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Australian Sports Drug Agency Act - Australian Sports Drug Agency - Report - 1993-94


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AUSTRALIAN SPORTS

DRUG AGENCY

ANNUAL REPORT

1993-94

A U S T R A L I A N S P O R T S D R U G A G E N C Y

Commonwealth of Australia 1994

ISSN 1037 — 378

The postal and street address of the Agency and contact numbers are set out below:

PO Box 345 1 Phipps Place

CURTIN ACT 2605 DEAKIN ACT 2600

Telephone: (06)281 1822 Facsimile: (06)281 1226

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A U S T R A L I A N S P O R T S D R U G A G E N C Y

Senator the Hon John Faulkner Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories Parliament House CANBERRA ACT 2600

My dear Minister

The Australian Sports Drug Agency is pleased to present its Annual Report for the year ending 30 June 1994. This report has been prepared according to the requirement of section 63(M) of the Audit Act 1901 as required by sections 54 and 63 of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990.

Yours sincerely

Professoi Peter Baume Chairperson Australian Sports Drug Agency

20 September 1994

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1 PHIPPS PLACE, DEAKIN, 2600 (P0 BOX 345. CURTIN ACT 2605)

TELEPHONE: 106) 2 8 1 1 8 2 2 FACSIMILE: (06) 2 8 1 1 2 2 6

QUOTABLE QUOTES

"FINA (International Swimming Federation) appreciates the very important work developed by your Agency in the fig h t against doping in

sport." Mr M Larfaoui, President FINA

23 2353 23 23 53 53 S S 53 53 53 S 53 5353

"I am most impressed by the detail and thoroughness o f your schools education program."

Dr Joe Skowno, South African Sports Medicine Federation."

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"ASDA has now gained great recognition not only in Australia, but throughout the world."

Mr Michael Ronaldson, Federal Member for Ballarat.

S3 S3 S3 23 S3 S3 S3 23 53 23 23 23 2323 53 S3

"We are very proud of the fact that we host ...the Australian Sports Drug Agency ...Australia's reputation on sports drug issues was an important factor in getting the Olympic Games to Sydney."

Mr Terry Connolly MLA, ACT Attorney General and Minister for Health.

23 S3 2323 S3 S323 53 23 23 S3 S3 23 23 S3 23

"We want to learn more from ASDA which is placed at the forefront of the world in this field."

Professor T.Yang, Chinese Anti-doping Commission.

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"I am writing to acknowledge the important contribution the Australian Sports Drug Agency is making to the international fig h t against doping in sport. Since the establishment o f the independent ASDA, Australia has gained a reputation fo r leadership in dealing with this complex issue."

DrTamas Ajan, General Secretary, International Weightlifting Federation.

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'Your Agency's representatives to the [Council o f Europe Anti-Doping] Convention have reflected the high standard o f the Australian contribution in this field."

Ms Ase (Cleveland, Norwegian Minister for sport.

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"May I compliment your government on its noteworthy commitment to the principles of international anti-doping, and for the well respected Australian

Sports Drug Agency."

Mr Michael Dupuy, Canadian Minister for Sport.

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"Australia, particularly through her Sports Drug Agency (ASDA), is a major partner in the global fight against drug misuse in sport, and has contributed in an important way to the [Council of Europe Anti-Doping] Convention."

Mr Daniel Tarschys, Secretary General, Council of Europe.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Abbreviations and vii

acronyms Executive ix

summary

Chapter One Introduction

Mission 1

Corporate priorities 1

Organisational structure Publications and presentations Social justice Internal and external scrutiny

Chapter Two Testing, research and policy Objectives, functions and resources Summary of 1993-94 testing activities Public interest testing 10

Contract testing 11

Register of Notifiable Events 15

Memorandum of Understanding between 18 the Australian Sports Drug Agency and the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories Research 18

Policy advice 22

International Court of Arbitration for Sport 24 Special interest groups 25

Legislation 28

Special operational issues 31

Chapter Three Education Objectives, functions and resources 33 School-based education programs 34 Sport-based education programs 35

Information services 38

Chapter Four Executive

Objectives, functions and resources 43 Planning 43

Evaluation 44

Research 46

National activities 49

Finance 50

Human resource management 52

Social justice 55

Administrative services 58

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Chapter Five International Objectives, functions and resources 63 Fourth permanent world conference on 64 anti-doping in sport International anti-doping agreements 65 Council of Europe anti-doping convention 66 Working with international sporting 67

organisations International visitors 70

Reciprocal exchange with China 71

International Olympic Charter against 71 doping in sport education annex Sydney 2000 Olympic Games 72

Asia export task force 72

World Health Organisation program on 72 substance abuse

Chapter Six Financial statements 73

Appendices Page

1 Objects, functions and powers of the Australian 90

Sports Drug Agency as specified in the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990

2 Powers of the minister under the Australian 92

Sports Drug Agency Act 1990

3 Presentations and Publications by ASDA staff 94

4 Summary of ASDA's international testing 99

activities

5 Dope control laboratories accredited by the 100

International Olympic Committee

6 International Olympic Committee Medical 103

Commission list of doping classes and

methods

7 ASDA testing for period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 96

1994

8 Summary of Entries on Register of Notifiable 113

Events, 1993-94

Public relations 60

vi

9 1993-94 Memorandum of Understanding 115

between the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories and the Australian Sports Drug Agency

10 State Coordinators of the School Development 125

in Health Education Project

11 Educational resource material distribution, 127

1993-94

12 Sports Drug Education Unit steering groups 128

13 Portfolio evaluation steering committee. 129

14 Conference statement, the 4th Permanent 130

World Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport, 5-8

September 1993, London, United Kingdom

15 Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention, 132

Strasbourg, 16.November.1989

Compliance index 143

Index 144

Tables 1.1 Financial and staffing resources summary 7

1.2 Expenditure by program 8

2.1 Summary of entries on Register Of Notifiable 16

Events by doping class and sport

3.1 Drugs in Sport Hotline-summary 41

4.1 Total number of employees at 30 June 1994 54

4.2 Summary of the Training Guarantee Scheme 55

4.3 Categories of eligible training expenditure 55

Figures 1.1 The relationship between the mission, 2

corporate priorities and program structure of the Australian Sports Drug Agency

1.2 Organisation of the Australian Sports Drug 5

Agency

vii

ΑΑΤ

A bbreviations and acronym s Administrative Appeals Tribunal

AAG Athlete Advisory Group

ACTH Corticotrophin

AGAL Australian Government Analytical Laboratories

AOC Australian Olympic Committee

APS Australian Public Service

ASDA Australian Sports Drug Agency

ASSA Australian Society of Sports Administrators

ASSC Anabolic Steroids Sub-Committee

ASC Australian Sports Commission

CAS Confederation of Australian Sport

CG Chorionic gonadtrophin

C-LADA Committee of Laboratories Against Drug Abuse

DCO Drug control officer

DISH Drugs In Sport Handbook

EEC Equal employment opportunity

ELISA Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

EPO Erythropoietin

FIBA International Basketball Association

FIG International Gymnastics Federation

FISA International Rowing Federation

GH Growth hormone

IAAF International Amateur Athletics Federation

IOC International Olympic Committee

IS F o rlF s International sporting federation

IWF International Weightlifting Federation

IWG International working group

MCDS Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy

NDSC National Drugs Strategy Committee

NSO National sporting organisation

NZSDA New Zealand Sports Drug Agency

OHS Occupational health and safety

PSU Public Service Union

SCOCT Sub-Committee on Out of Competition Testing (IOC)

SDHE School Development in Health Education Project

SDEU Sport drug education unit

UCI International Cycling Federation

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Drug testing

In 1993-94 the Agency conducted 2802 tests (compared to 2877 in 1992-93) on competitors in 49 sports.

The Agency conducted 667 tests for professional sports leagues including the New South Wales Rugby League, the Australian Football League, the National Basketball League, the National Soccer League and the Queensland Rugby League (compared to 615 in 1992-93).

The Agency recorded 33 positive test results, representing 1.18% of all tests (compared with 31 positive test results or 1.08% of all tests in 1992-93).

Sporting organisations established that 14 of the 33 positive test results were due to the inadvertent or legitimate therapeutic use of banned substances (compared to 16 of 31 positive test results in 1992-93).

The overall incidence of positive drug tests for the use of prohibited substances (ie anabolic steroids and diuretics) was 0.57% (compared to 0.2% in 1992-93).

The Agency entered the names of five competitors on the Register of Notifiable Events for failing to comply with a request to provide a sample without reasonable cause (compared to 21 failures to comply in 1992-93).

The Agency was contracted to conduct drug testing on behalf of international sporting organisations at the 1993 World Junior Cycling Championships (September 1993), the 1993 World Weightlifting Championships (November 1993), the 1994 World Gymnastics Championships (April 1994) and the 1994 World Women's Basketball Championships (June 1994).

Results from a 1994 survey of elite athletes exposed to testing indicated that:

• 84.5% of athletes believe the Agency's testing program is likely to deter Australian athletes from using prohibited drugs (compared to 83% in 1992-93);

• 86% of athletes believe that a national organisation independent of sport, such as the Agency, should be responsible for drug testing (compared to 55% in 1992-93).

Policy and research

The Agency maintained a leadership role in drugs in sport. A fair and more equitable approach to drugs in sport was achieved by: • maintaining liaison with key government and non-government organisations to develop effective anti-doping strategies, improve effectiveness and efficiency

of program delivery and avoid duplication of services;

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• consulting with national sporting organisations about ways of improving the effectiveness of the response to drug use in sport through modifications to the Agency's test distribution plan and sporting organisation doping policies;

• increasing the awareness of, and uniform response to, the issue of drugs in sport at a State level;

• entering a Memorandum of Understanding with the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories for the provision of laboratory based analytical and research services; and

• encouraging research to improve analytical detection of banned substances.

Education

Ongoing evaluation conducted by the Agency has shown that athletes and other target groups have increased their awareness and knowledge of the drugs in sport issue. This builds on the results of previous years.

In 1993-94 the awareness of, and demand for, Agency resources by target groups increased by over 100% on 1992-93 levels.

Information resources were developed to meet the needs of the sporting community, including the Drugs in Sport Handbook and the Sports Drugs Education Unit brochure. Existing resources were updated and reprinted in response to increased demand.

A pilot workshop was held to provide drugs in sport information to administrators of national sporting organisations. It also helped to work out ways of helping the administrators with drugs in sport education by the inclusion of appropriate material in the Australian Society of Sports Administrators (ASSA) courses and through personal liaison.

The ASDA professional development program for teachers was launched in partnership with the School Development in Health Education (SDHE) Project. State SDHE coordinators developed drugs in sport professional development plans for teachers in their particular States.

The Agency assisted teachers to integrate drugs in sport education into their classrooms by providing current drugs in sport education resources.

The education needs of the sporting community were determined through research that involved coaches across Australia. These results will be used in the development of a drugs in sport coach education manual.

Athlete Advisory Group meetings were held in each state. Athletes discussed their concerns and made recommendations on Agency activities and initiatives.

State drug education units in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia have facilitated a State-based response to the use of drugs in sport. This has significantly increased the number of athletes, coaches and administrators who have access to current drugs in sport information and who are becoming actively involved in dealing with drugs in sport issues.

Drugs in sport modules have been integrated into a variety of coaching and administrators' courses at both State and national level.

The Agency has worked with representatives from state sporting communities to facilitate an education response to the pending introduction of complementary legislation and state testing programs.

Executive

The 1993-94 Annual Operational Plan, outlining the Agency's direction at the operational level for the year, was tabled and approved by Parliament without the need for alterations.

A team approach to Agency operations was introduced which involved setting up cross-functional teams to undertake Agency projects.

Staff input into this process included the selection of a staff steering committee to oversee team selections and provide direction and support for the implementation of team processes across the Agency. The use of teams has increased shared decision making within the Agency which in turn has increased staff commitment to decisions. By providing an opportunity for individuals to work outside their normal

program area, the team approach has helped staff members to maintain job satisfaction and develop new skills. The Agency has also benefited from better outcomes as different perspectives and ideas have been gained.

The Agency met its responsibilities with regard to portfolio coordination issues.

Legislative reporting requirements were also fulfilled through tabling of the 1992-93 Annual Report and reporting on the Agency's implementation of its social justice policies.

The development of a key competency framework and the subsequent review of all positions within the Agency against the framework provided a sound basis for the development of individual development plans and performance appraisal arrangements.

There was further improvement of the accounting and personnel operations with increased efficiency of service delivery.

The Agency started to review the cost-recovery arrangements associated with drug­ testing services to professional and international clients.

xi

A review of the Agency's information technology needs has also commenced. This will serve as the basis for determining the planning, implementing and support strategies for the Agency's future information technology needs.

International

During 1993-94 the Agency maintained its international leadership role in the area of drug use in sport and contributed to an increase in the development of a fair and equitable international approach to the issue of drugs in sport by:

• providing significant input on a variety of drugs in sport issues to international forums including the 4th World Permanent Anti-Doping Conference, the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention Monitoring Group and the International Working Group on Drugs in Sport;

• providing expert assistance to the International Weightlifting Federation for the redrafting of its International Anti-Doping Policy;

• working through the Agency's Testing, Research and Policy Program to review doping policies and to negotiate agreements with international sporting federations for competition and out-of-competition testing in Australia and the Asian/Oceania region;

• maintaining an implementing role for the multilateral anti-doping agreement with Canada, Norway and the United Kingdom and the bilateral anti-doping agreement with New Zealand. The Agency assisted in the establishment of a secretariat for the multilateral agreement in Canada. The Agency is facilitating the membership of France to the multilateral agreement;

• facilitating the process of Australia's accession to the Council of Europe Anti­ Doping Convention, resulting in Australia becoming the first non-European party to the Convention; and •

• increasing the Agency's knowledge of international anti-doping programs through hosting visits to Australia by international anti-doping colleagues, visiting foreign anti-doping agencies, and establishing communication links with international sporting federations and other countries.

xii

which will be achieved through

which will im pact on harm and therefore achieve mission

Corporate priorities

Mission

Objectives and functions

TE S TIN G , R E S E A R C H & P O LIC Y

ED U C A TIO N EX E C U TIV E IN TE R N A TIO N A L

O bjective: O bjective: O bjective: O bjective:

To deter the use of To increase the skills To facilitate the To increase the

prohibited drugs and and knowledge of effective and efficient fairness for Australian doping methods in target groups so that operations of the athletes in international Australian sport by they are more able to Agency by developing competition in relation encouraging a fair and respond to drugs in and implementing to drugs in sport. equitable response to sport issues. plans and providing

the use of drugs in administrative

sport. services.

F unctions: F un ctio ns: F u n ctio n s : F unctions:

• Testing • Education in • Setting Agency • International anti-

- Public interest schools direction doping agreements

- Contract • Sports based • Evaluation • International anti-

- National education • Research doping programs

- International • Sports drugs • Corporate • International drugs

• Research education units services in sport forums

• Policy advice • Dissemination of • Public relations • Providing drugs in

• Legislation resource material sport sen/ices to

international clients

Note: The objects, functions and powers of the Agency, as set out in the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 and Regulations, are shown at Appendix 1.

Figure 1.1: The relationship between the mission, corporate priorities and program structure of the Australian Sports Drug Agency.

2

The Agency consults with numerous clients in the government and non-government sectors (associated with sport, health and education) both in the development of policy and the delivery of programs and services. In particular, the Agency maintains a close liaison with the Office of Sport and Recreation of the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, the Australian Sports Commission, the Health Advancement Division of the Department of Human Services and Health, the Confederation of Australian Sport and the Australian Olympic Committee. The Agency also provides policy advice to the Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories

Responsible m in is te r

The responsible minister is the Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories, Senator the Hon John Faulkner. Details of the powers of the minister under the ASDA Act are set out at Appendix 2.

Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories Senator the Hon John Faulkner

M em bership

Section 19(1) of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 provides for the Agency to consist of a chairperson, a deputy chairperson, up to three other members who are appointed on a part-time basis, and a chief executive who is appointed on a full-time basis as a board member. All appointments to the Australian Sports Drug Agency Board are eligible for re-appointment.

As at 30 June 1994, membership of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Board and the periods of appointment were:

Chairperson Deputy Chairperson Chief Executive Members

Prof Peter Baume, AO Dr Brian Corrigan, AM Mr Steve Haynes Miss Tricia Kavanagh Br Bob Wallace, AM Ms Sharon Buchanan, OAM

18.2.94- 17.2.97

6.3.94- 5.3.95 18.2.94- 17.2.99

18.2.93- 17.2.96

18.2.93- 17.2.96

18.2.94- 17.2.96

3

Professor Peter Baume

Dr Brian Corrigan

Miss Trish Kavanagh

Br Bob Wallace

Ms Sharon Buchanan

Steve Haynes

is a former Senator for New South Wales and is currently Professor of Community Medicine at the University of New South Wales. He has considerable expertise in the areas of health and drug policy, medicine and organisational leadership.

was, until recently, Senior Specialist in Rheumatology at the Concord Hospital in Sydney. He is an Olympic team doctor. Dr Corrigan brings a great deal of expertise to the Agency particularly in the area of sports medicine.

is a Barrister at Law in New South Wales. She is currently writing a major thesis on the legal aspects of drugs in sport and is acknowledged internationally for her expertise in this area.

is Headmaster at Waverley College with profound expertise in education and sports administration. He is also President of the Australian Schools Rugby Union Association.

is an Australian Olympian and former captain of the successful Australian women's hockey team. She has an in depth understanding of high performance sport and a developing expertise in health promotion.

the Chief Executive Officer, was formerly a clinical chemist specialising in hormone analysis and a qualified sports coach. He was Sports Administrator of the Year in 1992.

Professor Peter Baume, AO Chairman of the Australian Sports Drug Agency

4

The Agency employed 36 staff members at 30 June 1994 and had an average staffing level of 31.3 during 1993-94. The Chief Executive of the Agency was the sole senior executive officer. Social justice issues and internal and external scrutiny are discussed in Chapter 4 (Executive Program). The Agency's organisational structure as at 30 June 1994 is shown at Figure 1.2.

O rganisational s tru c tu re

Testing Research and Policy Director - S Richards

Education

Co-ordinator - P Dowling

Chief Executive Officer S Haynes

Australian Sports Drug Agency Board

Minister for the Environment Sport and Territories

Executive

Deputy Chief Executive - N Nicholson Manager Planning and Evaluation - L Barron Financial Adviser - H Quiggan

International

International Adviser - N Vance

Figure 1.2: Organisation of the Australian Sports Drug Agency

Agency contact

Contact officer for the Agency is Sue Strang, Office Manager.

PO Box 345, 1 Phipps Place

CURTIN ACT 2605 DEAKIN ACT 2600

Telephone: (06)281 1822

Facsimile: (06)281 1226

5

Publications and presentations

During 1993-94 members and staff of the Agency presented or published a number of papers related to the issue of drugs in sport (see Appendix 3).

Swimming star, Linley Frame launching the Drugs in Sport Handbook.

6

Social justice

The Agency continued to implement plans aimed at promoting the social justice policies of equal employment opportunity, occupational health and safety, access and equity, and industrial democracy. (For further information see full report in Chapter 4.)

Internal and external scrutiny

The Agency, along with all other departments and authorities, was included in the Auditor General's Report No 27 of 1993-94 Report on Ministerial Portfolios Autumn Sittings 1993-94 concerning aggregate financial statements. No adverse comments were included in this report.

An unqualified audit report was issued in respect of the financial statements for the year ending 30 June 1994 (see Chapter 6). A summary of financial and staffing resources is shown in Table 1.1. Expenditure by program is shown in Table 1.2.

Table 1.1: Australian Sports Drug Agency financial and staffing resources summary

$( 000) and actual staff years Actual Budget Actual

1992-93 1993-94 1993-94

BUDGETARY (CASH) BASIS

Components of appropriations

Running costs 3152 3619 3191

Less revenue 247 345 339

Less cash on hand at beginning of 95 424 424

year Add cash on hand at end of year 424 - 422

Total appropriations 3234 2850 2850

STAFFING Staff years 25.6 30.7 31.3

7

Table 1.2: Australian Sports Drug Agency expenditure by program

Program Budget

$000 Actual

Staff years Budget Actual

(1993-94) (1993-94) (1993-94) (1993-94)

Testing, research and policy

1 551 1 440 10.0 10.9

Education 1 086 878 10.7 10.1

Executive 982 872 10.0 10.4

Total expenditure* 3 619 3 191 30.7 31.3

•Minor variations exist as a result of roundings

TV»e w iZ A R O OF tD

8

CHAPTER 2

TESTING, RESEARCH AND POLICY

O b je c tiv e

To deter the use o f prohibited drugs and doping methods in A ustralian sort by encouraging a f a i r and equitable response to the use o f drugs in sport

Functions

z ^ \

* to implement a drug testing program intended to deter drug

use by elite athletes;

* to support and encourage the conduct of analytical research

that will improve detection techniques; and

* to provide advice to government and non-government sporting organisations about doping policies and the need to develop a comprehensive response to the issue of drugs in sport.

X______________________ ^ ^

Resources

'S ta ffin g E xpenditure

1 0 .9 s ta ff years $1 440 0 0 0

1

Drug testing

Summary of 1993-94 testing activities

During 1993-94 the Agency conducted 2802 tests covering 49 sports. A summary of tests conducted for each sport is shown in Appendix 7. A total of 38 entries were made to the Agency's Register of Notifiable Events for recording positive test results or failing to comply with a request to provide a sample.

Testing was concentrated in two main areas:

• a public interest testing program funded by the Commonwealth Government; and • a user-pays contract testing program covering professional sports leagues and international sporting organisations.

9

All samples collected by the Agency were analysed by laboratories with full International Olympic Committee (IOC) accreditation (Appendix 5). Samples were tested for the presence of substances on the IOC List of Doping Classes and Methods (Appendix 6).

The rationale for distribution of tests was further refined to maximise the deterrent effect of the testing program. Promotion of testing activities was increased in recognition of the important link between visibility of testing and the level of deterrence.

Public interest testing

Under the public interest testing program a total of 1930 tests were conducted across 49 sports.

The test distribution plan, which determines the athletes to be selected for testing, places considerable emphasis on sports considered to be at greater risk of drug use. These include athletics, cycling, powerlifting, rowing, swimming, triathlon and weightlifting.

The Agency maintained its emphasis on out-of-competition testing by allocating 56% of tests for this purpose. A total of 290 out-of-competition testing sessions were conducted. Over 2220 elite national level athletes identified by their national sporting organisations as members of national open-age teams and squads are exposed to year-round testing through this program.

The 1993-94 competition testing program provided greater visibility for the Agency's testing activities and enhanced the deterrent effect of the program. Testing was conducted at a total of 219 events around Australia.

The Agency also allocated 9% of public interest tests for its international activities, including both event and out-of-competition testing. Public interest tests were allocated for this purpose to ensure that non-Australian athletes training or competing in Australia were also exposed to drug testing.

The Agency's testing program is now widely accepted within the sporting community. Initiatives by the Agency to increase the awareness of sporting organisations of the importance of drug-free sport have been successful. The majority of sporting organisations are assisting the Agency in educating athletes about the Agency's drug testing program, the likelihood of being tested, and the Drugs in Sport Telephone Hotline service. This is achieved by including promotional messages in event programs and national association newsletters. The results of a survey of elite athletes conducted in the first half of 1994, indicates that over 84.5% of athletes believe the Agency's testing activities are deterring the use of performance enhancing drugs.

10

Contract testing

Professional sports leagues.

Agreements were made during 1993-94 appointing the Agency to conduct testing on behalf of the major professional sporting leagues. These user-pays programs covered the New South Wales Rugby League, the Australian Football League, the National Basketball League, the National Soccer League, the Queensland Rugby

League, and for the first time this year, the Australian Professional Ironman Series. A total of 308 tests were conducted at pre-season training sessions and 359 tests completed following competition games.

The Agency conducted 2802 drug tests in 1993-94

11

International

The Agency is increasingly being recognised by international sporting federations (ISFs) as having the professional expertise necessary to conduct competition and out-of-competition testing on their behalf. In the past twelve months, the Agency has conducted 368 international tests as follows:

Before agreeing to undertake testing of international level athletes, the Agency and relevant sporting organisations negotiate the sample collection and testing procedures that will be used. Just as the Agency legislation imposes certain procedural obligations on the Agency, ISF doping policies require sample collection and testing procedures to be carried out in a specified manner. Occasionally there are differences in the sample collection procedures set down in the ASDA Regulations and an ISF doping policy.

Where there are differences in doping control procedures, the ASDA legislation provides for the Agency to vary its procedures provided those procedures comply with the procedures of the International Olympic Charter Against Doping in Sport (the Charter). Most ISF doping policy procedures are consistent with the procedural guidelines of the Charter. This provides the Agency with the flexibility necessary to negotiate testing agreements with international bodies when providing a testing service.

The majority of tests in the Agency's international testing program were conducted at major international sporting events held in Australia such as: the 1993 World Junior Cycling Championships; 1993 World Weightlifting Championships; 1994 World Gymnastics Championships and the 1994 World Women's Basketball Championships. The Agency also provided a testing service at the 1994 Oceania Weightlifting Championships in Guam.

Out-of-competition tests were conducted on foreign athletes training in Australia at the request of ISFs and national anti-doping agencies from other countries. The Agency also conducted out-of-competition testing on behalf of the International

Rowing Federation in Hong Kong, China and South Korea.

During 1993-1994 the Agency conducted international testing for the following originations: •

• The Sports Council (United Kingdom) • Swiss Anti-doping Authority • International Weightlifting Federation • International Amateur Athletic Federation • International Cycling Federation

• out-of-competition (public interest):

• out-of-competition (contract):

• competition (public interest):

• competition (contract):

14 tests 62 tests 158 tests

134 tests

12

• International Modern Pentathlon Union • International Rowing Federation • Australian Rugby Football Union • Judo Federation of Australia • International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation • International Gymnastics Federation • International Basketball Federation

1993 World Junior Cycling Championships

The Agency conducted 65 tests at the 1993 World Junior Cycling Championships held in Perth from 26 September until 4 October 1993. The tests comprised a combination of user-pays and public interest testing.

An official of the International Cycling Federation (UCI) controlled the testing sessions in cooperation with an Agency official. The procedures used were a combination of UCI procedures and procedures defined by the ASDA Regulations. Differences to normal procedures included the use of UCI testing forms and bottles being sealed with wax. All tests were consistent with those set out in the Charter.

