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Tuesday, 12 December 1905

Senator GIVENS (Queensland) - Senator Best read a letter which he said contained the official representation from the Government of Japan.

Senator Best - No, I said the letter was from the Japanese Consul.

Senator GIVENS - The honorable senator said that the letter was sent by some one representing Japan to the Commonwealth Government, with regard to the necessity or desirableness, of making an alteration in the Act; but every official communication on. such a subject from a foreign power to the Commonwealth must come through the Imperial Government, because there is no other channel. As to there having been no official communication, I have proof in the fact that on the 14th November last the representative of the Government informed us that none had been received. If honorable senators will turn to page 4969 of Hansard for this year, they will see the following : -

Senator STEWART(for Senator Staniforth Smith) asked the Minister representing the Minister of External Affairs, upon notice -

1.   Has the Government received any communication from the Secretary of State for the Colonies asking the Federal Parliament to alter the Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act in so far as the Empire of Japan is concerned, with a' view of removing the alleged objections of Japan to the present provisions of the Act?

2.   Was not the present Act passed at the instance and desire of the then Secretary of State for the Colonies?

Senator PLAYFORD - The answers to the honorable senator's questions are as follow : -

1.   No communication containing any such request has been received.

2.   The adoption of the Education Test in the present Act was suggested to the Premiers of the States in London in 1897.

That proves that up to date no official communication from the Japanese Government had ever reached the Commonwealth Government.

Senator de Largie - And the letter referred to by Senator Best was dated 1901.

Senator Staniforth Smith - A Consul has no authority to make any such official representation.

Senator GIVENS - Any such letters written by a Consul are, so far as we are concerned, so many private letters ; and therefore the Government were perfectly right when they asserted that no official communication had been received. That not only disposes of the argument as to any official communication, but is also incidentally an effective reply to those who say that the Commonwealth Parliament, in passing the Immigration Restriction Act, flew in the faces of Japan and other nations. We did not do anything of the kind. The desire was to pass this legislation in a perfectly honest and straightforward way - to show on the face of the Act that the intention was to exclude all coloured people, without respect to nations. Instead, however, we were induced to insert an education test at the special request of the then Tory Government of the United Kingdom, which finds so much favour amongst honorable senators opposite, who are so loud-mouthed in denouncing this Act and its administration. I differ from Senator Pearce in the view I take of the amending Bill. Senator Pearce is of opinion that the good provisions outweigh the bad provision to abolish the European language test - that many of the amendments close up gaps in the existing law, and will tend to make the latter more effective. I admit that, from my point of view, there are some good provisions in the Bill, but my opinion is that these are entirelyoutweighed bv the widening of the language test. ^Although under the existing law there may be some gaps through which a few undesirable aliens may trickle into the Commonwealth, we must remember that if we widen the language test we shall create a gap through which they may enter wholesale. No provision which will enable us to prevent the entrance of the few will make up for provisions which may . bring about the admission of the multitude. It is the fixed desire of the people of Australia to keep the Continent white - to preserve it for a nation of our own race and colour. In that, the people of Australia are perfectly justified : and we have no right to weaken deliberate legislation in such a manner as to permit of a wholesale influx of Asiatics. It is admitted by both friends and opponents of the immigration- restriction policy, generally, that the Act mainly depends on administration for its effectiveness. Suppose, for a moment, that we had in power a Government, the leading members and the majority of the supporters of which were opposed to the White Australia ideal, and in favour of opening, the door wide to immigrants of all races and colours.

Senator Playford - They could carry out their desires under the present Act.

Senator GIVENS - But they could not do so as easily as they could under the amending Bill.

Senator Playford - Just as easily. If the test were made in an Asiatic language, an undesirable Japanese could be tested, for instance, in Hindustani.

Senator GIVENS - The fact that a test in an European language is provided is a clear and unmistakable indication of our opinion.

Senator Pearce - Our Acts of Parliament are not read by the light of our opinions, but by what appears in the Acts themselves.

Senator Playford - Everything lies in the administration.

Senator GIVENS - That may be so; but the administration must be in accord with the expressed indication of the Act, and so long as the test is made in an European language it means that Australia intends to admit only those who speak an European language.

