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National Security Legislation Amendment (Espionage and Foreign Interference) Bill 2018

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2016-2017-2018

 

The Parliament of the

Commonwealth of Australia

 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 

 

 

National Security Legislation Amendment (Espionage and Foreign Interference) Bill 2017

 

 

(1)     Clause  2 , page 3 (at the end of the table), add:

 

9.  Schedule 6

The day after this Act receives the Royal Assent.

 

[protection for persons providing information voluntarily to the Inspector-General]

(2)     Schedule 1, page 4 (after line 13), after item 3, insert:

3A  At the end of Subdivision A of Division 80 of the Criminal Code

Add:

80.1AAA   Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979

                   The meaning of an expression in this Division does not affect the meaning of that expression in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 , unless that Act expressly provides otherwise.

[meaning of expressions not to affect meaning in ASIO Act]

(3)     Schedule 1, item 5, page 6 (line 15), omit “section 83.4”, substitute “sections 83.1 and 83.4”.

[good faith defence for offence against section 83.1]

(4)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 6 (after line 28), after the heading to Division 82, insert:

Subdivision A Preliminary

[meaning of expressions not to affect meaning in ASIO Act]

(5)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 7 (before line 1), before the definition of damage to public infrastructure , insert:

advantage : conduct will not advantage the national security of a foreign country if the conduct will advantage Australia’s national security to an equivalent extent.

[equivalent advantage to Australia’s national security]

(6)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 7 (after line 17), after the definition of national security , insert:

prejudice : embarrassment alone is not sufficient to prejudice Australia’s national security.

[embarrassment alone is not sufficient for prejudice]

(7)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 8 (after line 25), after section 82.2, insert:

82.2A   Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979

                   The meaning of an expression in this Division does not affect the meaning of that expression in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 , unless that Act expressly provides otherwise.

Subdivision B Offences

[meaning of expressions not to affect meaning in ASIO Act]

(8)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 11 (lines 17 to 24), omit paragraph 82.7(d), substitute:

                     (d)  the person engages in the conduct with the intention that prejudice to Australia’s national security will occur (whether at the time or at a future time).

[removal of elements relating to economic interests etc.]

(9)     Schedule 1, item 8, page 12 (lines 6 to 13), omit paragraph 82.8(d), substitute:

                     (d)  the person engages in the conduct reckless as to whether prejudice to Australia’s national security will occur (whether at the time or at a future time).

[removal of elements relating to economic interests etc.]

(10)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 13 (lines 1 to 9), omit section 82.10, substitute:

82.10   Defences

             (1)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division if:

                     (a)  the person is, at the time of the offence, a public official; and

                     (b)  the person engaged in the conduct in good faith in the course of performing duties as a public official; and

                     (c)  the conduct is reasonable in the circumstances for the purpose of performing those duties.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division if:

                     (a)  the person is, at the time of the offence:

                              (i)  an owner or operator of the public infrastructure; or

                             (ii)  acting on behalf of, or with the consent of, an owner or operator of the public infrastructure; and

                     (b)  the person engaged in the conduct in good faith; and

                     (c)  the conduct is within the lawful authority of the owner or operator; and

                     (d)  the conduct is reasonable in the circumstances for the purpose of exercising that lawful authority.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

[defence for public officials; defence for owners etc. of public infrastructure]

(11)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 15 (before line 2), before section 83.1, insert:

83.1A   Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979

                   The meaning of an expression in this Division does not affect the meaning of that expression in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 , unless that Act expressly provides otherwise.

[meaning of expressions not to affect meaning in ASIO Act]

(12)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 15 (before line 19), before the penalty, insert:

Note:          The defence in section 80.3 for acts done in good faith applies to this offence.

[good faith defence for offence against section 83.1]

(13)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 15 (after line 19), after subsection 83.1(1) (after the penalty), insert:

          (1A)  For the purposes of this section:

                     (a)  a person advocates mutiny if the person counsels, promotes, encourages or urges mutiny; and

                     (b)  a reference to advocating mutiny includes a reference to:

                              (i)  advocating mutiny even if mutiny does not occur; and

                             (ii)  advocating a specific mutiny; and

                            (iii)  advocating more than one mutiny.

[meaning of advocates]

(14)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 16 (line 15), at the end of the heading to section 83.3, add “ etc. ”.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(15)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 16 (line 24), at the end of subparagraph 83.3(1)(c)(i), add “or a foreign political organisation within the meaning of that Part (see section 90.1)”.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(16)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 16 (lines 26 and 27), omit “a person acting on behalf of a foreign government principal”, substitute “foreign political organisation, or a person acting on behalf of a foreign government principal or foreign political organisation”.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(17)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 17 (after line 27), after subsection 83.3(4), insert:

Defence—humanitarian assistance etc.

