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Australian Institute of Marine Science—Report for 2018-19


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ANNUAL REPORT 2018-19

ANNUAL REPORT 2018-19

DISCL AIMER

The research reported herein is based on early analyses of complex datasets and should not be considered definitive in all cases. Institutions or individuals interested in all consequences or applications of the Australian Institute of Marine Science’s research are invited to contact the Chief Executive Officer at the Townsville address below.

For additional copies of this report, please phone AIMS on (07) 4753 4444, write to us at the Townsville address or email media@aims.gov.au.

This report, along with a range of other information about AIMS, is available online at www.aims.gov.au.

© Australian Institute of Marine Science

Townsville, Queensland

PMB No. 3, Townsville MC, Qld 4810

Telephone: (07) 4753 4444

Facsimile: (07) 4772 5852

Darwin, Northern Territory

PO Box 41775, Casuarina, NT 0811

Telephone: (08) 8920 9240

Facsimile: (07) 8920 9222

Perth, Western Australia

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre

The University of Western Australia (M096)

35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009

Telephone: (08) 6369 4000

Facsimile: (08) 6369 4050

ABN 789 61616230

ISSN 1037-3314

The Australian Institute of Marine Science acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the land and sea on which we work. We recognise the unique relationships and enduring cultural and spiritual connection that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have to land and sea, and pay our respects to Elders past, present and future.

We particularly recognise the Traditional Owners of the land on which our main laboratory and office bases are located: the Bindal and Wulgurukaba peoples in Townsville, the Larrakia people in Darwin, and the Noongar people in Perth. We also recognise and pay our respects to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are Traditional Owners of the areas of our marine science operations across tropical northern Australia.

Warning: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons should be aware that this document might contain images of people who have passed away since publication.

AIMS FACILITIES

Sensor networks

AIMS monitoring sites

Weather stations

Location of laboratory facilities

CONTENTS Part 1: Overview 9

The Year in Review: Report from the Chairman 10

The Y

ear in Review: Report from the CEO 12

2018-19 Snapshot 14

Abo

ut AIMS 15

Par

t 2: Performance 17

Pe

rformance Statement 18

Resear

ch Highlight: AIMS Leads Most Extensive Report of Western Australia’s Coral Reefs 19

Resear

ch Highlight: Solander Helps Address Critical Monitoring Gaps in the Remote Far Northern Great Barrier Reef 20

Ent

ity Purpose 21

Int

ended Outcomes 21

Res

ults and Commentary on Performance 22

Stat

ement of (Ministerial) Expectations 26

Resea

rch Performance 30

Publi

cations 30

Rese

arch Highlight: Giving Coral Reefs a Future 33

Resear

ch Highlight: Future Coral Reefs and Next Generation Corals 34

Resear

ch Highlight: Sponges in the 21st Century 36

Sci

ence Leadership 37

Par

tnerships 42

Fo

stering Research Capability 47

Resea

rch Collaboration 51

Sci

ence Quality Assurance 53

Resear

ch Highlight: AIMS Data Explorer 55

Stak

eholder Engagement 56

Communic

ation 59

Adv

ances in Indigenous Partnerships 60

Resea

rch Infrastructure 62

Summary of Field Operations Performance 63

Revenue 66

art 3: Management and Accountability 68

overnment Engagement 69

Role and Legislation 69

Responsible Ministers 69

General Policies of the Australian Government 70

overnance 70

AIMS Council 70

Audit Committee 75

Fraud Control 77

Financial Reporting 77

Performance Reporting 77

Systems of Risk Oversight and Management 77

System of Internal Audit Control 77

External Audit 78

Risk Management 78

Investing and Financing Activities 78

Indemnities and Insurance Premiums for Officers 78

Compliance 78

Duty to Inform and Ministerial Notifications 78

Consultancy Services 79

Public Accountability 79

Customer Service Charter 79

Parliamentary Committees 79

Privacy Act 1988 80

Freedom of Information 80

Research Highlight: Sounding Out Marine Noise 82

Research Highlight: Applied Acoustics Strike the Right Chord 83

P

G

G

Part 4: Our People 84

Org

anisational Structure 85

Staf

f 86

AIM

S Core Staff Numbers 87

Staf

f Consultation 88

Lea

dership Development 88

Equa

l Employment Opportunity and Workforce Diversity 88

Wom

en in Science 89

Cod

e of Conduct 89

Work

place Behaviour 89

Publ

ic Interest Disclosure (Whistle-Blower Policy) 90

Natio

nal Disability Strategy 90

Employee Assistance Program 90

Hea

lth and Safety 91

Our S

trategy 91

Conti

nuous Improvement 91

Saf

ety Pillars 92

Ded

icated Safety Roles 93

Los

t Time Injuries 94

Lea

d and Lag Indicators 94

Man

ual Task Injury Reduction 95

Tra

ining 95

Env

ironmental Performance 95

Red

ucing Our Environmental Impacts 95

Wat

er Usage 96

Rec

ycling 96

En

ergy Usage 96

Rad

iation Safety 96

Gene

Technology 96

Resear

ch Highlight: Global Shark and Ray Survey 97

Resear

ch Highlight: Mysteries of Hammerhead Shark Movement Revealed 98

Part 5: Financial Statements 99

Stat

ement by the Accountable Authority, Chief Executive and Chief Finance Officer 103

Pri

mary financial statements 104

Sta

tement of Comprehensive Income 104

Sta

tement of Financial Position 105

St

atement of Changes in Equity 106

Ca

sh Flow Statement 107

Bu

dgetary Reporting of Major Variances (AASB1055) 108

Not

es to and Forming Part of the Financial Statements 109

Ove

rview 110

F

inancial Performance 111

Fi

nancial Position 113

Peopl

e and Relationships 116

Mana

ging Uncertainties 120

Oth

er Information 123

Sup

plementary Financial Information (Unaudited) 124

Par

t 6: Appendices and Indexes 126

App

endix A: Science Publications 127

Ap

pendix B: External Committees and Non-Government Organisations and Pos

itions 148

A

ppendix C: Legislative Foundation and Ministerial Powers 152

In

dexes 155

Ac

ronyms 155

Complia

nce Index of Annual Report Requirements 157

A

lphabetical Index 162

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

16 September 2019

The Hon. Karen Andrews MP

Minister for Industry, Science and Technology

Parliament House

CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Minister

On behalf of the Council (as the accountable authority of the Australian Institute of Marine Science—

AIMS), we have pleasure in presenting our 47th annual report, for the year ended 30 June 2019. The

report is forwarded to you in accordance with section 46 of the Public Governance, Performance and

Accountability Act 2013.

This report provides information so that you, the Parliament of Australia, and users of AIMS’ research

outputs can make an informed judgement about AIMS’ performance during the 2018-19 financial year.

This report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Australian Institute of Marine

Science Act 1972 and in accordance with section 46 of the Public Governance, Performance and

Accountability Act 2013 and with the requirements of the Public Governance, Performance and

Accountability Amendment (Corporate Commonwealth Entity Annual Reporting) Rule 2016.

On behalf of the AIMS Council, the Chairman endorsed the content of the AIMS Annual Report 2018-19

on 13 September 2019.

Yours sincerely

The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC Dr Paul Hardisty

Chairman Chief Executive Officer

Australian Institute of Marine Science Australian Institute of Marine Science

Par t 1:

OVERVIEW The Year in Review: Report from the Chairman 10

The Year i

n Review: Report from the CEO 12

2018-19 Snapshot 14

About AIMS 15

Image: N Thake

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

10 |

THE YEAR IN REVIEW: REPORT FROM THE CHAIRMAN As Chairman of the Council of the Australian Institute of Marine Science, I am pleased to introduce the Institute’s annual report, reviewing AIMS’ activities and achievements for the period from 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019.

It has been an especially busy and demanding year for everyone at AIMS, with Council, Management and staff working to maintain the regular marine research activities that are central to AIMS’ purpose, and deliver the high quality science outputs the nation requires of the Institute, while dealing with a number of major additional tasks and challenges.

For Council, a major preoccupation over several months was the conduct of an audit into the effectiveness of its governance by the Australian National Audit Office. The Council has led, governed and set the strategic direction for the Institute since its establishment in 1972. Although annual audits of AIMS’ financial processes are a routine aspect of AIMS’ operations, this formal audit of its Council- as part of an ANAO examination

of board governance in selected small entities- was a ‘first’ for AIMS. The process was demanding, involving the provision of a substantial volume of information, interviews with current and former Council members and observation of several Council meetings by ANAO staff. However, it was also very educative and valuable, at a time when the subject of corporate governance is drawing much attention from government and the community and when expectations and standards of board governance responsibilities are changing.

Having welcomed the opportunity to test its effectiveness, the AIMS Council was pleased by the audit’s conclusion that the governance and oversight arrangements it has in place are effective. The report, tabled in Federal Parliament by the Auditor-General on 30 April 2019, found that the Council’s governance and administrative arrangements are consistent with relevant legislative requirements, that the Council has structured its own operations in a manner that supports effective governance and that the Council has established fit-for-purpose arrangements to oversight compliance with key legislative and other requirements.

Another area of major preoccupation and pleasing performance for the Institute this year was the progress made with work on the Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program (RRAP), enabling completion in June 2019 of the $6 million design phase of the program, launched in January 2018. The RRAP is a bold and complex endeavour, aimed at developing new technologies to assist reef recovery, repair and adaptation, and to build the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef in the face of multiple pressures.

Protection of our precious Great Barrier Reef is a national priority for Australia, but with coral reefs world-wide similarly in decline and at risk, the RRAP effort is attracting considerable international attention and interest.

Part 1

Overview

| 11

AIMS has played a leadership role from the outset, working in close collaboration with CSIRO and other partners. The expectation is that we will continue to do so, as the RRAP moves into its next stages, consolidating AIMS’ reputation for innovation and the conduct of cutting-edge research and its position as one of the world’s leading marine science agencies.

While AIMS’ expertise in reef science and its work on the RRAP has understandably attracted much of the limelight during the year, other areas of research and business activity have continued apace, delivering good results across the board. Key achievements, described in detail in this annual report, included the delivery of all research outcomes set out in the AIMS Corporate Plan, and the securing of a number of strategic long-term industry projects. A special highlight in the area of AIMS’ work with industry and the oil and gas sector was the celebration of 25 years of collaboration with Woodside, to explore and conserve the biodiversity of Western Australia’s marine environment. At an event in December 2018 to mark this special collaboration, Woodside’s Chief Operating Officer said the partnership with AIMS had delivered a long-term knowledge base that underpinned the company’s environmental understanding and informed its approvals and impact assessments. It also underlined the benefits that AIMS can deliver for business and the economy.

The latest AIMS Index of Marine Industry— released in March 2019—also underlined the relevance and value of AIMS’ work for advancing Australia’s economic interests, confirming the significant and growing contribution that Australia’s marine industries (our ‘blue economy’) make to the national economy.

Internally, the management reform program launched last year by the CEO to strengthen AIMS’ safety culture and performance, review

and upgrade technology systems and set

in place a new organisation-wide leadership

development program has moved forward,

with more advances expected during the

coming year. Good progress was also

made with the further development and

implementation of AIMS’ revised strategic plan,

AIMS Strategy 2025, which was released in

2018, notably through the completion of a new

communications plan and of a new Indigenous

Partnerships Plan.

Finally, no review of key features of the last

twelve months at AIMS would be complete

without mention of the natural disaster that

devastated the Townsville region—home to

AIMS’ headquarters at Cape Cleveland—in

February 2019. Sadly, the homes, property

and possessions of many of AIMS’ staff were

destroyed or damaged by the unprecedented

rains and floods and some people are still

in a process of recovery, supported by their

colleagues. AIMS’ research facilities were cut

off, but marine science continued throughout,

thanks to a dedicated team of staff who

remained onsite, keeping the National Sea

Simulator operational and ensuring that vital

experiments were not disrupted.

The response of AIMS Management and the

entire AIMS community to the situation was

exceptional. The emergency was handled

with assurance, compassion and resolve. This

impressive demonstration of AIMS’ capacity to

respond to challenges gives confidence that,

as Australia’s marine environment faces its own

challenges and our marine industries continue

to grow in importance, that Australia’s national

marine research agency will continue to deliver

good outputs for government, business and

the community.

Penelope Wensley AC

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

12 |

THE YEAR IN REVIEW: REPORT FROM THE CEO I am proud to present this year’s annual report on behalf of Australia’s national tropical marine research agency.

This year, we released the AIMS Strategy 2025. It updates AIMS’ previous strategic plan to reflect recent events that have affected the health of the Great Barrier Reef and reefs in Australia’s North West. The strategy sets out our direction and values, reaffirms our mission, identifies the key impacts we will deliver for the nation and signals our ongoing commitment to delivering the highest quality tropical marine science.

Each element of the strategy is accompanied by clear, measurable targets. These will be reported as annual key performance indicators (KPIs) in our Corporate Plans, allowing AIMS and the nation to track our progress.

Strategy 2025 seeks to further strengthen our position as a global leader in reef restoration and adaptation science. AIMS has been developing groundbreaking approaches to reef restoration and adaptation for some time. In 2018-19, we led a national consortium of

organisations in the most complete evaluation of reef restoration and adaptation feasibility undertaken anywhere in the world. This study included an investment case for a major R&D initiative (known as the Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program or RRAP) designed to give real hope for the renewal of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian reefs. The R&D phase of the program will provide Government with a series of intervention options that can be applied at scale to help reefs better recover from and adapt to the effect of warming oceans caused by climate change. These options will be based on the best science available and will be rigorously assessed and tested to ensure policymakers can deploy them with certainty.

In February, we welcomed the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology, the Hon. Karen Andrews MP, to our headquarters near Townsville to launch the AIMS Index of Marine Industry 2018.

This index demonstrates the value of the blue economy to Australia’s future prosperity, underpinned by sound marine science and delivered by world class research agencies such as AIMS.

As an organisation, we have a long track record of delivering high-profile projects. This year, we deployed our largest ship, the RV Solander, from Western Australia to the northern Great Barrier Reef for an expedition supporting our Long-Term Monitoring Program. The expedition was part of our commitment to surveying the health of the Great Barrier Reef as we have done for the past 35 years.

We are now halfway through the three-year, $20 million North West Shoals to Shore (NWSS) Research Program in Western Australia. As part of this program, AIMS conducted the first real world seismic experiment to determine the effects of marine noise on fish and pearl oysters.

Part 1

Overview

| 13

As part of the NWSS project, we are also studying the movements of turtles and pygmy blue whales along the north-west coast. Using the latest in acoustic technology, the study will identify risks to these key species from industrial activity and assist in developing improved management practices.

AIMS also has a strong track record of building meaningful partnerships with Traditional Owners of sea country in northern Australia to deliver impactful research for all Australians.

Using our expertise in long-term, large-scale monitoring of coastal and offshore tropical ecosystems, we are working closely with Traditional Owners to build marine monitoring capacity in some of the most remote and inaccessible regions of northern Australia.

This field of focus for AIMS brings together Indigenous knowledge with other areas of science to create new insights into our marine systems.

To reach our Strategy 2025 goals and to prepare AIMS for future challenges, we are embracing innovation and grassroots change. For example, we continued to improve the efficiency of our enterprise management systems and to fully digitise our processes through the implementation of our new TechnologyOne and Microsoft Project Online platforms.

In 2018-19, we introduced a comprehensive leadership development program that is open to all staff. It is designed to build the capabilities of current and future leaders and is an ongoing multi-year commitment that will evolve to suit individual, team and organisational needs.

AIMS takes an organisation-wide approach to risk and has a relentless focus on the safety of our people. Over the past two financial years, our overall safety performance has improved year on year, and we benchmark well compared to a range of other Australian organisations from all sectors when using lost time injury rates as a metric. We will continue to strive for improvement.

This safety focus was demonstrated during the Townsville floods, an unprecedented event that affected the Townsville community and all our staff living there. Despite the disruption, we maintained our key functions, but more importantly all our people were safe.

It is a privilege to lead an organisation that contributes to the betterment of science to achieve positive impact for the nation and the world. I look forward to what I am sure will be another important year for marine science in Australia in 2019-20.

Paul Hardisty

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

14 |

ABOUT AIMS The Australian Institute of Marine Science is a corporate Commonwealth entity established under the Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972 (AIMS Act). As Australia’s tropical marine research agency, it is our mission to provide the research and knowledge of Australia’s tropical marine estate required to support growth in its sustainable use, effective environmental management and protection of its unique ecosystems.

To accomplish our mission, AIMS delivers independent science to help realise three key long-term impacts for the nation:

• improve the health and resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems across northern Australia

• create economic, social and environmental net benefits for marine industries and coastal communities

• protect coral reefs and other tropical marine environments from the effects of climate change.

Our research is focused on the priorities of our stakeholders, including Commonwealth, state and territory governments, industry and Traditional Owners. During the year, our research continued to:

• underpin Australia’s environmental management of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) to ensure that this World Heritage Area remains healthy and resilient

• support the sustainable development of coastal industries and ports across northern Australia, from Gladstone in Queensland to the Pilbara in Western Australia

• provide the environmental baselines and condition and risk assessments required for current and future offshore oil and gas developments in north-west Australia.

Part 1

Overview

Image: N Thake

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

16 |

AIMS’ headquarters was established on Cape Ferguson near Townsville in recognition of the importance of the GBR to Australia. Today, we also operate from bases in Perth and Darwin, which allows us to conduct research across northern Australia, spanning two oceans and three regional seas (see Figure 1).

Townsville

Darwin

Perth

Weather stations

Sensor networks AIMS monitoring sites

Location of major activities Location of laboratory facilities

Figure 1: Location of AIMS’ facilities and major activities

AIMS recognises that Indigenous peoples are the Traditional Owners of much of the sea country within which AIMS works. We therefore acknowledge their significant interest in the research that we conduct. In 2018-19, AIMS developed an Indigenous Partnerships Plan in consultation with a number of Indigenous groups and individuals with an interest in the monitoring, research, management and governance of sea country. The plan builds on the strong historical relationships that AIMS has developed with Indigenous groups in northern Australia. It also presents a roadmap to achieve meaningful marine science partnerships to help deliver key targets in AIMS Strategy 2025. Importantly, the plan focuses on areas of shared and mutual interest to AIMS and Traditional Owners.

Our new Indigenous Partnerships Plan focuses on three key areas:

•

preparing AIMS for Indigenous partnerships by building cultural competency within AIMS and the tools for effective engagement with Traditional Owners

• strengthening existing relationships with Traditional Owners and establishing new ones based on mutual trust, understanding, respect and two-way learning

• establishing AIMS as a leader in working with Traditional Owners by responding to Traditional Owner needs and raising the profile of the value of partnerships between leading science organisations and Indigenous groups.

Part 1

Overview

| 17

Par t 2:

PERFORMANCE Performance Statement 18

Res

earch Highlight: AIMS Leads Most Extensive Report Of Western Australia’s Coral Reefs 19

Res

earch Highlight: Solander Helps Address Critical Monitoring Gaps in the Remote Far Northern Great Barrier Reef 20

Ent

ity Purpose 21

Int

ended Outcomes 21

Res

ults and Commentary on Performance 22

Stat

ement of (Ministerial) Expectations 26

Resea

rch Performance 30

Publi

cations 30

Re

search Highlight: Giving Coral Reefs a Future 33

Res

earch Highlight: Future Coral Reefs and Next Generation Corals 34

Res

earch Highlight: Sponges in the 21st Century 36

Sci

ence Leadership 37

Par

tnerships 42

Fo

stering Research Capability 47

Resea

rch Collaboration 51

Sci

ence Quality Assurance 53

Res

earch Highlight: AIMS Data Explorer 55

Stak

eholder Engagement 56

Communic

ation 59

Adv

ances in Indigenous Partnerships 60

Resea

rch Infrastructure 62

Summa

ry of Field Operations Performance 63

Revenue 66

Image: C Miller

18 |

PERFORMANCE STATEMENT

STATEMENT OF PREPARATION

As the accountable authority of the Australian Institute of Marine Science, I present the 2018-19 annual

performance statements of the Australian Institute of Marine Science, as required under paragraph

39(1)(a) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act) and other

applicable legislation. In my opinion, these annual performance statements are based on properly

maintained records, accurately reflect the performance of the entity, and comply with subsection 39(2) of

the PGPA Act.

Council endorsed the content of the performance statements by a resolution on 10 September 2019.

The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC

Chairman

Australian Institute of Marine Science

| 19

Research Highlight

AIMS leads most extensive report of Western Australia’s coral reefs

Since 2010, over half the reef systems have been severely impacted by coral bleaching

Scott Reef in 2012 with healthy coral population (left), and after the 2016 coral bleaching, showing coral skeletons covered in algae (right) (Images: J Gilmour)

Western Australia’s coral reefs make a significant contribution to the nation’s economy and identity through associated fisheries, tourism and recreation. Although they have largely escaped the chronic pressures affecting other reefs around the world, the coral reefs off the WA coast are regularly affected by seasonal storms and cyclones, and increasingly by heat stress and coral bleaching.

Following the recent global marine heat events, there was never a more important time to understand the condition and trends of this economically and ecologically valuable area.

To address this, AIMS led research into the most extensive report on WA’s coral reefs. The study involved a collaboration of 26 researchers from 19 institutions, and included important marine observations from regional managers, tourist operators and Bardi Jawi Indigenous Rangers in the Kimberley.

Covering eight reef systems—including 401 survey sites—the study was the first of its kind to establish a long-term history of changes in coral cover across the vast area.

To assess the changing regime of disturbance to reef systems across WA, researchers linked their site-specific exposure to damaging waves and heat stress since 1990 with mean changes in coral cover.

The findings, published in Coral Reefs, showed that reef systems north of 18°S have been

impacted by heat stress and coral bleaching during strong El Niño phases and those further south during strong La Niña phases. Since 2010, over half the reef systems have been severely impacted by coral bleaching, which was further compounded by cyclones at some reefs.

Cumulative heat stress and the extent of bleaching throughout the northern reefs in 2016 were higher than at any other time on record.

Overall, for 75 per cent of reef systems with long-term data available (five to 26 years), mean coral cover is currently at, or close to, the lowest on record and full recovery is unlikely if disturbances continue to intensify with climate change. However, some reefs have not yet experienced severe bleaching and their coral cover has remained relatively stable or increased in recent years. Additionally, within all reef systems the condition of coral communities and their exposure to disturbances varied spatially.

Identifying the communities least susceptible to future disturbances and linking them through networks of protected areas, based on patterns of larval connectivity, are important research and management priorities in coming years while the causes of climate change are addressed.

20 |

Research Highlight

Solander helps address critical monitoring gaps in the remote far northern Great Barrier Reef Long-term record of reef health continues

With over 30 years of monitoring data, the Great Barrier Reef is one of the most well-studied reefs in the world. However, less monitoring information is available from the far northern areas of the GBR when compared to its southern counterparts, due to the difficulty and cost of accessing this remote area. After widespread bleaching of the region in 2015-16 and 2016-17, addressing the information gaps on the condition and trend of this ecologically important area was considered vital for management.

In January 2019, with funding from the Great Barrier Reef Foundation’s Reef Trust Partnership, AIMS transferred its largest research vessel, RV Solander, from its home base in Darwin to the east coast to assist with collecting monitoring data in the remote region. The 34.9 metre purpose-built vessel — with its specialised laboratories, flow-through aquariums and high-tech computing and diving facilities — enabled 18 AIMS scientists and crew to conduct broad-scale surveys of 18 reefs from Cooktown to Cape York and detailed surveys of seven reefs in the far north. Critical information was gathered on coral cover as well as baseline data on coral community composition, juvenile coral density and fish communities.

Sixteen of the 18 reefs surveyed had moderate to high coral cover, which suggests they escaped the worst of the bleaching-induced mortality from the 2015-16 and 2016-17 back-to-back bleaching events. Although researchers found that severely impacted reefs were still in poor condition, reef degradation was less widespread than previously understood. Furthermore, surveys recorded many juvenile corals at densities that are expected to promote future recovery. However, this study only surveyed a small number of reefs on the mid and outer shelf, due to safety concerns, which limits

the inferences that can be drawn for an estimate of regional coral reef condition.

There was little evidence of crown-of-thorns starfish activity and very little coral disease. However, there was evidence of continued pressure on these reefs —for example, storm impacts and low-level coral bleaching.

AIMS researchers predict that for full recovery these reefs will require decades without recurrent disturbances. Despite high variability between survey reefs, fish and shark populations were healthy with abundances and diversity slightly higher than in southern areas of the GBR. Several groups of fishes, including the commercially important coral trout, were more abundant on reefs closed to fishing compared to reefs that were open to fishing. This indicates that management zones, such as marine reserves, are also effective in remote localities such as the far northern GBR. However, this difference was only detected from data collected by fixed site surveys of fishes using underwater visual census, and not from sampling by baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). This highlights the complementary value of these two standard monitoring methods.

The project also served as a proof of concept for the integration of GBR monitoring programs. The extensive field campaign showed that collecting multiple data streams at the same time is logistically feasible if properly planned and resourced—for example, by using a sufficiently large vessel.

AIMS researchers predict that for full recovery these reefs will require decades without recurrent disturbances

Part 2

Performance

| 21

ENTITY PURPOSE AIMS was established by the Australian Government in 1972 to conduct research and development relating to, and to promote, the application and use of marine science and marine technology.

The Institute’s mission is to provide research and knowledge of Australia’s tropical marine estate required to support growth in its sustainable use, effective environmental management and protection of its unique ecosystems. The functions and powers of the Institute are fully described in Appendix C: Legislative Foundation and Ministerial Powers on page 152

INTENDED OUTCOMES AIMS’ annual Portfolio Budget Statement provides the Parliament of Australia with information on how AIMS will use its allocated resources to achieve the government-mandated outcome over the current budget and forward years. AIMS is funded to deliver Outcome 1: Growth of knowledge to support protection and sustainable development of Australia’s marine resources through innovative marine science and technology.

Government funding for AIMS is delivered through Program 1: Marine Research. This program provides research services focused on supporting the sustainable development of Australia’s marine estate by industry while ensuring the protection of high-value marine and coastal ecosystems through effective environmental management.

Through engagement with stakeholders, including Commonwealth and state governments, industry, Traditional Owners and science agencies, AIMS has developed a comprehensive research program that continues to deliver world-leading science while ensuring that its multidisciplinary science capability, infrastructure and research investment remain focused on addressing national needs and aspirations.

The 2018-19 Portfolio Budget Statement Table 2.1.3 identifies how AIMS is working to deliver research outcomes by:

• developing and contributing to integrated observing systems and conducting robust long-term monitoring of key components of Australia’s tropical coastal and marine ecosystems

• conducting strategic and applied research investigating major gaps in our understanding of the impacts of natural and human pressures on Australia’s tropical coastal and marine ecosystems

• providing advice, data and knowledge products that enable effective environmental risk assessment and the development of evidence-based regulatory regimes by government and marine industry

• contributing to a growing body of publicly available data and information

• engaging in national and international research collaborations to leverage investment, harness capability, ensure uptake of knowledge and promote outcomes enhancing Australia’s role in supporting regional blue economies

• engaging meaningfully with Traditional Owners to integrate western and traditional knowledge systems for the sustainable use and effective management of Australia’s tropical marine ecosystems

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

22 |

• optimising the use of world class research infrastructure (vessels, aquaria, ocean

monitoring equipment and laboratories) to support research conducted by AIMS and

research collaborators

• developing, deploying (and potentially marketing) innovative data and underwater

sensing technologies.

The success of AIMS’ marine research program is assessed against a set of five high level

performance criteria designed to:

• maintain or increase scientific excellence, innovation and impact

• successfully deliver strategic and applied research and monitoring that is aligned with

national research priorities and stakeholder needs (the Australian and state and territory

governments, marine industries (oil and gas, ports sectors, coastal industries and tourism),

Traditional Owners and coastal communities)

• ensure research advice and data and knowledge products are used by stakeholders to assess

the impacts of natural and human pressures on sensitive marine ecosystems

• increase research capability, capacity, impact and science diplomacy through participation

in formal national and international collaborations, joint ventures, partnerships and

strategic alliances

• make optimal use of research infrastructure assets.

RESULTS AND COMMENTARY ON PERFORMANCE AIMS successfully achieved all high-priori ty research outcomes detailed in the AIMS

Corporate Plan 2018-19.

At the start of each annual reporting cycle, only a proportion of external revenue (40-60%) is

contracted. This creates two risks that AIMS manages within the cycle:

• Annual external revenue earnings, and hence the capability that AIMS can retain and the

associated research outputs it should target, is subject to forecasting error. Note that the

market sectors in which AIMS operates are dominated by short-term bespoke research

projects; there are few routine or regulated external revenue sources.

• Customers contract AIMS to undertake specific research projects (i.e. the research scope

is contractually linked to the funding). While AIMS undertakes extensive stakeholder

consultations when setting plans, it is still not feasible to predict exactly which areas of

research will be externally funded.

In response, AIMS operates an adaptive research planning process that continually reviews and

adjusts research portfolio so that the highest priority research is completed.

In 2017-18, AIMS set a new external revenue record. The 2018-19 external revenue budget was

also set at a high level, reflecting more optimism in the market, particularly in the offshore oil and

gas sector and the government sector. While external revenue was contracted, weather delays

and work not completed meant external earnings were below budget (refer page 66 - revenue).

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Table 1 provides a summary of our performance against the Corporate Plan 2018-19 Key Performance Indicators.

Table 1: Overall performance summary

Table legend All expectations met Most expectations met

Performance Criteria

Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS) performance targets

KPIs (Corporate Plan) Result

Expectations Met

Scientific excellence innovation and impact is maintained or increased

Maintain acknowledged domestic and global high standing in relevant fields of research and confidence of key stakeholders in research outputs

• Maintain ranking within the top three institutes in the world in relevant research disciplines measured using traditional academic metrics

Recent benchmarking of AIMS’ Citation Impact (CI) demonstrate that in the field of marine and freshwater biology, AIMS was the top-ranked research institution in Australia and second in the world over the period 2013-18 (see Figures 3 and 4 on page 31)

d

• Maintain high stakeholder confidence in AIMS’ scientific outputs gauged using a net promoter score

Formal surveys of stakeholder confidence have been delayed to avoid oversurveying. However, reports from informal interactions

with stakeholders indicate high confidence in AIMS science.

Successful delivery of strategic and applied research and monitoring that addresses national research priorities and stakeholder needs

Maintain or increase the amount of stakeholder commissioned research

• Calculate and articulate at least $10 million in environmental, social and economic net benefits attributable to AIMS research.

Benefits have been identified from AIMS research contributing to economic growth in Darwin Harbour without compromising environmental performance, as well as improved stakeholder capability and better and faster decision-making in north-west Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. Valuations are not yet complete or validated but preliminary estimates exceed $10 million/annum.

• Increase net external revenue generated through stakeholder commissioned research by 2.5%

Net external revenue for 2018-19 is $12.88 million compared with an actual of $13.75 million in 2017-18, a decrease of 9%.

Note that the strategic target of 25% increase by 2025 was compared with the 2016-17 baseline of $10.47 million. The 2018-19 actual represents an increase of 23% over this baseline.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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Performance Criteria

Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS) performance targets

KPIs (Corporate Plan) Result

Expectations Met

Research advice and data/ knowledge products are critical for stakeholders to assess the impacts of natural and human pressures on sensitive marine ecosystems

Maintain or increase the number of peer reviewed publications, datasets and derived knowledge products that are used by stakeholders and are publicly available

• Maintain annual journal publication rates in excess of 200 papers per year

This measure is reported on a calendar year basis. AIMS has exceeded 200 publications each year since 2015. 219 journal articles were published during 2018. The current trajectory for 2019 suggests that in excess of 200 papers will be published for the fifth consecutive year.

• 100% of journal articles published are made open access

All research manuscripts are advertised on the AIMS website and copies of all papers can be obtained on request from the author.

• 100% of datasets collected using public monies are made publicly available within one year of collection

The outputs of research funded by specific government programs are available on the appropriate (government) website or on request, at the completion of the project.

Increased research capability, capacity, impact and science diplomacy through participation in formal national and international collaborations, joint ventures, partnerships and strategic alliances

Maintain or increase the number and scale of domestic and international research partnerships, collaborations, joint ventures and strategic alliances.

Maintain or increase participation by AIMS on advisory panels and committees

• Maintain the proportion of collaborative research projects that involve AIMS scientists above 70%

During the 2018-19 FY, AIMS maintained its strong record of collaboration with >85% of its projects involving external collaborators (see page 51).

• Maintain the proportion of published papers and reports that include collaborators above 80%

During 2018, AIMS maintained its strong collaborative publication record. Fifty per cent of papers authored or co-authored by AIMS scientists involved collaborators from other Australian research organisations, and 46% of papers involved international collaborators.

• Contribute to 100% of advisory panels and committees that are relevant to AIMS business

AIMS continues to play a significant advisory and leadership role on relevant panels and committees. Most notable are the National Marine Science Committee, the Reef 2050 Plan Reef Advisory Committee, Independent Expert Panel and RIMReP Steering Committee, Secretariat for the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network Steering Committee. In addition, AIMS has contributed advice to several government reviews and Senate inquiries (e.g. DIIS Women in STEM Strategy Consultation Paper, Senate Inquiry into Australia’s Faunal Extinction Crisis). See Appendix B

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Performance Crit eria

Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS) performance targets

KPIs (Corporate Plan) Result

Expectations Met

Optimal use of research infrastructure assets

Maintain or increase usage of research

infrastructure - specifically the RV Solander, the RV Cape Ferguson and the National Sea Simulator

• 90% utilisation of majo r research assets

National Sea Simulator utilisation is 90%;

Research vessel utilisation is 88%.

Image: N Thake

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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STATEMENT OF (MINISTERIAL) EXPECTATIONS In 2015, the then Minister for Industry and Science, the Hon. Ian Macfarlane MP, provided the AIMS Council with a Statement of Expectations1, outlining the Minister’s expectations regarding the quality and focus of AIMS’ research, its contribution to Australian Government priorities and initiatives, and AIMS’ governance and communication responsibilities.

The Chairman of the AIMS Council, the Hon. Penelope Wensley AC, responded with the AIMS Statement of Intent2 identifying our commitment to the Australian Government’s policy agenda and the strong connections between this policy agenda and our Strategic Plan 2015-25.

In 2018-19, AIMS continued to achieve outcomes that directly support the Ministerial Statement of Expectations, as identified in Table 2.

Table 2: AIMS delivery against Minister's expectations.

Minister’s expectation AIMS delivery against expectation

AIMS to actively engage in the specifications and overall spirit of the Boosting Commercial Returns from Research agenda, ensuring the

Commonwealth’s $9.2 billion per year investment in research furthers the interests of the Australian community and maximises our commercial return.

AIMS continues to take an active role in Australian Government science and research policy development and participates in initiatives such as the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy.

The Government is finalising its first set of Science and Research Priorities developed by the Chief Scientist and considered by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC), and I expect AIMS to give consideration as to how it can best contribute to these research areas of national priority.

AIMS’ research program is aligned with Australia’s Science and Research Priorities - in particular the soil and water, and environmental changes priorities. During 2018-19, AIMS delivered the Reef Res

toration

and Adaptation Program which is contributing to one of the Government’s most recent priorities—science for the restoration and (climate) adaptation of the GBR.

Consistent with its legislative functions, AIMS to contribute to the Government’s science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) agenda to increase Australia’s STEM performance.

AIMS delivers on its commitment to support the growth of STEMM capabilities in marine science by co-supervising postgraduate students and

providing postdoctoral and early career pathways and employment opportunities. Further, AIMS is a primary sponsor of the ATSIMS program (Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science), which encourages the uptake of marine science by Indigenous high school students.

1 The statement is available at: https://www.aims.gov.au/docs/about/corporate/corporate-profile-governance/ statement -of-expectations

2 www.aims.gov.au/docs/about/corporate/corporate-profile-governance/statement-of-intent

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Minister’s expectation AIMS delivery against expectation

The Government will respond to the Research Infrastructure Review. AIMS to provide input, through the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science to this process of policy development including on matters such as depreciation, governance, access management, long-term planning and prioritisation, and sources of funding.

AIMS contributed to the Research Infrastructure Review, the development of the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap, and the National Research Infrastructure Investment Plan 2020 review.

AIMS to continue to deliver world class research and development in relation to marine science and marine technology that underpins the sustainable

long-term management of Australian marine environments, including the GBR, as well as associated impartial and accurate advice. In doing so, it should focus its scientific research on areas where it has or can establish a competitive edge in terms of excellence and scale, and encourage the application and adoption of this research, especially where it can drive improvements in Australia’s economic competitiveness.

This is a core function of AIMS. A recent analysis of AIMS’ citation impact in the field of marine and freshwater biology—our core area of expertise— determined that between 2013 and 2018, AIMS was the top-ranked research institution in Australia and second in the world - see pa

ge 31.

AIMS to support the Minister for Industry in her role as Deputy Chair to the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC).

AIMS provides support to the membership of the CSC at all appropriate levels.

