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Dairying Research Act - Australian Dairy Research Committee - Report - Year - 1983-84 (12th)


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The Parliament of the Commonwealth o f Australia

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY RESEARCH COMMITTEE

Twelfth Annual Report

1983-84

Presented 22 February 1985 Ordered to be printed 28 March 1985

Parliamentary Paper No. 85/1985

A . A U S T R A L IA

AUSTRALIAN DAIRY RESEARCH COMMITTEE

12th Annual Report for the Year Ended 30 June 1984

CHAIRMAN: M.L. Vawser — appointed 1 July 1980 holds position by virtue of being Chairman Australian Dairy Corporation.

REPRESENTING DAIRY FARMERS:

J.P. Bennett

K.L. Perkins

W.H. Pyle

P.D. Rowley

— Dairyfarmer, Tasmania; appointed 1 July 1981 to 30 June 1984. Deputy Chairman, Aust Dairy Corp; President, Aust Dairy Farmers Fed; Chairman, Aust Dairy Ind Conf.

— Stud Stock breeder, Tasmania; appointed 1 July 1981 to 30 June 1984. Vice President, Market Milk Producers Council of ADFF; Member, Aust Dairy Ind Advisory Ctee., Aust Meat Research Ctee., Aust Dairy Ind Conf.

— Dairyfarmer, Victoria; appointed 1 July 1981 to 30 June 1984. Vice President, Aust Dairy Farmers Fed; President, United Dairyfarmers of Vic.

— Dairyfarmer, Queensland; appointed 1 July 1981 to 30 June 1984. Vice President, Aust Dairy Farmers Fed, President Qld. Dairymen’s Org.

REPRESENTING DAIRY FACTORIES:

M. W. Hanrahan — Operations Manager, Southern Farmers Co-op Ltd., South Australia; appointed 1 July 1981 to 30 June 1984. Federal Councillor, Aust Dairy Institute; Member, Aust Institute of Food Science & Technology, Former President, Aust Society of Dairy Technology,

South Australia.

REPRESENTING THE DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY:

G.E. Pettit — Asst. Secretary, Dairy & Intensive Livestock Div, Department of Primary Industry; appointed 1 December 1981 to 30 June 1984; Chairman, Aust Pig Ind Research Ctee., Aust Chicken Meat Res Ctee., Honey Res Ctee., Member Poultry Res Adv. Ctee.

REPRESENTING THE AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL COUNCIL:

D.F. Smith — Director-General, Department of Agriculture, Victoria; appointed 23 May 1983 to 30 June, 1984; Member Standing Committee on Agriculture, Melbourne University Council and Aust Institute of Agriculture.

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REPRESENTING THE COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION:

L.L. Muller — Officer in Charge, Dairy Research Laboratory, CSIRO, Victoria; appointed 1 June 1982 to 30 June 1984; Fellow of Aust Academy of Technological Sciences; Fellow of Aust Institute of Food Science and Technology.

MEMBER FROM THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY CORPORATION

P. Lever-Naylor — Consultant to dairy and food industry; appointed 13 September 1981 to 30 June 1984; Member, Aust Dairy Corp., New Zealand Inst of Chemistry and Aust Inst of Food Science and Technology; Executive Officer, Aust and New Zealand Assoc for the Advancement of Science.

COMMITTEE MEETINGS:

Three meetings held: 18 August 1983 12 December 1983 18 May 1984

Executive Officer: 0 . Cassar

Administrative Officer: P.J. Darton

Office: Dairy Industry House,

576 St. Kilda Road, Melbourne, 3004

Postal Address: P.O. Box 330,

Prahran, Vic. 3181

Telephone: 522 3777

Telex: AA30503

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CONTENTS

Page

Chairman’s Report..................................................... 4

The Dairy Research Scheme ..................................... 5

Functions and Activities ........................................... 5

ADRC Operations 1983-84 ....................................... 6

Research Program 1983-84 ....................................... 10

Dairy Farm Research ................................................ 10

Dairy Manufacturing Research ................................ 14

Dairy Education Scheme....................................... 19

Research Program Allocations.................................. 20

Dairying Research Trust Account ............................. 23

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Australian Dairy Research Committee Melbourne, Vic. 3004 September, 1984

The Hon. J.C. Kerin, M .P., Minister for Primary Industry, Parliament House, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY RESEARCH COMMITTEE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1984.

Dear Minister,

The Australian Dairy Research Committee is pleased to submit its report for the year ended 30 June

During the year under review allocations totalling $1,438,434 were approved from the Dairying Research Trust Account representing an increase of $89,000 on the amount approved for the previous year. Fifty-three projects across Australia were funded with $710,666 applied to farm research and $497,768 to manufacturing research. An appropriation of $230,000 was made for program contingencies, administration and education awards for the training of scientists, technologists and extension personnel.

An allocation of $259,000 to the Australian Dairy Farmers Federation for the development of the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme was the major item of expenditure in the research program.

The Committee’s program was designed to increase the efficiency of operations in the dairy industry. The program included research on cow nutrition, breeding and husbandry, animal health, dairy product improvement and quality control and the improvement of technology in the processing and handling of dairy products.

The chapter on ADRC Operations 1983-84 highlights the main activities of the Committee and the more promising results from its program during the year. The two sections which precede it describe the Committee’s functions and the industry’s research scheme.

The remainder of the report sets out the farm and manufacturing research sponsored by the Committee, its education scheme, and the financial position of the Trust Account.

The co-operation and assistance provided by research bodies and their scientists working on the Committee’s program is gratefully acknowledged.

1984.

Yours sincerely,

M.L. Vawser, Chairman.

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THE DAIRY RESEARCH SCHEME

The research scheme is financed by levies on whole milk produced for human consumption and on butterfat for use in manufactured dairy products, with half the expenditure on approved projects being borne by the Com­ monwealth Government.

Details concerning the operative levy rates, current during 1983-84 and the maximum rates permissible under the Dairying Industry

Research and Promotion Levy Act 1972 are as follows:

Opera­ tive Maximum

Levy on whole milk (cents/100 litres) 1.0 1.2

or

Levy on butterfat (cents/100 kg) 25 30

The Scheme was established in October 1958. This followed a request, by federally- constituted primary producer bodies, to the Commonwealth Government for matching government funds to monies collected from producers by way of a levy on the butterfat

content of cheese and butter products.

The activities of the Dairy Produce Research Committee, which administered the scheme during the first decade of its existence, placed emphasis on research into problems associated

with the manufacturing sector of the dairy industry. However, by June 1972, again at the request of federal producer organisations, the research scheme was expanded to cover the total industry and the levy was then imposed on all whole milk produced in Australia.

The broad objective of the scheme is to raise productivity and enhance the welfare of the industry. The scheme funds research work which falls within the following categories and is directly or indirectly related to the production or distribution of dairy produce:

• Scientific, economic or technical research • Training of persons for research • Dissemination of scientific, economic or technical information and advice

• Publication of scientific, economic or tech­ nical reports, periodicals, books and papers.

FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES

Scientific research aims to increase produc­ tivity by generating new knowledge and developing better ways of applying current

information and techniques. Effective research is not performed in isola­ tion; scientists keep abreast of progress in

their own and related fields so that their results leap-frog over the backs of their colleagues’ latest advances.

