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Bureau of Meteorology—Report for 2016-17


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2016-17BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ANNUAL REPORTTrusted, reliable and responsive weather, water, climate and ocean services for Australia-all day, every day.

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY

ANNUAL REPORT 2016-17

www.bom.gov.au

2016-17BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ANNUAL REPORTTrusted, reliable and responsive weather, water, climate and ocean services for Australia-all day, every day.

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ANNUAL REPORT 2016-17 www.bom.gov.au

The Bureau’s work across all parts of Australia supports a wide variety of sectors, enabling a safe, prosperous, secure and healthy Australia.

Further information For more information concerning this report contact:

Manager, Strategic Planning

Bureau of Meteorology 6th Floor, 700 Collins Street, Docklands, Victoria 3008 GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001

Tel: (03) 9669 4000 Fax: (03) 9669 4699 Email: publications@bom.gov.au

Other information and contact details are available on the Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov.au

This report is available electronically at www.bom.gov.au/annualreport

ISSN: 1037-3608

© Commonwealth of Australia 2017

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Bureau of Meteorology. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Production Manager, Communication Section, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001. Information regarding reproduction of material from the Bureau website can be found at www.bom.gov.au/other/copyright.shtml.

Design: Bureau of Meteorology Design and Production.

170630-1

i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Letter of transmittal

The Hon Josh Frydenberg MP Minister for the Environment and Energy Parliament House CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Minister

As the accountable authority for the Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau), I am pleased to present the Annual Report of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 2016-17. The report details our ongoing efforts to provide trusted, reliable and responsive weather, water, climate and ocean services for Australia—all day, every day. The report has been prepared in accordance with section 46 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 which requires that you present the report to the Parliament.

In accordance with the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014, I certify that the Bureau has a fraud risk assessment and fraud control plan, and has in place appropriate fraud prevention, detection and investigation procedures for dealing with, recording and reporting fraud, and that all reasonable measures have been taken to deal appropriately with fraud relating to the Bureau.

Yours sincerely

Dr Andrew Johnson FTSE FAICD CEO and Director of Meteorology 20 September 2017

Australia’s National Meteorological Service

Level 21, 69 Ann Street Brisbane QLD 4001 | Tel: (07) 3239 8736 | Fax: (07) 3239 8688 | www.bom.gov.au | ABN 92 637 533 532

Office of the CEO and Director of Meteorology Bureau of Meteorology GPO Box 413 Brisbane QLD 4001 Australia

i i

Contents Introduction and summaries

Letter of transmittal ...........................................................................................................................i

About this report ..............................................................................................................................iii

The Bureau at a glance ..................................................................................................................iv

2016-17 Snapshot ...........................................................................................................................vi

Community impacts .....................................................................................................................viii

National weather event summary ...............................................................................................x

Overview ........................................................................................................................................... 1

Review by the CEO and Director of Meteorology ....................................................................................................... 2

Agency Overview ............................................................................................................................ 5

Performance.....................................................................................................................................9

Annual Performance Statement 2016-17 ............................................................................... 10

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts ............................................................................................. 21

Environment and Research ........................................................................................................ 37

Observations and Infrastructure ................................................................................................49

Information Systems and Services ............................................................................................56

Recognition of Performance ......................................................................................................63

Organisational management ......................................................................................................67

Corporate Governance ................................................................................................................70

International Cooperation ........................................................................................................... 87

People Management ....................................................................................................................90

Financial Resource Management ............................................................................................105

Financial statements ....................................................................................................................111

Appendices ...................................................................................................................................147

A. Glossary of acronyms ............................................................................................................148

B. List of requirements and Global Reporting Initiative content index ..........................150

C. Index ..........................................................................................................................................159

i i i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

About this report Introduction and summaries Includes a quick guide to the Bureau of Meteorology and our performance in 2016-17.

Section 1—Overview Includes the CEO and Director of Meteorology’s review of 2016-17 and the Bureau’s outlook for 2017-18, and explains our functions, services and stakeholders in the Agency Overview.

Section 2—Performance Presents a summary of the Bureau’s performance in the Bureau of Meteorology Annual Performance Statement 2016-17. Also includes a detailed report on the performance of each of the Bureau’s portfolios (with the exception of the Corporate Services portfolio reported in Section 3), setting out major deliverables and performance highlights.

Section 3—Organisational management Provides details on the management of the Bureau—operations, people and finances and includes information required under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Amendment (Non-corporate Commonwealth Entity Annual Reporting) Rule 2016. Also includes information of the Bureau’s international engagement activities

Section 4—Financial statements Contains the Bureau’s audited financial statements for 2016-17.

Section 5—Appendices Contains the Bureau’s glossary of acronyms, list of requirements, and indexes.

i v

The Bureau at a glance Our purpose To provide Australians with environmental intelligence for safety, sustainability, security, well-being and prosperity.

Our task To achieve our purpose—across the domains of weather, water, climate and oceans—we:

• monitor and report on current conditions;

• provide forecasts, warnings and long-term outlooks;

• analyse and explain trends;

• foster greater public understanding and use of the information we provide; and

• continue to extend our understanding of, and ability to forecast, Australian conditions.

Our focus Our focus is to provide trusted, reliable and responsive weather, water, climate and ocean services for Australia—all day, every day. We are dedicated to continually providing the products and services that deliver the greatest financial and social value for government, industry and the community.

Our journey Over the next few years, creating value and impact for the Australian community and driving competitive advantage for Australian industry will be at the heart of everything we do. We will seek excellence in all our operations with outstanding people, science, systems, infrastructure and partnerships working together for maximum productivity and agility. Building our understanding and applying creative thinking will help us to generate novel solutions for our customers and our organisation.

Authority The Bureau operates under the authority of the Meteorology Act 1955 and the Water Act 2007. The Bureau is an Executive Agency under the Public Service Act 1999, and a non-corporate entity under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013. The Meteorology Act 1955 requires the Bureau to fulfil Australia’s international obligations under the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and related international treaties and agreements.

Portfolio and responsible Ministers The Bureau operates within the Environment and Energy Portfolio and reports to the Minister for the Environment and Energy, the Hon Josh Frydenberg MP. On water-related matters, the Bureau reports to the Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, the Hon Barnaby Joyce MP.

Funding basis The Bureau receives most of its funding from the Australian Government ($228.407 million in 2016-17). Additional revenue is derived from the sale of goods and services ($81.213 million in 2016-17). More information is provided in the ‘Financial resource management’ chapter p. 105.

Our outcome The Bureau is responsible to the Australian Government for delivering:

Informed safety, security and economic decisions by governments, industry, and the community through the provision of information, forecasts, services and research relating to weather, climate and water.

v Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Our program To achieve its outcome the Bureau is responsible for one Government program that is delivered through five internal portfolios:

• Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts;

• Environment and Research;

• Observations and Infrastructure;

• Information Systems and Services; and

• Corporate Services.

Our staff As at 30 June 2017, the Bureau had 1476 ongoing and 212 non-ongoing staff, as well as 249 paid observers and 5000 volunteer observers who help maintain Australia’s climate record. More information can be found in the ‘People Management’ chapter, p. 90.

Our values The values that guide our behaviours are:

• safety;

• customer focus;

• passion and tenacity;

• responsibility;

• humility; and

• integrity.

Where we work Bureau staff are located across Australia, on remote islands and in Antarctica. The Bureau’s administrative and operational headquarters are in Melbourne. We observe and forecast from the Antarctic to north of the equator, and from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific.

Our performance The Bureau’s success in achieving its outcome is measured against specific deliverables and key performance indicators outlined in its 2016-17 Corporate Plan. Its performance against these targets is described in the Annual Performance Statement on p. 10 of this report.

Our history

1906 The Bureau of Meteorology was established as the authority for providing meteorological services.

1908 The Bureau commenced operations as a national agency.

1945 Divisional offices were established in each State.

1950 Australia became one of the first members of the World Meteorological Organization.

1996 The Bureau’s first public website was launched.

2002 The Bureau became an Executive Agency.

2004 The responsibilities of Australia’s National Tidal Facility were brought within the Bureau.

2005 The Bureau was given a major role in operating the Australian Tsunami Warning System.

2007 The Bureau’s new Water Information function was announced.

2008 The Bureau was given responsibility for space weather services.

2010 The Bureau was assigned a role in implementing the National Plan for Environmental Information.

2014 The Bureau began delivering information via social media and mobile platforms.

2016 The Bureau’s first weather app was released and downloaded 1 million times in less than 6 months.

v i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2016-17 Snapshot Our eye on the environment

62 weather surveillance radars

34 field offices

6684rainfall stations

710 automatic weather stations

13 wind profilers

13

solar observatories and terrestrial radiation monitors

30 wave buoys

46 sea level stations

19

satellites operated by international partners

~5000 volunteer observers

~5300 hydrological monitoring stations operated by the Bureau and its partners

What we delivered

565 510 4565flood warnings 500 000+public forecast products climate graphs and charts 450fire weather 142 000 warnings

146peer-reviewed scientific papers

marine forecasts and million

warnings

1.5 aviation forecast products 150+ climate briefings

19 704 189 critical event briefings to ~200 weather and ocean the Australian Government locations in the 7-day warnings Crisis Coordination Centre streamflow forecast service

v i i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

How we performed

100% of scheduled weather, ocean, defence and aviation forecasts delivered as planned

96.4% real-time radar availability

99.99% uptime of internet services

99.99% uptime of the supercomputer

Top 5 performance of ACCESS in

global forecasting models

99%of surveyed users satisfied with weather and ocean services

95%of surveyed farmers satisfied

with weather services

85%satisfaction with climate data and information services

14 minute average time from earthquake to tsunami bulletin

+70 Net Promoter Score for the Bureau’s Website

T

he reach of our services

1.612 billion 6.2 million 470 000 unique web page views online climate data views of videos on the service inquiries Bureau’s YouTube channel

724 700 50 000 ~98% of the

Facebook followers population

radio broadcasts covered by a Bureau radar

448 199by forecasters and of the other experts ~92% population Twitter followers within 20 km of a Bureau 438 35 automatic weather stationmillion TV interviews provided unique page views- by climate and $81.213 million BOM Weather app weather specialists own source income

v i i i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Community impacts

Our severe weather warnings

• alert Australians to protect themselves and their property from tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and damaging winds;

• warn communities to prepare for flood conditions and make timely evacuations; and

• support the emergency services in carrying out effective emergency and disaster preparation, response and recovery.

Our fire weather warnings

• alert the community to weather conditions conducive to the spread of dangerous bushfires;

• help State and Territory fire agencies to make decisions about total fire ban declarations; and

• allow emergency services to pre-position personnel and equipment to minimise fire damage.

Our marine and ocean services

• support safety at sea and inform search and rescue operations;

• support business operations in offshore resource, fishing and aquaculture industries; and

• help fishermen, boaters and water sports enthusiasts to stay safe and plan their trips on the water.

Our aviation and defence forecasts and warnings

• facilitate safe and efficient air travel in Australian airspace;

• inform routing and fuel load decisions;

• help protect aircraft from volcanic ash that may harm engines; and

• support Australia’s Defence operations in Australia and overseas.

Our UV forecasts and heatwave warnings

• help Australians avoid dangerous ultraviolet exposure, to protect against skin cancer;

• help protect vulnerable Australians against heat exhaustion and heatstroke; and

• alert health authorities to periods of heightened demand, to allow for preparation of contingency arrangements.

i x Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Our climate maps and information

• help Australians understand the nation’s climate patterns, trends and variations in climate, and climate-related risks;

• report on rainfall deficiencies and support drought assistance programs;

• support insurance claims processes; and

• support the development of climate-appropriate infrastructure.

Our water and environmental information services

• enhance planning and management of water resources;

• inform the potential design of new water infrastructure;

• support the management of water allocations and rights;

• aid decision-making in water supply and irrigation activities; and

• support the management of ecosystems.

Our seasonal climate outlooks

• help farmers make decisions about crop planting, fertilizer application, stock management, fodder and water restocking strategies;

• allow emergency managers to prepare the community ahead of the tropical cyclone season; and

• help retailers and tourist operators to tailor their activities to seasonal variations.

Our forecasts of extreme temperatures, sunlight and wind

• allow the Australian energy market to forecast power demand, particularly during heatwave conditions;

• support sustainable energy generation by informing production potential and energy output estimates; and

• support activities in the construction and transport industries.

Our everyday weather forecasts

• help Australians to plan their sporting and outdoor activities;

• help individuals and families to organise their daily commutes; and

• help event managers to make appropriate plans and prepare contingencies when required.

x

National weather event summary July

5-8: A low pressure system caused major flooding in Gippsland, Victoria, and minor to moderate flooding in New South Wales, and other parts of Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania.

9-15: A low pressure system and associated cold fronts crossed southern Australia, bringing strong winds to large parts of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. This resulted in widespread damage, with downed trees and powerlines leading to road closures and property damage across four States. Power was lost to over 120 000 premises in South Australia and over 14 000 premises in Tasmania.

11-13: Widespread snow was reported across South Australia, with snow settling to sea level in southern Tasmania.

15: Major flooding from the Huon River occurred in Huonville, Tasmania, due to heavy rainfall.

29: Numerous strong cold fronts and deep lows affected the southwest of Western Australia. One of the strongest systems produced a wind gust of 130 km/h at Cape Leeuwin. Significant wave heights reached 7.5 m.

August

2-4: A surface trough and passing cold front caused rain across New South Wales before developing into an East Coast Low off the northeast coast. Strong winds felled trees and powerlines, and caused large waves, with wind gusts reaching 126 km/h at Evans Head on 3 August. The front brought heavy snowfall in the Blue Mountains on 2 August, and several drivers were trapped in their cars near the Jenolan Caves.

22-29: A surface trough drew very warm, moist air into northern New South Wales and the border with Queensland, with heavy rain breaking records in northeast New South Wales on 24 August. Flash flooding led to several flood rescues, and a fatality occurred when a car was washed from a causeway.

September

1

-30: A record wet September led to recurrent and widespread flooding throughout the month. Flooding in Victoria affected the southwest, the northeast, and the border country with major flood levels reached in Casterton, Coleraine and Charlton, causing extensive flood damage. One fatality occurred in Wallacedale, south of Hamilton. Flooding in New South Wales affected the central west of the State and the southern border country. Evacuations were ordered in parts of Ungarie and Forbes, with floodwaters affecting close to 350 properties. Natural disasters were declared for 36 local government areas. The New South Wales SES received over 5500 requests for assistance during September and October, and performed 143 flood rescues. Flooding in South Australia affected parts of the agricultural districts, particularly in the Adelaide Hills. Flooding in Tasmania affected large parts of the State.

19-20: A deep trough combined with abundant tropical moisture from the Indian Ocean, generated record rainfall across the Top End— more than seven times the long-term average.

27: A lightning strike in late September ignited a bushfire in the Kimberley in Western Australia. By late October, around a million hectares had been burnt, affecting several cattle stations.

28-29: An outbreak of severe thunderstorms, with seven tornadoes and large hailstones, affected South Australia; electricity transmission towers were brought down in four separate locations and a statewide power outage occurred. The State experienced its most significant rainfall since November 2005 with all major riverine catchments affected.

October

1: Flooding in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania continued into October.

3: Severe thunderstorms developed along a surface trough in Queensland’s Darling Downs and past Toowoomba. Heavy showers re-intensified in the greater Brisbane area, with more than 10 000 homes losing power.

x i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5: Strong winds affected Tasmania, causing structural damage in the west and northwest of the State. Maatsuyker Island registered a gust to 159 km/h—the strongest October gust ever recorded in Australia.

9-12: In Victoria, wind gusts in excess of 100 km/h brought down trees and power lines and damaged buildings, causing hundreds of road closures and leaving close to 150 000 homes without power. Authorities received more than 5000 calls for assistance.

31: Fitzroy Crossing in the Kimberley experienced its wettest wet season since 1893 with 1047.2 mm of rain recorded.

November

8: Several bushfires burned in eastern parts of New South Wales during November; more than 40 bushfires were alight on 8 November.

10-13: Severe storms with large hail and strong winds affected South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Extensive crop damage occurred around Mildura in Victoria, with blackouts affecting over 21 000 premises. A suspected tornado was observed at Merbein. The Victorian SES responded to 430 calls for assistance. Insured losses were reported at $115 million. Significant damage was sustained in Broken Hill and in the Narrabri-Tamworth area of New South Wales, and in Adelaide and the Riverland region of South Australia.

12-14: A low pressure system brought heavy rain to Tasmania. Moderate to locally major flooding occurred in the South Esk and Macquarie rivers, with two men rescued from floodwater by helicopter.

21: Severe thunderstorms to the west of Melbourne coincided with a significant number of people suffering breathing difficulties, leading to an unprecedented nine asthma-related deaths. More than 8500 people presented at hospitals across Melbourne and about 1900 calls for an ambulance were made over five hours.

19-25: Tropical cyclone (TC) Yvette developed well off the western Kimberley in Western Australia. The system intensified to a Category 1 on 21 December, but weakened to tropical low strength before making landfall near Broome on 25 December. The system was associated with areas of heavy rainfall assisted by another tropical low closer to Darwin.

25: South Australia suffered heatwave conditions with a maximum of 41.3 °C recorded on Christmas Day, the hottest 25 December since 1941.

February

December

25-28: Heavy rainfall brought flash flooding to the Wulungurru community in the Northern Territory, breaking daily rainfall records at several locations in the Tanami and Simpson districts. In Central Australia, severe flash flooding led to stunning waterfalls down the iconic rock and closed the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Evacuations were ordered in Kintore after 232 mm of rain fell in 24 hours. A search and rescue effort was mounted for groups of tourists stranded by floodwaters.

26-28: Storms in South Australia caused widespread flash flooding, power outages and damage to orchards in the Adelaide Hills. Around 155 000 properties were affected by power outages and emergency services received over 2000 calls for assistance.

29: Severe thunderstorms in warm and humid conditions brought very heavy rainfall that lead to flash flooding around Melbourne. In some areas, a month’s worth of rain fell in just a few hours.

January

11: Dozens of bushfires burnt across New South Wales, with homes threatened near Loxford in the Hunter Valley and the Pacific Highway was closed north of Kempsey.

13: A fast-moving band of showers with gusty winds moved through the Australian Capital Territory. The SES received more than 900 calls for assistance due to property damage from downed trees and powerlines. Around 16 000 households experienced power outages.

19: A line of severe thunderstorms moved across the Yorke Peninsula and Adelaide, producing severe wind squalls that damaged property—felling trees across roads and on power lines and houses.

31: Exceptional warmth affected large parts of New South Wales and Queensland from late December through into February. Several stations in northern and eastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland, including the Sydney metropolitan region, broke records for the number of consecutive warm days or nights, or for the total number of hot days or warm nights during the month.

6-11: A t ropical low to the north of Western Australia brought heavy rainfall. Large parts of southwest Western Australia were flooded, and two fatalities occurred when motor vehicles were washed off roads.

x i i Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

8-10: South Australia experienced a heatwave with three days of maximum temperatures above 40 °C. Temperatures peaked at 42.4 °C on 8 February.

10-12: An extreme heatwave affected most of New South Wales. Several stations broke records for highest minimum temperatures, with 34.2 °C recorded in White Cliffs on 11 February—the highest overnight minimum ever recorded in the State. The statewide average maximum temperature reached 44.0 °C, the warmest February day on record.

11-12: Hot, dry and windy conditions contributed to widespread bushfire activity across eastern New South Wales, during the weekend of 11-12 February. More than 120 fires were reported across the State. The Sir Ivan Fire in the Warrumbungle region burnt more than 50 000 ha and saw 35 homes destroyed, with another 11 homes destroyed by a grass fire at Carwoola, near Queanbeyan.

17-19: Widespread thunderstorm activity across eastern New South Wales brought damaging hail, with more than 2700 calls to the SES and over $180 million in insured losses. Three women were struck by lightning near Bowral.

20-22: TC Alfred intensified and remained a Category 1 system for nearly 24 hours, before weakening, bringing very heavy rainfall, damaging winds and flooding, with evacuations in the township of Borroloola near the Gulf of Carpentaria in the Northern Territory.

ch Mar

1: Net Antarctic sea-ice reached a record low of 2.075 million square kilometres, well below the previous record low of 2.264 million square kilometres recorded in February 1997.

5-7: TC Blanche formed near the Tiwi Islands on 5 March, crossing the Kimberley coast at Category 2 intensity on 6 March. Record March rainfall was recorded at Point Fawcett, with a daily total of 384.0 mm.

20-23: A tropical low to the northwest of Western Australia developed and crossed the coast just to the west of Port Hedland during 23 March. Post analysis determined that the system briefly reached tropical cyclone intensity just before making landfall.

22-27: TC Caleb developed in the tropical Indian Ocean about 400 km east of the Cocos Islands on 23 March, moving southward then westward before dissipating, with no direct impact.

25-29: Severe TC Debbie made landfall near Airlie Beach on Queensland’s Whitsunday coast on 28 March, as a large and powerful Category 4 strength system. A peak wind gust of 263 km/h was recorded at Hamilton Island as Debbie approached the coast—the highest ever recorded in Queensland. Debbie devastated resort islands including Hamilton and Daydream islands, and the towns of Airlie Beach and Proserpine. Significant damage was reported at Bowen, and at Collinsville which experienced Category 2 strength winds.

29-31: The remnant tropical low from TC Debbie turned southeast, producing a broad swathe of damaging winds and torrential rainfall and leading to major flooding in central and southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales (see p. 35). Several lives were lost due to flooding in New South Wales and Queensland.

April

7: Flooding continued in the Fitzroy River into arly April, with the river peaking at 8.9 m at ockhampton—the fifth-highest flood peak ecorded at Rockhampton in over 160 years.

-10: Severe TC Ernie was an intense oceanic ystem notable for its rapid intensification into a ategory 5 cyclone on 7 April. Located about 10 km east from Christmas Island, the cyclone

ad no impact on people or property.

1: An exceptionally cold day was recorded across arts of the Top End. Many sites had their coldest pril day on record, including Darwin, which ecorded a maximum temperature of only 21.9 °C.

7-29: TC Frances was a small cyclone that eveloped (to a Category 3) and weakened apidly over the Timor Sea. Although Frances did ot cross the coast, heavy rain and strong wind

usts were recorded on the Tiwi Islands.

e R r

7 s C 7 h

1 p A r

2 d r n g

May

3: TC Greg formed northwest of Christmas Island with Category 1 strength before moving to the north of the Cocos Islands and dissipating.

17-19: Heavy rainfall affected the northern interior and southern tropics of Queensland giving many locations their wettest May on record.

20-21: A trough brought heavy rainfall to Tasmania. A number of sites, including Smithton and Marrawah, recorded their wettest May day on record.

June

Nationally, it was the second-driest June on record, with rainfall 62 per cent below average for Australia as a whole, due to persistent high pressure and a lack of cold fronts crossing southern Australia.

Overview1

2

Dr Andrew Johnson FTSE FAICD

Review by the CEO and Director of Meteorology For more than 100 years, the Bureau has provided an extraordinary array of products and services that have contributed to Australia’s economic prosperity, public safety and community well-being.

Our clear focus is on ensuring the Bureau continues to provide maximum impact and value for Australia. Our customers’ needs are changing and developing while at the same time we are responding to new opportunities and threats in our own operating environment. In 2017-18 we will

commence implementation of a new strategy for the organisation (see p. 73) that has been built on the ground work we have laid this year—asking our customers about their priorities and future knowledge needs, and positioning ourselves to better anticipate trends and maximise our flexibility to respond.

As always, we have directed our efforts towards identifying potential weather, climate, water and ocean-based threats, briefing t he relevant authorities, warning industries and communities, and providing the best possible forecasts and guidance to mitigate the effects of severe events on the Australian community. This year we saw eight named cyclones, including severe tropical cyclone Debbie that devastated the Whitsunday region and led to major flooding across large parts of Queensland and New South Wales. We also saw major floods in September, record summer heat in Queensland and New South Wales, major bushfires in New South Wales and a severe thunderstorm event that damaged major power infrastructure in South Australia. Our response to these events again demonstrated our capacity to perform at a very high level when our nation needs us most.

During a number of these events, I had the extraordinary privilege of seeing firsthand our organisation at work and witnessed the clear appreciation of our partners and stakeholders of the skill and dedication of our people. While the forecast teams are at the front line during times of severe weather, our response is truly a whole-of-enterprise effort as our observing and engineering teams keep our vital equipment running, our information and communication technology (ICT) teams keep

our systems working at optimum capacity, our communications teams deliver information to our partners and customers, and our central policy staff coordinate resources to ensure consistent, comprehensive service delivery.

Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

1 Overview

2016-17 has bought many other highlights on the services front, but it would be remiss of me not to acknowledge the ongoing success of our smartphone app, the release of the State of the Climate 2016 report, and the successful implementation of our planned observing systems changes. The year has also not been without its challenges. In November, an unprecedented thunderstorm asthma event across Melbourne tragically claimed nine lives. We have since been working with Victorian emergency and health authorities to consider future services to protect the community from such events.

As well as supporting general community safety and well-being, we have boosted our efforts to increase productivity and to drive competitive advantage for Australian businesses. This year we have appointed a number of new leaders to increase the Bureau’s engagement with, and delivery to, our customers in high-priority sectors such as agriculture, water, energy and resources, and national security. This will deepen our capacity to understand each of our customers’ needs and act in a more businesslike way.

We have also paid significant attention to ensuring that the Bureau’s aviation weather services are able to respond to the future needs of the industry. The Bureau has been working closely with the aviation industry to implement the recommendations of the Review of Aviation Weather Services, released in September 2015. The aviation industry has agreed to a new aviation service model, which will be implemented over the next three years.

To ensure continuity of services to the water sector, we were delighted that the government announced ongoing funding for essential water programs as part of the Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook. This funding will allow the Bureau to continue its vital water information functions that support effective water management.

We also commenced operation of the Bureau’s new supercomputer Australis. The increased computing power that it provides is already boosting our capacity to predict the weather, and will allow us to further enhance the frequency, accuracy and certainty of forecasts in the coming years. We continue to work closely with Australian Government security agencies, and this year have invested in renewed ICT security arrangements to improve the security and resilience of the Bureau. The investment in the supercomputer aligns with the Australian Government’s recently announced Cyber Security Strategy, which will continue to strengthen Australia’s defences against online attacks.

We have also made significant progress towards creating a more diverse workforce. Following many months of planning and stakeholder engagement, a new Reconciliation Action Plan (2016-2019) was released in January. The new plan will see the Bureau implementing a new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Employment Strategy, expanding our Indigenous Weather Knowledge website to capture additional traditional weather and seasonal knowledge, and committing to improved services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In February, we commenced a strategic approach to greatly improving our gender equality with a comprehensive assessment to inform a three-year gender equality action plan.

Finally, I wanted to say how proud and thankful I am of our teams right across the country who continue to deliver our trusted services, all day, every day. It is a privilege to serve as their CEO and Director.

4

Financial results The Bureau reported an operating deficit of $72.227 million for the financial year 2016-17, compared to the prior year’s operating deficit of $75.967 million.

Revenue for the year was $309.620 million. Of this, $228.407 million was funded as appropriation from government, and $81.213 million relates to own-source income and gains—primarily related to the sale of goods and services. This is a slight decrease (1.7 per cent) compared to 2015-16. Overall, there has been a modest increase of 4.4 per cent in total revenue over the prior financial year.

Expenditure for the reporting period to 30 June 2017 equated to $381.847 million and is represented by the Bureau’s investment in employee benefits (49.3 per cent), supplier costs (29.0 per cent), asset-related operating costs such as depreciation and amortisation (19.7 per cent), and other costs (2.0 per cent).

The Bureau manages a significant portfolio of assets totalling $567.0 million, of which 84.4 per cent is identified as land and buildings, as well as property, plant and equipment incorporating major network infrastructure. As part of the Bureau’s ongoing asset investment and replacement program, $75.798 million was invested in asset acquisitions and construction during the course of the financial year—predominantly to support the delivery of our services to all key stakeholders. Funding for capital investment was predominantly derived from departmental capital funding and equity-based funding, both of which are sourced from government. Other investments made by the Bureau were primarily funded from own-source revenue.

Outlook 2017-18 A major shift in our operations will take place during 2017-18 as we begin implementing our new strategy. As outlined in Strategy 2017-2022, our focus will clearly be on delivering services that provide even greater impact and value for the Australian community and industry.

To support the successful implementation of the strategy, we have developed a new organisational structure for the Bureau, taking effect from 1 July 2017. The new structure will support our high aspiration for enhancing innovation and creativity, and play a crucial role in supporting the cultural and functional changes we believe are needed for the Bureau to operate as one enterprise in the service of our nation.

In 2017-18, we will also implement a number of new measures announced in the federal budget. These include data management and information delivery work for the Department of the Environment and Heritage on the new Geological and Bioregional Assessment Programme, focusing on shale and tight gas, and implementation of an initiative to significantly improve the security and resilience of the Bureau’s ICT systems and business processes. The Bureau will also undertake significant research under the Australian Government’s Rural Research and Development for Profit program to help farmers better prepare for extreme climate events and increase their productivity and profit.

5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

1 Overview

Agency Overview Role and functions The Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau) is Australia’s national weather, climate and water agency, providing a wide range of products and services to support informed decision-making by governments, emergency services, industry and the community.

The Bureau’s products and services include a range of observations, forecasts, warnings, analyses and advice covering Australia’s atmosphere, water, ocean and space environments. Its expertise and services assist Australians to manage and live within their natural environment.

The Bureau of Meteorology is one of the few organisations in Australia that touches the lives of all Australians every day. Since 1908, the Bureau has proudly provided an extraordinary array of products and services that have contributed to economic prosperity, public safety and community well-being. The knowledge of, and insights into, Australia we have gained over this period are unique and irreplaceable.

Authority The Bureau operates under the authority of the Meteorology Act 1955 and the Water Act 2007, which together provide the legal basis for its activities. The Bureau must also fulfil Australia’s international obligations under the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and related international meteorological treaties and agreements.

The Bureau is an Executive Agency under the Public Service Act 1999 (PS Act) and a non-corporate Commonwealth entity under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act). Under the Public Service Act, the CEO and Director of Meteorology has the powers and responsibilities of an agency head.

As at 30 June, the Director of Meteorology reported to the Minister for the Environment and Energy, the Hon Josh Frydenberg MP, on all general matters and to the Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, the Hon Barnaby Joyce MP, on water-related matters (Figure 1).

Public Service Act 1999

PGPA Act 2013

Meteorology Act 1955

Water Act 2007

International obligations

Secretary

Statutory authorities

Statutory o*ce holder

Department of the Environment and Energy

Director of Meteorology

Bureau of Meteorology

Minister for the Environment

and Energy

Minister for Agriculture

and Water Resources

Figure 1: The Bureau is an Executive Agency in the Environment and Energy Portfolio, reporting to the Minister for the Environment and Energy generally, and to the Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources on water-related matters.

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Location The Bureau’s services span the Australian region encompassing the mainland, Tasmania and Australia’s offshore islands and territories (including the Australian Antarctic Territory), and the surrounding oceans and seas (including the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans). For some Bureau services the span is even greater. For example, the Bureau’s Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre is responsible for an area that includes the volcanically active regions of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the southern Philippines. As a partner in the Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre, the Bureau provides threat information to National Tsunami Warning Centres of other Indian Ocean countries.

Bureau staff are located across Australia, on remote islands and in Antarctica (Figure 2). The Bureau’s Head Office, located primarily in Docklands, Melbourne, is a centre for administrative and operational activity, and provides overall national strategic planning, management and coordination of the Bureau’s services.

Gove

PERTH

Oakey

Giles

HOBART

Albany

SYDNEY

Pearce

Broome

Cairns

Tindal

DARWIN

CANBERRA

ADELAIDE

Cape Grim

East Sale

Bungendore

MELBOURNE

Esperance

Geraldton

Townsville

Rockhampton

Alice Springs

Wagga Wagga

BRISBANE Amberley

Note: Some locations have two or more o*ces.

Learmonth

Williamtown

Davis

Casey

Mawson

Cocos Island

Norfolk Island

Willis Island

Macquarie Island

Lord Howe Island

Figure 2: The location of Bureau Regional Offices, field offices and other staffed observing facilities as at 30 June.

7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

1 Overview

Organisational structure For 2016-17, the Bureau was structured into five divisions to help achieve the Bureau’s outcome and purpose. For more detail on the governance of the Bureau, and an organisational chart, see p. 68-69.

Staff As at 30 June, the Bureau employed 1476 ongoing and 212 non-ongoing staff. Many staff work around the clock to provide surveillance, forecast and warning services 24 hours a day, every day of the year. Detailed information on the Bureau’s staff and the management of human resources is provided in the People management chapter (p. 90).

Values In delivering products and services to its customers, Bureau staff individually and collectively uphold the Australian Public Service Values of impartiality, commitment to service, accountability, respectfulness and ethical conduct. These values guide our behaviours and how we treat our customers, our partners and each other. The following Bureau-specific values and behaviours determine what is important and bind us together as an organisation and as colleagues.

Bureau of Meteorology values and behaviours

Safety Customer focus

We are committed to actively improving the health and well-being of our people, and strive for zero harm.

We listen to our customers, understand their needs and are invested in their success. We strive to provide them with an outstanding experience. We are a pleasure to work with and can be relied upon to deliver.

Passion and tenacity Responsibility

We are proud of our heritage, who we are, what we do and where we are headed. We deliver in times of crisis. Our deep commitment to our nation’s well-being drives our success.

We understand and accept our responsibilities. We learn from success and failure. We hold each other to account for our actions and results.

Humility Integrity

We are humble in our dealings with each other and our customers. We help each other and operate as one enterprise.

Our integrity is founded on trust, honesty and reliability.

Stakeholders The Bureau partners with a broad range of stakeholders across all sections of the community, and provides special services to an extensive range of federal, State and local government departments and agencies. These support emergency management (including prevention, preparedness and response), aviation, marine safety, agriculture, climate policy, water management, defence and foreign affairs.

In the private sector, the Bureau’s weather, climate and water information supports business decisions across all manner of activities—from planting to harvesting, excavation to construction, and operational planning.

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Sector-specific applications of the Bureau’s products and services are essential, and benefit all Australians. The general public is a significant stakeholder, as the Bureau’s website usage statistics demonstrate (see p. 17). Every day, millions of Australians use the Bureau’s information to make decisions of convenience (such as whether to hang out the washing or go on a picnic) or safety (such as securing animals or property when high winds are forecast or avoiding driving on icy roads). In emergency situations, the Bureau’s services enable individuals, families, businesses and communities to make informed decisions about evacuating or preparing themselves for potential or imminent danger.

Other Bureau stakeholders include relevant government ministers and the Parliament, staff, suppliers and the international meteorological community.

National outreach National outreach and engagement through the Bureau’s seven regions (the five mainland States, the Northern Territory, and Tasmania and Antarctica) is integral to the delivery of Bureau services.

Each region has a Regional Office, led by a Regional Director, and is responsible for operational and service activities in that region, to support the achievement of the Bureau’s objectives. Each Regional Office includes a regional forecasting centre and a flood forecasting centre, and is responsible for overseeing staffed observing and meteorological information offices; managing the program of observations; and delivering weather, climate and water services.

Regional Offices work closely with the media to ensure that communication with the general public is effective and that warnings are broadcast widely. Regional staff interact with a broad range of stakeholders and users—from primary producers to primary school children, and from public servants to the general public via radio, television and social media. They undertake high-level stakeholder liaison, with a particular focus on State and local government and emergency services agencies, and form part of the emergency management and disaster mitigation networks in their respective State or Territory.

Each Regional Office convenes formal consultative arrangements to ensure the Bureau’s products and services are responsive to the needs of users, including emergency management, marine, weather-sensitive industries and the general public.

Global linkages Australia’s weather and climate form part of global systems, so monitoring and predicting our weather and climate requires access to meteorological information from around the globe. The Bureau contributes to, and benefits greatly from, the observational and research efforts of other nations. International cooperation is an essential and integral part of the Bureau’s operations. Information on the Bureau’s international activities is provided in the International cooperation chapter (see p. 87).

2 Performance

1 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Annual Performance Statement 2016-17

Bureau of Meteorology Annual Performance Statement 2016-17

Introductory Statement I, Andrew Johnson as the accountable authority of the Bureau of Meteorology present the Bureau’s 2016-17 Annual Performance Statement as required under paragraph 39(1)(a) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act). In my opinion, the Bureau’s Annual Performance Statement accurately reflects the Bureau’s performance in achieving its purpose for the year ended 30 June 2017, and complies with subsection 39(2) of the PGPA Act.

D

r Andrew Johnson CEO and Director of Meteorology

12 September 2017

Performance framework The Bureau operates within the Australian Government’s outcome and performance frameworks. The outcome for each agency articulates the Government’s objectives for the agency and provides a basis for budgeting and reporting the use of funds appropriated by government. The entity’s purpose, as stated in its Corporate Plan sets out why the entity exists, and identifies the strategic objectives that the entity intends to pursue.

The Bureau’s outcome is: Informed safety, security, and economic decisions by governments, industry, and the community through the provision of information, forecasts, services, and research relating to weather, climate, and water.

The Bureau’s purpose, as defined by its mission, is to provide Australians with environmental intelligence for safety, sustainability, security, well-being and prosperity.

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2 Performance

To achieve its outcome and purpose, the Bureau is responsible for a single government program: Program 1.1 Bureau of Meteorology. The performance of this program is measured by a number of deliverables and key performance indicators (KPIs) as outlined in the Bureau of Meteorology 2016-17 Corporate Plan. The Bureau’s performance against these targets provides an indication of its success in fulfilling its purpose for the benefit of the Australian community.

Analysis of performance against agency purpose For 2016-17, the Bureau performed strongly against the performance indicators identified in its corporate plan (as detailed in the following performance results). This gives a good indication that the Bureau has been largely successful in delivering its priorities and planned achievements for the year, and in line with its purpose, made a significant contribution to the safety, sustainability, security, well-being and prosperity of Australians.

The Bureau’s performance results were achieved in the context of an intensely dynamic operating environment. Important factors affecting the Bureau’s performance include:

• i ncreasing user expectations for services better targeted to individual requirements, for immediately accessible localised information, and for highly visual services provided via mobile devices;

• c hanges in Australia’s climate including more frequent and more intense weather extremes that place greater pressure on the environment and those that work on the land;

• i ncreased community risk from extreme weather as the population increases, urban settlement patterns continue to concentrate in coastal areas, and as public and private infrastructure expands;

• a challenging budget position requiring greater operational efficiency, and growth and diversification in external revenue sources;

• g reater scrutiny of the Bureau’s processes and data streams;

• op portunities created by advances in science and technology—including through partner agencies in other countries; and

• i ncreasing data volumes and demand on ICT resources, and the increase in cyber threats.

