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Department of Employment and Youth Affairs - Report - Year - 1980-81 (including report of the National Director of the Commonwealth Employment Service, pursuant to the Commonwealth Employment Service Act, on the operations of the Service)

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The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia


Annual Report


Presented by Command and ordered to be printed 6 May 1982

Parliamentary Paper No. 121/1982





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I 1


Department of Employment and Youth Affairs


Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra 1 982

The Hon. N. A. Brown, Q.C., M.R. Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs Parliament House Canberra, ACT 2600


I present the annual report of the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs for the year ending 30 June 1 981.

R M. Taylor Secretary

© Commonwealth of Australia 1 982

Printed by Watson Ferguson & Co., Brisbane

The Hon. N. A. Brown, QC Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs

My dear Minister

In accordance with the provisions of Section 22 of the Commonwealth Employment Service Act 1 978, I submit for presentation to Parliament this Report for the year ended 30 June 1 981. During 1980-81, the Commonwealth Employment Service made further

progress in modernising and upgrading its accommodation and services. Five new job centres were opened and 26 existing offices were relocated and upgraded to Job Centre' standards. As at June 1981, 63 offices remain to be upgraded or

relocated to new premises under the program. There are now 238 offices operated by the CES in Australia. The steps taken to date in the upgrading of the CES have had important effects

on its performance. In 1980-81 the CES:

• received 819 808 vacancies—an increase of 17.1 per cent over 1979-80— (the best performance for 7 years); • filled 607 565 vacancies—an increase of 14.7 per cent over 1979— 80; • filled 74.1 per cent of all vacancies received compared with 75.6 per cent in

1979-80; • after nearly three years of operations placements through self-service now represent one quarter of total placements; • assisted 120 000 persons under NEAT, which included 61 400 new

approvals under the Special Youth Employment Training Program.

An event of major importance for the CES during 1 980-81 was the tabling in Parliament on 30 April 1 981 of the Review of Commonwealth Functions chaired by the Minister for Industry and Commerce, Sir Phillip Lynch. Two important recommendations of the Review of Commonwealth Functions for the CES relate to the discontinuation of the Professional Employment Office as a separate network from the CES, and the abolition of Templine' in Victoria and a typist/stenographer testing service in Perth.

However, the recommendation of the Review of Commonwealth Functions which will havethe most profound and substantial implicationsforthe operation of the CES relates to the removal of most of the tasks associated with the administration of unemployment benefit from the CES to the Department of Social

Security. This development will facilitate the concentration of CES work on employment placement matters. The way would now seem open to put at rest finally any lasting remnants of the quite erroneous view of the CES as a dole office'.

Nevertheless, during 1981— 82 the CES will be confronted with a variety of management challenges in implementing and adjusting to the primary and secondary effects of these developments. An initiative which is likely to have a vital bearing on the performance of the

CES and its ability to meet the labour market demands of the 1 980s and beyond is the development of a real-time computer system, named Job Bank, which will replace the current telex and facsimile vacancy circulation system.


Tenders were invited in October 1 980 for computer hardware to support Job Bank nationally, and at the end of 1 980-81 the evaluation of tender responses was well advanced. It should be noted that the current telex and facsimile vacancy circulation systems used by the CES have been placed under increasing strain during 1 980-81 with the very large rise of 1 7.1 per cent in that period in the number of vacancies

notified to the CES. Operation of the conventional equipment beyond its capacity has resulted in reduced efficiency, particularly as regards the cancellation of vacancies. This experience, together with the prospect of further growth of vacancy notifications, makes the provision of the advanced Job Bank vacancy circulation system a matter of high priority if the CES is to provide an economic and efficient labour market service.

It is planned to introduce Job Bank in CES offices in all capital cities and adjoining provincial centres. It is anticipated that it will be introduced in Adelaide during early 1983, and be fully operational throughout Australia by the end of 1984.

With respect to ADR applications, the automated statistical and management information system (SAMIN), which was introduced into Brisbane CES offices has been very successful. As expected, the information available from SAMIN has proved to be of considerable value for CES management purposes. It is planned ultimately to extend SAMIN to all States, using the Job Bank computer facility.

The SAMIN system, however, experienced severe difficulty at the end of 1980-81, as a result of a recommendation of the Review of Commonwealth Functions to terminate the MANDATA computer system, which SAMIN had previously used. Indeed, the planned rapid phasing down of MANDATA rendered the future of SAMIN very uncertain. In the light of this, the CES has been seeking alternative arrangements to use a computer bureau facility in Melbourne. An acceptable arrangement of this nature would assure the future of SAMIN until Job

Bank can provide the computer hardware for its continued operation. Progress towards a greater decentralisation of CES management at Regional level, through the introduction of Zone Management, has continued and during 1980—81 the planned network of 26 operational Zones was brought into full operation.

In response to the priority attached to assisting young people in obtaining employment, the CES intensified its activities in this regard during 1980-81. Following the announcement by the Government in November 1980 of specific initiatives in relation to its Commitment to Youth Program, the CES has assisted 9000 young people under extensions to the Special Youth Employment Training

Program and the related Transition Allowance Scheme. Under the program the CES has also provided special counselling and advice interviews to 25 000 young people, and has provided substantial assistance to secondary schools in the vocational preparation of students.

Another important aspect of the activities of the CES during 1981 was its contribution to the International Year of Disabled Persons. The CES increased its emphasis on assistance for the disabled by active encouragement of private employers to employ disabled persons, and by the deployment of specialised placement staff to individual offices of the CES. In addition, Employment

Promotion Committees for the Disabled were established in each State and the Northern Territory. These Committees were set up to stimulate awareness among employers of the employment capabilities of disabled persons, and to encourage

the adoption of more positive policies towards the recruitment of disabled job seekers. During 1980—81, the CES has increased and extended its services to the migrant section of the community. These services include special migrant service

units, use of Telephone Interpreter Services, provision of bilingual employment officers in CES offices with high migrant population, and the continued servicing of Migrant Centres throughout Australia. Furthermore, a series of videotape and leaflet products is being developed to provide non-English speaking migrants with

information about working in Australia. As regards the general area of occupational information, the CES has extended its range of occupational information for job seekers. The emphasis in the past has been on assisting young people seeking careers requiring post-secondary educational qualifications. However, during 1 980-81 the CES decided to embark on a major initiative directed towards early school leavers who do not wish to work

in the trade, technical or professional categories. This consists of the preparation and dissemination of a wide variety (up to 200) of appropriate videotapes and leaflets concerning occupations traditionally referred to as semi-skilled or unskilled. Another major CES initiative during 1980—81 in the occupational

information field was the provision of a work information library, containing material on a range of from 200 to 400 occupations, to all secondary schools throughout Australia. This has been extremely well received by the various education authorities.

Recognising the particular disadvantages Aboriginals face in finding employ­ ment, the Government's National Employment Strategy for Aboriginals has been further expanded. During 1980—81 there were over 100 specialised CES Vocational Officers (about half of whom are Aboriginals) providing employment services to Aboriginal people throughout Australia. Also, during 1980—81, the

National Aboriginal Employment Development Committee continued to foster the employment of Aboriginals through specific Aboriginal employment campaigns and as a result of direct approaches to senior managers of employing organisations. During the latter part of 1 980-81, the Department commenced the establish­

ment of Regional Budget and Estimates Committees in each State and the Northern Territory. It is through the establishment of these committees that 'grass roots’ information can flow through to senior management, and it will be through the links between these committees andZoneandOCES Management that a much

needed system of operational planning in the CES will be developed. The National Advisory Committee on the CES (NAC), which is an external advisory body to the CES, consisting of representatives of employers, unions and government, operated successfully during 1 980—81. In January 1 981, it prepared and distributed a Discussion Paper entitled 'The Commonwealth Employment

Service and Employment Agencies'. The purpose of the Discussion Paper was to obtain views on the relationship which should exist between the CES and employment agencies in helping job seekers and employers meet their labour market needs.

On the basis of submissions put to it, the NAC at the end of 1 980— 81 was in the process of preparing a report on this important matter as its advice to you. As well as providing for the NAC, the CES Act 1978 also provides for the establishment of Regional Advisory Committees on the CES in each State and in the Northern Territory. During 1980—81, action was taken to initiate these

Committees. Each will initially consist of employer and union representatives, and community representatives will be invited to join during 1 981—82. For the first year

of operation, the Directors of the Department will take the position of Chairman. Over the last 1 2 months, there has been considerable disputation in the CES. Some of the issues have been national ones affecting the whole Public Service, e.g. the wage claim, and others have been directly associated with staffing issues in

OCES. While bans have been imposed on some aspects of OCES work, they have only been applied in some offices and then to a limited extent. They would have caused a minimum amount of inconvenience to OCES operations and did not impair the overall efficiency of the service provided to the public. However, the disputes proved to be a significant distraction in the effective management of the CES.

As with the Annual Report for 1 979—80, this year's Report on the activities of the CES is presented as part of a consolidated report of the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs. The sections relating to the CES, and the statistical tables accompanying them, form part of my annual report to you.

Yours sincerely

B. H. Tregillis National Director Commonwealth Employment Service



Highlights of 1980-81 1

The Departm ent 3

Labour m arket in 1980-81 5

The labour market 5

The labour force 5

Employment 5

Hours worked 8

Unemployment 8

Job vacancies 10

State labour markets 1 0

M anpow er programs 12

Nationa^Employment and Training System 12

Skills training 12

Special Youth Employment and Training Program 1 3

Skills-in-Demand Program 14

Relocation Assistance Scheme 1 6

Fares Assistance Scheme 1 6

Former Regular Service Members Vocational Training Scheme 1 6 Redundancy in Australian Government Employment Program 17 Training in Industry and Commerce Program 1 7

S chool-to-W ork Transition 19

Transition policy 19

Program objectives 19

Primary target group 19

Funding 20

Administrative arrangements 20

Transition projects 20

Role of the CES 22

Progress 22

Transition allowance 24

Vocational guidance review 25

Trade training support 26

Trade training 26

Change in the trade training system 26

Apprenticeship support programs 27

Commonwealth Rebate for Apprentice Full-Time Training 27 Group One-Year Apprentice Scheme 29

Special Assistance Program 29

Additional Apprenticeship Scheme 29


Commonwealth—State Special Trade Training Program 29

Support for group apprentice schemes 31

Improvement of apprenticeship statistics 31

Assistance fo r special groups 32

Employment training for Aboriginals 32

Employment of the Disabled 33

Training Assistance for the Disabled 35

Com m unity-based schemes 36

Community Youth Support Scheme 36

Volunteer Youth Program 36

Special Projects 37

Com m onwealth Employment Service 38

Management of the CES 38

Zone Management 38

CES Offices 39

Monitoring of performance 39

Vacancy attraction and circulation 39

Job Bank 40

Youth 40

Migrants 41

Aboriginals 42

Occupational information 42

Marketing 44

Professional Employment Offices 44

Unemployment Benefit administration 44

M anpow er and industry studies 46

Industry policy and employment 46

Occupational studies 46

Australian Standard Classification of Occupations 47

Youth affairs 49

Office of Youth Affairs 49

Research 49

Regional seminars 49

Program of Assistance to Youth Organisations 50

National Youth Advisory Group 52

Youth representation on government advisory bodies 52

Task Group on Youth Affairs 52

Education and training of youth workers 52

International Youth Exchange Program 53

W om en's Bureau 54

Research and publications 55

International co-operation 56

International relations 56

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 56 International Labour Organisation 56

Commonwealth Youth Program 56

International Youth Exchanges 56

Com m ittees and councils 58

National Labour Consultative Council 58

Conference of Commonwealth and State Labour Ministers-Departments of Labour Advisory Committee 59

Commonwealth—State Apprenticeship Committee 61

National Training Council 62

Industry Training Committees 66

Employment Discrimination Committees 68

National Aboriginal Employment Development Committee 69 Commonwealth Employment Promotion Committees for the Disabled 70 National Youth Advisory Group 71

National Advisory Committee on the Commonwealth Employment Service 72

Inform ation 73

Public Relations 73

Bureau of Labour M a rk et Research 74

Research program 74

Labour market research grants 75

M anagem ent 77

Organisation of the Department 77

Management services ' 78

CES Office modernisation program 78

CES training 79

A ppendixes 81



Highlights of 1980—81

• A 2.7 per cent average rise in employment with employment growth of 1 69 1 00 during 1980—81, the highest annual growth since 1973—74. The average full-time unemployment rate fell from 6.1 per cent in 1 979-80 to 5.8 per cent.

• A substantial increase in expenditure on manpower, training and youth support programs—up by over $53 million from $11 2.4 million in 1 979-80 to $1 65.4 million.

• A record apprenticeship intake of 48 665 was recorded, nearly 2270 more than the 1 979—80 figure. The number of apprentices in training also reached a record 1 42 523, 5859 above the previous high.

• Rates increased for CRAFT, Technical Education Rebate, Off-the-Job Training Rebate, and Living-Away-From - Home Allowances. A $1000 bonus was introduced for new additional apprentices in the metal, electrical and building trades.

• Introduction of a range of initiatives as part of the Commitment to Youth policy aimed at helping young people to prepare for the workforce. It included:

— Introduction of a school-to-work transition allowance (the equivalent of Unemployment Benefit plus $6 a week) to encourage young people to undertake educational and training courses in TAFE colleges.

— An increase in the subsidy paid to employers to train unemployed young people under the Special Youth Employment Training Program (SYETP) from $50 to $55 a week for 1 7 weeks.

— Introduction of a special extended 34-week SYETP subsidy for longer term unemployed people at a rate of $80 a week for the first 1 7 weeks and $55 for the second 17 weeks.

— Automatic access to SYETP for all young people who complete school- to-work transition courses and TAFE courses.

— Provision of special counselling and advice for unemployed young people.

• The unanimous endorsement by Commonwealth and State Ministers for Labour of the Departments of Labour Advisory Committee's report on trade training. The Report contained 27 major recommendations, directed at:

— Increasing the number of apprentices in training; and — Improving the trade training system by making it more flexible and capable of producing tradesmen and tradeswomen of higher quality to help meet future manpower requirements, particularly in relation to major

development projects.


Special agreements with all States and the Northern Territory and the establishment of co-operative arrangements to ensure early assessment of manpower requirements by project developers and maximum employment and training opportunities for Australians.

A new Ski I Is-i n - Demand Program was introduced directed at the establish­ ment of new or improved training arrangements in occupations where there is a skill shortage, and at providing unemployed people with new skills which will give them stable and rewarding employment.

Over 607 000 people were placed in jobs by*the CES during 1 980-81—an increase of more than 77 000 or 14.7 per cent on 1 979-80.

