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National Measurement Act - National Standards Commission - Report - 1994-95


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N ational Standards C om m ission

Annual Report 1994-95

N ational Standards C om m ission

Annual Report 1994-95

This annual report meets the requirements of section 8 of the Freedom o f Information Act 1982 which requires that departments and prescribed agencies publish annual statements on their organisation, functions, decision-making powers, consultative arrangements, categories of documents maintained and facilities and procedures to enable members of the

public to obtain access to documents under the Act.

© Commonwealth of Australia 1995 ISSN 0159-4710

Published by the National Standards Commission

12 Lyonpark Road, North Ryde, NSW 2113 PO Box 282, North Ryde, NSW 2113

Telephone: (02)888 3922 Facsimile: (02) 888 3033

Printed by KJR Print Group, PO Box 351, Condell Park, NSW 2200

Senator the Honourable Chris Schacht Minister for Small Business, Customs and Construction Parliament House Canberra, ACT 2600

Sir

In accordance with section 19C of the National Measurement Act 1960, 1 have pleasure in submitting to you, for presentation to Parliament, the annual report of the National Standards Commission. The annual report covers the period I July 1994 to 30 June 1995.

Yours faithfully

Professor H.J. Goldsmid Chairman

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Members of the Commission at 30 June 1995 (from left to right: John Gilmour, Bill Wedderburn, John Birch, Julian Goldsmid (Chairman), Judith Stockdale, Doreen Clark and Barry Inglis)

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CHAIRMAN’S OVERVIEW Although this year has seen significant achievements by the National Standards Commission, and progress over the whole range of its responsibilities, there is now a threat to our continued existence. This threat comes from the Report of the Committee of Inquiry

set up by the Minister to review Australia's standards and conformance infrastructure. The Report, which was tabled in March, included a number of recommendations that have a direct bearing on the work of the Commission. The Committee of Inquiry drew largely from the submission by the Commission in reviewing the present status of Australia's

measurement system and highlighted two major areas of concern. These are the non­ uniform administration of trade measurement in the States and Territories and the decline in the funding of standards work at the National Measurement Laboratory of the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics.

Unfortunately, the Committee of Inquiry failed to recognise the key role that the Commission plays in giving independent technical advice to the Minister, in acting as the Australian representative to the International Organisation of Legal Metrology, in developing a national metrology policy and in its legal metrology and coordination

responsibilities. Consequently, the recommendation by the Committee of Inquiry that the Commission should be disbanded and that its work should be absorbed by the Department of Industry, Science and Technology and by CSIRO is not only ill-founded but impractical.

I am confident that the Government will not, in fact, disband the Commission but rather will draw on its experience to find workable solutions to the problems that clearly exist. I agree with the Committee of Inquiry that the enactment and administration of the Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation in the States and Territories has proved unsatisfactory and

that national legislation and administration is needed. I also agree that our primary standards of measurement are at risk unless funding of the National Measurement Laboratory at a satisfactory level is guaranteed.

The preparation of submissions to the Committee of Inquiry and of responses to its Report have, of course, occupied much of the time of the senior staff of the Commission. Nevertheless, the Commission has been responsible for some noteworthy initiatives over the year. Perhaps the highlight has been our action in inaugurating the Asia-Pacific Legal

Metrology Forum, the first meeting of which was held in Sydney in November. Australia will continue to provide the secretarial for the second meeting in Beijing later this year. Arising out of the first meeting, the Commission has coordinated the publication of the Directory o f Legal Metrology in the Asia-Pacific. The Commission also took the initiative

in setting up a South-West Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.

These activities were deemed necessary in view of the increasing importance of international liaison in the field of legal metrology. The Executive Director of the Commission, John Birch, continues to represent Australia on the international committee and the Presidential Council of the International Organisation of Legal Metrology and is,

therefore, immediately aware of developments overseas. One of these developments is the mutual recognition of test results. This will undoubtedly change the emphasis of the work in the Commission's laboratory over the coming years; fewer new instruments will be submitted for pattern approval but there will be a need for some sampling tests to ensure

that measuring instruments in the field conform to the approved patterns.

Our development of a national metrology policy has continued through the Commission’s specialist committees. One of the most active has been the Chemical Metrology Committee which has made significant progress. Notable has been the recognition by all the interested parties that a national analytical reference laboratory must be established though, at present, we have been unsuccessful in obtaining funds for this project. However, the Commission has been very successful in competing for funds for other projects. For example, substantial grants were received to enable us to organise the two regional forums that have already been mentioned. Funding has been obtained for the preparation of a measurement in sport kit for use in high schools. We have also been able to obtain support for the Australian contribution to the Pacific Rim International Time Transfer Experiment, a fundamental measurement to be carried out in association with the United States of America.

The inclusion of utility meters among the responsibilities of the Commission is relatively new but, with the enthusiastic support of the supply instrumentalities, rapid progress is being made. Likewise, the law enforcement agencies now recognise the dangers of unsound measurements in the furtherance of their work and are increasingly calling on us for assistance.

Needless to say, the staff of the Commission have had to bear a very heavy load this year but they have continued to perform their duties with goodwill as well as competence. It is fitting, therefore, that an enterprise agreement has been concluded and it is expected that this will result in further productivity gains. As always, the Executive Director has made a most significant contribution and he has been well supported by the other senior staff.

The terms of office of two Commission members were completed during the year. Bill Blevin made an outstanding contribution to the Commission from 1980 to 1994, serving as Chairman from 1981 to 1985. His long service was appropriate in view of his recognition as Australia's leading measurement scientist. Will Morgan’s term was completed in March. During his four years as a Commission member his advice, particularly in the area of trade measurement, was always sound and well appreciated. We are pleased to welcome Barry

Inglis, the new Chief Standards Scientist at the National Measurement Laboratory of the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, to the Commission. There are, however, still three vacant positions and it is hoped that these positions will soon be filled. In spite of this, we have been able to meet the quorum at our regular meetings, an indication of the conscientious approach that all Commission members have to their responsibilities. I am grateful to them for their support.

Professor H.J. Goldsmid Chairman

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CONTENTS

NATIONAL STANDARDS COMMISSION........................................................................... 1

Enabling Legislation............................................................................................................ 1

Responsible Minister............................................................................................................ 1

Functions............................................................................................................................... 1

Membership..........................................................................................................................2

Corporate P lan..................................................................................................................... 2

ACHIEVEMENTS FOR THE YEAR...................................................................................... 3

POLICY ADVICE AND DEVELOPMENT............................................................................6

Metrology Policy................................................................................................................. 6

Review of Standards and Conformance Infrastructure..................................................... 7

Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum................................................................................. 8

South-West Pacific Legal Metrology Forum....................................................................10

International Liaison..........................................................................................................10

Provision of Ministerial Advice........................................................................................11

COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM........................... 12

Metrology Skills................................................................................................................. 12

National Time System........................................................................................................13

Chemical Metrology...........................................................................................................14

Industrial Measurements................................................................................................... 16

Medical Measurements..................................................................................................... 16

Liaison Within the National Measurement System.........................................................17

LEGAL METROLOGY............................................................................................................17

National Legislation...........................................................................................................17

Certified Reference Materials...........................................................................................18

Verifying Authorities.........................................................................................................18

Legal Measuring Instruments............................................................................................19

Utility Meters..................................................................................................................... 19

Metrication......................................................................................................................... 20

TRADE MEASUREMENT UNIFORMITY..........................................................................21

A National Trade Measurement System...........................................................................21

Liaison Within the Uniform Trade Measurement System.............................................. 23

Accreditation of Licensees................................................................................................24

Uniform Training for Trade Measurement Inspectors................................................... 24

Temperature Correction of Fuel Sales.............................................................................25

TRADE MEASUREMENT INFRASTRUCTURE............................................................... 26

Pattern Approval Documentation......................................................................................26

Laboratory Quality Assurance...........................................................................................26

Electromagnetic Susceptibility..........................................................................................27

National Flow Facility........................................................................................................27

Natural Gas for Vehicles................................................................................................... 28

Volume Measurement of Freight......................................................................................28

PATTERN APPROVAL...........................................................................................................29

Examination and Certification of Measuring Instruments.............................................. 29

Industry Liaison Committee.............................................................................................. 30

Pattern Assurance............................................................................................................... 31

INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION.......................................................................31

Information Dissemination................................................................................................ 31

OIML Documentation........................................................................................................32

CORPORATE SERVICES...................................................................................................... 33

Staff..................................................................................................................................... 33

Enterprise Agreement.........................................................................................................34

Industrial Democracy.........................................................................................................34

Staff Training and Development.......................................................................................34

Occupational Health and Safety........................................................................................34

Equal Employment Opportunities.................................................................................... 35

Computing and Information Services............................................................................... 35

Environmental Matters.......................................................................................................35

Consultancy Services.........................................................................................................35

Social Justice, Access and Equity.................................................................................... 35

Freedom of Information.................................................................................................... 36

AUDITOR GENERAL’S REPORT....................................................................................... 37

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS................................................................................................. 39

COMMISSION MEMBERS AND THEIR TERMS OF APPOINTMENT AT 30 JUNE 1995............................................................................................................................54

STAFF AT 30 JUNE 1995....................................................................................................... 55

MEMBERSHIP OF EXTERNAL ORGANISATIONS.........................................................56

PUBLICATIONS...................................................................................................................... 58

CHECKLIST OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS............................................................. 62

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NATIONAL STANDARDS COMMISSION

Enabling Legislation In 1948 the Commonwealth Government enacted the Weights and Measures (National Standards) Act to provide for a system of legal units and standards of physical measurement. The Act was substantially amended in 1960 and 1984 and now, as the

National Measurement Act 1960, has the following objectives:

• to establish a national system of units and standards of measurement of physical quantities;

• to provide for the uniform use of those uniform units and standards of measurement throughout Australia;

• to coordinate the operation of the national system of measurement; and

• to bring about the use of the metric system of measurement in Australia as the sole system of measurement of physical quantities.

The Commission was established in 1950 to administer the legislation and to advise the Government on matters relating to the Australian national measurement system.

Responsible Minister The Commission comes within the Industry, Science and Technology Portfolio. Senator the Honourable Chris Schacht, the Minister for Small Business, Customs and Construction, has responsibility for the Commission, although policy matters are subject to mutual

consultation and decision between Senator Schacht and Senator the Honourable Peter Cook, Minister for Industry, Science and Technology.

Functions The functions of the Commission are:

• to furnish advice to the Minister on matters relating to the administration of the National Measurement Act;

• to promote and coordinate the use in Australia of a uniform system of units and standards of measurement of physical quantities;

• to consult and cooperate with appropriate State and Territory authorities on matters relating to legal metrology and the use of units of measurement in the packaging of articles for sale;

• to consult and cooperate with the International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML) and other appropriate international organisations on matters relating to legal metrology;

• to examine and approve patterns of measuring instruments;

• to take appropriate steps to ascertain whether measuring instruments with an approved pattern are in accordance with the pattern;

• to promote the adoption in the States and Territories of uniform legislation relating to:

• patterns of measuring instruments for use for trade; and

• the use of units of measurement in the packaging of articles for sale;

• to provide information relating to units of measurement and standards of measurement; and

• to bring about progressively the use of the metric system of measurement in Australia as the sole system of measurement of physical quantities.

These activities require close interaction with industry (particularly the trade measurement industry), commerce, consumers, Commonwealth and State/Territory government authorities, and other organisations involved in the measurement system to ensure that national needs are identified and met.

Membership The Commission consists of a chairperson, the Executive Director and eight other members. Currently there are three vacancies to be filled. Two of the Commission members are women and five are men. A list of Commission members and their terms of appointment are given on page 54.

During the year Dr W.R. Blevin’s and Mr W.H. Morgan’s terms of appointment concluded. Dr 13.D. Inglis, Chief Standards Scientist at the National Measurement Laboratory of the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, was appointed as a Commission member.

The Commission held four meetings and one teleconference during the year. The main topics discussed included the Review of Australia’s Standards and Conformance Infrastructure, metrological control of water meters and natural gas for vehicles, the Asia- Pacific Legal Metrology Forum, the proposal for a national analytical reference laboratory, the Commission’s enterprise agreement, pattern approval fees and procedures, mutual recognition of pattern approval testing and capital expenditure.

Corporate Plan As a means of assessing the degree to which the Commission's statutory requirements are met, a corporate plan is prepared each year. The corporate plan lists the Commission's major programs, identifies projects within the programs and sets targets for the projects. The percentages of the Commission’s resources allocated to each of the programs are shown in Figure 1. The format of this annual report follows that of the programs outlined in the corporate plan.

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Corporate Services 29%

National Metrology

Policy 3%

National Measurement System

* Legal Metrology

6%

Information and Documentation 5% Pattern Approval

25%

Trade Measurement

Uniformity 5%

Trade Measurement Infrastructure

16%

Figure 1. Allocation of resources to each of the Commission’s programs.

ACHIEVEMENTS FOR THE YEAR The principal targets in the 1994-95 corporate plan are set out below, together with a report on progress. Further information about these programs is provided in the text of this annual report.

Target

Prepare the next draft of the Commission's paper on strategic analysis of the national measurement system.

Progress

Completed, but release delayed by the Review of Australia's Standards and Conformance Infrastructure. See page 7.

Organise the Asia-Pacific Legal i Metrology Forum.

Organise the South-West Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.

»

Prepare the Directory o f Legal Metrology in the Asia-Pacific.

Prepare a proposal requesting funding from the Department of Industry, Science and Technology to develop an education kit, Measurement in Sport.

it

Completed. See pages 8 and 9.

Completed. See page 10.

Completed. See page 9.

Completed and funding was granted. See page 13.

.

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Complete the module descriptors for the national training course for calibration technicians.

Redraft assessment packages for the modules of the national training course.

Develop competency standards in chemical metrology at the technician level and gain acceptance of the concept of competency standards in chemical

metrology at the professional level.

Convene meetings of the National Time Committee to advise the Commission on strategies and actions in the area of national time infrastructure.

Fund and monitor the operation of the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group in providing Australia's contribution to coordinated

universal time.

