by Defective Administration (CDDA) Scheme during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No ex-gratia payments were provided during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

No payments were provided in special circumstances relating to APS employment pursuant to section 73 of the Public Service Act 1999 (PS Act) during the reporting period (2013: Nil).

209 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

5

Financial statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

27 Reporting of Outcomes

27A Net Cost of Outcome Delivery

Outcome 1

2014 $’000

2013 $’000

Departmental

Expenses (364,271) (353,004)

Own-source income 77,542 73,667

Administered

Expenses (15) -

Income 1,275 719

Net cost of outcome delivery (285,469) (278,618)

27B Major Classes of Departmental Expense, Income, Assets and Liabilities by Outcome

The Bureau of Meteorology has a single outcome. The Departmental expense, income, assets and liabilities are disclosed in the Statement of Comprehensive Income and Statement of Financial Position. Outcome 1 is described in Note 1.1.

27C Major Classes of Administered Income, Expenses, Assets and Liabilities by Outcome

The Bureau of Meteorology has a single outcome. The Administered expense, income, assets and liabilities are disclosed in the Administered Schedule of Comprehensive Income and Administered Schedule of Assets and Liabilities. Outcome 1 is described in Note 1.1.

210 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2014 $'000

2013 $'000

28 Net Cash Appropriation Arrangements

Total comprehensive income less depreciation / amortisation expenses previously funded through revenue appropriations1 146,147 2,618

Plus: depreciation / amortisation expenses previously funded through

revenue appropriation2 (70,333) (72,024)

Total comprehensive income (loss) - as per the Statement

of Comprehensive Income 75,814 (69,406)

1. From 2010-11, the Government introduced net cash appropriation arrangements, wher

e revenue appropriations for

depreciation / amortisation expenses ceased. The Bureau of Meteorology now receives a separate capital budget provided through equity appropriations. Capital budgets are to be appropriated in the period when cash payment for capital expenditure is required.

2. Excludes depreciation and amortisation of $1,895,000 (2013: $2,066,000) relating to assets purchased for the provision of

Aviation and Defence Weather Services in accordance with Finance Brief 39.

To fund asset additions and replacements, the Bureau of Meteorology invests Departmental Capital Budget and Equity Injections which are represented as contributed equity in the Bureau of Meteorology’s Balance Sheet.

A c c o

untability repo rt

in g

212 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Accountability reporting | Disability reporting

The National Disability Strategy sets out a ten-year national policy framework for improving life for Australians with disabilities, their families and carers. Since 2010-11 departments and agencies are no longer required to report on their role as an adviser, employer, or purchaser under the Commonwealth Disability Strategy which has been replaced by the National Disability Strategy.

A report tracking progress for people with disabilities at a national level is produced by the Standing Council on Community, Housing, and Disability Services to the Council of Australian Governments and is available at www.dss.gov.au.

The Social Inclusion Measurement and Reporting Strategy agreed by the government in December 2009 will also include some reporting on disability matters in its regular How Australia is Faring report and, if appropriate, in strategic change indicators in agency annual reports.

| Information publication scheme

Under ‘Part II—Information publication scheme (IPS)’ of the Freedom of Information Act 1982, those agencies that are subject to the Act are required to publish specific information. This requirement replaced the former requirement to publish a ‘Section 8 statement’ in annual reports. These agencies are also required to display a plan on their websites showing what information they publish in accordance with the IPS requirements. This information can be found on the Bureau’s website at www.bom.gov.au/foi/ips.shtml.

Freedom of information procedures and facilities, initial enquiries and access

Freedom of information (FOI) matters are handled by the FOI and Privacy Coordinator in the Bureau’s Head Office. Contact details are:

FOI and Privacy Coordinator People Management Branch Bureau of Meteorology GPO Box 1289 Melbourne Vic 3001

Phone: 03 9616 8428 Email: FOI@bom.gov.au

Requests for access to documents under FOI must:

• be made in writing, and state that the request is an application for the purposes of the FOI Act;

• provide details of how notices under the FOI Act may be sent to the applicant (for example, by providing an email address); and

• contain sufficient information to enable the Bureau to identify the relevant documents.

If access to some or all of the material requested is denied, the Bureau will pr

ovide a written

explanation. Where access is granted, this is usually provided in the form of copies of the requested material. A reading area can be made available for inspection of the documents by arrangement with the FOI and Privacy Coordinator.

Number of FOI requests In 2013-14, the Bureau received 14 requests for material under FOI of which 11 were completed and three were being finalised at year’s end.

213 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

6

Accountability reporting

Categories of documents that are maintained by the agency In accordance with the Archives Act 1983, some of the Bureau’s documents may have been transferred into archival custody or destroyed. Documents held by the Bureau include:

• policy advice and internal administration, including financial, staffing, office procedures and similar documents;

• documents relating to management and administration including reports, briefings, minutes, submissions and other documents;

• tender proposals, evaluations, contracts, property documents, memorandums of understanding, Cabinet submissions and ministerial briefings;

• guidelines, manuals, and other reference material used by staff;

• audio and visual material used for training and other activities;

• paper and electronic records and databases including climate recor

ds, meteorological and

hydrological data, and other information related to weather, climate and water; and

• legal documents.

Information about the Bureau’s publications can be found on the FOI page of our web site.

| Stakeholder participation and public involvement

Third-party participation in the Bureau’s policy formulation and in its administration of any enactment or scheme is facilitated through:

• the Bureau of Meteorology Audit Committee;

• the Australian Government Environmental Information Advisory Group;

• the Jurisdictional Reference Group on Water Information;

• flood warning consultative committees or working groups;

• the WIRADA Management Committee;

• the CAWCR Supervisory Committee;

• consultative meetings with private meteorological service providers;

• consultative meetings with the aviation industry;

• State marine consultative committees;

• agricultural weather and climate consultative committees (in South Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania, and Victoria);

• the Primary Industries Ministerial Council, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, the Environmental Protection and Heritage Council, and their standing committees and associated

committee structures;

• public user surveys;

• ad-hoc meetings with agricultural groups, airport owners and other industry groups;

• the Australian Government Counter Disaster Task Force;

• The National Emergency Management Committee and its working sub-committees and reference groups:

- Community Engagement sub-committee;

- Risk Assessment, Measurement and Mitigation sub-committee;

- the National Flood Risk Advisory Group; and

- the Australian Tsunami Advisory Group.

• regional emergency services joint meetings;

• tropical cyclone committees and advisory committees;

214 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

• State emergency management committees;

• State disaster mitigation committees;

• local government committees for disaster mitigation;

• State bushfire councils and advisory committees;

• the Australasian Fire and Emergency Management Authorities Council; and

• research consultations with CSIRO as part of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate

Research operations.

| Advertising and market research in excess of $12 400

Advertising and market research to the value of $141 503.99 and $152 118.00 respectively were undertaken in 2013-14.

Advertising activities included recruitment and raising awareness of Bureau products. Market research included surveying customer requirements for climate and data services and an oceans and weather services survey.

Advertising and market research

Advertising

Facebook Ireland Limited $64 359.14

Adcorp $52 226.59

Australian Public Service Commission $24 918.26

Total $141 503.99

Market Research

Newspoll $84 281.00

ORC International Pty Ltd $67 837.00

Total $152 118.00

| Consultancy services of $10 000 or more

The selection and engagement of consultants was treated in the same way as the procurement of other property and services and was conducted in accordance with the Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, Commonwealth Procurement Rules and internal policy and procedures.

During 2013-14, three new consultancy contracts were entered into, involving expenditure of $203 775.80 (inclusive of GST).

Name Subject Procurement

method

Duration Total value1

Shiftwork Solutions Shiftwork Solution Limited tender 16 Jan to 31 Mar 2014 $75 361.80

Aither Enhancing the value

of the urban water information products and services

Limited tender 15 Apr to 30 Jun 2014 $54 164.00

Island Hydro Services

COMP - Water Management Limited tender 12 Nov 2013 to 30 Jun 2014

$74 250.00

Total: $203 775.80

1 Includes GST. Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website www.tenders.gov.au.

215 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

6

Accountability reporting

| Sustainability reporting

The Bureau’s vision as described in its Strategic Plan 2010-2015 is to provide Australians with environmental intelligence for safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity. As an information agency, the Bureau indirectly promotes ecologically sustainable development and its information supports ecosystem and ecological sustainable development principles and biodiversity conservation.

The Bureau is committed to minimising any potentially adverse impact from its operations, and continually strives to manage their environmental aspects. The Bureau’s Environmental Management Plan (EMP) provides the direction and methodology for achieving the environmental goals outlined in the Bureau’s Environmental Sustainability Management Policy. Environmental objectives and targets are subject to continual review and improvement, with employee engagement and mobilisation encouraged through both the Environmental Sustainability Management Committee and the Environmental Champions Network.

The scope for environmental performance reporting is defined by Section 516A of the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and in government policies and guidelines.

Activities that:

• promote ecologically sustainable development include:

- publication of information on long-term climate variability and change on the Bureau’s website;

- provision of drought information services to assist in land and water management;

- provision of climate and water information briefings, including to agricultural Ministers and heads of government agencies; and

- provision of advice on the likelihood of climatic extremes.