A number of significant change initiatives that impacted the Bureau’s activities or organisational capability were implemented or continued in 2016-17, including:

• c ommencing operation of the Bureau’s new supercomputer Australis (see p. 60);

• c ompletion of the four-year program to implement elements of the Munro review to improve the Bureau’s capacity to respond to extreme weather and natural disasters;

• implementation of the SHARP project to enhance the Bureau’s ICT security (see p. 61);

• the release of a Bureau mobile weather app (see p. 62)

• establishment of an emerging technologies lab;

• commissioning of Observing Operations Hubs in Darwin and Melbourne to remotely monitor and maintain the Bureau’s observing network;

• development of a new storm surge forecasting system;

• implementation of new graphical warning products; and

• major observing system upgrades with the installation of three new Doppler weather radars in the Western Australia Wheatbelt, the upgrade of Adelaide’s Buckland Park radar, and installation of a new wind profiler at Longreach in Queensland.

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Performance results Key Performance Indicator (KPI) 1

Observations meet accuracy, timeliness, completeness, coverage, and accessibility specifications.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 17

Measure Result

Uptime (availability) of key observing equipment (e.g. radars, automatic weather stations, wind profilers) and networks (e.g. tsunami) exceeds 95 per cent.

• 96.4 per cent uptime of real-time radar data.

• 100 per cent uptime of the tsunami network.

• 98.8 per cent uptime of the wind profiler network.

• 98.6 per cent uptime of the automatic weather station (AWS) network.

95 per cent of scheduled observations from Bureau satellite stations are received and pass quality checks.

• 96.4 per cent availability of the satellite observation network.

95 per cent of scheduled marine observations are available to users. • Availability of the sea level network was 94.6 per cent.

Uptime (availability) of space weather network observations exceeds 95 per cent.

• 93.3 per cent uptime for the Space Weather Ionosonde Network.

Uptime (availability) of the flood warning observations network exceeds 90 per cent. • 90 per cent uptime of the flood warning observations network.

KPI 2

Forecasts meet accuracy, coverage and timeliness specifications, and are used extensively, and satisfy users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 18

Measure Result

99 per cent of routine weather forecast services are delivered as scheduled. • 100 per cent of routine weather forecast services (565 510) were delivered to schedule.

• Over 99 per cent of routine aviation weather services were delivered as scheduled.

• 99 per cent of defence weather services delivered on time.

The Bureau’s ACCESS weather forecasting model is one of the leading global forecasting models.

• Verification statistics show that ACCESS is competitive with the best models in the world for the global system. The high resolution systems are state of the art and ACCESS-C2 shows a significant improvement in skill, especially for high impact rainfall and wind shifts over the previous model.

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2 Performance

KPI 2

Forecasts meet accuracy, coverage and timeliness specifications, and are used extensively, and satisfy users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 18

Measure Result

Weather forecast and information services meet target accuracy standards based on forecast verification (the statistical comparison between forecast and actual observed conditions).

• More than 89 per cent of capital city maximum temperature forecasts were within 2 °C of actual observed temperatures.

• 81 per cent of wind speed forecasts in local waters areas were within 5 knots.

• 85 per cent of wave forecasts were within 0.5 metres.

• precipitation forecasts met target accuracy standards.

• fire weather forecasts met target accuracy standards.

• average accuracy of ionospheric forecasts for HF radio frequency predictions was more than 80 per cent.

• 100 per cent of ocean forecasts and tsunami warnings were delivered according to standard operating procedures and agreed standards for accuracy and timeliness.

Flood predictions meet standards in regional service level specifications in relation to appropriate lead times and relative accuracy.

• The Bureau exceeded the service standards set out in its Service Level Specifications (SLS) within each State and Territory. In particular:

- 80 per cent of forecasts were within the lead time requirements of the SLS against a target of greater than 70 per cent; and

- 76 per cent of the flood predictions had time relative accuracy at forecast locations within the requirements of the SLS, exceeding the target of 70 per cent.

Seasonal climate predictions are issued on schedule and demonstrate statistical skill.

• 68 per cent forecast accuracy in seasonal climate outlooks, indicating skill well above climatology (50 per cent).

Streamflow forecasts were issued on schedule and demonstrated statistical skill

• Monthly updates for current locations in the seasonal streamflow forecast service were delivered on time and met service benchmarks.

90 per cent of users are satisfied or very satisfied with the accuracy, coverage and timeliness of Bureau’s weather and marine forecast services, as indicated by ongoing surveys and feedback.

The Bureau’s weather information user survey 2017 results showed:

• general public overall satisfaction was 99 per cent, with a 91 per cent timeliness rating and an 86 per cent accuracy rating.

• coastal users’ overall satisfaction was 99 per cent, with a 93 per cent timeliness rating and an 88 per cent accuracy rating.

• farmers’ overall satisfaction was 95 per cent, with an 88 per cent timeliness rating and a 77 per cent accuracy rating.

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KPI 2

Forecasts meet accuracy, coverage and timeliness specifications, and are used extensively, and satisfy users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 18

Measure Result

90 per cent of aviation and defence users are satisfied or very satisfied with the Bureau’s forecast products, as indicated by feedback and surveys.

• Surveys of aviation users showed that satisfaction with products and services was 78.5 per cent amongst airport primary users and 85.3 per cent within the regional aviation sector.

• More than 95 per cent of defence customers were satisfied with weather services provided.

• 85 per cent of space weather service users that provided feedback were satisfied that the Bureau’s space weather products and services were applicable to their needs, while 83 per cent consider them easy to use.

Increasing use of forecast products is indicated by web statistics. • There were 330.2 million unique page views on the Bureau’s State-based forecast web pages in 2016-17,

representing an increase of 7 per cent compared to 2015-16.

KPI 3

Warnings meet accuracy, timeliness and coverage specifications, and are effective in influencing responses to impending critical events.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 18

Measure Result

Weather, ocean and hazard warning services meet target accuracy standards based on verification (the statistical comparison between forecast warning and actual observed conditions).

• 96 per cent of marine gale warnings issued for local waters areas met accuracy standards.

• Severe frost warnings exceeded target accuracy standards.

• Warnings for all three significantly large and damaging wave events including significant wave activity generated from tropical cyclone Debbie met target accuracy standards.

Flood warnings meet standards in regional service level specifications in relation to appropriate reliability of flood watch and punctuality of flood warnings.

• 84 per cent of products were issued within ten minutes of the next scheduled issue time, 91 per cent within 30 minutes and 94 per cent within 60 minutes. An average of 77 per cent of flood watches were followed by flood warnings, with 84 per cent of flood warnings preceded by a flood watch.

Key emergency services stakeholders are satisfied with the accuracy, timeliness and coverage of warnings— as indicated by feedback, post-event analysis and event debriefs.

• Emergency services members of the Bureau’s Hazards Services Forum provided positive feedback on the Bureau’s warning services and efforts to improve services.

• Surf Life Saving and New South Wales Roads and Maritime Services indicated satisfaction with the Bureau’s advisories for hazardous surf situations that are dangerous for rock fishers and boaters.

• The Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council continue to work with the Bureau to develop Australia’s resilience to natural hazards including fire, flood and storm.

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2 Performance

KPI 3

Warnings meet accuracy, timeliness and coverage specifications, and are effective in influencing responses to impending critical events.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 18

Measure Result

Event-related coronial inquests and commissions of inquiry find that the Bureau’s warning services were appropriate.

• The Bureau provided input into an Independent Tasmanian Government Review of the June 2016 floods which affected many Tasmanian communities and businesses, and the July floods in Huonville. The review found the response of all levels of government was generally robust.

• The Bureau provided input to the Australian Transport and Safety Bureau’s inquiry on the January 2016 ‘Breakaway of Spirit of Tasmania II’. There were no adverse findings about the Bureau.

KPI 4

Data and information meet accuracy, timeliness and coverage specifications and satisfy users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 19

Measure Result

90 per cent of specialised climate service requests are completed within ten working days of receipt of payment.

• 98 per cent of manual requests for climate data or information were completed and closed within ten working days of receipt of payment.

Increasing uptake of online climate services as indicated by internet usage statistics.

• 6 260 016 data downloads were requested from Climate Data Online in 2016-17, an increase of 18 per cent compared to 2015-16.

• Over 81 000 visits were made to the online storm confirmation service in 2016-17, an increase of 39 per cent compared to 2015-16. Usage of the Storm Confirmation Pro tool—a subscription service aimed at professional users such as insurance companies— increased by 132 per cent compared to 2015-16.

85 per cent of users are satisfied or very satisfied with the accuracy, timeliness and coverage of the Bureau’s information products, as indicated by feedback and surveys.

• The Net Promoter Score for Climate Data Services for 2016-17 was +50, indicating a very good service.

• The Bureau achieved a Net Promoter Score of +70 for its weather information, indicating a strong willingness of its customers to recommend products or services to others.

• 85 per cent of users who completed the standard feedback survey were satisfied or very satisfied with climate data services.

99 per cent availability of public access to data sets and information is maintained, as measured by uptime of the Bureau’s website.

• Uptime of the Bureau’s internet services was 99.99 per cent.

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KPI 4

Data and information meet accuracy, timeliness and coverage specifications and satisfy users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 19

Measure Result

Release of the National Water Account by 30 June 2017. • The 2016 National Water Account was published in three releases—Northern Australia in March, Urban regions in

April and the Murray-Darling Basin in June.

Bioregional Assessment outputs are delivered to the time, quality and scope specified in the project agreement.

• Bioregional assessments for the six high-priority bioregions and 13 sub-regions were published in accordance with the project schedule. The Bioregional Assessment Information Platform project outputs were delivered in accordance with agreed objectives and the milestones specified in the project agreement.

KPI 5

Accurate and timely advice effectively informs decision-making and satisfies the needs of stakeholders and users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 19

Measure Result

Severe weather and critical event briefings and advice provided before and during emergency events satisfy the needs of emergency services and the Australian Government’s Crisis Coordination Centre, as indicated by surveys and feedback.

• 189 critical event briefings were delivered to the satisfaction of the Australian Government Crisis Coordination Centre.

• The Joint Australian Tsunami Warnings Centre responded to 79 earthquake events within the 30 minute performance target after an earthquake, with an average time of 14 minutes.

Climate and water advice, reports and briefings satisfy the needs of key decision-makers and stakeholders, as indicated by surveys and feedback.

• 96 per cent of attendees at National Climate and Water Briefings were satisfied with the level of information provided, and 95 per cent would recommend the briefings to a colleague.

• Feedback on the Bureau’s climate advice, reports and briefings both verbally and more formally by email has generally been extremely positive with a significant amount of return requests to brief or provide reports.

• Feedback from key national water partners confirmed that water products and services are being used to answer key national questions.

• Water information web pages recorded over one million unique views in 2016-17. This represents an average increase in traffic to online water information products of 38 per cent over the past 12 months, including a 60 per cent increase in traffic to the Water Data Online service.

• 90 per cent of key stakeholders expressed satisfaction with the seasonal streamflow forecasting service, exceeding the service target of 85 per cent.

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2 Performance

KPI 5

Accurate and timely advice effectively informs decision-making and satisfies the needs of stakeholders and users.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 19

Measure Result

At least 80 per cent of attendees at the National Climate and Water Briefing indicate that they use the information provided to inform planning or decision-making, either directly or indirectly.

• 48 per cent of attendees at the National Climate and Water Briefings indicated that they used the information provided to inform planning or decision-making directly and 45 per cent indicated they used the material indirectly.

Timely information and advice on weather, water, oceans and the climate is provided to the general community through a range of means, as measured by the number of specialist media interviews; the number of social media posts and corresponding user engagement; and participation in information and safety campaigns.

• There were 1.612 billion unique page views on the Bureau’s website in 2016-17, representing an increase of 7 per cent compared to 2015-16.

• The Bureau had 724 700 Facebook followers, representing an increase of 4.8 per cent compared to 2015-16.

• The Bureau had 448 199 Twitter followers, which is an increase of 39.6 per cent compared to 2015-16.

• The Bureau posted 48 Severe Weather Video Updates across Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and the Bureau’s home page. Collectively, more than 2.3 million minutes were watched and 91 000 reactions recorded.

• The Bureau issued regular email direct marketing about its products and programs to 11 345 subscribers.

The quality of the Bureau’s scientific expertise is recognised nationally and internationally.

• The Bureau provided 146 peer reviewed publications this year as well as ten research reports and five book chapters or books.

• Many Bureau scientists are internationally recognised and continued to receive many invitations to present at international meetings. This includes highly cited papers and honours such as the election of Dr Harry Hendon as a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union.

The provision of specialised services and advice satisfies users, as indicated by feedback and surveys, and meets the Bureau’s revenue targets.

• Stakeholder liaison objectives were achieved through 19 consultative meetings with the aviation industry and four consultative meetings with Defence. No safety concerns were raised.

• An ensemble-based Tropical Cyclone Outlook service, including wave estimation, has been developed and received excellent feedback from industry.

• All aviation weather forecasts, warnings and information were delivered in support of air operations in the Australian Flight Information Region. This included tropical cyclone advisories and expert advice on volcanic ash events.

• Unsolicited written feedback was received from key stakeholders on four occasions praising the performance of Bureau staff providing specialised meteorological services.

• The Bureau’s own-source revenue was $81.213 million in 2016-17, which was 15.8 per cent above the target of $70.138 million.

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KPI 6

Increased accuracy and capacity of the Bureau’s products and services, and increased levels of stakeholder satisfaction.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 20

Measure Result

Milestones in the development of the Bureau’s ACCESS forecasting model are achieved as planned.

• The Bureau delivered significant upgrades to its ACCESS forecasting models with the completion of the remaining components of the APS2 suite of models, including the high-resolution city-scale weather prediction model ACCESS-C and the high-resolution tropical cyclone model ACCESS-TCX, which will be made operational in the second half of 2017.

• Verification studies indicate that C2 demonstrates much improved prediction of high impact precipitation over its predecessor, ACCESS-C1. The new resolution allows a much more realistic representation of convective systems leading to improved prediction of high-impact events.

• The global deterministic and global ensemble APS3 models are on track to be delivered in late 2017.

• The Bureau’s new seasonal forecasting model ACCESS-S1 was completed and will be made operational in 2017-18. Extensive testing shows improved predictive capability compared with the existing system.

Bureau weather and environmental prediction, climate and earth systems modelling research is presented or represented in national and international forums.

• The Bureau continues to play a significant role with the WMO in climate monitoring, providing scientists to expert task teams embedded in the Commission for Climatology, to develop national climate monitoring products, data homogenisation and the use of remote sensing data for climate monitoring.

• The Bureau undertook significant international development, particularly for Pacific National Meteorological Services and their communities.

• In collaboration with the CSIRO, the Bureau produced the ‘State of the Climate, 2016’ report that provides an up to date and authoritative summary of observed changes to Australia’s climate and projections.

• The annual Collaboration for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR) workshop was a success with several international visitors as well as extensive national representation.

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2 Performance

KPI 6

Increased accuracy and capacity of the Bureau’s products and services, and increased levels of stakeholder satisfaction.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 20

Measure Result

Further automation of the surface and upper-air observation network, and scheduled technology upgrades to the Bureau's radar network, are undertaken as planned.

• The Bureau successfully installed three new radars in the Western Australian wheatbelt region for the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (DAFWA), with observational data now accessible from the Bureau’s website and digital applications.

• The Bureau fully automated and de-staffed 15 field stations at Cobar, Moree and Williamtown in New South Wales; at Charleville, Longreach, Mackay, Mt Isa and Weipa in Queensland; at Halls Creek, Kalgoorlie, Learmonth, Meekatharra and Port Hedland in Western Australia; and at Mt Gambier and Woomera in South Australia. Automation of these sites allows a continuous 24/7 meteorological observing service without the need for onsite staff.

• The Bureau’s radar at Buckland Park in South Australia was upgraded with dual polarisation capability to improve the radar’s accuracy and data to support warning services for hail, severe thunderstorms, and flash-flooding.

• A wind profiler was installed at Longreach, Queensland, completing the network extension of nine new wind profilers across Australia.

Systems and processes for the reception and use of data from the Japanese Himawari-8 satellite are implemented as planned.

• Himawari data is online and has been evaluated showing significant impact, especially for high impact events.

KPI 7

Australia’s interests are protected and advanced through effective engagement and the maintenance and development of international agreements that deliver improved outcomes for Australia.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 20

Measure Result

The Bureau maintains active agreements with strategically important counterpart agencies overseas.

• The Bureau has formal bilateral agreements with 10 overseas agencies and actively cooperates across a wide range of areas with countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, China, Canada and Japan.

Bureau staff hold senior positions on strategically important intergovernmental and other international bodies.

• The Bureau’s CEO and Director, Dr Andrew Johnson, was appointed to the Executive Council of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in May.

• Australia, through the Bureau was strongly represented in key positions within the WMO, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO and within meteorology-related groups under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

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KPI 7

Australia’s interests are protected and advanced through effective engagement and the maintenance and development of international agreements that deliver improved outcomes for Australia.

Source: Bureau of Meteorology Corporate Plan 2016-17, p. 20

Measure Result

The Bureau maintains a high level of participation and influence in intergovernmental bodies (such as WMO) that develop and implement international standards and protocols in weather, climate, water and related environmental fields.

• The Bureau is a member of WMO Executive Council (EC) and is also strongly represented in other key positions within WMO including as co-chair of the WMO EC Panel of Experts on Polar and High Mountain Observations, Research and Services (EC-PHORS), as a member of the management group of WMO Regional Association V (South-West Pacific), and through membership of many expert teams and technical working groups.

• The Bureau actively contributed to the development of the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), leading the international coordination mechanism to ensure that nations are “WIGOS ready” by 2019.

• The Bureau is an associate member of the Earth Observations, Committee for Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS), collaborating in the development of ‘non-meteorological’ applications from geostationary satellites.

• The Bureau continued its role as the national representative for UNESCO’s IOC.

• The Bureau participated in joint working groups on cooperation in Meteorology with the China Meteorological Administration and the Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency.

• The Bureau worked in partnership with 14 Pacific Island countries, to develop enhanced climate, ocean and tidal services for Pacific Island communities and government through the Climate and Ocean Support Program for the Pacific (COSPPac).

The Bureau’s operational needs are satisfied by the quantity and coverage (spatial and temporal) of mission-critical, real-time meteorological and related environmental data and information received from other countries.

• Mission-critical real-time operational data was exchanged with other countries using established international networks, protocols and standards, and satisfied the Bureau’s operational needs.

The Bureau meets its commitments in relation to the exchange of real-time meteorological and related data and information.

• The Bureau met its data and information exchange commitments.

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2 Performance

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio provides a range of forecast and warning services covering the weather, ocean, tsunamis, floods, streamflow and space weather. It works closely with State and Territory emergency services in all aspects of disaster mitigation planning, preparation, response and recovery. It also works closely with national and international disaster mitigation and hazard awareness programs, particularly the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) disaster resilience framework and the United Nations (UN) International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.

The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio consists of three programs:

• Public Weather Services;

• Flood Services; and

• Specialised Services.

Forecasts and warnings of weather and ocean conditions, advise, and as necessary, warn of conditions hazardous to life or property. The Bureau’s weather warning services are disseminated through multiple channels to maximise public awareness of potential weather-related risks. The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio also designs and coordinates service improvements to enhance the accessibility and utility of weather and warning services, responds to questions and feedback from the general public, and regularly engages key stakeholders and partners to contribute to service improvements.

The Bureau provides flood forecasting and warning services for most major rivers in Australia. These services are provided with the cooperation of other government authorities, emergency services, water agencies and local councils. These services underpin wider intelligence about the likely spread of flood waters and the expected extent of damage or disruption, and informs defensive or evasive actions to reduce flood damage and risk to life.

The Bureau also provides specialised services, under cost-recovery and commercial funding arrangements, for stakeholders and users, including:

• industry sectors such as aviation, finance and insurance, transport, mining and energy, marine, and agriculture;

• the Australian Defence Force; and

• Australian, State, Territory and local government agencies and emergency services.

The Bureau’s aviation weather service enhances the safety, regularity and efficiency of national and international aviation operations through the provision of accurate, timely and relevant forecasts, warnings and information for aerodromes and en-route operations.

Defence weather services support the Australian Defence Force (ADF) with a focus on the provision of aviation-specific observation and forecast services for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) as well as meteorological and oceanographic services required by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The portfolio also provides Australian national radio propagation and space weather services.

The work of the portfolio also seeks to fulfil Australia’s national and international obligations, in particular under the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).

2 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The performance of this portfolio during 2016-17, including its contribution towards achieving the Bureau’s outcome, is discussed below.

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio:

• delivered continuous 24/7 weather monitoring for all parts of Australia and its marine areas of responsibility, providing 565 510 forecast products throughout the year.

• issued 19 704 warnings for hazardous weather and ocean conditions.

• broadcast 13 955 maritime safety information products on the SafetyNET satellite service of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, broadcast 142 000 marine forecasts and warnings on marine HF radio, and broadcast more than 22 320 graphical products on marine HF radio fax frequencies.

• delivered 189 critical event briefings across all hazards to the Australian Government Crisis Coordination Centre to support government decision-makers during times of crisis or threat.

• provided detailed briefing services directly to emergency service staff through Bureau forecasters embedded in emergency service control centres in five of the eight States and Territories.

• provided ocean analysis and forecast products for selected regions around Australia, including variables such as ocean temperature, sea level height and ocean salinity.

• issued astronomical tide predictions for approximately 400 locations around Australia and attended to over 700 customer-specific requests for tidal, sea level and ocean forecast information.

• provided specialised ocean forecast services to the RAN including new sonic layer depth and sound speed products.

100 per cent of scheduled weather forecast services were delivered as planned.

More than 89 per cent of capital city temperature forecasts were within 2 °C of actual observed temperatures. (For more on forecast accuracy see p. 28).

Satisfaction with the Bureau’s weather and ocean services, as measured by the Bureau’s independent annual telephone survey, was 99 per cent among the general population, 99 per cent among coastal and marine users, and 95 per cent among practising farmers.

The Bureau achieved a Net Promoter Score of +70 for its weather information. The Net Promoter Score (ranging from -100 to +100) is used to gauge the willingness of customers to recommend products or services to others.

Emergency services members of the Bureau’s Hazards Services Forum provided positive feedback on the Bureau’s warning services and efforts to improve services.

Surf Life Saving Australia and New South Wales Roads and Maritime Services were satisfied with the Bureau’s advisories for hazardous surf situations.

The Bureau met agreed key performance indicators (KPIs) for delivery of services and capability enhancements to the RAN.

100 per cent of ocean forecasts and tsunami warnings were delivered according to standard operating procedures and agreed standards for accuracy and timeliness.

85 per cent of wave forecasts were within 0.5 metres.

MORE THAN

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OVER

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2 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

The performance of this portfolio during 2016-17, including its contribution towards achieving the Bureau’s outcome, is discussed below.

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts portfolio:

• delivered continuous 24/7 weather monitoring for all parts of Australia and its marine areas of responsibility, providing 565 510 forecast products throughout the year.

• issued 19 704 warnings for hazardous weather and ocean conditions.

• broadcast 13 955 maritime safety information products on the SafetyNET satellite service of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, broadcast 142 000 marine forecasts and warnings on marine HF radio, and broadcast more than 22 320 graphical products on marine HF radio fax frequencies.

• delivered 189 critical event briefings across all hazards to the Australian Government Crisis Coordination Centre to support government decision-makers during times of crisis or threat.

• provided detailed briefing services directly to emergency service staff through Bureau forecasters embedded in emergency service control centres in five of the eight States and Territories.

• provided ocean analysis and forecast products for selected regions around Australia, including variables such as ocean temperature, sea level height and ocean salinity.

• issued astronomical tide predictions for approximately 400 locations around Australia and attended to over 700 customer-specific requests for tidal, sea level and ocean forecast information.

• provided specialised ocean forecast services to the RAN including new sonic layer depth and sound speed products.

100 per cent of scheduled weather forecast services were delivered as planned.

More than 89 per cent of capital city temperature forecasts were within 2 °C of actual observed temperatures. (For more on forecast accuracy see p. 28).

Satisfaction with the Bureau’s weather and ocean services, as measured by the Bureau’s independent annual telephone survey, was 99 per cent among the general population, 99 per cent among coastal and marine users, and 95 per cent among practising farmers.

The Bureau achieved a Net Promoter Score of +70 for its weather information. The Net Promoter Score (ranging from -100 to +100) is used to gauge the willingness of customers to recommend products or services to others.

Emergency services members of the Bureau’s Hazards Services Forum provided positive feedback on the Bureau’s warning services and efforts to improve services.

Surf Life Saving Australia and New South Wales Roads and Maritime Services were satisfied with the Bureau’s advisories for hazardous surf situations.

The Bureau met agreed key performance indicators (KPIs) for delivery of services and capability enhancements to the RAN.

100 per cent of ocean forecasts and tsunami warnings were delivered according to standard operating procedures and agreed standards for accuracy and timeliness.

85 per cent of wave forecasts were within 0.5 metres.

MORE THAN

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OVER

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24 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

• as part of the Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC):

- responded to 79 earthquake events, all within the 30-minute performance target, and an average response time of 14 minutes; and

- provided services to 23 other National Tsunami Warning Centres in the Indian Ocean as a designated Regional Tsunami Service Provider, issuing 44 earthquake bulletins and five tsunami threat bulletins.

• led the coordination and execution of the Indian Ocean-wide tsunami exercise (IOWave16) in September, successfully demonstrating the performance and impact of the JATWC in providing tsunami warning services to national and international users according to agreed KPIs.

• provided a comprehensive flood forecasting and warning service, including real-time rainfall and water level data, via its public website and regular briefings to emergency services and the media. In total, 618 flood watch and 4565 flood warning products were issued nationally.

• extended the 7-day streamflow forecasts service by 71 new sites for registered users (to a total of 197 sites), and by 30 new sites for public users (to a total of 133 sites).

• routinely delivered all aviation weather forecasts, warnings and information in support of air operations in the Australian Flight Information Region (AFIR). This included tropical cyclone advisories and expert advice on volcanic ash events.

• contributed to 12 aviation incident reports that produced four recommendations for the Bureau to improve operational procedures or forecaster awareness, all of which were implemented.

• provided forecast and warning services, and face-to-face briefings to support operational capabilities at Airservices’ National Coordination Centre—in particular focusing on air traffic flow management through the Meteorological Collaborative Decision Making (METCDM) process.

The Bureau exceeded the flood prediction service standards set out in its Service Level Specifications (SLS) within each State and Territory. In particular:

• 80 per cent of flood forecasts were within the lead time requirements (target 70 per cent);

• 76 per cent of the flood predictions had time-relative accuracy at forecast locations within the requirements (target 70 per cent);

• 84 per cent of products were issued within 10 minutes of the next scheduled issue time, 91 per cent within 30 minutes and 94 per cent within 60 minutes; and

• an average of 77 per cent of flood watches were followed by flood warnings, with 84 per cent of flood warnings preceded by a flood watch.

Over 99 per cent of routine aviation weather services were delivered as scheduled.

Surveys of aviation users showed that satisfaction with products and services was 78.5 per cent amongst airport primary users and 85.3 per cent within the regional aviation sector.

Stakeholder liaison objectives were achieved through 19 consultative meetings with the aviation industry and four consultative meetings with Defence. No safety concerns were raised.

Unsolicited written feedback was received from key stakeholders on four occasions praising the performance of Bureau staff providing specialised meteorological services.

Surveys and feedback of operational Army and RAAF units indicate a greater than 95 per cent satisfaction with weather services and training provided by the Bureau, and that at least 99 per cent of routine services were delivered on time.

Of the Bureau’s commercial weather services:

• more than 99 per cent of routine services were delivered within 10 minutes of the nominated issue time; and

• 96 per cent of 72-hour forecasts were accurate to within 10 knots.

2 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

• provided specialised 24/7 forecasting and advisory services for the ADF and Border Protection operations and exercises in Australia and abroad through the Defence Meteorological Support Unit at the Defence Headquarters Joint Operations Command (HQJOC).

• provided forecasting and warning services and face-to-face briefings in support of operational capabilities at RAAF bases Pearce, Tindal, Townsville, Amberley, Williamtown and East Sale, and at the Army Aviation Centre Oakey.

More than 99 per cent of routine space weather forecast services were delivered as scheduled.

85 per cent of space weather service users that provided feedback were satisfied that the Bureau’s space weather services are applicable to their needs, and 83 per cent consider them easy to use.

The accuracy of ionospheric forecasts for HF radio (as measured by the percentage of days when the observed and predicted daily-T index were within 20 units of each other) met the target of being greater than 80 per cent.

Highlights

Projects to increase capacity completed in response to the Munro review The four-year government investment in the Bureau to implement elements of the Munro review was finalised, greatly improving the Bureau’s capacity to respond to extreme weather and natural disasters. By 30 June:

• t he Extreme Weather Desk (EWD) in the Bureau’s National Operations Centre was fully resourced to deliver extreme weather ‘top cover’ through media briefings, convective outlooks and other guidance and briefings, and surge support for other forecasting centres during protracted extreme weather events;

• t he Bureau’s advanced Hydrological Forecasting System (HyFS) and Warning Entry Tool (WET) were fully operational;

• t he advanced storm surge forecasting system was ready to provide guidance to forecasters in support of warning services; and

• t he number of frontline staff (meteorological and hydrological forecasters) had been increased to agreed levels.

Full sign-on to intergovernmental agreement on hazard services provision Signatures of relevant government ministers from all jurisdictions were obtained in March to finalise the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Provision of Bureau of Meteorology Hazard Services to the States and Territories. The agreement formalises the role of the Bureau and emergency management agencies through the Hazard Services Forum. The agreement also defines the standardised services for fire weather, flood, and extreme weather and high-impact events, noting that action plans are in place to complete the implementation of these standardised services.

Significant progress was made under the Flood Action Plan, including developing guidance for setting flood class levels and introducing consistent Flood Watch products nationally. Of particular significance was the clarification of roles and responsibilities for flash flood management.

2 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The Bureau continued to work with Commonwealth partners, under the umbrella of the Australia- New Zealand Emergency Management Committee (ANZEMC), to support the development of national warnings protocols to meet Australia’s commitment to the UN-agreed Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, particularly in relation to the development of multi-hazard early warning systems.

New online weather app makes its mark A free weather app, BOM Weather, was released in October, providing the weather information most people want to access quickly and easily—including current weather warnings, three-hourly forecasts for the day ahead, and daily forecasts for the week ahead—for their current location and other favourite locations (see p. 62).

New and upgraded warning services Graphical severe weather warning services, which provide a graphic of the warning area along with the detailed warning information, were expanded to Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Graphical severe thunderstorm warning services were implemented in Western Australia and the Northern Territory, completing the national rollout of this service.

In July, the UV forecast service was upgraded to provide sun protection times for the next five days (previously two days). The number of locations that receive the service also increased from 220 to more than 750 across Australia.

Better information for marine and ocean users An upgrade of the Bureau’s tide portal has almost doubled the number of locations in Australia with primary tide predictions, giving more accurate predictions for around 300 additional locations. These locations, previously classed as ‘supplementary locations’ were only provided with tide times and the information was of a lesser quality. As a result of the upgrade, primary tide-prediction heights and times are now available for around 700 locations.

In August, the Marine Weather Knowledge Centre was released as a one-stop online portal for educational information about marine weather (see p. 33), with the Bureau’s OceanMAPS system— used to create interactive weather and wave forecast maps—improved to provide increased detail in weather and wave information for Australia. This has led to an increase in forecast accuracy, particularly for sea surface temperature and sea level anomaly fields. Further development of the system’s performance monitoring facility has demonstrated that the Bureau’s ocean forecasting capability is on par with the best overseas models and is effectively meeting the needs of its major users.

Weather Connect—responding to public weather enquiries The Bureau has developed and implemented a new system to respond to public weather enquiries through a single coordinated customer helpdesk called Weather Connect. On weekdays between 9 am and 6 pm (Eastern Standard Time), the Weather Connect service is operated by a trained team who answer non-emergency calls and ensure the public receives standardised, timely and accurate information from the Bureau’s existing channels. In many cases, callers are guided through the Bureau’s website to find the information they need.

Approximately 20 per cent of Weather Connect calls are from vulnerable customers who may not be able to access or use the Bureau’s web services. To enhance the Bureau’s service to people with disabilities, in alignment with the Disability Action Plan, the team are trained in communicating through the National Relay Service with people who are deaf, or hearing or speech impaired.

2 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

The 2016-17 tropical cyclone season was close to average, with nine tropical cyclones developing in the Australian Region (Figure 3) compared with the average of 11. The first cyclone (Yvette) formed in the Indian Ocean in late December, but the first to make landfall over Australia (Blanche) did not form until March, setting a new record for the latest date for the first cyclone landfall.

Tropical cyclone season summary

Figure 3: Tropical cyclone tracks for the 2016-17 season.

The season was unusual with only two tropical cyclones forming between November and February, but seven forming between 1 March and 20 April (including a system determined by post analysis to have briefly reached tropical cyclone intensity—unnamed tropical cyclone 22U). Three cyclones crossed the coast during the season—Blanche, unnamed cyclone 22U and Debbie—and three tropical cyclones reached severe level (Category 4 or 5)—Debbie,

Ernie and Frances. Severe tropical cyclone Debbie, a particularly large and slow moving system, was the highest impact cyclone for the season (see p. 35).

While the overall cyclone number in the Australian region was slightly below average, a record number of tropical lows (30) were tracked during the season, two more than the previous record.

Severe tropical cyclone Debbie made landfall near Airlie Beach, Queensland on Tuesday 28 March 2017. Photo: Image from the Himawari-8 satellite, operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

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Australian region cyclones: 2016-17 season

Blanche Frances Alfred Debbie

Greg Caleb Ernie Yvette 22U Unnamed

2 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Forecast accuracy

Measuring the accuracy of Bureau forecasts is fundamental to monitoring and improving services to the community. Each day the Bureau assesses the accuracy of its forecasts from a number of different perspectives to satisfy the wide-ranging needs of its stakeholders. Observations from the Bureau’s vast network of measuring equipment around Australia are used to check whether each forecast accurately predicted the conditions that eventuated.

Maximum and minimum temperature forecasts Most Australians use the maximum and minimum daily forecast on a regular basis and the accuracy of these forecast products continues to improve steadily. Forecasts are deemed to be accurate if they are within 2 °C of the observed maximum or minimum temperature (Figure 4). In 2006, almost 83 per cent of forecasts for one day ahead were accurate according to this measure. This reliability has steadily increased over the last decade, and in 2016-17 over 89 per cent of temperature forecasts were considered accurate. These improvements have been achieved by:

• improving our understanding of the atmosphere and how this is used in forecast models;

• increasing both the spatial and temporal resolution of the models; and

• increasing the amount and type of observations that are used.

Accuracy of next day forecast temperatures

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Figure 4: Forecast maximum and minimum temperatures for the next day across all capital cities that were accurate to within 2 °C.

Rainfall forecasts Of all the forecast weather information, rainfall is perhaps of greatest interest to the public and for informing business decisions. However rainfall has considerable spatial and temporal variability compared to other weather phenomena. For example, showers can lead to quite heavy rain at one location, while little or no rain falls in a neighbouring area. That is why the Bureau provides a percentage chance of any rainfall, as well as a range of possible rainfall amounts in millimetres.

2 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

The rainfall range comprises two values, to provide indicative rainfall amounts that a location may receive. The lower value has a 50 per cent chance of being exceeded and the upper value has a 25 per cent change of being exceeded. That means the forecasts are reliable if the upper figure is exceeded 25 per cent of the time, and the lower figure exceeded 50 per cent of the time. The verification of the Bureau’s rainfall amounts in 2016-17 showed skill in predicting the rainfall range. The forecasts for the next day provide a reasonable indication of the amount of rain that is likely to occur (Figure 5).

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Figure 5: Accuracy of the rainfall range forecast for the next day when compared to observed rainfall.

Wind and wave forecasts for coastal regions The number one weather element that a boater wants to know about is wind speed and direction. Wind information is also useful in agriculture, alpine and aviation applications. The Bureau has a network of wind recorders that enable verification of wind forecasts across a range of urban, rural and coastal areas. For coastal areas, 81 per cent of wind forecasts for the next day were correctly predicted to within five knots, with even higher reliability reported during stronger wind situations (Figure 6).

Accuracy of wind speed forecasts

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Figure 6: Percentage of wind speed forecasts across selected coastal locations that were accurate to within 5 knots.

3 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Wave information is vital for a range of professional users with applications in shipping, renewable energy, and coastal infrastructure protection. It is also valuable for water-based recreational activities such as boating, swimming, surfing, and rock fishing. Wave heights around Australia’s coastline are measured by a network of 30 measuring buoys, which allow the Bureau to compare its wave height forecasts with the observed heights. The wave height forecasts for the next day in coastal regions were correctly predicted to within half a metre on 85 per cent of occasions, demonstrating a high reliability for both small and large wave situations. Occasionally, wave heights become large enough to damage coastal infrastructure and erode beaches. The Bureau provides warnings for these wave patterns along vulnerable coasts, particularly in New South Wales and southern Queensland. In 2016-17, the Bureau successfully provided over 24 hours advance warning for three large wave events, including significant wave activity generated from severe tropical cyclone Debbie that affected the coasts of Queensland and northern New South Wales in March.

Gale warnings for capital city local waters Gale warnings are issued when wind speeds are expected to reach 34 knots within marine forecast areas. These warnings are broadcast on marine radio to alert boaters of rough and dangerous conditions. For the 56 gale warnings issued for capital city waterways, a hit rate of 96 per cent was achieved in providing mariners with up to 42 hours advanced notice of impending dangerous conditions.

Severe frost warnings Severe frosts pose a hazard to agricultural crops, especially during budding. The Bureau provides warnings in advance of very cold overnight temperatures to farmers in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Farmers may take preventive actions, such as watering or blowing air over their crops, to prevent frost forming. During 2016-17, the Bureau successfully provided advance notice to farmers in Victoria and South Australia for three severe frost events. Severe frost warnings were not required for Tasmania this year.