Fund and monitor the operation of Radio VNG, Australia’s standard frequency and time signal.

Develop proposals, options and recommendations for a national analytical reference laboratory and a reference laboratory network to ensure the validity of chemical measurements.

Through the Medical Measurements Committee, investigate means to introduce metrological controls to ensure the accuracy of medical measurements.

Prepare a determination on the manner of specifying legal units of measurement.

Almost complete. See page 12.

Completed apart from some modules where it has been difficult to find suitable technical assistance. See page 12.

Completed. See pages 12 and 13.

Ongoing. See page 13.

Ongoing. See page 13.

Ongoing. See page 13.

A proposal for a national analytical reference laboratory was prepared and submitted for funding. However it did not attract funding at that time. See pages 15 and 16.

In progress. A pilot study has started to investigate the validity of measurements made by three diagnostic instrument. See page 17.

Completed. See page 18.

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Make and gazette regulations for the metrological control of legal (namely police, occupational health and safety and environmental monitoring)

measuring instruments.

Develop procedures to ensure accurate surveying measurements using signals from global positioning system.

Finalise draft regulations for the appointment of certifying authorities and have regulations promulgated and framework for appointments in place

and operating.

Assess trade measurement authorities and surveyors general according to the timetable.

Establish a subcommittee to develop the requirements for pattern approval, verification and reverification of water meters.

Prepare a ministerial brief concerning the need to amend the National Measurement Act to provide for the

metrological control of water meters.

Arrange a meeting of the electricity utilities to discuss a system for the pattern approval, verification and reverification of meters.

Undertake a review of the acceptance of metrication by means of a survey of the print medium.

Liaise with State and Territory Governments through the Standing Committee of Officials of Consumer Affairs and the Ministerial Council on

Consumer Affairs about trade measurement matters.

Not completed. State government authorities have been reluctant to accept the need for accurate measurement and have only now accepted their vulnerability to court action. See page f9.

Not completed. See page f4 .

Not completed. Final draft regulations have been approved by the Chemical Metrology Committee but have yet to be made. See page 17.

Completed. See page 19.

Completed and relevant documents are being developed. See page 19.

Completed. See page 11 and page 20.

Completed. See page 20.

Deferred because of lack of resources. See page 21.

A number of significant issues have been dealt with. See page 23.

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Support the international Ongoing. See page 32.

harmonisation of standards for legal metrology by participating in relevant OIML committees.

Develop and revise the Commission's Ongoing. See page 26. pattern approval specifications to maximise international harmonisation.

Carry out pattern approval Ongoing. See page 30.

examinations of trade measuring instruments according to the laboratory quality manual in a timely manner.

In addition, progress has been made on the following initiatives that were not originally included in the 3994-95 corporate plan.

Target

Prepare a proposal for a metrology for competitiveness program to raise awareness of industry about the benefits of improved metrology.

Provide information for, and respond to, recommendations of the Review of Australia's Standards and Conformance Infrastructure.

Progress

Completed and currently being considered by the Department of Industry, Science and Technology. See page 16.

Completed. This continues to consume a considerable amount of the Commission's resources. See pages 7 and 8 .

POLICY ADVICE AND DEVELOPMENT

Metrology Policy The policy advice provided by the Commission principally relates to amendments to the legislation. Recent examples of this advice include:

• amendment to define civil time in terms of coordinated universal time;

• amendments to provide for mandatory metrological requirements and certification for specified utility meters and legal measuring instruments;

• inclusion of certified reference materials in the traceability provision of the National Measurement Act; and

• redefining the prescription of units in the National Measurement Regulations.

Provision of this advice usually requires significant consultation with other government authorities, industry and community organisations.

6

To provide a focus for this advice, in 1994 the Commission commenced the development of a strategic analysis of the national measurement system with particular emphasis on the impact of new technology and changes in the use of measurement in industry and the marketplace. The analysis has also considered the contribution that measurement makes to

industrial development, international trade, the introduction of new technology and the minimisation of transaction costs. The development of this analysis was deferred following the establishment of an independent review into Australia's standards and conformance infrastructure (see below).

Review of Standards and Conformance Infrastructure The Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Australia's Standards and Conformance Infrastructure was tabled in Parliament in March. Major recommendations included amendment of the National Measurement Act to include:

• trade measurement requirements of the Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation and to be administered by the Commonwealth Government;

• mandatory requirements for pattern approval, verification and reverification of utility meters;

• mandatory requirements for specified legal measurement instruments based on OIML recommendations; and

• definition of coordinated universal time and Australia's national time zones.

All of these recommendations arose from the Commission's submission to the Committee of Inquiry and were welcomed by the Commission. However, the Commission unanimously rejected the recommendation to disband the Commission and:

• transfer the Commission's responsibilities for pattern approval testing and coordination of the national measurement system to the CSIRO National Measurement Laboratory or privatise the testing;

• transfer the Commission's responsibility for advising the Minister on the administration of the National Measurement Act to the Department of Industry, Science and Technology; and

• replace the Commission with an office of weights and measures in the Department of Industry, Science and Technology.

The Commission is concerned that these sweeping changes were not mentioned in the discussion paper issued by the Committee of Inquiry in December, were not subject to any significant consultation with the Commission and were not supported by the text of the Report or the independent survey of industry and industry associations conducted for the

Committee.

Since its establishment in 1950 the Commission's statutory status has provided a responsible, transparent and accountable structure within which some of Australia’s most eminent scientists and technologists have been able to contribute to the development of the national measurement system.

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Past members of the Commission include Professor Sir Leonard Huxley (Chairman 1950­ 1965), Professor R. Street AO (Chairman 1965-1978), Sir Frederick White (member 1967­ 1979), Dr P.N. Richards AM (member and Chairman 1984-1989), Dr W.R. Blevin AM (member and Chairman 1980-1994), Professor R.A. Williams (member 1980-1984) and Professor R.E. Collins (member and Chairman 1984-1987).

The Commission's statutory structure is similar to that of the other leading national legal metrology authorities and is important in developing and maintaining specialist staff and for conducting coordination responsibilities with a wide range of Commonwealth, State

and Territory regulatory authorities.

The Commission believes that the proposal by the Committee of Inquiry to separate the legislative, coordination and policy responsibilities was dysfunctional and would make the system less responsive to the changing needs of the national measurement system. The Commission's proposals on national trade measurement legislation, the national control of

utility meters and legal measuring instruments and a national civil time system, which were all endorsed by the Committee of Inquiry, arose because the Commission had responsibility for legislation, coordination and policy advice. These three responsibilities are integral to an effective legal metrology system.

The proposal to transfer pattern approval of measuring instruments from the Commission to CSIRO failed to recognise the conflict for CSIRO with its research role. Since pattern approval was transferred from the States to the Commission in 1965 the Commission has established an international reputation for the quality of its testing and the contribution it makes to international harmonisation of standards. All of the testing is done on a full cost- recovery basis. The privatisation of pattern approval would provide a major impediment to

the current moves to establish mutual recognition arrangements with Europe and the Asia- Pacific countries.

The Commission strongly believes that there are major economic advantages in consolidating Government support for the national legal measurement system in one national measurement act administered by one authority. The current fragmentation of the system places cost burdens on industry and reduces confidence in the consistency of measurement throughout the nation.

Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum Thirty delegates from fourteen APEC legal metrology authorities attended the inaugural Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum in Sydney in November (see Figure 2). The Forum, convened by the Commission and chaired by Professor Goldsmid, responded to the APEC Heads of Government Bogor Declaration, ten days earlier, to establish a free-trade zone in

the region by 2020.

The Forum was opened by Senator the Honourable Chris Schacht, Minister for Small Business, Customs and Construction, who emphasised the central role of legal metrology in harmonising technical regulations and achieving mutual recognition of measurement and testing results. The Forum was also addressed by Bernard Athan6 (Director of the Paris-

based International Bureau of Legal Metrology), Dr Barry Inglis (Convenor of the Asia- Pacific Metrology Program) and Ann-Margaret Gilmour (Secretary of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation).

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The Forum elected John Birch, Executive Director of the Commission, to be convenor of the Forum until 1998 and agreed to a work program for 1995 which included publication of a directory of legal metrology in the Asia-Pacific and the formation of working parties:

• to harmonise legislative requirements including compliance assessment for legal metrology;

• to conduct an intercomparison on the pattern approval testing of non-automatic weighing instruments and mass standards;

• to identify opportunities for training in legal metrology and exchange of staff between legal metrology authorities; and

• to harmonise requirements for prepacked articles.

Figure 2. John Birch (Convenor), Julian Goldsmid (Chairman) and Bernard Alhand (Director of the International Bureau of Legal Metrology) at the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.

In February John Birch attended a meeting of the APEC Standards and Conformance Subcommittee in Fukuoka, Japan, and reported on the Forum program. Two meetings have also been held with the four other regional standards and conformance organisations to

coordinate regional programs.

In March the first edition of the Directory of Legal Metrology in the Asia-Pacific was published. The Directory provides a detailed description of the legislation, organisational structure and technical capability of sixteen of the APEC legal metrology authorities.

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Surveys have also been conducted by the working parties on legislative harmonisation, on requirements for goods packed by measurement and on training. Planning is also well advanced for intercomparisons on calibration of mass standards and pattern approval testing of non-automatic weighing instruments and load cells. All these matters will be discussed at the second Forum meeting to be held in Beijing in October 1995.

South-West Pacific Legal Metrology Forum The Commission was able to obtain funding for delegates from legal metrology authorities in seven South-West Pacific nations to attend the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.

Following the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum the South-West Pacific nations met at the Commission with delegates from Australia and New Zealand legal metrology authorities.

This was a most valuable meeting which provided an analysis of the needs of these small island states. A series of action proposals were adopted which included:

• publication of a directory of South-West Pacific legal metrology;

• conducting an intercomparison of mass and volume standards in the region;

• overseas development assistance for legal metrology in the South-West Pacific;

• regionally harmonised requirements for prepacked goods;

• higher priority to be given to training legal metrology staff; and

• a proposal for a second South-West Pacific Legal Metrology Forum meeting in 1996.

The Directory o f Legal Metrology in the South-West Pacific was published in March and the Commission is currently negotiating funding for the proposed program.

International Liaison The Commission provides Australian representation on the International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML), an intergovernmental organisation established in 1955 under a convention to which Australia acceded in 1959. OIML coordinates legal metrology in member countries and develops model regulations in fields of metrology and measurement techniques.

OIML has a secretariat located in Paris, the International Bureau of Legal Metrology, which centralises the work of technical committees located in member countries. The distribution of technical committees and their work plans are supervised by the International Committee of Legal Metrology in which all member countries are represented. The president of the International Committee of Legal Metrology convenes an advisory body, the Presidential Council. There is also a Development Council which addresses problems of developing countries. John Birch, Executive Director of the Commission, is Australia's representative on the International Committee of Legal Metrology and is also one of six members of the Presidential Council.

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In October Mr Birch attended meetings in Paris of the International Committee of Legal Metrology and a meeting of its Development Council. Whilst in Paris Mr Birch also visited the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and the French Metrology Service. Following the Paris meetings Mr Birch attended the biennial meeting in Hong

Kong of the International Laboratory Accreditation Conference.

In February Mr Birch attended a meeting of the OIML Presidential Council in Paris, visited the National Weights and Measures Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory and the Laboratory of the Government Chemist all in London, attended the Measurement Science Conference in Anaheim, United States of America, and meetings of the APEC

Standards and Conformance Subcommittee in Fukuoka, Japan.

During the year the Commission has hosted a wide range of visits from overseas industry and government authorities. In June nine delegates from the Tokyo Chapter of the Japanese Weights and Measures Association visited the Commission (see Figure 3). A major item of discussion was mutual recognition of pattern approval tests in the Asia-

Pacific region. The Commission continues to provide advice, publications and information on legal metrology and pattern approval testing to legal metrology authorities in the Pacific and Indian Ocean regions.

Figure 3. Discussions between the Commission and delegates from the Japanese Weights and Measures Association.

Provision of Ministerial Advice Advice was provided during the year to both Senator Cook and Senator Schacht on a range of issues including mutual recognition, national metrology policy, temperature compensation of petroleum, appointments to the Commission, management of the trade

measurement system, the national trade measurement system, metrological control of water meters, the trade measurement licensees accreditation scheme and perpetual calendars.

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COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM The national measurement system provides a coherent formal system which ensures that measurements can be made on a consistent basis throughout the country. It comprises all the activities and mechanisms in the Australian community that provide physical measurement data. These data provide a quantitative basis for decisions in all aspects of our life - commerce, industry, science, engineering, international trade, health and safety.

Metrology Skills The Measurement Skills Committee was established in 1989 in response to concerns expressed by the Department of Defence about the lack of training available for calibration technicians. Results of a survey conducted by the Measurement Skills Committee confirmed the concerns of the Department of Defence and indicated a need to establish a

formal training program within TAPE. In 1990 the Department of Employment, Education and Training provided funding for the development of national modules at the advanced certificate and associate diploma level specialising in metrology and calibration.

Industry working parties developed draft module descriptors for the electrical-electronic and physical strands of the courses and TAPE was contracted to refine the descriptors and develop assessment guides to complete the module packages. The packages were unsatisfactory, largely because the module descriptors were not refined adequately.

The Commission has addressed this issue by reworking the module descriptors with TAPE teachers and managing the redrafting of the assessment guides. This process is now almost complete despite some difficulty in finding the appropriate technical expertise in one of the subject areas. The module packages are part of TAPE’S Engineering Technician and

Engineering Associate National Curriculum Project and are now available at selected TAPE colleges.

Although it is accepted that the training achieved through modules such as these is well overdue if Australia is to remain internationally competitive, there is still a great deal of work to be done to coordinate the demand from industry to enable TAPE to fund and run the training. To these ends the Commission has been working closely with TAPE and industry training advisory bodies to promote training using these modules through industry meetings, conferences, magazine articles and mailouts.