Testing was conducted at both road and track events.

1994 World Gymnastics Championships

At the April 1994 World Gymnastics Championships the Agency conducted nine public interest tests.

The Agency negotiated a testing agreement in consultation with the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) through the chief executive of the event organising committee. Testing procedures were consistent with those set out in the Charter.

The FIG Medical Commission Chairman was involved in selection of competitors for testing and witnessing test procedures.

1994 World Women's Basketball Championships

In June 1994, the Agency conducted 56 tests at the 1994 World Women's Basketball Championships, comprising 32 out-of-competition tests in the preliminary rounds and 24 competition tests in the finals. The preliminary round testing was conducted in Adelaide, Hobart and Launceston. Finals testing was conducted in Sydney.

The Agency negotiated an agreement on testing procedures with the International Basketball Federation (FIBA). FI BA notification and drug testing forms were used. Selection was a random process involving the relevant team doctors, the supervisory doctor from FIBA and an Agency official. Testing procedures were consistent with those set out in the Charter. Testing at all venues progressed smoothly under the observation of a FIBA supervisory doctor.

13

WORLD WEIGHTLIFTING CHAMPIONSHIPS

MELBOURNE '93 1993 World Weightlifting Championships

From 12-21 November 1993 the Agency conducted 97 tests at the 1993 World Weightlifting Championships held in Melbourne. Tests comprised user-pays and public interest testing. Ten out-of-competition tests were conducted prior to competition.

Testing was conducted in accordance with the procedures set out in the Charter, under the observation of a representative from the International Weightlifting Federation (IWF). The IWF worked cooperatively with the Agency in all aspects of testing including selection of competitors for testing.

Arrangements were made for a special briefing session, prior to the beginning of the Championships, to enable an Agency official to advise team managers on procedures to be used by the Agency when collecting samples for testing.

The General-Secretary of the IWF, Dr Tamas Ajan, commented at the conclusion of the event,". ..we highly appreciate the cooperation [the Agency] offered to us in Melbourne....Thank you again for your kind assistance."

14

Out-of-competition testing conducted in Hong Kong, China and South Korea on behalf of the International Rowing Federation (FISA).

In September 1993, FISA requested the Agency to conduct out-of-competition testing on rowers in Hong Kong, China and South Korea.

The Agency negotiated an agreement with FISA and two Agency officials conducted the testing between 6 October and 13 October 1993. Two samples were collected in Hong Kong, three in South Korea and eight in China.

Testing progressed smoothly and the cooperation from local authorities in all countries was excellent. Each competitor tested was photographed at the testing session for identification purposes (a FISA requirement).

A summary of all international testing conducted by the Agency during 1993-94 is at Appendix 4.

In addition to testing at international events in Australia, the Agency requested the New Zealand Sports Drug Agency to conduct a test on an Australian athlete competing in New Zealand. The Agency intends to increase its use of the services of anti-doping agencies in New Zealand, North America and Europe for this purpose in 1994-95.

Register of Notifiable Events

During 1993-94 the Agency made 38 entries on the Register of Notifiable Events as follows;

• 5 competitors failing to comply with a request to provide a sample,

• 33 competitors recording positive test results for the presence of banned substances. Of these positive tests: —16 were for the presence of stimulants; —14 for the presence of anabolic steroids; —2 for the presence of diuretics; and — 1 for the presence of a restricted substance (ie marijuana).

Sporting organisations are responsible for investigating the circumstances surrounding positive test results and determining whether sanctions are appropriate. Sporting organisations advised that 12 of the positive test results were due to the inadvertent use of banned substances and two were the result of

legitimate therapeutic use of a banned substance. Details of all entries on the Register of Notifiable Events are set out at Appendix 8. A summary of entries on the Register by doping class and sport is set out below.

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Table 2.1 Summary of entries on Register of Notifiable Events by doping class and sport for 1993-94

S p ort R efusals S tim u lants D iuretics A n ab o lic

steroids R estricted T otal Deem ed

inadvertent by sport

Athletics 1 1 2 1

Boxing 2 2

Cycling 3 3

Diving 1 1

Judo 1 1

Powerlifting 1 1 4 6 1

Rugby League 8 4 1 13 8

Shooting 1 1 1

Soccer 2 2 2

Swimming-Deaf 1 1 1

Weightlifting 1 5 6

T O T A L 5 16 2 14 1 38 14

NOTES:

1. A positive finding for a prohibited substance was recorded for an international weightlifter.

2. A powerlifting athlete tested positive for both a stimulant and an anabolic steroid in the one test. The result has been entered on the above table as an anabolic steroid positive.

3. A Judo athlete tested positive for three stimulants and three anabolic steroids in the one test. The result has been entered on the above table as an anabolic steroid positive.

4. A Rugby League player tested positive for a testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) level of greater than 6:1. It could not be determined whether the T/E ratio was naturally high or due to doping. The sporting organisation, on advice from the ASC Medical Advisory Panel, requested the Agency conduct three additional tests on the athlete to assist in confirming the test result. The second and third tests conducted on the athlete also resulted in a T/E ratio of greater than 6:1. A further test is required before a final determination can be made.

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Testing officials

The Australia-wide network of officers employed to conduct sample collection comprised 2 full-time, 3 part-time and 17 casual drug control officials(DCO's). In addition, approximately 200 trained chaperones assisted with the collection process.

A Drug Control Official's Procedures Manual was produced to provide a reference tool for DCOs. The manual sets out the Agency's standard operating procedures for sample collection, and provides information about administrative procedures DCOs are required to follow.

The Agency continued to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its testing activities by providing training programs for drug testing officials.

Drug control officials

A training program has been developed to assist with the training of newly recruited DCOs. The program provides 14 hours of theory training supported by a minimum 16 hours of practical training at drug testing sessions supervised by trained personnel. This new program has been most successful in training four new DCOs during the year.

A DCO workshop was conducted in Canberra in January 1994. Sixteen of the Agency's 22 DCOs from around Australia attended. The workshop enabled the Agency to enhance the DCOs knowledge of the drug testing program, improve skills and understanding of their role, and allow for group discussions on issues requiring further attention. Due to the physical isolation of decentralised DCOs from the

Agency's testing administration area, the workshop has proved to be of enormous benefit to the Testing, Research and Policy Program and to the DCOs.

In March, a DCO represented the Agency at an International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) anti-doping seminar held in Heusenstamm, Germany. The IAAF used the seminar to educate doping control officials about IAAF doping control procedures. Information obtained will be of immense value to the Agency when conducting testing at IAAF events held in Australian in future years.

Chaperones

DCOs maintain their own chaperone pools and are responsible for chaperone training. Chaperones are required to attend testing sessions for supervision in their chaperone role on a minimum of three occasions before attending a chaperone workshop. During 1993-94, DCOs conducted 4 chaperone workshops that were

attended by a total of 36 chaperones. Eighteen new chaperones were accredited.

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Memorandum of understanding between the Australian Sports Drug Agency and the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories

The Agency negotiated a further memorandum of understanding with the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories (AGAL) to undertake the analysis of ‘public interest’ and contract samples collected in 1993-94, analytical research and necessary accreditation and proficiency studies (see Appendix 9).

On 14 June 1994 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) downgraded AGAL's accreditation to Phase 2 status. On receipt of legal advice that the Agency could not use AGAL to conduct Ά ' sample screening tests while AGAL was rated as a Phase 2 status laboratory, and consistent with clause 7.2 of the memorandum, the Agency cancelled the memorandum with effect from 21 June 1994 following the loss of full IOC accreditation by AGAL.

The Agency negotiated a temporary arrangement with the fully accredited University of California Los Angeles Olympic Analytical Laboratory in the United States to undertake the analysis of the drug testing samples for the remainder of the year.

Research

AGAL research program funded by the Agency

Under the terms of the memorandum of understanding between the Agency and AGAL, the Agency provides funding to assist AGAL conduct research projects.

In vivo excretion studies

In 1993-94, AGAL conducted in vivo excretion studies for clenbuterol, buprenorphine, mesocarb, trenbolone and amineptine. These projects were intended to increase AGAL's efficiency in screening for the presence of the substances and were commenced in 1992-93. Reports for the mesocarb and trenbolone studies were completed by AGAL and are summarised below.

Mesocarb

Mesocarb is a psychomotor stimulator which has a more gradual and longer-lasting effect than amphetamines. Mesocarb used by athletes was first reported in 1988, however IOC testing for mesocarb did not start until 1992.

AGAL investigated three methods for detecting mesocarb:

• narcotics screening; • steroid screening; and • screening by extractive alkylation.

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The narcotics and steroids screenings were unsatisfactory for detecting mesocarb due to poor detection levels and having to perform a separate screen for a single analyte.

The screening by extractive alkylation, a routine procedure for screening diuretics and acidic drugs, is suitable for detecting mesocarb. An additional hydrolysis step, which does not affect the detection of diuretics, is required. The additional hydrolysis step is only performed for full screen samples and adds about three hours to analytical time.

The cost for sampling mesocarb is minimal and has been absorbed into normal costs.

Trenbolone

Trenbolone is an anabolic agent used in both veterinary and human fields.

AGAL investigated several methods for detecting trenbolone:

• routine procedure for anabolic steroids; • routine procedure for anabolic steroids without a catalyst; • routine procedure for screening and quantitation of corticosteroids; and • ELISA immunoassay technique, using routine steroid extraction.

The routine procedures for detecting anabolic steroids, with and without a catalyst, did not produce satisfactory results for the detection of trenbolone.

The method for screening and quantification of corticosteroids was the best method for detecting trenbotone. This method is not used for initial screening because extraction, derivatives and equipment use are time consuming and expensive.

The ELISA immunoassay technique, using routine steroid extraction, was the best choice as a cost-effective method for detecting trenbolone. If the ELISA technique indicates a possible positive result, the result is confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry which is acknowledged by international organisations as an acceptable method of analysis.

Pseudoephedrine

In 1992-93 the Agency funded a collaborative project concerning pseudoephedrine. AGAL commenced work on the project in early 1993. Work continued throughout 1993-94.

Pseudoephedrine is a stimulant commonly found in over-the-counter cough and cold medications. Many positive test results occur when athletes inadvertently use such medications.

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AGAL's research project comprised two parts:

• to investigate excretion rates of pseudoephedrine; and • to investigate the effect of pseudoephedrine on athletic performance.

AGAL has almost completed the first of the excretion studies on pseudoephedrine using volunteers from the Southern Cross University. However, due to personnel issues at the university, collaboration has essentially ceased.

The work on the effects of pseudoephedrine on athletic performance has been rescheduled in collaboration with the NSW Academy of Sport.

The Agency is awaiting a written report on the progress of this research.

Hormone doping

There are four hormones on the IOC list of prohibited doping classes and methods. They are chorionic gonadotrophin (CG), corticotrophin (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and erythropoietin (EPO).

Urine analysis can be used to detect chorionic gonadtrophin. Whilst EPO and GH are detectable in urine samples, the misuse of EPO and GH cannot be determined by urine analysis. Screening for ACTH is not carried out because it increases the production of corticosteroids which are also restricted substances on the IOC list.

Present research indicates that blood samples may provide the best matrix to determine whether a hormone doping offence has occurred.

Strategies to detect EPO and GH are currently being researched by international groups. These strategies include:

• determination of reliable reference limits for endogenous hormones; • measurement of changes to levels of other endogenous secondary compounds affected by the hormone; and • advocating for manufactures to label hormones with a detectable marker

measurable by urine analysis.

Implementation of strategies may require blood sampling rather than urine. The Agency is monitoring the progress of these research efforts.

The Agency is encouraging research to improve methods for detecting GH. The Agency is also seeking advice from the Committee of Laboratories Against Drug Abuse (C-LADA) on a collaborative research proposal by the University of Queensland and St Thomas' Hospital, London, on the use of GH by competitive athletes. C-LADA is a working group within the International Federation of Clinical Chemists and comprises several members of IOC accredited laboratories. ASDA is awaiting advice from C-LADA on AGAL's research proposal for this project.

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O th er research

The Agency directed resources to a number of other research projects in 1993-94:

Prostate cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the second most common cancer in New South Wales males. Testosterone treatment is the only known method of inducing prostate cancer in animals. The general influence of hormones on prostate cancer is well documented and a causal link between steroid use and prostate cancer has

been suggested.

In January 1993, the Agency funded a pilot research project to investigate the feasibility of conducting a major study into the link between anabolic steroid use and prostate cancer. The Cancer Epidemiology Research Unit of the New South Wales Cancer Council conducted the research.

The pilot study indicated that there was no overt or covert link between anabolic steroid use and prostate cancer. Further studies are not warranted based on these results. As the pilot study did not indicate a link between anabolic steroid use and prostate cancer, the Agency was not required to pay the second instalment of research funds.

The Agency is awaiting a full report on the project from the New South Wales Cancer Council.

Blood testing

In line with almost all international sporting federations, the Australian Sports Drug Agency has developed testing programs based on the collection and analysis of urine samples. For the majority of banned substances on the IOC list of prohibited

doping classes and methods, urine analysis is more effective than blood analysis.

There is increasing concern however that elite athletes may be using peptide hormones including EPO and CG to enhance athletic performance. Blood doping may also be occurring in endurance sports. Some researchers believe that blood may provide a better matrix than urine to detect EPO or GH misuse and blood doping.

As part of the Agency's information collection process, an Agency official attended the Second International Symposium on Drugs in Sport, held in Norway in August 1993. The conference was entitled, Towards the Use of Blood Samples in Doping Control. Conference delegates raised a number of analytical, legal and technical

issues that need to be resolved before blood testing can be used as an acceptable form of doping control. Concerns were expressed that:

• national laws may regulate or restrict the collection or use of blood samples;

• blood sampling may impose on an individual's human rights or privacy;

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• legal and professional obligations exist that may require an analyst to report findings other than where a doping offence has occurred;

• liability insurance may be necessary in the event of injury to either the competitor or the sample collector; and

• analytical laboratories may not have the capacity to store and analyse blood samples.

The International Ski Federation and the International Amateur Athletic Federation collected blood samples for doping control from competitors at a limited number of events during 1993-94. Blood samples were also collected from skiers at the 1994 Winter Olympics. This was the first time that blood samples have been collected at an Olympic Games.

The Agency has monitored developments in blood testing by liaison with organisations including ISFs, AGAL and the Canadian Centre for Drug Free Sport.

Caffeine research

In 1990, the Agency commissioned a research project jointly funded by the Agency and the Australian Sports Commission's Sports Research Program, entitled ‘An investigation of the pharmacokinetics of caffeine ingestion and elimination in athletes’. The project was commenced at the Southern Cross University.

The project has not been completed. Problems encountered by the researchers have included poor research design, equipment failure and inaccessibility to suitable research subjects. A report has not been prepared by the researchers.

As the project has not been successfully completed, despite several extensions of the completion date, the Agency has decided to seek full reimbursement of grant monies from the Southern Cross University.

Policy advice

Consultation with the Australian Sports Commission (ASC)

The Agency continued to consult with ASC on aspects of the ASC Doping Policy to ensure that, where applicable, the policy complements and reflects the requirements of the Agency's testing activities.

The Agency and ASC also worked cooperatively to gather information that may be of assistance to sporting organisations in drafting doping policies so that they reduce the risk of athletes initiating legal action as a consequence of positive test results or the imposition of sanctions. Areas the Agency and ASC examined included the constitutional authority of sporting organisations to test and impose sanctions, and the mechanisms for giving sporting organisations access to

22

specialist legal and medical expertise during hearings into doping offences to provide for a fair and independent hearing process.

The Agency engaged a consultant to draft clauses that would properly incorporate a doping policy under the constitution of a sporting organisation. The draft clauses were intended to ensure sporting organisation constitutions provide organisations with the authority to test and impose sanctions. The Agency referred the draft provisions to the ASC, and the Agency has been engaged in discussions with the ASC about their usefulness to national sporting organisations.

Doping policies

In providing advice about doping policies to sporting organisations the Agency emphasises the need to adopt a comprehensive approach to the drugs in sport issue.

The Agency's policy advice to sporting organisations reinforces the Commonwealth Government's position on drug use in sport by reminding sporting organisations of the need to recognise the Agency's sample collection procedures, impose effective sanctions, and respect an athlete's right to natural justice throughout any hearing

process. The Agency also reminds sporting organisations of their obligations to comply with the requirements of the ASC Doping Policy and encourages them to contact the ASC if there are any doubts about those requirements.

The Agency encourages sporting organisations to incorporate provisions in their doping policies outlining the manner in which they will satisfy their ‘duty of care’ obligations to inform their athletes about the doping policy, banned substances, and

the consequences of returning a positive test result or refusing to provide a sample. The Agency asks sporting organisations to support educative strategies in their doping policies designed to discourage drug use.

In addition, the Agency emphasises the need for sporting organisations to shape their doping policies to meet the needs of their sport. It encourages sporting organisations to consider how they wish to address issues like the inadvertent and therapeutic use of banned substances; the needs of special groups such as children, veterans and athletes with disabilities; protecting the privacy of athletes

subject to testing; and observing natural justice.

The Agency continued to provide policy advice to professional sports leagues that contract it to conduct testing. These leagues include the NSW Rugby League, the Australian Football League, the National Basketball League, the National Soccer League and the Queensland Rugby League.

During 1993-94, the Agency also commenced a drug testing program on a contract basis with the Australian Professional Ironman ‘Uncle Toby's’ Series. Before entering into the contract, the Agency worked closely with the event organisers to develop a comprehensive doping policy that se/t out the details of to whom the policy applied, the nature of a doping offence, the list of banned substances, the event organisers' responsibility to provide information about the doping policy to

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athletes competing in the series, a hearing process that respected an individual's right to natural justice and effective sanctions. As it does for all professional leagues, the Agency also made available relevant information about testing procedures, banned substances and permitted medications.

Other sporting organisations to seek doping policy advice from the Agency during the year included: the Australian Baseball Federation; the Australian Darts Federation; the Australian Natural Bodybuilding Federation; the Australian Rowing Council; the Australian Soccer Federation; Australian Swimming; the Australian Table Tennis Association; the Australian Wave Ski Association; the Australian Weightlifting Federation; Foundation SA; Pistol Australia; Powerlifting Australia (and previously the Australian Powerlifting Federation and the Australian Drug Free Powerlifting Federation); the Tasmanian Institute of Sport and the World Masters Games Organising Committee.

In addition to consultation about specific aspects of their doping policies, a number of national sporting organisations also approached the Agency to discuss the distribution of drug tests in their sports. The Agency discussed test distribution with Athletics Australia, Powerlifting Australia and the Australian Cycling Federation.

International Court of Arbitration for Sport

In 1983, the IOC established a Court of Arbitration for Sport based in Lausanne to enable sporting organisations and athletes to settle their disputes without any intervention by the ordinary courts.

In June 1993, the Court of Arbitration for Sport was restructured and made independent of the IOC. The restructuring involved the creation of two divisions: (i) an Ordinary Arbitration Division responsible for jurisdiction over disputes of a private nature arising from the practice or development of sport; and (ii) an Appeals Arbitration Division responsible for requests for arbitration on appeals, including appeals against doping offences and sanctions.

An IOC International Conference on Sport and the Law (held in Lausanne in September 1993 endorsed the revised structure of the Court of Arbitration for Sport. An Agency board member, Miss Kavanagh, attended this conference together with a number of other Australian delegates.

The conference resolved to ‘invite the International Sports Federations (ISF), the National Olympic Committees and all the sports bodies in the world to adopt procedures respecting the rights of the parties and to provide in their statutes for recourse to the Court if their decisions are being disputed'.

The Agency will continue to monitor the activities of the IOC Court of Arbitration for Sport relating to disputes involving doping.

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Special interest groups

Consistent with its commitment to social justice and access and equity, the Agency has sought to address the special needs of veteran and masters athletes, athletes with disabilities, and children and junior athletes.

Veterans and masters

The 1994 World Masters Games will be held in Brisbane from 26 September - 8 October 1994. The International Board of Governors of the World Masters Games has directed that drug testing of participants should take place during the 1994 games.

Throughout 1993-94 the Agency has been involved in negotiations with the World Masters Games Organising Committee about the provision of drug testing services and the development of an appropriate doping policy for the games.

The Agency advised the organising committee that before any testing program could be undertaken, a doping policy would need to be developed for the event that:

• outlined banned substances; • recognised the Agency's sample collection and testing procedures; • outlined procedures to be followed if a positive test result or refusal to undertake a test occurs; and

• identified sanctions to be applied.

Given the age of competitors, and the anticipated greater need for the older participants to take medication for legitimate therapeutic reasons, the Agency also advised event organisers to include reference to therapeutic and inadvertent use of banned substances in the policy document.

As a result of these discussions a doping policy for the World Masters Games was prepared by the organising committee in consultation with the Agency and the ASC. The policy accommodated the Agency's drug testing procedural requirements and incorporated provisions concerning the use of banned substances for legitimate therapeutic purposes.

Upon endorsement of the doping policy by its International Board of Governors, the organising committee formally requested the Agency to undertake drug testing at the games. The Agency has agreed to conduct testing on a commercial basis and will continue to negotiate about the appropriate distribution of tests across sports

and levels of competition.

Athletes with disabilities

The Agency continued to work with sporting organisations for athletes with disabilities to assist them develop responses to drug use in sport appropriate to the specific needs of their athletes.

25

The Agency has become increasingly involved in conducting testing of athletes with disabilities both at events and out-of-competition testing. Over 30 public interest tests were allocated for this purpose in 1993-94.

The Agency conducted testing at events including: the Australian Amputee Championships (August 1993); the 11th Australian Deaf Championships (January 1994); the Australian Open Disabled Track and Field Championships (March 1994); and the 18th National Wheelchair Games (April 1994).

The Agency provided its DCOs with specific information to assist in the efficient collection of samples from athletes with disabilities. The Agency Regulations were amended in July 1993 to provide for greater ease in notifying athletes with disabilities, particularly deaf athletes and athletes with intellectual disabilities, of their selection for testing (see section on AS DA legislation below). Agency officials are now permitted to notify a third party such as a parent, guardian, spouse or coach of the athlete's selection for testing so that they can provide support and assistance to the athlete through the sample collection process.

The Agency also continued to provide assistance to sporting organisations for the disabled seeking assistance with developing doping policies. The Agency is mindful of the physical conditions of some athletes that may require the use of banned substances for legitimate therapeutic reasons. In all dealings with sporting organisations for the disabled the Agency emphasises the need to properly address this issue in doping policies so that athletes with legitimate therapeutic needs are not disadvantaged.

Sporting organisations for athletes with disabilities continue to be provided with relevant information about testing procedures, banned substances and permitted medications.

Some athletes with disabilities may require the use of banned drugs for legitimate medical reasons

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The Agency continues to apply the principles of its drugs in sport policy for children and junior athletes through its policy, education and testing strategies to meet the needs of under-18s.

Competitors under 18 years of age

The Agency's primary objectives are to:

• promote an environment conducive to healthy participation in sport by children and juniors;

• increase the awareness and level of knowledge of children and juniors about drugs in sport;

• provide children and juniors with the information and skills necessary to understand and deal with situations associated with drug use in sport;

• protect the rights of children and juniors during the sample collection process; and

• encourage sporting organisations to adopt a fair and equitable response when children and juniors record a positive test result or fail to comply with a request to provide a sample.

While these objectives are generally addressed by the Agency's broader education and policy strategies for the sporting community, the Agency took specific action to protect the rights of under-18s during the drug testing process. In July 1993 the ASDA Regulations were amended to allow Agency officials to notify a parent, guardian or coach of young athletes of the athlete's selection for testing (see section on ASDA legislation below). This amendment was made so that adults can provide support and assistance to young athletes through the sample collection process.

W IZ A R D O F ID I3Y B R A N T P A R K E R & J O H N N Y H AR T

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HEARP U um e7 £ f j

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Legislation

ASDA legislation review

The ASDA Board has requested the review in order to simplify the legislation so that it will be more effective, easier to apply and sufficiently flexible to accommodate the procedural requirements of international sporting organisations that may wish to contract the Agency to conduct testing in the lead up to the 2000 Olympic Games. At the same time, it is hoped the review will diminish the likelihood of appeals against the validity of test results.

The Agency has invited representatives from peak Australian sporting organisations to be involved in the review process. The Australian Olympic Committee, the Australian Sports Commission, the Australian Commonwealth Games Association and the Confederation of Australian Sport have agreed to participate in this process. A number of national sporting organisations such as Athletics Australia have also agreed to participate in the review.

The review will be a major part of the Agency's activities during 1994-95.

Amendments to ASDA legislation

Amendments were made to both the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 and the ASDA Regulations during 1993-94.

Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990

An amendment was made to the ASDA Act to ensure that all competitors tested under the ASDA Act, or proposed complementary State or Territory anti-doping legislation, have access to the same appeal provisions. The amendment enables States and Territories to confer jurisdiction for review of decisions by the Agency

onto the Commonwealth Administrative Appeals Tribunal or federal court. A further amendment was also made to allow the Agency to record in the Register of Notifiable Events the names of competitors tested under State or Territory anti­ doping legislation who return a positive test result or who fail to comply with a request to provide a sample for testing without reasonable cause. This amendment allows for the same procedures to apply to competitors tested under State and Territory legislation as currently applies to competitors tested under the ASDA Act.

The amendments were debated in the House of Representatives on 2 March 1994 and received Royal Assent on 15 March 1994.

Australian Sports Drug Agency Regulations

In the light of experience since the introduction of the ASDA Act and Regulations in 1991, and as a result of subsequent amendments to the Act, it became necessary for some changes to be made to the Regulations to enhance their effectiveness and to better reflect the Agency's operating procedures.

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The amendments cover a range of procedural and operational matters including:

• clarification of procedures for contacting competitors by mail;

• regulating to enable the Agency to contact a third person such as a parent, guardian, or coach to assist in the notification of minors, athletes with intellectual disabilities and non-English speaking athletes who have been selected to undertake a drug test;

• clarification and simplification of procedures for the Agency to contact competitors;

• regulations to address the deliberate tampering with a sample by a competitor;

• clarification of procedures for the notification of a competitor of a positive drug test; and

• specification of procedures to be adopted following an appeal by a competitor to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal.

The opportunity was also taken to delete regulations that, following the introduction of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Amendment Act 1992, ceased to be relevant.