The field tests and factory trials needed to successfully apply the results of research are carried out by extension officers, factory per­ sonnel and farmers themselves. From time to time, these also make other advances quite

independent of current scientific work. The task of the Australian Dairy Research Committee is to guide this whole effort to­ wards improving efficiency and productivity

within the Australian dairy industry for the ultimate profit of the individual producers and

the advantage of the consumers who purchase their produce. Judgement on which kinds of research should be commissioned or sup­ ported, cannot be based on obvious opportuni­ ties and industry needs alone because certain of these may not, at the time, be open to scientific research. Often some new technique or an advance in knowledge may be needed to lead the way to a successful attack. So the Committee matches industry needs with scien­ tific opportunity and potential.

These deliberations form the basis of the Committee’s function in determining the re­ search programs it recommends, to the Minis­ ter for Primary Industry, for financial support from the Dairying Research Trust Account. The Committee is assisted in its deliberations by Specialist Advisory Groups in the areas of animal health, farm management and dairy processing research. These advisory groups

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interview the researchers and inspect their laboratory and field station facilities in order to assess the scientific and technical merit of the various projects. They also undertake systematic reviews of fields of research and identify areas where there appears to be a need for research to be encouraged or commis­ sioned by the Committee.

During the year, members of the Specialist Advisory Groups travelled widely, visiting research facilities in Western Australia and Tasmania for the first time. Members of the Specialist Advisory Group (Animal Health) spoke to the leaders of most of the sponsored projects on bovine diseases and inspected facilities in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.

Similar inspections were carried out by the Specialist Advisory Group (Farm Manage­

ment) with a visit by the full group together with some Committee members to Elliott Research Station, Burnie, Tasmania and by some group members to Ellinbank Research Institute, Victoria and to the Department of Agriculture facilities in Perth and the south western region of Western Australia.

Rolling inspections by two or three members of the Specialist Advisory Group (Manufac­ turing) are made each year to research centres in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. To these states in

1983-84 was added Western Australia. These inspections enabled the Group to report on the main dairy processing research laboratories of Departments of Agriculture, CSIRO, Univer­ sities and other organisations engaged in on-going committee projects.

ADRC OPERATIONS 1983-84

The Committee’s policy of placing greater emphasis on work with promise of direct commercial benefits to industry had led to an appreciable number of research findings being subjected to field trials or further development in preparation for their commercial applica­ tion. Most of these field trials and R&D programs have been described in previous reports.

Some of these, such as the use of membrane filtration techniques to reduce milk transport costs, are still in progress, while other very promising research findings are being evalu­ ated for field trials and R&D.

B Type Cow

There is much interest among dairy farmers to achieve rapid genetic gains in their herds. Regular releases of Australian Breeding Values for dairy sires and the work of the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme (ADHIS) have heightened this interest and some changes in attitudes from artificial breeding centres and breed societies have also been noted. But farmers and breeders have not been the only ones showing an interest in utilising the services and infrastructure of ADHIS. Scientists too have always been keenly aware of this and the potential advan­

tages of identifying genetic markers for dis­ eases, for example, have often been discussed with the object of breeding herds with strong resistance to some of the more common ail­ ments. At Northfield Research Centre, Adelaide dairy scientists, following the pioneering work of J.T. Feagan and L.F. Bailey in the mid 1970’s, have compared and typed cows A or B according to their milk protein genetic variants. These milk protein genetic variants, like blood groups are simply inherited and could be used in the selection of bulls from the top progeny-tested bulls at artificial breeding centres.

This is an instance where B is better than A because B type cow’s milk is a lot more favourable for cheese making. The greater cheese production arises from:

(1) an increased yield of cheese because the B type has up to 10% higher casein concen­ tration, and (2) from reduced fat and curd losses in the

whey because the milk coagulates faster and the curd is firmer.

Laboratory cheesemaking trials have shown that milk from B type cows yielded 6-9% more cheese and the average setting time was

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Mr. P. Zviedrans taking A and B type cheeses from press — DAS17

15 minutes shorter. Breeding for type B cows was calculated to increase the potential yield of cheese in Australia by approximately 5% or 7,500 tonnes of cheese per annum.

Before this can be achieved, the consistency of the advantages of type B milk over all seasons needs to be shown. After that, costly factory scale trials requiring the harvesting of

milk from hundreds of selected type B and comparable type A cows will need to be undertaken to verify these findings on a com­

mercial scale.

A sweeter milk sugar The level of sweetness in the sugar of milk (lactose) can be increased by splitting (hydro­ lysing) lactose to form the two sugars, glucose

and galactose. In principle, the process of lactose hydrolysis may be applied to milk, whey and many other liquid dairy products.

The result is a range of products with added value as for example, flavoured milks, ice creams and fruit yoghurt which would require little or no added sugar.

Laboratory scale cheesemaking vats for manufacture of 1 kg cheeses from A and B type milk — DAS 17

The method employed for lactose hydrolysis generally involves the use of an enzyme (β galactosidase) either in a soluble or an im­ mobilised form. The cost of processes based on the use of soluble enzymes are relatively high because the enzyme cannot be easily recovered for re-use. Existing commercially

available processes, based on immobilised enzymes were considered to be limited in their application to the Australian dairy industry, either because of their high capital cost or because of restrictions on the acidity level at which these systems may be operated. This led the CSIRO to survey commercially avail­

able immobilised enzymes and as a result an enzyme from Sumitomo Chemical Company called “ Sumylact” was found to have con­

siderable potential. Work on the development of a practical sys­ tem based on “ Sumylact” progressed rapidly and a joint technical venture involving CSIRO, the Australian Dairy Corporation and commercial partners was established before the end of the fiscal year.

The resulting products from this process are also expected to increase the demand for dairy produce in areas like S.E. Asia where a significant percentage of the population have a

limited ability to digest lactose. Hence, the successful development and use of the new process will increase the range of dairy pro­ ducts for direct consumption, for use as food

ingredients, and augment demand in overseas markets. The potential economic gain to the Australian dairy industry has been conserva­

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tively estimated at more than $3 million, per annum.

Energy Management As stated under the same heading in a pre­ vious report, a comprehensive national energy management program for the dairy manufac­ turing and processing industry was com­ menced in 1982. The program consisted of factory energy audits, an energy survey, an industry audit and an awareness/education campaign. There are over 250 dairy factories in Australia which use 10.6 PJ at an annual cost of $40.5 million.

The audits have shown that an average of 29% fuel saving and 12% electrical energy saving was achievable through improved mainte­ nance and management of existing resources together with only minor capital investment. Through the use of existing technologies and improved operational practices, it is technical­ ly feasible to reduce the industry’s energy demand by 44%. Most of the equipment required to achieve this has been developed in Europe during the mid 1970’s when the dairy industry was hit hard by the energy crisis. As energy prices in Australia are likely to con­ tinue to rise during the 1980’s and 90’s this

Mr. G.C. Cox, Leader DAV68, crouching, with Messrs. R.J. Hunt and A. Buchanan of Kinross Milk Products Pty Ltd discussing the advantages of low pressure homogenizing valves for reducing energy demand in homogenization.

new equipment will become cost effective and will probably be introduced into the Austra­ lian dairy industry.

