Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force



Download PDFDownload PDF

Minister for Defence and Minister for Defence Science and Personnel

- Joint Media Release -

Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force

22 August 2012

The Minister for Defence, Stephen Smith and the Minister for Defence Science and

Personnel, Warren Snowdon, today thanked Ms Elizabeth Broderick, the Sex

Discrimination Commissioner, and her team (panel members Marian Baird, Sam Mostyn,

Mark Ney and Damian Powell) for their work in completing the Australian Human Rights

Commission Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force (ADF),

tabled in the House of Representatives today.

In April 2011, Minister Smith announced that the Australian Human Rights Commission

had agreed to the Government’s request that the Sex Discrimination Commissioner lead

a team of men and women with relevant expertise to review the Treatment of Women at

the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) and the wider ADF.

The Review was conducted in two phases.

The Treatment of Women at ADFA

Phase One of the Review - into the Treatment of Women at ADFA - was tabled in

Parliament on 3 November 2011.

Phase One of the Review found that there have been positive improvements in the

culture at the Academy since the mid-1990s. The Review acknowledged that the

experiences of both male and female midshipmen and officer cadets at the Academy are

for the most part positive.

However, the Review also found widespread, low-level sexual harassment, inadequate

levels of supervision, a cumbersome complaints processes and an equity and diversity

environment marked by sanction rather than positive engagement.

The Review also identified areas in ADFA’s culture which could be improved and

recommended improvements to issues including providing quality staffing at ADFA,

management of complaints, accommodation for students and mechanisms to better

manage the risk of injury to female cadets.

The Treatment of Women in the ADF

Phase Two of the Review - into the Treatment of Women in the ADF - was tabled in the

Parliament today.

Phase Two of the Review deals comprehensively with the career of women in the ADF

from recruitment and retention to career choices, work-life balance practices and

policies, leadership and more disturbing topics such as sexual harassment, discrimination

and sexual assault.

Phase Two of the Review makes 21 recommendations covering five key principles that

aim to:

1. Actively promote a broad organisational understanding of diversity as both a core

Defence value and an operational imperative linked to capability and operational

effectiveness;

2. Address the significant under-representation of women at decision making level;

3. Increase the number of women recruited to the ADF as a whole, but also to

specific occupational areas and units;

4. Improve the level to which the ADF assists serving women and men to balance

their work and family commitments; and

5. Establish a new and more robust approach to responding to unacceptable sexual

behaviours and attitudes.

The Review recognises the ADF’s attempts over the last few years to address some of

these issues, notably the lack of women in leadership positions and to improve their

career prospects while juggling family commitments.

The Review reflects an understanding of the particular challenges which face the ADF as

a workplace and in performing its unique role.

The Chief of the Defence Force, the Service Chiefs, senior ADF officers and personnel

from across the ADF have worked in close cooperation with Ms Broderick and her team in

the course of the Review.

The Government and Defence have agreed in-principle to accept the recommendations

of the Review.

Minister Smith has asked the Chief of the Defence Force and the Secretary of the

Department of Defence to determine the best way forward in formally adopting and

implementing the Review recommendations.

Defence’s implementation of the Review will be the subject in twelve months’ time to an

independent audit of the implementation of the recommendations, together with any

further recommendations necessary to advance the treatment of women in the ADF.

The Review complements six other reviews initiated in April 2011 into aspects of Defence

culture, namely: the Review of the use of alcohol in the ADF; the Review of the use of

social media in Defence; the Review of personal conduct of Australian Defence Force

personnel; the Review of the management of incidents and complaints; and the Review

of Defence Australian Public Service women’s leadership pathways.

The recommendations of these Reviews are now being implemented within the

framework of the “Pathway to Change: Evolving Defence Culture”, Defence’s response to

these Reviews published in March this year.

Phase Two of the Review also complements the removal of gender restrictions from ADF

combat roles, announced by the Government in September last year, allowing women to

work in any position in the ADF, including combat roles, provided they have the ability to

meet the demands of the role.

The Review into the Treatment of Women in the ADF is available on the Australian

Human Rights Commission’s website at:

http://www.hreoc.gov.au/sex_discrimination/index.html

A copy of the Recommendations of Phase Two is at Attachment A.