Fire weather warnings Bushfires pose a regular threat to many parts of Australia during the warmer months, and the Bureau works closely with fire agencies to provide advice on weather conditions to help fire management and response. Fire agencies may issue Total Fire Bans based on the Bureau’s information and advice. The Bureau provides detailed wind, temperature and humidity forecasts for the densest of bushland, despite having limited observations to monitor conditions on the ground. Of the 450 fire weather warnings issued in 2016-17, the actual conditions exceeded the warning threshold on the majority of occasions, including for notable fire events that started in mid-February in both the northeastern and southeastern areas of New South Wales.

Severe thunderstorm warnings Severe thunderstorms are a common feature during the warmer months. The Bureau issues severe thunderstorm warnings to alert the community to threats to their safety and property. During 2016-17, the Bureau issued warnings for damaging events around greater Sydney in February, across Melbourne in late December and in South Australia in late September.

3 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Mean sea level pressure from numerical weather prediction models Numerical weather prediction models underpin the Bureau’s forecast and warning services. Enhanced observation systems, better understanding of atmospheric science and improvements in the Bureau’s supercomputing infrastructure have contributed to a steady increase in the accuracy of these models. Figure 7 shows the gain in accuracy over the last 40 years for two-days-ahead forecasts of mean sea level pressure in the Australian region. The most recent step improvement (since March 2010) was achieved with the introduction of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) model suite, and the subsequent ACCESS upgrades in 2012 and 2016.

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Gain in S1 skill score of the Bureau's numerical weather prediction models

Figure 7: Gain in accuracy of the Bureau’s predictions of mean sea level pressure over the Australian region using an S1 skill score measure. S1 skill score is a 12-month, moving-average measure of the error in computer model predictions compared to observed conditions.

Joining the fight against thunderstorm asthma On the evening of 21 November, Geelong and Melbourne experienced an unprecedented thunderstorm asthma event that affected thousands of people, and tragically resulted in nine deaths. Hot, dry northerly winds contributed to a high pollen count, mostly from rye grass on the plains north and west of Melbourne. Moisture from the storms caused the pollen grains to break into particles, leading to severe asthmatic reactions. More than 8500 people presented at hospitals across Melbourne, and about 1900 calls for an ambulance were made over five hours—nearly seven times the number normally received at that time of year.

Since the event, the Bureau has collaborated with Victorian authorities in a Thunderstorm Asthma Interagency Working Group, involving representatives from the Department of Health and Human Services, Environmental Protection Authority, Melbourne Pollen Count (from the University of Melbourne), and Deakin AIRwatch (from Deakin University). The Bureau subsequently provided daily thunderstorm forecast information for the remainder of the 2016-17 pollen season and contributed information to the Inspector-General of Emergency Management’s review of the event and the Chief Health Officer’s report. The Bureau also participated in the Epidemic Thunderstorm Asthma Symposium on 17-18 March, and conducted a thunderstorm asthma forecast service scoping workshop on 11 April. The Bureau is continuing to work with a range of stakeholders to investigate and support the assessment of the risk of thunderstorm asthma, to help protect Victorians from future events.

3 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

One of the most significant severe thunderstorm outbreaks in recent decades impacted central and eastern districts of South Australia during the afternoon and evening of 28 September. Multiple supercell thunderstorms produced damaging to destructive wind gusts (including at least seven tornadoes), very large hailstones and locally intense rainfall. These supercell thunderstorms and tornadoes affected the South Australian power network, contributing to a statewide power outage.

The severity of the thunderstorms was strengthened by an intense and powerful mid-latitude cyclone (low pressure system), which intensified over the Great Australian Bight on 28 September and directly affected the State on 29 September.

Advice, forecasts and warnings for severe thunderstorms were provided up to five days in advance of the major weather system and delivered good guidance on the magnitude and track of the system.

Skilled meteorologists were able to deduce the track length and strength of four tornadoes. Anecdotal damage reports were consistent with at least three additional tornadoes having occurred.

The Bureau’s detailed analysis and report on this event has provided information fundamental to the response and planning by national and State power authorities. The Bureau held workshops for power distribution stakeholders following the event.

Tornado outbreak causes State blackout in South Australia

3 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Guided by feedback from marine stakeholders and the importance of weather for safe marine activities, the Bureau introduced the Marine Weather Knowledge Centre (MWKC) in August, providing an online portal for marine weather information. The web pages provide easy access to reference material for recreational boaters, educators, marine radio broadcasters, and others with an interest in boating and fishing activities. The knowledge centre showcases the Bureau’s ‘five vital weather safety checks’ and guides readers on where to find the Bureau’s marine services and how to use them.

Since its release, the Marine Weather Knowledge Centre has received over 11 000 page views. Traffic to the web page was driven by several social media campaigns, which drew on simple, clear marine safety messages through infographics, short educational videos and blog articles. Over the 2016-17 summer and Easter period, the Bureau’s social media campaigns targeted rock fishing safety, boating during thunderstorms, and understanding the strength of wind gusts.

New resources for safer marine activities

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY

www.bom.gov.au/marine

Stay connected with us:

The Bureau of Meteorology provides warnings, forecasts, and other information for the coastal waters and the high seas around Australia. Local forecasts for some bays, harbours and inland lakes are also available. This information is of key importance for the marine industry and recreational boaters and fishers.

There are five vital weather safety checks that can assist boaters to make safer decisions:

Have any warnings been issued?

What weather conditions are expected?

What is the wind forecast?

What is the wave forecast?

When is low and high tide expected?

5 VITAL WEATHER CHECKS SAFETY WARNINGS

Marine wind warnings

These are issued whenever strong, gale, storm or hurricane-force winds are expected. They provide up to 42 hours’ notice and are updated every six hours.

6 THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT WIND WARNINGS

Severe thunderstorm warnings

These are issued to alert communities of the threat of intense thunderstorms that may bring damaging wind gusts, large hail, tornadoes and flash flooding. Although these warnings are primarily for land-based storms, rather than storms forming over the ocean, they can alert marine users when severe storms are in the vicinity.

FORECASTS

MetEye

This forecast tool allows you to pan and zoom to any coastal waters location and visualise the weather forecast.

MetEye displays forecasts, in three-hourly blocks, for:

• wind speed and direction;

• total wave height;

• swell height and direction; and

• wind wave height.

These forecasts are updated twice daily.

Marine text forecasts

We issue three types of marine text forecasts:

• local waters forecasts—for bays, harbours and inland waters where boating activity is common;

• coastal waters forecasts— for areas within 60 nautical miles of the coast; and

• high seas forecasts—for the open ocean, which are part of an international service for shipping.

These forecasts are issued at least twice daily. If a wind warning is current, they may be updated more often.

All forecasts contain information about wind, waves and weather.

Tide predictions

We predict the height and time of tides, up to two years ahead, at more than 380 locations around Australia, Antarctica and the South Pacific.

On our website, you can view and print data for seven days at a time.

Sea temperature and currents

Seven-day forecasts are available of sea surface temperature (SST), and ocean current directions and speeds for the waters surrounding Australia, and Lord Howe, Norfolk, Macquarie, Christmas and the Cocos (Keeling) islands.

Specific SST information is also available for monitoring the potential for coral bleaching in the Great Barrier Reef.

Computer model weather and wave forecasts

The interactive map viewer displays computer-generated weather forecasts from the Bureau’s weather and wave model. Pressure, temperature, swell and wind maps can be viewed.

Forecasts from this website should always be used in conjunction with official Bureau marine weather forecasts (such as local waters, coastal and high seas forecasts, and those displayed in MetEye). Computer model forecasts sometimes differ from official Bureau forecasts, as forecasters use their expertise and additional information (such as forecasts from other computer models) to generate the official forecast.

UV and sun protection

Our UV (ultraviolet) service includes the times of the day when sun protection measures are recommended. This is when UV levels are expected to be moderate or above.

CURRENT AND PAST WEATHER

Official weather observations

We collect weather measurements from different types of weather observing stations. These include observations taken by weather observers, automatic weather stations, satellites, ships, and ocean and wave buoys.

We operate a network of automatic weather stations, providing near real-time observations. Observations include temperature, humidity, pressure, rainfall, and wind speed, direction and gust strength.

You can view current and recent conditions at weather stations near or on the coast.

Refer to this map for State information

WA

NT

SA

QLD

NSW

VIC

TAS

Sea temperature

We provide local and global maps of surface and sub-surface ocean temperature for the past days, weeks, and months.

Weather Observations Website

The Weather Observations Website (WOW) hosts an online weather community in Australia where everyone can share information about the weather.

WOW lets you view and contribute historical, real-time or automated weather observations, sightings and photos.

Cloud cover

Our satellite web viewer shows near real-time imagery from Himawari-8 —a geostationary weather satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Images are updated every ten minutes. Several types of images are available, including visible, infrared, greyscale and ‘true colour’ images.

Radar

We operate a nationwide network of weather watch radars. These detect rainfall and in some locations can estimate wind speed and direction.

Climate data

We collect and store historical records of many types of weather observations relevant to marine users. Averages and trends of the following records can be viewed:

• air temperature, rainfall and wind;

• sea surface temperature; and

• distribution of tropical cyclones.

SPECIALISED WARNING SERVICES

Tropical cyclone warnings

Tropical low pressure systems become tropical cyclones when winds associated with them exceed gale force strength.

Our tropical cyclone warning service includes ocean wind warnings, and warnings and watches for affected land areas.

A tropical cyclone forecast track map is issued six-hourly when a tropical cyclone watch is current, and more frequently when a tropical cyclone warning is current. These show the recent and forecast path of the cyclone.

Tsunami warnings

The Bureau and Geoscience Australia operate the Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre.

This centre detects, monitors, and warns of any tsunami threat to the coastline of Australia or its offshore territories.

The service includes tsunami watches and warnings.

Find out more

Marine warnings, forecasts and information

MarineLite—text-only version of our marine website for satellite internet users

Take the weather forecast with you— when on the water, get your weather information on VHF or HF radio. Inmarsat satellite services also provide global access to high seas and some coastal waters forecasts.

These icons show which formats you can access the information in and where to find out more.

Text

Table Map

Graph More information

The Marine Weather Knowledge Centre showing a marine weather infographic on the ‘five vital weather safety checks’

3 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Protecting the community from floods The Bureau issued a large number of flood warnings, second only to the record set in 2010-11. Key events included:

• major flooding in Gippsland in July as a result of a low pressure system that also led to minor to moderate flooding in New South Wales, other parts of Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania;

• extensive major flooding across New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania as a result of a record wet September and an above-average wet October;

• major flooding in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland due to a series of tropical lows, thunderstorm activity and monsoon troughs from December to February. Record rainfalls for southwest Western Australia in February led to the very first flood warning being issued for the Swan and Avon rivers; and

• major flooding along the coastal belt in Queensland and northern New South Wales in March and April due to severe tropical cyclone Debbie (see p. 35).

All flood operations were managed within fatigue management guidelines. Significant flood events were supported via operational and non-operational staff in the Bureau’s National Operation’s Centre providing flexibility and resilience in rostering staff to regional flood warning centres. This was bolstered by the centralised architecture and interoperability of the HyFS system, which provides significant flexibility in allowing virtual teams to deliver flood warning services.

Helping authorities develop flash flood warning systems Stage 1 of a Flash Flood Advisory Resource (FLARE) was completed and made operational in September. The resource provides web-based information and a telephone and email-based advisory service, specifically for local councils and emergency services with responsibilities for developing flash flood warning systems. The resource now has approximately 120 active users, representing around 50 organisations, in all States and Territories. Funding for Stage 2 has been received.

Reviewing services to ensure effectiveness and improvement The Bureau provided input to the Tasmanian Government’s Independent Review of the June 2016 floods, which affected many Tasmanian communities and businesses. The review, which also considered the July floods in Huonville, found that the responses of all levels of government were generally robust.

The Bureau also provided weather and ocean conditions input to two Australian Transport and Safety Bureau’s inquiries: Breakaway of the Spirit of Tasmania II at Station Pier, Port Melbourne, Victoria on 13 January 2016; and Grounding of the Searoad Mersey, near Grassy, King Island, Tasmania, on 30 October 2016. There were no adverse findings about the Bureau.

Post-event analysis and impact assessments were undertaken following severe tropical cyclone Debbie in March and the January-February east coast heatwave to evaluate community, agency and business responses to the Bureau’s forecasts and warnings. Results of this work have been shared with partner agencies and stakeholders, and will inform the ongoing development of warnings services.

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Severe tropical cyclone Debbie made landfall near Airlie Beach on Queensland’s Whitsunday coast on 28 March as a large and powerful Category 4 system. The associated heavy rainfall caused major flooding in many catchments in Queensland and northeastern New South Wales during late March and early April. Rainfall of more than 1000 mm was recorded over parts of Queensland’s central coast, while southeastern Queensland and northeastern New South Wales received totals in excess of 500 mm locally.

In Queensland, the most significant flooding was in the Logan and Albert rivers and in the Fitzroy River. In New South Wales, the most significant flooding was in the Wilsons River, Tweed River, Marshalls Creek and Richmond River. Record flood levels were recorded on parts of the Albert River in southeast Queensland and at Murwillumbah on the Tweed River.

Approximately 200 properties were flooded across the Logan and Albert rivers catchments, and 200 to 300 were flooded in Rockhampton. Around 20 000 people were evacuated from the Lismore and Murwillumbah areas ahead of peak flooding. The New South Wales State Emergency Service (SES) recorded 491 flood rescues, 17 000 people isolated by flood water with evacuation orders affecting over 30 000 people. Tragically, two lives were lost in Queensland and seven in New South Wales.

Over 220 flood warnings were issued in Queensland and close to 100 flood warnings were issued in New South Wales.

Regular briefings were provided to disaster and emergency management agencies and local governments throughout the event. Joint media briefings were provided with other emergency management agencies, and several media interviews were conducted directly from the flood warning centres. Pre-recorded media briefings were also sent to media outlets in Queensland. Social media was used to good effect, with regular tweets sent during the event to keep the community informed.

Floods following severe tropical cyclone Debbie

Tropical cyclone Debbie Flood Peaks 24 March - 07 April 2017

Flood Severity Classification

Major

Moderate

Minor

Bowen

Mackay

Nebo, Lotus Creek, Clarke Creek

Rockhampton

Bundaberg

Amberley, Beaudesert, Beenleigh, Logan City, Gold Coast

Murwillumbah, Chinderah, Billinudgel

Lismore, Kyogle, Coraki, Bungawalbyn

Glenreagh, Coutts Crossing, Grafton, Ulmarra

Flood peaks associated with severe tropical cyclone Debbie

3 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

HMAS Warramunga, a Royal Australian Navy Anzac Class Frigate, was tasked to deliver critical supplies to Christmas Island in November. As the wharf at Christmas Island is not rated for frigates, a barge was required to shuttle supplies from the anchored frigate to the wharf.

While the task itself was reasonably straightforward, there were two important considerations that could affect the success of the mission. Firstly, HMAS Warramunga was en-route from Singapore and only had 24 hours in which she could deliver the stores. Secondly, the wharf is located on the northern side of Christmas Island where it is very open and susceptible to northerly swells. A too-high northwesterly swell would make the operation unworkable. The only other option was to deliver the stores via helicopter, but this would have involved refitting the helicopter for this purpose—with significant time and cost implications.

During the transit of HMAS Warramunga, the Bureau’s Defence Meteorological Support Unit provided it with forecasts on the likely height of the northwesterly swell. Based on the Bureau’s forecast, the Commanding Officer of HMAS Warramunga was able to commit to the barge unload several days in advance. This decision, based purely on the forecast from the Bureau, allowed the Warramunga to plan for the barge unload without investing additional time, resources and money in a backup plan. The unload went ahead as planned and was highly successful, with Warramunga getting under way within the 24-hour time period allocated.

Swell forecasts support HMAS Warramunga

HMAS Warramunga at Christmas Island. Image courtesy of Department of Defence

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Environment and Research The Environment and Research portfolio develops and applies advanced scientific knowledge related to weather, climate, oceans and hydrology to build world-class systems and prediction services. The portfolio consists of four programs:

• Climate Information Services;

• Water Information Services;

• Environmental Information Services; and

• Research and Development.

The Bureau’s climate information services help governments, industries and communities to manage the impacts of climate variability and change by providing information on Australia’s climate and unusual or extreme events, as well as intelligence on the likelihood of these events continuing in the weeks and seasons ahead.

Under the Water Act 2007, the Bureau is required to provide free public access to high-quality, nationwide water information. This information supports economic activity, community safety and everyday decision-making on the efficient and equitable use of water resources, and provides the transparency required for public accountability and confidence in water management.

The Bureau’s environmental information services improve access to authoritative sources of environmental information for decision-makers in government, industry and the community, through the delivery of:

• the National Plan for Environmental Information (NPEI) initiative;

• the Bioregional Assessment Technical Programme (BATP); and

• the Great Barrier Reef water quality project (eReefs).

The Bureau’s research and development activity addresses high-priority service needs by building a national capability in weather, climate, water and ocean prediction. Development of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) continues to underpin advances in weather forecasting, ocean forecasting and climate prediction services. The Bureau contributes to the international body of science on atmospheric processes that is applied to weather and water prediction, monitoring severe weather and environmental hazards, and understanding and predicting seasonal and long-term climate patterns.

The performance of this portfolio during 2016-17, including its contribution towards achieving the Bureau’s outcome, is discussed overleaf.

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Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Environment and Research portfolio delivered:

• 26 outlooks for climate drivers, including El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole.

• 42 monthly and seasonal outlooks for Australian temperature and rainfall, tropical cyclone outlooks and fire weather outlooks.

• 216 monthly, seasonal and annual climate statements for States and Territories, and capital cities.

• four special climate statements on extreme climate events (major floods in September, January and February, and record summer heat) and six climate updates on topical items and significant events.

• over 500 000 online climate graphs and charts.

• 38 reports on rainfall deficiencies, drought and recent rainfall, and regular briefings for water agencies, natural resource managers, agricultural departments and major industry participants.

• over 150 additional climate briefings to a wide range of government and non-government agencies and organisations across a variety of sectors including agriculture, energy and resources, natural resource management, health, local government, insurance and risk management.

• over 450 media interviews promoting the Bureau’s climate products, with monthly and seasonal summaries, and seasonal outlooks.

• the 2016 National Water Account, published in three releases: Northern Australia in March, Urban regions in April, and the Murray-Darling Basin in June.

• the Water in Australia Annual Assessment Report 2015, published in December for the 2014-15 water year.

• an update to the Australian Groundwater Explorer in March, with the addition of hydrochemistry data accessed through a collaboration with Geoscience Australia.

• a further 38 catchments to the Bureau’s 7-day streamflow forecast service— increasing the number of catchments covered by the service to 100.

A total of 6 260 016 data downloads were requested from Climate Data Online in 2016-17, an increase of 18 per cent over 2015-16.

85 per cent of users who completed the standard feedback survey, were satisfied, or very satisfied, with climate data services.

98 per cent of manual requests for climate data or information were completed within 10 working days of receipt of payment.

The Net Promoter Score for Climate Data Services for 2016-17 was +50, indicating a strong willingness of the Bureau’s customers to recommend climate products or services to others.

Seasonal climate outlooks continued to demonstrate statistical skill, with an overall forecast accuracy of 68 per cent, indicating skill well above that of climatology (50 per cent). Skill for rainfall was consistently good, and particularly high during spring. Temperature forecasts showed skill averaged across the year, though minimum temperature outlooks were least skillful (62 per cent), with low overnight temperatures, and rapidly drying soils in the south not well captured in late autumn and early winter 2017.

Over 81 000 visits were made to the online storm confirmation service, an increase of 39 per cent compared to 2015-16. Usage of the Storm Confirmation Pro tool—a subscription service for professional users such as insurance companies— increased by 132 per cent compared to 2015-16.

Feedback received on the Bureau’s climate advice, reports and briefings was positive, with a significant number of requests to provide additional briefs and reports.

96 per cent of attendees at the monthly national climate and water briefings in Canberra indicated they would recommend the briefings to colleagues or other organisations. The majority of participants indicated that the briefings influence decision-making.

Water information web pages recorded over one million unique views in 2016-17. This represents an average increase in online traffic to water information products of 38 per cent over the past 12 months, including a 60 per cent increase in traffic to the Water Data Online service.

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2 Performance

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

0

50

100

150

200

catchments included in the service

registered user forecast locations

public user forecast locations

2016-17 2015-16

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

2016-17 2015-16 2014-15 2013-14

Requests for data on Climate Data Online

Seasonal streamflow forecast locations available to registered users

Coverage of the 7-day streamflow forecast service

eXchange subscribers

MORE THAN

6 millionrequests for datamade to the Climate Data Online service

AN INCREASE OF

18%in the number of seasonal streamflow forecast locations available to registered users

ALMOST

200forecast locations available to registered users in the 7-day streamflow forecast service

AN INCREASE OF

7.5%in subscribers of the eXchange newsletter compared to last year

4 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

• the Bureau’s seasonal streamflow service, which now provides forecasts for 161 locations to the public and 306 locations to registered users.

• updated information for engineers about rainfall probabilities to inform infrastructure design (see p. 44).

• an expansion of the National Environmental Monitoring Sites Register (NEMSR) from 11 to 15 networks, comprising 4300 national sites managed by six Australia Government agencies.

• three issues of the environmental information eXchange newsletter that continues to receive high open and click-through rates.

• marine water quality information with improved sea surface temperature data—available through the web portal embedded within the Bureau website and an operational web data service.

• bioregional assessments for the six high-priority bioregions and 13 sub-regions, published in accordance with the project schedule. As at 30 June, 57 of 105 technical products and three of 11 methodologies have been published.

The Monthly Water Update was provided within two weeks of the end of each month. Coverage was increased from nine to 10 drainage divisions.

90 per cent of key stakeholders expressed satisfaction with the seasonal streamflow forecasting service, exceeding the service target of 85 per cent.

Monthly updates for current locations in the seasonal streamflow forecast service were delivered on time, meeting service benchmarks.

Operational improvements to the ACCESS forecasting models were delivered as planned, contributing to increased accuracy and capacity of the Bureau’s products and services. Verification statistics show that ACCESS is competitive with the best models in the world for the global forecasting system.

The Bureau’s research continues to be recognised both nationally and internationally with 146 peer reviewed publications, ten research reports and five books or book chapters, many highly cited. Bureau scientists continued to receive invitations to present at recognised international meetings.

Around 90 per cent of externally-funded research projects were delivered on time and budget to the satisfaction of users as evidenced by repeat business, excellent written feedback from industry and an increase in external earnings.

Highlights

Accurately forecasting shifts in climate The Bureau accurately forecast the negative Indian Ocean Dipole which dominated the climate in 2016, and was one of the strongest negative Indian Ocean Dipole events recorded over the past century. The dramatic turnaround in national rainfall—from the dry conditions during the 2015-16 El Niño to the substantial falls in the second half of 2016—was accurately predicted, and used to inform stakeholders as the threat from floods turned to increased bushfire potential (see p. 42 ).

Climate services for agricultural competitiveness The Bureau’s improved seasonal forecast service project, funded by the Australian Government as part of its response to the Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper, has seen an extended climate outlook service developed which will be released during the second half of 2017. An external reference group has been created to guide the project, so that it maintains a focus on its users and its outputs best support the agricultural sector.

41 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

The Bureau continued to meet growing government requirements for drought information through the Australian Rainfall Deficiency Analyser. Further enhancements to the service have been proposed to the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.

Contribution to global climate monitoring The Bureau continued to play a significant role within the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in support of climate monitoring, providing scientists to expert task teams embedded in the Commission for Climatology to develop national climate-monitoring products, data homogenisation and remote sensing data for climate monitoring. The expert task team’s annual meeting was hosted by the Bureau in Melbourne in November, and the Bureau provided the lead author of the WMO’s climate statement for 2016.

State of the Climate 2016

The State of the Climate 2016 report integrates the latest climate change observations and research, with an Australian focus. Released by the Bureau and CSIRO every two years, the 2016 report highlights the attendant shift in the risks the Australian community is facing from extreme weather due to climate change. For example, Australia has already experienced more frequent, and more extreme, high terrestrial and sea surface temperatures, leading to an increase in fire weather, longer fire seasons, and more extreme fire dangers.

The report also introduces the public to the latest research on extreme weather and climate attribution. Studies by the Bureau show that there is a discernible influence of climate change on extreme heat events in Australia. This change will require a reassessment of weather and climate risks, and how Australia prepares for and responds to them. The release of State of the Climate 2016 communicates these findings to government, business and the community ( Figure 8).

1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

0

5

10

15

20

25

Year

Number of extreme days

The frequency of extreme heat events is increasing.

Figure 8. The number of days each year where the Australian area-averaged daily mean temperature is extreme (above the 99th percentile of each month) 1910-2015. These extreme events typically occur over a large area, with generally more than 40 per cent of Australia experiencing temperatures in the warmest 10 per cent for that month.

4 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Negative Indian Ocean Dipole brings severe weather collaboration

A negative Indian Ocean Dipole was one of the key climate influences behind the wettest September on record for New South Wales. The wet conditions resulted in prolonged flooding in the State, with many locations breaking records for the month.

Following these wet conditions, the Bureau provided several briefings to the New South Wales State Emergency Service (SES) and Rural Fire Service. The climate context provided great insight into what may be in store for the season ahead. A key factor was understanding the seasonal influence of the Indian Ocean Dipole, which returned to neutral during December. This was particularly important for communicating bushfire potential, risk of flooding during the severe weather season, and the tropical cyclone outlook.

Figure 9. Rainfall across Australia in September 2016, showing the very wet conditions in New South Wales.

New dashboard to support water market activities The Water Markets Dashboard was released in March to support more efficient water markets through improved public access to information to support trading decisions. Replacing the previous national water market website, the dashboard provides users with enhanced functionality and access to a longer record, with better quality and more timely data. Market participants, policy makers and analysts are now able to view data on the volume and price of water entitlements and allocations traded at national, State, water system or catchment level—and in major trading zones.

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New information on water resources The National Performance Report 2015-16: Urban Water Utilities was published in March on behalf of State and Territory urban water regulators. The report includes 182 performance indicators from 86 service providers, comprising water utilities, councils and bulk water suppliers, who provide urban water services to over 20 million people across Australia.

The Bureau also secured funding from the Australian Recycled Water Centre of Excellence to s upport a second phase of the climate resilient water sources project. Completed in November, this

phase provided a snapshot of over 490 recycled water and desalination plants across Australia.

Amended water regulations reduce the burden on data providers In March, the Tranche 2 amendment to the Water Regulations came into effect. This amendment gives effect to the recommendations of the interagency working group on Commonwealth water information provision. It also reduces the regulatory burden on urban and rural water utilities by streamlining the water information they need to provide the Bureau, reducing and clarifying requirements, removing duplication, and aligning reporting boundaries.

New developments to underpin improved water information The Bureau continued to develop its Australian Water Resources Assessment Landscape model (AWRA-L) to improve its capability in estimating water balances. The code base for the community version of the AWRA-L was provided to the hydrological community to support uptake and promote development of model enhancements, ensuring that the model continues to meet customer needs.

The Australian Water Resources Information System (AWRIS) was upgraded with a new operational system to continue underpinning the delivery of water information products and services. The new system, AWRIS2, includes support for customer-specific data marts and business intelligence information, and provides an integrated platform for delivering frequently updated water markets and water storage information.

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The Bureau has expanded the range of design rainfall estimates to assist with water infrastructure design around Australia. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on hydraulic structures, ranging from small drains and culverts to bridges and large dams used for town water supply and irrigation. Information about rainfall patterns plays an integral part in the design of these structures.

Released in November, a new set of Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) design rainfall estimates will assist in the design of climate-appropriate infrastructure that will be less affected by future floods. The 2016 IFDs are based on a more extensive database, with more than 30 years of additional rainfall records and data from an extra 2300 rainfall stations across Australia. By combining contemporary statistical analysis and techniques with this expanded rainfall database, the 2016 IFDs provide more accurate design rainfall estimates for Australia.

In addition to the IFD release, the suite of design rainfalls was expanded in March to include:

• very frequent design rainfalls (where an event is likely to occur or be exceeded from two to 12 times within any given year); and

• rare design rainfalls with probabilities of less than 1 per cent (where an event is likely to occur no more than once in 100-2000 years).

Very frequent design rainfalls were not previously available to users, and the new release extends the range of the design rainfalls to cover water-sensitive urban design purposes. Rare design rainfalls are used in the design of bridges and are also an integral part of assessing the adequacy of existing dam spillways.

The complete suite of design rainfall estimates is available at www.bom.gov.au/water/design Rainfalls and should be used in conjunction with the 2016 edition of Australian Rainfall and Runoff: A Guide to Flood Estimation (ARR2016) released by Geoscience Australia.

Engineers provided with new design rainfalls

New design rainfall information available to meet engineering needs

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Monitoring environmental conditions in the Great Barrier Reef As part of the eReefs project—a collaboration with the Great Barrier Reef Foundation, CSIRO, the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the Queensland Government—the Bureau is continuing to provide important information to help protect and preserve the iconic Great Barrier Reef. Deliverables under Phase 3 of the eReefs project were successfully provided to meet coastal ocean and catchment forecasting requirements. In particular, the Bureau delivered:

• a complete observation system, integrated into models currently running on the National Computational Infrastructure;

• a ten-year hindcast dataset available for use by the research community;

• an extension of the system used to manage real-time ACCESS, OceanMAPS, tidal and operational river data streams;

• probabilistic river tracing of major rivers for incorporation into real-time ensemble prediction systems;

• an upgraded flow and water quality relationships and terrain analysis for the Great Barrier Reef catchments; and

• water forecasting for the Fitzroy catchment, including water quantity and water quality forecasts.

Implementing the National Plan for Environmental Information Under the NPEI —an Australian Government program initiative to improve the quality and accessibility of environmental information—the Bureau has continued the design, build and delivery of a National Environmental Information Infrastructure (NEII) to improve discovery, access and re-use of environmental data. During 2016-17, the NEII was expanded from 11 to 13 national data services, from 11 to 15 monitoring site networks, and now to 10 environmental vocabularies, providing a federated environmental information infrastructure for Australia.

The first phase of NEII adoption is complete, with NEII data resources now integrated into two data-discovery portals: data.gov.au and Research Data Australia. NEII data was similarly integrated into the Australian Renewable Energy Mapping Infrastructure (Gridded Solar Climatologies) and Northern Australia Portal (Geofabric NEII data services) and contributes to the National Map product hosted by Geoscience Australia.

Bioregional assessments available online The Bureau continued its work on the BATP, in partnership with the Department of the Environment and Energy, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO, to provide reliable baseline assessments of the potential impacts of coal seam gas and large coalmining operations on Australia’s water resources.

During 2016-17, the Bioregional

Assessments Explorer was delivered as a working component of the Bioregional Assessment Information Platform (BAIP). As of June, 71 per cent of the nearly 1000 datasets on the platform can be downloaded via data.gov.au. Metadata for the remaining datasets enables users to seek data from licence holders and custodians.

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New models to underpin improved forecasts The Bureau delivered significant upgrades to its ACCESS forecasting models with the completion of the remaining components of the APS2 suite of models, including the high-resolution city-scale weather prediction model ACCESS-C and the high-resolution tropical cyclone model ACCESS-TCX, which will be made operational in the second half of 2017. Verification studies indicate that the new version of ACCESS-C will improve prediction of high-impact precipitation over its predecessor. Development, evaluation and documentation of the global deterministic and global ensemble APS3 models are on track to be delivered for implementation before the end of 2017, and to be made operational in early 2018.

Table 1. Numerical weather prediction models—scheduled implementations and upgrades

Model Outputs 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21

ACCESS-G Weather prediction— global scale

APS2 APS3 APS4

ACCESS-R Weather prediction— regional scale

APS2 APS3 APS4

ACCESS-C Weather prediction—city scale

APS1 APS2 APS3 APS4

ACCESS-TC Tropical cyclone prediction

APS2 APS3 APS4

ACCESS-S Multi-week to seasonal prediction

POAMA S1 S2

AUSWAVE-G Wave prediction APS2 APS3 APS4

T2 Tsunami Scenario database

Pre-computed tsunami forecasts and associated warnings

T2 T2 extension T3

OceanMAPS Ocean prediction— global scale

OceanMAPS -3.1 OceanMAPS -3.2 and 3.3

OceanMAPS -4 OceanMAPS -4.1

OceanMAPS -5

ACCESS-GE Ensemble weather prediction— global scale

APS3 (new system)

APS4

ACCESS-CE Ensemble weather prediction-city scale

APS3 (new system)

APS4

ACCESS-TCX

Tropical cyclone prediction - 5 day forecast + waves

New system

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The Bureau continued to maintain the performance of its OceanMAPS ocean forecasting system with the development of verification systems, the implementation of minor model upgrades and an assessment of the impact of assimilating sea surface salinity observations. Ocean wave research and modelling development has also continued with operational implementation of the AUSWAVE ensemble prediction system.

Statistical guidance post-processing techniques were used to improve and verify numerical weather prediction-based guidance. This work has led to rainfall guidance improvements of 12-24 hour lead-time and demonstrated coastal temperature improvements that will be implemented for the 2017-18 summer.

Advances in seasonal forecasting The Bureau’s new seasonal forecasting model ACCESS-S1 was completed and will be made operational in 2017-18. Extensive testing shows improved predictive capability compared with the existing system for key drivers of Australian climate, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño/La Niña, especially across autumn where seasonal forecasting is more complex. Improved predictions of regional climate for Australia are also achieved, especially for rainfall in weeks one to four ahead.

New storm surge forecasting capability National and tropical cyclone-focused storm surge forecasting systems were completed to provide more detailed and geographically extensive information on the potential threat and characteristics of storm surge. All components of the systems were tested using substantial validation and transferred to the Bureau National Operations Centre for operational implementation.

Improved understanding of Australia’s weather and climate As part of its work to improve hazard detection for the aviation industry, research on the Bureau’s fog forecasting improvement project continued, with a view to:

• gaining improved understanding of the physical processes that cause fog;

• validating satellite-based fog and low stratus detection; and

• improving the Bureau’s ability to predict fog onset and cessation within its forecast models.

For improved forecasting capability, Bureau researchers have been using ACCESS for scientific studies of high-impact weather. Work this year has focused on pyrocumulus processes, ember transport, tropical cyclone intensification and east coast lows.

Research into drivers of Australian climate highlighted the inter-decadal variations in the linkages between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole and Australian rainfall. This can help explain decadal variation of seasonal prediction skill and the apparent stratospheric control of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. This understanding will allow the Bureau to better predict future climate variation and events.

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Helping stakeholders adapt to a changing climate As a major partner in the National Environmental Science Programme Earth System and Climate Change Hub, the Bureau developed a pioneering method for the attribution of extreme weather events (see p. 25). The Bureau’s approach, published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, quantified the anthropogenic contribution to record warmth during each of the springs in 2013, 2014 and 2015.

The Australian Climate Change Science Programme concluded in 2016 with the Bureau successfully completing all of its components. The final annual report is available at www.cawcr.gov.au/projects/ Climatechange/resources.

The final report for the Victorian Climate Initiative (VicCI) project has been published. Highlights from the final year of the program include updated projections for future rainfall and streamflow across Victoria with improved understanding of sources of climate uncertainty.

A recent study of extra-tropical cyclones (cyclones outside the tropics), fronts and thunderstorms found the highest risk of extreme precipitation and wind speeds to be associated with a ‘triple storm’. This type of storm is characterised by concurrent cyclones, fronts and thunderstorm occurrences.

The findings reveal new insight into the relationships between these different events, and demonstrate how concurrent phenomena contribute to extreme weather.

Understanding extreme events is an important research priority, particularly with the early impacts of global warming experienced through associated hazards. Improved understanding of extreme weather events can also help increase the resilience of affected communities and inform the prioritisation of disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

This research was supported through a project of the National Environmental Science Programme and was published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports, 7 (doi:10.1038/srep40359)

What causes weather extremes in Australia?

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2 Performance

Observations and Infrastructure The Bureau’s meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic and space weather observations underpin essential weather forecasts and warnings, climate reports and seasonal outlooks, flood warnings, marine warnings, water and environmental services, and space weather forecasts. The observations also inform countless decisions by industry, for the environment and for disaster response, and by Australian communities. The Bureau exchanges observations internationally, providing Australia, in return, with ready access to observations from around the world that are essential inputs to its own weather models. Long-term, quality-assured meteorological observations are the foundation of Australia’s national climate record.

The Bureau invests its resources in the taking and recording of observations. It strategically plans, builds and operates an observing network that spans Australia and its territories (including Antarctica) and maintains a significant technical, engineering and science capability. The Bureau undertakes regular monitoring and review of its observing systems, to assess performance and fitness for purpose. Key activities undertaken within the Observations and Infrastructure portfolio include:

• measuring, collecting and reporting on a comprehensive suite of meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic and space weather observations;

• collaborating internationally to provide ground support for the operation of meteorological satellite programs and access to satellite observations;

• replacing obsolete systems and introducing new technologies through the capital investment program;

• systematically inspecting, calibrating and maintaining observations infrastructure;

• rapidly responding to, and returning to service, damaged or faulty equipment;

• collaboratively developing and implementing globally standardised observing practices and policies; and

• liaising with service users to ensure the ongoing suitability, relevance, timeliness, and accuracy of information.

The Observations and Infrastructure portfolio consists of two programs:

• Observing Strategy and Operations; and

• Infrastructure Management.

The performance of this portfolio during 2016-17, including its contribution towards achieving the Bureau’s outcome, is discussed overleaf.

5 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Observations and Infrastructure portfolio:

• collected observations from 34 offices across Australia and its territories, and from:

- 62 weather surveillance radars;

- 710 automatic weather stations (AWS);

- 6684 rainfall stations;

- 4967 hydrological monitoring stations, including 2180 Bureau-owned stations;

- 13 wind profilers;

- 13 solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring facilities;

- 30 wave buoys (2 Bureau-owned) and 455 Argo profiling floats;

- 6 tsunameters and 2 ship-based AWS;

- 25 drifting buoys and 46 sea level stations;

- 4 total ozone and 3 ozone profile facilities;

- 27 ionosondes to measure solar and cosmic radiation in the ionosphere;

- 2 space weather observatories;

- around 5000 volunteers; and

- 19 satellites operated by international partners.

• commenced a project to upgrade four capital city radars to dual-polarisation capability to detect damaging winds, hail and heavy rain with greater precision.

• completed the upgrade of a training radar at Broadmeadows in Melbourne’s north, to provide operational backup for the Bureau’s main Melbourne radar at Laverton, replacing the ageing radar at Melbourne Airport, which will be decommissioned.

