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Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide



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ISSN 2203-5249

RESEARCH PAPER SERIES, 2020-21 UPDATED 22 APRIL 2021

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide Dr Hazel Ferguson and Harriet Spinks1 Social Policy Section

The latest figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) show that, in 2019-20, international education was worth $37.4 billion to the Australian economy, down from $37.6 billion in 2018-19.2 Research for the Department of Education, Skills and Employment (DESE) shows Australia also gains social, cultural and skilled workforce benefits from international education.

This quick guide provides an overview of key information related to overseas students in Australian higher education. Higher education accounted for 68.1 per cent ($25.4 billion) of international education export income in 2019-20, and 47.4 per cent of all overseas student enrolments in 2020. Overseas students also enrol in Australian vocational education and training (VET), schools, English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS), and non-award courses. However, each of these accounts for fewer students and has less economic impact than overseas student enrolments in higher education.

While people studying in Australia on a student visa are often referred to as ‘international students’, this quick guide uses the terminology of ‘overseas students’, for consistency with the relevant legislative frameworks.

Except where otherwise indicated, the information provided in this quick guide relates to the entire higher education sector. Registered higher education providers are public and private universities, as well as for-profit and not-for-profit non-university providers, including public institutions such as TAFEs.

Some non-Australian citizens, such as New Zealand citizens, Australian permanent residents, and permanent humanitarian visa holders are not considered overseas students for the purposes of higher education support.

1. Updating and adapting H Ferguson and H Sherrell, Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide, Research paper series, 2018-19, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 20 June 2019. 2. Export income figures are from Parliamentary Library calculations based on Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), International Trade: Supplementary Information, Financial Year, cat. no. 5368.0.55.003, Table 9.1, ABS, Canberra, 2020.

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 2

Enrolments Overseas student statistics are available from DESE’s international student data webpage. The latest full-year data is for 2020. As shown in Figure 1 below, there were 418,168 higher education enrolments in 2020. This represents a 5.1 per cent decline from 2019, the first decline since 2012.

Enrolments include new and continuing students. Enrolment figures can double count students who complete one course of study and enrol in another within given period. For example, a student may complete an ELICOS course and then enrol in a bachelor degree, and have both enrolments counted in the same year.

Although enrolment figures would usually refer to people in Australia on student visas, in 2020, due to COVID-19 related travel restrictions, an enrolment does not confirm that a student is currently in Australia.

Figure 1: higher education enrolments, overseas students, 2010-2020

Source: DESE, Basic pivot table 2002 onwards, March 2021.

Enrolments by state and territory In 2019 and 2020, overseas student enrolments in higher education institutions in Australia were largely concentrated in NSW and Victoria.

All states except the Northern Territory (NT) saw a decline in enrolments in 2020, with Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) experiencing the largest decline in percentage terms (although the ACT has a relatively small number of overseas students overall, so the 9.7 per cent decline is equivalent to 1,291 enrolments).

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 3

Table 1: higher education enrolments, overseas students, state and territory, 2019-2020

State 2019 2019 % of total 2020 2020 % of total

% change 2019-2020

NSW 157,789 35.8% 153,545 36.7% -2.7%

VIC 155,700 35.3% 141,703 33.9% -9.0%

QLD 56,348 12.8% 53,462 12.8% -5.1%

SA 24,144 5.5% 25,159 6.0% 4.2%

WA 24,884 5.6% 23,851 5.7% -4.2%

TAS 6,662 1.5% 6,397 1.5% -4.0%

NT 1,843 0.4% 2,045 0.5% 11.0%

ACT 13,297 3.0% 12,006 2.9% -9.7%

Grand Total 440,667 100.0% 418,168 100.0% -5.1%

Source: DESE, Basic pivot table 2002 onwards, March 2021.

Enrolments by nationality Of overseas student enrolments in 2020, 38.4 per cent (160,430) were from China, and 19.0 per cent (79,410) were from India, with the remaining top ten nationalities being Nepal, Vietnam, Malaysia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

The top ten nationalities are the same as in 2019. Enrolments among students from India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Singapore declined more significantly than those from other key countries in 2020.