An update on implementation of the Recommendations of Phase One of the Review is at

Attachment B.

Attachment A

Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force

Principles and Recommendations

Principle 1: Strong leadership drives reform

These recommendations actively promote broad organisational understanding of

diversity as both a core defence value and an operational imperative linked to capability

and operational effectiveness.

Recommendation 1:

The Chiefs of Services Committee (COSC) should take direct responsibility for the

implementation of the Review’s recommendations, make decisions, monitor key metrics

and take corrective action.

Recommendation 2:

COSC should articulate and communicate a strong and unambiguous commitment to the

effect that:

• Targets are required to create an environment that is optimal for, and takes full

advantage of, the strengths of both men and women.

• Leaders will be held to account for the wellbeing and culture of their teams.

• Every sexual offender and harasser will be held to account together with leaders

who fail to appropriately address the behaviour.

• Flexible working arrangements underpin capability and are an important

recruitment and retention tool.

• Women are essential to the sustainability and operational effectiveness of the

ADF because they contribute to a diverse workforce which strengthens the ADF’s

ability to be an effective, modern, relevant and high performing organisation.

This statement should be supported by a performance framework to ensure high

performing defence environments where both men and women can thrive. The

performance framework should be incorporated into all leader development, including

individual performance appraisals, and formal development occurring in training

organisations and recruit schools, and will be reinforced at all levels of the organisation.

The consequences of non-adherence to the framework will be actioned including through

limiting career advancement opportunities.

Recommendation 3:

COSC should publish a “Women in the ADF” report each year, as a companion document

to the ADF Annual Report. The companion document should publically report on the

progress of the implementation of the Review’s recommendations and key metrics

including, but not limited to:

A. Women’s Participation

• Number and proportion of women recruited in each Service (via ab initio, mid-career/ lateral entry, recruit to trade, recruit to area, from the Reserve and other

specific recruitment initiatives)

• Number and proportion of women in each Service and rank

• Number and proportion of women:

o at executive level in each service

o in the pipeline in each service

o in targeted occupations which are highly gender segregated

o Number and proportion of women’s promotions by Service and at each

rank

o Gender balance on key decision making bodies within ADF

o Retention of women:

 Gap between men and women’s retention and separation rates

 Number returning to work from paid and unpaid maternity and

parental leave

 Number of men and women taking career breaks

o Measures of occupational segregation

o Outcomes of gender pay audits

o Number of women accessing mentoring/sponsorship.

B. Women’s experience

Gender disaggregated data from key organisational surveys including:

• Defence Attitude Survey

• Exit Surveys

• Climate, Culture and Pulse surveys.

C. Access to flexible work

• Number of men and women accessing formalised flexible working arrangements

across all ranks

• Number of applications submitted for flexible working arrangements

• Proportion of applications for flexible working arrangements that are approved.

D. Sexual harassment and abuse

• Number of complaints

• Types of complaints e.g. sexual harassment, sexual assault

• Relevant demographics of complainant and respondent e.g. work area, rank

• Number of complaints dealt with internally:

o Number investigated

o Number resolved

o Time taken from receipt of complaint to finalisation

o Number of complaints dealt with externally:

 Number investigated

 Number resolved

 Time taken from receipt to finalisation

o Cost per complaint:

 Internal

 External.

This data is to be reported by Service and work location or base.

Recommendation 4:

COSC should ensure that commanding officers are accountable for a healthy

organisational culture, for being regularly available to engage directly with members and

for taking any corrective action as required. This includes effective management of

alleged incidents of harassment, discrimination and unacceptable behaviour, managing

flexible work arrangements (FWA), meeting FWA targets, and involvement in mentoring

and sponsoring members. The ADF will administer regular climate surveys to assist

commanding officers understand and improve organisational culture and performance.

The last survey prior to the conclusion of the posting should inform the commanding

officer’s Performance Appraisal Report (PAR).

Principle 2: Diversity of leadership increases capability

These recommendations address the significant under-representation of women at

decision making level.