          (4A)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a person in relation to conduct engaged in by the person solely or primarily for one or more of the following purposes:

                     (a)  providing aid of a humanitarian nature;

                     (b)  performing an official duty for:

                              (i)  the United Nations or an agency of the United Nations; or

                             (ii)  the International Committee of the Red Cross.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

[defence of humanitarian assistance, official duties for offence against section 83.3]

(18)   Schedule  1 , item  8 , page 18 (line 5) , omit “ another ”, substitute “other”.

[technical]

(19)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 18 (line 11), omit “10”, substitute “3”.

[maximum penalty for offence against section 83.4]

(20)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 18 (lines 28 and 29), omit “or (3)”, substitute “, (3) or (4A)”.

[defence of humanitarian assistance, official duties for offence against section 83.3]

(21)   Schedule 1, item 8, page 18 (line 30), after “against section”, insert “83.1 or”.

[good faith defence for offence against section 83.1]

(22)   Schedule 1, item 10, page 19 (before line 4), before the definition of deal , insert:

advantage : conduct will not advantage the national security of a foreign country if the conduct will advantage Australia’s national security to an equivalent extent.

concerns : information or an article concerns Australia’s national security if the information or article relates to, or is connected with, or is of interest or importance to, or affects, Australia’s national security.

[equivalent advantage to Australia’s national security; concerns Australia’s national security]

(23)   Schedule 1, item 10, page 19 (line 16), after “See also”, insert “the definition of make available in this subsection and”.

[definition of make available]

(24)   Schedule 1, item 10, page 19 (lines 19 and 20), omit the definition of foreign political organisation , substitute:

foreign political organisation includes:

                     (a)  a foreign political party; and

                     (b)  a foreign organisation that exists primarily to pursue political objectives; and

                     (c)  a foreign organisation that exists to pursue militant, extremist or revolutionary objectives.

[definition of foreign political organisation]

(25)   Schedule 1, item 12, page 19 (before line 27), before the definition of national security , insert:

make available information or an article includes:

                     (a)  place it somewhere it can be accessed by another person; and

                     (b)  give it to an intermediary to give to the intended recipient; and

                     (c)  describe how to obtain access to it, or describe methods that are likely to facilitate access to it (for example, set out the name of a website, an IP address, a URL, a password, or the name of a newsgroup).

[definition of make available]

(26)   Schedule 1, item 12, page 19 (after line 27), after the definition of national security , insert:

prejudice : embarrassment alone is not sufficient to prejudice Australia’s national security.

[embarrassment alone is not sufficient for prejudice]

(27)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 20 (after line 17), after paragraph 90.2(a), insert:

                    (aa)  a foreign political organisation;

[definition of foreign government principal]

(28)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 20 (line 23), after “paragraph”, insert “(aa),”.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(29)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 20 (line 26), after “paragraph (a),”, insert “(aa),”.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(30)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 21 (line 11), omit paragraph (g) of the definition of foreign government principal in section 90.3.

[definition of foreign government principal]

(31)   Schedule  1 , item  16 , page 22 (lines 9 and 10) , omit subsection  90.5(1) , substitute:

             (1)  Security classification means:

                     (a)  a classification of secret or top secret that is applied in accordance with the policy framework developed by the Commonwealth for the purpose (or for purposes that include the purpose) of identifying information:

                              (i)  for a classification of secret—that, if disclosed in an unauthorised manner, could be expected to cause serious damage to the national interest, organisations or individuals; or

                             (ii)  for a classification of top secret—that, if disclosed in an unauthorised manner, could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national interest; or

                     (b)  any equivalent classification or marking prescribed by the regulations.

          (1A)  For the purposes of a reference, in an element of an offence in this Part, to security classification, strict liability applies to the element that:

                     (a)  a classification is applied in accordance with the policy framework developed by the Commonwealth for the purpose (or for purposes that include the purpose) of identifying the information mentioned in subparagraph (1)(a)(i) or (ii); or

                     (b)  a classification or marking is prescribed by the regulations as mentioned in paragraph (1)(b).

[definition of security classification]

(32)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 22 (lines 13 and 14), omit “policies of the Government of the Commonwealth in relation to protective security”, substitute “policy framework mentioned in paragraph (1)(a)”.

[definition of security classification]

(33)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 22 (line 19), at the end of subsection 90.5(3), add “, if the instrument or other writing is publicly available”.

[definition of security classification]

(34)   Schedule 1, item 16, page 22 (after line 19), after section 90.5, insert:

90.6   Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979

                   The meaning of an expression in this Part does not affect the meaning of that expression in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 , unless that Act expressly provides otherwise.