AIMS to engage with the Chief Scientist of Australia, including when a member of the National Science, Technology and Research Committee.

AIMS takes appropriate opportunities to engage the Chief Scientist. AIMS Co uncil Chairman and CEO have

met the Chief Scientist several times.

In advancing the Government’s agenda, AIMS to collaborate with universities, other publicly funded research agencies, and industry to achieve common

objectives. In particular, AIMS should not rely entirely on its own resources but should also use national and international collaboration to increase the capacity and responsiveness of the nation’s ability to translate marine science research into out

comes.

A significant proportion of our research involves collaborations with other parties. During 2018-19, more than 85% of AIMS’ projects involved external collaborators, including universities, other publicly funded research agencies and industry partners.

AIMS to work in partnership with business to identify and develop the science to address industry problems and to underpin Australia’s aim of increased competitiveness. The knowledge and ideas of its researchers can substantially improve the productivity of ind

ustry and businesses. AIMS

and business should therefore work together to continue growth in the knowledge-based sectors. Further, AIMS to engage with those industries where AIMS’ capability can help them to become globally competitive.

AIMS delivered an extensive portfolio of research related to industry, particularly the offshore oil and gas sector in WA. We also provide research-based support to other Australian industries, including ports, tourism and agriculture.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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Minister’s expectation AIMS delivery against expectation

AIMS should maximise use of its national scientific facilities and collections by Australian and international researchers, including by encouraging industry access to relevant facilities. In encouraging such access, AIMS has a role to play in communicating and educating business on the benefits such infrastructure can provide.

AIMS’ national research infrastructure, the SeaSim, and AIMS’ research vessels continue to be used frequently by industry partners and other researchers, including international researchers, as part of collaborative research projects.

AIMS to raise community awareness of its activities and communicate its research and technical knowledge through the publication of peer reviewed scientific papers and the provision of marine science and technology goods and services.

AIMS delivers its science to the broader community through a variety of communication mechanisms including through the AIMS website and by publishing numerous high-quality scientific papers in peer reviewed journals.

Research publications produced by AIMS that arise from public funding should be openly available at no charge within 12 months of original publication, excepting where contractual arrangements preclude this or are at significant cost, noting that such arrangements are to be minimised. This could be done by making publications accessible via the agency website; by depositing the output to an organisation, institution or discipline electronic archive that provides open access; by publishing in open-access journals; or by ensuring publications are available on a journal or publisher website.

AIMS regularly publishes research papers in open-access journals and also advertises published outputs on the AIMS’ website, noting that copies of research papers can be obtained from the author. In addition, the outputs of research funded by specific government programs are made publicly available on the appropriate (government) website on completion.

Consistent with its legislative functions, AIMS to invest in industry-relevant research training. AIMS to encourage engagement between researchers and business, including by facilitating mobility between AIMS and other research organisations and industry. AIMS to encourage its researchers to be entrepreneurial and support realisation of commercialisation outcomes for industry. AIMS to support risk taking, as part of a resilient strategic approach to solving the big problems facing Australia, within the context of maintaining good governance and learning from failure.

AIMS supports the training of postgraduate scientists in industry-supported fields of research, collaborating with other national and international research organisations, and partnering with major industry sectors to develop innovative solutions that yield beneficial economic and environmental outcomes. During 2018-19, AIMS joined with industry partners to jointly fund several early career research positions within the Institute.

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Minister’s expectation AIMS delivery against expectation

AIMS to identify and take, where practicable, opportunities to support new companies to commercialise AIMS’ discoveries and expertise.

AIMS monitors and assesses potential commercial development opportunities arising from our research. We have a record of supporting companies in their efforts to realise commercial benefits of AIMS’ discoveries and expertise. AIMS undertakes a range of technology development projects aimed at further leveraging its research investment.

AIMS to keep the Minister and the Department informed, in a timely and accurate way, of significant issues relating to the health and work of the organisation. AIMS to provide input and information to the Department as required ensuring that advice to the Minister’s office and the Government canvasses relevant issues and sensitivities and reflects a portfolio response. AIMS to provide copies of ministerial briefings and correspondence to the relevant areas of the Minister’s office and the Department, in parallel. AIMS to provide prior notice to the Minister’s office and the Department of significant announcements and events that are likely to attract media attention.

AIMS continues to provide a range of timely and informative briefings to Australian Government ministers and departments on relevant marine science issues.

In accordance with the Pu

blic Governance,

Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act), AIMS to develop an annual corporate plan and to provide that plan to the responsible portfolio minister and the Minister for Finance. In developing the corporate plan, AIMS to consult with the Minister and the Department, and to take into account the priorities and policies of the Government, especially as articulated in the Statement of Expectations.

Consistent with the requirements of the PGPA Act, AIMS released its 2018-19 Co

rporate Plan update in

August 2018.

AIMS to provide Parliamentary Secretary Andrews and her office with the same level of communication, and timely, accurate advice and information, as to the Minister and the Department.

All official AIMS Ministerial briefs are lodged with, and available to, the executive of the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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RESEARCH PERFORMANCE

PUBLICATIONS

AIMS has a strong publications record within our fields of expertise, particularly climate change and ocean acidification, marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, ecosystem status and trends, water quality and marine microbiology.

The main type of publications produced by our research staff are peer reviewed journal articles and reviews, followed by client reports (see Figure 2). For the full citation, please see Appendix A: Science publications.

Figure 2: Number of AIMS publications by type, 2014-18

Recent benchmarking of AIMS’ citation impact (CI) demonstrated that in the field of marine and freshwater biology, AIMS was the top-ranked research institution in Australia (Figure 3) and second in the world (Figure 4) over the period 2013-18.3

3 Benchmarking was conducted using Clarivate Analytics InCites research analytical tool, which queries more tha n 12,000 journals comprising the Web of Science. The analysis assessed the citation impact (CI) of articles

and reviews Australian and international research institutions that had published more than 200 peer-reviewed publications in the field of marine and freshwater biology between 2013 and 2018. The citation impact of an organisation is calculated by dividing the total number of citations by the total number of publications produced by the organisation within a period of time.

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Figu

re 3: Top six organisations in the field of marine and freshwater biology ranked by citation impact, 2013 to 2018 in Australia (InCites May 2019)

Figure 4: Top six organisations globally in the field of marine and freshwater biology ranked by citation impact, 2013 to 2018 (InCites May 2019)

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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James Cook University remains AIMS’ most frequent collaborator on publications (Figure 5); in part due to the strong strategic partnership between the two organisations for research student training (AIMS@JCU). Similarly, the numerous co-authorships with CSIRO (second) and the University of Western Australia (third) are facilitated in part by the co-location of all three organisations in the Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, Perth. External collaborations with the University of Queensland and the University of Tasmania have steadily increased over the past 10 years.

James Cook University University of Western Australia University of Queensland

Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) University of Tasmania University of Adelaide

Figure 5: Trends in collaborative publications (all research) illustrating the top six research institutions, 2008-18 (InCites May 2019)

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Research Highlight

Giving coral reefs a future A compelling investment case

Over the past three decades, total coral cover in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park has declined to a level well below that seen when we started broad-scale monitoring in 1985. The major causes of this decline have been large-scale disturbances:

crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks, tropical cyclones and mass coral bleaching. The severity of tropical cyclones and mass coral bleaching events is determined by summer ocean temperatures, which have been slowly rising throughout the 20th century. In 2016 and 2017, high sea temperatures caused mass coral bleaching across the northern GBR affecting a large portion of the reef that had, until that time, escaped large-scale disturbances.

These unprecedented disturbances led to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA developing the 2017 ‘Great Barrier Reef Blueprint for Resilience’, which recommends “researching and developing large-scale restoration methods”.

In January 2018, the Australian Government provided $6 million for a feasibility study of the Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program (RRAP) led by AIMS and involving a multi-institutional partnership including CSIRO, Great Barrier Reef Foundation, University of Queensland, James Coo University, Queensland University of Technology, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and a dozen other specialist research, private sector and international organisations. More than 150 scientists and engineers from four countries were directly involved with the RRAP Concept Feasibilit Program in 2018-19.

The partnership conducted a rigorous review of current global restoration practices and other more innovative possibilities. It convened international workshops to determine how we want to restore reefs, possible actions to achieve the desired effects, and the feasibility of these actions at different scales. Eventually, a multitude of possibilities was reduced to 43 interventions deemed worthy of further evaluation through a staged R&D program.

)

k

y

The feasibility study showed that while there was no ‘magic bullet’ solution, an integrated package of RRAP interventions could help protect and retain the environmental, social and economic values of the GBR indefinitely under best-case emissions scenarios (RCP 2.6). Under an unchecked emissions scenario and continued climate change (RCP 8.5)4, such interventions could help protect and retain the core environmental, social and economic values of the reef for another 20 to 30 years, creating a window of opportunity to tackle the global emissions crisis.

The investment case concludes that interventions at scale could help the reef provided that long-term, best-practice reef management continued and that global greenhouse gas emissions were reduced. The proposed R&D program was supported by a cost-benefit analysis that estimated potential returns to the nation of interventions (economic activity, jobs, community development and capacity building) to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

The RRAP R&D program proposes one of the world’s largest efforts to help a significant ecosystem survive climate change, and to make interventions at scale feasible, safe, acceptable and affordable. This program would position Australia as the global leader in coral reef adaptation and restoration, opening opportunities to partner internationally and to export Australian expertise to other countries where reefs face similar challenges.

In January 2018, the Australian Government provided $6 million for a feasibility study of the Reef Restoration and Adaptation

Program (RRAP) led by AIMS

4 Representation Concentration Pathways (RCP) https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/ resources/492978e6-d26b-4202-ae51-5eba10c0b51a/files/wa-rcp-fact-sheet.pdf

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Research Highlight

Future coral reefs and next generation corals

At AIMS, the pilot work for future culture systems is being done in the National Sea Simulator (SeaSim)

Image: C Miller

Mass coral bleaching and mortality caused by high sea temperatures in five separate years (1998, 2002, 2006, 2016 and 2017) has significantly reduced total coral cover on the GBR. Critically, the time between these events has been too short for full recovery of mature communities. Long-lived and vulnerable species will disappear if this trend continues. As ocean temperatures are predicted to increase over the foreseeable future, researchers at AIMS are exploring options for making corals more temperature tolerant.

The RRAP Investment Case (see page 33) examines options for making corals more resilient. These range from selective breeding programs to genetically engineered corals and symbionts.

Underlying many of the options is the ability to harvest coral spawn in order to produce next generation juveniles. While this can be done in the field now, the techniques are not scalable. The mass culture of juveniles with known parentage can only be done in large aquaculture systems.

At AIMS, the pilot work for future culture systems is being done in the National Sea Simulator (SeaSim).

Just prior to the 2018 spawning season, our researchers joined a GBR Legacy ‘Search for Solutions’ expedition to the far northern Great Barrier Reef, which was impacted by consecutive marine heatwaves in 2016 and 2017. Healthy colonies of surviving Acropora tenuis were collected and flown to the SeaSim where they were spawned. In a collaboration with AIMS, scientists from the Taronga Conservation Society Australia and the US-based Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute collected and froze coral sperm from these spawnings to be

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Research Highlight

banked in Taronga’s GBR Coral Cryo-repo sitory. The repository already had gametes from 16 different coral species cryopreserved at its two cryodiversity banks in Sydney and Dubbo. In a reciprocal exchange, cryopreserved sperm banked in 2012 were thawed and found capable of fertilising fresh eggs from the northern corals. This success demonstrates that cryopreserved gametes can be stored and used in experiments throughout the year, reducing a critical bottleneck on experiments that use fresh spawn, which is only available for one or two weeks per year.

In the 2018 coral spawning season, AIMS researchers spawned a record 26 species of coral in the SeaSim and produced coral spat from 23 species. Slightly more than half (14) were spawned for the first time in the SeaSim; for one species, it was the first spawning of this species observed anywhere. Larvae from 19 of the 23 species were maintained for three months and tested in assays to determine their settlement preferences, growth and survival after settlement. This allowed comparisons between locally designed settlement collectors and international versions through collaboration with a leading international reef restoration organisation, SECORE. Early survival of corals is a critical parameter to achieve ‘scale at cost’ for reef restoration, which is likely to require settling corals on optimised artificial

surfaces. These experiments were enabled by the first grant from the Reef Trust Partnership for Reef Restoration and Adaptation Science, which is managed by the Great Barrier Reef Foundation.

With a major grant from the charitable Paul G. Allen Philanthropies, eggs and sperm from different Acropora species, including the A. tenuis from the northern GBR, were exposed to each other in breeding trials. In seven of the eight trials, successful fertilisation produced viable hybrid juveniles. Early tests in the SeaSim showed that hybrids, including A. tenuis genes, were more tolerant of heat than purebred juveniles. In March 2019, with approval from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, our researchers planted some of these hybrid juveniles in short-term deployments on the reef for the first time. They will be returned to the laboratory before reaching maturity. These field experiments are the culmination of several years’ work investigating assisted evolution co-funded by Paul G. Allen Philanthropies and AIMS. They are designed to test whether the hardiness demonstrated in laboratory experiments is maintained after extended exposure to real world conditions. This is crucial information for any plan to seed reefs with next generation corals.

Image: C Brunner

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Research Highlight

Sponges in the 21st century Coral reefs across the world have changed in many places since the middle of the 20th century. The most common feature among these changes has been the declining abundance of reef building corals. In the short term, many seascapes once dominated by coral assemblages have been converted to algal reefs, especially where overfishing or disease has reduced the abundance of herbivorous fish and sea urchins. When abundant, chemical secretions from macroalgae can prevent coral larvae from recolonising the reef, adding another pressure to the global threat to corals from marine heatwaves. With global oceans continuing to warm, a question remains about the mix of species expected on reefs in a warmer future.

Along with algal-dominated reefs, some reefs in the Caribbean have recorded steady increases in sponges to the point where these filter feeders now represent the majority of biomass. While there is debate among ecologists about the extent to which the increase in sponges is a response to dissolved nutrients released from abundant algae

or a release from their historical predators like turtles, recent work by AIMS researchers shows that sponges are more tolerant than corals of the climate conditions projected for 2100.

Experiments in the SeaSim have shown that four different types of sponges were unaffected by a 1.5°C rise in temperature (enough to cause bleaching and death of most corals), and some species were tolerant of an extreme change of 4°C (enough to kill all corals). While extreme temperatures decreased the health and survival of some sponge species, no effect was observed in experiments examining the potential impact of ocean acidification. Observations by AIMS researchers at natural carbon dioxide vents in Papua New Guinea have confirmed that many sponge species are tolerant of chronic changes of pH. Further experiments in the SeaSim on the combined effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification showed that the two pressures interact in ways that differ among species. While acidification exacerbated the effect of warming in sponge species that feed on plankton, it mitigated the warming effect in species with photosynthetic symbionts. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marine sponges may be ‘winners’ from climate change and the next step is to model the impacts of increased sponge abundance upon reef community functions.

Recent work by AIMS researchers shows that sponges are more tolerant than corals of the climate conditions projected for 2100

Testing marine sponges in the Seasim (Image: H Bennett)

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Image: S Clarke

SCIENCE LEADERSHIP

AIMS plays several important marine science leadership roles, including setting research agendas through strategic workshops on key issues, giving keynote talks at international symposia and contributing to issues of national importance through input to government committees and policy projects. Here we outline some key leadership roles that AIMS has played during the year.

Contributing to issues of national importance

National Marine Science Committee (NMSC)

The National Marine Science Committee, which comprises 29 representatives of research insti tutions, universities, industries and government departments with a stake in marine science

(including the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science; Geoscience Australia; and CSIRO) is responsible for implementing Australia’s National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025, which was released in August 2015. The plan addresses the challenges identified in the Marine Nation 2025 position paper. It operates in tandem with the Science and Research Priorities set by the Commonwealth Science Council, and with a number of other national and international efforts to prioritise ocean, earth system and climate science. The plan highlights areas where national collaborations can strengthen both science and end-user communities and recommends investment in research infrastructure and high-priority science programs to maximise the marine sector’s contribution to the growth of Australia’s $68 billion5 blue economy.

AIMS provided strong leadership during the development of the National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025 and continues to make significant contributions to the NMSC and to the subsidiary working groups established to help implement the Plan.

Reef 2050 Long-Term Sustainability Plan

The Reef 2050 Plan is a 35-year plan developed jointly by the Australian and Queensland gov ernments to assist management of the GBR and the GBR World Heritage Area. It aims to

maintain and enhance the health and resilience of the reef while allowing ecologically sustainable development. The vision is to ensure that the outstanding universal values of the GBR continue to improve each decade between now and 2050, guaranteeing that the reef remains a natural wonder for successive generations. The Plan, which sets out objectives, outcomes, targets and actions, was developed in partnership with government, key industry organisations, Traditional Owners, environment groups, researchers and the community.

5 AIMS Index of Marine Industry

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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AIMS continued to provide strong leadership in the implementation of the Reef 2050 Plan through the direct involvement of the following personnel:

• The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC - Chairman of the AIMS Council and Chairman of the Reef Advisory Committee (RAC),

• Dr Paul Hardisty - AIMS CEO, member of the RAC and member of the RIMReP (Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program) Steering Committee

• Dr David Souter - member of the Program Delivery Working Group responsible for overseeing the delivery of the RIMReP

• Dr Britta Schaffelke, member of both the Commonwealth and state independent expert panels and led the RIMReP Coral Reef Expert Group

• Dr Richard Brinkman - led the RIMReP Marine Physico-chemical Expert Group

• Dr Eric Lawrey - member of the RIMReP Data Management and Integration working group

• numerous members of AIMS staff who contributed expertise to components of the design of RIMReP.

The most significant outcome for AIMS and the Reef 2050 Plan during 2018-19 was the delivery of the design recommendations for the Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program.

Contributing to issues of international importance

AIMS leads global collaborations on Reef Restoration and Adaptation

Climate change is the single biggest threat facing the world’s coral reefs. We recognise that mai ntaining the health and resilience of coral reefs through the development and application

of innovative interventions to restore and help coral reefs adapt is a truly global challenge. AIMS has built on the work undertaken during the concept feasibility phase of the RRAP to generate international support and collaborations, particularly with international scientists and management agencies such as the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

In partnership with the NESP’s Tropical Water Quality Hub, the RRAP co-hosted the Great Barrier Reef Restoration Symposium in Cairns in July 2018. This three-day event drew more than 200 scientists, engineers, marine park managers, tourism operators, community leaders and youth from around the world, and explored some of the most promising options for strengthening the resilience of the GBR and reefs worldwide, as well as wider issues and different perspectives on reef restoration. The symposium generated national and international debate concerning potential innovations and the complex issue of intervening to help coral reefs.

AIMS researchers Ken Anthony and David Bourne were appointed members of a US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) Committee on Interventions to Increase the Resilience of Coral Reefs. They joined nine other experts to “review the science and assess potential risks and benefits of ecological and genetic interventions that have potential to enhance the recovery and persistence of coral reefs threatened by rapidly deteriorating environmental conditions that are warmer, less favourable for calcification, have impaired water quality, and pose continuing disease threats”. In addition, several AIMS staff were invited to give public presentations as part of the NASEM committee process. The committee’s review, which recommended careful planning and monitoring of interventions, was released in June 2019.

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AIMS contributes to the International Coral Reef Initiative

Since July 2018, Australia has chaired the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) Secretariat in par tnership with Monaco and Indonesia. The ICRI is an informal partnership between nations and

organisations that strives to preserve coral reefs and related ecosystems around the world. The actions of ICRI have been pivotal in continuing to highlight globally the importance of coral reefs and related ecosystems to environmental sustainability, food security and social and cultural wellbeing. In particular, ICRI encourages the adoption of best practice in sustainable management of coral reefs and associated ecosystems, builds capacity, and raises awareness at all levels of the plight of coral reefs around the world. The work of ICRI is regularly acknowledged by the United Nations, highlighting the Initiative’s important cooperation, collaboration and advocacy role within the international arena.

AIMS has made significant contributions to Australia’s co-chairmanship through the collaborative development of the ICRI Plan of Action, and as a member of Australia’s internal ICRI Steering Committee. In addition, under the auspices of ICRI, we established and are leading the Ad Hoc Committee on Reef Restoration, which aims to assess and document global needs and priorities for current and future reef restoration, identify R&D priorities and improve coordination, and jointly plan and deliver R&D activities. Recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee are due later in 2019.

AIMS takes on global coordination of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)

With the support of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, AIMS has responded to UN Env ironment Assembly Resolution 2/12 on coral reefs which called on UN Environment to “support

further development of coral reef indicators, regional coral reef assessments, and preparation of a global report through GCRMN”, and the ICRI Resolution requesting the ICRI Secretariat and UN Environment to “develop and initiate implementation of a roadmap for strengthening GCRMN”. The GCRMN is an operational network of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI). The GCRMN supports ICRI by working through a global network of coral reef scientists and managers, institutions and organisations to provide the best available scientific information on, and communication of, the status and trends of coral reef ecosystems for their conservation and management. The GCRMN produces periodic Status of Coral Reefs of the World reports, which have had significant impact within the global scientific, NGO, government and United Nations communities, with the UN recognising that the GCRMN is the primary vehicle for monitoring progress toward coral reef-related Sustainable Development Goals (13 & 14) and Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the CBD (Target 10). Under AIMS leadership, and in conjunction with a global network of contributors, the GCRMN will produce the next Status of Coral Reefs of the World report by mid-2020.

Coral Reef Innovation Project addressed global challenges associated with coral reef monitoring

In 2018-19, AIMS prepared to pilot a new generation of coral reef monitoring technology on reefs in the P acific Islands. Working with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Queensland University

of Technology and Pacific Island partners, the Coral Reef Innovation Project, otherwise known as Reef Cloud, will provide an end-to-end cloud-based solution that will use artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies to automatically generate reports for image-based coral reef monitoring programs describing changes in the condition of coral reefs. Reef Cloud will help reef managers to make more timely and accurate decisions to improve the long-term resilience of global coral reefs.

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Image: N Thake

Sea surface temperature workshop

The need to understand and improve sea surface temperature (SST) data products in complex shal low water coastal and coral reef regions has never been greater.

Continuous satellite monitoring of SST at global scales provides resource managers, scientific researchers, and other coral reef ecosystem stakeholders with tools to understand and better manage the complex interactions leading to coral bleaching. When bleaching conditions occur, these tools can be used to trigger bleaching response plans and support appropriate management decisions and communication with the public.

Following global bleaching events between 2016 and 2017, AIMS and NOAA Coral Reef Watch co-hosted a workshop in Townsville to identify gaps and potential improvements to current satellite SST products, specifically retrieval algorithms, to meet the needs of coral reef scientific and management communities.

The workshop, held in August 2018, was also endorsed by the Integrated Marine Observing System and the international science Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST).

Addressing globally relevant challenges

Marine microplastic debris in the food chain has the potential to compromise human health. A key ar ea of research by the Sino-Australian Centre for Healthy Coasts (SACHC) is understanding

the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems and industries to contamination from microplastics, specifically on the marine species that underpin much of China’s burgeoning aquaculture industry.

This pioneering work by SACHC will quantify the uptake of microplastics in key aquaculture and fisheries species and determine the effects of contamination.

SACHC was established in July 2016 through a grant from Australia’s Department of Industry, Innovation and Science under the Australia-China Strategic Research Fund. This initiative recognises that Australia and China share similar challenges and require science-driven solutions for managing coastal areas, as industrialisation, tourism, agriculture and aquaculture compound pressures on the marine environment.

Another key outcome of research delivered through SACHC is a marine Environmental Health Report Card for Jiaozhou Bay, a shallow water body located in Qingdao, eastern China. The report card, released in 2019, was endorsed as a valuable tool to support coastal decision making by local, regional and central government managers with coastal management responsibilities. AIMS’ scientists continue to engage with colleagues in China to support adoption of the environmental report card approach to coastal management to improve water quality.

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Expert advice

In 2018-19, AIMS provided expert analysis and advice and contributed to the following reviews and papers:

• Department of Industry, Innovation and Science’s Women in STEM Strategy Consultation Paper

• Senate Inquiry into Australia’s Faunal Extinction Crisis

• National Climate Science Advisory Committee’s Risk and Reward: Climate Science for Australia’s Future

• Environmental Protection (Great Barrier Reef Protection Measures) and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2019.

In addition, AIMS staff contributed in many committees and groups:

• Dr Paul Hardisty is a member of the National Marine Science Committee and the NESP Tropical Water Quality Hub Steering Committee.

• Dr Richard Brinkman is a member of the Gladstone Healthy Harbour Partnership (GHHP) Independent Science Panel.

• Dr David Souter is a member of the National Marine Science Committee, the steering committee for the Australian Secretariat for the International Coral Reef Initiative, the NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub Steering Committee, and Chair of the Hub Partners Committee.

• Dr Ken Anthony and Dr David Bourne contributed to the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine’s review on interventions to increase coral reef resilience.

• Ms Traceylee Forester was a member of the Australian Delegation to the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Katowice, Poland in December 2018 and of the Australian Delegation to the Commonwealth Blue Charter All Champions meeting in London, June 2019.

• See also our Reef 2050 Long-term Sustainability Plan (see more detail on page 37).

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PARTNERSHIPS

AIMS has created and participated in multiple joint ventures, strategic alliances and significant collaborations that maximise our ability to deliver high quality science. These arrangements increase the critical mass and diversify the skills base that can be applied to answer complex questions about the sustainable use, management and protection of marine resources. During the year, most of our scientific tasks received external co-investment involving sta

keholders and partners who actively participated in research design, implementation and dissemination of knowledge.

AIMS is, or has been, a member of the following partnerships:

• Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies

• Reef 2050 Plan Marine Monitoring Program

• National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) - Tropical Water Quality Hub

• NESP - Marine Biodiversity Hub

• Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and the National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025

• Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI)

• Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre

• AIMS@JCU

• ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematical and Statistical Frontiers of Big Data, Big Models, New Insights.

A synopsis of each of these partnerships is given below.

The ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (Coral CoE) was established in 2005. In 2013, the Coral CoE received an additional $28 million of ARC funding to continue for a further seven years. The Coral CoE researches ecosystem goods and services of the world’s coral reefs, building bridges between the natural and social sciences, strengthening capacity, and informing and supporting transformative changes in coral reef governance and management. The centre involves national and international partner institutions - AIMS, the Center for Ocean Solutions at Stanford University (COS, USA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, Switzerland) and WorldFish (Malaysia). In 2018, the Centre has collaborative links and co-authorships with 440 institutions in 79 countries. AIMS’ Chief Research Officer Dr David Souter was a member of the Coral CoE’s advisory board, and Dr Janice Lough is a partner investigator. AIMS and the Coral CoE have jointly supported several postdoctoral fellowships over the life of the centre.

Further details are available at www.coralcoe.org.au

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The Reef 2050 Plan Marine Monitoring Program (MMP) was designed and developed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority in collaboration with science agencies to monitor the inshore health of the reef. The program is funded under the Reef 2050 Plan. Managing water quality remains a strategic priority for the Authority, to ensure the long-term protection of the coastal and inshore ecosystems of the reef. A key management tool is the Reef 2050 Water Quality Improvement Plan, a joint commitment of the Australian and Queensland governments that seeks to improve the quality of water flowing from the catchments adjacent to the GBR. To evaluate the effectiveness of catchment management and report on progress in improving the quality of coastal marine waters, the marine monitoring program has assessed status and trends in reef water quality and ecosystem condition since 2005.

We have continued to contribute data from monitoring inshore water quality and the condition of inshore coral reefs to the MMP. In collaboration with James Cook University, AIMS has been monitoring water quality several times a year at 58 fixed sites along more than 700 km of coastline from Mackay to Lockhart River. In addition, we survey the condition of 32 coastal and inshore coral reefs from the Fitzroy Region to the Wet Tropics on a two-yearly schedule.

Further details are available at http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/our-work/our-programs-and-projects/ reef-2050-marine-monitoring-program

The NESP Tropical Water Quality Hub is a collaboration of researchers from AIMS, CSIRO and four Queensland universities (Central Queensland University, Griffith University, James Cook University and University of Queensland), administered by the Reef and Rainforest Research Centre in Cairns. The Hub is focused on improving the water quality of the Torres Strait and the GBR and its associated catchments, and funds research within three broad themes:

• improve the understanding of the impacts (including cumulative impacts) and pressures on high-priority freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems and species

• maximise the resilience of vulnerable species to the impacts of climate change and climate variability by reducing other pressures, including poor water quality

• identify natural resource management improvements based on sound understanding of the status and long-term trends of high-priority species and systems.

In early 2019, the Hub distributed the final fifth round of funding.

Further details are available at https://nesptropical.edu.au

The $23.88 million NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub is a partnership of AIMS, the University of Tasmania (UTAS), Charles Darwin University, CSIRO, Geoscience Australia, IMOS, Museum Victoria, the NSW Department of Primary Industries, the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, and UWA. The Hub is supported by the Australian Government’s NESP, which is administered by the Department of the Environment and Energy. The Hub focuses its research efforts on Australian oceans and marine environments, including temperate coastal water quality and marine species, and is administered through UTAS.

Research within the Hub targets four themes:

• improving the management of marine threatened and migratory species

• supporting management decision making

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• improving our understanding of pressures on the marine environment

• improving our understanding of the marine environment, including biophysical, economic and social aspects.

Further details are available at https://nespmarine.edu.au

Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national research infrastructure capability that delivers a comprehensive, integrated, national system of ocean observations covering physical, chemical, biological and ecological variables. IMOS is supported by the Australian Government’s National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and is operated by a consortium of institutions, led by the University of Tasmania. AIMS has been a foundation member of the IMOS partnership since it was established in 2006, and has continued to play a leadership role as the primary operator of IMOS infrastructure across northern Australia. We also contribute strategic guidance through memberships of the board and the IMOS Science and Technology Advisory Committee to provide advice on the scientific priorities, rationale and future direction of the observing system and operational implementation of a national marine observing vision.

The delivery of IMOS is distributed across partner organisations and operators that are responsible for capability-based facilities. AIMS has responsibility for the operation of ocean moorings, national reference stations, reef-based sensor networks, acoustic animal tracking, reception of satellite-derived observations and underway observation systems from our large research vessels across a geographic domain spanning tropical Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland.

The National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025 highlights the value of sustained ocean observation to Australia’s blue economy and has recommended sustaining and expanding marine observation and modelling capability. For more than a decade, AIMS and IMOS have made high quality ocean observations accessible to the marine and climate science community, international collaborators, users and other stakeholders to underpin our need for deeper understanding of the status and trends of our oceans and their ecosystems. IMOS investment is leveraged by marine industries to support growth in the blue economy across multiple sectors including offshore resource extraction, fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, ports and shipping. AIMS continues to play a key role in partnerships with marine industries, port operators and state governments to promote uptake of IMOS data and to deliver environmental and economic benefit.

Further details are available at www.imos.org.au

The Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) was established to facilitate WA’s integrated and coordinated approach to complex research issues to inform management and industry. WAMSI is a partnership of four WA universities (UWA, Murdoch University, Edith Cowan University and Curtin University), a major resource company (Woodside Energy Ltd), two Commonwealth organisations (CSIRO and AIMS), four WA Government departments (Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions; Department of Jobs, Tourism, Science and Innovation; Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development; Department of Water and Environmental Regulation); the Western Australian Museum, the WA ChemCentre and a regional ocean observing network for the Indian Ocean (WA Global Ocean Observing System).

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The Institution was launched in May 2007 with an initial investment from the WA Government of $21 million over five years with $71.85 million co-invested by the partners to deliver a research program that included Ningaloo and sustainable fisheries. In 2011-12, the state government invested $12 million over six years, augmented with an additional $18 million from the partners, for WAMSI to deliver the Kimberley Marine Research Program. The report on this comprehensive and collaborative research effort was released by the WA Minister for Science, the Hon. Dave Kelly MLA, in May 2019.

WAMSI’s capacity to deliver programs, such as the $30 million Kimberley Marine Research Program, stems from its ability to bring together 200 scientists from 25 organisations, including 11 partners. All projects collaborated with Traditional Owners and marine rangers to ensure the integration of science with traditional knowledge.

In each case, the government funds generated investments from WAMSI research partners, providing substantial leverage to target high priority marine science needs in WA.

In 2019, WAMSI finalised the results of an industry partnership program to deliver the $18 million Dredging Science Node (DSN). The Node is an example of the strategic use of environmental offsets and is funded from requirements associated with Woodside’s Pluto Project, Chevron’s Wheatstone Project and BHP’s Outer Harbour Project. It was established in 2011-12 to understand and mitigate the impacts of coastal dredging on the environment.

Groundbreaking insights from the program are now being translated into improved dredging guidelines. These will streamline monitoring by focusing on the relevant and most sensitive aspects and help to improve the effectiveness of management approaches to minimise hazards from dredging. The DSN has set a new industry standard, with impacts beyond WA. Early adoption of its key findings are being implemented in dredging programs in Queensland and the Northern Territory. Internationally, there is uptake of the findings in environmental impact assessment studies, dredging management plans and technical consultancy advice on dredging projects.

Further details are available at www.wamsi.org.au

The Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC) is a joint venture that unites the four leading Australian research organisations working in and around the Indian Ocean—AIMS, CSIRO, UWA and the WA Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. This collaboration has helped create new multidisciplinary research teams and a graduate training environment that will significantly advance WA’s marine science capacity, capability and profile. In 2018, the IOMRC Partnership continued to support innovative and ambitious marine research. By investing more than $2 million over three years, the partnership will reveal the least understood of the world’s ocean basins. New sensing and modelling capability that covers genes through to ecosystems will allow better management of WA resources and provide early warning of future environmental risks.

AIMS@JCU is a strategic alliance that takes advantage of AIMS and James Cook University’s co-location in Townsville and collective expertise and infrastructure. It currently supports collaborations through jointly supervised higher degree research candidates, and recently graduated its 108th PhD awardee. The partnership also facilitates AIMS-based internships and work-integrated learning for students of marine science enrolled at JCU.

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By facilitating the link between JCU’s higher degree research program and our own research program, AIMS@JCU delivers significant value beyond the dollar investment. This includes a higher PhD completion rate (compared to the JCU average in similar fields of research), more research outputs with higher impact, and cohorts of work-ready graduates with skills and expertise in national marine science and experience within a publicly funded research agency. Such industry exposure integrated with higher degree research training continues to address key recommendations of the Australian Council of Learned Academies review of Australia’s research training scheme.

To help bridge the growing skills gap in quantitative marine science (as identified in the National Marine Science Plan), AIMS@JCU has restructured its scholarships to four years (instead of three), with the extra year available for professional development in quantitative methods customised for each student and their advisory team. AIMS@JCU members also benefit from being well positioned within the combined peer networks of AIMS and JCU, and they can access special competitive funding awards for project costs, travel and science communication, and professional development opportunities.

AIMS@JCU supports the pipeline of marine science HDR candidates through fostering work-integrated learning placements including internships, and links with science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine (STEMM) programs for high schools. The high school programs include those focused on Indigenous participation—Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science (ATSIMS) and the Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS).

AIMS@JCU currently has 316 members, of which 45 are PhD candidates and 72 are other students (MSc, undergraduate or interns). Further details are available at www.aims.jcu.edu.au

The ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematical and Statistical Frontiers of Big Data, Big Models, New Insights (ACEMS) successfully attracted seven years of funding from the Australian Government in December 2013 and commenced operation in 2016-17.

ACEMS concentrates on the massive amounts of data collected daily in a variety of forms and from many sources. Many of the resulting datasets have the potential to make vital contributions to society, business and government but are so large or complex that they are difficult to process and analyse using traditional tools.

The centre, led by the University of Melbourne, brings AIMS scientists together with world class collaborators and partner organisations, including Monash University, Queensland University of Technology, University of Adelaide, University of Technology Sydney, CSIRO, Australian Bureau of Statistics, University of New South Wales, University of Queensland, Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems, Vic Roads, Sax Institute and AT&T Labs-Research.

ACEMS aims to create innovative mathematical and statistical models that can uncover the knowledge concealed by the size and complexity of these big datasets. From a marine science perspective, the collaboration will enable AIMS (and others) to add value to the data collected on the GBR to increase our knowledge of the reef and its processes, and to improve reef management.

Further details at www.acems.org.au

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FOSTERING RESEARCH CAPABILIT Y

AIMS supported Dr Marji Puotinen, a Perth-based spatial/ecological data scientist with AIMS, to participate in the third Homeward Bound Program in 2018-19. Homeward Bound aims to build a network of 1000 women scientists (defined as science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine—STEMM) over 10 years, and train them to take leadership on climate issues. Marji joined 80 women from around the world, as well as diplomat Christiana Figueres (an architect of the Paris Climate Agreement), aboard a ship to Antarctica in January 2019.

As a publicly funded research agency, AIMS does not confer degrees upon students and postgraduates. Nevertheless, AIMS is committed to early career researcher training to help develop the research and innovation capacity needed to meet the opportunities and challenges facing the marine environment, and to keep Australia globally competitive. AIMS maximises its impact by providing opportunities to develop a research career including:

• postdoctoral studies

• postgraduate studies

• scholarship funding for postgraduates

• occupational trainees

• exposing Indigenous high school students to marine science.