The results of the audits had highlighted examples where ‘house keeping’ and minor modifications could reduce energy costs by 10-30%. There were instances where com­ panies were not even on the most favourable electrical tariff. As a result of this program’s co-ordinated seminars and various workshops senior man­ agement of dairy companies has become very conscious of the potential for these energy savings and dairy companies are starting their own ‘in house’ energy management programs. The industry’s response to the program has been very satisfactory; a 15% energy cost reduction has already been achieved in many dairy factories and it is estimated that in the last year, energy use in the industry as a whole has been reduced by 7%. Several milk and cheese factories have changed from steam based systems to hot water systems which have given a 20% energy cost saving and some dairy factories are purchasing new pro­ cessing equipment which is 60% more effi­ cient than the equipment being replaced.

Salmonella All types of salmonella organisms are poten­ tially pathogenic for humans and/or animals. Salmonella is widespread in the environment and appears in a wide variety of foods, food ingredients, and animal feeds, thus posing serious problems to dairy companies and the industry. The most accepted procedures for detection of salmonella are extremely cumber­ some, laborious, costly and require several days to accomplish. The dairy and food indus­ try are badly in need of a rapid screening procedure for detection of salmonella in foods.

Dairy scientists at the Hawkesbury Agricultu­ ral Research Unit in New South Wales set out to develop immunoassay procedures for detec­ tion of salmonella using competitive binding assays based on radioisotope and enzyme labelled antigens to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the technique. It has been a long hard road and there were numerous setbacks; various intermediate proc­ edures and techniques had to be developed

8

and existing ones modified or simplified. However, this research has now successfully isolated an antigen which has the capacity to detect 10 different types of salmonella organ­ isms from which it was originally derived. These scientists report that they have good reasons to hope, as they continue their inves­ tigations, that this antigen will successfully detect other types of salmonella known to have been found in various foods (the Ade­ laide Reference Laboratory holds 90 types). The work has progressed to the stage where a simple procedure for the production of the antigen has been developed. Tests on these antigens have confirmed their extremely high purity and their integrity as antigen determi­ nants.

This does not mean that the industry will have a rapid salmonella screening test to use in its laboratories next year. There are numerous checks and refinements of techniques yet to be made before this can be achieved, but two years research could be claimed to have prog­ ressed sufficiently to see the light at the end of the tunnel. If it were possible to devote more resources to this research, progress from here on should be fast indeed.

Reviews and Services From time to time the Committee commis­ sions organisations and scientists to write review articles in order to bring into perspec­ tive past and current work and thus assess the

state of knowledge on significant fields of dairy research or important aspects of dairy farm management and operations.

Oestrus Detection In response to dairy farm enquiries, ADRC commissioned Dr. W. (Bill) J. Fulkerson of the Tasmanian Department of Agriculture to review all known techniques of possible prac­ tical application for detecting and identifying cows on heat. As a result Dr. Fulkerson produced a comprehensive 17 page review titled “ Heat detection in dairy cattle” .

Copies of this report, which was written specifically for the practical dairy farmer, have been provided to the Australian Dairy Farmers’ Federation for distribution to its

constituent bodies and affiliated organisations and for promulgation to dairy farmers.

Effects o f Mastitis on Process Operations Milk and its products have a reputation for freshness and quality and for being ‘natural foods’. If they are to continue to maintain this

reputation and successfully compete with other food products, they have to be of the highest possible compositional and hygienic standard. In order to meet these standards, the

manufacturer needs to use milk of a very high quality, but one factor which limits the availa­ bility of good quality milk to the manufacturer is the occurrence of sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

There has been much research on the

epidemiology, treatment and control of masti­ tis. In the course of this research losses in milk yield were identified and quantified but only

sporadic references have been recorded as to the effects of medium to high cell count milk on its composition, its physical and functional properties, its quality and the quality of manu­ factured dairy products. In short the de­ trimental effect or otherwise of using medium to high cell count milk for the manufacture of dairy products was less well known particular­ ly in Australia.

In view of this, Dr. Golda L. Munro of the South Australian Department of Agriculture was commissioned to write a review article highlighting the main findings from the litera­ ture on the effects of mastitis on milk com­ position and its importance in the manufacture of products. Particular emphasis was to be given to the processing properties and yield and quality of dairy products manufactured from medium to high cell count milk. Dr. Munro collaborated with dairy scientists at the

Otto Madsen Research Laboratory who had also been commissioned by the Committee to carry out, in parallel, a number of pilot scale trials on the effect of medium to high cell count milk, on yield and quality of manufac­ tured dairy products. Their review article titled “ Effects of mastitis on milk yield, milk composition, processing properties and yield

and quality of milk products” was published in the March 1984 issue of the Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, which is distri­ buted to dairy factory managers and dairy

technologists throughout Australia.

9

Changing Calving Patterns There is much interest amongst seasonal dairy farmers on the economics of changing calving patterns, in order to take advantage of incen­ tive payment schemes for milk produced dur­ ing the off peak season.

This has led the Tasmanian Department of Agriculture to survey 2593 cows in 30 com­ mercial herds and compare their reproductive performance calving either in autumn or early spring. The survey revealed that early spring calving cows perform much better than their autumn calving counterparts. The reproduc­ tive performance (87%) and non-retum-to first service (72%) of early spring calving cows were both significantly higher than the autumn calving cows which scored 75% and 55% respectively. The difference was not due to age or cow condition, milkfat production level at mating or the interval between calving and mating. The scientists who undertook this

survey have postulated likely reasons for the seasonal influences which are affecting the reproductive performance of these cows. They noted references in the literature indicating that there exists a significant co-relation be­ tween the sexual activities of cows according to prevailing temperatures and day length. In addition to this the management strategies associated with each time of calving are diffe­ rent. Although the cow condition for winter and late spring mating was comparable the energy balance for these cows was not, thus cows mating in late spring were invariably gaining weight at mating, whereas in winter, cows were either losing weight or at best

maintaining their condition.

The results of this survey allow dairy farmers to assess quantitatively the likely penalties of a change to autumn calving in terms of the poorer breeding performances of their dairy herds.

RESEARCH PROGRAM 1983-84

The following statements summarise the re­ search supported during the year under re­ view. The program has been classified under three headings: Farm, Manufacture and Education: each of which is divided into subject sections.

Outlines of new and on-going projects appear in each subject section with emphasis placed on important results and promising develop­ ments.

Each project is designated a code prefix and number, according to the organisation car­ rying out the work. References to these codes are made throughout these statements. The allocation tables towards the end of this report provide a key to the codes.

DAIRY FARM RESEARCH Pasture

The Committee continues its support of pas­ ture research mainly by seeking solutions to particular regional problems.

In a project completed in June 1983, the Queensland Department of Primary Industries confirmed that annual high density clover pastures have a place in the feed system on

dairy farms with irrigation in sub-tropical areas of Queensland. Apart from competing favourably with nitrogen fertilised rye grass in winter/spring they can provide valuable graz­ ing in summer and autumn. However, the rapid slide in supply through autumn still remains a problem for both irrigation and dryland farms in Queensland. Commercial experience in some areas (e.g. Atherton Tablelands) has shown that fertilising tropical pastures with nitrogen during the reliable rain­ fall season in summer and early autumn has largely solved autumn milk supply problems. The Committee, in 1984/85, will support a large on-farm evaluation of (i) nitrogen ferti­ liser application to late ummer and autumn pastures and (ii) the persistency and produc­ tivity of new summer growing legumes.