[meaning of expressions not to affect meaning in ASIO Act]

(35)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 22 (line 25), after “ will be ”, insert “ communicated or ”.

[communicated or made available]

(36)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 23 (line 7), after “being”, insert “communicated or”.

[communicated or made available]

(37)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 23 (line 22), after “being”, insert “communicated or”.

[communicated or made available]

(38)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 23 (lines 25 and 26) , omit subsection  91.1 ( 3 ).

[strict liability]

(39)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 24 (line 5), after “ will be ”, insert “ communicated or ”.

[communicated or made available]

(40)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 24 (line 13), after “being”, insert “communicated or”.

[communicated or made available]

(41)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 24 (line 24), after “being”, insert “communicated or”.

[communicated or made available]

(42)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 25 (after line 3) , after paragraph  91.3 ( 1 )( a ), insert:

                    (aa)  the person deals with the information or article for the primary purpose of communicating the information or article, or making it available, to a foreign principal or a person acting on behalf of a foreign principal; and

[primary purpose of dealing]

(43)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 25 (line 5), after “being”, insert “communicated or”.

[communicated or made available]

(44)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 25 (lines 7 to 9) , omit paragraph  91.3 ( 1 )( c ), substitute:

                     (c)  the information or article has a security classification.

[dealing with security classified information]

(45)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 25 (line 11), omit “paragraph (1)(b)”, substitute “paragraphs (1)(aa) and (b)”.

[primary purpose of dealing]

(46)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 25 (line 15) , omit subsection  91.3 ( 3 ), substitute:

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(aa).

[strict liability; primary purpose of dealing]

(47)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 25 (line 17), after “for an offence”, insert “by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(48)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 25 (line 26), omit “of an offence”, substitute “for an offence by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(49)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 25 (after line 32), at the end of section 91.4, add:

             (3)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against section 91.1, in which the prosecution relies on subparagraph 91.1(1)(c)(ii) or (2)(c)(ii), or against section 91.3, if:

                     (a)  the person did not make or obtain the information or article by reason of any of the following:

                              (i)  the person being, or having been, a Commonwealth officer (within the meaning of Part 5.6);

                             (ii)  the person being otherwise engaged to perform work for a Commonwealth entity;

                            (iii)  an arrangement or agreement to which the Commonwealth or a Commonwealth entity is party and which allows for the exchange of information; and

                     (b)  the information or article has already been communicated, or made available, to the public (the prior publication ); and

                     (c)  the person was not involved in the prior publication (whether directly or indirectly); and

                     (d)  at the time the person deals with the information or article, the person believes that doing so will not prejudice Australia’s national security; and

                     (e)  having regard to the nature, extent and place of the prior publication, the person has reasonable grounds for that belief.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

[defence of prior publication]

(50)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 26 (line 15), after “section 91.1”, insert “(other than subsection 91.1(1))”.

[technical—for clarity]

(51)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 26 (lines 19 and 20) , omit subparagraph 91 .6 ( 1 )( b )( i ).

[security classification]

(52)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 26 (line 29), at the end of subparagraph 91.6(1)(b)(v), add “allowing access to information that has, or articles that have, a security classification of at least secret”.

[aggravated offence involving person holding security clearance]

(53)   Schedule  1 , item  17 , page 27 (line 4) , omit subsection  91.6 ( 3 ).

[strict liability]

(54)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 29 (line 16), after “for an offence”, insert “by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(55)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 29 (line 25), omit “of an offence”, substitute “for an offence by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(56)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 31 (line 29), after “for an offence”, insert “by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(57)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 35 (line 1), omit “deceptive”, substitute “involves deception”.

[technical—for consistency]

(58)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 36 (line 18), after “for an offence”, insert “by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(59)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 37 (line 5), omit “support or resources”, substitute “resources, or material support,”.

[material support]

(60)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 37 (line 14), omit “support or resources”, substitute “resources, or material support, “.

[material support]

(61)   Schedule 1, item 17, page 38 (line 18), after “for an offence”, insert “by a person”.

[technical—for consistency]

(62)   Schedule 1, item 18, page 40 (lines 6 to 8), omit subsection 93.1(1), substitute:

             (1)  Proceedings for the commitment of a person for trial for an offence against this Part must not be instituted without:

                     (a)  the written consent of the Attorney-General; and

                     (b)  for proceedings that relate to information or an article that has a security classification—a certification by the Attorney-General that, at the time of the conduct that is alleged to constitute the offence, it was appropriate that the information or article had a security classification.

[certification of security classified information]

(63)   Schedule 1, item 18, page 40 (line 10), omit “consent having been given”, substitute “consent or certification having been obtained”.