Comprehensive occupational information libraries, the first of their kind produced in Australia, were made available to all Australian secondary schools.

Aboriginal employment campaigns in Western Australia and the Northern Territory led to a 250 per cent increase in job placement in the campaign areas.

A major employment promotion campaign for the disabled began in the International Year of Disabled Persons. Employment Promotion Committees for the Disabled were appointed in all States.

Regional seminars in each State and Territory organised by the Office of Youth Affairs to discuss the delivery of Commonwealth programs to young people.

A set of guidelines designed to promote equality of employment opportu­ nities for Australia's 2.5 million female workforce was released by the National Labour Consultative Council and launched by the Ministers for Industrial Relations and Employment and Youth Affairs.

The Hon. Neil Brown, Q.C., M.P., appointed Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs, in April 1 981, replacing the Hon. Ian Viner, M.P.

The Department

The overall objective of the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs is to improve the functioning of the labour market through the implementation of the Commonwealth Government's manpower policies, services and programs. They are aimed at:

• facilitating a better match between those looking for work and the opportunities available to them • upgrading skills to meet needs as they emerge in the rapidly changing economic environment of the 1 980s • increasing the number of apprenticeship opportunities and the quality of

trade training • helping the transition of young people from school to work • maintaining the motivation and work orientation of young people • providing work experience for those who have difficulty gaining employment

• improving the employment prospects of disadvantaged groups in the community such as Aboriginals, migrants and the disabled.

It is essential, given the complexity and dynamic nature of the labour market, for the Department to acquire first-hand knowledge of the labour market, to identify where selective action may be required and to ensure that policy initiatives are implemented at the local level. The Department is therefore a decentralised

organisation. It comprises seven divisions, eight regional offices and a national network of offices and agents of the Commonwealth Employment Service. The Permanent Head and four of the divisions are located in Canberra. The National Director, who

has statutory responsibility for the CES under the Commonwealth Employment Service Act 1 978, and the three employment divisions are located in Melbourne. At 30 June 1 981, staff numbered 5933 compared with 5769 at 30 June 1 980, an increase of 2.8 per cent. Detailed breakdowns of staffing by functions are

contained elsewhere in this report.



Labour market in 1980—81

The labour m arket1 The main features of the labour market in 1 980—81 were:

• a substantial rise in employment—an increase of 1 69 1 00 jobs; on average, total employment was 2.7 per cent higher than 1 979-80; • significant growth in the total labour force; the increase in the average level for the year was 1 58 000 (2.4 per cent); • a fall in the level of unemployment; the average number of unemployed

people looking for full-time work was 8500 below the average for 1979-80, and the average level of total unemployment fell by 4900; the full-time and total unemployment rates in 1 980-81 averaged 5.8 per cent and 5.9 per cent respectively, compared with 6.1 for both in the previous year.

Resource-based development, and the general upsurge in business fixed investment provided a boost to employment during 1 980-81, although significant gains were also recorded across a range of industries. A significant feature of the pattern of employment growth was the relative improvement in the position of adult males, particularly those in full-tim e employment, and teenagers.

The labour force The strong labour force growth of 158 000 recorded in 1980— 81 was due to population growth and an increase in the level of participation in the labour force. The average labour force participation rate was 61.4 per cent (61.1 per cent in

1979-80). The labour force status of the male and female civilian population aged fifteen years and over during 1980-81 is illustrated in Diagram I. The average participation rate for males during the year was 78.4 per cent, and

44.8 per cent for females. The male labour force participation rate remained relatively unchanged between 1979-80 and 1980-81. This contrasts with the declining trend evident for more than a decade. The female participation rate increased in 1 980-81 (Appendix 1 6) to 44.8 per cent and was the highest average

rate recorded. The previous peak of 44.2 per cent was recorded in 1 979— 80.

Employment The average level of employment throughout 1980-81 was 6 326 000 people, nearly 84 per cent being employed full time, and about 1 6 per cent part time. The

incidence of part-time work was much higher among females, particularly married women (44.3 per cent of whom were employed part-time in 1980— 81). The

1 Most of the data used in this section have been obtained from the monthly population, supplementary, and other surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). For more details on sources of the data used see Appendix 23. Appendixes 14 to 22 contain detailed statistical tables of information referred to in this section.


composition of employed persons by sex and by full-time and part-time status in 1980— 81 is illustrated in Diagram II.



Unemployed 204 100 Unemployed 188 800

Employed 2 293 200 Not in the

labour force 3 061 300

Females 5 543 200

Not in the labour force 1 169 700

Employed 4 032 800

Males 5 406 500



Males full-tim e employed ,3 820 800

Females part-time employed 806 600

Employers 356 200

Males part-time employed 212 000

Self employed 623700 Unpaid family

helpers 24 300

Wage and salary earners 5 309 100

The majority of employed people (84.1 per cent in 1 980— 81) were wage and salary earners. Self-employed people and employers accounted for 9.9 per cent and 5.6 per cent respectively of employment in 1 980-81. The remaining 0.4 per cent were unpaid family helpers. The distribution of employed people by occupational status is illustrated in Diagram III.


The growth in total employment between 1979-80 and 1980-81 occurred almost equally among males and females. Although part-time employment grew at a proportionately faster rate than full-tim e employment, nearly 68 per cent of the rise in employment during the year was in full-time employment.


EMPLOYED PERSONS Persons 000 1979-80 1980-81

6 400-, Original

Seasonally adjusted

6 35 0-

6 300-

6 2 5 0 -

6 200 -

6 150-

6 1 0 0-

6 050-

6 000

Teenage employment increased by 29 300 (4.5 per cent) in 1980-81. This followed an increase of 1 3 300 (2.1 per cent) in the previous year and continued the reversal of the declining trend in evidence during the preceding decade. Industry groupings in which employment rose strongly during 1980-81

include forestry, fishing and hunting (1 7.8 per cent), metal products (8 7 percent), finance, property and business services (11.3 per cent), and community services (1 6.6 per cent) (Appendix 21). The only industry group to record a significant fall in employment was food,

beverages and tobacco. This largely reflected difficulties in the meat industry associated with drought conditions. The movements in total employment for 1979—80 and 1 980—81 are illustrated in Diagram IV.

While the original data (presented monthly) shows that there are major seasonal fluctuations in employment in any year, the seasonally adjusted data (available quarterly) illustrate the steady growth in both financial years.


Hours w orked As a result of the increase in employment, there was an increase in the total number of hours worked during the financial year. On average, 224.8 million hours were worked each week, 3.5 per cent higher than the previous year. People in full-time employment worked an average of 39.5 hours a week while the average for all people in full- and part-time employment was 35.5 hours a week2. An ABS survey of employers showed that, on average, about 21 per cent of employees worked overtime each month during 1980—81 The average overtime worked by all employees was 1.4 hours a week, the same as in the previous financial year.

Unemployment The average number of unemployed people looking for full-time work during 1 980-81 was 327 500 or 5.8 per cent of the full-time labour force. The average number of 1 5—1 9-year-olds looking for their first full-time job fell by 4800 to 37 700 during the year. The number of other teenagers and adults looking for fu ll­ time work fell by 2600 and 1 200 respectively.

There was a slight decrease in the number of unemployed people looking for part-time work; the average level of 66 000 in 1 980— 81 being 2500 lower than that of the previous year. Total unemployment rates in 1980— 81 by age and by sex are illustrated in

Diagram V. It reflects the general tendency for the female rate to be higher than the male rate and the higher rates of unemployment in the under-25 age group.


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY AGE AND SEX (Looking for full and part-time work) 1980-81

Male Female

N A N /A N /A

35-44 Total age 15-19 25-34 45-5 4 5 5 -5 9

2 These figures relate to the actual average hours worked by an employed person during the survey week, and not hours paid for. They are therefore affected by variations in such things as public holidays, leave, absenteeism and temporary absence from work due to sickness, injury, and so on. In the survey week in June 1 9 8 1 ,2 2 .8 per cent of full-time workers worked less than thirty-five hours primarily as results of taking leave, or through illness or injury.


Monthly estimates of unemployed people looking for full-tim e work and of total unemployed (i.e. looking for either full-tim e or part-time work) in 1979—80 and 1 980—81 are illustrated in Diagram VI. It shows the strong seasonal nature of unemployment, particularly the sharp seasonal rises in December and January of

each year, as school leavers enter the labour force. The total numbers of unemployed is further boosted each year in February with the entry into the job market of married women seeking part-time employment at the end of the school holidays.

Apart from the usual seasonal movement, the diagram also shows a fall in the underlying level of unemployment during 1 980—81. Most of that improvement occurred in the second half of the financial year. While average unemployment had declined by only 1 0 100, (or 2.3 per cent) over the year to the March quarter 1 981, the annual decline progressively strengthened to 40 800 (or 10 per cent) by the

June quarter 1 981. The average duration of unemployment during 1980—81 was 31.3 weeks, compared with 28.6 weeks for the previous year. During 1 980—81 19.7 per cent of unemployed people had been unemployed on average for at least a year. The corresponding figure of 1 8.8 per cent was recorded in 1 979-80.




----------- Unemployed looking

for full-time work




— Total unemployed , (Full and part-tim e)/




Job vacancies Employer surveys conducted by the ABS recorded an average level of 33 400 unfilled job vacancies in 1980—81, some 100 less than the average level in 1 979-80. The job vacancy rate (i.e. the number of job vacancies expressed as a percentage of the number of employees plus vacancies) averaged 0.8 per cent in 1980-81, the same as the previous year. (It should be noted that this survey does not have total coverage of all firms and industries in Australia and, as a result, this

figure does not represent all unfilled jobs available in the.labour market.) The average level of unfilled job vacancies in the manufacturing industry remained unchanged between 1979-80 and 1980-81. Vacancies in the mining industry increased; vacancies in wholesale and retail trade, transport, storage and communication, and public administration and community services declined.

State labour m arkets All States and Territories recorded a rise in the average level of employment during the year. Average unemployment fell in all States except Victoria and South Australia.

Diagram VII shows the annual changes in total employment and total unemployment for each State and Territory between 1 979—80 and 1 980—81. New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory received a boost to employment from major resource projects and the construction of associated infrastructure. Substantial growth was also recorded in most States

in the finance and business services, community services and wholesale and retail trade industry sectors. The improved economic performance in 1980— 81 led to the growth in employment moving considerably ahead of growth in the labour force. As a result of this development there was a fall in the rate and level of unemployment, notably

in Western Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. Employment growth was less rapid in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia than in the other States. Tasmania, nevertheless, recorded a fall in unemployment during 1980-81, but unemployment rose slightly in Victoria and South Australia.

Diagram VIII presents total unemployment rates (i.e. for persons looking for either full-time or part-time work) in 1 980—81 for each State by capital city, other areas and total.3 While the diagram indicates that the rate of unemployment did not differ greatly between the capital city and non-capital city areas for Australia as a whole, there were significant variations within States and, in the smaller States, capital city unemployment rates tended to be higher than the rates for 'other areas'.

3 Due to high sampling variability, data for the Northern Territory are not available separately, but have been included in the Australian total, and are treated as 'other areas'. The whole of the ACT has been classified as a capital city area.





em ployed unemployed

- 4 —

- 6 —

-8 —

- 10­

- 12­

- 1 4 - New South Victoria Queensland South Western Tasmania Northern Australian Australia

Wales Australia Australia Territory Capital


DIAGRAM VIII UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY STATE, TERRITORY AND REGION 1980-81 (Looking for full and part-time work)

Capital Rest Total


New South Victoria Queensland South Western Tasmania Northern Australian Australia

Wales Australia Australia Territory Capital



Manpower programs

The Department administers a range of Commonwealth government manpower programs aimed at improving the efficiency of the labour market. The School to Work Transition Program, Trade Training Support, Assistance for Special Groups and Community-Based Schemes are described in other sections of this report.

This section deals with the following programs:

• the National Employment and Training System (NEAT)—see page 1 2 e the Relocation Assistance Scheme (RAS)—see page 16 • the Fares Assistance Scheme (FAS)—see page 1 6 e the Redundancy in Australian Government Employment Program—see page


• the Training in Industry and Commerce Program (TIC)—see page 1 7

National Employment and Training System (NEAT) The NEAT system is made up of a range of employment and training programs and services directed towards two main objectives:

• improving the ability of industry to meet its requirements for skilled labour; and • assisting individuals who without training or retraining will have difficulty in obtaining stable and rewarding employment.

The major forms of NEAT assistance are:

• Skills Training • Special Youth Employment and Training Program (SYETP) • Skills-in-Demand Program • Training assistance for the disabled • Training assistance for Aboriginals

Skills training NEAT skills training provides financial support for on-the-job and formal training:

• On-the-job—a subsidy is offered to an employer to train a job-seeker who does not meet normal selection criteria when suitably qualified people are unavailable; and • Formal—a trainee receives allowances to undertake, at an educational or

vocational training institution, training which will lead to employment in occupations for which there is a shortage of skilled workers.


During 1 980—81 expenditure under NEAT skills training amounted to $11.5 million. A total of 1 7 200 people were approved for training.

On the job Formal

Approvals Expenditure 1 5 400 8.5 million

1 800 3.0 million

17 200 $11.5 million

Special Youth Employment and Training Program (SYETP) SYETP, which was introduced in 1 976, helps young people who have difficulty in obtaining employment because they lack experience or qualifications or because of personal difficulties. They are placed with an employer for a period of work experience and training. Employers receive a weekly subsidy for each young

person they tram. To be eligible for assistance a person must be aged between 1 5 and 24 years, be registered with the CES and have been away from full-time education and unemployed for at least four of the preceding twelve months. The subsidy payable to employers at 30 June 1 981 was $55 a week.

To qualify for the subsidy, employers must have notified the CES of the vacancy, accept trainees referred by the CES and be prepared to provide work experience and on-the-job training in a full-time job for seventeen weeks. They must also agree to a training plan for each trainee and pay at least the award wage.

A twelve-month job-drought ended for Immaculada Cano, 79, of M t VJarrigal, N.S. W., when she began work as a trainee tracer with engineering consultants, Longworth and McKenzie under the Special Youth Employment and Training Program (SYETP).


Because of the particular difficulties being faced by those in the 18-24 age group and in recognition of their longer periods of unemployment, the Government introduced an extended SYETR subsidy in February 1 981. It provides for thirty-four weeks of subsidised on-the-job training for young people in the 1 8-24 age group, who have been unemployed and away from fu ll­ time education for eight of the preceding twelve months. At 30 June 1981, the subsidy was at the rate of $80 per week for the first seventeen weeks and $55 per week for the second seventeen weeks. There were 6500 approvals under extended SYETR in 1980-81.