This research is in response to farmer and factory concurrence that late summer and autumn is now the major period of production uncertainty in sub-tropical Queensland. Research is also being supported on the Ather­ ton Tablelands to investigate the role of peren­ nial grass-clover pastures in providing accept­ able levels of milk production on a year round basis and particularly in winter and spring

10

without the annual cost of pasture establish­ ment.

In Victoria, research to improve pasture pro­ ductivity and quality by management of the proportion of clover in temperate rainfed pas­ tures commenced during the year. Selective herbicides are being tested for their; usefulness

in restricting grass species without seriously reducing total pasture.

Another recently completed project by the Victorian Department of Agriculture, has de­ veloped sophisticated monitoring equipment which will provide the researcher with a close-up of plant and environment limitations to pasture production. Having quantified such factors as solar radiation, temperature, water balance and carbon dioxide uptake, the resear­ chers are now in the position to optimise production conditions to provide much higher

levels of digestible energy from pasture. Work is also continuing, on a project insti­

gated as a response to farmers’ concern, on the problem of root rot in irrigated subterra­ nean clover. DAQ45, DAV75. DAV59b.

Cow Nutrition and Productivity Dairy farmers use cows to convert feed into milk. Improving the efficiency of this conver­ sion under Australian conditions is the subject of a co-ordinated program sponsored by the Committee. This program aims to close the gaps in the knowledge of the response of dairy cows to feeding under grazing conditions. Two complementary approaches are being taken.

1. Detailed biochemical studies on the mechanisms controlling partitioning of nutrients between milk and body tissue production and the utilisation of body re­

serves for milk production in early lacta­ tion.

« ν -ϊ- a r :

Simultaneous blood sampling from mammary tissue and hindlimb muscle to determine the partitioning of nutrients towards milk synthesis or muscle production by a lactating dairy cow — US12

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2. Trials with grazing cows to study their response to the level of nutrition including substitution and carry-over effects of sup­ plementary feeding.

The first approach is building a clearer picture of the checks and balances important in milk synthesis. Success will permit the develop­ ment of management strategies which maxi­ mise the efficiency of utilisation of nutrients for milk production.

ADRC support over half a decade for this type of research has also laid a basis for interpret­ ing findings from work on the application of bovine Growth Hormone (bGH). In the first ten weeks of a long term study bGH administration to grazing cows resulted in increases of 14% in milk yield with an 18% increase in milk-fat and 12% in protein yield. Treated cows consumed more feed (8%), however, the efficiency of utilisation of feed for milk production also improved by 8%. Liveweight changes were similar for treated and untreated cows. Concurrent administra­ tion of bGH with a concentrate supplement to pasture fed cows improved the partitioning of

nutrients for milk synthesis and at the same time alleviated the commonly observed de­ pression in milk-fat percentage induced by concentrate feeding.

Research investigating the responses of graz­ ing cows to pasture and a range of supple­ ments continues at two centres.

In South Australia, preliminary results indi­ cate that the depression in the milk-fat test due to high cereal grain diets is nowhere as severe when cows are fed on similar diets which are high in lupin grains.

Work at Ellinbank Dairy Research Institute studying the limitations to pasture quality, especially in relation to the protein require­ ments of the cow, has highlighted the import­ ance of providing adequate protein for the cow in early lactation to maximise milk-fat yield. Important research examining the effects of different growth rates of heifers on the growth and development of their mammary glands and subsequent milk production is in progress at Northfield Research Station, South Austra­ lia. From preliminary results there appears to be a trend towards a depression in milk production and fat yield in heifers in the first

10 weeks of lactation, if they are fed to

achieve a fast growth rate from 3 months of age until puberty. ADRC, US 12, LU3, DAV71, DAS20, DAV61, DAS9.

Breeding and Reproduction The largest project funded by the Committee is the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme (ADHIS). Following the successful release of the first national bull Australian Breeding Values (ABV’s) in March 1983, the year has seen a consolidation in the develop­ ment of the Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (BLUP) methodology.

A second bull ABV listing was released in 1983/84 and Artificial Breeding centres re­ ported increases in semen sales of between 10 and 15% with a significant decrease in the demand for lowly rated sires.

It is expected that a cow plus bull BLUP will be available early in 1984/85 in time for mating in spring calving herds and that a conformation BLUP will be developed for later release.

A survey of reproductive performance in over 2000 cows in 30 commercial dairy herds was undertaken in Tasmania to determine if a seasonal variation in breeding performance exists. Spring calving herds recorded a higher heat detection rate (86% vs 75%) and better non-retum-to service rate (72% vs 55%) than herds bred in June-September to calve in autumn. This effect appears to be independent of cow condition, calving to mating interval, age and milk-fat yield, but may be in response to day length or the consequences of manage­ ment, e.g. energy balance.

Research over the last three years has also been supported at CSIRO where scientists at Parkville, Victoria have attempted to identify the chemical(s) excreted by cows which indi­ cates to a bull that she is in oestrus. The

intention then was to isolate the relevant chemical and study its properties in the hope that this could later lead to the development of a simple, inexpensive field test for detection of oestrus.

The task has proved more complex and time consuming than originally anticipated. To date the group has discovered an unidentified chemical which at this early stage appears to

12

fit the requirements as the possible subject of a field test. Research at the University of New South Wales on the isolation and analysis of cloned DNA sequences which specify the bovine caseins is progressing well. In the medium to long term there are good prospects that this work will find application

in improving the protein yield of milk and in allowing the total milk yield to be manipu­ lated. Initially, this might be possible by screening bulls used in artificial breeding for desirable and undesirable genes and eventual­ ly through the insertion of ‘improved’ casein genes into the cow itself.

AD FFl, DAT13, CS30, UN5.

Animal Health If the dairy cow is well fed, well bred and in calf, the next obstacle to efficient production could be disease.

Australian dairy cattle still contract a number of diseases that cause loss of production, poor reproductive performance or death. Research

reported in this section is aimed at gaining a greater understanding of the serious cattle diseases to improve their diagnoses and con­

trol.

Mastitis Mastitis is still the major disease of dairy cattle causing concern to farmers across Aus­ tralia and costing the industry up to $100 M each year in lost production, veterinary

hygiene preparations and associated expenses. Mastitis research was supported under the broad headings of:

(i) Diagnosis (ii) Control and Prevention (iii) Evaluation of Treatment Strategies

(i) Diagnosis Work continues at the Queensland Depart­ ment of Primary Industries to develop and evaluate new diagnostic methods for mastitis. A range of diagnostic tests has been developed with varying sensitivities, ease of application

and cost which can be selectively used, de­ pending on the suspected level of mastitis within the herd, to provide effective diagnosis

for the least cost.

DAQ36.