• integrate environmental, social, economic, and equitable consideration include:

- progression of an environmental accounting framework for Australia under the National Plan for Envir

onmental Information initiative;

- provision of technical guidance to other departments and organisations to support sustainable management of marine, fresh water and land resour

ces;

- continued support for enhanced water planning and the sustainable development and management of water resources under the National Water Initiative;

- publication of the National Water Account; this annual account includes an overview of the drivers of water availability and use in each of the nine reporting regions; and

- continued support for the implementation of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network under the Commonwealth National

Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy.

• ensure biodiversity and ecological integrity are fundamental to decision-making include:

- the provision of weather, climate and water information to inform decisions on biodiversity conservation.

• aim to enhance community adaptation and inform markets to improve valuation, pricing and incentive mechanisms include:

- promotion of the benefits of the latest information and knowledge regarding the variability and extr

emes of Australia’s climate and water;

- provision of seasonal forecasting of temperature, rainfall, tropical cyclones and bushfir

e risk

and longer-term outlooks on the likelihood of climate extremes;

- publication of the National Water Account 2013, including a new national summary; and

- provision of water market information—through a national water market web portal—on the

number and volume of water entitlements that have been issued, and volumes and price of water entitlement and water allocation that have been traded.

216 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Summary of performance

Measures taken by the Bureau to minimise the adverse impact of activities on the environment

Theme Efforts to reduce adverse impact Review measures and further mitigation efforts

Energy • inclusion of energy targets in EMP • participation in Earth Hour 2014 • use of renewable energy sources, such as geothermal, wind and solar energy, at

operational sites where practical • continued implementation of switch-off strategies and staff-awareness campaigns • power-management features enabled in ICT

and non-ICT equipment rollouts • improved power usage effectiveness through a new purpose-built data centr

e, with gradual

decommissioning of old site • office site selection and fit-out incorporating NABER’s rating considerations • continued purchase of green power

incorporated into new energy contracts

• quarterly review of progress against energy targets pr

esented to the

Executive • external audit of energy reporting and methodology to ensure accuracy and

adherence to best practices • inclusion of operational sites in energy reporting • collation and review of key

environmental performance parameters to establish historic tr

ends for

comparison • ongoing review of electricity meters at Head Office to inform future initiatives • review of ICT equipment usage rates • ongoing monitoring of power usage

effectiveness at data centre

Flora and fauna • staff briefed when working on sites with protected flora and fauna

• continued expansion of information on protected flora and fauna for staff on internal

webpage

• commencement of review of site-specific EMP methodology to ensure level of details corresponds to activities

and potential impacts

Heritage • active consideration of heritage principles in the siting and construction of field facilities • inclusion of a heritage target in EMP. • review measures identifying further mitigation

efforts • commenced review of site-specific EMP methodology including heritage

considerations

• quarterly review of progress against heritage target pr

esented to Executive

Transport • ongoing encouragement to use video and teleconferencing • monitoring of air kilometres travelled

Waste • continued focus on diverting waste from landfill • waste minimisation targets included in EMP • packaging and life-cycle considerations

incorporated into procurement activities for consumables • continued reuse or recycling of e-waste • promotion of waste-reduction through internal

social media

• quarterly review of progress against waste targets pr

esented to Executive

Water • provision of water storage tanks at new radar and meteorological facilities to reduce

demand on potable water • inclusion of water consumption target in EMP

• quarterly review of progress against water targets pr

esented to Executive

Corrections to the 2012-13 Annual Report 1. p. 156 Channel Management Framework Steering Committee description should read: ‘Advises the Channel Management Framework project and pr

ovides a key avenue for communication and

engagement between the project and clients. It is also the first point of escalation for business-related issues.’

G o v e

rn in g

le gi sl

at io n

218 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Meteorology Act 1955 Act No. 6 of 1955 as amended

| An Act relating to the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology

1. Short title This Act may be cited as the Meteorology Act 1955.

3. Interpretation In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

the Bureau means the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology established by this Act.

the Director means the Director of Meteorology.

4. Extension to Territories (1) Subject to subsection (2), this Act extends to all the Territories.

(2) The Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette, declare that this Act shall, on a date

specified in the notice, cease to extend to a Territory specified in the notice.

5. The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology (1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be a Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology and a Dir

ector of Meteorology.

(2) The Bureau shall be under the charge of the Director, who shall, subject to the directions of

the Minister, have the general administration of this Act.

6. Functions of the Bureau (1) The functions of the Bureau are:

(a) the taking and recording of meteorological observations and other observations requir

ed

for the purposes of meteorology; and

(b) the forecasting of weather and of the state of the atmosphere; and

(c) the issue of warnings of gales, storms and other weather conditions likely to endanger life or property, including weather conditions likely to give rise to floods or bush fir

es;

and

(d) the supply of meteorological information; and

(e) the publication of meteorological reports and bulletins; and

(f) the promotion of the use of meteorological information; and

(g) the promotion of the advancement of meteorological science, by means of meteorological r

esearch and investigation or otherwise; and

(h) the furnishing of advice on meteorological matters; and

(i) co-operation with the authority administering the meteorological service of any other country (including a Territory specified under subsection 4(2)) in r

elation to any of the

matters specified in the preceding paragraphs of this subsection; and

(j) such other functions as are conferred on the Bureau by any other Act.

219 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

7

Governing legislation

(2) The Bureau shall perform its functions under this Act in the public interest generally and in particular:

(a) for the purposes of the Defence Force;

(b) for the purposes of navigation and shipping and of civil aviation; and

(c) for the purpose of assisting persons and authorities engaged in primary production, industry, trade and commerce.

7. Powers of the Director (1) The Director has such powers as are necessary to enable the Bureau to perform its functions under section 6 (including any of its functions under Part 7 of the

Water Act

2007), and, in particular, may:

(a) establish meteorological offices and observing stations;

(b) arrange with any Department, authority or person to take and record meteorological observations and transmit meteor

ological reports and information;

(c) arrange means of communication for the transmission and reception of meteorological reports and information; and

(d) arrange for the training of persons in meteorology.

(2) The Departments and authorities with which, and the persons with whom, arrangements may be made under the last preceding subsection include Departments and authorities of a State or Territory and persons in the service of such a State or T

erritory of such a

Department or authority.

8. Charges The Director may, subject to any directions of the Minister, make charges for for ecasts, information, advice, publications and other matter supplied pursuant to this Act or Part 7 of the Water Act 2007.

9. Regulations The Governor-General may make regulations, not inconsistent with this Act, prescribing all matters which by this Act ar

e required or permitted to be prescribed, or which are necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act.

220 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

The Water Act 2007 (extract) Part 7 Water Information

Division 2 Functions and powers of the Bureau and Director of Meteorology

| Section 120

Division 2— Functions and powers of the Bureau and Director of Meteorology 120 Additional functions of the Bureau

The Bureau has the following functions in addition to its functions under the Meteorology Act 1955:

(a) collecting, holding, managing, interpreting and disseminating Australia’s water information;

(b) providing regular reports on the status of Australia’s water r

esources and patterns of usage of

those resources;

(c) providing regular forecasts on the future availability of Australia’

s water resources;

(d) compiling and maintaining water accounts for Australia, including a set of water accounts to be known as the National Water Account;

(e) issuing National Water Information Standards;

(f) giving advice on matters relating to water information;

(g) undertaking and commissioning investigations to enhance understanding of Australia’s water resources;

(h) any other matter, relating to water information, specified in the regulations.

121 Contents of the National Water Account

The National Water Account is to include such matters (if any) as are specified in the regulations.

122 Publishing water accounts

(1) The Director of Meteorology must annually publish the National Water Account in a form readily accessible by the public.

(2) The Director of Meteorology may publish other water accounts from time to time.

(3) This section does not prevent parts or all of the National Water Account, or any other water accounts, from being updated at any other time.

221 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

7

Governing legislation

Part 7 Water Information

Division 2 Functions and powers of the Bureau and Director of Meteorology

| Section 123

123 Publishing water information

(1) The Director of Meteorology may at any time publish, in a form readily accessible by the public, particular water information that the Bur eau holds.

(2) However, the Director of Meteorology must not:

(a) publish particular water information if he or she believes it would not be in the public interest; or

(b) publish water information in a way that expressly identifies an individual’s water use, unless the water information:

(i) is already published; or

(ii) is otherwise publicly available in a form that expressly identifies the individual’s water use.

222 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Part 7 Water Information

Division 3 Water Information

| Section 127

Division 3— Water information 127 Director of Meteorology may require water information

(1) The Director of Meteorology may, in writing, requir e any person, or each person included in a class of persons, to give specified water information to the Bureau:

(a) within a specified period of time; and

(b) in a specified form or manner; and

(c) in accordance with any applicable National Water Information Standards.

(2) A person must not fail to comply with a requirement under this section.

Civil penalty: 50 penalty units.

(3) A person must not, in purported compliance with a requirement under this section, give to the Bureau information that is false or misleading in a material particular

.

Civil penalty: 60 penalty units.

(4) Subsection (2) does not apply to the extent that the person has a reasonable excuse. However, a person does not have a reasonable excuse mer

ely because the water information in question is:

(a) of a commercial nature; or

(b) subject to an obligation of confidentiality arising from a commercial relationship; or

(c) commercially sensitive.

128 Prohibitions on disclosure of information do not apply

This Division has effect despite any law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory prohibiting disclosure of the information.