The amendments were developed in consultation with the Attorney-General's Department. They were referred to the Privacy Commissioner for comment before coming into force on 3 August 1993.

Complementary State drug testing legislation

The ASDA legislation provides for the Agency to conduct testing on national and international standard elite athletes. At the 20th meeting of the Sport and Recreation Ministers' Council in 1990, all State and Territory Ministers agreed on

the desirability of States and Territories enacting complementary anti-doping legislation to confer powers on the Agency so that it could test state level athletes. State and Territory ministers also agreed to consult with the Commonwealth Government about provisions that should be incorporated into the State legislation.

Since that time several States and the Australian Capital Territory have developed draft legislation. All States and Territories have also expressed a desire to play some role in the elimination of drugs in sport including the introduction of complementary legislation to allow the testing of athletes down to state level.

Under complementary legislation, the Agency will make its sample collection, testing and notification services available to the States and Territories. Given that the Commonwealth legislation imposes certain obligations on the Agency to conduct testing in a manner that protects the rights and entitlements of athletes exposed to testing, it is essential that State drug testing legislation is complementary to the ASDA legislation in all major respects. Such consistency is

necessary to ensure that provisions of State and Territory legislation do not conflict

29

with the requirements of the ASDA legislation, and all athletes exposed to testing under either State or Commonwealth legislation are treated in the same way.

To encourage the adoption of consistent State legislation, Agency staff met with State and Territory Government officials to discuss the drugs in sport issue and to identify the objectives of the States and Territories in this area. These meetings provided an opportunity to place the need for complementary legislation and drug testing programs into the broader context of a national response to the use of drugs

in sport. The meetings were also used to gain some understanding of progress made by States and Territories in developing State drugs in sport policies, drafting complementary legislation, and clarifying the type of testing programs proposed by States and Territories under complementary legislation.

Meetings were held with officials from individual States and Territories in March-May 1994. In June, a further meeting was held in Canberra at which all States and Territories were invited to be in attendance.

The meetings generated a much greater appreciation by the States and Territories of what they are seeking to achieve in the drugs in sport area and a clarification of why they are considering the introduction of complementary legislation. Reasons given by the State and Territory officials included:

• to reduce the harm associated with the use of drugs in sport; • a desire to protect the reputation of sport; • to protect the health of athletes and the general sporting community; • to protect the investment in State government funded athletes and sports; • as good administrators of sport, to be seen as doing something positive in this area; • to increase awareness of drugs in sport in the States and Territories; and • to prepare State level elite athletes for exposure to testing at national and

international level.

There was general agreement among State and Territory officials that an effective response to the use of drugs in sport involved more than enacting complementary legislation. Officials noted that education was a key element in addressing the issue of drugs in sport and that testing programs were a minor component to reinforce the education message and to enhance the deterrent effect of the

education programs. There was also agreement on the need for adequate lead time to be provided before the introduction of any testing program to allow for appropriate education programs to be introduced.

State and Territory officials acknowledged the need for a national framework to be developed to ensure State and Territory drugs in sport policy, education and testing initiatives are complementary to each other and to the national activities currently being undertaken by the Agency. There was also agreement on the need for a collective, coordinated response to the drugs in sports issue to be adopted by Commonwealth and State and Territory Governments.

The matter has been listed for consideration at the next meeting of the Sport and Recreation Ministers' Council in July 1994 where the ministers will be asked to consider the need for a collective approach to this issue.

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Special o p eratio n al issues

Submissions from individuals who failed to comply with a request to provide a sample

Section 13(1) of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 provides that where a competitor has failed to comply with a request to provide a sample, the Agency must:

(a) give to the competitor a written notice stating:

(i) that the competitor has failed to comply; (ii) that the competitor may, within the submission period (usually 14 days), make submissions to the Agency to the effect that the competitor had reasonable cause for failing so to comply; and

(iii) the Agency's obligations under sections 14, 17 and 18; and

(b) subject to section 13(2), decide whether the competitor had reasonable cause for failing so to comply.

In 1993-94, 10 individuals failed to comply with a request to provide a sample. Six made a submission under the provisions of section 13 of the ASDA Act stating their reasons for failing to comply. The remaining four individuals made no submission.

Of those who made a submission, and after consideration of the contents of each submission, the Agency determined that:

• one competitor could not show reasonable cause for failing to comply with a request and therefore was entered on the Agency's Register of Notifiable Events;

• three individuals could demonstrate that they had retired from their sport before the request to provide a sample was made and so no longer met the definition of ‘competitor’ set out in the Act, and therefore could not be taken to have failed to comply with a request; and

• two competitors were able to show they had reasonable cause for failing to comply a request and no further action was taken by the Agency.

Under section 13(4) of the Act, a person who makes a submission to the Agency that there was reasonable cause for failing to comply with a request, and is dissatisfied with the Agency's decision, has the right to seek a review of the Agency's decision by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT). No applications were made to the AAT during 1993-94 concerning decisions made by the Agency

under section 13 of the Act.

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Submissions from individuals who contended test results should be invalidated due to procedural errors in the sample collection process

Section 16(1) of the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 provides that if a competitor returns a positive test result, the Agency must:

(a) notify the competitor of the result;

(b) inform the competitor that, if the competitor has any information or evidence that may support the making of a determination under section 16(2), the competitor may within a period of 7 days after receiving the notice submit the information or evidence to the Agency; and

(c) determine under section 16(2) whether or not the positive test result is valid.

The Agency may determine a positive test result is invalid only if the Agency is satisfied that:

(a) the applicable procedural requirements relating to the sealing of any container containing the sample were not complied with;

(b) the sample was not tested at an accredited laboratory;

(c) the sample was tampered with by someone other than the competitor or a person chosen by the competitor to oversee any part of the collection or testing of the sample.

In 1993-94 a total of 33 competitors recorded positive test results. Three competitors made submissions under the provisions of section 16 of the Act in which they presented information that the applicable procedural requirements had not been complied with. One of these competitors also contended that the sample provided may have been tampered with by an unauthorised person.

The Agency investigated the facts and circumstances surrounding each drug test, took the submissions of each competitor into consideration, and obtained legal advice in relation to each submission.

In each case, after consideration of all available information and evidence, the Agency determined that it was not satisfied there was any reason to invalidate the test result. The names of all three competitors were therefore entered on the Agency's Register of Notifiable Events.

Under section 16(4) of the Act, a person who makes a submission to the Agency providing evidence to invalidate a positive test result, and is dissatisfied with the Agency's decision, has the right to seek a review of the Agency's decision by the AAT. No applications were made to the AAT during 1993-94 concerning decisions made by the Agency under section 16 of the Act.

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CHAPTER 3

EDUCATION

To increase the skills and knowledge o f target groups so th a t they are more able to respond to the drugs in sport issues

The functions include:

school based education programs;

sport based education programs;

establishment of S tate drug education units; and

provision o f information services.

Resources

O b je c tiv e

Functions

S ta ffin g

:penditure

10.1 s ta ff years $878 000.00

The Agency's education philosophy and programs are based on the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The application of this Charter ensures the Agency's education initiatives focus beyond the drug and its effects and identify and address some of the factors that are responsible for drug use in sport. In order to facilitate

this approach, the Education Program continues to implement activities that follow a framework based on community participation.

To maximise the effectiveness of the program's activities, the Agency merged the two former education programs and objectives during 1993-94. To achieve this new single education objective, the Agency's Education Program is involved in a wide range of activities. Each of these activities impacts on specific target groups

as detailed below.

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School-based education program s

School development in health education project

The development of the school based drugs in sport education project was initiated by discussions with teachers and advisers from the education and health sectors. This resulted in a coordinated approach that linked the Agency with the School Development in Health Education (SDHE) Project — a national program of teacher support in the health and drug education area. The Agency provides national support for teachers, who want to integrate the drugs in sport issue into the curriculum, through this project.

The ASDA/SDHE National Professional Development Program for teachers was successfully launched in Sydney on 16 March 1994. Following this launch the Agency facilitated the first National Education Workshop. SDHE State coordinators and the Agency representatives planned the implementation of Phase 1 of the national teacher support program.

SDHE coordinators have now been established in each State and Territory. Details are provided at Appendix 12.

State facilitators have developed and submitted action plans for Phase 1 of the program to the Agency. These plans detail the objectives and activities for each State's professional development program for drugs in sport education.

The Hon Ross Free MP, Phil Gould and ASDA Board member Brother Bob Wallace at the launch o f the Schools Education Program

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Educational resources

To complement the SDHE project, and in response to a continuing demand, a range of teacher resources have been updated and reprinted. These include:

Fools G o ld The "Fools Gold' resource is a complete package of

lessons based on an episode of the television series "A Country Practice", which dealt with drug use in sport. The resource kit aims to developing skills and increase knowledge as well as to reinforce the attributes of fair play. The kit contains a teacher's booklet, support materials and a video tape.

D rugs in S p o rt Isn't J u s t A b o u t S tero id s A collection of activities that can be used by teachers to incorporate the issue of drugs in sport into their existing

curriculum units. It covers a wide variety of issues, allowing teachers to choose the activities that are most appropriate for their students. It is aimed at students 12

-16 years. In 1993 -94 a second edition was developed and disseminated.

D rugs in S p o rt — An

In service M a n u a l for Teachers a n d C o n su ltan ts

The "Insen/ice" manual is designed to assist teachers and consultants implement effective drugs in sport education programs. It was updated during 1993-94.

S u p e r A th le te s A resource designed for the science curriculum. It comprises a series of lessons aimed at health and ethical issues associated with drug use in sport.

In fo p ac Two series of fact sheets are also available for students.

These include a set for years 7-9 and a set for years 10-12. Information includes the history of drug use in sport, drugs and their effects on sporting performances, patterns of drug use amongst athletes, drug testing and doping policies and current issues.

Details of the numbers of resources disseminated are shown at Appendix 11.

Sport-based ed ucation program s

Sport drug education units (SDEU)

State and Territory-based SDEU's are now operating in New South Wales, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria. This follows the successful trialing of an SDEU in New South Wales. These four units allow the Agency to

assist the sporting community, particularly those involved in high performance sport, to identify and respond to their major concerns about drugs use in sport.

35

Each SDEU conducted an extensive needs analysis in conjunction with their sporting community. These units revealed common concerns which included inadvertent doping and drug testing procedures and practices, as well as a general lack of awareness about drugs in sport issues.

To assist in the development of the units, steering groups representing the respective sporting communities were established. These groups helped direct and monitor the progress of drug education initiatives. Representatives of the steering groups are mainly administrators, coaches or athletes. The composition of the SDEU steering groups is shown in Appendix 11.

Through the SDEUs, coaches, administrators and athletes are all becoming actively involved in developing educational initiatives, policies, communication mechanisms and information services. By assisting ‘high performance’ sport at the state level to respond to their concerns, the Agency anticipates the response to the issue of

drugs in sport will be sustained.

To effect this continuing response, SDEU officers are engaged in a wide range of activities including:

• provision of educational advice and information on drugs in sport issues to State Government officials and State sporting administrators;

• working with different groups to develop drugs in sport components for courses (eg coaching coordinators);

• delivery of presentations directly to high performance State coaches and athletes (see Appendix 3); and

• working with key people such as administrators and coaches to assist them to find ways to address some of their concerns (eg improving information dissemination to athletes).

At 30 June 1994 the Australian Capital Territory, South Australian and Victorian SDEUs had been operational for fourteen months. A review is currently underway which will help to identify future direction for the project, including the possibility of expansion into other States, particularly as high performance sport becomes more decentralised.

The major achievements during 1993-94 include:

• administrators, coaches and athletes have a growing awareness of the major drugs in sport issues and are increasingly using the Agency's education expertise and services;

• administrators and coaches are beginning to take on a leadership role in addressing the concerns of drug use in sport (eg delivering drugs in sport workshops, checking athletes medications) and addressing the issue of drug use in sport in their sport development plans; and

• the key issues about drug use in sport have been included in a variety of coaching, administrator and athlete education programs.

36

With high performance sport becoming more decentralised, the Agency is increasingly decentralising its activities

National sporting organisations (NSO) workshop

During November 1993 the Agency conducted a two day workshop for NSOs in Melbourne. This workshop addressed policy, legal and education issues. Ten sports were represented including swimming, rugby league, netball, hockey, rowing, weightlifting, basketball, and triathlon.

Australian society of sports administrators (ASSA)

During 1993-94 SDEU project officers worked with state ASSA members to identify and address the major concerns, from an administrative perspective, about drug use in sport. To complement this work the Agency commenced a project with the national office of ASSA. This project aims to develop a two-part drugs in sport component suitable for ASSA's level 2 presenters course.

Coaching community

At a national level the Agency is meeting the needs of the coaching community by providing information and advice to a number of specific sports regarding the inclusion of drugs in sport material into their coaching courses.

In conjunction with the Australian Coaching Council, the Agency is also developing a Drugs in Sport Coach Education Manual. This manual will provide coaching course designers and presenters with material which will assist them in the development and delivery of drugs in sport education that meets the needs of

coaches in their particular sports. These initiatives have been further enhanced by the work undertaken by SDEU project officers with State coaches.

37

Athlete advisory group (AAG)

Elite athletes are a key stakeholder group and the group most directly affected by the Agency's testing and education programs.

The Agency has continued to encourage the participation of athletes through the AAG's which were established in 1992-93. The AAG's provide elite athletes with the opportunity to 'have their say’ on the drugs in sport issue, and to provide the Agency with valuable feedback on its activities and initiatives. The AAG's include elite athletes from each State institute or academy of sport, the Australian Institute of Sport, and from professional sports leagues for which the Agency conducts testing.

In 1993-94 AAG meetings were held in each State. A total of 51 athletes attended the meetings representing 14 sports. The consultation and discussions highlighted athletes' interest and concerns about drugs in sport. Major issues raised by athletes included:

• the lack of international progress on the issue of drugs in sport;

• concern that international programs were not as effective and trustworthy as the Australian system, particularly out-of-competition testing;

• the Agency's testing program, which was seen as effective and efficient;

• the need for the SDEUs to contribute to the education and awareness of State athletes; and

• concerns about the impact of proposed State drug testing legislation.

In fo rm a tio n services

The Agency's information resources and broader educational programs have been developed in close consultation with target groups, including athletes, coaches and medical professionals. Through this process the Agency has been more effective in meeting their specific information and education needs.

The priority for 1993-94 was the development and distribution of resources that ensured elite athletes, Australia-wide, had better access to information. Details of the resources disseminated are shown at Appendix 11.

Wallet Card

The Wallet Card is designed as a quick and easy reference concerning the permitted over-the-counter medications used to treat common complaints including asthma, pain, inflammation, nausea, colds and allergies. The Wallet Card has been distributed to all athletes on the Agency's drug testing register, and to those athletes at elite sports institutes and academies.

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O th e r in fo rm a tio n services

P Project presentations

A presentation service and resource kit on drugs in sport has been developed to provide information to a range of groups including athletes in national teams; talent and development squad training camps; state teams; national junior squads and key coaching development and administration personnel. Areas covered in the presentations include:

• drugs used in sport; • banned classes of drugs; • why drugs are banned; • inadvertent doping; • the Agency resources and how to use them; and • drug testing procedures and athletes' rights and responsibilities.

A training program for presenters is currently being developed.

Drugs in sport presentations

The Agency continued to meet requests for presentations about drugs in sport from sporting organisations, with the main focus being on drug testing procedures. Presentations were conducted for athletes from a wide range of sports participating in National Sports Program camps. A comprehensive listing of presentations appears at Appendix 3.

Display stand

A portable display stand was designed and developed to promote the Agency's programs and activities at sporting events, conferences, trade exhibits and community centres.

Sports monthly update

The Sports Monthly Update provides a monthly listing of drugs in sport references that have been added to the International SPORT database during the previous month. The update is delivered to many of the Agency's key contacts including sports physicians, IOC-accredited laboratories and international organisations.

Media monitoring service

Media monitoring ensures that the Agency and key contacts are kept up-to-date with information on current drugs in sport issues from a variety of media sources. Over 1500 items were collected and distributed in 1993-94.

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Requests for information

The Agency processed nearly 2000 requests for drugs in sport information during 1993-94. This figure is double the 1992-93 total. In addition, many of the requests during the last twelve months were for multiple copies of several different resources. These requests were received from a variety of groups including secondary and tertiary students, drug and alcohol authorities, and medical professionals.

Drugs in Sport Hotline

The ASDA drugs in sport Hotline is a free call telephone 008 service. It continues to provide elite athletes, coaches and medical professionals with information on permitted medications. The Hotline Service operates Monday to Friday, 9 am-5 pm. Recorded messages are taken out of hours and responses provided the next working day. During 1993-94 nearly 1000 calls were received. This figure

is similar to the number of calls received during 1992-93, however, a high percentage of the 1992-93 Hotline calls included requests from students for resource material for school projects. The 1993-94 figures only include calls from athletes and medical professionals and therefore represent a significant increase from the 1992-93 activity levels. Details of the number of calls by State and the type of questions are set out at Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Drugs in Sport Hotline summary, 1993-94 financial year

T otal 983

S ta te breakdow n VIC 135

SA 75

NSW 303

TAS 47

OLD 114

WA 67

ACT 52

NT 10

Unknown 180

T yp es of q ue stion Pharmacological inquiries 756

Resource requests 131

Anabolic steroid information 47

Other 48

Unknown 1

W ho called Athletes 502

Coaches 71

Medical professionals 82

Relatives 216

Other 99

Unknown 13

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The Agency receives over 1 000 calls each year on the Hotline, mainly from our high performance athletes

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CHAPTER 4

EXECUTIVE

O b je c tiv e

To fa c ilita te the effective and efficient operations o f the Agency by developing and implementing plans, and providing adm inistrative services. v J

Functions

( ------ Λ

* set, communicate and monitor Agency direction;

* manage the overall operations o f the Agency;

* liaise with government and non-government organisations;

* coordinate and maintain ministerial and parliamentary liaison; and

* provide support services to the Agency Board and staff including Agency planning, evaluation, research, financial, personnel, office administration and public relations; and

* secure sponsorship and other funds.

Expenditure $872 000

_J

The Executive Program covers planning, evaluation, research, corporate services and international activities. Due to their increasing importance, the international activities have been included in a separate chapter (see Chapter 5).

Planning

Operational plan

The Agency's 1993-94 annual operational plan was tabled in Parliament on 3 February 1994. It is the third plan prepared by the Agency.

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The plan set out the activities that would be undertaken by each program together with a timeline for each operation. The financial and personnel resource allocations for each program were shown.

Each program area was made responsible for monitoring and reporting on the progress of activities included in the plan with the Executive program responsible for providing feedback to other program areas on a six-monthly basis.

Strategic plan 1995-1997

Initial planning and consultation was undertaken for the development of the next strategic plan for the Agency. Information will be used from the portfolio evaluation (see below), in conjunction with views from key stakeholders, to determine the appropriateness of the Agency's present harm-reduction approach and to re-affirm the Agency's strategic direction for the period of 1995-97. The strategic plan will outline the mission statement and incorporate broad strategies and goals designed to achieve the mission. In addition, the plan will describe, through its corporate values and vision, the type of organisation the Agency wants to be. Objectives will be established for building on the culture of continuous improvement.

A three-year business plan will be developed to complement the strategic plan, allowing for longer-term planning at an operational level.

E valuation

Portfolio evaluation

An evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the Agency was initiated as part of the portfolio evaluation. The evaluation will be finalised by the end of 1994.

The purpose of the evaluation is two-fold:

• to assess the impact that the Agency has had on reducing the harm associated with the use of drugs in sport (and thereby promoting the wellbeing of the individual and enhancing the value of sport to society); and

• to use this information as the basis for planning future directions for the Agency.

This evaluation project has a steering committee with representatives from the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories (DEST), the Department of Finance, the Confederation of Australian Sport, the Department of Human Services

and Health, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC) and the elite sporting community. The steering committee met twice in 1993-94. Further information on the members of the steering committee can be found in

Appendix 13.

The steering committee is responsible for providing advice on the content and processes of the evaluation from a range of perspectives.

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A team of officers from the Agency is responsible for undertaking the main body of work in the evaluation. The key issues to be addressed by this evaluation are as follows:

• the effectiveness of the overall Agency approach, which will be determined through examination of its program logic;

• how effectively and efficiently the Agency resources have been used to achieve Agency objectives;

• the likely issues of relevance for the next three years and how appropriate the current approach is to deal with these issues effectively;

• international factors (both positive and negative) that have a bearing on the Agency's ability to achieve its goals; and

• the impact of external determining factors on the work of the Agency (eg Government policy, legislation, the work of other bodies on this issue).

A retrospective evaluation assessing the impact the Agency has had on reducing harm associated with the use of drugs in sport will be completed by October 1994. Further consultation with key stakeholders will take place during July and August. Information from the retrospective evaluation together with information from an

internal and external environmental analysis will be used to develop recommendations on possible future directions for the Agency. The complete report will be finalised by November 1994.

Active participation o f Agency clients in policy development and program delivery — a key to success

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Research

Value of sport research

In November 1992, Dr Stephen Mugford from the Australian National University was commissioned by the Agency to undertake a study on ‘The value of sport, ethics and the control of performance enhancing drugs: a study in the Australian sports community’.

The project was carried out in two parts:

• qualitative research to ascertain the real values of elite athletes, coaches and others in the sporting community, and what accounts of their actions and moral reasoning they offer to justify attitudes and behaviour; and

• more traditional, quantitative research of the wider sporting community.

The qualitative research consisted of a series of interviews and focus group discussions with a range of individuals from the sporting community (current and former competitors, administrators, decision-makers and coaches). The interviews dealt with a range of issues including the qualities of an ideal sportsperson, what makes good competition, and personal beliefs about drug use and drug testing in sport. The interviews were completed over two months in December 1992 and January 1993. From them it was possible to identify a number of key ‘stories’ that dealt with values of sport and the use of drugs.

The second half of the study commenced with the development of a questionnaire based on the use of different ‘scenarios’. This involved constructing fictional stories that incorporated the key elements of actual cases, as told at the interview stage. The stories were then tested and piloted among 50 respondents.

The piloting revealed which ‘stories’ reflect common dilemmas and, in the range of answers, commonly held ‘solutions’ to them. Scenarios that worked the best in eliciting a range of responses were then incorporated into a final questionnaire to be used to obtain numerical assessments of different views within the sporting community.

A sample of people from all levels and positions within the sporting community (eg local area competitors, Australian representatives, coaches at all levels, politicians, bureaucrats) was then developed and surveying commenced in June 1993. A total

of 1050 responses were received.

The final report was received by the Agency in December 1993. The results from this study were particularly supportive of the work of the Agency. The report was disseminated throughout the Australian sporting community during April 1994. The key findings are summarised below. The recommendations made will be used to assist the Agency in its future strategic and operational planning processes. The information gathered will also assist the Agency's portfolio evaluation.

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Findings of the value of sport report:

• The use of drugs for performance enhancement was seen primarily as cheating (rather than as another form of illicit drug abuse).

• The Agency is succeeding in creating a climate of conformity rather than compliance, and that climate makes drug use much harder for athletes to justify.

• Sportspeople identified a definite value of sport to society. It is clear that drug testing and the educational programs undertaken by the Agency protect that value.

• The findings should apply only to drug testing related to competitive sport (as against other types of drug use such as the use of steroids in gymnasia).

• While sportspeople clearly understood what was right and wrong, they did not always have the language to say it, underlining the need for ethical education that develops fully the grounds on which drug use is banned.

• The work that the Agency needs to do may change over time, but it is unlikely that it will disappear. The Agency needs to be a fixture in the Australian sporting scene.

International Rugby League player Bradley Clyde discusses the ‘Value of Sport' with Agency staff

47

1994 annual athlete questionnaire

Following on from its extensive surveys of elite athletes in 1992 and 1993, the Agency conducted a further survey of elite athletes in 1994. The 1994 questionnaire sought information in seven main areas:

• athlete background data; • deterrent effect of drug testing in sport; • knowledge of drug sampling procedures and practices; • knowledge of general Agency activities and use of specific Agency information

services;

• doping policies and emerging drugs in sport issues; • harms associated with drug use in sport; and • knowledge of international testing and the international work being done by the Agency.

In order to measure whether there had been any changes in attitudes or behaviour over the year, a number of questions from the 1992 and 1993 questionnaires were repeated. In February 1994 the survey was sent to a sample of 1216 athletes selected from the Agency's drug testing register including, for the first time, athletes from professional sporting codes. A follow-up was conducted with non-respondents and with a final response rate of 55% achieved. Survey data was collected and analysed during March-May 1994.

Key findings from the 1994 annual athlete questionnaire research:

• 84.5% believe the Agency drug testing program is likely to deter elite Australian athletes from using prohibited drugs in sport.

• 73% are aware of being subject to out-of-competition testing — a figure similar to the 1993 result of 77%.

• 57% of athletes perceived a likelihood of being tested at a sporting event throughout the year, while 47% of athletes perceived a likelihood of being tested out-of-competition.

• There was significant athlete support for publication by national sporting organisations of the names of athletes recording positive test results and the corresponding sanctions imposed, although only those results that were not deemed to be inadvertent (due to cough and cold preparations).

• Consistent with 1992 and 1993 surveys most areas of knowledge were reasonably high. However, there is continued confusion over differences in procedures between out-of-competition and event testing and whether the Agency is responsible for imposing sanctions. •

• Knowledge levels of drug testing procedures were quite low within professional sports.

48

• There was a high degree of satisfaction with all aspects of the Agency's testing program, including the existence of the Agency testing and the conduct of the Agency personnel.

• Elite athlete awareness and use of the Agency information services had increased from 1993.

• 73% of athletes rated the Agency successful at balancing an individual's right to privacy with the need to maximise the deterrent effect of the drug testing program. This is a marked improvement on the 1993 result when only 44.5% of athletes rated the Agency as successful;

• 55% of elite athletes rated the Agency successful at consulting with the sporting community when developing education programs and resources on drugs in sport. This is also an improvement on the 1993 result when only 32% of athletes rated the Agency as successful.

• 86% of elite athletes believe that a national organisation, independent of sport (ie the Agency) should be responsible for drug testing with similar numbers supporting this view for provision of education on drugs in sport. This is a considerable increase from the levels of support recorded in 1993.

