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Green paper on sport and recreation



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GREEN PAPER

ON

RT AND RECREATION

BARRY COHEN, MP Shadow Minister for Sport, Recreation, Tourism and the Environment

11 February 1980

INTRODUCTION

This Green Paper has been prepared in the hope that it will stimulate discussion about the role that the Federal Government should play in as:3isting sport and recreation in Australia.

The Australian La:Dor Party is in the process of formulating its policy for th y: 1980 election.,and is anxious that the community, particilarly those deeply involved in the promotion, administration and playing of sport, should understand the

general thrust of our thinking and that they should have the opportunity to co]nment-on our ideas before the final policies are decided upon.

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1. HISTORY OF FEDERAL GOVERNMEN'T INVOLVEMENT

A. UNTIL 1972

Sport plays a prominent part in the lives of many Australians.

\The majority eithEx participate actively in some form of sporting 'activity, watch it:,or follow it with varying degrees of enthusiasm through the media.

"There are many observers who see sport as having a uniquely enshrined place in Australia's social history. Some would even agree that both here and overseas, sport is regarded as one:of,. if not the, national obsession of Australians."1

As such, it is surprising how little attention has been given to sport by Governments, particularly at Federal level. Prior to the 1970s, the Federal Government involvement was minimal. In 1943, the National Fitness Act was passed because of the number of men and women who had been classified as unfit for military

service. Its aim was to improve the standard of fitness of Australian youth. The program operated through State Education Departments, University physical education courses and State National Fitness CDuncils. In 1951, the Federal Government

instituted grants towards the cost of Life Saving Assistance Programs. Both of these programs involved a minimal cost.

Apart from these two programs, the only contribution to sport by the Federal Government was ad hoc grants towards the cost of sending teams to t:..e Commonwealth and Olympic Games. Up until the formation of file Federal Department of Tourism and Recreation in 1972, funding for sport and recreation was primarily the responsibility of the sporting organisations themselves, and State and Local Governments. Most States had formed Departments of Sport and/or Recreation by the early 1970s.

1. Department of Tourism and Recreation, Report of the Australian Sports Institut(? Study Group , Australian Government Publ:_shing Service Canberra 1975

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B. LABOR GOVERN) ^jENT l972:.-73

Under the late Frank Stewart, Minister for Tourism and Recreation,

the Labor Government introduced a program which provided two main forms of assistance: a Capital Assistance Program to help provide sporting faciliti€:s at local level and a Sports Assistance Program to assist National associations with travel, coaching and administrative costs.

(i) CAPITAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM The Capital Assistance Program guidelines. Any project which of leisare activities within a eligibly for a grant under the grant was 25% of the total cos

had very broad increased the range local region was scheme. The usual ts.

1973-74 1974-75 1975-76

$m $m $m

Expenditure 4.0 4.6 6.3

One weakness in the scheme was the degree of pork-barrelling that occurred through the State Governments.

Section 96, grants under which funds are provided to the States, are dependent upon a degree of co-operation with the States. States usually determine their prioriti,?s and forward them to the Commonwealth for

approval. With regard to sport and recreation grants there we:-e blatant examples of States using these grants to buy votes rather than provide funds on the

basis of need or to develop any overall sports facility infrastructure. This is not to suggest that the funds were misused but rather that the States did not have any overall plan of priorities.

The expenditure figures on capital assistance are deceptive for two reasons. Firstly, many commitments were entered into in the years 1972-75 but were not

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its aim was twofold. Representation at the highest level should be available to all sportspersons who achieve the necessary proficiency and such represent-ation should not be restricted by the ability to pay.

1973-74 1974-75 1975-76

$m* $m $m

Expenditure 0.6 1.15 1.2

(* an allocation of up to $1 million).

The Minister for Tourism and Recreation, Mr Frank Stewart, stated that while it was his Government's view that the pursuit of excellence in sport was as worthwhile as the pursuit of excellence in the arts

and that national and international success were a stimulation to mass participation, "we have no intention of imitating some countries which regard success in sport as some sort of proof of the superiority of their way of life, ideology and race.

Our task lies clearly elsewhere, in meeting more basic needs, in catering for masses, not just a small elite. ,,l

This was illustrated by a considerable increase in expenditure under the National Fitness Act and the introduction of a nationwide fitness awareness campaign - "Fitness Australia."

In addition, the Department of Tourism and Recreation initiated a National Seminar on Leisure, which produced the first substantial body of information on this topic, and a comprehensive investigation on the feasibility of establishing a National Sports Institute in Australia.

1. F. Stewart, Press Release, 1975

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The present Government has allocated the following in the 1979-80 Budget:

National Fitness Program (Life, Be In It) 650,000 Surf Life Saving* 390,000

Sports Development Program 2,000,000

A.O.F. - Grant for 1980 Olympic Games** 700,000 $3,740,000

* Increase of $50,000 on Budget allocation ** $100,000 provided in previous Budget (1978-79)

The Government is also providing $10 million over a four-year period to the Queensland Government as its contribution towards the 1982 Commonwealth Games. This year's contribution was $2.5 million. It also provided a once only grant of $750,000 for

the Western Australian sesqui-centenary towards the building of an international hockey stadium in Perth.

D. C OMMONWEALTH CONTRIBUTIONS TO OLYMPIC AND COMMONWEALTH GAMES

$270,000

400 ,.000

(New Zealand) 35,000 800,000

(Canada) 225,000

800,000

1968 Mexico Olympics

1972 Munich Olympics

1974 Commonwealth Games

1976 Montreal Olympics

1978 Commonwealth Games

1980 Moscow Olympics

The contribution for the Moscow Olympics is the same as that provided for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, by the Labor Government, and makes no allowance for the substantial inflation during the intervening four years. Of the $800,000 provided for the Olympics, $300,000 will be made available for pre-event-training and competition.

The attitude of the present Government is best summed up in the statement by the Minister for Environment, Housing and Community Development, Mr Groom, on 1 June 1978:

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"Clearly, the major responsibility for development rests with the sports themselves, with the Government assisting and encouraging this development."

Commonwealth Expenditure on Sport and Fitness, 1973-79

73-74 74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 77-79 79-80 ram ($m) ($m) ($m) ($m) ($m) ($m) ($m)

ife Saving 0.1 0.28 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.39

ational Fitness 1.0 0.85 0.6 - - - -

ife. Be In It - - - 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.65

apital assistance or leisure acilities 4.0 4.6 6.3 11.1 3.7 1.33 0.54

irect assistance o national sporting odies 0.6* 1.15 1.18 0.036 1.23 1.33 2.00

OTAL 5.7 6.88 8.41 12.05 5.87 3.06 3.59

Allocation $1 million

These figures do not include grants to the Australian Olympic Federation, the Capital grants to the 1982 Brisbane Commonwealth Games or the grant to the West Australian Government for their sesqui-centenary.