129 Ownership etc. of information unaffected by its disclosure

(1) Giving information under this Division does not affect a person’s property rights with respect to that information.

(2) This section does not prevent the use of the information by the Bureau for any purpose that is relevant to any of the Bur

eau’s functions under this Act or any other Act.

223 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

7

Governing legislation

Part 7 Water Information

Division 4 National Water Information Standards

| Section 130

Division 4—National Water Information Standards 130 National Water Information Standards

(1) The Director of Meteorology may, by legislative instrument, issue National Water Information Standards relating to water information.

(2) Without limiting subsection (1), the National Water Information Standards may deal with all or any of the following:

(a) collecting water information;

(b) measuring water;

(c) monitoring water;

(d) analysing water;

(e) transmitting water information;

(f) accessing water information;

(g) retaining and storing water information;

(h) reporting water information;

(i) water accounting;

(j) any other matter relating to water information that is specified in the regulations.

224 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Part 7 Water Information

Division 4 National Water Information Standards

| Section 131

131 Adoption of other standards

(1) In issuing National Water Information Standards, the Director of Meteorology may make pr ovision in relation to a matter by applying, adopting or incorporating, with or without modification, any matter contained in a standard:

(a) as in force or existing at a particular time; or

(b) as in force or existing from time to time;

that relates to water information and that any other person or body has made or issued.

(2) Subsection (1) has effect despite anything in subsection 14(2) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

(3) If the Director of Meteorology makes provision in relation to a matter by applying, adopting or

incorporating a matter contained in a standard that another person or body has made or issued, the Director of Meteorology must ensure that:

(a) the text of the matter applied, adopted or incorporated is made publicly available on the Bureau’s website, unless that text is set out in the relevant National W

ater Information

Standard; and

(b) if the text of the matter is applied, adopted or incorporated as in force or existing from time to time—any subsequent amendments of that text are made publicly available on that

website.

132 Consultations in preparing National Water Information Standards

(1) The Director of Meteorology must consult with the States in preparing National Water Information Standards.

(2) In preparing National Water Information Standards, the Director of Meteor

ology may undertake

such other consultation as he or she considers appropriate.

133 Compliance notices

(1) If a person has contravened a requirement of the National Water Information Standards, the Minister or an authorised person appointed by the Minister may give the person a notice requiring the person to rectify the contravention, and comply with that requirement, within the time specified in the notice.

(2) A person must not fail to comply with a notice given to the person under this section.

Civil penalty: 60 penalty units.

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply to the extent that the person has a reasonable excuse.

225 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

7

Governing legislation

Part 7 Water Information

Division 5 Miscellaneous

| Section 130

Division 5—Miscellaneous 134 Delegation by Director of Meteorology

(1) The Director of Meteorology may, in writing, delegate all or any of his or her functions and powers under this Part (other than sections 130 and 131) to an SES employee or acting SES employee.

(2) The Director of Meteorology may, by writing, delegate any or all of his or her functions and powers under this Part to a person who holds, or acts in, an office or position:

(a) with a State or a Territory, or an authority of a State or a Territory; and

(b) at a level equivalent to that of an SES employee;

if the State, Territory or authority agrees to the delegation.

(3) A delegate under subsection (1) or (2) must comply with any written directions of the Director of Meteorology

.

135 Directions by Minister

(1) The Minister may, by notice in writing to the Director of Meteorology, give dir ections with respect to the performance of the Bureau’s functions or the exercise of its powers.

(2) The Director of Meteorology must comply with any such direction.

(3) A direction made under subsection (1) is a legislative instrument, but neither section 42 (disallowance) nor Part 6 (sunsetting) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 applies to the direction.

226 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix A

Agency Resource Statement Total resources “(1) Budget*

2013-14”

$’000

“(2)

Actual** Expenses 2013-14”

$’000

“Variation (Col (2) minus Col (1))”

$’000

Budget*** 2014-15

$’000

TOTAL PRICE OF ADMINISTERED PROGRAM 0 0 0 0

TOTAL PRICE OF DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS 353,200 364,271 11,071 356,917

Revenue from Government

(Appropriation) for Departmental Outputs 213,325 218,203

(Appropriation) for Departmental capital budget 41,794 44,551

(Appropriation) for Departmental non-operating

- equity injections 14,592 9,842

(Appropriation) for Administered expenses 0 0

Revenue from other sources 75,408 70,409

TOTAL FOR OUTCOME 1 "(Total Price of Output Groups and Administered expenses) ****

345,119

343,005

2013-14* “2013-14 Actual” “Variation (Col (2)

minus Col (1))”

2014-15***

Average Staffing Levels (Ex capitalised asl) 1,536.0 1,509.0 -27.0 1,450.0

* As per 2013-14 Portfolio Budget Statements. ** As per the 2013-14 Financial Statements. *** As per 2014-15 Portfolio Budget Statements. **** The Departmental Capital Budget was introduced in 2010-11 and appropriation for depreciation was removed from output group expenses.

227 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix B

GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS

| A

ABC Australian Broadcasting Corporation ACCESS Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator ACCSP Australian Climate Change Science

Program

ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority ACORN-SAT Australian Climate Observations Reference Network for Surface Air

Temperatur

e

ADAM Australian Data Archive for Meteorology ADCP Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADF Australian Defence Force

AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time AEMO Australian Energy Market Operator AEST Australian Eastern Standard Time AET Actual Evapotranspiration

AFC Advanced Forecaster Course AGCCC Australian Government Coordination Centre AG-EIAG Australian Government Environmental

Information Advisory Group

AGIMO Australian Government Information Management Office AGLIN Australian Government Library and Information Network AHGF Australian Hydrological Geospatial

Fabric

AIRP Asset Investment and Replacement Program ALERT Transfer system for hydrologic observations ALIA Australian Library and Information

Association

ALIES Australasian Libraries in the Emergency Sector AMSA Australian Maritime and Safety Authority AMDAR Aeronautical Meteorological Data Relay AMDISS Australian Meteorological Data and

Information Service System

ANAO Australian National Audit Office APS Australian Public Service

APSC Australian Public Service Commission AR&R Australian Rainfall and Runoff: a Guide to Flood Estimation ARBIS Automatic Radio Burst Identification

Software

ARC Australian Research Council ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ASAPS Advanced Stand Alone Prediction System

ASLI Atmospheric Science Librarians International ASLOS Australian Sea-Level Observation System ASFC Australian Space Forecast Centre AS/NZS Australia/New Zealand standard ASO Administrative Service Officer AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation

Model

ASRIS Australian Soil Resources Information System ASOS-CS Automated Surface Observations System Central Processing

Environment

ATAG Australian Tsunami Advisory Group ATSAS Automated Thunderstorm Alert Service ATWS Automatic Tsunami Warning System AuASB Australian Auditing and Assurance

Standards Board

AusAID Australian Agency for International Development AUSWAVE the Bureaus wave forecasting system AW

AP Australian Water Availability Project AW

AS Australian Water Accounting Standard AWID Australian Water Information Dictionary AWIS Automatic Weather Information System AWRA Australian Water Resources

Assessment

AWRIS Australian Water Resources Information System AWS Automatic Weather Station

| B

BATEA Bayesian Total Error Analysis BATMOS Ballistic atmosphere system BATP Bioregional Assessment Technical Protocol BCMS Business continuity management

system

BJP Bayesian Joint Probability (model) BLUElink Ocean Modelling and Services Project BMTC Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre BNOC Bureau National Operations Centre

| C

CABLE Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (model) CAP Common alerting protocol

CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority CAWCR Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research CCF Central Computing Facility

CDS Commonwealth Disability Strategy CGBAPS Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution

Station

228 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

CLAM Coupled Limited-Area Model CME Coronal Mass Ejection

CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CO2 Carbon Dioxide

COAG Council of Australian Governments COMET Cooperative Program for Meteorological Education and Training (USA) COP Conference of the Parties (to the

UNFCCC)

COSPPac Climate and Oceans Support Program for the Pacific COTS Commercial-off-the-Shelf CMRSET Evapotranspiration data CPG Commonwealth Procurement

Guidelines

CRC Cooperative Research Centre CREWS Climate Resilient Water Sources Mapping CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial

Research Organisation

| D

DCRS Darwin Climate Research Station DMSU Defence Meteorological Support Unit DoE Department of Energy (USA)

DPI Department of Primary Industry (New South Wales) DSEWPaC Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water

, Population and

Communities

DWSCG Defence Weather Services Consultancy Group

| E

EBS Enterprise Business System EC-PORS Executive Council Panel of Experts on Polar Observations, Research and Services ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation EMA Emergency Management Australia EPMO Enterprise Portfolio Management Office eREEFS Marine Water Quality Dashboard ERT

S Event-reporting Radio Telemetry System ESCCI Eastern Seaboard Climate Change Initiative ESD Ecologically Sustainable Development ESG Energy Sector Group

ESMC Environmental Sustainability Management Committee ESWS Extreme Space Weather Service ETD Easy-To-Deploy (tsunameter) EumetCAL European Meteorological Computer

Aided Learning

| F

FAR False Alarm Ratio

FMA Financial Management and

Accountability (Act 1997)

FOI Freedom of Information

FTP File Transfer Protocol

| G

GA Geoscience Australia

GBAS Ground-Based GPS Augmentation System GEO Group on Earth Observations GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of