Table 2: higher education enrolments, overseas (os) students, top ten nationalities, 2019- 2020

Nationality 2019 % of all OS 2020 % of all OS

Change 2019-2020 % change 2019-2020

China 164,306 37.3% 160,430 38.4% -3,876 -2.4%

India 90,240 20.5% 79,410 19.0% -10,830 -12.0%

Nepal 34,372 7.8% 34,149 8.2% -223 -0.6%

Vietnam 16,299 3.7% 15,632 3.7% -667 -4.1%

Malaysia 13,074 3.0% 11,212 2.7% -1,862 -14.2%

Pakistan 11,678 2.7% 10,524 2.5% -1,154 -9.9%

Indonesia 10,608 2.4% 10,331 2.5% -277 -2.6%

Sri Lanka 11,045 2.5% 10,127 2.4% -918 -8.3%

Hong Kong 8,878 2.0% 9,027 2.2% 149 1.7%

Singapore 7,120 1.6% 6,552 1.6% -568 -8.0%

Other 73,047 16.6% 70774 16.9% -2,273 -3.1%

All OS 440,667 100.0% 418,168 100.0% -22,499 -5.1%

Source: DESE, Basic pivot table 2002 onwards, March 2021.

Overseas share of higher education enrolments DESE’s higher education statistics provide a breakdown of overseas student enrolments at Australian higher education institutions, and allow comparison of overseas and domestic enrolments. The latest full-year for this data is 2019, before the 2020 decline in enrolments. Table 3 below shows total higher education enrolments for both overseas students and domestic students from 2010 to 2019, showing the increasing proportion of overseas students—a decline in

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 4

this proportion may be evident in the 2020 data, when it is released later in 2021. A breakdown by institution is at Appendix 1.

Table 3: higher education enrolments, domestic and overseas students, 2008-2019

OS students (temporary entry visas) Other OS

students(a) Domestic students Total

OS students (temporary entry visas), % of all higher education enrolments

2010 245,737 89,536 857,384 1,192,657 20.6

2011 242,903 89,674 888,431 1,221,008 19.9

2012 232,867 90,745 934,110 1,257,722 18.5

2013 236,332 92,070 985,374 1,313,776 18.0

2014 254,383 93,177 1,025,670 1,373,230 18.5

2015 273,817 89,481 1,046,835 1,410,133 19.4

2016 304,957 86,179 1,066,073 1,457,209 20.9

2017 345,686 85,752 1,081,945 1,513,383 22.8

2018 395,442 84,545 1,082,533 1,562,520 25.3

2019 436,305 85,643 1,087,850 1,609,798 27.1

Source: DESE, ‘Student data’, DESE website, all students data tables, various years, and Parliamentary Library calculations. (a) ‘Other overseas students’ includes those students who are not domestic students, and who are residing outside Australia during the unit of study/time of application. Students studying in Australia on student visas make up the bulk of the enrolments shown in the ‘temporary entry visas’ column. Further information about the citizenship classifications is available via DESE, HEIMSHELP.

Visa arrangements

Types of overseas student visas Changes to the student visa framework, which commenced in 2016, reduced the number of student visas from seven to one—the Student (subclass 500) visa. Instead of distinct visas for different types of overseas students, there are now seven streams within the one visa: higher education; post-graduate research; VET; schools; independent ELICOS; foreign affairs or defence, and non-award. There is also a distinct student guardian (subclass 590) visa, for the guardians of students aged under 18, but these students are outside the scope of this quick guide.

International students studying in the higher education sector are predominantly granted student visas under the higher education and postgraduate research streams (see Tables 4 and 5 below).

Visa processing The Department of Home Affairs (DHA) assesses and grants student visa applications. However, under the DHA’s Simplified Student Visa Framework (the Framework), higher education providers also have a role, with the intention of reducing duplication and streamlining the process.

Two key areas in which higher education providers have a role are confirming English language proficiency and assessing the financial capacity of students to live in Australia. Depending on the higher education provider and the student’s country of origin, these requirements may not be further assessed by DHA. While the DHA retains the ability to assess any requirement for a student visa, the Framework does not mandate this.

Visa grants Overseas student visa statistics are available from DHA, via the data.gov.au portal under Student visa program. The most recent full-year data is for 2020. The data show the number of visas

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 5

granted, which is distinct from the number of overseas students, as one overseas student may be granted more than one visa in a period of time, depending on their circumstance.