Image: M Roman

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Postdoctoral research

As at 30 June 2019, AIMS co-funds or supports 21 postdoctoral fellows (see Table 3) under agreements with:

• ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (1)

• AIMS-QUT Memorandum of Understanding (2)

• Santos (2)

• Charles Darwin University (2)

• Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre Partnership (4)

• Bertarelli Foundation (1)

• NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub (1)

• King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia) (1)

• Australia-China Strategic Research Fund (ACSRF) Program (1) - funded by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science

• AIMS (6)

AIMS also supports an ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award Fellow based at The University of Western Australia.

Awards to AIMS ECR and postgraduates

Postdoctoral Fellow Dr Amanda Dawson won the Jury Award at the 2019 Queensland Women in STEM Prizes for her video on the effects of marine pollution on seafood, Fishing for plastics: from ocean to plate.

Postgraduate students and occupational trainees

During 2018-19, AIMS staff co-supervised 68 postgraduate students from 11 universities within Australia, of whom 38 are part of the AIMS@JCU program (see above), and six are international students. Of the total, 44 are primarily based at AIMS, and 24 are primarily located at partner universities.

AIMS’ involvement in early career researcher training is reflected in 26 staff members holding adjunct academic appointments at Australian or international institutions, including:

• James Cook University, primarily within the Coral CoE, the College of Science and Engineering, and the Division of Research and Innovation (through the AIMS@JCU partnership)

• University of Queensland

• University of Western Australia

• Charles Darwin University

• Queensland University of Technology

• University of Auckland, New Zealand

• Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

Many of these adjunct positions reflect a large personal contribution to postgraduate supervision.

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Table 3: Number of postdoctoral fellows, postgraduates and occupational trainees, 2014-15 to 2018-19

2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Postdoctoral Fellows 16 13 14 24 21

Postgraduates working at AIMS supervised by AIMS staff 34 34 31 29 44

Postgraduates working externally supervised by AIMS staff 43 37 39 28 24

Occupational trainees and interns 18 10 10 7 17

Exposing Indigenous high school students to marine science

The Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science (ATSIMS) Scholars’ Initiative was established in 2013 by AIMS@JCU postgraduate student Joe Pollock. The initiative was designed to engage Indigenous high school students in field-based science programs to bolster the interest, experience and hands-on skills needed to initiate, and succeed in, tertiary studies in marine science.

Each year, Indigenous students from North Queensland engage in interactive workshops at AIMS under the guidance of marine researchers and Indigenous leaders. The program fosters links between western marine science and traditional ecological knowledge.

ATSIMS is part of the Indigenous Education & Research Centre at James Cook University. In addition to the support the program receives from AIMS, the scholars’ initiative is currently supported by JCU, AIMS@JCU, World Wildlife Fund, Gudjuda Reference Group Aboriginal Corporation, Girringun Aboriginal Corporation, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, Townsville Catholic Education, the US Department of State, SeaLink, Oregon State University, Reef HQ Aquarium, and the Museum of Tropical Queensland.

In 2018-19, AIMS participated in CSIRO’s Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) program. During the residential summer school, students completed a group research project and presented their findings at the closing ceremony. Scientists shared their research and Indigenous mentors helped strengthen cultural connections. After the summer school, the program assists students to develop leadership skills and to access work experience.

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Joe Baker recognised for his mentoring and support of graduates

In January 2018, world renowned marine scientist Professor Joe Baker AO, OBE, FTSE, FRACI, C.Chem. died at age 85 in Canberra. Joe’s connection with AIMS spanned more than 40 years, first as a member of the committee formed to find a permanent site for the Institute, then through to his appointment as Director (1985 to 1992). Joe was generous with his time and especially supportive of junior researchers and students. This enduring interest in the next generation of marine scientists was reflected on a national scale by his long-time patronage of the Australian Marine Sciences Association (AMSA). In 2018, AIMS established a long-term agreement with the AMSA to sponsor a session that promoted exposure of research conducted by early career researchers at the association’s annual conference in memory of Professor Baker.

Photo: Sabine Dittman, Joe’s son Rohan Baker and Libby Evans-Illidge at the inaugural Joe Baker Memorial Session

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RESEARCH COLL ABOR ATION

Collaboration is a core value of AIMS. Collaboration with domestic and international partners enables AIMS to draw on complementary skills to deliver practical research results and to share knowledge more broadly. During 2018-19, AIMS was involved in 160 collaborative projects conducted in 29 countries. These projects involved 226 Australian scientists from 63 Australian organisations and 120 international colleagues from 79 overseas organisations.

Figure 6: Location of countries hosting AIMS’ collaborative projects

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Collaborative research accounts for a high proportion of our scientific publications (see Figure 7). Of the 219 journal articles published by AIMS scientists, 108 (49%) had co-authors from other Australian research organisations and 101 (46%) involved international colleagues. Only 10 articles (5%) were solely authored by AIMS staff.

Figure 7: Percentage of collaborative publications

In addition to these research collaborations, in 2018-19 we:

• renewed our membership with Plymouth Marine Laboratory - AIMS’ membership in the Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans (POGO), a forum to promote and advance the observation of the global ocean

• signed an MoU with the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority - to collaborate in marine research and support sustained protection and use of the GBRMP

• extended our Strategic Alliance Agreement with JCU to 31 December with a view to finalising a new agreement to commence on 1 January 2020

• re-established an MoU with CRR Qld Pty Ltd, John (Charlie) Veron and Mary Stafford-Smith to update, improve and develop the interactive program Corals of the World online.

Image: S Clarke

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SCIENCE QUALIT Y ASSUR ANCE

Rigorous quality assurance and quality control procedures ensure we deliver high quality and timely research to stakeholders. At inception, all projects are reviewed by the relevant Research Program Directors, the Chief Research Officer and (if the magnitude of the project warrants), the CEO to ensure that they align with AIMS Strategy 2025, that they use public funds and resources appropriately, and that they will deliver tangible benefits to one or more of AIMS’ stakeholders.

Initially, projects are managed using a centralised database with the collection and management of data governed by standard operating procedures. The subsequent release of project outputs involves rigorous internal review and is governed by several policies and procedures, including Intellectual Property, Data Access and External Document Control policies.

AIMS’ research process and procedures are consistent with the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2018).6

Data management and dissemination

The AIMS Research Data Centre manages and secures the Institute’s data making it globally discoverable and accessible via the internet. Our metadata and data holdings are also submitted to the Australian Ocean Data Network portal and the Research Data Australia data catalogue, increasing their accessibility and allowing integration into national datasets.

The following figures depict the types of data that AIMS collects and how it is managed.

Figure 8: AIMS’ research programs deliver data into the research data centre allowing centralised management and facilitating reuse

6 https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/attachments/grant%20documents/The-australian-code-for-the-responsible-conduct-of-research-2018.pdf

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Figure 9: Extensive technology deployed to provide environmental variations in Australia’s coastal seas

Figure 10: Examples of landmark datasets critical to national and international stakeholders in marine science, December 2018

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Research Highlight

AIMS Data Explorer

AIMS continues to raise the bar for public accessibility to high quality marine science datasets

In the Era of Big Data, the knowledge economy and 24-hour access to information, there is an expectation that data collected with public funds will be made available to the public. As a publicly funded research agency, AIMS is committed to making all its scientific data accessible to stakeholders and the community. The AIMS Data Explorer makes the findings of AIMS’ research accessible via our website. Developed in-house by the Data Centre, the Data Explorer presents AIMS’ scientific data in a visually appealing, easy-to-understand format.

Providing the extensive catalogue of AIMS’ datasets in the Data Explorer is one element of a wider strategy to position AIMS as a partner of choice for potential collaborators by developing value-added products, apps and services, and to maintain and enhance our reputation as a responsive and trusted agency.

The Data Explorer:

• features innovative map-focused search and exploration of datasets that helps researchers find data that are available from their area of interest

• identifies gaps (‘data deserts’) and data-rich areas (‘data-bergs’) that decision makers can use to guide future strategic data collection initiatives

• uses a ‘full screen’ feature for impressive, high impact interactive presentations

• manages datasets, such as AIMS’ real-time weather stations, which have interactive (zoom/pan) charting previews that highlight temporal coverage or gaps and allow exploration of time-series datasets, saving users significant time in downloading and visualising data themselves

• applies a low barrier to entry.

• works with national data initiatives such as the Australian Ocean Data Network/Integrated Marine Observing System and the Australian National Data Service/Research Data Australia.

AIMS will increase opportunities to access and reuse its datasets by continuously adding new data to Data Explorer, streamlining and automating data science workflows, and providing interfaces (APIs) to compatible datasets for modelling, data analysis, machine learning and other data software applications.

As a publicly funded research agency, AIMS is committed to making all its scientific data accessible to stakeholders and the community

Image: S Clarke

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STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT

Our research, internal and external relationships, and organisational ethos are guided by a set of operating principles that inform and underline our focus on supporting key stakeholders.

Our guiding principles are:

A

IMS works closely with stakeholders to identify and meet their needs for high quality research over long and short timeframes. Specifically, we map how the research will be used, identify who will benefit and rigorously review the outcomes. Within this process, we take a ‘big picture’ view of Australia’s marine science challenges, asking the right questions, anticipating future needs and investing strategically in research designed to reduce future uncertainty.

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Key stakeholders who benefited from AIMS’ activities during the year are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Stakeholders benefiting from AIMS' activities in 2018-19

Stakeholder category

Sector/organisation Examples of AIMS’ support

Industry

North-west Australian oil and gas industry • developing environmental baselines that help industry plan and manage their environmental risks and regulatory

compliance

• providing a rapid response research capability to optimise management actions should a spill occur

• providing guidance on minimising adverse environmental impacts of dredging operations as a member of industry expert panels

• supporting the development of collaborative industry sharing of marine environmental data

Commodity ports/ Northern Territory Government, Darwin Ports Corporation, Port of Townsville, Gladstone Healthy Harbour Partnership

• developing systems to improve the operational efficiency of Darwin Harbour and environmental research to inform development decisions

• researching the impacts of dredging to develop better risk-based dredging protocols

Coastal industries • researching inputs to monitoring programs for regulatory compliance

• applying new technologies for in situ monitoring to manage dredging operations and environmental regulatory compliance more effectively

• studying water quality to validate hydrodynamic modelling of effluent diffusion

• developing ecotoxicological assays and assessments to guide water quality guidelines and standards

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Stakeholder category

Sector/organisation Examples of AIMS’ support

Government and public

Australian Government and public • developing a framework to assess the cumulative impact of natural and development stresses on the Great Barrier Reef

• developing a mapping system for presenting environmental research data in an accessible form that promotes greater information use

• educating the public and stakeholders via the AIMS website and with site tours, increasing the state of environmental knowledge and identifying any gaps and risks

• supporting postgraduate students as a means of enhancing the marine research workforce in tropical Australia

• providing expert marine science advice and interpretation to Australian Government ministers and their science advisers on key marine science developments, such as the 2016 and 2017 coral bleaching events

• supporting the education and future employment potential of northern Australia’s Indigenous youth through the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science (ATSIMS) and Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) programs

Great Barrier Reef Foundation

• researching coral health in a variable and changing marine environment to assess coral reef resilience, and potential intervention and management options through the Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program

• researching ecosystem processes and crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks to increase our understanding of outbreak impacts and improve our ability to forecast and manage outbreaks

Queensland Government and public • researching the impact of changed land use practices on water quality in the GBR Marine Park

Western Australian Government and public • identifying and characterising biodiversity patterns and underlying processes in the Kimberley to aid effective

management

• surveying sensitive seabed organisms to evaluate impacts of dredging operations

• researching the impacts of dredging to inform guidelines for marine dredging programs

Managers and regulators Great Barrier Marine Park Authority

• monitoring the health of the GBR in ongoing surveys

• providing specialist advice to, and peer review of, development activity impacts

• contributing to the planning for the development of RIMReP (Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program)

• providing independent scientific advice on the implementation of the Reef 2050 Plan

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COMMUNICATION

AIMS released its Strategy 2025 document in September 2018. This sets out the agency’s direction for the next seven years. While we continue to improve and preserve the health of our marine ecosystems, the strategy will help to ensure that our research and knowledge also:

• underpins the sustainable use of our oceans and resources

• builds economic value

• creates employment

• improves people’s livelihoods and lifestyles while preserving and improving the health of our marine ecosystems.

The Strategy was the basis for a communication plan to help make stakeholders, the media and the community aware of our activities and achievements. We communicated our findings through our newsletter Waypoint, building our reputation with key government, industry and community stakeholders.

One of our priorities is to demonstrate the economic, social and environmental value of marine science to the nation. To increase awareness of AIMS’ value to the nation, the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology launched the seventh edition of the AIMS Index of Marine Industry, which provides a two-yearly update of the economic contribution of Australia’s marine sector to the nation’s economy.

Our scientists work in distant, remote and spectacular places—both above and below the ocean. During 2018-19, we conducted eight imagery projects to bring this exciting and valuable work to the public through video, photography and storytelling to position AIMS as leaders in several marine science fields.

The International Year of the Reef in 2018 was marked by the Reef 2050 communications network (convened by the Queensland Department of Environment and Science), which comprises communication representatives from Queensland and Australian government agencies and partner organisations involved in implementing Reef 2050 actions. In September AIMS hosted a visit by members of the network which included a tour of the SeaSim.

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ADVANCES IN INDIGENOUS PARTNERSHIPS

We recognise that Indigenous peoples are the traditional custodians of the sea country where AIMS works, and we are committed to putting Indigenous people’s interests and knowledge needs into our research priorities. We will do this by facilitating 2-way knowledge sharing through a partnership approach for marine science, which is articulated in a new Indigenous Partnerships Plan developed during the year.

Indigenous Partnerships Plan

The plan sets out the way to achieve the ambitious Indigenous science partnership targets in our Strategy 2025. We recognise that greater research impact and value can be created, and new insights gained, if Indigenous knowledge, interests, capacity and capability can be joined with our science. The plan is particularly important because it recognises the aspirations of Traditional Owners for greater empowerment in sea country monitoring, research, decision making and science. The plan is designed to:

• build cultural competency and appropriate tools within our agency to facilitate stronger partnerships with Traditional Owners

• strengthen existing relationships with Traditional Owners and establish new ones based on mutual trust, understanding, respect and two-way learning

• establish AIMS as a leader in working with Traditional Owners by responding to Indigenous needs and raising the profile of the value of partnerships between leading science organisations and Indigenous groups.

Indigenous advice to support Australia’s international position

The 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24) was held in Katowice, Poland, in December 2018. After three years of work, the COP24 meeting reached a major accomplishment with a draft decision on the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform to scale up consideration of the experiences of local communities and Indigenous peoples with climate change and efforts to respond to it. AIMS’ Indigenous Partnerships Coordinator, Traceylee Forester, was a member of the Australian delegation. Traceylee advised the delegation, especially about the platform, and took part in the International Indigenous Peoples’ Forum on Climate Change. In addition, AIMS, through the contribution of Traceylee Forester to a larger Australian delegation led by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, provided advice on Indigenous aspirations in the management of sea country to countries who are leading the implementation of the Commonwealth Blue Charter, which is an agreement by all 53 countries of the Commonwealth to actively cooperate to solve ocean-related problems and meet commitments for sustainable ocean development.

Alliances in marine monitoring

AIMS is already working with several Traditional Owner ranger groups and Traditional Owners on marine monitoring projects. For example, work to map sea country habitats and establish a monitoring baseline with the Anindilyakwa rangers at Groote Eylandt was nearing completion in 2018-19. Externally funded through the Anindilyakwa Land Council, the project:

• captured local and traditional knowledge about the area

• increased the capability of rangers to operate image-based seafloor technology

• improved fish monitoring

• complemented the rangers’ small vessel shallow water capability with the deep-water capability of AIMS’ research vessel, the RV Solander.

Results of the monitoring will be provided to the community using customised communication products, including posters and video, later in 2019.

In the Cape Leveque region of the Kimberley, WA, AIMS partnered with Bardi Jawi Rangers in a similar project. As well as mapping, the rangers attended training workshops to learn monitoring techniques. AIMS scientists are helping with data analysis and will co-present preliminary results at the Australian Marine Science Association annual conference in July.

Another joint project, this time with the Torres Strait Regional Authority Land and Sea Management Unit and rangers, has established a comprehensive ocean observing system including fixed loggers and near-real-time weather stations, and is developing a towed video technique as a tool for diverless monitoring of seabed habitats and communities.

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RESEARCH INFR ASTRUCTURE

Our research focuses on Australia’s tropical marine environments, from the southern end of the GBR on the east coast and across the north of the country to Shark Bay and the Abrolhos Islands in the west. Field activities are supported by laboratory and administrative facilities located at Townsville, Darwin, Perth and Canberra.

Our headquarters is at Cape Ferguson, about 50 km from Townsville in North Queensland, close to the centre of the GBR and surrounded by national park and marine reserve.

AIMS’ Arafura Timor Research Facility in Darwin is located on a satellite campus of the Australian National University, immediately adjacent to the Charles Darwin University campus.

In Western Australia, our facilities are co-located with The University of Western Australia and the CSIRO in the new Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre at the university’s Crawley campus in Perth.

Our major research infrastructure is subject to detailed capital planning and asset management to ensure our facilities and equipment are safe, reliable, available and functional. Delivery against preventive maintenance and capital investment plans is monitored throughout the year to ensure that targeted outcomes are met.

Field operations

Our field activities are supported by a research fleet—two large, well-equipped research vessels, the RV Cape Ferguson and the RV Solander—and a number of smaller vessels, carrying researchers to diverse habitats in Australia’s tropical waters. About half of all trips on the RV Cape Ferguson and RV Solander involved researchers from collaborating organisations.

Figure 11: AIMS’ facilities and activities of the major research vessels.

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National Sea Simulator

The SeaSim is a globally unique experimental aquarium facility that provides researchers with unprecedented experimental control of a range of variables, allowing investigation of individual and combined effects of tropical marine ecosystems and organisms.

The SeaSim provides a step change in capability compared with previous technologies and is an essential for the success of many of our research programs.

Up to 50 per cent of the SeaSim’s capability is available to external scientists and research institutions from around the world for marine science projects. We work closely with national and international collaborators, with over 80 per cent of all experiments in the SeaSim involving external collaborators. In 2018-19, researchers have come from 12 national and 23 international organisations from 10 countries.

Projects have attracted funding from a range of sources including industry partners, universities, the Australian Research Council, WAMSI, the National Environmental Science Programme, the Great Barrier Reef Foundation and the Paul G. Allen Philanthropies.

Collaborating organisations include:

National - CSIRO, University of Wollongong, Southern Cross University, James Cook University, University of Melbourne and Queensland University of Technology.

Figure 12: Statistics showing use of the National Sea Simulator (SeaSim), 2018-19

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International - University of Miami (US), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia), Victoria University (Wellington, NZ), Oregon State University (US), University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands), University of Barcelona (Spain), and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark).

The SeaSim boasts a number of unique capabilities developed by our staff to assist researchers:

• full solar spectrum lighting with the ability to dynamically manipulate intensity and spectrum to model natural lighting conditions as found in the field (e.g. sediment plumes from dredging operations)

• 18 large, fully independent mesocosm systems with the ability to provide daily, monthly and seasonal patterns of light, temperature and pCO2

• sophisticated climate change and ocean acidification systems with tightly controlled temperature (±0.1°C) and diel pCO2

• large-scale systems for coral spawning, larval rearing, settlement and long-term grow out

• flow-through contaminant dosing systems for ecotoxicology research on priority contaminants.

These capabilities have been applied to a range of high-priority research areas, including climate change and ocean acidification, reef restoration and adaptation, impacts of dredging, pest management and impacts of contaminants.

Image: C Miller

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RE VENUE

AIMS’ operations were supported by a mix of Australian Government appropriation funding and non-appropriation funding from state and territory governments, competitive research funds, environmental regulators and the private sector.

Total revenue for 2018-19 was $69.754 million, representing an increase of 2.7 per cent on 2017-18 revenue (Figure 13). The $1.873 million increase was due to an increase in Australian Government appropriation revenue ($2.5 million) and offset by a decrease in other revenue ($0.657 million).

Figure 13: AIMS revenue, 2014-15 to 2018-19

External Revenue

External funding is critical for AIMS to maintain its present level of scientific research. In 2018-19, revenue from external sources was $20.798 million, which accounted for 30 per cent of total revenue (Figure 14).

Figu

re 14: Total external revenue earned by AIMS during the past five years

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Sources of Co-Investment Funding for 2018-19

Australian Government departments and agencies and Australian industry partners together provide 93 per cent of AIMS’ total external revenue (i.e. funds earned on top of AIMS’ appropriation allocation) through major grants and project contracts (Figure 15).

Figure 15: Major sources of external revenue, 2018-19

Image: J Gioffre

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Par t 3:

MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY Government Engagement 69

Rol

e and Legislation 69

Resp

onsible Ministers 69

Gene

ral Policies of the Australian Government 70

Gov

ernance 70

AIM

S Council 70

Audi

t Committee 75

Frau

d Control 77

Fin

ancial Reporting 77

Per

formance Reporting 77

Sys

tems of Risk Oversight and Management 77

Sys

tem of Internal Audit Control 77

Ext

ernal Audit 78

Ris

k Management 78

Inv

esting and Financing Activities 78

Inde

mnities and Insurance Premiums for Officers 78

Complia

nce 78

Du

ty to Inform and Ministerial Notifications 78

Consu

ltancy Services 79

Pub

lic Accountability 79

Cus

tomer Service Charter 79

Par

liamentary Committees 79

Pri

vacy Act 1988 80

Fre

edom of Information 80

Res

earch Highlight: Sounding Out Marine Noise 82

Research Highlight: Applied Acoustics Strike The Right Chord 83

Image: J Gioffre

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GOVERNMENT ENGAGEMENT AIMS has a comprehensive system of corporate governance practices that provide compliance, disclosure and accountability of its activities.

ROLE AND LEGISL ATION

AIMS was established by the Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972 (AIMS Act) and is a corporate Commonwealth entity under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act).

The Institute’s functions and powers are set out in the AIMS Act (see Appendix C on page 152). AIMS has two main roles under its governing legislation:

• carry out research and development in relation to

• marine science and marine technology

• the application and use of marine science and marine technology

• encourage and facilitate the non-commercial and commercial application of the results arising from such activities.

The PGPA Act sets out reporting, accountability and other requirements relating to our operations, management and governance. Section 39 of the PGPA Act requires corporate Commonwealth entities to prepare annual performance statements and to include them in an annual report to the Australian Parliament. Schedule 1, subdivision B, s. 17BE of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014 sets out the requirements for annual reports produced in accordance with s. 46 of the PGPA Act. An index of annual report requirements (page 157) provides details of how this annual report meets those requirements.

RESPONSIBLE MINISTERS

This year, there were three ministers with responsibility for matters relating to AIMS:

Senator the Hon. Michaelia Cash Minister for Jobs and Innovation (1 July 2018 to 28 August 2018)

Senato

r the Hon. Zed Seselja, Assistant Minister for Science, Jobs and Innovation (1 July 2018 to 28 August 2018)

The Hon

. Karen Andrews MP, Minister for Industry, Science and Technology (28 August 2018 to 30 June 2019).

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GENER AL POLICIES OF THE AUSTR ALIAN GOVERNMENT

Under s. 22 of the PGPA Act, the Finance Minister may make a government policy order that specifies a policy of the Australian Government that is to apply in relation to one or more corporate Commonwealth entities. No ministerial directions were received by the AIMS Council during 2018-19.

AIMS did not form, or participate in, the formation of any new companies, trusts or partnerships.

GOVERNANCE

AIMS COUNCIL

AIMS is governed by a Council that reports to the relevant Minister. The CEO is responsible for the day-to-day affairs of the Institute.

AIMS Council: Mr Roy Peterson, Dr Stephen Morton, Professor Sandra Harding AO, The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC (Chairman), Ms Jeanette Roberts, Dr Paul Hardisty (CEO), Ms Anna Matysek

Role of Council

The AIMS Council sets AIMS’ key objectives and research strategies and oversees management. The Council advises the Minister and the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science of AIMS’ progress against its research plans. The Minister is also provided with advice on developments of significance, as appropriate.

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The PGPA Act requires the AIMS Council, as the accountable authority of AIMS, to comply with the

following specific duties:

• to govern the Commonwealth entity

• to establish and maintain systems relating to risk and control

• to encourage cooperation with others

• in relation to requirements imposed on others

• to keep the responsible minister and the Finance Minister informed.

Council membership

The AIMS Council consists of a Chairman, AIMS’ CEO, a member nominated by James Cook

University, and four other members. The AIMS Act requires that at least three members of the

Council have scientific qualifications. All members of the Council, with the exception of the CEO,

are non-executive appointments made by the Governor-General on the nomination of the Minister.

Appointments can be up to five years and reappointment is permissible. The CEO is appointed by

the Council for a period not exceeding five years and is eligible for reappointment.

The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC FAIIA

Cou

ncil Chairman: 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019

As a former career diplomat (1968-2008) and Governor of Queensland (2008-2014), Ms Wensley

has a d

istinguished record of public service and extensive experience of government processes

and public policy formulation.

She has held many leadership roles, nationally and internationally, and, in addition to her deep

knowledge of foreign and trade policy, brings to the AIMS Council particular expertise in strategy

development and implementation, communication and negotiation, and community and

stakeholder engagement.

In 2001, Ms Wensley was made an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) for her distinguished

contributions to Australia’s international relations and in 2011, a Companion of the Order (AC)

for eminent contribution to the people of Queensland and to Australia’s international relations

through senior diplomatic representational roles and as a key contributor to initiatives of the

United Nations. These senior roles included: Australian Ambassador to the UN, in both Geneva

and New York; Ambassador to France; High Commissioner to India and Ambassador for the

Environment.

An Arts Honours graduate of the University of Queensland, Ms Wensley holds honorary doctorates

from UQ, Griffith University, James Cook University and the Queensland University of Technology.

She is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of International Affairs (FAIIA) and an Honorary Fellow of

the Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand (HFEIANZ).

She is a Director of the Lowy Institute, Chairman of the Reef Advisory Committee (advising the

Queensland and Australian governments on implementation of the Long-term Sustainability Plan

for the GBR (Reef 2050)), and National Patron of Soil Science Australia.

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Professor Sandra Harding AO, BSc (Hons), MPubAdmin, PhD, Hon Doc JIU, FACE, FQA, FAICD, FAIM

Council member: 10 May 2007 to 27 May 2020

Professor Harding is Vice Chancellor and President of James Cook University, represents the

university on the AIMS Council and maintains links with the wider education and business sectors.

In 2019, Professor Harding was awarded an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) for her

distinguished service to education at the national and international level, and to the community of

Queensland.

A former Chair of Universities Australia, Professor Harding is an economic sociologist with an

interest in education policy, the global tropics and economic development.

She is a member of a number of boards, including the Australian American Education Leadership

Foundation, Citizens of the Great Barrier Reef Foundation Board, Townsville Enterprises Limited

and Advance Cairns. She is Governor of the Committee for Economic Development of Australia.

Dr Paul Hardisty MSc, P.Eng, FIEAust

CEO and Council member: 24 July 2017 to 23 July 2022

Dr Hardisty, a recognised thought leader and sought-after speaker in his field, was appointed CEO

of AIMS in July 2017.

An engineer who has worked extensively in marine and coastal environments and marine research

projects, he is experienced in both the public and private sectors.

Dr Hardisty co-founded international environmental consultancy Komex Environmental Ltd, which

he developed from a start-up to a $50 million-a-year company with 1000 employees.

More recently, he was director at CSIRO’s Climate Adaptation Flagship, and business unit director

in CSIRO’s Land and Water division.

Dr Hardisty holds a Master in Hydrology, and a Doctorate in Environmental Engineering from

Imperial College, London. He is an adjunct Professor at The University of Western Australia.

Ms Anna Matysek, BEcon (Hons), MEnv

Council member: 15 June 2017 to 14 June 2022

Ms Matysek is an experienced economist, and an expert business development and investment

strategist. She is a senior executive and independent consultant with a strong background in

stakeholder engagement, and policy development in the resources, energy and infrastructure

sectors.

Ms Matysek has worked with leading global mining companies, utilities, agribusinesses, and

government including holding senior positions in Rio Tinto, economics consulting firms, at the

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and the Productivity Commission.

Ms Matysek was a lead author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth

Assessment Report, and the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and

Technology for Development.

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Dr Stephen Morton, BSc (Hons), PhD, Doc (Hon. Causa), GAICD Council member: 16 December 2014 to 15 December 2019

Dr Morton is an Honorary Professorial Fellow with Charles Darwin University, a Doctor of Phi losophy in animal ecology, an author, and has published more than 150 scientific articles.

He was formerly chief of CSIRO’s Sustainable Ecosystems and Group Executive for Environment and Natural Resources, for Energy and Environment, and for Manufacturing, Materials and Minerals.

Dr Morton is an independent consultant and sits on councils and scientific advisory panels including the Western Australian Biodiversity Science Institute, and the steering committee for the Threatened Species Recovery Hub, National Environmental Science Program.

Mr Roy Peterson, BCom, FCA, FTI Counci l member: 11 December 2014 to 10 December 2019

Mr Peterson is Chairman of the AIMS Audit Committee, and a leader in his field.

He is a C

hartered Accountant with strong governance and audit committee experience, including internal audit, risk management, process improvement and taxation.

Mr Peterson has chaired the North Queensland Committee for the Australian Institute of Company Directors and was a member of the Taxation Institute National Taxation Liaison Committee.

He is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants, and the Taxation Institute of Australia.

Ms Jeanette Roberts BEng (Hons) FIChemE Counci l member: 21 June 2018 to 20 June 2023

Ms Roberts is a chemical engineer and a senior executive with more than 30 years’ international exp erience in the oil and gas industry, including in China, India, Russia, Africa, Europe and the

Asia-Pacific.

A director of her own company, Jeanette Roberts Consulting, she has major global merger and acquisitions experience, including divestments, global restructures, risk management and governance.

Ms Roberts has worked on policy development at both state and Commonwealth level, as well as in the research sector, building partnerships and collaboration frameworks, particularly around marine environments and sustainable development.

She has worked for oil and gas operators and service companies both in Australia and internationally.

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Council attendance

Table 5: Attendance at Council meetings, 2018-19

Attendance

24 Aug. 2018

27-28 Sept. 2018

10-11 Dec. 2018

2-3 Apr. 2019

13-14 Jun. 2019

The Hon. Penelope Wensley AC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Professor Sandra Harding AO Yes No Yes Yes Yes

Dr Stephen Morton Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Mr Roy Peterson Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ms Anna Matysek Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Dr Paul Hardisty Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ms Jeanette Roberts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

For re

muneration, see Financial Statements, Note 3.2 on page 117

Education and performance review processes for Council members

At induction, Council members are provided with a comprehensive set of documents including the PGPA Act, AIMS Act, AIMS Strategy 2025, Corporate Plan, Risk Management Framework and key plans and policies including the Business Continuity Plan, Enterprise Agreement and Fraud Control Plan.

Council members are encouraged to maintain their membership with the Australian Institute of Company Directors. The performance of Council members is reviewed regularly, alternately by the Chairman and by an external reviewer.

ANAO audit of the effectiveness of the AIMS Council

In 2018-19, the Australian National Audit Office conducted an audit into the effectiveness of governance of the AIMS Council (see Auditor-General Report No. 36 of 2018-19 into the Effectiveness of Board Governance at the Australian Institute of Marine Science tabled in Parliament on 30 April 2019).

The report affirmed the effectiveness of AIMS’ governance and oversight arrangements. It found that the governance and administrative arrangements of the Council are consistent with relevant legislative requirements, support effective governance and are fit for purpose in oversighting compliance. The report’s only recommendation in relation to ensuring that the Institute’s Corporate Plan meets all the minimum requirements of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014 was accepted and was addressed in the 2019-20 Corporate Plan.

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Ethics

Council members are briefed on—and are required to sign—the AIMS Code of Conduct. Council members must also abide by the Code of Conduct for Directors published by the Australian Institute of Company Directors.

Disclosure of interest

Section 29 of the PGPA Act provides for the disclosure of material personal interests in a matter that is being considered by the Council, and prohibits participation, deliberation and decision making by any member on such matters, unless so resolved by the Council or entitled by the Minister. Details of such disclosure are recorded in the minutes of Council meetings. All of these requirements are currently being met.

AUDIT COMMITTEE

The Audit Committee is a formal subcommittee of the Council that meets quarterly. Audit Committee members in 2018-19 were:

• Mr Roy Peterson (Council member and Committee Chairman)

• Dr Steve Morton (member to August 2018)

• Ms Jeanette Roberts (member from September 2018)

• Ms Margaret Walker (independent member).

The AIMS Chief Operating Officer and Chief Finance Officer, representatives of the Australian National Audit Office, and an internal auditor, attend all meetings or relevant parts of all meetings, by invitation.

In accordance with best practice, all Council members receive copies of the Audit Committee agenda and meeting minutes and can attend meetings as a right.

The Audit Committee is responsible for providing independent assurance and assistance to Council on:

• financial reporting

• performance reporting

• systems of risk oversight and management

• systems of internal control

• internal audit

• external audit.

Four full meetings of the committee and one extraordinary meeting were held during FY 2018-19.

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Attendance

Table 6: Audit Committee attendance, 2018-19

Attendance

7 Aug. 2018

31 Aug. 2018

13 Nov. 2018

5 Mar. 2019

14 May 2019

Members

Mr Roy Peterson (Chair) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Dr Steve Morton (Council member, Audit Committee member to Sept. 2018) Yes Yes No No No

Ms Jeanette Roberts (Council member, Audit Committee member from Sept. 2018) No No Yes Yes Yes

Ms Margaret Walker (independent member) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Invitees

Mr Basil Ahyick (AIMS CFO) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Dr John Chappell (AIMS COO) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Mr Jason Davidson (AIMS Finance Manager) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Mr Will Fellowes (PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) internal auditor) Yes No Yes Yes No

Mr John Skilling (PwC internal auditor) No No Yes Yes Yes

Mr Kristian Gage (ANAO signing officer 2018) Yes No No No No

Mr Brandon Jarett (ANAO signing officer 2019) No No No Yes Yes

Mr Benjamin Nicholls (ANAO) Yes No Yes Yes Yes

Mr Jared Hill (RSM Australia, external auditors) Yes No No No No

Mr Albert Loots (RSM Australia, external auditors) Yes No No No No

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Independent professional advice

The Council has the right to obtain, at AIMS’ expense, relevant independent professional advice in connection with the discharge of its responsibilities. It did not seek such advice in 2018-19.

FR AUD CONTROL

AIMS remains committed to mitigating incidences of fraud and managing risks. AIMS has developed a Fraud Control Plan using the Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework 2017 and in adherence to s. 10 of the PGPA Rule 2014. AIMS reports its fraud data to the Australian Institute of Criminology by 30 September each year.

FINANCIAL REPORTING

AIMS’ financial statements are prepared in accordance with:

• Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015 (FRR) for the reporting periods ending on or after 1 July 2018

• Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations - Reduced Disclosure Requirements issued by the Australian Accounting Standards Board that apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements are accompanied by a signed statement by the Accountable Authority, CEO and CFO, declaring that the statements comply with the accounting standards and any other requirements prescribed by the FRR and present fairly the entity’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows in accordance with s. 42 of the PGPA Act.

There were related entity transactions during 2018-19 (refer to Note 3.3 of the Financial Statements).

PERFORMANCE REPORTING

Section 39 of the PGPA Act requires an annual performance statement to be provided by corporate Commonwealth entities. AIMS’ annual performance statement for 2018-19 starts on page 18 of this report.

SYSTEMS OF RISK OVERSIGHT AND MANAGEMENT

Under s. 17(2) (c) of the PGPA Rule, the Audit Committee is responsible for reviewing the Institute’s risk framework (and monitoring management’s compliance with that framework) and making recommendations to the Council to address any significant issues raised.

SYSTEM OF INTERNAL AUDIT CONTROL

The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include reviewing the audit plan and internal audit reports, and also making recommendations to the Council and management to address any significant issues raised. The committee also reviews whether the internal audit coverage aligns with AIMS’ key risks. The internal audit function was performed by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) during the year. The internal auditor is responsible for independently reviewing risk in accordance with the AIMS Corporate Plan.

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Image: N Thake

E XTERNAL AUDIT

Under s. 43 of the PGPA Act, the Commonwealth Auditor-General, through the ANAO, is the external auditor for the Institute. The Audit Committee reviewed the ANAO Audit Plan and reported to, and met with, ANAO representatives before recommending to the Council that the annual financial statements be accepted, and the Statement by Council be signed.

RISK MANAGEMENT

AIMS has a comprehensive corporate risk management strategy, which includes processes to identify and assess new risks to AIMS, and to monitor and refine existing risks and control measures.

