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Thursday, 1 August 1946

Mr MARTENS (Herbert) .- I have listenedto this debate with considerable interest. I was particularly interested in how the Leader of the Opposition (Mr. Menzies) was helped to make his speech by Mr. Justice Davidson. I do not claim that I have read right through His Honour's report on the coalmining industry,but I have read a lot of it, and, as one with long experience in industry, I claim that if he had been appointed by the mine owners themselves to make the inquiry, he could not have done a betterjob for them. The Leader of the Opposition said that 75 per cent. of the miners were honest men. That may be so. That is a far higher percentage than the percentage of honest men among the people whom the right honorable member represents. But for the report he would have been hard put to make a speech. That remark applies to the honorable member for Balaclava (Mr. White) also. When the report was published it was attacked as biased by clergymen of all denominations in northern Queensland. No one would say that they areCommunists or unthinking youths. Their criticism was well justified. As far as I can see, the learned judge did not say anything about 75 per cent. of the miners being honest. All he said was that they were a body of men led by Communists. It is said that the miners are not hewing coal as they should. I remember the time when, because the coal-owners had more coal at grass than they could sell, the miners were employed for only one and a half or two days a week. The owners feared degeneration and depreciation of the value of the coal because of the delay between its production and sale. Until production is made available for the family instead of for the profit of a few, we shall experience industrial trouble. The miners are wise in their generation. They know that if they build up stocks of coal, they will be either looking for work, or existing on the dole. They have learned, not from theory, but in the bitter school of experience, what it means when they build up huge stocks. That experience is not peculiar to the coal-mining industry. Undoubtedly mistakes have been made by the coal-miners, but errors of judgment have been made by every section of the community, including members of both sides of the House, and the public as a whole. I know how far the interests which the Opposition represents are prepared to go in making lying statements about the cause of the industrial unrest on the coal-fields. Recently, the chairman of the Sydney County Council, Mr. Cramer, made several statements explaining the reason for the black-outs or partial black-outs in Sydney. He knew at the time that he was deliberately lying. In every part of Sydney, neon signs could be seen advertising the wares and merchandise of the big emporiums. When the Daily Mirror showed up this gentleman for what he was, he ceased to disseminate his propaganda. According to his allegations, factories had sufficient coal to keep them in operation for only a few hours, and unless additional supplies arrived at once, the railways would be brought to a standstill. The Minister for Works in New South Wales, to his credit, refused to accept Mr. Cramer's suggestion for rationing power, and when it was pointed out that his ' statements were not in accordance with the facts, the propaganda ceased. I have no doubt that- honorable members opposite will constantly refer in this debate to the chaotic condition of industry generally as the result of a shortage of coal.

Mr Archie Cameron - Industry has come to a standstill in South Australia. >Mr. MARTENS.- The attitude of the honorable member for Barker (Mr. Archie Cameron) is that the miners should not dare to hold-up supplies of coal to South Australia. The fact is that there are supplies of coal awaiting shipment to- South' Australia. 'It was not the fault of the miners that the coal could not be loaded into the ships because of lack of transport.

Mr Archie Cameron - That is not the fault of South Australia.

Mr MARTENS - - The honorable member is the best Nazi that I have ever known in this Parliament.

Mr Harrison - The honorable member for Barker is one of those Scotsmen whom the honorable gentleman desired to deport.

Mr MARTENS - What I said of Scotsmen I do not withdraw, and what L have said about the honorable .member for Wentworth (Mr. Harrison), I do not withdraw. I know what the honorable member would do to the coal-miners if he had his way. He would resuscitate the New Guard ,under Eric Campbell, and march to the coal-fields. All of the criticism voiced by honorable members opposite during this debate has been directed against the coal-miners, regardless of what the trouble . was or where it occurred. In every instance, the miners were to blame. If South Australian industries were short of coal, obviously the miners were at fault. I repeat that plenty of coal has been available in New South Wales, but because of the lack of transport it could not be sent to the ports for shipment. That was not the fault of the miners.