Systems

CFCS Global Framework for Climate Services GFE Graphical Forecast Editor

GIC Geomagnetically Induced Currents GIS Geographic Information System GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GPS Global positioning system

GLE Ground level enhancement

GST Goods and Services Tax

| H

HAP Hourly Area Prediction

HF High Frequency

HOA Head of Agency

HQSRS High Quality Streamflow Reference Stations HQJOC Headquarters Joint Operations Centre (Defence) HRMS Human Resources Management

System

HSMA Health and Safety Management Arrangements HSR Health and Safety Representative HWB Hydrologists Work Bench HyFS Next Generation Flood Forecasting and

Warning System

| I

IAS Interim Advisory Service

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICG/IOTWS Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean T

sunami Warning

System

ICSU International Council for Science ICT Information and Communications Technology ICTSW Inter-programme Coordination Team on

Space Weather (of WMO)

IFD Intensity-Frequency-Duration rainfall information IMOS Integrated Marine Observing System IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic

Commission (of UNESCO)

IOTWS Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, of WMO and UNEP

229 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix B

IPS Information Publication Scheme IPS Ionospheric Prediction Service

IPSNET IPS monitoring network ISO International Organization for

Standardization

IT Information Technology

ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library ITO Information Technology Officer

| J

JATWC Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre JMA Japan Meteorological Agency JSC Joint Steering Committee

| K

KMA Korea Meteorological Administration KPI Key Performance Indicator

| L

LSDSS Large Scale Data Storage System

| M

MAGDAS Magnetic Data Acquisition System MetEye Web mapping visualisation tool MDBA Murray-Darling Basin Authority MJO Madden Julian Oscillation

MODIS Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite MP Member of Parliament

MoA Memorandum of Agreement MoU Memorandum of Understanding MSA Meteorological service arrangement

| N

NABERS National Australian Built Environment Rating System NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) NAA National Archives of Australia NDS National Disability Strategy NEII National environmental information

Infrastructure

NEMC National Emergency Management Committee NERAG National Emergency Risk Assessment Guidelines NGIS National Groundwater Information

System

NexGenFWS Next Generation Forecast and Warning System NFF National Farmers’ Federation NFRAG National Flood Risk Advisory Group NMOC National Meteorological and

Oceanographic Centre

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) NOCMET National Operations Centre Meteorological Unit NPEI National Plan for Environmental

Information

NREMS National Register of environmental Monitoring Sites NTDRETAS Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources, Envir

onment, the

Arts and Sports

NTC National Tidal Centre

NTCSC Northern Territory Climate Services Centre NTWC National Tsunami Warning Centre NW

A National Water Account

NWP Numerical Weather Prediction

| O

OceanMAPS an ocean prediction model OceanMAPSv2 version 2 of the ocean prediction model OCF Operational Consensus Forecast OEM Office of the Environmental Monitor

(Victoria)

OGC Open Geospatial Consortium OHS Occupational Health and Safety OIC Officer in Charge

ONUP Observations Network Upgrade Project

| P

PACCSAP Pacific-Australia Climate change Science and Adaption Planning Program PAES Portfolio Additional Estimates

Statements

PAO Public Affairs Officer

PASAP Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program PBS Portfolio Budget Statements PCA Polar cap absorption

PCCSP Pacific Climate Change Science Program PI-CPP Pacific Islands Climate Prediction Project PISC Primary Industries Standing Committee PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis

and Intercomparison

PO Professional Officer

POAMA Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia POD Probability of Detection

PSLM Pacific Sea-Level Monitoring Project PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network PTWC Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre

PTWS Pacific Tsunami Warning System

230 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| Q

QC Quality control

QMS Quality monitoring system

| R

RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RAN Royal Australian Navy

REEF Rainfall Entry and Editing Form RFC Regional Forecasting Centre RIC Regional Instrument Centre

RMDCN Regional meteorological data communications network RMS Roof Mean Square (error)

RS Research Scientist

RSS Really Simple Syndication

RTSP Regional Tsunami Service Provider RVR Runway Visual Range

| S

S31 Section 31 of the Financial

Management and Accountability Act 1997 SAM Southern Annular Mode

SAMU Sydney Airport Meteorological Unit SAP business management software SEACI South Eastern Australia Climate Initiative

SEEA System of Environment-Economic Accounts SES Senior Executive Service

SES State Emergency Service

SCC State Control Centre (Victoria) SCoPI Standing Council on Primary Industries SCOPIC Seasonal Climate Outlook in Pacific Island Countries

SDI Spatial Data Infrastructure

SIG Secure internet gateway

SLA Service level agreement

SLS Service level standards

SLSA Surf Life Saving Australia

SOPAC Secretariat of the South Pacific SPSLCMP South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project SREP Strategic Radar Enhancement Project SRS Solar Radio Spectograph

SSF Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts SST Sea Surface Temperature

STDP Spatial Technologies Demonstration Project STEPS Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System SWIC Strategic Water Information

Coordinators

SWIFT Short-term Water Information Tool SWIMP Strategic Water Information and Monitoring Plan

| T

TAF Aerodrome forecast products TC Tropical Cyclone

TCWC Tropical Cyclone Warning Centr

e

TEC Total Electron Content

TERN Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network THREDDS Thermatic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services TISN Trusted Information Sharing Network TO Technical Officer

TR Trainee

TTF Trend Type Forecasts

| U

UHF Ultra High Frequency

UN United Nations

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention

on Climate Change

UK United Kingdom

USA United States of America

USNWS United States National Weather Service USAF United States Air Force

UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time UEDB University Dust Event Database UV ultra-violet

| V

VAAC Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre VAM Volcanic ash module

VHF Very High Frequency

| W

WASB Water Accounting Standards Board WA TL Water and Land website

WCAG Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCRP World Climate Research Programme WDTF Water Data Transfer Format WIGOS World Meteorological Organization

Integrated Global Observing System WIRADA Water Information Research and Development Alliance WOW weather observations website WMO World Meteorological Organization WMO WIS WMO information system WSO Defence Weather Service Office

231 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

Compliance index Location of information provided in accordance with the Requirements for Annual Reports for Departments, Executive Agencies and FMS Act Bodies issued by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in June 2014.

na denotes that the requirement was not applicable to the Bureau of Meteorology during 2013-14.

nil denotes that this aspect was not reported on for the Bureau of Meteorology in 2013-14.

PART OF REPORT PAGE

Letter of transmittal (mandatory) .................................................................................................................................... i

Table of contents (mandatory) ........................................................................................................................................ii

Index (mandatory) ..................................................................................................................................................... 236

Glossary (mandatory) ................................................................................................................................................ 227

Contact officer(s) (mandatory) ....................................................................................................................................IFC

Internet addresses (mandatory)

..................................................................................................................................IFC

REVIEW BY AGENCY HEAD (MANDATORY)

Summary of significant issues and developments (suggested) ...................................................................................... 3

Overview of agency’s performance and financial results (suggested) ............................................................................. 7

Outlook for following year (suggested) .......................................................................................................................... 8

Significant issues and developments (suggested) ..................................................................................................... 3-7

AGENCY OVERVIEW (MANDATORY)

Role and functions (mandatory) .................................................................................................................................... 9

Organisational structure (mandatory)...........................................................................................................................

10

Outcome and program structure (mandatory) ............................................................................................................. 14

Where outcome and program structure differ fr

om PBS/PAES (mandatory)................................................................. na

Portfolio structure (mandatory) ...................................................................................................................................... 9

REPORT ON PERFORMANCE

Review of performance in relation to programs and contribution to outcomes (mandatory) ................................... 16-84 Actual performance in relation to deliverables and KPIs set out in PBS/PAES (mandatory) .................................... 16-84 Where performance targets differ from the PBS/PAES (mandatory) ............................................................................. na

Narrative discussion and analysis of performance (mandatory).............................................................................. 18-84

Trend information (mandatory) .............................................................................................................................. 18-84

Significant changes in nature of principal functions/services (suggested) ............................................................... 18-84

Performance of purchaser/provider arrangements (suggested if applicable) ................................................................ na

Factors, events or trends influencing agency performance (suggested) ................................................................. 18-84

Contribution of risk management in achieving objectives (suggested) ....................................................................... 108

Performance against service charter customer service standards, complaints data, and the agency’s response to complaints (mandatory if applicable).........................................................................