Senator Pearce - - Some Japanese can speak English.

Senator GIVENS - Very likely ; but the fact that the test must be in an European language indicates that the immigrants we desire are those who have an European language as their mother tongue. The provision in the Bill affords no such indication ; and any Government would, of course, be justified in claiming the power to prescribe any language.

Senator Playford - But, according to the Bill, the prescribed language must be fixed by resolution in Parliament.

Senator GIVENS - Why does the Constitution place so many safeguards in regard to the passing of Acts of Parliament ? It is simply in order that the will of the people shall not be lightly changed, but that full opportunity shall be given for discussion. Regulations laid on the table mav escape notice, and if they are not negatived within a certain time they have the force of law. There are no safeguards of first, second, and third readings, and so forth, as in the case of a Bill.

Senator Playford - The regulations have to be passed by resolution of both Houses ; they do not attain the force of law by effluxion of time. v

Senator GIVENS - But what is that compared with those provided in the case of ordinary legislation. The experience of Parliament proves that regulations, once they are framed by a Government, almost generally escape attention.

Senator Playford - "Under this Bill, each House must be asked by motion to agree to a regulation, so that it could not possibly escape notice.

Senator GIVENS - Will the Minister consent to embody the regulation in the Bill, so that it can be fully discussed in Committee, and we can. vote afterwards either for or against the third reading? I have no particular fault to find with the present legislation. In my opinion, it is fairly satisfactory. If, as Senator Pearce has pointed out, a few undesirable immigrants have been smuggled through in one way or another, it has been mainly through lax administration. " All that we want to make the present law as effective as any one could desire is a little more watchful administration. If that is secured, I feel that the Act will be perfectly satisfactory and effective in achieving the object for which it was, passed. Again let me ask who has made a demand for an alteration in the existing law ?

Senator Fraser - The honorable senator's own Government.

Senator GIVENS - My Government have not asked for anything of the kind.

Senator Fraser - The present Government are doing so.

Senator GIVENS - Unfortunately, I have not a mortgage over the present Government.

Senator Fraser - The honorable senator has.

Senator GIVENS - I do not belong to the present. Government, and I do not claim that they belong to me.

Senator Fraser - That is all nonsense.

Senator GIVENS - Because I am giving an independent support to the present Government, it does not imply that I am going to saddle myself with the responsibility of any legislation which they may choose to introduce, that I do not hold myself absolutely free to vote against any legislation which thev may introduce if I consider it bad.

Senator Lt Col Gould - The Bill has been accepted by the party to which the honorable senator belongs.

Senator Fraser - It must have been accepted by the caucus.

Senator GIVENS - Senator Fraser is greatly concerned about caucuses. 'How many of them does he hold ?

Senator Fraser - Do not kick over the traces,.

Senator GIVENS - The honorable senator holds caucuses with men who are not members of Parliament. He goes to little sectarian organizations outside, and holds, caucuses with them, and, dominated by their opinions, he comes here and wishes to dominate Parliament. Who has. made a demand for this measure? Honorable senators on the other side say that it is made by the Government to which I belong. The only Government to which I ever owed any allegiance was the one led by Mr. Watson.

Senator Lt Col Gould - And he approves, of this Bill.

Senator GIVENS - He was careful to say that he was acting on his own responsibility.

Senator Fraser - That is not generous.

Senator GIVENS - Mr. Watsonsaid that he was speaking for himself, and the members of my party who are in his confidence will be able to say if I am not speaking the exact truth.

Senator de Largie - Several of his followers, voted against the Bill in another place.

Senator GIVENS - Yes, and I hope that several of his followers in this place will vote against the Bill. The only demand for an alteration of the Act has been made by a few interested persons who mainly represent the wealth, the conservatism, and the reactionary principles advocated by honorable senators opposite. Over and over again there has. been a howl raised by honorable senators representing those opinions, both inside and outside Parliament, against this, class of legislation, although, as I have shown, it was enacted in its particular form at the request of the late English Conservative Government. What was the animating move? Was it a humanitarian feeling ? Was it a desire that absolute justice should be meted out to broad humanity, to whites and blacks alike ? Nothing of the kind ! A pretence of that kind may have been made, but the real reason was a desire to flood Australia with cheap labour, so that a little more profit might be squeezed out of suffering humanity.