Recommendation 5:

COSC should review and redesign the custom and practice of selecting the most senior

strategic leadership positions in the ADF from combat corps codes with the object of

selecting from a broader group of meritorious candidates, particularly women. In this

endeavour, promotions boards to senior ranks should be as diverse as possible and

include at least one person external to the Service.

Recommendation 6:

In order to broaden the talent pool from which leadership is drawn, each Service Chief

should identify and implement a target aimed at broadening the work background of

people available to enter into leadership positions. The Service Chiefs should:

For Officers:

• Identify all promotional gateways across the Services, including, and

commensurate with Australian Command and Staff College and Centre for

Defence and Strategic Studies.

• Establish a target in Australian Command and Staff College and Centre for

Defence and Strategic Studies (or commensurate promotional gateways) for

people who are drawn from non-warfare corps codes (with an initial focus on

categories which have a higher representation of women including Supply,

Logistics, Administrative or Health Service roles).

For Other Ranks:

• Identify promotional gateways and career development opportunities that

position individuals for selection to rank of Sergeant (or equivalent) and establish

a target for women.

The Service Chiefs should report annually against these targets in the “Women in the

ADF” Report.

Recommendation 7:

The Service Chiefs should instruct their Director General of Personnel to build flexibility

into the career model, time in rank provisions, timing of and access to ‘career gates’ and

career pathways to enable more flexibility in career progression. This includes, but is not

limited to:

• Developing, on request, longer term career plans (i.e. more than 5 years) for

personnel to allow for different life stages and changing requirements.

• Developing joint career plans for partners who are both serving members to

ensure greater family stability and career opportunities for both members.

• Developing mechanisms that would allow people on leave, who so wish, to access

training/career gate courses online to enable a person’s currency of their role to

be maintained. This could also include a register of voluntary tasks or projects

which, if undertaken while on leave, could be reported on for purposes of

performance appraisal and therefore be put to promotions boards.

• Reforming time in rank requirements by decoupling traditional career pathways

and continuous service from promotions processes.

• Offering an active talent management program for high performing individuals

with leadership potential who choose to participate.

Principle 3: Increasing numbers requires increasing opportunities

The following recommendations not only aim to increase the number of women recruited

to the ADF as a whole, but also to specific occupational areas and units.

Recommendation 8:

To attract and successfully recruit more women, COSC should establish innovative

strategies that appeal to women at different stages of their careers including:

• A “try before you buy” option (e.g. initial commitment of 12 months) and/or

removal of Initial Minimum Period of Service, including in mid-career.

• A “recruit to area” model, where some women and men are recruited directly

from the area where they will be posted for a set period, at least initially.

• Actively facilitating the re-entry of women and men who have moved from the

Reserve back into the ADF Permanent Force in order to strengthen the retention

of talented people.

• Providing incentives to Defence Force Recruiting to recruit more women.

Recommendation 9:

Each Service Chief should identify and commit to a growth target for the number of

women to be recruited into their service. The Service Chiefs should report annually in the

“Women in the ADF” Report on progress against the recruitment target.

Recommendation 10:

To address occupational segregation, COSC should drive and commit to a specific

program to recruit and build a critical mass of women in areas that have low

representation of women, appoint high performing women to key roles in these areas,

ensure women are well supported in these occupations and monitor their retention and

career progression. The categories include:

For Officers:

• In Navy - Maritime Warfare Officers (Principal Warfare Officers) and Engineering

(Marine Engineering and Electrical Weapons Engineering).

• In Army - Combat Officer roles including Infantry Officers and Armoured Officers;

non-combat officers including Field Artillery Officers and Engineer Officers.

• In Air Force - Aircrew (Pilots and Air Combat Officers) and Engineering and

Logistics (particularly Electronic, Armament and Aeronautical Engineers).

For Other Ranks:

• All technical trades in each of the Services.

This includes the Services trialling:

• Removal of the Initial Minimum Period of Service for women entering particular

occupational categories.

• A “recruit to trade” model which allows the timely intake of women into particular

occupational categories, irrespective of when the next trade course commences.

Where necessary, the ADF will work with educational institutions to encourage women’s

entry into these fields.