Since the formation of the Measurement Skills Committee, the Commission has become increasingly aware of the need to become more active in promoting the economic and technical importance of measurement skills. As a result the Measurement Skills Committee is also investigating other areas of the workforce where competencies and skills in measurement have not kept pace with technology, industry's requirements or society's expectations.

This has resulted in a joint project with the Chemical Metrology Committee, Chemical and Oil Learning Australia (the industry training advisory body for the chemical industry) and the Royal Australian Chemical Institute to develop national competency standards in chemical metrology to the technician level. These national competency standards have

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been accredited by the National Training Board. The concept of extending this project to develop competency standards in chemical metrology to the professional level has been agreed in principle by the Commission, the Royal Australian Chemical Institute and Chemical and Oil Learning Australia, and funding is being sought. The Measurement Skills

Committee is also investigating the development of competency standards in the trade measurement area.

As well as this, the Measurement Skills Committee is currently developing, with funding from the Department of Industry, Science and Technology, an education kit, Measurement in Sport, for junior high school students. This kit is being designed to develop an understanding of measurement and the role it plays in our society, through the topic of sport. The New South Wales Department of School Education, Australian Science Teachers' Association, Science Teachers’ Association of New South Wales and Australian

Sports Commission are members of the steering committee to ensure that the kit is in line with systems of education and the needs of teachers across Australia.

National Time System A coherent lime system is an important component of Australia's measurement infrastructure. It underpins existing technologies and enables new technologies, innovation and increased competitiveness. The national time system comprises a large range of

activities for the measurement, dissemination and use of time in applications from high- precision science and technology to less-precise and routine applications in business and the general community. Examples of the use of very precise time include satellite navigation systems, the measurement of continental drift and high speed computer and data communications networks such as the Information Super Highway or Internet.

Coordination of the national time system is effected through the Commission's National Time Committee. The Committee includes representatives from organisations involved with the measurement, dissemination, use and administration of time. These include the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group, the National Measurement Laboratory

of the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, Telstra, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation and the Commission. A representative of New Zealand's Measurement Standards Laboratory also sits on the Committee to facilitate regional liaison.

The Commission convenes regular meetings of the National Time Committee to consider the maintenance and development of Australia's time infrastructure and its relationship to the international time system. The Commission funds and monitors the operation of the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group in providing Australia’s contribution to

coordinated universal time and the Commission also owns the transmitting licence for Radio VNG, Australia's standard frequency and lime signal service, and is responsible for its funding and operation.

Radio VNG is operated by Airservices Australia (formally the Civil Aviation Authority) on the Commission's behalf from their international transmitting station at Llandilo in New South Wales. During the year, two spare STC transmitters were acquired for use with this

service from the National Transmission Agency and a radio station in the Blue Mountains. Quotes for the installation of these transmitters for use with the 2.5 MHz service and as backup for the existing plant have been sought, and work on their installation will commence subject to funding.

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The feasibility of introducing a low-frequency radio service for time dissemination with time pieces that automatically correct themselves to the time signal as in Europe has also been considered.

The Commission provided advice to the Commonwealth Government and State Governments on civil time matters including time legislation, daylight saving arrangements and time zones. In particular the Legislative Council of the Parliament of South Australia

set up a select committee to consider changing the time zone arrangements in South Australia. The Commission provided two submissions to the select committee and appeared before them to give verbal evidence. The select committee will ultimately recommend whether the time zone for South Australia returns to its original position or value (namely 30 minutes behind the current time zone) or is advanced by 30 minutes to align South Australia with the east coast of Australia.

The Commission has obtained Government approval for the inclusion of coordinated universal time in the National Measurement Act as the basis of civil time and has begun liaising with the National Time Committee and the Parliamentary draughtsman on the

drafting of the amendment.

An international experiment to investigate the geographical dependence of latitude effect on time transfers between the United States of America and the Australasian region is now underway. The experiment primarily involves two-way time transfers between the United States of America and Australia via satellite. The main organisations involved with the technical aspects of the experiment are the United States Naval Observatory, the National Measurement Laboratory and the Australian Land Information Group. The experiment is now called the Pacific Rim International Time Transfer Experiment and is partially supported by the Commission through the Department of Industry, Science and Technology's international science and technology program. The Commission is also a member of the Australian organising committee for this collaboration.

The traceability of global positioning system time measurements and the use of global positioning system time signals for land surveying and time dissemination are also under consideration.

At a meeting held in May 1993 with representatives of the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group, the National Measurement Laboratory and other interested persons, it was agreed that the

Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping would draft documents to ensure field procedures using global positioning systems for length measurements were traceable to Australian national standards. The documents are expected in late 1995.

Chemical Metrology The quantitative determination of the chemical composition of materials by analytical measurement is an important part of the national measurement system and vital to national and international trade. Analytical measurements are increasingly used in industry, trade, commerce, quality assurance, health and safety, environmental protection, law enforcement and consumer protection.

In recent years there has been international activity to develop the international chemical measurement infrastructure to meet the growing needs, demands and expectations required

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of analytical measurements and to ensure confidence, validity and comparability in measurements of amounts of chemical substance.

In 1992 the Commission convened the Chemical Metrology Committee comprising representatives from industry, laboratories, accreditors and educators in order to:

• ensure that the requirements of the National Measurement Act are appropriate for analytical measurements;

• provide input to the development of a national metrology policy; and

• advise on the development of an Australian analytical measurement system linked to the evolution of the necessary international infrastructure.

During the year various members of the Chemical Metrology Committee contributed to international and regional developments in mutual recognition and the Australian Pacific Economic Cooperation process. In addition they took part in technical programs in quality assurance, traceability and laboratory accreditation organised by the international collaborative group Cooperation in International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry. A

member of the Chemical Metrology Committee is now chairman-elect of this group.

Nationally the Chemical Metrology Committee has promoted consideration of analytical quality in Australian technical, industrial and scientific fora. Trial technical programs have also been developed between key agencies such as ΝΑΤΑ, CSIRO and the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories in fields such as method and reference material

development, proficiency testing and inter-laboratory comparisons.

The Chemical Metrology Committee also collaborated with the Measurement Skills Committee in projects with the National Training Board, industry and professional associations to develop national competency standards in chemical metrology (see pages 12 and 13).

The Commission, in collaboration with Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, ΝΑΤΑ, CSIRO and the School of Chemistry of the University of New South Wales, developed a proposal for a national analytical reference laboratory utilising mass spectrometry as a primary analytical method for the transference of physical measurement

units to widely useable chemical measurement standards and reference materials.

Intended to be located in the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories modern chemical and microbiological analytical laboratories in Sydney, the proposed facility’s national mission is to provide the reference material, calibration and analytical capabilities required to support traceable analytical measurements in all fields. The national analytical

reference laboratory has been designed as the core institutional infrastructure for a national analytical measurement system, and if realised, would place Australia in a strategic i position at the forefront of an economically vital area of science and technology, able to reap major national benefits through the enhancement of trade and the stimulation of

continuing innovation and quality improvement in industry.

' . . . .

The initial proposal for funding of the national analytical reference laboratory under the Commonwealth Government’s major National Research Lacilities Program was unsuccessful. However development of this facility is being considered in the response to

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the recommendations of the Review of Australia’s Standards and Conformance Infrastructure.

Industrial Measurements In 1993 (he Commission established an Industrial Measurements Committee to consider the adequacy of current industrial metrology and to formulate responses to new technology, marketplace reform, resource development and international trade. The Industrial Measurements Committee includes representatives from calibration and testing laboratories, suppliers of measuring equipment and a cross-section of users of industrial measurements. A survey of major users of industrial measurements was conducted in

1993.

The results of the survey were considered by the Industrial Measurements Committee and used to formulate a number of policy options covering the areas of legislative uniformity, adequacy of calibration and test facilities, measurement and quality, impact of new technologies, traceability of measurements and measurement skills. These policy options have been widely circulated to industry for comment and have, together with the submissions received, formed the basis for the industrial measurements section of the Commission’s paper on strategic analysis of the national measurement system (see page 7).

Work on the Commission's strategic analysis is at an advanced stage, however, its completion has been delayed pending the outcome of the Committee of Inquiry into Australia's Standards and Conformance Infrastructure and the Commonwealth Government's response to the committee's recommendations. Work has continued on a proposal for a metrology for competitiveness initiative with the objective of working with a representative selection of small to medium-sized enterprises to produce case studies that demonstrate the link between improved metrology and increased competitiveness. The Commission is currently negotiating funding for this proposal from the Department of

Industry, Science and Technology.

Medical Measurements The control of medical measuring equipment is becoming a significant area of legal metrology. OIML has developed international requirements for a range of medical and health care equipment including sphygmomanometers, audiometers, focimeters and electrocardiographs, however there is no metrological control system for such equipment in Australia.

In March 1991 the Commission held a meeting on medical measuring instruments to discuss the accuracy and traceability of measurements and the calibration infrastructure for such instruments. The Commission then surveyed the medical measurement community to address these issues. The survey showed a lack of legal traceability of measurements for ultrasound, laser and X-ray devices.

In September 1993 the Commission consulted health authorities regarding the metrological control they exert over medical measuring instruments, in particular X-ray devices. The consultations confirmed the Commission’s conjecture that any calibration of medical instruments and checking for accuracy is conducted on a voluntary basis.

In November the Medical Measurements Committee formed to address these issues, reiterated the need for a system of metrological control for medical measuring instruments and resolved to conduct a pilot study of how metrological control could be applied to a particular set of medical measuring instruments. The subcommittee formed to do this decided to conduct pilot studies on diagnostic instruments, namely clinical thermometers,

sphygmomanometers and blood glucose monitors. Manufacturers and distributors of medical instruments have been contacted regarding the proposed pilot studies and NATA- accredited laboratories have been approached to conduct the tests. Test methodologies and protocols will be streamlined with those that operate in Europe and the United States of America.

Liaison Within the National Measurement System The Commission is responsible for coordinating the national measurement system, and it does this through close liaison with the trade measurement and surveying authorities of the States and Territories, CSIRO, other government agencies, Standards Australia, ΝΑΤΑ,

industry, commerce and the community. Commission staff are active on committees of Standards Australia, CSIRO and ΝΑΤΑ and the Commission is also a member of the Monitoring Committee of the Agreement on Standards, Accreditation and Quality and of the Wider Quality Movement (see page 56).

LEGAL METROLOGY Legal metrology comprises all measurements carried out for any legal purpose and includes measurements that are subject to regulation by law or government decree. In addition to those measurements administered by trade measurement authorities, legal metrology also includes the measurement of electricity, gas, water, telephone calls, parking

fines and taxi charges, as well as measurements in areas such as surveying, occupational health and safety (for example acoustic power and ionising radiation) and traffic control (vehicle speed and breathalysers).

Section 10 of the National Measurement Act provides a mechanism to demonstrate that a measurement has been made in terms of Australia’s legal units of measurement, namely that the measurement is traceable.

Traceability is the process whereby a measurement may be referred back to the appropriate Australian primary standard of measurement through a hierarchy of calibrations of increasingly higher accuracy. To ensure traceability, the calibration at each level should be carried out by an accredited organisation. It is important, particularly in international

dealings such as offset and joint-venture contracts and for quality certification, to be able to demonstrate traceability to the national standards and through them to international standards.

National Legislation The National Measurement Act has not been amended this year. Instructions for amendments to define coordinated universal time and to correct minor drafting errors were issued but have not been addressed by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel.

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Amendments for a new manner of prescribing legal units of measurement of physical quantities, dealing with certified reference materials and certifying bodies, and relating to requirements for legal measuring instruments have been combined and these Regulations are to be remade entirely.

A Commission determination has been prepared which prescribes a manner of combining legal prefixes and legal units of measurement.

Amendments to the National Measurement (Patterns of Measuring Instruments) Regulations, for pattern compliance matters, test procedures and tolerances have also been combined and these Regulations are also to be remade.

Certified Reference Materials Standards for chemical analysis are typically embodied in, and disseminated through, reference materials. Reference materials are samples of material or substance, one or more properties of which are sufficiently well established for the calibration of apparatus, the assessment of a measurement method or for assigning values to materials. Reference materials are an increasingly important means of disseminating and transferring a wide range of standards and ensuring consistency, comparability and accuracy for many properties used in industry, trade, commerce and regulation.

Correctly used, appropriate reference materials enable traceable measurement without the necessity of carrying out fundamental procedures. Reference materials also enable innovation, improve quality and promote trade by providing a common basis for the mutual

recognition of important measurements of quantity, properties and parameters.

In 1992, the Government amended the National Measurement Act to provide for traceability through the use of certified reference materials, to enable the appointment of certifying bodies and to enable the certification of appropriate reference materials. The Chemical Metrology Committee has been developing criteria, based on the enabling amendments to the National Measurement Act, for the certification of traceable reference materials and a framework for the appointment of competent certifying bodies. The Commission has held consultations and developed draft regulations which have been endorsed by the Chemical Metrology Committee. However these have not yet been promulgated and implemented.

Verifying Authorities The Commission determines the units and physical standards of measurement that are defined for legal purposes and appoints verifying authorities under Regulation 77 of the National Measurement Regulations. Verifying authorities are able to issue certificates under Regulation 80 for particular classes of standards. These certificates are admissible in court and provide a means of demonstrating that the verification of a standard of measurement complies with the traceability provisions of section 10 of the National Measurement Act. When it is necessary for any legal purpose to do so, section 10 prescribes the requirements for demonstrating the traceability of measurements back to appropriate Australian primary standards.

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Some verifying authorities maintain the State primary standards of physical measurement. These State standards are regularly checked against the Australian primary standards established and maintained by the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, and in turn are used to calibrate lesser standards used by trade measurement authorities, surveying

authorities and other government authorities.

To these ends the Commission and the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics collaborate in reassessments of trade measurement authorities and surveyors general on a three-yearly cycle. A new round of assessments began in July and is scheduled to be completed in June 1996. An inter-laboratory comparison of measurement capability will begin following the

assessments.

Other government bodies having a regulatory need for legally traceable standards of measurement are appointed by the Commission on the basis of ΝΑΤΑ laboratory accreditation and provided that the body holds appropriate reference standards verified under Regulation 80 of the National Measurement Regulations.