Senator Lt Col Gould - Nonsense.

Senator GIVENS - That is the absolute truth. At the bottom of the hearts of the opponents of this legislation has been a desire to flood Australia with cheap labour, to have it handed over to a few big nabobs with their army of coloured slaves at their behest and disposal, so that they might increase their profits and pose as the almighty kings of the country.

Senator Lt Col Gould - The honorable senator is suffering from a nightmare.

Senator GIVENS - That was right at the bottom of the whole crime. Senator Fraser no doubt considered it a first-class thing that the sugar planters in Northern Queensland should be supplied with a plethora of coloured labour, so that they might enjoy a higher rate of interest, so that they could create a happy country, where every man would have the right to flog his own nigger. That has been their ideal all the time, but it is not the ideal of the people of Australia, I am proud to be able to say, and they have determined that it shall never reach fruition.

Senator Fraser - The honorable senator must have joined the new radical party which has been formed in "England.

Senator GIVENS - I am pleased, indeed, that there is a new radical party, because, in my own opinion, England has suffered enough obloquy under the thumb of a reactionary Government.

The PRESIDENT - Does the honorable senator think that has anything to do with the Bill ?

Senator GIVENS - Undoubtedly if it has not, then the interjection had nothing to do with the Bill.

The PRESIDENT - The honorable senator ought not to take notice of interjections.

Senator GIVENS - It is pretended by honorable senators opposite, and by the party outside whom they represent, that no one wishes to allow Chinese or Japanese labourers to come into Australia, but that all they desire is to remove from the present Act certain provisions, which are alleged to be offensive to Japan. That is not the animating desire of their party. Their desire is to open wide the gate, to let coloured aliens come in at their own sweet will, and the sooner Australia understands that the better it will be. Knowing that that is their desire, how could I, or any one else, be justified in assisting them to open that gate?

Senator Dobson - Had not the honorable senator better express his own opinions, instead of misrepresenting those of everybody else?

Senator Fraser - The honorable senator will not allow the whites to come in, let alone the blacks.

Senator GIVENS - I shall show Senator Fraser that he is mistaken when the Contracts Immigration Bill is reached. Senator Dobson says that I am misrepresenting the opinions of certain persons. On a score of occasions I have heard the honorable senator say that we should' allow coloured labourers to come in wholesale, at any rate in the northern portions of Australia.

Senator Dobson - The honorable senator never heard anything of the sort.

Senator GIVENS - Undoubtedly I did, and by-and-by I shall take an opportunity to remind the honorable senator of the statements which he is now denying.

Senator de Largie - Senator Fraser always insisted that black labour was required in Northern Queensland.

Senator Fraser - Where the whites cannot work.

Senator DAWSON (QUEENSLAND) - And where is that place?

Senator GIVENS - This evening we had some honorable senators objecting to the selection of Dalgety as a site for the Federal Capital, because it was too cold a place for whites to live in, but now they say that another part of Australia is too hot. What sort of arguments are these ?

Senator Gray - Why does not the honorable senator attack the Government for bringing in the Bill ?

Senator GIVENS - I am. Both the Act and this Bill are subterfuges. It is admitted that they are. We are asked to say to these people, "We will allow you to come in if you can pass a certain language test," when that is not our object. We have just as much objection to the Japanese coming in if they could pass the language test as if they could not, and so has Senator Playford. Why not be honest?

Senator Playford - I wish we could, but we cannot.

Senator GIVENS - Why can we not?

Senator Playford - How can we?

Senator GIVENS - Does Senator Playford think that the Government in England would dare to flout the expressed will of the people of Australia, if the latter had only the courage to embody their opinions in an Act of Parliament? I do not for a moment believe they would.

Senator Playford - To be strictly honest, we ought to adopt the colour test; but we are told that the British Government would not then allow the Royal assent to be given to the Bill.

Senator GIVENS - There is no halfway house to honesty. A thing is either dishonest or honest. If this is not an honest Bill - and it is not - it is a dishonest one.

