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Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act - Tobacco Research and Development Council and Tobacco Research and Development Council Selection Committee - Report - 1992-93


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TOBACCO RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL

PO Box 3097 Telephone: (06) 2517757

BELCONNEN ACT 2617 Facsimile: (06) 2517756

10 November 1993

The Hon Simon Crean MR Minister for Primary Industries and Energy Parliament House CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Minister

In Accordance with Section 105 of the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act 1989 (PIERD Act), I hereby submit to you the Report of the Tobacco Research and Development Council for the year ended 30 June 1993.

Yours sincerely

AA GRAHAM Chairman

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CHAIRMAN'S OVERVIEW

The year under review has been the first since inauguration of the original Tobacco Research Council in 1986 that there has been a real reduction in funds committed to research projects in this industry. Compared with the budget of $2.07 million in the 1991-92 year there was a cut of 11.6 per cent to $1.83 million in 1992-93. The downturn has been managed with a minimum of disruption to research activities and the staff involved at the two main research stations. Also it has taken place with full industry consultation.

Despite the cut in funding, it has been possible to maintain the broad thrust in nominated priority areas to support the industry in its urgent striving to reduce production costs and raise the standard of leaf quality.

The industry environment from 1993 will make it increasingly difficult to maintain the research programs provided for Australian tobacco growers up to this year. Following a seven per cent reduction in demand in the 1993 sales year, it has just been confirmed that quota sales will be restricted to 8.1 million kilograms in 1994, a further cut of 35 per cent. As a consequence

• growers realise the economic pressure they will be under from 1994

• research station managers recognise the challenge to maintain appropriate technical support for the remaining viable growers with diminishing resources

• this Council faces the reality that some elements of the normal R&D program will need to be cut, and

• some key projects such as the model/demonstration farms will become focal points in the urgent thrust towards greater cost effectiveness and leaf quality improvement.

During 1992-93, the importance of leaf quality improvement was reinforced as a key issue because of its leverage on farm gross income. Furthermore, any improvement in leaf quality would increase the prospect of export sales, given favourable trading opportunities in world markets.

Manufacturers continued to stress the key attributes of desirable leaf, not all of which are adequately defined in the current grade and price schedule. Warning about likely changes in quality criteria was given as early as the Mareeba Research Workers' Conference in 1990. A key change will be the reduced emphasis on colour and greater emphasis on maturity, leaf texture and other definable characteristics which are precursors to good smoking quality demanded by consumers.

Prices achieved under the present grade and price schedule (which has been constant in terms of average minimum price since 1991) are the only guide available to portray the movement in crop quality. As this report is being compiled, the final leaf prices for the 1993 sales year (originating from leaf grown mostly in the 1992-93 year) are to hand:

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CONTENTS

Page

1. INTRODUCTION . Background 1

. Tobacco Research and Development Council 2

. The direction of R&D in the Australian tobacco industry 2

. Application of research funds 3

. Challenges facing the tobacco growing industry 3

2. TRDC ACTIVITIES . Relationship with RIRDC 5

. Energy Usage 5

. Meetings 5

. Review of Pest and Disease Control 5

. Strategic Plan for Research and Development 6

. Development of Operational R&D Plan for 1993-94 6

. Performance Indicators 6

. Assets 7

. Freedom of Information 7

3. 1992-93 R&D PROGRAM . Overview 8

. R&D Projects 1992-93 9

. Plant Breeding 9

. Transfer of New Technology 10

. Pest and Disease Control 10

. Plant Nutrition 12

. Farm Environment and Management 12

. Mechanisation and On-farm Processing 12

. Research Station Operation 12

. Project Reviews 13

4. FINANCIAL MATTERS . Source of Funds 14

. Financial Statements 1992-93 16

APPENDICES

A. Membership of TRDC 22

B. TRDC Objectives and Strategies 23

C. Research and Development Program 1993-94 26

D. Performance Indicators 29

E. Freedom of Information Act Statement 34

F. Details of Projects Funded 1992-93 37

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1. INTRODUCTION

Background to tobacco research in Australia

Research funded jointly by the Commonwealth and tobacco industry was initiated in 1955 and administered until 1986 by the Central Tobacco Advisory Committee, a non-statutory sub-committee of the Australian Agricultural Council. The Committee comprised representatives of tobacco growers and manufacturers, and State and Commonwealth Governments. It recommended expenditure on tobacco research and extension projects for Ministerial approval. As detailed in Section 4, funding was provided through a statutory levy on growers and manufacturers which was matched by the Commonwealth on a dollar for dollar basis.