In 1982 the Commission resolved that non-government organisations acting as agents of the Government could be appointed as verifying authorities. In 1994 the Commission decided that to strengthen the legal traceability chain, calibration laboratories would be appointed as verifying authorities provided that they had been appropriately accredited by

ΝΑΤΑ. A number of expressions of interest have since been received from laboratories to be appointed as verifying authorities.

Legal Measuring Instruments The Commission provided a speaker to a police conference on breathalysers in August to ensure that all jurisdictions were aware of their responsibilities for traceable measurements under the National Measurement Act. However, at that time, these authorities were not

prepared to follow the recommendations of the Commission. A recent court case in Queensland has highlighted the need for traceability and as a result the Commission has been approached by State and Territory forensic authorities requesting guidance on procedures for demonstrating traceability. A member of the forensic community has been

invited to join the Chemical Metrology Committee.

In the interim, until regulations for legal measuring instruments and certified reference materials have been finalised, the Commission has undertaken to appoint as verifying authorities, laboratories with appropriate ΝΑΤΑ registration that prepare calibration standards for police breathalysers.

Utility Meters The Commission has received expressions of concern from consumer groups about the accuracy and traceability of measurements obtained using utility meters such as telephone, electricity, water, gas, parking and taxi meters. To complement these concerns the

Commission has received complaints from meter manufacturers about the absence of national metering standards. This lack of a national system means that there is a great variation in the technical requirements that meters must meet and has resulted in fragmentation of the market for meters.

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During 1991-92 the Commission undertook a study to ascertain whether or not measurements made by utility meters are accurate and traceable. The Commission also analysed relevant legislation setting out the requirements for utility meters. Of particular interest to the Commission were the requirements for ensuring the accuracy of the meters. This study found a lack of uniformity between the water authorities and the standards they apply to their meters. It also found that only a few water authorities have systems to ensure the in-service accuracy of their meters or could demonstrate the traceability of these measurements.

At present utility meters are exempt from the Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation and are regulated by the State and Territory legislation under which the utility authorities operate. However utility meters still have to comply with the provisions of the National Measurement Act, in particular the requirement for measurements to be traceable to

national standards of measurement.

Discussions with the water authorities, water meter manufacturers and other industry bodies concluded that the best option to ensure a nationally uniform metrological system for water meters was to incorporate requirements for them in the National Measurement Act. A technical subcommittee has met twice during the year to develop draft documents setting out the requirements for the pattern approval, verification and reverification of water meters.

In June the Commission held a meeting of electricity utility authorities to discuss the metrological control of electricity meters. The present system of metrological control is not nationally uniform - at best meters are pattern approved and verified. There is no systematic reverification. There was strong support for national uniformity, the pattern approval, verification and reverification of meters, and incorporation of the metrological requirements for electricity meters into the National Measurement Act.

It was agreed that two subcommittees be established, one to ensure that the appropriate legal units are used and the other to establish the technical requirements that will form the basis of the metrological requirements.

As a consequence of the Commission’s work it has been proposed that the National Measurement Act be amended to include specified utility meters within the provisions of the Act. This will ensure that water and electricity meters are subject to nationally uniform metrological requirements.

Metrication In 1984 the National Measurement Act was amended to give responsibility for the completion of metrication to the Commission. The Commission has made a number of amendments to the Act since that time, withdrawing the remaining non-metric units of measurement from general use.

The Commission operates a free-call telephone service for metric inquiries and also receives written inquiries. In 1994-95 more than three hundred calls were received on the free-call service, a similar rate to 1993-94. The majority of calls (68%) were for conversions, with significant numbers requesting printed material (21%) or legal advice (11%) related to the use of metric units.

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A survey of (he print medium to determine the extent of usage of metric and non-metric units of measurement in reporting and advertising was not undertaken due to lack of resources. It may be undertaken in 1995-96. Previous surveys have shown a decline in the use of imperial units in real estate advertising.

TRADE MEASUREMENT UNIFORMITY Each year goods to the value of more than $300 billion are traded on the basis of measurement. This figure is higher than expected because most produce is measured several times on its way to market. An analysis of the figure shows that retail and consumer protection represents only about one-quarter of trade measurement activity in Australia and

that trade measurement is principally concerned with industrial production for wholesale and export trade.

Trade measurement is evolving to meet increasingly technological demands. The international design specifications for trade measuring instruments now include provisions for the influence of line-borne and radiated electromagnetic interference as well as high humidity. Statistical sampling is replacing manual inspection to ensure compliance with specifications both for prepackaged goods and approved trade measuring instruments.

As measurement capabilities increase, countries are extending the scope of their trade measurement systems to apply not just to the quantity of goods, but also to their quality on the basis that there is little value in a system that provides accurate measurement of substandard goods. This has wide ramifications, from the quality of fuel to the quality of export produce such as wheat and wool, where price is dependent on quality. As an example, measurements of protein content are now required to satisfy the requirements of Australia's various wheat export markets.

A National Trade Measurement System In discussing the need for national trade measurement legislation, the Warden of Standards for Adelaide, R.B. Lucas, wrote in 1891 (Review of Existing Legislation on Weights and Measures in the Australian Colonies, together with a Scheme for Unification o f System in

View o f Federation, South Australian Government Printer):

There remains no need for delay in taking the necessary steps towards unification of the law and of standards: the model Act could be at once drafted, and provision for the federal standards made now. Upon the main points of the matter it is found that all parties are agreed and it is quite possible to take such steps now

as shall be concordant with future action.

At Federation the Constitution provided the Commonwealth Government with the power to legislate for a national trade measurement system. To date the Commonwealth Government has not accepted responsibility for national trade measurement and so Australia has persevered with a non-uniform Slate and Territory-based trade measurement system.

The Commonwealth Government has accepted all-embracing responsibility for measurement by enacting the Weights and Measures (National Standards) Act with the objective of ensuring measurements are what they purport to be and give legal sanction to its national standards of measurements (Second Reading Speech 1948). The National

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Measurement Act also established the Commission, with responsibility for coordinating the national measurement system and advising the Commonwealth Government on the system.

In 1960 the Commonwealth Government enacted the Weights and Measures (National Standards) Act (now the National Measurement Act 1960) and in 1965 responsibility for pattern approval of trade measuring instruments was transferred from the State and Territory administrations to the Commission, at the request of industry, and the National

Measurement Act was amended accordingly.

Following the enactment of the Commonwealth Legislation the Prime Minister wrote to all premiers seeking their agreement to establish an annual Formal Conference on Weights and Measures to be convened by the Commission. The first Formal Conference on Weights and Measures took place in November 1961 and continued to be held until 1986. Ministerial Conferences on Weights and Measures commenced in May 1962 chaired by the Honourable Senator John Gorton and were held approximately every two years until 1983. A call for a review of the trade measurement system was endorsed by the 1983 Ministerial Conference on Weights and Measures and was carried out by W.D. Scott.

The Scott Report was completed in 1985 and its major findings were that the current system was fragmented and costly to operate. Increasing complexity of instruments was placing pressure on the trade measurement authorities and there was a high degree of non­ uniformity in legislation and administration. The major recommendation of the review was

to introduce a national system of trade measurement. The Commonwealth Government declined to accept this recommendation and proposed instead that uniform State and Territory trade measurement legislation be developed and enacted in all jurisdictions. The legislation was developed by an intergovernmental working party chaired by the Commission. In 1990 the legislation was complete and all States and Territories, with the exception of Western Australia, signed an agreement on the uniform legislation and its administration.

After five years the Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation has still not come into force in three jurisdictions. This, together with the difficulty of introducing amendments uniformly and the lack of uniform interpretation and administration of the legislation, demonstrates that the uniform legislation is not an effective mechanism for trade measurement.

The 1995 Review of Australia's Standards and Conformance Infrastructure (see page 7) considered the adequacy of the uniform trade measurement system and found uniform legislation to be a flawed model. The Review has called for a national system of trade measurement introduced by appropriate amendment of the National Measurement Act.

Senator Schacht addressed the August 1995 meeting of the Ministerial Council on Consumer Affairs to advise State and Territory ministers of the outcomes of the Review. There was in-principle agreement to the Commonwealth Government accepting responsibility for a national trade measurement system.

The Commission has devoted significant resources to assisting the review process with background information, providing comments on various drafts, and briefing the Minister.

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Liaison Within the Uniform Tirade Measurement System The Standing Committee on Trade Measurement was established under the Agreement on Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation and Administration to provide a forum for the Commonwealth Government and States and Territory Governments to discuss trade

measurement issues and to promote uniformity in trade measurement legislation and administration. The Commission has provided the chair and secretariat for the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement, which meets at least once a year.

For more than thirty years, and within the limits of State sovereignty, the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement (formerly the Formal Conference on Weights and Measures) has provided policy advice to Commonwealth-State ministerial councils, has assisted the Commission in providing advice to the Commonwealth minister and has provided coordination of the trade measurement system. The Commission has provided an independent chairperson which has assisted in resolving State and Territory differences and

has also introduced international and regional perspectives on trade measurement through its membership of 01ML and as coordinator of the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.

Throughout its existence, the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement has introduced a number of initiatives aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uniformity of trade measurement administration in Australia. Examples include:

• establishment of the Trade Measurement Consultative Committee to provide a mechanism for industry and consumer consultation on trade measurement issues;

• establishment of the Standing Committee on Packaging for industry and consumer consultation on prepackaged articles;

• development of the Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation which has now been enacted in most jurisdictions;

• establishment of the National Accreditation Board for the recognition of trade measurement inspectors' qualifications; and

• development of a correspondence TAPE certificate course for the uniform training of trade measurement inspectors.

In 1993 the Council of Australian Governments undertook a review of ministerial councils. As a result the Ministerial Council on Trade Measurement was combined with the Standing Committee of Consumer Affairs Ministers under the title of the Ministerial Council on

Consumer Affairs.

The Standing Committee of Officials of Consumer Affairs proposed in 1994 that the Agreement on Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation and Administration be amended to disband the Standing Committee on Trade Management and establish instead the Trade Measurement Advisory Committee which would be one of a number of advisory committees to the Standing Committee of Officials of Consumer Affairs. This was opposed by the Commonwealth Government on the grounds that the agenda for the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement is far broader than the consumer affairs

agenda. This conflict resulted in meetings of the Standing Committee on Trade Management not being held.

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The August 1995 meeting of the Ministerial Council on Consumer Affairs agreed to disband the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement and create the Trade Measurement Advisory Committee, and also to amend the protocols for the ministerial

council to ensure that the Trade Measurement Advisory Committee agenda was compatible with the Commonwealth Government's responsibilities for trade measurement under the National Measurement Act. The Commonwealth Government’s proposal that the Commission retain the chair of the trade measurement coordinating mechanism was not accepted.

Accreditation of Licensees Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation allows the verifications previously undertaken by trade measurement inspectors to be replaced by certifications by private companies. This has significantly extended the metrological control of trade measuring instruments in traditional mass and volume areas of trade measurement, both geographically and in the range of measuring instruments subject to control. The aim of certification is to allow newly installed trade measuring instruments to be made operational with the minimum of delay.

Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation requires that only competent people should certify measuring instruments for trade. While a considerable number of licensees have been appointed in several jurisdictions, there is at present no agreed mechanism to demonstrate their competence. This deficiency is of some concern as the legislation provides for the mutual recognition of certifications between jurisdictions.

The trade measurement licensees accreditation scheme seeks to remedy this deficiency by providing a nationally uniform accreditation scheme for licensees as the basis for granting of a license. Following extensive consultation, both by the Commission and the various jurisdictions, the proposed trade measurement licensees accreditation scheme recognises

existing and prospective ISO 9000 quality accreditation, but makes provision for a lesser level of quality accreditation suitable for small business operators.

The August 1995 meeting of the Ministerial Council on Consumer Affairs endorsed the introduction of the trade measurement licensees accreditation scheme subject to the Council of Australian Governments regulatory impact assessment process being satisfied. The Ministerial Council on Consumer Affairs also endorsed the preparation of drafting

instructions for amendment of the uniform trade measurement legislation so that accreditation is a requirement for the granting and holding of a license to certify trade measuring instruments.

Uniform Training for TVade Measurement Inspectors The National Accreditation Board, which is comprised of representatives from the trade measurement authorities and the Commission, was established in 1984 to promote uniform training for trade measurement inspectors. In conjunction with TAPE a national correspondence trade measurement course for inspectors was developed. Five inspectors were accredited during the year.

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Temperature Correction of Fuel Sales Orderly markets are dependent on the integrity of measurements used for trade. In the case of petroleum, the maximum permissible error for volume measurement of the commodity is internationally agreed at ±0.3%. However, temperature is a recognised influence on the

mass and amount of energy delivered through volumetric dispensers, and by international agreement all transfers of petroleum between oil companies and all international transfers are on the basis of volume corrected to the international reference temperature of 15°C, as is payment of Australian excise. Few wholesale and no retail sales of petroleum within

Australia are corrected for temperature effects.

In 1989 the New South Wales Minister for Consumer Affairs referred to the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement concerns expressed by the Service Station Association that its members were being overcharged $30 million on excise arising from the volume of

petroleum not being corrected for fuel temperature variations.

Surveys conducted by the Australian Institute of Petroleum and by the Standing Committee on Trade Measurement have shown that petroleum is sold over a wide range of temperatures, from 5.8 to 38.5°C, and at an average temperature greater than 23°C. Temperature effects on volume in the Australian market are significant - up to ten times

greater than the legal errors allowed on petrol dispensers - and this raises concerns regarding the integrity of the trade measurements and the efficiency of the market. In addition, variations from accurate measure of delivered quantities of mass and energy are strongly biased against the end-user, compared to the international reference.

Wide consultation with industry, petroleum equipment manufacturers and independent studies have shown that temperature correction can be implemented for minor cost and considerably less than the amount currently spent in a year for routine maintenance of petrol dispensers.