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2. THE ROLE OF AUSTRALIAN SPORT

A. W HERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ?

What debate there is in Australia about sport centres around

the question of whether Governments should encourage the development of mass participation in sport and recreation or the development of a sporting elite.

In our view this debate is totally unnecessary. The Australian Labor Party is committed to making sport and recreation available to all those who wish to participate but at the same time wants to encourage those sportspersons who have the skill and dedication to fulfil themselves to the best of their ability.

This section deals with the case for both mass participation and sporting excellence.

The Charter of W .. German sport adopted by the German Sports Federation in 1966 sets out in the clearest terms the value of sport to any community.

"Sport promotes the health of the individual and increases the vitality of the people;

sport contributes to developing the personality and is a facet of education for which there is no substitute;

sport offers, by many forms of exercise, an effective aid for living together in the community;

sport makes possible the useful enjoyable employment of leisure time."

These objectives have been endorsed by the Confederation of Australian Sport and would certainly be endorsed by the Australian Labor Party. Few people would argue with these principles,

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including probably, the present Government. The problem is that the present Federal Government is only paying lip-service to them because they feel if they don't they will come under

fire and lose votes. Beingin favour of sport is like being in favour of motherhood. What is required is some real action not tokenism. It is therefore essential that the case for Sport and Recreation be stated again.

B. HEALTH COSTS AND THE CASE FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS

The debate about Australia's massive health bill of almost $8 billion has so far centred around.how the bill should be paid rather than any attempt to prevent people from becoming ill.

Almost without exception, Governments around the world have been expressing the view that any significant reduction in health costs will occur not from expansion of the health system but by changing peoples' lifestyle and improving the environment

in which they live and work. This was certainly the theme of the U.S. Public Health Service Publication, "The Forward Plan for Health 1978-82" and the Australian Department of Health publication "Health Promotion in Australia 1978-79".

All the evidence points to the fact that the only way any significant reduction will occur is through preventive health measures and in particular, primary prevention. Primary pre-vention depends largely on a conscious decision by people to

change their lifestyles. In other words, reducing one's intake of alcohol, cutting out smoking, not being overweight and maintaining a reasonable degree of physical fitness.

In an article in the Canadian Journal of Public Health, "The Correlation between Physical Fitness, Absenteeism and Work Performance", Shauney Donoghue detailed the evidence from a number of international studies that provided evidence of the

close relationship between physical fitness and improved work capacity and reduced risk of heart disease, the major killer in most modern affluent societies.

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It has been shown by several international studies that the sedentary population has a greater number of coronary risk factors (elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, obesity), than those engaged in active occupations. Faulkner and Montoye cite an American study in which executives, as compared to the total population of a

community, were found to have a higher number of coronary risk factors. Morris, in an English study, showed that the more active postmen and bus conductors experienced at least 50% less heart attacks than postal clerks and bus drivers. Paffenbarger

and Hale demonstrated that longshoremen in the United States had coronary death rates one-third higher than the more active cargo handlers. Brunner and Manelis in an Israeli study found the incidence of heart attacks to be three times greater in sedentary workers than in those who were active. Suckel found that North Dakota farmers experienced less than one-half the heart attacks of other community members in sedentary jobs.

Karvonem, in a Finnish study, found lumberjacks of the community examined to have five times less myocardial infarcations than those engaged in sedentary occupations.

Xholdak, Vasilyeva, and Maolva also demonstrated that those who are not physically active are ill five to eight times more often than those who exercise. A 1965 study by K Smirnov found

that the physically inactive consulted doctors four times more frequently than those who were physically active. Only 22.5% of the consultations of the active required absence from work as compared to 60% for the unfit group. It was also found by numerous researchers that those who exercise had two to three times fewer accidents than those who did not participate in exercise groups. As Ponomarov phrased it, "The loss due to

sick leave and accidents decreases losses 3-5 days per year per 1 worker, which means an extra 140 million man-days in industry and millions of roubles of extra output."1

There are many who argue that it is virtually impossible to get people to change their lifestyles and that your average Norm will continue to smoke, drink those few extra middies, overeat

1. "The Correlation between Physical Fitness, Absenteeism and Work Performance", Canadian Journal of Public Health , Vol 68 May/June 1977 p201

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and spend his leisure time watching others play sport.

To a degree, this is true, although in recent years there is evidence that coronary heart disease has been slightly reduced in theUnited States and Australia because of the greater awareness of people of the need to look after their bodies.

However, it would be quite wrong to assume that because the average person is aware of the benefits of moderating indulgences and trying to get regular exercise that he does much about it.

The report released recently by the Commonwealth Department of Health "Health Promotion in Australia 1978-79" made the point that the average person is not enamoured of making a personal sacrifice or physical effort for some vague and imprecise benefit many years in the future.

The report suggests that while we should continue to try to change the older generation's lifestyle, we should concentrate our efforts on the Australian school system, where at the moment, little more than lip-service is paid to physical education.

Mr P Russo, Head of the Department of Biological Sciences, Cumberland College of Health Science in his paper "Family Fitness -a Pathway to Family Health" points out that whilst there has

been a great deal of debate amongst medical researchers about the causes of coronary heart disease, there is general agreement that the cause is multifactoral and that each individual responds differently to these factors depending on his own levels of resistance and his own particular lifestyle. He also points out that "areas differ greatly in their incidence of various diseases and the biological sociological and psychological factors that lead up to them."

Russo argues that some aspects of bad health related to coronary heart disease can be traced to habits developed during childhood.

He points out that recent studies by Tindall in 1977 indicate that children are watching television from 50-70 hours per week.

It can only be deduced that this is time taken away from normal

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physical activity during the after school period.

He adds weight to the Department of Health's report referred to previously that health education was a subject "of great expressed importance but of low rank compared with mainstream curricula. ,,l

His research shows that in Australia,"girls' fitness levels decrease significantly from 10 years of age onwards and boys' fitness levels from 14 years onwards", and that children in general are becoming less fit, more obese, smoking more and with "blood lipid levels approaching the upper acceptable limits,

and in some cases well over the acceptable limites."

Russo defines fitness as being "related to the efficiency of the oxygen transport system to transfer oxygen from the outside air to the working muscles. This, in particular, refers to the power and size of the heart muscle. The larger and more powerful the heart, the greater is the stroke volume, the greater the cardiac output and hence the slower the heart rate per unit of work output." Children he states, "should be taught the benefits of aerobic exercise and above all experience enjoyment in these activities that maintain and improve fitness levels."

An extra interesting finding by Russo is that migrants that come from countries with low rates of coronary heart disease soon acquire the same or similar incidence of the disease after a number of years in Australia.2

The work by Russo supports the finding by Dr A W Willee in 1972 in his "Survey into the fitness of Australia's secondary school children" for the Commonwealth Council for National Fitness.

