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Thursday, 1 August 1946

From the outset, therefore, the problem created by the discovery and use of atomic energy should be treated as one integrated whole. Special consideration should be given to its beneficial uses as well as to its destructive power; each measure of international control should go hand in hand with other necessary measures so that each may assist the other and all will tend to create that international trust which is necessary in order to simultaneously remove the dangers and to grasp the benefits presented by this new discovery.

The Commission . has been directed to inquire into all phases of the problem. It is true that four matters haw. been listed in the Assembly resolution and With regard to all of them we are required to make specific proposals. However, these matters are not and cannot be mutually exclusive, but are closely interconnected. The work of the Commission should " proceed by separate stages ". but it seems to me that the Commission should not deal piecemeal with the separate aspects of the problem hut should endeavour to treat the problem as a whole.

Underlying the whole discussion up to date has been the common acceptance of -

(a)   the idea of some form of international atomic energy authority, and

(b)   the idea that all nations of the world should accept certain obligations regarding the use of atomic energy.

In the circumstances,, the Commission should defer for the time being any detailed discussion i-Ofrarding the duration and details of all the steps and stages by which the control of atomic energy will be introduced and developed. We should in the first instance devote ourselves tQ consideration of the basis on which the proposed . international atomic energy authority can be brought into existence, of the obligations which all nations might reasonably be asked to accept in order to give strength and purpose to such an organization and to obtain the benefits which should flow therefrom.

There are certain general principles which should be acceptable to all. For instance, the proposed international atomic energy authority should concern itself both with the prevention of the misuse of the new discovery and with ensuring that its benefits are realized. . Again, it will be generally agreed in principle that as part of the general plan there must be included therein a renunciation by all nations of the use of atomic weapons, a sharing of information and co-operation in the development of atomic energy, and an effective system of inspection and of sanctions to safeguard against any breach of undertakings.

It would also appear inevitable that provision for defining these obligations and constituting the proposed international authority should be contained in a single instrument.

It would therefore appear that one inimedate task before us is to consider the drawing up of a first draft of the heads of such an international instrument as 1 have suggested. I believe that from the statements which have been made before this Commission it is possible for a working committee, composed of representatives from each of the members of this Commission, to prepare a first draft of the main principles of a charter for a world authority to control and develop atomic energy. Such a committee could be set to work immediately with this task before it. It should readily discover those points of fundamental principle on which we are all agreed. The Committee would of course have before it, not only Mi". Baruch's statement but also the observations, criticisms and suggestions which have been made by the other eleven members of the Commission. Subject to the supervision of the Commission, the Committee should have . power to appoint subcommittees. It should report regularly to this Commission the progress made by it in working out and drafting one integrated plan to be embodied in the international instrument.

The people of the world are following the proceedings of this Commission with great, anxiety and concern. They are looking to us for prompt action. They will not be satisfied with expressions of mere Hopes and aspirations. They are demanding a plan which will at once remove a great fear from their hearts and bring' thein closer to the benefits that scientists and - technicians of this age can and will make available from the bountiful forces of nature.

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