Overall, there were 61 400 new approvals under SYETR during 1 980-81 with 76 300 young people being assisted at a total cost of $41.25 million.

Skills-in-Demand Program The Skills-in-Demand Program is directed at the establishment of new or improved training arrangements in occupations where there is a skill shortage and at providing unemployed people with new skills which will give them stable and

rewarding employment. Two important initiatives influenced the development of the Ski I Is - i n - Demand Program in 1 980-81. They were:

• the Commonwealth Policy on the Employment Aspects of Major Develop­ ment Projects, as outlined in the Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs' 4 December 1 980 statement to the House of Representatives; • trade training initiatives proposed by the Departments of Labour Advisory

Committee (DOLAC) and endorsed by Commonwealth and State Ministers for Labour—see page 26.

The main elements of the Commonwealth Policy on Employment Aspects of Major Development Projects are that there should be:

• an early assessment of manpower requirements by the project developer; • a substantial training effort on the part of the project developer and associated contractors.

The policy provides that where these pre-conditions are met, there would be assistance under the Skills-in-Demand Program where continued critical short­ ages are likely to impede project progress. The State and Northern Territory Governments endorsed the policy and co­ operative machinery has been established to oversight its implementation.

The Commonwealth policy and the DOLAC initiatives also recognised the need for arrangements which will increase the quantity and quality of skilled people through:

• accelerated arrangements for trade and non-trade training; e the establishment of new training arrangements where none exist or where existing training arrangements are inadequate.

In addition to shortages associated with major development projects, there are shortages in a range of lower level skills, and in these cases the Skills-in-Demand Program can provide assistance to establish more effective training arrangements and provide training and employment opportunities for unemployed people.

The Skills-in-Demand Program is directed at providing training assistance for those occupations given priority by industry. In particular, the program seeks to provide assistance where:


Draughtsmen and draughtswomen training at the Association of Consulting Engineers Australia (ACTEA) and Longworth and McKenzie Pty Ltd group training scheme in Sydney. Two hundred apprentices will be trained over two years at a total cost to the Commonwealth of $1.4 million, under its Skills in-Dem and and CRAFT programs

• an industry-wide shortage exists or is anticipated in a particular locality; • training arrangements have industry-wide application and are acceptable to both sides of industry; • existing training arrangements are inadequate;

• there is scope for accelerated training; • the training arrangements provide a net addition to the stock of skills and training capacity; • there is a guarantee of employment for individuals trained;

• industry is prepared to accept the responsibility for ongoing training after the agreed shortage is overcome.

The program also aims to assist unemployed people by giving them priority. The form of training packages under the Skills-in-Demand Program necessarily vary to cope with different industry occupations and State circumstances. In general terms three models have emerged on the basis of experience to date;

• The Comrnonwealth-State Special Trade Training scheme in Western Australia, which involved co-operation between Government, industry and unions. The package provides for mature age as well as teenage apprentices and accelerated training related to trades anticipated to be in short supply

because of the North West Shelf developments (for details see page 29).

• The accelerated training of draughtsmen in N.S.W. involving support for a host employer association to provide additional training capacity. Assistance includes wage costs of releasing apprentices for intensive off-the-job training and contribution towards the establishment of an off-the-job training centre.

• Assistance directed to lower level skills, with the objective of establishing new or more effective training arrangements and assisting the unemployed obtain the training necessary to obtain employment. Examples of such packages include clothing machinists, cotton irrigation workers, tree fellers and home health aides (see Appendix 25 for details).


Training assistance for the disabled See Assistance for Special Groups (page 35)

Training assistance for Aboriginals See Assistance for Special Groups (page 32)

Relocation Assistance Scheme (RAS) The Relocation Assistance Scheme assists those who are unemployed or who have received notification of impending redundancy to move to an area where employment is available.

Eligibility criteria are that:

• they are unable, even with retraining, to obtain continuing employment within a reasonable time in the area in which they reside; • they have received a bona fide job offer in another area; • there are no job seekers registered with the CES in that area who would be

suitable for the job either immediately or with training.

Assistance with relocation expenses requires the approval of the CES prior to the relocation taking place. In 1980-81, 1510 people were assisted under the Scheme at a cost of $1.26 million.

Fares Assistance Scheme (FAS) The Fares Assistance Scheme (FAS) provides assistance to unemployed people to attend job interviews with prospective employers. The assistance consists of:

« non-refundable fares assistance, applicable to specified registrants (for example, those eligible to receive Unemployment Benefit or Special Benefit and young people under 1 6), to enable them to travel from the referring CES office to the premises of a prospective employer and from those premises to the registrant's home, back to the CES office or other reasonable destination; and

• refundable fares assistance, applicable to other registrants, restricted to the cost of fares from 'referring' CES office to the location of the prospective employer.

In 1 980-81 a total of 109 878 average fare tickets was issued. During the same period, 6667 non-refundable travel warrants and 21 7 refundable travel warrants were issued under this scheme. Expenditure during 1980-81 was $302 754 compared with $219 685 in 1979-80.

Former Regular Service Members Vocational Training Scheme The FRSVTS was designed to provide training assistance to longserving or medically discharged ex-service personnel on re-entry to the civilian workforce where this was thought necessary for their effective re-establishment. The Government terminated the scheme on 30 April 1981 as a result of recom­ mendations by the Ministerial Committee of Review of Commonwealth Functions.

Flowever, those training at that time could pursue their approved courses to completion.


Until 30 April 1 981 eighty-nine people were approved for assistance under the scheme and in this period there was an average of 158 persons in training each month. Expenditure for the year was $286 549.

Redundancy in Australian Governm ent Employment Program The Redundancy in Australian Government Employment Program is designed to ensure that redundant Commonwealth employees are absorbed into employment without financial loss and with protection of the rights they had attained as a result

of their previous employment. During 1 980—81,429 people were assisted.

Training in Industry and Commerce Program (T IC ) A total of $3 million was spent under the Training in Industry and Commerce Program in 1 980—81 (see Appendix 26, page 1 02). The objective of the program is to stimulate industry organisations and enterprises to develop systematic training

in industry. Under the program, funding is made available for the development of tripartite Industry Training Committees, specific training programs, a manpower develop­ ment scheme, the publication of basic training manuals, group training schemes and trainer training.

Industry Training Committees Under the aegis of the National Training Council there are nineteen tripartite National Industry Training Committees (ITCs) and sixty-five State ITCs. Each of

these ITCs includes in its terms of reference a concern for the improvement of all training arrangements relevant to its industry sector. The key role of ITCs is to ascertain training needs, arrange the delivery of suitable programs and evaluate their effectiveness. Another important function is to keep the Government informed on matters such as the need for new policies in

specific areas of manpower development, and the effectiveness -of existing policies. The TIC Program also extends to assisting committees to employ full-time manpower development staff.

National ITCs operate in the following industries:

• Building and Construction • Clay and Ceramics • Clothing • Drilling

• Dairy Processing • Electrical and Electronics • Fishing • Footwear Manufacturing • Furniture Manufacturing

• Maritime

• Metal and Engineering • Plastics • Printing • Retail Motor • Road Transport

» Textiles • Timber • Tourism and Hospitality • Wool Producing

For further details of the ITC network, see page 66.

Basic training manuals These manuals are designed to assist firms and training institutions in the teaching of trade and other practical skills. Production continued throughout the year. With


the addition of three new titles there are now fifty-five titles available through Australian Government Publishing Service bookshops. There are twenty-seven new titles in various stages of preparation.

Trainer Training Service The Service has continued to provide a comprehensive range of courses and advisory services for trainers through its State-based Training Centres. The Trainer Training Service (TTS) expanded its operations in 1980—81 by developing and

piloting a number of new programs and by designing various audio visual training packages for use by a number of Industry Training Committees. Trainee attendance at Centres for the year was 788, a 1 0 per cent increase on the previous year's figure.

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School-to-Work Transition

In November 1979 the Commonwealth Government adopted a comprehensive policy for the transition of young people from school to work and decided to make available $150 million to the States and Territories over five years for its development and implementation. The policy has been supported by the

introduction of transition allowances, announced in October 1 980.

Transition policy The transition policy is based on three considerations:

• the desire to assist the significant minority of students who leave school each year ill-prepared to make the transition from school to work; • recognition that the vocational preparation received by the majority of school students can be substantially improved and that the education system needs

to become better geared to the vocational needs of young people in the changing circumstances of the 1 980s; • the need for the interest, understanding, support and involvement of the whole community if there are to be improvements in the preparation of young

people for working life.

Program objectives The Transition Program's main objectives are to:

• increase the range of vocational education options in schools and TAPE Colleges for all 1 5- to 1 9-year-olds; • encourage those who have left school and not obtained employment within a reasonable time to take up the opportunities offered in TAPE by the provision

of the Transition Allowance (see page 24); • ensure that effective vocational guidance and counselling services are available to all young people; • obtain and develop support for the Program's objectives among employers

and trade unions, parents, teachers and the young themselves; • promote more effective links between the education and employment sectors.

Primary targ et group Some 250 000 young people leave school each year. Nearly 60 000 proceed to full-time tertiary study and about 140 000 find employment within a reasonable time.

The remaining 50 000 school leavers, 20 per cent of the total, have poor employment prospects. They are mainly early school leavers and are the primary target group of the policy. The basis of this emphasis is illustrated in Table I, which shows that:


• 23 per cent of school leavers in 1979, who did not continue full-time education in the following year, were unemployed in May 1 980; • 39 per cent of these young people had left school at age 14 or 1 5; • some 75 per cent had left school at age 1 6 or younger.

T ab le 1: People w h o a tte n d e d fu ll-tim e seco nd ary school in 1979 and did not co n tin u e w ith fu ll-tim e e d ucatio n in 1980 by e m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s a t M a y 1980

A g e a t tim e

o f le a v in g

s c h o o l

E m p lo y e d ( V 0 0 )

U n ­

e m p lo y e d ( Ό 0 0 )

T o ta l L a b o u r F o rc e E m p lo y e d

(% )

U n ­

e m p lo y e d

(% )

T o ta l L a b o u r F o rc e (% )

1 4 and 1 5 39.2 16.4 55.6 70.5 29.5 100.0

16 53.1 14.8 67.9 78.2 21.8 100.0

17 36.5 7.5 44.0 83.0 17.0 100.0

1 8 and over 14.9 18.0 82.8 * 100.0

Total 143.8 41.8 185.5 77.5 22.5 100.0

S o u r c e : ABS, S c h o o l le a v e r s (Cat. No. 6227.0), M ay 1980, unpublished.

* S ubject to sam pling va riability to o high for most practical uses.

Funding When introducing the Transition Program the Commonwealth Government indicated that it would make available an additional $1 50 million over 5 years on the basis that the States and the Northern Territory would make financial contributions after the first year, 1980.

In the 1980 calendar year the Commonwealth allocated $23 million for government systems and $2 million for non-government schools. In 1981 the Commonwealth provided $25 million for government systems and $2.2 million for non-government schools. An additional $0.25 million was set aside for national evaluation of projects.

Adm inistration arrangements State Transition Co-ordinating Committees have been established in all States and the Northern Territory to consider applications for funds under the Transition Program. These Committees recommend specific transition initiatives to State

Ministers of Education for subsequent approval by Commonwealth Ministers. The Committees generally comprise State Education, TAPE and Labour Departments as well as representatives of the Commonwealth Departments of Education and Employment and Youth Affairs.

Transition projects Many innovative and imaginative approaches have been developed under the Transition Program during 1 980 and 1 981. Educational responses to the needs of young people in transition naturally have varied from State to State reflecting the differing structural patterns and demands of industry and commerce.

The types of courses and activities provided so far in both the TAPE and schools sector are:



TAFE courses provided underthe program are directed to expanding the education and training options for those who have already left school and encountered serious difficulties in making the transition to work. The program is financing the expansion of some types of courses already being

provided in TAFE Colleges and the development and introduction of new types. The Transition Program has financed a variety of TAFE courses in 1980-81 which broadly fall into the categories:

e Education Program for Unemployed Youth (EPUY);

• pre-apprenticeship courses; • pre-vocational courses; • pre-employment courses.

All transition courses in TAFE have been developed with extensive co­ operation between the Department and TAFE.

(a) EPUY courses

EPUY courses are comparatively short and are designed to build basic skills (particularly literacy and numeracy), communications and job-seeking skills and some basic vocational skills. EPUY existed as a separate program for 15- to 24-year-olds before the

introduction of the transition program. The two programs are now being merged for administrative purposes, but a proportion of the older age group (20—24 years) will still be accepted on these courses.

Students in a craft class of a Commonwealth funded Education Program for Unemployed Youth (EPUY) course at East Sydney Technical College. The course gives students a grounding in twelve different skills, including basic English, practical mathematics, craft, personal development and typing and business principles. Picture courtesy of the Sydney Morning Herald.


(b) Pre-apprenticeship courses Pre-apprenticeship courses provide a direct link in the transition from school to work for young people in an area of vocational interest. These courses aim to equip young people to make an immediate contribution to industry.

The courses usually cover at least Stage 1 of the technical education component of the apprenticeship and generally lead to a reduction in the subsequent term of apprenticeship.

(c) Pre-vocationai courses Pre-vocational courses, like pre-apprenticeship courses are intended to direct young people towards apprenticeship training. However, they provide a broadly based introduction to the skills required for a

range of trades rather than the more specialised approach of pre-apprenticeship courses. Although pre-vocational courses exist in four States (Victoria, Queens­ land, South Australia and Tasmania) the scope of the courses and the range of skills varies considerably.

(d) Pre-employment courses Pre-employment courses offer students basic skills which will suit them for employment or further training in a wide range of occupations (including occupations of semi-skilled and sub-trade levels).

School courses In the schools sector the Transition Program has provided a wide range of projects, activities and courses, including alternative courses, link courses and work observation/experience programs.

Funds also have been directed to expanding school counsellor, vocational education and guidance services to provide more intensive and comprehensive assistance to students and their parents. Teacher development programs include in-service courses and reorientation programs to assist teachers in developing and implementing alternative courses, identifying potential early leavers and counselling students.

Role of the CES The role of the CES involves:

• assistance in program promotion; • identification and contact with eligible young people from the CES register; • referral of eligible young people for selection; • participation in selection interviews; • liaison with course staff and course members; • placement of trainees in employment at the end of their courses; • provision of regular statistical reports on courses.

The CES has played a vital part in ensuring that preferential consideration in selection for courses is given to longer-term unemployed young people.