Dr Willee's findings first raised the alarm that Australian school children, specifically those in the age bracket 14-17 were unfit and below the level of fitness of children in a similar age bracket in other affluent countries.

1. Commonwealth Department of Health, "Health Promotion in Australia 1978-79 - A Report" Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra 1979, p31.

2. P Russo, "Family Fitness- a Pathway to Family Health."

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The evidence assembled both in Australia and overseas indicates that if we are to develop a fitter and healthier nation, with reduced health costs, it will really only be achieved by producing a new generation of Australians to whom physical fitness is second nature.

There is nothing new or revolutionary in such concepts. Years ago, both East and West Germany set out to do just that. A by-product of a national fitness campaign with excellent community sporting facilities, well-trained coaches and mass publicity

has made these two countries on a per capita basis the most successful sporting nations in the world.

The question is how does Australia design a program that will achieve these objectives. The "Life, Be In It" program that began in Victoria in 1975 and went nationwide in September 1977 has the support and participation of the Commonwealth, State

and Territory Ministers responsible for Sport and Recreation.

It attracted a $600,000 Commonwealth contribution for each of those years until 1980. This year, it will attract a contribution of $650,000.

The campaign, appears on the evidence available to be successful in that it has made more Australians aware of the relationship between an overindulgent life style, physical exercise and good health. Surveys already taken indicate that 82% of the population are aware of the campaign and its objectives.

Surveys are now being undertaken to try to quantify the effect of the campaign. The cost (this year) is reasonable in terms of the effect it appears to have had in changing Australians'

life style. Fun-runs and jogging are now immensely popular with the recent Sydney City to Surf Run having 24,000 participants.

However, I suspect that the campaign requires a further step to cash in on the basic message that the "Life, Be In it" campaign has achieved.

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In discussions I have had with sports officials there is the general feeling that the campaign lacks specific goals for people to aim at. Endless jogging and exercises can be very boring for a large number of epople who may quickly tire if the only result is the knowledge that it is good for their health.

I suggest therefore that an element of competition is required even if it is only competing against certain standards. The Canadian Fitness Award Program for youth aged 10-17 whereby bronze, silver and gold crests can be awarded to those who pass certain fitness standards is the ideal model for Australia to follow.

To this could be added further awards for people of all ages who pass certain fitness tests commensurate with their age and sex e.g. a 50 year old woman could receive a gold crest or certificate

of merit if she was able to run a set distance in a certain time determined by sports medical specialists.

The,present trend by sports associations to institute "senior" comp-etitions for the mature.aged appears to have encouraged more people to continue on in active sports when in normal circumstances they would have retired to less active sports or no sport at all.

It is natural for many people who have been proficient at sport to find as they approach middle age that it is difficult for them to keep up with teenage athletes. Such a system of awards for fitness tests would be an encouragement for them to continue.

The cost to the Government would be negligible. Schools could adequately supervise tests for youth and local sports clubs whilst certified examiners could carry out tests for the older generation.

However, as stated previously, the real breakthrough will come with the children. We have to produce a new generation of Australians who are brought up from childhood to value their health and to realise that in this day of sedentary living it requires

some considerable effort on their part.

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it is imperative to study what is happening in other countries throughout the world and nowhere more so than East .Germany.

The fact that we may not agree with the political philosophy of the East Germans should have no bearing-on our Capacity to examine objectively what they set out to achieve and their methods of achieving it in recent years. They have set the world alight with the magnificent performance of their athletes.

In a speech I made in the House on the amendments to the National Fitness Act in 1979, I quoted extensively from an article by Brian Chapman, a South Australian graduate student from the University of Oregon, in the December 1978 issue of the Australian

Journal for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. The following is a quote from that speech.

Chapman points out that:

"good health through physical culture is enshrined in the German Democratic Republic's Constitution and backed up by legislation through the Youth Act 1974. The Youth Act makes mandatory:

the setting up and equipping of new sports facilities as well as the modernisation and maintenance of existing ones;

the provision of sport equipment and sportswear for athletes;

• the initial training and further training of sport teachers and doctors;

the guarantee of all-out medical care for children and youth engaging in active sports by the sport medical service of the G.D.R.;

the gathering and application of scientific findings

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to the teaching programs, training programs and compilation of efficiency criteria and norms of children's and youths' sport."

Later on the article states:

"physical training of school students ... forms an integral part of the educational process in the G.D.R. As a result, physical education enjoys equal status with the other school subjects. In fact, students can make up four

academic grades by achieving excellent physical education grades."

The article states that there is apart from basic exercises, a concentration on the Olympic sports for the obvious reason that they "provide the best medium for teaching desirable physical skills and character attributes."

As Chapman comments sardonically, "Come to think of it, it does seem logical that a good way to develop speed in individuals is to teach them to sprint." The young people of East Germany are therefore swimming, running, leaping, throwing and doing Olympic-style gymnastics from form one.

Chapman adds "Technical skills are taught at an early age while simultaneously a general physical fitness base is built up.

So when you accuse them of systematically developing specialised skills in Olympic sports among youngsters, you are right. The only problem is that G.D.R. physical educators don't perceive this as a crime. In fact, the evidence indicates that the

youngsters don't see it as a crime either."

He also points out that contrary to popular belief, the facilities are not lavish but funtional. 530 school gyms were built from 1971 to 1975 and 800 more are scheduled for construction by 1980, bringing the total to 4,000 gymnasiums out of a-total =of 10,000 schools.

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The reason why East Germany with a population of 17 million people is now the top sporting nation in the world per capita is clearly understood from the Spartakiad program which involved some four million young people between the age of 6 and

18. This mass participation junior development program is .

aimed at involving everyone in sport - hardly an elitist concept with 4 million out of 17 million involved. It is a pyramid type contest with the finalists, competing in finals at Leipzig in 1977, before audiences of 105,000.

Chapman points out "Ten thousand students had got through to these national finals, not only by winning their regional contest, but also by displaying satisfactory school results (a pre-requisite for participation)."

He concedes that undoubtedly a great deal of what the East Germans do is politically motivated but that people would have to be blindly anti-communist to miss the good aspects that deserve imitation. He makes these final points:

• In the G.D.R. there is no shame in having a predominantly physical objective. Physical education starts on its own as a subject and is accepted as such;

Competition is not a dirty word;

• There is no shame in encouraging youngsters to maximise their physical potential;

Youngsters are entitled to the chance to find out if they're good at sport just as they're entitled to find out if they have talent at, say, mathematics;

• Sport is unhesitatingly accepted as the ideal medium for physical education;

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• Co-operation between schools, community and government agencies is well established;

. There is high quality professional preparation;

• Funding by government is enviable. Australia by comparison is shamefully neglectful and in his final comments he says:

"Surely we can attempt to incorporate some of these aspects without necessarily changing Australia's political or social system ... G.D.R. Olympic successes are not derived from steroids and assembly lines.