111

Discussion and analysis of financial performance (mandatory)................................................................................... 134

Discussion of any significant changes from the prior year from budget or anticipated significant Impact on future operations (mandatory) ................................................................................................ 134

Agency resource statement and summary resource tables by outcome (mandatory) ................................................ 226

232 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTABILITY 102

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Certification of compliance with Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines (mandatory) ................................................. i

Statement of main governance practices (mandatory)....................................................................................... 102-112

Names of senior executive and responsibilities (suggested) .............................................................................. 103-104

Senior management committees and their roles (suggested) ............................................................................ 105-106

Corporate and operational planning and performance reporting and review (suggested) ........................................... 108 Internal audit arrangements including approach adopted to identifying areas of significant financial or operational risk and arrangements to manage those risks. (suggested) .............................................................. 108

Policy and practices on the establishment and maintenance of ethical standards (suggested) .................................. 111 How nature and amount of remuneration for SES officers is determined (suggested) ................................................ 123

EXTERNAL SCRUTINY

Significant developments in external scrutiny (mandatory) ........................................................................................... na

Judicial decisions and decisions of administrative tribunals and by the Australian Information commissioner (mandatory) ...................................................................................................................................... 112

Reports by the Auditor-General, a Parliamentary Committee or Ombudsman (mandatory) ........................................ 112

MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

Assessment of effectiveness in managing and developing human resources to achieve agency objectives (mandatory) ................................................................................................................................ 121

Workforce planning, staf

f turnover and retention (suggested) .................................................................................... 121

Impact and features of enterprise/collective agreements, individual flexibility arrangements determinations, common law contracts and AWAs (suggested) ....................................................................................................... 123

Training and development undertaken and its impact (suggested) ............................................................................ 125

Work health and safety performance (suggested) ..................................................................................................... 128

Productivity gains (suggested) .................................................................................................................................. 122

Statistics on staffing (mandatory) ...................................................................................................................... 129-132

Enterprise or collective agreements, IFA’s, determinations, common law contracts and A

WA’s (mandatory) ........................................................................................................................................... 123

Performance pay (mandatory) ............................................................................................................................ 123,132

Assessment of effectiveness of assets management (mandatory) ............................................................................. 136

Assessment of purchasing against core policies and principles (mandatory) ............................................................. 136

Consultants, consultancy services and contracts (mandatory) .................................................................................. 214

Absence of provisions in contracts allowing access by the Auditor-General (mandatory) ........................................... 138 Contracts exempt from AusTender (mandatory) ........................................................................................................ 138

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (MANDATORY) 139

OTHER MANDATORY INFORMATION

Work health and safety ............................................................................................................................................. 128

Advertising and Market Research and statement on advertising campaigns ............................................................. 214

Ecologically sustainable development and environmental performance ............................................................. 215-216

Compliance with obligations under the Carer Recognition Act 2010 ........................................................................... na

Grant programs .......................................................................................................................................................... na

Disability reporting - explicit and transparent r

eference to agency-level information available through other

reporting mechanisms Information Publication Scheme statement .......................................................................... 212

Correction of material errors in previous annual report .............................................................................................. 216

Agency Resource Statements for resources for Outcomes ....................................................................................... 191

List of Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 231

233 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

Global Reporting Initiative index The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was founded in 1997 and aims to fulfill the need for open, transparent communication about sustainability issues by providing a consistent and credible framework for organisations to report on their economic, environmental and social impacts.

The Bureau is participating in a pilot of sustainability reporting using the GRI framework as a base for reporting. For the purposes of the pilot GRI indicators have been selected for reporting based on their relevance and applicability in the context of the operations of Australian Government entities. As this is a pilot of sustainability reporting using selected GRI indicators, specific, independent assurance of reporting has not been undertaken.

(G3.1) GRI Indicator Description Level of disclosure

(full/partial/none) Page reference

Strategy and analysis

1.1 Statement from the most senior decision maker of the organisation about the relevance of sustainability to the organisation and its strategy

Full 3

Organisational profile

2.1 Name of organisation Full i

2.2 Primary brands, products or services Full 9

2.3 Operational structure of the organisation Full 10

2.4 Location of organisation’s headquarters Full 10

2.5 Locations of operations Full 11

2.8 Scale of organisation Full 10, 12

2.9 Significant changes during the reporting period regarding size, and structure Full 4, 109

Report parameters

3.1 Significant changes during the reporting period regarding size, and structure Full 4, 109

3.3 Reporting cycle Full i

3.4 Contact point for questions regarding the report or its contents Full IFC

Report scope and boundary

3.5 Process for defining report content Full i

3.6 Boundary of the report Full iii, 14-15

3.7 State any specific limitations on the scope or boundary of the report Full na

3.9 Data measurement techniques and the bases of calculations Full 16-216

3.12 Table identifying the location of the standard disclosures in report Full 231

Governance

4.1 Governance structure of the organisation, including committees under the highest governance body responsible for specific tasks

Full 102

4.7 Process for determining composition, qualifications and expertise of highest governance body Full 102-106

234 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

(G3.1) GRI Indicator Description Level of disclosure

(full/partial/none) Page reference

4.8 Mission or value statements, codes of conduct, and principles relevant to sustainability performance and the status of their implementation

Full iv, 111, 123,

215, 216

4.9 Procedures for highest governance body for overseeing the organisation’s identification and management of sustainability performance

Full 102-106

4.10 Processes for evaluating the highest governing body's own performance Full 108

Economic performance

EC1 Direct economic value generated and distributed, including revenues, operating costs, employee compensation, donations and other community investments, retained earnings and payments to capital providers and governments

Full 134-210

EC4 Coverage of an organisation’s defined benefit plan obligations Full 158

Human Rights Reporting

HR3 Total hours of employees training on policies and procedures concerning aspects of human rights that are relevant to operations, including percentage of employees trained

Partial 125

Employment

LA1 Total workforce by employment type, employment contract and region, broken down by gender Full 129

LA2 Total number and rate of new employee hires and turnover by age, gender and region Partial 122, 131

Labour/management relations

LA4 Percentage of employees covered by collective bargaining agreements Full 123

Occupational health and safety

LA6 Percentage of total workforce represented in formal joint management-worker health and safety committees that help monitor and advice on OHS programs

Full 122, 128

LA7 Rates of injury, occupational diseases, lost days and absenteeism and number of work-related fatalities by region and gender

Partial 129

Training and education

LA10 Average hours of training per year per employee by gender and employment category None na

LA11 Programs for skills management and lifelong learning that support the continued employability of employees and assist them manage career endings

Full 121-127

LA12 Percentage of employees receiving regular performance and career development reviews by gender

Partial 121-127

235 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

(G3.1) GRI Indicator Description Level of disclosure

(full/partial/none) Page reference

Diversity and equal opportunity

LA13 Composition of governance bodies and breakdown of employees per employee category according to gender, age group, minority group membership and other indicators of diversity

Partial 102-104,

122, 129

Corruption

SO2 Percentage and total number of business units analysed for risks related to corruption Full 108

SO3 Percentage of employees trained in organisation’s anti-corruption policies and procedures Partial 108

Materials

EN1 Materials used by weight or volume None na

EN2 Percentage of materials used that are recycled input None na

Energy

EN4 Indirect energy consumption by primary source None na

EN5 Energy saved due to conservation and efficiency improvements None na

EN7 Initiatives to reduce indirect energy consumption and reductions achieved Partial 215-216

Water

EN8 Total water withdrawal by source None na

Emissions, effluent and waste

EN16 Total direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions by weight None na

EN18 Initiatives to reduce indirect greenhouse emissions and reductions achieved Full 216

EN22 Total weight of waste by type and disposal method None na

Transport

EN29 Significant environmental impacts of transporting products and other goods, and transporting members of the workforce

Partial 216

236 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| A

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander calendars, 126 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander initiatives, 124-5 accountability reporting, 212-16 accuracy of forecasts, 22-5 Administrative Appeals Tribunal, 112 advertising, 84, 214 aerodr

ome forecast services, 41 Aeronautical Meteorological Forecaster cohort, 125 Aeronautical services handbook, 38 agency overview, 9-12 agency resource statement, 226 Agency Security Committee, 105 air-sea flux data, 57 Airservices Australia, 39, 41 Akademik Shokalski (Antarctic passenger ship), 97 Amberley RAAF Base Meteorological Office, 40, 93 Annual Climate Report 2013, 43 Annual Climate Statement 2013, 43, 84 Annual Procurement Plan, 136 Annual Report 2012-13, corrections, 216 Antarctica, 69, 97, 121, 136 Anton Hales Medal, 114 APS Values and Code of Conduct, 111-12, 123 Arblaster, Julie, 114 Archives Act 1983, 213 Asia-Oceania Meteorological Satellite Users Conference, 63, 65 Asia-Pacific Spatial Excellence Awards (APSEA), 114 asset investment and replacement pr

ogram, 7, 137

asset management, 7, 136-8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, 58, 96 Attorney-General’s Department, 8 Audit Committee, 105, 108 Auditing and Assurance Standards Boar

d, 50

Aurora Australis (icebreaker), 97 AusTender, 136 Australia Day Achievement Medallions, 6, 113 Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee, 29, 33, 98 Australian Academy of Science, 114 Australian Antarctic Division, 97 Australian Antarctic Territory, 97 Australian Baseline Sea Level Monitoring Array

, 31

Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 107

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Conference, 43, 96 Australian Bureau of Statistics, 53 Australian Climate Change Science Program, 58 Australian climate data archive, 42 Australian Climate Observations Refer

ence Network

(ACORN), 42 Australian Communications and Media Authority, 21 Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) systems, 23, 56, 57, 58, 59, 113

tropical cyclone model (TC), 56, 61 Australian Defence Force (ADF), 18, 76 Australian Environmental Accounting Implementation

Plan, 52 Australian Government Environmental Information Advisory Group, 53 Australian Government Public Sector Workplace Bargaining Policy

, 123

Australian Groundwater Explorer, 50, 78 Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), 112 Australian Hydrographers Association, 50 Australian Hydrographic Service, 31 Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric, 52, 59, 79 Australian Institute of Criminology, 123 Australian Integrated Forecast System (AIFS), 76 Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), 21, 31, 33, 68, 93 Rescue Coordination Centre, 95 Australian National Audit Office, 140-1 access clauses, 138 Australian National University, 7, 52 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 68 Australian Public Service Commission (APSC), 112, 122, 127 Australian Rainfall Deficiency Analyser, 45 Australian Tsunami Advisory Group, 33, 34 Australian tsunami network, 68 Australian tsunami warning system, 34 Australian W

ater Accounting Standards, 48, 49, 50 Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, 51 Australian Water Resources Assessment 2012, 48 Australian Water Resources Information System, 48, 78, 79, 81 Australian Weather Calendar 2014, wins award, 115 AUSWA