As shown in Table 4 below, there were 129,012 primary student visas granted in 2020 for the higher education and postgraduate research streams—the lowest number in seven years. ‘Primary’ refers to the person who holds the visa for the original purpose while ‘secondary’ refers

to any spouses and/or dependent children.

Table 4 shows the growth in primary student visas granted in the higher education stream from around 2011 to 2019, after a period of sustained downturn between 2008 and 2011. However, this growth came to an abrupt end in 2020, with visa grants declining by 35 per cent compared to 2019, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Table 4: primary student visas granted—higher education and postgraduate research streams, 2008-2020

Primary student

visas granted

Growth rate

2008 126,470 Growth rate

2009 119,570 14.2%

2010 108,507 -5.5%

2011 104,277 -9.3%

2012 110,978 -3.9%

2013 128,964 6.4%

2014 146,128 16.2%

2015 138,334 13.3%

2016 152,017 -5.3%

2017 168,149 9.9%

2018 188,567 10.6%

2019 199,563 12.1%

2020 129,012 5.8%

Source: DHA, ‘Student visa program’, March 2021, data.gov.au Note: these figures are for the higher education and postgraduate research streams of the student (subclass 500) visa.

When using visa statistics, including student visa statistics, the number of visas granted should not be used as a proxy for the number of people migrating to Australia. This is because a significant proportion of higher education overseas student visas are granted to people who are already in Australia, as shown in Table 5 below. Students gain visas in Australia for a variety of reasons, including moving from one mode of education to another, or transitioning from a different category of temporary visa to a student visa.

Table 5: primary student visas granted in Australia-higher education and postgraduate research streams, 2008-2020

Primary student visas

granted in Australia Proportion of total primary student visas granted

2008 38,269 30.3%

2009 42,365 35.4%

2010 49,673 45.8%

2011 52,715 50.6%

2012 50,939 45.9%

2013 49,707 38.5%

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 6

2014 47,292 32.4%

2015 42,486 30.7%

2016 44,158 29.0%

2017 49,871 29.7%

2018 61,590 32.7%

2019 69,698 34.9%

2020 60,453 46.9%

Source: DHA, ‘Student visa program’, March 2021, data.gov.au Note: these figures are for the higher education and postgraduate research streams of the student (subclass 500) visa.

Table 5 shows primary student visas granted to people already in Australia over the past twelve years. Until 2020, the share of student visas granted in Australia as a proportion of the total has been relatively stable at about one-third, except from 2009 to 2013. Due in part to immigration policy changes, the proportion of primary student visas granted in Australia grew from 2008 to

2011 and then declined. In 2020 the share of student visas granted in Australia grew significantly, to 46.9 per cent. This is a result of COVID-19-related travel restrictions, which resulted in a pause on visas being granted to people outside Australia for several months in the first half of 2020—in the April to June 2020 quarter, only 12.7 per cent of visas grants were to people outside Australia. Student visa grants to people outside Australia resumed in July 2020, but ongoing travel restrictions meant very few students were able to enter Australia in 2020.

Eligibility Under the Migration Regulations 1994, in order to be granted a student visa, applicants generally must:

• be enrolled full-time in an approved Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for

Overseas Students (CRICOS) course (that is, a course approved to be offered to overseas students) [section 500.211]

• have sufficient money to support themselves while living in Australia (section 500.214)

• have adequate health insurance (section 500.215)

• be a ‘genuine temporary entrant’ with the intention to return home after studying (section

500.212) and

• meet English language requirements (section 500.213).

Full-time study An overseas student cannot undertake part-time study. A full-time course of study is required and this is linked to the length of each student visa. In most instances, this means overseas students are unable to vary their course load (medical and other exceptions are available).

English language requirements In practice, English language requirements for overseas students are subject to two thresholds:

• the Australian Government sets a minimum test score for overseas student visas, set out in the

Legislative Instrument Migration (IMMI 18/015: English Language Tests and Evidence Exemptions for Subclass 500 (student) visa) Instrument 2018, and

• higher education providers also include their own English language proficiency requirements as

part of entry requirements, which can be higher than the minimum entry score prescribed by the Australian Government.