Recommendation 11:

To support the removal of gender restrictions (women in combat) COSC should:

• Ensure that the transition program incorporates corps transfers, peer support for

women, specially selected leaders and teams appropriately skilled and trained to

create the conditions for mixed combat teams to perform effectively. In relation

to corps transfers of women into combat units, the ADF should implement a

policy of non- reduction in rank and pay. The transition program is to be reviewed

regularly and evaluated based on feedback from the mixed teams and their

leadership, and performance against key metrics including perceived level of

support, success of integration, tenure and injury rates.

• Ensure the environments into which women will enter are ready, appropriately

briefed and trained and that the leadership and team are fully engaged and

educated about how they can contribute to effective performance in mixed gender

environments.

• In the first instance:

o Focus on one combat unit/work section/platoon/company in each Service

where effective performance in mixed gender environments has been

achieved.

o Ensure that in mixed gender work sections of ten or less ADF personnel

there should be no less than two women.

o Ensure that women are clustered within the category to achieve as close

to a critical mass as possible.

Communicate and share lessons learned across the Services.

Recommendation 12:

COSC should integrate and rationalise the current suite of mentoring, networking and

sponsorship programs available and facilitate access to an appropriate mentor or

sponsor for any member who so desires, at any stage of her/his career. A mentor or

sponsor could be male or female, from within the Service, another Service or outside the

ADF. Mentoring and sponsorship programs are to be based on best practice principles,

and their purpose, objectives and duration of the relationship to be determined by the

member and the mentor or sponsor.

Principle 4: Greater flexibility will strengthen the ADF

In order to achieve and retain a diverse workforce, where both women and men thrive,

the ADF must improve the level to which it assists serving women and men to balance

their work and family commitments.

Recommendation 13:

Each Service Chief should set an annual growth target for the number of flexible work

arrangements (FWA) to be agreed with the CDF. This recommendation applies to both

men and women. Progress against this target is to be reported annually in the “Women

in the ADF” Report.

Recommendation 14:

COSC should:

• Establish a central ADF Flexible Work Directorate, reporting to the Deputy

Secretary, Defence People Group, to inform policy and best practice.

Responsibilities include:

o Monitoring progress against the growth targets of FWA.

o Collecting tri-Service data on applications for flexible work arrangements,

applications that are refused, applications that are granted, in order that

there is a better understanding of and strategic assessment of flexible

work arrangements across the ADF.

o Training and educating middle managers, including NCOs on available

tools and how to manage FWAs effectively.

o Reporting to COSC on progress.

o Direct that, within each Service, the responsibilities of the Service

personnel agencies include:

 As a priority, reviewing job design, statements of duty and team

work allocation to identify those positions where full time work is

the only sensible model. All others roles should be identified as

potentially available in flexible work arrangements.

 Building workforce models and personnel arrangements to increase

workforce flexibility, address the negative impact of work/life

balance and increase locational stability, such as fly-in/ fly-out and

alternative crewing.

 Reviewing all FWA applications in consultation with the

commanding officers. For those which are rejected the application

will be referred to the Director General of Personnel of each Service

for review. These instances will be reported and monitored.

 Maintaining an up to date FWA register which includes expressions

of interest, information on locality, type of work and matching

applicants for job sharing/FWA where possible.

 Reporting to COSC through the Service Chiefs.

Recommendation 15:

COSC should introduce a workforce management system that enables more than one

member to be posted/assigned to the same position. Such a system would enable

commanders to request and, where appropriate, be provided with additional staffing to

facilitate flexible work practices, such as job sharing. This reform must be widely

communicated and effectively explained to all ADF members.

Recommendation 16:

COSC should ensure that, in implementing the recommendations outlined in Plan

SUAKIN (part of the Rethink Reserves study into the Reserve Forces), the specific impact

of the reforms on women is monitored and that any issues arising are addressed.

Recommendation 17:

The Service Chiefs should instruct their career management agencies, as part of career

planning and/or when posting decisions are made, to develop a support to posting plan

for members. Such a plan should be developed in consultation and with the agreement

of each member, and address issues of locational stability (e.g. back to back postings),

recruitment to geographical area, schooling, child care, occasional care, emergency

support, and other supports, as required. A support to posting plan should also consider

ways to support flexible work arrangements across postings.