I consider that the employer is just as much to blame as the employee. I speak as one who has had many years' experience of the Labour- movement and as a leader in the industrial field. The statement made by the honorable member for Robertson (Mr. Williams) cannot be denied. The honorable member for Balaclava (Mr. White) said that if owners and the coal-miners could get together, they could compose their differences. I have always believed that if disputing parties meet in conference and forget about profits, they will reach an amicable agreement. In Queensland, the legislation governing the Arbitration Court contains disciplinary clauses, which have not to be used often. Honorable members opposite emphasize that the Government should compel the miners to obey the awards of the Arbitration Court. I know something of the difficulties that unions experience in having their cases heard by the court. A claim by the union of which I am a member was delayed for two years before the court proceeded to hear it. In Queensland, when industrial strife is brewing, a magistrate, or where there is no- magistrate, a clerk of petty sessions, is empowered immediately to call a conference of the parties before the dispute develops into a strike. At that stage; it is easy to reason with the parties. But once a strike occurs, their temper is different. Honorable gentlemen opposite represent the employers. If they could smash every union in the country and revive the slave conditions which existed a couple of centuries ago, they would unhesitatingly do so. I invite honorable members to read the speeches made on behalf of the miners in Great Britain by the late Robert S millie in order to obtain an idea of how the workers were treated by the employers. I remember when workers in Queensland were " pushed out " and had to seek other employment, for having ventured to assert their rights. Not so long ago, the pastoralists' association in Queensland issued a reference to every employee. If a man did not have a reference he could not get a job, irrespective of his workmanship or general behaviour. A man was not given a reference if 'he dared to assert his manhood and stand up for the principles which he. believed to be right.

I listened carefully to the speech of the fight honorable member for North Sydney (Mr. Hughes). In my opinion, he is one of the greatest humbugs in the public life of this country. He read extracts from a hook -which he wrote, The Case for Labour. Throughout, his life he has been a shrewd and cunning politician. He admitted that the Government could not prevent strikes, and that, in some circumstances, strikes might be justified. But he did not justify putting Peter Bowling in leg-irons when he arrived at Sydney station after having spoken in many centres. The right honorable gentleman believed in repression. He never fought honestly .for the welfare of the workers. When you converse with him you quickly discover the subtleness of his brain and his ability to tell a convincing story of his experiences in various jobs. But -when you have had experience of a particular job, and discuss it with the right honorable gentleman, you quickly find out how little he knows about it.

Mr Bowden - He has done a lot for the people^ just the same.

Mr MARTENS - He has never done anything for anybody except William Morris Hughes. The right honorable gentleman referred at length in. his speech to the threatened black-out in Sydney. He was well aware that the propaganda disseminated by Mr. Cramer was false, ft is futile for honorable members opposite to pretend that they are interested in the welfare of the workers, because the workers are awake to such humbug. I do not know Mr. Gregory Forster, hut he has been pointed out to rae in the House. Some of the letters which he has written to the Sydney newspapers have been well composed and very subtle. Their object is to convince the public of the viciousness of the coal-miners. He did not place any of the blame for the industrial unrest upon the employers, who will provide some of the Opposition's funds for the forthcoming election campaign. No doubt he is in receipt of a large salary, and does a good job for his employers.

Mr Conelan - He is .asleep at his post now.

Mr MARTENS - I believe that he is finite wide awake. The honorable mem ber for Balaclava emphasized that more amenities should be provided for tho. coal-miners, and that they should have a better class of house. Governments which the honorable member supported for years should have provided funds tq enable the Government of New South Wales to build those homes. Since I have been a member of this Parliament, the housing shortage in the Australian Capital Territory has been marked, despite the fact that the Commonwealth has full power ' to build homes here. Unfortunately, sufficient dwellings have not been built to overcome the shortage. On transfer to Canberra public servants have had to leave their women-folk in Melbourne' or elsewhere because there was nowhere in Canberra for them to live. Why did not the anti-Labour Government then in office proceed with the building of the administrative block, as recommended by the Public Works' Committee? As honorable gentleman know, the foundations for that building have been ready for many years. Instead of proceeding with that work the government of which I am speaking leased office accommodation in Sydney and Melbourne which has cost ihe country hundreds of thousands of pounds in the intervening years.