In 1992 the Ministerial Council on Trade Measurement decided to phase-in the implementation of temperature correction at both wholesale and retail levels, but in 1993 ministers deferred the introduction of temperature correction pending an Australian Institute of Petroleum commissioned study on temperature distributions in the marketing

chain. This study, which was proposed by the Australian Institute of Petroleum in 1991, is still not complete.

In July the Industry Commission released its report on the petroleum industry. In the report the Industry Commission found no grounds to recommend the introduction of temperature correction for the sale of petroleum products. This decision was based on

three propositions, namely:

• temperature effects are not significant;

• the cost of temperature correction may be large; and

• markets self-correct for temperature effects.

In its response, the Commission demonstrated that all three propositions were false and that the Industry Commission had not understood the role and function of the trade measurement system in achieving economic efficiencies through uniform, accurate

measurement.

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The trade measurement system exists because of market failure arising from asymmetry and lack of transparency of information between buyer and seller. Temperature effects are a clear example of market failure which cannot be corrected by the market but which require a trade measurement solution.

TRADE MEASUREMENT INFRASTRUCTURE Although section 51(xv) of the Constitution gives the Commonwealth Government powers to make laws with respect to weights and measures, traditionally many of the responsibilities for regulating the measurement of quantities of goods that are bought and sold by measure remain with the States and Territories. The Commission's responsibilities for trade measurement include approving the pattern of trade measuring instruments (see page 29), ensuring pattern compliance of production instruments with the approved pattern (see page 31) and providing the chair and secretariat for various working parties and committees associated with consultative mechanisms within the trade measurement system. The Commission's trade measurement infrastructure program develops and maintains the

standards and test facilities necessary to support the Commission's responsibility for trade measurement.

Pattern Approval Documentation The Commission publishes and continuously updates a series of pattern approval manuals, each of which comprises a series of documents specifying those requirements with which trade measuring instruments must comply in order to satisfy the metrological and construction requirements for pattern approval. The requirements in these documents are

internationally harmonised with the requirements established by OIML. Certificates of approval of patterns, codes of practice and associated pattern approval publications are also produced (see page 58).

During the year the following Commission publications were issued or reissued:

• Document 100. Pattern Approval Specifications for Non-automatic Weighing Instruments for Trade Use; • Document 111. Procedures for the Submission and Testing of Load Cells and Indicators; • Document 128. Non-automatic Weighing Instruments: Pattern Evaluation Report; • Document 136. Test Report Format for the Evaluation of Load Cells; • Interim Pattern Approval Specifications for Liquid Measuring Instruments for Trade

Use. Part 1. Definitions, Metrological and Technical Requirements and Part 2. Metrological Control and Annexes; and • Index of Approvals.

Laboratory Quality Assurance The Commission's Pattern Approval Laboratory is registered with ΝΑΤΑ for the calibration of laboratory mass standards, volumetric equipment and flow measuring devices. The Pattern Approval Laboratory is also registered for the pattern approval of

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non-automatic weighing instruments, liquid-measuring instruments, liquor dispensers, length-measuring instruments, area-measuring instruments, milk tanks, load cells, weighing-in-motion systems and belt conveyor weighers.

In addition to continual work on the preparation and maintenance of the many quality procedure documents and calibration of the standards required for pattern approval, additional quality procedure documents have been prepared with the aim of obtaining

registration of the laboratories new electromagnetic compatibility testing facility (see below).

Electromagnetic Susceptibility I'he Commission's electromagnetic susceptibility test facilities are comprised of a semi- anechoic test chamber and a Schaffner interference test system. The test chamber is used to test the susceptibility of trade measuring instruments to radiated interference over the frequency range 80 to 1 000 MHz. The Commission has recently purchased a biconilog antenna to extend testing from 26 MHz. The Schaffner interference test system tests

instrument's susceptibility for line-borne interference for frequencies generally below 5 kHz and for electrostatic discharges up to 8 kV.

The Commission obtained traceable calibration for the electrostatic discharge generator in March, and is proceeding with the calibration of the fast transient burst generator. Calibrations will be traceable to national standards maintained by the National Measurement Laboratory of the CS1RO Division of Applied Physics.

The Commission is preparing to obtain ΝΑΤΑ registration for both electromagnetic susceptibility facilities in 1996. The uncertainties in electric field calibration measurements in the chamber are presently being evaluated. Also the Commission intends to participate in pattern approval intercomparison tests with other Asia-Pacific OIML

member countries, and this will include electromagnetic susceptibility tests. The chamber is being evaluated for the feasibility of its use for emission testing.

Radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing of weighing instruments has been introduced this year as part of the Commission's pattern approval program, and will be formalised for industry in January 1996. A number of weighing instruments have been tested and 43% have passed. Preliminary electromagnetic susceptibility tests of some

flowmeters (static mode) will be performed by October 1995.

Preliminary line-borne and electrostatic discharge tests are being performed on some flowmeters, and test procedures have been updated to the most recently published international requirements, which will be formally introduced to staff through training.

During the year line-borne and electrostatic discharge interference tests have been performed on a number of non-trade instruments, for example telecommunications equipment. Also the electromagnetic susceptibility chamber has been used as a shielded enclosure for testing underground mining communication systems.

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National Flow Facility The Commission's national flowmetering facility provides traceability for volume measurement of petroleum products using flowmeters and other flowmeter calibration facilities. The flow rate capacity of the system is up to 4 000 litres per minute and testing is carried out using two types of hydrocarbon-based test fluids. One test fluid simulates a light product similar to kerosene and the other test fluid simulates a heavier product similar to distillate.

The traceability of the national flowmetering facility is achieved and maintained by the calibrated volume of the displacement piston prover. The prover is calibrated every two years at the Commission by the National Measurement Laboratory of the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics. The prover is used by the Commission to calibrate the Avery-Hardoll master flowmeter which in turn is also used to calibrate mechanical flowmeters (namely those without electrical pulse output) and other instruments that cannot be calibrated directly against the piston prover.

The national flowmetering facility is also used for pattern approval testing of flowmeters and is maintained to meet the current needs of both the petroleum industry and government bodies that require their volume measurements to be traceable to national standards.

Natural Gas for Vehicles During 1992-93 the Commission was approached to pattern approve dispensers to be used to dispense compressed natural gas to motor vehicles at service stations. The product is

known as natural gas for vehicles. Whilst reticulated gas is excluded from Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation, legal advice was given to the Commission that this exclusion does not apply to natural gas for vehicles.

The Standing Committee on Trade Measurement agreed to form a working party to develop requirements for pattern approval and verification of natural gas for vehicles dispensers. The working party comprises representatives from the Commission, the New South Wales and Queensland trade measurement authorities, the Australian Gas

Association (three representatives) and the suppliers of dispensing equipment.

Several meetings of the working party were held during the year, as well as a meeting between the Commission and the Australian Gas Association. An interim pattern approval certificate has been issued by the Commission to cover a number of instruments installed in Brisbane. The results of tests received from these dispensers are to be used in developing requirements and test procedures for pattern approval and verification.

Volume Measurement of Freight The postal and freight industries are moving towards charging by volume of a parcel as well as by weight. Where a parcel is large but of low weight, volume is used to calculate the charge. Weight is used for smaller, heavier parcels. The volume used is the smallest rectangular box within which the parcel will fit. This overcomes the problem of determining the volume of an irregular-shaped parcel and allows the charges to be based on the space taken up by the parcel in a vehicle.

28

Measuring instruments are being made to measure the volume and/or weight and as they are used for trade purposes, (he instruments have to be pattern approved and verified.

The Commission, in conjunction with trade measurement authorities, Australia Post, the freight industry and manufacturers of instruments, has prepared draft requirements for the pattern approval and verification of such instruments. As well, the Commission is secretariat of an OIML subcommittee which is preparing an associated international

recommendation (see page 32). A meeting of the Australian working party was held in June to discuss the draft recommendation.

PATTERN APPROVAL Pattern approval is the process whereby an impartial body (for example the Commission) examines the pattern of an instrument against a set of national or international metrological specifications. This determines whether an instrument is capable of retaining its calibration over a range of environmental and operating conditions and ensures that the design of the instrument does not facilitate fraud.

Pattern approval protects measuring instrument manufacturers and importers from substandard measuring instruments that would otherwise provide unfair competition. It also means that when traders buy a measuring instrument, they can be confident that the

instrument will meet certain metrological standards of performance over a range of operating conditions and the instrument will not need to be excessively recalibrated. As a result the purchaser is also protected.

Examination and Certification of Measuring Instruments The Commission's Pattern Approval Laboratory examines and approves the patterns of trade measuring instruments. Non-automatic weighing machines, flowmeters, liquor­

dispensing systems, area-measuring instruments, length-measuring instruments, milk tanks, load cells, weighing-in-motion systems and belt conveyor weighers are tested for their performance characteristics over a range of influence factors such as voltage, temperature, humidity, radiated and line-borne electrical interference (see page 27). The instruments

have to remain within maximum permissible errors over their full performance range at all times.

Once the pattern of an instrument has been approved by the Pattern Approval Laboratory the performance of production models is monitored in the field by regular calibration testing either by a trade measurement inspector or a licensee.

The table on the following page gives a comparison, between 1993-94 and 1994-95, of the Commission's certification and testing activities.

A major priority of submittors and the Commission is the time taken to obtain a pattern approval certificate. An analysis of approval testing in the period February to June 1995 showed that the average time taken to issue test reports was less than three months. Significant delays in certifying instruments are still occurring due to instruments failing test requirements and delays by submittors in providing required information for the certificates.

k

29

1993-94 1994-95

Applications under examination at 1 July 148 120

Applications received during the year 232 291

For new instruments 46 42

For variants 44 58

For reviews 25 29

For 6B/0 analysis* 84 127

Other categories 33 35

At 30 June Applications completed 260 296

Applications in progress 120 115

Total 380 411

* A 6B/0 Analysis Report is issued, in association with General Certificate 6B/0, to enable a weighing instrument to be modified using a specific combination of components.

Following amendment to the National Measurement Act to provide for the pattern approval and verification of measuring instruments for any legal purpose, the Commission has begun issuing approvals for instruments which are not to be used for trade but which are to be used for some other legal purpose. As a result approval has been granted, and an interim certificate has been issued, for instruments used to check wheel loads on trucks to ensure

that legal road limits are not exceeded.

In addition to its pattern approval activities, the Commission has conducted testing for a range of clients who have requested access to tiie Commission’s specialised facilities. These tests have included electromagnetic immunity tests on circuit boards, telecommunications and control equipment, temperature testing on poker machines and the calibration of flowmeters for a range of clients in Australia and the South-West Pacific.

Industry Liaison Committee In 1986 the Commission established an Industry Liaison Committee to facilitate communication between the Commission and the trade measurement industry on pattern approval issues. The Industry Liaison Committee convenes immediately prior to Commission meetings and is chaired by the Chairman of the Commission. There is representation from the trade measurement industry (including the Weighing Industry Association of Australia, the Australian Institute of Petroleum and the Petroleum Industry

Measuring Equipment Association Ltd), with provision for individual company representatives to attend meetings for relevant agenda items.

Four meetings were held during the year including a special meeting to discuss the Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Australia’s Standards and Conformance Infrastructure. Other issues discussed included OIML certification and mutual recognition, cost recovery, time taken for pattern approval, electromagnetic immunity testing, period of validity of approvals, 6B/0 calculations and pattern compliance of production instruments.

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Pattern Assurance Goods to the value of $300 billion are traded across Commission-approved equipment each year. If measuring instruments do not comply with the approved pattern, then the community may suffer loss in two ways. Firstly the non-complying instruments might

include features that facilitate fraud. Secondly the instruments might not be able to maintain calibration and the inaccurate measurements can result in disputation and significant transaction costs. Australia might also suffer loss of export revenue from the sale of resources such as coal, wheat, wool and sugar if non-complying instruments are used.

The National Measurement Act has been amended to provide that the offence and penalty provisions of section 19B are enforceable. The Commission is now consulting with industry about details of the corresponding Regulations.

The increasing globalisation of trade with the removal of technical barriers and the move towards mutual recognition of test results provides new challenges to the national measurement system. Whilst the eventual introduction of mutual recognition between Australia and Europe and the APEC countries will provide increased efficiency by

reducing unnecessary duplication in testing, it should not occur at the cost of a loss in confidence in the measurement system. To this end it will be necessary to support mutual recognition with intercomparisons to establish traceability across national borders and

confidence in test results. In addition third-party audits by statistical sampling of domestic production and imported products will be necessary to maintain confidence in the systems. Proposals to ensure conformity assessment by statistical sampling of production are indicated in the conformity assessment requirements of the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement.

INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Information Dissemination Whilst the Commission has a regulatory role, emphasis is placed on voluntary compliance in most of its programs. To assist this voluntary compliance and to increase awareness of the national measurement system, the Commission operates a number of information programs. These include: •

• publishing the NSC Bulletin four times a year to provide information, primarily on trade measurement matters; • operating a national toll-free telephone service for metric queries; • publishing an annual report;

• organising seminars on the Commission's programs; • distributing media releases as appropriate; and • producing publications on the Commission's activities; this year such publications included:

• Australian Legal Units of Measurement of Physical Quantities • National Standards Commission: Test and Calibration Facilities • Directory of Legal Metrology in the Asia-Pacific

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• Directory of Legal Metrology in the South-West Pacific • Information Leaflet No 8. The Australian National Time System • Information Leaflet No 21. Marking of Instruments not Approved for Trade • Information Leaflet No 22. Procedures to Follow when Trade-measuring

Instruments do not have NSC Approval Numbers • Information Leaflet No 23. Methods of Sealing Measuring Instruments • Information Leaflet No 24. Australia's National Measurement System • Information Leaflet No 25. The National Measurement Act • Information Leaflet No 26. Metrological Control of Measuring Instruments • Information Leaflet No 27. Daylight Saving • Information Leaflet No 28. Calendars • Information Leaflet No 29. Guidelines for Automated Weighing Systems • Information Leaflet No 30. How to Obtain a Weighbridge Approval

Technical publications that reflect the Commission's activities and responsibilities are listed on pages 58 to 61.