The Rural Industries Research Act 1985 amalgamated previous rural industry research legislation into one Act for the administration of rural industry research funds, and set targets for rural industry expenditure on research and ceilings on Commonwealth matching funds. The Tobacco Research Council was established under the Act in April 1986.

Replacing the Tobacco Research Council, the Tobacco Research and Development Council (TRDC) was established on 1 August 1990 under the Tobacco Industry Research and Development Council Regulations made pursuant to the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act 1989. Under this Act, it is open to any rural industry to contribute to a portfolio wide scheme to encourage rural research.

The objectives of the 1989 Act are to provide for the funding and administration of research and development relating to the various industry sectors with a view to:

• increasing the economic, environmental or social benefits to members of the industry and to the community in general by improving the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of tobacco leaf;

• achieving the sustainable use and management of natural resources;

• making more effective use of the resources and skills of the community in general and the scientific community in particular; and

• improving accountability for expenditure on research and development activities.

The Act defines R&D activity in relation to an industry as:

• an R& D project; or

• the training of persons to carry out research and development; or

• the dissemination of information or provision of advice or assistance, to persons or organisations in the industry; or

• the publication of reports, periodicals, books or papers containing information related to research and development in the industry; or

• any activity incidental to the above.

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TRDC funds some facilities at Southedge and most facilities at Ovens, and supports a substantial part of the infrastructure costs at both stations. The stations are managed by the QDPI and the Victorian Department of Agriculture respectively.

TRDC funds extension/advisory services to growers in all tobacco growing areas. In southern Queensland and New South Wales, tobacco growers rely on research and development projects at the major centres and on part time extension staff.

Application of research funds

Tobacco manufacturers undertake considerable research and development activities in tobacco manufacture and product development. Because of the competitive nature of their enterprises, manufacturers have indicated they will not seek any funding from TRDC in respect of these activities, notwithstanding the provision in the Act for expenditure on

research into downstream processing and the fact that manufacturers contribute to Council funds in an amount equal to that contributed by growers. As a consequence, all funding from this Council is directed towards the leaf growing sector of the industry to improve the quality of its product, the efficiency of tobacco farming and the prospects for future viability of tobacco farmers and rural communities dependent on the tobacco industry.

Challenges facing the tobacco growing industry

Both tobacco growers and researchers in the industry face a critical period. The challenge is to minimise the cost of producing tobacco leaf and at the same time to improve average leaf quality. Compounding the challenge was a substantial reduction, from the beginning of

1991-92, in Commonwealth Government research funding, a 7.4 per cent fall in quota determined for the 1993 selling season and confirmation of a further reduction to the national marketing quota of the order of 35 percent for the 1994 sales year.

It is recognised that TRDC and the recipients of grant money must share the goal of cost effectiveness in choosing projects and actually performing the research work. Ensuring that information of benefit to the industry is distributed promptly, and in the form most likely to result in adoption by growers, is an essential feature of the program.

The tobacco growing industry remains labour intensive with about 45 per cent of costs attributable to labour, principally in harvesting. Investment in equipment which would further reduce costs is being inhibited to some extent by the current uncertainty in the industry as the regulatory period comes to an end.

Irrigation, fertiliser, pest and disease control are also expensive. Not only do these measures contribute some 13 per cent of total growing costs, they are also directly linked to environmental and sustainability issues in tobacco farm management.