[certification of information]

(64)   Schedule 1, item 18, page 40 (line 20), omit “subsection 91.4(1)”, substitute “section 91.4”.

[defences to be considered by Attorney-General]

(65)   Schedule 1, item 18, page 40 (line 23), omit “subsection 91.9(1)”, substitute “section 91.9”.

[defences to be considered by Attorney-General]

(66)   Schedule 1, item 20, page 41 (lines 3 to 17), omit section 93.3.

[evidentiary certificate]

(67)   Schedule 1, item 21, page 42 (line 13), omit “, document or other article”, substitute “or document”.

[technical—to avoid repetition]

(68)   Schedule 1, item 22, page 43 (lines 6 and 7), omit subsection 132.8A(3).

[technical—to avoid redundancy]

(69)   Schedule 1, item 24, page 43 (before line 13), before the definition of constitutional trade and commerce , insert:

Australian Government security clearance means a security clearance given by the Australian Government Security Vetting Agency or by another Commonwealth, State or Territory agency that is authorised or approved by the Commonwealth to issue security clearances.

[definition of Australian Government security clearance]

(70)   Schedule 1, item 28, page 45 (line 15), after “related offences)”, insert “other than section 83.4 (interference with political rights and duties)”.

[definition of national security offence in Australian Citizenship Act 2007]

(71)   Schedule 1, item 29, page 45 (line 25), after “(sabotage)”, insert “other than section 82.9 (preparing for or planning sabotage offence)”.

[section 35A cessation of citizenship]

(72)   Schedule 1, item 29, page 45 (after line 27), after subparagraph 35A(1)(a)(iib), insert:

                           (iic)  a provision of Division 92 of the Criminal Code (foreign interference);

[section 35A cessation of citizenship]

(73)   Schedule 1, item 39, page 47 (lines 16 to 19), omit all the words from and including “if it is alleged” to the end of paragraph 15AA(2)(e), substitute “if:

                              (i)  the death of a person is alleged to have been caused by conduct that is a physical element of the offence; or

                             (ii)  conduct that is a physical element of the offence carried a substantial risk of causing the death of a person.”.

[bail not to be granted in Division 92 offence unless death or substantial risk of death]

(74)   Schedule 1, page 47 (after line 29), after item 42, insert:

42A  Paragraph 19AG(1)(c)

Omit “or 91”.

42B  After paragraph 19AG(1)(c)

Insert:

                   ; (d)  an offence against subsection 91.1(1) or 91.2(1) of the Criminal Code .

[non-parole period for espionage offence]

(75)   Schedule 1, page 47 (after line 31), after item 43, insert:

Criminal Code Act 1995

43A  Paragraph 5(2)(d)

Omit “treason, urging violence and advocating terrorism or genocide”, substitute “treason and related offences”.

43B  Paragraph 5(2)(e)

Omit “offences relating to espionage and similar activities”, substitute “espionage and related offences”.

[technical—consequential amendments]

(76)   Schedule 1, page 48 (after line 19), after item 48, insert:

48A  Subparagraphs 203(1)(c)(ii) and (iia)

Omit “(i) or (ia)”, substitute “(ia) or (ib)”.

[technical—consequential amendments]

(77)   Schedule 1, page 48 (after line 26), at the end of the Schedule, add:

Part 3 Review by Independent National Security Legislation Monitor

Independent National Security Legislation Monitor Act 2010

51  Subsection 6(1B)

Repeal the subsection, substitute:

          (1B)  The Independent National Security Legislation Monitor must, as soon as practicable after the third anniversary of the day the National Security Legislation Amendment (Espionage and Foreign Interference) Act 2018 receives the Royal Assent, begin a review under paragraph (1)(a) of the following provisions of Chapter 5 of the Criminal Code :

                     (a)  Division 82 (sabotage);

                     (b)  Part 5.2 (espionage and related offences);

                     (c)  Part 5.6 (secrecy of information).

[review by Independent National Security Legislation Monitor]

(78)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 50 (lines 1 to 6) , omit paragraph ( a ) of the definition of cause harm to Australia’s interests in subsection  121.1(1) , substitute:

                     (a)  interfere with or prejudice the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution or punishment of a criminal offence against a law of the Commonwealth; or

[cause harm to Australia’s interests]

(79)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 50 (lines 22 to 25) , omit paragraphs ( d ) and (e) of the definition of cause harm to Australia’s interests in subsection  121.1(1) .

[cause harm to Australia’s interests]

(80)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 50 (line 26) , omit “ the public ”, substitute “the Australian public”.

[cause harm to Australia’s interests]

(81)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 50 (line 27) , omit “ the public. ”, substitute “the Australian public; or”.