They are too good at gymnastics, the marathon, diving, soccer, handball, and other activities which have little place for steroids to be so simplistically explained away. Their children are not "forced". Encouraged

certainly, but not forced."

What is happening in East Germany is happening to a lesser degree in many of the developed countries similar to ourselves.

Australia is at the bottom level of encouragement of people to participate in sport.

I believe there is a strong argument for Australia to institute a nationwide competition modelled on the East German "Spatarkiad" concentrating on the Olympic sports. It could be run at suburban, regional, state and finally national level with the winners or top performers advancing to each stage. The national

finals could be underwritten by the Federal Government. The potential for such an event was highlighted recently by the Parramatta district mini-Olympics for people of all ages, in which 20,000 individuals competed.

Run on a biennial basis, I believe such a competition would create enormous interest and an encouragement for more people to participate

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in sports and for more communities to upgrade their facilities.

Ideally, they could be held in the odd years between Commonwealth

and Olympic Games.

In conjunction with motivation and competition, there must be a concerted effort to develop the facilities that will enable people to train at every level of skill. While there is no limit to the facilities that could be built ittssessential that

in a tight economic situation, that funds are expended provide the maximum benefit to the greatest number of people. Gymnasiums offer the best opportunity for the maximum number of people to participate in a wide range of sports. A reasonable sized gymnasium built at a cost of around $300,000 to $400,000 can provide facilities for basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, judo, karate, table tennis, squash, weightlifting

and a number of other sports.

The appropriate place to locate gymnasiums would be in the school with students using the facilities during the school period and the general public using them after hours and at week-ends. Few Australian schools have gymnasiums - something that many visitors to our shores find incredible. It would take many

years to build sufficient gymnasiums to ensure that every school of reasonable size has one but this fact should not deter us.

Sir Robert Menzies for political purposes instituted the science block and library grants. Most people who are over 35 can recall that what passed for libraries in their school days was a couple of hundred battered old books

in a cupboard. Compare this with the spacious, well stacked library with a range of audio visual equipment and teaching aids that would have been science fiction twenty years ago.

The same can be said for science blocks.

It may take 10-20 years to equip all our schools with gymnasiums but a start should be made now. The Commonwealth Government should initiate a program on a cost sharing basis with the States to build community gymnasiums throughout the nation's school system.

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3. THE STANDARD OF AUSTRALIAN SPORT

During the fifties and sixties top sports administrators, coaches

and sports writers warned the Government and the sporting public that Australia would fall behind as a sporting nation because of the failure of our Governments, particularly the Federal Government, to provide funds that would enable Australia

to keep pace with sports development in other parts of the world.

Even so, . Australia was able to produce the Hoads, Rosewalls, Lavers et al, Who managed to win a succession of Wimbledons and Davis Cups, swimmers and athletes who could bring home a swag of gold medals from Commonwealth and Olympic Games, cricket-

ers and rugby footballers who won more than their share of test matches and the odd boxer, squash player, cyclist, rower and golfer who were amongst the best in the world. The fears expressed by these administrators were ignored.

Australians'image of themselves as "bronzed Anzacs" and our continued success in international sports events was enough to put these fears aside. There was quiet confidence that Australia would produce another champion to replace the one that had just

retired. There was, in fact, a certain pride in the fact that Australia was able to produce world champions despite its small population and despite the fact that there were inadequate facilities, coaching and funds for international competition.

Proof of the superiority of the "Australian way of life" and our reputation as great outdoor sportsmen was the fact that we could produce world champions " on a shoestring". Australian sportsmen were the last of the true-blue amateurs able to match

the best in the world without the help of multi-million dollar budgets and sporting scholarships.

Australia's deterioration as an international sporting nation is now a fact. The recent Australian Tennis Championships, despite the absence of all but one of the top ten seeds in the world resulted in only one Australian reaching each of-the mens and womens semi-finals. The highest ranked Australians tennis

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player is John Alexander at No 16 in the world. How long is it since an Australian athlete or swimmer was headline news in our, let alone the world's,press? Geoff Hunt and David Graham are the only sportspersons who have won major international events in the past 12 months. True, our Rugby League players are probably the best in the world but how many countries play

Rugby League? Even in cricket, a game played seriously in only a handful of countries, where Australia was traditionally top nation, the West Indians are now regarded as the best team in the world.

The question that many will ask is "does it matter?"

There are many who argue that it doesn't. It is not important -whether Australia wins or loses. They would claim that sport is the new opiate of the people and our obsession with it is unhealthy and something to be discouraged. This has been a

popular theme amongst many commentators in the Australian scene during the post-war period. Australians, they claim, don't give a damn about anything but beer, beaches and betting. Australians are more concerned with sport and material possessions than they were with solving some of the deep seated social problems

that existed in our society. Most probably they are right but it would seem to me that if Australians are interested in sport then it is an arrogant assumption on the critics' part to suggest that they should not be and that they should do something more akin to the critics' taste.

Strangely enough the same people who argue against an..el.iti.st approach 7 to sport often, will arque that more Ooverwent funds should be made available for the arts. There would be no argument from the Australian Labor Party on that score but it

seems to me that if Governments should provide funds to develop excellence in art, music, literature, etc, then similarly sport has at least an equal claim on public funds. In fact, if public

interest is a measure of how much support should be forthcoming from the Government, then their claim is even more legitimate.

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Quite frankly, I don't see anything terribly wrong with people wanting to see their nation win on the sports field. I believe it is unrealistic to imagine that nationalism will ever disappear and that no matter how internationalist we may become there will always be an identification withone's suburban, regional

state and national athletes and teams. To many people, the fortunes of their clubs, state and national teams are a matter of great concern - often an obsession. To many who work, often in dull tedious jobs, in equally dull, dreary suburbs,

the one thing they have to look forward to is the weekend football match or the prospect of an international clash between Australia and another country. It would seem to me that the sports field is a suitable place to give vent to people's nationalist feelings rather than in more violent arenas.

If this is the case then as the Confederation of Australian Sport points out, it is the Federal Government alone that is in

a position to formulate, in conjunction with the Confederation and other national sporting bodies a properly funded program that will ensure that athletes and teams of international standing have the facilities, coaching and opportunities to reach their maximum potential.

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4. COACHING

Australian has in the past relied upon enthusiastic amateurs or alternatively permitted individuals to develop their skills on their own. Such an approach would be totally unacceptable in most other areas of human endeavours and particularly in

leisure pursuits such as music, theatre, art etc. Lack of top quality coaches at the international level is suggested as one of the major reasons for Australian failure to keep up with other nations who have devoted time and money to achieving top

coaching standards.

The general approach to coaching and training of youngsters has in the past been that any person who had played and enjoyed a particular sport is capable, and can be used, in passing on their knowledge. In consideration of the multitude of associations where coaching is a voluntary and time-consuming task, this in not surprising, or few experienced coaches would undertake the

task. This should not however be considered a rationale for retaining a low standard of coaching. The Australian Sports Institute Study Group suggested that "this haphazard over tolerant approach to coaching standards in Australia must be at least partly responsible for the backwardness of many sports, for their lack of popularity. domestically and for their singular lack of success internationally."