Cured leaf yields have risen from about 1.5 to 2.8 tonnes per ha in the past twenty years, an increase achieved at the cost of higher inputs. With regular advice from field extension officers, growers are now conscious of the need to control input costs while holding crop yields and improving quality.

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2. TRDC ACTIVITIES

Relationship with RIRDC

TRDC operates under the auspices of the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) which has responsibilities under the PIERD Act to enter into agreements on behalf of TRDC where it considers it appropriate, and to administer the

Tobacco R&D Fund.

RIRDC may perform administrative and clerical services for the Council, however, in respect of the reporting period, TRDC has chosen to contract for these services with the staff of the Australian Tobacco Marketing Advisory Committee in Canberra.

RIRDC may also comment on TRDC R&D plans, annual operational plans and annual reports which TRDC is required to provide to RIRDC before submitting to the Minister.

Energy Usage

The Council contracts the Australian Tobacco Marketing Advisory Committee to carry out its administration and Council has no control over energy used for lighting, office equipment, air conditioning and heating.

Meetings

During the year, Council met formally on three occasions:

• twice in Mareeba, North Queensland - September 1992 and February 1993; and

• once in Myrtleford Victoria- April 1993.

The September 1992 meeting in Mareeba was scheduled to coincide with the annual Tobacco Field Day conducted by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

On 21 June, representatives of the Council attended a special liaison meeting with growers from south east Queensland and northern New South Wales at Northgate, Queensland.

Members of the Tobacco Research and Development Council during 1992-93 are listed in Appendix A.

Review of Pest and Disease Control

As indicated in the Strategic Plan, Council continued the practice of conducting an annual review of selected areas of R&D with the 1992-93 activity centred on pest and disease control projects. The review was conducted by a TRDC member, Dr DG Parbery of the University of Melbourne. The review was completed early in 1993 with the

recommendations being available to Council prior to the consideration of R&D applications for 1993-94.

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Strategic Plan for Research and Development

Research work conducted in the year under review relates specifically to priorities, objectives and strategies defined in the Strategic R&D Plan 1992-1997. During the year, Council further revised the plan, and in June submitted the "Strategic Plan for Research and Development in the Australian Tobacco Industry, July 1993 - June 1998 to the Minister for consideration and approval. Objectives and Strategies of the revised Plan are reproduced in Appendix B.

Development of Operational R&D Plan for 1993-94

Council invited some 45 institutions and organisations to submit applications for research grants appropriate to the objectives set down in the five year plan. In addition to the Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, and the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, which continue to submit the bulk of applications, Council again received research and development grant applications from a number of other research institutions.

TRDC considers applications for funding against the following criteria:

• relationship to the objectives and strategies; • benefits to growers in relation to the cost; and • probability of a successful outcome.

Development of the 1993-94 Operational Plan was preceded by a review of progress in 1992-93, with input from research workers and industry organisations.

TRDC considered 28 applications for grants in the context not only of current achievements but especially in the light of the modified objectives and strategies of the strategic plan

Council recommended a 1993-94 Operational Plan of $1 625 878 for 22 projects and administration, a reduction of $202 356 from the approved program of 1992-93.

On 1 July 1993 the Minister approved the 1993-94 Operational Plan, and Council authorised the necessary expenditure from the Tobacco R&D Fund. Details of the 1993-94 R&D budget are presented in Appendix C.

Performance Indicators

On the advice of the Minister, Council considered the use of performance indicators towards the end of the 1991-92 year. The Strategic Plan for the five years July 1992 to June 1997 includes such indicators for the seven stated objectives. Where possible the indicators are in the form of objective measurements but in some Instances, qualitative judgements are

made. Both the performance of TRDC itself and the funded research programs are covered by the indicators. Details are contained in Appendix D.

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Assets

TRDC and its predecessors have funded the purchase of capital items since 1955. A register of such items has been maintained by respective research organisations. In 1991 -92 TRDC compiled a central register of assets with a view to augmenting R&D funds from

the sale of assets no longer required for research and where possible sales of unwanted capital equipment have been made.