• While athletes could confirm that certain pressures are present in their sporting environment (eg financial and social rewards of success) 70% suggested that they personally felt no pressure to use drugs.

• 50% of athletes believe that Sydney hosting the 2000 Summer Olympics will increase the pressure on Australian athletes to use performance enhancing drugs.

• 44% of respondents indicated concern that drugs in sport is a problem in countries competing internationally in their sport.

N a tio n al activ itie s

National drugs in sport strategy team

Although the Agency plays the central role in the Government's response to the use of drugs in sport, a number of other government and non-government agencies are responding to this issue. The goals and priorities of the Agency are clear but there is no overarching policy framework to guide and coordinate the activities of all

stakeholders responding to the issue of drugs in sport. A coordinated and consistent approach by all involved will result in a more effective use of resources and a strengthening of the anti-doping stance within Australia.

The development of a national drugs in sport strategy is considered by the Agency as the most appropriate mechanism to achieve consistency and coordination between government and non-government organisations and agencies at the Commonwealth and State/Territory level.

49

In response to this need the Agency has established an interdisciplinary team that brings together a range of expertise from within the organisation. The objective of the team is to facilitate the development of a national strategy for drugs in sport using a comprehensive consultation process.

The team has completed a project plan that includes a consultation plan and a plan for evaluation. A discussion paper that highlights the key issues has been written and a summarised version is being prepared for use in the consultation process.

The introduction of complementary drugs in sport legislation by State and Territory Governments has highlighted the need for a national drugs in sport strategy. In June 1994, at a meeting of State and Territory officials convened by the Agency, support for the development of a national strategy was demonstrated. If this support is confirmed at a meeting of the Sport and Recreation Ministers' Council in July 1994, the development of the national strategy will gather momentum.

National Drugs Strategy Committee —Anabolic Steroids Sub­ committee

The Anabolic Steroids Sub-Committee was established by the National Drugs Strategy Committee (NDSC) to address the growing concern about the harm associated with anabolic steroid use in the community. The NDSC reports to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy.

The sub-committee has initiated a research project that will collect qualitative data on the nature of steroid use, particularly among gymnasium users. The research report is due to be completed by December 1994. The information gathered will provide information for the development of a national policy on the use of anabolic substances. A draft strategy aimed at providing a framework for action and a mechanism for coordination is being prepared by the sub-committee. The work of the New South Wales Health Department has provided the basis of the strategy.

As a member of the sub-committee, the Agency contributed to the development of the draft strategy and was a member of the selection panel examining the research proposals.

Finance

Internal audit

The Agency's accountants, Bates and Pickering, continued to provide internal audit services during 1993-94. The internal audit reviews were performed bi-annually with increased emphasis being placed upon internal systems review of areas subject to external scrutiny. As a result of the reviews, minor modifications have been made to various recording procedures and systems to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the accounting operations.

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External audit

The financial statement audit was conducted by the Australian National Audit Office. This included reporting on the:

• certificate by the chairperson and the chief executive;

• operating statement;

• statement of financial position;

• statement of cash flows; and

• notes to and forming part of the financial statements.

An unqualified audit report was issued. Various minor internal control matters were raised and have been taken on board to improve the controls over the Agency's current operations. Details are included in Chapter 6.

Financial and accounting operations

The Agency increased its in-house ability to undertake accrual accounting procedures in 1993-94 by bringing the creditors function on line to the automated accounting system. Further improvements to recording and reconciliation procedures were implemented during the year. It is planned to complete the transition to full accrual reporting in 1994-95.

Ministerial approval of the estimates of receipts and expenditure was obtained consistent with section 59 of the ASDA Act. The progress of receipts and expenditure were closely monitored against the estimates throughout the year. This resulted in the need to seek ministerial approval of updated estimates on two other occasions during the year.

Approximately 3000 transactions were processed in the accounting system in 1993-94. This is a substantial reduction on the transactions processed in previous years and reflects the streamlining in procedures that has taken place as well as the modifications to the payroll system. The payroll system has been fully

automated for the full financial year which has significantly improved the efficiency of the personnel area. Further enhancements are being considered in 1994-95 to continue the efficiency gains made in this area.

The devolution of purchasing operations occurred mid-year. The transition was successfully made and has resulted in greater control and accountability within each program area.

Amendments to the delegation of routine financial and personnel procedures in line with changes to the organisation structure were approved by the Agency board at its meeting on 11 November 1993.

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Income generating activities

The Agency continues to seek to increase income from its activities in order to maintain services and offset government funding restrictions. The income generating activities of the Agency are listed below:

• drug testing services — ‘professional’ sports; • drug testing services — international events in Australia; • drug testing services — major events overseas; • drug testing services — consultancies with international federations and other

countries; • educational resources; • educational consultancies; and • sponsorship.

In May 1994 a review of the cost of drug testing sen/ices was initiated. Price Waterhouse has been engaged to develop a costing model and provide advice on the full cost of the drug testing service. The results will not be available until 1994-95.

Preparations were made in 1993-94 to increase the Agency's ability to attract sponsorship income. A promotional pack describing the activities of the Agency and the opportunities for sponsors was developed and is now being distributed to potential sponsors.

Support from Qantas and the Southern Pacific Hotels Corporation has been obtained to help reduce travel and associated costs.

H um an resource m anagem ent

Classifications

The Agency commissioned Sawatzki International to undertake a review of the core competencies required of officers within the Agency. A draft Key Competency Framework based on the Australian Public Service (APS) Core Competency Framework was developed. This was the result of an in-depth consultation process involving all staff of the Agency. It was developed to more accurately reflect the functions and operations of the Agency, and to clearly identify the key

competencies required of staff. It is intended that the framework can be used for recruitment of new staff, placement of existing staff and training and development of all staff, including individual development planning.

All positions within the Agency have been reviewed against the framework to achieve horizontal and vertical integrity of classifications. All staff have been consulted as part of this process.

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Financial Adviser for the Agency, Helen Quiggin

Compensation claims

A total of 28 work days was lost as a result of employee injuries sustained in minor motor vehicle accidents while travelling to work. They are the subject of two previously accepted claims that are managed by Comcare.

Two case management plans were initiated during 1993-94 and both have now been successfully completed and closed.

Enterprise agreement

The Agency's current APS mirror agreement Improving Productivity, Jobs and Pay in the Agency: 1993-94 will continue to operate until 4 December 1994.

Negotiations to develop a replacement Agency agreement commenced by consulting staff on the best way for a new agreement to be developed. A staff member has been appointed as the Agency agreement coordinator to ensure the

involvement of staff in the negotiations and to link the agreement to the Agency's strategic and operational plans.

The deputy chief executive in conjunction with the agreement coordinator, has initiated a process to increase the knowledge base within the Agency about workplace bargaining issues.

The Public Service Union (PSU) representative met with staff to raise issues related to workplace bargaining and will be closely involved in the negotiation of the replacement agreement.

53

Recruitment

Recruitment guidelines were finalised during 1993-94 for internal use. Two additional staff members were recruited during the year and a further two employees were engaged on a temporary basis to meet short-term staffing needs.

Consistent with the Agency principle of flexible work practices to assist in meeting child care and other personal needs of Agency staff, three staff members returned to work on a part-time basis following maternity leave absences and another staff member changed to part-time status for personal reasons. The staffing overview is shown in Table 4.1 and the organisation chart is shown in Chapter 1.

Table 4.1: Total number of employees at 30 June 1994

Level Full­

tim e

P art­ tim e

G ender Location

ASO 1 1 F Canberra

ASO 2 2 1 F Canberra

ASO 3 1 M Canberra

1 F Canberra

1 M Sydney

1 M Melbourne

1 M Perth

ASO 4 1 M Canberra

1 3 F Canberra

ASO 5 2 1 F Canberra

ASO 6 4 M Canberra

3 2 F Canberra

1 M Adelaide

1 F Melbourne

Senior officer C 2 F Canberra

Senior officer B 2 M Canberra

1 1 F Canberra

Senior officer A 1 F Canberra

Statutory office 1 M Canberra

holder - SES Level

T O T A L 27 9

One additional senior officer C was on secondment from the Department of the Environment Sport and Territories at 30 June 1994.

Officers of the Agency are engaged under the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 and not under the Public Service Act 1922.

Staff development

Training Guarantee Scheme

Commitment to the Training Guarantee Scheme is summarised in Table 4.2. During 1993-94 the Agency expended over $57 000 on training, and met its obligations under this Scheme . Training courses included professional and

54

technical training, people and self-management courses, and financial resource management. The categories of eligible training expenditure are outlined in Table 4.3.

Table 4.2: Summary of the Training Guarantee Scheme

Agency's total annual payroll $1 487 500

Minimum training reguirement expenditure $22 312

Net eligible training expenditure $57 454

Number of personnel as at 30 June 1994 36

Days spent on eligible training 144

Table 4.3: Categories of eligible training expenditure

Days

Professional and technical training 58

People/self management 8

Financial resource management 8

Team approach 70

Senior officer performance pay

Performance agreements were developed between the six senior officers and the executive in 1993. The first appraisal cycle was completed in June 1994 and $17 334 was subsequently expended as performance payments. Future

performance payments will be taken up in the context of the Agency enterprise agreement.

Social ju s tice

The Agency's social justice objective is concerned with the equitable distribution of opportunity, rights, power and resources expressed in terms of participation, equality, access and equity. The Agency pursued this objective, through the following activities:

• active participation by stakeholders in policy formulation and program delivery, including participation by athletes (including those with physical and intellectual disabilities), members of predominantly women's sport, and individuals involved in master sports;

• active participation in social research projects by athletes from a range of sports and competitive levels;

. assessment of client needs as the initial stage of program development and implementation, in particular, educational interventions;

55

• production of drug testing information materials to meet the needs of people with non-English-speaking backgrounds;

• establishment of a Ό08’ Hotline service providing athletes and members of the community throughout Australia with free access to information on a range of drugs in sport issues;

• presentations of workshops and information for athletes with physical and intellectual disabilities;

• Implementation of management practices which have a strong emphasis on industrial democracy, including access to part-time employment options for staff returning from maternity or paternity leave;

• recruitment of staff without discrimination, particularly for equal employment opportunity target groups; and

• extension of access to the Agency's information database and resources to all States and Territories, particularly through the Agency's regional staff.

The principles of gender equity have been implemented throughout the Agency at all levels of management and operations.

Equal employment opportunity

The Equal Employment Opportunity (Commonwealth Authorities) Act 1987 (EEO Act) requires Commonwealth authorities which employ 40 or more staff to develop and implement Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) policies and programs.

There is no legislative requirement for the Agency to implement an EEO policy as fewer than 40 staff are employed, but in accordance with the Agency's commitment to the principles of social justice, EEO principles and practices set down in the EEO Act have been adopted.

Achievements under the Agency's EEO plan, which was developed in consultation with employees, include:

• wording of all Agency job advertisements (EEO employer);

• provision of all Agency members, including new employees, with a copy of the EEO plan and further information as it becomes available;

• production of a range of resources, all free of stereotyping, sexism or culturally biased language;

• development of policies and practices through mechanisms which include all staff and program/team managers' meetings;

• modification of management practice to reflect a team approach and ensure opportunity for greater involvement of staff throughout the organisation;

56

• part-time employment opportunities for female staff who have taken maternity leave;

• review of policies and procedures as issues, difficulties or complaints arise; and

• development of a self-directed induction program for new staff and presentation of induction training programs as required.

Industrial democracy

An industrial democracy plan was developed and incorporated within the strategic and operational plans of the agency. The following strategies to promote industrial democracy were implemented:

• active staff participation in and 'ownership' of development of the strategic and operational plans;

• active staff participation in the development and implementation of a team approach to Agency operations, including participation in a staff steering committee responsible for overseeing the process;

• increased staff input into decision making regarding Agency activities through the introduction of cross-functional project teams;

• regular staff meetings and program meetings;

• regular executive and program manager meetings;

• maintenance of a self-funding social club and committee;

• provision of information update sessions to meet staff needs; and

• provision to staff of relevant information from Agency board meetings.

The assessment of industrial democracy objectives is an integral part of Agency evaluation plans.

Occupational health and safety

In accordance with the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) Act 1991, the Agency implemented the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) policy and employer-employee agreement following a process of consultation with Agency employees, involved unions, and

Comcare.

The OHS policy and agreement established consultative mechanisms through which Agency employees can raise occupational health and workplace safety matters for discussion. These mechanisms, while recognising the role of involved

57

unions, focused primarily on staff consultations. All Agency employees endorsed the policy and agreement.

The objectives of the policy are to:

• secure the health, safety and welfare at work of employees of the Australian Sports Drug Agency;

• protect people at or near the workplaces of the Australian Sports Drug Agency from risks to their health and safety arising out of the activities of Agency employees at work;

• ensure that expert advice is available on occupational health and safety matters affecting the Agency board, executive, employees and contractors;

• promote for the Agency board, executive and employees, a work environment adapted to their health and safety needs; and

• foster a cooperative consultative approach between the Agency board, executive and employees on the health, safety and welfare of employees at work.

Freedom of information

During 1993-94, four requests for information under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 were made to the Agency. All were related to access to documentation relating to drug tests. Action on the requests was finalised within 30 days.

A d m in is tra tiv e services

Office services

Clerical and administrative functions were conducted in a devolved manner for most of 1993-94, however in view of the results of a staff survey of the executive and corporate services, and the growth of the Agency, a decision has been made to centralise the provision of these services. The staff involved in these processes will be rationalised on an Agency-wide basis to achieve efficiencies and provide more effective sen/ices.

Records management

During 1993-94 the records management system was maintained. A total of 268 new files were created and entered on the computerised registry system. The size of the registry has necessitated an archival system be introduced during 1993-94.

58

Information technology

The Agency established an information technology team to administer information technology matters. This provided for an Agency-wide approach to be adopted through representation of all program areas on the team. The Agency's information technology needs were serviced by Technik Consultants during

1993-94. Implementation of the Agency's information technology plan continued with the acquisition of five additional personal computers and two notebook computers. The objective is to allow ready access to a computer by all Agency staff to enhance efficiency.

The drug testing database was upgraded during the year to significantly improve the processing capacity within the database and to produce more timely reports.

Tech way Solutions Pty Ltd have been engaged to assess and report on the Agency's current and future information technology hardware and software needs and management and support options. The report from this review will be available early in 1994-95 and will be used as the basis for determining the strategies for planning, implementing and supporting the Agency's information technology needs.

Ministerial and departmental liaison

The Agency maintained close liaison with the office of the minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories and, for the relevant period during the year, the minister for Sport and the parliamentary secretary. A total of 62 submissions and letters were prepared for the minister during 1993-94.

Liaison on a variety of issues was maintained with the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories and also with other Commonwealth departments including Finance, Attorney General's, Foreign Affairs and Trade, and Administrative Services.

Input was provided to 17 questions on notice from the Parliament.

Legal services

The Agency's legal services were provided by the solicitors Moray Agnew.

During the year advice was provided on submissions made by athletes on the validity of positive test results under section 16 of the ASDA Act, freedom of information requests from athletes seeking documentation on drug test results, the

Agency legislation review, the Agency's obligations to protect personal information of athletes selected for testing, and the Agency's obligations to notify specific sporting organisations of drug test results.

59

Public re la tio n s

The objectives of the Agency's public relations initiative are to:

• p ro m o te a w aren es s a n d u n d erstan d in g esp ecially w ithin th e sporting

com m unity, o f the ro le o f the A u s tra lia n Sports D ru g A g e n c y in ad d ressin g the issu e o f drugs in s p o rt; a n d

• enhance the p u b lic im age o f the A g e n c y as a fair, in d e p e n d e n t and im p artial organisation, dedicated to red u cin g the h arm asso ciated with dru g use in sport.

The public relations activities for 1993-94 were mainly implemented through the media, and included radio and television interviews, newspaper reports, magazine articles and reviews.

Newspaper and magazine coverage

More than 200 articles on the Agency and on the issue of drugs in sport were published in a wide range of newspapers and magazines. Articles and features appeared Australia wide in national, state, regional and community press. Additional material was published in major weekly magazines as well as key sporting journals published by major sporting umbrella groups. The newspapers and magazines reached included: The Australian; Sydney Morning Herald; Canberra Times; The Age; Courier Mail; The West Australian; II Globo; Bulletin; Inside Sport; Sports Report; Sports Health; and the Olympic Review. A selection of media headlines is at Figure 4.4.

Radio and television coverage

Approximately 80 segments about issues related to the Agency and drugs in sport were broadcast throughout Australia. Air time was achieved on all major national television and radio networks. Many segments were also transmitted by State, regional and community outlets.

The electronic media reached included; ABC television; SBS; Channel 9; Channel 10; Channel 7; Radio station ABC National; ABC Grandstand; radio stations 2UE; 2GB; 2KY; 3LO; 3UZ; 2CN; and SSS FM.

Elite athlete launch of the Drugs In Sport Handbook

The Drugs in Sport Handbook was launched by Australian swimmer Linley Frame together with hockey star David Wansbrough. The Victorian Institute of Sport (VIS) hosted the event with the support and cooperation of VIS Executive Director Dr Frank Pyke.

60

Launch of State and Territory Sports Drug Education Units

The State and Territory based Sports Drug Education Units in South Australia, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory were officially launched during the year. Elite athletes who lent their support to these initiatives included Danielle Woodward, Steve Moneghetti; and Shane Kelly. Charlie Walsh, the cycling head coach at the Australian Institute of Sport, also assisted in the launch.

Launch of Schools Education Program

Board member and headmaster of Waverley College in Sydney, Brother Bob Wallace, launched the Schools Education Program at Penrith. Key speakers at the launch included the Minister for Schools, Vocational Education and Training, the

Hon Ross Free MP, and New South Wales and former Penrith rugby league coach Phil Gould.

Key issues addressed through public relations initiatives

• the Agency's contribution to Sydney 2000 Olympic Games • blood testing and blood doping

• anabolic steroid use in schools and the community • school education program for drugs in sport

• drug testing statistics • the value of sport and the role of the Agency • world conference on drugs in sport

• visits by the United States Olympic Committee anti-doping program • towards a reciprocal anti-doping agreement with China

• the Agency's leading role in international testing

• establishment of state sports drug education units

• the Agency's hotline service • the Athletes' Drugs in Sport Handbook • results of the annual athlete questionnaire

• the Agency's testing role at the 1993 world weightlifting championships

61

m e d ia r

A thletes back fight against drug cheats Despite some cynical beliefs that drug testing has failed

to make inroads into Australian sport, a new survey has found overwhelming support by athletes for the tests. JACQUELIN MAGNAY reports.

Media Headlines

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helped^po^drugSjnjt tackles oeat dope accidents d fU Q U S 6 ΪΓΙ

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The Fourth Permanent World Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport

The Fourth World Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport was held in London from 5-8 September 1993. The theme of the conference was The Social Context of Doping. Sessions addressed the following issues:

• Why do athletes take drugs?

• What progress is being made in the anti-doping movement?

• How can an effective anti-doping program be established?

• How can international cooperation be developed?

The Agency was represented at the conference by the Chief Executive, Mr Steve Haynes, who chaired a session on ‘What does the next generation of competitors believe about drug use in sport?’ and a workshop looking at ‘Managing the results’. The Agency's International Adviser, Ms Nicki Vance, lead a workshop on 'Designing programs for in and out-of-competition testing’.

The Agency's credibility as one of the world leaders in the anti-doping field was recognised by a number of delegates at the conference.

At the final session a conference statement, summarising discussions at the conference and the suggested direction of the international anti-doping movement, was presented to the delegates (see Appendix 13).

The 4th Permanent W orld Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport 5-8 September 1993, London United Kingdom.

K * SPORTS ■I· council

Organised by The Sports Council in association with the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission

oop

64

International anti-doping agreements

The Agency was the statutory authority responsible for fulfilling Australia's obligations under the terms of a multilateral international anti-doping agreement between Australia, Canada, Norway and the United Kingdom, and a bilateral anti­

doping agreement between Australia and New Zealand.

A meeting of the four multilateral partners was held on 8 September 1993 in London to coincide with the World Anti-Doping Conference. Representatives from New Zealand attended as observers. The major outcomes of the meeting were:

• an indication that New Zealand would join the multilateral agreement during the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, Canada;

• a cost-shared secretariat to service the multilateral agreement be established in Canada, leading up to the multilateral meetings during the 1994 Commonwealth Games;

• the need to develop a strategic and operational plan to ensure the agreement was effective;

• the secretariat to coordinate the development of a planning model for future meetings of multilateral partners; and

• an international registry project to be implemented in concert with the Council of Europe information registry project. This project would collate information on anti-doping activity on a world wide basis.

The Agency is advocating for France to become a signatory to the multilateral agreement.

The development of an operational annex for the bilateral agreement between Australia and New Zealand was delayed pending the establishment of the New Zealand Sports Drug Agency (NZSDA). If New Zealand joins the multilateral agreement, the need for the separate bilateral agreement will be reviewed.

The NZSDA, which is based on the Australian model, has now been established although work is continuing on the development of legislation to formalise it. The New Zealand legislation was introduced in March 1994 and is expected to come into force in July 1994. In February 1994 an officer from the Agency was invited to meet with the interim board of the NZSDA to provide advice on developing anti­ doping programs and to provide information about other activities.

In March 1994 the Agency hosted a visit from Dr Wade Exum, Director of the United States Olympic Committee Drug Control Program. The possibility of establishing a testing agreement between the two countries is currently being considered.

65

Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention

The Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention is an international agreement, accessible to non-European countries, which complements the work of sporting organisations. It encourages the parties to address such areas as the harmonisation of regulations and doping control procedures, education, the provision of analytical laboratory services, regulating the availability of banned substances such as anabolic steroids and research issues.

The Ministers of the Council of Europe invited Australia to accede to the anti-doping convention on 2 November 1993 (See Appendix 15 for the Articles to the Council of Europe Anti-doping Convention).

The Executive Council approved Australia's accession to the convention on 30 June 1994. To complete the process an instrument of accession will be deposited at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg resulting in Australia becoming the first non-European party to the convention.

The Agency supported Australia's accession for the following reasons:

• the Council of Europe provides the best existing government based infrastructure to coordinate the drugs in sport issue internationally;

• the convention provides one of the best sources of information regarding international anti-doping activities;

• Australia's international leadership role is enhanced by becoming an active party to the convention; •

• many signatories were looking to Australia to continue that leadership through becoming a signatory; and

• signatory status demonstrates Australia's commitment to anti-doping.

There are currently 23 ‘Contracting States' — that is, countries that have fully ratified the convention. An additional 9 countries are ‘Signatory States’ — that is countries that wish to abide by the convention, when domestic constitutional requirements are completed. The Contracting States and Signatory States are listed below.

Contracting states:

Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia(FYROM), Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.

66

Signatory states:

Belgium, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands.

The Agency represented Australia at the annual Convention Monitoring Group meeting held in June 1994. Australia was invited to attend the meeting as an observer which allowed the Agency representative to contribute significantly to discussions throughout the meeting.

Working with international sporting organisations

The Agency continued to advocate internationally for a consistent approach to the drugs in sport issue through membership of the International Working Group on Drugs in Sport (IWG) and the IOC Sub-Committee on Out-of-Competition Testing (SCOCT).

One of the aims of SCOCT has been to encourage the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and ISOs to take more responsibility in dealing with out-of­ competition testing. At a combined meeting of the IOC and the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF) held in Lausanne on 21 June

1993, the organisations jointly announced they had decided to ‘intensify the prevention of, education and fight against doping in sport’.

At a follow-up meeting held in Lausanne on 13 January 1994, the representatives of the IOC, ASOIF, the Association of International Olympic Winter Federations, the international Olympic federations (IFs), the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC), the continental associations of national Olympic committees

and the athletes decided as follows:

1. To approve the following principles:

1.1 To unify their anti-doping rules and procedures for the controls they perform both during and out-of-competition (unannounced tests);

1.2 To adopt, each year, as a basic document the list of banned classes and methods of doping established by the IOC Medical Commission and to undertake the necessary controls for each sport;

1.3 To accelerate unification of the minimum sanctions provided for by the IOC Medical Commission for violations of the anti-doping regulations and to ensure their application at both international and national level;

1.4 To recognise the sanctions imposed by another international federation;

1.5 To use the laboratories accredited by the IOC for all international competitions and for out-of-competition tests;

67

1.6 To develop the cooperation between the IOC, the international sports federations and the governmental or other organisations concerned in order to organise and carry out doping controls and to combat the trafficking of doping substances in sport;

1.7 To set up a special financial assistance program for those international sports federations which need it, in order to help these to intensify their anti­ doping controls; and

1.8 To provide that sports included on the program of the Olympic Games must be governed by international federations which agree to comply with the above-mentioned principles.

2. To establish a working group which shall include representatives of the above- mentioned bodies and of the authorities in order to ensure the application and follow up of the above principles.

The Agency has been working closely with a number of International Sporting Federations (ISFs) to achieve the Agency's international objective.

The International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) sought assistance from the Agency in redrafting its Anti-Doping Policy. The Agency provided a first draft to the IWF Board and the IWF Medical Commission at meetings during the World Weightlifting Championships in Melbourne in November 1993. A letter from the General Secretary of the IWF, acknowledging the work of the Agency, is shown on the following page.

The Agency's international adviser attended the March 1994 IWF Board meeting in Argentina where the policy was discussed and amendments recommended. The Agency has prepared a second draft policy which will be discussed during the IWF Board meeting to be held in conjunction with the World Junior Weightlifting Championships in Indonesia in July 1994.

After attending the World Anti-Doping Conference in London in September 1993, the Agency's international adviser travelled to Switzerland to meet with a number of International Federations and the Swiss Sports Federation Anti-Doping Unit.

Meetings were held with the International Cycling Federation (UCI), the International Rowing Federation (FISA), the International Skiing Federation (FIS), the International Swimming Federation (FINA) and the Swiss Sports Federation Anti-Doping Unit. The objectives of the meetings were to establish contact with key organisations and individuals; to increase understanding of the structure and decision-making systems of the IFs; to determine the needs and concerns of the IFs; and reinforce the Agency's position of cooperation with sport.

The international adviser gave a presentation about the Agency's work to coaches, sports scientists and administrators at the Swiss Sports School in Maglingen.