Operational risk management is established across the Institute, with processes, procedures and systems of work in place to manage workplace health and safety risks that may affect AIMS’ workers. We participate in the annual Comcover risk management benchmarking survey.

INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES

AIMS invested its surplus money in accordance with s. 59 of the PGPA Act and AIMS’ policy on investments.

INDEMNITIES AND INSUR ANCE PREMIUMS FOR OFFICERS

There were no liabilities to any current or former officials of AIMS during the reporting period. No premium was paid (or was agreed to be paid) against a current or former official’s liability for legal costs. AIMS paid premiums for directors’ and officers’ insurances, as required.

COMPLIANCE

AIMS conducted its affairs in accordance with the requirements of all applicable laws and regulations, including the PGPA Act and prescribed rules, the applicable policies of the Australian Government, and the internal policies of AIMS. Any government policy orders notified as being applicable to AIMS would be duly complied with (s. 22(3), PGPA Act).

DUT Y TO INFORM AND MINISTERIAL NOTIFICATIONS

The AIMS Council is required to notify the responsible minister of any significant issue that has affected AIMS (s. 19(1)(e), PGPA Act). There were no significant issues requiring notification to the responsible minister during 2018-19.

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Image: N Thake

CONSULTANCY SERVICES

AIMS engages individuals and companies as external consultants from time to time where it lacks specialist expertise or when independent research, review or assessment is required.

Consultants are engaged to investigate or diagnose a defined issue or problem, carry out defined reviews or evaluations, or provide independent advice, information or creative solutions to assist in AIMS’ decision making.

Decisions to engage consultants take into consideration the skills and resources required for the task, the skills or resources available internally and the cost-effectiveness of these options. Engagement of a consultant is made in accordance with our Procurement Policy and Procedures and other relevant internal policies.

AIMS spent $166,000 (excluding GST) on consultancies during 2018-19.

PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILIT Y

Judicial decisions and reviews by outside bodies

No judicial decisions relating to AIMS were handed down during the reporting period.

Ombudsman

No issues relating to AIMS were referred to the Commonwealth Ombudsman during 2018-19.

Industrial relations

No significant industrial relations issues arose during 2018-19.

CUSTOMER SERVICE CHARTER

AIMS has a formal customer service charter that outlines the standards it commits to regarding management of customer relationships, a copy of which is posted on our website. AIMS welcomes feedback on our performance against our service standards. The charter and details on how to provide feedback can be found at www.aims.gov.au/docs/about/corporate/service-charter.html

PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES

No reports were produced on the operations of AIMS by a parliamentary committee during 2018-19.

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PRIVACY ACT 1988

To ensure the proper management, administration and safety of its officers, employees, visitors, volunteers and contractors, AIMS is required to collect personal, and occasionally sensitive, information. AIMS is committed to the Australian privacy principles contained within the Privacy Act 1988 and has formal processes to manage privacy, as detailed in the AIMS Privacy Policy and Procedures. AIMS has a privacy officer (privacy@aims.gov.au) who is responsible for ensuring that the Institute’s Privacy Policy and Procedures are adhered to and comply with all applicable statutory requirements.

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION

Freedom of Information (FOI) requests, reviews, decisions and statements

No requests for documents under the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (FOI Act) were received by AIMS during 2018-19.

In addition, no applications were received during 2018-19:

• for internal review of decisions made under the FOI Act

• for external review by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal of decisions made under the FOI Act

• to amend any records under the FOI Act.

A request for the production of all documents held or created by AIMS in relation to the $443.4 million grant by the Department of Environment and Energy to the Great Barrier Reef Foundation was received from the Senate during FY 2018-19. Although not strictly a request under the FOI Act, it was responded to in accordance with the FOI Act and FOI Guidelines as permitted under the Senate Guidelines for Production of Documents to the Senate.

FOI operations

Agencies subject to the FOI Act are required to make information available to the public as part of the Information Publication Scheme (IPS). Under their IPS, each agency must display on its website a plan showing what information it publishes in accordance with the IPS requirements in Part II of the FOI Act.

The documents listed in our IPS Agency Plan are generally freely available to any person requesting them. The availability of other information is subject to assessment, which is made on a case-by-case basis in accordance with the relevant provisions of the FOI Act, as supplemented and explained in the relevant fact sheets, guidelines and other materials published on the website of the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner7. The grounds for assessment include considerations of commercial confidentiality, legal professional privilege and personal privacy. The FOI Act and the above website explain these, the other unconditional exemptions and the conditional exemptions as contained in the current legislation.

Requests for any such information from AIMS must be made in writing, addressed to the relevant person, and must contain the information set out under ‘How do I make an FOI request?’ in FOI Fact Sheet 6 Freedom of information - How to apply on the above website. The request should be

7 (www.oaic.gov.au/freedom-of-information/foi-resources/all/)

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addressed t

o the FOI officer at the address given below. There is no fee payable for the request. However, fees and charges may apply and, if they do, will be set in accordance with Part 4 of the FOI Guidelines, which are available from the FOI website.

Information publication scheme

AIMS continues to undertake actions consistent with compliance requirements under the IPS introduced in May 2011 pursuant to the relevant provisions of the FOI Act. The IPS encourages governments and government agencies to provide open, accountable and transparent information in formats that are easy to understand and freely accessible.

Contact

All enquiries and requests for information, or concerning access to documents or any other matters relating to FOI, should be directed to:

FOI Officer, Australian Institute of Marine Science

PMB No. 3, Townsville Mail Centre MC, Qld 4810

Telephone: (07) 4753 4444 | Facsimile: (07) 4772 5852 | Email: privacy@aims.gov.au

82 |

Research Highlight

Sounding out marine noise

The impacts of noise generated by seismic surveys on the physiology and behaviour of marine fauna and any resulting change in mortality, distribution and abundance, has been of interest for decades. Most studies have focused on cetaceans; comparatively few studies have investigated the effect on commercially important species, particularly invertebrates.

The North West Shoals to Shore Research Program (NWSSRP), which is funded by Santos, has allowed AIMS researchers to monitor the effects of these impacts on fish communities and pearl oysters.

Using the seismic vessel the BGP Explorer, and the collaborative efforts of more than 100 people over 12 months of design and planning, a team from AIMS conducted a detailed real world experiment over 10 days in November 2018 to determine the effects of marine noise associated with seismic surveys on commercially valuable fish and pearl oysters.

AIMS researchers tagged and released 390 red emperor 90 km off the Pilbara coast. These fish are commercially important and an indicator species for other demersal fish. Their movement before, during and after exposure to the seismic source was tracked using an array of 96 acoustic receivers. The tracking determined whether the noise from seismic surveys displaced fish from particular areas and quantified the timeframe over which this occurred, as well as the range from the source where behavioural responses could no longer be detected. Additionally, the demersal fish community was monitored using baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) to document relative abundance, size distribution and species composition.

The pearl oyster experiment was conducted close to Broome in 20-35 metres of water and involved setting out more than 10,000 pearl oysters in groups of about 1,200, at different distances of up to 6 km from the seismic vessel operation. After being exposed to the seismic source, the condition, physiology, growth and mortality of the pearl oysters was recorded over a six-month period to determine if seismic surveys have an impact on these parameters and, if so, the exposure ranges and period over which this occurs. In addition, other oysters were seeded to test if these acoustic signals affected the ability of the oyster to produce market quality pearls at the same rate as unexposed shell.

The knowledge and understanding of the effect of seismic surveys on commercially important species gained from this study will be critical for evidence-based environmental resource management. This has particular relevance in north-west Australia, where oil and gas exploration has occurred for many years and will continue into the future in the vicinity of high-value commercial fisheries.

See video at https://www.aims.gov.au/nw-shoals-to-shore/ marine-noise-monitoring-and-impacts.

The pearl oyster experiment was conducted close to Broome in 20-35 metres of water

Image: N Thake

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Research Highlight

Applied acoustics strike the right chord Key habitats of harbour floors revealed

As a direct result of the project, the new database is now an important scientific and educational resource

Mapping the bathymetry has uncovered the secrets of the seabed in Darwin’s sister harbours, bringing new insights to marine managers. The undersea study, one of the most comprehensive undertaken in Australia, has:

• improved understanding of the busy port’s seabed, including a deep central channel that divides into smaller and shallower channels

• produced a seascape map showing six classes of potential habitats

• demonstrated the utility of multibeam acoustic data to describe the distribution of key fauna and flora habitats.

The total area mapped (about 2,000 km2) is believed to be the largest contiguous benthic mapping and modelling activity undertaken in Australia.

As a direct result of the project, the new database is now an important scientific and educational resource for marine managers to support conservation and sustainable development in the region.

The project began in December 2010 when the Northern Territory Government funded a baseline habitat mapping program. It was a collaboration between AIMS, Geoscience Australia, the NT Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Darwin Port Corporation.

In 2011, INPEX-operated Ichthys LNG funded further environmental and social offset programs to improve knowledge of Darwin’s marine habitats.

Under the project, AIMS collected and processed most of the shallow water multibeam bathymetry and developed a model of the distribution of the major benthic habitat classes in the region to help achieve the three primary objectives of the study:

• conduct seabed mapping to obtain high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data

• examine the abiotic patterns important to benthic communities

• characterise the seabed fauna and flora (i.e. benthos) and model the spatial distribution of benthic communities.

The bulk of the multibeam data from deeper waters was collected using AIMS’ research vessel RV Solander, with smaller vessels filling the gaps in the vast intertidal areas of the harbours.

The maps produced through the project provide a solid baseline for benthic biodiversity and habitat distributions in the region and offer new insight into the marine environments of the NT coastline.

They will also support future management decisions, including marine planning, long-term monitoring and environmental impact assessments, and contribute to research into the mobile biota—dugongs, turtles and fish— associated with these habitats.

Image: Geoscience Australia

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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Par t 4:

OUR PEOPLE Organisational Structure 85

Staf

f 86

AI

MS Core Staff Numbers 87

Staf

f Consultation 88

Lea

dership Development 88

Equa

l Employment Opportunity and Workforce Diversity 88

Wom

en in Science 89

Cod

e of Conduct 89

Work

place Behaviour 89

Publ

ic Interest Disclosure (Whistle-Blower Policy) 90

Natio

nal Disability Strategy 90

Employee Assistance Program 90

Hea

lth and Safety 91

Our S

trategy 91

Conti

nuous Improvement 91

Saf

ety Pillars 92

Dedicated Safety Roles 93

Los

t Time Injuries 94

Lea

d and Lag Indicators 94

Man

ual Task Injury Reduction 95

Tra

ining 95

En

vironmental Performance 95

Red

ucing Our Environmental Impacts 95

Water Usage 96

Rec

ycling 96

En

ergy Usage 96

Rad

iation Safety 96

Gene

Technology 96

Res

earch Highlight: Global shark and Ray Survey 97

Res

earch Highlight: Mysteries of Hammerhead Shark Movement Revealed 98

Image: M Roman

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ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Figure 16: Organisational structure of the Australian Institute of Marine Science

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

86 |

STAFF AIMS employed an average of 243.53 full-time equivalent (FTE) science and support staff during FY 2018-19, including 26.05 FTE under labour hire arrangements, 0.1 FTE casuals and 2.38 FTE temporary staff. In addition, AIMS engaged 47 FTE personnel via outsourced functions (see Table 7) and 2.12 FTE of secondments from the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science.

Many of our scientists are world authorities in their field who have achieved international acclaim for their research. The work of the research scientists is supported by a variety of professional and technical support staff skilled in the following:

• research support

• laboratory and analytical services

• data collection and data management

• commercial and business development services

• intellectual property portfolio management

• engineering and field operations services

• science communication

• corporate support functions comprising human resources, financial, information services, supply and general management.

Where appropriate, AIMS contracts services. Currently, contracted services are for catering, cleaning, site maintenance, security and crewing marine research vessels.

Image: S Clarke

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AIMS CORE STAFF NUMBERS

Table 7: Average staffing level numbers (ASL)

Staff category

female 2016-17

Part-time

2016-17

female 2017-18

Part-time

2017-18

female 2018-19

Part-time

2018-19

Research Scientists 21 3 46 25 4 48 24 4 53

Townsville 15 2 28 18 4 29 16 3 32

Perth 5 1 12 6 - 13 7 1 16

Darwin 1 - 6 1 - 6 1 - 5

Research Support 24 2 68 22 2 59 21 2 58

Townsville 21 2 57 16 2 48 17 1 46

Perth 2 - 9 5 - 9 3 1 10

Darwin 1 - 2 1 - 2 1 2

Technical and corporate support 37 7 105 38 6 98 37 5 104

Townsville 32 7 93 32 6 85 31 5 89

Perth 5 - 9 6 - 10 6 - 12

Darwin - - 3 - - 3 - - 3

Total Staff (excluding casual and temporary) 82 12 219 85 12 205 82 11 215

Townsville 68 11 178 66 12 162 64 9 167

Perth 12 1 30 17 - 32 16 2 38

Darwin 2 - 11 2 - 11 2 - 10

Postdoctoral Fellows included in total* - - 7 4 - 13 5 - 12

Townsville - - 4 3 - 6 4 - 6

Perth - - 3 1 - 6 1 - 5

Darwin - - - - - 1 - - 1

Temporary and Casual staff 6 - 18 15 - 36 19 - 29

Townsville 5 - 16 13 - 33 18 - 26

Perth 1 - 2 2 - 3 1 - 3

Darwin - - - - - - - - -

Contractors - - 42 - - 49 - - 47

*AIMS host employer

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

88 |

STAFF CONSULTATION

Staff consultation and communication takes place via a range of mediums such as all-staff meetings, emails and newsletters. The Joint Consultative Committee—comprising AIMS CEO (Chair), a management representative (Chief Operating Officer), the Human Resources Manager, Community and Public Sector Union (CPSU) representatives (internal), a CPSU organiser (external), and a staff representative—met three times in 2018-19. This committee provides a forum for discussion and consultation between management and staff representatives on issues that may affect staff conditions and entitlements.

LEADERSHIP DE VELOPMENT

During 2018-19, AIMS implemented a significant leadership development program affording all staff the opportunity to participate.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNIT Y AND WORKFORCE DIVERSIT Y

Our workforce diversity policy acknowledges differences and adapts work practices to create an inclusive work environment in which diverse skills, perspectives and cultural backgrounds are valued.

The Institute’s staffing policies and procedures align with the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunity (Commonwealth Authorities) Act 1987. Designed to ensure that workforce diversity and equality of opportunity are fundamental operating principles for AIMS, they include:

• regularly reviewing employment policies and practices, and providing ongoing instruction for user groups

• promoting AIMS as an equal opportunity employer in all recruitment advertisements placed in online media and on our website

• supporting equity of access and providing amenities for people with disabilities in AIMS’ public access facilities such as conference rooms, theatre, library, cafe and display areas

• constructing new facilities that support equity of access

• catering to staff and visitors with a disability, and providing a wheelchair, if required, on public tours of AIMS

• having mechanisms in place to handle complaints and grievances (formal and informal) to address issues and concerns raised by staff and visitors.

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Table 8: Staff numbers in equal employment opportunity categories

EEO category

Proportion of total staff (%)

2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander 0.5 1.31 0.98 2.05

Non-English speaking background 15.3 16.44 16.78 14.67

Staff with disability 1.5 1.84 1.68 1.59

Women 36.8 37.25 41.36 41.32

WOMEN IN SCIENCE

In 2018-19, our Equity, Diversity and Gender team, known internally as EDGE, developed a draft

equity and diversity plan for AIMS. The plan incorporates the objectives of the former Women@AIMS

Reference Group but has a wider focus on gender equity across the organisation. The plan brings

related policies and initiatives under one umbrella with diversity and inclusion as core principles.

The plan was one element of AIMS’ application for an Athena SWAN Bronze Award as part of

the Science in Australia Gender Equity (SAGE) program. The application required a four-year

action plan for AIMS to demonstrate progress towards gender equity, particularly for women in

science. The action plan reflects input from all staff about the equity and diversity issues that are

important to them and covers workplace flexibility options, parental leave, policy language and

career progression. EDGE and Human Resources are taking the lead in its implementation.

CODE OF CONDUCT

AIMS has a Code of Conduct to which the Council, management, staff and visitors are required

to adhere. The Code complies with the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act

2014. New Council members, staff and visitors are briefed on the Code during induction. Council

members abide by the Code of Conduct for Directors published by the Australian Institute of

Company Directors.

WORKPL ACE BEHAVIOUR

Management, staff and visitors at AIMS share responsibility for providing and working in an

environment free of harassment and other unacceptable forms of behaviour. In accordance with

the AIMS Code of Conduct, staff are required to treat others with courtesy, respect, dignity,

fairness and equity, and to have concern for their rights, freedoms and individual needs. A high

standard of behaviour is expected and AIMS has a set of principles outlining the way staff are

expected to behave toward others.

Workplace harassment contact officers are available throughout AIMS to discuss, in confidence,

matters of concern regarding harassment and associated issues raised by a staff member. AIMS

received one formal reported cases of harassment in 2018-19.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

90 |

PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE ( WHISTLE-BLOWER POLICY )

AIMS has a whistle-blower policy designed to facilitate effective notification, assessment and

management of the disclosure of serious wrongdoings in accordance with the Public Interest

Disclosure Act 2013.

AIMS strongly encourages reporting of serious wrongdoing and will take appropriate and

necessary action to uphold the integrity of the Institute and to promote the public interest. To

achieve our goals and obligations in this regard, AIMS is committed to creating and maintaining

an environment and culture in which the disclosure of serious wrongdoings is fully supported and

protected. There were no formal reported public interest disclosure cases in 2018-19.

NATIONAL DISABILIT Y STR ATEGY

AIMS is committed to ensuring that people with disabilities are given opportunities for

independence, access and full participation. AIMS assesses cases individually and endeavours to

implement the most appropriate measures to assist people with disabilities.

AIMS’ physical resources continue to be upgraded to meet access needs for people with

disabilities, which includes building modifications and the construction of new facilities.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGR AM

Lifeworks is contracted by AIMS to provide an independent employee assistance program. The

program is free to staff, and their family members, and provides for up to six sessions to assist

with issues of:

• relationship and family problems

• maximising performance

• depression, anxiety and stress

• conflict and communication

• children or family member concerns

• grief and bereavement

• elder care issues

• addiction

• work-life balance

• career path issues

• retirement

• work stress.

Participants can refer themselves or be encouraged by a colleague, supervisor, human resource

staff or workplace health and safety staff to access the program. The use rate during 2018-19

was 10.9 per cent, compared with 6.67 per cent in the previous year. Analysis reveals that staff

accessed the service primarily for issues of a personal nature.

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HEALTH AND SAFETY Performance - Competent, Considered and Focused

OUR STR ATEGY

The safety of our people, collaborators, contractors and those with whom we share the oceans remains paramount. AIMS Strategy 2025 defines AIMS safety value, to care for ourselves and others in all that we do.

AIMS defines measurable targets with which we will track our progress towards our work, health and safety objectives. At the highest level, AIMS has committed to achieving continuous improvement in our safety performance. That being, year on year improvement in safety performance.

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

Injury Reduction Program

Reducing injuries, implementing manual-task risk management strategies inclu ding early intervention, PErforM assessments and role-based

functional assessment

Leadership and Cultural Change Program

Developing AIMS people, changing behaviours through assessment, coachi ng and leadership development

Safe Driving Program

Improving the skills and performance of AIMS approved drivers through surve y, improved communication and advanced driver training

Physical and Mental Wellness Program

Providing opportunities for physical and mental training and exercise opport unities in the workplace to promote and encourage improved wellbeing

Internal Audit and Inspection Regime

Providing a safe workplace and practice through site inspection and Internal Audit C ommittee review of policies and procedures

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

92 |

SAFET Y PILL ARS

Our health and safety strategy is based on six pillars (Figure 17) that guide our annual strategic work planning:

Developing strong leadership that helps shape our safety culture

Culti vating a learning

culture that builds on our strong reporting culture

Prov iding effective and

accessible training and instruction

Evalu

ating and improving our systems and conditions Promo

ting a mentally and physically healthy workplace Adop

ting communication strategies to inform and engage

Figure 17: Health and safety pillars

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DEDICATED SAFET Y ROLES

Our commitment to the health and safety of workers is demonstrated by the number and diversity of roles dedicated to health and safety management at AIMS (Figure 18).

Figure 18: Health and safety dedicated roles

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

94 |

LOST TIME INJURIES

There was one lost time injury recorded in FY 2018-19. AIMS has consistently achieved low lost

time injury rates over the past four years - that is ≤ 1 per annum (FY2015-19).

LEAD AND L AG INDICATORS

Our reporting culture remains strong, with the number of hazards reported again well in excess of

target and comprising 69 per cent of all reports. Of the 79 incidents reported, five resulted in an

injury classification of lost time or medical treatment, and 14 involved minor first aid cases (Figure

19).

Year on year improvement has been achieved in the areas of safety delivery, with respect to

incident reporting, investigation timeframes and the number of incidents resulting in work

restrictions.

AIMS notified Comcare of one dangerous incident involving electric shock as per the requirements

of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011. No injury was sustained and the incident was assessed as

minor. Comcare closed the incident satisfied that our action plan eliminated/minimised this type

of risk from recurring, so far as reasonably practicable.

No new workers’ compensation claims were made under the Comcare workers’ compensation

scheme, in large part due to AIMS’ effective early intervention program.

Figure 19: AIMS safety reports, 2018-19

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Image: N Thake

MANUAL TASK INJURY REDUCTION

The number of manual task-related recordable injuries halved compared with the previous two years. We attribute this improvement to our dedicated injury reduction plan providing early intervention, training to raise awareness around key risk factors, and the application of manual task-specific risk management tools and role-based functional assessment.

TR AINING

Manual Handling and PErforM (participatory ergonomics for manual tasks) training has been rolled out across the organisation as part of AIMS’ injury reduction plan. Most (90%) of all AIMS employees have received this targeted training addressing manual handling risk management. This requirement has now been embedded within AIMS as essential training. In general, mandatory health and safety training has remained on track, achieving monthly targets.

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE We have delivered against our commitments to protecting the environment and conserving biodiversity during the year. In particular, we worked with multiple industries, government, the community and other scientific institutions and agencies on programs and projects dedicated to conserving and sustainably managing tropical marine resources. As a community leader and a Commonwealth statutory authority, we have both a moral obligation and a statutory obligation under the EPBC Act to protect and maintain the biodiversity and heritage under our control. We also carefully guard against any avoidable adverse impacts on the environment arising from our own activities.

REDUCING OUR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

In 2018-19, we completed construction of a 1050 kW photovoltaic solar system at our head office near Townsville. The renewable energy infrastructure is made up of 550 kW of roof-mounted panels and 500 KW of a land-based solar array. The rooftop system was switched on in June 2019 with the land-based solar array due to be commissioned in September 2019.

As well as saving money by going solar, we continued to promote energy efficiency among our workforce. An excellent example is our car pool where staff, visitors and students are able to commute to and from AIMS each day using cars from our own fleet. Only vehicles with a Green Vehicle Guide rating of 10.5 or higher are used. We estimate the commuter program takes between 80 and 100 vehicles off the road each day, further reducing carbon emissions.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

96 |

WATER USAGE

Our operations at Cape Ferguson used 46 megalitres (ML) of water in 2018-19, a decrease of 11 ML from the

previous year. The 20 per cent reduction for the past 12 months was achieved as there were no hydro-excavation

activities requiring the use of freshwater. This year’s usage was very similar to FY 2015-16 and FY 2016-17.

RECYCLING

We introduced a co-mingle recycling program this year, which added plastic containers to the previous recycling program for paper

and cardboard. In addition, we recycle batteries, printer cartridges, lubricants and metals. In 2018-19, we recycled 11,040kg of paper and 11,100kg

of cardboard.

ENERGY USAGE

Cape Ferguson electricity consumption for 2018-19 was 7,785 MW for the year. This is a slight increase from

the previous year’s result (7,718 MW). The increase in consumption was for additional cooling for site facilities and

experimental systems as a result of a heatwave in November 2018.

R ADIATION SAFET Y

During the year, AIMS continued to hold a source licence issued by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. This licence is subject to conditions

including quarterly reporting, maintaining a source inventory and complying with relevant regulations, codes and standards.

GENE TECHNOLOGY

Two new proposals for dealing with genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were assessed and approved out-of-session by the AIMS Biosafety Committee this year. Three existing projects, one Notifiable Low Risk Dealing (NLRD) and two exempt dealings were completed. AIMS now has

five active GMO projects - one rated NLRD and four exempt dealings.

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Research Highlight

Global shark and ray survey

About one quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. Despite this knowledge, the status of many species are either unknown or only understood on local or regional scales. Reef sharks are often excluded from survey methods, such as underwater visual census, so data on their status is limited.

The Global FinPrint Project aims to produce the world’s first standardised survey of shark and ray abundance and diversity in coral reef environments (www.globalfinprint.org).

This ambitious project employed baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) as a standardised sampling method to increase our understanding of how abundant reef sharks and rays are around the globe and inform improved conservation and management efforts.

Funded by Paul G. Allen Philanthropies, the international project team deployed over 14,000 BRUVS on 400 reefs around the world to examine the status of reef shark and ray populations.

Global data indicate that reef sharks and rays are highly variable in their global presence, with no sharks recorded in several of the sampled countries. Greatest reef shark abundances were found in the waters of developed nations like the US and Australia, but in general, the Pacific Ocean region retains higher relative abundances than the Coral Triangle, Caribbean or Indian Ocean. Analyses of the global dataset are still being finalised but indicate the dire situation for reef sharks in some areas.

The primary cause of the observed declines is heavy fishing pressure and inadequate management. Current analyses being led by AIMS suggest that some species may have been extirpated from some countries. Heavy fishing pressure on sharks and reef fish, combined with environmental impacts of climate change (bleaching, cyclone

damage) will make it difficult to recover reef shark populations in some areas. The long-lived and slow breeding life history traits of sharks also means that population recovery times are measured in decades rather than years.

The findings of this global initiative are likely to have significant impacts in management and conservation arenas in a number of countries. Conversations are underway to determine how the Global FinPrint data can be used to help countries improve their protection of reef sharks and rays in areas where there is still potential for recovery, and what can be done in places that are more heavily impacted.

The findings of this project will be significant for management and conservation of reef sharks and rays within our reef systems (Great Barrier Reef, Ningaloo). Since Australia contains healthy numbers of reef shark populations, we now play an important role in ensuring the future of these species, particularly in proximity to the Coral Triangle and Indian Ocean where populations have declined significantly.

The primary cause of the observed declines is heavy fishing pressure and inadequate management

Image: S Lindfield

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Research Highlight

Mysteries of hammerhead shark movement revealed AIMS has been leading a multi-year collaborative research project to define the movements and connectivity of scalloped and great hammerhead sharks in northern Australia. This project, funded by the National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Marine Biodiversity Hub, used multiple methods to examine population connectivity.

The project included satellite tracking to examine the extent of movements of individuals over periods of several months, genetic analyses to define any population separation and analyses of hammerhead parasite fauna, which can be an indicator of where individuals have travelled. Knowing if adult hammerhead sharks travel across international borders has significant implications for Australian management and conservation policies concerning these sharks. Defining this connectivity has increased in importance since the scalloped hammerhead was listed as Conservation Dependent under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) in April 2018.

The status of hammerhead sharks in Australia is of importance due to the extensive nursery areas for juveniles that occur around our northern coastline and the presence of multiple coastal fisheries that harvest sharks. Nurseries help inform us about hammerhead populations, but little is known about where adults occur and move, and most importantly, whether Australian populations are connected with those in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

AIMS satellite tracking data revealed tagged hammerheads had relatively localised movements, with the farthest latitudinal distance moved being less than 250 km, and the longest distance between tagging and recapture locations being only 169 km. Analysis of parasite fauna supported satellite tracking results that suggested limited movement among regions. However, tracked individuals and those surveyed

for parasites were all less than 3 metres in length, and so may not represent the behaviour patterns of large adult sharks. Additional parasite analysis of the composition of parasite communities hosted by larger hammerhead sharks in Indonesia is currently underway to determine if there is evidence that these individuals have ventured into Australia. This final step will try to help clarify local connectivity.

In contrast, genetic analysis of scalloped hammerhead sharks has revealed distinct differences between the breeding populations of the Indo-Pacific populations (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Fiji) and those of the Indian Ocean and Central Pacific. Individuals sampled in Australia-Indonesia-Papua New Guinea showed high gene flow between the Northern Territory, Indonesia, the Australian east coast and Papua New Guinea, but no significant gene flow between Indonesia and WA. Collectively, these samples show limited interbreeding between scalloped hammerhead sharks of Australia and Indonesia but indicate that populations are connected to both Indonesia and Papua New Guinea over evolutionary time scales.

The project will conclude at the end of 2019, with a synthesis of findings to help define populations within the region. The listing of scalloped hammerhead under the EPBC Act requires management to recover populations, so our understanding of their distribution, movement and connectivity will be used by the Department of the Environment and Energy in conjunction with fisheries managers in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia to ensure we maintain healthy populations of these iconic shark species.

AIMS satellite tracking data revealed tagged hammerheads had relatively localised movements

Part 5

Financial Statements

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Par t 5:

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Statement by the Accountable Authority, Chief Executive and Chief Finance Officer 103

Pr

imary Financial Statements 104

Sta

tement of Comprehensive Income 104

Sta

tement of Financial Position 105

St

atement of Changes in Equity 106

Ca

sh Flow Statement 107

Bu

dgetary Reporting of Major Variances (AASB1055) 108

Notes to and Forming Part of the Financial Statements 109

Ove

rview 110

F

inancial Performance 111

1.

1: Expenses 111

1.

2: Own- Source Revenue and Gains 112

Fin

ancial Position 113

2.1

: Financial Assets 113

2.2

: Non-Financial Assets 114

Peo

ple and Relationships 116

3.

1: Employee Provisions 116

3.2: Key Management Personnel Remuneration 117

3.3: Related Party Disclosures 118

Managing Uncertainties 120

4.

1A: Contingent Assets and Liabilities 120

4.2: Financial Instruments 121

4.3: Fair Value Measurements 123

Othe

r Information 123

5.

1: Aggregated Assets and Liabilities 123

Supp

lementary Financial Information (Unaudited) 124

Image: N Thake

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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Statement of Comprehensive Income Statement of Financial Position Statement of Changes in Equity

Cash Flow Statement Budgetary Reporting of Major Variances

Overview

1. Financial performance 1.1 Expenses 1.2 Own‐Source Revenue and Gains

2. Financial position 2.1 Financial Assets 2.2 Non‐Financial Assets 2.3 Payables

3. People and relationships 3.1 Employee Provisions 3.2 Key Personnel Remuneration 3.3 Related Party Disclosures

4. Managing uncertainties 4.1 Contingent Assets and Liabilities 4.2 Financial Instruments 4.3 Fair Value Measurements

5. Other Information 5.1 Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

Notes to and forming part of the financial statements:

Primary financial statements

Statement by the Accountable Authority, Chief Executive and Chief Finance Officer

Independent Auditor’s Report

Contents  Contents

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GPO Box 707 CANBERRA ACT 2601 19 National Circuit BARTON ACT Phone (02) 6203 7300 Fax (02) 6203 7777

INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT

To the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology

Opinion

In my opinion, the financial statements of the Australian Institute of Marine Science (‘the Entity’) for the year  ended 30 June 2019:  

(a) comply  with  Australian  Accounting  Standards  -  Reduced  Disclosure  Requirements  and  the  Public  Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015; and 

(b) present fairly the financial position of the Entity as at 30 June 2019 and its financial performance and cash  flows for the year then ended. 

The financial statements of the Entity, which I have audited, comprise the following statements as at 30 June  2019 and for the year then ended:  

 Statement by the Accountable Authority, Chief Executive and Chief Finance Officer;  Statement of Comprehensive Income;  Statement of Financial Position;  Statement of Changes in Equity;  Cash Flow Statement; and  Notes  to  the financial  statements,  comprising  a  summary  of  significant  accounting  policies  and other

explanatory information.

Basis for opinion

I  conducted  my  audit  in  accordance  with  the  Australian  National  Audit  Office  Auditing  Standards,  which  incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards. My responsibilities under those standards are further described  in the Auditor’s Responsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of my report. I am independent  of the Entity in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements for financial statement audits conducted by  the  Auditor‐General  and  his  delegates.  These  include  the  relevant  independence  requirements  of  the  Accounting Professional and Ethical Standards Board’s APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (the  Code) to the extent that they are not in conflict with the Auditor‐General Act 1997. I have also fulfilled my other  responsibilities in accordance with the Code. I believe that the audit evidence I have obtained is sufficient and  appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion. 

Accountable Authority’s responsibility for the financial statements

As  the  Accountable  Authority  of  the  Entity,  the  Council  of  the  Australian  Institute  of  Marine  Science  is  responsible under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (the Act) for the preparation  and fair  presentation  of  annual  financial  statements  that  comply  with  Australian  Accounting  Standards  -  Reduced  Disclosure  Requirements  and  the  rules  made  under  the  Act.  The  Accountable  Authority  is  also  responsible  for  such  internal  control  as  the  Accountable  Authority determines  is  necessary  to  enable  the  preparation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.  

In preparing the financial statements, the Accountable Authority is responsible for assessing the ability of the  Entity to continue as a going concern, taking into account whether the Entity’s operations will cease as a result  of an administrative restructure or for any other reason. The Accountable Authority is also responsible for  disclosing, as applicable, matters related to going concern and using the going concern basis of accounting unless  the assessment indicates that it is not appropriate. 

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102 |

Auditor’s responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements

My objective is to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from  material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditor’s report that includes my opinion.  Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance  with the Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards will always detect a material misstatement when it  exists.  Misstatements  can  arise  from  fraud  or  error  and  are  considered  material  if,  individually  or  in  the  aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis  of the financial statements. 

As part of an audit in accordance with the Australian National  Audit Office Auditing Standards, I exercise  professional judgement and maintain professional scepticism throughout the audit. I also:  

 identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient  and  appropriate  to  provide  a  basis  for  my  opinion.  The  risk  of  not  detecting  a  material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control;  obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are

appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Entity’s internal control;  evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by the Accountable Authority;  conclude on the appropriateness of the Accountable Authority’s use of the going concern basis of accounting

and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the Entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. If I conclude that a material uncertainty exists, I am required to draw attention in my auditor’s report to the related disclosures in the financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify my opinion. My conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of my auditor’s report. However, future events or conditions may cause the Entity to cease to continue as a going concern; and  evaluate  the  overall  presentation,  structure  and  content  of  the  financial  statements,  including  the

disclosures, and whether the financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

I communicate with the Accountable Authority regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing  of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that I identify  during my audit. 