All enquiries and requests for information should be addressed to:

Executive Director National Standards Commission PO Box 282 North Ryde, NSW 2113

Telephone: (02) 888 3922 Facsimile: (02) 888 3033

OIML Documentation As explained on page 10, the Commission represents Australia on OIML technical committees responsible for preparing international recommendations for legal measuring instruments. The Commission presents the Australian view in the preparation of the recommendations so that they can be adopted for use in Australia when completed. During the year the Commission commented on twenty-four draft recommendations.

The Commission is also responsible for two technical subcommittees for liquid mass measurement in tanks and multi-dimensional measurement of parcels (see page 56). Draft recommendations for both subcommittees were prepared by the Commission and circulated

to members of the international committees for comment and voting. The draft for liquid mass is the final one, while that for multi-dimensional measurement is the first draft and will be discussed at a meeting of the international technical committee in Paris in September 1995.

32

CORPORATE SERVICES

Staff Both the Commission's approved and actual staffing levels for 1994-95 were 33.5. The staff consists of thirty-six officers, twenty-four men (two of whom are part-time and seven of whom are from a non-English speaking background) and twelve women (four of whom are part-time and five of whom are from a non-English speaking background).

The number, sex and background (English speaking and non-English speaking) of staff employed at the different levels, going from the lowest to the highest level, are shown below.

Men Women English speaking Non-English speaking

Level 2 3 4 4 3

Level 3 5 5 5 5

Level 4 6 1 4 3

Level 5 6 2 7 1

Level 6 and higher

4 — 4 —

During the year one member of staff retired from the Commission and four people joined the Commission. All staff are employed under the National Measurement Act.

The staff includes engineers, scientists, technical and administrative staff who are distributed between programs as shown on page 55 and in Figure 4.

Executive Director (John Birch)

Head,

Corporate Services (Bryce Thornton)

Head,

Trade Measurement (Ian Hoerlein)

Deputy Director and Head, Technical Section (Grahame Harvey)

National Measurement System

Legal Metrology

Trade

Measurement Uniformity

Trade

Measurement Infrastructure

Pattern Approval

Corporate Services

Information and

Documentation

Figure 4. Staff structure at 30 June 1995.

Enterprise Agreement During the year a certified agreement was negotiated with the Association of Professional Engineers and Scientists, Australia, and the Community and Public Sector Union. The

agreement provides a framework for staff to improve productivity, efficiency and performance with benefits for staff, clients and the Commission. The enterprise agreement supports the Commission’s existing performance-based career structure. Performance appraisal, established as part of award restructuring, is directly linked to the corporate plan. Performance appraisal requires that all staff complete a work plan which is directly referred to the targets identified in the corporate plan.

Industrial Democracy Industrial democracy arrangements were first set in place in 1985 when the Staff Consultative Committee was formed. The Staff Consultative Committee, which meets four times a year, provides a forum for staff and management to discuss and resolve issues of mutual interest. The Committee consists of two elected staff representatives, three occupational health and safety representatives, an equal employment officer, the three

heads of section and the Executive Director.

The Committee is responsible for occupational health and safety as set out in an agreement with unions established in accordance with the Occupational Health and Safely (Commonwealth Employment) Act 1991.

Staff Training and Development The Commission spent 2.34% of its annual payroll on training programs (annual payroll $1 357 433, net training expenditure $31 775). All members of staff took part in training programs over a total of seventy-four days.

Occupational Health and Safety Three staff members ensure that occupational health and safety issues are considered as part of all organisational changes and daily work practices. A report is provided to each Commission meeting and the Staff Consultative Committee.

As an ongoing function, an audit of all Commission electrical appliances is conducted annually to ensure safety.

An internal review of all fire fighting equipment led to the placement of descriptive signs above each fire fighting appliance and the relocation, provision or overhaul of extinguishers. This has ensured the Commission’s fire safety more than meets

requirements.

All Commission staff involved in the use of visual display equipment underwent a biannual eye examination to assess their suitability to use screen-based equipment. Where necessary, staff were referred for further consultation or for fitting of new or upgraded spectacles.

34

During April, the Workcover Authority, on behalf of Comcare, conducted a safety audit. The recommendations have yet to be received but verbal advice indicates the Commission was regarded as satisfactory by the reviewers.

Videos shown to staff include fire safety, office safety, air-borne pathogens and the recognition, evaluation and control of hazards.

Equal Employment Opportunities The Commission is an equal opportunity employer. A staff member is appointed as an equal employment officer and is a member of the Staff Consultative Committee. Three men and one woman were appointed during the year. Two were from a non-English

speaking background.

Computing and Information Services During the year it was decided to update the Commission’s computing system, but implementation has been deferred pending the outcome of the Review of Australia’s

Standards and Conformance Infrastructure. The Commission's accounting, laboratory management, file records and library systems are part of a single database which runs on a thirty-two user Bull computer with a UNIX operating system.

Environmental Matters Following its participation in an ACT Electricity and Water Authority/EMET Consultants Pty Ltd energy survey in 1993, the Commission has implemented strategies to encourage staff to conserve electricity, principally by reducing the number of fluorescent tubes in

multi-tube light fittings and isolating areas featuring large banks of lights when not in use by staff. At the time of the survey, it was stated that ‘the figures for energy consumption show relatively low levels of energy use when compared to a typical office style operation’, and in relation to heating, cooling and ventilation ‘the figures show reasonably low levels

of intensity’.

The Commission will continue to monitor its energy usage.

Consultancy Services $39 595 was spent on consultancy services during the year. Elizabeth Savage was paid $1 650 for preparing a report on the economics of the regulation of petroleum products and the following were contracted to develop assessment packages for a TAPE course for

calibration technicians:

• AMTEC was paid $7 760; • Chris Dennis was paid $6 500; • Max Purss was paid $800; • Geoffrey White was paid $1 600;

• ACL TAPE was paid $15 285; and ‘ Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology was paid $6 000.

35

Social Justice, Access and Equity The Commission's pattern approval program ensures that trade measuring instruments comply with national or international requirements (see page 29). Once approved, trade measurement inspectors and licensees ensure that instruments in the field continue to comply with requirements (see page 31). This protects consumers from unfair trade and ensures that equitable conditions exist for organisations and individuals involved in trade measurement.

The Commission is also responsible for metrication, and as a result operates a national toll- free telephone service for metric queries, produces and distributes relevant pamphlets and conducts surveys to ascertain the acceptance and use of metric units (see pages 20 and 21).

Another important aspect of the Commission's work is to ensure that measurements made throughout the country are consistent. For example the Commission has programs on the national time system, utility meters and chemical, industrial and medical measurements. Each of these programs is run by a committee which consists of a wide range of expert members from a cross-section of scientific, industrial and academic backgrounds. The work of each of these committees is explained in this annual report.

For more information on how information is disseminated see pages 31 and 32.

Freedom of Information The object of the Freedom o f Information Act 1982 is to extend, as far as possible, the right of the Australian community to obtain access to documents in possession of the Government. Inquiries on access to documents or other matters relating to freedom of information should be directed to:

Freedom of Information Officer National Standards Commission PO Box 282, North Ryde, NSW 2113

Telephone: (02)888 3922 Facsimile: (02) 888 3033

Requests under the Freedom of Information Act must be made in writing and be accompanied by an application fee of $30. No freedom of information requests were received by the Commission during the year.

36

AUDITOR GENERAL’S REPORT

Australian National Audit Office 130 Elizabeth Street Sydney, NSW 2000

22 September 1995

NATIONAL STANDARDS COMMISSION

INDEPENDENT AUDIT REPORT

To the Minister for Small Business, Customs and Construction

Scope

I have audited the financial statements of the National Standards Commission for the year ended 30 June 1995. The statements comprise:

• operating statement; • statement of financial position; • statement of cash flows; • statement by directors; and

• notes to and forming part of the financial statements.

The members of the Commission are responsible for the preparation and presentation of the financial statements and the information contained therein. I have conducted an independent audit of the financial statements in order to express an opinion on them to the Minister for Small Business, Customs and Construction.

The audit has been conducted in accordance with Australian National Audit Office Auditing Standards, which incorporate the Australian Auditing Standards, to provide reasonable assurance as to whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. Audit procedures included examination, on a test basis, of evidence supporting the amounts and other disclosures in the financial statements, and the evaluation of accounting policies and significant accounting estimates. These procedures have been

undertaken to form an opinion whether, in all material respects, the financial statements are presented fairly in accordance with Australian Accounting Concepts and Standards, other mandatory professional reporting requirements and statutory requirements so as to present a view which is consistent with my understanding of the Commission's financial position, the results of its operations and its cash flows.

The audit opinion expressed in this report has been formed on the above basis.

37

111

Audit Opinion

In accordance with sub-section 19C(2) of the National Measurement Act 1960, 1 now report that the financial statements are in agreement with the accounts and records of the National Standards Commission, and in my opinion:

(i) the statements are based on proper accounts and records;

(ii) the statements show fairly in accordance with Statements of Accounting Concepts, applicable Accounting Standards, and other mandatory professional reporting requirements, the financial transactions and results, and cash flows, for the year ended 30 June f 995 and the state of affairs of the Commission as at that date;

(iii) the receipt, expenditure and investment of moneys, and the acquisition and disposal of assets, by the Commission during the year have been in accordance with the National Measurement Act I960', and

(iv) the statements are in accordance with the Guidelines for Financial Statements of Commonwealth A uthorities.

David A. Doyle Executive Director

For the Auditor-General

38

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS NATIONAL STANDARDS COMMISSION

STATEMENT BY COMMISSION MEMBERS

In accordance with a resolution of members of the National Standards Commission, we state that in the opinion of the members, the financial statements of the National Standards Commission for the year ended 30 June 1995 present fairly the information required by the Guidelines for Financial Statements of Commonwealth Authorities issued by the Minister for Finance.

For, and on behalf of, the members.

H.J. Goldsmid Chairman Executive Director

22 September 1995 22 September 1995

39

k

N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D S C O M M IS S IO N

OPERATING STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1995

Notes 1995

$

1994 $

NET COST OF SERVICES Operating expenses Employee expenses 5 1 764 814 1 590 992

Travelling expenses 91 152 86 178

Office expenses 5 366 423 317 670

Subscription to the International Organisation of 39 134 35 553

Legal Metrology Repairs and maintenance 85 644 89 092

National time infrastructure 239 870 248 525

Bad and doubtful debts 780 7 005

Depreciation 99 547 73 267

Total operating expenses 2 687 364 2 448 282

Operating revenues from independent sources Sales revenue 2 707 424 575 723

Other revenue 2 72 820 18 574

Grants received 13 213 127 —

Net profit from sale of non-current assets 2 8 311 6 230

Total operating revenues from independent sources 1 001 682 600 527 Net cost of services before abnormal item 1 685 682 1 398 633

Abnormal item 2(a) — 224 561

Net cost of services 17 1 685 682 1 623 194

REVENUES FROM GOVERNMENT Parliamentary appropriations received 2 2 025 000 2 291 000

Total revenues from Government 2 025 000 2 291 000

Surplus of revenues from Government over 339 318 667 806

net cost of services

Accumulated surpluses at beginning of 1 712 855 1 045 049

reporting period

Accumulated surpluses at end of reporting 2 052 173 1 712 855

period

The accompanying notes form an integral part of these statements

40

N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D S C O M M IS S IO N

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION AS AT 30 JUNE 1995

Notes 1995

$

1994 $

CURRENT ASSETS Cash 112 896 502 029

Receivables 3 979 312 171 958

Other 4 50 726 101 926

Total current assets 1 142 934 775 913

NON-CURRENT ASSETS Property, plant and equipment 8(a) 3 587 081 3 508 677 Total non-current assets 3 587 081 3 508 677

Total assets 4 730 015 4 284 590

CURRENT LIABILITIES Creditors 7 85 049 49 076

Provisions 9 191 818 178 521

Other 13 61 085 51063

Total current liabilities 337 952 278 660

NON-CURRENT LIABILITIES Provisions 9 392 737 345 922

Total non-current liabilities 392 737 345 922

Total liabilities 730 689 624 582

Net assets 3 999 326 3 660 008

EQUITY Reserves 18 1 947 153 1 947 153

Accumulated surpluses 2 052 173 1 712 855

Total equity 3 999 326 3 660 008

The accompanying notes form an integral part of these statements

41

N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D S C O M M IS S IO N

STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1995

Notes 1995

$

1994 $

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Inflows Parliamentary appropriations 2 025 000 2 291 000

Sales and other revenue 761 900 546 454

Grants received 189 049 —

Interest 39 307

3 015 256

12 230 2 849 684

Outflows Payments to employees and related (1 669 022) (1 675 337)

expenses Travelling expenses (89 526) (86 491)

Office expenses (352 296) (318 020)

Subscriptions to the International — (35 656)

Organisation of Legal Metrology Repairs and maintenance (89 028) (87 365)

National time infrastructure (239 870)

(2 439 742) (248 525) (2 451 394)

Net cash provided by operating activities 17 575 514 398 290

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Inflows Proceeds from sale of non-current assets 21 549 15 383

Outflows Payments for property, plant and (191189) (402 789)

equipment

Net cash used by investing activities (169 640) (387 406)

Net increase in cash held 405 874 10 884

Cash at beginning of reporting period 502 029 491 145

Cash at end of reporting period 17 907 903 502 029

The accompanying notes form an integral part of these statements

42

N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D S C O M M IS S IO N

NOTES TO AND FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1995

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared under accrual accounting and historical cost principles unless otherwise disclosed. The financial statements are prepared in accordance with the requirements laid down in the Guidelines for Financial Statements of Commonwealth Authorities issued by the Minister for Finance, and comply with Statements of Accounting Concepts and Australian Accounting Standards. The following accounting policies have been applied in dealing with items which are considered material

in relation to the Commission's financial statements.

(a) Non-current Assets and Depreciation

Freehold land and building are stated at revalued amounts as at 8 June f994. Valuations of land and building are undertaken every three years. Property, plant and equipment, other than freehold land, are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Furniture and fittings and plant and equipment costing less than $3 000 are not capitalised but are expensed in the year of purchase. Labour costs involved in the development and

modification of test equipment are not capitalised but are expensed in the year incurred, as test equipment is continually modified to accommodate new testing procedures to keep up to date with technological advances.