Mr SPEAKER - Order ! The honorable member is somewhat wide 'of the bill. '

Mr MARTENS - The honorable member for. Balaclava indulged in some political window-dressing and treated us to more humbug than I have encountered for a long time. We have heard a greatdeal about Mr. Justice Davidson's report. Honorable gentlemen opposite have complained throughout this debate that the . Government is not giving effect to His Honour's recommendations. My opinion is that if the report had been written at the behest of the owners, aided and abetted by Mr- Gregory Forster, Mr. McNally and Mr. Davis, the document could not have served the interests of the owners better than it does. Were it not for the fact that a general election is close at hand, we should not have heard anything about this business. Perhaps the right honorable member for North Sydney can be excused for doing the best he could possibly do with, the brief that was handed to him, for the mine-owners have treated him very well indeed. I say without reservation that honorable gentlemen opposite get money for the purpose of fighting their election campaigns from mine-owners and other capitalists, and they are now indulging in political propaganda of the most unjustifiable kind. I have had ;i very long industrial experience, and have suffered severely for my industrial opinions. I remember that many years ago the coal-owners and others told us that we should put our own representatives in Parliament in' order to ensure that legislation acceptable to us would be passed. It was not long before we discovered that the employers did not desire political unionism to develop. In fact, they did not want unionism of any kind. They desired to retain the right to say .to the miners, " You can go off on Saturday for a' month or five weeks, and what you do in that time" is your own responsibility."

Much as I regret the economic difficulties that have been caused by the nonproduction of more coal, I consider that the coal-miners have been .justified in their actions by the treatment that has been meted out to them by employers. I do not say that all employers have been blameworthy, for I know some in Queensland who have done a wonderful job for the miners, and have not had to approach the Queensland Industrial Court since its establishment by the RyanTheodore Government. Some employers have always " played ball " with the men who worked for them. . That is not true, however, of many other employers whom I. could name and. who are never out of arbitration or industrial courts, because they are always trying to undermine the working conditions and reduce the wages of their employees. The right honorable in ember for North Sydney would have us believe that he has clone something for the workers, but he did not hesitate to desert the working class and go his own way when it suited him. We have been told .by honorable gentlemen opposite that we need leadership such as that given to us by the late John Curtin. I remind them that they have not had a real leader in this Parliament for many years,, except one who " ratted " from the Labour party.

Sir EARLEPAGE (Cowper) rs.30].- The honorable member for Herbert (Mr. Martens) told us that he had done a little coal-mining in his time, but he has been working a very thin political seam this afternoon. It is a pity that he did not advise the honorable member for Robertson (Mr. Williams) to talk a little common sense. That honorable gentleman would have us believe that the Labour party has an alibi 'in respect of the treatment of coal-miners in New South Wales; but the Labour party has been in office in the State Parliament for more than half the time since 1910. For a good deal of that time it had a majority in the Upper House. In fact it "packed" the Upper House at one stage for -the purpose of bringing about- its abolition. Unfortu.nately for the Labour party some of the men it had appointed to vote for the abolition of the Upper House were not present in their places when the vote was taken.

We must. face the fact that although the Commonwealth already possesses' all the powers which are being sought in this bill to deal with coal-mining, it is proposing not clear-cut Commonwealth action, but joint action with the Government of New South Wales. The alibi which the honorable member for Robertson sought to establish for the Government in connexion with the coalmining industry was as thin as his arguments in regard to the war-time administration of the Government. Everybody knows that this Government simply accelerated the speed of machinery whichhad been established in connexion with the war effort before it assumed office. The speeches of honorable members opposite have shown clearly how little they are concerned about peace in industry; or that has been the characteristic of the utterances of all Government supporters with the single exception of the Prime Minister (Mr. Chifley).