68

1054 Budapest Hold u.l. Hungary

Budapest. 6th May. 1994

The Hon John Faulkner Minister for the Environment. Sport and Territories Parliament House Canberra, ACT 2600 AUSTRALIA

E3:1374 Budapest ΡΓ.614. Hungary

Phone: 36 1 131-6153 36 1 153-0530

Fax: 36 1 153-0199 Telex: 227553 Cable: W eightlifl Budapest

B A N K ACCOUNT:

IW F 80934/87 OTP National Savings Bank Nador u.6. 1876 Budapest, Hungary

PRESIDENT: C O T T F R IE D SC H O O L (A U T) G EN ERA LSECRETARY: DR .TA M A S A JA N (IIU N )

Ifl Vice President: W olfgang Peter (GER)

Vice Presidents: Dr. Juan Marcos Decent» (ESP) Yannis Sgouros (G R£)

Salvatore CoETa (AUS) Philippe Saini-Cyr (CAN) Nikolai Parkhomenko (UKR)

Executive Members:

Jim Schmitz (U SA) Romano Battaglia (ΓΤΑ) Oh-ohik Kwoo (KOR) Jaromir Vitek (TCH)

Pckka K arr (FIN) Lazar Baroga (ROM ) Shim on B arak GSR) Budiooo Kartohadiprodjo (INA)

C onlinenul Presidents: Africa - G am 3 Harev (EGY) Asia - C ol.Inurat Yodbangtoey (TH A ) Europe - W ally Holland (G BR ) North-Central-America and the C a rib b e an - A b d Lopez (C U B ) O ceans. - Paul W tllwork (SAM )

South-America - Dr. Jorge Zas Fernandez (U RU)

Assistant Secretary:

Emil Duska (H UN)

Honorary Life President: Clarence H. Johnson (USA)

Dear Minister,

I am writing to acknowledge tpe tmpoijart contribution the Australian Sports Dwg Agency Is making to the International fight against doping In sport.

Since the establishment of the independent Australian Sports Drug Agency, Australia has gained a reputation for leadership in delaing

with this complex issue.

The International Weightlifting Federation is also actively addressing the issue and

continues to implement not only its long standing competition testing program, but also its international out-of-competition testing program. The IWF has learnt from experience that the issue of drugs in sport is so complex that it is difficult to address it in isolation. It

will only be through cooperation between the international sporting federations, such as the IW F and national agencies, such as the

Australian Drug Agency, that we will effectively deal with the problem of drug use In sport.

The Agency has assisted the IWF In conducting a number of competition testing programs both within and outside of Australia, Including, of course, testing at the 1993 World

Championships which were held In Melbourne. This was the first time that the IWF used an Independent agency to conduct the testing program at a World Championships.

The Agency Is currently assisting the IWF to redraft Its Antl-Doplng-Pollcy. The development of the Policy will take sometime to complete, however, we appreciate the contribution the Australian Sports Drug Agency Is making to this Important process.

I hope that Australia through the Australian Sports Drug Agency will continue to contribute to dealing with this International problem, and look forward to your on-going support.

Yours sincerely.

Dr. TamSs A jin General Secretary

69

International visitors

During 1993-94 the Agency received visitors from France, the United States, Japan and the World Health Organisation. The visitors were particularly interested in discussing the development of anti-doping programs, reviewing the Agency's educational resources and exchanging information on testing procedures. The Agency discussed international strategies to reduce the problem of drugs in sport. The possibility of developing anti-doping agreements with France and with the United States of America was also discussed with the respective delegates. The following officials met with Agency representatives in Australia:

Mme Sabine Foucher Head, Doping Control Unit Ministere de la Jeunesse et des Sports, France

Dr Wade Exum Director Drug Control Administration United States Olympic

Committee

Delegation from the Japanese Olympic Committee:

Toshio Asami Shin Taira Kimihiro Inomata Hideo Sakanishi Koichi Irisawa

Hans Emblad, Director Programme on Substance Abuse World Health Organisation

Mme Sabine Foucher, head of the French anti-doping program, during her visit to the Agency

70

Reciprocal exchange w ith China

At the 1993 World Anti-Doping Conference in London, the Agency met with Chinese delegates who expressed interest in a mutual exchange of anti-doping personnel and the possibility of establishing an anti-doping agreement between Australia and China.

The Chinese Sports Authority approved a visit by a Chinese anti-doping delegation to Australia from 12-20 July 1994 and a reciprocal visit by the Agency to China in October 1994.

Federal Sports Minister Senator the Hon John Faulkner discussing international drugs issues with Professor Yang and Professor Wu from the Chinese anti-doping delegation

International Olympic Charter Against Doping In Sport, Education Annex

The Agency has published the ‘Drug Education Guidelines For Sport’ that were prepared under the direction of the International Working Group Against Doping in Sport (IWG). The guidelines will be included in the International Olympic Charter Against Doping in Sport as an annexure following approval by the Chair of the IWG,

Prince de Merode.

The draft guidelines were used by the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention Education Working Party as a reference for the development of its educational initiatives. Two hundred copies of the guidelines have been prepared for dissemination by the Agency's international team to colleagues from other countries.

71

Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

The Agency was a member of the Sydney 2000 Bid Health Care Committee. The Agency's role was to advise on the doping control program for the games including the requirement for drug testing facilities. The Agency assisted in the development of the drug testing section of the bid document, and attended the IOC Enquiry Commission Health Care briefing.

After Sydney was awarded the games, the Agency received feedback that Australia's positive response in dealing with the drugs in sport issue and in particular the achievements of the Agency, was one of the key reasons why a number of IOC members voted in favour of Sydney.

The Agency has been invited to become a member of the Health Care Planning Working Group for the 2000 Olympic Games.

Asia Export Task Force

The Agency is a member of the Asia Export Task Force coordinated by the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories. The task force was established to examine strategies for increasing Australia's commercial and cultural sporting and recreational links with Asia.

The task force has commissioned consultants to advise on the potential markets.

World Health Organisation (WHO) Programme on Substance Abuse—Drugs and Sports Project

In 1992, the (WHO) Programme on Substance Abuse initiated a project entitled ‘Drugs and Sport'. The design and implementation of the project was directed by a technical committee made up of experts in the anti-doping and health fields. The Deputy Chief Executive of the Agency, Ms Natalie Nicholson, is a member of the technical committee.

During the last year, the Drugs and Sports Project has focused on the collection and analysis of research data about the nature of the drugs in sport problem from a number of regional sites throughout the world. The technical committee met during 22-28 May 1994 to examine the research findings and develop recommendations to address the key concerns highlighted by the research. These recommendations focus on the need for a comprehensive prevention program and training support for

implementation. The recommendations will be published by December 1994.

The technical committee has developed a draft prevention programme manual to support the implementation of their recommendations. The draft manual, modelled on the Agency's approach to education, aims to provide sport educators with guidelines for the development of prevention programs targeting the use of drugs to enhance performance or body image. The deputy chief executive of the Agency played a key role with the WHO Project Officer in the development of this manual.

72

Chapter 6

F in a n c ia l s t a t e m e n t s

Independent audit report by the Australian National Audit Office

Operating statement for year ending 30 June 1994

Statement of financial position as at 30 June 1994

Statement of cash flows for the year ending 30 June 1994

Notes to, and forming part of, the financial statements for the year ending 30 June 1994

73

Centenary House

19 National Crt

Barton ACT 2600

our ref;

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE

INDEPENDENT AUDIT REPORT

T o the Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories

Scope

I have audited the financial statements o f the Australian Sports Drug Agency for the year ended 30 June 1994. The statements comprise:

. Certificate by the Chairperson and C h ief Executive

. Operating Statement

. Statement o f Financial Position

. Statement o f Cash Flows, and

. Notes to and forming part o f the Financial Statements.

The Board o f the Agency is responsible for the preparation and presentation o f the financial statements and the information contained therein. I have conducted an independent audit o f the financial statements in order to express an opinion on them to the M inister for the Environment, Sport and Territories.

The audit has been conducted in accordance with Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, which incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards, to provide reasonable assurance as to whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. Audit procedures included examination, on a test basis, of evidence supporting the amounts and other disclosures in the financial statements, and the evaluation o f accounting policies and significant accounting estimates. These procedures have been undertaken to form an opinion whether, in all material respects, the financial statements are presented fairly in accordance with Australian accounting standards and statutory requirements so as to present a view which is consistent with my understanding o f the entity’s financial position, the results o f its operations and its cash flows.

The audit opinion expressed in this report has been formed on the above basis.

________________________________________ 7 4 __________________________________________

GPO Box 707 Canberra Australian Capital Territory 2601 Telephone (06) 203 7300 Facsimile (06) 203 7777

Audit Opinion

In accordance with section 63 o f the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990, I now report that the statements are in agreement with the accounts and records o f the Agency, and in my opinion:

(i) the statements are based on proper accounts and records;

(ii) the statements show fairly in accordance with applicable Accounting

Standards the financial transactions and cash flows fo r the year ended 30 June 1994 and the state o f affairs o f the Agency as at that date

(iii) the receipt, expenditure and investment o f moneys, and the acquisition and disposal o f assets, by the Agency during the year have been in accordance with the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act, and

(iv) the statements are in accordance with the Guidelines for Financial

Statements o f Public Authorities and Commercial Activities.

- S .

D .S . Lennie Executive Director Australian National Audit Office

C A N B E R R A

26 August 1994

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

F IN A N C IA L S T A TE M E N TS

FOR T H E Y E A R E N D E D 30 JUN E 1994

In our opinion, the accompanying financial statements o f the Australian Sports Drug Agency, consisting of:

which have been made out in accordance with the Guidelines for Financial Statements o f Public Authorities and Commercial Activities,

i) show fairly the operating result o f the Agency for the year ended 30 June 1994

ii) show fairly the financial position o f the Agency as at 30 June 1994, and

iii) show fairly the cash flows o f the Agency during the financial year.

Signed in accordance with a resolution o f the Board.

Operating Statement Statement o f Financial Position Statement o f Cash Flows, and Notes to and forming part o f the Financial Statements

AA/Vvua>i _ _ _

PROFESSOR PETER BAUME Chairperson C h ie f Executive

1994

76

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

S T A T E M E N T O F F IN A N C IA L P O S IT IO N AS A T 30 JUNE 1994 1994 1993

C U R R E N T ASSETS

Notes $ $

Cash 7 422,287 424,323

Receivables 8 33,318 37,944

Inventories 9 37,428 25,711

Other 10 2,844 2,893

T o ta l current assets

N O N -C U R R E N T ASSETS

495,877 490,871

Property plant and equipment 11 238,741 259,466

T o ta l non-current assets 238,741 259,466

T o tal assets 734,618 750,337

C U R R E N T L IA B IL IT IE S

Creditors 12 104,893 156,907

Leases 13 5,073 6,625

Provisions 5 151,444 138,433

T o tal curren t liabilities 261,410 301,965

N O N -C U R R E N T L IA B IL IT IE S

Leases 13 _ 5,094

Provisions 5 75,815 69,073

T o tal non-current liabilities 75,815 74,167

To tal liabilities 337,225 376,132

N et assets 397,393 374,205

E Q U IT Y

Capital 14 174,009 174,009

Accumulated operating results 223,384 200,196

T o ta l equity 397,393 374,205

THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

78

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

S T A T E M E N T OF C A SH FLOW S FO R T H E Y E A R E N D E D 30 JUNE 1994

1994 1993

Notes________________ | _______________ $

C ASH FL O W S F R O M O P E R A T IN G A C T IV IT IE S :

Inflows:

Cash Flows from Government - Parliamentary Appropriations Sales and Analysis Interest Received Other Revenue

2,850,000 303,865 22,639 12,162

3,234,000 227,564 9,519 9,530

3,188,666 3,480,613

Outflows:

Salaries and Related Expenses Administrative Expenses Laboratory Accreditation Education Projects

Grants Professional Fees

1,487,504 828,812 634,473 89,419

7,012 92,906

1,175,673 822,545 750,854

291,536

3,140,126 3,040,608

N et cash provided by operating activities 17 48,540 440,005

C A S H FLO W S F R O M IN V E S T IN G A C T IV IT IE S

Outflows:

Payments for Purchase o f Computer Equipment Office Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment 20,710 23,220

28,985 76,457

43,930 105,442

N et cash used in investing activities (43,930) (105,442)

THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

79

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

S T A T E M E N T OF CASH FLO W S FOR TH E Y E A R E N D E D 30 JUNE 1994

C A S H FLO W S F R O M F IN A N C IN G A C T IV IT IE S

Outflows:

Repayments o f Lease Liabilities

N et cash used in financing activities

N et increase/(decrease) in cash held

Cash at beginning o f the reporting period

Cash a t the end o f reporting period

Notes

1994 S

1993 $

6,646 5,493

(6,646) (5,493)

(2,036) 329,070

7 424,323 95,253

7 422,287 424,323

THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

80

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1994

N O T E 1: S T A T E M E N T OF S IG N IF IC A N T A C C O U N T IN G PO LICIES

The principal accounting policies adopted by the Australian Sports Drug Agency are stated to assist in a general understanding o f these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied by the Agency except as otherwise indicated.

(a) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on the basis o f historical cost and do not reflect current valuation o f non-current assets, except as otherwise stated.

(b) Capitalisation of Assets

The Agency capitalises all individual asset purchases o f one thousand dollars ($1,000) or more.

(c) Depreciation

Assets are depreciated over their anticipated useful lives using the reducing balance method, with depreciation commencing from the date o f acquisition. Gains and losses on disposal o f property, plant and equipment, are taken into account in determining the operating result.

(d) Investments

The Agency banks with the Australian and N ew Zealand Banking Group Limited. Funds not immediately required are invested by way of cash at call account.

(e) Annual Leave and Long Service Leave

For long service leave, the provision is based on a period o f ten years eligible service with Commonwealth or State Governments or Statutory Authorities, and the accmal begins from commencement o f the sixth year o f service. The provision comprises current and non-current portions, the current provision being the amount expected to be paid within the next twelve months.

The provision for annual leave is based on the value o f actual entitlement at balance date and include; a leave loading component. This provision is included under current liabilities.

(f) Income Tax

The Agency is exempt from taxation, consequently no provision for income tax is required.

(g) Sponsorship

Sponsorships are brought to account as and when received except where an agreement exists with th

sponsor.

81

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1994

Leases

The Agency's leases are classified as finance leases whereby all the risks and benefits incidental to the ownership o f the asset are transferred to the Agency. These leases are capitalised recording an asset and a liability equal to the present value o f the minimum lease payments, including any guaranteed residual value. The leaded assets are amortised over their useful lives. The lease payments are allocated between the reduction of the lease liability and the lease interest expense for the period. Lease payments under operating leases, where substantially all the risks and benefits remain with the lessor, are charged as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

(i) Inventories

All inventories are stated at the lower o f cost and net realisable value.

N O T E 2: A D M IN IS T R A T IV E EXPENSES

The following items were charged as Administrative expenses for the period:

1994 1993

_____$______________$ _

Advertising 5,450 51,880

Travelling Allowances and Board Expenses 132,734 134,620

Printing and Copying 147,329 103,314

M o to r Vehicle Expenses 31,473 28,124

Building Rental, Maintenance and Services Library and Production Expenses, Memberships 221,806 265,999

and Subscriptions 16,363 20,754

Lease Interest Expenses 1,741 2,786

Staff Development and Uniforms 14,406 21,783

Telephone 43,675 39,310

Insurance 11,577 10,578

Postage, Freight and Packing 50,508 49,167

Computer Expenses 7,389 6,145

Fringe Benefits Tax 3,244 4,682

General and Sundry Expenses 85,805 81,550

773,500 820,692

N O T E 3: E D U C A T IO N PROJECTS

School Projects 55,474 -

State Drug Education Units 34,706

90,180 -

82

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

N O T E S TO A N D F O R M IN G PART O F T H E F IN A N C IA L S T A T E M E N T S FO R T H E Y E A R E N D E D 30 JUNE 1994

1994 $

1993 $

N O T E 4: PR O FE S S IO N A L FEES

Accounting Audit Fee Legal Fees

22,407 37,180 19,814

16,610 55,240 240,547

79,401 312,397

N O T E 5: P R O V IS IO N S A N D U N F U N D E D CHARGES

Opening Balance $

Net Change to Provision $

Closing Balance $

NON-CURRENT ASSETS

Depreciation: Computer Equipment Office Equipment, Furniture and Fixtures 54,951

33,119

26,963 31,526

81,914 64,645

88,070 58,489 146,559

Amortisation: Office Equipment under Lease 15,932 6,167 22,099

15,932 6,167 22,099

CURRENT LIABILITIES

Annual Leave Provision 138,433 13,011 151,444

138,433 13,011 151,444

NON-CURRENT LIABILITIES

Long Service Leave Provision 69,073 6,742

75,815

69,073 6,742 75,815

TOTAL PROVISIONS AND UNFUNDED CHARGES 311,508 84,409

395,917

83

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

N O T E S TO A N D F O R M IN G PART OF T H E F IN A N C IA L S TA T E M E N T S FO R T H E Y E A R E N D E D 30 JUN E 1994

1994 $

1993 $

N O T E 11: P R O P E R TY . P L A N T A N D E Q U IP M E N T

Computer Equipment - at Cost Less: Accumulated Depreciation

137,794 81,914

117,083 54,951

55,880 62,132

Office Equipment, Furniture and Fixtures - at Cost Less: Accumulated Depreciation 244,935 64,645

221,715 33,119

180,290 188,596

Office Equipment - Under Lease Less: Accumulated Amortisation

24,670 22,099

24,670 15,932

2,571 8,738

238,741 259,466

N O T E 12: C R E D IT O R S

Trade Creditors 104,893 156,907

N O T E 13 C O M M IT M E N T S

a) The finance lease commitments in respect o f the Agency's office equipment as at 30 June 1994 are:

1994 $

1993 $

N o t later than 1 year 1 to 2 years 2 to 5 years Later than 5 years

5,344 8,280

5,344

Minimum Lease Payment Less: Future Finance Charges

5,344 271

13,624 1,905

LE A S E L IA B IL IT Y 5,073

11,719

85

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1994

1994 1993

_$___________ J_

5,073 6,625

- 5,094

5,073 11,719

b) The non-can callable operating lease commitments contracted for by the Agency but not capitalised in the accounts for the lease o f office accommodation are: 1994 1993

______ $___________________$ _

N o t later than 1 year 182,816 182,816

1 to 2 years 182,816 182,816

2 to 5 years 91,408 278,724

Later than 5 years —

457,040 644,356

The lease is for five (5) years to 1 January 1997.

c) The Agency has commitments under contracts to collect additional samples. The Agency will realise $54,760 (1993 - $56,070) upon completion o f these contracts within the next financial year.

N O T E 14: C A P IT A L

Upon the enactment o f the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 on the 18 February 1991, the Australian Sports Drug Agency became a separate entity to the Australian Sports Commission. Consequently, the Commission transferred net assets amounting to $174,009 to the Agency free o f charge.

N O T E 15: A U D IT O R S R E M U N E R A T IO N

The Agency was notified o f an estimated fee o f $37,180 for the audit o f the Agency for the year ended 30 June 1994 by the Australian National Audit Office (A N A O ). A total o f $37,180 was paid by the Agency for the Audit o f the 1992-93 financial statements.

The Agency has accrued the whole o f the estimated fee as a creditor in these accounts.

N O T E 16: R E M U N E R A T IO N O F E X E C U T IV E S

N o Executive received remuneration in excess o f $100,000 for the year ended 30 June 1994.

Current Non-Current

86

AUSTRALIAN SPORTS DRUG AGENCY

NOTE 17: R E C O N C IL IA T IO N O F N E T C A S H P R O V ID E D B Y O P E R A T IN G A C T IV IT IE S TO

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1994

O P E R A T IN G R E S U L T

1994 1993

$ $

Operating Result 23,188 259,007

Long Service Leave 6,742 33,460

Provision for Annual Leave 13,011 42,356

Depreciation 58,489 51,285

Amortisation 6,167 6,167

Decrease in Debtors 4,625 (18,485)

Decrease in Creditors (52,014) 69,103

Increase in Inventories (11,717) (3,066)

Decrease in Prepayments 49 178

Net cash provided by operating activities 48,5.40 440,005

N O T E 18: S E G M E N T R E P O R TIN G

The Agency operates in the sporting sector where it promotes the practice o f drug free sport. The Agency primarily operates throughout Australia, however as sport is international, it is at times required to perform limited functions in other countries, where Australians may be competing.

N O T E 19: E C O N O M IC D E P E N D E N C Y

The Agency receives predominantly all o f its funding from Government Appropriations with user-pay being increased progressively in the future but only to a limited extent.

N O T E 20: S U P E R A N N U A T IO N C O M M IT M E N T S

Employees o f the Agency contribute to the Commonwealth run Superannuation Schemes as does the Agenc; itself as required under the Superannuation Guarantee Act. Benefits provided under the schemes are payable upon retirement, death or permanent disability, with employer benefits dependent upon employee contributions to the fund.

N O T E 21: R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T

Research and Development costs are incurred by the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories on behalf o f the Agency. All such costs are expensed by the Agency during the financial year.

- oooo -

87

88

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Appendices

O b je c ts , fu n c tio n s a n d p o w e rs o f th e A u s tr a lia n S p o rts D r u g A g e n c y as

s p e c ifie d in th e A u stra lia n Sports D rug Agency Act 1990

P o w e rs o f th e m in is te r u n d e r th e A u stra lia n Sports Drug Agency Act 1990

P re s e n ta tio n s a n d p u b lic a tio n s b y A S D A s ta ff

S u m m a r y o f A S D A 's in te r n a tio n a l te s tin g a c tiv itie s

D o p e c o n tro l la b o ra to rie s a c c re d ite d b y th e In te rn a tio n a l O ly m p ic C o m m itt

In te r n a tio n a l O ly m p ic C o m m itte e M e d ic a l C o m m is s io n lis t o f d o p in g

c la s s e s and m e th o d s

A S D A te s tin g fo r p e rio d 1 J u ly 1 9 9 3 to 3 0 J u n e 1 9 9 4

S u m m a r y o f E n trie s o n R e g is te r o f N o tifia b le E v e n ts , 1 9 9 3 - 9 4

1 9 9 3 - 9 4 M e m o r a n d u m o f U n d e rs ta n d in g b e tw e e n th e A u s tr a lia n

G o v e rn m e n t A n a ly tic a l L a b o ra to rie s a n d th e A u s tra lia n S p o rts D ru g

A g e n c y

S c h o o l D e v e lo p m e n t in H e a lth E d u c a tio n P ro je c t — S ta te c o o rd in a to rs

E d u c a tio n a l re s o u rc e m a te ria l d is tr ib u tio n , 1 9 9 3 - 9 4 fin a n c ia l y e a r

S p o rts d ru g e d u c a tio n u n it s te e rin g g ro u p s

P o rtfo lio e v a lu a tio n s te e rin g c o m m itte e .

C o n fe re n c e s ta te m e n t, th e 4 th P e rm a n e n t W o rld C o n fe re n c e on A n ti­

D o p in g in S p o rt, 5 - 8 S e p te m b e r 1 9 9 3 , L o n d o n , U n ite d K in g d o m

C o u n c il o f E u ro p e A n ti-D o p in g C o n v e n tio n , S tra s b o u rg ,

1 6 .N o v e m b e r. 1 9 8 9

8 9

Appendix 1

Objects, functions and powers o f the Australian Sports Drug Agency as specified in the A u stralian Sports D rug Agency A ct 1 9 9 0 Objects

• encourage the practice of sport free from the use of drugs in a manner consistent with protecting the health of competitors, the values of fair play and competition, and the rights of those who take part in sport;

• encourage the development of programs to educate the sporting community and the community at large about the danger of using drugs in sport;

• provide leadership in the development of a national strategy concerning drugs in sport;

• encourage the establishment of a centralised drug sampling and testing program that exposes all competitors to drug sampling and testing at short notice both in and out of competition;

• encourage State and Territory governments, and national, State and Territory sporting organisations to adopt uniform drug sampling and testing procedures;

• encourage the development and maintenance of sports drug testing laboratories accredited by the International Olympic Committee; and

• promote and encourage the adoption of uniform drug sampling and testing procedures and educational programs relating to the use of drugs in sport internationally.

Functions

The functions of the Agency include provisions to:

• maintain a schedule of substances and practices referred to in the International Olympic Committee List of Doping Classes and Methods;

• establish and maintain a Register of Notifiable Events;

• notify persons and bodies of entries to the Register of Notifiable Events;

• disseminate information about the penalties likely to be imposed if competitors record positive test results or fail to comply with requests to provide samples for testing; •

• select competitors who are to be requested to provide samples for testing;

90

• collect samples from competitors and arrange for the testing of samples by accredited laboratories and the secure transit of samples to accredited laboratories;

• develop and implement education programs to discourage the use of drugs in sport;

• consult with and provide information to government and non-government organisations and other persons within Australia and overseas;

• take steps aimed at ensuring Australian compliance with international agreements and arrangements concerning the use of scheduled drugs and doping practices in sport to which Australia is a party;

• undertake research, and arrange for research to be undertaken, into the use of drugs in sport; and

• encourage the pursuit of optimal sports performance in an environment free from the use of drugs.

Powers

The powers of the Agency include provisions to:

• enter into contracts;

• acquire, hold and dispose of real and personal property;

• occupy, use and control any land or building owned or held under lease by the Commonwealth and made available for the purposes of the Agency;

• appoint agents and attorneys;

• engage persons to perform services for the Agency;

• accept gifts, grants, bequests and devises made to the Agency and act as trustee of money or other property vested in the Agency on trust; and •

• develop, maintain, distribute and publish information on procedures for, and developments concerning, the collection and testing of samples.

91

Appendix 2

Powers of the m in ister under the A u s tra lia n Sports D ru g Agency A ct 1990

The minister has powers under the following sections of the ASDA Act (as at 30 June 1994) to:

20(1) appoint members to the Australian Sports Drug Agency

Board;

31 determine members' terms and conditions of

appointment not otherwise provided for in the Act;

33(1) grant leave of absence to the chairperson;

35(1) approve the chief executive engaging in paid

employment outside the duties of the chief executive office;

37(1 )(2)(3) and (4) appoint an acting chairperson, deputy chairperson, chief executive and members;

36(1) and (2) terminate a member's appointment under certain circumstances;

48(1) and (2) approve the Agency's strategic plan;

49(2) approve variations to the Agency's strategic plan;

52(1) and (2) approve the Agency's annual operational plan; and

62(1) approve the Agency entering into contracts involving

payment or the receipt of more than $100 000, or into lease arrangements of land for ten years or more.