Senator Playford - It is just as honest as the Act of1901.

Senator GIVENS - Both measures are tarred with the same brush.

Senator Fraser - Some of the honorable senator's statements are correct.

The PRESIDENT - I must ask honorable senators not to interrupt, as it only tends to lead the speaker astray.

Senator GIVENS - If the Act is not intended to allow the Japanese to come in, it is only an aggravation of the offence in the original Act. We are pretending to remove a restriction from the Japanese, and yet the Minister, in his second-reading speech, and by frequent interjections, has told us that we are going to do nothing of the sort. Well, what is the use of pretending that we are going to do it ?

Senator Playford - We are making no pretence.

Senator Dobson - We are not doingit. The honorable senator does not understand the Act.

Senator GIVENS - I understand it a little too well to suit the honorable senator. He says that we are going to placate Japan.

Senator Dobson - Who says so?

Senator GIVENS -The Minister says so.

Senator Dobson -No.

Senator GIVENS - Honorable senators on both sides have said that the original Act is offensive to Japan, and that this Bill will remove the cause of offence.

Senator Dobson - And so is this Bill.

Senator GIVENS - Why is the honorable senator going to vote for its second reading ?

Senator Dobson - On account of the clause which allows the Government to make an arrangement with anybody. That is all.

Senator GIVENS - I am going to vote against the Bill, because I believe that the sacrifice of principle which we are asked to make, and some of the concessions which it gives, is too great a price to pay for its one or two desirable provisions. Suppose that, in order to placate Japan, we were to remove the offensiveness of the provisions in the existing law, and that the Japanese were to come in under the cegis of a Government which was not in sympathy with the White Australia ideal, what would be the effect in the country ? It would be exceedingly bad for the country if the Japanese should come, here in any number, because our ideal, I take it, is to keep Australia white, and any admixture of coloured races would be exceedingly bad for that ideal. We want to keep our race pure, because the highest scientific authorities in the world are agreed, without exception, that the admixture of these races is bad. I intend to quote one of the authorities before I finish my speech.

Senator Fraser - Never mind that ; we are all agreed on that point.

Senator GIVENS - I do not think that the honorable senator is agreed about that, otherwise he would not have been so eager to allow coloured races to come into certain portions of Australia.

Senator Fraser - Never.

Senator GIVENS - I have heard the honorable senator advocate here that the coloured races should be allowed to come into Australia.

Senator Fraser - Under strict regulations, as in Queensland.

Senator GIVENS - But the honorable senator woul d allow them to come in ?

Senator Fraser - Under strict regulations.

Senator GIVENS - If the honorable senator would not allow any one to come in with absolute freedom, as we did, then the system of immigration would only be a modified form of slavery.

Senator Fraser - We do not want them in this State.

Senator GIVENS - The honorable senator wants them in other portions of Australia. I wish he would forget his petty provincialism, and recognise that he is sitting in the Parliament of the Commonwealth, and that Victorian interests are not going to be allowed to prevail over those of the rest of Australia. If we are ever to build up a great nation here, it is essential that it shall not be a nation of Eurasians or a piebald nation of any other kind, but a nation of our own race and colour, who, in the hour of need, will be prepared to stand side by side and fight together as one united people.

Senator Fraser - The party to which the honorable senator belongs is not willing to allow even our own people to come in here.

Senator GIVENS - I shall deal with that matter when we come to consider the measure proposed in connexion with the introduction of contract labour.

Senator Fraser - They stopped General Booth's proposal at any rate.

Senator GIVENS - Senator Fraser is saying something which he knows to be absolutely incorrect.

Senator Fraser - I know that it is correct.

The PRESIDENT - I ask the honorable senator not to interrupt.