Australian National Audit Office 

Brandon Jarrett  Executive Director 

Delegate of the Auditor‐General 

Canberra 

27 August 2019 

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STATEMENT BY THE ACCOUNTABLE AUTHORITY, CHIEF EXECUTIVE AND CHIEF FINANCE OFFICER

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

104 |

PRIMARY FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

for the period ended 30 June 2019 Statement of Comprehensive Income for the period ended 30 June 2019

Original

2019 2018 Budget

Notes $'000 $'000 $'000

NET COST OF SERVICES Expenses Employee Benefits 1.1A 30,289 28,672 29,846

Suppliers 1.1B 31,951 28,788 34,648

Depreciation 2.2A 13,075 12,307 12,421

Foreign exchange loss 37 74 ‐

Losses from asset disposal 2.2A 438 133 ‐

Total Expenses 75,790 69,974 76,915

Own‐source Income Own‐source revenue Rendering of services 20,798 21,426 23,788

Interest on deposits 1,111 1,027 1,200

Other revenue 1.2C 394 565 150

Total own‐source revenue 22,303 23,018 25,138

Gains Gains from sale of assets 1.2D 74 16 ‐

Total gains 74 16 ‐

Total own‐source income 22,377 23,034 25,138

Net cost of services (53,413) (46,940) (51,777)

Revenue from Government 1.2E 47,377 44,847 47,377

Total Revenue from Government 47,377 44,847 47,377

Surplus/(Deficit) attributable to the Australian Government (6,036) (2,093) (4,400)

OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME Items not subject to subsequent reclassification to net cost of services Changes in asset revaluation surplus ‐ 9,713 ‐

Total other comprehensive income ‐ 9,713 ‐

Total comprehensive income/(loss) attributable to the Australian Government (6,036) 7,620 (4,400)

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

12 12 19 19GLACT

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Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2019

Original

2019 2018 Budget

Notes $'000 $'000 $'000

ASSETS Financial Assets Cash and cash equivalents 2.1A 21,623 11,491 250

Investments 2.1A 17,200 26,100 36,523

Trade and other receivables 2.1B 7,274 7,277 7,277

Total financial assets 46,097 44,868 44,050

Non‐Financial Assets Buildings 2.2A 95,054 94,983 91,343

Infrastructure, plant & equipment 2.2A 28,563 31,456 26,544

Computer equipment 2.2A 1,076 1,502 1,000

Computer software 2.2A 4,888 4,111 4,318

Vehicles 2.2A 1,489 1,716 1,384

Office equipment 2.2A 5 2 5

Ships, launches and vessels 2.2A 19,155 20,506 17,801

Library books 2.2A 1 3 1

Prepayments 3,122 3,232 4,007

Inventories 203 160 273

Total non‐financial assets 153,556 157,671 146,676

Total assets 199,653 202,539 190,726

LIABILITIES Payables Suppliers 2,394 2,648 4,243

Other payables 2.3A 5,616 3,717 5,346

Total payables 8,010 6,365 9,589

Provisions Employee provisions 3.1A 11,757 10,402 11,470

Total provisions 11,757 10,402 11,470

Total liabilities 19,767 16,767 21,059

Net assets 179,886 185,772 169,667

EQUITY Contributed equity 88,357 88,207 88,357

Reserves 97,680 77,857 68,144

Retained surplus (accumulated deficit) (6,151) 19,708 13,166

Total equity 179,886 185,772 169,667

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION

as at 30 June 2019

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106 |

Statement of Changes in Equity for the period ended 30 June 2019

Original

2019 2018 Budget

Notes $'000 $'000 $'000

CONTRIBUTED EQUITY Opening balance Balance carried forward from previous period 88,207 86,607 88,207

Adjusted opening balance 88,207 86,607 88,207

Transactions with owners Contributions by owners Equity injection ‐ Appropriations 150 1,600 150

Total transactions with owners 150 1,600 150

Closing balance as at 30 June 88,357 88,207 88,357

RETAINED EARNINGS Opening balance Balance carried forward from previous period 19,708 21,801 17,566

Adjusted opening balance 19,708 21,801 17,566

Comprehensive income Surplus/(Deficit) for the period (6,036) (2,093) (4,400)

Total comprehensive income (6,036) (2,093) (4,400)

Transfers between equity components (19,823) ‐ ‐

Closing balance as at 30 June (6,151) 19,708 13,166

ASSET REVALUATION RESERVE Opening balance Balance carried forward from previous period 77,857 68,144 68,144

Adjusted opening balance 77,857 68,144 68,144

Comprehensive income Other comprehensive income ‐ 9,713 ‐

Total comprehensive income ‐ 9,713 ‐

Transfers between equity components 19,823 ‐ ‐

Closing balance as at 30 June 97,680 77,857 68,144

TOTAL EQUITY Opening balance Balance carried forward from previous period 185,772 176,552 173,917

Adjusted opening balance 185,772 176,552 173,917

Comprehensive income Surplus/(Deficit) for the period (6,036) (2,093) (4,400)

Total comprehensive income (6,036) (2,093) (4,400)

Asset revaluation reserve Other comprehensive income ‐ 9,713 ‐

Total comprehensive income ‐ 9,713 ‐

Transactions with owners Contributions by owners Equity injection ‐ Appropriations 150 1,600 150

Total transactions with owners 150 1,600 150

Closing balance as at 30 June 179,886 185,772 169,667

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

Accounting Policy Equity injections Amounts appropriated which are designated as 'equity injections' for a year (less any formal reductions).

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUIT Y

for the period ended 30 June 2019

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Cash Flow Statement for the period ended 30 June 2019

Original

2019 2018 Budget

Notes $'000 $'000 $'000

OPERATING ACTIVITIES Cash received Appropriations 47,377 44,847 47,377

Sale of Goods and rendering of services 25,023 22,001 23,894

Interest 901 1,198 1,200

Net GST receipts 2,279 1,411 ‐

Receipts from other 137 565 150

Total cash received 75,717 70,022 72,621

Cash used Employees 28,956 28,116 29,290

Suppliers 35,964 32,016 34,921

Total cash used 64,920 60,132 64,211

Net cash from/(used by) operating activities 10,797 9,890 8,410

INVESTING ACTIVITIES Cash received Proceeds from sales of property, plant & equipment 74 157 317

Investments 8,900 1,700 473

Total cash used 8,974 1,857 790

Cash used Purchase of property, plant and equipment 9,789 10,620 9,350

Total cash used 9,789 10,620 9,350

Net cash from/(used by) investing activities (815) (8,763) (8,560)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES Cash received Contributed equity 150 1,600 150

Total cash received 150 1,600 150

Net Cash from/(used by) Financing activities 150 1,600 150

Net increase/(decrease) in cash held 10,132 2,727 ‐

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period 11,491 8,764 250

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the reporting period 2.1A 21,623 11,491 250

The above statement should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

CASH FLOW STATEMENT

for the period ended 30 June 2019

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

108 |

Budgetary Reporting of Major Variances (AASB1055) The Budget variances reporting commentary provides a comparison between the 2018‐19 Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) provided to Parliament in May 2018 and the final outcome in the 2018‐19 financial statements. The PBS is not audited. Major changes in budget have been explained as part of the variance analysis where relevant. Variances are considered to be 'major' where:

(a) the variance between budget and actual is greater than +/‐10% of the budget for the line items; and (b) the variance between budget and actual is greater than +/‐2% of the relevant budget base.

Variance explanations will also be provided where there have been major changes to business activities that may not be numerically material but by nature may assist users in understanding underlying business changes that may have occurred since the original budget was released.

Where a revised budget has been presented to Parliament, AIMS may include variance explanations of major variances between the revised budget and actual amounts where they are considered relevant to an assessment of the discharge of accountability and to an analysis of the performance of AIMS.

Affected line items and statement Explanations of major variances

Expenses AIMS does not budget for Foreign exchange loss/(gain) and Losses from asset disposal. Foreign exchange loss, Losses from asset disposal Revenue External revenue was not attained as we contracted the revenue but the work was not undertaken transferring Rendering of Services the work to 2019/20. There was also delay in commencement of several large projects due to weather. Gains AIMS does not budget for Gain on sale of assets Gain on sale of assets

Comprehensive Income AIMS deficit is higher than the approved Portfolio Budget Statement 18/19 operating loss, however AIMS Surplus/(Deficit) received approval during Portfolio Budget Statements process for $6.050m. The overspend is mainly due to Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program underspend from last financial year of $1.4m and additional depreciation of $0.5m. Assets

Cash and Cash Equivalents, Investments

Computer Software

Prepayments

Inventories

Cash and cash equivalents and Investments are different due to calculations at the end of the financial year depen dent upon the maturities of the investments. For Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) AIMS accounts all Inves

tments in total as the liquidity of the investments cannot be predicted during PBS preparation. AIMS is undertaking significant Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system changes commencing in 2017/18 and has slightly

gone over budget on the project due to delays in the delivery of Project Management system. Prepaymen

ts is slightly down on budget as we have not renewed software support which was no longer needed. Prepayment account is also affected by timing of payments and releasing of the expense. Inventories are lower than budget as we transferred the AIMS Dive inventory to consumables after budget was set. Inv

entories are also affected by timing of stock‐on‐hand and use of the stock by staff. Liabilities Supplier payables account is affected by timing of processing of payment to suppliers and invoices not due. Supplier payables Equity An adjustment was made to the Asset Revaluation Reserve (ARR) account for disposals in previous years Asset Revaluation Reserve, Retained Earnings as per AASB116.41. AIMS has never adjusted the ARR for disposal of assets therefore the initial adjustment was increasing the ARR by $21.5m as at 1 July 2018 with a further decrease of $1.68m at 30 June 2019 for disposals processed in 18/19. Also see Comprehensive Income budgetary comment. Cashflow GST net receipts is not budgeted for and will be implemented for 2020/21 financial year PBS. Net GST received AIMS was expecting higher than normal disposals this financial year however prices achieved for used goods Sale of assets have been worse than expected. AIMS level of investments are still as per previous years however the maturity of the investments are Investments, Cash at end of reporting period higher this financial with more of them at 3 months or less therefore policies state these are liquid cash instead of investments with the offsetting amount in cash at bank.

BUDGETARY REPORTING OF MA JOR VARIANCES (A ASB1055)

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Financial Statements

| 109

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Overview 110

Fin

ancial Performance 111

1.

1: Expenses 111

1.

2: Own- Source Revenue And Gains 112

Fin

ancial Position 113

2.1

: Financial Assets 113

2.2

: Non-Financial Assets 114

Peo

ple And Relationships 116

3.

1: Employee Provisions 116

3.

2: Key Management Personnel Remuneration 117

3.

3: Related Party Disclosures 118

Mana

ging Uncertainties 120

4.

1A: Contingent Assets And Liabilities 120

4.

2: Financial Instruments 121

4.3

: Fair Value Measurements 123

Othe

r Information 123

5.

1: Aggregated Assets And Liabilities 123

Supp

lementary Financial Information (Unaudited) 124

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110 |

Financial Performance

Objectives of the Australian Institute of Marine Science The Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) is a corporate Commonwealth entity established by the Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972. It is a not‐for‐profit entity.

The mission of AIMS is to provide research and knowledge of Australia’s tropical marine estate required to support growth in its sustainable use, effective environmental management and protection of its unique ecosystems.

The continued existence of AIMS in its present form and with its present programs is dependent on Government policy and on continuing funding by Parliament for AIMS administration and science research programs.

Basis of Preparation of the Financial Statements The financial statements are general purpose financial statements and are required by section 42 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

The financial statements and notes have been prepared in accordance with: a) Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015 (FRR) for reporting periods ending on or after 1 July 2018; and b) Australian Accounting Standards and Interpretations ‐ Reduced Disclosure Requirements issued by

the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) that apply for the reporting period.

The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. Except where stated, no allowance is made for the effect of changing prices on the results or the financial position.

The financial statements are presented in Australian dollars and values are rounded to the nearest thousand dollars unless otherwise specified.

Unless alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard, income and expenses are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income when and only when the flow, consumption or loss of economic benefits has occurred and can be reliably measured.

Unless an alternative treatment is specifically required by an accounting standard or the FRR, assets and liabilities are recognised in the statement of financial position when and only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity or a future sacrifice of economic benefits will be required and the amounts of the assets or liabilities can be reliably measured. However, assets and liabilities arising under executory contracts are not recognised unless required by an accounting standard. Liabilities and assets that are unquantifiable are reported in the contingencies note.

Significant Accounting Judgements and Estimates In the process of applying the accounting policies listed in this note, AIMS has made the following judgements that have the most significant impact on the amounts recorded in the financial statements. Recognition of revenue for rendering of services - Refer Note 1.2: Own‐Source Revenue and Gains

Fair value of buildings, plant and equipment - Refer Note 2.2: Non‐Financial Assets Remaining useful lives of buildings, infrastructure, plant and equipment ‐ Refer Note 2.2: Non‐Financial Assets Employee entitlement provision - Refer Note 3.1: Employee Provisions Contingent assets and contingent liabilities - Refer Note 4.1: Contingent Assets and Liabilities

No accounting assumptions or estimates have been identified that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next reporting period.

Overview OVERVIEW

Financial Performance

New Australian Accounting Standards All new/revised standards and/or interpretations that were issued prior to the sign‐off date and are applicable the the current reporting period, did not have a material effect to AIMS’ financial statements.

Taxation AIMS is exempt from all forms of taxation except Fringe Benefits Tax (FBT) and the Goods and Services Tax (GST). Revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities are recognised net of GST, except: a) where the amount of GST incurred is not recoverable from the Australian Taxation Office; and

b) for receivables and payables.

Insurance AIMS is insured through the Governments insurable managed fund Comcover. Workers compensation is insured through Comcare Australia.

Events After the Reporting Period There was no subsequent event that had the potential to significantly affect the ongoing structure and financial activities of AIMS.

Overview (cont)

Part 5

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FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

This section analyses the financial performance of the Australian Institute of Marine Science for the year ended 2019

Financial Performance 1.1: Expenses

2019 2018

Notes $'000 $'000

1.1A: Employee Benefits Wages and salaries 22,030 21,522

Superannuation Defined contribution plans 2,129 1,920

Defined benefit plans 1,467 1,706

Leave and other entitlements 4,319 3,184

Fringe Benefit Tax 344 340

Total employee benefits 30,289 28,672

Accounting Policy Accounting policies for employee related expenses are contained in the People and relationships section.

1.1B: Suppliers Goods and services supplied or rendered Consultants 166 22

Contractors 3,299 2,754

Travel 1,980 1,797

Consumables 1,348 1,464

Repairs and maintenance 2,658 3,372

Electricity 1,668 1,584

Fuel, oil and gas 977 649

Hire of equipment 2,356 1,052

Labour Hire staff 2,540 1,611

Vessel management 4,928 3,693

Support for post‐doctorate positions 3,423 4,143

Audit fees 123 115

Other general expenses 6,143 6,312

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 31,609 28,568

Goods supplied 6,771 7,299

Services rendered 24,838 21,269

Total goods and services supplied or rendered 31,609 28,568

Other Suppliers Operating lease rentals in connection with External Parties Minimum lease payments 292 175

Workers compensation premiums 50 45

Total other suppliers 342 220

Total suppliers 31,951 28,788

Leasing commitments AIMS in its capacity as lessee has leasing arrangements with Port of Townsville for berthing facilities. The lease includes GST and CPI annual inflator clauses.

Commitments for minimum lease payments in relation to non‐cancellable operating leases are payable as follows:

Within 1 year 59 84

Between 1 to 5 years 243 342

More than 5 years 837 1,194

Total operating lease commitments 1,139 1,620

Accounting Policy Leased assets are amortised over the period of the lease. Lease payments are allocated between the principal component and the interest expense.

Operating lease payments are expensed on a straight‐line basis which is representative of the pattern of benefits derived from the leased assets.

This section analyses the financial performance of Australian Institute of Marine Science for the year ended 2019.  Financial Performance

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

112 |

1.2 Own‐Source Revenue and Gains

2019 2018

Notes $'000 $'000

Own‐Source Revenue

Accounting Policy Revenue from rendering of services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of contracts at the reporting date. The revenue is recognised when: a) the amount of revenue, stage of completion and transaction costs incurred can be reliably measured; and

b) the probable economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to AIMS. The stage of completion of contracts at the reporting date is determined by reference to the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated cost of the transaction.

Sale of Assets Gains from disposal of assets are recognised when control of the asset has passed to the buyer.

Revenue from Government Funding received or receivable from agencies (appropriated to AIMS as a corporate body payment item) is recognised as revenue from Government when the entity gains control of the funding unless the funding is in the nature of an equity injection or loan.

Accounting Judgement and Estimates Revenue recognition for rendering of services is accounted for on a percentage completed basis which determines the timing of revenue recognition and the amount of recognition. The determination of the percentage of completion requires judgement in relation to determining the costs to date of the project budgeted costs to complete the contract values including variations.

1.2C: Other Revenue Other revenue 369 239

Insurance claims 25 326

Total other revenue 394 565

Leasing commitments AIMS in its capacity as lessor has leasing arrangements with Optus Australia for land within AIMS Townsville. The lease includes GST and CPI annual inflator clauses.

Commitments for minimum lease receivables in relation to non‐cancellable operating leases are receivable as follows:

Within 1 year 9 ‐

Between 1 to 5 years 38 ‐

More than 5 years 38 ‐

Total lease commitment receivables 85 ‐

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Financial Statements

| 113

FINANCIAL POSITION

This section analyses the Australian Institute of Marine Science assets used to conduct its operations and the operating liabilities incurred as a result.

Employee related information is disclosed in the People and Relationships section.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

114 | 2.2 Non‐Financial Assets 2.2A: Reconciliation of the Openin

g and Closin

g Balances of Property, Plant and Equipment and Computer Software

Reconciliation of the openin

g and closin

g balances of property, plant and equipment and computer software 2019 Infrastructure Ships,

Plant &

Computer

Computer Office Launches Librar

y

Buildin

g s Equipmen

t

Equipmen

t

Software Vehicles Equipmen

t

& Vessels Books Total

$'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

A s at 1 July 2018 Gross book value 96,052 32,586 1,666 7,025 1,883 2 20,921 4 160,139

Accumulated depreciation and impairment (1,069) (1,130) (164) (2,914) (167) ‐ (415) (1) (5,860)

Net book value 1 July 2018 94,983 31,456 1,502 4,111 1,716 2 20,506 3 154,279

Additions Purchase or internally developed 4,281 1,352 217 1,861 724 6 287 ‐ 8,728

Work in pro

gress 343 556 22 84 ‐ ‐ 56 ‐ 1,061

Depreciation (4,369) (4,605) (662) (1,164) (576) (3) (1,694) (2) (13,075)

Disposals Other (184) (196) (3) (4) (375) ‐ ‐ ‐ (762)

Net book value 30 June 2019 95,054 28,563 1,076 4,888 1,489 5 19,155 1 150,231

Net book value as of 30 June 2019 represented by Gross book value 100,484 34,173 1,897 7,312 1,995 8 21,264 4 167,137

Accumulated depreciation and impairment (5,430) (5,610) (821) (2,424) (506) (3) (2,109) (3) (16,906)

Net book value 30 June 2019 95,054 28,563 1,076 4,888 1,489 5 19,155 1 150,231

Depreciation rates are based on the followin

g useful lives: 5‐72 years 2‐42 years

4‐23 years

2‐10 years 4‐12 years 5‐30 years 3‐25 years 10‐20 years

1. The carryin

g amount of computer software included $567,505 purchased software, $4,236,950 internally

generated software and $84,369 of work‐in‐pro

gress.

2. No property, plant and equipment and intan

gibles are expected to be sold or disposed of within the next 12 months.

Revaluations of non‐financial assets In the current year a desktop valuation review was completed by Pickles Valuation Services (PVS) who completed the comprehensive valuation in 2018. For assets classified as havin

g Level 2 inputs, PVS compared the Written Down Value (WDV) of the assets a

gainst similar assets in the most appropriate active market.

This enabled PVS to ascertain that the WDV was materially in line with observable market data. For assets that PVS were unable to be valued by identifiable observable market data an alternative approach was utilised. These assets were valued by the cost approach method, a depreciated replacement cost (DRC) approach, utilisin

g

Level 3 Inputs. In doin

g so, the PVS review ensured the estimated replacement cost, total useful lives (TUL), and remainin

g useful lives (RUL) were in line with

industry standards to ensure the DRC calculation was reliable. PVS have relied upon previous valuation and asset lives data to conduct this review.

No chan

ges were made in 2018/19 for property, plant and equipment. The next scheduled revaluation of Property, Plant and Equipment is in 2020/21 by an independent valuer.

All increments and decrements are transferred to the asset revaluation surplus by asset class and included in the equity section of the statement of financial position. Any disposals of revalued assets, the revaluation amount is transferred to the retained surplus/deficit account. $19,822,731 was reco

gnised as a decrement (2018: Nil).

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 115

2.2 Non‐Financial Assets (cont)

Accounting Policy Assets are recorded at cost on acquisition except as stated below. The cost of acquisition includes the fair value of assets transferred in exchange and liabilities undertaken. Financial assets are initially measured at their fair value plus transaction costs where appropriate.

Assets acquired at no cost, or for nominal consideration, are initially recognised as assets and income at their fair value at the date of acquisition, unless acquired as a consequence of restructuring of administrative arrangements. In the latter case, assets are initially recognised as contributions by owners at the amounts at which they were recognised in the transferor's accounts immediately prior to the restructuring.

Asset Recognition Threshold Purchases of property, plant and equipment are recognised initially at cost in the statement of financial position, except for purchases costing less than $2,000, which are expensed in the year of acquisition (other than where they form part of a group of similar items which are significant in total such as IT equipment).

Revaluations Following initial recognition at cost, property plant and equipment were carried at fair value less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Valuations were conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure that the carrying amounts of assets do not differ materially from the assets' fair values as at the reporting date. The regularity of independent valuations depends upon the volatility of movements in market values for the relevant assets.

Revaluation adjustments were made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment was credited to equity under the heading of asset revaluation surplus except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that was previously recognised in the surplus/deficit. Revaluations decrements for a class of assets were recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reverse a previous revaluation increment for that class.

Any accumulated depreciation as at the revaluation date is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the asset restated to the revalued amount.

Depreciation Depreciable property, plant and equipment assets are written‐off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives to the entity using, in all cases, the straight‐line method of depreciation. Depreciation rates (useful lives), residual values and methods are reviewed at each reporting date and necessary adjustments are recognised in the current, or current and future reporting periods, as appropriate.

Impairment All assets were assessed for impairment at 30 June 2019. Where indications of impairment exist, the asset's recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment adjustment made if the asset's recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount.

The recoverable amount of an asset is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset. Where the future economic benefit of an asset is not primarily dependent on the asset's ability to generate future cash flows, and the asset would be replaced if AIMS were deprived of the asset, its value in use is taken to be its depreciated replacement cost.

Derecognition An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

2.2 Non‐Financial Assets (cont)

Computer software These assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Computer software costing less than $2,000 are expensed in the year of acquisition. Computer software is amortised on a straight‐line basis over its anticipated useful life. All software assets were assessed for indications of impairment as at 30 June 2019.

Inventory Inventories held for distribution are valued at cost, adjusted for any loss of service potential. Costs incurred in bringing each item of inventory to its present location and condition are assigned as follows:

a) raw materials and stores - purchase cost on a first‐in‐first‐out basis; and b) finished goods and work‐in‐progress - cost of direct materials and labour plus attributable costs that can be allocated on a reasonable basis.

2.3 Payables

2019 2018

Notes $'000 $'000

2.3A: Other payables

Unearned revenue 5,211 3,317

Salary and wages including oncosts 405 400

Total other payables 5,616 3,717

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

116 |

3.1 Employee Provisions

2019 2018

Notes $'000 $'000

3.1A: Employee Provisions Leave 11,655 10,387

Other 102 15

Total employee provisions 11,757 10,402

Accounting Policy Liabilities for 'short‐term employee benefits' (as defined in AASB 119 Employee Benefits) and termination benefits expected within twelve months of the end of reporting period are measured at their nominal amounts.

Other long term employee benefits are measured as net total of the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period period minus the fair value at the end of the reporting period of plan assets (if any) out of which the obligation are to be settled directly.

Leave The liability for employee benefits includes provision for annual leave and long service leave. No provision has been made for sick leave as all sick leave is non‐vesting and the average sick leave taken in future years by employees of AIMS is estimated to be less than the annual entitlement for sick leave.

The leave liabilities are calculated on the basis of employees' remuneration at the estimated salary rates that will be applied at the time the leave is taken, including AIMS's employer superannuation contribution rates to the extent that the leave is likely to be taken during service rather than paid out on termination.

The estimate of the present value of the liability takes into account attrition rates and pay increases through promotion and inflation.

Superannuation AIMS staff are members of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS), the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS), the PSS accumulation plan (PSSap), UniSuper, Australian Super (AUS), Australian Ethical and Sunsuper. The CSS and PSS is a defined benefit schemes for the Australian Government. The other schemes are defined (accumulated funds) contribution schemes.

The liability for defined benefits is recognised in the financial statements of the Australian Government and is settled by the Australian Government in due course. This liability is reported by the Department of Finance administered schedules and notes.

AIMS makes employer contributions to the employees' superannuation scheme at rates determined by an actuary to be sufficient to meet the current cost to the Government. AIMS accounts for contributions as if they were contributions to defined contribution plans.

The liability for superannuation recognised as at 30 June represents outstanding contributions for the final fortnight of the year.

People and relationships This section describes a range of employment and post employment benefits provided to our people and our relationships with other key people.

PEOPLE AND REL ATIONSHIPS

This section describes a range of employment and post employment benefits provided to our people and our relationships with other key people.

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 117

3.2: Key Management Personnel Remuneration Key management personnel are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity, directly or indirectly, including any director (whether executive or otherwise) of the entity. AIMS has determined the Key Management Personnel during the reporting period to be Council members, CEO and AIMS Leadership Team. Key management personnel remuneration is reported below.

2019 2018

Notes

$'000

$'000

Short‐term employee benefits 2,562 2,429

Post‐employment benefits 327 386

Other lon

g‐term employee benefits 105 280

Total

2,994

3,095

Total

remuneration

59,378 41,347 35,148 31,824 30,915 30,080 459,056 368,096 262,286 262,080 258,642 257,689 252,490 252,205 227,163

Name & Position The Hon. Penel

ope Wensley AC ‐ Council

Chairman*

Mr

Roy Peterson ‐ Council member and Audit Committee Chairman*

Ms Jeanette Roberts

‐ Council and Audit Committee member* Ms Anna Matysek ‐ Council member* Dr Stephen Morton ‐ Council member* Professor Sandra Harding AO

‐ Council member*

Dr P

aul Hardisty ‐ CEO and Council member* Mr David Mead ‐ Executive Director Dr John Chappell ‐ Chief Operating Officer Dr Richard Brinkman ‐ Research Program Director Dr Britta Schaffelke ‐ Research Program Director Dr Michaela Dommisse ‐ Research Program Director Mr Basil Ahyick ‐ Chief Finance Officer Dr David Souter ‐ Chief Research Officer Mr Frank Tirendi ‐ Business Services Group Manager Mr John Liston ‐ Communications Manager 165,616

Total 2,994,

015

* denotes staff paid under Remuneration Tribunal (Remuneration and Allowances for Holders of Part‐time Public Office) Determination 2018. All other KMP are paid in accordance to AIMS Enterprise Agreement.

The total number of key management personnel that are included in the above table are 16 individuals (2018: 20 individuals).

1. The above key management personnel remuneration excludes the remuneration and other benefits of the Portfolio Minister. The Portfolio Minister's remuneration and other benefits are set by the Remuneration Tribunal and are not paid by AIMS.

Other hi

g hly paid staff ‐ non‐Key Mana

g ement Personnel

Total

remuneration

Remuneration Band

# hi

g hly

paid staff

$245,001 ‐ $270,000 5 261,600

Total 261,600

Short‐term benefits

Post employment benefits Other long term benefits

Base Salary Bonuses

Other benefits and allowances Superannuation contributions Long service leave

51,474 ‐ ‐ 7,904 ‐

41,347 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

35,148 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

25,737 ‐ ‐ 6,087 ‐

26,994 ‐ ‐ 3,921 ‐

30,080 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

349,347 54,214 10,145 32,500 12,850

248,190 28,848 27,537 49,334 14,187

187,713 17,485 21,179 26,472 9,437

177,932 15,771 19,331 32,791 16,255

175,323 17,485 18,593 33,314 13,927

188,630 17,878 19,154 28,120 3,907

184,069 17,485 19,499 26,562 4,875

176,685 15,771 22,887 28,914 7,948

159,292 ‐ 18,310 30,735 18,826

142,276 ‐ ‐ 20,912 2,428

Short‐term benefits

Post employment benefits Other long term benefits

Base Salary Bonuses

Other benefits and allowances Superannuation contributions Long service leave

2,200,237

184,937 176,635 327,566 104,640

194,121 1,782 17,708 30,149 17,840

194,121 1,782 17,708 30,149 17,840

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

118 |

3.3 Related Party Disclosures

Related party relationships AIMS is an Australian Government controlled entity. Related parties to AIMS are Board members, Executive and Senior Management, the Portfolio Minister, and other Australian Government entities. Transactions with related parties Board members and their related parties may hold positions in other entities that result in them having control or significant influence over the financial or operating policies of those entities. Given the breadth of Government activities, related parties may transact with the Government sector in the same capacity as ordinary citizens. Such transactions include the payment or refund of taxes, receipt of Medicare rebate or Higher Education loans. These transactions have not been separately included in this note. Certain entities transacted with AIMS in the reporting period. The terms and conditions of those transactions with key management personnel and their related parties were no more favourable than those available, or which might reasonably be expected to be available, on a similar transactions to non‐related entities on an arm's length basis.

Loans to Key Management Personnel or Key Management Personnel‐Related Entities In 2019, no loans were made to key management personnel or key management personnel‐related entities (2018: Nil).

Other Transactions with Key Management Personnel or Key Management Personnel‐Related Entities

Details of transactions between key management personnel and related parties during the year for the purchase of science services were:

2019 2018

$ $

Curtin University 339 ‐

Great Barrier Reef Foundation 195 69

James Cook University 531 649

University of Western Australia ‐ IOMRC 1,301 403

University of Sydney 220 ‐

University of Tasmania ‐ IMOS/NESP 195 ‐

Total 2,781 1,121

Details of transactions between key management personnel and related parties during the year for the rendering of science services were:

2019 2018

$ $

Great Barrier Reef Foundation 1,498 432

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 1,565 2,138

James Cook University 298 102

RioTinto 711 ‐

University of Melbourne 69 ‐

University of Tasmania ‐ IMOS/NESP 3,377 1,204

University of Western Australia ‐ IOMRC ‐ 1,865

Total 7,518 5,741

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 119

3.3 Related Party Disclosures (cont)

Details of balances outstanding at year end for purchase of science services were:

2019 2018

$ $

Curtin University 55 ‐

James Cook University 51 ‐

University of Sydney 21 ‐

Total 127 ‐

Details of balances outstanding at year end for rendering of science services were:

2019 2018

$ $

Great Barrier Reef Foundation 85 ‐

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority ‐ 760

University of Tasmania ‐ IMOS/NESP ‐ 285

University of Western Australia 191 ‐

Total 276 1,045

AIMS transacts with Australian Government related entities consistent with normal day‐to‐day business operations provided under normal terms and conditions, including the purchase and rendering of science services.

Details of transactions with related entities during the year for the purchase of science services were: 2019 2018

$ $

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science 208 214

Commonwealth Scientific and Industry Research Organisation 793 1,312

Total 1,001 1,526

Details of transactions with related entities during the year for the rendering of science services were: 2019 2018

$ $

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 1,565 2,138

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 147 ‐

Department of the Environment and Energy ‐ 252

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science ‐ 267

Commonwealth Scientific and Industry Research Organisation 63 296

Total 1,775 2,953

There were no other transactions with related entities during the year.

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

120 |

MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES

This section analyses how the Australian Institute of Marine Science manages financial risks within its operating environment.

4.1A Contingent Assets and Liabilities

Contingent assets

2019 2018

Guarantees $ $

Balance from previous period 183 87

New contingent assets recognised 87 100

Rights expired (94) (4)

Total 176 183

Quantifiable Contingencies AIMS holds performance guarantees of $176,000 (2018:$183,000). Performance guarantees include Bank guarantees in relation to the refurbishment of AIMS's buildings.

Unquantifiable Contingencies As at 30 June 2019, AIMS has a 21 year lease on a berthing facility with Port of Townsville. At the expiry of the lease AIMS is required to carry out at its own cost remediation work necessary to return the level of contamination in the leased land to a level as prescribed by Assessment and Management of Containment Land in Queensland (May 1998). AIMS is unable to reliably estimate the cost of any future remediation.

Accounting Policy Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are not recognised in the statement of financial position but are reported in the relevant schedules and notes. They may arise from uncertainty as to the existence of a liability or asset or represent an asset or liability in respect of which the amount cannot be reliably measured. Contingent assets are disclosed when settlement is probable but not virtually certain and contingent liabilities are disclosed when settlement is greater than remote.

Managing Uncertainties This section analyses how the Australian Institute of Marine Science manages financial risks within its operating environment.

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 121

4.2 Financial Instruments

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

4.2A: Cate

g ories of Financial Instruments

Financial Assets under AASB139 Held to maturity investments Investments 26,100

Total held to maturity investments 26,100

Loans and receivables Cash at bank 11,491

Receivables for services 6,908

Other receivables 157

Total loans and receivables 18,556

Total financial assets 44,656

Financial Assets under AASB9

A mortised cos

t

Investments 17,200

Cash at bank 21,623

Receivables for services 6,693

Other receivables 360

Total financial assets ‐ amortised cos

t

45,876

Financial Liabilities Financial liabilities measured at amortised cos

t

Trade Creditors 2,394 2,648

Other payables 5,616 3,717

Total financial liabilities measured at amortised cos

t

8,010 6,365

Classification of financial assets on the date of initial application of AASB9.

Financial Asset Class Note

A ASB139 ori

g inal

classification

A ASB9 new classification

A ASB139 carryin

g

amount at 1 July 2018 $'000

A ASB9

carryin

g

amount at 1 July 2018 $'000

Cash and cash equivalents 2.1A

Held‐to‐ maturity Amortised cost 11,491 11,491

Trade receivables 2.1B

Held‐to‐ maturity Amortised cost 7,065 7,065

Investments 2.1C

Held‐to‐ maturity Amortised cost 26,100 26,100

Total financial assets 44,656 44,656

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

122 |

4.2 Financial Instruments (cont) Reconciliation of carryin

g amounts of financial assets on the date of initial application of AASB9.

Financial Asset Class Note

A ASB139 carryin

g

amount at 30 June 2018

Re‐

classification

Re‐

measurement

A ASB9

carryin

g

amount at 1 July 2018 $'000

Cash and cash equivalents 2.1A 11,491 ‐ ‐ 11,491

Trade receivables 2.1B 7,065 ‐ ‐ 7,065

Investments 2.1C 26,100 ‐ ‐ 26,100

Total financial assets 44,656 ‐ ‐ 44,656

Accounting Policy Financial Assets

With the implementation of AASB 9 Financial Instruments for the first time in 2019, AIMS classifies its financial assets measured at amortised cost. The classification depends on both the AIMS's business model for managing the financial assets and contractual cash flow characteristics at the time of initial recognition. Financial assets are recognised when the AIMS becomes a party to the contract and, as a consequence, has a legal right to receive or a legal obligation to pay cash and derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash from the financial asset expire or are transferred upon trade date. Comparatives have not been restated on initial application. Impairment of Financial Assets

Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period based on Expected Credit Losses, using the general approach which measures the loss allowance based on an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses where risk has significantly increased, or an amount equal to 12‐month expected credit losses if risk has not increased. The simplified approach for trade, contract and lease receivables is used. This approach always measures the loss allowance as the amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses. A write‐off constitutes a derecognition event where the write‐off directly reduces the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. Financial Assets at amortised cost

Financial assets included in this cate

gory need to meet two criteria:

1. the financial asset is held in order to collect the contractual cash flows; and 2. the cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal outstandin

g amount.

Amortised cost is determined usin

g the effective interest rate method.

E

ff ective interest rate Income is reco

gnised on an effective interest rate basis for financial assets that are reco

gnised at amortised cost.

Financial Liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value throu

gh profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities. Financial liabilities

are reco

gnised and dereco

gnised upon ‘trade date’.

Financial liabilities at amortised cos

t

Financial liabilities, includin

g borrowin

gs, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. These liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost usin

g the effective interest method, with interest expense reco

gnised on an effective interest basis.

Suppliers and other payables are reco

gnised at amortised cost. Liabilities are reco

gnised to the extent that the

goods or services have been received

(irrespective of havin

g been invoiced).

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

4.2B: Net Gains or Losses on Financial Assets

Financial assets at amortised cos

t

Interest revenue

1,111

1,027

Total net

g ains(losses) at amortised cos

t

1,111

1,027

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 123

4.3 Fair Value Measurements

Accounting Policy AIMS deems transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy to have occurred at 30 June 2019.

4.3A: Fair Value Measurements

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

Non‐financial assets Buildings 95,054 94,983

Infrastructure, plant and equipment 28,563 31,456

Ships, launches & vessels 19,155 20,506

Computer equipment 1,076 1,502

Vehicles 1,489 1,716

Office equipment 5 2

Library books 1 3

Total non‐financial assets 145,343 150,168

Total fair value measurements of assets in the statement of financial position 145,343 150,168

1. The following valuation techniques were used: Cost approach: based on the amount required to replace the service potential of an asset Market approach: based on market transactions involving identical or similar assets or liabilities

AIMS procured valuation services from Pickles Valuation Services (PVS) and relied on valuation models provided by PVS. PVS re‐tests the valuation model every 12 months and has provided written assurance to AIMS that the model developed is compliant with AASB 13. Refer to Asset revaluation policy in Note 2.2.

5.1 Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

5.1A Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

Assets expected to be recovered in: No more than 12 months 46,659 44,868

More than 12 months 152,994 157,671

Total Assets 199,653 202,539

Liabilities expected to be settled in: No more than 12 months 18,516 15,462

More than 12 months 1,251 1,305

Total Liabilities 19,767 16,767

Fair value measurements at the end of the reporting period

Other Information OTHER INFORMATION

4.3 Fair Value Measurements

Accounting Policy AIMS deems transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy to have occurred at 30 June 2019.

4.3A: Fair Value Measurements

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

Non‐financial assets Buildings 95,054 94,983

Infrastructure, plant and equipment 28,563 31,456

Ships, launches & vessels 19,155 20,506

Computer equipment 1,076 1,502

Vehicles 1,489 1,716

Office equipment 5 2

Library books 1 3

Total non‐financial assets 145,343 150,168

Total fair value measurements of assets in the statement of financial position 145,343 150,168

1. The following valuation techniques were used: Cost approach: based on the amount required to replace the service potential of an asset Market approach: based on market transactions involving identical or similar assets or liabilities

AIMS procured valuation services from Pickles Valuation Services (PVS) and relied on valuation models provided by PVS. PVS re‐tests the valuation model every 12 months and has provided written assurance to AIMS that the model developed is compliant with AASB 13. Refer to Asset revaluation policy in Note 2.2.