As at June 1993, no formal valuations of such assets have been made and consequently, the assets are not included in the accounts.

Freedom of Information

A Freedom on Information Statement is at Appendix E.

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The emphasis on disease control through incorporating resistances into commercial varieties remains strong, and the development and adoption of integrated cultural and chemical control practices remains essential to the production of quality tobacco leaf.

The incidence of disease and insect pests was again monitored in all tobacco growing districts in 1992-93. In North Queensland, the 1992 crop losses were minimal. Bacterial wilt remains a major threat to late sown crops and there has been a pleasing response from growers in adopting grass rotations to reduce incidence of that and other soil borne diseases.

In Victorian tobacco districts, disease and pest incidence was also low with the notable exception of an increase in the area infested with the nematode, Pratylenchus spp.

Bacterial Wilt and Black Shank

The development of potential antagonistic bacteria for the integrated control of bacterial wilt and black shank offers highly promising support for the current levels of resistance in commercial cultivars such as Lynd and Dynes.

Glasshouse studies showed strains of bacteria - spontaneous aviruient bacterium producing strains (ABPS), and bacteria from field soils and from the rhizosphere of tobacco roots suppressed black shank and bacterial wilt pathogens. The severity of black shank was

reduced in these glasshouse tests by 36 to 50 per cent.

Application of a soil drench of a bacterial suspension before or during planting enhanced the effectiveness of a root dip treatment. This method is now being used in field trials to evaluate further the potential of these bacterial strains in the control of bacterial wilt and black shank.

Nematodes

Studies on nematode control are current in both North Queensland and Victoria with pleasing cooperation between projects in both States.

The identification of the nematode genus, Meloidogyne, from Victorian tobacco soils has progressed but remains complicated. Of eight populations studied in 1992-93, four had a host range consistent with that of M. javanica/M. arenaria race 2 which cannot be distinguished in the test used. One population had a host range of M. incoginta race 1 while three populations had host ranges which do not correspond with any of the common species

and races. Other tests used suggest they belong to M.javanica and further testing is required.

Glasshouse screening in North Queensland has shown that signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and forage sorghum cultivars, Jumbo and Sugarsweet, are resistant to all four races of root knot nematode attacking tobacco in that region.

Further testing of various chemicals to reduce reproduction by root knot nematodes on tobacco showed the industry standard EDB to be the most effective. EDB is available in Queensland but not in Victoria and the need to identify cost effective nematocides to augment EDB remains a priority.

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The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation administers the Tobacco R&D Fund for an annual fee. The Corporation arranges payments to grant recipients and invests funds not immediately required.

Throughout 1992-93 increased attention was given to the challenge of reduced funding in future years as a result of a number of factors:

• reduced Commonwealth Government input to the limit of 0.5 percent of GVR;

• the fact that GVP will drop from 1994, with an initial reduction in the national quota to 12.5 million kilograms for the 1993 selling season and a further reduction to 8.1 million kilograms in the 1994 sales year;

• reduced income from investments as interest rates fall and liquid assets decline;

• increasing costs of maintaining the infrastructure of the two research stations; and

• increasing cost of research work

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TOBACCO RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1993

1. STATEMENT OF PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The purpose of this statement is to assist in the understanding of the financial statements through the disclosure of significant accounting policies adopted and other information relevant to the operation of the Tobacco Research and Development Council (the Council).

The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) was established on 1 July 1990 by the enactment of the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act 1989 (the Act). Under Section 107 (1 ) of the Act, the Tobacco R&D fund vests in and is administered by RIRDC. As such the financial result and position of the Council have been disclosed in the financial statements of RIRDC in its Annual Report

1992-93. The RIRDC financial statements were reviewed and approved by the Australian National Audit Office.

(a) BASIS OF ACCOUNTING

The financial statements have been prepared using historical cost and accrual accounting. The financial statements have also been prepared in conformity with accounting standards promulgated by the Australian accounting bodies and by law.

(b) PERIOD OF ACCOUNTS

The financial statements cover the period from 1 July 1992 to 30 June 1993.