[cause harm to Australia’s interests]

(82)   Schedule 2, item  6 , page 50 (after line 27) , at the end of the definition of cause harm to Australia’s interests in subsection 121.1(1), add:

                     (g)  harm or prejudice the security or defence of Australia.

[cause harm to Australia’s interests]

(83)   Schedule 2, item 6, page 51 (line 4), at the end of the definition of Commonwealth officer in subsection 121.1(1), add:

; but does not include an officer or employee of, or a person engaged by, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation or the Special Broadcasting Service Corporation.

[reporting news etc.]

(84)   Schedule 2, item 6, page 51 (line 5), omit “the meaning given by subsection 90.1(1)”, substitute “the same meaning as in Part 5.2”.

[definition of deal]

(85)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 51 (after line 5) , at the end of the definition of deal in subsection  121.1(1) , add:

Note:          For the meaning of deal in that Part, see subsections 90.1(1) and (2).

[definition of deal]

(86)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 51 (after line 12) , after the definition of domestic intelligence agency in subsection  121.1(1) , insert:

foreign military organisation means:

                     (a)  the armed forces of the government of a foreign country; or

                     (b)  the civilian component of:

                              (i)  the Department of State of a foreign country; or

                             (ii)  a government agency in a foreign country;

                            that is responsible for the defence of the country.

[reporting news etc.]

(87)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 51 (lines 17 to 19) , omit paragraph ( b ) of the definition of inherently harmful information in subsection  121.1(1) .

[inherently harmful information]

(88)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 51 (lines 23 to 26) , omit paragraph ( d ) of the definition of inherently harmful information in subsection  121.1(1) .

[inherently harmful information]

(89)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 52 (after line 2) , after the definition of Regulatory Powers Act in subsection  121.1(1) , insert:

security classification has the meaning given by section 90.5.

[definition of security classification]

(90)   Schedule 2, item 6, page 52 (line 4), omit “(within the meaning of section 90.4)”.

[definition of security classification]

(91)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 52 (after line 9) , at the end of section  121.1 , add:

             (3)  For the purposes of a reference, in an element of an offence in this Part, to security classified information or security classification, strict liability applies to the element that:

                     (a)  a classification is applied in accordance with the policy framework developed by the Commonwealth for the purpose (or for purposes that include the purpose) of identifying the information mentioned in subparagraph 90.5(1)(a)(i) or (ii); or

                     (b)  a classification or marking is prescribed by the regulations as mentioned in paragraph 90.5(1)(b).

Note:          See the definitions of security classified information in subsection (1) and security classification in section 90.5.

[definition of security classification]

(92)   Schedule 2, item 6, page 52 (line 17), at the end of subsection 121.2(2), add “, if the instrument or other writing is publicly available”.

[definition of security classification]

(93)   Schedule 2, item  6 , page 52 (lines 18 to 28) , omit section  121.3 .

[evidentiary certificate]

(94)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 2) , omit the heading to section  122.1 , substitute:

122.1   Communication and other dealings with inherently harmful information by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(95)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 7) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(96)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 11) , omit “ Note ”, substitute “ Note 1 ”.

[fault elements]

(97)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (after line 11) , after the n ote , insert:

Note 2:       The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (1)(a) and recklessness for paragraphs (1)(b) and (c) (see section 5.6).

[fault elements]

(98)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 12) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

[criminal penalties]

(99)   Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 18) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(100) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (before line 22) , before the penalty, insert:

Note:          The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (2)(a) and recklessness for paragraphs (2)(b) and (c) (see section 5.6).

[fault elements]

(101) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 53 (line 22) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(102) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 1) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(103) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (before line 5) , before the penalty, insert:

Note:          The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (3)(a) and recklessness for paragraphs (3)(b) and (c) (see section 5.6).

[fault elements]

(104) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 5) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(105) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (after line 11) , after paragraph  122.1 ( 4 )( c ), insert:

                    (ca)  the failure to comply with the direction results in a risk to the security of the information; and

[failure to comply with direction regarding information]

(106) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 13) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(107) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (before line 17) , before the penalty, insert:

Note:          The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (4)(c) and recklessness for paragraphs (4)(a), (b), (ca), (d) and (e) (see section 5.6).

[fault elements]

(108) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 17) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(109) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (lines 18 and 19) , omit subsection  122.1 ( 5 ).

[strict liability]

(110) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 20) , omit the heading to section  122.2 , substitute:

122.2   Conduct by current and former Commonwealth officers etc. causing harm to Australia’s interests

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(111) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 54 (line 29) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(112) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 55 (line 4) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

[criminal penalties]

(113) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 55 (line 13) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(114) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 55 (line 17) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(115) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 55 (line 31) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(116) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 56 (line 1) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(117) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 56 (line 13) , omit “ or any other ”.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(118) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 56 (line 17) , omit the penalty, substitute:

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

[criminal penalties]

(119) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 56 (lines 24 to 26) , omit subparagraph  122.3 ( 1 )( b )( i ).