• installed sea level-monitoring stations at Tuvalu (see p. 91) and in Broome, Western Australia. A local real-time data display and a sea state camera were installed in Nuie as a trial to test the benefits of visual verification of automated ocean observations.

• installed a new protective radome cover over the Bowen radar following damage from severe tropical cyclone Debbie, and restored AWS at Middle Percy Island, Hamilton Island and Bowen Airport.

Approximately 98 per cent of the Australian population falls within the area covered by a Bureau radar.

Approximately 92 per cent of the Australian population lives within 20 km of a Bureau AWS.

Real-time radar data coverage was available for 96.4 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The satellite network was available 96.4 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The AWS network was available 98.6 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The profiler network was available 98.8 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The sea level network was available 94.6 per cent of the year, which is just below the target of 95 per cent.

The tsunami network, operating as redundant pairs, was available 100 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

Capital program expenditure on observations infrastructure was within 3.5 per cent of its baseline budget, well within the target of 5 per cent.

Field stations at Cobar, Moree and Williamtown in New South Wales; at Charleville, Longreach, Mackay, Mt Isa and Weipa in Queensland; at Halls Creek, Kalgoorlie, Learmonth, Meekatharra and Port Hedland in Western Australia; and at Mt Gambier and Woomera in South Australia, were fully automated and de-staffed as planned.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012

90 92 94 96 98 100

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

95% target

0

3

6

9

12

15

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012

Number of automatic weather stations in the Bureau's Observing Network (at 30 June)

Uptime of the Bureau's radar network

Number of wind profilers in the Bureau's Observing Network (at June 30)

INCREASE OF

7%in the number of automatic weather stations in the Bureau's Observing Network since 2012.

REAL TIME radar data coverage was available for

96.4%

0 20 40 60 80 100

2013*14

2014*15

2015*16

2016*17

Capital expenditure against budget for observing infrastructure

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE on observing infrastructure was within

of budget. 3.5%

INCREASE OF MORE THAN

100%in the number of wind profilers in the Bureau's Observing Network since 2012.

5 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Observations and Infrastructure portfolio:

• collected observations from 34 offices across Australia and its territories, and from:

- 62 weather surveillance radars;

- 710 automatic weather stations (AWS);

- 6684 rainfall stations;

- 4967 hydrological monitoring stations, including 2180 Bureau-owned stations;

- 13 wind profilers;

- 13 solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring facilities;

- 30 wave buoys (2 Bureau-owned) and 455 Argo profiling floats;

- 6 tsunameters and 2 ship-based AWS;

- 25 drifting buoys and 46 sea level stations;

- 4 total ozone and 3 ozone profile facilities;

- 27 ionosondes to measure solar and cosmic radiation in the ionosphere;

- 2 space weather observatories;

- around 5000 volunteers; and

- 19 satellites operated by international partners.

• commenced a project to upgrade four capital city radars to dual-polarisation capability to detect damaging winds, hail and heavy rain with greater precision.

• completed the upgrade of a training radar at Broadmeadows in Melbourne’s north, to provide operational backup for the Bureau’s main Melbourne radar at Laverton, replacing the ageing radar at Melbourne Airport, which will be decommissioned.

• installed sea level-monitoring stations at Tuvalu (see p. 91) and in Broome, Western Australia. A local real-time data display and a sea state camera were installed in Nuie as a trial to test the benefits of visual verification of automated ocean observations.

• installed a new protective radome cover over the Bowen radar following damage from severe tropical cyclone Debbie, and restored AWS at Middle Percy Island, Hamilton Island and Bowen Airport.

Approximately 98 per cent of the Australian population falls within the area covered by a Bureau radar.

Approximately 92 per cent of the Australian population lives within 20 km of a Bureau AWS.

Real-time radar data coverage was available for 96.4 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The satellite network was available 96.4 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The AWS network was available 98.6 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The profiler network was available 98.8 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

The sea level network was available 94.6 per cent of the year, which is just below the target of 95 per cent.

The tsunami network, operating as redundant pairs, was available 100 per cent of the year, exceeding the target of 95 per cent.

Capital program expenditure on observations infrastructure was within 3.5 per cent of its baseline budget, well within the target of 5 per cent.

Field stations at Cobar, Moree and Williamtown in New South Wales; at Charleville, Longreach, Mackay, Mt Isa and Weipa in Queensland; at Halls Creek, Kalgoorlie, Learmonth, Meekatharra and Port Hedland in Western Australia; and at Mt Gambier and Woomera in South Australia, were fully automated and de-staffed as planned.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012

90 92 94 96 98 100

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

95% target

0

3

6

9

12

15

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012

Number of automatic weather stations in the Bureau's Observing Network (at 30 June)

Uptime of the Bureau's radar network

Number of wind profilers in the Bureau's Observing Network (at June 30)

INCREASE OF

7%in the number of automatic weather stations in the Bureau's Observing Network since 2012.

REAL TIME radar data coverage was available for

96.4%

0 20 40 60 80 100

2013*14

2014*15

2015*16

2016*17

Capital expenditure against budget for observing infrastructure

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE on observing infrastructure was within

of budget. 3.5%

INCREASE OF MORE THAN

100%in the number of wind profilers in the Bureau's Observing Network since 2012.

5 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Highlights

Cape Grim Station celebrates 40 years In November, the Bureau celebrated 40 years of collecting data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, located on Tasmania’s remote northwest coast. The station is one of the world’s most important atmospheric monitoring sites as it measures the composition of clean air flowing from the Southern Ocean. The long-term time series of atmospheric composition measurements is a fundamental component in the global understanding of the driving forces behind climate change, and is used extensively in scientific assessments and reports, including by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cape Grim data are also used by the Australian Government as part of their reporting on Australia’s annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

New observing hubs open in Darwin and Melbourne The Bureau completed the design, construction and commissioning of Observing Operations Hubs in Darwin and Melbourne. The hubs are purpose-built facilities that house a diverse workforce of technical specialists, including those previously located at field stations, to remotely monitor and maintain the Bureau’s observing network.

The Darwin Observing Operations Hub was opened in November. The hub will support the operation and maintenance of the Bureau’s observing network, including radars and AWS, across most of the Northern Territory and the Kimberley region of Western Australia. The Darwin hub is the first of eight planned across Australia to provide a more efficient and flexible way of working.

In June, the Bureau’s second hub was opened in Melbourne. The hub supports agile delivery within an activity-based working environment, including electrical and mechanical workshops, with an open plan to facilitate staff collaboration and project work.

Each hub will house dedicated technical staff to support the Bureau’s observing network. The location of the new hubs was determined by local considerations rather than State or Territory borders, taking into account accessibility, liveability and transport logistics.

To support the changes to field office operations, local change-management working groups were established to address local issues, such as media and stakeholder engagement.

Bureau staff testing Melbourne’s new Observing Operations Hub facilities.

5 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Adelaide infrastructure upgrades Adelaide’s Buckland Park radar has undergone a midlife upgrade, extending its operating life and enhancing its functionality with new technology that will enable the radar to detect and characterise severe weather with greater precision. Previously, the radar could identify precipitation, but could not differentiate between rain, snow or hail. The enhanced capability will now help forecasters to clearly identify rain, hail, bushfire debris, snow and ice pellets. The dual-polarisation capability will also improve data accuracy and enhance data to support warning services for severe thunderstorms and flash flooding. Radars in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane will be upgraded in 2017-18.

Re-establishment of Adelaide’s original observation site was also completed in 2016-17. A new AWS at the site became the Bureau’s first capital city station to be given an aboriginal name— ’ngayirdapira’, which is Kaurna for ‘concerning the sky’. The Bureau also launched the Kaurna seasonal calendar wheel following strong engagement with the Kaurna People, Adelaide City Council and Adelaide High School.

Upgraded Buckland Park radar, Adelaide, South Australia.

Observations expansion in drought affected New South Wales Seven new AWS and 20 new automated rain gauges were installed across areas of western New South Wales for the 2015 New South Wales Drought Package-funded weather stations project. The Bureau will now commence operational delivery of data for the next ten years.

The Bureau commenced a $1.2 million project to bring in selected data from external sources and upgrade its gridded rainfall analysis scheme, again largely funded under the New South Wales Drought Package. The target completion date for the work is mid-2018. This project will allow the Bureau to provide better rainfall information and forecasts for the State, creating opportunities for authorities and farmers to better mitigate drought impact.

Observations boost in support of aviation Installation of Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) Software for Qantas A330 aircraft was completed to strengthen the Bureau’s ability to collect meteorological data using commercial aircraft. The installation adds 23 aircraft to the Bureau’s network, covering high-volume domestic and international routes. This is one of the first examples of the new World Meteorological Organization AMDAR software data standard being introduced.

In September, the Bureau implemented technology to support observational data collection at aviation sites. This is a significant milestone as the Stand Alone Networks of Digital Instruments - Onsite Interpreter Unit (SANDI-OIU) technology will be fundamental to a tiered network architecture to support the future operational needs of the aviation industry.

5 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Cross government cooperation The Bureau continued to work closely with the Australian Antarctic Division to enhance its climate monitoring program at Macquarie Island as part of a wider government effort to modernise the Antarctic program over the next 20 years.

In collaboration with the Department of Defence, the Bureau is working to install 21 AWS at Defence training areas and firing ranges to enhance fire risk management. AWS were installed and commissioned at two sites, with the project on track for completion in 2017-18.

New wind profiler installed at Longreach The Bureau installed a new wind profiler at Longreach, Queensland, to complete the network extension of nine new wind profilers. Wind profilers are important infrastructure in enabling the automation of field stations, providing continuous wind observations of the troposphere to support the Bureau’s forecast and warning services. This project aims to improve situational awareness and increase the level of data for numerical modelling to enhance weather prediction.

Collaborating with the United States in Antarctica

The Bureau collaborated with its United States (US) counterparts in Antarctica to assist in gathering information on climate and atmospheric conditions. The Bureau provided operational support to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) project, which was funded by the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

In November 2015, a set of ARM Climate Research Facility equipment, including basic radiometric, surface energy balance, and upper air instrumentation, was deployed to the West Antarctic Ice Shelf. This equipment recorded the first well-calibrated climatological suite of measurements taken in this extremely remote, but globally critical, region for over 40 years.

A second ARM mobile facility—the most advanced and complete set of equipment for atmospheric and climate science ever sent to Antarctica—was installed and operated for scientists to collect and analyse data on the atmospheric energy balance, cloud microphysics, precipitation and aerosol chemistry.

The Bureau played its part in the project by installing, operating and packing up the highly technical equipment. The success of the Bureau’s involvement has led to engagement on the ARM program’s next deployment aboard the Aurora Australis in summer 2017-18.

Antarctica at sunrise and ARM 4

5 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

New radars for the Western Australian Wheatbelt

The Bureau completed the installation of three new Doppler weather radars for the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (DAFWA) in June as part of the Wheatbelt Radars Project. The radars, located at Watheroo, South Doodlakine and Newdegate are now operational. They deliver radar scans every six minutes, with the data freely available on the Bureau’s website.

Agricultural and related sectors in the grain-growing region of Western Australia are expected to enjoy substantial benefits from the project, as access to real-time rainfall and wind information transforms the way farmers do business. Improved information about prevailing weather conditions and real-time rainfall patterns will help growers and farmers make more timely business decisions— when to sow and spray, apply chemicals and fertilisers, and move stock.

Combined with data from the Bureau’s AWS and the existing weather radar network, the new radars will increase the Bureau’s forecasting and warning capability for the Wheatbelt region, and help emergency services during severe weather events such as bushfires and severe thunderstorms.

Watheroo weather radar near Geraldton in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia.

5 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Information Systems and Services The Information Systems and Services portfolio provides information and communications technology (ICT) capabilities, including data and digital, enabling the Bureau to develop, generate and deliver products and services. The Bureau needs highly resilient and reliable systems that operate continuously and seamlessly to support the provision of observations, and the delivery of weather, climate, ocean, water and hydrological products and services. Its ICT capability must meet changing and emerging customer requirements, and deliver faster, more accessible services. The portfolio provides strategic ICT guidance, planning and architecture, and delivers data, information, computing, communications and digital solutions.

The portfolio’s development and maintenance activities support the Bureau’s highly specialised data-gathering networks, numerical weather prediction models, forecasting systems, and product dissemination platforms. These include the management of a 1660-teraflop supercomputer, a large-scale data-storage system, and digital capability, including a website that services tens of billions of hits per annum and the recently released BOM Weather app.

The portfolio’s four programs are:

• Plan;

• Build;

• Operate; and

• Enterprise Programmes.

The performance of the portfolio during 2016-17, including its contribution towards achieving the Bureau’s outcome, is outlined below.

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

The Information Systems and Services portfolio:

• established an enterprise architecture for the Bureau including a services catalogue and reference model, technical design authority, and strategic architecture road maps for business programs mapped across current, future and target state architecture.

• delivered 1690 eLearning modules on security awareness to staff.

• used an account management framework for new ICT projects—48 new initiatives were progressed during the year, with 33 successfully delivered.

• undertook preparatory work on the Australis supercomputer and changes to the visual weather application for the advanced storm surge system that will be implemented in early 2017-18.

The Bureau’s primary website (bom.gov.au) had 1.612 billion unique page views, made during 628 million user sessions.

Since its release in October 2016, the Bureau’s new weather app, BOM Weather (see p. 62), has been used more than 96 million times by a growing number of users.

The Bureau continued to see significant usage of its mobile site (m.bom.gov.au) alongside the new app, reflecting the continuing shift by Australian users to mobile devices. Around 35 million unique page views were recorded for the year.

Systems were operated with a high level of performance. The Bureau achieved:

• 99.7 per cent uptime for mission-critical Category 1 Application Systems;

• 99.9 per cent uptime for the supercomputer;

5 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Performance measures 2016-17

DELIVERABLES PERFORMANCE LEVELS

• deployed a new version of the Bureau’s Warning Entry Tool (WET1) to standardise and improve the way the Bureau prepares flood warnings and flood watch products across Australia.

• deployed a new version of the Climate Data for the Environment (CliDE 4.2) application in June, which will be released to the Climate and Ocean Support Program in the Pacific (COSPPac) partner countries (14 Pacific Island countries and Timor Leste) in July 2017. This version provides improved data entry and ingestion, more stable and better archived station metadata, and more reliable and better quality products.

• configured a new Regional Office database infrastructure ahead of deploying enhanced disaster recovery capability.

• implemented tools to more effectively track ICT hardware assets within the Bureau’s data centres and their consumption of power, space and cooling capacity.

• undertook an assessment of the Bureau’s data centre as part of developing a new maintenance regime to ensure the integrity of data centre operations and maintain high availability of its business critical systems.

• concluded the Supercomputer Hardening and Resilience Programme (SHARP), having successfully implemented a series of actions to ensure the resilience of the Bureau’s nationally-critical systems (see p. 61).

• 99.99 per cent uptime for all Bureau web and operational data storage systems;

• 99.98 per cent uptime for the Central Message Switching System that allows for the rapid movement of data within the Bureau and between key partners; and

• greater than 98 per cent uptime for the Australian Water Resources Information System.

The Bureau achieved its target of having less than 5 per cent of system changes requiring unscheduled downtime. Only 27 of 1276 changes (2.12 per cent) required unscheduled downtime.

Portfolio staff responded to more than 20 000 system incidents across the Bureau’s operating environment.

Highlights

New supercomputer and data centre come on board From 30 June 2016, the Bureau commenced operation of its new supercomputer Australis, growing its computing capability to deliver forecasts and warnings with greater certainty, increased frequency and enhanced accuracy (see p. 60). The decommissioning of the Ngamai supercomputer was completed in October.

The Bureau’s Central Computing Facility was relocated to a new main data centre and secondary data centre. This large-scale project was completed in under 11 months and was performed with minimum business disruption. As part of the change, eight metric tonnes of ICT equipment was relocated, 16 metric tonnes of obsolete ICT equipment was disposed of, more than 230 services were migrated and 360 terabytes of data was transferred between data centres.

5 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

MORE THAN

1.6 billionunique web page views

MORE THAN

96 millionuser sessions of the BOM Weather app since its release in October

99.9%uptime of the Bureau's supercomputer

uptime of the Bureau's

internet services

99.9%

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

0

5

10

15

Millions 20

Jun-17 May-17 Apr-17 Mar-17 Feb-17 Jan-17 Dec-16 Nov-16 Oct-16

80 84 88 92 96 100

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

80 84 88 92 96 100

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

Internet services uptime

Supercomputer uptime

BOM Weather app user sessions per month

Unique page views of the Bureau's public web site

5 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Emerging technologies lab established An emerging technologies laboratory was established to provide the Bureau with a capability for rapid testing and prototyping new technologies. The work of the lab is focussed on supporting technological uplift in the Bureau’s systems, promoting innovation and turning concepts into business value. One of the first outputs from the lab was Met Insight—a multi-client data visualisation and alerting web application. Met Insight allows customers with specific weather interests to quickly determine operational impacts for current and forecast conditions in the field. The application allows visualisation of real time observations and forecasts, provides automated alerts and contains customisable features.

Water resource and flood forecasting systems upgraded A replacement for the Australian Water Resource Information System (AWRIS), dubbed AWRIS2, was delivered—the culmination of a three-year project to enhance the performance and functionality of the initial system built in 2008-09. A key component of the new system is a new data warehouse that ingests and stores water information provided by water data providers from around Australia. Other enhancements include:

• a water information dashboard, comprising current water storage levels and water markets information;

• iPhone and Android Water Storage mobile applications;

• functionality that supports development of the National Water Account; and

• a Water Restrictions web application.

2016-17 was the first full year of operation of the Hydrological Forecasting System (HyFS), introduced in December 2015. HyFS has supported the Bureau’s flood forecasting service through one of its busiest years on record, with over 4500 flood warnings disseminated. In September alone, over 1500 flood warnings and watches were created. A key addition during the year was the implementation of a new metadata management system for locations and sensing devices. This replaced numerous manual systems, saving forecaster effort and reducing the potential for error.

The Bureau adopts user-centred design To improve the user experience for the millions of Australians who regularly use the Bureau’s digital services, the Bureau is developing a user-centred design framework to guide future service design and development. This involves greater use of analytics to contribute to decision-making and undertaking research into peoples’ attitudes, behaviours and needs around daily weather information. Early-stage research and design has been conducted to develop a new web service for day-to-day users of Bureau information. A Digital Accessibility Policy and Implementation Plan has also been created to ensure all users have access to Bureau services.

Creating a pathway for new observations The following system upgrades were undertaken in 2016-17 to integrate additional observational data streams into the Bureau’s operations:

• the automated surface observations central system (ASOS-CS) was upgraded to incorporate runway visual range data, data from lightning sensors and third-party lightning data;

6 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

• ASOS-CS was also amended to support a trial to integrate automated observations from airports at Cairns, Canberra and Coolangatta. The trial identified data interpretation issues that required refinements to system algorithms;

• the aviation camera image store and display system continued to be developed, with cameras at Archerfield, Mount Isa, Toowoomba, Kingscote, Kilmore, Wagga Wagga and Coffs Harbour coming online; and

• the Central Message Switching System was updated to incorporate revised ocean buoy data which is now delivered in a new international standardised format.

The Bureau’s new supercomputer Australis, was successfully installed and began operations on 30 June 2016. Australis—a 1660 teraflop Cray XC40—represents a 16 times increase in computational capacity that will allow the Bureau to enhance its predictive capability by delivering forecasts and warnings with greater certainty, increased frequency and enhanced accuracy.

The Bureau received funding for the supercomputer in the 2014-15 Budget, with the Government’s investment covering computing hardware and software improvements to numerical weather prediction modelling and forecast products.

Operating around the clock, Australis supports a numerical prediction service for routine weather, ocean and marine forecasting; forecasting for severe weather events and hazards including cyclones and tsunamis; hydrological modelling for water and flood services; climate prediction; and emergency environmental response. To ensure its resilience against cyberattack, Australis’s environment and infrastructure have been built to meet very high standards for resilient and secure computing operations.

The success of the project demonstrates the organisation’s capacity to deliver large and complex ICT initiatives, recognised by the Bureau’s CIO, Dr Lesley Seebeck, being awarded the Federal Government CIO of the Year award (see p. 63).

Australis starts delivering for Australia

The Bureau’s Australis supercomputer

6 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

The Bureau’s Supercomputer Hardening and Resilience Programme (SHARP) was an 18-month project to address the Bureau’s existing ICT security risks and help Bureau staff understand the prevalence of cyber threats—showing them how to protect Bureau systems and networks from cybersecurity villains such as hackers, Trojans, and phishers.

Based on the Australian Signals Directorate’s (ASD’s) top 30 recommendations for mitigating cyber security incidents, the SHARP initiative involved establishing a suite of projects to embed improved risk reduction strategies and technologies within the Bureau, as part of a renewed business as usual approach.

SHARP delivered a series of key tactical solutions across the organisation, from desktop to data centre, significantly enhancing the Bureau’s systems and networks security. As a result of the SHARP project the Bureau is now compliant with the majority of the ASD’s top 30 recommendations, in particular the top four:

i. u sing application whitelisting to help prevent malicious software and unapproved programs from running;

ii. p atching applications such as Flash, web browsers, Microsoft Office, Java and PDF viewers;

iii. p atching operating systems; and

iv. r estricting administrative privileges to operating systems and applications based on user duties.

The Bureau is continuing to work with security agencies to improve its security posture more broadly. In particular, the Bureau has been working to develop a strategic, whole-of-Bureau approach, known as the Robust Program, to address the long-term security and resilience of critical business functions. The Robust Program will secure and strengthen all elements of the Bureau’s operating environment, providing continuous availability of critical services and mitigating risks arising from the fragility of the existing ICT environment. It will involve a full architectural review and refresh of the Bureau’s ICT systems to ensure a modern, modular, future-fit, inherently secure and resilient ICT landscape.

A SHARP approach to ICT security

6 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Everybody loves the new BOM Weather app

“Can we have a weather app?”

This was a regular question from the community and one which the Bureau answered in October.

The Bureau made a conscious decision to design a simple app for people needing day-to-day weather information. People said they wanted the app to help with commuting, knowing what to wear and planning their weekends. This meant forecasts, current temperatures, rain outlook and radar needed to be at the forefront, and it all needed to be based on where the person was or where they were going.

People can use the app according to their current location or multiple favourite locations. The app covers all of Australia, down to 6 km square blocks, and weather information updates every ten minutes.

Despite many weather apps already being available in the marketplace, the BOM Weather app was enthusiastically embraced with 1.5 million downloads and more than 96 million user sessions in the first eight months. Use of the app peaked on 30 March with over one million user sessions in a single day, due largely to the significant interest in severe tropical cyclone Debbie.

The Bureau received a Gold Award for the app in the 2016 Gov Design Awards in the category of Best New Service or Application.

The Bureau’s BOM Weather app.

6 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

Recognition of Performance 2017 Australian Government CIO of the Year The Bureau’s Dr Lesley Seebeck was named Chief Information Officer of the Year at the 2017 iTnews Benchmark Awards in February for delivering the Bureau’s latest supercomputer Australis, on time, to specification and on budget.

American Geophysical Union Fellow Dr Harry Hendon was recognised for his outstanding contributions to the geophysical sciences at an awards ceremony of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco in December.

2016 GOV Design Awards - Best new service or application The Bureau received a Gold Award for the BOM Weather app in the 2016 GOV Design Awards in the category of Best New Service or Application in December.

Australia Day Achievement Medallions Australia Day achievement medallions are awarded under the auspices of the Australia Day Council to promote good citizenship and achievement, and acknowledge employee contributions on special projects that have made a significant contribution to the nation or outstanding performance of core duties in the year prior to which the award is made.

This year, medallions were awarded to:

• Jenny Coombe for her outstanding dedication, commitment and performance in support of the implementation of the Observing Systems Strategy;

Left-Dr Lesley Seebeck (L) and Tim Pugh at the iTnews Awards.

6 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

• Sue Tucker for her outstanding contribution to the Bureau’s ongoing engagement with whole-of-government budgetary and ICT governance processes including leading the Supercomputer Hardening and Resilience Program team through the Government budgetary process; and

• Tim Pugh for his outstanding strategic leadership in scientific computing in ensuring the delivery of Australis was on time, to specification and on budget.

(From left) CEO Dr Andrew Johnson with Jenny Coombe, Sue Tucker and Tim Pugh, who were awarded Australia Day Achievement Medallions on 25 January.

Bureau Excellence Awards On 20 June the Bureau celebrated and recognised excellence at the annual Bureau Excellence Awards, which coincided with the anniversary of the enacting of the Meteorology Act 1955. CEO and Director of Meteorology Dr Andrew Johnson presented the awards and congratulated the recipients on their achievements.

2017 award Recipients

Director's choice • The mobile phone app team received their award for providing an innovative solution to the community's request for an official Bureau weather app.

• Peter Fattoush received his awarded for demonstrating outstanding service, professionalism and commitment to technology modernisation and organisational transformation.

Innovation • The Australian Landscape Water Balance team received their award for significantly expanding the Bureau's delivery of timely and accessible water information services. The team successfully delivered world-leading national gridded daily water balance information.

• The Evaporation Measurement Automation team received their Award for developing an automated process to measure evaporation, where a commercial solution was not available.

6 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

2 Performance

2017 award Recipients

Customer focus • Rob Taggart received his award for making a significant contribution to national aviation forecasting by developing a program to produce automated fog climatologies from archived station climate data across Australia.

• The Wheatbelt Radar Installation team received their award for developing new ways of communicating and delivering the Wheatbelt Radar Business Development project in collaboration with the Bureau's procurement, engineering and project management teams.

Environment and sustainability

• The Cape Grim Bio Air Pollution Station team received their award for controlling weeds of national significance on the rugged coastal landscapes at Cape Grim, which incorporates rare and endangered vegetation.

Work health and safety • Brian Kirby received his award for his outstanding contribution when intervening in a road accident outside his workplace in May. Brian provided critical first aid until emergency services arrived.

• Evan Hardege received his award for going above and beyond expectations to ensure a safety culture exists around the Bureau’s hydrogen systems, used to operate the upper air network without compromising safety.

Excellence • The Supercomputer Programme team received their award for delivering the Australis supercomputer on time, to specification and on budget. Australis sits at the very core of the Bureau’s ability to provide weather forecasting services.

• Meredith Schier received her award for her highly professional commitment to the Bureau’s communications and media activities.

Dr Andrew Johnson presents a Director’s choice award to the mobile phone app team

6 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Volunteer Rainfall Observer Excellence Awards Manual rainfall observations are collected from across Australia and transmitted to the Bureau by around 5000 volunteers who form an integral part of the Bureau’s composite observations systems. The Bureau recognises the dedicated and sustained commitment of its long-serving volunteer rainfall observers by presenting its volunteer observers with awards for 50 and 100 years of service.

In 2016-17, awards were presented to:

• the Jones family from Bulong, Western Australia for more than 100 years of service—recording and reporting daily rainfall observations since 1916; and

• the Murphy family from ‘Homeleigh’, Mount Walker in Scenic Rim Queensland for more than 100 years of service, and to Mr Kevin Murphy for 50 years of service; and

• Mr Alan Wickham of Brigalow Park, Queensland, for 50 years of service.

Australasian Reporting Awards The Bureau received two awards for its 2015-16 Annual Report at the 2017 Australasian Reporting Awards in June. The Bureau received a Gold Award for its overall report and a special award for excellence in Workplace Health and Safety reporting.

2016 Resilient Australia Awards The Western Australia Department of Health and the Bureau of Meteorology were joint recipients of a Resilient Australia Award for their ‘Regional Variation in vulnerable population to heatwave in Western Australia’ project (State winner). The results from the project will be used in the development of a heatwave pre-warning system in Western Australia.

The CSIRO Medal for Impact The Bureau was a joint recipient of the CSIRO Medal for Impact from Science in December for quantifying Australia’s water resources and delivering breakthrough research and innovation in water assessment, forecasting and informatics. CSIRO acknowledged the Bureau as a distinguished partner of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA).

Gibbs Medal - Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society Former Bureau forecaster, Jeffrey Callaghan received the prestigious Gibbs Medal for his long-term contribution to operational weather forecasting services. This biennial award from the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) is named after a former Director of Meteorology, Dr Bill Gibbs. Jeff served with the Bureau from 1965 to 2008, including 13 years as Head of the Severe Weather Section.

Organisational management3

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts Division Deputy Director Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts

Rob Webb

Flood Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Dasarath 'Jaya' Jayasuriya

Specialised Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Brett Anderson

National Operations Centre Director Dr Andrew Tupper

New South Wales Regional Director Ann Farrell

Victoria A/g Regional Director Ted Williams

Queensland Regional Director Bruce Gunn

South Australia Regional Director John Nairn

Western Australia Regional Director Mike Bergin

Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Director John Bally

Northern Territory Regional Director Todd Smith

Public Weather Services Branch Assistant Director Roger Deslandes

Observations and Infrastructure Division Deputy Director Observations and

Infrastructure Dr Sue Barrell

Infrastructure Management Branch Assistant Director Bryan Hodge

Observing Strategy and Operations Branch Assistant Director Dr Anthony Rea

Environment and Research Division Deputy Director Environment and

Research Graham Hawke

Water Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Robert Argent

Environmental Information Services Branch Assistant Director

Dr Louise Minty

Research and Development Branch Assistant Director Dr Peter May

Climate Information Services Branch Assistant Director Neil Plummer

Information Systems and Services Division Deputy Director Information Systems and Services and Chief

Information O*cer Dr Lesley Seebeck

ISS Build Branch Assistant Director Simon Mair

ISS Operate Branch Assistant Director Suthagar Seevaratnam

ISS Enterprise Programmes Assistant Director Bronwyn Ray

ISS Plan Branch Assistant Director Alistair Kemp

Corporate Services Division Deputy Director Corporate Services and Chief Operating O*cer

Jennifer Gale

People Management Branch Assistant Director Chris Stocks

Strategy, Parliamentary, International and Communication Branch A/g Assistant Director

Dr Leah McKenzie

Business Development Office A/g Manager Clinton Rakich

Finance and Budgets Branch Assistant Director and Chief Financial O*cer

Trevor Plowman

Chief Executive Officer and Director of Meteorology Dr Andrew Johnson

Bureau of Meteorology Organisational Chart E*ective 30 June 2017

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts Division Deputy Director Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts

Rob Webb

Flood Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Dasarath 'Jaya' Jayasuriya

Specialised Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Brett Anderson

National Operations Centre Director Dr Andrew Tupper

New South Wales Regional Director Ann Farrell

Victoria A/g Regional Director Ted Williams

Queensland Regional Director Bruce Gunn

South Australia Regional Director John Nairn

Western Australia Regional Director Mike Bergin

Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Director John Bally

Northern Territory Regional Director Todd Smith

Public Weather Services Branch Assistant Director Roger Deslandes

Observations and Infrastructure Division Deputy Director Observations and

Infrastructure Dr Sue Barrell

Infrastructure Management Branch Assistant Director Bryan Hodge

Observing Strategy and Operations Branch Assistant Director Dr Anthony Rea

Environment and Research Division Deputy Director Environment and

Research Graham Hawke

Water Information Services Branch Assistant Director Dr Robert Argent

Environmental Information Services Branch Assistant Director

Dr Louise Minty

Research and Development Branch Assistant Director Dr Peter May

Climate Information Services Branch Assistant Director Neil Plummer

Information Systems and Services Division Deputy Director Information Systems and Services and Chief

Information O*cer Dr Lesley Seebeck

ISS Build Branch Assistant Director Simon Mair

ISS Operate Branch Assistant Director Suthagar Seevaratnam

ISS Enterprise Programmes Assistant Director Bronwyn Ray

ISS Plan Branch Assistant Director Alistair Kemp

Corporate Services Division Deputy Director Corporate Services and Chief Operating O*cer

Jennifer Gale

People Management Branch Assistant Director Chris Stocks

Strategy, Parliamentary, International and Communication Branch A/g Assistant Director

Dr Leah McKenzie

Business Development Office A/g Manager Clinton Rakich

Finance and Budgets Branch Assistant Director and Chief Financial O*cer

Trevor Plowman

Chief Executive Officer and Director of Meteorology Dr Andrew Johnson

Bureau of Meteorology Organisational Chart E*ective 30 June 2017

7 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Corporate Governance Corporate governance framework The Bureau’s corporate governance framework provides a sound basis for decision making, defines mechanisms for accountability and stewardship and supports the Bureau’s strategic direction and leadership.

The framework is based on:

• the legislative foundation provided by the Meteorology Act 1955, the Water Act 2007 the Public Service Act 1999 (PS Act), and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act);

• a clearly defined executive and management structure;

• a program-based planning and reporting framework;

• a customer service charter setting out the standards of service the community can expect;

• various mechanisms for stakeholder input and review (see p. 80);

• detailed financial and asset management policies, procedures and guidelines;

• thorough risk management and fraud control strategies; and

• an audit committee and internal audit function to provide independent advice and assurance on the Bureau’s activities.

Executive and management structure As 30 June, the Bureau comprised:

• the Executive team (CEO and Director of Meteorology and five Deputy Directors);

• five divisions, each responsible for delivering a portfolio of work within the Bureau’s program structure:

- Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts;

- Environment and Research;

- Observations and Infrastructure;

- Information Systems and Services; and

- Corporate Services.

• 16 branches and a number of business units, each responsible for a program or major project;

• the Collaboration for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR)—a joint research operation with the CSIRO;

• the Bureau National Operations Centre (BNOC);

• seven Regional Offices located in the State capital cities and Darwin; and

• 34 field observing offices across Australia, the offshore islands, and Antarctic Territory as well as a number of other specialist facilities.

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3 Organisational management

The Bureau’s seven Regional Directors reported to the Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, on regional weather services and to the Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure, on regional observing operations.

In addition to the general division and branch structure, a number of specialist roles are attached to senior positions, including:

• Chief Operating Officer, performed by the Deputy Director, Corporate;

• Chief Information Officer, performed by the Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services; and

• Chief Financial Officer, performed by the Assistant Director (Finance and Budgets).

The organisational structure of senior staff in the Bureau, as at 30 June, is shown on p. 68-69.

The Executive The Director of Meteorology (Director) and five Deputy Directors form the Bureau’s Executive. The role of the Executive is to consider and promulgate decisions on program, policy, financial and people management issues across the Bureau and to provide leadership under the authority of the Director as the Accountable Authority for the agency (under the PGPA Act). The Executive has responsibility for setting the Bureau’s strategic policies and priorities and for optimising the use of its resources.

Dr Andrew Johnson Chief Executive Officer and Director of Meteorology

Andrew was appointed as the Bureau’s Director of Meteorology on 5 September 2016. Andrew has a Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Honours) and PhD from the University of Queensland. He also holds a Master of Public Administration from the John F Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technical Sciences and Engineering and the Australian Institute of Company Directors. In the year prior to joining the Bureau, Andrew was the Principal of Johnson & Associates Consulting, following nearly a decade as a member of the CSIRO executive team.

Mr Rob Webb Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts

Rob was appointed Deputy Director, Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts in October 2015 following three years as Regional Director, Queensland. Rob joined the Bureau in 1993, and spent much of his early career in the New South Wales Regional Office. Rob is a trained meteorologist, specialising in severe weather forecasting. He led the Severe Weather Unit in Sydney in the early 2000s and became New South Wales’ Supervising Meteorologist in 2005.

7 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Dr Lesley Seebeck Deputy Director, Information Systems and Services | Chief Information Officer

Lesley joined the Bureau in June 2014 from the Department of Finance, where she was responsible for oversight of government information technology investment, assurance, capability and skills. She has also worked in the Department of Defence, the Office of National Assessments, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, in private industry, and as an academic. She has a Master in Business Administration, a Master in Defence Studies and a Bachelor in Applied Science (Physics).

Mr Graham Hawke Deputy Director, Environment and Research

Graham joined the Bureau in April 2013 from Victoria’s Southern Rural Water. Graham’s qualifications include a Bachelor of Engineering and a Master of Engineering Science from Monash University, as well as a Master of Business Administration. Graham has served in both the public and private sectors, with corporate responsibilities spanning finance, information and communications technology, emergency management and customer service. He is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a member of Engineers Australia.

Dr Sue Barrell Deputy Director, Observations and Infrastructure

Sue was appointed Deputy Director, Observation and Infrastructure in November 2014. Sue has served as Assistant Director, Observations and Engineering for nine years and led Bureau reviews of research and development and space weather. Sue has represented Australia on a number of international groups. Sue holds a PhD in Astronomy, a Bachelor of Science (Hons) in physics, a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology and is a Graduate Member of the Australian Institute of Company Directors.

Ms Jennifer Gale Deputy Director, Corporate Services and Chief Operating Officer

Jennifer commenced with the Bureau on 3 April 2017. Prior to joining the Bureau, Jennifer was the Executive Director Corporate Services and CFO at The Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne. Jennifer has also held senior leadership roles in the departments of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts; Finance; Human Services; the National Capital Authority and Airservices. Jennifer has a Bachelor of Business from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, is a Fellow of CPA Australia and a Member of the Australian Institute of Company Directors.

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3 Organisational management

Committees The Bureau Executive is the highest level decision-making body within the organisation. Executive meetings are chaired by the Director and held once per month.

The actions of the Executive are supported by senior leadership meetings, which involve the Executive, all Assistant Directors and Regional Directors. These meetings are held once per month to discuss key issues.

An independent review of the Bureau’s governance arrangements was conducted during the year to identify opportunities for more efficient and effective governance arrangements. After consulting widely across the Bureau, and with stakeholders and partners, a final report of findings and recommendations was delivered to the Bureau Executive in February. The review recommended that the Bureau’s existing boards and committees be rationalised where possible, and that delegations and clearance processes be simplified, to improve efficiency and accountability.

In response to the review, the Bureau Executive agreed to:

• streamline the Bureau’s committee arrangements, including through the consolidation of existing boards and committees that have areas of common focus;

• create three new subcommittees of the Executive Team—the Investment Committee, the Major Transactions Committee, and the Security, Risk and Business Continuity Committee (see Figure 9 below); and

• create reference groups to undertake stakeholder consultation and information sharing where needed.

CEO and Director of Meteorology Audit Committee

Executive Team

Investment Committee Major Transactions Committee

Security, Risk and Business Continuity Committee

Figure 9 - The Bureau’s new Executive committee structure

The Bureau commenced transitioning to the new governance arrangements towards the end of 2016-17.