(ii) Control and Prevention Collaborative .research on immunity and pathogenesis of staphylococcal mastitis con­ tinues at three centres. Work has progressed over the past year to­ wards the development of a safe effective vaccine against staphylococcal mastitis. Im­ portant leads on the most effective vaccination site and adjuvant have been followed as well as characterisation of major staphylococcal

antigens and a milk protein implicated in the animal’s natural defence system. Support also continues for the Milking Re­ search Centre at Werribee where the physiolo­ gical responses of the cow’s teat to milking and the limits to which the teat can be stressed without impairment of function are being

studied. This group is looking specifically at the role of the teat canal as a biophysical trap for bacteria to determine the milking machine conditions which will tip the balance in favour of the bacteria.

CS26, UNC, UQ1, DAV73.

(iii) Evaluation o f Treatment Strategies Two complementary projects, in Victoria and Queensland, monitoring the effectiveness of selective Dry Cow Therapy on a quarter or whole cow basis for the control of new infec­ tions over the dry period have finished this year.

Preliminary results received so far indicate that blanket therapy for all cows (both infected and uninfected) is more effective in reducing the new infection rate during the dry period

and following parturition than selectively treating infected quarters only or all quarters of cows with at least one infection. Final results from these trials are awaited with

interest.

DAQ37, DAV70.

Iodine, Infertility and Interdigital and Intes­ tinal Infections The Dairy Research Scheme maintains sup­ port for research into a wide range of animal health problems apart from mastitis.

A project at the Victorian Department of Agriculture aimed at defining nutritional and metabolic factors which cause disease and limit productivity is now drawing to a close.

From this research better tests are now avail­ able to assess the nutritional and metabolic status of grazing dairy cows. The use of these

13

tests has enabled the macromineral and trace element nutrition of grazing dairy cows to be more closely defined. This approach to assess­ ment of nutritional and metabolic status is based on the responses of the cow to the nutrient supply and metabolic demands. These tests have proven to be of practical use to veterinarians in the differential diagnosis of poor production and metabolic disorders of dairy cows in early lactation.

This group has also found a strong association between the pregnancy rates of cows older than 4 years and their urine sodium output particularly, and also urine calcium output, in early lactation. A study is being undertaken to determine if there is any improvement in

fertility in herds with low sodium and calcium status, following supplementation.

Research continues at CSIRO, Parkvilie to develop a vaccine to protect dairy cattle from foot abscess — interdigital necrobacillosis. An exotoxin produced by the bacteria re­ sponsible for the abscess has been isolated and incorporated in experimental vaccines. These vaccines have been successful in trial chal­

lenges and further results are awaited.

Johne’s disease is reported to cause losses amounting to $2M annually in Victoria alone. However, the losses may be even greater because an accurate rapid diagnostic test is not available to indicate the actual prevalence of this disease.

Support is being provided for the development and evaluation of a sensitive, specific and rapid test using monoclonal antibodies to de­ tect subclinical cases; to further study the epidemiology of the disease in infected herds and to assess the effectiveness of current control methods.

Flushed with last year’s successful develop­ ment of a treatment solution for calf scours, the Committee has now channelled its support for diarrhoea research towards the develop­ ment of a vaccine against rotavims and assess­ ment of the nature of the immune mechanisms associated with Cryptosporidium infection.

DAV54, CS28, DAV72, DAV57.

Farm Management

Many of the projects outlined in earlier sec­ tions will ultimately have an impact on farm management practices, through the imple­

mentation of their findings at the farm level. However, the following three projects will have a more direct influence on management decisions. Support has been provided to collect data for use in the Victorian Dairy Farm Management Study to define the relationships between dairy farm costs, returns, production, farm and herd size and profitability.

The University of California Maximum Profit Programs are being adapted at the University of Sydney for use by Australian dairy farmers whose systems of management involve the provision of supplementary feed to pasture fed herds.

The Programs consist of two independent sets. The first set is a least cost ration formulation program for dairy cows while the second consists of a maximum profit program. The least cost ration formulation program is already operating well. The maximum profit set is being modified to include values for Australian pastures. As more data is added to the program it could become a valuable aid to management for dairy farmers.

In the final analysis, all the breakthroughs and advances made in dairy research are only as good as their acceptance and implementation by farmers. Extension of original research follows an often tortuous and tardy track, usually requiring much greater resources than ADRC has at its disposal. However, one of the steps the Committee has taken in this direction in addition to ADHIS is to support the Australian Dairy Farmers Federation to employ Mr. Jack Green as National Dairy Extension Officer. Since September 1983 he has been involved in the communication of research results and improved production techniques to dairy farmers on an Australia wide basis.

DAV74. U S B , ADFF2.

DAIRY MANUFACTURING RESEARCH

Cheese The Committee supports a large variety of cheese research projects aimed at improving the efficiency of production and quality of the final product. Much of the work reported in this section, particularly research on starter cultures, has an application in other fermented dairy products, e.g. yoghurt.

14

The research ranges from very applied indus­ try orientated work servicing manufacturers often in response to direct industry enquiries through to pioneering research on genetic engineering of bacterial starters. But whatever the scientific complexities of the research it is characterised by a high standard of dedication to the industry.

Starters Research continues at the Dairy Research Laboratory, CSIRO in support of the factory-

derived starter system which is currently used in more than 60% of cheddar cheese and 25% of yoghurt produced in Australia. This tech­ nology has reduced but not eradicated bacter­ iophage problems. The aim of this work is to improve the reliability of phage resistant de­ rivatives of starter bacteria under commercial conditions.

Support is currently provided for two groups investigating genetic improvement of lactic acid bacteria. Research at CSIRO has deter­ mined the pathway of galactose metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus, the bacterium favoured as a starter in the ‘Short Method' of cheddar cheese manufacture. This work has demonstrated that the inability of S. thermo­ philus to simultaneously ferment the glucose

and galactose moieties of lactose is due to an imbalance in the level of enzymes driving the first step in the metabolism of glucose and galactose respectively (a 1500 fold advantage exists in favour of glucose metabolism). Work is currently in progress to increase the level of the appropriate enzymes by recombinant DNA techniques.

Work is also continuing on isolating the genes which code for the transport and hydrolysis of lactose in S. lactis. The aim of this work is to increase the rate of acid production in starter bacteria.

Over the last three years a group at the Gilbert Chandler Institute of Dairy Technology (G.C.I.D.T.) have established for the lactic streptococci the essential techniques for gene

transfer from one organism to another using plasmids as vectors. These techniques are now ripe for further development and exploitation in the production of starters with stable, effi­

cient acid producing capacity and broad spec­ trum bacteriophage resistance.

Other research at GCIDT has identified, from a survey of Victorian factories, the major causes of non-phage inhibition of lactic starter organisms as the Lactoperoxidase-hydrogen

peroxide-thiocyanate system (LPS), hydrogen peroxide (H20 2) and molecular oxygen dis­ solved in milk.

This work has resulted in the following sug­ gested guidelines for factories:

1. As the non-phage inhibition is strongly related to the starter organism used, the factories should carefully select their star­ ter strains for cheesemaking. The ideal

strain should be resistant to the LPS in milk and also not generate significant amounts of H20 2. A simple laboratory assay could be implemented to test the starter organ­ isms.

2. The formation of H20 2 is dependent on available oxygen in milk, therefore factor­ ies should avoid air incorporation at all stages of milk handling and storage.