(c) PROJECT REFUNDS

Refunds due from research organisations which are not quantifiable at the end of the financial year are brought to account on receipt of the research organisations' project financial statement

(d) INTEREST INCOME

Interest on Council funds invested in fixed interest securities is brought to account on a progressive daily basis over the life of the investment.

(e) CASH

For the purposes of the Statement of Cash Flows, cash includes cash on hand and in banks, and money market investments convertible to cash within two working days. Bank guaranteed bills of exchange are considered to form part of cash.

2. COMMONWEALTH CONTRIBUTIONS

Under Section 108 (1) (b) of the Act, Commonwealth contributions are equal to 50 per cent of amounts required to be expended by leviable products subject to contributions not exceeding either:

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APPENDIX B

TRDC STRATEGIC PLAN FOR R&D IN THE AUSTRALIAN TOBACCO INDUSTRY JULY 1993 - JUNE 1998

OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

OBJECTIVE 1 Improve leaf quality

1.1 Develop new cultivars with enhanced leaf quality and smoking characteristics which maintain or increase the net commercial return

1.2 Examine the effects of production, handling, curing and storage practices on leaf quality

1.3 Minimise agricultural chemical residues in Australian tobacco

OBJECTIVE 2 Reduce the costs of leaf production

2.1 Support research and development projects designed to improve cost effectiveness

2.2 Develop optimal crop nutrition regimes for the major tobacco cultivars and soils

2 3 Develop more cost effective irrigation schedules with particular emphasis given to the interaction of irrigation and crop nutrition

2.4 Continue the development of pest and disease resistant tobacco varieties

OBJECTIVE 3 Develop sustainable farming systems

3.1 Develop optimal crop nutrition regimes for the major tobacco cultivars and soils

3.2 Develop more cost effective irrigation schedules with particular emphasis given to the interaction of irrigation and crop nutrition

3.3 Continue the development of pest and disease resistant tobacco varieties

3.4 Develop alternative pest and disease management practices to reduce chemical usage

3.5 Monitor the incidence of pests and diseases in Australian tobacco growing districts

3.6 Study existing land and soil management practices and promote changes to encourage crop rotation and soil conservation

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PROPOSED GRANTS

RESEARCH AREA AND PROJECT

Project Duration Project Research Area

$ $

Infrastructure DAQ 7T Maintenance of Southedge Research Station DAV 1T Provision of administrative and scientific

7/93-6/96 243 000

support services for tobacco research/ extension programs 7/93-6/96 158 251 401 251

Personnel Education and Training Tour of US Tobacco Centres August 1993 - EJ Gilbert 7/93-6/94 7510 7510

Publications JEA 1T Publication of the 'Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture' 7/93-6/94 1 000 1000

Administration

. Tobacco R&D Council Secretariat fee 12 000

Members' fees and travel 48 900

Annual Report 2 500

Selection Committee 10 000

Other 10 000

83 400

. Tobacco R&D Fund - service fee 16 600

. Project review panel 18 000 118 000

Contingency 37 000

1 625 878

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Objective 3: Develop sustainable farming systems

Key performance Indicator: Data from model/demonstration farm practices

Outcomes within this objective meet the Commonwealth Government's requirements for Annual Reports to highlight Ecologically Sustainable Development R&D.

Ongoing work at Southedge and Ovens Research Stations is directed at reducing/optimising crop nutrition and irrigation for both economic and sustainability reasons. In the North Queensland model farms project in 1992-93, the fertiliser program was $300 to $400 per

hectare cheaper than the usual cost and involved applying 30 per cent less potassium, 50 per cent less phosphate and used cheaper ammoniated nitrogen sources. The irrigation program worked well, changing the growth habit of the plant whilst reducing the potential for

leaching of nutrients. The compound fertiliser mixture performed as well as the currently available blended mixtures and had a cost advantage of $100 per hectare. Ease and uniformity of application were additional advantages of the mixture. It was also easier to run out the green from the butts of leaf grown with the compound mixture.