74 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Partnerships The Bureau has partnerships with Australian Government agencies to manage the delivery of common outcomes through distributed responsibilities. Supervisory or management committees currently in place to oversee these collaborations are:

• the CAWCR Supervisory Committee, comprising the Bureau’s Director and Deputy Director, Environment and Research, and two senior representatives from CSIRO;

• the Collaborative Head Agreement Committee, jointly chaired by the Director of Meteorology and Geoscience Australia CEO, which covers all joint ventures between the two agencies, including tsunami warnings; and

• the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) Management Committee, comprising senior executive representatives from the Bureau and CSIRO.

The Bureau also has:

• a strategic partnering agreement for the provision of meteorological and oceanographic services to support the Department of Defence;

• a memorandum of understanding and agency agreement with Airservices;

• a collaborative heads of agreement with the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) that provides the basis for cooperation in a number of areas including: water data provision to MDBA, cooperation on the Murray-Darling Basin component of the National Water Account and collaborative work around environmental accounts; and

• memorandums of understanding with the Australian Antarctic Division, the Royal Australian Navy, the Defence Science and Technology Group and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

The Audit Committee The Bureau’s Audit Committee provides independent assurance on the Bureau’s risks, controls and compliance framework, and reviews the Bureau’s annual financial statements. The Director of Meteorology convenes the Bureau of Meteorology Audit Committee in compliance with Section 45 of the PGPA Act. The Audit Committee is governed by its Charter, which requires the Committee to review the appropriateness of the Bureau’s financial reporting, performance reporting, system of risk oversight and management and system of internal control in accordance with Section 17 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014 (PGPA rule).

The Audit Committee has four independent members including the Chair, Andrew Dix. Mark Tucker was appointed to the Committee in November. The Committee was supported by the Financial Statements Subcommittee.

The Audit Committee held five meetings in 2016-17 (on 4 August, 26 August, 22 November, 17 March and 23 June). The Audit Committee considered an assurance mapping project and the following six final internal audit reports:

• Inventory planning;

• Governance arrangements in flood forecasting and warnings;

• Post-event review management;

• Capital project finance management;

• Procurement management; and

• IT change management.

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3 Organisational management

Table 2: Bureau of Meteorology Audit Committee membership and meeting attendance.

Member Role Number of

meetings member was eligible to attend

Number of meetings attended

Andrew Dix Independent Chair 5 5

Lily Viertmann Independent Deputy Chair 5 5

Jenny Morison* Independent member 2 2

Daniel McCabe Independent member 5 4

Mark Tucker Independent member 3 3

Graham Hawke** Member 2 2

Sue Barrell** Member 2 1

* member until 2 September 2016 ** member until November 2016

Corporate planning and evaluation Operational planning within the Bureau is undertaken on a program basis, supported by divisional and Executive planning processes. A number of planning workshops were held throughout the year, including senior leaders’ planning conferences in November, March and June.

The evaluation of performance against plans is an important component of the annual planning cycle. Progress achieved against the Bureau’s success measures is regularly monitored through reports to the Executive. Performance against enterprise-level key performance indicators (KPIs) is presented on p. 12-25.

In 2016-17, the Bureau prepared its Strategy 2017-2022, which takes effect from 1 July 2017. The strategy charts the Bureau’s course over the next five years outlining strategic objectives, actions and success measures.

The Corporate Plan 2016-17 was publicly released in August and has been prepared in accordance with requirements of the PGPA Act, setting out the Bureau’s priorities and planned achievements for 2016-17 and the outlook to 2019-20.

Business continuity and risk management functions are integrated with operational planning to enhance the effectiveness of these activities through joint coordination.

Risk management The Bureau applies an integrated enterprise risk management framework in all planning and decision-making activities, as detailed in its risk policy and handbook. The Bureau’s approach to risk aims to embed a proactive risk culture, focused on the identification, evaluation, prevention and mitigation of risks, as well as the effective management and reporting of incidents. The implementation of the Risk Policy is overseen by the Risk Management and Business Continuity Committee, which includes senior management representation from across the organisation and reports regularly to the Executive.

76 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The Bureau’s Aviation Meteorological Services team were presented with a certificate by Lloyd’s Register of Quality Assurance (LRQA) for achieving certification of compliance with the new International Organization for Standardization ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Standard in March. This certification covers a broad sweep of teams delivering the Bureau’s vital aviation services. This achievement clearly demonstrates the Bureau’s commitment to ongoing improvement of its aviation products and services and business excellence.

The new certification provides the Bureau’s domestic and international aviation customers with assurance that its business processes meet international standards. As its foundation, ISO 9001 certification focuses on the seven principles of quality management, which are: customer focus, leadership, engagement of people, process approach, improvement, evidence-based decision-making and relationship management. Adopting this standard is a sound management practice and assists the Bureau to optimise operational effectiveness to maximise value its customers and stakeholders. It is a vital element in ensuring the Bureau develops a culture of excellence and improvement, and remains focused on delivering high-quality products and services to enhance the safety and economic viability of its customer’s operations.

Quality management in Aviation Weather Services

LRQA presents ISO 9001 Certificates to Aviation Meteorological Services: (L to R) Rob Webb, Gordon Jackson, Brett Anderson, Michael Quillerat (LRQA) and Helen Tseros

7 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

In 2016-17, risk management training was delivered to staff at the Bureau’s Head Office in Melbourne and at all Regional Offices. Guidance was also provided for individual projects and major procurement processes.

In the first half of 2017, Comcover benchmarked the Bureau’s risk management processes against all other participating Australian Public Service (APS) agencies and assessed the Bureau’s risk management maturity as ‘advanced’, ranking it in the top 30 per cent of all APS agencies.

The Executive reviews the Bureau’s risks regularly and identified seven key organisational risks:

People Systems Reputation Finance

Deaths or serious staff injury ICT discontinuity Significant forecast failure

Lack of public and private investment

Workforce performance

Major service discontinuity Managing brand and reputation

Business continuity The Bureau continued to strengthen and mature its business continuity management system based on the international standard ISO 22301:2012 Societal security—Business continuity management. Business continuity management serves to improve the Bureau’s resilience and to support effective responses to disruptive incidents, including crises.

Overseen by the Risk Management and Business Continuity Committee, the key outcomes achieved in 2016-17 include:

• exercising business continuity plans for all divisions and regions;

• developing an ‘Introduction to Business Continuity’ workshop suitable for all staff;

• increasing the use of the Bureau’s 24/7 incident notification hotline to ensure that staff can promptly notify the Bureau’s senior management of disruptive incidents by SMS and email; and

• implementing standardised requirements and templates for business impact assessments and business continuity plans.

Fraud control The Bureau’s fraud control plan, last updated in 2014, provides the basis for its fraud prevention, detection and investigation activities in compliance with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework and section 10 of the PGPA Rule. The Bureau conducts fraud risk assessments annually as part of its overall risk management framework. It also participates in the annual Fraud against the Commonwealth survey, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Criminology. In 2016-17, the Bureau of Meteorology did not identify any significant issues or incidents of fraud.

7 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The Bureau uses various strategies and mechanisms to prevent fraud which include:

• establishing an Audit Committee to provide independent assurance to the Director about a range of matters including fraud control;

• preparing a fraud risk assessment that is reviewed annually;

• reviewing the Bureau’s fraud control plan at least every two years, or more frequently if required;

• publishing the Bureau’s fraud control plan on the staff intranet to foster an open and transparent approach to fraud prevention;

• providing a dedicated Fraud Liaison Officer as a central referral point on fraud-related matters, and a Fraud Control Officer to assess allegations of potential incidences;

• ensuring every employee completes online induction training modules before accessing the Bureau’s internal data systems, including: the Fraud Control Framework, Accountable and Ethical Decision-Making, ICT Security and APS Values, Code of Conduct and Employment Principles.

• assigning financial delegations to positions, requiring co-authorisation of spending and assurance that the amount is allocated in the approved budget;

• maintaining an up-to-date fraud risk register as an integral part of the Bureau’s fraud control mechanism within the risk management framework; and

• maintaining a fraud register for the purposes of registering incidents of possible fraud.

The Bureau has several mechanisms in place to detect potential incidents of fraud including:

• developing an annual internal audit plan, which is distributed to the Audit Committee, the Executive and to the Bureau’s independent internal auditors;

• undertaking historical financial ledger audits to identify and report any concerns in transactional behaviour by employees or contractors (undertaken by the Bureau’s internal auditors);

• scrutinising a vendor master listing and ledger, and verifying listed or disclosed business registration with the Australian Taxation Office and the Australian Securities and Investment Commission;

• commissioning an independent consultant to provide data-mining analysis in order to highlight outliers and further investigate each item of concern;

• auditing of the Bureau’s financial statements by an external auditor and the Australian National Audit Office; and

• encouraging employees to report suspected fraud to their direct supervisor or to the Fraud Liaison Officer or Fraud Control Officer.

Where the Bureau determines that an allegation of potential fraudulent activity needs to be investigated, it will:

• seek the advice of the Fraud Liaison Officer and Fraud Control Officer;

• follow the Australian Government Investigations Standards 2011 for all fraud investigation activities;

• investigate the allegation using an internal (or outsourced) investigation officer or through referral of serious or complex fraud matters to the Australian Federal Police; and

• maintain a fraud register for the purposes of registering incidents of possible fraud. All known incidents are investigated and any material matters, as diagnosed by the Fraud Control Officer, are formerly reported to the Bureau’s Internal Audit committee.

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3 Organisational management

External scrutiny The following matters were dealt with in 2016-17:

• The Bureau received notification of the lodgement of three Comcare proceedings with the Administrative Appeals Tribunal. Two claims, lodged in August and October, were related to the discontinuation of liability for previously accepted psychological and physical injury compensation claims. The third claim, lodged in March, was related to a determination to deny continued medical treatment. All three claims are yet to be finalised.

• The Bureau was the subject of two Functional and Efficiency Reviews (FERs) as part of the government’s Efficiency through Contestability Programme—one on its own operations and the other as part of the review of Commonwealth Water Functions. Ms Shirley In’t Veld was appointed as the Independent Lead Reviewer of the Bureau FER and was supported by the Nous consulting group. The final report of the Bureau FER was presented to the Minister for the Environment and Energy in November. The Commonwealth Water Functions FER was conducted across the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, in collaboration with the Department of the Environment and Energy, and relevant agencies including the Bureau, Murray-Darling Basin Authority and Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

• In 2016, the Bureau participated in the independent performance audit of Corporate Planning in the Australian Public Sector by the Australian National Audit Office. The report of the audit was presented to the Parliament on 31 August.

Freedom of Information Entities subject to the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (FOI Act) are required to publish information to the public as part of the Information Publication Scheme (IPS). This requirement is in Part II of the FOI Act and has replaced the former requirement to publish a section 8 statement in an annual report. Each agency must display on its website a plan showing what information it publishes in accordance with the IPS requirements.

The information provided by the Bureau in response to the IPS is available at www.bom.gov.au/foi/ips.shtml.

Number of FOI requests In 2016-17, the Bureau received 11 requests under FOI, all of which were completed. Three requests received in 2015-16 were also completed in 2016-17.

Stakeholder participation and public feedback Third-party participation in the Bureau’s policy formulation and service provision is facilitated through:

• the Law, Crime and Community Safety Council of the Council of Australian Governments (COAG);

• the Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee and its working subcommittees and related groups including the Australian Tsunami Advisory Group;

• the Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council;

• the National Environmental Information Infrastructure Reference Group;

• the Jurisdictional Reference Group on Water Information;

• the Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperature (ACORN-SAT) dataset Technical Advisory Forum;

8 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

• State and Territory consultative committees for flood, marine, agriculture and climate;

• consultative meetings with private meteorological service providers, the aviation industry and Defence;

• State, Territory and local government emergency management and disaster mitigation committees; and

• liaison with agricultural departments, agencies and farmer and industry organisations, including the interjurisdictional Agricultural Senior Officials Committee Drought Task Group, the National Farmers Federation and State and Territory affiliates.

The Bureau uses a range of surveys and feedback mechanisms to ensure that its products and services meet the growing needs of its customers. In particular, the annual public weather survey of more than 2100 respondents provides a useful way to monitor and track user satisfaction. The Bureau uses the Net Promoter Score index (ranging from -100 to +100) as a way of gauging the willingness of its customers to recommend products or services to others. In 2016-17, the Bureau’s website achieved a net promoter score of +70 while climate data services received a score of +57. Both results indicate a high level of satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results of more focused surveys are included in the performance section of this Annual Report.

The Bureau regularly invites feedback, including suggestions and complaints, from its service users. A total of 6242 messages were logged by the web feedback facility, of which 629 were classified by the sender as criticism and 101 messages were classified as praise. All feedback was directed to the appropriate area for response and resolution. This feedback provides useful insight into the Bureau’s outputs and informs the development of new and improved products and services.

MORE THAN

6000web feedback entries provided

System fault

Suggestion

Request for data, forecasts or other services

Question

Praise

Criticism

Feedback provided on the Bureau's public website

Social media has become an essential tool, allowing the Bureau to communicate regularly with its users and stakeholders, and providing the Bureau with direct feedback and opportunities for engagement in a public forum. The Bureau has an increasing number of followers on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn and its blog.

8 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

In response to community demand, the focus in 2016-17 was to enhance the weather narrative and severe weather information—particularly on Facebook. Existing severe weather warnings were supplemented with short videos explaining the science behind the developing weather systems and reinforcing safety messaging. Between September and April, 48 Severe Weather Video Updates were published across Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and the Bureau’s home page. Collectively, more than 2.3 million minutes were watched and 91 000 reactions recorded. Other initiatives included creating standardised graphical templates for a more consistent user experience, issuing more frequent science blogs, amplifying emergency management messages in times of severe weather and increasing our interaction with the community.

Environment and heritage As an environmental agency, the Bureau is committed to environmentally sustainable practices and the management of potentially adverse impacts from its activities.

The Bureau’s Environmental Sustainability Statement of Commitment outlines its commitment to positive environmental outcomes and formally expresses its intention to achieve optimal environmental performance in all its activities. The Statement is displayed prominently in all Bureau offices.

This information is presented in accordance with the requirements of section 516A of the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, which requires Commonwealth entities to report on:

• how their activities and outcomes accord with and contribute to the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD); and

• t he environmental impacts of their operations and measures taken to minimise those impacts.

As an information agency, the Bureau’s products, services and advice empower stakeholders to make informed decisions in support of ESD across a range of topics. The table overleaf contains a selection of the Bureau’s activities that contributed to the principles of ESD in Australia in 2016-17.

0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000

2015-16 2014-15 2016-17

Twitter

Facebook

Facebook and Twitter followers MORE THAN

1 millionsocial media followers

8 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Activity

Contributes to ESD Principles

Integration

Precautionary

Intergenerational

Biodiversity

Valuation

The Bioregional Assessment Programme strengthened the science underpinning decision-making on coal seam gas and large coal mining developments.

The Australian Climate Observations Reference Network-Surface Air Temperature (ACORN-SAT) dataset was maintained and enhanced to facilitate better understanding of climate variability and change in Australia.

The Australian Groundwater Information Suite provides access to a range of groundwater data to support sustainable water resource management decisions at both local and national levels.

The Climate Resilient Water Sources web portal provides information on publicly and privately owned and operated recycled and desalinated water sources to facilitate water management decision-making.

Continued support for the implementation of the Integrated Marine Observing System and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network under the Commonwealth National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy to solve complex problems and achieve economic, health and social benefits for Australia.

Ensemble water quantity and quality forecasting of high-value source catchments under the eReefs project to protect and preserve the Great Barrier Reef.

Expanded and extended advice, data and reports on weather, water and climate were provided to stakeholders to inform management of environmental issues, risks and extremes through planning, response and recovery phases.

ESD principles defined:

• Integration principle: decision making processes should effectively integrate both long term and short term economic, environmental, social and equitable considerations;

• Precautionary principle: if there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation;

• Intergenerational principle: the principle of intergenerational equity—that the present generation should ensure that the health, diversity and productivity of the environment is maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations;

• Biodiversity principle: the conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity should be a fundamental consideration in decision making; and

• Valuation principle: improved valuation, pricing and incentive mechanisms should be promoted.

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3 Organisational management

Environmental objectives 2016-17 was the second year of the Bureau’s Environmental Sustainability Strategy 2016-18, which is based on five organisational objectives:

• reducing carbon emissions;

• minimising demand on natural resources;

• addressing potential impacts associated with operations;

• building a culture of environmental responsibility; and

• improving our Environmental Management System.

Reducing carbon emissions The Bureau completed its first internal carbon account, examining four major sources of greenhouse gas emissions over three financial years. The carbon account provided detail on the Bureau’s electricity consumption, its largest source of emissions, by land-use category. Improved communication of energy performance enabled the identification of usage trends and informed efforts to reduce energy consumption. Initiatives included evaluating minimum temperature settings for air conditioners in operational infrastructure, which represented a small standardised improvement that significantly helps environmental performance across the network.

Demand on natural resources In 2016-17, the Bureau:

• introduced a procurement help card to assist staff to incorporate whole-of-life considerations into procurement activities, with specialised advice for a number of operational equipment procurements;

• commenced data collection on water consumption at 18 locations;

• reused and recycled materials whenever possible during the de-staffing of field offices;

• continued to undertake specialised waste disposal of hazardous materials to prevent contamination of land and water; and

• continued to reinforce behaviour that minimises demand, such as its National Recycling Week event in Head Office, ‘Have You Bin Paying Attention?’

Environmental performance indicator 2016-17 result** 2015-16 result

Energy use

Total purchased electricity (kWh) 15 385 300 15 547 300

Electricity consumption offices (kWh) 2 812 600 3 563 600

Electricity consumption data centres (kWh) 7 799 900 7 022 500

Electricity consumption other sites (kWh) 4 772 800 4 961 200

Green energy purchased (kWh) 41 500 99 700

Vehicle fleet

Total number of fleet vehicles 74 64

Total distance travelled (km) 1 207 100 1 435 500

8 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Environmental performance indicator 2016-17 result** 2015-16 result

Total fuel purchased (kL) 110.5 89.8

Average green vehicle rating of fleet Not reported 9.6

Average consumption of fleet vehicles (l/100km) 8.44 8.8

Air travel

Total number of flights 11 687 10 377

Total distance travelled (km) 17 779 900 17 430 100

Greenhouse gas emissions

Emissions from electricity use (tonnes CO2 equivalent)

14 130 14 752

Emissions from leased vehicle fleet (tonnes CO2 equivalent)

296 239

Emissions from air travel (tonnes CO2 equivalent) 3937 3933

Resource efficiency

Planet-friendly stationary purchased (%) 33% 34%

** some values estimated due to incomplete billing cycles at time of publication

Operational impacts With diverse operations encompassing land, water, the atmosphere and oceans, the Bureau’s environmental challenges and opportunities are unique in their nature and scale. Staff awareness and training plays a significant role in the management of environmental risk associated with operations, with environmental considerations incorporated into all safety procedures, and environmental training provided for staff deployed to Willis Island (see p. 86). In 2016-17, the Bureau collaborated extensively with external stakeholders, including:

• with State and Territory agencies—to ensure protection of protected flora and fauna for new and existing automatic weather station sites;

• with the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Parks Australia—to improve management arrangements for operating conditions within Commonwealth marine reserves;

• with site land owners—to meet occupancy requirements, including the creation of environmental management plans for numerous sites;

• with suppliers—in the testing of reduced-impact upper air consumables and modelling spatial distribution of weather balloon descents; and

• the Department of the Environment and Heritage—on the expected ratification of the Minamata Convention, and the Bureau’s plans to eventually remove all mercury from its observational networks.

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3 Organisational management

Culture of responsibility Achieving environmental goals requires the effort and commitment of all staff. Change is achieved by encouraging individuals to take responsibility and by creating organisational structures that facilitate desired behaviours. The Bureau’s Environmental Sustainability Management Committee and environmental champions have a key role in achieving this objective. Their efforts include:

• measuring electricity usage of common office items to determine impacts on staff;

• representing the Bureau on tenant environmental committees;

• initiating workplace recycling programs; and

• building staff awareness and support of State and Territory government environmental initiatives such as Queensland’s anti-littering and illegal dumping campaign.

Bureau staff implemented a range of environmental initiatives including:

• weekly marine debris collection;

• volunteer monitoring program on Willis Island; and

• weed management at a range of sites, including Cape Grim, Darwin and Mackay.

Environmental Management System The Bureau’s environmental management system (EMS) provides a framework for identifying, managing and reducing adverse environmental impacts. Many elements of the EMS underwent revision during the 2016-17 cyclical review to ensure their relevance and effectiveness, including:

• the Statement of Commitment—providing our overarching position;

• the legal and other requirements register—providing staff with a ready reference to environmental compliance obligations under legislation and government policies;

• the aspects and significant impacts register—assessing the risk associated with potential impacts of Bureau activities;

• a new EMS Guide—detailing various components of the EMS and how they align to ISO 14001: 2016 Environmental management systems - requirements with guidance for use;

• a complete revision of incident and hazard categories in the Bureau’s online incident and hazard reporting system, to make reporting easier for staff and enable tracking of the authorised disposal of hazardous materials such as mercury; and

• the continued integration of environmental considerations into Bureau procedures and handbooks.

Heritage The Bureau’s heritage strategy is based on Commonwealth heritage management principles. The Bureau has demonstrated its continuing commitment to heritage values through its efforts to record and preserve significant parts of its own history in delivering meteorological services to Australia. The Bureau owns or controls a number of sites located at places of significant natural or cultural value, or that may be of significant heritage value themselves. The heritage register, which records the heritage status of each Bureau place, is currently under review.

8 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Making tracks

From late October to April every year, Willis Island becomes a turtle egg-laying haven. Bureau staff stationed on Willis Island record turtle tracks to assist in turtle research.

The island lies within the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve, a network of marine areas established under Australian law to conserve marine life and ecosystems. The island provides a significant nesting and roosting habitat for seabirds and shorebirds, while beaches are used by Green and Hawksbill turtles for nesting.

Each morning at dawn, Bureau staff walk around the island to follow turtle tracks to the last digging location. Each nest is numbered and its position recorded, or logged as a ‘false crawl’ if there is no digging or an empty hole. Every day new tracks are followed and marked, although this can be a challenge when multiple tracks interweave. By recording nests, staff can predict hatchling due dates and record incubation periods.

Technical Officer Felicity Butler has completed many tours of Willis Island, and is affectionately known as the ‘Turtle Queen’ for her extensive knowledge of turtles and dedication to the monitoring program. Having just returned from a six-month stint on the island in May, Felicity observed a bumper nesting season with 513 green turtle nests recorded—up from 94 nests the previous year—and the Bureau’s three-person Willis Island team witnessed hundreds of turtle hatchlings emerge.

Mother turtle and hatchlings on Willis Island

8 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

International Cooperation The Bureau is deeply engaged in international activities that provide direct and indirect benefits to the organisation and to the broader Australian and international community.

International cooperation is an essential and integral part of the Bureau’s operations. Reciprocal relationships and knowledge sharing with countries around the globe enables the Bureau to harness scientific expertise, technological and operational developments, and collect and exchange meteorological information critical for monitoring and predicting the state of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

The Bureau maintains its position as a leading science-based services organisation through active participation in the global research agenda, contributing to and benefiting from scientific advances made by the international community. Many of the Bureau’s key operational systems are built on international research and development programs that are larger than the Bureau could implement on its own.

Australian aid-funded capacity development programs represent a significant component of the Bureau’s international activities. These engagements strengthen organisational capabilities and skills as well contribute to broader whole-of-Government objectives.

Multilateral activities Meteorology is inherently an international endeavour relying on cooperation between nations to gather meteorological information from around the globe. This cooperation underpins the operational services delivered by the Bureau and provides a framework through which the Bureau can build influence. By actively participating in international frameworks, the Bureau strengthens its ability to shape relevant international standards and processes so that they align with our needs.

In 2016-17, the Bureau continued its active engagement in the activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), including participation in the 69th session of the WMO Executive Council (EC) held in Geneva, Switzerland, in May. A highlight of the session was the successful appointment of the Bureau’s CEO and Director, Dr Andrew Johnson, to the Council, ensuring Australia’s continued ability to contribute to and influence the work of this important body.

Australia is also strongly represented in other key positions within the WMO including as co-chair of the WMO EC Panel of Experts on Polar and High Mountain Observations, Research and Services (EC-PHORS), as a member of the management group of WMO Regional Association V (South-West Pacific), and through membership of many expert teams and technical working groups.

The Bureau also continued its role as the national representative for UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), coordinating national input and leading the Australian delegation to the 29th session of the IOC Assembly in Paris in June. The IOC is the primary intergovernmental body for coordinating and setting guidelines for a wide range of ocean-related issues. These include marine biodiversity and resource assessments, ocean hazards (including tsunami), marine pollution, implementation of the Global Ocean Observing System, and ocean-data management. The Bureau hosts the IOC’s Perth Programme Office in Western Australia, as well as the secretariat for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System.

8 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The Bureau’s aviation weather services are provided in accordance with the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). During 2016-17, the Bureau provided expertise for the development of the following ICAO programs:

• R egional Hazardous Weather Advisory Centres;

• S pace Weather Information Services; and

• P rocedures for Air Navigation Services - Meteorology (PANS-MET).

Bilateral activities The Bureau has formal bilateral agreements with ten overseas agencies and actively cooperates across a wide range of subject areas with countries including the United States, United Kingdom, China, Canada and Japan, with the emphasis on collaboration in mutual and complementary fields of technical and scientific expertise.

The 16th Session of the Joint Working Group on Cooperation in Meteorology was between the Bureau and the China Meteorological Administration was held in Melbourne in November. This program of cooperation formally commenced over 30 years ago and represents one of the longest standing bilateral collaboration programs that the Bureau has with an international partner agency. As a result of the meeting, a program of future collaboration was agreed in the fields of meteorological satellites, tropical meteorology, training, and weather and climate services.

The 9th Session of the Joint Working Group on Cooperation in Meteorology between the Bureau and the Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency held in Indonesia in March. As a result of the meeting, a program of future collaboration was agreed in the fields of aeronautical services, volcanic ash detection, tsunami warning systems, atmospheric modelling and forecaster training.

In April, Dr Andrew Johnson, the Bureau’s CEO and Director visited the United Kingdom for high-level discussions with senior managers of the UK Met Office. Discussions further strengthened collaboration in several areas of strategic priority, including ICT security and resilience, operational service delivery models, earth system modelling and corporate governance. Both parties agreed to formalise the strong relationship of the two agencies through the development of a formal cooperative agreement.

Activities in our region The Bureau gives high priority to meteorological cooperation in the southwest Pacific and South-East Asia, and assists other countries where possible. As one of the leading meteorological and hydrological agencies in the region, the Bureau is looked upon as a source of expertise and is an active contributor to aid-funded capacity development programs. The strengthening of weather, climate and water services helps nations mitigate the impact of extreme events that can undermine regional security and have enormous human and economic costs.

One of the Bureau’s most significant contributions is made through the Climate and Ocean Support Program for the Pacific (COSPPac) initiative funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. In partnership with 14 Pacific Island countries, the Bureau is working to develop enhanced climate, ocean and tidal services for Pacific Island communities and governments. Some of the highlights achieved through COSPPac in 2016-17 include:

• the transfer of the management of the Ocean Portal to the Pacific Community (SPC) along with responsibility for training on ocean and tides services;

8 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

• installation of new monitoring equipment under the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring project and the South Pacific Observations Network Upgrade Project.

• the transfer of Traditional Knowledge (TK) database software to the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) with funding to support the completion of in-country activities and the transition to SPREP; and

• the transfer of the management of the Seasonal Climate Outlook for Pacific Island Countries, the online climate outlook forum and bulletins to SPREP after the recruitment of a climate officer in January.

The COSPPac Steering Committee and program partners have indicated a high level of satisfaction with COSPPac’s progress and deliverables.

Sea level monitoring in Tuvalu

Under the COSPPac initiative, the Bureau completed the design and installation of a new state-of-the-art sea level monitoring station in Tuvalu, along with a local Real Time Data Display (RTDD) system to replace the ageing station. The station data are transmitted via a dedicated satellite connection and made available to users through the Bureau’s internet site. A separate feed from the station to the office of the Tuvalu Meteorological Service was installed for the local RTDD and to provide valuable real-time data on land movement.

The Pacific Sea Level Monitoring project has made significant contributions to improving the real-time delivery of Tuvalu’s sea level, weather and land movement information as well as providing a test bed for sea level measurement technology. Data comparisons between the old and new sites will be maintained for the next three years to ensure a seamless and well calibrated transition to the new technology.

The collection of data from the sea level monitoring station assists COSPPac’s wide circle of stakeholders, including the Tuvalu Government, other Pacific national and regional agencies, the Bureau and the global scientific community, in monitoring atmospheric, oceanic and seismic events, tracking long-term climate variability, and informing coastal planning and disaster risk reduction initiatives. This activity has been actively supported by the Tuvalu Government and ensures that the sea level station takes its place as a key component of the long-standing and globally significant sea level and climate monitoring network in the Pacific region.

Pacific Sea Level Monitoring team in Tuvalu

9 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

People Management Effectiveness in managing and developing employees In 2016-17 the Bureau invested in attracting and retaining talent and developing the skills of its people to align with organisational priorities. Highlights include:

• successfully using social media platforms to attract science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduates and promote diversity;

• the focus on developing leadership, change and resilience capabilities; and

• building a positive and collaborative workforce culture through team-based workshops and training.

Workforce planning, staff turnover and retention The Bureau continued to use its Job Family Model (occupational grouping), currently in its second iteration, as the basis for workforce planning and other strategic work such as capability development. The Job Family Model is based on the Australian Public Service Commission framework and provides the foundation for identifying workforce and succession planning risks, independent of changes to the organisation structure.

In 2016-17, the Bureau also delivered a new suite of workforce reports to enhance oversight and understanding of the agency’s workforce, and to improve the identification of potential issues by providing data on staffing levels, commencement and separation levels, and unplanned absences. Presenting the information in both graphical and tabular formats, the new report suite provides standardised, secure and real-time reports to verify current and future workforce challenges.

Other key workforce actions undertaken in 2016-17 include:

• the implementation of an integrated workforce of technical officers based in Observing Operations Hubs according to the Observations and Infrastructure Workforce Plan. The current observer, hydrology and engineering streams have commenced the transition to a single stream with multiple competencies. Training for all technical officers has been a key component of the transition.

• delivery of the first phase of the Bureau’s ICT Competency Framework based on the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA). In late 2016, the Bureau’s ICT professionals were invited to self-assess their skills against the SFIA framework that were then validated by independent accredited SFIA assessors. The participation rate was over 80 per cent which provided the Bureau with clear oversight of current ICT skills and highlighted gaps in critical skills.

• the design and development of new integrated material to establish a fresh and engaging connection to high-calibre potential talent pipelines through a recognised Bureau brand. Adopting strategic recruitment campaigns designed around social media to attract the best graduates is yielding positive results through key entry programs to meet the Bureau’s future needs.

• continuation of activity to attract and retain high-calibre STEM graduates through the Department of Finance ICT Entry Level Programs, Graduate Meteorologist program, university forums, internship and work experience programs, and participation in GovHack.

9 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

Workforce snapshot

Employment 2015-16 2016-17 Difference

Number of staff employed 1664 1689 +25

Total employee expenditure $191.050 million $188.441 million -$2.609 million

The diversity of our workforce

Women (% of the total workforce) 30.4% 31.5% +1.1

People with a disability (% of total workforce)

2.6% 2.8% +0.2

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (% of total workforce)

1.0% 1.2% +0.2

Staff with English as a second language (% of total workforce) 16.4% 16.1% -0.3

Staff with English and a second language (% of total workforce) 7.9% 8.6% +0.7

Staff health and well-being

Work health and safety incident reports 311 298 -13

Number of Health and Safety Representatives

44 42 -2

Training and education

Staff undertaking supported studies (% of total workforce)

3.3 2.1 -1.2

At 30 June, the Bureau employed 1689 staff. This is 25 more than at the same time the previous year. The employee-initiated separation rate (the percentage of staff resigning, transferring to other Australian Public Service (APS) agencies or retiring) dropped slightly from 6.6 per cent in 2015-16 to 6.2 per cent 2016-17.

MORE THAN

6%of sta* aged over 60

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

2016-17 2015-16

>71 66-70 61-65 56-60 51-55 46-50 41-45 36-40 31-35 26-30 21-25 16-20

Numbers of sta* in each age bracket

9 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Building diversity The Bureau is genuinely committed to developing its diversity programs to ensure it is tapping into all talent pipelines and promoting diverse and inclusive workplaces that are better positioned to deliver services to the Australian community.

In January, the Bureau launched its second Reconciliation Action Plan 2016-2019, building on relationships and opportunities developed under the first plan that commenced in 2011. Important elements of the new plan include:

• achieving employment objectives and ensuring ongoing retention by implementing the new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Employment Strategy;

• expanding the Indigenous Weather Knowledge website by continuing to work with communities who wish to record and share valuable seasonal, weather and environmental knowledge; and

• committing to improved services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities with the convening of a Service Delivery Task team.

The Bureau continued to progress the implementation of its Disability Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2020 and worked closely with the Australian Network on Disability to implement actions to remove barriers to the employment and career development of people with disabilities.

The Bureau Disability Working Group meets regularly to monitor and progress action items. The working group also consults with an external stakeholder, the Australian Network on Disability, to assist with progressing action items.

Disability Strategy action items delivered include:

• developing the Digital Accessibility Policy;

• appointing a Digital Accessibility Officer to progress digital accessibility action items;

• holding regular Bureau disability awareness events;

• developing a Workplace Adjustment Policy for consultation;

• training Bureau contact centre staff and implementing the National Relay Service;

• procuring online disability awareness training, which is due for release in 2017-18;

101010 010101 101010

101010 010101 101010

Sta* by gender and classification, for the Bureau's most common sta*ng classifications

0 100 200 300 400 500

Male Female

Trainee

Research Scientist

Information Technology O*cer

Technical O*cer

Professional O*cer

Administrative Service O*cer

Senior Executive Service

101010 010101 101010

101010 010101 101010

101010 010101 101010

101010 010101 101010

93 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

• conducting a survey on attitudes to disability, in which Bureau staff indicated a need for disability awareness training, information on workplace adjustment processes and a desire to improve accessibility (both in nline services and building access); and

• having Mr Alastair McEwin, Australia’s Disability Discrimination Commissioner, as a guest speaker at the International Day of People with Disability celebrations.

The Bureau is also committed to achieving gender equality, demonstrated by participation in a range of activities to attract, develop and retain women—particularly into leadership, science and STEM roles. Activities include the ‘Women in ICT Coaching’ program, the Masterminds Mentoring program, providing guidance on how to recognise and manage ‘unconscious bias in recruitment and staff selections, and delivering inclusive leadership unconscious bias training to Bureau leaders. The Bureau recognises that a multi-faceted and focused approach is required to deliver significant change. In January, the Bureau commenced a comprehensive diagnostic and enterprise-wide consultation to prepare a three-year gender equality action plan due to be launched in July 2017.

The Bureau initiated a number of events and activities over the last 12 months to recognise, celebrate and promote diversity and inclusiveness in its workforce. These included:

• participation in NAIDOC Week whole-of-government and local events;

• establishing a reference group to develop a Multicultural Access and Equity Action Plan to ensure Bureau services meet the needs of all Australians, regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds;

• launching the upgraded Indigenous Weather Knowledge site in November, and adding theBanbai Seasonal Calendar in January and the Kaurna Seasonal Calendar in June;

• celebrating International Women’s Day on 8 March with the theme: Be Bold for Change, featuring Dr Sue Barrell, Bureau Senior Executive and Chair of the Bureau Gender Equality Project Steering Committee, and Gwynne Brennan, Executive Manager Community Safety, Country Fire Authority (CFA);

• holding a Build Disability Confidence event in May about job access and workplace adjustments with Michelle Richardson, Professional Advisor from Work Focus;

• hosting a national event marking two significant anniversaries of the rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and Australia’s reconciliation journey on 2 June during National Reconciliation Week; and

• Bureau senior executives participating in the APS Indigenous and APS Disability Champions networks.

Disability reporting Since 1994, non-corporate Commonwealth entities have reported on their performance as policy adviser, purchaser, employer, regulator and provider under the Commonwealth Disability Strategy. In 2007-08, reporting on the employer role was transferred to the Australian Public Service Commission’s State of the Service reports and the APS Statistical Bulletin. These reports are available at www.apsc.gov.au. From 2010-11, entities have no longer been required to report on these functions.

The Commonwealth Disability Strategy has been overtaken by the 2010-2020 National Disability Strategy, which sets out a ten-year national policy framework to improve the lives of people with disability, promote participation and create a more inclusive society. A high-level, two-yearly report will track progress against each of the six outcome areas of the strategy and present a picture of how people with disability are faring. The first of these progress reports was published in 2014, and can be found at www.dss.gov.au.

9 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Ethical standards The Bureau supports a safe, inclusive and respectful work culture that reflects the diversity of the community it services. It operates within the context of Australia being a signatory to the seven key human rights treaties, with human rights being protected and promoted through domestic legislation, policies, practices and independent bodies. The Bureau undertakes a range of activities to meet this commitment, including:

• promoting APS Values, Code of Conduct and Employment Principles, and awareness of workplace discrimination and Closing the Gap, through communication with staff, training, and induction packages for new employees;

• endorsing the Public Interest Disclosure Framework through communication with staff and supporting policy documents;

• documenting the APS Values and Code of Conduct in the Bureau’s Enterprise Agreement;

• referencing the APS Values and Code of Conduct in selection criteria for all Bureau positions;

• providing an online training course entitled ‘Accountable and ethical decision-making’;

• delivering shared culture workshops and information sessions for managers covering the APS employment framework and key messages from the publication Respect: Promoting a culture free from harassment and bullying in the APS;

• providing employees with access to information on ethical standards via the intranet, and also through the APS Commission’s website;

• issuing APS Code of Conduct guidelines for Bureau staff, and providing guidance and policies with respect to the duty of care, making public comment and the performance of outside employment;

• initiating disciplinary processes, including counselling and investigations when allegations relating to breaches of the APS Code of Conduct were reported;

• making available a review-of-action process, as provided for in Section 33 of the Public Service Act 1999, to aggrieved employees; and

• initiating investigation processes into disclosures received under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013.

Training and development In 2016-17, the Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre (BMTC) continued to facilitate learning programs to support personal, leadership and operational capability, and licensing and compliance requirements. The Graduate Diploma in Meteorology course—the initial training program for meteorologists—saw 20 students graduate in 2016 (including 15 Bureau staff) and a further 16 commence the 2017 program (including 11 Bureau staff).