[security classification]

(120) Schedule 2, item 6, page 56 (line 28), omit “containing the relevant information”.

[security classification]

(121) Schedule 2, item 6, page 57 (line 6), at the end of subparagraph 122.3(1)(b)(v), add “allowing the person to access information that has a security classification of at least secret”.

[aggravated offence]

(122) Schedule 2, item 6, page 57 (line 9), omit “15 years—imprisonment for 20”, substitute “7 years—imprisonment for 10”.

[criminal penalties]

(123) Schedule 2, item 6, page 57 (line 11), omit “5 years—imprisonment for 10”, substitute “3 years—imprisonment for 5”.

[criminal penalties]

(124) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 57 (line 15) , omit subsection  122.3 ( 3 ).

[strict liability]

(125) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 57 (lines 23 and 24) , omit the heading to section  122.4 , substitute:

122.4   Unauthorised disclosure of information by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.

[offences by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.]

(126) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (after line 1) , at the end of section  122.4 , add:

Sunset provision

             (3)  This section does not apply in relation to any communication of information that occurs after the end of 5 years after this section commences.

[sunset provision]

(127) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (after line 1) , after section  122.4 , insert:

122.4A   Communicating and dealing with information by non-Commonwealth officers etc.

Communication of information

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person communicates information; and

                     (b)  the information was not made or obtained by the person by reason of the person being, or having been, a Commonwealth officer or otherwise engaged to perform work for a Commonwealth entity; and

                     (c)  the information was made or obtained by another person by reason of that other person being, or having been, a Commonwealth officer or otherwise engaged to perform work for a Commonwealth entity; and

                     (d)  any one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  the information has a security classification of secret or top secret;

                             (ii)  the communication of the information damages the security or defence of Australia;

                            (iii)  the communication of the information interferes with or prejudices the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution or punishment of a criminal offence against a law of the Commonwealth;

                            (iv)  the communication of the information harms or prejudices the health or safety of the Australian public or a section of the Australian public.

Note 1:       For exceptions to the offences in this section, see section 122.5.

Note 2:       The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (1)(a) and recklessness for paragraphs (1)(b) to (d) (see section 5.6).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

Other dealings with information

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person deals with information (other than by communicating it); and

                     (b)  the information was not made or obtained by the person by reason of the person being, or having been, a Commonwealth officer or otherwise engaged to perform work for a Commonwealth entity; and

                     (c)  the information was made or obtained by another person by reason of that other person being, or having been, a Commonwealth officer or otherwise engaged to perform work for a Commonwealth entity; and

                     (d)  any one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  the information has a security classification of secret or top secret;

                             (ii)  the dealing with the information damages the security or defence of Australia;

                            (iii)  the dealing with the information interferes with or prejudices the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution or punishment of a criminal offence against of a law of the Commonwealth;

                            (iv)  the dealing with the information harms or prejudices the health or safety of the Australian public or a section of the Australian public.

Note:          The fault elements for this offence are intention for paragraph (2)(a) and recklessness for paragraphs (2)(b) to (d) (see section 5.6).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

Proof of identity not required

             (3)  In proceedings for an offence against this section, the prosecution is not required to prove the identity of the other person referred to in paragraph (1)(c) or (2)(c).

[offences by others]

(128) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (line 4) , omit “ Commonwealth officer ”, substitute “ public official ”.

[defence for public officials]

(129) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (line 8) , omit “ Commonwealth officer ”, substitute “ public official ”.

[defence for public officials]

(130) Schedule 2, item 6, page 58 (line 11), omit “dealt with, removed or held”, substitute “communicated, removed, held or otherwise dealt with”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(131) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (lines 15 and 16) , omit the note, substitute:

Note:          A defendant may bear an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection (12) of this section and subsection 13.3(3)).

[burden of proof for integrity agency officials]

(132) Schedule 2, item 6, page 58 (lines 19 and 20), omit “the information in relation to which the offence is committed is information that”, substitute “the relevant information”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(133) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 58 (lines 25 to 27) , omit the heading to subsection  122.5 ( 3 ), substitute:

Information communicated etc. to integrity agency

[Australian Information Commissioner; application of defences to dealings etc.]