Principle 5: Gender based harassment and violence ruins lives, divides teams

and damages operational effectiveness

To more fully address many of the issues raised above, the Review recommends a new

and more robust approach to responding to unacceptable sexual behaviours and

attitudes. The new approach, to be overseen by a dedicated Sexual Misconduct,

Prevention and Response Office (SEMPRO), is about making the system more responsive

to the needs of complainants. This requires that the ADF urgently investigate

mechanisms that allow members to make confidential (restricted) reports of sexual

harassment, sex discrimination and sexual abuse.

Recommendation 18:

As a priority, COSC should establish a dedicated Sexual Misconduct Prevention and

Response Office (SEMPRO) to coordinate timely responses, victim support, education,

policy, practice and reporting for any misconduct of a sexual nature, including sexual

harassment and sexual abuse in the ADF. This Office is to be adequately and

appropriately staffed, including with personnel that have experience in responding to

people who have been subjected to sexual harassment or abuse and is to be headed by

a senior leader (of no less than one star rank or at SES level) and located at Defence

Headquarters.

The Office is to be adequately resourced and report directly to COSC, and will:

• Respond to complaints of sexual harassment, sex discrimination and sexual abuse

including ensuring the immediate safety and well-being of the complainant.

• Provide a 24 hour/seven day a week telephone hotline and online service (click,

call or text access) that is staffed by personnel with expertise in responding to

complainants - female and male - who report sexual harassment, sex

discrimination and sexual abuse.

• Collaborate with expert independent educators to provide recruits and trainees

with interactive education on: respectful and healthy relationships, and sexual

ethics; the meaning, inappropriateness and impact of sexist language and sexual

harassment; the meaning of consent; the appropriate use of technology; stalking

controlling and threatening behaviours; and the importance of bystander action.

The effectiveness of these education and training efforts should be evaluated

every two years with an external evaluator and assessed against key indicators

that measure attitudinal and behaviour change. Appropriate training and

education should also be provided to all members entering command positions.

• Provide an outreach service to all ADF establishments including a rolling cycle of

visits to each base every two years. This service would provide both relevant

training and education and offer members an opportunity to discuss issues of

concern with SEMPRO personnel.

• Enter into appropriate arrangements with expert external service providers so as

to offer complainants an alternative avenue for support and advice if the

complainant does not wish to engage with the ADF’s internal complaints system.

The ADF must provide adequate resourcing and assistance to these organisations

to ensure that they have the capacity to provide these services and that their

expertise in sexual harassment and sexual assault matters is enhanced by an

understanding of the military.

• Be the single point of data collection, analysis and mapping of all sexual

misconduct and abuse matters. Prevalence, trends and key issues should be

regularly reported to COSC and strategies to address any issues of concern

arising from the data, implemented as soon as possible.

SEMPRO’s role should be widely advertised and promoted across the ADF so that all

members are made fully aware of the reporting options and the measures to be taken to

ensure confidentiality when reporting confidential complaints.

Recommendation 19:

As a matter of urgency, the ADF should investigate mechanisms to allow members to

make confidential (restricted) reports of sexual harassment, sex discrimination and

sexual abuse complaints through SEMPRO.

Recommendation 20:

As a matter of urgency, COSC should review all relevant policy and legislative provisions

to provide for the mandatory assessment of an ADF member’s ability to perform the

inherent requirements of their job if convicted of any criminal offence, and in particular

any sexual offence, including but not limited to:

• The insertion of an addition in the list of matters that must be considered in all

personnel determinations and decisions in the Defence (Personnel) Regulations

2002 of the requirement that individuals must be “fit and proper persons” for

service in the ADF.

• An amendment to Regulation 87(1) of the Defence (Personnel) Regulations 2002

so that the specific reference currently found within the termination grounds for

officers is also available for consideration in relation to enlisted members.

Importantly, the reference should include that termination may be considered

where the member has been convicted of an offence or a service offence and the

Chief of the officer’s Service has certified that, having regard to the nature and

seriousness of the offence, the retention of the member is not in the interests of

the Defence Force.