In Victoria work has been undertaken to ensure that new varieties, recently introduced, are given optimum phosphorus and cation applications. Work is continuing on the development of tobacco cultivars immune to the major soil borne fungal diseases.

Apart from controlling fertilizer application, work is in hand to improve sustainability, for example:

• grass rotation crops • reduced tillage practice • integrated pest management • biological control of bacterial wilt • breeding for disease resistance • developing on-farm diagnostic techniques for assessing the nutrition status during

' the growth cycle.

Objective 4 Develop cost effective and efficient mechanisms to facilitate the dissemination and adoption of research results

Key performance Indicator: Report to be made available with specific Illustrations of improved efficiency

The following numbers of personnel were assigned to tobacco extension work during the 1992-93 year.

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The Council reports annually to the Minister for Primary Industries and Energy, following which it reports to industry representative organisations.

FUNCTIONS

The Council investigates and evaluates the needs of the tobacco industry for research and development and, on that basis, prepares five year research and development plans and, for each year an R&D plan is in force, develops an annual operational plan.

Council approves payment of money from the Tobacco R&D Fund and facilitates the dissemination, adoption and commercialisation of the results of tobacco R&D. It monitors, evaluates and reports to Parliament, the Minister and the tobacco industry representative

organisations on R&D activities supported from the Tobacco R&D Fund.

The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation has the additional functions of administering the Tobacco R&D Fund and, on behalf of the Tobacco R&D Council, entering into agreements with research organisations to carry out R&D activities

POWERS

The Council has power to do all things necessary or convenient to be done for, or in connection with, the performance of its functions.

MINISTERIAL POWERS

• Approves five year R&D plans and annual operational plans. • Appoints members to the Tobacco R&D Council

CATEGORIES OF DOCUMENTS

Category Nature Access

Administration files D

Annual Reports publications C

Records of meetings files D

R&D plans & operational plans publications C

Applications and guidelines to applicants files D

pamphlets C

R&D activities files D

R&D reports publications C

Access C: Documents customarily made available free of charge Access D: Any other documents including those that may be available under the Act

FOI STATISTICS

No requests under the Freedom of Information Act were received during 1992-93.

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DETAILS OF PROJECTS FUNDED IN 1992-93 APPENDIX F

The following R&D projects, divided into research areas, were supported in 1992-93:

PLANT BREEDING

DAQ 1T TOBACCO PLANT BREEDING AND VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT

Southedge Research Station, Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba, Queensland

Project Supervisor: Mr VJ Hansen Project Commenced: 1986-87 Approved Grant: $270 000

AIMS • Develop cultivars with resistance to bacterial wilt, black shank, root-knot nematodes, blue mould and potato virus Y and to improve leaf yield and quality. • Develop cultivars well adapted to specific planting times and current production

methods.

• Investigate the possibility of breeding for weedicide resistance. • Maintain mother seed of commercial cultivars.

DAQ 36T GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF WILD NICOTIANA

Field Crops Industry Services, Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane

Project Supervisor: Dr P Lawrence Project Commenced: 1992-93 Approved Grant: $5 000

AIMS • To regenerate and establish an Australian germplasm collection of wild Nicotiana. • To establish a database on all accessions of wild Nicotiana in the collection. • To make seed and data on all accessions available to researchers.

DAV 1ST BREEDING FOR BLACK ROOT ROT RESISTANCE IN TOBACCO

Ovens Research Station, Department of Agriculture, Myrtleford, Victoria

Project Supervisor: Mr G Hayes Project Commenced: 1989-90 Approved Grant: $94 151

AIM • Major emphasis is placed on the development of commercially acceptable cultivars with immunity to the soil-borne fungal disease black root rot (Chalara elegans).

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DAV18T PROVISION OF EFFECTIVE TOBACCO FARM MANAGEMENT SERVICES

Ovens Research Station, Department of Agriculture, Myrtleford, Victoria

Project Supervisor: Mr K Graves Project commenced: 1989-90 Approved Grant: $43 929

AIM • To provide an effective farm management service to the Victorian tobacco industry.