5.1 Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

5.1A Aggregate Assets and Liabilities

2019 2018

$'000 $'000

Assets expected to be recovered in: No more than 12 months 46,659 44,868

More than 12 months 152,994 157,671

Total Assets 199,653 202,539

Liabilities expected to be settled in: No more than 12 months 18,516 15,462

More than 12 months 1,251 1,305

Total Liabilities 19,767 16,767

Fair value measurements at the end of the reporting period

Other Information

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

124 |

SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)

NOTE 1:

Revenue comparison

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

Appropriation revenue Operating 30,775 32,462 33,531 36,826 39,356

Asset replacement 8,021 8,021 8,021 8,021 8,021

Total appropriation revenue 38,796 40,483 41,552 44,847 47,377

Non-appropriation revenue Sale of goods and rendering of services1 17,396 16,324 16,318 21,426 20,798

Interest 1,367 1,283 1,109 1,027 1,111

Revenues from joint ventures - - - - -

Other revenue 4,739 482 964 580 468

Total non-appropriation revenue 23,502 18,089 18,391 23,032 22,377

Total Revenue 62,298 58,572 59,943 67,879 69,754

Non-appropriation ratio2 37% 38% 31% 31% 32%

1 Sale of goods and rendering of services includes consultancies, grants and contract collaborations. 2 Non-appropriation ratio is percentage non-appropriation revenue of total revenue.

NOTE 2:

Source of sale of goods and rendering of services by sector 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

Australian Government 7,012 6,084 5,478 7,401 6,787

Australian joint Government/industry 3,579 3,401 2,277 634 387

International governments - 36 71 - 15

Australian industry 6,769 5,867 6,868 11,689 12,439

International industry 36 936 1,624 1,702 1,170

Sale of goods - - - - -

17,396 16,324 16,318 21,426 20,798

0.000

2.000

4.000

6.000

8.000

10.000

12.000

14.000

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000

Year

Source of Sale of Goods and Services by Industry

Australian Government Australian Industry Australian Joint Government/Industry International Governments International Industry

SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED) SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)

NOTE 1:

Revenue comparison

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

Appropriation revenue Operating 30,775 32,462 33,531 36,826 39,356

Asset replacement 8,021 8,021 8,021 8,021 8,021

Total appropriation revenue 38,796 40,483 41,552 44,847 47,377

Non-appropriation revenue Sale of goods and rendering of services1 17,396 16,324 16,318 21,426 20,798

Interest 1,367 1,283 1,109 1,027 1,111

Revenues from joint ventures - - - - -

Other revenue 4,739 482 964 580 468

Total non-appropriation revenue 23,502 18,089 18,391 23,032 22,377

Total Revenue 62,298 58,572 59,943 67,879 69,754

Non-appropriation ratio2 37% 38% 31% 31% 32%

1 Sale of goods and rendering of services includes consultancies, grants and contract collaborations. 2 Non-appropriation ratio is percentage non-appropriation revenue of total revenue.

NOTE 2:

Source of sale of goods and rendering of services by sector 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

Australian Government 7,012 6,084 5,478 7,401 6,787

Australian joint Government/industry 3,579 3,401 2,277 634 387

International governments - 36 71 - 15

Australian industry 6,769 5,867 6,868 11,689 12,439

International industry 36 936 1,624 1,702 1,170

Sale of goods - - - - -

17,396 16,324 16,318 21,426 20,798

0.000

2.000

4.000

6.000

8.000

10.000

12.000

14.000

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

$'000

Year

Source of Sale of Goods and Services by Industry

Australian Government Australian Industry Australian Joint Government/Industry International Governments International Industry

Part 5

Financial Statements

| 125

NOTE 3: Cost of output by research programs 2018‐19 Variable Salaries Depreciation Overheads Total $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000 $'000

A Healthy and Resilient Great Barrier Reef 8,166 5,382 223 7,819 21,590

Sustainable Coastal Ecosystems & Industries in Tropical Australia 5,423 5,759 917 8,366 20,465 Sustainable Use of North-West Marine Ecosystems 9,001 4,172 235 6,061 19,469

Research Services 1,705 2,635 529 3,829 8,698

Office of Executive Director Strategic Development 958 1,522 878 2,210 5,568

Total 25,252 19,470 2,782 28,285 75,790

Percentage of total expenses 33% 26% 4% 37% 100%

SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)

SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)

2019 2018

Consist of: $'000 $'000

Consultants 166 22

Contractors 3,299 2,754

Travel 1,980 1,797

Consumables 1,348 1,464

Repairs and maintenance 2,658 3,928

Electricity 1,668 1,584

Fuel, oil and gas 977 649

Hire of equipment 2,356 1,052

Labour Hire staff 2,540 1,611

Vessel management 4,928 3,693

Support for post-doctorate positions 3,423 4,143

Audit fees 123 115

Operating lease rentals 292 431

Workers compensation 50 45

Employee related expenses 956 594

IT Expenses 1,037 1,025

General Expenses 707 309

Science Expenses 1,910 2,363

Communications Expenses 393 662

Meeting expenses 326 -

Library Expenses 315 608

Assist to External Providers 221 -

Legal & Instrument Registration Expenses 155 29

Memberships & Subscriptions

123 -

Total supplier expenses 31,951 28,878

Note 4: Supplier Expenses

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

126 |

Par t 6:

APPENDICES AND INDEXES Appendix A: Science Publications 127

Jo

urnal Articles 127

Rep

orts 142

Bo

oks and Book Chapters 146

Th

eses 146

A

ppendix B: External Committees and Non-Gove rnment Organisations and Positions 148

In

ternational Forums 148

Nati

onal Forums 149

Ap

pendix C: Legislative Foundation and Ministerial Powers 152

En

abling Legislation 152

Fu

nctions of the Institute 152

Po

wers of the Institute 153

Mi

nisterial Powers of Direction 154

In

dexes 155

Ac

ronyms 155

Compl

iance Index of Annual Report Requirements 157

Al

phabetical Index 162

Image: N Thake

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APPENDIX A: SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS In 2018 AIMS scientists published the following:

JOURNAL ARTICLES

1 Abdul Wahab MA, Radford B, Cappo M, Colquhoun J, Stowar M, Depczynski M, Miller K, Heyward A (2018) Biodiversity and spatial patterns of benthic habitat and associated demersal fish communities at two tropical submerged reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 37(2): 327-343

2 Addison PFE, Collins DJ, Trebilco R, Howe S, Bax N, Hedge P, Jones G, Miloslavich P, Roelfsema C, Sams M, Stuart-Smith RD, Scanes P, von Baumgarten P, McQuatters-Gollop A (2018) A new wave of marine evidence-based management: emerging challenges and solutions to transform monitoring, evaluating, and reporting. ICES Journal of Marine Science 75: 941-952

3 Anderson KD, Cantin NE, Heron SF, Lough JM, Pratchett MS (2018) Temporal and taxonomic contrasts in coral growth at Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 37(2): 409-421

4 Andrzejaczek S, Gleiss AC, Jordan KLB, Pattiaratchi CB, Howey LA, Brooks EJ, Meekan MG (2018) Temperature and the vertical movements of oceanic whitetip sharks, Carcharhinus longimanus. Scientific Reports 8: 8351

5 Andrzejaczek S, Gleiss AC, Pattiaratchi CB, Meekan MG (2018) First insights into the fine-scale movements of the Sandbar Shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 483

6 Bainbridge Z, Lewis S, Bartley R, Fabricius K, Collier C, Waterhouse J, Garzon-Garcia A, Robson B, Burton J, Wenger A, Brodie J (2018) Fine sediment and particulate organic matter: a review and case study on ridge-to-reef transport, transformations, fates, and impacts on marine ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135: 1205-1220

7 Baird ME, Mongin M, Rizwi F, Bay LK, Cantin NE, Soja-Wozniak M, Skerratt J (2018) A mechanistic model of coral bleaching due to temperature-mediated light-driven reactive oxygen build-up in zooxanthellae. Ecological Modelling 386: 20-37

Barfield SJ, Aglyamova GV, Bay LK, Matz MV (2018) Contrasting effects of Symbiodinium identity on coral host transcriptional profiles across latitudes. Molecular Ecology 27: 3103-3115

Bax NJ, Appeltans W, Brainard R, Duffy JE, Dunstan P, Hanich Q, Davies HH, Hills J, Miloslavich P, Muller-Karger FE, Simmons S, Aburto-Oropeza O, Batten S, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Checkley D, Chiba S, Fischer A, Garcia MA, Gunn J, Klein E, Kudela RM, Marsac F, Obura D, Shin YJ, Sloyan B, Tanhua T, Wilkin J (2018) Linking capacity development to GOOS monitoring networks to achieve sustained ocean observation. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 346

0 Bayliss P, Finlayson CM, Innes J, Norman-Lopez A, Bartolo R, Harford A, Pettit NE, Humphrey CL, van Dam R, Dutra LXC, Woodward E, Ligtermoet E, Steven A, Chariton A, Williams DK (2018) An integrated risk-assessment framework for multiple threats to floodplain values in the Kakadu Region, Australia, under a changing climate. Marine and Freshwater Research 69(7): 1159-1185

1 Bell JJ, Bennett HM, Rovellini A, Webster NS (2018) Sponges to be winners under near-future climate scenarios. Bioscience 68(12): 955-968

2 Bell JJ, Rovellini A, Davy SK, Taylor MW, Fulton EA, Dunn MR, Bennett HM, Kandler NM, Luter HM, Webster NS (2018) Climate change alterations to ecosystem dominance: how might sponge-dominated reefs function? Ecology 99(9): 1920-1931

8

9

1

1

1

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13 Bell SC, Garland S, Alford RA (2018) Increased numbers of culturable inhibitory bacterial taxa may mitigate the effects of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Australian Wet Tropics frogs. Frontiers In Microbiology 9:1604

14 Bennett H, Bell JJ, Davy SK, Webster NS, Francis DS (2018) Elucidating the sponge stress response; lipids and fatty acids can facilitate survival under future climate scenarios. Global Change Biology 24(7): 3130-3144

15 Benthuysen JA, Oliver ECJ, Feng M, Marshall AG (2018) Extreme marine warming across tropical Australia during Austral Summer 2015-2016. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 123(2): 1301-1326

16 Beyer HL, Kennedy EV, Beger M, Chen CA, Cinner JE, Darling ES, Eakin CM, Gates RD, Heron SF, Knowlton N, Obura DO, Palumbi SR, Possingham HP, Puotinen M, Runting RK, Skirving WJ, Spalding M, Wilson KA, Wood S, Veron JE, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2018) Risk-sensitive planning for conserving coral reefs under rapid climate change. Conservation Letters 11(6): e12587

17 Bierwagen SL, Emslie MJ, Heupel MR, Chin A, Simpfendorfer CA (2018) Reef-scale variability in fish and coral assemblages on the central Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 165: 144

18 Bierwagen SL, Heupel MR, Chin A, Simpfendorfer CA (2018) Trophodynamics as a tool for understanding coral reef ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 24

19 Bird CS, Verissimo A, Magozzi S, Abrantes KG, Aguilar A, Al-Reasi H, Barnett A, Bethea DM, Biais G, Borrell A, Bouchoucha M, Boyle M, Brooks EJ, Brunnscheiler J, Bustamante P, Carlisle A, Catarino D, Caut S, Cherel Y, Chouvelon T, Churchill D, Ciancio J, Claes J, Colaco A, Courtney DL, Cresson P, Daly R, de Necker L, Endo T, Figueiredo I, Frisch AJ, Hansen JH Heithaus M, Hussey NE, Iitembu J Juanes F, Kinney MJ, Kiszka JJ, Klarian SA, Kopp D, Leaf R, Li Y, Lorrain A, Madigan DJ, Maljkovic A, Malpica-Cruz L, Matich P, Meekan MG, Menard F, Menezes GM, Munroe SEM, Newman MC, Papastamatiou YP, Pethybridge

H, Plumlee JD, Polo-Silva C, Quaeck-Davies K, Raoult V, Reum J, Torres-Rojas YE, Shiffman DS, Shipley ON, Speed CW, Staudinger MD, Teffer AK, Tilley A, Valls M, Vaudo JJ, Wai T-C, Wells RJD, Wyatt ASJ, Yool A, Trueman CN (2018) A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2: 299-305

20 Blondeau-Patissier D, Brando VE, Lønborg C, Leahy SM, Dekker AG (2018) Phenology of Trichodesmium spp. blooms in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, Australia, from the ESA-MERIS 10-year mission. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0208010

21 Boyd PW, Collins S, Dupont S, Fabricius K, Gattuso JP, Havenhand J, Hutchins DA, Riebesell U, Rintoul MS, Vichi M, Biswas H, Ciotti A, Gao K, Gehlen M, Hurd CL, Kurihara H, McGraw CM, Navarro JM, Nilsson GE, Passow U, Pörtner HO (2018) Experimental strategies to assess the biological ramifications of multiple drivers of global ocean change - A review. Global Change Biology 24(6): 2239-2261

22 Brodie S, Lédée EJI, Heupel MR, Babcock RC, Campbell HA, Gledhill DC, Hoenner X, Huveneers C, Jaine FRA, Simpfendorfer CA, Taylor MD, Udyawer V, Harcourt RG (2018) Continental-scale animal tracking reveals functional movement classes across marine taxa. Scientific Reports 8: 3717

23 Brown MV, van de Kamp J, Ostrowski M, Seymour JR, Ingleton T, Messer LF, Jeffries T, Siboni N, Laverock B, Bibiloni-Isaksson J, Nelson TM, Coman F, Davies CH, Frampton D, Rayner M, Goossen K, Robert S, Holmes B, Abell GCJ, Craw P, Kahlke T, Sow SLS, McAllister K, Windsor J, Skuza M, Crossing R, Patten N, Malthouse P, van Ruth PD, Paulsen I, Fuhrman JA, Richardson A, Koval J, Bissett A, Fitzgerald A, Moltmann T, Bodrossy L (2018) Data Descriptor: Systematic, continental scale temporal monitoring of marine pelagic microbiota by the Australian Marine Microbial Biodiversity Initiative. Scientific Data 5: 180130

24 Bryce M, Radford B, Fabricius K (2018) Soft coral and sea fan (Octocorallia) biodiversity and distribution from a multi-taxon survey (2009-2014) of the shallow tropical Kimberley,

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Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 85: 45-73

25 Buerger P, van Oppen MJH (2018) Viruses in corals: hidden drivers of coral bleaching and disease? Microbiology Australia 39(1): 9-12

26 Caron AGM, Thomas CR, Berry KLE, Motti CA, Ariel E, Brodie JE (2018) Ingestion of microplastic debris by green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Great Barrier Reef: Validation of a sequential extraction protocol. Marine Pollution Bulletin 127: 743-751

27 Caron AGM, Thomas CR, Berry KLE, Motti CA, Ariel E, Brodie JE (2018) Validation of an optimised protocol for quantification of microplastics in heterogenous samples: a case study using green turtle chime. MethodsX 5: 812-823

28 Ceccarelli DM, Loffler Z, Bourne DG, Al Moajil-Cole GS, Bostrom-Einarsson L, Evans-Illidge E, Fabricius K, Glasl B, Marshall P, McLeod I, Read M, Schaffelke B, Smith AK, Jorda GT, Williamson DH, Bay L (2018) Rehabilitation of coral reefs through removal of macroalgae: state of knowledge and considerations for management and implementation. Restoration Ecology 26: 827-838

29 Ceccarelli DM, Logan M, Purcell SW (2018) Analysis of optimal habitat for captive release of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Marine Ecology Progress Series 588: 85-100

30 Chakravarti LJ, van Oppen MJH (2018) Experimental evolution in coral photosymbionts as a tool to increase thermal tolerance. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 227

31 Chan WY, Peplow LM, Menéndez P, Hoffmann AA, van Oppen MJH (2018) Interspecific hybridization may provide novel opportunities for coral reef restoration. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 160

32 Chariton AA, Williams D, Steven ADL, Finlayson CM (2018) Kakadu's wetlands: more change is afoot. Marine and Freshwater Research 69(7): iii-v

33 Chiba S, Batten S, Martin CS, Ivory S, Miloslavich P, Weatherdon LV (2018) Zooplankton monitoring to contribute towards addressing global biodiversity conservation challenges. Journal of Plankton Research 40(5): 509-518

34 Cinner JE, Maire E, Huchery C, MacNeil MA, Graham NAJ, Mora C, Barnes ML, Kittinger JN, Hicks CC, D'Agata S, Hoey AS, Gurney GG, Feary DA, Williams ID, Kulbicki M, Vigliola L, Wantiez L, Edgar GJ, Stuart-Smith RD, Sandin SA, Green A, Hardt MJ, Beger M, Friedlander AM, Wilson SK, Brokovich E, Brooks AJ, Cruz-Motta JJ, Booth DJ, Chabanet P, Gough C, Tupper M, Ferse SCA, Sumaila UR, Pardede S, Mouillot D (2018) Gravity of human impacts mediates coral reef conservation gains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(27): E6116-E6125

35 Cleves PA, Strader ME, Bay LK, Pringle JR, Matz MV (2018) CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in a reef-building coral. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(20): 5235-5240

36 Clucas GV, Younger JL, Kao D, Emmerson L, Southwell C, Wienecke B, Rogers AD, Bost CA, Miller GD, Polito MJ, Lelliott P, Handley J, Crofts S, Phillips RA, Dunn MJ, Miller KJ, Hart T (2018) Comparative population genomics reveals key barriers to dispersal in Southern Ocean penguins. Molecular Ecology 27: 4680-4697

37 Collier CJ Langlois L, Ow Y, Johansson C, Giammusso M, Adams MP, O’Brien KR, Uthicke S (2018) Losing a winner: thermal stress and local pressures outweigh the positive effects of ocean acidification for tropical seagrasses. New Phytologist 219(3): 1005-1017

38 Condie SA, Herzfeld M, Hock K, Andrewartha JR, Gorton R, Brinkman R, Schultz M (2018) System level indicators of changing marine connectivity. Ecological Indicators 91: 531-541

39 Conlan JA, Bay LK, Severati A, Humphrey C, Francis DS (2018) Comparing the capacity of five different dietary treatments to optimise growth and nutritional composition in two scleractinian corals. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0207956

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40 Conlan JA, Humphrey CA, Severati A, Francis DS (2018) Intra-colonial diversity in the scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora: identifying the nutritional gradients underlying physiological integration and compartmentalised functioning. PeerJ 6: e4239

41 Cumbo VR, van Oppen MJH, Baird AH (2018) Temperature and Symbiodinium physiology affect the establishment and development of symbiosis in corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 587: 117-127

42 Cure K, Hobbs JPA, Langlois TJ, Abdo DA, Bennett S, Harvey ES (2018) Distributional responses to marine heat waves: insights from length frequencies across the geographic range of the endemic reef fish Choerodon rubescens. Marine Biology 165: 1

43 Cure K, Hobbs JPA, Langlois TJ, Fairclough DV, Thillainath EC, Harvey ES (2018) Spatiotemporal patterns of abundance and ecological requirements of a labrid’s juveniles reveal conditions for establishment success and range shift capacity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 500: 34-45

44 Davies CH, Ajani P, Armbrecht L, Atkins N, Baird ME, Beard J, Bonham P, Burford M, Clementson L, Coad P, Crawford C, Dela-Cruz J, Doblin MA, Edgar S, Eriksen R, Everett JD, Furnas M, Harrison DP, Hassler C, Henschke N, Hoenner X, Ingleton T, Jameson I, Keesing J, Leterme SC, James McLaughlin M, Miller M, Moffatt D, Moss A, Nayar S, Patten NL, Patten R, Pausina SA, Proctor R, Raes E, Robb M, Rothlisberg P, Saeck EA, Scanes P, Suthers IM, Swadling KM, Talbot S, Thompson P, Thomson PG, Uribe-Palomino J, van Ruth P, Waite AM, Wright S, Richardson AJ (2018) A database of chlorophyll a in Australian waters. Scientific Data 5: 180018

45 DiPerna S, Hoogenboom M, Noonan S, Fabricius K (2018) Effects of variability in daily light integrals on the photophysiology of the corals Pachyseris speciose and Acropora millepora. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0203882

46 Dixon G, Liao Y, Bay LK, Matz MV (2018) Role of gene body methylation in acclimatization and adaptation in a basal metazoan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(52): 13342-13346

47 Duarte CM, Poiner I, Gunn J (2018) Perspectives on a global observing system to assess ocean health. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 265

48 Emslie MJ, Cheal AJ, MacNeil MA, Miller IR, Sweatman HPA (2018) Reef fish communities are spooked by scuba surveys and may take hours to recover. PeerJ 6: e4886

49 Erbe C, Williams R, Parsons M, Parsons SK, Hendrawan IG, Dewantama IMI (2018) Underwater noise from airplanes: An overlooked source of ocean noise. Marine Pollution Bulletin 137: 656-661

50 Eriksson H, Friedman K, Amos M, Bertram I, Pakoa K, Fisher R, Andrew N (2018) Geography limits island small-scale fishery production. Fish and Fisheries 19: 308-320

51 Erler DV, Shepherd BO, Linsley BK, Lough JM, Cantin NE (2018) Coral skeletons record increasing agriculture-related groundwater nitrogen inputs to a South Pacific reef over the past Century. Geophysical Research Letters 45: 8370-8378

52 Espinel-Velasco N, Hoffmann L, Aguera A, Byrne M, Dupont S, Uthicke S, Webster NS, Lamare M (2018) Effects of ocean acidification on the settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrate and fish larvae: a review. Marine Ecology Progress Series 606: 237-257

53 Estevez RA, Alamos FH, Walshe T, Gelcich S (2018) Accounting for uncertainty in value judgements when applying multi-attribute value theory. Environmental Modeling & Assessment 23: 87-97

54 Feitosa LM, Martins APB, Giarrizzo T, Macedo W, Monteiro IL, Gemaque R, Nunes JLS, Gomes F, Schneider H, Sampaio I, Souza R, Sales JB, Rodrigues-Filho LF, Tchaicka L, Carvalho-Costa LF (2018) DNA-based identification reveals illegal trade of threatened shark species in a global elasmobranch conservation hotspot. Scientific Reports 8(1): 3347

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55 Ferrari MCO, McCormick MI, Meekan MG,

Simpson SD, Nedelec SL, Chivers DP (2018)

School is out on noisy reefs: the effect of

boat noise on predator learning and survival

of juvenile coral reef fishes. Proceedings of

the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 285:

20180033

56 Ferrari R, Malcolm H, Neilson J, Lucieer V,

Jordan A, Ingleton T, Figueira W, Johnstone N,

Hill N (2018) Integrating distribution models

and habitat classification maps into marine

protected area planning. Estuarine Coastal and

Shelf Science 212: 40-50

57 Ferrari R, Marzinelli EM, Ayroza CR, Jordan A,

Figueira WF, Byrne M, Malcolm HA, Williams SB,

Steinberg PD (2018) Large-scale assessment

of benthic communities across multiple

marine protected areas using an autonomous

underwater vehicle. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0193711

58 Fisher EE, Choat JH, McCormick MI, Cappo

M (2018) Relative influence of environmental

factors on the timing and occurrence of multi-species coral reef fish aggregations. PLoS ONE

13(12): e0209234

59 Fisher R, Walshe T, Bessell-Browne P, Jones

R (2018) Accounting for environmental

uncertainty in the management of dredging

impacts using probabilistic dose-response

relationships and thresholds. Journal of Applied

Ecology 55: 415-425

60 Fisher R, Wilson SK, Sin TM, Lee AC, Langlois

TJ (2018) A simple function for full-subsets

multiple regression in ecology with R. Ecology

and Evolution 8: 6104-6113

61 Fordham DA, Saltré F, Brown SC, Mellin C,

Wigley TML (2018) Why decadal to century

timescale palaeoclimate data are needed to

explain present-day patterns of biological

diversity and change. Global Change Biology

24(3): 1371-1381

62 Foster T, Gilmour J (2018) Reproduction

of brooding corals at Scott Reef, Western

Australia. Science Matters 201807000008

63 Foster T, Heyward AJ, Gilmour JP (2018) Split

spawning realigns coral reproduction with

optimal environmental windows. Nature

Communications 9: 718

64 Frade PR, Bongaerts P, Englebert N, Rogers

A, Gonzalez-Rivero M, Hoegh-Guldberg O

(2018) Deep reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

offer limited thermal refuge during mass coral

bleaching. Nature Communications 9: 3447

65 Freckelton ML, Høj L, Bowden BF (2018)

Quorum Sensing interference and structural

variation of Quorum Sensing mimics in

Australian soft coral. Frontiers in Marine

Science 5: 198

66 Gagliano M, Abramson CI, Depczynski M (2018)

Plants learn and remember: lets get used to it.

Oecologia 186(1): 29-31

67 Galaiduk R, Radford BT, Harvey ES (2018)

Utilizing individual fish biomass and relative

abundance models to map environmental niche

associations of adult and juvenile targeted

fishes. Scientific Reports 8: 9457

68 Galitz A, Cook SD, Ekins M, Hooper JNA,

Naumann PT, de Voogd NJ, Abdul Wahab M,

Worheide G, Erpenbeck D (2018) Identification

of an aquaculture poriferan "Pest with Potential"

and its phylogenetic implications. PeerJ 6:

e5586

69 Garaba SP, Aitken J, Slat B, Dierssen HM,

Lebreton L, Zielinski O, Reisser J (2018) Sensing

ocean plastics with an airborne hyperspectral

shortwave infrared imager. Environmental

Science and Technology 52: 11699-11707

70 George AM, Brodie J, Daniell J, Capper A,

Jonker M (2018) Can sponge morphologies act

as environmental proxies to biophysical factors

in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia? Ecological

Indicators 93: 1152-1162

71 Gissi F, Stauber JL, Binet MT, Trenfield MA, van

Dam JW, Jolley DF (2018) Assessing the chronic

toxicity of nickel to a tropical marine gastropod

and two crustaceans. Ecotoxicology and

Environmental Safety 158: 284-292

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72 Glasl B, Bourne DG, Frade PR, Webster NS (2018) Establishing microbial baselines to identify indicators of coral reef health. Microbiology Australia 39(1): 442-46

73 Glasl B, Smith CE, Bourne DG, Webster NS (2018) Exploring the diversity-stability paradigm using sponge microbial communities. Scientific Reports 8: 8425

74 Gordon BR, Martin DE, Bambery KR, Motti CA (2018) Chemical imaging of a Symbiodinium sp. cell using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy: a feasibility study. Journal of Microscopy 270: 83-91

75 Gordon TAC, Harding HR, Wong KE, Merchant ND, Meekan MG, McCormick MI, Radford AN, Simpson SD (2018) Habitat degradation negatively affects auditory settlement behavior of coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(20): 5193-5198

76 Gravinese PM, Toth LT, Randall CJ, Aronson RB (2018) How do upwelling and El Nino impact coral reef growth? A guided, inquiry-based lesson. Oceanography 31(4): 184-188

77 Green ME, D'Anastasi BR, Hobbs JPA, Feldheim K, McAuley R, Peverell S, Stapley J, Johnson G, Appleyard SA, White WT, Simpfendorfer CA, van Herwerden L (2018) Mixed-marker approach suggests maternal philopatry and sex-biased behaviours of narrow sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata. Endangered Species Research 37:45-54

78 Gruber RK, Lowe RJ, Falter JL (2018) Benthic uptake of phytoplankton and ocean-reef exchange of particulate nutrients on a tide-dominated reef. Limnology and Oceanography 63: 1545-1561

79 Grutter AS, De Brauwer M, Bshary R, Cheney KL, Cribb TH, Madin EMP, McClure EC, Meekan MG, Sun D, Warner RR, Werminghausen J, Sikkel PC (2018) Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish. Coral Reefs 37: 15-24

80 Hammerschlag N, Barley SC, Irschick DJ, Meeuwig JJ, Nelson ER, Meekan MG (208) Predator declines and morphological changes in prey: evidence from coral reefs depleted of sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 586: 127-139

81 Harris DL, Rovere A, Cassella E, Power H, Canavesio R, Collin A, Pomeroy A, Webster JM, Parravicini (2018) Coral reef structural complexity provides important coastal protection from waves under rising sea levels. Science Advances 4(2): eaao4350

82 Hays GC, Alcoverro T, Christianen MJA, Duarte CM, Hamann M, Macreadie PI, Marsh HD, Rasheed MA, Thums M, Unsworth RKF, York PH, Esteban N (2018) New tools to identify the location of seagrass meadows: marine grazers as habitat indicators. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 009

83 Hempson TN, Graham NAJ, MacNeil MA, Hoey AS, Almany GR (2018) Mesopredator trophodynamics on thermally stressed coral reefs. Coral Reefs 37(1): 135-144

84 Hempson TN, Graham NAJ, MacNeil MA, Hoey AS, Wilson SK (2018) Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure. Ecological Applications 28(1): 191-200

85 Hennekam R, Zinke J, van Sebille E, ten Have M, Brummer GJA, Reichart GJ (2018) Cocos (Keeling) corals reveal 200 years of multidecadal modulation of southeast Indian Ocean hydrology by Indonesian Throughflow. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 33: 48-60

86 Heupel MR, Lédée EJI, Simpfendorfer CA (2018) Telemetry reveals spatial separation of co-occurring reef sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 589: 179-192

87 Heyward A, Colquhoun J, Cripps E, McCorry D, Stowar M, Radford B, Miller K, Miller I, Battershill C (2018) No evidence of damage to the soft tissue or skeletal integrity of mesophotic corals exposed to a 3D marine seismic survey. Marine Pollution Bulletin 129(1): 8-13

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88 Hobday AJ, Oliver ECJ, Sen Gupta A, Benthuysen JA, Burrows MT, Donat MG, Holbrook NJ, Moore PJ, Thomsen MS, Wernberg T, Smale DA (2018) Categorizing and naming marine heatwaves. Oceanography 31:162-173

89 Hoenner X, Huveneers C, Steckenreuter A, Simpfendorfer C, Tattersall K, Jaine F, Atkins N, Babcock R, Brodie S, Burgess J, Campbell H, Heupel M, Pasquer B, Proctor R, Taylor MD, Udyawer V, Harcourt R (2018) Australia’s continental-scale acoustic tracking database and its automated quality control process. Scientific Data 5: 180206

90 Høj L, Levy N, Baillie BK, Clode PL, Strohmaier RC, Siboni N, Webster NS, Uthicke S, Bourne DG (2018) Crown-of-Thorns Sea Star Acanthaster cf. solaris has tissue-characteristic microbiomes with potential roles in health and reproduction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84(13): e00181-18

91 Hughes TP, Anderson KD, Connolly SR, Heron SF, Kerry JT, Lough JM, Baird AH, Baum JK, Berumen ML, Bridge TC, Claar DC, Eakin CM, Gilmour JP, Graham NAJ, Harrison H, Hobbs JPA, Hoey AS, Hoogenboom M, Lowe RJ, McCulloch MT, Pandolfi JM, Pratchett M, Schoepf V, Torda G, Wilson SK (2018) Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359(6371): 80-83

92 Hughes TP, Kerry JT, Baird AH, Connolly SR, Dietzel A, Eakin CM, Heron SF, Hoey AS, Hoogenboom MO, Liu G, McWilliam MJ, Pears RJ, Pratchett MS, Skirving WJ, Stella JS, Torda G (2018) Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages. Nature 556: 492-496

93 Irvine LG, Thums M, Hanson CE, McMahon CR, Hindell MA (2018) Evidence for a widely expanded humpback whale calving range along the Western Australian coast. Marine Mammal Science 34(2): 294-310

94 Johns KA, Emslie MJ, Hoey AS, Osborne K, Jonker MJ, Cheal AJ (2018) Macroalgal feedbacks and substrate properties maintain a coral reef regime shift. Ecosphere 9(7): e02349

95 Kabeya N, Fonseca MM, Ferrier DEK, Navarro JC, Bay LK, Francis DS, Tocher DR, Castro LFC, Monroig Ó (2018) Genes for de novo biosynthesis of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are widespread in animals. Science Advances 4(5): eaar6849

96 Kandler NM, Abdul Wahab MA, Noonan SHC, Bell JJ, Davy SK, Webster NS, Luter HM (2018) In situ responses of the sponge microbiome to ocean acidification. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 94(12): fiy205

97 Keesing JK, Halford AR, Hall KC (2018) Mortality rates of small juvenile crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci on the Great Barrier Reef: implications for population size and larval settlement thresholds for outbreaks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 597: 179-190

98 Kenkel CD, Bay LK (2018) Exploring mechanisms that affect coral cooperation: symbiont transmission mode, cell density and community composition. PeerJ 6: e6047

99 Kenkel CD, Moya A, Strahl J, Humphrey C, Bay LK (2018) Functional genomic analysis of corals from natural CO2-seeps reveals core molecular responses involved in acclimatization to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology 24(1): 158-171

100 Kroon F, Motti C, Talbot S, Sobral P, Puotinen M (2018) A workflow for improving estimates of microplastic contamination in marine waters: A case study from North-Western Australia. Environmental Pollution 238: 26-38

101 Kroon FJ, Motti CE, Jensen LH, Berry KLE (2018) Classification of marine microdebris: A review and case study on fish from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Scientific Reports 8: 16422

102 Krüger K, Lüdke V, Pettinger J, Ashton L, Bonnet L, Motti CA, Lex J, Oelgemöller M (2018) Photochemical synthesis of cyclic peptide models from phthalimido acetamides and phthaloyl dipeptide esters. Tetrahedron Letters 59(14): 1427-1430

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103 Laffy PW, Wood-Charlson EM, Turaev D, Jutz S, Pascelli C, Botté ES, Bell SC, Peirce T, Weynberg KD, van Oppen MJH, Rattei T, Webster NS (2018) Reef invertebrate viromics: diversity, host-specificity & functional capacity. Environmental Microbiology 20: 2125-2141

104 Lam VYY, Chaloupka M, Thompson A, Doropoulos C, Mumby PJ (2018) Acute drivers influence recent inshore Great Barrier Reef dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 285(1890): 20182063

105 Lamare M, Harianto J, Uthicke S, Aguera A, Karelitz S, Pecorino D, Chin J, Byrne M (2018) Larval thermal windows in native and hybrid Pseudoboletia progeny (Echinoidea) as potential drivers of the hybridization zone. Marine Ecology Progress Series 598: 99-112

106 Lambelet M, van de Flierdt T, Butler ECV, Bowie AR, Rintoul SR, Watson RJ, Remenyi T, Lannuzel D, Warner M, Robinson LF, Bostock HC, Bradtmiller LI (2018) The neodymium isotope fingerprint of Adelie Coast Bottom Water. Geophysical Research Letters 45: 11247-11256

107 Lesser MP, Morrow KM, Pankey SM, Noonan SHC (2018) Diazotroph diversity and nitrogen fixation in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Great Barrier Reef. The ISME Journal 12: 813-824

108 Lewis SE, Lough JM, Cantin NE, Matson EG, Kinsley L, Bainbridge ZT, Brodie JE (2018) A critical evaluation of coral Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca and Y/ Ca ratios as indicators of terrestrial input: new data from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 237: 131-154

109 Liu H, Stephens TG, González-Pech R, Beltran VH, Lapeyre B, Bongaerts P, Cooke I, Aranda M, Bourne DG, Forêt S, Miller DJ, van Oppen MJH, Voolstra CR, Ragan MA, Chan CX (2018) Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Communications Biology 1: 95

110 Lønborg C, Álvarez-Salgado XA, Duggan S, Carreira C (2018) Organic matter bioavailability in tropical coastal waters: the Great Barrier Reef. Limnology and Oceanography 63: 1015-1035

111 Lønborg C, Álvarez-Salgado XA, Letscher RT, Hansell DA (2018) Large stimulation of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon degradation by increasing ocean temperatures. Frontiers in Marine Science 4: 436

112 Lough JM, Anderson KD, Hughes TP (2018) Increasing thermal stress for tropical coral reefs: 1871-2017. Scientific Reports 8: 6079

113 Marcelino VR, van Oppen MJH, Verbruggen H (2018) Highly structured prokaryote communities exist within the skeleton of coral colonies. The ISME Journal 12: 300-303

114 Margvelashvili N, Andrewartha J, Baird M, Herzfeld M, Jones E, Mongin M, Rizwi F, Robson BJ, Skerratt J, Wild-Allen K, Steven A (2018) Simulated fate of catchment-derived sediment on the Great Barrier Reef shelf. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135: 954-962

115 Martin G, Yanez-Arenas C, Chen C, Plowright RK, Webb RJ, Skerratt LF (2018) Climate change could increase the geographic extent of Hendra virus spillover risk. EcoHealth 15: 509-525

116 Martin G, Yanez-Arenas C, Plowright RK, Chen C, Roberts B, Skerratt LF (2018) Hendra virus spillover is a bimodal system driven by climatic factors. EcoHealth 15: 526-542