Progress Following relatively modest development in 1 980 an acceleration in the rate of course development took place in the first half of 1981.


Tables 2 and 3 show funds approved for transition projects in 1 980 and 1 981 for individual States in the schools and TAFE sectors. Up to the end of June 1981, the Commonwealth Government had approved $1 3.1 m to provide a total of 61 65 course places in TAFE, as follows:

Pre-apprenticeship 411 Pre-vocational 1941

Pre-employment 1844

EPUY 1969

T ab le 2: T ra n s itio n fu n d s approved fo r T A F E and schools p ro je c ts , 1980 ($'000s)

S c h o o ls

T A FE G o v t N o n - G o v t T o ta l

New South Wales 3 672 3 233 445 1 350

Victoria 2 122 3 150 444 5 716

Queensland 1 800 1 750 280 3 830

South Australia 1 282 746 106 2 134

Western Australia 737 852 127 1 716

Tasmania 385 375 59 819

Australian Capital Territory 182 192 46 420

Northern Territory 11 146 — 157

Australia 10 191 (a) 10 444 1 507 22 142(6)

S o u r c e : C om m onw ealth Departm ents of Education and Em ploym ent and Youth Affairs.

(a) $8 m illion of th is am ount was actually spent. (b) $1 5.7 m illion of th is am ount was actually spent.

T ab le 3: T ra n s itio n fu n d s approved fo r T A F E and schools p ro je c ts a t end J u n e 1981 ($ '0 0 0 s )

S c h o o ls

TA FE G o v t N o n - G o v t T o ta l

New South Wales 4 353 4 123 742 9 218

Victoria 3 305 3 194 505 7 004

Queensland 1 889 2 011 315 4 215

South Australia 1 640 660 134 2 434

Western Australia 1 259 997 153 2 409

Tasmania 422 353 53 828

Australian Capital Territory 200 200 56 456

Northern Territory 66 134 — 200

Australia 13 134 11 672 1 958 26 764

Errors due to rounding. S o u r c e : C om m onw ealth Departm ent of Education.

The Commonwealth Government recognised, when it introduced the transition policy, that implementation would take time. The provision of a sufficient number


of relevant and attractive options for young people in education and training cannot be provided without substantial joint effort of education and labour authorities. The particular challenge to the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs is to see that those young people who are most in need, those who have undergone a

protracted period of unemployment, are given every opportunity to participate in the Transition Program and to develop the skills which will enable them to complete a successful transition to work.

Girls who completed this pre-apprenticeship electrical fitter mechanics course at Newcastle TAFE have since broken into male-dominated trade areas—paining apprenticeships at the giant Bayswater Power Station project in the Hunter Valley.

Transition allowance In October 1 980, the Government announced the introduction of a new allowance, the transition allowance, to fill a gap in the range of allowances available to young people. Prior to the introduction of this allowance young people were dissuaded from returning to training as those receiving unemployment benefit were

required to give it up on commencing full-time School-to-Work transition courses conducted in TAFE. The Transition Allowance, administered by the CES, became available from 1 February 1 981. Details of the allowance are:

Rate • Equivalent to Unemployment Benefit (based on normal Unemployment Benefit income testing) plus $6 per week; and • Extra assistance for those who need to move away from home.


Eligibility criteria

• 15- to 1 9-year-olds (and 20—24-year-olds in the case of EPUY courses) who:

have been away from full-time education and unemployed for not less than four months in the last twelve; — are registered with the CES; — are selected to undertake an approved full-time School-to-Work Tran­

sition course, funded by the Commonwealth Government in a TAFE College.

• 1 5- to 24-year-olds who:

— have been away from full-time education and unemployed for eight months in the last twelve; — are registered with the CES; — are selected to undertake any approved State-funded full-time TAFE

course up to twelve months' duration which is likely to lead to


During 1 980-81 over 8300 new approvals for the Transition Allowance were recorded Most were from February 1981, but the figure includes approvals for EPUY courses, for which a similar allowance was previously available.

Vocational guidance review A Commonwealth—State Review of Vocational Guidance Services began in 1 980. The aim of the Review is to reach agreement between the Commonwealth and each State and the Northern Territory on the future development of vocational

guidance services.


Trade training support

Trade training Trade training through the apprenticeship system is the main source of supply of skilled labour in Australia, contributing over 80 per cent of the annual addition to the stock of tradesmen.

The apprenticeship system has a dual role. It provides the skilled labour necessary to meet the requirements of economic growth and provides training opportunities for young Australians to enter skilled occupations.

Change in the trade training system The importance of the apprenticeship system was highlighted at the June 1980 Premiers' Conference where, at the initiative of the Commonwealth, it was decided that an urgent examination be undertaken of trade training in Australia. Following this decision, a working party of the Departments of Labour Advisory Committee

(DOLAC) produced a reportwhich was endorsed and released by Commonwealth and State Labour Ministers in September 1980. The report, Prospective Demand for and Supply of Skilled Labour 1980— 83 with Particular Reference to Major Development Projects, included twenty-seven recommendations directed at:

e increasing the number of apprentices being trained; and • improving the trade training system by making it more flexible and capable of producing tradesmen of higher quality, so as to ensure that future manpower requirements are met, particularly in relation to major development projects.

The Commonwealth took immediate action to implement some of the Report's recommendations relating to its responsibilities. For example:

• The CRAFT scheme was continued and new rebate rates introduced (see page 27.).

• A $1000 bonus for new additional apprentices in the metal, electrical and building trades was introduced for the period 1 December 1 980 to 30 June 1981. ~ e The intake of apprentices into Commonwealth establishments was increased.

• A national advertising campaign was launched to encourage employers to take on new apprentices.

• Financial support was provided for the implementation of special training programs related to group apprenticeship.

The main recommendations of DOLAC were directed at increasing the capacity of the system to respond flexibly to prospective shortages, and to provide higher quality training. These included:

• Encouraging pre-apprenticeship and pre-vocational courses which provide school leavers with the opportunity for trade training prior to entering


apprenticeship. With this training apprentices can undertake productive work earlier in their apprenticeship and enter into shortened apprenticeships.

• Supporting group apprenticeship schemes which provide a training oppor­ tunity for small employers who would not normally train because they do not have the wide range of activities or the continuity of work required to take on an apprentice. This is one means for industry to increase its capacity to train.

• Encouraging the development of broad-banded common core curricula to provide tradesmen with a sound basis to cope with technological change.

• Improving the statistical base to enable better manpower forecasting in the skilled tradesman area. Work is proceeding in the States and Commonwealth to improve the statistical system on apprentices.

• Seeking the support of industry, particularly those companies associated with major resource developments, to plan for the supply of skilled tradesmen to meet demand. This includes monitoring likely demands for labour flowing from resources projects, and supporting industry in their training efforts to

meet the demand.

The Commonwealth already has a range of programs, described in the remaining sections of this chapter, which aim to increase the number of apprentices in training.

Apprenticeship support programs

Commonwealth Rebate for Apprentice Full-time Training (CRAFT) CRAFT is the Commonwealth Government's major apprenticeship, support program. It was introduced in 1977 replacing the National Apprenticeship Assistance Scheme (NAAS) which had operated since 1973.

The objectives of CRAFT are to increase the number of apprentices and to improve the quality of apprenticeship training by providing a range of rebates to employers and an allowance to apprentices required to live away from home to take up or remain in an apprenticeship.

The rebates are aimed at encouraging employers to employ and train apprentices by offsetting the costs of releasing them to undertake technical education and other off-the-job training. The rebates, which are tax free, are:

e technical education rebate: paid-for attendance by apprentices at prescribed

trade courses in TAPE institutions; • off-the-job training rebate: paid-for attendance at approved off-the-job training courses held in an employer's establishment or other acceptable venue, for up to 1 30 days of training in the first year of apprenticeship; • special rate, technical education rebate: introduced on 1 January 1980 and

paid in respect of apprentices who have undertaken approved pre­ employment courses which have resulted in exemption from at least one stage of technical education and a reduction of at least six months in the normal period of indenture. During 1 980—81,36 800 employers received the Technical Education Rebate in respect of 91 830 apprentices and 607 employers received the Off-the-Job Training Rebate for conducting approved Off-the-Job Training courses. During the quarter ended 30 June 1981, 3770 apprentices were being trained in OTJ

centres. The Living-Away-From - Home Allowance was provided to 3594 first-year apprentices and 785 second-year apprentices.


On-the-job training for apprentices—Australia's tradesmen of tomorrow. Above: An apprentice fitter and turner at Sydney's Cockatoo Island Dockyard: below: young apprentices in training at a Sydney engineering firm.


Over the period that CRAFT has been in operation, the number of newly indentured apprentices registered and the total number of apprentices in training have both increased. The apprentice intake in 1 980-81 (48 065) surpassed the previous record set in 1979-80 (46 395) by 1670. The $1000 Employer Cash Rebate Scheme had contributed to the record intake of 1979—80 and indications are that its reintroduction for the period 1 December 1 980 to 30 June 1 981 had a similar effect

in the crucial metal, electrical and building trades in 1 980—81. The number of apprentices in training at 30 June 1981 was also a record 1 41 856, an increase of 5300 on the number in training at 30 June 1 980.

Group One-Year Apprentice Scheme The Group One-Year Scheme, introduced in 1 975, aims to increase apprenticeship opportunities and raise the quality of training. Apprentices trained under the scheme, should be additional to the normal intake of the sponsoring employer. The

apprentice spends the first year of training in a Commonwealth or State Government establishment. The Commonwealth pays the first year wages and other training costs apart from workers' compensation premiums. The States were invited to participate in the Scheme in 1977 and since then

Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania have done so. In calendar year 1 980, 275 apprentices were trained under this scheme, while in calendar year 1 981,278 apprentices were undergoing training.

Special Assistance Program (SAP)

The Special Assistance Program (SAP) is a financial support scheme introduced by the Commonwealth Government in December 1974, aimed at reducing wastage among apprentices retrenched due to economic circumstances or work shortages.

Assistance is provided under the program:

• to employers who permanently engage out-of-trade apprentices; and • to out-of-trade apprentices to enable them to complete or undertake theoretical and/or practical training in a technical college and/or an approved off-the-job training centre.

Additional Apprenticeship Scheme (AAS) The AAS began in 1 971 and was designed to produce tradesmen for the private sector by fully training apprentices in Commonwealth and State Government establishments using surplus training capacity in those establishments. Funding

was provided by the Commonwealth. The scheme was terminated in 1975 and replaced by the Group One-Year Apprentice Scheme. Expenditure recorded this financial year represents final payments under the scheme. Table 4 summarises total expenditure on apprenticeship support programs.

C om m onw ealth -S tate Special Trade Training Program A special program was designed in Western Australia to help meet requirements for metal and electrical tradesmen, resulting from the North West Shelf natural gas project and other developments.

Under the program the period of training has been reduced by one year from the normal apprenticeship term of four years. The training provided is in the form of


three blocks of twelve weeks of full-time technical education alternated with on- the-job experience. Two types of apprentices have been recruited under the program: mature aged, and young people under 21 years of age. Seventy per cent of the total number in training in June 1 981 were mature age apprentices. There were over 550 apprentices in training at 30 June 1 981. All of these are additional to normal apprentice intakes in Western Australia.

T ab le 4: A p p re n tic e s h ip s u p p o rt p ro g ra m s — e x p en d itu re ( $ m )

P ro g ra m 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 1 9 7 9 - 8 0 1 9 8 0 -8 1

1. Commonwealth Rebate for Apprentice Full­ time Training (CRAFT) • Technical Education

Rebate 20.2 33.4 37.1

• Off-the-Job Training Rebate 5.1 6.0 9.5

• Li ving - Away-From - Home Allowance • $1000 Employer Cash 3.1 3.3 4.2

Rebate — — 1 3.7

Sub-total 28.4 42.7 64.5

2. NAAS: Employer Incentive Subsidy 0.3 0.01 —

3. Group One-Year Apprentice Scheme: • Commonwealth 1.3 1 .2 1 .0

• State 0.2 0.3 0.5

Sub-total 1.5 1.5 1.5

4. Special Assistance Program (SAP) 1.5 1.4 1.3

5. Additional apprentices in government establish­ ments • Commonwealth 1.8 0.1

» State 4.2 1.1 0.1

Sub-total 6.0 1.2 0.1

6. Group Apprenticeship Support Scheme 0.02

7. Special Trade Training Scheme 0.5

Grand total 37.7 46.8 67.92


Support fo r group apprentice schemes In 1 980—81 the Commonwealth and State Ministers for Labour agreed to a joint government policy on financial assistance to group apprenticeship schemes sponsored by industry organisations or other groups of employers in the private sector.

Under these schemes apprentices are indentured to sponsoring organisations, which take responsibility for their training. They are then rotated between participating firms for on-the-job training.

Group schemes can increase the numbers of apprentices in training by extending apprentice training activities to a larger number of firms. For example, they allow small firms to take on apprentices according to their training capacity, skill needs and workload. Individually these firms may not have the training capacity, continuity or range of work to provide adequate full-time on-the-job training.

Group schemes also broaden the training of apprentices by allowing them to work with a variety of employers and to gain experience in different types of work within a trade. The policy agreed to by Ministers for Labour provides for reimbursement of certain administrative costs involved in implementing group apprenticeship schemes in the metal, electrical and building trades.

To achieve its objectives of increasing the number of apprentices in training, assistance is provided only for the number of additional apprentices employed under a scheme, and as a means of reducing wastage of apprentices, schemes receiving joint government support should seek to employ out-of-trade appren­ tices. The program of support is to be reviewed in April 1 983.

During 1980— 81, joint Commonwealth—State financial assistance was ap­ proved for schemes sponsored by the Housing Industry Association in New South Wales and Queensland, and the Master Builders Association in South Australia and Queensland. The Commonwealth also approved support for a scheme sponsored by the Master Builders Association in the Australian Capital Territory.

Im provem ent of apprenticeship statistics The method of collecting national apprenticeship statistics has been subject to critical comment, including that made by the Williams Committee of Inquiry into Education and Training. At the present time, statistics are based on an aggregation

of State data. However, the States do not use comparable statistical concepts in the collection of such data. During the year a Commonwealth—State Apprenticeship Committee (COSAC)

Working Party was formed to consider possible improvements. Significant progress has been made and a draft framework for a· 'National Collection of Apprenticeship Statistics' prepared. That framework has been endorsed by the Departments of Labour Advisory Committee (DOLAC) and the Ministers for

Labour. The States are considering what action may be required for its implementation.