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 7

IMMI 18/015 includes five proficiency tests which may be used to demonstrate the required level of English, including the widely-used International English Language Testing System (IELTS). A student visa applicant must demonstrate:

• a minimum IELTS score of 5.5 (out of 9) or

• a minimum IELTS score of 5.0 paired with 10 weeks of ELICOS or

• a minimum IELTS score of 4.5 paired with 20 weeks of ELICOS.

Equivalent test scores are prescribed for the four other tests which may be used to demonstrate English proficiency.

Work rights While the purpose of the overseas student visa program is study, rather than employment, people on student visas do have work rights. Currently, they may work up to 40 hours per fortnight when their course is in session (that is, during term time) and unlimited hours in holiday periods. Concessions to the limitation on work hours have been put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic. These allow overseas students to work more than 40 hours per week if they are employed in certain aged care, health care, disability, or agriculture settings.

Tuition fees Under the Higher Education Support Act 2003, the Higher Education Provider Guidelines 2012 (the Guidelines) specify (subject to some exceptions):

• fees charged to overseas students must be sufficient to recover the full cost of providing the

course to the student and

• the fee cannot be less than the relevant domestic student fee, unless the course is fully

offshore or permission for the lower fee is granted by the responsible department (currently DoE).

The Guidelines do not set an upper limit for overseas student fees.

According to the Australian Government’s Study Australia webpage, Australian higher education providers charge on average $20,000 to $45,000 for an undergraduate bachelor degree and $22,000 to $50,000 for a postgraduate Masters degree. (These figures do not include high-cost courses such as veterinary and medical degrees.)

Overseas student fees as a proportion of university revenue For Australian universities, overseas student fees have been the largest source of revenue growth in recent years.

As shown in Table 6 below, revenue from overseas student fees has grown as a proportion of total revenue, from 17.5 per cent in 2010 to 27.3 per cent in 2019 (latest year available). Well over half (58.5%) of the $6.4 billion revenue increase from 2016 to 2019 came from overseas student fees, although growth in overseas student fee revenue appears to have peaked in 2017 at 19.3 per cent.

Based on declining enrolments, some revenue declines would be expected when the 2020 data is released later in 2021.

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 8

Table 6: Australian university revenue from fee paying overseas students, 2008-2017

Total revenue from all operations ($’000)

Change from previous year

Revenue from fee paying overseas students

($’000)

Change from previous year

Percentage of revenue from fee paying OS students

2010 $22,158,466 $3,881,656 17.5%

2011 $23,658,742 6.8% $4,124,064 6.2% 17.4%

2012 $25,210,033 6.6% $4,134,768 0.3% 16.4%

2013 $26,332,964 4.5% $4,290,808 3.8% 16.3%

2014 $27,751,858 5.4% $4,741,973 10.5% 17.1%

2015 $28,609,979 3.1% $5,349,879 12.8% 18.7%

2016 $30,147,079 5.4% $6,249,049 16.8% 20.7%

2017 $32,028,091 6.2% $7,457,002 19.3% 23.3%

2018 $33,741,910 5.4% $8,838,891 18.5% 26.2%

2019 $36,519,249 8.2% $9,978,794 12.9% 27.3%

Source: DESE, Financial Reports of Higher Education Providers, various years, and Parliamentary Library calculations.

Legislative protections for overseas students in Australia

Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) Under the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Act 2011, all higher education providers must meet the Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) 2015 as a minimum condition of registration. Under the Threshold Standards, all institutions that offer higher education to students in Australia on a student visa are required to provide support services, including initial orientation and academic support.

The Education Services for Overseas Students legislative framework In addition to the requirements of the Threshold Standards, the Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 and related legislation, including the National Code of Practice for Providers of Education and Training to Overseas Students 2018 (National Code), make specific provision for the protection of overseas students studying with Australian providers in any education sector.

In the higher education sector, these arrangements are primarily enforced by the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), which also enforces the Threshold Standards.

Student satisfaction DESE conducts an international student survey every two years, the latest being the 2018 International Student Survey. For overseas higher education students in Australia, compared with the 2016 International Student Survey:

• 89 per cent are satisfied with their overall study experience (stable compared with 2016)

• 91 per cent are satisfied with the quality of support provided (up from 89 per cent in 2016)

• 88 per cent are satisfied with the overall learning environment (up from 87 per cent in 2016)

• 92 per cent are satisfied with the expertise of lecturers (down from 93 per cent in 2016) and

• 94 per cent are satisfied with the safety of living in Australia (up from 90 per cent in 2016).