The minister also has statutory powers under the following sections of the ASDA Act to direct the chairperson or Agency to:

18(1 )(2) and (2a) provide the minister with details of positive and negative test results;

21(2) convene a meeting of the Agency Board;

51(1) revise the Agency's annual operational plan if of the

opinion that the plan is inconsistent with the Agency's strategic plan;

92

59(1) and (2) prepare estimates in a form, and for any period of time, determined by the minister;

68(1) perform its functions or exercise its powers in

accordance with a written direction; and

69 report to the minister on the conduct of its activities.

The minister did not exercise any statutory powers of direction during the financial year 1993-94.

93

Appendix 3

Publications and presentations by ASDA officials June 1993-June 1994

P apers Author O ccasion V enue Date

State Drug Testing To Stephen Richards Sport Report Vol 14, Autumn

Be Introduced No.1 1994

The Role Of State Peter Dowse For Drugs in Sport Unit May 1994

Sporting Organisations ASSA Level 2 Courses Introduced

In Drug Testing to

curriculum

Smoking and Exercise Diana Readshaw Aussie Sport Action Spring

Performance 1993

Presentation A uthor O ccasion V enue Date

State drug testing in the ACT Stephen Richards Public meeting with ACT sports community

Canberra August 1993

Drugs in sport David Townend Athletics Victoria Melbourne August

1993

Drugs in sport David Townend Karate juniors Melbourne August

1993

P project Graeme Turnbull NSW Water Ski

Association Level 1 coaches course

Sydney September 1993

P project Lynda Nicholson QLD Strength and

Conditioning Association Brisbane September 1993

P project Graeme Turnbull Sydney United Soccer

Club

Sydney October

1993

ASDA's Act and regulations

Stephen Richards Senate Standing Committee on regulations and ordinances

Canberra November 1993

P project Graeme Turnbull NSW Water Ski

Association Level 2 coaches course

Sydney December 1993

Performance enhancing drugs in human sports

John Watson Australian Veterinary Association Conference Canberra March 1994

International activities Nicki Vance AOC Athletics Commission meeting Sydney May 1994

P project Lynda Nicholson Women's Soccer

Association

Brisbane March 1994

Powerlifting Australia Inc. Mandy Green Executive meeting Melbourne April 1994

P project John Watson AIS motorcross camp Canberra April 1994

P project John Watson World junior track and

field squad

Canberra April 1994

Drugs in sport David Townend Wheelchair weightlifting

athletes - at championships

Melbourne April 1994

94

P resentation A u th or O ccasio n V enue Date

Drugs in sport David Townend Deakin University

students

Melbourne April 1994

Drugs in sport David Townend Technical Committee

Oceania weightlifting championships

Guam May 1994

Drugs in sport David Townend Weightlifters and

coaches, Oceania championships

Guam May 1994

Drugs in sport David Meyer WA Soccer Association Perth May 1994

P project Graeme Turnbull NSW Water Ski

Association Level 1 coaches course

Sydney June 1994

P project Graeme Turnbull Pennant Hills Australian

Football Club

Sydney June 1994

P project Graeme Turnbull Australian ice racing

junior development training camp

Sydney June 1994

Drugs in sport Tony Wynd Gymnastics coaching ASC June 1994

course

Drugs in sport Tony Wynd National Rifle Association ASC June 1994

NSO workshop policy Tony Wynd Julie Kempnich Leonie Johnson

NSO administrators VIS Nov 93

A AG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes TAS Dept

Tourism, Sport and Recreation

Sept 93

AAG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes VIS Sept 93

AAG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes NSW Nov 93

Academy of sport

AAG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes OLD Nov 93

Academy of Sport

AAG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes ASC Nov 93

AAG meeting Tony Wynd Elite athletes SASI Oct 93

AAG meeting Nicki Vance Elite athletes WAIS Sept 93

AAG consultation Tony Wynd CAS Board ASDA Oct 93

Drug testing education David Packwood Modern pentathlon Sept 93

resources development squad

ASDA background David Packwood Rugby Union Level II Nov 93

Drug Testing Coaching Course

Education Resources ASDA background David Packwood Aboriginal students March 94

drug testing education Fitness in training course

Implementing drugs in Julie Kempnich Teacher/SDHE Sydney March 94

sport education in the Leonie Johnson coordinators workshop school setting National Julie Kempnich ASDA/SDH E national Sydney March 94

implementation of Leonie Johnson workshop drugs in sports education

95

P resentation A uthor C onference Venue Date

P project Di Readshaw National sporting Canberra August

program tennis camp 93

P project Di Readshaw Senior national judo team Canberra Sept 93

P project Di Readshaw Triathlon Australian Canberra July 93

Smoking and alcohol Di Readshaw Mars 5 star athletic Canberra July 93

program

ASDA/ACC drugs in Julie Kempnich ACC course design Canberra March 94

sport coaching workshop

education manual ASDA/ACC drugs in Julie Kempnich ACC State coaching Adelaide Nov 93

sport coaching centre - coordinators

education manual workshop

Presentations by ASDA (ACT SDEU)

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Sept 93

netball squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT athletics Canberra Sept 93

development squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Jan 94

rowing squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

individual athletes

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

men's volley ball squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

Netball Squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

women's hockey squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn Act Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

men's hockey squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra Feb 94

netball squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT academy of Sport Canberra March 94

men volleyball squad

Drugs in Sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Academy of Sport Canberra April 94

women's volleyball squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT triathlon Canberra Feb 94

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Basketball Canberra Feb 94

"Canberra Gunners" squad

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT rugby union Canberra May 94

The role of education Nicole den Duyn Public meeting regarding Canberra Aug 93 and the ACT SDEU the ACT sport drug

testing legislation

Drugs in sport Nicole den Duyn ACT Basketball Canberra Feb 94

Drugs in sport & the Nicole den Duyn ASSA level 1 sports Canberra April 94

sports administrator administrators course

Drugs in sport & the Nicole den Duyn ACT mens hockey Canberra July 93

coach Drugs in sport & the Nicole den Duyn ACT Coaching Centre Canberra Aug 93

coach Drugs in sport & the Nicole den Duyn ACT Australian Football Canberra April 94 coach

9 6

Presentation A u th or C o n fe re n c e V enue Date

Drugs in sport & the coach Nicole den Duyn ACT Rugby Union Canberra May 94

Drugs in sport & the coach Nicole den Duyn ACT Netball Canberra June 94

Drugs in sport & the coach Nicole den Duyn ACT Pistol Shooting Canberra June 94

Presentations by ASDA (Victoria SDEU)

Presentation A u th o r C o n fere n c e V enue Date

SDEU common myths Suzanne Henderson Athletes VIC Melbourne Aug 93

about ASDA newsletter

Drug educ unit Suzanne Henderson Tennis VIC Melbourne Sept 93

established newsletter

Unit keeps drugs out Suzanne Henderson Active lifestyles Melbourne Sept 93

of sport SRU newsletter

Inadvertent doping Suzanne Henderson Athletes VIC newsletter Melbourne Feb 94

Inadvertent doping Suzanne Henderson Victorian netballers Melbourne April 94 Therapeutic use of Suzanne Henderson Victorian badminton Melbourne April 94 banned substances newsletter

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Level II coaching course - weightlifting Melbourne 93

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson State softball teams Melbourne

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Athletics Victoria development squad and coaches

Melbourne Oct 93

Drugs in sport The coaches responsibility Suzanne Henderson coaches Melbourne Jan 94

seminar Drugs in Sport Suzanne Henderson Sports development offices meeting Melbourne July 94 Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Weightlifting, swimming, Melbourne Ongoing introduction squash, badminton,

cycling, rowing, golf

93 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Canoe athletes and coaches Melbourne April 94

Drugs in sport - ACC Suzanne Henderson Level II General principles course Melbourne May 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson "Year of the Coach Portland seminar" Melbourne May 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson regional sports assembly Melbourne May 94 Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Kick boxer Instructors Melbourne May 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Victorian VIS & VIT State team table tennis Melbourne May 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson VIC talent Camp Melbourne June 94

Drugs in sport Suzanne Henderson Level II general Melbourne

principles

9 7

Presentations by ASDA (South Australia SDEU)

P resentation Author C onference Venue Date

Drugs in Sport Stephen Cornish ASSA Level II South Aust. July 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish National junior cycling

camp

South Aust. July 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish State archery team South Aust. Aug 93

Drugs in sport/ASDA Stephen Cornish National safety council conference South Aust. Aug 93

Drugs in sport/SDEU Stephen Cornish Sport SA South Aust. Aug 93

Drugs in sport Brenda Hosking-

Brown

National soccer team South Aust. Sept 93

Drugs in sport Brenda Hosking-

Brown

National Soccer team South Aust. Sept 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Cycling coaches council South Aust. Sept 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Swimming development

squad

South Aust. Sept 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Sports development

officers workshop

South Aust. Sept 93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Athletics development

squad camp

South Aust. Oct 93

Drugs in sport/SDEU Stephen Cornish ASMF Level II sports trainer South Aust. Nov93

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Little athletics sports

camp

South Aust. Jan 94

Drugs in sport Brenda Hosking-

Brown

Land polo national team South Aust. Jan 94

Drugs in sport Brenda Hosking-

Brown

Land polo national team South Aust. Jan 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish ASSA Level 1 South Aust. Feb 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish ASSA Level 1 South Aust. Mar 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Little Athletics Sports

Camp

South Aust. April 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Regional development

officers workshop

South Aust. May 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish ASSA Level 1 South Aust. May 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish ASSA Level 1 South Aust. June 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish ASMF Level 1 Sports

Trainers

South Aust. June 94

Drugs in sport Stephen Cornish Lacrosse sports camp South Aust. June 94

98

Appendix 4

Summary o f ASDA's in tern ation al testing activities

INTERNATIONAL TESTING IN AUSTRALIA

Competition

Athletics IAAF NEC Classic (Feb 1994)

Basketball World Womens Basketball Championships (June 1994)

Cycling World Juniors Cycling Championships (Sep/Oct 1994) Vic-Health Herald Sun Tour (Oct 1993) Commonwealth Bank Cycle Classic (Oct 1993) Great Australian Winery Tour (Nov 1993)

Gymnastics World Gymnastics Championships (April 1994)

Judo International Open Championships-Sydney (Sept 1993) International Open Championships-Melbourne (Sept 1993)

Modern pentathlon Alcatel Australian Championships (Feb 1994)

Rugby union South Africa v New South Wales (July 1993) South Africa v Australia (July 1993) Western Samoa v New South Wales (April 1994) Ireland v Australia (June 1994)

Italy v Australia (June 1994)

Triathlon Forster Iron Man (April 1994)

Weightlifting World Championships (Nov 1994) World Wheelchair Championships (May 1994)

Out-of-competition

Athletics The Sports Council

International Amateur Athletics Federation

Rowing International Rowing Federation

Swiss Anti-Doping Authority

Weightlifting International Weightlifting Federation

INTERNATIONAL TESTING OVERSEAS

Competition

Weightlifting Oceania Weightlifting Championships-Guam (May 1994)

Out-of-competition

Rowing International Rowing Federation (Hong Kong, China, South Korea)

99

Appendix 5

Dope control laboratories accredited by the International Olym pic C om m ittee

Location

Athens

Grece Greece

H ead of the laboratory Dr J Kiburis Director

Phase II Barcelona Dr Jordi Segura

Espagne Spain

Beijing

Republique Populaire de Chine People's

Republic of China

Prof Dr Zeyi Yang Director

C ologne Prof Dr Manfred

Donike

Allemagne Germany

Kreischa Prof. Klaus Muller

Allemagne Germany

Lausanne Dr Laurent Rivier

Suisse Switzerland

A ddress

OAKA Doping Control Laboratory The Olympic Athletic Center of Athens 'Spiros Louis' 37 Kifissias Ave 15123 Maroussi Fax: (30 1)683 4021 Tel: (30 1) 686 8549

Inst it ut Municipal d'lnvestigacio Medica Deparment de Farmacologia i Toxicologia(IMIM) Dr Aogiader 80 08003 BARCELONA Tel: (34 3)221 1009

Fax: (34 3) 221 3237

Doping Control Laboratory National Research Institute of Sports Medicine

1st Anding Road Anwai BEIJING 100029 Tel: (861)491 2131 Fax: (861)491 2136

Institute of Biochemistry Deutsche Sporthochaschule Carl-Diem-Weg 6 50933 Koln 41 Tel: (49 221)497 1313 Fax: (49 221)497 3236 Telex: (051)933 521 'Ref: BOX: DM4: DONIKE'

Inst it ut fur Dopinganalytick und Sportbiochemie Dresdner Strasse 12 D-01731 KREISCHA b.Dreseden

TEI/fax: (49 35206) 3308 Unite d'analyse de dopage Institut universitaire de medicine legale Rue de Bugnon 21 1005 Lausanne Tel: (41 21)313 2190

Fax: (41 21)313 2193

100

Location

L isbon

Portugal

L on d on

Angleterre England

Los A n g eles

Etats-Unis USA

M adrid

Espagne Spain

Seoul

Coree Korea

Phase II

H ead o f th e A d d ress

lab orato ry

Prof Lesseps Lourenco Laboratorio de analises do doping e Reys biuquimica

Direccoa-gen dos desportos Estadio Universitario Av Professor Egas Moniz 1600 LISBOA

Tel: (35 11)795 4000 Fax: (35 11)797 7529 Telex: 43447 FISPOR P

Dr David Cowan Drug Control and Teaching Centre London University King's College Manresa Road London SW 3 6LX Tel: (44 71)351 2488

Fax: (44 71)351 2591 Telex: c/o IAAF London

Prof Don H Catlin UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory UCLA School of Medicine 2122 Granville Avenue LOS ANGELES, California 90025 Tel: (1 310) 825 2635

Fax: (1 310)206 9077 Telex: 025 910 342 7597

Dr Cecilia Rodriguez Laboratorio Investigacion Bio-quimica y control anti-doping Consejo Superior de Deportes c/Greco, s/n Ciudad Universitaria 28040 MADRID Tel: (34 1) 589 6889,

589 6890

Fax: (34 1) 543 7290

Dr Jongsei Park Doping Control Centre Director Korea Institute of Science and Technology PO Box 131

Cheongryang SEOUL Tel: (82 2) 969 2871 Fax: (82 2)968 2109 Telex: KISTROK K27380

101

Sydney Dr R Kazlauskas Australian Government Analytical Laboratories

Australie 1 Suakin Street

Australia PYMBLE NSW 2073

Tel: (61 2) 449 0111

Phase II Fax: (61 2) 449 1653

Telex: (071) AA61906 AUSCI

Tokyo Dr Jun-lchi Fukuda Mitsubishi-Yuka Bio-Clinical Laboratories Inc Japon Dope control laboratory

Japan 3-30-1 Shimura, Itabashi-ku

TOKYO 174 Japan Tel: (81 3) 5994 22351

Phase II Fax: (81 3) 5994 2922

102

Appendix 6

In tern ation al Olym pic C om m ittee M edical Commission lis t o f doping classes and methods

I. DOPING CLASSES

A. Stimulants B. Narcotics C. Anabolic Agents D. Diuretics

E. Peptide hormones and analogues

II. DOPING METHODS

A. Blood doping B. Pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation

III. CLASSES IF DRUGS SUBJECT TO CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS A. Alcohol B. Marijuana C. Local anaesthetics

D. Corticosteroids E. Beta-blockers

NOTE:

The doping definition of the IOC Medical Commission is based on the banning of pharmacological classes of agents. The definition has the advantage that also new drugs, some of which may be especially designed for doping purposes, are banned.

The term ‘and related substances’ describes drugs that are related to the class by their pharmacological actions and/or chemical structure.

The following list represents examples of the different dope classes to illustrate the doping definition. Unless indicated all substances belonging to the banned classes may not be used for medical treatment, even if they are not listed as examples. If substances of the banned classes are detected in the laboratory the IOC Medical Commission will act. It should be noted that the presence of the drug in the urine constitutes an offence, irrespective of the route of administration.

103

Examples and explanations

I. DOPING CLASSES

A. Stimulants, eg

amfepramone ephedrine nikethamide

amfetaminil etafodrine pemoline

amineptine ethamivan pentetrazol

emiphenazole etilamfetamine phendimetrazine

amphetamine fencamfamin phenmetrazine

bensphetamine fenatylline phentermine

caffeine* fenproporex phenylpropanolamine

cathine furfenorex pipradol

chlorphentermine mefenorex prolintane

clobenzorex mesocarbe propylhexedrine

clorprenaline methylamphetamine pyrovalerone

cocaine methoxyphenamine strychnine

cropropamide (component of ‘micoren’) methylephedrine orothetamide (component of ‘micoren’) methylphenidate dimetamfetamine morazone

and related compounds

*For caffeine a test is designated positive if the concentration in urine exceeds 12 micrograms/ml

Stimulants comprise various types of drugs which increase alertness, reduce fatigue and may increase competitiveness and hostility. Their use can also produce loss of judgement, which may lead to accidents to others in some sports, Amphetamine and related compounds have the most notorious reputation in producing problems in sport. Some deaths of sportsmen have resulted even when normal doses have been used under conditions of maximum physical activity. There is no medical justification for the use of ‘amphetamines’ in sport.

One group of stimulants is the sympathomimetic amines of which ephedrine is an example. In high doses, this type of compound produces mental stimulation and increased blood flow. Adverse effects include elevated blood pressure and headache, increased and irregular heart beat, anxiety and tremor. In lower doses, :hey eg. ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, norpseudoephedrine, are often present in cold and hay fever preparations which can be purchased in aharmacies and sometimes from other retail outlets without the need of a medical arescription.

rHUS NO PRODUCT FOR USE IN COLDS, INFLUENZA OR HAY FEVER, 3URCHASED BY A COMPETITOR OR GIVEN TO HIM-HER, SHOULD BE USED Λ/ITHOUT FIRST CHECKING WITH A DOCTOR OR PHARMACIST THAT THE PRODUCT DOES NOT CONTAIN A DRUG OF THE BANNED STIMULANTS : l a s s .

104

Beta2 agonists

The choice of medication in the treatment of asthma and respiratory ailments has posed many problems. Some years ago, ephedrine and related substances were administered quite frequently. However, these substances are prohibited because they are classed in the category of "sympathomimetic amines" and therefore considered as stimulants.

The use of only the following beta2 agonists is permitted by inhalation:

salbutamol terbutaline

ANY TEAM DOCTOR WISHING TO ADMINISTER THESE BETA2 AGONISTS BY INHALATION TO A COMPETITOR MUST GIVE WRITTEN NOTIFICATION TO THE IOC MEDICAL COMMISSION.

B. Narcotic analgesics, eg

alphaprodine anileridine buprenorphine dextromoramide dextropropoxyphen diamorphine (heroin)

and related compounds

dihydrocodeine dipipanone ethohyptazine ethylmorphine

levorphanol methadone

morphine nalbuphine pentazocine pethidine phenazocine trimeperidine

The drugs belonging to this class, which are represented by morphine and its chemical and pharmacological analogues, act fairly specifically as analgesics for the management of moderate to severe pain. This description however by no means implies that their clinical effect is limited to the relief of trivial disabilities.

Most of these drugs have major side effects, including dose-related respiratory depression, and carry a high risk of physical and psychological dependence. There exists evidence indicating that narcotic analgesics have been, and are abused in sports, and therefore the IOC Medical Commission has issued and maintained a ban on their use during the Olympic Games. The ban is also justified by

international restrictions affecting the movement of these compounds and is in line with the regulations and recommendations of the World Health Organisation regarding narcotics.

105

Furthermore, it is felt that the treatment of slight to moderate pain can be effective using drugs-other than the narcotics-which have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. Such alternatives, which have been successfully used for the treatment of sports injuries, include anthranilic acid derivatives (such as mefanimic acid, floctafenine, glafenine, etc.), phenylalkanoic acid derivatives (such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofan, naproxen, etc.) and compounds such as indomethacin and sulindac. The Medical Commission also reminds athletes and team doctors that aspirin and its newer derivatives (such as Diflunisal) are not banned but cautions against some pharmaceutical preparations where aspirin is often associated to a banned drug such as codeine. The same precautions hold for cough and cold preparations which often contain drugs of the banned classes.

NOTE : DEXTROMETHORPHAN AND PHOLCODINE ARE NOT BANNED AND MAY BE USED AS ANTI-TUSSIVES. DIPHENOXYLATE IS ALSO PERMITTED.

C. Anabolic agents

1. Androgenic anabolic steroids, eg 2. Other anabolic agents bolasterone a/ B-2 agonists

boldenone (e.g. clenbuterol)

clostebol dehydrochloromethyltestosterone fluoxymesterone mesterolone metandienone metenolone methyltestosteone nandrolone norethandrolone oxandrolone oxymesterone oxymetholone stanozolol testosterone* and related substances

* The presence of a testosterone (T) to epitestosterone (E) ratio greater than (6) to one (1) in the urine of a competitor constitutes an offence unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathological condition.

The anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) class includes testosterone and substances that are related in structure and activity to it. They have been misused by the sports world both to increase muscle strength and bulk, and to promote aggressiveness. The use of ASS is associated with adverse effects on the liver, skin, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. They can promote the growth of tumours and induce psychiatric syndromes. In males AAS decrease the size of the testes and diminish sperm production. Females experience masculinization, loss of

breast tissue and diminished menstruation. The use of AAS by teenagers can stunt growth.

106

The IOC Medical Commission, while pleased that the testing program is decreasing the use of anabolic steroids, is nevertheless concerned that some athletes are attempting to cheat by administering testosterone, testosterone precursors and

epitestosterone. Accordingly, the IOC Medical Commission recommends giving consideration to a medical examination together with endocrine tests and longitudinal studies to evaluate the possibility that testosterone or any other endogenous steroid has been administered.

In order to assist in this evaluation the IOC accredited laboratories shall report every case to the proper authorities in accordance with the following criteria:

A negative if the ratio is less than 6; B T/E greater than 6 and not greater than 10; or C T/E greater than 10.

In the case of B the IOC Medical Commission recommends that further tests be conducted before considering the result as positive or negative. Such investigations may include:

—review of previous tests, —endocrinological investigations, —unannounced testing over several months.

D. Diuretics, eg

acetazolamide amiloride bendroflumethiazide benzthiazide

bumetanide and related compounds

canrenone chlormrodin chlortalidone diclofenamide

ethacymic acid

furosemide hydrochlorthiazide mersalyl spironolactone triamterene

Diuretics have important therapeutic indications for the elimination of fluids from the tissues in certain pathological conditions. However, strict medical control is required.

Diuretics are sometimes misused by competitors for two main reasons, namely: to reduce weight quickly in sports where weight categories are involved and to reduce the concentration of drugs in urine by producing a more rapid excretion of urine to attempt to minimise detection of drug misuse. Rapid reduction of weight in sport cannot be justified medically. Health risks are involved in such misuse because of

serious side-effects which might occur.

Furthermore, deliberate attempts to reduce weight artificially in order to compete in lower weight classes or to dilute urine constitute clear manipulations which are unacceptable on ethical grounds. Therefore, the IOC Medical Commission has

decided to include diuretics on its list of banned classes of drugs.

N.B. For sports involving weight classes, the IOC Medical Commission reserves the right to obtain urine samples form the competitor at the time of the weigh- in.

107

E. Peptide hormones and analogues

Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG - human chorionic gonadotrophin): it is well known that the administration to males of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) and other compounds with related activity leads to an increased rate of production of endogenous androgenic steroids and is considered equivalent to the exogenous administration of testosterone.

Corticotrophin (ACTH): Corticotrophin has been misused to increase the blood levels of endogenous corticosteroids notably to obtain the euphoric effect of corticosteroids. The application of corticotrophin is considered to be equivalent to the oral, intra-muscular or intravenous application of corticosteroids. (See section III. D). Growth hormone (hGH, somatrophin): the misuse of growth hormone in sport is deemed to be unethical and dangerous because of various adverse effects, for example, allergic reactions, diabetogenic effects, and acromegaly when applied in high doses.

All the respective releasing factors of the above-mentioned substances are also banned.

Erythropoietin (EPO): is the glucoprotein hormone produced in human kidney which regulates, apparently by a feed-back mechanism, the rate of synthesis of erythrocytes.

II. METHODS

A. Blood doping

Blood transfusion is the intravenous administration of red blood cells or related blood products that contain red blood cells. Such products can be obtained from blood drawn from the same (autologous) or from a different (non-autologous) individual. The most common indications for red blood cell transfusion in conventional medical practice is acute blood loss and severe anaemia.

Blood doping is the administration of blood or related red blood products to an athlete other than for legitimate medical treatment. This procedure may be preceded by withdrawal of blood from the athlete who continues to train in this blood depleted state.

These procedures contravene the ethics of medicine and sport. There are also risks involved in the transfusion of blood and related blood products. These include the development of allergic reactions (rash, fever, etc) and acute haemolytic reactions with kidney damage if incorrectly typed blood is used, as well as delayed

transfusion reaction resulting in fever and jaundice, transmission of infectious diseases (viral hepatitis and AIDS), overload of the circulation and metabolic shock.

Therefore the practice of blood doping in sport is banned by the IOC Medical Commission.

1 0 8

The IOC Medical Commission bans Erythropoietin as method of doping (see section 1. Doping Classes, F-Peptide hormones and analogues).

B. Pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation

The IOC Medical Commission bans the use of substances and of methods which alter the integrity and validity of urine samples used in doping controls. Examples of banned methods are catheterisation, urine substitution and-or tampering and inhibition of renal excretion, eg. by probenecid and related compounds, and epitestosterone application*.

* If the epitestosterone concentration is greater than 150 ng/mL, the laboratories should notify the appropriate authorities. The IOC Medical Commission recommends that further investigations be conducted.

III. CLASSES OF DRUGS SUBJECT TO CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS

A. Alcohol

Alcohol is not prohibited. However, breath or blood alcohol levels may be determined at the request of an International Federation.

B. Marijuana

Marijuana is not prohibited. However, tests may be carried out at the request of an International Federation.