Assistance for special groups

Some groups in th$ community, because of background and circumstances beyond their control, face additional disadvantages in gaining and maintaining employment. In recognition of these disadvantages the Commonwealth Government makes

available special allowances and subsidies for training and provides special assistance through the CES. Two significantly disadvantaged groups are Aboriginals and the Disabled. The Department, through its range of programs, provides education, training and work

experience designed to boost employment opportunities for both Aboriginals and the Disabled.

Employment training for Aboriginals In mid-1977 the Government introduced the National Employment Strategy for Aboriginals which provided special arrangements to combat the particular disadvantages Aboriginals face in finding work.

Many Aboriginals have received training assistance under NEAT-funded schemes. More than 3000 have received training and work experience, for example, in Commonwealth and State government departments and statutory authorities.

Aboriginal youths attend a pre-apprenticeship bricklaying course at Newcastle TAFE.


These Aboriginals are being trained in a wide range of occupations, which include community health work, teaching, printing and general office work, and as apprentices in carpentry, cooking, printing and motor maintenance. Special training project courses are developed where no other form of training

is appropriate. While training may be undertaken within a conventional educ­ ational instutution, projects may also be conducted by a community organisation or in circumstances which best suit the needs of the group. In 1 980-81 sixty special project courses were approved. The skills taught

included book-keeping, plant operating, bricklaying, shearing, stock control, secretarial, power station operations, welding, and preparatory work for trade training. As part of the National Employment Strategy for Aboriginals a range of special services exist. These include:

• over 1 00 specialised Employment Officers (Vocational Officers) providing employment services to Aboriginal people throughout Australia—about half of these officers are Aboriginals; • counselling of Aboriginal students in the final stages of schooling; • remote area registration of Aboriginal clients unable to attend CES offices; • special vacancy canvassing and placement arrangements involving visits to

employers to seek suitable employment and/or training opportunities and follow /up contacts with employers and applicants after placement.

• counselling support to help prepare Aboriginal job seekers for job interviews and for entry into training programs, especially for young trainees required to live away from home for the first time.

The National Aboriginal Employment Development Committee (NAEDC), whose members are drawn from private enterprise, trade unions, the public sector and the Aboriginal community, concentrated its efforts in 1 980—81 on:

• specific Aboriginal employment campaigns in areas with significant Abor­ iginal populations; and • developing direct approaches to senior management to help boost the placement and training of Aboriginals.

Campaigns were undertaken in Western Australia and the Northern Territory to heighten community awareness of the problems faced by Aboriginals in trying to find employment. The results were most encouraging, with placement of Aboriginals in jobs increasing by almost 250 per cent in the campaign areas over the corresponding periods in 1 979-80.

A total of 4896 Aboriginals were approved for training under the Department's programs in 1 980-81. Expenditure on the training of Aboriginals for employment was $13.9 million. An additional $342 000 was spent on promotion of Aboriginals as employees.

Employment of the Disabled In 1980-81 the Department initiated an open employment strategy for the Disabled as part of its contribution to the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP). An examination was made of existing CES services for disabled job seekers and steps were introduced to:

• increase emphasis by the CES in providing assistance for the Disabled; • improve ability of CES staff to help disabled job seekers;


• encourage employment of disabled people by private employers; • promote additional training for the Disabled; • redeploy specialist placement staff (Employment Counsellors) from other institutions to direct servicing of offices of the CES.

An advertising campaign in major magazines/newspapers began in May 1 981. Market research, commissioned as a prelude to the advertising campaign, indicated that advertising should focus on two groups within an organisation— policy makers and staff responsible for hiring and firing. The advertisements reflected this dual approach.

To assist officers of the CES in dealing with disabled job seekers, a range of information and training aids was developed with the objective of increasing CES staff involvement with this particular group and developing their placement skills.

Operating a computer specially modified for use by disabled people.


Another aspect of the open employment strategy was the establishment of Employment Promotion Committees for the Disabled in each State and the Northern Territory (see also page 70).

The Committee's objectives were to:

• stimulate an awareness among employers of the employment needs and capabilities of the Disabled; • increase the number of disabled persons placed in employment; • encourage employers to adopt more positive policies towards recruiting

disabled job seekers.

The Committees used various methods, including promotional functions; direct mail campaign; film screenings; radio, TV and print media promotion; participation in seminars, conferences and addresses to employer/personnel/service groups. The Committees were to continue their activities for the duration of IYDP.

An estimated 11 000 disabled people were placed in employment in 1 980-81, compared to 8762 in 1 979—80 and 9873 in 1 978-79.

Training Assistance for the Disabled During 1 980-81 assistance available under N EAT for the disabled was expanded. A total of 2549 disabled persons received training at a cost of $2.72 million. An allocation of $1 million was made for new projects to be run by community-

based agencies, an initiative which coincided with the international Year of Disabled Persons. Projects are funded for a maximum of three years and are used to build upon and extend the professional skills and resources of agencies. Projects include referral and assessment of trainees, work preparation, and training in basic or specific work skills, skills for living, job search, job placement and follow-up of trainees.

The projects assist persons with physical or mental disabilities to develop realistic employment goals and help them to achieve those goals. Nine projects were approved for funding on a fee for service basis. Trainees participating receive a NEAT training allowance and are eligible for further NEAT assistance on completion of the project

O n - t h e - jo b t r a in in g

Disabled job seekers who are assessed as requiring special assistance to find stable employment attract a higher rate of employer subsidies for extended periods of training. In addition, employers may receive up to $2000 to cover costs of purchasing or

modifying essential equipment and/or modifying workplaces to enable the Disabled to undertake on-the-job training.

F o r m a l t r a in in g

Disabled persons who undertake formal training under NEAT now have access to special tutorial assistance.

R e tr a in in g

A person whose job is at risk because of a disability may, on the basis of medical evidence, be retrained under the NEAT provisions for the Disabled.


Community-based schemes

Com m unity Youth Support Scheme CYSS aims to enhance the employability of unemployed young peopleand provide assistance to them in their search for employment by maintaining and developing their employment skills and their ability to seek and retain jobs. The scheme is also intended to improve the self-image of these young people and help their integration into the community.

Participants attend voluntarily and are involved in a range of activities providing employment skills, job search and life skills, recreation and community service. There were 276 CYSS projects in operation at end June 1 981. Details of projects by State are contained in the following table:

Number of CYSS projects in operation as at 30 June 1981 N.S.W. 82

Vic. 82

Qld 35

S.A. 26

W.A. 30

Tas. 19

N.T. 2

Total 276

Volunteer Youth Program (VYP) In July 1 979 the Commonwealth Government announced the introduction of the Volunteer Youth Program on an experimental basis. Eleven pilot projects commenced under the program.

A departmental evaluation report indicated that the VYP pilot projects had provided a range of interesting and worthwhile opportunities for voluntary community service activity. These had proved valuable to the young participants, and beneficial for the community bodies involved.

However, the evaluation report also made it clear that an individual VYP project required a relatively large population catchment from which to draw. This limited the potential scope for development of the scheme as a major separate national manpower program.

Five of the original pilot projects were operating at the end of June 1 981. They were sponsored by: the City of Henley and Grange, Henley Beach, South Australia; the Lions Club of Wallsend, Wallsend, N.S.W.; The Society of St Vincent de Paul, East Perth, W.A.; the Task Force Young Volunteers Co-operative Ltd, Prahran, Vic.; and the Volunteer Bureau of N.S.W., in Sydney.

Participants in VYP projects may be reimbursed the actual cost of fares and incidental expenses associated with the VYP activities, up to a maximum of $6 per


week. In addition participants may receive Unemployment Benefit subject to the usual eligibility criteria.

Special Projects Assistance in 1980—81 was provided under NEAT for the development and operation of a number of experimental, community-based projects. These projects aimed to provide young unemployed people with innovative training and other

employment-related activities. In 1 980-81 ten projects were supported at a cost of $0.21 million. They were: Youthwork (Ku-ring-gai) Ltd, Gordon, N S W.; the Neighbourhood Employ­ ment Development Program (NEDP), Melbourne, Victoria; the Vocational

Employment Training Scheme (VETS), Green Valley, N.S.W.; the Master's Workforce, Hobart, Tasmania; Local Initiative Work Pool, Tallangatta, Victoria; Workforce 80, Melville, Western Australia; Centacare (Youth Training Pro­ gram), Hobart, Tasmania; Worco, Hawthorn, Victoria; Heidelberg Youth

Employment Scheme, Victoria; Malvern Employment Training Scheme, Mal­ vern, Victoria.


Commonwealth Employment Service

M anagem ent of the CES The management of the CES consists of a CES Management Board and an external advisory body called the National Advisory Committee on the CES (NAC). The CES Management Board considers matters connected with the policy and administration of the CES placed before it by the National Director. The membership comprises the National Director; General Managers, Operations,

Programs, Planning and ADP; the First Assistant Secretary, Management Services; and a Director from a Region, on a yearly rotation basis. It met on eleven occasions in 1 980—81. The National Advisory Committee consists of six union, employer and government representatives, one of whom is the National Director of the CES. The current Committee members are shown at page 72. During 1980—81 the NAC met on six occasions and discussed a range of matters affecting the policy and operation of the CES.

In January 1981, the NAC published a Discussion Paper entitled The Commonwealth Employment Service and Employment Agencies, which was distributed for comment to interested persons and organisations in the community. Following an analysis of the thirty-seven submissions received on the Discussion

Paper and subsequent discussions between the NAC and respondents, a report will be prepared for the consideration of the Minister. The NAC also has been involved with the establishment of Regional Advisory Committees (RACs) in each State and the Northern Territory as provided for in Sections 17 and 18 of the Commonwealth Employment Service Act 1978.

Membership of the Regional Committees will consist initially of two nominees each from employer and employee organisations and the Regional Director of the Department, who will be Chairman for the first year of operation. The function of the Committee is to provide advice to the Minister and to the National Director of the CES on the operation of the CES in each State. However, unlike the NAC, the Commonwealth Employment Service Act 1978 specified that the regional committees cannot act on their own motion.

Zone management The CES network has been divided into twenty-six Zones (eight in New South Wales, seven in Victoria, five in Queensland and three each in South Australia and Western Australia) with each Zone having eight to ten CES offices. Tasmania and the Northern Territory each operate as separate self-contained Zones. With the addition of the last six Zones in 1980—81 the Zone network is now fully operational. Zone management allows for greater decentralisation of management from the respective State Regional Office headquarters. Each Zone is controlled by a Zone Manager who is responsible for directing, developing and improving the performance of the CES at the local level.



CES Offices

The local CES office has the key role of providing a full range of employment and manpower programs and services to both employers and job seekers. In smaller country centres where there is no CES office, local people have been appointed to act as Agents of the CES. CES Agents are under the control and direction of the Manager of the CES office responsible for the area where the agency is situated. Agents provide all the basic services of the CES. At 30 June

1 981, there were 1 53 Agents throughout Australia.

Teenagers inspect a self-service job vacancy display board at a CES office In 1980-81 the CES found people for over 607 000 jobs.

M onitoring of performance The objective of the CES modernisation program to improve the overall level of CES performance has meant a continued high priority to further developing effective performance and appropriate monitoring systems for CES offices.

Higher levels of performance have been emphasised and encouraged through visits to CES offices by a special Central Office unit whose task is to examine the effective output in CES work and make recommendations. In addition the Department's Planning and Performance Review System has been further refined. This system is designed to monitor staff utilisation in offices, promotional work,

CES business items and performance indicators.

Vacancy attraction and circulation One of the principal objectives of the CES is to obtain a greater share of suitable job vacancies, to fill them quickly and at the least possible cost. To achieve this, emphasis has been placed on increasing the CES coverage of the available vacancy market in a broad range of occupations and, having attracted the vacancies, on circulating them as widely and as quickly as possible throughout the CES network so they will be filled rapidly.


The extent to which the CES gains access to the range of job vacancies occurring in the labour market is important for the quality of service it provides and its effectiveness. During 1 980-81,819 8081 vacancies were attracted, an increase of 1 7.1 per cent over the 700 2372 vacancies notified to the CES in 1 979-80.

The CES is very conscious of the need to provide a fast and efficient service to both employers and job seekers while maintaining a high quality of service. In this regard, continuing efforts are being made to establish and retain contacts with clients on a personal level. For example, experiments continued in 1 980-81 in the use of 'caseloading' which ensures continuity of contact between a specific CES officer and an employer so that the officer can develop a detailed understanding of the employer's business and recruitment needs. This approach has resulted in additional vacancies for the benefit of CES job-seeker clients.

CES services to employers are also promoted through personal visits to employers and addresses to service groups and employer organisations by officers of the CES. This assists in the wider dissemination of information about CES services and achieves a higher usage of the CES by employer clients. Extensive

use has also been made of radio, television and newspaper advertising, particularly in country areas. An important factor in the continuing effort, to provide a more effective employment service is the circulation of vacancies as speedily and as widely as possible. To achieve this the CES uses telex equipment throughout its metropolitan networks, with the exception of Adelaide, where a private-line facsimile network is used.

In 1 980-81 the telex networks in New South Wales and Victoria were extended and the facsimile system in Adelaide was improved. The Queensland telex system was also considerably improved and a private-line telex network, similar to that operating in Sydney, was established in Perth.

Job Bank During 1980-81 further progress was made on the development of a real-time computer system, named Job Bank, to replace the current telex and facsimile vacancy circulation systems.

It is planned to introduce Job Bank in CES offices in all capital cities and adjoining major provincial centres, viz Newcastle, Wollongong and Geelong. Each office will be equipped with a number of visual display units for immediate access to details of all job vacancy information throughout the local CES network,

including vacancy-filling action. Each office will also have a high-speed printer which will provide self-service display cards. The introduction of Job Bank, one of the most important developments in the CES's history, will improve CES effectiveness and efficiency as a modern, national employment service.

Youth The CES plays the major part in implementing the Government's commitment to assist young people to obtain employment. It aims to help young people make the transition from school to work and to find them suitable employment or training.

’ Includes estimates for Victoria, September 1980 to January 1981. 2 Includes estimates for July 1979 for W.A. and April and May, 1980, for Victoria and New South Wales.


While education authorities have primary responsibility for career education and vocational preparation of young people at school, the CES also provides assistance to secondary schools in these activities, the emphasis being on providing occupational and labour market information (see pages 42-44) and on giving assistance and advice to school staff administering school-based programs with an occupational orientation. The CES sometimes participates directly in these

programs, particularly where a school is in a remote area or where other special needs are identified. The peak period of CES school leaver registrations occurs between November and March each year. During this period in 1 980-81 the CES registered in excess of 100 000 school leavers and placed more than 20 000. (Exact figures are not available, owing to the interruption to the collection of statistics caused by

industrial action.)

The Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs, M r Neil Brown, listens as a CES officer (right) interviews two young Canberra job applicants.

M igrants Information supplied by the Australian Bureau of Statistics shows that in July 1 980, 27 per cent of people registered for employment with the CES were born

overseas. ABS figures also indicate that migrants, particularly recent arrivals from non-English-speaking countries, have a higher unemployment rate than persons born in Australia. As part of its service to migrants, the CES has established special migrant service units in each State. These units are responsible for assessing CES services to migrants and for developing new initiatives where necessary.

CES offices which are located in areas of high migrant population provide language assistance, through the use of interpreters and bilingual employment officers. In addition, dual telephone handsets, for use by migrants and bilingual employment officers in conjunction with the Telephone Interpreter Service, are

installed in all CES offices where there is a significant migrant clientele. Pamphlets explaining the CES services and government manpower programs are available in thirteen languages other than English. Also audio-visual tapes covering a range of occupations in several selected industries together with


supporting documentation are available in nine languages other than English. The production of additional material to assist non-English-speaking migrants is continuing. Furthermore, the CES refers migrants to appropriate authorities for assessment and recognition of overseas qualifications and, where appropriate, refers migrants with inadequate English to English language classes organised by the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.

The CES also services Migrant Centres throughout Australia, which thereby establishes contact between the CES and migrants very shortly after their arrival in Australia.

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To aid its many migrant clients the CES uses many avenues of communication. Here a billboard is used to inform Greek migrants about the CES's first priority—placing people in jobs.

A boriginals

The CES plays a major role in implementing the National Employment Strategy for Aboriginals. The Strategy is aimed at two distinct groups of Aboriginals (see also page 32). They are:

• those who live in remote Aboriginal communities; • those who live in, or desire to move to, locations where they will have access to the established open labour market.

O ccupational in fo rm atio n The provision of occupational and work information is an important element of CES services for people who are looking for employment or a change of employment. Its purpose is to make available pertinent facts about work so that job seekers can make more informed job choices. Occupational information services also extend to the provision of advice and material and programs for career education in schools.

Traditionally the main stream of occupational information available to CES clients consisted of publications such as the Job Guides, audio and audio-visual


programs, a comprehensive range of take-away leaflets on some 1 50 occupations, general advice leaflets on job search techniques, and career posters. Following a major review of occupational information services in 1979 a number of new initiatives were developed during the year in an effort to improve

the range, quality and availability of work information. In the period before 1978, the CES directed its occupational information services almost entirely towards young people with post-secondary educational opportunities. However, this emphasis has been changed during the past year, with a series of videotape programs and complementary handout leaflets being

produced for early school leavers. Further, as a support to the School-to-W ork Transition Program, a work information library containing 200 to 400 occupations was provided to each secondary school in Australia. These libraries will help to achieve a standard

package of reference material on a wide cross-section of occupations for each secondary school. The libraries may then be used as the basis for an integrated storage system for careers material. Over recent years the CES has also developed better facilities for those seeking

information and advice about occupations, through the extension of Work In­ formation Centres throughout the CES office network. Work Information Centres,

A young jobseeker operates a video cassette recorder at one of the CES's Career Reference Centres. These centres, in each capital city and Geelong, Newcastle and Wollongong, were used by over 300 000 people in 1980. A separate network of smaller Work Information Centres is also being developed.


which are smaller versions of CRCs and which operate on a self-service basis, have been established in selected CES offices in all States. In 1980 over 300 000 people (approximately two-thirds of whom were young people) made use of the facilities of the Career Reference and Work Information Centres.

M arketing The feature of 1 980-81 marketing activities was the Department's 'Break Out of the Vicious Circle' campaign. Utilising a co-ordinated strategy aimed at increasing employment and training opportunities for young job seekers, the campaign featured press advertisements, radio and TV commercials, posters and handout material. It resulted in increased community awareness of the manpower programs available to promote youth employment and helped to create a large number of employment opportunities for young people.

The Department also conducted a major trade-training campaign 'Break Out of the Vicious Circle' as an element of the promotion. It was aimed at encouraging employers to engage more apprentices in 1981 and subsequent years to meet expected shortfalls in the supply of skilled trades people, particularly in the metal, electrical and building trades.

The CES also continued its basic strategy to market its services to employers. Significant improvements were made in the scope and style of promotional material, particularly in respect of job training schemes. The IYDP promotional campaign is explained on page 33 and the Aboriginal employment promotional campaigns on page 32.

Professional Employment O ffices The Government decided, on the recommendations of the Ministerial Committee of Review of Commonwealth Functions, that the functions of the Professional Employment Offices (PEOs) should be incorporated within the operations of local offices of the CES. Formerly, the PEOs had offered a special placement service for professional, managerial and executive job seekers and to employers who sought such personnel.

The performance statistics for the PEOs during 1 980-81 until their abolition are given in Appendix 1 3 (page 90). One of the functions of the PEOs was recruitment in Australia for the United Nations and its specialised agencies, including the United Nations Industrial

Development Organisation; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation; the United Nations Technical Assistance Recruitment Service; the Food and Agriculture Organisation; and the International Labour Office. This activity has now been transferred to the regional offices of the Department.

In 1980— 81 the United Nations Agencies made 104 job offers to Australian experts, compared to 88 in 1979-80 and 117 in 1978-79.

Unemployment Benefit adm inistration In the past the CES has acted as an agent for the Department of Social Security in two key areas of Unemployment Benefit administration: the issue and receipt of claim forms and income statements and the administration of elements of the work test. A major part of the activities which the CES performs on behalf of the Department of Social Security relates to the processing of income statements which Unemployment Benefit recipients were required to lodge on a fortnightly basis at CES offices.


The Government, on the recommendation of the Ministerial Committee of Review of Commonwealth Functions, has agreed to the introduction of new administrative arrangements for Unemployment Benefit. Briefly these w ill require all Unemployment Benefit forms to be lodged with the

Department of Social Security. However the initial claim form will continue to be issued by the CBS and the CBS will continue to administer elements of the work test. The work test is the process of determining whether a person who is receiving

Unemployment Benefits is willing and able to undertake suitable work and is taking reasonable steps to obtain such work. This process involves the CBS in the following steps:

• registering claimants for Unemployment Benefit for employment; • seeking suitable work for them; and • reporting on whether claimants are willing and able to accept an offer of suitable work.


Manpower and industry studies

Industry policy and employment The industry composition of employment is dominated by the services sector. This sector contributed the major proportion of employment growth throughout the 1 970s and by 1 980— 81 accounted for some 72 per cent of total employment. The share of rural industries in total employment appears to have stabilised, but that of manufacturing has continued to fall.

Table 5 provides a summary of movements in the sectoral distribution of civilian employment over the last decade.

T a b le 5: S e c to r share o f em p lo y m e n t (p e r c e n t)

79 7 0 - 7 1 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 1 9 8 0 -8 1

Rural 9 7 7

Mining 1 1 1

Manufacturing 26 23 20

Services 64 69 72

S o u r c e s : IAC, S t r u c t u r a l C h a n g e in A u s tr a lia , ! 9 7 7 ; ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , various issues.

Although the manpower demands of the mining sector are relatively small, high expectations are held for substantial growth in mining employment. In turn, strong growth in resources development has longer term implications for other parts of Australia's industry structure. As the labour market adjusts to the demand pressures of a growth sector such as mining, the effects of adjustments are transmitted widely in the economy.

The Department has a role to play in providing analysis and advice on the labour market aspects of these adjustment processes. The Department also provides detailed advice on reviews of assistance to particular rural and manufacturing industries. Formal industry assistance inquiries completed during 1980—81 and requiring contributions from the Department totalled twenty-four, the most significant being those relating to the textiles, clothing and footwear, iron and steel, metal manufacturing and passenger motor vehicle industries.

Occupational studies The Department maintains a program of research and data collection on employment prospects for a wide range of industries and occupations. Table 6 provides a broad occupational overview of the Australian workforce.

Departmental research is concentrated on assessing supply of, and demand for, major skilled occupations and identification of reasons for skill imbalances. Results of research are published in the annual bulletin, Employment Prospects by Industry and Occupation, covering training and employment prospects in 200


T ab le 6: E m p lo y m e n t share by o c c u p a tio n a l g roup (p er c e n t)

1 9 7 0 -7 1 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 1 9 8 0 -8 1

Professional, technical etc. 10.5 12.0 14.3

Administrative, executive 6.2 6.1 6.3

Clerical 16.6 17.4 17.2

Sales 8.4 8.4 9.0

Farmers, fishermen etc. 8.3 7.3 7.2

Transport, communication Tradesmen, process workers, labourers, 6.1 6.3 5.3

miners etc. 35.3 33.3 31.4

Service, sport, recreation 8.6 9.6 9.4

S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e .

to 21 5 major occupational groups and 40 to 50 major industry groups. The bulletin has an official circulation of up to 5000 copies to major departmental and other users, and has gained wide recognition as an authoritative, up-to-date source document. It is also sold through the Australian Government Publishing Service.

Regular Occupational Demand Schedules covering the 215 major occu­ pational groupings are prepared for assessment of independent applicants for immigration and are of high priority given the increasing emphasis on independant applicants with skills in demand.

Occupational matters are examined from both technical and policy perspectives as an input for other departmental work or in formulating advice to outside bodies such as other Departments which are concerned with training management, vocational guidance, immigration and job placement and general research and planning.

Assessments of the labour market are based on a regular program of structured occupational and industry research mainly conducted by regional offices. The strong regional involvement ensures adequate representation for localised industries and occupations and comprehensive surveying of both national and

regional employer and professional associations, trade unions, educational and training institutions, industry bodies and large and small employers.

Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) ASCO is a new comprehensive classification and dictionary of occupations in the Australian labour market, which is being developed in conjunction with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).

Existing Australian occupational classifications currently used by the CES and ABS suffer a number of serious deficiencies. These include poor classification structures and no provision for occupational information in the various categories. By contrast, ASCO is aiming for a systematic and balanced occupational classification structure that takes account of the type of work performed, skill level,

mobility patterns and related considerations. In addition ASCO will provide occupational information on each category, including description of duties, training requirements and other job content factors. ASCO will provide the basis for more useful population census and other

statistical information, which will result in better labour market analysis and manpower forecasting. It will, among other things, permit more efficient matching of job seekers and vacancies, greater accessibility to occupational information for vocational guidance purposes, and better design of training programs.


Field work has been completed for most occupations. ASCO 'first drafts' are progressively being circulated to users and other interested organisations for comment. The section of ASCO dealing with professional and related occupations has been largely redrafted on the basis of responses already received. It is now being prepared for publication as a 'working draft’.

A complete ASCO draft is expected to be finalised in the second half of 1 982 and will provide the basis for feasibility trials by the CES and the ABS. It will also be available at that time for critical comment from other interested parties.


Youth affairs

O ffice of Youth A ffairs The Office of Youth Affairs was set up by the Commonwealth Government in February 1 977 with the aim of improving co-ordination and consultation between Commonwealth government departments, State and local government and non­

government organisations about Commonwealth programs and policies which affect young people.

Research During the year, the Office commissioned three research studies into the needs of Australian youth:

• an inquiry into the Needs of Isolated Youth, which is aimed at identifying problems, needs and aspirations of young people in remote areas; • a Youth and the Law study, which involves examination of Commonwealth legislation affecting the rights and responsibilities of youth; • a study of Attitudes of School Leavers to Employment to identify young

people's attitudes to work, and factors affecting these attitudes.

The first two studies arose from the National Youth Conference and the third from the recommendations of the Williams Inquiry into Education, Training and Employment.

Regional seminars Between 25 February and 10 June 1981, the Office of Youth Affairs held eight seminars to discuss the delivery of Commonwealth services and programs to young people. One was held in each State and Territory in different environments chosen to reflect the broad nature of young Australian society. The seminar

locations were Canberra (25-26 February), Hobart (4 -5 March), Adelaide (24-25 March), Alice Springs (14—1 5 April), Mt Isa (29—30 April), Port Hedland (13—14 May), Wollongong (27-28 May) and Melbourne (9 -1 0 June). Participants invited to the seminars were from a range of organisations, including youth work networks, migrant welfare organisations, Aboriginalgroups, organisations for the Disabled, the voluntary sector and State and Commonwealth departments.

The purpose of the seminars was to provide information on existing Commonwealth programs and services which affect youth and allow participants to make specific suggestions on how to improve their delivery. The seminars also provided a forum for workers with youth to meet other youth

workers from both the government and non-government sectors. Six Com­ monwealth departments took part in discussion sessions; Education, Health,


Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Social Security, Aboriginal Affairs and Employ­ ment and Youth Affairs. At the Canberra seminar, the Department of the Capital Territory and the Capital Territory Health Commission also conducted sessions.

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During 1980—81 the Department's Office of Youth Affairs held seminars in each State and Territory to discuss the delivery of Commonwealth services and programs to young people. Marlene Douglas, Freda Thornton and Rod Little discuss those programs at the Alice Springs seminar.

Program of Assistance to Youth Organisations The Program of Assistance to Youth Organisations began in 1 978—79, its first full year of operation being 1 979-80. It replaced a system of annual grants-in-aid to a limited number of national youth organisations.

Grants are made for projects to extend the services and programs of national youth organisations and to increase the involvement of young people in their decision making. The program offers a limited number of grants to assist in the establishment of national secretariats for youth organisations.

Grants are also made for projects aimed at improving national planning and co­ ordination, either within a particular organisation or among two or more organisations. In particular, assistance has been made available for the establish­ ment of the Youth Affairs Council of Australia (YACA) and its four constituent forums.