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 9

Student achievement

Attrition rates The DESE’s higher education statistics collection includes attrition (‘drop out’) data by citizenship status. The attrition rate for overseas students is consistently below that for domestic students.

Table 7: domestic and overseas bachelor university student attrition rates 2010-2018, per cent

OS student attrition rate Domestic student attrition rate

2010 8.3 12.9

2011 8.9 12.7

2012 8.9 13.3

2013 8.4 14.7

2014 8.7 15.0

2015 9.3 15.0

2016 9.4 14.3

2017 9.0 14.9

2018 9.9 14.6

Source: DESE, ‘Student data’, DESE website, attrition, success and retention data tables, various years. Note: the best available attrition measures for domestic and overseas students differ. The domestic student attrition rate is the ‘new adjusted attrition rate’, which uses student ID and the Commonwealth Higher Education Student Support Number (CHESSN) to track students within and between institutions, so a student is not counted in the attrition figures if they move to another institution. The overseas student attrition rate is the ‘new normal attrition rate’, which is based on student ID only (overseas students do not have a CHESSN). This means overseas students who move to another institution are counted in the attrition figures, leading likely to over-estimates of attrition among overseas students in the Table 7.

Post-study visa pathways There is no automatic pathway from a student visa to a permanent residency visa in Australia.

However, overseas students can transition to various types of permanent residency visas if they meet the relevant eligibility criteria. A joint Treasury and Department of Home Affairs report published in 2018 found that, of 1.6 million overseas students (from all education sectors) granted a visa between 2000-01 and 2013-14, 16 per cent transitioned to a permanent residency visa at some stage after arriving in Australia.

Table 8: permanent residency visas granted to former international students in Australia, 2008-09 to 2019-20

Total permanent residency visas granted

Skilled Partner Other

2008-09 20,141 15,878 4,087 176

2009-10 13,286 8,143 4,919 224

2010-11 29,755 24,482 5,172 101

2011-12 28,473 21,638 6,689 146

2012-13 30,170 21,895 8,011 264

2013-14 18,100 10,766 7,179 155

2014-15 17,638 10,296 7,173 169

2015-16 18,251 12,277 5,804 170

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 10

2016-17 17,102 9,811 7,118 173

2017-18 13,138 7,458 5,619 61

2018-19 14,732 8,210 6,484 38

2019-20 16,588 9,992 6,575 21

Source: DHA, Australian Migration Statistics, 2019-20, data.gov.au Note: these statistics are only available for financial years. Also note the title for this table is drawn directly from the sourced material from the Department of Home Affairs.

International students who transition to another temporary visa before gaining a permanent residency visa, are not included in the departmental data above. However, it is likely many people are transitioning from a student visa to a different category of temporary visa and then gaining a permanent residency visa. There is no publicly available data on this group of people, but Table 9 below shows the number of people granted a Temporary Graduate visa (subclass 485) each year over the last twelve years. Prior to 2020, this visa saw significant growth, indicating a strong demand for former international students to stay on in Australia.

A Temporary Graduate visa allows a migrant to live, study and work in Australia after completing their study. Only people who hold a student visa are eligible for the various streams of the Temporary Graduate visa.

Table 9: Temporary Graduate visas (subclass 485) granted, 2008-2020

Graduate Work Post-Study Work Skilled Graduate Total Temporary Graduate visas granted

2008 0 0 4,056 4,056

2009 0 0 20,025 20,025

2010 0 0 24,575 24,575

2011 0 0 27,736 27,736

2012 0 0 43,879 43,879

2013 5,184 32 20,441 25,657

2014 16,423 3,751 973 21,147

2015 13,345 12,203 76 25,624

2016 11,454 25,999 19 37,472

2017 8,752 37,580 8 46,340

2018 8,452 46,478 2 54,932

2019 10,558 60,268 13 70,839

2020 7,812 55,355 0 63,167

Source: DHA, ‘Temporary Graduate visa program’, March 2021, data.gov.au

Further information There is a range of additional research and information available via the DoE’s international education website, including research papers, data visualisations showing student origins, locations and pathways, data on the offshore delivery of Australian courses, and Australian students studying overseas.