VE, 57

automatic weather balloon releasers, 71, 89, 137

Index

237 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

automatic weather stations (AWS), 64, 66, 67, 71, 88, 137 Aviation and Defence, 38-41 deliverables and KPIs, 38-9 Aviation Weather Cameras project, 39 Aviation W

eather Services, viii, 38, 39, 89, 93, 96 awards, 6, 112-16

| B

balance sheet, 144 Barrell, Sue, 5, 80 Barry Inglis Medal, 6, 113 Baw Baw Shire Council, 91 bioregional assessment reports, 52, 53 Bioregional Assessment Technical Programme (BATP), 51-2, 54 Birmingham, Senator the Hon Simon, iv, 9, 72, 77 Blake, Joel, 115 Blue Mountains fires, 3, 87, 88 Border Pr

otection Command / Australian Maritime Security Operations Centre, 39 boundary-layer wind profilers, 88, 93, 137 Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN)

transmitters, 89 Bureau Excellence Awards, 6, 115 Bureau of Meteor

ology

authority, iv, 9, 218-25 committees, 105-6, 108 Executive, 5, 102-4 as Executive Agency, iv, 9 focus, iv governance arrangements, 105 objectives, 155 organisation at a glance, iv-v organisational structure, 10, 100-1, 110, 121 performance framework, 14-15 role and functions, 9, 218-19, 220-1 Bureau of Meteorology Marine Strategy 2014-19, 8, 52, 63 Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre (BMTC),

125, 127

Bureau National Operations Centre (BNOC), 29, 105

Bureau Work Health and Safety Award, 116 Bur

eau Work Health and Safety Committee, 106 Bushfire and National Hazards CRC, 58, 113 Business Continuity Management Committee, 106 business continuity management system, 109 business development, 5 Butcher, Tom, 5 ‘butterfly effect’, 61

| C

Canberra Meteorological Office, 88, 136 Canterford, Ray, 6, 92, 100, 103, 112 Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, 68, 97, 113 Capital and Operating Expenditure Committee, 106, 137 cash flow statement, 160 ceilometers, 68, 89, 93 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), 56, 96, 105, 113 award, 113

publications/presentations, 58 Supervisory Committee, 106 Channel Management Framework Steering Committee, 106, 216 China Meteorological Administration, 6, 63 Civil Aviation Safety Authority, 41 Climate and Ocean Support Pr

ogram for the Pacific

(COSPPac), 6, 43, 116, 119 Climate and Weather Science Laboratory (CWSLab), 59 climate change, 4, 44, 46 see also climate variability and change climate data, 44 climate data services, 45 Climate Data Services Team, 115 climate extremes service, ix, 8 Climate Information Services, 42-7 deliverables and KPIs, 42-4 climate maps and information, ix climate records, 67, 213 Climate Resilient Water Sources Mapping (CREWS)

project, 51, 76 climate summaries, 43, 44 climate variability and change, 37, 42, 46, 118, 119, 120, 215 cloud radar, 56 coastal regions wind warning services, 23 Collaborative Head Agreement Committee, 107 Comcar

e, 112

Comcover, 149 Comcover Risk Management Benchmarking Survey, 108-9 commercial advertising, 84 committees (BOM), 105-6, 108 common law contracts, 123 Commonwealth Disability Strategy (CDS), 212 Commonwealth Fraud Control

Guidelines 2011, 109

Commonwealth Heritage Register, 111 Commonwealth Procurement Guidelines (CPGs), 136, 214

238 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

community impacts, viii-ix complaints, 111 compliance index, 231-2 consultancy services, 138, 214 contracts, 136 Cooperative Program for Meteorological Education and Training (COMET), 127 Coral Sea AWS network, 93 corporate governance, 102-16 framework, 116 corporate planning and evaluation, 108 Corporate Services Division/portfolio, v,

15, 101, 104

Council of Australian Governments, 18, 48, 98, 212 Country Fire Authority, 77 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 58 Crib Point Satellite Earth Station, 90 CSIRO, 3, 4, 6, 33, 45, 46, 51, 56, 68, 95, 106, 120 CSIRO Medal for Science Excellence, 59, 113

| D

Darwin Weekly Tropical Climate Note, 96 Data and information framework principles, 80 data communication systems for weather station network, 137 Data Information Standing Committee, 106 data sharing agreements, 29, 67, 98 defence forecasting offices and warnings, viii, 88, 95 Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 40 Defence Support and Reform Gr

oup, 40

deliverables, v, 16 see also under specific programs, e.g. Hazard Prediction Services Department of Agriculture, 45 Department of Defence, 38, 39, 40, 107 Department of the Environment, 51 Department of Fire and Emergency Services

(WA), 95 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DF

AT),

6, 18, 118, 119 Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, 41 desktop computers, 137 Digital Data Delivery, 81-4

deliverables and KPIs, 81-2 Director of Meteorology, 2, 100, 103, 107 review, 3-8 disability reporting, 226 documents held by the Bureau, 213 Dr

ought Concessional Loans Scheme, 45 drought planning, 45 Drought Report, 44

drought services/workshops, 8, 44, 45, 88, 94, 95, 96, 97

| E

earthquakes, 33 ecologically sustainable development, 215 El Niño events, 6, 43, 59 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 43, 120 employee census, 122 ensemble forecasts, 61 ENSO Tracker, 43 Enterprise Agreement 2011-2014, 123 enterprise engagement solution (intranet), 81 Environment and Research Division/portfolio, v, 15, 42-61, 100, 104 Environment Canada, 6 Environment Portfolio, iv, 9 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, 215 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment Act 2013, 52 environmental accounting, 52, 53 Environmental Champions Network, 215 Envir

onmental Information Management, 78-81 deliverables and KPIs, 78-9 environmental information products, ix, 79 Environmental Information Services, 51-5 deliverables and KPIs, 52-3 Environmental Management Plan, 110, 215 environmental performance reporting, 216 Environmental Sustainability Management

Committee, 106, 110, 215 Environmental Sustainability Management Policy, 215 equity statement, 145 eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard, 6, 52, 53, 55, 76, 92 ethical standards, 111-12 EumetCAL (European Meteorological Computer Aided Learning), 127 evapotranspiration measures, 51 everyday weather forecasts, ix eXchange (electronic newsletter), 54 Executive, 102-4 appointments and retirements, 5 exempt contracts, 138 expenditure, 7, 135-6 external scrutiny

, 112

extreme temperature, sunlight and wind forecasts, ix

| F

Facebook, 3, 5, 21, 65, 84 Fair Work Commission, 112

239 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

fatigue management, 133 field offices, 74, 86 Fiji Meteorological Service, 76 Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, iv, 9, 102, 108, 136, 138, 214 financial resource management, 134-8 financial results, 7 financial statements, 140-53 notes to, 154-224 Financial Statements Subcommittee, 108 fire season, 3, 86-7, 88, 91, 94, 95 Fire Weather Consultative Committees, 88 fire weather war

nings, viii, 87

flexibility agreements, 123 flood forecasting and warning services, 4, 8, 24-5, 27-30, 67, 76, 89, 90-1, 94, 98 deliverables and KPIs, 28-9 Flood Warning Centres, 29, 30, 87 Flood War

ning Consultative Committees, 24, 29, 96, 98 flooding, 27, 28, 29, 88, 98 forecast accuracy, 22-5 Forgan, Bruce, 6, 113, 114 fraud control, 109 freedom of information, 212-13 Freedom of Information Act 1982

, 152, 212

funding basis, iv

| G

gale warnings for capital city local waters, 24 Geofabric web services, 81 Geoscience Australia, 33, 34, 51, 107, 119 Geospatial World Forum 2014, Geneva, 114 Geospatial World Technology Innovation Award (Meteorology), 114 Geostationary Cloud Algorithm Test-bed (GEOCAT) processing software, 71 Giles Meteorological Office, 71, 94 Global Framework on Climate Services, 117 Global Positioning System (GPS), radio occultation data, 57 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index, 233-5 glossary of acronyms, 227-30 governance arrangements, 105 Graduate Diploma in Meteorology, 121, 125, 127 Graphical For

ecast Editor (GFE), 56, 73, 76 Great Barrier Reef, water quality indicators, 6, 52, 53, 55, 92 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 53 Griffith University, 93 Griffiths, Kathy, 7 Guide to Environmental Accounting in Australia