However, I desire to make some constructive suggestions with the- object of insuring an immediate improvement in coal production and ' the ultimate permanent solution of the problems of "theindustry. The people of Australia need coal urgently, but instead of giving them coal the Government has given them this bill. The people asked for bread and have been given a stone. There is nothing new in this ' measure except certain provisions to authorize the Government to " shovel out money " for the mechanization of coal mines. .Yet a perusal of Mr. Justice Davidson's report indicates dearly that the mine-owners are willing and anxious to spend money to mechanize the mines. But they are facing two obstacles: First, the Minister for Mines in New South "Wales, who to a large extent has forbidden action .in this regard-; arid secondly, the miners federation. In the drafting of this bill the Government has treated the whole problem of coal production with incredible levity. If the recommendations of Mr. Justice Davidson were put into effect, an increase of coal production could be achieved in New South Wales immediately, and the Government has all the necessary statutory power to give effect to the recommendations to which I refer. Coal production has been declining steadily during the last four years. Mr. Justice Davidson was aware of this fact and after thorough, impartial and comprehensive investigations lasting for many months, he has made .some practical recommendations. It is regrettable that the report was not made available to honorable members in time for consideration in relation to this bill. In spite of the recommendations in the report, the Government is proposing that the coal-mining industry shall be dealt with on the basis of co-operation with only one State. As soon as the secondreading speech had been made, the Government withdrew completely one part of the bill which the Minister had said was vital, proving how carelessly and casually the measure had been drawn up. From a perusal of the , bill and the Minister's speech, it is hard to determine whether that part constitutes the brain,the heart or the bowels of the measure; but, because of the record of the Government, I suspect that it must be the bowels, as the Government has never displayed any intestinal fortitude on this subject a<- any 'time. This legislation may have been designed to secure a psychological effect, as the Prime Minister (Mr. Chifley) has said. But even members of the Government caucus are anxious to have it amended. The miners' federation has expressed opposition- to it, and the mine-owners have openly stated that they, too, are opposed to it. It seems, to have been badly received, everywhere. A better psychology would be achieved, and more coal would be. produced, if the Government were to take action immediately under its- existing statutory powers. Independently of this legislation, it could remove from the industry all those elements among the miners which are the root cause of the lack of discipline. The late Mr. Curtin, in a speech, that he made in 1943, stated this very clearly. What he then said is worth repeating -

Therefore, the loss of production in the present year, compared with last year, is not due to new grounds, nor to industrial conditions, nor to the failure of the appropriate conciliation machinery, but to causes which were not present to anything like the same degree in any previous year. As a result of inquiries which I have had made, it is the opinion of the Government' that the removal of minority malcontents ' and irresponsible.1in the industry will go a long way towards maintaining increased coal production. In the main the irresponsibles comprise youths of military age and men engaged in dual occupations as well as mining - taxi drivers, starting-price bookmakers, billiard-room proprietors, dog trainers and the like. These nien have engaged as miners in order to obtain protection. Generally, they either readily agree to strike; sometimes themselves openly addressing the men or making the first move from the mine, thus bringing oik a general exodus because of the miners' traditional policy of " one out, all out ". The malcontents and irresponsibles are indicated by bad attendance records: It is the opinion of the Government that they should be weeded out o: the industry.

I venture to affirm that the Government, has a dossier in regard to every one of those individuals, and could lay its hands on them immediately. Mr. Curtin continued -

They have a. chronic record of absenteeism, and their removal from the industry would leave no reasonable grounds for complaint on the ground of victimization.

In 1944, the late right honorable gentleman amplified the position when he said this-

As I have said, the remaining sections of the -bill are largely a repetition of the existing regulations, under which the Commonwealth Coal Commission has functioned, and the only other provision to which I need expressly refer is that which authorizes the commissioner to direct that a person shall no longer be employed in tlie coal-mining industry, and prohibit the employment of that person by any one engaged in the industry.

The Government has already passed legislation which, if applied, would arrest the decline of production in the coal industry.

The next step that should be taken to ensure an immediate increase of production is to relieve from taxes that group of incomes in which most of the coalminers are to be found, so that they may be encouraged to redouble their efforts. Even ministerial supporters have advocated this.

Thirdly, special inducements should be offered for the working of a second shift. Mr. Justice Davidson has mentioned several times in his report that, under existing conditions, if a second shift were worked twice as much coal would be produced. "With the working of double shifts from Monday to Friday, and cessation of production during the week-end, opportunities would be afforded to repair all the mining apparatus, and thus improve the conditions underground. The Government could easily bring down special legislation providing inducements for miners to work a second shift. The industry is suffering because it has been allowed to fall into disrepute. Everybody " flogs " either the owners or the miners. Both parties in the industry must be held in higher esteem. If the right means be adopted, the production of coal will be made an honorable task. There should be an honour roll, as there was when war loans were being raised, and on it should be inscribed the names of those whose production achievements warrant special recognition. As honorable members know, I am seldom inclined to follow the Soviet Union in any regard, but I am in favour of emulating it in honouring men who do extra work in the national interest and peace-time pursuits.