117 Martínez B, Radford B, Thomsen MS, Connell SD, Carreno F, Bradshaw CJA, Fordham DA, Russell BD, Gurgel CFD, Wernberg T (2018) Distribution models predict large contractions of habitat-forming seaweeds in response to ocean warming. Diversity and Distributions 24: 1350-1366

118 Martins APB, Feitosa LM, Lessa RP, Almeida ZS, Heupel M, Silva WM, Tchaicka L, Nunes JLS (2018) Analysis of the supply chain and conservation status of sharks (Elasmobranchii: Superorder Selachimorpha) based on fisher knowledge. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0193969

119 Martins APB, Heupel MR, Chin A, Simpfendorfer CA (2018) Batoid nurseries: definition, use and importance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 595: 253-267

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120 Matley JK, Maes GE, Devloo-Delva F, Huerlimann R, Chua G, Tobin AJ, Fisk AT, Simpfendorfer CA, Heupel MR (2018) Integrating complementary methods to improve diet analysis in fishery-targeted species. Ecology and Evolution 8(18): 9503-9515

121 Matz MV, Treml EA, Aglyamova GV, Bay LK (2018) Potential and limits for rapid genetic adaptation to warming in a Great Barrier Reef coral. PLoS Genetics 14(4): e1007220

122 McGowan J, Bode M, Holden MH, Davis K, Krueck NC, Beger M, Yates KL, Possingham HP (2018) Ocean zoning within a sparing versus sharing framework. Theoretical Ecology 11(2): 245-255

123 Meekan MG, McCormick MI, Simpson SD, Chivers DP, Ferrari MCO (2018) Never off the hook - how fishing subverts predator-prey relationships in marine teleosts. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6: 157

124 Mera H, Bourne DG (2018) Disentangling causation: complex roles of coral-associated microorganisms in disease. Environmental Microbiology 20(2): 431-449

125 Mercurio P, Eaglesham G, Parks S, Kenway M, Beltran V, Flores F, Mueller JF, Negri AP (2018) Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms. Scientific Reports 8: 4808

126 Metcalfe SS, Kroon FJ, Beale DJ, Miller G (2018) Development of a validation protocol of enzyme immunoassay kits used for the analysis of steroid hormones in fish plasma. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 499: 26-34

127 Miller KJ, Baird HP, van Oosterom J, Mondon J, King CK (2018) Complex genetic structure revealed in the circum-Antarctic broadcast spawning sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri. Marine Ecology Progress Series 601: 153-166

128 Miloslavich P, Bax NJ, Simmons SE, Klein E, Appeltans W, Aburto-Oropeza O, Andersen Garcia M, Batten SD, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Checkley DM Jr, Chiba S, Duffy JE, Dunn DC, Fischer A, Gunn J, Kudela R, Marsac F,

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129 Mitchell JD, McLean DL, Collin SP, Taylor S, Jackson G, Fisher R, Langlois TJ (2018) Quantifying shark depredation in a recreational fishery in the Ningaloo Marine Park and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 587: 141-157

130 Mohamed AR, Cumbo VR, Harii S, Shinzato C, Chan CX, Ragan MA, Satoh N, Ball EE, Miller DJ (2018) Deciphering the nature of the coral-Chromera association. The ISME Journal 12: 776-790

131 Morse P, Huffard CL, Meekan MG, McCormick MI, Zenger KR (2018) Mating behaviour and postcopulatory fertilization patterns in the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa. Animal Behaviour 136: 41-51

132 Morse P, Kjeldsen SR, Meekan MG, McCormick MI, Finn JK, Huffard CL, Zenger KR (2018) Genome-wide comparisons reveal a clinal species pattern within a holobenthic octopod - the Australian Southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae). Ecology and Evolution 8(4): 2253-2267

133 Motti CA, Bose U, Roberts RE, McDougall C, Smith MK, Hall MR, Cummins SF (2018) Chemical ecology of chemosensation in Asteroidea: insights towards management strategies of pest species. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44(2): 147-177

134 Moustaka M, Langlois TJ, McLean D, Bond T, Fisher R, Fearns P, Dorji P, Evans RD (2018) The effects of suspended sediment on coral reef fish assemblages and feeding guilds of north-west Australia. Coral Reefs 37(3): 659-673

135 Mumby PJ, Hock K, Condie SA, Ortiz JC, Wolff NH, Anthony KRN, Blackwell PG (2018) Response to Bode and colleagues: 'Resilient reefs may exist, but can larval dispersal models find them?’ PLoS Biology 16(8): e2007047

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136 Mumtaz S, Streten C, Parry DL, McGuinness KA, Lu P, Gibb KS (2018) Soil uranium concentration at Ranger Uranium Mine Land Application Areas drives changes in the bacterial community. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 189: 14-23

137 Murray NJ, Keith DA, Bland LM, Ferrari R, Lyons MB, Lucas R, Pettorelli N, Nicholson E (2018) The role of satellite remote sensing in structured ecosystem risk assessments. Science of The Total Environment 619-620: 249-257

138 Nakazawa T, Liu SYV, Sakai Y, Araki KS, Tsai CH, Okuda N (2018) Spatial genetic structure and body size divergence in endangered Gymnogobius isaza in ancient Lake Biwa. Mitochondrial DNA Part A 29(5): 756-764

139 Negri AP, Luter HM, Fisher R, Brinkman DL, Irving P (2018) Comparative toxicity of five dispersants to coral larvae. Scientific Reports 8: 3043

140 Nelson TM, Streten C, Gibb KS, Chariton AA (2018) Bacteria in tropical floodplain soils are sensitive to changes in saltwater. Marine and Freshwater Research 69(7): 1110-1123

141 Nicolet KJ, Chong-Seng KM, Pratchett MS, Willis BL, Hoogenboom MO (2018) Predation scars may influence host susceptibility to pathogens: evaluating the role of corallivores as vectors of coral disease. Scientific Reports 8: 5258

142 Nitschke CR, Hourston M, Udyawer V, Sanders KL (2018) Rates of population differentiation and speciation are decoupled in sea snakes. Biology Letters 14 20180563

143 Noonan SHC, Kluibenschedl A, Fabricius KE (2018) Ocean acidification alters early successional coral reef communities and their rates of community metabolism. PLoS ONE 13(5): e0197130

144 Nordborg FM, Flores F, Brinkman DL, Agusti S, Negri AP (2018) Phototoxic effects of two common marine fuels on the settlement success of the coral Acropora tenuis. Scientific Reports 8: 8635

145 O'Brien PA, Smith HA, Fallon S, Fabricius K, Willis BL, Morrow KM, Bourne DG (2018) Elevated CO2 has little influence on the bacterial communities associated with the pH-tolerant coral, massive Porites spp. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 2621

146 Oliver ECJ, Donat MG, Burrows MT, Moore PJ, Smale DA, Alexander LV, Benthuysen JA, Feng M, Sen Gupta A, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE, Scannell HA, Straub SC, Wernberg T (2018) Longer and more frequent marine heatwaves over the past century. Nature Communications 9:1324

147 Olsen YS, Fraser MW, Martin BC, Pomeroy A, Lower R, Pedersen O, Kendrick GA (2018) In situ oxygen dynamics in rhizomes of the seagrass Posidonia sinuosa: impact of light, water column oxygen, current speed and wave velocity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 590: 67-77

148 Ong JJL, Rountrey AN, Black BA, Nguyen HM, Coulson PG, Newman SJ, Wakefield CB, Meeuwig JJ, Meekan MG (2018) A boundary current drives synchronous growth of marine fishes across tropical and temperate latitudes. Global Change Biology 24(5): 1894-1903

149 Ortiz JC, Wolff NH, Anthony KRN, Devlin M, Lewis S, Mumby PJ (2018) Impaired recovery of the Great Barrier Reef under cumulative stress. Science Advances 4(7): eaar6127

150 Overmans S, Nordborg M, Díaz-Rúa R, Brinkman DL, Negri AP, Agustí S (2018) Phototoxic effects of PAH and UVA exposure on molecular responses and developmental success in coral larvae. Aquatic Toxicology 198: 165-174

151 Pascelli C, Laffy PW, Kupresanin M, Ravasi T, Webster NS (2018) Morphological characterization of virus-like particles in coral reef sponges. PeerJ 6: e5625

152 Pollock FJ, McMinds R, Smith S, Bourne DG, Willis BL, Medina M, Thurber RV, Zaneveld JR (2018) Coral-associated bacteria demonstrate phylosymbiosis and cophylogeny. Nature Communications 9: 4921

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153 Pomeroy AWM, Lowe RJ, Ghisalberti M, Winter G, Storlazzi C, Cuttler M (2018) Spatial variability of sediment transport processes over intratidal and subtidal timescales within a fringing coral reef system. Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surface 123(5): 1013-1034

154 Quigley KM, Bay LK, Willis BL (2018) Leveraging new knowledge of Symbiodinium community regulation in corals for conservation and reef restoration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 600: 245-253

155 Quigley KM, Strader ME, Matz MV (2018) Relationship between Acropora millepora juvenile fluorescence and composition of newly established Symbiodinium assemblage. PeerJ 6: e5022

156 Quigley KM, Torda G, Bay LK (2018) The use of larvae or recruits in coral restoration initiatives: Symbiodinium acquisition does not differ between coral life stages in the wild. Restoration Ecology 26(3): 422-425

157 Quigley KM, Warner PA, Bay LK, Willis BL (2018) Unexpected mixed-mode transmission and moderate genetic regulation of Symbiodinium communities in a brooding coral. Heredity 121: 524-536

158 Ramsby BD, Hoogenboom MO, Smith HA, Whalan S, Webster NS (2018) The bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis will not tolerate future projected ocean warming. Scientific Reports 8: 8425

159 Ramsby BD, Hoogenboom MO, Whalan S, Webster NS (2018) Elevated seawater temperature disrupts the microbiome of an ecologically important bioeroding sponge. Molecular Ecology 27(8): 2124-2137

160 Randall CJ, Whitcher EM, Code T, Pollock C, Lundgren I, Hillis-Starr Z, Muller EM (2018) Testing methods to mitigate Caribbean yellow-band disease on Orbicella faveolata. PeerJ 6: e4800

161 Read J, McCoy S, Jaffre T, Logan M (2018) Nutrient-uptake and -use efficiency in seedlings of rain-forest trees in New Caledonia: monodominants vs. subordinates and episodic vs. continuous regenerators. Journal of Tropical Ecology 34(5): 277-292

162 Rees MJ, Knott NA, Davis AR (2018) Habitat and seascape patterns drive spatial variability in temperate fish assemblages: implications for marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 607: 171-186

163 Rees MJ, Knott NA, Neilson J, Linklater M, Osterloh I, Jordan A, Davis AR (2018) Accounting for habitat structural complexity improves the assessment of performance in no-take marine reserves. Biological Conservation 224:100-110

164 Ricardo GF, Jones RJ, Clode PL, Humanes A, Giofre N, Negri AP (2018) Sediment characteristics influence the fertilisation success of the corals Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135: 941-953

165 Richards ZT, Yasuda N, Kikuchi T, Foster T, Mitsuyuki C, Stat M, Suyama Y, Wilson NG (2018) Integrated evidence reveals a new species in the ancient blue coral genus Heliopora (Octocorallia). Scientific Reports 8: 15875

166 Ridgway KR, Benthuysen JA, Steinberg C (2018) Closing the gap between the Coral Sea and the Equator: direct observations of the North Australian Western Boundary Currents. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 123(12): 9212-9231

167 Roberts RE, Powell D, Wang T, Hall MH, Motti CA, Cummins SF (2018) Putative chemosensory receptors are differentially expressed in the sensory organs of male and female crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. BMC Genomics 19: 853

168 Ruppert JLW, Vigliola L, Kulbicki M. Labrosse P, Fortin MJ, Meekan MG (2018) Human activities as a driver of spatial variation in the trophic structure of fish communities on Pacific coral reefs. Global Change Biology 24(1): e67-e79

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169 Santana MFM, Moreira FT, Pereira CDS, Abessa DMS, Turra A (2018) Continuous exposure to microplastics does not cause physiological effects in the cultivated mussel Perna perna. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74(4): 594-604

170 Sato Y, Bell SC, Nichols C, Fry K, Menendez P, Bourne DG (2018) Early-phase dynamics in coral recovery following cyclone disturbance on the inshore Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 37(2): 431-443

171 Schaffelke B, Fabricius K, Kroon F, Brodie J, De'ath G, Shaw R, Tarte D, Warne M, Thorburn P (2018) Support for improved quality control but misplaced criticism of GBR science. Reply to viewpoint "the need for a formalised system of quality control for environmental policy-science" by P. Larcombe and P. Ridd (Marine Pollution Bulletin 126: 449-461, 2018). Marine Pollution Bulletin 129(1): 357-363

172 Schlitzer R, Anderson RF, Dodas EM, Lohan M, Geibere W, Tagliabue A, Bowie A, Jeandel C, Maldonado MT, Landing WM, Cockwell D, Abadie C, Abouchami W, Achterberg EP, Agather A, Aguliar-Islas A, van Aken HM, Andersen M, Archer C, Auro M, de Baar HJ, Baars O, Baker AR, Bakker K, Basak C, Baskaran M, Bates NR, Bauch D, van Beek P, Behrens MK, Black E, Bluhm K, Bopp L, Bouman H, Bowman K, Bown J, Boyd P, Boye M, Boyle EA, Branellec P, Bridgestock L, Brissebrat G, Browning T, Bruland KW, Brumsack HJ, Brzezinski M, Buck CS, Buck KN, Buesseler K, Bull A, Butler E, Cai P, Mor PC, Cardinal D, Carlson C, Carrasco G, Casacuberta N, Casciotti KL, Castrillejo M, Chamizo E, Chance R, Charette MA, Chaves JE, Cheng H, Chever F, Christl M, Church TM, Closset I, Colman A, Conway TM, Cossa D, Croot P, Cullen JT, Cutter GA, Daniels C, Dehairs F, Deng FF, Dieu HT, Duggan B, Dulaquais G, Dumousseaud C, Echegoyen-Sanz Y, Edwards RL, Ellwood M, Fahrbach E, Fitzsimmons JN, Flegal AR, Fleisher MQ, van de Flierdt T, Frank M, Friedrich J, Fripiat F, Frollje H, Galer SJG, Gamo T, Ganeshram RS, Garcia-Orellana J, Garcia-Solsona E, Gault-Ringold M, George E, Gerringa LJA, Gilbert M, Godoy JM, Goldstein

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174 Sequeira AMM, Mellin C, Lozano-Montes HM, Meeuwig JJ, Vanderklift MA, Haywood MDE, Babcock RC, Caley MJ (2018) Challenges of transferring models of fish abundance between coral reefs. PeerJ 6: e4566

175 Sequeira AMM, Rodrigues JP, Eguiluz VM, Harcourt R, Hindell M, Sims DW, Duarte CM, Costa DP, Fernández-Gracia J, Ferreira LC, Hays GC, Heupel MR, Meekan MG, Aven A, Bailleul F, Baylis AMM, Berumen ML, Braun CD, Burns J, Caley MJ, Campbell R, Carmichael RH, Clua E, Einoder LD, Friedlaender A, Goebel ME, Goldsworthy SD, Guinet C, Gunn J, Hamer D, Hammerschlag N, Hammill M, Hückstädt LA, Humphries NE, Lea M-A, Lowther A, Mackay A, McHuron E, McKenzie J, McLeay L, McMahon CR, Mengersen K, Muelbert MMC, Pagano AM, Page B, Queiroz N, Robinson PW, Shaffer SA, Shivji M, Skomal GB, Thorrold SR, Villegas-Amtmann S, Weise M, Wells R, Wetherbee B, Wiebkin A, Wienecke B, Thums M (2018) Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 115(12): 3072-3077

176 Sherman CS, Chin A, Heupel MR, Simpfendorfer C (2018) Are we underestimating elasmobranch abundances on baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) using traditional metrics? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 503: 80-85

177 Siwabessy PJW, Tran M, Picard K, Brooke BP, Huang Z, Smit N, Williams DK, Nicholas WA, Nichol SL, Atkinson I (2018) Modelling the distribution of hard seabed using calibrated multibeam acoustic backscatter data in a tropical, macrotidal embayment: Darwin Harbour, Australia. Marine Geophysical Research 39(1-2): 249-269

178 Smith MK, Bose U, Mita M, Hall MR, Elizur A, Motti CA, Cummins SF (2018) Differences in small molecule neurotransmitter profiles from the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar radial nerve revealed between sexes and following food-deprivation. Frontiers in Endocrinology 9: 551

179 Speed CW, Cappo M, Meekan MG (2018) Evidence for rapid recovery of shark populations with a coral reef marine protected area. Biological Conservation 220: 308-319

180 Steeves HN, McMeans B, Field C, Stewart C, Arts MT, Fisk AT, Lydersen C, Kovacs KM, MacNeil MA (2018) Non-parametric analysis of the spatio-temporal variability in the fatty-acid profiles among Greenland sharks. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 98(3): 627-633

181 Stephenson SA, Nelson TM, Streten C, Gibb KS, Williams D, Greenfield P, Chariton AA (2018) Sea-level rise in northern Australia's Kakadu National Park: a survey of floodplain eukaryotes. Marine and Freshwater Research 69(7): 1134-1145

182 Stewart JD, Jaine FRA, Armstrong AJ, Armstrong AO, Bennett MB, Burgess KB, Couturier LIE, Croll DA, Cronin MR, Deakos MH, Dudgeon CL, Fernando D, Froman N, Germanov ES, Hall MA, Hinojosa-Alvarez S, Hosegood JE, Kashiwagi T, Laglbauer BJL, Lezama-Ochoa N, Marshall AD, McGregor F, di Sciara GN, Palacios MD, Peel LR, Richardson AJ, Rubin RD, Townsend KA, Venables SK, Stevens GMW (2018) Research priorities to support effective manta and devil ray conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 314

183 Tan CH, Pratchett MS, Bay LK, Graham EM, Baird AH (2018) Biennium horribile: very high mortality in the reef coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef in 2009 and 2010. Marine Ecology Progress Series 604: 133-142

184 Thums M, Fernández-Gracia J, Sequeira AMM, Eguiluz VM, Duarte CM, Meekan MG (2018) How big data fast tracked human mobility research and the lessons for animal movement ecology. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 21

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185 Thums M, Rossendell J, Guinea M, Ferreira LC (2018) Horizontal and vertical movement behaviour of flatback turtles and spatial overlap with industrial development. Marine Ecology Progress Series 602: 237-253

186 Torda G, Sambrook K, Cross P, Sato Y, Bourne DG, Lukoschek V, Hill T, Jorda GT, Moya A, Willis BL (2018) Decadal erosion of coral assemblages by multiple disturbances in the Palm Islands, central Great Barrier Reef. Scientific Reports 8: 11885

187 Turnbull JW, Esmaeili YS, Clark GF, Figueira WF, Johnston EL, Ferrari R (2018) Key drivers of effectiveness in small marine protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 27: 2217-2242

188 Udyawer V, Barnes P, Bonnet X, Brischoux F, Crowe-Riddell JM, D’Anastasi B, Fry BG, Gillett A, Golran C, Guinea ML, Heatwole H, Heupel MR, Hourston M, Kangas M, Kendrick A, Koefoed I, Lillywhite HB, Lobo AS, Lukoschek V, McAuley R, Nitschke C, Rasmussen AR, Sanders KL, Sheehy C, Shine R, Somaweera R, Sweet SS, Voris HK (2018) Future directions in the research and management of marine snakes. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 399

189 Udyawer V, Dwyer RG, Hoenner X, Babcock R, Brodie S, Campbell HA, Harcourt RG, Huveneers C, Jaine FRA, Simpfendorfer CA, Taylor MD, Heupel MR (2018) A standardised framework for analysing animal detections from automated tracking arrays. Animal Biotelemetry 6: 17

190 Underwood JN, Richards ZT, Miller KJ, Puotinen ML, Gilmour JP (2018) Genetic signatures through space, time and multiple disturbances in a ubiquitous brooding coral. Molecular Ecology 27(7): 1586-1602

191 Uthicke S, Lamare M, Doyle JR (2018) eDNA detection of corallivorous seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris) outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef using digital droplet PCR. Coral Reefs.37:1229-1239

192 Uthicke S, Liddy M, Patel F, Logan M, Johansson C, Lamare M (2018) Effects of larvae density and food concentration on Crown-of-Thorns seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris) development in an automated flow-through system. Scientific Reports 8: 642

193 Valentine LE, Ruthrof KX, Fisher R, Hardy GESJ, Hobbs RJ, Fleming PA (2018) Bioturbation by bandicoots facilitates seedling growth by altering soil properties. Functional Ecology 32(9): 2138-2148

194 van Dam JW, Trenfield MA, Streten C, Harford AJ, Parry D, van Dam RA (2018) Assessing chronic toxicity of aluminium, gallium and molybdenum in tropical marine waters using a novel bioassay for larvae of the hermit crab Coenobita variabilis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 165: 349-356

195 van Dam JW, Trenfield MA, Streten C, Harford AJ, Parry D, van Dam RA (2018) Water quality guideline values for aluminium, gallium and molybdenum in marine environments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 26592-26602

196 van de Water JAJM, De Mares MC, Dixon GB, Raina JB, Willis BL, Bourne DG, van Oppen MJH (2018) Antimicrobial and stress responses to increased temperature and bacterial pathogen challenge in the holobiont of a reef-building coral. Molecular Ecology 27(4): 1065-1080

197 van Lier JR, Wilson SK, Depczynski M, Wenger LN, Fulton CJ (2018) Habitat connectivity and complexity underpin fish community structure across a seascape of tropical macroalgae meadows. Landscape Ecology 33: 1287-1300

198 van Oppen MJH, Bongaerts P, Frade P, Peplow LM, Boyd SE, Nim HT, Bay LK (2018) Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome. Molecular Ecology 27(14): 2956-2971

199 van Woesik R, Köksal S, Ünal A, Cacciapaglia CW, Randall CJ (2018) Predicting coral dynamics through climate change. Scientific Reports 8: 17997

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200 Vercelloni J, Clifford S, Caley MJ, Pearse AR, Brown R, James A, Christensen B, Bednarz T, Anthony K, González-Rivero M, Mengersen K, Peterson EE (2018) Using virtual reality to estimate aesthetic values of coral reefs. Royal Society Open Science 5: 172226

201 Vianna GMS, Meekan MG, Rogers AA, Kragt ME, Alin JM, Zimmerhackel (2018) Shark-diving tourism as a financing mechanism for shark conservation strategies in Malaysia. Marine Policy 94: 220-226

202 Watson LA, Stark JS, Johnstone GJ, Wapstra E, Miller K (2018) Patterns in the distribution and abundance of sea anemones off Dumont d'Urville Station, Antarctica. Polar Biology 41(10):1923-1935

203 Webb JR, Santos IR, Maher DT, Macdonald B, Robson B, Isaac P, McHugh I (2018) Terrestrial versus aquatic carbon fluxes in a subtropical agricultural floodplain over an annual cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 260-261: 262-272

204 Webster NS, Wagner M, Negri AP (2018) Microbial conservation in the Anthropocene. Environmental Microbiology 20: 1925-1928

205 Wenger AS, Rawson CA, Wilson S, Newman SJ, Travers MJ, Atkinson S, Browne N, Clarke D, Depczynski M, Erftemeijer PLA, Evans RD, Hobbs JPA, McIlwain JL, McLean DL, Saunders BJ, Harvey E (2018) Management strategies to minimize the dredging impacts of coastal development on fish and fisheries. Conservation Letters 11: e12572

206 Wijffels SE, Beggs H, Griffin C, Middleton JF, Cahill M, King E, Jones E, Feng M, Benthuysen JA, Steinberg CR, Sutton P (2018) A fine spatial-scale sea surface temperature atlas of the Australian regional seas (SSTAARS): seasonal variability and trends around Australasia and New Zealand revisited. Journal of Marine Systems 187: 156-196

207 Wilson P, Thums M, Pattiaratchi C, Meekan M, Pendoley K, Fisher R, Whiting S (2018) Artifical light disrupts the nearshore dispersal of neonate flatback turtles Natator depressus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 600: 179-192

208 Wilson SK, Depcyznski M, Fisher R, Holmes TH, Noble MM, Radford BT, Rule M, Shedrawi G, Tinkler P, Fulton CJ (2018) Climatic forcing and larval dispersal capabilities shape the replenishment of fishes and their habitat-forming biota on a tropical coral reef. Ecology and Evolution 8(3): 1918-1928

209 Wilson SK, Graham NAJ, Holmes TH, MacNeil MA, Ryan NM (2018) Visual versus video methods for estimating reef fish biomass. Ecological Indicators 85:146-152

210 Wolff NH, da Silva ET, Devlin M, Anthony KRN, Lewis S, Tonin H, Brinkman R, Mumby PJ (2018) Contribution of individual rivers to Great Barrier Reef nitrogen exposure with implications for management prioritization. Marine Pollution Bulletin 133: 30-43

211 Wolff NH, Mumby PJ, Devlin M, Anthony KRN (2018) Vulnerability of the Great Barrier Reef to climate change and local pressures. Global Change Biology 24(5): 1978-1991

212 Wyatt LR, Mantovanelli A, Heron ML, Roughan M, Steinberg CR (2018) Assessment of surface currents measured with high-frequency phased-array radars in two regions of complex circulation. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 43(2): 484-505

213 Xu LJ, Yang DZ, Benthuysen JA, Yin BS (2018) Key Dynamical Factors Driving the Kuroshio Subsurface Water to Reach the Zhejiang Coastal Area. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 123(12): 9061-9081

214 Yang D-Z, Huang RX, Yin B-s, Feng X-R, Chen H-y, Qi J-F, Xu L-j, Shi Y-l, Cui X, Gao G-D, Benthuysen JA (2018) Topographic beta spiral and onshore intrusion of the Kuroshio Current. Geophysical Research Letters 45: 287-296

215 Yates KL, Bouchet PJ, Caley MJ, Mengersen K, Randin CF, Parnell S, Fielding AH, Bamford AJ, Ban S, Barbosa A, Dormann CF, Elith J, Embling CB, Ervin GN, Fisher R, Gould S, Graf RF, Gregr EJ, Halpin PN, Heikkinen RK, Heinanen S, Jones AR, Krishnakumar PK, Lauria V, Lozano-Montes H, Mannocci L, Mellin C, Mesgaran MB, Moreno-Amat E, Mormede S, Novaczek E, Oppel S, Crespo GO, Peterson AT, Rapacciuolo

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G, Roberts JJ, Ross RE, Scales KL, Schoeman D, Snelgrove P, Sundblad G, Thuiller W, Torres LG, Verbruggen H, Wang L, Wenger S, Whittingham MJ, Zharikov Y, Zurell D, Sequeira AMM (2018) Outstanding challenges in the transferability of ecological models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 33(10): 790-802

216 Zanolla M, Altamirano M, Carmona R, De la Rosa J, Souza-Egipsy V, Sherwood A, Tsiamis K, Barbosa AM, Muñoz AR, Andreakis N (2018) Assessing global range expansion in a cryptic species complex: insights from the red seaweed genus Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae). Journal of Phycology 54: 12-24

217 Zeh DR, Heupel MR, Hamann M, Jones R, Limpus CJ, Marsh H (2018) Evidence of behavioural thermoregulation by dugongs at the high latitude limit to their range in eastern Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 508: 27-34

218 Zimmerhackel JS, Rogers AA, Meekan MG, Ali K, Pannell DJ, Kragt ME (2018) How shark conservation in the Maldives affects demand for dive tourism. Tourism Management 69: 263-271

219 Zinke J, Gilmour JP, Fisher R, Puotinen M, Maina J, Darling E, Stat M, Richards ZT, McClanahan TR, Berger M, Moore C, Graham NAJ, Feng M, Hobbs J-PA, Evans SN, Field S, Shedrawi G, Babcock RC, Wilson SK (2018) Gradients of disturbance and environmental conditions shape coral community structure for south-eastern Indian Ocean reefs. Diversity and Distributions 24(5): 605-620

REPORTS

1 Anthony K, Baird M, Bozec YM, Condie S, Hock K, Lawrey E, Mumby P, Ortiz J, Roelfsema C, Smith A, Wolff N (2018) Supporting resilience-based management in the Cairns section of the Great Barrier Reef. Final report prepared for Great Barrier Reef Foundation, Brisbane (40 p)

2 Bourne DG, Frade P (2018) Reviewing microbial communities on the GBR: contribution to a functioning reef. Report prepared for Project 4.6 (led by UQ) of the National Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality

Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (42 p)

3 Bri

nkman R, Baird M, Boswood P, Fearns P, Gruber R, Holmes M, Honchin C, Johnson R, Lewis S, Lønborg C, Mueller J, Robillot C, Schroeder T, Steinberg C, Treleaven J (2018) Monitoring the marine physical and chemical environment within the Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program: final report of the marine physico-chemical environment expert group. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville (115 pp)

4 Cantin N, Fallon S, Wu Y, Lough J (2018) Project ISP019: Calcification and geochemical signatures of industrial development of the Gladstone Harbour from century-old coral skeletons. Report prepared for the Gladstone Healthy Harbour Partnership. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (40 p)

5 Costello P, Thompson A, Davidson J (2018) Coral indicators for the 2018 Gladstone Harbour Report Card: ISP014. Report prepared for the Gladstone Healthy Harbour Partnership. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (43 p)

6 Doyle J, Uthicke S (2018) Using environmental DNA to detect Crown-of-Thorns Seastar on the Great Barrier Reef. Final milestone report of Project 2.1.1 of the National Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (25 p)

7 Ferreira L, Thums M, Meekan M (2018) Report synthesising existing marine wildlife data and recommendations for future work Applied Research Program ARP4 prepared for Shell Australia Pty Ltd (Shell) and INPEX Operations Australia Pty Ltd (INPEX). Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth (36 pp)

8 Galaiduk R, Nanson R, Huang Z, Nichol S, Miller K (2018) An eco-narrative of Geographe Marine Park: South-west marine region. Report to the National Environmental Science Programme, Marine Biodiversity Hub. Geoscience Australia (27 pp)

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9 Hall MR, Motti CA, Kroon F (2018). The potential role of the giant triton snail, Charonia tritonis (Gastropoda: Ranellidae) in mitigating populations of the crown-of-thorns starfish. Technical report of Project 2.1.1 of the Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (58 pp)

10 Harries S, Streten C (2018) Survey of accumulated sediment in the berth pockets of East Arm Wharf, Fort Hill Wharf, Marine Supply Base, MSB swing basin and channel - July 2018. Report prepared for Darwin Port. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Darwin (25 pp)

11 Heyward A, Miller K, Fromont J, Keesing J, Parnum I (eds) (2018) Kimberley seabed biodiversity, WAMSI Project 1.1.1 Flatback turtle foraging habitats. Final report to Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) (114 pp)

12 Jakeman AJ, El Sawah S, Cuddy S, Robson B, McIntyre N, Cook F (2018) QWMN Good Modelling Practice: A discussion paper. Queensland Water Modelling Network and Australian National University (45 pp)

13 Johnson JE, Welch DJ, Marshall PA, Day J, Marshall N, Steinberg CR, Benthuysen JA, Sun C, Brodie J, Marsh H, Hamann M, Simpfendorfer C (2018) Characterising the values and connectivity of the northeast Australia seascape: Great Barrier Reef, Torres Strait, Coral Sea and Great Sandy Strait. Technical Report (Part 1) of Project 3.3.3 of the National Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (81 pp)

14 Johnson JE, Welch DJ, Marshall PA, Day J, Marshall N, Steinberg CR, Benthuysen JA, Sun C, Brodie J, Marsh H, Hamann M, Simpfendorfer C (2018) Supplementary synthesis report: Connectivity and inter-dependencies of values in the northeast Australia seascape. Supplementary Report (Part 2) of Project 3.3.3 of the National Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (67 pp)

15 Johnson JE, Welch DJ, Marshall PA, Day J, Marshall N, Steinberg CR, Benthuysen JA, Sun C, Brodie J, Marsh H, Hamann M, Simpfendorfer C (2018) Characterising the values and connectivity of the northeast Australia seascape: Great Barrier Reef, Torres Strait, Coral Sea and Great Sandy Strait. Summary for Decision-Makers. Project 3.3.3 of the National Environmental Science Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (12 pp)

16 Langlois T, Williams J, Monk J, Bouchet P, Currey L, Goetze J, Harasti D, Huveneers C, Ierodiaconou D, Malcolm H, Whitmore S (2018) Marine sampling field manual for benthic stereo BRUVS (Baited Remote Underwater Videos). In: Field Manuals for Marine Sampling to Monitor Australian Waters, National Environmental Science Programme, Hobart, Tasmania.

17 Makarynskyy O, Makarynska D (2018) Metocean data processing for GWF-2/Rankin Bank discharge assessments. Technical report prepared for Woodside Energy Ltd. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Darwin (125 pp)

18 Motti CA, Cummins S, Armstrong T, Barker T, Hillberg A, Schlawinsky M, Thomas-Hall P (2018) Charonia tritonis larval rearing: Progress Report prepared for the Department of the Environment and Energy Reef2050 Grant Id: 3600000775. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (45 pp)

19 Motti CA, Cummins SF, Armstrong T, Hall MR (2018) A review of marine snail aquaculture. Report prepared for the Department of the Environment and Energy Reef2050 Grant Id: 3600000775. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (52 pp)

20 Motti CA, Schlaff A, Heupel M, Hall MR (2018). Acoustic tagging of benthic aquatic organisms. Report prepared for the Department of the Environment and Energy Reef2050 Grant Id: 3600000775. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (25 pp)

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21 Nanson R, Carroll A, Huang Z, Nichol S, Miller K (2018) An eco-narrative of Gifford Marine Park: Temperate East marine region. Report to the National Environmental Science Programme, Marine Biodiversity Hub. Geoscience Australia (18 pp)

22 Nanson R, Huang Z, Bouchet P, Nichol S, Miller K (2018) An eco-narrative of Perth Canyon Marine Park: South-west marine region. Report to the National Environmental Science Programme, Marine Biodiversity Hub. Geoscience Australia. (22 pp)

23 Nordborg M, Brinkman D, Flores F, Høj L, Negri A, Agustí S, Overmans S, Abdallah M, Ashok A, Duarte C (2018) The effects of UV radiation on the toxicity of PAHs and oil to corals (Objective 3): Final report. Report prepared King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (20 p)

24 Radford B, Heyward A, Case M, Stowar M, Colquhoun J (2018) Oceanic Shoals MP benthic and fish 2017. Report for Conoco Phillips Pty Ltd. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth (65 p)

25 Schaffelke B, Anthony K, Babcock RC, Bridge T, Carlos E, Diaz-Pulido G, González-Rivero M, Gooch M, Hoey A, Horne D, Kane K, McKenzie C, Merida F, Molloy F, Moon S, Mumby PJ, Ortiz J-C, Pears RJ, Phinn S, Ridgway T, Roelfsema C, Singleton G, Thompson A (2018) Monitoring coral reefs within the Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program: final report of the coral reef expert group. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville (82 pp)

26 Souter D, Gorsuch H (2018) Program design recommendations report for the Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program. Final report. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville (156 pp)

27 Steinberg C, Brinkman R (2018) Review of Technical Minute: Analysis of Window of Opportunity for Offshore Operations - Meteorological and Oceanographic Conditions on Douglas Shoal. Report prepared for Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (7 p)

28 Steven A, Fabricius KE, Tilbrook B, Mongin M, Neil C, van Ooijen E, Crosswell J, Pfitzner J, Hodge J, Smith J, Wild D, Lønborg C, Lawrey E, Noonan S (2018) Ocean Acidification: Ecological Response Analysis, and cross— platform comparison of the available carbonate chemistry data for the Great Barrier Reef. Report prepared for Great Barrier Reef Foundation. CSIRO and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (112 pp)

29 Sweatman H, Cappo M (2018) Do no-take zones reduce the likelihood of outbreaks of the Crown-of-thorns starfish? Report to the National Environmental Science Program. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Limited, Cairns (38 pp)

30 Sweatman H, Emslie M, Logan M (2018) Monitoring the effects of rezoning on the Great Barrier Reef. Report prepared for the Great Barrier Marine Park Authority. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (81 pp)

31 Thompson A, Costello P, Davidson J (2018) Port of Abbot Point Ambient Coral Monitoring program: Report 2017. Report prepared for the North Queensland Bulk Ports. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (39pp)

32 Thompson A, Costello P, Davidson J, Logan M, Greg Coleman, Gunn K (2018) Marine Monitoring Program. Annual report for coral monitoring 2016-2017. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. (148 p)

33 Thums M, Jenner C, Waples K, Salgado-Kent C, Meekan M (2018) Humpback whale use of the Kimberley: understanding and monitoring spatial distribution. WAMSI Kimberley Marine Research Program Project 1.2.1, report prepared for the Western Australian Marine Science Institution, Perth (78 p)

34 Tonin H, Brinkman R, Streten C (2018) Investigation of fate and potential impacts of marine discharge during decommissioning, Rio Tinto Gove. Report prepared for Rio Tinto. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (57 p + app)

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35 Tsang JJ (2018) Monitoring the concentrations

of bioavailable metals and lead isotope ratios

in seawater by diffusive gradients in thin films

deployed around Bing Bong Loading Facility:

Review of 2017-2018 data. Report prepared

for Glencore McArthur River Mining Pty Ltd.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Darwin

(86 pp + app)

36 Uthicke S, Doyle J (2018) Testing eDNA as a new

monitoring tool for a) early outbreak detection,

b) investigating larval biology c) identifying

invertebrate predators. Final report for an Ian

Potter Foundation Grant, Australian Museum

Australian Institute of Marine Science (6 p)

37 van Dam JW (2018) Toxicological assessment

of Ludmilla wastewater treatment plant

discharge. Report prepared for the Power

and Water Corporation. Australian Institute of

Marine Science, Darwin (41 pp)

38 van Dam JW, Streten C (2018) Toxicological

assessment of ammonia in clarifier overflow

water. Report prepared for Queensland

Alumina Limited. Australian Institute of Marine

Science, Darwin (46pp)

39 Waterhouse J, Burton J, Garzon-Garcia A,

Lewis S, Brodie J, Bainbridge Z, Robson B,

Burford M, Gruber R, Dougall C (2018) Synthesis

of knowledge and concepts - bioavailable

nutrients: sources, delivery and impacts in

the Great Barrier Reef. Bioavailable Nutrients

Workshop, 15 March 2018. Supported by the

Office of the Great Barrier Reef’s Queensland

Reef Water Quality Program, and the Australian

Government National Environmental Science

Programme Tropical Water Quality Hub. Reef

and Rainforest Centre, Cairns (77 pp)

40 Waterhouse J, Burton J, Garzon-Garcia A, Lewis

S, Brodie J, Bainbridge Z, Robson B, Burford

M, Gruber R, Dougall C (2018) Bioavailable

Nutrients: Sources, delivery and impacts in the

Great Barrier Reef: Workshop, 15 March 2018.