, 52, 53

| H

Hanstrum, Barry, 5, 100, 104 Hawke, Graham, 100, 104 Hazard Prediction Services, 31-7 deliverables and KPIs, 31-2 hazardous surf service, 88 hazardous weather and ocean condition warnings, 19 Hazards, W

arnings and Forecasts Division/portfolio, v, 15, 18-41, 100, 103, 110 Hazelwood mine fire, Morwell, 87, 91 heatwave product/services, viii, 3, 19, 36, 76, 94 heatwaves 2013-14, 47 Heritage Management Committee, 106, 110 heritage strategy, 110-11 Heritage V

ictoria, 111

‘high ice water content-high altitude ice crystal’ field experiment, 56, 96 high-resolution weather radar, 137 history of the Bureau, v Hodge, Bryan, 115 How Australia is Faring, 212 human rights, commitment to, 123-4 Human Rights Commission, 124 Hunt, Darr

en, 116

Hunt, The Hon Greg, i, iv, 9, 77 hydrogen gas generators, 71, 137 Hydrological Forecasting System (HyFS), 29, 30 hydrometric monitoring, industry guidelines, 50

| I

ICT Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Plan, 74 income statement, 143 Independent Audit Report, 140-1 Independent Expert Scientific Committee, 52 Indian Ocean Dipole, 44 Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (OTWS), 95, 118 Tsunami Standard Operation Procedures

workshops, 33

Indigenous Australian Government Development Program, 125 Indigenous Australians, strengthening relationships with, 124-5 Indigenous Weather Knowledge, 126 Indonesian Meteorological Service, 76 Information Publication Scheme (IPS), 212 Information Systems and Services Division/portfolio, v, 15, 73-84, 101, 103, 110 Information Technology Services, 73-5 deliverables and KPIs, 73-4

240 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Infrastructure Management, 69-72 deliverables and KPIs, 69, 71 Innes, Air Commodore Tim, 39, 40, 93 Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), 215 Intensity Frequency Duration (IFD) products for

rainfall and flood events, 48, 49 Intergovernmental Board on Climate Services, 117 Intergovernmental Coordination Gr

oup for the Pacific

Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System, 33 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

(IOC), 95, 117, 118, 134 Executive Council, 117 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 3, 58, 68, 113 internal audits, 108 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 41, 96 international Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, 19 inter

national engagement, 6, 12, 117-20 International Indian Ocean Expedition, 2nd, 118 International Women’s Day, 92, 124 internet services uptime, 79 ionospheric forecasts, 25, 32 Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS), 138

| J

J K Barrie Award, 114 Jacobs, Howard, 6, 113 Jacobson, Tanya, 115 Japan Meteorological Agency, 6, 63, 65 Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC), 31, 33

| K

Kalgoorlie Meteorological Office, 70 Kalgoorlie radar, 70, 71 Kepert, Jeff, 6, 113 key performance indicators, v, 17 see also under specific programs, e.g. Climate Information Services Korea Meteorological Administration, 6, 63

| L

La Niña events, 6, 43, 86 large scale data storage system (LSDSS), 73 legal services expenditure, 138 legislative framework, 9, 102, 218-25 letter of transmittal, i Library Advisory Committee, 106 Lloyds Register of Quality Assurance (LRQA), 110 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 58

| M

Malaysian Airlines plane MH370, 33, 39, 95 marine forecast warnings, 19 marine observations networks, 67 marine weather services, viii, 8, 31, 32, 33, 38, 57, 110

marketing research, 214 Masterminds Mentoring program, 127 Maung people, seasonal weather calendar, 126 mean sea level pr

essure, 24

Melbourne & Olympic Parks weather station, 72, 91 Melbourne Instrument Enclosure, registration, 111 Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), 39, 40, 97, 107

mental health, 7, 124 Meteorological Authority Committee, 106 Meteorological Authority ISO certification, 110 Meteorological Authority Quality Management Review Committee, 106 meteorological satellites, 8, 57, 63, 65 Meteorological Service Arrangements (MSA), 33 Meteorology Act 1955, iv, 9, 102, 218-19 MetEye services, 20, 81, 92, 113 micr

owave radiometer, 71 Middleton, Vicki, 101, 104 Minister for the Environment, i, iv, 6, 9, 77 mission, iv mobile apps, 5, 8, 82, 83 mobile website launch, 5, 20, 82-3 Monash University Accident Research Centre, 7 Mount Isa Meteorological Office, 93 multilateral activities, 117-18 Munro Hazards Initiatives Programme (MHIP), 32, 33 Munro Review, Bureau’s implementation of Government response to, 4, 8, 19, 29, 31, 34 Munro Review Team, awar

d to, 114

Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 107

| N

National Air Quality Data Service, 54 National Archives of Australia, 80 National Centre of Excellence in Desalination Australia, 51 National Clean Air Agreement, 54 National Climate and Water briefings, 43 National Collaborative Research Infrastructure

Strategy, 215 National Computational Infrastructure, 59 National Crisis Management Team, 106 National Disability Strategy, 212 National Dr

ought Information Service, 8 National Drought Policy, 45

241 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

National Environmental Information Explorer system, 52 National Environmental Information Infrastructure (NEII), 51 Reference Architecture, 52, 54 National eResearch Collaboration T

ools and

Resources (NeCTAR) project partners, 59 national landscape water balance model, 58 National Measurement Institute, 113 National Plan for Envir

onmental Information (NPEI),

51, 134, 215 National Tidal Centre (NTC), 94 National Tsunami War

ning Centres, 31

National Water Account 2012, 48, 50 National Water Account 2013, 6, 48, 49, 51, 107, 215

National Water Account Committee, 48 National Water Information Standards, 223-4 National Water Initiative, 48, 215 national weather event summary

, x-xii

new and improved products, 3 see also specific products, e.g. heatwave product/services New South Wales Regional Office, 88-9, 136 Next Generation Forecast and War

ning System

(NexGenFWS), 3, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 56, 73, 76, 81, 92, 125, 134 awards, 113, 114

Nilma North AWS, Victoria, officially launched, 91 non-salary benefits, 123 Northern T

erritory Regional Office, 76, 96, 125, 136 Nowcasting, 58, 60 NSW Rural Fire Service, 88 numerical weather prediction (NWP) system, 4, 20, 23, 24, 49, 56, 57, 60 implementation and upgrades since 2009-10,

57

| O

Observations and Infrastructure Division/portfolio, v, 15, 62-72, 100, 104, 110 Observations Network Upgrade Project (ONUP), 71 Observing Network Operations, 66-8 deliverables and KPIs, 66-7 Observing System Strategy, 62-5 deliverables and KPIs, 63 ocean forecasting/services, viii, 31, 32, 33, 38, 57 OceanMAPS-3, 33, 57 Office of the Australian Information Commissioner, 80 office locations (Bureau), v, 11 online shop and payment gateway

, 82

Operational Consensus Forecasts system, 56 organisational management, 99-138

organisational structure, 10, 100-1, 110, 121 see also realignment project outcome, v, 14, 155 Outlook 2014-15, 8 ozone assessment, 67, 68

| P

Pacific adventures of the climate crab (animation), 120 Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning Program (PACCSAP), 20, 58, 119

Pacific Island National Meteorological Services capacity to connect to WMO Information System, 118-19

ISO quality management activity, 118 seasonal prediction capacity, 6 Pacific Sea Level Monitoring Project, 31, 119 Pacific tsunami and sea-level monitoring network, 71 Pacific Tsunami W

arning Centre (PTWC), 33

Parker, David, 116 Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the Environment, iv, 9, 72, 77 partnerships, 6, 106-7, 117 people management, 121-33 see also staff People Management Committee, 106 performance, v, vi-vii, 13-84 framework, 14 overview, 16-17 performance measures see deliverables; key

performance indicators performance pay, 123, 132 Portfolio Budget Statements 2013-14, v, 14, 16 Predictive Ocean Atmospher

e Model for Australia

(POAMA), 44, 47, 56, 59 priority observational data, quality control, 79 procurement strategies, 69 productivity gains, 122 pr

operty, plant and equipment asset class, revaluation, 136 Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013, 8, 9 Public Service Act 1999, iv, 9, 102, 112, 123-4 Public Service Medal, 6, 112 pur

chasing, 136

| Q

Qantas, 39 quality management system (QMS), 78 Queensland Regional Office, 92-3, 108, 124, 125, 136, 138

242 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

| R

Racial Discrimination Act 1975, 112 radars, 59, 60, 67, 70, 71, 89, 95, 96, 97 rainfall forecasts, 22-3, 43 rainfall maps, 23 rainfall records, 44, 79 realignment project, 4, 109-10, 122 Reconciliation Action Plan 2012-2014, 124 Red Cross, 120 Regional Forecasting Centres, 19, 86, 88, 90, 97 Regional Meteorological Data Communications Network (RMDCN), 74 Regional Offices, 86-98, 105, 111, 124, 125, 136 regional water monitoring partnership agreements, 91 relationship building, 126 Research and Development, 56-60 deliverables and KPIs, 56-8 responsible ministers, iv revenue, 7, 134 risk management, 108-9 Risk Subcommittee, 108 river height stations, 67 Rodney Hyman Assets Services Pty Ltd, 136 Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) bases, 39, 93, 95, 96 Royal Australian Navy (RAN), 31, 33, 38, 40, 58, 77, 125

| S

Samoa Meteorological Service, 116 satellite data processing framework, 71 satellite data use, regional cooperation in, 65 Scott, Mark, 107 sea level monitoring, 31 sea surface temperature data, 57 Seasonal Climate Outlook, ix, 44, 76 Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting Service, 6, 30, 58, 59 Secretariat for the Pacific Community-German Society for International Cooperation Ltd Climate Change Program, 120 Secure Internet Gateway (SIG), 74, 75 Seebeck, Lesley, 5, 101, 103 Senior Executive Service (SES), 130 common law contracts, 123 performance pay, 123, 132 remuneration, 123, 132, 184-6 Service Charter, 111 Services Information Management System, 76 Severe Space Weather Service war

ning, 34

severe weather events, 3, 18, 60, 73, 83 national summary, x-xii

see also specific types, e.g. tropical cyclones severe weather warnings, viii, 32 Sex Discrimination Act 1984