Continued development of online material provided staff with greater access to training opportunities, particularly for staff located in regional and remote locations. Online courses were undertaken on more than 5500 occasions, with work health and safety, APS Values and ICT Security modules being particularly prominent. Specialist technical in-service training was also provided, using online modules with remote supervision for over 1500 participants.

9 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

0

5

10

15

20

25

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of Bureau trainees undertaking the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology

A TOTAL OF

15sta* completed the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology in 2016 and have joined the ranks of Bureau forecasters across the country The ‘Introduction to Meteorology’ course was redesigned to service the needs of Bureau staff and external clients in line with the Bureau’s strategy to enhance the impact and value of its services. The two-day course was delivered nine times across four States to 148 participants, including 99 external clients.

Bureau staff participated in the World Meteorological Organization’s Global Campus project, in relation to the development of mathematics and physics introductory modules. These modules will become entry prerequisites for the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology, reducing the course length and ensuring that participants have the foundation skills to successfully complete the program. This international collaboration serves as a governance measure to ensure that the Bureau’s learning and development programs remain at the cutting edge.

The Learning and Development team continued to support the Bureau’s future needs by improving staff capability on leadership, change management and resilience. Leadership and personal development courses were delivered to 200 staff, including 39 positions on a Senior Executive Service (SES) Change Masterclass with personal involvement and support from senior leaders in the Bureau.

In support of the Observing System Strategy, BMTC trained more than 60 staff on operational support for automatic weather stations (AWS) and for the flood warning network, AWS site evaluation and radar maintenance. The modules make significant use of online material and are a key enabler of the Observing System Strategy implementation.

Productivity gains The Bureau continued to pursue a variety of efficiency and productivity measures to deliver its services more cost-effectively during an ongoing period of budgetary constraint. These included finding efficiencies in travel and accommodation, carefully controlling recruitment, and adopting greater use of new technology. Highlights include:

• delivering a program to improve, modernise and automate the collection of meteorological data across Australia. Automated systems deliver significantly improved quantity, quality and availability of weather observations and contribute to improved forecasting and warning services, especially to support severe weather and tropical cyclones. The transition from manual-based operations to automated systems also lowers the cost per observation.

9 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

• introduction of the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Provision of Bureau of Meteorology Hazard Services to the States and Territories, to streamline service delivery and create greater efficiencies in providing critical and standardised Bureau products and services directly to emergency service agencies and the community, as well as reducing red tape management, and technical and operational processes.

• release of the BOM Weather app as a new, timely and effective way of delivering products and services to meet customer needs (see p. 62)

Work health and safety The Bureau Executive is committed to ensuring the health, safety and well-being of staff, leading by example, implementing robust governance processes and tackling work health and safety (WHS) risks. The Bureau has a zero injury/harm goal. The Work Health, Safety and Well-being Statement of Commitment is displayed in the foyer of all Bureau buildings.

In 2016-17, the Bureau continued to focus on the promotion of health, safety and well-being at work through progressing the objectives of the WHS strategy in five key areas:

• leading our people;

• being proactive;

• taking action on matters that arise;

• educating our people; and

• seeking to embed a safety culture.

This year marked the first year of the Work Health and Safety Strategic Plan 2016-17 to 2018-19 , which is aligned to the Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012-2022. In addition to reinforcing existing mitigation frameworks, the 2016-17 WHS Operational Plan delivered specific projects targeting manual handling, mental health, contractor management and driving risks. The Bureau achieved 27 (82 per cent) of its 33 planned initiatives for 2016-17, with the remainder to be delivered in 2017-18.

Some of the highlights for the year were:

• eight WHS events conducted nationally to coincide with National Health and Safety Month in October. These events featured a keynote speaker addressing work/life balance, and members of the Bureau Executive providing a summary of the status of the Bureau’s health and safety initiatives;

• the Health and Safety Representative (HSR) forum held in September; and

• the development and release of eLearning modules for contractor management, and the Mental Health Guru eLearning package.

Work health and safety management system The Bureau’s work health and safety management system (WHSMS) provides the framework that underpins management of WHS hazards and risks, ensures compliance with WHS legislation, and outlines the responsibilities of all staff. The Bureau continued its program of internal verification audits in the Observations and Infrastructure Division to verify conformance to, and implementation of, the WHSMS. The audit provides an opportunity to improve and progress towards best practice.

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3 Organisational management

Consultation The Bureau recognises that staff engagement and participation improves decision-making for health and safety matters, and helps reduce work-related incidents, injuries and disease. The Bureau has formal health and safety consultative arrangements, and circulates all WHS policies and procedures to staff for consultation prior to finalisation. The Bureau’s WHS Committee and Regional WHS Committees meet quarterly, as governed by the Bureau’s Health and Safety Management Arrangements and each committee’s terms of reference.

Health support The Bureau actively supports health initiatives by providing regular health and well-being seminars on topics relating to mental health, nutrition, skin cancer and general health (see p. 100). This is supported by ongoing access to mental health awareness training, annual influenza vaccinations, health checks, skin checks and the Employee Assistance Program support for staff and their families.

WHS performance results

Lead WHS indicators Lag WHS indicators

• WHS Statement of Commitment (policy) updated and available at all Bureau work sites

• The Bureau is compliant and current with its own Health and Safety Management Arrangements (HSMA)

• WHS criteria are included in all procurement documents and contracts

• 42 HSRs and Deputy HSRs represented 30 work groups

• 25 management representatives and 25 HSRs sat on health and safety committees (equating to 3 per cent of the Bureau’s workforce)

• Health and safety KPIs were included in all performance plans, with an additional KPI for managers to meet proactive measures to ensure the health and safety of their direct reports

• Health and safety requirements were incorporated into position descriptions

• Comcare was notified of one dangerous occurrence under Section 38 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011

• No notices were received from Comcare

• 298 incidents or hazards were registered, compared with 311 in 2015-16

• 175 corrective actions were identified or proposed, of which 157 (90 per cent) have been completed and 18 are in progress

• 27 of 33 initiatives in the WHS Operational Plan were completed, with six carried forward

• 13 workers compensation claims were accepted (0.81 claims per 100 staff)

• 5 lost-time compensation claims were accepted (0.31 claims per 100 staff)

• The average cost per accepted compensation claim was $11 485

WHS incident reports and compensable injuries

0

100

200

300

400

500 Total Reports

2016-17 2015-16 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13 2011-12 2010-11 2009-10* 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 2002-03

Compensable Injuries#

* In 2009-10 the Bureau ran a successful campaign to increase the profile of the importance of incident reporting, which has been sustained.

# Compensable injuries based on date injury accepted

9 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

WHS activities

Category Initiative

WHSMS, reporting and risk management • WHSMS internal audit conducted for two sections within the Observations and Infrastructure Division

• 57 annual site inspections completed

• Enterprise WHS risk register current and reflects the Bureau’s major WHS risks

Information, education and training • 8 seminars held on personal safety, health and well-being topics • 47 managers underwent anti-discrimination and anti-bullying training

• 9 staff completed general WHS training for managers

• 309 fatigue management eLearning modules completed, including:

- Intr oduction to Fatigue Management (177) - Fatigue Management for Supervisors (37) - Fatigue Management for Shift workers (60) - Fatigue Management for Drivers (35)

• HSR training completed by 4 HSRs/deputy HSRs

• 15 first aid officers underwent required training and/or an annual CPR refresher

• WHS induction compliance eLearning module (required to be completed at induction and refreshed every three years) completed by 476 staff.

• In-house BMTC courses including the Graduate Diploma in Meteorology included WHS modules

• Ergonomics eLearning completed by 84 staff

• General electrical safety eLearning completed by 46 staff

• Visual inspection and tagging of electrical cords eLearning completed by 27 staff

• Mental health awareness training completed by 38 staff

• 33 staff received customised manual handling training

Driving metrics • Accident rate of 24 per 100 vehicles (an increase from 6 in 2015-16)

• Driver at fault as a percentage of claims: 57 per cent (decrease from 100 per cent in 2015-16)

• Average cost of claim per vehicle: $784 (an increase from $106 in 2015-16)

Ergonomics • 211 workstation assessments conducted

• 59 home-based work assessments conducted

Consultation • Bureau WHS committee met 4 times

• Regional WHS committees operated in each region, with 23 meetings held nationally

• Bureau Executive provided with 12 comprehensive monthly WHS briefs, including 1 annual in-depth analysis report of WHS metrics

Programs • Fatigue Risk Management Program on track with 14 of the 18 actions completed or ongoing. The remaining 4 action items with broader operational requirements were captured in other business initiatives. This program wrapped up with fatigue management incorporated into business as usual activities.

Health and well-being • Flu vaccinations provided to 753 staff at 12 clinics nationally

• Health checks provided to 132 staff

• Skin checks provided to 74 staff

9 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

Rehabilitation and compensation In 2016-17, 19 compensation claims were lodged, with 13 claims accepted, compared with 12 accepted claims in 2015-16. The claims were predominantly for musculoskeletal disorders, and there were no accepted claims for psychological injury which can be attributed to the effective application of the Bureau’s Early Intervention Policy. Of the 13 accepted claims, five were for lost-time injuries. Of these, two resulted in less than one week’s absence from work, and all five claimants have returned to work. Three claims required the development of a rehabilitation plan, which were completed within ten days of referral.

The Bureau’s claim frequency rate continues to remain under the average rate for APS agencies. Reflecting this, the Bureau’s premium rate of 1.04 per cent also continues to sit below the overall scheme premium rate of 1.72 per cent.

The Bureau continued to participate in the Comcare Rehabilitation Management System Audit under the Guidelines of Rehabilitation Authorities 2012. These guidelines are binding on rehabilitation authorities in the Australian Government and are designed to assist agencies implement effective rehabilitation for their employees. The Bureau’s Compensation and Rehabilitation Employee Services (CARES) team are working on measures to ensure 100 per cent compliance. The centralisation and management of all compensation claims in Head Office established a clear administrative focal point to ensure all claims are processed within Comcare timelines.

The CARES team was involved in the implementation of the Medical Redeployment Working Group alongside members from other APS agencies. This network places long-term injured employees in work trials with other agencies to assist them with their return-to-work goals and strategies.

The reporting of any unplanned employee absence of more than five days enables the CARES team to engage with employees and their managers to facilitate early intervention strategies. Through the involvement of rehabilitation providers, independent medical assessment referral and timely communication with treating practitioners, the Bureau has been able to manage this casework to achieve early return to work outcomes.

The CARES team also continued to monitor the use of home-based work as a positive means of supporting flexibility and work-life balance for staff; and in assisting sick and injured workers achieve an early return to work.

Enterprise agreement, individual flexibility arrangements, common law contracts and determinations As at 30 June, the Bureau had 1476 ongoing, and 212 non-ongoing staff employed under the Public Service Act, and covered under its Enterprise Agreement (EA). These figures include 21 SES staff, but exclude the Head of Agency. The salary bands under the EA are shown on p. 101, while non-salary benefits are outlined in the next section. There were 25 individual flexibility agreements pursuant to the EA, providing allowances and flexibility in working arrangements.

The payment of salary and administration of conditions for the Head of Agency is derived from the relevant Remuneration Tribunal determination. The Bureau has an SES remuneration framework that applies to the SES (and equivalent) staff. At 30 June there were 22 common law contracts for SES (and equivalent) staff. These contracts also provided for non-salary benefits, such as business equipment (home computing facilities and mobile phone) and airline club membership.

1 0 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Health, well-being and environment seminars

As its safety culture matures, the Bureau has been able to extend beyond annual WHS events to providing monthly health, well-being and environment seminars to staff on a range of topics. These seminars have proved highly successful and are well received. In 2016-17, seminars were delivered on a range of topics including:

• managing anxiety;

• nutrition;

• work-life balance;

• National Recycling Week;

• bushfire survival;

• mental health in the workplace;

• skin cancer and sun safety;

• diet and diabetes;

• cycling to work; and

• winter health.

The seminars are recorded and available for staff to access at their convenience via the Bureau’s health and well-being portal.

Deputy Director Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, Rob Webb opens the 2016 Work Health Safety month in Melbourne

Non-salary benefits Non-salary benefits for employees include:

• flexible working arrangements such as flex-time, executive level time off in lieu, part-time and home-based work;

• assistance to employees who are in, have left, or are preparing to leave situations which are affected by family and domestic violence;

• provision for leave, including recreation leave, long service leave, personal/carer’s leave, compassionate leave, war service sick leave, pregnancy leave, maternity leave, adoption leave, supporting partner leave, study leave, employee-funded extra leave, ceremonial leave, defence leave, jury service leave and community leave (with and without pay);

• study assistance;

• access to the Employee Assistance Program;

• access to the flexible remuneration packaging scheme; and

• provision of business-related equipment.

Common law determinations There were no common law determinations made under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act during 2016-17.

1 0 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

Statistics on staff and performance pay All statistics are as at 30 June 2017 unless otherwise stated.

Adult rates of pay

APS Classifications Salary range ($)

Cadet APS—Work Placement 43 119 to 46 106

Cadet APS—Full-time Study 23 604 to 26 087

Trainee APS 46 877 to 49 933

Graduate APS 53 372

APS level 1 43 119 to 47 982

APS level 2 49 786 to 54 671

APS level 3 55 174 to 60 428

APS level 4 61 845 to 67 820

APS level 5 68 944 to 75 139

APS level 6 76 025 to 86 438

Executive level 1 92 560 to 104 260

Executive level 2* 112 622 to 173 705

SES band 1 192 589 to 211 383

SES band 2 232 182 to 259 114

*Includes Research Officers

Performance pay The Bureau had one staff eligible to receive performance pay for 2016-17.

1. The number of APS employees at each classification level who received performance pay:

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents (b) Executive Level 2

0 1

2. The aggregated amount of such performance payments at each classification level:

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents (b) Executive Level 2

N/A $13,746

3. The average bonus payment and the range of such payments at each classification level:

Average Range

(a) SES Bands 1, 2 & 3 and equivalents N/A N/A

(b) Executive Level 2 $ 13,746 $13,746

4. Aggregate bonus payments for the Bureau as a whole were $13 746.

1 0 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Age profile of Bureau staff

Number of employees

Age range

16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 >71

1 39 111 212 257 252 231 272 203 88 19 4

Staff employed under the Public Service Act 1999

Full-time ongoing

Full-time non-ongoing Part-time ongoing

Part-time non-ongoing Total

Female 367 58 94 14 533

Male 964 113 51 27 1155

TOTAL 1331 171 145 41 1688

Head of Agency not employed under the Public Service Act.

Staff by location, gender and classification

HOA SES ASO PO TO GSO ITO RS TR TOTAL

New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory

Female 1 17 53 6 7 84

Male 14 87 26 17 144

Total 0 1 31 140 32 0 24 0 0 228

Victoria

Female 5 150 115 14 41 12 4 341

Male 14 98 253 65 203 38 12 683

Total 0 19 248 368 79 0 244 50 16 1024

Queensland

Female 6 17 9 32

Male 1 11 47 36 1 5 101

Total 1 0 17 64 45 1 5 0 0 133

South Australia

Female 1 12 4 17

Male 10 23 18 3 54

Total 0 0 11 35 22 0 3 0 0 71

Western Australia

Female 3 15 7 1 26

Male 1 7 40 29 1 78

Total 0 1 10 55 36 0 2 0 0 104

Tasmania

Female 4 10 5 19

Male 19 25 4 48

Total 0 0 4 29 30 0 4 0 0 67

1 03 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

HOA SES ASO PO TO GSO ITO RS TR TOTAL

Northern Territory

Female 3 9 2 14

Male 2 25 19 2 48

Total 0 0 5 34 21 0 2 0 0 62

Total

Female 0 6 184 231 47 0 49 12 4 533

Male 1 15 142 494 218 1 235 38 12 1156

Grand total

1 21 326 725 265 1 284 50 16 1689

HOA: Head of Agency; SES: Senior Executive Service; ASO: Administrative Service Officer: PO: Professional Officer; TO: Technical Officer; GSO: General Service Officer; ITO: Information Technology Officer; RS: Research Scientist; TR: Trainee.

Senior Executive Service (SES)

SES 1 SES 2 SES 3 Head of Agency TOTAL

Female 3 3 6

Male 13 2 1 16

Total 16 5 0 1 22

SES recruitment 2016-17

Transfers within the Bureau Promotions within the Bureau

Secondments/recruitment from outside the Bureau

0 5 4

Separations 2016-17

SES non-SES

Transfer or Promotion 1 12

Termination of Temporary Employment 1 54

Resignations 0 48

Retirements 2 36

Invalidity Retirements 0 1

Voluntary Redundancy 0 16

Involuntary Redundancy 1 1

Deaths 0 0

Termination of Employment 0 2

Total 0 175

1 0 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Inoperative staff

SES non-SES

Leave Without Pay 0 12

Maternity Leave 0 5

Compensation 0 1

Long Service Leave 0 13

Sick Leave 0 5

Public Interest Employment 0 2

Recreation Leave 0 1

Parental Leave 0 0

Time Off In Lieu 0 0

Study Leave 0 0

Total 0 39

1 0 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

Financial Resource Management Financial performance The 2016-17 financial operating result for the Bureau of Meteorology was an operating deficit of $72.227 million. This compares favourably to the prior-year deficit of $75.967 million. The Bureau expects to show operating deficits in the current and future periods as its depreciation and amortisation expenditure is shown in its operating statements, while its departmental capital budget for asset replacement is treated as an equity contribution and is shown in its balance sheet.

Revenue Total revenue for the Bureau of Meteorology for 2016-17 was $309.620 million. This is an increase of $13.060 million or 4.4 per cent above the previous financial year.

The Bureau of Meteorology is funded primarily from Government appropriation. This revenue amounted to $228.407 million in 2016-17, an increase of 6.7 per cent compared to the prior year. The funding increase is largely the result of:

• funding associated with the 2015-16 measure Stronger Farmers, Stronger Economy—new drought management framework;

• funding associated with the 2015-16 measure Bureau of Meteorology—improved data and services supporting supercomputer capability;

• funding associated with the 2014-15 Budget measure Supercomputer;

• funding associated with the 2013-14 Budget measure Resourcing Requirements in Response to the Munro Review;

• funding associated with the Water for the Future initiative announced in the 2007-08 Budget;

• increased funding for economic parameter adjustments; and

• reduced funding as a result of the increase in the efficiency dividend.

The Australian Government contributed 73.8 per cent of the Bureau of Meteorology’s total operating revenue. The remaining funds were derived from ‘own-source income’ and ‘other income’. In 2016-17, own-source income totalled $81.213 million—a decrease of $1.370 million or 1.7 per cent below that of the prior financial year.

Sources of revenue

MORE THAN

$81 million

derived from own-source income

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Other revenue Revenue from Government

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

1 0 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Expenditure The Bureau’s operating expenditure for 2016-17 was $381.847 million—an increase of $9.320 million or 2.5 per cent compared with the previous financial year.

Employee costs represented 49.3 per cent of the total costs associated with the delivery of the Bureau’s functions. Expenditure associated with suppliers equated to $110.812 million, or 29.0 per cent of total expenses. Supplier costs include:

• observations consumables;

• lease costs associated with premises and other goods and services;

• costs associated with service delivery; and

• communication, software and other IT costs.

Depreciation and amortisation costs were $75.073 million or 19.7 per cent of operational costs.

Total resources

(1)

Budget* 2016-17

$’000

(2)

Actual** Expenses 2016-17 $’000

Variation (Col(2) Minus Col (1))

$’000

Budget*** 2017-18

$’000

TOTAL PRICE OF ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS

0 0 0 0

TOTAL PRICE OF DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS 371,173 381,847 10,674 377,146

Revenue from Government

(Appropriation) for departmental outputs 228,407 229,757

(Appropriation) for departmental capital budget 42,125 48,111

(Appropriation) for departmental non-operating - equity injections 28,781 40,217

(Appropriation) for administered expenses 0 0

Revenue from other sources 70,138 78,297

TOTAL FOR OUTCOME 1

(Total price of output groups and administered expenses)**** 369,451 396,382

(1)

2016-17

(2)

2016-17 Actual

Variation (Col(2) Minus Col(1))

2017-18***

Average staffing levels 1,602 1,590 (12) 1,565

*As per 2016-17 Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements.

** As per the 2016-17 Financial Statements.

***As per 2017-18 Portfolio Budget Statements.

****The Departmental Capital Budget was introduced in 2010-11 and appropriation for depreciation was removed from output group expenses.

1 07 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

Bureau expenditure

AN INCREASE OF

2.5%in expenditure for 2016-17 compared to last year

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Other Depreciation

Suppliers Employees

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

Significant non-compliance During the 2016-17 financial year, there were no significant non-compliant breaches of the finance law under section 19(1)(e) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act).

Purchasing Procurement The Bureau’s procurement guidelines are set out in its Accountable Authority Instructions. The instructions are aligned with the PGPA Act and the Commonwealth Procurement Rules and broader government policy. Value for money is the core principle underpinning all procurement.

No contracts of $100 000 or more (inclusive of GST) were let during 2016-17 that did not provide for the Auditor-General to have access to the contractor’s premises.

For details of standard clauses that provide Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) with access to contractors’ information, refer to: www.finance.gov.au/publications/anao-access-to-contractor-information/docs/ANAO_Access_Clauses_With_Header.12.12.07.pdf

No contracts in excess of $10 000 (inclusive of GST) or standing offers were exempted by the Accountable Authority from being published on AusTender on the basis that they would disclose exempt matters under the Freedom of Information Act 1982.

Information on procurements expected to be undertaken in 2017-18 is in Bureau’s annual procurement plan, available from the AusTender website (www.tenders.gov.au).

Procurement initiatives to support small business The Bureau supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and medium enterprises and small enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance website at www.finance.gov.au/procurement/statistcs-on-commonwealth-purchasing-contracts.

The Bureau recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. The results of the Survey of Australian Government Payments to Small Business are available on the Treasury’s website www.treasury.gov.au.

1 0 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Consultants The selection and engagement of consultants was conducted in accordance with the PGPA Act, Commonwealth Procurement Rules and internal policy and procedures.

During 2016-17 four new consultancy contracts were entered into, involving total actual expenditure of $857 240.39 (inclusive of GST), detailed below. In addition, two ongoing consultancy contracts were active during the period, involving total actual expenditure of $76 600.00.

Annual reports contain information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website www.tenders.gov.au.

Advertising and market research in excess of $13 000 Under section 311A of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918, the Bureau is required to disclose payments of advertising and market research.

Advertising and market research over the reporting threshold of $13 000 (GST inclusive) was undertaken to the value of $47 194.49 and $59 490.88 respectively in 2016-17.

The Bureau did not undertake any advertising campaigns during 2016-17.

Organisation Purpose Expenditure

($, GST inclusive)

Market research organisations

Market Solutions Pty Ltd Public Weather User Survey 59,490.88

Media advertising organisations

Dentsu Mitchell Media Australia Pty Ltd Recruitment advertising 47,194.49

Total 106,685.37

Asset management To deliver its services to the Australian public, the Bureau manages an asset base valued at $567.0 million which excludes cash, receivables and inventories of $115.0 million.

Asset Amount

Land and buildings $105.9 million

Property, plant and equipment $372.7 million

Intangible assets $88.4 million

Inventories $6.0 million

Cash and receivables $109.0 million

1 0 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

3 Organisational management

The Bureau’s asset investment and replacement program was continually monitored throughout the year to ensure optimal delivery and use of available resources. This monitoring was conducted via Executive meetings and the Bureau’s Asset Program Board.

During the 2016-17 financial year, the Bureau invested $75.798 million in asset acquisition and construction to support overall service delivery.

Highlights for the 2016-17 asset investment and replacement program included:

• c ommissioning of the Australian Water Resources Information System (AWRIS2), delivering enhanced data management and storage facilities that will facilitate the future provision of advanced water information products;

• completing the implementation of the Cray Supercomputer and ancillary systems representing a 16-fold increase in computational capacity to deliver new predictive capabilities (see p. 60);

• launching the Bureau Weather app, making a range of Bureau services available to mobile users (see p. 62);

• relocating of the Central Computing Facility, enabling consolidation of data centre facilities to the main and secondary data centres;

• installing and commissioning a wind profiler at Longreach, Queensland (see p. 54);

• installing automatic weather stations at Hobart Airport, West Terrace and Coles Point;

• u pgrading autosondes at Ceduna, Mt Gambier, Williamtown, Moree, and Weipa to ensure compatibility with new generation radiosondes;

• changing over and re-establishing tsunameter equipment located within the Tasman Sea to maintain the Australian Tsunami Warning Network; and

• fitting out two Observing Operations Hubs and automating evaporation pans at 15 field stations to enable the automation and de-staffing of field stations as part of the implementation of the Observing Systems Strategy (see p. 52).

Bureau of Meteorology Assets MORE THAN

680min assets were operated and maintained to deliver services to the Australian community0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800Cash and receivables InventoriesIntangible assetsProperty, plant & equipmentLand and buildings2012-132013-14 2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

1 1 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

The Bureau made the following investments in property and leasehold management in 2016-17:

• relocating the Bureau’s Canberra Office to the Treasury Building, resulting in significant reductions in lease costs moving forward;

• opening new Observing Operations Hubs in Darwin and Melbourne;

• commencing construction of new Observing Operations Hub in Cairns;

• modifying the Brisbane Regional Office to accommodate additional staff;

• upgrading security at the Carnarvon Field Office and the Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre in Broadmeadows;

• replacing air conditioning at the Western Australian Regional Maintenance Centre, Belmont and the Perth Airport Field Office;

• upgrading generators at Norfolk Island, Willis Island and Adelaide Airport field offices;

• resurfacing the road to the Saddle Mountain Radar near Cairns;

• signing a new multi-site memorandum of understanding with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority; and

• entering into multi-site permissive occupancy agreements for installation of automatic weather stations and rain gauges to support the New South Wales Drought Resilience Project.

Financial statements4

1 1 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY for the period ended 30 June 2017

Contents Page

Certification 113

Primary financial statements

Statement of Comprehensive Income

Statement of Financial Position

Statement of Changes in Equity

Cash Flow Statement

Administered Schedule of Comprehensive Income

Administered Schedule of Assets and Liabilities

Administered Reconciliation Schedule

Administered Cash Flow Statement

116

117

118

120

121

121

122

122

Overview 123

Notes to the financial statements:

1. Departmental Financial Performance

1.1 Expenses

1.2 Own-Source Revenue and gains

124

126

2. Departmental Financial Position

2.1 Financial Assets

2.2 Non-Financial Assets

2.3 Payables

2.4 Provision for Restoration

127

128

132

132

3. Assets and Liabilities Administered on Behalf of Government

3.1 Administered - Financial Assets 133

4. Funding

4.1 Appropriations

4.2 Special Accounts

4.3 Net Cash Appropriation Arrangements

134

136

137

5. People

5.1 Employee Provisions

5.2 Key Management Personnel Remuneration

5.3 Related Party Disclosures

138

139

140

6. Managing uncertainties

6.1 Contingent Assets and Liabilities

6.2 Financial Instruments

6.3 Administered - Financial Instruments

6.4 Fair Value Measurement

141

142

143

144

7. Other information

7.1 Budget Variances Commentary

7.2 Assets Held in Trust

145

146

1 1 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

GPO Box 707 CANBERRA ACT 2601 19 National Circuit BARTON ACT Phone (02) 6203 7300 Fax (02) 6203 7777

INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT

To the Minister for Environment and Energy

Opinion

In my opinion, the financial statements of the Bureau of Meteorology for the year ended 30 June 2017:

(a) comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015; and

(b) present fairly the financial position of the Bureau of Meteorology as at 30 June 2017 and its financial performance and cash flows for the year then ended.

The financial statements of the Bureau of Meteorology, which I have audited, comprise the following statements as at 30 June 2017 and for the year then ended:

 Statement by the Accountable Authority and Chief Finance Officer;  Statement of Comprehensive Income;  Statement of Financial Position;  Statement of Changes in Equity;  Cash Flow Statement;  Administered Schedule of Comprehensive Income;  Administered Schedule of Assets and Liabilities;  Administered Reconciliation Schedule;  Administered Cash Flow Statement; and  Notes to and forming part of the financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

I conducted my audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, which incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards. My responsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of my report. I am independent of the Bureau of Meteorology in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements for financial statement audits conducted by the Auditor-General and his delegates. These include the relevant independence requirements of the Accounting

Professional and Ethical Standards Board’s APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants to the extent that they are not in conflict with the Auditor-General Act 1997 (the Code). I have also fulfilled my other responsibilities in accordance with the Code. I believe that the audit evidence I have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion.

Accountable Authority’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements

As the Accountable Authority of the Bureau of Meteorology the Director of Meteorology is responsible under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 for the preparation and fair presentation of annual financial statements that comply with Australian Accounting Standards - Reduced Disclosure Requirements and the rules made under that Act. The Director of Meteorology is also responsible for such internal control as the Director of Meteorology determines is necessary to enable the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.

1 1 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

In preparing the financial statements, the Director of Meteorology is responsible for assessing the Bureau of Meteorology’s ability to continue as a going concern, taking into account whether the entity’s operations will cease as a result of an administrative restructure or for any other reason. The Director of Meteorology is also responsible for disclosing matters related to going concern as applicable and using the going concern basis of accounting unless the assessment indicates that it is not appropriate.

Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements

My objective is to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditor’s report that includes my opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards will always detect a material misstatement when it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.

As part of an audit in accordance with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, I exercise professional judgement and maintain professional scepticism throughout the audit. I also:

 identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control;  obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are

appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control;  evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by the Accountable Authority;  conclude on the appropriateness of the Accountable Authority’s use of the going concern basis of accounting

and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. If I conclude that a material uncertainty exists, I am required to draw attention in my auditor’s report to the related disclosures in the financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify my opinion. My conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of my auditor’s report. However, future events or conditions may cause the entity to cease to continue as a going concern; and  evaluate the overall presentation, structure and content of the financial statements, including the disclosures, and

whether the financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

I communicate with those charged with governance regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that I identify during my audit.

Australian National Audit Office

Kristian Gage

Executive Director

Delegate of the Auditor-General

Canberra

7 September 2017

1 1 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

1 1 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2017

Notes

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Original Budget 2017 $’000

NET COST OF SERVICES

Expenses

Employee benefits 1.1A 188,441 191,050 184,390

Suppliers 1.1B 110,812 101,914 109,071

Depreciation and amortisation 2.2A 75,073 75,676 72,519

Losses from asset sales - 165 -

Finance costs - Unwinding of discount 2.4 370 319 -

Write-down and impairment of assets 1.1C 4,529 408 1

Foreign exchange losses - Non-speculative 185 774 -

Contributions to WMO and IOC1 2,437 2,221 1,968

Total expenses 381,847 372,527 367,949

Own-Source Income

Own-source revenue

Sale of goods and rendering of services 1.2A 80,319 82,116 70,138

Other revenue 1.2B 598 313 -

Total own-source revenue 80,917 82,429 70,138

Gains

Gains from sale of assets 195 - -

Foreign exchange gains - Non-speculative 101 154 -

Total gains 296 154 -

Total own-source income 81,213 82,583 70,138

Net cost of services (300,634) (289,944) (297,811)

Revenue from Government 228,407 213,977 227,853

Deficit (72,227) (75,967) (69,958)

OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

Items not subject to subsequent reclassification to net cost of services

Changes in asset revaluation surplus 31,744 - -

Total other comprehensive income 31,744 - -

Total comprehensive loss (40,483) (75,967) (69,958)

1. Contributions to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).

The budget variances commentary is contained in the Other Information section (note 7.1).

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Accounting Policy Revenue from Government Amounts appropriated for departmental appropriations for the year (adjusted for any formal additions and reductions) are recognised as Revenue from Government when the Bureau of Meteorology gains control of the appropriation, except for certain amounts that relate to activities that are reciprocal in nature, in which case revenue is recognised only when it has been earned. Appropriations receivable are recognised at their nominal amounts.

1 1 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION as at 30 June 2017

Notes

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Original Budget 2017 $’000

ASSETS

Financial Assets

Cash and cash equivalents 251 294 57

Trade and other receivables 2.1A 108,812 125,473 91,201

Accrued revenues - Goods and services 1,488 3,454 3,724

Total financial assets 110,551 129,221 94,982

Non-Financial Assets

Land 2.2A 14,430 16,759 -

Buildings 2.2A 91,420 95,947 109,742

Plant and equipment 2.2A 372,712 344,856 365,057

Computer software 2.2A 88,348 76,345 71,833

Other intangibles 2.2A 10 13 -

Inventories 2.2B 6,029 6,568 7,634

Prepayments 9,389 5,809 6,393

Total non-financial assets 582,338 546,297 560,659

Assets held for sale - 637 -

Total assets 692,889 676,155 655,641

LIABILITIES

Payables

Suppliers 2.3A 21,334 35,815 13,512

Other payables and liabilities 2.3B 42,469 42,710 47,115

Total payables 63,803 78,525 60,627

Provisions

Employee provisions 5.1 69,202 68,942 68,350

Provision for restoration 2.4 23,315 22,320 22,069

Total provisions 92,517 91,262 90,419

Total liabilities 156,320 169,787 151,046

Net assets 536,569 506,368 504,595

EQUITY

Contributed equity 705,811 635,127 695,310

Reserves 275,144 243,400 243,398

Accumulated deficit (444,386) (372,159) (434,113)

Total equity 536,569 506,368 504,595

The budget variances commentary is contained in the Other Information section (note 7.1).

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

1 1 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Original Budget 2017 $’000

CONTRIBUTED EQUITY

Opening balance

Balance carried forward from previous period 635,127 541,226 629,543

Adjusted opening balance 635,127 541,226 629,543

Transactions with owners

Distributions to owners

Returns of capital

Return of Equity Appropriations1 (222) (1,140) -

Contributions by owners

Equity injection - Appropriations 28,781 50,994 23,642

Departmental capital budget 42,125 44,047 42,125

Total transactions with owners 70,684 93,901 65,767

Closing balance as at 30 June 705,811 635,127 695,310

RETAINED EARNINGS

Opening balance

Balance carried forward from previous period (372,159) (296,192) (364,155)

Adjusted opening balance (372,159) (296,192) (364,155)

Comprehensive Income

Deficit for the period (72,227) (75,967) (69,958)

Total comprehensive income (72,227) (75,967) (69,958)

Closing balance as at 30 June (444,386) (372,159) (434,113)

ASSET REVALUATION RESERVE

Opening balance

Balance carried forward from previous period 243,400 243,400 243,398

Adjusted opening balance 243,400 243,400 243,398

Comprehensive Income

Other comprehensive income 31,744 - -

Total comprehensive income 31,744 - -

Closing balance as at 30 June 275,144 243,400 243,398

1 1 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Original Budget 2017 $’000

TOTAL EQUITY

Opening balance

Balance carried forward from previous period 506,368 488,434 508,786

Adjusted opening balance 506,368 488,434 508,786

Comprehensive Income

Deficit for the period (72,227) (75,967) (69,958)

Other comprehensive income 31,744 - -

Total comprehensive income (40,483) (75,967) (69,958)

Transactions with owners

Distributions to owners

Returns of capital

Return of Equity Appropriations1 (222) (1,140) -

Contributions by owners

Equity injection - Appropriations 28,781 50,994 23,642

Departmental capital budget 42,125 44,047 42,125

Total transactions with owners 70,684 93,901 65,767

Closing balance as at 30 June 536,569 506,368 504,595

1. Appropriation Act (No. 2) 2014-15 will be repealed on 1 July 2017.

The budget variances commentary is contained in the Other Information section (note 7.1).

Accounting Policy Equity Injections Amounts appropriated which are designated as ‘equity injections’ for a year (less any formal reductions) and Departmental Capital Budgets (DCBs), are recognised directly in contributed equity in that year.

Other Distributions to Owners Distributions to owners are debited to contributed equity unless it is in the nature of a dividend.

1 2 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY CASH FLOW STATEMENT for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Original Budget 2017 $’000

OPERATING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Appropriations 330,582 286,807 300,168

Sales of goods and rendering of services 90,611 85,663 70,138

Net GST received 9,855 9,495 3,750

Total cash received 431,048 381,965 374,056

Cash used

Employees (187,964) (196,759) (183,640)

Suppliers (150,337) (98,008) (111,039)

Section 74 receipts transferred to OPA (86,479) (80,848) (70,138)

Total cash used (424,780) (375,615) (364,817)

Net cash from operating activities 6,268 6,350 9,239

INVESTING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment 963 20 1,225

Total cash received 963 20 1,225

Cash used

Purchase of property, plant and equipment and intangibles (75,798) (101,775) (76,231)

Total cash used (75,798) (101,775) (76,231)

Net cash used by investing activities (74,835) (101,755) (75,006)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Departmental capital budget 42,237 46,572 -

Equity injection 26,287 49,070 65,767

Total cash received 68,524 95,642 65,767

Net cash from financing activities 68,524 95,642 65,767

Net increase (decrease) in cash held (43) 237 -

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period 294 57 57

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period 251 294 57

The budget variances commentary is contained in the Other Information section (note 7.1).

1 2 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED SCHEDULE OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

NET COST OF SERVICES

Income

Revenue

Non-taxation revenue

Advertising 4,321 2,220

Total revenue 4,321 2,220

Net contribution by services 4,321 2,220

Surplus 4,321 2,220

Total comprehensive income 4,321 2,220

Budget Variances Commentary Schedule of Comprehensive Income for Bureau of Meteorology The note for administered budgetary report is not disclosed due to non-publication of the original budget in the 2016-17 Portfolio Budget Statements.

Accounting Policy All administered revenues are revenues relating to ordinary activities performed by the Bureau of Meteorology on behalf of the Australian Government. As such, administered appropriations are not revenues of the individual entity that oversees distribution or expenditure of the funds as directed.

Revenue is generated from advertising on the Bureau of Meteorology’s website. Administered advertising revenue is recognised when advertisements are displayed. Collectability of debts is reviewed at end of the reporting period. Impairment allowances are made when collectability of the debt is judged to be less rather than more likely.

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED SCHEDULE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES as at 30 June 2017

Notes

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

ASSETS

Financial assets

Trade and other receivables 3.1A 77 110

Accrued revenues - Goods and services 226 34

Total assets administered on behalf of Government 303 144

LIABILITIES

Payables

GST payable 7 10

Total liabilities administered on behalf of Government 7 10

Net assets 296 134

The above schedule should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Budget Variances Commentary Schedule of Assets and Liabilities for Bureau of Meteorology The note for administered budgetary report is not disclosed due to non-publication of the original budget in the 2016-17 Portfolio Budget Statements.