3. The sensitivity of the newly derived phage-resistant mutants to the LPS should always be tested and the sensitive strains should not be used in cheese-making.

The lactic streptococci are renowned for their high degree of variability. Two possible causes of this variability were studied at the University of New South Wales. These were the selection of different sub-populations from

a kinetically heterogeneous source culture and the production of variable activity caused by a different final cell mass or different physiolo­ gical state of that cell mass.

Research in this project has indicated that kinetic heterogeneity is not a likely cause of starter variability. With respect to the second

likely cause at least two sources of substantial loss in culture activity have been identified:

(i) Maximisation of cell density inevitably means growing the cells until naturally produced inhibitors can be expected to result in reduction in the activity per unit cell mass in the culture. Susceptibility to these inhibitors appears to be in some cases critically dependent on the phy­ siological state of the cell.

(ii) Addition of alkali is likely to disturb the pH and sodium gradients across the biolo­ gical membrane disturbing important

15

membrane processes and has been shown in early results from the laboratory to result in direct loss of activity. The mag­ nitude of this effect can be expected to depend on the means of alkali addition. Optical density, radioactive tracer techniques and estimation of starter activity using a mod­ ification of the starter addition test will be used to define these problems and ensure the potential activity gain is reliably produced.

CS18, CDC, CS34, TSG1, DAV55. DAV69, UN3.

Syneresis, Synthesis and Flavour Acceleration Research at the University of New South Wales has developed a small scale assay for detailed analysis of syneresis. This assay has been used to investigate the effects of heating, dephosphorylation and relative proportions of the caseins on milk curd syneresis. Demon­ stration of the direct effect of the whey pro­ tein; β-lactoglobulin, on inhibition of

syneresis and increase in rennin coagulation time in heat treated milk mediated through its interaction with k-casein has important im­ plications for other research supported by the

Committee, viz. selection and breeding of cows that produce milk with particular β-lactoglobulin and k-casein, and the use of Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate for cheese­ making.

The Committee had hoped that a study of the molecular structure of casein at Melbourne University would produce a method for routinely predicting the holding properties of cheddar cheeses. This work has proved more complex than originally envisaged and is un­ likely to yield such a test in the foreseeable future.

Work continues at the Otto Madsen Research Laboratory on means of accelerating flavour development in cheese. Methods under con­

sideration are elevated ripening temperatures, adding individual amino acids and the use of special mutant starter cultures. UN6, UM4, DAQ47.

Snakes and Ladders One way to increase the profit from the manufacture of dairy products is to increase the yield of that product per unit of milk without increasing the cost. Research, re­ ported in this section, is looking at factors

which affect the yield of cheese from a given quantity of milk.

The Committee commissioned the Otto Mad­ sen Research Laboratory to quantify the over­ all losses in product yield and quality caused by the use of milk with high somatic cell count (SCC).

To date, milk collected from two groups of cows on the same farm, viz. a control group with a record of no mastitis and a treatment group with a history of mastitis, has been made into cheddar cheese. Preliminary results indicate that lower yields of cheese are obtained from high S.C.C. milk. Further dis­ advantages included: fat losses were greater, moisture content was higher and setting and whey-off times were also longer for these cheeses.

These results, when complete, will be used in conjunction with information in the scientific literature to validate a computer model de­ veloped in South Australia to predict the relationship between mastitis level and pro­ duct loss. The literature survey was supported by the Committee to which reference has been made in another part of this report.

At North field Dairy Research Centre, cows have been identified and selected for milk protein genetic variants and typed A or B depending on their particular β and k-casein and β-lactoglobulin variants. Cheese was made on a laboratory and pilot scale from the milk of each type of cow.

B milk had a 6-9% higher cheese yield from the same amount of milk and the added bonus of a 15 minutes shorter setting time than type A milk. Cows and bulls can be selected and bred for the B variant and the researchers predict that the potential increase in efficiency of production could be as high as 5% per annum across Australia.

DAQ44, DAS17.

Milkfat Milkfat is an integral component of milk. It plays a significant role in flavour characterisa­ tion and influences the functional properties of milk and various dairy products. Work at the Otto Madsen Research Laboratory is investi­ gating the properties of those components in the milkfat globule membrane (MFGM)

16

which are important in maintaining membrane stability. It is hoped that this research will lead to a test to indicate MFGM surface changes induced by pumping, shaking, heating, etc.

and hence to an objective assessment of milk- fat quality, storage life and suitability for a variety of manufactured products.

One of the results obtained to date indicates that heating milk destabilises the MFGM by replacing some of the natural peptides and lipids with the whey protein β-lactoglobulin. An understanding of the importance of these

interactions and the mechanisms involved may enable manufacturers to select or alter heating conditions in order to process custom-

made products with desirable or selected func­ tional properties (e.g. a more stable mem­ brane with regard to enzymatic hydrolysis). DAQ41.

Quality Control To maintain or improve the consumer accepta­ bility of a product is the basis for the control

of quality at each stage of production. Practi­ cally all the scientific investigations of the Committee’s manufacturing research program are directly or indirectly involved with quality

control. However, some projects have as their specific aim, the investigation of factors affecting quality and the application of this knowledge for improving quality control.

Lipolysis and Proteolysis Research at Otto Madsen Research Laboratory continues on milk spoilage by bacterial en­ zymes.

Milk collected in south east Queensland was sampled for lipase activity and over 200 diffe­ rent lipolytic bacteria were isolated and sub­ jected to a battery of identification tests. From this work it appears that the most significant

lipolytic bacteria in milk are non-fluorescent pseudomonads, with the other major groups being biotypes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Bacterial proteolysis of UHT milk and

psychrotrophic spoilage of dairy products were first investigated with the aim of early detection through the development and ap­ plication of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

assay (ELISA).

The ELISA however has not proved sensitive enough to detect the low levels of protease which are sufficient to impair UHT-treated milk. The research group is, therefore, de­

veloping an isotopic substrate assay which, on the basis of preliminary results, will accur­ ately monitor protease levels in UHT-treated milk to allow an assessment of the shelf-life of

the product.

By the application of an improved procedure for trapping the antigens (bacterial cells) prior to counting, the ELISA test for psychrotrophic spoilage should increase in sensitivity to the

point where it will have the ability to detect low numbers of the offending bacteria, princi­ pally Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAQ46, DAQ42.

Detection o f Bacteria There is keen interest within the industry in developing rapid techniques to determine the level of bacterial contamination of dairy pro­ ducts.

Otto Madsen Research Laboratory has de­ veloped two spread plate methods using fluorogenic media. One of these is for simul­

taneous counting of total bacteria, Gram-posi­ tive and Gram-negative bacteria in both raw and pasteurized milk and the other is for enhanced Gram-negative counting. The first method, in mixed flora trials pro­

duced results at 72 hours that correlated well with pour plated plate count so that total counts and Gram-positive counts were practi­ cal on this medium. Since Gram-negative col­ onies developed faster and larger than Gram- positives, their numbers could be determined

at 48 hours. The second technique involves pre-treatment of samples with a detergent/enzyme/buffer solution, followed by filtration and growth on

a Gram-positive suppressant medium. At pre­ sent this method enables Gram-negatives to be read at 24 hours. Work in progress is designed to shorten this incubation period to within a

working day. At the NSW Department of Agriculture work to develop a simple, rapid, reliable and cost- efficient test for the presence of salmonella in

dairy products is nearing the commercialisa­ tion stage. This research is more fully reported in ‘ADRC Operations 1983/84’. DAQ33, DAN22.