C. Local anaesthetics

Injectable local anaesthetics are permitted under the following conditions

a) that procaine, xylocaine, carbocaine, etc. are used but not cocaine; b) only local or intra-articular injections may be administered; c) only when medically justified (ie. the details including diagnosis dose and route of administration must be submitted immediately in writing to the IOC

Medical Commission)

D. Corticosteroids

The naturally occurring and synthetic corticosteroids are mainly used as anti­ inflammatory drugs which also relieve pain. They influence circulating concentrations of natural corticosteroids in the body. They produce euphoria and side-effects such that their medical use, except when used topically, require medical control.

Since 1975, the IOC Medical Commission has attempted to restrict their use during competitions by requiring a declaration by doctors, because it was known that corticosteroids were being used non-therapeutically by the oral, rectal, intramuscular and even the intravenous route in some sports. However, the

problem was not solved by these restrictions and therefore stronger measures

1 0 9

designed not to interfere with the appropriate medical use of these compounds became necessary.

The use of corticosteroids is banned except for topical use (aural, ophthalmological and dermatological), inhalation therapy (asthma, allergic rhinitis) and local or intra- articular injections.

ANY TEAM DOCTOR WISHING TO ADMINISTER CORTICOSTEROIDS BY LOCAL OR INTA-ARTICULAR INJECTION, OR BY INHALATION, TO A COMPETITOR MUST GIVE WRITTEN NOTIFICATION TO THE IOC MEDICAL COMMISSION.

E. Beta-blockers, eg

acebutolol labetalol oxprenolol

alprenolol metoprolol propranolol

atenolol nadolol sotalol

and related substances

The IOC Medical Commission has reviewed the therapeutic indications for the use of beta-blocking drugs and noted that there is now a wide range of effective alternative preparations available in order to control hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia's, angina pectoris and migraine. Due to the continued misuse of beta- blockers in some sports where physical activity is of no or little importance, the IOC Medical Commission reserves the right to test those sports which it deems appropriate. These are unlikely to include endurance events which necessitate prolonged periods of high cardiac output and large stores of metabolic substrates in which beta-blockers would severely decrease performance capacity.

NOTE: Tests for beta-blockers are performed at the request of an International Federation (eg. archery, shooting, biathlon, modern pentathlon, bobsleigh, diving, luge, ski jumping, etc.) and at the discretion of the IOC Medical Commission.

110

Appendix 7

ASDA testing for period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994

SPO RT E V E N T T E S TS O U T -O F -C O M P E T IT IO N T E S TS TO T A L

Domestic Domestic Internal Total Domestic Domestic Inter- Total T E S TS

gov't contract ional event gov't contract national OOC

funded funded

Archery 4 4 5 5 9

Athletics 119 12 131 197 1 4 202 333

Aust.football 68 68 90 90 158

Badminton 5 5 5 5 10

Baseball 4 4 5 5 9

Basketball 40 24 64 30 24 32 86 150

Biathlon 0 1 1 1

BMX racing 0 23 23 23

Bobsleigh 0 6 6 6

Boxing 0 19 19 19

Canoeing 24 24 31 31 55

Cricket 0 3 3 3

Cycling 98 5 102 205 105 105 310

Diving 4 4 8 8 12

Fencing 8 8 0 8

Gymnastics 3 9 12 3 3 15

Hockey 8 8 25 25 33

Ice skating 0 10 10 10

Ice speed 11 11 6 6 17

skating Judo 20 12 32 27 27 59

Karate 10 10 21 21 31

Lacrosse 4 4 1 1 5

Modern 8 8 12 12 20

pentathlon Mountain 31 31 12 12 43

bike Netball 8 8 10 10 18

Orienteering 4 4 3 3 7

Powerlifting 47 47 97 97 144

Roller skating 18 18 14 14 32

Rowing 16 16 68 20 88 104

Rugby league 216 216 166 166 382

Rugby union 4 20 24 35 35 59

Shooting 20 20 5 5 25

Skiing 0 6 6 6

Soccer 28 28 23 28 51 79

Softball 4 4 2 2 6

Squash 4 4 8 8 12

Surf life 28 10 38 8 8 46

saving Surf boarding 0 2 2 2

Swimming 56 56 72 72 128

111

S P O R T

Domestic govt funded

Synchro 4

swimming

E V E N T TESTS

Domestic Inter­ contract national T otal even

t

4

O U T -O F -C O M P E T IT IO N TESTS Domestic Domestic Inter- Total

gov't contract national O OC

funded 1 1

TO T A L T E S TS

5

Tae kwon do 6 6 0 6

Tennis 0 5 5 5

Triathlon 39 39 16 16 55

Volleyball 6 6 6 6 12

Water polo 20 20 32 32 52

Water skiing 8 8 9 9 17

Weightlifting 50 105 155 78 20 98 253

Wrestling 0 5 5 5

Yachting 0 3 3 3

TO T A L 695 367 292 1354 1063 309 76 1448 2802

112

Appendix 8

Sum m ary of entries on Register o f Notifiable Events, 1 9 9 3 -9 4

S port Date D efau lt S u bstan ce Class Sanction

Weightlifting 4/7/93 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid Suspended 2

years

Rugby league 11/7/93 Positive Cannabis Cannabis Reprimanded-no

further penalty

Weightlifting 21/7/93 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid Suspended 2

years

Athletics 30/7/93 Failure

to

comply

N/A Failure to

comply

Suspended 4 years

Powerlifting 8/8/93 Positive Pseudoephedrine & Testosterone epitestosterone ratio > 10

Stimulant Anabolic steroid Suspended 3 years

Rugby league 15/8/93 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Powerlifting 16/8/93 Failure

to comply

N/A Failure to

comply

Suspended 3 years

Athletics 28/8/93 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 29/8/93 Positive Prolintone Stimulant Caution-

therapeutic use

Powerlifting 31/8/93 Positive Canrenone a

metabolite of spironolactone

Diuretic Caution-

therapeutic use

Weightlifting 4/9/93 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid Suspended 2

years

Weightlifting 5/9/93 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid ASDA has not yet

been advised

Rugby league 12/9/93 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Powerlifting 15/9/93 Positive Testosterone/

epitestosterone ratio > 10

Anabolic Steroid Life suspension - second offence

Judo 18/9/93 Positive Amphetamine

Methamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Stanozolol

Nandrolone (19-N) Methenolone

Stimulant Stimulant Stimulant Anabolic steroid Anabolic steroid Anabolic steroid

ASDA has not yet been advised

Powerlifting 2/10/93 Positive Stanozolol

Testosterone/ Epitestosterone ratio >10

Anabolic steroid Suspended 3 years

113

Summary of en tries on R egister o f Notifiable E vents, 1993-94(cont)

Sport Date Default S u bstan ce Class S anction

Weightlifting 19/11/93 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid Life suspension

Rugby league 22/11/93 Positive Testosterone/ Epitestosterone Ratio > 10

Anabolic steroid Ten week suspension

Boxing 30/11/93 Failure to

comply

N/A Failure to

comply

No sanction- professional boxer

Swimming-deaf

29/12/93 Positive Pseudoephedhne Stimulant No sanction-

inadvertent use

Soccer 9/1/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Soccer 23/1/94 Positive Pseudoephedhne Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 25/2/94 Positive Testosterone/

epitestosterone ratio > 10

Anabolic steroid Further tests organised to confirm test result

Boxing 28/2/94 Failure to

comply

N/A Failure to

comply

No sanction

Powerlifting 28/2/94 Positive Stanozolol Anabolic steroid Suspended 3

years

Cycling 12/3/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Suspended 6

months

Cycling 20/3/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Suspended 3

months

Diving 31/3/94 Failure to

comply

N/A Failure to

comply

ASDA has not yet been advised

Weightlifting 31/3/94 Positive Furosemide

(Frusemide)

Diuretic Suspended one

month

Shooting 3/4/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Cycling 16/4/94 Positive Methamphetamine Stimulant Suspended two

years

Rugby league 17/4/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 17/4/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 2/5/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 5/5/94 Positive Testosterone/

epitestosterone ratio > 10

Anabolic steroid Follow up from previous test - ASDA has not yet been advised

Rugby League 15/5/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution-

inadvertent use

Rugby league 15/5/94 Positive Pseudoephedrine Stimulant Caution

Inadvertent use

Rugby league 7/6/94 Positive Testosterone/

epitestosterone ratio > 6

Anabolic steroid Follow up from previous test - ASDA has not yet been advised

114

Appendix 9

1 9 9 3 -9 4 M em orandum o f understanding between the Australian Governm ent A nalytical Laboratories and the Australian Sports Drug Agency

1. Preamble

This memorandum sets out the Understanding that has been reached between the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories o f the Department of Administrative Services and the Arts (hereinafter referred to as ‘A G A L ’) and the Australian Sports Drug Agency (hereinafter referred to as ‘A S D A ’) as to the services and level of services to be provided by A S D A to A G A L in return for the satisfactory delivery of such services.

2. Annexes

2.1 A ll annexes to the Memorandum of Understanding (M O U ) as specified below are to be read with and form part o f the Understanding and the whole w ill constitute the agreement between the parties.

A N N E X A: Scope of Services

A N N E X B: Basis of Payment

A N N E X C: Schedule of Costs

3. Commencement

3.1 The Understanding w ill commence from 1 July 1993 and w ill supersede all documents or written agreements in respect of the subject matter thereof.

4. Duration

4.1 A G A L will perform the services within the period of 1 year from the date of the

commencement of the Understanding.

5. Financial limitation

5.1 The financial limitation of the Understanding is as set out at Annex C. A G A L will not expend or incur expenditure in excess o f this amount for the provision of services in Annex A. The cost of transporting samples to A G A L for analyses is not included in this limitation, and w ill be an additional charge borne by ASDA.

115

6. Service limitation

6.1 A G A L agrees that its role in sports drug testing is limited to the analysis o f samples, reporting on of results of sports drug tests, and undertaking research on drugs in sport issues. A G A L recognises that A S D A has a role under the A S D A Act to liaise with competitors, sporting organisations, the Australian Sports Commission, media representatives and so on in connection with sports drug testing and drugs in sport. Except with the approval of A S D A , A G A L agrees not to communicate details of its responsibilities about sports drug testing except as provided for in this Understanding.

6.2 Whenever workload commitments reach 80 per cent of the levels specified in Annex A, A G A L w ill immediately notify A S D A of this fact. A S D A accepts no liability for any additional service performed by A G A L over and about that required to be done by the Understanding, unless a prior specific amendment to the Understanding is issued by A S D A authorising A G A L to do such work.

6.3 A G A L is the only laboratory in Australia accredited by the International Olympic Committee (IO C ). A G A L w ill be recognised by A S D A as its sole agency in Australia for the provision of analytical services.

6.4 Should A G A L negotiate contracts for analysis of samples outside the terms of this M O U (ie with A S D A having no involvement in the collection of samples), A G A L w ill impose a minimum charge of $260 per test for full-screen analyses and $170 per test for half-screen analyses. When conducting testing for clients other than ASDA, A G A L w ill be free to determine its own performance parameters.

6.5 A G A L w ill provide statistical details to A SDA of all sports drug tests undertaken outside the terms of this M O U , including tests conducted for overseas clients.

7. Standard of performance

7.1 A G A L w ill provide personnel or agents with the experience, skills and qualifications necessary to perform the services. A G A L will diligently, efficiently, and in conformity with sound professional practices perform the services within the specified duration and financial limitation to the satisfaction of ASDA.

7.2 A G A L w ill maintain accreditation by the IO C as a sports drug testing laboratory throughout the period of this M O U . Should A G A L lose accreditation, A S D A w ill be free to cancel the M O U , including any payments proposed under the M O U , for the remainder of the period during which it would have been in force and to begin using another laboratory for analysis o f samples collected for sports drug testing.

7.6 As agreed, A S D A reserves the right to undertake an independent efficiency audit of A G A L procedures and practices relating to sports drug testing while the M O U

remains in force.

116

8. Confidentiality

8.1 A G A L and its personnel and agents shall not, without the prior written approval of A SD A , disclose other than to A S D A any information acquired in connection with performing these services or release other than to A S D A any material created in connection with performing these services.

9. Conflict of interest

9.1 I f A G A L becomes aware that any o f its personnel or agents has a direct or indirect interest in the result of any part of the services performed, A G A L shall immediately inform A SD A in writing. A G A L w ill not, unless directed by A SD A , authorise such a person or agent to continue to be engaged in the performance of those services.

10. Sub-contracting

10.1 Any sub-contractual arrangement or agreement entered into by A G A L in respect of the provision of services under the Understanding may only be entered into with the prior knowledge and approval o f A SD A .

11. Variation of understanding

11.1 Alterations to the Understanding w ill be made in writing and signed for and on behalf of the parties to the Understanding. Any such variation to the Understanding w ill be formalised before the limitations specified in Clauses 4 and 5 above are exceeded and

shall form part of the Understanding.

SIG N ED , in duplicate, this ......day o f .......................... .X v .A -.Y .........................19.3:?

$ Η ή b C o u r ^ $ V 5 f - 7

Name and Designation Name and Designation

For Australian Sports Drag Agency

Agency

117

For Australian Government Analytical

Laboratories

ANNEX A - SCOPE OF SERVICE

The services and level of service required by A S D A as described below comprises three distinct components:

• Component One relates to analysis and related work performed in connection with samples submitted by ASDA.

• Component Two relates to analytical method research, development and validation.

• Component Three relates to maintaining IO C accreditation, including related proficiency studies.

Services shall be delivered in a manner consistent with AGAL's major performance objective, namely, to provide clients with the services and facilities required at an agreed standard and

quality, within an agreed time frame, and at a cost which is both competitive and sufficient to cover the cost o f delivery of those services.

For the duration of the M O U , regular liaison w ill be maintained between A G A L and ASDA. The priorities of activities in support of this Understanding w ill be established and monitored jointly by representatives of A SDA and A G A L . Meetings of A S D A and A G A L representatives w ill be held on a regular basis for this purpose.

Component One - Sample Analysis and Related Work

Scope:

The analysis of samples, or facilitation of analysis of samples by a third party, to determine their chemical characteristics and the provision of reports on their composition or compliance with relevant legislation, prescribed standards or

specifications.

Under this Understanding the management o f the analytical program w ill be governed by the following parameters:

a) Guaranteed Sample Submission by A S D A

The submission rate and workload commitment is based on the analysis of a minimum of 2,734 samples being provided by A S D A during the year. This minimum guarantee comprises 1,352 "full-screen" tests and 1,382 "out-of-competition" tests.

The full screen samples will be analysed for diuretics, anabolic steroids, stimulants, narcotic analgesics, beta-blockers (in specified sports), cannabis (in specified sports) and peptide hormones, as required, at a cost of $260 per sample.

The out of competition samples w ill be analysed for diuretics, masking agents and anabolic agents, as required, at a cost of $170 per sample.

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A ll samples will be identified at the time of submission as either public interest tests or professional service tests.

b) Additional Samples Submitted by A S D A

From time to time, A S D A may advise A G A L of its intention to collect samples for testing in addition to those identified as a minimum guarantee (ie in addition to the 2,734 samples identified in (a) above).

A S D A may request A G A L to analyse these samples as either "full-screen" or "out-of­ competition" tests. A S D A w ill provide A G A L with as much notice as possible of its intention to collect additional samples.

Samples w ill be analysed for substances as described in (a) above. The cost of analysis for additional tests w ill normally be $260 for full screen samples and $170 for out of competition samples. However, if the volume of additional samples is sufficient, ASDA may negotiate a lower per test analysis cost for samples provided. It w ill be for A G AL to determine whether the volume of additional samples is sufficient to justify a lower analysis cost being passed on to ASDA.

A S D A w ill advise A G A L of the category of analysis at the time of submission of the sample.

A ll samples will be identified at the time o f submission as either public interest tests or professional service tests.

c) Reporting of Results

Results w ill be reported (in the first instance) by facsimile as soon as they become available and w ill contain such details as A S D A requires.

d) Turnaround time

Turnaround time, that is elapsed time between receipt of sample in the laboratory and issue of an analytical report, w ill be ten working days. Any request by A S D A for shorter turnaround time w ill be undertaken by negotiation.

f) Analysis of Samples Not Collected by A S D A

A G A L can negotiate contracts for analysis o f samples outside the terms of this M O U (ie with ASDA having no involvement in the collection of samples). When conducting testing for clients other than A SD A , A G A L w ill be free to determine its own

performance parameters.

ASDA will advise AGAL of the category o f analysis at the time o f submission of the sample.

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A SDA acknowledges that it is the intention of the New Zealand Sports Drug Agency to contract A G A L to analyse 350 samples during 1993/94. A S D A also acknowledges that A G A L has indicated that other international sporting organisations w ill contract A G A L to analyse a minimum of 75 during 1993/94.

0 Cost of Analysis of Samples Not Collected by A SD A

Should A G A L negotiate contracts for analysis of samples outside the terms of this M O U (ie with A S D A having no involvement in the collection of samples), A G A L will impose a minimum charge of $260 per test for full-screen analyses and $170 per test for half-screen analyses.

h) Liaison

Representatives of ASD A and A G A L w ill meet on a regular basis to monitor test numbers, review progress of the A S D A drug testing program, and discuss improved work practices. Where possible meetings w ill be held or discussions take place on at least a monthly basis.

On matters relating to this component liaison officers w ill be:

Dr Ray Kazlauskas Principal Chemist A G A L NSW

Mrs Linda Barron Drug Testing Manager A SDA A C T

Component Two - Method Research, Development and Validation Scope:

The development and validation o f new or improved methods of analysis of a contemporary scientific standard and the assessment of new instrumentation and techniques in areas of analytical research A S D A has identified as priorities.

Under Component Two A G A L undertakes to provide a broadly based investigative service encompassing areas of chemical testing identified by A SD A as its research priorities.

Projects funded by A S D A under Component Two w ill be limited to those projects specifically identified by A S D A as research priorities under the terms of the Understanding.

A S D A has identified the conduct of research into hormonal doping as its top research priority. Research on hormonal doping is to include seeking the views of the C -L A D A group on this issue and preparation of a position paper by the C -L A D A group which outlines a research protocol designed to determine normal hormonal levels expected for normal training and competition, and develop appropriate analytical methods suitable for use by IOC

laboratories.

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A G A L w ill prepare and submit for agreement with A S D A , within two months o f the commencement of this Understanding, a proposal setting out the arrangements for convening a meeting of the C -L A D A group at which the group w ill consider the issue of hormonal doping. The proposal should include details of meeting dates and venue, meeting agenda, an indication of the preparedness of the C -L A D A group to investigate the issue of hormonal doping, and the resource requirements necessary to stage the meeting.

It is intended that at the proposed meeting, the C -L A D A group be asked to prepare a position paper which identifies the work it believes should be undertaken in relation to hormonal doping, the time frame for completion, the expected outcomes, and the resource requirements for each stage of the work.

Stages of the research identified by the C -L A D A position paper to be conducted by A G A L are to be completed within the resource budget identified by A S D A prior to the commencement of work.

General management of the research project w ill be in accordance with current practice in A G A L and progress reports w ill be provided every three months or as requested. In addition, representatives of A S D A and A G A L w ill meet as necessary to discuss research progress.

Intellectual Property and Patent Rights arising form work conducted under Component Two of this Understanding shall be vested in the Commonwealth. Neither party shall disclose information acquired in connection with these services to bodies external to the Commonwealth except with the written approval of the other party.

Outcomes of research w ill be reported in the A S D A Annual Report as part of evaluation

requirements.

Component Three - IOC Accreditation and Related Proficiency Studies

Scope:

The compliance with IO C requirements for accreditation, including conduct of related

proficiency studies.

It is an IO C requirement that A G A L , as an officially accredited laboratory undertake research of a publishable nature. Method development for new substances prescribed by the IO C w ill

take precedence in the projects undertaken.

During the financial year one person from A G A L w ill work in another IO C accredited laboratory for approximately one month for training and to undertake collaborative research

projects.

A G A L w ill prepare and submit for agreement with A S D A , within two months of the commencement of this Understanding, a plan indicating the expected outcomes and the

resource requirements to regain and maintain accreditation.

Progress reports w ill be provided to A SD A every three months or as requested.

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It is also an IO C requirement that A G A L conduct proficiency studies on an annual basis. A G A L expects to participate in up to three proficiency studies each year together with an accreditation program in order to maintain the required high standard.

A G A L will provide A S D A with reports on the outcomes of any proficiency studies it is required to conduct. The reports w ill include any comments to the IO C makes in relation to AGAL's accreditation status.

The accreditation projects and proficiency studies are to be completed within the resource limits included at Annex C.

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ANNEX B - BASIS OF PAYMENT

In respect of services provided under this Understanding, A G A L will submit twelve pro-rata monthly accounts of $35,453.33 to equal $425,440. This sum w ill cover the cost of analysis for the public interest program. Each monthly account w ill be accompanied by a detailed statement of work completed in that month. Each statement w ill show the services provided under each category of service as agreed.

Analytical services provided for ASDA's professional testing program w ill be invoiced separately on a monthly basis. A detailed statement of the work completed in that month will accompany the invoice.

The charges are to be at the rate o f $170 for each out of competition screen and $260 per full screen as indicated at Annex C. A ll payments due to A G A L shall be made within fourteen days of receipt from A G A L of a complete invoice.

A S D A and A G A L w ill maintain separate records o f the number of samples analysed. These records w ill be compared in the course of regular meetings between representatives of ASD A and A G A L.

A G A L w ill keep proper and detailed accounts and records in relation to costs incurred pursuant to the Understanding and in this regard w ill maintain all timebooks, payroll records, receipts, vouchers and other documents relevant to the preparation of the accounts. A G A L w ill provide adequate facilities for audit and inspection by A S D A of those documents and w ill keep those documents available for inspection for a period of two years from the date of expiration of the Understanding.

Claims for Payment

Claims by A G A L for payment under this Understanding are, unless otherwise notified in

writing by A S D A to A G A L , to be sent to:

Australian Sports Drug Agency Attention: Chief Executive P O Box 345 C U R T IN A C T 2605

Notices Any notice or other communication under or in relation to the Understanding shall be deemed to have been duly given if it is in writing and posted in a prepaid letter and shall be deemed to have been received when it would have been delivered in the ordinary course of the post.

Notices or communication to A G A L from A S D A shall unless otherwise notified in writing to A SD A by A G A L be addressed to A G A L at:

Australian Government Analyst Attention: Business Manager Australian Government Analytical Laboratories P O Box 65

B E L C O N N E N A C T 2616

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ANNEX C - SCHEDULE OF COSTS

Costs for components 1, 2 and 3 for the 1993-94 year are as follows:

Component $

Public interest program 910 Full screen @ $260 per sample 1,090 Out of competition screen @ $170 per sample Administrative charge

236,600 185,300 3,540

Professional testing program 442 Full screen @ $260 per sample 292 Out of competition screen @ $170 per sample 114,920

49,640

Total 590,000

Component 2

Research, development and validation on hormonal

doping1

To be determined

Component 3

IO C accreditation and related proficiency studies 40,000

'Hormonal doping project — ASDA to meet costs associated with organising meeting of the C-LADA group while it is in Australia in October 1993 to specifically address the hormone doping issue. Funds to be provided to cover accommodation, incidentals, venue hire costs and so on. The cost of the hormone doping research project to be reviewed following C-LADA meeting and assessment on

level of financial assistance to be provided by ASDA made at that time.

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Appendix 10

School Developm ent in H ealth Education - State coordinators

Q ueen slan d

Mr Rod Ballard Coordinator, Health Issues Section Dept of Education PO Box 33, 50 Albert Street QLD 4002 07 237 0838 FX 07 237 004

Ms Allison Lloyd SDHE Project Officer Vincent School Support Centre P O Box 1084 ATKENVALE QLD 4814

077 256624 FX 077 752294

South A u stralia

Ms Deb Kennett National & Coll Curr Dev Unit Errington Street PLYMTON SA 5083

08 292 1211 FX 08 292 1700

Tasm ania

Mr Brad Blackerby Drug Education Consultant Education Dept of Tasmania, Curriculum Section 71 Letitia Street HOBART TAS 7000 002 30 2161 FX 002 30 2280

Mr Phil Edmondson School Development Officer Drug Ed Network In Rm 10, 34 Patterson St

LAUNCESTON TAS 7248 003 34045 FX 003 344703

N ew S outh W ales

Jan Joyce Guidance & Student Welfare Unit NSW Dept of School Education Private Bag 3, Smalls Rd

RYDE NSW 2112

02 8089664 FX 02 8089543

W este rn A ustralia

Mr David Ansell Consultant, Health Education Education Dept of WA 151 Royal Street

EAST PERTH WA 6004 09 2644586 FX 09 2644011

Mr lain Cameron WA School Health Education Dept of WA

151 Royal Street EAST PERTH WA 6004 09 2050372 FX 09 2644011

A C T

Ms June Hicks Health Education Consultant ACT Dept of Educ & Training P O Box 1584 TUGGERANONG ACT 2900

06 2059372 FX 06 2059340

N orthern Territory

Ms Marie Skinner Education Officer, Health & Drug Education Curriculum & Assess GPO Box 4821 DARWIN NT 0801 089 896287

Mr Neil McCormack Principal Education Officer Curriculum & Assess GPO Box 4821 DARWIN NT 0801 089 896219 FX 089 896976

Victoria

Ms Helen Conley DESS Project Coordinator Quality Programs Division Directorate of School Education GPO Box 4367

MELBOURNE VIC 3175 03 6283873 FX 03 6283378

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Jenny Moxham Student Welfare/Drug Education Consultant Met West Region Dept of School Education, NSW

Hindemith Ave EMERTON NSW

02 6280590

S D H E N ational H ub O ffice

Pam Richmond and Prof. Rob Irwin Faculty of Education University of Canberra P O Box 1 BELCONNEN ACT 2616

06 2012478 FX 06 2015065

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Appendix 11

Educational resource m aterial distribution, 1 9 9 3 -9 4

R esource N um ber d istribu ted

Drug use in Sport. A study of the knowledge and attitudes of a section of the Australian 93

Sporting Community

Drugs in Sport - an in-service manual for 126

teachers and consultants

Fools Gold 111

Super Athletes 107

Drugs in Sport - Lets Start at the Beginning 159

Drugs in Sport isnt just about Steroids 164

Drug Testing in Sport video 96

MIMS Drugs in Sport 80

Drugs in sport handbook 14220

ASDA Corporate Video 21

The Value of Sport, Ethics and the Control of Performance Enhancing Drugs: A Study in the 211

Australian Sports Community

Years 7 - 9 Junior Infopac 362

Years 10 -1 2 Senior Infopac 900

1992-93 Annual Report 1099

ASDA Survey of Elite Athletes 1993 594

Wallet Card 5719

Drug Education Guidelines 28

Resources Catalogue 8240

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Appendix 12

Sports drug education units: steering groups

Australian Capital Territory

Nicole den Duyn Steve Dobbie Jackie Bird Janine Sloan Julie Kempnich Tracy Giurietto

Bob Hitchcock

South Australia

ACT Sport/ ACT Australian Football League Australian Sports Medicine Federation ACT Academy of Sport ASDA ACT Office of Sport and Recreation Rugby Union/AIS elite program

Stephen Cornish Barry Stanton Peter Barnes Julie Kempnich Gail Luke

Doug Humphries Mike Flynn Judith Robertson Kevin Knox

Robert Ali

Athletics SA/Department of Education SA Sports Institute/Aust Sports Medicine Federation ASDA Athlete advisory group/elite athlete Sport SA SA Sports Institute/Australian Coaching Council Aussie Sports

Elite Athletes/Judo/Media, Flinders University Drug and Alcohol Service Council—by invitation

Victorian advisory group

Suzanne Henderson Peter Spence Vern McMillian Samantha Llewelyn David Wilson Kay Crossley Sandra lulianno Sam Coffa

Victorian Institute of Sport Strength and conditioning coach/gym manager Coaching coordinator athletes Sports Development Officer— swimming/elite athletes Physiotherapist Sports Development Officer-triathlon athlete Executive Director, weightlifting

Victorian steering committee

Graham Weideman MP Anne-Marie Harrison Elaine Canty Ron Pengally Fiona Bennett Diedre Anderson Leonie Johnson ASMF Representative

Chairperson Chief Executive Officer Vic sport Radio station 3LO

Department of Art, Sport and Tourism ADF Victorian Institute of Sport ASDA yet to be assigned

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Appendix 13

Portfolio evaluation steering com m ittee

Simon Baker Australian representative in athletics specialising in walking events, holds a coaching position with the AIS track and field program.