(b) Cash Flows

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash includes short-term bills of exchange, cash on-hand and in the bank.

(c) Financial Reporting by Segments

The Commission operates predominantly in one industry, which is to coordinate the uniform use of the national system of measurement so that there is confidence by Australian industry, commerce, consumers and international trading partners in the validity of measurements used. The Commission operates predominantly in Australia.

(d) Provisions for Employees’ Entitlements

Liabilities for current employees’ entitlements to salaries, annual leave and other entitlements are accrued at nominal amounts calculated on the basis of current salary rates. No liability has been accrued in the financial statements for employees’ entitlements to non-vested sick leave, as the sick leave expected to be taken in future periods is less than

the entitlements expected to accrue in those future periods.

Non-current employees’ entitlements are now accrued in accordance with Australian Accounting Standard AAS 30, Accounting for Employee Entitlements, which became effective for financial years ending on or after 30 June f995.

43

Liability for employees’ entitlement for long service leave is now accrued in respect of all employees with more than three-and-a-half years service, based on estimated salary rates at discounted amounts. In previous years long service leave was accrued for employees with over eight years service. No adjustment was made directly to accumulated surpluses at the beginning of the financial year to recognise the $27 866 increase in the provision for long service leave upon application of the standard, as the amount involved was immaterial. This amount has been charged as an expense in the current financial year. The change in

accounting policy resulted in a further increase of $6 726 in the provision for long service leave at 30 June 1995 and a corresponding increase in the ‘net cost of services’ for the current financial year.

The Commission has used short-hand methods as suggested in the Department of Finance’s Guidance Release 7, Employee Entitlements (Other than Superannuation), which was reissued in June 1995, to calculate certain employee entitlement liabilities.

(e) Comparative Figures

Where necessary, comparative figures have been adjusted to conform with changes in presentation in the current reporting period.

(f) Receivables and Creditors Trade accounts receivable are carried at amounts due. Bills of exchange are carried at cost with interest income recognised as received.

Λ provision is raised for any doubtful debts based on a review of outstanding amounts at balance date. Bad debts are written off during the period in which they are identified.

For pattern approval and trade measurement business the Commission’s policy is to recognise and bring revenue to account on completion of work by raising an invoice. At 30 June 1995 uninvoiced work of $20 031 was not recognised as an asset or as revenue as the amount was considered immaterial.

Trade creditors, including accruals not yet billed, are recognised when the Commission becomes obliged to make future payments as a result of a purchase of assets or services.

(g) Economic Dependency

The Commission is dependent upon receiving parliamentary appropriations revenue to fund the national interest component of its activities. A significant amount of revenue is earned from a small number of businesses who are required to pattern approve their trade measuring instruments under the National Measurement Act I960 and complementary Slate and Territory legislation.

44

2. Revenue

Notes 1995 1994

$ $

Revenues from Government Parliamentary appropriations received Appropriation Act No 1 1994-95 2 007 000 2 001 000

Appropriation Act No 3 1994-95 18 000 290 000

Total revenues from Government 2 025 000 2 291 000

Operating revenues from independent sources

Sales revenue Examination fees 636 933 521 289

Consultation fees 6 627 5 267

Calibration 19 894 8 817

Sale of publications 43 970 40 350

Total sales revenue 707 424 575 723

Other revenue Assessment fees 15 200 3 000

Miscellaneous 18 313 3 729

Interest earned 39 307 11 845

Total other revenue 72 820 18 574

Grants received 13 213 127 —

Profit from sale of non-current assets 8(b) 8 311 6 230

221 438 6 230

Abnormal item 2(a) — 224 561

Total operating revenues from independent sources

1 001 682 825 088

(a) Abnormal Item

During the year ended 30 June 1994 the Commission reviewed the useful lives of non­ current assets in accordance with Australian Accounting Standard AAS 4. The adjustment required to reflect the value of the future economic benefits that the assets still had for the

Commission, was brought to account as an abnormal item of revenue in the 1994 year.

45

L

3. Receivables

The provision for doubtful debts is based on a review of all outstanding amounts at year end. There were no bad debts written off in 1995 but $7 005 was written off in 1994.

1995 $

1994 $

Trade debtors Current 55 245 64 701

Overdue Less than 30 days 32 329 58 284

From 30 to 60 days 42 842 43 352

More than 60 days 20 568 5 621

Total trade debtors 150 985 171 958

Provision for doubtful debts (780) —

Net trade debtors 150 205 171 958

Other debtors 34 100 —

Bills of exchange 795 007 —

Total receivables 979 312 171 958

4. Other Current Assets

1995 1994

$ $

Prepayments 50 726 101 926

5. Operating Expenses

1995 $

1994 $

Employee expenses Salaries and related expenses 1 368 960 1 215 770

Superannuation - employer’s contribution 249 139 247 602

Employee entitlements provided 146 715 127 620

Total employee expenses 1 764 814 1 590 992

Office expenses Office equipment, requisites, stationery and printing 79 762 85 000

Postage, fax and telephone 46 604 42 096

Consumable stores and equipment 11 378 11 772

Office services 142 251 124 077

Auditors remuneration for auditing the financial 25 500 21000

statements Computer services 46 672 25 395

Miscellaneous 14 256 8 330

Total office expenses 366 423 317 670

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6. Superannuation

The Commission is an approved Commonwealth authority for the purpose of the Superannuation Act 1976 and the Superannuation Act 1990 and is required to meet the employer's share of the cost of benefits payable pursuant to these Acts to eligible members and employees. The Commission discharges this liability by periodic payments to

COMSUPER, expressed as a percentage of the salary for superannuation purposes, of 20.2% for CSS and 10.4% for PSS members of eligible members' and employees' salaries. The contribution rates are within the range recommended by the Australian Government Actuary and are considered appropriate by the Commission. Also superannuation

(productivity benefit) contributions are paid to COMSUPER. Total employer’s superannuation contributions are charged as an expense and the amount paid or payable is disclosed in Note 5.

The CSS is a split-benefit scheme based on defined member contributions, an employer component consisting of a defined benefit based on final salary and a productivity component. The PSS is a defined benefit scheme based on defined member contributions, an employer component consisting of a defined benefit based on final average salary and a

productivity component.

7. Creditors

1995 $

1994 $

Trade creditors Other creditors

71461 13 588

39 972 9 104

85 049 49 076

8. Property, Plant and Equipment

(a) Details of Assets Shown in the Financial Statements Under this Heading

1995 $

1994 $

Land and building Freehold land at independent valuation June 1994 1 900 000 1 900 000 Building at independent valuation June 1994 Less accumulated depreciation

500 000 20 000

500 000

Total land and building

480 000 2 380 000

500 000

2 400 000

Plant and equipment Plant and equipment at cost Less accumulated depreciation

1 621 710 414 629 1 449 774 341 097

Total plant and equipment 1 207 081 1 108 677

Total property, plant and equipment 3 587 081 3 508 677

Land and building were last revalued on 8 June 1994 by T.E. Collins AVLE (VAL) of the Australian Valuation Office. The basis of the valuation is fair market value based on existing use.

(b) Profit from Sale of Non-current Assets

Net book value $

Proceeds from sale $

Profit/(loss) on sale $

Year ending 30 June 1995 Motor vehicles 13 240 21551 8311

Year ending 30 June 1994 Motor vehicles Plant and equipment

7 935 1218

15 383 7 448

(1 218)

9 153 15 383 6 230

9. Provisions

1995 1994

$ $

Employee entitlements

Current Long service leave 11 538 10 699

Recreation leave 154 724 146 758

Leave loading entitlement 25 556 21 064

Total current provisions 191 818 178 521

Non-current Long service leave 392 737 345 922

Total non-current provisions 392 737 345 922

Aggregate employee entitlement liability 584 555 524 443

10. Agreements Equally and Proportionately Unperformed

A commitment to meet the operational expenditure for the management of coordinated universal time and associated services with the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group of the Department of Administrative Services, has not been recognised as a liability in the financial statements and is disclosed by way of note as follows.

1995 1994

______________________________________________________ $__________ $

Payable within one year after the end of the reporting period 205 000 205 000

48

11. Asset Maintenance and Replacement

The expected cost of future assets maintenance and replacement is not included in the financial statements. The Commission expects to incur expenditure of $694 000 in the next financial year to maintain testing facilities at an internationally acceptable standard and to maintain operational capacity.

12. Insurance

The Commission's insurance policy is consistent with Commonwealth Government policy. The Commission acts as its own insurer with the exception of motor vehicles and workers compensation. Any losses that may arise are expensed as incurred. Workers compensation liability is covered by the premium paid to the Commission for the Safety, Rehabilitation

and Compensation of Commonwealth Employees (COMCARE) and no additional provision for liability is required.

13. Grants

Grants revenue is as listed below. The unspent grants at 30 June 1995 are included in Current Liabilities - Other. No grants were received and used in 1994, however $51 063 carried forward from previous years was unspent at 30 June 1994.

Grants Grants unspent revenue 1995 30 June 1995 $ $

Department of Industry, Science and Technology Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum and publication of Directory Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum secretariat

Pacific Rim International Time Transfer Experiment Measurement in sport

63 000

68 200

13 915

15 000 46 085

Australian Agency for International Development South-West Pacific nations to attend Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum 16 949

Department of Employment Education and Training Metrology skills training course (carried forward balance from grant of $77 000) 51 063

Total 213 127 61 085

49

14. Revenue and Expenditure for Cost Recoverable (Pattern Examination), National Interest and Grant Activities

Pattern examination $

Corporate services $

National interest $

Grant activity $ '

Total

$

1995 Revenue Parliamentary appropriations 153 500 — 1 871 500 — 2 025 000

Sales revenue 663 454 43 970 — — 707 424

Other revenue — 64 609 16 522 213 127 294 258

Total revenue 816 954 108 579 1 888 022 213 127 3 026 682

Expenditure Employee expenses 424 783 435 872 812 902 91 257 1 764 814

Travel 4 854 9 626 48 204 28 468 91 152

Office and incidental expenses 130 867 39 052 228 660 93 402 491 981

National time infrastructure — — 239 870 — 239 870

Depreciation 61 980 37 567 — — 99 547

Total expenditure 622 484 522 117 1 329 636 213 127 2 687 364

Allocation of net cost of 157 144 (413 538) 256 394 — —

corporate overheads Surplus 37 326 — 301 992 — 339 318

1994 Revenue Parliamentary appropriations 225 000 — 2 066 000 — 2 291 000

Sales revenue 535 373 40 350 — — 575 723

Other revenue — 15 574 9 230 — 24 804

Total revenue 760 373 55 924 2 075 230 — 2 891 527

Expenditure Employee expenses 388 777 431 564 770 651 — 1 590 992

Travel 7 238 15 363 63 577 — 86 178

Office and incidental expenses 155 310 113 279 180 731 — 449 320

National time infrastructure — — 248 525 — 248 525

Depreciation 39 969 33 298 — — 73 267

Total expenditure 591 294 593 504 1 263 484 — 2 448 282

Allocation of net cost of 193 529 (537 580) 344 051 — —

corporate overheads Surplus/(deficit) before (24 450) — 467 695 — 443 245

abnormal item Abnormal item — — 224 561 — 224 561

Surplus/(deficit) (24 450) — 692 256 — 667 806

Note: These figures are based on accrual accounting and as a result do not consider current asset maintenance and replacement expenditure activities which impact on the short term cash position and operations of the Commission.

50

15. Commission Members

(a) Holding Office

The following members held office during the year ended June 1995: J.A. Birch, W.R. Blevin (retired 23 September 1994), D.V. Clark, J.A. Gilmour, H.J. Goldsmid, B.D. Inglis (appointed 30 May 1995), W.H. Morgan (term expired 20 March 1995), J.E. Stockdale and W.W. Wedderburn.

(b) Remuneration

Included in employee expenses is an amount of $132 246 (1994, $119 539) being total remuneration received by members from the Commission. The number of members included in these figures are shown below in their relevant income bands. Included in total remuneration are superannuation contributions of $18 283 (1994, $18 439) for two

members.

Income 1995

Number of members

1994

Number of members

$1-9 999 5 6

$10 000-19 999 1 1

$90 000-99 999 — 1

$110 000- 119 999 1 —

16. Other Transactions with Commission Members or their Commission Member Related Entities

The following aggregate amounts were brought to account in respect of the types of transactions with member related entities. The transactions were made on commercial terms and conditions and at market rates.

Transaction type Members 1995

$

1994 $

Laboratory services provided J.A. Birch, J.A. Gilmour 2 375 2 323

Travel services provided J.A. Birch 4 912 10 754

Calibration and consultation services B.D. Inglis, W.R. Blevin 3 965 5 954 Publications purchased J.A. Birch, J.A. Gilmour 1216 1340

Pattern approval revenue W.W. Wedderburn 64 885 3 705

Pattern approval revenue I.J. Scott 11 423

17. Cash Flow Information

Notes 1995

$

1994 $

Reconciliation of cash Cash at end of financial year as shown in the Statement of Cash Flows is reconciled to the related items in the Statement of Financial Position as follows:

Cash at bank and on hand 112 896 502 029

Bills of exchange 3 795 007 —

907 903 502 029

Reconciliation of net cost of services to net cash provided by operating activities

Net cost of services (1 685 682) (1 623 194)

Revenue from Government 2 025 000 2 291 000

Depreciation 99 547 73 267

Depreciation rate adjustment — (224 561)

Profit from sale of non-current assets (8 311) (6 230)

Increase in provision for doubtful debts 780 —

Bad debts written off — 7 005

Increase (decrease) in employee entitlements 60112 (5 121)

Changes in assets and liabilities (Increase) decrease in debtors (13 127) (35 615)

Decrease (increase) in prepayments 51200 (34 874)

Increase (decrease) in creditors 35 973 (34 440)

Increase (decrease) in other current liabilities 10 022 (8 947)

Net cash provided by operating activities 575 514 398 290

18. Reserves

1995 1994

$ $

Assets revaluation reserve Balance at beginning of year 1 947 153 1 905 869

Increments on revaluation — 41 284

Balance at end of year 1 947 153 1 947 153

52

19. Liability Not Recognised

In March 1995 the report of the committee involved in the Review of Australia’s Standards and Conformance Infrastructure was released for public comment. The committee recommended that the Commission be disbanded and its functions be distributed to other agencies. At the time of finalising the financial statements the Government has not made a decision on the recommendations.