(134) Schedule 2, item 6, page 58 (lines 29 and 30), omit “relating to the communication of information that the person communicated the information”, substitute “that the person communicated the relevant information, or removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information for the purpose of communicating it”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(135) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 59 (after line 6) , after subparagraph  122.5 ( 3 )( a )( ii ), insert:

                           (iia)  the Australian Information Commissioner, a member of the staff of the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner, or a consultant engaged under the Australian Information Commissioner Act 2010 ;

[Australian Information Commissioner]

(136) Schedule 2, item 6, page 59 (line 11), after “the Ombudsman”, insert “, the Australian Information Commissioner”.

[Australian Information Commissioner]

(137) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 59 (lines 15 and 16) , omit the note, substitute:

Note:          A person mentioned in paragraph (3)(a) does not bear an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection (12)).

[burden of proof for integrity agency officials]

(138) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 59 (lines 17 to 24) , omit subsection  122.5 ( 4 ), substitute:

Information communicated etc. in accordance with the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 or the Freedom of Information Act 1982

             (4)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division that the person communicated the relevant information, or removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information for the purpose of communicating it, in accordance with:

                     (a)  the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 ; or

                     (b)  the Freedom of Information Act 1982 .

Note:          A defendant may bear an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection (12) of this section and subsection 13.3(3)).

Information communicated etc. for the purpose of reporting offences and maladministration

          (4A)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division that the person communicated, removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information for the primary purpose of reporting, to an appropriate agency of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory:

                     (a)  a criminal offence, or alleged criminal offence, against a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  maladministration relating to the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution or punishment of a criminal offence against a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (c)  maladministration relating to the performance of functions of the Australian Federal Police under:

                              (i)  the Australian Federal Police Act 1979 ; or

                             (ii)  the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 .

Note:          A defendant may bear an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection (12) of this section and subsection 13.3(3)).

[application of defences to dealings etc.; freedom of information; reporting maladministration]

(139) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 59 (line 25) , after “ communicated ”, insert “ etc. ”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(140) Schedule 2, item 6, page 59 (lines 27 and 28), omit “relating to the communication of information that the person communicated the information”, substitute “that the person communicated the relevant information, or removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information for the purpose of communicating it,”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(141) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 59 (after line 31) , after subsection  122.5 ( 5 ), insert:

Information communicated etc. for the purposes of obtaining or providing legal advice

          (5A)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division that the person communicated, removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information for the primary purpose of obtaining or providing, in good faith, legal advice in relation to:

                     (a)  an offence against this Part; or

                     (b)  the application of any right, privilege, immunity or defence (whether or not in this Part) in relation to such an offence;

whether that advice was obtained or provided before or after the person engaged in the conduct constituting the offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

[defence in relation to obtaining or providing legal advice]

(142) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 60 (lines 1 to 27) , omit subsections  122.5 ( 6 ) and (7), substitute:

Information communicated etc. by persons engaged in business of reporting news etc.

             (6)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence by a person against this Division that the person communicated, removed, held or otherwise dealt with the relevant information in the person’s capacity as a person engaged in the business of reporting news, presenting current affairs or expressing editorial or other content in news media, and:

                     (a)  at that time, the person reasonably believed that engaging in that conduct was in the public interest (see subsection (7)); or

                     (b)  the person:

                              (i)  was, at that time, a member of the administrative staff of an entity that was engaged in the business of reporting news, presenting current affairs or expressing editorial or other content in news media; and

                             (ii)  acted under the direction of a journalist, editor or lawyer who was also a member of the staff of the entity, and who reasonably believed that engaging in that conduct was in the public interest (see subsection (7)).

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in this subsection (see subsection 13.3(3)).

             (7)  Without limiting paragraph (6)(a) or (b), a person may not reasonably believe that communicating, removing, holding or otherwise dealing with information is in the public interest if:

                     (a)  engaging in that conduct would be an offence under section 92 of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 (publication of identity of ASIO employee or ASIO affiliate); or

                     (b)  engaging in that conduct would be an offence under section 41 of the Intelligence Services Act 2001 (publication of identity of staff); or

                     (c)  engaging in that conduct would be an offence under section 22, 22A or 22B of the Witness Protection Act 1994 (offences relating to Commonwealth, Territory, State participants or information about the national witness protection program); or

                     (d)  that conduct was engaged in for the purpose of directly or indirectly assisting a foreign intelligence agency or a foreign military organisation.

[reporting news etc.]

(143) Schedule 2, item 6, page 60 (line 30), omit “relating to the communication of information”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(144) Schedule 2, item 6, page 60 (line 31), omit “the information”, substitute “the relevant information”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(145) Schedule 2, item 6, page 61 (lines 8 and 9), omit “the communication, the person believes that the communication”, substitute “the communication, removal, holding or dealing, the person believes that engaging in that conduct”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(146) Schedule 2, item 6, page 61 (line 17), omit “relating to dealing with information”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(147) Schedule 2, item 6, page 61 (line 18), omit “the information”, substitute “the relevant information”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(148) Schedule 2, item 6, page 61 (line 27), omit “dealing”, substitute “communication, removal, holding or dealing”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(149) Schedule 2, item 6, page 62 (line 1), omit “dealing”, substitute “communication, removal, holding or dealing”.