One of the faults in the industry is that all peccadillos are published to the " nth " degree. Unfortunately, extravagant statements are sometimes made by mine-owners and miners' leaders. The attempt should be made to keep such matters as far as possible out of the press and, off the air. The tendency to-day is almost to regard it as a matter of honour to be " in the news " because such things are done, when really it is a matter of dishonour. A degree of dis- cretion should be exercised in that regard. Coal is badly needed. Therefore, simultaneously with the adoption of the' methods I have advocated there should be a long range plan for the mechanization of all mines, and for electrical development. By cheapening the cost of power, which is a universal raw material in industry, we could increase employment, progressively raise the demand for co.a.1, and remove that sense of insecurity which has been one of the greatest factors in the' .attitude that, the miners have displayed up to the present time. ' "We should start from the end opposite to that from which we have been working, first ensuring the most efficient use of coal, and then proceeding step by step until . production is increased and complete security is afforded for the miners. If the intention to work along those lines was universally realized and accepted, there would be greater, incentive to increase the production of coal than could be given by any other' means. This legislation will do more than has been done so far' to divide the owners and the miners. The urgency of the matter is recognized by every one who visits a capital city and finds that, because of lack of coal, radiators may not be used in the . middle of winter, transport is greatly curtailed during the week-end, and the manufacture of galvanized iron, steel and other commodities has ceased. The sooner the problem is tackled wholeheartedly, and the effort is made to effect the improvements I have indicated, the better will it be for all of us. We in Australia are worse off relatively in the matter of power resources than any other country in the world. T have here a statement by Mr. Harper, who was for many years chief of the Victorian power system at Yallourn -

The World Power Conference Committee in its 1929 compilation of world power production during 1927 arrived at figures closely approximating to those above-mentioned.

In the distribution of these world power resources, and in the relative extent of utilization, may be read not only the history of. industrial progress, but also the indications of the trend of future industrial development. Europe and America, possessing 35 per cent, of the world's resources, are to-day producing 91 per cent, of the world's output in power. Asia and Africa, possessing 63 per cent., are contributing only 7^ per cent, of the world's output. What is history going to record, when, the peoples of these two vast continents have advanced to that state of civilization which will require their vast resources to be put into utilization?

Therefore, with limited coal reserves, with limited water power outside Tasmania, and no payable flow of oil yet discovered, we must make certain that our available resources are used in the most efficient way. The fact that we have been slow to start may ultimately be an advantage, because we can start with a clean sheet. We now have' a splendid opportunity to link up our power systems, both coal and water, so as to make the maximum use of both, and to provide electricity at a reasonable cost. We should consider the institution of opencut mining wherever possible. Only recently I had a discussion with the right honorable member for Yarra (Mr. Scullin) on this subject, and he agreed that with the system of open-cut mining it ought to be possible to found new towns, which would not be coal-mining centres only, but centres of general industry, also. In such a setting the coal-miners would no longer constitute a social island separated from the rest of the community, but would be able to take their full part in the social and civic activities around them. They would be a part of the community, and as such subject to the same pressure of public opinion as everybody else.

Since Australia was first settled, about 500,000,000 tons of coal has been won. In the United States of America, the production of coal last year alone was about that quantity. Every civilized country, if it is to have power for industry, transport, domestic conveniences &c, needs about two tons of coal per head annually. On that basis, Australia needs 15,000,000 tons a year. If we had a population of 20,000,000 we should need 40,000,000 tons of coal a year. In the United States of America, the population is 140,000,000 people, but there they mined' 500,000,000 tons of coal last year, and also used much power derived from water. In fact, they used the power equivalent to' 4 tons of coal per person. With so much power available, it is possible in the United States of America to establish industries in what were backward towns, and to make them flourishing industrial centres in a period of ten years.. The railways can be made to pay because there is a constant flow of goods both ways.

In Australia, not only are our power resources limited, but also they are awkwardly placed. The great bulk of the coal deposits are in the south-eastern corner of the Commonwealth, within an area enclosed by a line running from Brisbane to Adelaide. In this area there are large deposits of brown and black coal, and certain other deposits of inferior quality which are not easily marketed, but which could be used on the spot. Little is being done, however, to use coal on the spot. For instance, there is a large deposit of coal at Blair Athol, behind Rockhampton. It has just been opened up, and is estimated to contain 200,000,000 tons, but very little of the coal is being used. Of the total population' of Australia, six-sevenths is within what might be defined as . the coal area in the south-east, and this same area contains 96 per cent of the total available water power. In Brisbane, where the Brisbane City Council and the Brisbane City Electric Light Company operate in close combination, the company is doing excellent work in reticulating the outer districts. In Newcastle and Sydney, there are big electrical installations to provide power and light for industry and transport. There are other installations on the south coast, and at Yallourn in Victoria, but they are only partially linked up with existing hydro-electric systems. Each one of the installations is capable of producing power continuously, but it can sell the power only irregularly. I have here graphs showing that the peak load in the Sydney metropolitan area is 170,000 . horse-power, but that between 2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon it declines to 60,000 'horse-power and during the night is only 24,000 horse-power. In Newcastle, the biggest load is in the middle of the day, so it ought to be possible, by linking the two systems, to maintain a more even consumption of power. Engineers have told me that they have to install in the power houses enough machinery to handle the peak load, although for a good part of the 24 hours this plant is not used to full capacity.