Increasingly, scientific methods of coaching and training have been introduced in past years, and no doubt will continue.

Many countries have formal training to ensure coaches are conversant with such techniques. "Many European countries as well as Canada and the U.S.A. have specialised sports coaching courses either during or after the completion of their bachelor's

degree in physical education." 2 In Holland,, for example, some seven years of practical and theoretical study is required to acquire the highest soccer coaching diploma.

Consideration must be given to the training and payment of coaches in Australia in an attempt to raise the standard to that of other countries, and that required for international competition. 1. Department of Tourism and Recreation (1975) op. cit. p 31

2. Bloolnfield (1974) op. cit. p 25

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5.' SPORT AND INCREASED LEISURE ' TIME

The population of Australia is expected to grow from its

present level of just over fourteen million persons to over 16 million by the year 2000 - an extra 2 million people. The effect of this is equivalent to every member of the population now living having 14% more leisure. However, it is almost

certainly wrong to assume that leisure time per head of population will remain constant.

The 40 hour week has operated in Australia generally from January 1948, having superseded the 44 hour week introduced in the 1920s and a standard week of 60 hours in the 19th century.

The average weekly hours of full-time non-managerial employees in October 1977 was 38.2 hours and for adult male workers in industry in December 1978 was 39.8 hours. There is then some variance.

The introduction of flexitime and the nine-day fortnight (which in many cases effectively redistributes the work to produce a longer weekend) in some companies and departments again provides variations to the standard working week. Although the goal of many may well be the 35 hour week, it must be agreed that the working week has been comparatively stable since 1948.

Dramatic progress towards a leisured society is slower than is.

frequently supposed.

The majority of employees in Australia presently receive four weeks paid annual leave - an increase of one week having been introduced to most employees between 1960 and 1975.

Most employees are long service leave with one employer.

for some employees service leave enti service.

entitled to at least thirteen weeks paid after fifteen years continual employment For employees in certain industries, and of the Australian and State Government, long tlements may be paid after only ten years of

25.

Other factors relating to employment and having some effect in increased leisure time include a trend towards earlier retirements, the introduction in some areas ofjob sharing schemes whereby two persons may work half time only in one position, and increased mobility reducing amount of time required

to travel between home and work. Although incremental increases only in leisure time may be caused by each of these latter factors, they add up to the fact that leisure time available is generally

increasing.

A tendency for families to be smaller which is demonstrated in reduced birth rates has significance in creating more usable leisure time for the average family.

One further and quite major allowance for leisure time comes with unemployment. Dramatic increases in unemployment to the present rate of 6.2% according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, or 6.9% ascertained by the C.E.S., are pertinent

in planning for recreation and sport. In some cases the unemployed are less educated and ill equipped to actively enjoy their leisure than the average person, and when confronted with leisure twenty four hours each day, have some difficulty in

passing it usefully.

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6. PARTICIPATION IN SPORT AND RECREATION

The combination of increased leisure time, real incomes, advanced marketing, technology, mobility, dependence, and decreased social restraints, have increased the variety of leisure activities available. The studies suggest that Australian youth are shying away from the obligations and discipline of

team sports. (Connell 1957 and 74, Watkins 1974 and the Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation, 1975).

The study carried out by the Department of Youth Sport and Recreation established that the majority of people believed competitive sports had benefits but they preferred individual pursuits to team sports if and when they partook at all. Many felt they did not have the skills or ability to undertake physical activities.

A study carried out by the A.B.S. in 1975 and resulting from recommendations made by Frank Stewart's Department of Tourism and Recreation has provided a first and preliminary bank of data onpeople's leisure time preferences and activities. Table X

shows participation rates of persons aged over 15 for three groups of activity, viz. sport, (Participating), sport (non-participating) and other recreational activities.

TABLE X AGE GROUP SPORT SPORT OTHER RECREAT- . . . . . . . . . (Parti.cipatin.g.) . . ( Non-part.ic .pating) . .I.ONAL. ACTIVITIES 15-20 47.9% 23.4% 53.60

20-25 37.5% 23..30 53.2%

25-30 33.6% 21.2% 52.6%

30-40 30.7% 25.1% 53.9%

40-50 22.7% 26.7% 46.5%

50-60 20.5% 21.3% 44.2

60 + 16.5% 14.4% 37.7%

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Participation in sport is highest at school age, dropping off markedly after school termination. A gradual decline occurs in participation then to middle age. At a similar rate, interest in non-participating sport increases to middle age.

When other recreational activities are examined it is found that interest in these activities which include such pursuits as skiing, walking for pleasure, jogging, bushwalking, horse riding, remain constant up to middle age, whence no dramatic reduction in activity occurs. One interpretation of these results is that these

recreational activities when taken on at a young age, are continued into later life. However, when levels of participation in sport fall off, no increase in other recreational activities is evident. This indicates limited opportunity to learn skills necessary to undertake other activities once an individual has

left the education system.

Participation in many sporting activities is time consuming. The figures show that 77% of people undertaking participating sports did it at least once each week .. Only one sport can be pursued then each sporting season, and little opportunity exists to learn another.

Looking at overall participation rates it is interesting to note that swimming, golf, squash, tennis, football and bowls are,in that order, sports most commonly pursued by Australians. Attending the football was far more popular however, than participation in

any sport.

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7. NON-CONP ETITI'VE RECREATION

A. ' ACTT'VE' RECREATION

Non-competitive recreation has been operating in Australia in a variety of forms for many years with little support or co-ordin-ation from Government sources. Increased funding for recreation

by the Labor Government after 1972 provided the initiative for a variety of activities. In many instances although more difficult to co-ordinate and encourage than competitive sports, nevertheless

non-competitive pursuits must be systematically developed. The evidence in fact, as outlined earlier in this paper, suggests that many people would prefer to undertake non-competitive sport.

Outdoor recreation in its many forms can be encouraged by a variety of means. The vast natural areas that Australia boasts should be promoted for general use. We have not yet followed

the overseas patterns of maximum use of National Parks. Walking, canoeing, horseriding, jogging. -or picknicking, to name but a few, are all activities which the average Australian is quite capable of doing (if only he knew it), and the. :natural areas could-well be promoted as the public playing fields of outdoor recreation.

Basically, many outdoor recreational activities are small group oriented. The difficulty exists then in people acquiring the skills necessary to undertake them. The establishment of clubs 'boasting both experts who can teach people, and the equipment

necessary to participate, would be a major step in the direction of encouraging increased participation in outdoor recreational activities. Additionally, people would encounter others interested in the same activities with whom they could participate.