Senator GIVENS - There is no member of the party to which I belong who is not prepared to welcome with open arms every white man who comes to this country as a free man. Another essential in the building up of a great nation in this Commonwealth is the maintenance of the standard of living of white people. We must maintain a high standard of living, and we know that if the great bulk of our people, the majority of whom are working people, have to compete for a living with coloured races of all kinds, it will be impossible for them to do so. I hope to see our standard of living raised higher and higher instead of falling lower and lower, as apparently some honorable senators desire. If we are to maintain a high standard, we must encourage clean living. We must have good moral and physical conditions, and I ask how we are to accomplish that if we allow the Japs and the Chows with their thousand and one stinks and abominations, to come in here? I use the words advisedly, because any one who has seen the Japanese and Chinese quarters in some of the towns of Australia - and we need not go further than Melbourne to see them - will know that there is nothing in them but stinks and abominations. Honorable senators need not go more than 300 yards from the building in which we are assembled to be assured of the truth of my assertion. From one end of the country to the other, Australia is overrun by immoral women, imported by Japanese bullies from Japan. From Thursday Island right round the coast to Western Australia, and even in the heart of the Continent, on the gold-fields of that State, they are to be found.

Senator de Largie - And in Cairns.

Senator GIVENS - There are plenty of them in Cairns. No place is free from them. This is the sort of thing which those who favour alien immigration would like to encourage. I say that we want moral and clean-living in Australia, and if we permit these people, who have not the moral sense of white people, and none of the moral conscientious obligations of white people, to come in here, it will be impossible for us to maintain in Australia the standard of clean moral living which we should like to maintain.

Senator DAWSON (QUEENSLAND) - It is no sin according to Japanese morality.

Senator GIVENS - As Senator Dawson reminds me, the sort of thing to which I refer is quite common in Japan, and is not recognised as being immoral. It is quite a common thing in that country for young girls to hire themselves out for a number of years.

Senator DAWSON (QUEENSLAND) - Their fathers hire them out.

Senator GIVENS - Their parents hire them out, or they hire themselves out, for immoral purposes, and they are exposed in cages, as they are in the Commonwealth also, to tempt people, in order that they may earn a dot for themselves which will enable them subsequently to marry and live happy and respectably ever afterwards.

Senator Pulsford - Does the honorable senator think that white men can afford to throw stones in that matter?


Senator Pulsford - I do not.

Senator GIVENS - I say that, bad as some white people undoubtedly are, they have never descended to the filthy practices to which these people have descended.

Senator Pulsford - I think it is a scandal that such remarks should be made.

Senator GIVENS - Senator Pulsford regards it as a scandal that remarks which are absolutely true should be made about the Japanese people who come here, whilst the honorable senator is not one bit ashamed to say them about the people of his own race, because he has said that the people of our own race cannot afford to throw any stones in this respect. Of what use is it for us to blink at the facts ? There may be first-rate and good people in Japan, but they are not of the class who come here. If the honorable senator desires that the youth of the Commonwealth shall be tempted as they might be, by seeing Japanese women painted up and exhibited inside wire-netting, I wish him joy of his aspiration.

Senator Fraser - Is that to be seen in these States?

Senator GIVENS - Yes.

Senator Fraser - The honorable senator must have been travelling, about a bit. I have never seen anything of the kind.

Senator Story - It is not to be seen in South Australia.

Senator GIVENS - The honorable senator must have been travelling around with his eyes shut. From a health point 'of view it is equally important that we should keep our race clean. The worst scourge in Northern Queensland at the present time is what is commonly known as the eartheating disease, the technical name for which is ankylostomiasis . That is the worst pest which has been introduced into Queensland, and it has been brought into that State by these Asiatic people. It was absolutely unknown in the Commonwealth until these people came here. Apparently some honorable senators do not object to subject the little children of Northern Queensland to the contamination of that awful disease.

Senator Findley - That is only one of the diseases which they have introduced.' There is also leprosy.

Senator GIVENS - I proposed to refer to that.

Senator Pulsford - Does not the honorable senator know that white people have nearly decimated some of the South Sea Islands by the diseases they have introduced there?

Senator GIVENS - I do, and the more shame it is that it should be true.

The PRESIDENT - Does the honorable senator really think that these remarks have anything to do with this Bill ?

Senator GIVENS - I respectfully submit that they have. I am pointing to the evils which must follow from the introduction of these people as a reason why this Bill should be opposed, because I consider that it increases the opportunities afforded them to come here. I. therefore, respectfully submit that my remarks are perfectly in order.

Senator Pulsford - They are perfectly disgraceful.