Briefing / key messages paper. Supported

by the Office of the Great Barrier Reef’s

Queensland Reef Water Quality Program,

and the Australian Government National

Environmental Science Programme Tropical

Water Quality Hub (12pp)

41 Waterhouse J, Lønborg C, Logan M, Petus C,

Tracey D, Lewis S, Howley C, Harper E, Tonin

H, Skuza M, Doyle J, Costello P, Davidson J,

Gunn K, Wright M, Zagorskis I, Kroon F, Gruber

R (2018) Marine Monitoring Program: Annual

Report for inshore water quality monitoring

2016-2017. Report for the Great Barrier Reef

Marine Park Authority, Great Barrier Reef

Marine Park Authority, Townsville (318 pp)

42 Webster N, Gorsuch H (2018) RIMReP Additional

values report: monitoring microbes within the

Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting

Program: final report. Great Barrier Reef Marine

Park Authority, Townsville (27 pp)

43 Williams D (2018) Modelling the Spill of 50%

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) at QAL, Gladstone

Queensland. Report prepared for Queensland

Alumina Limited. Australian Institute of Marine

Science, Darwin (14 p)

44 Williams D, Streten C, Brinkman R (2018)

Effect of low and high discharge rates on

dilution rates in South Trees Inlet - mitigation

measures. Report prepared for Queensland

Alumina Limited. Australian Institute of Marine

Science, Darwin (8pp)

45 Williams DK (2018) Modelling the mixing

zone based on diffuser discharges at QAL,

Gladstone, Queensland. Report prepared

for Queensland Alumina Limited. Australian

Institute of Marine Science, Darwin (10 p)

46 Williams DK (2018) Preliminary Modelling of

Dissolved Oxygen Values in South Trees Inlet.

Report prepared for Queensland Alumina

Limited. Australian Institute of Marine Science,

Darwin (8pp)

47 Williams DK, Streten C (2018) Modelling of

Alternate Discharge Strategies for QAL-

conservative tracer. Report to Queensland

Alumina Limited. Australian Institute of Marine

Science, Darwin (11pp)

48 Williams DK, Streten C (2018) Modelling

of Alternate Discharge Strategies for QAL

- dissolved oxygen. Report prepared for

Queensland Alumina Limited. Australian

Institute of Marine Science, Darwin (12pp)

Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2018-19

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BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS

1 Berkelmans R (2018) Chapter 9. Bleaching and mortality thresholds: how much is too much? pp 213-230. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

2 Cantin NE, Spalding M (2018) Chapter 5. Detecting and monitoring coral bleaching events. pp 85-110. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

3 Eakin CM, Lough JM, Heron SF, Liu G (2018) Chapter 4. Climate variability and change: monitoring data and evidence for increased coral bleaching stress. pp 51-84. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

4 Emslie MJ, Pratchett M (2018) Chapter 15. Differential vulnerabilities of parrotfishes to habitat degradation. pp 355-382. In: Hoey A, Bonaldo RM (Eds) Biology of parrotfishes. CRC Press. ISBN 9781482224016

5 Lough JM, van Oppen MJH (2018) Chapter 1. Introduction: Coral bleaching - patterns, processes, causes and consequences. pp 1-8. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

6 Oliver JK, Berkelmans R, Eakin CM (2018) Chapter 3. Coral bleaching in space and time. pp 27-49. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

7 Pratchett M, Bridge T, Brodie J, Cameron D, Emslie MJ, Grech A, Hamman M, Hoey A, Hoogenboom M, Lough J, Morrison TH, Osborn K, Read M, Smithers SG, Sweatman H, Waterhouse J (2018) Chapter 15. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. pp 333-362. In: Sheppard

CRC. (Ed) World seas: an environmental eva luation, Volume 2: The Indian Ocean to

the Pacific, Academic Press (932 p) ISBN 9780081008539

8 Quigley KM, Baker AC, Coffroth A, Willis BL, van Oppen MJH (2018) Chapter 6. Bleaching resistance and the role of algal endosymbionts. pp 111-151. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

9 van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (2018) Chapter 14. Synthesis: Coral bleaching - patterns, processes, causes and consequences. pp 343-348. In: van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p)

10 van Oppen MJH, Lough JM (Eds) (2018) Coral Bleaching. Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Second Edition. Ecological Studies 233, Springer (356 p) ISBN 978-3-319-75392-8

octor of Philosophy D

THESES

1 Conlan, Jessica V (2018) Nutritional health of captive corals. Thesis (PhD). Deakin University, Warnambool

2 Epstein, Hannah E (2018) Investigating the drivers of microbial community composition in reef-building corals. Thesis (PhD). James Cook University

3 Marcus Zamora, Lara (2018) Feeding ecology of whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Thesis (PhD) University of Tasmania

4 Montanari, Stefano (2018) Causes and consequences of natural hybridisation among coral reef butterflyfishes (Chaetodon: Chaetodontidae). Thesis (PhD) James Cook University

5 Ramsby, Blake (2018) The effects of a changing marine environment on the bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis. Thesis (PhD) James Cook University

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6 Razak, Tries B (2018) The effect of temperature variability and life-history strategy in coral response to long-term increase in sea surface temperature. Thesis (PhD). The University of Queensland

7 Roberts, Thomas Edward (2018) Ecological determinates of depth zonation in reef-building corals. Thesis (PhD) James Cook University

8 Smith, Meaghan K (2018) Molecular investigators of the neural system in the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar, Acanthaster planci species-complex. Thesis (PhD). University of the Sunshine Coast

Master of Science

9 Chin, Ying-Yueh (Kimberley) (2018) Comparison of sponge-associated faunal diversity between sponges with distinct morphologies from Ningaloo Reef and Rottnest Island. Thesis (MSc) University of Western Australia

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APPENDIX B: EXTERNAL COMMITTEES AND NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS AND POSITIONS

International forums

Alliance for Coastal Technologies, Technical Advisory Committee

Australia New Zealand Marine Biotechnology Society Management Committee

Convention on Migratory Species, Sharks MOU Conservation Working Group member

Global Environment Fund, Coral Disease Working Group

Great Barrier Reef Foundation - International Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) member

Homeward Bound - Carbon Emissions Offsets team

International Congress on Fish Telemetry Committee - member

International Coral Reef Society (ICRS) - Council member

International Coral Reef Society (ICRS) Conservation Committee - member and Council representative

International Oceanographic Commission Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms - Australian representative

International Society for Microbial Ecology (ISME) - International board member and director of International Ambassadors Program

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Shark Specialist Group - Vice Chair for Strategy

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - member Synthetic Biology and Biodiversity Conservation Task Force Technical Subgroup on Scientific and Policy Assessment

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering & Medicine (US) Committee on Interventions to Increase Resilience of Coral Reefs

Ocean Acidification Expert Review Committee to the United Nation’s Convention on Biological Diversity

Ocean Tracking Network (Canada) Scientific Advisory Committee

Red Sea Research Centre (RSRC) Advisory Board committee member

Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) - Australian delegate

SCOR Working Group 149 Changing Ocean Biological Systems (COBS): How will biota respond to a changing ocean?

United Nations Oceans & Law of the Sea Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment (Regular Process) - member of the Pool of Experts

Wildlife Trust of India - Scientific Advisory Committee

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National forums

AIMS@JCU - Management Committee

AIMS@JCU - Scientific Advisory Committee

AMOS Physical Oceanographic Expert Group

ANZLIC Marine Community Profile Metadata Standards Governance Committee

Australian Animal Tagging and Monitoring System - Scientific Committee

Australian Hydrographic Office, RAN - Permanent Committee on Tides and Mean Sea Level

Australian Lions Foundation for Medical Research into Species of Medical Importance to Humans - Scientific

Advisory Committee

Australian Microbiome Initiative Scientific Coordination Working Group

Australian National Committee on the International Indian Ocean Expedition-2

Australian Ocean Data Centre Joint Facility

Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Mathematical and Statistical Frontiers: Big Data,

Big Models, New Insights (ACEMS) Governance Advisory Board

Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies - Advisory Board

Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies - Scientific Management

Committee

Bureau of Meteorology Northern Territory Marine Reference Group

Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research (CSHOR) - member

Chevron Australia Pty Ltd - Independent expert on the Gorgon Marine Turtle Expert Panel (Ministerial

appointment)

Chevron Australia Pty Ltd Commonwealth expert panel Dredging Technical Advisory Panel (DTAP)

Coastal, Ocean and Port Engineering Panel for Western Australia (Engineers Australia)

Darwin Harbour Advisory Committee (DHAC)

Darwin Harbour Integrated Monitoring & Research Program Coordination Committee (IMRP)

Darwin Marine Supply Base - Taskforce Advisory Group

Dry Tropics Partnership for Healthy Waters

eReefs Advisory Board Member

eReefs User Reference Group

Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC) - Indigenous Reference Group (IRG)

Fitzroy Partnership for River Health Science Panel

Forum for Operational Oceanography (FOO) Steering Committee

Forum for Operational Oceanography (FOO) Surface Currents Working Group

Forum for Operational Oceanography (FOO) Surface Waves Working Group

Great Barrier Reef Foundation - Biophysical Technical Advisory Group

Great Barrier Reef Foundation COTS Working Group

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GBRMPA & Queensland Government Reef Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program - Steering Group

member

GBRMPA COTS Advisory Committee

GBRMPA Reef Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Network - Design Working Group

Gladstone Healthy Harbour Partnership (GHHP) Science Panel

Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) - Board Member

Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Science and Technology Advisory Committee

IMOS Animal Tracking Facility - Advisory Committee

IMOS Animal Tracking Facility - Task Team (Chair and leader)

IMOS Animal Tracking Facility and Biologging Committee

IMOS National Moorings Network Facility - Steering Committee (Chair and leader)

IMOS Wireless Sensor Networks Facility

IMOS National Reference Stations Scientific Steering Committee

IMOS Satellite Remote Sensing Facility

IMOS Sub-facility for Event Based Sampling (leader/coordinator for National Steering Committee)

IMOS Ships of Opportunity Facility - Sensors on Tropical Research Vessels (leader)

Integrated Marine Observing System: Queensland (Q-IMOS) Node leader

Integrated Marine Observing System: Queensland (Q-IMOS) Technical Reference Group

Integrated Marine Observing System: Western Australia (WAIMOS) Scientific Reference Group

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Northern Australia Executive Committee

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC) - Executive Committee (chair)

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC) - Management Committee

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC) - Research Committee

Kakadu Research Advisory Committee

Marine Monitoring Program (MMP) Project Committee

Marine National Facility Scientific Advisory Committee

National BRUVS Working Group

National Committee for Coastal and Ocean Engineering (NCCOE) - Engineers Australia

National Environmental Priority Pest and Diseases List - Aquatic Animal Diseases Expert Group (ABARES,

Department of Agriculture and Water Resources)

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Marine Biodiversity Hub - Partners Committee member

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Marine Biodiversity Hub - Theme leader

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Tropical Water Quality Hub - Steering Committee

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Tropical Water Quality Hub - Science Advisory Committee

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP) Tropical Water Quality Hub - CoTS Working Group

National Estuaries Network Organising Committee

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National Marine Science Committee (NMSC) - Executive member

National Marine Science Committee (NMSC) - Marine Biotechnology subcommittee member

National Science, Technology and Research Committee (NTRSC) member

Northern Territory Marine and Coastal Science User Needs Analysis - Steering Committee member

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline Committee

Port of Townsville Independent Technical Advisory Committee - Channel Upgrade Project

Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries - Sustainable Fisheries Expert Panel

Queensland Government Pesticide Working Group

Queensland Water Modelling Network Climate Change Modelling Review Steering Committee

Queensland Water Modelling Network External Engagement Program Management Committee

Reef 2050 Indigenous Implementation Plan - Steering Committee

Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program (RIMReP)

Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program (RIMReP) Expert Working Group on Marine Physico-Chemical Environment - lead

Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program (RIMReP) Expert Working Group on Coral Reefs - lead

Reef 2050 Long Term Sustainability Plan - Independent Expert Panel

Reef 2050 Long Term Sustainability Plan - Reef Advisory Committee (RAC)

Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Pty Ltd (RRRC) - Non-executive director

Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program (RRAP) - Executive Committee

Reef Water Quality Protection Plan Independent Science Panel

Regional Report Card Technical Working Group

Western Australian Government Independent Scientific Advisory Panel on Sharks

Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) Board

Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) Governors

Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) Node Leader Science

Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) Operations Group

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APPENDIX C: LEGISLATIVE FOUNDATION AND MINISTERIAL POWERS

Enabling legislation

The Australian Institute of Marine Science is a corporate Commonwealth entity established on 9 June 1972 by the Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972 (AIMS Act).

Functions of the Institute

(1) The functions of the Institute are:

(a) to carry out research and development in relation to:

i) marine science and marine technology

ii) the application and use of marine science and marine technology

(b) to encourage and facilitate the application and use of the results of research and devel opment of that kind

(c) to arrange for carrying out research and development of that kind

(d) to cooperate with other institutions and persons in carrying out research and devel opment of that kind

(e) to provide any other institution or person with facilities for carrying out research and devel opment of that kind

(f) to collect and disseminate information relating to:

i) marine science and marine technology

ii) the application and use of marine science and marine technology and, in particular, to publis h reports and other papers

(g) to produce, acquire, provide and sell goods, and to provide services, in connection with:

i) marine science and marine technology

ii) the application and use of marine science and marine technology

(h) to make available to other persons, on a commercial basis, the knowledge, expertise, equipme nt, facilities, resources and property of the Institute

(i) to do anything incidental or conducive to the performance of any of the functions in parag raphs (a) to (h).

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Powers of the Institute

Under s. 10 of the AIMS Act, the Institute is empowered to do all things necessary or convenient to be done for, or in connection with, the performance of its functions, including power:

(a) to enter into contracts

(b) to acquire, hold and dispose of personal property

(ba

) to take on hire, or to accept on loan, equipment (including vessels) or other goods needed for the purposes of the Institute

(bb) to lend or to hire out equipment (including vessels) or other goods that are the property of the Institute

(c) to purchase or take on lease land or buildings, and to erect buildings, necessary for the pur poses of the Institute

(d) to dispose of, or grant leases of, land or buildings vested in the Institute

(e) to occupy, use and control any land or building owned or held under lease by the Com monwealth and made available for the purposes of the Institute

(f) to participate in partnerships, trusts, unincorporated joint ventures and other arrangements for sharing profits

(g) to subscribe for and to purchase shares in, and debentures and other securities of, companies

(h) to form, and to participate in the formation of, companies:

(ha

) to lend money to associated companies of the Institute

(hb

) with the written approval of the Finance Minister, to provide guarantees for the benefit of asso ciated companies of the Institute

(i) to appoint agents and attorneys, and to act as agents for other persons

(j) to accept anything given or transmitted to the Institute whether on trust or otherwise, and to act a s trustee of money or other property vested in the Institute on trust

(k) to arrange for displaying material and giving lectures, to the public or otherwise, about:

(i) marine science and marine technology

(ii

) the application and use of marine science and marine technology.

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Ministerial powers of direction

Under s. 10 (1) of the AIMS Act, the responsible minister (and Finance Minister) has power to direct the Institute in matters of a general or specific nature. These powers pertain particularly to the following:

1. Granting leave of absence to Council members (ss. 13, 16(b))

2. Appointing (and terminating such appointment) a person to act as Chairperson (ss. 17(1) and (3))

3. Appointing (and terminating such appointment) a person to act as a member of Counci l (ss. 17(2) and (3))

4. Convening a meeting of Council (s. 20(2))

5. The Finance Minister may give directions at any time as to amount and moneys to be paid to the I nstitute (s. 36(2))

6. Out of money appropriated by the Parliament for the purpose, the Finance Minister has power to le nd money to the Institute (s. 42A)

7. The Finance Minister has the power to provide written approval for the Institute to borrow mone y from persons other than the Commonwealth (s. 42B)

8. The Finance Minister has the power to guarantee borrowings of the Institute (s. 42C)

9. Appointing a committee to assist Council and approving the terms and conditions of memb ers (s. 45)

10. Delegation of powers by Finance Minister (s. 50).

(1) The Finance Minister may, by written instrument, delegate to an official (within the meaning of th e Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013) of a non-corporate

Commonwealth entity (within the meaning of that Act) the power:

(a) to approve the provision of guarantees as mentioned in paragraph 10(2)(hb)

(b) to approve the borrowing of money on terms and conditions specified in, or consistent with , the approval as mentioned in subsection 42B(1)

(c) to enter into contracts as mentioned in subsection 42C(1)

(d) to make determinations as mentioned in subsection 42C(2).

(2) In exercising power under a delegation, the official must comply with any directions of the Fin ance Minister.

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INDEXES

ACRONYMS

ACRONYM TERM IN FULL

AICD Australian Institute of Company Directors

AIMS Australian Institute of Marine Science

AIMS Act Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972

AMSA Australian Marine Science Association

ANAO Australian National Audit Office

AODN Australian Ocean Data Network

ARC Australian Research Council

ASSETS Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science

ATSIMS Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science

BRUVS baited remote underwater video stations

CDU Charles Darwin University

pCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide

CI citation impact

CPSU Community and Public Sector Union

CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DoEE Department of Environment and Energy

EPBC Act Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

FOI Act Freedom of Information Act 1982

FTE full-time equivalent

GBR Great Barrier Reef

GBRF Great Barrier Reef Foundation

GBRMPA Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

HSE Health, Safety and Environment

ICRI International Coral Reef Initiative

IMOS Integrated Marine Observing System

IOCAS Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

IOMRC Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre

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ACRONYM TERM IN FULL

IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature

JCU James Cook University

KPI key performance indicator

LTMP Long-Term Monitoring Program

NCRIS National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy

NESP National Environmental Science Programme

NOAA US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NT Northern Territory

NWSSRP North West Shoals to Shore Research Program

PBS Portfolio Budget Statement

PGPA Act Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013

PID Act Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013

PMC Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

PNG Papua New Guinea

POGO Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans

QUT Queensland University of Technology

RDA Research Data Australia

RRAP Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program

RIMReP Reef 2050 Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program

ROV remotely operated vehicle

SAGE Science in Australia Ge

nder Equity

SeaSim AIMS’ National Sea Simulator

STEMM Science, engineering, technology, mathematics and medicine

UQ University of Queensland

UVC underwater visual census

UWA The University of Western Australia

WA Western Australia

WAMSI Western Australian Marine Science Institution

WHS Act Work Health and Safety Act 2011

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COMPLIANCE INDE X OF ANNUAL REPORT REQUIREMENTS

AIMS’ requirement for annual reporting is outlined under s. 7 (2) of the AIMS Act, which states that the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 applies to the Institute. That Act deals with matters relating to corporate Commonwealth entities, including reporting and the use and management of public resources.

The index below shows AIMS’ compliance with annual report information requirements for corporate Commonwealth entities as stipulated under s. 46 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (PGPA Act).

The annual financial statements (see page 99) were prepared in accordance with ss. 42 and 43 of the PGPA Act and the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015.

This annual report complies with parliamentary standards of presentation and printing and uses plain English and clear design.

Requirement Source

Page in Annual Report

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013

The accountable authority (AA) of an entity must prepare and give an annual report to the responsible minister s. 46 PGPA Act

1-167

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Amendment (Corporate Commonwealth Entity Annual Reporting) Rule 2016 (CCEAR Rule)

The annual report must be approved and signed by the accountable authority and include details of how and when approval was given. It must state that the accountable authority is responsible for preparing and delivering the annual report in accordance with the s. 46 of the PGPA Act.

s. 17BB page 8 (l

etter of

transmittal)

The annual report must comply with the guidelines for presenting documents to the Parliament. s. 17BC 1-167

The annual report must be prepared having regard to the interests of the Parliament and any other persons who may be interested in it. s. 17BD 1-167

The annual report must specify the entity’s enabling legislation, including a summary of the entity’s objects and functions and the purposes of the entity as included in the entity’s corporate plan.

s. 17BE (a) (b)

page 69 (role & legislation)

page 21 (entity purpose)

page 21 (intended outcomes)

page 152 (Appendix C Legislative foundations)

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Requirement Source

Page in Annual Report

The annual report must specify the name and title of the responsible minister. s. 17BE (c) page 69

(Responsible minister)

The annual report must provide details of:

• any directions issued by any minister under an Act or instrument during the period

• any government policy orders that applied to the entity under section 22 of the PGPA Act

• particulars of non-compliance with any of the above directions or orders.

s. 17BE (d) (f) page 69 (Government engagement / Governance)

The annual report must include annual performance statements for the period in accordance with paragraph 39(1)(b) of the PGPA Act and section 16F of the PGPA Rule.

s. 17BE (g) page 18

(Performance)

The annual report must include a statement of any significant issue reported to the responsible minister under paragraph 19(1)(e) of the PGPA Act that relates to non-compliance with the finance law in relation to the entity.

s. 17BE (h) (i) page 78 (Duty to inform & Ministerial issues)

page 77 (Fraud control)

The annual report must include information about the accountable authority(s), including names, qualifications, experience, attendance of board meetings and executive status.

s. 17BE(j) page 70-76

(Governance, AIMS Council)

The annual report must include an outline of the:

• organisational structure of the entity (including subsidiaries)

• statistics on the number of employees of the entity, at the end of that and the previous reporting period, for full-time and part-time employees, gender, location; and

• location of major activities and facilities of the entity

s. 17BE (k) (l) page 85 (Org structure)

page 87 (AIMS core staff numbers)

page 16 (location & activities map)

The annual report must include information on the main corporate governance practices used by the entity, including, for example, details of:

• board committees and their main responsibilities

• education and performance review processes for the accountable authority

• ethics and risk management policies.

s. 17BE (m) page 70

(Corporate Governance)

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Requirement Source

Page in Annual Report

The annual report must disclose the decision making process undertaken by the Board in relation to transactions with other entities or if the transaction is more than $10,000 (inclusive of GST).

s. 17BE (n) (o)

page 77 (Financial reporting);

page 118 (Note 3.3 in Fin Statement)

The annual report must detail any significant activities and changes that affected the operations or structure, for example:

• significant events such as forming or participating in the formation of a company, partnership

• operational and financial results

• key changes to its status of affairs or principal activities

• amendments to enabling legislation or any other legislation directly relevant to its operation(s).

s. 17BE (p) n/a

The annual report must include details of third-party reviews, including:

• judicial decisions or decisions of administrative tribunals made during the period that have had, or may have, a significant effect of the operations of the entity

• the particulars of any report on the entity given during the period by the Auditor-General (other than one made under section 43 of the PGPA Act), a Parliamentary Committee, Commonwealth Ombudsman or the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner.

s. 17BE (q) (r) page 79 (Judicial decisions)

page 79 (Ombudsman)

The annual report must include an explanation if information is missing from a subsidiary that is required to be included in the annual report, and state the effect of not having the information in the AR.

s. 17BE (s) n/a

The annual report must include details of any indemnity that applied during the period to the AA, any member of the AA or officer of the entity against a liability (including premiums paid, or agreed to be paid, for insurance against the officer’s liability for legal costs).

s. 17BE (t) page 78

(indemnities and insurance)

The annual report must provide an index of annual report requirements identifying where relevant information can be found in the annual report.

s. 17BE (u) page 155 (Index)

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Requirement Source

Page in Annual Report

Performance statement

The accountable authority must include a copy of the annual performance statements in the entity’s annual report that is tabled in the Parliament.

The annual performance statements must:

(a) provide information about the entity’s performance in achieving its purposes; and

(b) comply with any requirements prescribed by the rules.

s. 39(1) and (2) page 17 (Performance

section)

The performance statement must include a statement:

• declaring that the performance statements are prepared for section 39(1)(a) of the PGPA Act and any other applicable legislation

• specifying the reporting period for which the performance statements are prepared

• declaring that, in the opinion of the accountable authority, the performance statements accurately present the entity’s performance and comply with s. 39(2) of the PGPA Act.

s. 16F(2) page 18

(Statement of preparation)

The performance statement must include the results of the measurement and assessment of performance. s. 16F(2) page 18

(Performance statement)

page 23 (AIMS performance against research KPIs)

The performance statement must include an analysis of the factors that contributed to the entity’s performance, including any changes to:

• the entity’s purpose, activities or organisational capacity; or

• the environment in which the entity operated that may have had a significant impact on performance.

s. 16F(2) page 17

(Performance section)

Financial statement

The accountable authority must prepare annual financial statements and given to the Auditor-General s. 42(1) page 99

The accountable authority must ensure that all the subsidiaries’ financial statements are audited by the Auditor-General. s. 44(2) n/a

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Requirement Source

Page in Annual Report

A copy of the financial statement and the Auditor-General’s report must be included in the annual report. s. 43(4) page 99

The financial statement must comply with the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Financial Reporting) Rule 2015. s. 42(2)(a) page 99

Other requirements

Statement of Expectations Suggested

practice

page 26 (Statement of Ministerial

Expectations)

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 EPBC Act Section 516A(6)

page 95 (Environmental performance)

Equal Employment Opportunity (C ommonwealth Authorities) Act 1997 EEO Act Section 9

page 88 (EEO & workplace diversity)

Work Health and Safety Act 2011 WHS Act

Schedule 2, Part 4, Section 4(1)

page 91 (Health and Safety)

Privacy Act 1988 page 80

Freedom of Information Act 1982 Department

of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PMC)

page 80

National Disability Strategy 2010-2020 PMC page 90

Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 PID Act page 90

Fraud control page 77

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ALPHABETICAL INDE X

SYMBOL S

2018-19 Corporate Plan, 11, 22, 23, 29, 74, 77

2018-19 Portfolio Budget Statement, 21, 23, 156

A

Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in Marine Science (ATSIMS), 26, 46, 49, 58, 155

Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS), 46, 49, 58, 155

AIMS Index of Marine Industry, 11, 12, 37, 59

AIMS@JCU, 42, 45, 46, 48, 49, 149

AIMS Strategy 2025, 11, 12, 16, 53, 74, 91

Allen, Paul G, Philanthropies, 35, 64, 97. See also (Paul G. Allen Philanthropies)

Andrews, the Hon. Karen, 8, 12, 69

Anindilyakwa Land Council, 61

Arafura Timor Research Facility, 62

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, 42, 48, 49

assisted evolution, 35

Audit Committee, 6, 68, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 91

Australian Institute of Company Directors, 73, 74, 89, 155

Australian Institute of Marine Science Act 1972 (AIMS Act), 8, 15, 69, 152, 155

Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), 10, 74, 75, 155

Australian National University, 62, 143

Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN), 53, 55, 155

B

baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS), 20, 82, 97, 155

Baker, Professor Joe AO, OBE, FTSE, FRACI, C.Chem, 50

Bardi Jawi Rangers, 61

blue economy, 11, 12, 37, 44

C

Cape Ferguson (research vessel), 25, 62. See also (research vessels)

capital planning, 62

Cash, Senator the Hon. Michaelia, 69

Chairman of the Council, (certification letters), 8, 18, 103 (foreword report), 10

Charles Darwin University, 43, 48, 62, 73, 155

Chief Executive Officer (certification letters), 8, 103 (foreword report), 12

citation impact, Clarivate Analytics InCites, 23

climate change, 12, 15, 19, 30, 33, 36, 43, 47, 60, 65, 97, 128, 140, 141

Code of Conduct, 7, 74, 89

co-investment, 17, 42

collaboration, 11, 17, 19, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 51, 73, 83

Comcare, (incident reporting), (insurance), 94

compliance index, 7, 157, 159

consultancy services, 68, 79

coral bleaching, 19, 20, 33, 34, 40, 58, 127, 129, 131, 146

coral cover, 19, 20, 33, 34

corporate governance, 10, 69, 158

Corporate Plan, 11, 22, 23, 29, 74, 77

Council, 6, 8, 10, 18, 26, 27, 37, 38, 42, 46, 61, 64, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 89, 148, 149, 154, 155

crown-of-thorns starfish, 20, 33, 58, 133, 137, 143

CSIRO, 11, 33, 37, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 62, 64, 72, 73, 144, 155

Curtin University, 44

Customer service charter, 68, 79

cyclones, 19, 33.

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D

Darwin Harbour, 23, 57, 139, 149

data management and dissemination, 53

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 39, 60

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, 27, 29, 37, 40, 41, 48, 70, 86

Department of the Environment and Energy, 43, 98, 143

disability strategy, 90

dredging, 45, 57, 58, 65, 131, 141

E

Edith Cowan University, 44

Employee assistance program, 90

Energy usage, 96

Enterprise Agreement, 74

Environmental performance, 95

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, 98, 155, 161

Equal employment opportunity, 7, 84, 88, 161

External revenue, 22, 23, 66, 67

F

female staff, 89

field operations, 62

financial reporting, 75

financial statements, 99-125, 157, 160

Fraud control plan, 74, 77

Freedom of Information, 6, 80, 155, 161

Freedom of Information Act 1982, 80, 155, 161

Functions of the Institute, 152

G

gender equity, 89, 156

Geoscience Australia, 37, 43, 83, 142, 144

Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN), 25, 39

Global FinPrint, 97

Great Barrier Reef Foundation, 20, 33, 35, 58, 64, 72,

80, 142, 144, 148, 149, 155

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 33, 35, 42, 43, 52, 142, 144, 145, 155

H

harassment, 89

health and safety, 78, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95

Homeward Bound Program, 47

hybrid, corals, 35, 134

I

impacts, 12, 15, 20, 21, 22, 24, 36, 43, 45, 57, 58, 65, 82, 95, 97, 127, 129, 131, 141, 144, 145

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC), 4, 42, 45, 48, 62, 150, 155

Indigenous Partnerships Plan, 16, 60

Indigenous science partnerships, 60

industry, 11, 15, 21, 27, 28, 37, 40, 44, 45, 46, 57, 59, 64, 67, 73

Information Publication Scheme (IPS), 80

insurance cover, organisation, 94. See also Comcare

Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), 40, 42, 44, 55, 150, 155

international collaboration and engagement, 27

International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), 25, 39, 41, 155

International Indigenous Peoples’ Forum on Climate Change, 60

J

James Cook University (JCU), 32, 33, 43, 45, 48, 49, 64, 71, 72, 146, 147, 156

joint venture, 45

journal articles, 24, 30, 52, 127 See also (Publications)

Judicial decisions, 79, 159

K

key performance indicators, 23

Kimberley, 19, 45, 58, 61, 128, 143, 144, 147

Kimberley Marine Research Program, 45, 144

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L

Legislation (affecting the Institute), 6, 152

Letter of transmittal, 8

location of major activities and facilities, 16

Long-term monitoring program (LTMP), 12, 156

Lost time injuries, 94

M

management and accountability, 68

Marine Monitoring Program (MMP), 42, 43, 144, 145, 150

marine reserves, 20, 137

ministerial directions, 70

modelling, 44, 45, 55, 57, 83

monitoring, 5, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 33, 38, 39, 40, 43, 45, 57, 58, 60, 61, 77, 82, 83, 127, 128, 129, 144, 145, 146

Murdoch University, 44

N

National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS), 26, 44, 156

National Environmental Science Programme (NESP), 42, 64, 98, 142, 143, 144, 145, 150, 156

National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025, 37, 42, 44

Ningaloo Reef, 146, 147

NOAA, 38, 40, 156. See also (US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

North West Shoals to Shore Research Program (NWSSRP), 82, 156

NT Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 83

O

ocean acidification, 30, 36, 65, 129, 130, 133

oil and gas, 11, 15, 22, 27, 57, 73, 82

Ombudsman, 79, 159

organisational structure, 6, 84

outcomes, 11, 17, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 37, 56, 62, 157

P

Partnerships, 6, 16, 17, 42, 60

Paul G. Allen Philanthropies, 35, 64, 97. See also Allen, Paul G. Philanthropies

ports, 15, 22, 27, 44, 57

postgraduate students, 48

Powers of the Institute, 21

Privacy Act 1988, 6, 68, 80, 161

publications, 23, 24, 28, 30, 32, 52, 127

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013, 8, 18, 29, 69, 154, 156, 157

Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014, 69, 74

Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 (PID), 90, 156, 161

publicly funded research agency, 46, 47, 55

Q

quality assurance, science, 17, 53

Queensland Government, 58, 150, 151

R

radiation safety, 7, 84

recovery, 10, 11, 19, 20, 34, 38, 97, 136, 138, 139

recycling, 7, 84, 96

Reef 2050 Plan, 25, 37, 38, 42, 43, 58

Reef Integrated Monitoring and Reporting Program (RIMReP), 150

Reef Restoration and Adaptation Program (RRAP), 10, 12, 26, 33, 58, 151, 156

Reef Trust Partnership, 20, 35

Remuneration, key management personnel, 99, 109, 117

research infrastructure, 22, 25, 28, 37, 44, 62

research vessels, 28, 44, 62, 86. See also (see also Solander and Cape Ferguson)

resilience, 10, 15, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 58, 142

revenue, 6, 17, 66, 99, 109, 112

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S

Santos, 48, 82, 141

Science in Australia Gender Equity (SAGE) program, 89, 156

science leadership, 17, 37

SeaSim, 28, 34, 35, 36, 59, 64, 65, 156

sediment, 65, 127, 134, 135, 137, 143

Seselja, Senator the Hon. 69

Sino-Australian Centre for Healthy Coasts, 40

Solander (research vessel), 12, 20, 25, 61, 62, 83. See also (research vessel),

solar power, 65, 95

sponges, 6, 17, 36, 127

staff, 6, 7, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89

stakeholder engagement, 6, 156, 157, 158

Strategy 2050, 11, 12, 16, 53, 74, 91. See also (AIMS Strategy 2050)

T

Torres Strait, 4, 26, 43, 46, 49, 58, 61, 89, 143, 155

Torres Strait Regional Authority (TSRA), 61

U

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 41, 60

University of Queensland, 32, 33, 43, 46, 48, 71, 147, 156

University of Tasmania, 32, 43, 44, 146

University of Western Australia, 4, 32, 48, 62, 72, 147, 156

US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 38, 40, 156

W

WA ChemCentre, 44

WA Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, 44

WA Department of Jobs, Tourism, Science and Innovation, 44

WA Department of Primary Industries and Regional

Development, 44, 45

WA

Department of Water and Environmental Regulation, 44

WA Global Ocean Observing System, 44

water quality, 30, 38, 40, 43, 57, 58, 145

weather stations, 55, 61

Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI), 42, 44, 143, 144, 151, 156

Western Australian Museum, 44, 129

whistle-blower policy, 84. See also (Public Interest Disclosure)

Women in science, 89

Woodside Energy Ltd, 11, 44, 143

workers’ compensation, 94. See also (Comcare)

Work, Health and Safety Act 2011, 94, 156, 161

workplace behaviour, 7, 84

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TOWNSVILLE

PMB No. 3, Townsville MC QLD 4810

Telephone: 07 4753 4444 | Facsimile: 07 4772 5852

DARWIN

PO Box 41775, Casuarina NT 0811

Tele

phone: 08 8920 9240 | Facsimile: 08 8920 9222

PERTH

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre Univ ersity of Western Australia (M096)

35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009

Telephone: 08 6369 4000 | Facsimile 08 6369 4050

CANBERRA

AIMS Liaison Office Leve l 6, Industry House Canberra ACT 2601

Telephone: 02 6243 7182