, 112

Shanghai Typhoon Institute, 56 Short-term Flow Forecasting System, 6, 8 short-term forecasting techniques, 8, 60 Smith, Neville, 5 Social Inclusion Measurement and Reporting Strategy, 212 social media, 4, 5, 32, 46 see also Facebook; Twitter; YouTube solar cycle, 25 solar maxima, 25 solar radiation, 57, 67 South Australian Regional Office, 94, 136 Southwest Pacific, human losses and economic

costs from severe weather disasters, 118 space-based meteorological observations, 67 space weather services/products, 25, 32 review, 8, 34 Spatial Excellence Awards, 114 Special Climate Statements, 43, 44, 47 staf

f, 12

census, 122 Enterprise Agreement 2011-2014, 123 excellence, 6, 112-16 fatigue management, 133 non-salary benefits, 123 numbers, v, 12, 121, 128-30 recruitment and development, 121, 125 remuneration, 132, 187 statistics, 129-32 training and development, 108, 112, 122, 124, 125-7

turnover and retention, 121, 131 work health and safety, 7, 122, 124, 128-9 workplace diversity, 122, 124 see also Senior Executive Service Staff Consultative Committee, 106 stakeholders, 12, 96, 109, 110, 213-14 environment and research, 42, 44, 45, 48, 49, 58, 59, 60

hazards, warnings and forecasts, 19, 29, 30, 32 information systems and services, 73, 76, 77 Standing Council on Community, Housing, and Disability Services, 212 State of the Climate 2014 report, 3-4, 43, 44-5, 46 State Control Centre (V

ictoria), 90

State Emergency Management committees, 86, 88, 95 statement of changes in equity, 145 statement of comprehensive income, 143 statement of financial position, 144

243 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

Appendix C

stocktakes, 136 storm surge forecasting system, 4, 8, 19, 33 strategic partnering agreements, 107 Strategic Plan 2010-2015, iv, 155, 215 strategic procurement plan, 69 Strategic Radar Enhancement Project (SREP), 59, 60, 71, 93, 134 strategy, iv streamflow forecasting, 6, 8, 30, 58, 59 supercomputer

, 4, 73

funding for new, 4, 8, 77 upgrade, 74, 137 Surf Life Saving Australia, 34 surveys of users, 19, 76, 213 sustainability reporting, 215 Sydney Airport meteorological unit, 39, 71, 88 Sydney to Hobart yacht race, 88 Systems Development and Maintenance (SDM), 75-7 deliverables and KPIs, 76

| T

T index metric, 25 TAF (aerodrome forecast) services, 41 Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office, 97, 136 temperature data, 42, 44, 79 temperature forecasts, 22 tenders, 136 Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network, 215 terrestrial radiation, 67 Thunderstorm Interactive Forecast System, 60 Thunderstorm Tracker product, 19, 20, 35 tide gauges refurbishment, 71 tide prediction portal, 31, 32, 33, 37, 94 Time Series Data Management System (TSDMS), 79, 81 Tindal radar, 96 tornadoes, 95 Torr

es Strait coastal waters forecast and warning service, 21 Traditional Knowledge Project, 116 training and development (staff), 108, 112, 122, 124, 125-7 Tremethick, Scott, 116 tropical cyclone Christine

, 26, 28, 84

tropical cyclone Dylan, 26 tropical cyclone Ita, 27, 29, 55, 61, 64, 84 tropical cyclone Monica, 126 tropical cyclone warning centres, 96 tropical cyclones, 26-9, 55, 93, 95, 96, 126 tsunameter network, 67, 68 Tsunami: the ultimate guide (online toolkit), 33, 34 tsunami buoys, 67, 68

tsunami monitoring network, 67 tsunami warning systems, 31, 33 Twitter, 5

| U

United Kingdom Met Office, 5, 6, 56, 63 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 95, 117 United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, 18 United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 57, 68, 71, 93 United States National Weather Service, 6 University of Wollongong, 68 upper air profiles, 67 UV forecasts, viii

| V

Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazard Department, 120

Vertessy, Rob, i,

2-8, 39, 77, 93, 100, 103, 107, 117 Victorian Climate Change Initiative, 58 Victorian Flood Review, 91 Victorian Flood Warning Consultative Committee, 91 Victorian Regional Office, 77, 90-1, 108, 136 Victorian Spatial Excellence Awards for Technical Excellence, 114 videos on Bureau’s YouTube channel, 84 V

irgin Australia, 39 vision, iv Visual Weather, 74, 76 Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre, 38, 39, 96 Volcanic Ash Detection and Prediction project, 39 Volunteer Rainfall Observer Awards, 116

| W

Warruwi radar, 96 Water Accounting Standards Board, 49, 50 Water Act 2007, iv, 9, 48, 102, 220-5 Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF), 48, 78, 81 Water for the Future, 134 Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA), 56, 58 Water Information Services, ix, 48-51 deliverables and KPIs, 48-50 Water Information Standards Business Forum, 49 water quality metadata, 49 water storage products, 50, 51 wave forecasts for coastal r

egions, 23

weather balloons, 67, 70 weather event summary, x-xii

244 Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

weather forecasting services, 18-27 deliverables and KPIs, 19-20 forecast accuracy, 22-5 Weather Observation Website (WOW), 63, 64-5, 84 W

eathernet, 74, 137 website/web pages, 3, 32, 44, 49, 50, 51, 52, 63, 64-5, 73, 79, 81, 82 commercial advertising on, 84 mobile website, 5, 20, 82-3 Weipa radar tower, 69 Western Australia Farmers Federation, 95 W

estern Australian Regional Office, 95, 118, 136, 137 wind forecasts for capital city local waters, 24 for coastal regions, 23 wind profilers, 67, 71 work health and safety, 7, 122, 124, 128-9 performance results, 128-9 Work Health and Safety Act 2011, 106

work health and safety management system, 128 workplace diversity, 122, 124 World Calendar Awards, 115 World Meteorological Congress, Geneva, 2015, 8, 117

World Meteorological Day Awards, 114-15 W

orld Meteorological Organization (WMO), 6, 63, 74, 96, 117, 118, 134 Convention, iv Executive Council, 117 Global Telecommunications System, 74, 79 Information System (WIS), 74, 78, 118-19 multilateral activities, 117-18 Regional Association V (South Pacific), 6, 117 Satellite Virtual Laboratory Program, 127

| Y

YouTube, 84

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Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

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Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report

| Low pressure system over southeast Australia

A low pressure system and associated cold front captured by satellite on 24 June.

The system caused very strong winds across much of southeast Australia. In central Victoria, the low caused a storm surge and tidal flooding as well as large waves. Flooding in Melbourne’s beachside suburbs and the Yarra River caused significant disruption to power and transport as well as widespread coastal erosion.

The strong winds caused downed trees, power outages and roof damage, with over 3500 calls to the Victorian State Emergency Service (SES), 1280 calls to the New South Wales SES and 300 calls in South Australia.

Satellite image originally processed by the Bureau of Meteorology from the polar orbiting meteorological satellite Terra, operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

| Further information

For more information concerning this Annual Report contact: Corporate Communication Manager Bureau of Meteorology 6th Floor, 700 Collins Street, Docklands, Victoria 3008 GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001

Tel: (03) 9669 4000 Fax: (03) 9669 4699 Email: publications@bom.gov.au

Other information and contact details are available on the Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov.au

This Annual Report is available electronically at www.bom.gov.au/eiab/reports/ar13-14/index.shtml

| © Commonwealth of Australia 2014

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Bureau of Meteorology. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Design and Delivery Unit, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001. Requests for reproduction of material from the Bureau website should be addressed to AMDISS, Bureau of Meteorology, at the same address.

Design: Bureau of Meteorology Design and Delivery Unit.

| Environmental Credentials Statement

Titan Plus Gloss and Satin is produced in ISO 14001 accredited facilities ensuring all processes involved in production are of the highest environmental standards. FSC Mixed Sources CoC certification ensures fibre is sourced from certified, well managed forests.

Cover: Melting frost on dandelion, Kambah, Australian Capital Territory. Photograph: Debbie Hartley Photography

January: Lenticular cloud near Mount Macedon, Victoria. February: Explosive convection east of Warwick, Queensland. March: Aurora australis over the Hazard Mountains from Coles Bay, Tasmania.

May: Storm front over Muirhead, Northern Territory.

August: Fog covers the desert near Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre, South Australia.

November: Kelvin-Helmholtz wave cloud over Jervis Bay, New South Wales.

June: Frost and cushion plants on Skullbone Plains, Tasmania.

December: Lightning over Adelaide Airport, South Australia.

April: Funnel cloud north of Cooma, New South Wales.

July: Isolated heavy rain over the Kennedy Range, Western Australia.

October: After a brief hailstorm in Geelong, Victoria.

September: Roll cloud over the first leg of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race, off the south coast of New South Wales.

Photographs from the 2015 Australian Weather Calendar produced by the Bureau of Meteorology.

2013-14

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report 2013-14

www.bom.gov.au

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Report