YACA has been established to foster the development of co-ordinated policies and programs on matters of common concern to the four main interests in the non-


government youth sector—national youth organisations, State youth affairs councils, workers with youth and, of course, young people themselves. A total of $500 000 was allocated to the program in 1 980—81, an increase of $200 000 on the amount provided in 1 979-80. This year, grants were made to thirty-two national youth organisations, compared with the fifteen which were assisted in 1 979—80. Details of the 1 980-81 grants are:


Australian Air League 4 000

Australian Association of Youth Clubs 1 2 000

Australian Christian Endeavour Union 5 000

Australian Council of Rural Youth 1 5 500

Australian Jaycees 8 000

Australian-New Zealand Schools Exploring Society 1 2 000

Australian Red Cross Society—Youth 10 000

Australasian Union of Jewish Students 5 000

Australian Youth Hostels Association 10 000

Australian Youth Performing Arts Association 1 5 000

Boys' Brigade Australia 2 500

Churches of Christ Federal Board of Christian Education 4 500

Church of England Boys' Society 4 000

Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme 23 000

Fusion 10 000

Girls' Brigade Australia 7 500

Girls' Friendly Society 4 000

Girl Guides Association 40 000

Icaud Habonim 4 000

Joint Board of Christian Education 26 500

Latvian Federation of Australia—Youth 3 000

National Council of YMCA 30 000

National Union of Greek-Australian Students 5 000

National Young Christian Workers 10 800

Outward Bound 12 000

Scout Association 50 000

Scripture Union of Australia 8 000

St John's Ambulance Brigade (Cadets) 5 000

Young Christian Students 5 700

Young Salesian Co-operators 5 000

Youth Affairs Council of Australia (YACA) 100 000

YWCA of Australia 30 000

A further three grants were made to document a range of projects which received funds through the program:

• $1 500 was provided to the Australian Association of Youth Clubs to document the six 1 980-81 projects aimed at increasing the participation of young people in the management of national youth organisations.

• The Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme in Australia is documenting developments in the nine national youth secretariats being assisted in 1980-81 with $2500 provided through PAYO.

• The Joint Board of Christian Education received $9000 to produce a booklet on the wide range of achievements made by national youth organisations with assistance from the program.


National Youth Advisory Group The National Youth Advisory Group (NYAG) was established in 1979. The secretariat support for the Group is provided by the Office of Youth Affairs. The Group's role is to advise the Government, through the Minister for

Employment and Youth Affairs, on the needs and concerns of young people and to suggest ways of improving communication links between young people and the Government. The Group, which has twelve members drawn from throughout Australia, holds its meetings on rotation in all States and Territories so that it has access to young people throughout Australia. Open sessions precede the meetings and these are attended by members of youth organisations and by interested young people.

In the 1980-81 year the Group comprised professional and business people, a farmer, a student and a union official. During the year the Group considered and provided advice to the Minister on a wide range of topics, including the employment and training needs of young people, small business, the problems of isolated youth, the media needs of young people, priorities in education, the role of the private sector in training, the effectiveness of government programs for youth, and options for the future of young people in Australia.

Youth representation on governm ent advisory bodies The government policy of encouraging the appointment of young people to Commonwealth advisory and consultative bodies was continued during the year. Since the decision to encourage youth appointments, seventeen young people have been appointed to a range of bodies. Young people are now advising the Government on student assistance, employment and training needs of young people, Australia Day celebration, education, sport, population policy and ethnic affairs.

A register of young people for possible appointment to government advisory bodies is maintained by the Office of Youth Affairs.

Task Group on Youth A ffairs The Government in 1977 set up a standing committee of representatives of Commonwealth Government Departments called the Task Group on Youth Affairs to ensure effective interdepartmental consultation in policy development on youth

issues. It is made up of the Departments of Employment and Youth Affairs, Education, Finance, Health, Industry and Commerce, Prime Minister and Cabinet, Social Security, the Treasury and with the Social Welfare Policy Secretariat. The Group maintains close involvement with departments such as Aboriginal Affairs, Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, and Home Affairs.

Education and training of youth w orkers In July 1 980 Mr John Ewen, the Principal Lecturer in Youth Affairs at the State College of Victoria, Coburg, was seconded to the Office of Youth Affairs to examine the education and training of youth workers in Australia. The study was carried out in response to a proposal from participants in the 1979 National Conference of Youth Workers.

In preparing the report, Mr Ewen visited all States and the Northern Territory to consult extensively with Commonwealth and State Departments and Youth


Bureaus, education and training institutions, voluntary youth organisations, professional and volunteer youth workers and young people. A report of the study was published by the Office of Youth Affairs as a discussion paper and released by the Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs at the National Training-the-Trainer Seminar held at Coburg College in May 1981.

International Youth Exchange Program This Program is administered by the Office of Youth Affairs, which is also responsible for Australia’s participation in the Commonwealth Youth Program. Details are given in the section International Co-operation', page 56.


Women's Bureau

The Women's Bureau promotes equal employment opportunity for women by providing policy advice to the Minister on issues of importance to women's employment, by undertaking research into such issues and by disseminating information about women in the labour force.

The Bureau maintains liaison with other sections of the Department, exchanging information and advice in the development of policy in areas such as training, occupational information, services provided by the Commonwealth Employment Service and services provided to special groups, such as migrant women.

Contributions to policies affecting women are also made through the participation of the Women's Bureau on a number of committees:

• The National Labour Consultative Council Committee on Women's Employ­ ment. The Director of the Women's Bureau acts as Advisor to the Committee, which is tripartite in nature, with representatives from government, employer organisations and trade unions.

On behalf of this Committee, the Women's Bureau, in co-operation with the Equal Employment Opportunity Bureau of the Commonwealth Public Service Board, prepared the Equal Employment Opportunity for Women: Guidelines for Employers. The Guidelines were launched on 4 February 1 981 by the Hon. Andrew Peacock, M.P., in his capacity at that time as Chairman of the NLCC, and the Hon. Ian Viner, the then Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs. The Guidelines provide practical advice for both public and

private employers on ways to establish an equal employment opportunity program for women in their organisation. It has been well received by employers, unions and government, and its distribution and use being monitored by the Women's Bureau.

• The Women's Bureau has input to policies affecting women employed under the (Commonwealth) Public Service Act 1922 through its co-opted membership of the Joint Council of the Australian Public Service Sub­ committee on Women in the Service.

• Contact is maintained with areas of other departments concerned with issues relating to women, through the Interdepartmental Working Group on Women's Affairs, convened by the Office of Women's Affairs.

International Involvement International documents for the United Nations, the OECD and the ILO, and briefings for delegates to international conferences, are prepared by the Bureau. An Australian Position Paper for the OECD on the Integration of Migrant Women into the Labour Force was co-ordinated and written by the Bureau in April 1981.

In July 1980 the Director of the Women's Bureau attended the United Nations Mid-Decade Conference for Women held in Copenhagen. At this Conference,


Australia signed the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

Research and publications As part of its responsibilities in promoting equal employment opportunity, the Women's Bureau carried out research into a wide range of issues relating to women's employment during the year. These include the sex segregation of the

labour force in occupations and industry, average earnings for males and females, the training needs of women, technological change, protective legislation, women in apprenticeships, unemployment, part-time work and the problems of special

groups such as migrant women and rural women. The results of research undertaken provide a basis for policy advice and are also disseminated in publications and research papers published by the Women's Bureau.

Women's Bureau Director, Mrs Maureen Cane, former Director, Mrs Kerry Lovering, and First Assistant Secretary, Department of Employment and Youth Affairs, M r John Spencer, discuss the tripartite National Labour Consultative Council's (N LC C ) booklet Equal Employment Opportunities for Women-Guidelines for Employers with Assistant Commissioner, Public Service Board's Equal

Employment Opportunity Bureau, Ms Gail Radford (left).

International co-operation

International relations The Department is responsible for the international aspects of the Government's manpower, training and youth affairs programs and policies.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Among the OECD Committees the Department is primarily interested in the activities of the Social Affairs Manpower and Education Directorate, which services the Education Committee and the Manpower and Social Affairs

Committee. The main aim of the Manpower and Social Affairs Committee is to assist member countries to achieve full employment in the face of changing social and economic conditions. To do this the Committee regularly examines the manpower policies of those countries.

Of particular interest to the Department is the work of the Committee in the areas of youth unemployment, the role of women in the economy, social indicators, apprenticeship employment and education and working life.

International Labour Organisation (ILO) The ILO is a standard-setting organisation guaranteeing the freedom, dignity and welfare of workers, through a tripartite structure in both developing and developed countries.

The Department is contributing to the National Reports for the ILO Committees of Experts on the application of the earlier ratified Convention 111 on Discrimination and Convention 122 on Employment Policy. It is involved in work being done in the Asian and Pacific Regional Programs. This includes the:

• development of a Regional Model Code of Skill Occupations; • training in Rural Organisations; • training in Labour Administrations.

Commonwealth Youth Program Australia continued its participation in this program. Two youth leaders participated in the Regional Youth Leader Training Course in Chandigarh, India.

International Youth Exchanges In September, 1 980, following an inquiry by the Standing Task Group on Youth Affairs into international youth exchanges, the Government announced a program to stimulate exchanges between Australia and countries in the Asian—Pacific



The program is administered by the Office of Youth Affairs and has two components:

• a Government-to-Government sponsored program of international youth exchanges

• assistance to Australian-based agencies in negotiating and promoting exchanges

The objectives of the program are to promote friendship and mutual understanding between young people of Australia and countries of the region. It is designed to be flexible in format to suit the requirements of host countries and participants.

During 1 981 considerable progress has been made in establishing the program. Exchanges have been arranged with Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Vanuatu and Indonesia, and negotiations are proceeding with several other countries, including Fiji, the Solomon Islands, Western Samoa and ASEAN nations.

Participants in the program so far have ranged from secondary school students to young people with expertise in youth leadership. A total of fifteen Australians and eleven overseas young people have so far benefitted from the program of Government-to-Government sponsored exchanges. In addition, two voluntary

agencies have been assisted in negotiating and promoting exchanges.

1980-81 saw the establishment of the International Youth Exchange Program. Outside Canberra's Narrabundah College four Tongan students, the first group to visit, join four Australian students who were selected to visit Tonga.


Committees and councils

National Labour Consultative Council (NLCC) The Council provides a forum in which representatives of the Commonwealth Government, employers and employees may consult on industrial relations and manpower matters of national concern.

The members of the Council at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Mr R. I. Viner, MR Minister for Industrial Relations Mr N. A. Brown, QC, MR Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs

Mr Μ. B. Keogh Secretary Department of Industrial Relations Mr R. M. Taylor Secretary Department of Employment and Youth Affairs

Representing the Confederation of Australian industry, National Employers' Industrial Council Mr H. G. Aston, c b e President Confederation of Australian Industry Sir Samuel Burston, o b e Vice-President Confederation of Australian Industry

Mr J. E. Dixon, OBE Chairman National Employers' Industry Council

Mr K. Gilbert Chairman Insurance Employers' Industry Council Mr G. A. Mackay Chairman Australian Miners and Metals Association

Mr G. Polites, c m g , m b e Director-General National Employers' Industrial Council Confederation of Australian Industry

Representing the Australian Council of Trade Unions

Mr C. 0. Dolan, AO President Australian Council of Trade Unions

Mr P. I. Nolan Secretary Australian Council of Trade Unions

Mr C. H. Fitzgibbon Senior Vice-President Australian Council of Trade Unions Mr W. J. Kelty Assistant Secretary Australian Council of Trade Unions

Mr P. W. Reilly, a m Vice-President l

Australian Council of Trade Unions Mr J. Roulston Junior Vice-President Australian Council of Trade Unions


Representing public authorities as employers Mr J. C. Trethowan Chairman State Electricity Commission of Victoria

Representing the Council of Australian Government Employee Organisations Mr R. Gradwell Federal Secretary Council of Australian Government

Employee Organisations

The NLCC has a number of specialised committees. The Department is represented on three of them. They are:

Employment Discrimination Committee Mr R. M. Taylor Chairman Secretary of the Department of

Employment and Youth Affairs

Committee on Women's Employment Mr J. W. Spencer First Assistant Secretary

Youth Affairs and Projects Division

Mr J. W. Spencer First Assistant Secretary Youth Affairs and Projects Division

Mrs M. Cane Director Women's Bureau (Advisor to the Committee)

Committee on Technological Change Mr J. Bowdler First Assistant Secretary Manpower and Industry Studies Division

Conference of Com m onwealth and State Labour M inisters Depart me nts of Labour Advisory Com m ittee (DOLAC) The Conference of Commonwealth and State Labour Ministers meets bi-annually to consider matters of common interest.

DOLAC has dual roles:

• as an officer's committee to order the business of the Conference of Commonwealth and State Labour Ministers' Conference; and • as a consultative body in its own right to provide an avenue for the exchange of information on matters of mutual interest and concern across the whole

spectrum of the activities of the Commonwealth and State Labour Departments.

Membership of these bodies (as appropriate) at 30 June 1 981 were:


Commonwealth representatives The Hon. R. I. Viner, m p Chairman Minister for Industrial Relations The Hon. N. A. Brown, cic, m p

Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs

NEW SOUTH WALES Minister Mr P. D. Hills, MLA Minister for Industrial Relations and


VICTORIA Minister Mr J. H. Ramsay, m l a Minister of Labour and Industry and Minister for Consumer Affairs Permanent Head

Mr P. Prior Secretary Department of Labour and Industry

WESTERN AUSTRALIA Minister Mr R. J. O'Connor, m l a Deputy Premier and Minister for

Labour and Industry

SOUTH AUSTRALIA Minister Mr D. C. Brown, m p Minister for Industrial Affairs

TASMANIA Minister Mr T. G. Aulich, m h a Minister for Industrial Relations and

Manpower Planning

QUEENSLAND Minister Sir William Knox, m l a Minister for Employment and Labour


Mr Μ. B. Keogh Secretary Department of Industrial Relations Mr R. M. Taylor Secretary

Department of Employment and Youth Affairs

Permanent Head Mr R. S. Dodds Under-Secretary Department of Industrial Relations

Minister Mr B. J. Dixon, m l a Minister of Employment and Training Permanent Head

Mr M. Roux Director Ministry of Employment and Training

Permanent Head Mr B. R. Colcutt Under-Secretary Department of Labour and Industry

Permanent Head Mr L. B. Bowes, a m Director Department of Industrial Affairs and Employment

Permanent Head Mr J. L. Berry Secretary for Labour Department of Labour and Industry

Permanent Head Mr J. E. McDonnell Under-Secretary Department of Employment and Labour Relations


NORTHERN TERRITORY Minister Mr T. H. Jackson

Mr P. A. E. Everingham, m l a Director

Chief Minister Industrial Relations Department of the

Chief Minister

C om m onw ealth—State Apprenticeship Com m ittee (COSAC) This Committee facilitates the exchange of information about the administration of training for apprenticeship trades and inquires into and reports to the Conference

of Commonwealth and State Labour Ministers on training matters referred to the Committee by the Conference. The Committee members, at 30 June 1 981, were:

Chairman Mr P. M. Jenkins Deputy Secretary Department of Employment and Youth


Members Mr L. Schurr Industrial Officer Australian Council of Trade Unions

Mr P. Darby Acting Director of Apprenticeship New South Wales

Mr G. Stoker Deputy Director Technical and Further Education New South Wales

Mr P. J. McCormack President Industrial Training Commission of Victoria

Dr N. Watkins Deputy Director of Technical Education Victoria

Mr M. Moffett Secretary Industry and Commerce Training Commission


Mr F. D. Westwood President Apprenticeship Commission of Tasmania

Mr T. F. Knight Deputy Director of Further Education Education Department Tasmania

Mr R. A. Smart Chairman ACT Apprenticeship Board

Mr M. McConchie Deputy Director Office of ACT Further Education

Mr R. Woodward Chairman Northern Territory Apprentices Board

Mr G. Chard Director Technical and Further Education Northern Territory

Dr J. Grant Secretary Technical and Further Education Council

Australian Capital Territory

Mr P. Hack Deputy Director of Technical Education Queensland


Mr M. Smith Chairman Apprenticeship Commission Department of Labour and Industry South Australia

Dr G. Wood Principal Education Officer Department of Further Education South Australia Mr E. H. Smith Acting Director of Industrial Training Division of Industrial Training Western Australia

National Training Council During 1 980— 81 the National Training Council continued to advise the Minister in the development, operation and promotion of national manpower and training strategies. The Council produces an Annual Report.