See also:

• Department of Home Affairs, Student visa and Temporary Graduate visa program reports.

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 11

• Spinks, H, Overseas students: immigration policy changes 1997-2015, Parliamentary Library,

Research paper series, 2015-16, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2016.

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 1

Appendix 1. All higher education students by state and territory, higher education institution, citizenship and residence status, 2019

State/Institution

Domestic Students Overseas Students

TOTAL

Australian citizen

New

Zealand citizen

Other

domestic

Temporary entry permit

Other

overseas

New South Wales

Charles Sturt University 32,211 253 581 8,498 1,887 43,430

Macquarie University 31,564 297 1,238 11,893 331 45,323

Southern Cross University 13,755 191 299 5,043 727 20,015

The University of New England 22,476 157 477 1,337 472 24,919

The University of Newcastle 28,726 172 699 4,458 1,371 35,426

The University of Sydney 36,734 796 2,426 29,592 503 70,051

University of New South Wales 36,580 442 2,180 24,816 36 64,054

University of Technology Sydney 28,883 213 1,580 14,747 827 46,250

University of Wollongong 18,461 93 418 8,339 7,678 34,989

Western Sydney University 38,520 386 2,370 7,893 276 49,445

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 34,450 454 878 24,889 4,314 64,985

Victoria

Deakin University 44,239 447 1,383 15,708 436 62,213

Federation University Australia(a) 8,043 67 335 9,280 992 18,717

La Trobe University 27,052 312 823 8,832 1,753 38,772

Monash University 42,368 684 2,301 29,545 11,855 86,753

RMIT University 36,024 548 2,306 18,697 15,153 72,728

Swinburne University of Technology 29,865 305 944 6,994 3,734 41,842

The University of Melbourne 38,110 973 2,949 28,361 256 70,649

University of Divinity 1,260 18 64 129 29 1,500

Victoria University 14,985 268 814 7,273 5,171 28,511

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 5,966 48 261 28,407 686 35,368

Queensland

Bond University 2,728 68 112 2,973 220 6,101

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 2

CQUniversity 17,583 229 496 8,608 17 26,933

Griffith University 38,299 1,015 1,223 8,342 674 49,553

James Cook University 13,544 179 426 3,327 3,265 20,741

Queensland University of Technology 40,710 691 1,330 9,729 40 52,500

The University of Queensland 32,891 681 1,521 20,092 120 55,305

University of Southern Queensland 21,559 347 717 2,323 474 25,420

University of the Sunshine Coast 13,452 266 281 3,579 182 17,760

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 6,563 80 174 1,990 6 8,813

Western Australia

Curtin University 33,730 430 1,740 6,536 6,837 49,273

Edith Cowan University 22,365 337 1,100 5,914 921 30,637

Murdoch University 14,348 245 739 3,976 6,116 25,424

The University of Notre Dame Australia 11,200 np 221 214 < 5 11,727

The University of Western Australia 17,523 209 1,078 5,272 115 24,197

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 996 7 108 1,758 2,034 4,903

South Australia

Flinders University 19,437 101 831 3,546 1,585 25,500

The University of Adelaide 18,371 117 837 8,921 57 28,303

Torrens University Australia 8,060 77 140 8,903 712 17,892

University of South Australia 27,054 111 1,339 6,424 323 35,251

Private Universities (Table C) and Non-University Higher Education Institutions 4,720 61 147 2,407 1,154 8,489

Tasmania

University of Tasmania 26,437 319 1,640 6,623 1,465 36,484

Northern Territory

Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education 13 0 0 0 0 13

Charles Darwin University 9,210 144 760 1,847 49 12,010

Australian Capital Territory

The Australian National University 14,892 253 668 10,214 290 26,317

University of Canberra 12,217 100 467 3,267 217 16,268

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 1,167 np 186 330 < 5 1,697

Overseas students in Australian higher education: a quick guide 3

Multi-State

Australian Catholic University 27,612 303 679 4,362 240 33,196

Non-University Higher Education Institutions 2,862 42 110 97 40 3,151

TOTAL 1,029,815 13,639 44,396 436,305 85,643 1,609,798

Source: DESE, ‘2019 Section 2 All students’, DESE website, September 2020.

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