[application of defences to dealings etc.]

(150) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 62 (after line 6) , at the end of section  122.5 , add:

Removing, holding or otherwise dealing with information for the purposes of communicating information

           (11)  For the purposes of subsection (3), (4), (5) or (5A), it is not necessary to prove that information, that was removed, held or otherwise dealt with for the purposes of communicating it, was actually communicated.

Burden of proof for integrity agency officials

           (12)  Despite subsection 13.3(3), in a prosecution for an offence against this Division, a person mentioned in subparagraph (3)(a)(i), (ii), (iia) or (iii) does not bear an evidential burden in relation to the matter in:

                     (a)  subsection (1), (4) or (4A); or

                     (b)  either of the following:

                              (i)  subparagraph (3)(a)(i), (ii), (iia) or (iii);

                             (ii)  paragraph (3)(b), to the extent that that paragraph relates to the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security, the Ombudsman, the Australian Information Commissioner or the Law Enforcement Integrity Commissioner.

Defences do not limit each other

           (13)  No defence in this section limits the operation of any other defence in this section.

[burden of proof for integrity agency officials; application of defences to dealings etc.]

(151) Schedule  2 , item  6 , page 63 (after line 9) , at the end of Division  123 , add:

123.4   Effect of this Part on other rights, privileges, immunities or defences

                   Nothing in this Part limits or affects any other right, privilege, immunity or defence existing apart from this Part.

123.5   Requirements before proceedings can be initiated

             (1)  Proceedings for the commitment of a person for trial for an offence against this Part must not be instituted without:

                     (a)  the written consent of the Attorney-General; and

                     (b)  for proceedings that relate to security classified information—a certification by the Attorney-General that, at the time of the conduct that is alleged to constitute the offence, it was appropriate that the information had a security classification.

             (2)  However, the following steps may be taken (but no further steps in proceedings may be taken) without consent or certification having been obtained:

                     (a)  a person may be arrested for the offence and a warrant for such an arrest may be issued and executed;

                     (b)  a person may be charged with the offence;

                     (c)  a person so charged may be remanded in custody or on bail.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (2) prevents the discharge of the accused if proceedings are not continued within a reasonable time.

             (4)  In deciding whether to consent, the Attorney-General must consider whether the conduct might be authorised in a way mentioned in section 122.5.

[effect of Part; certification of information]

(152) Schedule  2 , item  11 , page 64 (lines 15 to 17) , omit the item.

[definition of national security offence]

(153) Schedule 5, item 5, page 75 (lines 2 to 5), omit subparagraph 12(7)(a)(vi), substitute:

                            (vi)  relationships with foreign principals;

[definition of foreign principal; references to persons controlled by foreign principals]

(154) Page 75 (after line 11) , at the end of the Bill, add:

Schedule 6 Protection for persons providing information voluntarily to the Inspector-General

   

Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security Act 1986

1  After section 34A

Insert:

34B   Protection for persons providing information voluntarily to the Inspector-General

             (1)  This section applies in relation to a person if the person voluntarily provides, or makes available, information or documents to the Inspector-General for any of the following purposes:

                     (a)  making a complaint under Division 2 of Part II;

                     (b)  the Inspector-General conducting an inspection under section 9A;

                     (c)  the Inspector-General conducting a preliminary inquiry into a complaint under section 14;

                     (d)  the Inspector-General conducting an inquiry under Division 3 of Part II.

Person not liable to penalties under Commonwealth laws

             (2)  The person is not (subject to subsection (3)) liable to a penalty under any law of the Commonwealth for providing or making available the information or documents in accordance with subsection (1).

Exceptions

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not apply:

                     (a)  in relation to proceedings for an offence against:

                              (i)  section 137.1 or 137.2 (false or misleading information and documents), section 145.1 (using forged document) or 149.1 (obstructing Commonwealth officials) of the Criminal Code ; or

                             (ii)  Division 3 of Part III of the Crimes Act 1914 (offences relating to evidence and witnesses); or

                            (iii)  section 6 of the Crimes Act 1914 , or section 11.1, 11.4 or 11.5 of the Criminal Code , in relation to an offence referred to in subparagraph (i) or (ii); or

                     (b)  if the provision:

                              (i)  is enacted after the commencement of this section; and

                             (ii)  is expressed to have effect despite this section.

[protection for persons providing information voluntarily to the Inspector-General]