17

Product Development and Utilisation For many years ADRC has supported research on the development of new dairy products and the incorporation of by-products in traditional dairy lines to increase the total return for the milk.

At the CSIRO Dairy Research Laboratory researchers are tackling the problem of con­ verting lactose into more useable sugars to increase the value of cheese whey, ultrafiltra­ tion permeates and also open new markets for skim milk powder.

In collaboration with the Australian Dairy Corporation and commercial partners, CSIRO has tested and developed an immobilized en­ zyme system for hydrolysing lactose that promises to provide the means of economical production of sugar syrups for use in the food

industry. This also enables the production of skim milk powder in a form which is more acceptable in countries where the incidence of lactose intolerance restricts consumption of normal milk. See ‘ADRC Operations 1983/ 84’ for a more detailed report on this project. Following the successful substitution of up to one quarter of the skim milk powders normal­ ly used in stirred yoghurt with liquid cheese whey protein concentrate (CWPC) at Gilbert Chandler Institute of Dairy Technology, this group has now achieved similar success with spray dried CWPC.

The effect of ultrafiltration (UF) concentration of milk on starter bacteria was also investi­ gated.

It was found that concentration of milk by UF caused stimulation of the growth and acid production of two starter organisms, Strepto­ coccus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis. Experiments to investigate the reasons for the observed stimulation are in progress.

A collaborative project between CSIRO and the Victorian Department of Agriculture con­ tinues to study applications of membrane tech­ nology for reducing milk transport and proces­ sing costs. The major portion of research effort this year has centred on the 400 litre per hour semi-commercial reverse osmosis (RO) plant.

The mechanical and engineering problems encountered during early commissioning and early trials have largely been overcome, but

some recently encountered microbiological problems associated with the cleaning of the membrane modules are presently being in­ vestigated.

CS22, DAV56, CS33, DAV76.

Services Many of the projects already reported provide a service to the industry every time a research worker responds to a request for advice or help from a processer.

Three projects, however stand out under this heading.

The Freeze Dried Starter Culture Service at the CSIRO maintains a supply of single strain starter cultures to factories with the majority of the cultures being distributed through the State Departments of Agriculture. The Com­ mittee provides the operating capital and the service is largely conducted on a self-suppor­ ting basis.

The Victorian Department of Agriculture in conjunction with the Australian Dairy Cor­ poration has conducted an energy audit at a

sample of dairy factories across the country and also surveyed milk processing and manu­ facturing companies on their energy use. The companies surveyed account for 25% of the total national milk production.

These energy investigations have demons­ trated that energy cost savings of up to 30% could be obtained at several factories through improved management of existing resources. In many cases pay back through installation of energy saving equipment would be less than one year.

In relation to product manufacture in Australia the survey showed the average energy con­ sumption per tonne of product was 20 to 40% higher than the New Zealand industry equiva­ lent.

The project team also identified many energy saving technologies applicable to Australian factories. The implications of the survey and energy audit as well as information on the application of related technologies are being disseminated at seminars and training work­ shops as part of an education and awareness campaign organised by the project team.

CS17, DAV68.

Research Publications The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology continues to provide a means by which Aus­

18

tralian dairy research workers publish the result of their work, as rapidly as possible, in a publication regularly distributed throughout Australia. The journal also provides a compre­

hensive coverage in the form of abstracts, of all papers relating to ADRC sponsored work which are published elsewhere. A S D T l.

DAIRY EDUCATION SCHEME

The Scheme The Dairy Education Scheme is a comprehen­ sive program consisting of Post-graduate Stu­ dentships, Travel Grants, Study Grants and Farmer and Factory Worker Training Awards. This program has been developed to serve the needs of the Dairy Industry from the factory worker or farm hand level through to the technologist, engineer, factory manager, agri­ cultural extension worker and the research scientist engaged in dairy research.

Post-graduate Studentships Assistance and incentive is provided through these awards for persons engaged in dairy research to further develop their skills. They are available to experienced graduates, currently involved in dairy research projects, requiring assistance to undertake additional

studies which would materially enhance the effectiveness of their future research, or to post-graduate students engaged on high prior­ ity dairy research projects.

Eleven students received assistance through Post-graduate Studentship awards during 1983/84; these awards included extensions

and additional allocations to current stu­ dentships to meet changed conditions.

Travel Grants Travel grants are awarded to graduate person­ nel working on dairy research projects to

facilitate study of new research techniques developed overseas and to exchange informa­ tion with institutions involved in related works.

A travel grant enabled Dr. D. Watson of CS1RO to attend the 5th International Sympo­ sium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections in Poland and presented a paper on

his ADRC supported research ‘Immunity to staphylococcal mastitis’.

The symposium brought together research workers from all over the world and provided an important opportunity for exchange of data

and ideas and a critical environment for dis­ cussing new experimental approaches to staphylococcal mastitis.

Study Grants These grants are intended to provide financial assistance to research workers, extension officers and factory technologists wishing to visit other research groups, to seek and study new techniques or investigate the application of findings for adoption by industry.

A study grant was provided to allow Ms. C. Dimmock of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, to work in the Im- munogenetics laboratory at the Australian National University, Canberra. This work enabled her to gain experience in lymphocyte typing techniques, an essential tool in the elucidation of genetic factors in enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in dairy cattle. Mr. R. Kerlin, a post-graduate student on the CSIRO project ‘Immunity to staphylococcal mastitis’ received a study grant to attend a microbiology conference in Sydney. The con­ ference attracted world leaders in the field of bacterial adherence and its relation to success­ ful microbial infection.

Farmer and Factory Worker Training These funds are available to assist in the education and training of dairy farmers and

factory workers in improved techniques and information resulting from scientific, techni­ cal or economic research and advancements relevant to the dairy industry.

Assistance to factory workers from various dairy organisations is provided during their course and training periods at the Gilbert Chandler Institute of Dairy Technology.

Publicity The various awards offered by the Committee were publicised in Australian Dairy Foods, the New South Wales Dairyman and through

19

the administrative facilities of the Depart­ ments of Agriculture, Universities, CSIRO, the Australian Society of Dairy Technology and the United Dairyfrmers of Victoria.

This publicity and listings in various director­ ies gave rise to numerous enquiries from interested people throughout Australia and overseas.

1984 Awards Total expenditure on education during 1983/84 was $53,103.34 which included all awards current during the period as well as progress payments for new awards made in the 1984 academic year.

Details of the approved education awards are listed below.