The Commission has not recognised any liability in the financial statements in respect of employee entitlements which may become payable under the Australian Government Statutory Authorities Redeployment and Retirement (Redundancy) Award (1988).

If any of the recommendations to disband the Commission or transfer its functions are adopted by the Government, the Commission may become liable to make some redundancy payments to employees under the Award.

53

COMMISSION MEMBERS AND THEIR TERMS OF APPOINTMENT AT 30 JUNE 1995

Chairman

H.J. Goldsmid, PhD, DSc, FAIP Emeritus Professor of Experimental Physics, University of New South Wales Chairman 30.9.1989 - 27.10.1995 Commissioner 21.5.1987 - 29.9.1989

Members

J.A. Birch, AM, BSc(Hons), ASTC Executive Director, National Standards Commission ex officio

D.V. Clark, PhD, BSc(Hons), FTS, FRACI Managing Director, Analchem Consultants Pty Ltd and Bioassay Pty Ltd 23.11.1992- 22.11.1996

J.A. Gilmour, BSc, ASTC Chief Executive, National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia 17.10.1984 - 16.10.1992 and 23.11.1992 - 22.11.1996

B.D. Inglis, BE(Hon), PhD Deputy Chief and Chief Standards Scientist, CS1RO Division of Applied Physics 30.5.95 - 29.5.2000

J.E. Stockdale, BSc Standards Coordinator, Australian Federation of Consumer Organisations 15.12.1993- 14.12.1997

W.W. Wedderburn Chairman of W.W. Wedderburn Pty Ltd and Wedderburn Scales Ltd (New Zealand) 4.3.1994-3.3.1998

54

STAFF AT 30 JUNE 1995

Deputy Director and Head of Technical Section G.G. Harvey, MSc, PhD

Technical Section National Measurement System R.H. Brittain, BSc, MSc, PhD, CPhys, FRAS Y. F. Heng, BE(Hons)

K.L. Marston, BSc, DipEd Legal Metrology R.A. Dean, BSc Z. R. Elhassan, BE, BA(Hons)

G. W. Price, BSc, BA(Hons) Trade Measurement Uniformity K. Brown, BE C.W. Davies, BE Trade Measurement

Trade Measurement Infrastructure T.J. Buca, BE A. L. Thompson, BApplSc(Hons), MApplSc Pattern Approval

N.F. Baillie (Manager) J. J. Bonnici R.W. Keighley H. W. Li

K. R. Mann R. Sclavos J. Shepherd, part-time B. J. Taylor, part-time

M.A. Zamora

Corporate Services V. W. Dunne A.R. Gatt S. A. Halgren J.M. Kharoufeh, BSEE

G. W. Lowe, part-time A. Manea W. J. Miller M.H. Mochnik, part-time

L. J.R. Nairn M. L. Sanderson, MA(Hons) R. Segui, part-time Information and Documentation

Y.L. Hooi, BAgSc(Hons), MApplSci H. B. Wortham, BSc(Hons), DipEdPubl, part-time

Executive Director J.A. Birch, AM, BSc(Hons), ASTC

Head of Trade Measurement Head of Corporate Services

I.M. Hoerlein, BE B.F. Thornton, BA, ASA, CPA

55

MEMBERSHIP OF EXTERNAL ORGANISATIONS

International Organisations International Electrotechnical Commission Kimberlee Brown is a member of TC77A/WG6: Low Frequency Immunity Tests and TC77B/WG3: High Frequency Immunity Tests.

International Organisation of Legal Metrology John Birch is a member of the International Committee of Legal Metrology and also a member of its Presidential Council.

Ian Hoerlein is responsible for TC8/SC2: Static Mass Measurement and TC7/SC5: Dimensional Measuring Instruments.

International Organisation for Standardisation John Birch is a member of TC/176: Quality Management and Quality Assurance.

Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum John Birch is the convenor and the Commission provides the secretariat.

Australian Organisations Agreement on Standards, Accreditation and Quality John Birch is a member of the Monitoring Committee.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation John Birch is a member of the Standards Advisory Committee.

Metrology Society of Australia Grahame Harvey is a member of the national committee.

Kerry Marston is a New South Wales coordinator.

National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia John Birch is a member of the Council.

Tad Buca is an assessor for metrology.

Chris Davies is an assessor for metrology.

Grahame Harvey is a member of the Electrical Testing Registration Advisory Committee.

Ian Hoerlein is a member of the Metrology Registration Advisory Committee and is an assessor for metrology.

Wider Quality Movement John Birch is a member of this forum.

56

Standards Australia John Birch is a member of die Council and of the Joint Australia New Zealand Quality Standards Advisory Committee.

CH/1

CS/68 DS/8 EL/11 MD/12

ME/49

ME/50

ME/71 QR/9 TE/3 WS/24

Laboratory Glassware and Related Apparatus Radar Speed Detection Bulk Milk Handling

Electricity Metering Equipment Sphygmomanometers Oil and Gas Management

Road/Rail Tankers - Fluid Transfer Components Quantities, Units and Conversions Quality Management

Electromagnetic Radiation Water Meters

Robert Dean

Grahame Harvey Tad Buca Zuhier Elhassan Helen Wortham

Ian Hocrlein (Chairman) and Tad Buca Ian Hoerlein

Grahame Harvey (Chairman) John Birch Kimberlee Brown Ian Hoerlein

PUBLICATIONS

All publications, including a complete list of OIML international recommendations and documents, may be obtained from the Commission.

Coordination of the National Measurement System A Program Evaluation of the National Standards Commission (1992) Annual Reports 1979-80 to 1994-95 Australian Legal Units of Measurement of Physical Quantities

Code of Practice for Deceptive Practices in Packaging Directory of Legal Metrology in the Asia-Pacific Directory of Legal Metrology in the South-West Pacific Metrication: The Final Stages National Measurement Act 1960 National Measurement Regulations National Measurement System of Australia NSC Bulletin (published four times a year)

Real Estate and Metric Advertising Uniform Trade Measurement Legislation Measuring Up Your Competitive Advantage Verifying Authorities Handbook

Determinations of Recognised-value Standards of Measurement Density of Standard Mean Ocean Water Density of Water Density of Mercury Velocity of Electromagnetic Waves in a Vacuum Viscosity of Water Acceleration Due to Gravity Acceleration Due to Gravity (National Measurement Laboratory)

Pattern Approval - General Australian Code of Practice for Calibration of Provers and Flowmeters used in the Volumetric Measurement of Petroleum Liquids Austalian Code of Practice for the Installation and Calibration of Driveway Flowmeters

Dispensing Liquefied Petroleum Gas Certificates of Approval of Patterns (including General Certificates) Index of Approvals National Standards Commission: Test and Calibration Facilities

58

Pattern Approval Manuals No 1 Non-automatic Weighing Instruments No 2 Liquid-measuring Systems No 3 Liquor Dispensers

No 4 Length-measuring Instruments No 5 Area-measuring Instruments No 6 Milk Tanks No 7 Load Cells No 8 Weighing-in-motion Systems No 9 Belt Conveyor Weighers

No 10 Instruments Measuring the Quantity of Liquids in Tanks

Each pattern approval manual consists of a series of appropriate documents

Documents 100 Pattern Approval Specifications for Non-automatic Weighing Instruments for Trade Use (1995, third edition, first revision) 101 Pattern Approval Specifications for Liquid-measuring Instruments for Trade Use

(1988, second edition) 102 Design Rules for Belt Conveyor Weighers for Trade Use (1982, first edition, first revision) 103 Inspection Rules for Non-automatic Weighing Instruments for Trade Use

(1989, first edition, second revision) 104 Test Procedure for the Elimination of Rounding Error for Weighing Instruments with Digital Indication (1981, second edition) 105 Pattern Approval Specifications for the Graduation of Analogue Scales

(1988, first edition, third revision) 106 Approval and Certification Procedures for Measuring Instruments for Trade Use (1992, sixth edition) 107 Design Rules for Length-measuring Instruments for Trade Use

(1980, first edition, first revision) 108 Design Rules for Liquor Dispensers (1981, second edition) 109 Design Rules for Area-measuring Instruments for Trade Use

(1982, first edition, first revision) 110 Symbols for Units of Measurement (1993, third edition) 111 Procedures for the Submission and Testing of Load Cells (1994, fourth edition) 112 Procedure for the Submission of LPG Measuring Systems

(1988, first edition, first revision) 113 Procedures for the Submission and Testing of Weighing-in-motion Systems (1983, first edition) 114 Pattern Approval Specifications for Milk Tanks for Trade Use

(1992, second edition) 116 Pattern Approval Specifications for Load Cells for Trade Weighing Instruments (1992, second edition, first revision) 117 Design Rules for Weighing-in-motion Systems for Trade Use

(1983, first edition)

59

118 Schedule of Maximum Permissible Errors for Trade Measuring Instruments (1986, second edition) 119 Procedures for the Submission and Testing of Belt Conveyor Weighers (1982, first edition) 120 Pattern Approval Specifications for Liquid Level Measuring Devices in Tanks for

Trade Use (1993, first edition) 123 Inspection Rules for Driveway Flowmeters in Use for Trade (1990, first edition) 124 Pattern Approval Specifications for Fixed Storage Tanks for Trade Use

(1993, first edition) 127 Conventional Value of the Result of Weighing in Air (1993, first edition) 128 Non-automatic Weighing Instruments: Pattern Evaluation Report (1995, first edition, first revision) 136 Test Report Format for the Evaluation of Load Cells (1994, first edition)

Interim Pattern Approval Specifications for Liquid Measuring Instruments for Trade Use. Part 1. Definitions, Metrological and Technical Requirements (1994, first edition) Part 2. Metrological Control and Annexes (1994, first edition)

Inspectors Handbook No 1 Area and Length-measuring Instruments No 2 Non-automatic Weighing Instruments No 3 Automatic Weighing Instruments No 4 Volume Measures No 5 Milk Tanks and Vehicle Tanks No 6 Flowmeters

Proceedings of Workshops and Seminars A Review to Determine the Appropriateness and Adequacy of Existing Provisions for the Measurement of Ionising Radiation in Australia Proceedings of a Seminar on Flow Measurement in Australia

Proceedings of a Technical Workshop on Microwave Calibrations and Standards, 10-100 GHz Proceedings of a Technical Workshop on Precise Time Comparisons Proceedings of a Workshop on the Traceability of Foreign Standards of

Measurement

Proceedings of a Seminar on the Calibration of Liquid Petroleum Gas Driveway Flowmeters Proceedings of a Seminar on the Electromagnetic Compatibility of Electronic Trade Measuring Instruments OIML Seminar on Testing of Bulk Weighing Installations

Volume 1. Weighbridge Test Equipment and Verification Procedures Volume 2. Hopper Weighers and Weighing-in-motion Volume 3. Belt Conveyor Weighers

60

Information Leaflets No 0 National Standards Commission No 1 Pattern Approval Laboratory No 2 Verifying Authorities No 3 Metrication No 4 Legal Metrology No 5 Bulk Weighing of Raw Materials No 6 History of Measurement No 7 Inspectors Handbook No 8 The Australian National Time System

No 9 Temperature Compensation of Measurements of Petroleum Products No 10 The Advanced Certificate of Measurement Technology and the Associate Diploma of Applied Science (Measurement Systems) No 11 International System of Units No 12 Medical Measurements No 13 Measurement Skills Training No 14 Trade Measurement in Australia No 15 Standard Frequency and Time Signal Service - VNG No 16 Determination of Volume and Equivalent Mass for Freight No 17 Guidelines for the Measurement of Log Timber No 18 Chemical Metrology No 19 Trade Measurement of Liquids and Gases No 20 Electromagnetic Susceptibility Testing No 21 Marking of Instruments not Approved for Trade

No 22 Procedures to Follow when Trade-measuring Instruments do not have NSC Approval Numbers No 23 Methods of Sealing Measuring Instruments No 24 Australia's National Measurement System

No 25 The National Measurement Act No 26 Metrological Control of Measuring Instruments No 27 Daylight Saving No 28 Calendars No 29 Guidelines for Automated Weighing Systems

No 30 How to Obtain a Weighbridge Approval

61

.

CHECKLIST OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

The following checklist specifies the reporting requirements which apply to statutory authorities such as the Commission.

Enabling legislation.................................................................................................... 1

Minister........................................................................................................................1

Powers, functions and objectives.............................................................................. 1

Members..................................................................................................................... 2

Staff........................................................................................................................... 33

Information officer...................................................................................................32

Auditor General's report.......................................................................................... 37

Financial statements.................................................................................................39

Activities and reports........................................................................................... 6-32

Main achievements..................................................................................................3-6

Publications......................................................................................................... 58-61

Operational problems • Lack of resources for survey of metric reporting advertising in the print medium........................................................................................... 20

• Difficulties in retaining effective coordination and continuity of trade measurement...................................................................................23-24

• Non-achievement of uniform legislation..........................................................22

• Pattern compliance of measuring instruments................................................. 31

Subsidiaries..........................................................................................................None

In addition this annual report complies with the following departmental requirements.

Table of contents............................................................................................... vii-viii

Checklist of reporting requirements....................................................................... 62

Corporate structure...................................................................................................33

Equal employment opportunities.............................................................................35

Social justice, access and equity..............................................................................35

Staff training and development...............................................................................34

Industrial democracy................................................................................................34

Occupational health and safety................................................................................34

Consultancy services................................................................................................35

Freedom of information................................................................ 35

Environmental m atters.............................................................................................35

62

THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

PARLIAMENTARY PAPER No 339 of 1995 ORDERED TO BE PRINTED

ISSN 0727-4181