For an hour before the peak load comes on, the furnaces are going at full blast, whereas throughput much of the day the fires are banked. Thus there is a tremendous waste of capital assets and also of fuel. However, if the coal-burning power-houses were linked with hydro-electric schemes, the water power-houses could handle the peak loads at a moment's notice by merely turning more water through the turbines. At the earliest possible moment we should approach the task of linking our great sources of power. If that were done we would be able to ensure that the whole of the area served by the grid, representing approximately six-sevenths of Australia, could be supplied continuously with electricity at a cheap rate, and industry would no longer be faced with constant threats of breakdowns and temporally stoppages caused by strikes. New industries would be established and overseas capital would be attracted to this country. At present, industrialists find it almost impossible to obtain from our power supply authorities a . firm quote for the supply of electricity for, say, a term of fifteen or twenty years. ' If the system I advocate were adopted that could be done without difficulty ; it would be possible to raise the price of coal, and by that means bring about an all-round improvement of the conditions of employment and standard of living of the coal-miners. It would permit the full mechanization of the industry, and in that way much of the arduous toil involved in the manual handling of coal would be avoided. In addition, it would give the miners and their families a sense of security which they have never known in the past. It is because of that sense of insecurity that coal-miners have been loath to build up reserves of coal, fearing that such reserves might be used by the owners to break down- their conditions of employment at some future date. The raising of the standard of comfort of the mining community and the feeling of ( security would bring about a new psychology among the coal-miners. Large areas of coal-bearing country cannot be developed at present because they are located at a distance from adequate water supplies. I instance Ashford and Gunnedah as important coal-bearing areas which are not being developed on that. account. Steam turbines required for the operating of mining equipment use a tremendous amount of water, and unless water is available in ample quantities their installation would be uneconomic. Inherent in this proposal for the linkage of our power supplies is the necessity for the development of a system of water conservation. I envisage the establishment of plants for the generation of electricity at the pit-mouths so that coal may be used immediately it is brought to the surface. This would eliminate the necessity for long rail haulages and would ensure that every ounce of energy was obtained from every ton of coal hewn. An .examination of all the measures and reports that have been produced by men concerned in the coal industry leads one to the belief that their study has been too close, too intimate, and that men have been too imbued with the traditions and inevitable bias of the past to see the effects that must follow the revolutionary changes in our industrial economy. The same phenomenon is often observed in medical practice. Even first-class general practitioners attending an obscure case sometimes study -it so carefully and attentively that they do not see the gradual development that reveals the true cause of the condition. An outside consultant is brought in at that stage and at first, glance recognizes the latent causal factor. We have looked- at too close a range at the coal-mining industry and have, apparently, failed to diagnose the cause of the ills that beset it We are inclined to be too much influenced by the irritations of the -past and to forget that in these days of modern scientific, developments many of the problems that confront the .industry could be solved if they were viewed in the right perspective. One step in that direction would be to make the most efficient use of our coal at the source of supply, and to inter-link all generating equipment so that no particular area need be entirely dependent upon electricity generated within its borders. Attention should also be given to the full use of waste gases. Such a plan would ensure better distribution of industry and population, which, in turn would increase nacional production.' Increased remuneration for the worker and miner would follow with improved conditions of living for their families. Men and' women in mining towns would no longer feel the isolation they now find so irksome; they would feel that they had become the real core and substance of the nation, and that they occupied a position which entitled them to honour and recognition. This morning the honorable member for Hunter


(Mr. James)obtained leave of the House to have incorporated in Hansard some graphs illustrating the points he made during his speech. With the consent of the House I incorporate in Hansard three graphs prepared by eminent mining engineers in New South Wales showing the manner in which power stations may be inter-linked. [Leave granted.]







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