The Outward Bound movement was commenced in Britain during the 2nd World War to toughen up merchant seamen in order to withstand the privations they would have to withstand during Atlantic and Arctic convbys l . This movement has altered

-------------------------------------

1. Bloomfield, J, Recreation in Australia - it's role, scope and development, p 8, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1974

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its objectives somewhat during the post war years, but still

provides for many: OUn Australians the opportunity to learn the skills of outdoor activities and simply to survive in the bush.

Programs are run by State Departments and other groups, but costs are often prohibitive, for many children. We are lagging far behind many countries in this aspect. In the U.S.A. the majority of children regardless of income of parents are able

to attend a summer camp where they can learn a variety of activities.

The French Government transports school children "from the cities to snowfields or other centres in the country for periods of several weeks. At these camps,, children are given normal school lessons in the morning and skiing, sailing, climbing or other recreational activities in the afternoon."1

The majority of outdoor recreational activities can be enjoyed by anyone, regardless of athletic prowess. Of course, the average Australian could:rot canoe the Colorado,or walk Mt Everest, but he could gain great satisfaction and improved health by participating at his own standard. As has been said previously, all sport and recreational activity requires some acquisition of skill. If the opportunity were made available, I have little

doubt that a great deal more Australians would become involved in recreational activities.

B. PASSIVE RECREATION

Passive recreation is a term often misinterpreted and misunderstood.

Basically, it involves those activities which are not physically demanding on the participant. Yet, this is not to say passive recreation is not good, nor that it does not :_:require Government provision. Although some forms of passive recreation such as

just sittingin the park may simply require the existence of open space, and other forms may be purely individual to be planned and_groyided_for_by_the_^artacipant- others may be enhanced_bY__

1. Bloomfield, (op. cit), P8

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the setting in which they can occur. On this basis, perhaps we can consider that we are planning for the mental health rather more than the physical health of participants. The old or some handicapped people, for example, may well be unable to go jogging,

swimming or walking. The alertness of their minds may then be even more important. The provision of community centres, or elderly citizen clubs may provide the stimulus whereby they become involved in the community, and find people- with whom to

recreate. In these instances and others, Government provision for passive recreation should be carefully considered.

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8'. SPORT AND INDUSTRY

Since the Industrial Revolution, we have been continually experiencing the effects of automation and new technology.

Several major effects are evident in everyday life.

The evolution of industrial processes demands new skills and dexterities from some people, but often also imposes a fragmentation and monotonous work as well as a high degree of nervous tension.

The process of industrialisation has_led to growth and expansion of urban areas. This is the cause of major changes in the general setting and way of life; distance from nature; slackening of family ties; ascendancy of a civilisation of consumers; long and tiring daily journeys; anonymity of everyday life etc.

The leisure time available for self development is constantly rising but at the same time there is a multiplication of those leisure time activities which only require of the individual passive participation with no possibilities for initiation or

creation.

Mental activity is today more important than physical activity.

Qualities of strength, endurance and agility do still find opportunities for expression, but less and less frequently.

The view that increased technology eliminates a great number of jobs is oversimplified. The nature of man's work is undoubtedly changing. More people may be engaged in maintenance work, or in administration and other service activities. With this

redistribution from direct to indirect work, more people are engaged in sedentary occupations. A study carried out by Durnin and Passmore showed a wide variation in the amount of energy expended at work. Where employees in heavy industry might expend up to 2,400 k/cal in a seven-hour shift, an office worker frequently expended only 1,000 k/cal in an eight-hour shift.

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Further to this, the environment in which workers are situated may be less stimulating. Restricted opportunities for physical activity are combined with limited demand for intellectual activity. The people: involved are socially isolated in so far

as conversation may be limited and work repetitious and boring.

The production line provides a good example. Studies have shown that concentration and efficiency decrease over a period of time.

Mackworth found that a simple interruption of the work session due to the operator receiving a telephone call was sufficient to restore the performance to its original level of efficiency.

The provision of a break in the form of some interpolated activity although only of very short duration can then effectively offset decline in efficiency. In as much as physical exercises produces mobility it can bring the individual into contact with.

a wider range of environmental stimuli, and 'so- help to stir up the stagnation of boredom.

Most nations have now come to the realisation that economically, it pays employers to establish services for illness prevention and even to provide time off for daily health enjoyment rather than sick leave. It is generally agreed that fitness delays the onset of fatigue, prolongs the time of effective performance, promotes mental alertness, makes for greater happiness, less

absenteeism, fewer accidents, quicker recovery from injury and overall increased productivity.

Badley established that the premature death rate in the U.S.

of the professions not involving much physical exercise was 5.7 times that of farmers, miners and construction workers. -- ---- -- -- -- ---

The success of many industrial fitness programs overseas have

considerable implications for Australia on how the Government employers, trade unions and workers may be persuaded that it is

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a.sound.investment to encourage employee health and fitness, and

to appreciate that prevention is safer, more enjoyable and far less expensive than cure. A great deal of importance is placed on recreation and fitness in.industry and other employment in countries such as Canada, the United States, Japan and Sweden.

An attempt has in fact been made in Canada to have written into national law a requirement that companies and departments employing people in sedentary jobs must have fitness programs. The fact that such importance can be placed on programs throughout the world suggests some value has been established and the evidence

has proven this.

UNITED STATES

The U.S. President's Council on Fitness and Sports estimated

in 1978 that American businesses lose $25 billion each year from the premature deaths of employees, and an additional $3 billion because of employee illness. More than one thousand corporations and businesses in the country have some form of physical training program for employees. 8% of these employ a full time staff person to lead the fitness program.

The fitness program of the U.S. Justice Department to take an example concentrates on coronary high risk employees. A high percentage of employees considered high risk were returned to normal or near normal ranges in terms of cardio vascular .risk after taking part in the program.

The Council has a special advisory committee which has been responsible for promoting fitness programs in business and industry. It provides free consultative services and encourages a greater flow of information between organisations providing these programs.

The American Medical Association has also been involved in encouraging industrial fitness programs and has produced a mono-graph entitled "Guidelines for Physical Fitness Programs in

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Business and Industry."

The North American Rockwell Corporation and the Phillips Petroleum Company sponsored for the President's Council a publication entitled "Physical Fitness in Business and Industry" because "we have seen how regular exercise programs help

employees become better workers, through better health." The publication concludes, "Physically fit employees are directly related to higher production, positive problem solving, co-operation, creative thinking, reduced absenteeism."

Some individual firms have introduced bonuses for employees to maintain an assessed weight, and to attend particular physical fitness or recreation programs.

JAPAN

A survey was conducted of some six thousand industrial and other undertakings. It was found that some 24% provided athletic facilities for workers including outside 'recreational grounds, gymnasiums, swimming pools, recreational clubs, and other facilities.

66% provided subsidies to employees for athletic activities.

Of those enterprises sampled, with greater than 5,000 employees, 93% provided facilities and 98% provided subsidies.