Senator GIVENS - I should like to ask whether Senator Pulsford is in order in saying that my remarks are perfectly disgraceful ?

The PRESIDENT - Senator Pulsfordis not in order in saying that, but Senator Givens must recollect that he is making a very severe attack on the Chinese and Japanese.

Senator GIVENS - I am very pleased to hear, sir, that you think I have made a severe attack, because I was personally of the opinion that I was erring on the side of mildness.

The PRESIDENT - I said nothing as to whether the honorable senator's statements, were correct or not.

Senator GIVENS - We want to keep this Commonwealth free from the physical and moral leprosy which apparently some people would like to see inflicted upon us.

Senator de Largie - Would condone, anyway.

Senator GIVENS - Undoubtedly, they do condone it. There are people in this Commonwealth who are prepared to sacrifice its well-being in every respect if they can secure people to work for them at a low rate of wages, and under conditions which will insure them larger profits. I can produce a printed report of the proceedings of a conference held in Northern Queensland, from which it will be seen that one man went so far as to say that he believed that God Almighty created the South Sea Islanders, so that the planters of Northern Queensland might make profit out of them.

Senator Fraser - " Suspicion ever haunts the guilty mind."

Senator GIVENS - There is no suspicion about this, because the man's actual words can be quoted in this Chamber.

Senator Gray - " Exceptions do not make the rule."

Senator GIVENS - I am afraid that these exceptions are very widely spread, and these opinions find advocates in. almost every quarter of the Commonwealth, and even amongst honorable senators in this Chamber.

Senator Gray - On the opposite side, not on this.

Senator GIVENS - No, on the honorable senator's side. The verv first speech which Senator Gray made in this Senate was in advocacy of niggers being allowed to come into Northern Queensland wholesale.

Senator Gray - Under regulations.

Senator GIVENS - " Under regulations !" What a salve that mus,t be to the honorable senator's conscience. These regulations mean nothing more nor less than semi-slavery. If we allow these people to come in here wholesale, the result of such a policy will ultimately be the dragging of our own people down to the level of these aliens. There is a point of view from which I do not think honorable senators have considered this question. If this Bill is not a mere subterfuge it will result in making the entry of Japanese into the Commonwealth more easy. If that be the result, we may find that we are permitting the entry into the Commonwealth of an advance guard of what may in the future be a hostile nation. We may be admitting an advance guard to spy out the nakedness of the land, in order to allow of the easy entrance of a Japanese hostile force, if in future Australia or the mother country should have any quarrel with Japan.

Senator DAWSON (QUEENSLAND) - We have already done that, I think.

Senator GIVENS - I believe that it is a. fact that they have taken advantage of the presence of some of their countrymen here to secure plans and sketches of every one of our forts.

Senator Fraser - Moonshine ! The honorable senator is dreaming.

Senator GIVENS - I am not dreaming, and I say that officers of our Defence Force have been exceedingly lax in their duty, inasmuch as they have employed some of these people as cooks in the forts. They have been allowed to wander about the fortifications, and this has occurred right round Australia. It is possible that the Japanese have sent educated military officers here, and have induced them to take positions as cooks in this way in order to obtain just the information to which I have referred. Such things have been known before, and the matter is one which deserves consideration.

Senator DAWSON (QUEENSLAND) - Thev know the outside passage to Thursday Island.

Senator GIVENS - As Senator Dawson reminds me, as the result of the employment of these people in the pearlfishing industry of Torres Straits, they are now acquainted with every passage through the Great Barrier Reef, which, in the absence of such knowledge, would have proved an absolute safeguard to Australia. We have heard a great deal from some honorable senators about the offence our Immigration Restriction Act has been to Japan, and have been told that we should not apply any such severe restrictions to the Japanese. But it is curious that those honorable senators have not said a word about the (restrictions which" the Japanese imposed upon Australians visiting their country. They have not said that the Japanese will not permit a foreigner to take up and own a bit of land in Japan, or to engage in business except under special restrictions and in but a few places. We have not been told that the Japanese impose far more restrictions upon Australians going to Japan than we impose on Japanese coming to Australia.

Senator Fraser - There are any number of Australians going to Japan without let or hindrance.