Recommendation 21:

COSC should amend all policies addressing the waiver of Initial Minimum Provision of

Service and Return of Service Obligations to ensure that a member who has made a

decision to discharge from the ADF because of sexual assault or sexual harassment, is

able to do so expeditiously and without financial penalty, upon production of supporting

evidence of physical, psychological or emotional trauma.

Attachment B

Implementation Update - Review into the Treatment of Women at ADFA

The Review led by the Federal Sex Discrimination Commissioner, Ms Elizabeth Broderick,

into the treatment of women at the Australian Defence Force Academy made 31

recommendations.

Recommendations and Defence response from the Pathway to Change

document

1. The ADF leadership, including the Chiefs of Service, reaffirm ADFA’s preeminent role

in the education and training of future leaders for the ADF.

Agreed in Principle. ADFA plays an important but not pre-eminent role in the education

and training of future ADF leaders.

2. The CDF issue a strong statement in support of ADFA and demonstrate a visible

commitment to it.

Agreed.

3. The CDF develop for ADFA: a) a strategic direction which clarifies ADFA’s purpose and

outcomes b) an associated communication plan to inform the ADF and the Australian

community.

Agreed.

4. ADFA develop a performance framework that incorporates the current metrics and

new metrics to capture the implementation of the recommendations contained in this

report.

Agreed.

5. The VCDF be accountable for the implementation of the recommendations contained

in this report to ensure the full inclusion of women at ADFA.

Agreed.

6. ADFA develop and articulate a clear, unambiguous and widely disseminated statement

about diversity, inclusion and gender equality which:

• recognises the fundamental importance of women to the sustainability of the

wider ADF;

• provides a framework for the creation of a diverse workplace where both men

and women can thrive;

• emphasises the unacceptability of sexual harassment, abuse and

discrimination to ADFA and the wider ADF.

Agreed.

7. ADFA teach equity and diversity separately from complaints procedures.

Agreed.

8. ADFA teach equity and diversity principles as core values underpinning ethical

leadership.

Agreed.

9. ADFA evaluate the effectiveness of the Equity Advisers Network to strengthen its

advisory capacity.

Agreed.

10. ADFA embed equity and diversity in all policies and practices through:

10a. ADF and ADFA senior leadership teams championing diversity and gender equality

and publicly condemning all forms of sexism, sexual harassment and violence against

women;

10b. ADFA introducing regular forums for all cadets and staff where female role models

from within and beyond the ADF present on their experiences.

Agreed.

11. The VCDF develop a strategy to allow for greater engagement between the

Commandant and the ADF Service Chiefs.

Agreed.

12. The Commander, Australian Defence College, work with the Deputy Chiefs of Service

in order to achieve the following outcomes:

12a. as one of their highest priorities, the provision of high quality staff to ADFA;

12b. a stronger role for the Commandant in the selection of outstanding staff, with

particular attention to increasing the representation of women;

12c. a wider pool of good educators and positive role models for cadets by considering

innovative solutions, such as separating rank and role;

12d. a simplified process of removing underperforming staff and cadets to ensure

expediency while maintaining due process and, in relation to the removal of staff, the

least disruption to the supervision and training needs of cadets.

Agreed.

13. The tenure of Commandants should be for a minimum of three years and should not

be reduced, other than in exceptional circumstances.

Agreed.

14. ADFA provide staff with appropriate induction, education and training on:

14a. gender equality and the supervision of mixed gender environments; and

14b. pastoral, disciplinary and educational practices relevant to the supervision and care

of 17-23 year olds in a residential setting. Initial staff induction training should be

supplemented by the creation of staff learning groups that are built on appreciative

inquiry. The learning groups should be facilitated by an expert facilitator in partnership

with ADFA.

Agreed.

15. As part of their performance reviews, ADFA staff be assessed against, among other

things:

15a. their capacity to implement equity and diversity principles; and

15b. confidential feedback from cadets and peers.

Agreed.

16. The VCDF, in association with the Services:

16a. explore first year single service training and work placement for all ADFA cadets.