1 2 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED RECONCILIATION SCHEDULE

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Opening assets less liabilities as at 1 July 134 432

Net contribution by services

Income 4,321 2,220

Transfers (to)/from the Australian Government

Appropriation transfers to Official Public Account

Transfers to Official Public Account (4,159) (2,518)

Closing assets less liabilities as at 30 June 296 134

Accounting Policy Administered Cash Transfers to and from Official Public Account Revenue collected by the Bureau of Meteorology for use by the Government rather than the Bureau of Meteorology is administered revenue. Collections are transferred to the Official Public Account (OPA) maintained by the Department of Finance. Conversely, cash is drawn from the OPA to make payments under Parliamentary appropriation on behalf of Government. These transfers to and from the OPA are adjustments to the administered cash held by the Bureau of Meteorology on behalf of the Government and reported as such in the schedule of administered cash flows and in the administered reconciliation schedule.

BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ADMINISTERED CASH FLOW STATEMENT for the period ended 30 June 2017

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

OPERATING ACTIVITIES

Cash received

Sale of goods and rendering of services 4,162 2,538

Net GST received (3) (20)

Total cash received 4,159 2,518

Net cash from operating activities 4,159 2,518

Cash to Official Public Account

Cash transfers to Official Public Account (4,159) (2,518)

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period - -

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period - -

1 2 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Overview

The Basis of Preparation

The financial statements are general purpose financial statements and are required by section 42 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with:

a) Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015 (FRR) for reporting periods ending on or after 1 July 2015; and b) Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations - Reduced Disclosure Requirements issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) that apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. Except where stated, no allowance is made for the effect of changing prices on the results or the financial position. The financial statements are presented in Australian dollars.

Taxation

The Bureau of Meteorology is exempt from all forms of taxation except Fringe Benefits Tax (FBT) and the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

2015-16 Comparatives

Comparatives for the 2015-16 financial year have been amended. The changes relate to the mapping of General Ledger accounts only and have not changed the results for the 2015-16 financial year. Balances were adjusted between Trade and Other Receivables and Employee Provisions in the Departmental Statement of Financial Position.

Events After the Reporting Period There was no subsequent event that had the potential to significantly affect the ongoing structure and financial activities of the Bureau of Meteorology.

1 24 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Financial Performance This section analyses the financial performance of the Bureau of Meteorology for the year ended 2017.

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

1.1 Expenses

1.1A Employee Benefits

Wages and salaries 129,214 130,818

Superannuation

Defined contribution plans 13,574 12,600

Defined benefit plans 16,514 18,197

Leave and other entitlements 19,943 22,878

Separation and redundancies 8,523 5,698

Other 673 859

Total employee benefits 188,441 191,050

Accounting Policy Accounting policies for employee related expenses is contained in the People section (note 5).

1.1B Suppliers

Goods and services supplied or rendered

Consultants 5,559 451

Contractors 23,780 15,059

Communication and consumables running the observing network 24,775 27,072

Communication and IT related consumables - other 19,149 16,514

Property operating expenses 7,145 6,488

Other 5,685 4,358

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 86,093 69,942

Goods supplied 8,172 8,262

Services rendered 77,921 61,680

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 86,093 69,942

Other suppliers

Operating lease rentals 22,815 29,723

Workers compensation expenses 1,904 2,249

Total other suppliers 24,719 31,972

Total suppliers 110,812 101,914

1 2 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Leasing commitments The Bureau of Meteorology in its capacity as lessee enters into operating leases for Office Accommodation, Observations Sites and Motor Vehicles.

Accommodation lease payments are subject to increases in accordance with terms as negotiated under the lease.

The periods of office accommodation leases are able to be renewed at the Bureau of Meteorology’s option as allowed under the lease terms.

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Commitments for minimum lease payments in relation to non-cancellable operating leases are payable as follows:

Within 1 year 15,623 10,771

Between 1 to 5 years 53,815 29,337

More than 5 years 38,981 10,784

Total operating lease commitments 108,419 50,892

The increase in commitments relates to new leases commencing in the 2016-17 financial year.

Accounting Policy Operating lease payments are expensed on a straight line basis which is representative of the pattern of benefits derived from the leased assets.

1.1C Write-Down and Impairment of Assets

Impairment on financial instruments 2 307

Write-down of property, plant and equipment 4,289 309

Impairment of inventories 242 125

(Decrease) in allowance for impairment of receivable (4) (333)

Total write-down and impairment of assets 4,529 408

1 2 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

1.2 Own-Source Revenue

1.2A Sale of Goods and Rendering of Services

Sale of goods 1,517 1,452

Rendering of services 78,802 80,664

Total sale of goods and rendering of services 80,319 82,116

Accounting Policy Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when:

a)  the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer; b)  the Bureau of Meteorology retains no managerial involvement or effective control over the goods.

The stage of completion of contracts at the reporting date is determined by reference to the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated total costs of the transaction.

Receivables for goods and services, which have 30 day terms, are recognised at the nominal amounts due less any impairment allowance account. Collectability of debts is reviewed each month end.

Allowances are made when the collectability of the debt is no longer probable.

1.2B Other Revenue

Recoveries of expenditure 92 124

Resources received free of charge 110 110

Inventory received free of charge 337 73

Insurance refunds 58 5

Other 1 1

Total other revenue 598 313

Accounting Policy Resources Received Free of Charge Resources received free of charge are recognised as revenue when, and only when, a fair value can be reliably determined and the services would have been purchased if they had not been donated. Use of those resources is recognised as an expense. Resources received free of charge are recorded as either revenue or gains depending on their nature.

1 2 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Financial Position This section analyses the Bureau of Meteorology’s assets used to conduct its operations and the operating liabilities incurred as a result. Employee related information is disclosed in the People section (note 5).

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

2.1 Financial Assets

2.1A Trade and Other Receivables

Goods and services receivables

Goods and services 9,115 11,472

Total goods and services receivables 9,115 11,472

Appropriations receivables

Appropriation receivable 84,642 100,338

Departmental capital budget 508 620

Equity injection 12,756 10,484

Total appropriations receivables 97,906 111,442

Other receivables

Statutory receivables 1,792 2,564

Total other receivables 1,792 2,564

Total trade and other receivables (gross) 108,813 125,478

Less impairment allowance (1) (5)

Total trade and other receivables (net) 108,812 125,473

Credit terms for goods and services were within 30 days (2016: 30 days).

Reconciliation of the Impairment Allowance

Goods and Services

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Opening balance (5) (338)

Amounts written off 2 307

Amounts recovered and reversed 4 -

(Increase) / Decrease recognised in net cost of services (2) 26

Closing balance (1) (5)

Accounting Policy Loans and Receivables Trade receivables, loans and other receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as ‘loans and receivables’. The Bureau of Meteorology’s loans and receivables are measured at their nominal amount less impairment.

Impairment of Financial Assets Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period.

1 2 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 2.2 Non-Financial Assets Note 2.2A Reconciliation of the Opening and Closing Balances of Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangibles

Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of property, plant and equipment and intangibles for 2017

Land ($'000)

Buildings

($'000)

Plant and equipment ($'000)

Computer software

1

($'000)

Other

intangibles ($'000)

Total

($'000)

As at 1 July 2016

Gross book value 16,759 107,806 461,743 184,478 50 770,836

Accumulated depreciation and impairment

-

(11,859) (116,887) (108,133) (37) (236,916)

Total as at 1 July 2016

16,759

95,947 344,856 76,345 13 533,920

Additions

Purchase - 164 50,724 3,876 - 54,764

Internally developed - - - 25,985 - 25,985

Revaluation and impairments recognised in other comprehensive income

(2,309)

265 33,788 - - 31,744

Depreciation and amortisation

-

(4,130) (52,901) (18,039) (3) (75,073)

Transfers of assets between classes

-

171 (855) 684 - -

Disposals

Write-down (20) (997) (2,900) (503) - (4,420)

Total as at 30 June 2017

14,430

91,420 372,712 88,348 10 566,920

Total as at 30 June 2017 represented by Gross book value

14,430 95,190 400,273 197,668 50 707,611

Accumulated depreciation and impairment

-

(3,770) (27,561) (109,320) (40) (140,691)

Total as at 30 June 2017

14,430

91,420 372,712 88,348 10 566,920

Asset balances in the above table includes assets under construction. 1. The carrying amount of computer software included $18.573 million of purchased software and $69.775 million of internally developed software.

Revaluations of non-financial assets All revaluations were conducted in accordance with the revaluation policy stated at Note 6.4.

Contractual commitments for the acquisitions of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets The Bureau of Meteorology has commitments for the purchases of the following property, plant and equipment:

- High Performance Computing $3.256 million; and - S-Band 1 Degree Dual Polarisation Upgrade (DPU) $1.688 million.

1 2 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Accounting Policy

Assets are recorded at cost on acquisition except as stated below. The cost of acquisition includes the fair value of assets transferred in exchange and liabilities undertaken. Financial assets are initially measured at their fair value plus transaction costs where appropriate.

Assets acquired at no cost, or for nominal consideration, are initially recognised as assets and income at their fair value at the date of acquisition, unless acquired as a consequence of restructuring of administrative arrangements. In the latter case, assets are initially recognised as contributions by owners at the amounts at which they were recognised in the transferor’s accounts immediately prior to the restructuring.

Asset Recognition Threshold Purchases of property, plant and equipment are recognised initially at cost in the Statement of Financial Position, except for purchases costing less than $2,000 which are expensed in the year of acquisition (other than where they form part of a group of similar items which are significant in total).

The initial cost of an asset includes an estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. This is particularly relevant to ‘make good’ provisions in property leases taken up by the Bureau of Meteorology where there exists an obligation to restore the property to its original condition. These costs are included in the value of the Bureau of Meteorology’s leasehold improvements and relevant assets with a corresponding liability recognised as a provision for ‘make good’ (Note 2.4).

Revaluations Following initial recognition at cost, land, buildings, property, plant and equipment were carried at fair value less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Valuations were conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure that the carrying amounts of assets do not differ materially from the assets’ fair values as at the reporting date. The regularity of independent valuations depended upon the volatility of movements in market values for the relevant assets.

The Bureau of Meteorology undertook a review of three of its asset classes (land, buildings, and property, plant and equipment) during the 2016-17 financial year.

Revaluation adjustments were made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment was credited to equity under the heading of asset revaluation reserve except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that was previously recognised in the surplus/deficit.

Revaluation decrements for a class of assets were recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reversed a previous revaluation increment for that class.

During the 2016-17 financial year, the Bureau of Meteorology engaged the services of a qualified valuer for the purpose of asset materiality review in accordance with AASB 116.

No material movement on fair value was identified from the independent review.

Any accumulated depreciation as at the revaluation date was eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the asset restated to the revalued amount.

Depreciation Depreciable property, plant and equipment assets are written-off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives to the Bureau of Meteorology using, in all cases, the straight-line method of depreciation. Leasehold improvements are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvements or the unexpired period of the lease. Leased assets are amortised over the period of the lease.

Depreciation rates (useful lives), residual values and methods are reviewed at each reporting date and necessary adjustments are recognised in the current, or current and future reporting periods, as appropriate.

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

1 3 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Depreciation rates applying to each class of depreciable asset are based on the following useful lives:

2017 2016

Buildings on freehold land 5 to 52 Years 5 to 52 Years

Leasehold improvements Lease term Lease term

Property, plant and equipment 2 to 50 Years 2 to 50 Years

Impairment All asset classes were assessed for impairment at 30 June 2017. Where indications of impairment exist, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment adjustment made if the asset’s recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount.

The recoverable amount of an asset is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset.

Where the future economic benefit of an asset is not primarily dependent on the asset’s ability to generate future cash flows and the asset would be replaced if the Bureau of Meteorology were deprived of the asset, its value in use is taken to be its depreciated replacement cost.

Derecognition An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

Intangibles The Bureau of Meteorology’s intangibles comprise software licences, purchased software, and internally developed software. The software is carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Software is amortised on a straight-line basis over its anticipated useful life. The useful lives of the Bureau of Meteorology’s software is predominately 3 to 5 years other than the Services System software which has a useful life of 20 years (2016: 3 to 20 years).

Assets not recognised Historical meteorological data has not been recognised as an asset due to difficulties in the application of control criteria.

For historical meteorological data to be recognised as an asset the following criteria need to be met:

· the weather data must generate future economic benefits; · the cost of collecting and maintaining the data can be reliably measured; · the data can be separately identifiable as an asset; and · the Bureau of Meteorology maintains control of the data.

The Bureau of Meteorology provides meteorological data to the public at no cost. From this point the Bureau of Meteorology has no control over and cannot regulate the information. The above criterion, control of the asset is not met. For this reason the Bureau of Meteorology does not recognise historical meteorological data as an asset.

Accounting Judgements and Estimates The fair value of land and buildings has been taken to be the market value of similar properties as determined by an independent valuer. In some instances, Bureau of Meteorology buildings are purpose-built and may in fact realise more or less in the market.

1 3 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

2.2B Inventories

Inventories held for sale

Finished goods - 1

Total inventories held for sale - 1

Inventories held for distribution 7,061 7,752

less Provision for obsolescence (1,032) (1,185)

Total inventories held for distribution 6,029 6,567

Total inventories 6,029 6,568

During 2017 no inventory held for sale was recognised as an expense (2016: $3,201).

During 2017 $4.865 million of inventory held for distribution was recognised as an expense (2016: $5.424 million).

Accounting Policy Inventories held for sale are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Inventories held for distribution are valued at cost; costs have been assigned to inventory quantities on hand at balance date using the average cost basis.

The Bureau of Meteorology’s inventory holding consists of Publications held for sale and items utilised in the installation of sites, or the repair/maintenance of its equipment.

The inventory is held to ensure that repairs/maintenance can be made at short notice to keep the operational equipment in service. The range of inventory held consists of items which can be utilised across a significant part of the operational network and as such is not limited to a specific piece of equipment. When items of inventory are sold or utilised to make repairs/maintenance to equipment, the carrying amount of the items are recognised as an expense.

Items held for the purposes of major spare parts or as stand-by equipment are classified in the Bureau of Meteorology’s accounts and records as Property, Plant and Equipment in accordance with AASB 116, consistent with the Bureau of Meteorology Asset Management Policy.

1 3 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

2.3 Payables

2.3A Suppliers

Trade creditors and accruals 21,302 35,807

Operating lease rentals 32 8

Total suppliers 21,334 35,815

Settlement was usually made within 30 days. All supplier payables are expected to be settled within 12 months.

2.3B Other Payables and Liabilities

Wages and salaries 1,225 796

Superannuation 213 109

Separation and redundancies 4,223 455

Deferred revenue 31,644 36,437

Lease incentive 1,360 1,573

Accounting for leases 3,804 3,340

Total other payables and liabilities 42,469 42,710

Accounting Policy Financial Liabilities The Bureau of Meteorology classifies its financial liabilities which includes supplier and other payables as ‘other financial liabilities’. Supplier and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced). Supplier and other payables are derecognised upon payment.

2.4 Provision for Restoration

Provision for Restoration $’000

As at 1 July 2016 22,320

Additional provisions made 818

Amounts used (193)

Unwinding of discount or change in discount rate 370

Total as at 30 June 2017 23,315

The Bureau of Meteorology has four hundred and thirty three agreements (2016: three hundred and eighty one) for the leasing and licensing of premises and land which have provisions requiring the Bureau of Meteorology to restore the premises and land to their original condition at the conclusion of the lease. The Bureau of Meteorology has made a provision to reflect the present value of these obligations.

Accounting Judgements and Estimates A provision for restoration obligations (make good) is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Bureau of Meteorology has a present obligation (legal or constructive) that can be estimated reliably and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Make good provisions are measured at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at reporting date, including the risks and uncertainties specific to the liabilities.

Make good provisions are discounted to present value when the time value of money is material.

Provisions are reviewed annually and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

1 3 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to the Schedule of Administered Items

Assets and Liabilities Administered on Behalf of Government This section analyses assets used to conduct operations and the operating liabilities incurred as a result the Bureau of Meteorology does not control but administers on behalf of the Government. Unless otherwise noted, the accounting policies adopted are consistent with those applied for departmental reporting.

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

3.1 Administered - Financial Assets

3.1A Trade and Other Receivables

Good and services receivables 77 110

Total goods and services receivables 77 110

Credit terms for goods and services were within 30 days (2016: 30 days).

Accounting Policy Where receivables are not subject to concessional treatment, they are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Gains and losses due to impairment, derecognition and amortisation are recognised through profit and loss.

1 3 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Funding This section identifies the Bureau of Meteorology’s funding structure. 4.1 Appropriations 4.1A Annual Appropriations ('Recoverable GST exclusive') Annual Appropriations for 2017

Annual

Appropriation

1

$’000

Adjustments to Appropriation

2

$’000

Total

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriation applied in 2017 (current and prior years)

$’000

Variance

3

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services 228,407 86,479 314,886 (331,397) (16,511)

Capital Budget

4

42,125 - 42,125 (42,237) (112)

Other services

Equity injections 28,781 - 28,781 (26,287) 2,494

Total departmental 299,313 86,479 385,792 (399,921) (14,129)

1. The annual appropriation has been reduced by $222,000 (repeal of 2014-15 Equity Act No. 2). The following amounts have been quarantined as part of the

Omnibus Repeal Day (Spring) Bill 2015; $25,000 (2012-13 Equity Act No. 2) and $2.925 million (2013-14 Equity Act No. 2). 2. The adjustments to appropriation is for the PGPA Act Section 74 Receipts.

3. The variance disclosed in table 4.1A is made up of the movement in cash, appropriations receivable and GST receivable. The appropriation receivable has been

reduced by $222,000 and this amount will be repealed on 1 July 2017. 4. Departmental and Administered Capital Budgets are appropriated through Appropriation Acts (No. 1, 3, 5). They form part of ordinary annual services, and are

not separately identified in the Appropriation Acts.

1 3 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements Annual Appropriations for 2016

Annual

Appropriation

$’000

Adjustments to Appropriation

1

$’000

Total

Appropriation

$’000

Appropriation applied in 2016 (current and prior years)

$’000

Variance

2

$’000

Departmental

Ordinary annual services 213,977 80,848 294,825 (285,750) 9,075

Capital Budget

3

44,047 - 44,047 (46,572) (2,525)

Other services

Equity injections 50,994 - 50,994 (49,070) 1,924

Total departmental 309,018 80,848 389,866 (381,392) 8,474

1. The adjustments to appropriation is for the PGPA Act Section 74 Receipts. 2. The variance disclosed in table 4.1A is made up of the movement in cash, appropriations receivable, GST receivable and section 51 Determination.

3. Departmental and Administered Capital Budgets are appropriated through Appropriation Acts (No. 1, 3, 5). They form part of ordinary annual services, and are

not separately identified in the Appropriation Acts.

1 3 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

4.1B Unspent Annual Appropriations ('Recoverable GST exclusive')

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Departmental

Cash on hand 251 294

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2015-16 - 100,338

Appropriation Act (No.1) 2016-17 84,642 -

Appropriation Act (No.1) DCB 2015-16 - 620

Appropriation Act (No.1) DCB 2016-17 508 -

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2012-131 25 25

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2013-142 2,925 2,925

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2014-153 222 980

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2015-16 1,345 4,375

Appropriation Act (No.2) 2016-17 3,360 -

Appropriation Act (No.4) 2015-16 - 2,179

Appropriation Act (No.4) 2016-17 5,101 -

Total departmental 98,379 111,736

1 & 2. The Department of Finance has quarantined Appropriation Act (No.2) 2012-13 & Appropriation Act (No.2) 2013-14 as part of the Omnibus Repeal Day (Spring) Bill 2015.

3. Appropriation Act (No. 2) 2014-15 will be repealed on 1 July 2017.

4.2 Special Accounts

Services for Other Entities and Trust Moneys - Bureau of Meteorology Special Account1

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Balance brought forward from previous period 375 373

Increases 712 578

Available for payments 1,087 951

Decreases (650) (576)

Total departmental 437 375

Total balance carried to the next period 437 375

Balance represented by:

Cash held in bank accounts 52 -

Cash held in the Official Public Account 385 375

Total balance carried to the next period 437 375

1. Appropriation: Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013, section 78 (2014: Appropriation: Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997, section 20(1)).

Establishing Instrument: Financial Management and Accountability Determination 2008/06.

Purpose: To enable the Bureau of Meteorology to hold and expend amounts on behalf of persons or entities other than the Commonwealth.

Total balance to be carried to the next period is the value of cash held in special account of $437,000 (2016: $375,000).

1 3 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

4.3 Net Cash Appropriation Arrangements

Total comprehensive loss - as per the Statement of Comprehensive Income (40,483) (75,967)

Add: depreciation / amortisation expenses1 72,812 73,474

Less: changes in asset revaluation surplus (31,744) -

Total comprehensive income (loss) excluding depreciation / amortisation

expenses and other comprehensive income 585 (2,493)

1. Excludes depreciation and amortisation of $2,261,000 (2016: $2,202,000) relating to assets purchased for the provision of Aviation and Defence Weather Services.

1 3 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

People This section describes a range of employment and post employment benefits provided to our people and our relationships with other key people.

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

5.1 Employee Provisions

5.1A Employee Provisions

Leave 68,806 68,498

Other 396 444

Total employee provisions 69,202 68,942

Accounting Policy Liabilities for ‘short-term employee benefits’ (as defined in AASB 119 Employee Benefits ) and termination benefits expected within twelve months of the end of reporting period are measured at their nominal amounts.

The nominal amount is calculated with regard to the rates expected to be paid on settlement of the liability.

Other long-term employee benefits are measured as net total of the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period minus the fair value at the end of the reporting period of plan assets (if any), out of which the obligations are to be settled directly.

Leave The liability for employee benefits includes provision for annual leave and long service leave. No provision has been made for sick leave as all sick leave is non-vesting and the average sick leave taken in future years by employees of the Bureau of Meteorology is estimated to be equal or less than the annual entitlement for sick leave.

The leave liabilities are calculated on the basis of employees’ remuneration at the estimated salary rates that will be applied at the time leave is taken, including the Bureau of Meteorology’s employer superannuation contribution rates to the extent that the leave is likely to be taken during service rather than paid out on termination.

The liabilities for annual leave and long service leave have been determined by reference to the work of an actuary as at 30 June 2017. The estimate of the present value of the liability takes into account attrition rates and pay increases through promotion and inflation.

Separation and Redundancy Provision is made for separation and redundancy benefit payments. The Bureau of Meteorology recognises a provision for termination when it has developed a detailed formal plan for the terminations and has informed those employees affected that it will carry out the terminations.

Superannuation Staff of the Bureau of Meteorology are members of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS), the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS), the PSS accumulation plan (PSSap) and other superannuation funds held outside the Australian Government.

The CSS and PSS are defined benefit schemes for the Australian Government. The PSSap is a defined contribution scheme.

1 3 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

The liability for defined benefits is recognised in the financial statements of the Australian Government and is settled by the Australian Government in due course. This liability is reported in the Department of Finance’s administered schedules and notes.

The Bureau of Meteorology makes employer contributions to the employees’ superannuation scheme at rates determined by an actuary to be sufficient to meet the current cost to the Government.

The Bureau of Meteorology accounts for the contributions as if they were contributions to defined contribution plans.

The liability for superannuation recognised as at 30 June 2017 represents outstanding contributions.

5.2 Key Management Personnel Remuneration

Key management personnel are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the Bureau of Meteorology, directly or indirectly, including any director (whether executive or otherwise) of the Bureau of Meteorology. The Bureau of Meteorology has determined the key management personnel to be the Director/Chief Executive Officer and Deputy Directors. In addition to key management personnel, Cabinet Ministers, Portfolio Minister and all other Australian Government entities are related parties of every Australian Government entity. Key management personnel remuneration is reported in the table below:

2017 $’000

Short-term employee benefits 1,532

Post-employment benefits 262

Other long-term employee benefits 194

Total key management personnel remuneration expenses1 1,988

The total number of key management personnel that are included in the above table are 7 individuals.

1. The above key management personnel remuneration excludes the remuneration and other benefits of the Portfolio Minister. The Portfolio Minister’s remuneration and other benefits are set by the Remuneration Tribunal and are not paid by the Bureau of Meteorology.

AASB 124 Related Party Disclosures applies to the Bureau of Meteorology for 2016-17. The Bureau of Meteorology has implemented a process in identifying key management personnel and related party transactions, which is disclosed in accordance with statutory requirement and reflected in the Bureau of Meteorology’s financial statements.

1 4 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

5.3 Related Party Disclosures

Related party relationships:

The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian Government controlled entity. Related parties to the Bureau of Meteorology are Key Management Personnel including close family members of key management personnel, entities controlled by key management personnel, the Portfolio Minister and other Australian Government entities.

Transactions with related parties:

Given the breadth of Government activities, related parties may transact with the government sector in the same capacity as ordinary citizens. Such transactions include the payment or refund of taxes, receipt of a Medicare rebate or higher education loans. These transactions have not been separately disclosed in this note.

Significant transactions with related parties can include:

• the payments of grants or loans; • purchases of goods and services; • asset purchases, sales, transfers or leases; • debts forgiven; and • guarantees.

Giving consideration to relationships with related entities, and transactions entered into during the reporting period by the Bureau of Meteorology, it has been determined that there are no related party transactions to be separately disclosed.

The Department of Finance, through a centrally coordinated process, collected information from Ministers about related party transactions and established that there were no related party transactions by Ministers requiring disclosure by the Bureau of Meteorology in the financial statements for the 2016-17 financial year.

1 41 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Managing uncertainties This section analyses how the Bureau of Meteorology manages financial risks within its operating environment.

6.1 Contingent Assets and Liabilities

Claim for damages or costs

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Contingent assets

Balance from previous period 114 -

New contingent assets recognised 520 114

Re-measurement (26) -

Assets realised (88) -

Total contingent assets 520 114

Quantifiable Contingencies The Bureau of Meteorology has a number of claims with Comcover in respect of property damage.

Claims to the value of $520,000 (2016: $114,000) have been lodged with Comcover for assessment.

These consist of:

- Loss of equipment attached to Southern Ocean Flux Station buoy; and - Damages to the Bureau of Meteorology property caused by Cyclone Debbie at Queensland and New South Wales.

The estimate is based on information provided by Bureau staff to the Comcover assessor.

The Bureau of Meteorology had no contingent liabilities in 2016-17 (2016: Nil).

Unquantifiable Contingencies The Bureau of Meteorology had no unquantifiable contingencies in 2016-17 (2016: Nil).

Accounting Policy Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are not recognised in the Statement of Financial Position but are reported in the notes. They may arise from uncertainty as to the existence of a liability or asset or represent an asset or liability in respect of which the amount cannot be reliably measured. Contingent assets are disclosed when settlement is probable but not virtually certain and contingent liabilities are disclosed when settlement is greater than remote.

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any administered contingent liabilities or assets to report (2016: Nil).

1 4 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

6.2 Financial Instruments

6.2A Categories of Financial Instruments

Financial Assets

Loans and receivables

Cash and cash equivalents 251 294

Trade receivables 9,114 11,467

Total financial assets 9,365 11,761

Financial Liabilities

Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost

Supplier payables 14,121 28,614

Total financial liabilities 14,121 28,614

6.2B Net Gains or Losses on Financial Assets

Loans and receivables

Impairment (2) (307)

Net losses on loans and receivables (2) (307)

Net losses on financial assets (2) (307)

6.2C Net Gains or Losses on Financial Liabilities

There are no gains or losses from financial liabilities not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2017 (2016: Nil).

1 43 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to Schedule of Administered Items

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

6.3 Administered - Financial Instruments

6.3A Categories of Financial Instruments

Financial Assets

Loans and receivables

Receivables for goods and services 77 110

Total financial assets 77 110

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any Administered Financial Liabilities for 2017 (2016: Nil).

6.3B Net Gains or Losses on Financial Assets

There are no gains or losses from financial assets not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2017 (2016: Nil).

6.3C Net Gains or Losses on Financial Liabilities

There are no gains or losses from financial liabilities not at fair value through the profit or loss in the year ending 2017 (2016: Nil).

1 4 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements 6.4 Fair Value Measurement Accounting Policy The Bureau of Meteorology procured valuation services from AON Services Pty Ltd (AON). The Bureau of Meteorology tests the procedures of the valuation model at least once every twelve months. AON provided written assurance to the Bureau of Meteorology that the valuation model(s) developed comply with AASB 13.

The Bureau of Meteorology deems transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy to have occurred at the end of the reporting period.

The Bureau of Meteorology does not have any recurring fair value measurements transferred between Level 1 and Level 2 for assets and liabilities to disclose for the period 2016-17.

6.4A Fair Value Measurement

Fair value measurements at the end of the reporting period

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Non-financial assets

Land 14,430 16,759

Buildings on owned land

10,735

12,988

Buildings on non owned land

80,685

82,944

Property, plant and equipment

320,564

312,533

Vehicles 198 215

Remaining assets and liabilities reported by the Bureau of Meteorology are measured at fair value in the Statement of Financial Position.

1 4 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

4 Financial Statements

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Other information

7.1 Budget Variances Commentary

Statement of Comprehensive Income for Bureau of Meteorology

Employee Benefits Factors contributing to the variance in employee benefits include costs associated with increased externally generated revenue activities, restructuring costs as the Bureau transitions to a new organisational model, employee entitlement provisions directly relating to the annual actuary assessment and internally funded costs associated with the development of a New Policy Proposal (NPP) business case. These factors were partially offset by higher levels of capitalisation of employee salaries. There was no pay rise or increase associated with the enterprise agreement during 2016-17 financial year.

Suppliers expense Variance relates to costs associated with increased externally generated revenues, additional funding relating to the recovery of Foreign Exchange losses (received during the PAES Budget update in late 2016), the Bureau of Meteorology Comcover premium which whilst in line with previous years was well above the Budgeted allocation and the internal funding of a new NPP business case. These increases were partially offset by lower property leases and outgoing costs.

Depreciation and Amortisation expense The variance relates to the impact of the new Bureau Supercomputer on overall depreciation expenditure in the 2016-17 year. The Bureau applied for and received additional funding ($2.7 million) in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements (PAES) Budget update in late 2016. Taking this additional funding into account reduces the overall Budget variance to $0.1 million or 0.2%.

Write down and impairment of Assets The variance relates to a number of large write downs through the financial year associated with the Second Data Centre, Water assets no longer required and Radar equipment.

Contributions to WMO and IOC Bureau contributions to the WMO have over the past few years been impacted by a higher contribution rate applied to the Australian government subscription and the impact of the movement in Swiss Franc exchange rate.

Sale of Goods and Rendering of Services Variance reflects an increase in the number and value of externally generated project activities.

Statement of Financial Position for Bureau of Meteorology Trade and other receivables An increase in Sales of Goods and Services directly relating to a growth in externally generated revenue activities and an increase in Equity funding associated with Foreign Exchange losses has contributed to the overall increase in receivables.

Non-financial assets Asset categories were adjusted to align with the Bureau of Meteorology’s investment strategy coupled with the impact of the asset revaluation exercise completed in 2017.

Inventories The Bureau of Meteorology continues to reduce stock holdings to align with actual inventory demand and a more cost effective management of inventory.

Other non Financial Assets Increase in prepayments associated with Bureau computing and communications activities.

1 4 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Notes to and forming part of the Financial Statements

Suppliers Variances associated with the timing of payments to vendors.

Contributed Equity Additional funding was received during the year as compensation for foreign exchange losses on the purchase of the Bureau Supercomputer.

Reserves Variance relates to the movement in asset values associated with the recent asset revaluation exercise completed in 2017.

Cash Flow Statement for Bureau of Meteorology

Operating cash received

Appropriations Significant growth in externally generated expenditure associated with project activity coupled with a large number of vendor payments in July 2016 and additional appropriation received during the 2016-17 financial year.

Operating cash used

Employees Variance is due to a number of factors including an increase in staff numbers required for externally generated project activity and payments for separation and restructuring costs.

Suppliers Variance is due to large vendor payments in July 2016 associated with equipment purchases and other supplier costs accrued during the 2015-16 year and additional expense associated with the increase in externally generated project activity.

Section 74 receipts transferred to OPA Variance relates to additional receipts received associated with an increase in externally generated project activities.

7.2 Assets Held in Trust

To enable the Bureau of Meteorology to hold and expend amounts on behalf of persons or entities other than the Commonwealth.

2017 $’000

2016 $’000

Services for Other Entities and Trust Moneys

Bureau of Meteorology Special Account

As at 1 July 375 373

Receipts 712 578

Payments (650) (576)

Total as at 30 June 437 375

Appendices5

1 4 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Appendix A Glossary of acronyms

A

AAD Australian Antarctic Division

ACCESS Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator

ACCSP Australian Climate Change Science Programme

ACORN-SAT Australian Climate Observations Reference Network for Surface Air Temperature

ADF Australian Defence Force

AFIR Australian Flight Information Region

AGCCC Australian Government Crisis Coordination Centre

AMDAR Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay

AMOS Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

ANAO Australian National Audit Office

ANZEMC Australia New Zealand Emergency Management Committee

APS Australian Public Service

APS2 Australian Parallel Suite of ACCESS version 2

APS3 Australian Parallel Suite of ACCESS version 3

APS4 Australian Parallel Suite of ACCESS version 4

ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

ASD Australian Signals Directorate

ASO Administrative Service Officer

ASOS-CS Automated Surface Observations Central System

Australis New supercomputer that replaces Ngamai

AUSWAVE the Bureau’s wave for ecasting system

AWARE West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

AWRA Australian Water Resources Assessment

AWRA-L Australian Water Resources Assessment Landscape

AWRIS Australian Water Resources Information System

AWS Automatic Weather Station

B

BAIP Bioregional Assessment Information Platform

BATP Bioregional Assessment Technical Programme

BOM Bureau of Meteorology

BMTC Bureau of Meteorology T raining Centre

BNOC Bureau National Operations Centre

C

CARES Compensation and Rehabilitation Employee Services

CAWCR Collaboration for Australian Weather and Climate Research

CCF Central Computing Facility

CEO Chief Executive Officer

CEOS Committee for Earth Observing Satellites

CLiDE 4.2 Climate Data for the Environment

CMSS Central Message Switching System

CO2 Carbon Dioxide

COAG Council of Australian Governments

COSPPac Climate and Oceans Support Program for the Pacific

CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

D

DAFWA Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia

DSTG Defence Science and Technology Group

E

EC Executive Council

EC-PHORS Experts on Polar and High Mountain Observations Research and Services

ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation

ESD Ecologically Sustainable Development

EWD Extreme Weather Desk

F

FERs Functional and Efficiency Reviews

FLARE Flash Flood Advisory Resource

FOI Freedom of Information

G

GST Goods and Services Tax

H

HF High Frequency

1 4 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

HOA Head of Agency

HQJOC Headquarters Joint Operations Command (Defence)

HSMA Health and Safety Management Arrangements

HSR Health and Safety Representative

HyFS Next Generation Hydrological Forecasting System

I

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

ICT Information and Communications Technology

IFD Intensity-Frequency-Duration

IMO International Maritime Organization

IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO)

IPS Information Publication Scheme

ISO International Organization for

Standardization

ITO Information Technology Officer

J

JATWC Joint Australian Tsunami War ning Centre

K

KPI Key Performance Indicator

L

LRQA Lloyd’s Register of Quality Assurance

M

METCDM Meteorological Collaborative Decision Making

MDBA Murray-Darling Basin Authority

MP Member of Parliament

MWKC Marine Weather Knowledge Centre

N

NAIDOC National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee

NEII National Environmental Information Infrastructure

NEMSR National Environmental Monitoring Sites Register

NPEI National Plan for Environmental Information

O

OceanMAPS an ocean prediction model

P

PAES Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements

PANS-MET Procedures for Air Navigation Services-Meteorology

PGPA Act Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013

PGPA Rule Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014

POAMA Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia

PS Act Public Service Act 1999

R

RAAF Royal Australian Air Force

RAN Royal Australian Navy

ROBUST A program to increase r esilience of critical business functions

S

SANDI-OIU Stand Alone Networks of Digital Instruments-Onsite Interpreter Unit

SES Senior Executive Service

SES State Emergency Service

SFIA Skills Framework for the Information Age

SHARP Supercomputer Hardening and Resilience Programme

SLS Service Level Specifications

SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

SPREP Secretariat for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme

T

TC Tropical Cyclone

TO Technical Officer

U

UN United Nations

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UK United Kingdom

US United States of America

UV ultraviolet

W

WET Warning Entry T ool

WHS Work Health and Safety

WHSMS Work Health and Safety Management System

WIGOS WMO Integrated Global Observing System

WIRADA Water Information Research and Development Alliance

WMO World Meteorological Organization

1 5 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Appendix B List of requirements This list of requirements is provided in accordance with the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014, section 17AJ: Aids to access.

N/A denotes that the requirement was not applicable to the Bureau during 2016-17

nil denotes that this aspect was not reported on by the Bureau in 2016-17.

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

17AD(g) Letter of transmittal

17AI A copy of the letter of transmittal signed

and dated by accountable authority on date final text approved, with statement that the report has been prepared in accordance with section 46 of the Act and any enabling legislation that specifies additional requirements in relation to the annual report.

Mandatory i

17AD(h) Aids to access

17AJ(a) Table of contents. Mandatory ii

17AJ(b) Alphabetical index. Mandatory 159

17AJ(c) Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms. Mandatory 148

17AJ(d) List of requirements. Mandatory 150

17AJ(e) Details of contact officer. Mandatory IFC

17AJ(f) Entity’s website address. Mandatory IFC

17AJ(g) Electronic address of report. Mandatory IFC

17AD(a) Review by accountable authority

17AD(a) A review by the accountable authority of

the entity.

Mandatory 2-4

17AD(b) Overview of the entity

17AE(1)(a)(i) A description of the role and functions of

the entity.

Mandatory 5

17AE(1)(a)(ii) A description of the organisational structure

of the entity.

Mandatory 7, 68-69

17AE(1)(a)(iii) A description of the outcomes and

programmes administered by the entity. Mandatory 10-11

17AE(1)(a)(iv) A description of the purposes of the entity

as included in corporate plan.

Mandatory 10

17AE(1)(b) An outline of the structure of the portfolio of

the entity.

Portfolio departments - mandatory

N/A

1 5 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

17AE(2) Where the outcomes and programs

administered by the entity differ from any Portfolio Budget Statement, Portfolio Additional Estimates Statement or other portfolio estimates statement that was prepared for the entity for the period, include details of variation and reasons for change.