Senator GIVENS - -They go there as visitors only, and the Japanese can come here as visitors without let or hindrance. Japanese have come here, and have engaged in business in Australia; though some of it is filthy business, I admit. Australians cannot go to Japan to engage in business there, and we have more right to be offended with Japanese legislation than they have to be offended with ours. I believe that the people of Australia generally are prepared to concede to Japan the fullest right to impose any restriction she pleases upon the immigration of foreigners into that country. I believe that the Japanese will be wise in imposing such restrictions. I believe that they will be found necessary for her well-being and national existence. One of the highest authorities who has ever expressed an opinion with regard to the future of the Japanese nation has advised them to impose severe restrictions upon immigration. I refer to a letter written in 1892 by the late eminent philosopher and scientist Herbert Spencer. I understand that Senator de Largie has already quoted his letter, and that it appears in Hansard, Herbert Spencer showed how dangerous it would be for Japan to allow unrestricted immigration of alien races. That advice, coming from such an eminent authority, is equally applicable to Australia. The same danger faces us with regard to allowing alien blood to mix with the white race.

Senator de Largie - Japan is acting upon Herbert Spencer's suggestion now.

Senator GIVENS - And she is quite right to do so. It is one of the wisest things which she can do. I believe, therefore, that Japan will readily concede to us the same rights as we concede to her. We have heard something concerning representations made to Australia by Japan, and I do not know that she has ever made any official representations to us concerning this matter. The official representations that have been alleged have been so much noise and bombast from the opponents of this sort of legislation in Australia. One or two isolated Japanese here and there may have written something which would give colourable support to the ideas of honorable senators opposite, but the Commonwealth Government has never had a line of remonstrance from the Japanese Government on the subject. If the Commonwealth has received such communications it has been deceiving this Parliament, because, in answer to a question bv me on the 14th November, the representative of the Government replied that no such representations had ever been madeIt has been said that Japan has proved herself to be a strong Power, equal to any European Power. Senator Pulsford has been particularly prominent in putting forward that view. He argues that we should be careful how we deal with a strong Power of that sort, and that we must avoid offending her susceptibilities.

Senator Pulsford - I have never said anything of the sort. I have never taken that ground.

Senator GIVENS - I do not wish to misquote the honorable senator. He said, at all events, that Japan has proved her humanity and kindliness in different ways, and that we should treat her as we would treat any of the great Powers of Europe. I do not hold that view. If it be true that because Japan is a strong Power, and has proved herself equal to any of the great Powers of Europe, because she has conducted war in a civilized manner, because she has not outraged any of the canons of civilized warfare - though for my own part I consider that all warfare is an outrage upon all ethical canons - if it be true that these are the reasons, why we should not be offensive to Japan, I ask, is not that tantamount to asking us to yield to force what we will not yield to right? Is it not tantamount to asking us to yield to Japan because she is a strong Power, without considering the ethics of the question ? Why has riot Senator Pulsford gone out of his way to ask us to make concessions to weaker Powers, such as he asks us to make to Japan, if he does not argue that we should yield to force? We should make the concessions, if they are right, whether the Power to which they are made is strong or weak.

Senator Pulsford - Hear hear; I quite agree with that.

Senator GIVENS -Why treat Japan differently from the way we treat the people of India? We should, in fact, be much more ready to placate the natives of India, to whom the nation to which we belong owes a certain amount of obligation, than to make concessions to Japan. I could not allow the second reading of this Bill to be passed without expressing the opinions which I strongly hold with regard to it. I believe that the highest duty that we who are charged with the destinies of this young nation, have, is to protect it against an influx of coloured aliens. The prosperity and well-being of this country depend upon the policy 06 this Parliament. A heavy responsibility rests upon us; and before doing anything which will have a tendency to cause a departure from the high national ideals which this Parliament has set mp for itself, we should be. convinced of the absolute and urgent necessity of making the change recommended. I am not convinced of it. Therefore, I shall vote against the second reading of the Bill, and shall do all I can, if the measure gets into Committee, to make its provisions more stringent rather than to widen the means of permitting the entry of coloured Asiatics into Australia.

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