Options regarding this process should be completed within 12 months of the release of

this report. The preferred option should be implemented in 2013 in readiness for the

2014 ADFA intake;

16b. review the minimum entry age to ADFA to ascertain whether it is appropriate; and

16c. explore a range of cadet recruitment options for ADFA which recognise the different

life course of women compared to men.

Agreed.

17. ADFA offer cadets a mentor, external to ADFA and from a range of backgrounds, to

provide support and advice. Female cadets should be given the option to be placed with

female mentors. Workplace-based mentoring programs targeting women that operate

through universities, including UNSW, should be considered as a useful template.

Agreed.

18. As part of the ADF’s overall review of alcohol, ADFA:

18a. review the pricing regime of drinks in the cadets’ mess to minimise the risks

associated with over consumption of alcohol; and

18b. commence the process of regular alcohol testing of cadets as provided by Defence

Instruction (General) Personnel 15-4 Alcohol Testing in the Australian Defence Force.

Agreed.

19. As a priority, ADFA instruct an Occupational Health and Safety specialist to conduct a

risk assessment of the residential accommodation, including bathrooms, to identify the

existence and level of risk to cadets arising from mixed gender living arrangements.

ADFA should implement the recommended risk minimisation strategies arising from this

assessment.

Agreed.

20. As a priority, to address the issue of isolation and to increase supervision in the

residential setting the Commandant adopt a system based on a model of Residential

Advisors for each first year Division (one male and one female) who will live in the

residential block to provide after hours supervision. While they may be recent ADFA

graduates engaged in postgraduate study, the Residential Advisors should be outside the

Cadet structure, and should have appropriate skills and attributes in leadership, and the

ability to provide after hours supervision and pastoral care for cadets. They should have

a direct line of report to the Commandant in the case of serious pastoral or disciplinary

incidents.

Agreed.

21. The ADFA Redevelopment Project Committee:

21a. investigate options for suitable residential accommodation for Divisional staff within

the ADFA precinct;

21b. investigate options for spaces within the residential setting which allow for better

interaction between cadets, padres, medical, academic and Divisional staff; and

21c. develop a set of principles addressing women’s security and safety and promoting

the better engagement between staff and cadets in the residential setting.

These principles should underpin the future master plan.

Agreed.

22. ADFA, in collaboration with an expert educator, provide cadets with interactive

education on:

• sexual ethics, respectful and healthy relationships;

• the meaning, inappropriateness and impact of sexist language and sexual harassment;

• the meaning of consent;

• the appropriate use of technology; and

• stalking, controlling and threatening behaviours and evaluate the effectiveness of this

education every two years with an external evaluator and assess it against key indicators

that measure attitudinal and behaviour change.

Agreed.

23. ADFA review the training on making complaints of unacceptable behaviour (including

sexual harassment and abuse and sex discrimination), with specific attention to creating

specific modules tailored to different groups within ADFA - namely first-year cadets,

more senior cadets and staff - to reflect their different responsibilities in relation to

complaint/incident reporting, response and management.

Agreed.

24. ADFA establish and promote a dedicated, ADFA-specific, seven day, toll-free hotline

for all cadets, staff, families and sponsor families. The expert operators will provide

advice and referral about the most appropriate mechanism or service (ADFA, ADF or

external) to deal with the complaint. In establishing the line, ADFA should draw on the

protocols and policies of the Army Fair Go Hotline.

Agreed.

25. ADFA develop and annually administer a survey in order to more accurately measure

the level of sexual harassment and sexual abuse among cadets. This survey should be

followed up with a strategic organisational response by the Commandant, with feedback

provided to cadets and staff to ensure that they have an investment in any reform

arising from the survey results.

Agreed.

26. To provide meaningful comparisons, ADFA develop this survey in consultation with

other Group of Eight Universities’ Residential Colleges and Halls, applicable to cadets as

both military in training and university students. ADFA should consider including other

single service training establishments in the development of this survey.

Agreed.