SWEDEN

Sweden founded a sporting industrial body as early as 1945, with the primary task of establishing activity programs in factories, offices, administrative centres, government departments etc.

Many offices, stores etc employ trained physical education teachers to lead employees in "seven to eight minute periods of rhythmic movements at strategically placed intervals, usually during the longest work period of the day, when attention wanes and fatigue begins. These exercises are accompanied by pleasant music, and

are always relatively simple, so that all age groups can participate comfortably." 1

1. Bloomfield, op. cit. p3

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9. COMPARISON WITH OVERSEAS COUNTRIES

As the following examples illustrate,many countries have had sports policies for a considerable time, and although all emphasise the need for both sports excellence andmass participation, in terms of actual funding, high performance sports tend to receive more assistance.

1. F EDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

According to the Constitution, the States are responsible for cultural. affairs. Thus they are responsible for most aspects of sport.

The Federal Ministry of the Interior is responsible for funding assistance to sport and leisure activities of a nature which cannot be provided at state level, for example the representation of the Republic in sport and the support of top level athletes.

It also provides funds to develop Federal and State centres for top level competitive sport and the building of sporting facilities for general use.

There are 3 main areas of sport activity in the Federal Republic:

i. Sport in schools isconsidered an important part in general scholastic education. Daily physical exercises and regular sports lessons occur between the 7th and 13th year at school. The aim of sport at schools is to provide experience in movement enabling the pupils to subsequently discover the types of sport most suitable for them. Educationalists have found this to be the best way to stimulate the many faceted development of a young personality.

ii. "General sport" concerns the wide range of sporting activities, especially in clubs of a wide cross-section of the public.

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The German Sports Federation (Deutscher Sport-bund) formed in 1950 is the "umbrella" organisation representing over 78 sporting associationsor a total of 22% of the Federal Republic's population. In 1971

this Federation introduced the campaign known as Trim Yourself through Sport (Trimm Dick durch Sport).

The purpose of this program was to help redress the sedentary life of large sections of the population in much the same way as our "Life. Be In It" campaign.

The German Sports Federation was formed to co-ordinate the nation's sports associations and to represent the major interests of its member association vis a vis th egovernment and the general public. Stress has been placed on expanding recreational sport, improving sport in education institutions, developing scientific research in sport, the creating of new programs in "Sport for Everyone" (similar to the Trim program) and on building flexible facilities for sport. This Federation considers it is its responsibility to make sport available for people, and expects the Government to provide material assistance. It sees a common role for both Government and sports associations to further the development-of its citizens through sport.

iii. In 1967 the "German Aid to Sport Foundation" was founded by the German Olympic Federation and the German Sports Federation. It sought to provide financial security to top-ranking sportsmen as some recompense for their commitment to sport.

The funds come, not from the National Budget but from the proceeds of the sale of special postage-stamps, and donations.

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2. CANADA

The Fitness and Amateur Sport Act was passed in 1961 in response to the ebbing fitness level of Canadians, illustrated by acceleratinghealth treatment for ailments directly or indirectly related to sedentariness, and the poor performance of athletes in international competition. Until 1967, the Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate formed as a result of

the legislation, implemented proposals from outside government and did not initiate programs of its own. However, centennial celebrations and events, and Task Forces on Sport and Recreation all pointed to a need for the Government to provide stronger leader-ship in this area.

.In 1970, the Health Minister tabled his "Proposed Sports Policy for Canadians" which emphasised the concern for greater participation in physical activity. Excellence in competitive sports was seen in large measure as the result of a broad public awareness and participation in fitness and sport activities.

As a consequence of these new policies, the Federal Government resolved to provide stronger leadership in this area.

The Amateur Sport Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare is the administrative body established by the Act.

Its objective is to "raise the fitness level of Canadians and to improve their participation in physical recreation and amateur sport." This two-pronged approach, mass participation and excellence or elitism, is reflected in the physical structure of the Branch and in the programs developed.

Recreation Canada is the directorate within the Fitness and Amateur Sport Branch mainly concerned with fitness and mass participation.. It funds a variety of 'national agencies, such as the Canadian Recreational Canoeing Association, which provide

recreational opportunities to all Canadians. As well, it makes contributions for sport and recreation activities to groups representing the handicapped and native people.

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Sport Participation Canada, known across Canada by the slogan PARTICIPaction, is funded by Recreation Canada to act as a catalyst in promoting physical activity among Canadians.

PARTICIPaction uses a variety of marketing techniques such as television ads, billboards and brochures, with the help of the media, private industry and three levels of government, to motivate Canadians to become involved in physical activity.

Recreation Canada's fitness section administers a number of programs and projects designed to promote an awareness of fitness and provide Canadians with information on fitness programs.

Its major areas of interest have been fitness and health, employee fitness, fitness trails and the development of a Canadian Home Fitness Test.

The Canada Fitness Award Program was developed to encourage boys and girls aged 7 to 17 to strive for excellence and fitness.

The program is administered by the Branch and awards bronze, silver and gold crests and awards of excellence on the basis of test results measured against established norms. This test is popular and widely used by schools and youths.

Sport Canada, the counterpart of Recreation Canada, administers programs designed to help Canadian athletes in their pursuit of excellence. A major portion of their budget is directed towards supporting national sport governing bodies. In the early

1970s, sport associations were experiencing a chronic shortage of funds and struggled each year to hold their national champion-ships. Support to these associations allows them to develop a mass participation system which should funnel top-calibre

athletes to the national championships.

Game Plan, a project started in 1973, has developed programs of talent identification, athlete support, coaching and officiating development, and competition goals for Canadian

athletes to work towards in national and international competition.

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Sport Canada is funding a new athlete support program which is designed to provide living expenses, training allowances, lost time payments, tuition fees and costs of equipment, coaching fees and facility rental for top-calibre athletes.

The Fitness and Amateur Sport Branch administers a second program to support Canadian athletes. The grants-in-aid program assists athletes in continuing both their 'educational and competitive careers by providing money for tuition and living

expenses.

Coaching development is supported by Sport Canada through the Coaching Association of Canada. This Association has been instrumental in developing a 5-level coaching certification

program, planning and apprenticeship program and a National Coaches' School, and a television series which will disseminate coaching information to the public.

A physical resources development program, also administered by Sport Canada, provides funding for the expanding or upgrading to international standards of new and existing facilities.

As well as competing in the Olympic, Commonwealth and Pan-American Games, Canadian athletes have the opportunity to train competitively at home. The Federal Government contributes to the operating and capital costs of the Canadia Games which are held every two years, alternating summer and winter venues. These games have been responsible for increasing the number of international-calibre

competition facilities available across Canada.

The National Sport and Recreation Centre was established in 1970 through support from theFitness and Amateur Sport Branch. This centre provides fulltime administrative leadership to national associations and an environment conducive to sharing ideas and working jointly on problems of mutual concern. Federal Government

support provides office space and a full range of services, as • well as salaries for executive sport directors, technical co-ordinators and national coaches.