Graham Dempster Executive Director of the Office of Sport and Recreation, Dept of Environment, Sport and Territories

Ann Fox Manager - Planning and Review, Australian Sports Commission

Greg Hartung President of the Confederation of Australian Sport and a board member and former Executive Director of the Australian Sports Commission. Also operates his own media business, Specialised Press Agency.

Julie Sarll Advisor to the Minister for Health, Housing and Community Services, Dr Carmen Lawrence.

Max Sawatzki Operates his own consultancy business in the area of human resource development, Sawatzki International. Extensive background in the education field including his former position as Deputy Secretary of the ACT Department of Education and Training.

Bill Scott Australian Cultural Development Officer, formerly from the Corporate Management Division of the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories.

Kaely Woods Director of Resources, Energy and Sport who replaced Cathy McKay as the Department of Finance representative.

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Appendix 14

Conference statem ent

The 4 th Permanent World Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport 5 -8 September 1993 London United Kingdom

Quick progress towards a complete harmonisation of international and national anti­ doping regulations (rules, procedures, penalties) and submission to regular out-of­ competition testing as a condition of eligibility for participation in the Olympic Games, were considered the main priorities for the next stage of anti-doping work world wide.

More than 200 experts from over 60 countries, international federations and other organisations, made these proposals at the 4th Permanent Word Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport held at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London from 6-8 September 1993. Organised jointly by the International Olympic Committee and the United Kingdom Sports Council, the conference was

inaugurated by HRH The Princess Royal, who called for stronger doping controls to protect the ethical basis of sport and the integrity of present and future generations of competitors.

Other speakers including athletes and coaches underlined the importance of ethical values and of fun in sport but recognises that the enormous pressures in modern top-level sport, together with changes in standards and values in society as a whole, often made it difficult to maintain sorting and medical ethics. Education programmes need to take into account young peoples' real attitudes and beliefs and concentrate on those most likely to use drugs. Continuing contacts with athletes and others, such as doctors, scientists and coaches, are necessary to make these and others initiatives more effective.

There is evidence of increasing abuse of anabolic steroids by young people on the fringe of sport in many countries. The conference encouraged all appropriate authorities to take steps, including legislation, wherever possible to reverse this trend.

The President of the IOC's Medical Committee, the Prince de Merode, outlined future prospects for harmonisation and better co-ordination between the international sports organisations. The conference encouraged the IOC and the IPs to pursue this objective vigorously. National agencies will follow these developments with interest.

The Conference congratulated the Sports Council for its perfect organisation and warm hospitality during the 4the Conference, and expressed the hope for a future opportunity to meet.

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The International Working Group hopes that the prospects for progress in harmonisation under IOC leadership may also lead to a rationalisation of international co-operation and structures. It is ready to contribute to this process itself.

The Sports Council 16 Upper Woburn Place London WC1H OOP United Kingdom

08/09/93

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Appendix 15

Council of Europe No 135 A nti -Doping Convention Strasbourg, 1 6 .X I.1 9 8 9

Preamble

The Member states of the Council of Europe, the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, and other States, signatory hereto,

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and of facilitating their economic and social progress;

Conscious that sport should play an important role in the protection of health, in moral and physical education and in promoting international understanding;

Concerned by the growing use of doping agents and methods by sportsmen and sportswomen throughout sport and the consequences thereof for the health of participants and the future of sport;

Mindful that this problem puts at risk the ethical principles and educational values embodied in the Olympic Charter, in the International Charter for Sport and Physical Education of UNESCO and in Resolution (76) 41 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, known as the ‘European Sport for All Charter’;

Bearing in mind the anti-doping regulations, policies and declarations adopted by the international sports organisations;

Aware that public authorities and the voluntary sports organisations have complementary responsibilities to combat doping in sport, notably to ensure the proper conduct, on the basis of the principle of fair play, of sports events and to protect the health of those that take part in them;

Recognising that these authorities and organisations must work together for these purposes at all appropriate levels;

Recalling the resolutions on doping adopted by the Conference of European Ministers responsible for Sport, and in particularly Resolution No 1 adopted at the 6th Conference at Reykjavik in 1989;

Recalling that the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe has already adopted Resolution (67) 12 on doping of athletes, Recommendation No. R(79) 8 on eloping in sport, Recommendation No R(84)19 on the "European Anti­ Doping Charter for Sport", and Recommendation No R(88)12 on the institution of doping controls without warning outside competition;

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Recalling Recommendation No 5 on doping adopted by the 2nd International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for Sport and Physical Education organised by UNESCO at Moscow(1988);

Determined however to take further and stronger co-operative action aimed at the reduction and eventual elimination of doping in sport using as a basis the ethical values and practical measures contained in those instruments;

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Aim of the Convention

The Parties, with a view to the reduction and eventual elimination of doping in sport, undertake within the limits of their respective constitutional provisions, to take the steps necessary to apply the provisions of this Convention.

Article 2

Definition and scope of Convention

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

a. ‘doping in sport' means the administration to sportsmen or sportswomen, or the use by them, of pharmacological classes of doping agents or doping methods;

b. pharmacological classes of doping agents or doping methods’ means, subject to paragraph 2 below, those classes of doping agents or doping methods banned by the relevant international sports organisations and appearing in lists that have been approved by the Monitoring Group under the terms of Article 11.1.6;

c. ‘sportsmen and sportswomen' means those persons who participate regularly in organised sports activities.

2. Until such item as a list of banned pharmacological classes of doping agents and doping methods is approved by the Monitoring Group under the terms of Article 11.1.6, the reference list in the appendix to this Convention shall apply.

Article 3

Domestic co-ordination

1. The Parties shall co-ordinate the policies and actions of their government departments and other public agencies concerned with combating doping in sport.

2. They shall ensure that there is practical application of this Convention, and in particular that the requirements under Article 7 are met, by entrusting, where appropriate, the implementation of some of the provisions of this Convention to a

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designated governmental or non-governmental sports authority or to a sports organisation.

Article 4

Measures to restrict the availability and use of banned doping agents and methods

1 · The Parties shall adopt where appropriate legislation, regulations or administrative measures to restrict the availability (including provisions to control movement, possession, importation, distribution and sale) as well as the use in sport of banned doping agents and doping methods and, in particular, anabolic steroids.

2. To this end, the Parties or, where appropriate, the relevant non­ governmental organisations shall make it a criterion for the grant of public subsidies to sports organisations that they effectively apply anti-doping regulations.

3. Furthermore, the Parties shall:

a. assist their sports organisations to finance doping controls and analyses, either by direct subsidies or grants, or by recognising the costs of such controls and analyses when determining the overall subsidies or grants to be awarded to those organisations;

b. take appropriate steps to withhold the grant of subsidies from public funds, for training purposes, to individual sportsmen and sportswomen who have been suspended following a doping offence in sport, during the period of their suspension.

c. encourage and, where appropriate, facilitate the carrying out by their sports organisations of the doping controls required by the competent international sports organisations whether during or outside competitions; and

d. encourage and facilitate the negotiation by sports organisations of agreements permitting their members to be tested by duly authorised doping control teams in other countries.

4. Parties reserve the right to adopt anti-doping regulations and to organise doping controls on their own initiative and on their own responsibility, provided that they are compatible with the relevant principles of this Convention.

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Article 5

Laboratories

1. Each Party undertakes:

a. either to establish or facilitate the establishment on its territory of one or more doping control laboratories suitable for consideration for accreditation under the criteria adopted by the relevant international sports organisations and approved by the Monitoring Group under the terms of Article 11.1b; or

b. to assist its sports organisations to gain access to such a laboratory on the territory of another Party.

2. These laboratories shall be encouraged to:

a. take appropriate action to employ and retain, train and retrain qualified staff;

b. undertake appropriate programmes of research and development into doping agents and methods used, or thought to be used, for the purposes of doping in sport and into analytical biochemistry and pharmacology with a view to obtaining a better understanding of the effects of various substances upon the human body and their consequences for athletic performance;

c. publish and circulate promptly new data from their research.

Article 6

Education

1. The Parties undertake to devise and implement, where appropriate in co-operation with the sports organisations concerned and the mass media, educational programmes and information campaigns emphasising the dangers to health inherent in doping and its harm to the ethical values of sport. Such programmes and campaigns shall be directed at both young people in schools and sports clubs and their parents and at adult sportsmen and sportswomen, sports officials, coaches and trainers. For those involved in medicine, such educational

programmes will emphasise respect for medical ethics.

2. The Parties undertake to encourage and promote research, in co-operation with the regional, national and international sports organisations concerned, into ways and means of devising scientifically-based physiological and psychological training programmes that respect the integrity of the human person.

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Article 7

Co-operation with sports organisations on measures to be taken by them

1 · The Parties undertake to encourage their sports organisations and through them the international sports organisations to formulate and apply all appropriate measures, falling within their competence, against doping in sport.

2. To this end, they shall encourage their sports organisations to clarify and harmonise their respective rights, obligations and duties, in particular by harmonising their:

a. anti-doping regulations on the basis of the regulations agreed by the relevant sports organisations;

b. lists of banned pharmacological classes of doping agents and banned doping methods on the basis of the lists agreed by the relevant international sports organisations;

c. doping control procedures;

d. disciplinary procedures, applying agreed international principles of natural justice and ensuring respect for the fundamental rights of suspected sportsmen and sportswomen; these principles include:

i. the reporting and disciplinary bodies to be distinct from on another; ii. the right of such persons to a fair hearing and to be assisted or represented; iii. clear and enforceable provisions for appealing against any judgment

made;

e. procedures for the imposition of effective penalties for officials, doctors, veterinary doctors, coaches, physiotherapists and other officials or accessories associated with infringements of the anti-doping regulations by sportsmen and sportswomen;

f. procedures for the mutual recognition of suspensions and other penalties imposed by other sports organisations in the same or other countries.

3. Moreover, the Parties shall encourage their sports organisations:

a. to introduce, on an effective scale, doping controls not only at, but also without advance warning at any appropriate time outside, competitions, such controls to be conducted in a way which is equitable for all sportsmen and sportswomen and which includes testing and retesting of persons selected, where appropriate, on a random basis;

b. to negotiate agreements with sports organisations of other countries permitting a sportsman or sportswoman training in another country to be tested by a duly authorised doping control team of that country;

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c. to clarify and harmonise regulations on eligibility to take part in sports events which will include anti-doping criteria;

d. to promote active participation by sportsmen and sportswomen themselves in the anti-doping work of international sports organisations;

e. to make full and efficient use of the facilities available for doping analysis at the laboratories provided for by Article 5, both during and outside sports competitions;

f. to study scientific training methods and to devise guidelines to protect sportsmen and sportswomen of all ages, appropriate for each sport.

Article 8

International co-operation

1. The Parties shall co-operate closely on the matters covered by this Convention and shall encourage similar co-operation amongst their sports organisations.

2. The Parties undertake:

a. to encourage their sports organisations to operate in a manner that promotes application of the provisions of this Convention within all the appropriate international sports organisations to which they are affiliated, including the refusal to ratify claims for world or regional records unless accompanied by an authenticated negative doping control report;

b. to promote co-operation between the staffs of their doping control laboratories established or operating in pursuance of Article 5; and

c. to initiate bilateral and multilateral co-operation between their appropriate agencies, authorities and organisations in order to achieve, at the international level as well, the purposes se out in Article 4.1.

3. The Parties with laboratories established or operating in pursuance of Article 5 undertake to assist other Parties to enable them to acquire the experience, skills and techniques necessary to establish their own laboratories.

Article 9

Provision of information

Each Party shall forward to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, in one of the official languages of the Council of Europe, all relevant information concerning legislative and other measures taken by it for the purpose of complying with the terms of this Convention.

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Article 10

Monitoring Group

1 · For the purpose of this Convention, a Monitoring Group is hereby set up.

2. Any Party may be represented on the Monitoring Group by one or more delegates. Each Party shall have one vote.

3. Any State mentioned in Article 14.1 which is not a Party to this Convention may be represented on the Monitoring Group by an observer.

4. The Monitoring Group may, by unanimous decision, invite any non-member State of the Council of Europe which is not a Party to the Convention and any sports or other professional organisation concerned to be represented by an observer at one or more of its meetings.

5. The Monitoring Group shall be convened by the Secretary General. Its first meeting shall be held as soon as reasonably practicable, and in any case within one year after the date of the entry into force of the Convention. It shall subsequently meet whenever necessary, on the initiative of the Secretary General or a Party.

6. A majority of the Parties shall constitute a quorum for holding a meeting of the Monitoring Group.

7. The Monitoring Group shall meet in private.

8. Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the Monitoring Group shall draw up and adopt by consensus its own Rules of Procedure.

Article 11

1. The Monitoring Group shall monitor the application of this Convention. It may in particular:

a. keep under review the provisions of this Convention and examine any modifications necessary;

b. approve the list, and any revision thereto, of pharmacological classes of doping agents and doping methods banned by their relevant international sports organisations, referred to in Articles 2.1 and 2.2, and the criteria for accreditation of laboratories, and any revision thereto, adopted by the said organisations, referred to in Article 5.1a, and fix the date for the relevant decisions to enter into force;

c. hold consultations with relevant sports organisations;

d. make recommendations to the Parties concerning measures to be taken for the purposes of this Convention;

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e. recommend the appropriate measures to keep relevant international organisations and the public informed about the activities undertaken within the framework of this Convention;

f. make recommendations to the Committee of Ministers concerning non­ member States of the Council of Europe to be invited to accede to this Convention;

g. make any proposal for improving the effectiveness of this Convention.

2. In order to discharge its functions, the Monitoring Group may, on its own initiative, arrange for meetings of groups of experts.

Article 12

After each meeting, the Monitoring Group shall forward to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe a report on its work and on the functioning of the Convention.

Article 13

Amendments to the Articles of the Convention

1. Amendments to the Articles of this Convention may be proposed by a Party, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe or the Monitoring Group.

2. Any proposal for amendments shall be communicated by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the States mentioned in Article 14 and to every State which has acceded to or has been invited to accede to this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 16.

3. Any amendment proposed by a Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Monitoring Group at least two months before the meeting at which it is to be considered. The Monitoring Group shall submit to the Committee of Ministers its opinion on the proposed amendment, where appropriate after consultation with the relevant sports organisations.

4. The Committee of Ministers shall consider the proposed amendment and any opinion submitted by the Monitoring Group and may adopt the amendment.

5. The text of any amendment adopted by the committee of Ministers in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article shall be forwarded to the Parties for acceptance.

6. Any amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article shall come into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of one month after all Parties have informed the Secretary General of their acceptance thereof.

Final clauses

1 3 9

Article 14

1. This Convention shall be open for signature by member States of the Council of Europe, other States party to the European Cultural Convention and non­ member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention, which may express their consent to be bound by:

a. signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval.

b. signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.

2. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

Article 15

1. The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of one month after the date on which five States, including at least four member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 14.

2. In respect of any signatory State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of one month after the date of signature or of the deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance of approval.

Article 16

1. After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting the Parties, may invite to accede to the Convention any non-member State by a decision taken by the majority provided for in Article 20.d. of the Statue of the Council of Europe and by the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Contracting States entitled to sit on the Committee.

2. In respect of any acceding State, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of one month after the date of the deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

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Article 17

1. Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.

2. Any State may, at any later date, by declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of one month after the date of receipt of such declaration by the Secretary General.

3. Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory mentioned in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the Secretary General. Such withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

Article 18

1. Any Party may, at any time, denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

Article 19

The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the Parties, the other member States of the Council of Europe, the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention and any State which has acceded or has been

invited to accede to it of: a. any signature in accordance with Article 14;

b. the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in accordance with Article 14 or 16;

c. any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Articles 15 and 16;

d. any information forwarded under the provisions of Article 9;

e. any report prepared in pursuance of the provisions of Article 12;

f. any proposal for amendment or any amendment adopted in accordance with Article 13 and the date on which the amendment comes into force;

141

g. any declaration made under the provisions of Article 17;

h. any notification made under the provisions of Article 18 and the date on which the denunciation takes effect;

/'. any other act, notification or communication relating to this Convention

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this convention. Done at Strasbourg, this 16th day of November 1989, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention and to any State invited to accede to it.

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Appendix 16

Summary o f com pliance w ith reporting guidelines

This annual report has been prepared in consideration of ‘The guidelines for the content, preparation and presentation of Annual Reports by statutory authorities' (Senate Hansard 11 November 1982), the ‘Terms of Reference - Senate resolution of 14 December 1989 citied in Appendix 1 of ‘Report on the examination of annual reports No 1 of 1992 and the ‘Revised annual report requirements for departments' approved by the Joint Committee of Public Accounts under subsection 25(7) of the Public Service Act 1922 on 17 March 1994.

Letter of transmission iii

Enabling legislation 1-2, 28, 90-91

Power and objects 9, 33, 43, 63, 90-91

Responsible minister 3, 59, 92

Corporate overview 1-8

Social justice and equity 7, 25, 56-57

Internal and external scrutiny 7, 50-51, 73

Program performance reporting Chapters 2-5

Special operational issues 31

Staffing overview 5-7, 52-55

Financial statements 50-52, 73-88

Industrial democracy 57

Occupational health and safety 57

Freedom of information 58

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Index

Abbreviations and acronyms, viii Access and equity, 25 Administrative Appeals Tribunal, 29, 31 Administrators

Australian Society of Sports Administrators, 37 role in drugs issues, 36 Anabolic steroids see also Banned substances; National Drugs Strategy Committee Appendices, list of 89 Asia export task force, 72 Athlete advisory group, 38 Athletes elite, 38, 39 non-English speaking backgrounds, 39 overseas

training in Australia, 12 see also Children and juniors; disabled athletes; veterans and masters Audit

external, 51 internal, 50 Auditor's report, 7, 73 Australian Government Analytical Laboratories IOC accreditation, 18 memorandum of understanding with ASDA, 18, 115 see also International Olympic Committee accredited laboratories Australian Sports Commission, 22 Australian Sports Drug Agency Act, 1,2, 90 amendment, 1,28 Australian Sports Drug Agency Regulations, 2, 28 children and juniors, 27 disabled athletes, 26 see also Legislation

Banned substances anabolic steroids, 15,16 caffeine, 22 diuretics, 15 marijuana, 15 mesocarb, 18 peptide hormones, 20 stimulants, 15,16 testosterone, 16 trenbolone, 19

see also Doping policies Blood testing, 21 for peptide hormones, 21 international symposium, 21 Budget, 7

Chaperones, 17 training, 17 Children and juniors, 27, 39 see also ASDA Regulations; Doping

policies Coaches, 37 Australian Coaching Council, 37 Coach Education Manual, 37

role in drugs issues, 36 Compliance with reporting guidelines, 143 Contact address, ii

officer, 5 telephone numbers, ii Contract testing, 11 international, 12

1993 World Weightlifting Championships, 14 1994 World Gymnastics Championships, 13

1994 World Women's Basketball Championships, 13 International Rowing Federation, 15 World Junior Cycling Championships,

13

out-of-competition testing, 12 user-pays programs, 11 see also Professional sports leagues Corporate priorities, 1, 2

Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories liaison with, 59 Disabled athletes, 25, 39

see also ASDA Regulations; Doping policies; Out-of-competition testing, Public interest testing Doping policies, 22, 23

Australian Sports Commission, 22 children and juniors, 23, 27 disabled athletes, 23 therapeutic use, 23 veterans, 23 Drug control officials, 17

IAAF anti-doping seminar, 17 Procedures Manual, 17 training, 17 workshop, 17 Drug testing, 9

appeal, 29 contacting competitors by mail, 29 contended test results, 32 failure to comply, 31

international, 12-15, 99 notification of a positive drug test, 29

144

notification of special interest groups, 29 number of tests, 1 July 1993-30 June 1994, 111 out-of-competition testing, 38 procedures manual for officials, 17 summary, ix test distribution, 24 video, 39 see also Contract testing; Public interest testing Drugs In Sport Handbook, 39, 60 Drugs in Sport Hotline, 10, 41,56

Education Program display, 40 Drug Education Guidelines For Sport, 71 objective, 33 resources, 33, 35, 127 school-based, 34, 61 sport-based, 35 summary, x

see also School Development in Health Education Project; Sport drug education units Equal employment opportunity

see Social justice, 56 Exchange with China, 71 Executive Program functions, 43

objectives, 43 resources, 43 summary, xi

Financial, 50 accounting, 51 income generating activities, 52

Financial statements, 73 Freedom of information, 58

Hormone doping see Research Human resource management see Staff

Industrial democracy see Social justice Information services, 38, 40, 41 Information technology, 59 Internal and external scrutiny, 7, 50, 51,73 International adviser, 68 International agreements, 65

anti-doping agreement between Australia and China, 71 Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention, 66, 132

contracting states, 66 signatory states, 67 International Olympic Charter Against Doping In Sport, 71

International Court of Arbitration for Sport, 24 International Olympic Committee accredited laboratories, 10, 90,100

list of doping classes and methods, 10, 20, 90, 103 see also AGAL; Out-of-competition testing, 67 International Program

functions, 63 objective, 63 resources, 63 summary, xii International visitors, 70

Legal services, 59 Legislation amendments, 1,28 appeal provisions, 28

review of ASDA legislation, 28 State/Territory, 1,28-29 objectives, 30 see also Australian Sports Drug Agency Act; Australian Sports Drug Agency

Regulations

Media see Public relations Membership of ASDA Board, 3 Memorandum of understanding

see Australian Government Analytical Laboratories Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories, 3 Ministerial powers and responsibilities, 59, 92 Ministers' Council (Sport and Recreation), 29, 30 Mission statement, 1,2

National Drugs Strategy Committee anabolic steroids, 50 National sporting organisations workshop, 37 National strategy for drugs in sport, 50

Objects, functions, powers, 90 Occupational health and safety, 57 Office services, 58 Operational plan, 43 Organisational structure, 5 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 33 Out-of-competition testing, 38, 111

disabled athletes, 26 IOC sub-committee, 67 see also Contract testing; Public interest testing

P Project presentations, 40 Peptide hormones blood testing for, 21 chorionic gonadotrophin, 20

145

corticotrophin, 20 erythropoietin, 20 growth hormone, 20 Policy advice

see Doping policies Policy and research summary, ix Portfolio evaluation, 44

steering committee, 129 Professional sports leagues contract testing, 11 policy advice, 23 Program structure, 2 Public interest testing, 10, 111

disabled athletes, 26 distribution plan, 10 elite athletes, 10 out-of-competition, 10 Public relations, 60

media coverage, 60 media monitoring, 40 Publications and presentations, 6, 40, 94

Questions on notice, 59

Records management, 58 Register of Notifiable Events, 9,15, 16, 28, 31,32, 90 summary of entries, 113

Research, 18, 46 annual athlete questionnaire, 48 at AGAL, 18 caffeine, 22 excretion studies, 18 hormone doping, 20, 21 mesocarb, 18 prostate cancer, 21 pseudoephedrine, 19 trenbolone, 19 value of sport, 46 see also Blood testing Responsible minister, 3

see also Ministerial powers and responsibilities

School Development in Health Education Project, 34 National Professional Development Program, 34

State coordinators, 125 teacher support, 34 Senior officer performance pay, 55 Social justice, 7, 25

equal employment opportunity, 56 industrial democracy, 57 see also Occupational health and safety; Freedom of information Special interest groups, 25 Special operational issues, 31 Sport and Recreation Ministers' Council, 50

Sports drug education units, 35, 61 steering groups, 128 Sports monthly update, 40 Staff

compensation claims, 53 enterprise agreement, 53 Key Competency Framework, 52 recruitment, 54 training, 54 Staffing level, 7

average, 5 Strategic plan, 44 Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, 28, 61,72

Telephone free call service see Drugs in Sort Hotline Testing, Research and Policy Program functions, 9

objective, 9 Therapeutic use of drugs see Doping policies Training Guarantee Scheme, 54

Veterans and masters, 25, 39 see also Banned substances; Doping policies; World Masters Games

Wallet Card, 38 WHO Programme on Substance Abuse Drugs in Sport Project, 72 World Conference on Anti-Doping in Sport, London, 63, 68, 130 World Masters Games, Brisbane 1994, 25

doping policy, 25

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THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

PARLIAMENTARY PAPER No. 210 of 1994 ORDERED TO BE PRINTED

ISSN 0727-418