DAIRY EDUCATION AWARDS 1984

Name Place o f Study Course o f Study or Area o f Research

Post-graduate Awards K.T. Beard University of New South Wales Theoretical development of breeding objectives and selection criteria for the Australian dairy industry

R.E. Chandler University of Tasmania Temperature function integration and assessment of the

microbiological quality of milk

R.S. Clements Queensland Institute of Technology Psychrotrophic bacterial milk spoilage J. Coventry University of Melbourne Aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lactic acid

bacteria

I.B. Hubble University of Melbourne The effect of incentives for milk quality on the adoption

of dairy hygiene and milking management practices

K.R. King University of Sydney Aspects of energy utilisation in lactating ruminants

M. Pearse University of New South Wales Kinetics of starter growth acid production and syneresis

of cheese curd in the cooking process

J.M. Perich University of Melbourne A chemical approach to monitor denaturation processes

in milk protein

L.D. Sandies Monash University Potential applications for bovine Growth Hormone in

the Australian dairy industry

R.F. Sheldrake University of Newcastle Cell traffic and local immunity in the mammary gland

A.W. Shelley University of Queensland Enumeration and identification of lipolytic

psychrotrophic bacteria in milk exhibiting residual lipase activity post pasteurization

Study Grants C.K. Dimmock Canberra Enzootic bovine leucosis

R. Kerlin Sydney Immunity to staphylococcal mastitis

Travel Grants Dr. D.L. Watson Warsaw, Poland Immunity to staphylococcal mastitis

Farmer and Factory Workers Training T.A.Jackson Gilbert Chandler Institute of Dairy

Technology

Certificate of Dairy Technology

R. Robinson University of Melbourne Degree in Agricultural Science

RESEARCH PROGRAM ALLOCATIONS FARM RESEARCH PROJECTS 1983-84 Project Code Allocation

CSIRO

($)

Immunity to staphylococcal mastitis CS26 20.653

Studies on immunisation of cattle against foot infections with bacteroides nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum CS28 23,345

Pheromone identification and the detection of oestrus in cattle CS30 18,977

62,975

Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Diagnosis of bovine mastitis DAQ36 4,000

Measurement of new dry period infection rate and evaluation of selective dry cow therapy in control of mastitis DAQ37 1,000

Milk production from perennial and annual grass clover irrigated swards with DAQ45 5,000

varying levels of nitrogen fertilizer

10,000

20

RESEARCH PROGRAMME ALLOCATING (continued)

Department of Agriculture, Victoria Metabolic diseases limiting production in dairy cows DAV54 7,000

Studies on specific aspects of prevention and treatment of calf diarrhoea DAV57 8,950

Causes and control of root rot of irrigated subterranean clover in Northern Victoria DAV59b 18,685 Efficient milk production from temperate rain-fed pastures DAV61 35,000

Selection of dry cow therapy for mastitis control DAV70 38,440

Potential application for biosynthetic bovine growth hormone in the Australian DAV71 40,550

dairy industry ·

Improved diagnostic tests for Johne's disease DAV72 6,000

Machine milking and mastitis DAV73 7,500

Development and utilization of a dairy farm financial model DAV74 5.000

The effect of the proportion of clover on short and long term productivity of DAV75 19,250

temperate pastures

186,375

Department of Agriculture, South Australia Dairy heifer growth and mammary gland development DAS9 13,550

Grain legumes in dairy rations DAS20 25,500

39,050

Department of Agriculture, Tasmania Comparative reproductive performance o f dairy cows DAT 13 3,550

University of Queensland Pathogenesis of bovine mastitis UQ1 12,500

University of Newcastle Lymphocyte traffic and the local immune response in the ruminant mammary gland UNC 3,000

University of Sydney Improvement of the efficiency of milk production US12 38,126

Maximum profit systems for dairying U SB 17,916

56,042

University of New South Wales Isolation and analysis of cloned DNA sequences specifying bovine caseins UN5 3,360

LaTrobe University The use of labile tissue reserves in early lactation LU3 11,550

Australian Dairy Farmers Federation Australian dairy herd improvement scheme ADFF1 241,534

Supportive strategic research for ADHIS ADFF1 17,730

Dissemination of research results and improved techniques to dairy farmers ADFF2 33,333

292,597

Australian Dairy Research Committee Cow response to nutrient intake ADRC 29,667

Farm Total 710,666

MANUFACTURING RESEARCH PROJECTS 1983-84

Project Code Allocation

($)

CSIRO Starter Culture Collection CS17 17,768

Control of phage in cheese factories CS18 69,922

Functional properties of WPC and of lactose hydrolysed whey products CS22 55,916

Membrane processing to reduce costs of milk transport and processing CS33 66,366

Biochemical and genetic processes in lactic acid bacteria CS34 10,144

220,116

Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Fluorogenic media for rapid differential bacterial count DAQ33 3.000

Structure and function of membrane material in milk and dairy products DAQ41 3,000

Industrial application of enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays DAQ42 15.500

Quantification of effects of raw milk quality on product yield DAQ44 20,000

Lipolysis in milk and dairy products DAQ46 3,000

Acceleration of flavour development in cheese DAQ47 5,100

49,600

21

MANUFACTURING RESEARCH PROJECTS 1983-84 (continued)

Department of Agriculture, New South Wales Rapid screening of salmonella in dairy products Department of Agriculture, Victoria

DAN22 20,260

Plasmids and genetic improvement of lactic acid bacteria DAV55 12,900

Effect of milk/whey protein concentrates on fermentation characteristics of milk DAV56 3,400

Improvement of efficiency of energy used in Australian dairy factories DAV68 14,500

Investigations of non-phage inhibition in starter activity DAV69 7,100

Application of membrane processing technology to reduce milk transport costs DAV76 11,500

49,400

Department of Agriculture, South Australia Practical benefits for cheese manufacture by using milk from cows with superior milk protein genotype DAS 17 8,000

Department of Agriculture, Western Australia Visit by DAW researcher 5,000

University of New South Wales Examination of factors affecting milk curd syneresis UN6 3,450

Kinetic analysis of milk starter production and commercial monitoring of bulk starter growth UN3 26,487

29,937

University of Melbourne Comparative study of holding properties of Cheddar cheese UM4 56,000

Australian Society of Dairy Technology Publication of dairy technology research results ASDT1 3,990

Australian Dairy Corporation Improved starter system for short method cheese TSG1 33,200

Factory Derived Culture Development Committee Cheese starter improvement project CDC 22,265

Manufacturing Total 497,768

EDUCATION

1984 Education Appropriation

ADMINISTRATION AND CONTINGENCIES

ADRC Operations and Administration Annual Report and Publications Program contingencies

Allocation ( $) 55,000

116.000 6,000 53,000

175,000

PROGRAM TOTAL 1983-84: $1,438,434

22

DAIRYING RESEARCH TRUST ACCOUNT

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS FOR THE PERIOD 1 JULY 1983 TO 30 JUNE 1984

Balance as at 1 July 1983 895,456.41

Receipts Dairy Research Levy Commonwealth Contributions Interest on Investments

Sales of Assets and Produce Penalties Realisation of Investments

592,621.92 644,519.08 114,214.14 29,478.53

109.84 2,500.00 1,383,443.51

Total Receipts 2,278,899.92

Payments CS1RO State Departments of Agriculture Universities and Research Institutes Technical Services Group

Education Publications Administration

Refund of unexpended grants

Balance as at 30 June 1984

285.151.00 368,807.08 479,342.83 48,506.91

53,103.34 6,073.00 102.064.00

1,343,048.16 28,607.57 1,314,440.59

964,459.33

The above figures are based on information supplied by the Department of Primary Industry.

23