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These programs and projects administered by the Fitness and Amateur Sport Branch have attempted to aid Canadian athletes in their pursuit of excellence and make all. Canadians aware of

the need for physical fitness. Their success is indicated by Canada's jump to eleventh place in the final standings at the summer Olympics in 1976 and greater interest on the part of the Canadian public in such sports as jogging, cycling and cross-country skiing.

EXPENDITURE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FITNESS AND AMATEUR SPORT

1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 $m $m $m

Direct assistance to sporting bodies 7.2 ;11.1

Canadian Games/Commonwealth Games 10.7 Special Projects 1.04

Administrative costs of national associations 1.9

TOTAL ------------------------

$20.9m* $21.3m** $32.7m**

*includes only sport ** includes sport and recreation

In addition to the above, sports programs are assisted by private funds and lottery revenues from Loto Canada.

Frequently, comparisons have been made between Government expenditure on sport in Canada and Australia. Comparison is difficult and of doubtful validity as a breakup of recreation and sport is unclear in both countries, some items include both recreation and sport, others just sport. Nevertheless, it is clear that Canada's Federal Government provides significantly more to sport on a per capita basis than does the Australian Government. A figure of $1,46 per head has been quoted in the press for Canada, but this includes recreation as well.

A figure of 9fi per head for Australia includes expenditure' specifically on sport only.

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3. UNITED STATES

The Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) is responsible for developing and co-ordinating a national-program for physical fitness and sports. The President's Council on Physical Fitness and 'Sports .(PCPFS) was established in the 1950s to advise the President and the Secretary of progress made toward achievement of the following stated objectives of the Council:

1. To enlist the active support and assistance of individual citizens, civic groups, professional associations, amateur and professional sports groups, private enterprise, voluntary organisations, and others

in efforts to promote and improve physical fitness and sports participation programs for all Americans;

2. To stimulate, improve, and strengthen co-ordination of federal services and programs relating to physical fitness and sports participation;

3. To encourage state and local governments in efforts to enhance physical fitness and sports participation;

4. To strengthen the physical fitness of American children, youth,and adults by systematically encouraging the development of community-centred physical fitness and sports participation programs;

5. To develop co-operative programs with medical, dental, and similar professional societies in the encouragement and implementation of sound physical fitness practices;

6. To stimulate and encourage research in the areas of physical fitness and sports performance;

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7. To improve school health and physical education programs for a-1 pupils, including the handicapped and the physically underdeveloped, by assisting educational agencies in developing quality programs

to encourage innovation, improve teacher preparation, and strengthen state and federal leadership.

The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports directs a national program costing $36 million on an annual budget of $0.5 million. This is achieved by involving many agencies and the private sector in a number of special programs and programs

for older Americans. The Council receives for each $1 expended a return of approximately $70.1

A Presidential commission established in 1977 and comprising former Olympic athletes has proposed replacing the U.S. Olympic Commission with a new Central Sports Organisation to enable athletes to accept money for endorsements and to allow them to compete against professionals. This is in response to a deter-ioration of American performances in international competition.

It urged Government aid, lotteries, a tax on sports tickets, and tax credits for parents of athletes.

In 1978, $16 million was allocated to the Olympic Committee.

According to one report this is a once-only grant to help re-organise the committee and end the wrangling among amateur athletic groups that has hampered past U.S. efforts in the Olympics. The original request was for $30 million.

4. SWEDEN

(The information contained in this section is based on 1975 material) .

Although Sweden is a world leader in research into exercise, physiology and mass sports participation, in many respects Sweden is similar to Australia both in type of funding, sports

1. P Wilson,• Adult Fitnes's and Cardia Rehabilitation , 1975, U.S.A.

43.

organisations and coaching.

There is an annual government grant of about $14 million to sports in Sweden. Approximately 40% of this is given to Sports Federations, providing approximately 40% of the annual expenses

of these Federations. Sports scholarships do not exist, although "Olympic preparation grants" are provided by the Government.

5. UN ITED KINGDOM

The Government's policy on sport and recreation is to stimulate

the provision of facilities and encourage their full use. It provides financial assistance through a number of official bodies. The Sports Councils and County Side Commissions in England, Scotland and Wales have a specific responsibility relating to sport and recreation and assist other.public and private bodies in the provision of facilities.

The main responsibility for the general development of sport rests with the Sports Council. This has the task, subject only to general administrative directives, of allocating funds made available by the Government for sports development, coaching and administration to the governing bodies of sport; to voluntary organisations and local authorities to provide sports facilitiesand to assist British r epresentatives at international sportsmeetings. In September 1978, a "Come Alive" campaign waslaunched to encourage people to take part in physical recreation.The allocation for the Sports Council in the United Kingdomin 1978-79 is 15.2 million pounds sterling in England, 2.4 millionpounds sterling in Scotland and 1.8 million pounds sterling inWales, and total of 19.4 million pounds sterling. Details ofthis ex penditure are attached in appendix 11.

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THE POSSIBLE OPTIONS FOR A NATIONAL SPORT AND RECREATION

POLICY FOR AN AUSTRALIAN LABOR GOVERNMENT

1. That the Federal Government has a responsibility to provide national leadership in making sport and recreation available for e^:eryone who wishes to participate.

2. A recognition that sport and recreation has a vital role to play in developing a physically and mentally healthy nation

and that part of the funding for sport and recreation should be appropriated from the health budget.

3. The setting up of a National Sports Institute to serve as a focal point for sports science, national coaching schemes, international sports relations and sports information.

Consideration should be given to the National Sports Institute being incorporated in the Canberra College of Advanced Education with the Bruce Stadium as its major training facility.

4. The National Sports Institute to co-operate with and advise state institutions now providing training for instructors in sport and physical education.

5. An increase in the provision of funds for the development of national coaching programs to achieve standards of excellence at international level.

6. An increase in the provision of funds to enable Australian athletes to gain international competition and experience.

7. A continuation of the Sports Assistance Program to enable national sporting associations to adequately administer their sport.

8. An increase in the funding for sports medicine research.

9. in co-operation with State and Local governments, provision of funds under a cost-sharing arrangement to build gymnasiums

in particular in the school system that will be available

to students during school hours and to the public at other times.

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10. A continuation of the "Life Be In It" program and as a further step the introduction of an Australian Fitness Award system for people of all ages.

11. Encouragement and financial support for mature age sports competitions.

12. The funding of a biennial national sports competition on the lines of the East German "Spatarkiad" competition would take place at town, suburban, regional, state and national level with the Federal government assisting in under-writing the latter.

13. An enquiry into the feasibility of introducing tax incentives for industry to provide sports amenities at the workplace.

14. The establishment of a National Hall of Fame for Sportspersons in the national capital.

^^, ^