27. In order to record, track and manage complaints and incidents, ADFA develop and

maintain, through the ADF information system, a comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date online incident system/database. This system/database should identify all relevant

information relating to individual complaints and incidents of unacceptable conduct,

including sexual harassment, abuse and assault and sex discrimination, including:

• name of complainant(s);

• name of respondent(s);

• date, details and nature of complaint/incident;

• all steps taken in responding to and managing the complaint / incident, including the

Quick Assessment Brief and all other documentation and reports required under the

relevant Instruction (e.g. reports to Defence Fairness and Resolution);

• response/resolution option adopted;

• timeframe to resolution/closure;

• feedback from complainant(s) and respondent(s); and

• any further issues arising from monitoring the implementation of the response/

resolution.

Agreed.

28. Reports from this database are to be reviewed by the Commandant on a monthly

basis to ensure timely and appropriate actions. The Commandant should also report

monthly to the Commander, Australian Defence College, on incidents, trends and

identifiable concerns arising from the data.

Agreed.

29. In order that standards of reporting, recording and resolving incidents are properly

met, ADFA should ensure the database undergoes annual quality assurance testing to

determine:

29a. whether all complaints and incidents are being entered on the database and all

required fields in the database are adequately completed; and

29b. whether the record keeping and reporting standards in the Management and

Reporting of Unacceptable Behaviour, Management and Reporting of Sexual Offences

(including Forms AC 875-1 - AC 875-3) and Quick Assessment Instructions are being

met in relation to all individual complaints of unacceptable behaviour or sexual offences.

Agreed

30. ADFA undertake a detailed evaluation to determine whether female cadets are more

likely to become injured than male cadets and, if so, identify the causes and additional

mechanisms to be put in place to manage this risk. Following this evaluation, strategies

should be developed to:

30a. improve injury and health management;

30b. actively promote health and wellbeing with reference to best practice in comparable

residential settings;

30c. recognise the physical capabilities of individuals commensurate with their respective

roles; and

30d. eliminate stigma associated with medical restrictions.

Agreed.

31. In order to provide cadets with a range of support options regarding health and

wellbeing, sexual or personal abuse and violence, ADFA:

31a. provide and/or display in plain view in residential and academic premises,

information on key internal and external support services to cadets, including but not

limited to the proposed ADFA Toll-free hotline (rec. 24), Women’s Health Services,

Mensline, the Rape Crisis Centre, Lifeline and drug and alcohol counselling; and

31b. develop partnerships with key external service providers, including those that are

predominantly utilised by women, to ensure that ADFA provides a holistic response to

cadets’ health, wellbeing and safety needs.

Agreed.

Implementation update

Thirteen of the 31 recommendations have been fully implemented, as follows:

• The VCDF is accountable for the implementation of the recommendations

(Recommendation 5);

• ADFA has developed and articulated a clear, statement about diversity, inclusion

and gender equality (Recommendation 6);

• ADFA is now teaching equity and diversity separately from complaints procedures

(Recommendation 7);

• ADFA is now teaching equity and diversity principles as core values underpinning

ethical leadership (Recommendation 8);

• ADFA has strengthened the capacity of its Equity Advisers’ Network

(Recommendation 9);

• ADFA has embedded Equity and Diversity in all policies and practices.

(Recommendation 10);

• There is greater engagement between the Commandant and the ADF Service

Chiefs (Recommendation 11);

• The tenure of Commandants is three years, other than in exceptional

circumstances (Recommendation 13);

• Residential Support Officers have been appointed to each first year Division who

live in the residential block to provide after hours supervision (Recommendation

20);

• ADFA has established a 24 hour, seven day, hotline for all cadets, staff, families

and sponsor families (Recommendation 24);

• ADFA has developed a database relating to individual complaints and incidents of

unacceptable conduct (Recommendation 27);

• Commandant ADFA reviews sensitive and serious issues on a fortnightly basis.

Monthly reports are sent to Commander Australian Defence College on incidents,

trends and identifiable concerns arising from the data. (Recommendation 28)

• Cadets have been provided details of a range of support options regarding health

and wellbeing, sexual or personal abuse and violence and ADFA has developed

links with external support services (Recommendation 31).

Action on the remaining 18 recommendations is ongoing.

In October, an independent audit will be conducted into Defence’s implementation of the

Review into the Treatment of Women at ADFA, 12 months after the release of the

Review report.

A full copy of Phase One is at: http://www.hreoc.gov.au/sex_discrimination/index.html