If applicable, Mandatory

N/A

17AD(c) Report on the Performance of the entity

Annual performance Statements

17AD(c)(i); 16F Annual performance statement in accordance with paragraph 39(1)(b) of the Act and section 16F of the Rule.

Mandatory 10-20

Report on Financial Performance

17AF(1)(a) A discussion and analysis of the entity’s

financial performance.

Mandatory 4, 105-110

17AF(1)(b) A table summarising the total resources

and total payments of the entity.

Mandatory 106

17AF(2) If there may be significant changes in the

financial results during or after the previous or current reporting period, information on those changes, including: the cause of any operating loss of the entity; how the entity has responded to the loss and the actions that have been taken in relation to the loss; and any matter or circumstances that it can reasonably be anticipated will have a significant impact on the entity’s future operation or financial results.

If applicable, Mandatory.

N/A

17AD(d) Management and Accountability

Corporate Governance

17AG(2)(a) Information on compliance with section 10

(fraud systems)

Mandatory 77-78

17AG(2)(b)(i) A certification by accountable authority that

fraud risk assessments and fraud control plans have been prepared.

Mandatory i

17AG(2)(b)(ii) A certification by accountable authority that appropriate mechanisms for preventing, detecting incidents of, investigating or otherwise dealing with, and recording or reporting fraud that meet the specific needs of the entity are in place.

Mandatory i

17AG(2)(b)(iii) A certification by accountable authority that all reasonable measures have been taken to deal appropriately with fraud relating to the entity.

Mandatory i

1 5 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

17AG(2)(c) An outline of structures and processes in

place for the entity to implement principles and objectives of corporate governance.

Mandatory 70-79,

17AG(2)(d) - (e) A statement of significant issues reported to Minister under paragraph 19(1)(e) of the Act that relates to non compliance with Finance law and action taken to remedy non compliance.

If applicable, Mandatory

107

External Scrutiny

17AG(3) Information on the most significant

developments in external scrutiny and the entity’s response to the scrutiny.

Mandatory 79

17AG(3)(a) Information on judicial decisions and

decisions of administrative tribunals and by the Australian Information Commissioner that may have a significant effect on the operations of the entity.

If applicable, Mandatory

79

17AG(3)(b) Information on any reports on operations

of the entity by the Auditor General (other than report under section 43 of the Act), a Parliamentary Committee, or the Commonwealth Ombudsman.

If applicable, Mandatory

79

17AG(3)(c) Information on any capability reviews

on the entity that were released during the period.

If applicable, Mandatory

79

17AG(4)(a) An assessment of the entity’s effectiveness

in managing and developing employees to achieve entity objectives.

Mandatory 90-99

17AG(4)(b) Statistics on the entity’s APS employees

on an ongoing and non ongoing basis; including the following:

• Statistics on staffing classification level;

• Statistics on full time employees;

• Statistics on part time employees;

• Statistics on gender;

• Statistics on staff location;

• Statistics on employees who identify as Indigenous.

101-104

17AG(4)(c) Information on any enterprise agreements,

individual flexibility arrangements, Australian workplace agreements, common law contracts and determinations under subsection 24(1) of the Public Service Act 1999.

Mandatory 99-100

17AG(4)(c)(i) Information on the number of SES and non

SES employees covered by agreements etc identified in paragraph 17AG(4)(c).

Mandatory 99

17AG(4)(c)(ii) The salary ranges available for APS

employees by classification level.

Mandatory 101

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5 Appendices

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

17AG(4)(c)(iii) A description of non salary benefits

provided to employees.

Mandatory 100

17AG(4)(d)(i) Information on the number of employees

at each classification level who received performance pay.

If applicable, Mandatory

101

17AG(4)(d)(ii) Information on aggregate amounts of

performance pay at each classification level.

If applicable, Mandatory

101

17AG(4)(d)(iii) Information on the average amount of

performance payment, and range of such payments, at each classification level.

If applicable, Mandatory

101

17AG(4)(d)(iv) Information on aggregate amount of

performance payments.

If applicable, Mandatory

101

Assets Management

17AG(5) An assessment of effectiveness of assets

management where asset management is a significant part of the entity’s activities.

If applicable, mandatory

108-110

Purchasing

17AG(6) An assessment of entity performance against

the Commonwealth Procurement Rules. Mandatory 107

Consultants

17AG(7)(a) A summary statement detailing the number

of new contracts engaging consultants entered into during the period; the total actual expenditure on all new consultancy contracts entered into during the period (inclusive of GST); the number of ongoing consultancy contracts that were entered into during a previous reporting period; and the total actual expenditure in the reporting year on the ongoing consultancy contracts (inclusive of GST).

Mandatory 108

17AG(7)(b) A statement that “During [reporting period],

[specified number] new consultancy contracts were entered into involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million]. In addition, [specified number] ongoing consultancy contracts were active during the period, involving total actual expenditure of $[specified million].”

Mandatory 108

17AG(7)(c) A summary of the policies and procedures

for selecting and engaging consultants and the main categories of purposes for which consultants were selected and engaged.

Mandatory 108

17AG(7)(d) A statement that “Annual reports contain

information about actual expenditure on contracts for consultancies. Information on the value of contracts and consultancies is available on the AusTender website.”

Mandatory 108

1 5 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

Australian National Audit Office Access Clauses

17AG(8) If an entity entered into a contract with a

value of more than $100 000 (inclusive of GST) and the contract did not provide the Auditor General with access to the contractor’s premises, the report must include the name of the contractor, purpose and value of the contract, and the reason why a clause allowing access was not included in the contract.

If applicable, Mandatory

107

Exempt contracts

17AG(9) If an entity entered into a contract or there

is a standing offer with a value greater than $10 000 (inclusive of GST) which has been exempted from being published in AusTender because it would disclose exempt matters under the FOI Act, the annual report must include a statement that the contract or standing offer has been exempted, and the value of the contract or standing offer, to the extent that doing so does not disclose the exempt matters.

If applicable, Mandatory

107

Small business

17AG(10)(a) A statement that “[Name of entity]

supports small business participation in the Commonwealth Government procurement market. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and Small Enterprise participation statistics are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

Mandatory 107

17AG(10)(b) An outline of the ways in which the

procurement practices of the entity support small and medium enterprises.

Mandatory 107

17AG(10)(c) If the entity is considered by the

Department administered by the Finance Minister as material in nature—a statement that “[Name of entity] recognises the importance of ensuring that small businesses are paid on time. The results of the Survey of Australian Government Payments to Small Business are available on the Treasury’s website.”

If applicable, Mandatory

107

Financial Statements

17AD(e) Inclusion of the annual financial statements

in accordance with subsection 43(4) of the Act.

Mandatory 112-146

1 5 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

PGPA Rule Reference Part of Report

Description Requirement Page

reference

17AD(f) Other Mandatory Information

17AH(1)(a)(i) If the entity conducted advertising

campaigns, a statement that “During [reporting period], the [name of entity] conducted the following advertising campaigns: [name of advertising campaigns undertaken]. Further information on those advertising campaigns is available at [address of entity’s website] and in the reports on Australian Government advertising prepared by the Department of Finance. Those reports are available on the Department of Finance’s website.”

If applicable, Mandatory

N/A

17AH(1)(a)(ii) If the entity did not conduct advertising

campaigns, a statement to that effect. If applicable, Mandatory 108

17AH(1)(b) A statement that “Information on grants

awarded by [name of entity] during [reporting period] is available at [address of entity’s website].”

If applicable, Mandatory

N/A

17AH(1)(c) Outline of mechanisms of disability

reporting, including reference to website for further information.

Mandatory 93

17AH(1)(d) Website reference to where the entity’s

Information Publication Scheme statement pursuant to Part II of FOI Act can be found.

Mandatory 79

17AH(1)(e) Correction of material errors in previous

annual report

If applicable, mandatory

N/A

17AH(2) Information required by other legislation Mandatory 81

1 5 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Content Index The Bureau of Meteorology is committed to sustainable development and has used the disclosures in the GRI to help assess its effectiveness in reporting on issues relevant to sustainable development. More information on GRI is available at www.globalreporting.org.

This material references GRI 102 General Disclosures 2016; GRI 302 Energy 2016; GRI 304 Biodiversity 2016 and GRI 305 Emissions 2016.

N/A denotes that this disclosure was not applicable to the Bureau in 2016-17

NR denotes that the Bureau has not reported against this disclosure

Universal standards

GRI Standard Disclosure Number

Disclosure Title Page

reference

GRI 102

General Disclosures

102-1 Name of the organization i

102-2 Activities, brands, products, and services 5

102-3 Location of headquarters 6

102-4 Location of operations 6

102-5 Ownership and legal form 5

102-6 Markets served 5

102-7 Scale of the organization iv-v, 4

102-8 Information on employees and other workers 90-104

102-9 Supply chain 106-108

102-10 Significant changes to the organization and its supply chain 109-110

102-11 Precautionary Principle or approach 81-82

102-12 External initiatives 21, 26, 81, 84,

87-88

102-13 Membership of associations 87-88

102-14 Statement from senior decision-maker 2

102-15 Key impacts, risks, and opportunities viii-ix, 11-20,

75, 77

102-16 Values, principles, standards, and norms of behaviour 7, 94

102-17 Mechanisms for advice and concerns about ethics 77-78, 94

102-18 Governance structure 5, 68-75

102-19 Delegating authority 5, 70-71

102-20 Executive-level responsibility for economic, environmental, and social topics 70-72

102-21 Consulting stakeholders on economic, environmental, and social topics 74, 79-80

102-22 Composition of the highest governance body and its committees 71-73

102-23 Chair of the highest governance body 5, 71

1 5 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

GRI Standard Disclosure Number

Disclosure Title Page

reference

GRI 102

General Disclosures

102-24 Nominating and selecting the highest governance body 71

102-25 Conflicts of interest NR

102-26 Role of highest governance body in setting purpose, values, and strategy 71

102-27 Collective knowledge of highest governance body NR

102-28 Evaluating the highest governance body’s performance NR

102-29 Identifying and managing economic, environmental, and social impacts 2-3, 75

102-30 Effectiveness of risk management processes 73-74

102-31 Review of economic, environmental, and social topics 75

102-32 Highest governance body’s role in sustainability reporting 71

102-33 Communicating critical concerns NR

102-34 Nature and total number of critical concerns NR

102-35 Remuneration policies 99-101

102-36 Process for determining remuneration 99-101

102-37 Stakeholders’ involvement in remuneration 99

102-38 Annual total compensation ratio NR

102-39 Percentage increase in annual total compensation ratio NR

102-40 List of stakeholder groups 7-8

102-41 Collective bargaining agreements 99

102-42 Identifying and selecting stakeholders 2-3

102-43 Approach to stakeholder engagement 2-3, 7-8, 79-81

102-44 Key topics and concerns raised NR

102-45 Entities included in the consolidated financial statements 113

102-46 Defining report content and topic Boundaries i, xx

102-47 List of material topics NR

102-48 Restatements of information N/A

102-49 Changes in reporting N/A

102-50 Reporting period i

102-51 Date of most recent report i

102-52 Reporting cycle i

102-53 Contact point for questions regarding the report IFC

102-54 Claims of reporting in accordance with the GRI Standards xx

102-55 GRI content index xx

102-56 External assurance iw, 113-144

1 5 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Environmental standards

GRI Standard Disclosure Number

Disclosure Title Page

reference

GRI 302 Energy

302-1 Energy consumption within the organization 83-84

302-2 Energy consumption outside of the organization N/A

302-3 Energy intensity NR

302-4 Reduction of energy consumption 83-84

302-5 Reductions in energy requirements of products and services N/A

GRI 304 Biodiversity 304-1 Operational sites owned, leased, managed in, or adjacent to, protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside

protected areas

NR

304-2 Significant impacts of activities, products, and services on biodiversity 82

304-3 Habitats protected or restored 85-86

304-4 IUCN Red List species and national conservation list species with habitats in areas affected by operations NR

GRI 305 Emissions

305-1 Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions 83-84

305-2 Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions 83-84

305-3 Other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions NR

305-4 GHG emissions intensity NR

305-5 Reduction of GHG emissions 84

305-6 Emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) N/A

305-7 Nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulphur oxides (SOX), and other significant air emissions NR

GRI 307 Environmental Compliance

307-1 Non-compliance with environmental laws and regulations N/A

1 5 9 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

Appendix C Index

A

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Employment Strategy, 3

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander initiatives, 93

ACCESS, 12, 18, 31, 37, 40, 45

ACCESS-C, 18, 46

ACCESS-C2, 12, 18

ACCESS-CE, 46

ACCESS-G, 46

ACCESS-GE, 46

ACCESS-R, 46

ACCESS-S, 46

ACCESS-S1, 18, 47

ACCESS-TC, 46

ACCESS-TCX, 18, 46

account management framework, 56

Accountable and Ethical Decision-Making, 78

accuracy of information, 12-17

Adelaide City Council, 53

Adelaide High School, 53

Administrative Appeals Tribunal, 79

advertising, 110

agency overview, 5-8

Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper, 40

air pollution stations, 52, 65

Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) Software, 53

Airservices, 74

Airservices’ National Coordination Centre, 24

American Geophysical Union, 17, 63

analysis of performance against purpose, 11

annual climate statements, 38

Annual Performance Statement 2016-17, 10

Annual Procurement Plan, 107

Antarctica, 6, 54

apps (phone), see BOM Weather app

APS Disability Champions network, 93

APS Indigenous network, 93

APS Values, Code of Conduct and Employment

Principles, 7, 78, 94

Argo profiling floats, 50

Army, 24

asset investment and replacement program, 109

asset management, 108-10

Asset Program Board, 109

asthma, 3, 31

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), 54

Audit Committee, 73, 74, 78

Auditor-General, 107

AusTender, 107, 108

Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities

Council, 14, 79

Australasian Reporting Awards, 66

Australia Day Achievement Medallions, 63

Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management

Committee (ANZEMC), 26, 79

Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations -

Reduced Disclosure Requir ements, 123

Australian Accounting Standards Board, 123

Australian Antarctic Division, 54, 74

Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 74

Australian Climate Change Science Programme, 48

Australian Climate Observations Reference Network-

Surface Air Temperatur e (ACORN-SAT), 79, 82

Australian Community Climate and Earth System

Simulator (ACCESS), 12, 18, 31, 37, 40, 45

Australian Defence Force (ADF), 21, 25

Australian Federal Police, 78

Australian Flight Information Region, 17, 24

Australian Government Crisis Coordination Centre, 16, 23

Australian Government Investigations Standards 2011, 78

Australian Groundwater Explorer, 38

Australian Groundwater Information Suite, 82

Australian Institute of Marine Science, 45

Australian Landscape Water Balance team, 64

Australian Maritime Safety Authority, 110

Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 66

Australian National Audit Office, 78, 79, 107

Australian Network on Disability, 92

Australian Public Service (APS), 91

Australian Public Service Commission (APSC), 90, 94

Australian Rainfall and Runoff: A Guide to Flood

1 6 0 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Estimation, 44

Australian Rainfall Deficiency Analyser, 41

Australian Recycled Water Centre of Excellence, 43

Australian Securities and Investment Commission, 78

Australian Signals Directorate, 61

Australian Taxation Office, 78

Australian Transport and Safety Bureau, 15, 34

Australian Tsunami Advisory Group, 79

Australian Tsunami Warning Network, 109

Australian Water Resources Assessment Landscape

model (AWRA-L), 43

Australian Water Resources Information System

(AWRIS2), 43, 59, 109

Australian Weather Calendar 2018, inside back cover

Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012-2022, 96

Australis, 3, 11, 56, 57, 58, 60, 63

AUSWAVE-G, 46, 47

automated rain gauges, 53

automated surface observations central system

(ASOS-CS), 59, 60

automatic weather stations (AWS), 12, 50, 51, 53, 54, 84

installing, 53, 109

training, 95

autosondes, upgrading, 109

aviation and defence forecasts and warnings, x

aviation camera image store and display system, 60

Aviation Meteorological Services team, 76

aviation users surveys, 24

aviation weather services, 12, 14, 17, 21, 24, 47

awards, 63-6

B

balance sheet, 117

Banbai Seasonal Calendar, 93

behaviours, 7

bilateral activities, 19, 88

Bioregional Assessment Information Platform (BAIP), 16, 45

Bioregional Assessment Technical Programme

(BATP), 37, 45, 82

bioregional assessments, 16, 40

Bioregional Assessments Explorer, 45

blogs, 33, 80

BOM Weather app, 11, 26, 56, 62, 63, 64, 109

usage, 58

Border Protection, 25

‘Breakaway of Spirit of Tasmania II’, 15

Brisbane Regional Office, 110

Buckland Park radar, 19, 53

Build Disability Confidence event, 93

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 48

buoys, 50

Bureau Excellence Awards, 64-6

Bureau National Operations Centre, 70

Bureau of Meteorology

authority, vi, 5

committees, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 85, 97, 98

Executive, 70-2, 75, 77, 96, 98

as Executive Agency, vi, 5

focus, vi

management structure, 70-1

organisation at a glance, vi-vii

organisation structure, 7, 68-9

performance framework, 10-11

recognition of performance, 63-6

role and functions, 5

Bureau of Meteorology Training Centre, 94-5, 98, 110

bushfires, 2, 30

business continuity, 77

business development, 110

C

Canberra Meteorological Office, 110

Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, 52

Cape Grim Bio Air Pollution Station team, 65

carbon emissions, 83

cash flow statement, 120

Central Computing Facility, 57, 109

Central Message Switching System, 60

Chief Health Officer, 31

Chief Information Officer of the Year, 60, 63

China Meteorological Administration, 20, 88

Climate and Ocean Support Program for the Pacific

(COSPPac), 20, 57, 88-9

climate briefings, 38

climate change, 48

climate data, 15, 38, 65

Climate Data for the Environment (CliDE 4.2), 57

Climate Data Online, 15, 38, 39

climate data services, xi, 15, 38, 80

1 6 1 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

climate forecasts, 40

climate information services, 37

climate maps and information, xi

climate resilient water sources project, 43, 82

climate statements, 38

Collaboration for Australian Weather and Climate

Research (CAWCR), 18, 70, 74

Collaborative Head Agreement Committee, 74

Comcare, 79

Comcare Rehabilitation Management System Audit, 99

Comcover, 77

commercial weather services, 24

Committee for Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS), 20

committees (BOM), 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 85, 97, 98

common law determinations, 100

Commonwealth Disability Strategy, 93

Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918, 108

Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder, 79

Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework, 77

Commonwealth National Collaborative Research

Infrastructure Strategy to, 82

Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 107, 108

community impacts, x-xii

compensation, 99

Compensation and Rehabilitation Employee Services

(CARES) team, 99

complaints, 80

consultants, 108

consultations, 97, 98

contracts, 107

corporate governance, 70-86

framework, 70

Corporate Plan 2016-17, 11, 75

corporate planning and evaluation, 75

Council of Australian Governments (COAG), 21, 79

Cray Supercomputer, 109

CSIRO, 18, 41, 45, 70, 74

CSIRO Medal for Impact, 66

culture of responsibility, 85

Cyber Security Strategy, 3

D

Darwin Observing Operations Hub, 11, 52

Deakin AIRwatch, 31

Defence Headquarters Joint Operations Command

(HQJOC), 25

Defence Meteorological Support Unit, 25

Defence Science and Technology Group, 74

defence weather services, 12, 14, 17, 21, 24

deliverables, viii

Environment and Research, 37-40

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, 23-5

Information Systems and Services, 56-7

Observations and Infrastructure, 50-1

Department of Agriculture and Food, WA, 19

Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, 41, 79

Department of Defence, 54, 74

Department of Energy, US, 54

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 88

Department of Health and Human Services, 31

Department of Health, WA, 66

Department of the Environment and Energy, 4,79, 84

Digital Accessibility Officers, 92

Digital Accessibility Policy, 59, 92

Director of Meteorology, iii, 5, 10, 64, 70, 71, 74

review, 2-3

Disability Action Plan, 26

disability reporting, 93

Disability Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2020, 92

Disability Working Group, 92

diversity programs, 92-3

driving metrics, 98

drought information, 41

E

Early Intervention Policy, 99

Earth Observations, Committee for Earth Observing

Satellites (CEOS), 20

earthquakes, 16, 24

Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), 81-2

Efficiency through Contestability Programme, 79

El Niño, 40

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 38, 47

eLearning modules, 56, 96, 98

electrical safety, 98

email direct marketing, 17

emergency services, 14, 23

emerging technologies laboratory, 11, 59

Employee Assistance Program, 97

1 6 2 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Enterprise Agreement, 94

Environment and Research, 37-48

deliverables, 37-40

highlights, 40-8

performance, 37-40

programs, 37

environmental information, 81-6

environmental information services, 37

environmental initiatives, 85

environmental management system (EMS), 85

environmental performance indicators, 83-4

Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation

Act 1999, 81

Environmental Protection Authority, 31

Environmental Sustainability Management Committee, 85

Environmental Sustainability Statement of Commitment, 81

Environmental Sustainability Strategy 2016-18, 83

equity statement, 118-19

eReefs project, 37, 45, 82

ergonomics, 98

ethical standards, 94

Evaporation Measurement Automation team, 64

everyday weather forecasts, xi

eXchange newsletter, 39, 40

Executive, 70-2, 73, 75, 77, 96, 98

exempt contracts, 107

expenditure, 106-7

external scrutiny, 79

extreme temperatures, sunlight and wind, xi

extreme weather, 38, 48

Extreme Weather Desk (EWD), 25

F

Facebook, 17, 80, 81

fatigue management, 98

Fatigue Risk Management Program, 98

feedback, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25, 38, 40, 79-81

field offices, 6, 19, 50, 52, 54, 70, 83, 109, 110

see also observing and meteorological information of fices

financial resource management, 105-10

financial results, 4

financial statements, 115-22

notes to, 123-46

fire season, 41

fire weather forecasts, 13

fire weather warnings, x, 30

first aid officers, 98

Fitzroy catchment, 45

Flash Flood Advisory Resource (FLARE), 34

Flexibility Agreements, 99

Flood Action Plan, 25

flood forecasting and warning services, 14, 21

flood predictions, 13, 24

flood warning observations network, 12

flood warnings, 22, 34

Flood Watch products, 25

flooding, 2, 34, 35

fog forecasting, 47

forecast accuracy, 12-14, 28-31

forecasters, 25

forecasting models, 46-7

fraud control, 77-8

Fraud Control Framework, 77

Fraud Liaison Officers, 78

freedom of information, 79

Freedom of Information Act 1982, 79, 107

frost warnings, 14, 30

Frydenberg, the Hon Josh, vi, 5

Functional and Efficiency Reviews (FERs), 79

funding basis, vi

G

gale warnings, 30

gender equality, 3

Geological and Bioregional Assessment Programme, 4

Geoscience Australia, 44, 45, 74

Gibbs Medal, 66

global linkages, 8

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, 23

Global Ocean Observing System, 87

Global Reporting Initiative Content Index, 156

glossary of acronyms, 148

GOV Design Awards, 62, 63

Graduate Diploma in Meteorology, 94, 95

graduates, 90

graphical severe weather warning services, 26

graphical warning products, 11

Great Barrier Reef Foundation, 45

1 6 3 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 84

Great Barrier Reef water quality project (eReefs), 37, 45, 82

groundwater information suite, 82

H

Hazards Services Forum, 14, 25

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, 21-36

deliverables, 23-5

highlights, 25-36

performance, 22-5

programs, 21

Head Office, 6

Health and Safety Representative (HSR) forum, 96

health support, 97-8

health, well-being and environment seminars, 100

heatwave warning services, x

heritage, 85

heritage strategy, 85

Himawari-8 satellite, 19

hindcast dataset, 45

history of the Bureau, vii

HMAS Warramunga, 36

human rights, commitment to, 94

Hydrological Forecasting System (HyFS), 25, 59

hydrological monitoring stations, 50

I

ICT Competency Framework, 90

income statement, 116

Independent Audit Report, 113-14

Indian Ocean Dipole, 40, 42, 47

Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System

(IOTWMS), 87

Indian Ocean-wide tsunami exercise (IOWave16), 24

Indigenous Weather Knowledge website, 3, 93

Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics

Agency, 20, 88

infographics, 33

information and communications technology (ICT), 56

security, 3, 4, 11, 61, 78

Information Publication Scheme (IPS), 79

Information Systems and Services, 56-62

deliverables, 56-7

highlights, 57-60

performance, 56-7

programs, 56

Inspector-General of Emergency Management, 31

Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) design, 44

Intergovernmental Agreement on the Provision of

Bureau of Meteorology Hazard Services, 25-6

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

(IOC), 19, 20, 21, 87

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 52

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 19, 88

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

(SOLAS), 21

international cooperation, 8, 18, 21, 87-9

International Maritime Organization (IMO), 21

International Organization for Standardization

ISO 9001:2015, certification, 76

International Women’s Day, 93

internet services uptime, 58

‘Introduction to Meteorology’ course, 95

Investment Committee, 73

ionosondes, 50

ionospheric forecasts, 13, 25

J

Japan Meteorological Agency, 27

Job Family Model, 90

Johnson, Andrew, iii, 10, 19, 64, 65, 71, 87, 88

Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC), 6, 16, 24

Joint Working Group on Cooperation in Meteorology, 88

Jones family, Bulong, WA, 66

Joyce, the Hon Barnaby, vi, 5

Jurisdictional Reference Group on Water Information, 79

K

Kaurna Seasonal Calendar, 53, 93

key performance indicators, 11, 12-20, 23

L

Law, Crime and Community Safety Council, 79

leasehold management, 110

letter of transmittal, iii

1 6 4 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

Linkedin, 80

Lloyd’s Register of Quality Assurance (LRQA), 76

M

Madden-Julian Oscillation, 47

Major Transactions Committee, 73

manual handling training, 98

marine and ocean services, x

marine gale warnings, 14

marine observations, 12

Marine Observing System and the Terrestrial Ecosystem

Research Network, 82

marine water quality information, 40

marine weather information, 33

Marine Weather Knowledge Centre, 26, 33

maritime safety information, 23

market research, 108

Masterminds Mentoring program, 93

mean sea level pressure, 31

media campaigns, 33, 35

media liaison, 38

Medical Redeployment Working Group, 99

Melbourne Observing Operations Hub, 11, 52

Melbourne Pollen Count, 31

memorandum of understanding, 74, 110

mental health awareness, 98

Met Insight, 59

Meteorological Collaborative Decision Making (METCDM)

process, 24

Meteorology Act 1955, vi, 5, 70

Minamata Convention, 84

Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, vi, 5

Minister for the Environment and Energy, vi, 5

mobile phone app team, 64, 65

mobile weather app, see BOM Weather app

mobile website, 56

Monthly Water Update, 40

Multicultural Access and Equity Action Plan, 93

multilateral activities, 87-8

Munro review, 11, 25

Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 74, 79

N

NAIDOC Week, 93

National Climate and Water Briefings, 16, 17

National Disability Strategy 2010-2020, 93

National Environmental Information Infrastructure (NEII), 45

National Environmental Information Infrastructure

Reference Group, 79

National Environmental Monitoring Sites Register, 40

National Environmental Science Programme, 48

Earth System and Climate Change Hub, 48

National Farmers Federation, 80

National Health and Safety Month, 96, 100

National Operations Centre, 25, 34, 47

National Performance Report 2015-16: Urban Water

Utilities, 42

National Plan for Environmental Information (NPEI), 37, 45

National Reconciliation Week, 93

National Recycling Week, 83

National Relay Service, 26, 92

National Science Foundation, 54

National Tsunami Warning Centres, 24

National Water Account, 16, 38, 59

national weather events summary, xii-xiv

natural resources, demand for, 83-4

Nature journal Scientific Reports, 48

Net Promoter Score ,15, 23, 38, 80

New South Wales Drought Package, 53

New South Wales Drought Resilience Project, 110

New South Wales Roads and Maritime Services, 14, 23

Ngamai supercomputer, 57

numerical weather prediction models, 31, 46, 56

O

Observations and Infrastructure, 49-55

deliverables, 50-1

highlights, 52-5

performance, 50-1

programs, 49

Observations and Infrastructure Workforce Plan, 90

observing and meteorological information offices, 8

Observing Operations Hubs, 11, 52, 90, 109, 110

Observing System Strategy, 95

ocean buoy data, 60

ocean forecasts, 13, 23

1 6 5 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

OceanMAPS, 26, 45, 46, 47

office locations (Bureau), 6

organisation structure, 7, 68-9

organisational management, 68-110

outcome, vi, vii, 7, 10-11

Outlook 2017-18, 4

ozone profile facilities, 50

P

Pacific National Meteorological Services, 18

Pacific Sea Level Monitoring project, 89

Parks Australia, 84

partnerships, 74

peer reviewed publications, 17

people management, 90-104

see also staff

performance, vii, viii-ix

analysis of performance against purpose, 11

Annual Performance Statement 2016-17, 10

Environment and Research, 37-40

framework, 10-11

Hazards, Warnings and Forecasts, 22-5

Information Systems and Services, 56-7

Observations and Infrastructure, 50-1

results, 12-20

performance pay, 101

phone apps, see BOM Weather app

Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Meteorology

(PANS-MET), 88

procurement initiatives, 107

productivity gains, 95-6

property, 110

public feedback, 79-81

public forecasts, 22

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act

2013, vi, 5, 10, 70, 74, 75, 107, 108, 123

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability

Amendment (Non-corporate Commonwealth Entity

Annual Reporting) Rule 2016, 10

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability

(Financial Reporting) Rule 2015, 123

Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, 94

Public Interest Disclosure Framework, 94

Public Service Act 1999, vi, 5, 70, 94, 100, 102

public weather survey, 80

purchasing, 107-8

purpose, vi

Q

quality management, 76

Queensland Government, 45

R

radars, 11, 12, 19, 50, 51, 53, 55, 65

rainfall data, 42

Rainfall Deficiency Analyser, 41

rainfall estimates, 44, 47

rainfall forecasts, 13, 28-9

rainfall records, 66

rainfall stations, 50

rates of pay, 101

Real Time Data Display system, 89

recognition of performance, 63-6

Reconciliation Action Plan (2016-2019), 3, 92

Regional Hazardous Weather Advisory Centres, 88

Regional Offices, 6, 8, 70

rehabilitation, 99

research, 40, 47, 48, 59

Research Data Australia, 45

Resilient Australia Awards, 66

Respect: Promoting a culture free from harassment and

bullying in the APS, 94

revenue, 105

Review of Aviation Weather Services, 3

risk management, 75, 77, 98

Risk Management and Business Continuity

Committee, 75, 77

Risk Policy, 75

river data, 45

Robust Program, 61

Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), 21, 25

Royal Australian Navy (RAN), 21, 23, 74

Rural Fire Service, NSW, 42

Rural Research and Development for Profit program, 4

1 6 6 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

S

SafetyNET satellite service, 23

satellite observation network, 12

satellites, 19, 20, 49, 50, 89

sea level monitoring, 50, 89

sea level network, 12

sea level pressure, 31

sea level stations, 50

Seasonal Climate Outlook for Pacific Island Countries, 89

seasonal climate outlooks, xi, 13, 38

seasonal forecasting, 47

seasonal streamflow forecasting service, 16, 40

Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment

Programme (SPREP), 89

Security, Risk and Business Continuity Committee, 73

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction,, 26

Senior Executive Service (SES), 102-3

common law determinations, 100

numbers, 103

performance pay, 101

remuneration, 99, 101, 139

training and education, 95

service charter, 70

Service Level Specifications (SLS), 13, 24

severe thunderstorm warnings, 30

severe weather events, 60

national summary, xii-xiv

see also specific types, e.g. tropical cyclones

Severe Weather Video Updates, 17, 81

severe weather warnings, x, 16, 26, 81

significant non-compliance, 107

Skills Framework for the Information Age, 90

social media, 33, 35, 80

see also Facebook; Twitter

solar and terrestrial radiation monitoring facilities, 50

South Pacific Observations Network Upgrade Project, 89

Space Weather Information Services, 88

Space Weather Ionosonde Network, 12

space weather observatories, 50

space weather services, 14, 25

staff, vii

age profile, 91, 102

employee-initiated separation rate, 91

Enterprise Agreement, 94, 99

excellence, 63-6

by gender and classifications, 92, 102

inoperative, 104

non-salary benefits, 100

numbers, vii, 7, 91, 102-4

performance pay, 101

provisions, 138-9

rates of pay, 101

recruitment, 103

remuneration, 101, 139

separations, 103

training and development, 91, 94-5, 98

turnover and retention, 90-1

work health and safety, 91, 96-9

workforce diversity, 91

see also Senior Executive Service (SES)

stakeholders, 7-8, 14, 17, 21, 23, 24, 40, 48, 79-81, 84

Stand Alone Networks of Digital Instruments - Onsite

Interpreter Unit (SANDI-OIU), 53

standard operating procedures, 13, 23

State Emergency Service, NSW, 42

State of the Climate 2016, 3, 18, 41

statement of cash flow, 122

statement of changes in equity, 118-19

statement of comprehensive income, 116

statement of financial position, 117

Storm Confirmation Pro tool, 15, 38

storm surge forecasting, 11, 25, 47

Strategy 2017-2022, 4, 75

streamflow forecast service, 13, 24,38, 39

supercomputer, 3, 11, 56, 57, 58, 60, 63

Supercomputer Hardening and Resilience Programme

(SHARP), 11, 57, 61

Supercomputer Programme team, 65

Surf Life Saving Australia, 14, 23

surveys of users, 13, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25, 38

swell forecasts, 36

T

T2 Tsunami Scenario database, 46

Tasmania, extreme weather, 15, 34

temperature data, 41

temperature forecasts, 13, 23, 28, 38

tenders, 107

thunderstorm asthma, 3, 31

Thunderstorm Asthma Interagency Working Group, 31

1 6 7 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

5 Appendices

thunderstorm warning services, 26, 30

thunderstorms, South Australia, 2, 32

tide portal, 26

tide predictions, 26, 45

Traditional Knowledge (TK) database, 89

training and development, 91, 94-5, 98

tropical cyclone Debbie, 2, 14, 27, 30, 34, 35

Tropical Cyclone Outlook service, 17

tropical cyclone prediction, 46

tropical cyclones, 17, 27

tsunameters, 50, 109

tsunami forecasts, 46

tsunami warning system, 12

tsunami warnings, 13, 23

turtles, 86

Tuvalu Meteorological Service, 89

Twitter, 17, 80, 81

U

ultraviolet radiation (UV) forecasts, x, 26

United Kingdom Met Office, 88

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO), 19, 20, 21, 87

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Change, 52

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster

Reduction, 21

University of Melbourne, 31

user-centred design framework, 59

V

values, vii, 7

Victorian Climate Initiative (VicCI) project, 48

videos, 17, 33, 81

visual weather application, 56

Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre, 6

volcanic ash events, 17

Volunteer Rainfall Observer Awards, 66

volunteers, 50

W

Warning Entry Tool (WET), 25, 57

Water Act 2007, vi, 5, 37, 70

water and environmental information, xi

water data, 59, 74

Water Data Online service, 16, 38

water forecasting, 45

Water in Australia Annual Assessment Report 2015, 38

water information, 16, 37, 38, 41, 59

water information dashboard, 59

Water Information Research and Development Alliance

(WIRADA), 66, 74

water information services, 37, 43, 64

water market information, 43, 59

Water Markets Dashboard, 42

water quality forecasts, 45

Water Regulations, Tranche 2 amendment, 43

water resources, 43

Water Restrictions web application, 59

Water Storage mobile applications, 59

wave buoys, 50

wave forecasts, 13, 14, 23, 30, 46

weather and ocean services, 22

Weather Connect, 26

weather event summary, xii-xiv

weather forecast services, 12, 23

weather information user survey, 13

weather prediction models, 31, 46

weather warning services, 21

website, 8, 15, 80, 81

access to, 26

feedback, 80

mobile version, 56

usage, 14, 17, 33, 56, 58

West Antarctic Radiation Experiment project, 54

Wheatbelt Radar Installation, 11, 55

Wheatbelt Radar Installation team, 65

Willis Island, 86

wind forecasts, 29-30

wind profilers, 11, 12, 19, 50, 51, 54

installing, 109

wind speed forecasts, 13, 29

‘Women in ICT Coaching’ program, 93

1 6 8 Bureau of Meteorology | Annual Report 2016-17

work health and safety, 91, 96-9

activities, 98

performance results, 97

policies and procedures, 97

seminars, 100

Work Health and Safety Act 2011, 97

Work Health and Safety Committee, 97, 98

Work Health and Safety Management System

(WHSMS), 96, 98

Work Health and Safety Strategic Plan 2016-17

to 2018-19, 96

workforce diversity, 91

workforce planning, 90-1

Workplace Adjustment Policy, 92

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 41, 87

AMDAR software data standard, 53

Commission for Climatology, 18, 41

Convention, vi, 5, 21

EC Panel of Experts on Polar and High Mountain

Observations, Research and Services, 20, 87

Executive Council, 19, 20, 87

Global Campus project, 95

Integrated Global Observing System, 20

Regional Association V (South-West Pacific), 20, 87

Y

YouTube, 17, 80, 81

Australian Weather Calendar 2018

Australian Weather Calendar 2018 www.bom.gov.au

1

4

7

10 11 12

C

8 9

5 6

2 3

Cover: Moon halo over North Rams Head in Kosciuszko National Park, New South Wales —Luke Tscharke Photography

December: Aurora australis seen from Davis Station, Antarctica.

November: Storms over the Exercise KAKADU fleet off the Northern Territory coast.

October: Changing skies above Capital Wind Farm near Bungendore, New South Wales.

September: Storm cell seen across the West MacDonnell Ranges, Northern Territory.

August: Asperitas clouds over Adelaide, South Australia. July: Lightning over Lake Argyle in the Kimberley, Western Australia.

June: Sunrise streaks through fog as seen from Mount Buninyong, Victoria.

May: Central Sydney distorted by rain on a windscreen. April: A path through the clouds between Townsville and Richmond, Queensland.

March: Lightning strike over Mount Isa Mines, Queensland.

February: A cold front brings powerful waves to Mornington Pier, Victoria.

January: Sunset through fog at Mount Hotham, Victoria.

9 780642 706898

ISBN 978-0-642-70689-8

AUSTRALIAN WEATHER CALENDAR 2018

Photo: Luke Tscharke Photography

The Australian Weather Calendar showcases Australia’s amazing weather across our magnificent landscape. It’s available now from shop.bom.gov.au.

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