DAV 20T THE PROVISION OF ANALYTICAL/DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES TO THE VICTORIAN TOBACCO INDUSTRY

Ovens Research Station, Department of Agriculture, Myrtleford, Victoria

Project Supervisor: Mr MJ Morgan Project Commenced: 1989-90 Approved Grant: $33 314

AIM • To provide an effective analytical/diagnostic service to the Victorian tobacco industry which will ensure: (i) accurate nutritional advice based on chemical analysis of soil/tissue samples; and

(ii) accurate monitoring of changes in nutrient status of Victorian tobacco soils

DAV 21T THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DISTRICT DISCUSSION GROUPS

Ovens Research Station, Department Agriculture. Myrtleford, Victoria

Project Supervisor: Mr G Baxter Project commenced: 1989-90 Approved Grant: $33 314

AIM • To establish functional tobacco discussion groups in the major Victorian tobacco growing areas and develop these groups into effective vehicles for continuing education and two way transfer of information.

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PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL

DAO 24T ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES TO THE USE OF EDB FOR CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES IN TOBACCO

Plant Industry/Plant Pathology, Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba and Brisbane, Queensland

Project Supervisors: Dr PC O'Brien, Mr RA Peterson Project Commenced: 1989-90 Approved Grant: $50 344

AIMS • To determine the species of root-knot nematodes affecting tobacco in North Queensland and establish pure cultures for research studies and resistance breeding. • To determine the efficacy of combinations of alternative control strategies (rotations,

resistance, cultural practices etc for nematode control).

DAQ 33T NON-CHEMICAL CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE DISEASES OF TOBACCO

Plant Pathology Branch. Plant Industry Division, Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Queensland

Project Supervisor: Mr PR Trevorrow Project Commenced: 1991-92 Approved Grant: $68 000

AIM • To develop non chemical (rotation, biological) control methods for bacterial wilt and black shank of tobacco, which can be used in conjunction with resistance developed in the tobacco breeding program.

DAV 24T THE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF CROPS WHICH REDUCE SOIL-BORNE PEST AND DISEASE LEVELS IN TOBACCO SOILS

Ovens Research Station, Department Agriculture, Myrtleford, Victoria

Project Supervisor: Mr G Baxter Project Commenced: 1991-92 Approved Grant: $45 000

AIM • To identify and demonstrate short term rotation crops suitable for use on Victorian tobacco soils to prevent/reduce soil-borne pest and disease development whilst maintaining or improving soil structure and fertility.

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DAO 34T DEVELOPMENT OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR SHORT-DAY VARIETIES OF FLUE CURED TOBACCO FOR WINTER PLANTING IN NORTH QUEENSLAND

Plant Industry/Agriculture, Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba, Queensland

Project Supervisors: Mr B Weeden, Mr R Klaricich Project Commenced: 1991-92 Approved Grant: $58 000

AIM • To develop a management package for tobacco growers to maximise the benefits of growing short-day varieties

DAQ37T DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR OPTIMISING CURED LEAF QUALITY AND FARMER RETURNS

Southedge Research Station, Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba, Queensland

Project supervisor: Mr B Weeden Project Commenced: 1992-93 Approved Grant: $41 000

AIM

• To increase farmers returns by developing a cheap, simple method of judging leaf maturity which will reduce costs of production and improve leaf quality.

MECHANISATION/CURING/HANDLING

DAQ 21T BLACK COAL HOT WATER TOBACCO CURING

Agricultural Engineering Section, Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba, Queensland

Project Supervisor: Mr IA Ryan Project Commenced: 1988-89 Approved Grant: $59 512

AIMS • To develop and demonstrate black coal hot water heating technology adaptable to existing North Queensland barn structures. • To gather economic data including fuel consumption for coal, savings compared with

conventional fuels and conversion cost data to indicate management and maintenance required. • To gather engineering data relative to the optimisation of this technology for tobacco curing.

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