The Council has an Executive Committee and four Standing Committees:

• The Executive Committee takes responsibility for matters specifically referred to it by Council and matters that are neither within the scope of established Standing Committees, and do not warrant the establishment of special task forces, or which require decision before the next scheduled Council meeting.

• The Technical Skills Training Committee is responsible for identifying areas of skill shortages in industry and advising on the development of programs to meet those needs.

• The Industry Training Committee monitors, evaluates and assists the activities of national and State industry training committees.

• The Training Development Committee monitors the Council's research program.

• The Small Business Committee facilitates communications on training for small businesses.

The Council's major activities include:

Major resource developments The fundamental concern of Council in 1980—81 was the paradox of unemploy­ ment, particularly among the young, coexisting with the skill shortages in a range of occupations. The Council believes that the major contribution to solving this problem can be made through resource developments. Consequently it has given high priority to training and manpower issues associated with major resource development projects. Significant Council decisions in 1980— 81 were:

• to support the general thrust of the recommendations of the report prepared by the Departments of Labour Advisory Committee—Prospective Demand for and Supply of Skilled Labour 1980-83, with particular reference to Major Development Projects (see page 26); • to encourage implementation of the above report's recommendations as soon

as possible;

Mr L. Cochrane Director of Resources Technical Education Education Department Western Australia

Secretary Mr S. Watson Department of Employment and Youth Affairs


The National Training Council in session in Hobart. The Council, a partnership of employer, union and Commonwealth and State government representatives, advises the Government on the development, operation and promotion of national manpower training strategies.

• to take part in the National Trade Training Campaign (see page 26); • to urge employers, especially resource developers, to provide more employ­ ment and training opportunities for Australians.

At the Minister's request the Council provided advice on the Skills in Demand Program before its introduction in 1 980 (see page 14). The Council endorsed the program, which it saw as a constructive measure. It also recommended that suitable unemployed people should receive preference, but where sufficient suitable unemployed people are not available, consideration should be given to

assisting suitable employed people. The Council also recommended that more emphasis be placed upon assisting projects aimed at upgrading the skills of those in employment.

Industry Training Committee network The Council continued to be closely involved in the development of the Industry Training Committee network and in the Government's Training in Industry and Commerce program, which supports this development. The Council is monitoring

developments at State and Commonwealth level to ensure that duplication and wasted effort does not result from the establishment of training advisory committees (similar to Industry Training Committees) by State and Territory training authorities.

NTC research program In May 1 981 the Council reviewed its research objectives and procedures. These decisions are expected to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the research program.

In November 1 980 the Council commissioned three major studies:

• Career Paths of Tradesmen (a pilot study)—W. D. Scott.

• Investment in Vocational Training in the Non-government Sector (a pilot study)— P. A. Consultants.

• Collection of Case Studies of Training Success—P. A. Consultants.


The Council awarded Training Research Grants for the following projects:

• An Occupational Analysis of Trainers— Mr D. Burns, Burwood State College, Melbourne • The Short-term and IntensiveTraining of Keyboard and Data Entry Skills—Dr D. Glencross, Flinders University, Adelaide e An Evaluation of Multi-Skilling Techniques in Workforce Development for

Major Mineral and Processing Projects— Northage and Associates, Canberra

International Year of Disabled Persons 1981 The Council developed and began to implement a strategy to pursue the employment and training objectives of the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP) 1 981. The strategy has been to:

• promote a greater awareness of all employment needs and capabilities of disabled persons among employers and unions through the Industry Training Committee network; • promote the need for training and upgrading of skills of disabled persons

through the network of Industry Training Committees; e commission a researcher to identify problems encountered by industry in training disabled persons and develop guidelines to overcome these problems; e through the Trainer Training Service of the Department of Employment and

Youth Affairs, develop a course to assist the acquisition of skills in training disabled persons; • use the Council's quarterly publication, Training Talkback, to disseminate information and to promote industry’s involvement in IYDP.

Small business training In 1 981 the Council published a report on the availability and adequacy of small business education and training in Australia. The report, completed in 1980, resulted from a study commissioned under Council's research program. It provides the basis for planning ways of improving small business training. Council, through

its Standing Committee on Small Business Training, is continuing to implement recommendations of the'report. An index of small business education and training programs was distributed in 1 981. The index lists courses available in Australia which are oriented towards small business.

Membership of National Training Council Members and Deputy Members of the National Training Council at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Capt. J. G. Evans Deputy Chairman Mr T. B. Prescott, a m Executive Director

Mr R. L. Marshman Secretary Mr W. R. Mutton

Confederation of Australian Industry Mr G. Polites, c m g , m b e Mr R. G. Fry, m b e tM r N. J. Mason

Mr E. S. Cole, o b e


'M inisterial Appointees Mrs V. Randall Mr N. M. Gow, C M G Dr K. Hall tM r B. Pickett

Commonwealth Department of Employment and Youth Affairs Mr P. M. Jenkins tM r G. E. Rees

Commonwealth Department of Education Mr J. J. Wilson

tD r J. Grant

Australian Council of Trade Unions Mr C. 0. Dolan, AO Mr L. Schurr tM r K. Stone

Mr R. T. Scott

State Technical Education Authorities Mr R. H. Wallace tM r T. Leo

State Departments of Labour Mr B. R. Colcutt tM r J. L. Berry

O n e vacancy exists because of the resignation of Mr A. Moredoundt in 1 981. tDeputy Members.

Executive and Standing Committee membership

Executive Capt. J. G. Evans (Chairman) Mr C. 0. Dolan, AO Mr G. Polites, c m g , m b e

Mr T. B Prescott, a m Mr P. M. Jenkins

Industry Training Mr T. B. Prescott, a m (Chairman) * Mr R. Chown Mr E. S. Cole, o b e

* Mr B. Killen Mr T. Leo Mr L. Schurr * Mr R. L. Marshman

Small Business Training Mr N. M. Gow, c m g (Chairman) Mrs V. Randall ‘ Mr I. Backler

* Mr H. Croft ‘ Mr D. Enderby ‘ Mr J. Hair ‘ Mr R. Harrison

‘ Mr K. McNaught ‘ Mr J. McNulty ‘ Mr A. Nelson ‘ Mr J. See

Technical Skills Training Mr R. G. Fry, m b e (Chairman) Mr B. R. Colcutt Mr C. 0. Dolan AO

‘ Mr P. Miles Mr R. H. Wallace ‘ Mr J. W. Ray

Training Development Dr K Hall (Chairman) Mr J. Berry ‘ Mr C. Harvey

‘ Mr G. Hilton ‘ Mr M. Hayes 'M r Μ. K. Johnson Mr B. Pickett ‘ Mr G. L. Lampe

Member of Standing Committees who are not Members or Deputy Members of the National Training Council.


Industry Training Committees at 30 June 198i

in d u s tr y

D e s c rip tio n o f in d u s try

D a te e s ta b lis h e d N a tio n a l C h a irm a n

S ta te C h a irm e n

Building and Dwelling and non- October Mr R. Letten Mr R. Rocher—

Construction dwelling building, civil engineering 1977 N.S.W.

Mr D. Murden—Vic Mr K, Knight—Old Mr G. M ill/M r J. Holder—S.A. Mr M. Bennett— Tas.

Mr M. Elliott—N T.

Clay and Mining of clay and May Mr A. Kemp Mr T. King—N S W.

Ceramics manufacture, distribution and marketing of clay products

1979 Mr J. Cooper—Vic.

Clothing Clothing


January 1973

Mr K. Johnson Mr A. Frankish— N S W. Mr I. Monod—Vic. Mr T. Parry—Old Mr J. Baggio—S.A. Mr R. Cooper—W.A

Dairy Milk collection

from farms, processing and transport to retailers/exporters

(S.A. and W.A. committees cover food processing)

February 1975

Mr B. Norwood Mr R. Fredericks— N.S.W. Mr R. Gilbert—Vic. Mr D. Shew—Old Mr R. Patterson— S.A. Mr A. Turton—W.A. Mr L. W right—Tas.

Drilling Survey, exploration

and extraction of water, oil and minerals

December 1978 Mr T. Sides

Electrical Electrical and electronic manufacturing and electrical contracting

March 1975

Mr P, Miles

Fishing Catching and

processing of fish and seafoods

October 1977

Mr I. Backler Mr C. Smith —

N.S.W. Mr K. Prendergast— Vic. Mr P. Conaty—Old

Mr G. Stackhouse— Tas. Mr D. Thomas —N T.


Description Date National State

in d u s try o f in d u s try e s ta b lis h e d C h a irm a n C h a irm e n

Footwear Footwear, manufacture, excluding rubber footwear, but

including component manufacturers

November 1972 Mr R. Pitcher Mr H, M a y - N S W.

Mr C Stanley—Vic. Mr C. McCormack — Old Mr G. Aplin—S.A.

Mr A. Nichols— W.A.

Furniture Manufacture, design, repair and fitting of furniture

December 1980 Mr L. Kidman Mr L. Kidman—Vic. Mr L. Kalinin—Qld

Mr R. Catt—W.A.

Maritime Shipping

operations excluding wharfside

May 1979

Capt. J. Evans

Metal and Engineering Foundry, fabricated metal

products and machinery and equipment

February 1976

Mr J. Devereux

Plastics Manufacture,

processing and selling of plastics

September 1974 Mr J, Dyer Mr P AuId N S W

Mr S. Fisher—Vic. Mr J. Dyer—Qld Mr G. Annear -S.A. Mr D. Allen—W.A.

Printing General printing,

some aspects of packaging and newspapers

February 1975

Mr P. MacDougall Mr N. Crichton— N.S.W. Ms K. Whitehead— Vic.

Mr J. Gresham—Qld Mr P. Cotton—S.A. Mr I. Stobie—W.A. Mr T. Hughes—Tas.

Retail Motor Motor vehicle sales, service and repair

December 1972 Mr T Prescott Mr M. Walpole—


Road Freight and September Mr R. Chown Mr C. McRae—

Transport passenger transportation 1972 N.S.W.

Mr J. Usher Vic. Mr G, Cowin—Qld Mr R. Chown—S.A.

Textiles Textile manufac­ ture and processing

November 1977 Mr A. McLaren

Timber Harvesting,

sawmilling, manufacture and marketing of timber products

September 1973 Mr E. Roughana Mr L. Chapman— N.S.W.

Mr G. Griffin—Vic. Mr B. Sullivan—Qld Mr A. Cole—S.A. Mr R. Shepherdson —W.A.

Mr E. Shield—Tas.


in d u s tr y

D e s c rip tio n o f in d u s try

D a te e s ta b lis h e d N a tio n a l C h a irm a n

S ta te C h a irm e n

Tourism and Hospitality Travel marketing, hotel catering and


November 1976 Mr J. Gothe Mr S. Brown —

N.S.W. Mr J. Brighthope— Vic. Mr D. McGuire— Qld

Mr P. Whallin—S.A. Mr C. Nichols—Tas.

Wool Producing

Production and harvesting of wool (W.A. committee covers all of rural


November 1976 Mr G. Ashton- Jones

Mr A. Baldry— N.S.W. Mr M. Frew—Vic. Mr I. McMaster— Qld Mr W. Murdoch— S.A. Mr G. Park—W.A. Mr A. Cameron — Tas.

"Tasmanian Training Council

Tasmanian industry and commerce

November 1976

Mr D. Morrow

'T h is is a Council for Tasmania only, but obtains support under the Industry Training Services Program.

Employment Discrim ination Com m ittees The Commonwealth Government, with the co-operation of all State Governments and the national employers' and trade union organisations, in 1973 established tripartite Committees on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation to deal with discrimination in employment and occupation in Australia. A National

Committee and six State Committees were formed. In 1 979 a separate Committee for the Northern Territory was established. The establishment of the Committees followed Australian ratification in 1 973 of the International Labour Organisation Convention No. 111—Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), 1 958, which proscribes employment discrimi­

nation on grounds of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction and social origin. The Committees' functions are:

• to investigate and to attempt to resolve, by conciliation, allegations of discrimination in employment and occupation which come to the attention of the Committees; and • to endeavour to change community attitudes towards employment discrimi­

nation so that discriminatory policies and practices will come to be seen as unacceptable to the Australian community.

The Employment Discrimination Committees investigate complaints of em­ ployment discrimination which have been referred by the Commissioner for Community Relations and which allege employment discrimination within the terms of the Racial Discrimination Act 1 975.


Members of the National Committee at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Dr C. A. Hughes Professorial Fellow Research School of Social Sciences

Australian National University

ACTU Mr J. Petrie former Senior Vice-president Australian Council of Trade Unions

Miss A. Clough (Alternative) Assistant Secretary Federated Brick, Tile and Pottery Industrial Union of Australia

Aboriginals' representative Mr J. McGinness President National Aboriginal and Islander

Liberation Movement

Migrants' representative Mrs N. Miocevic Member Migrant Rehabilitation Advisory


Commonwealth Government Mr J. W. Spencer First Assistant Secretary Youth Affairs and Projects Division,


Employers Mr G. Polites, CMG, MBE Director-General National Employers' Industrial

Council Confederation of Australian Industry Mr B. N. Noakes (Alternative) Director

National Employers' Industrial Council Confederation of Australian Industry

Women's representative Mrs C. Storey President United Nations Association of


National Aboriginal Employment Development Com m ittee (NAEDC) The Committee spearheads a national campaign to stimulate the employment of Aboriginals throughout Australia and to advise the Minister for Employment and

Youth Affairs on any additional action which should be taken to stimulate the employment and training of Aboriginal people. NAEDC Members as at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Mr R. K. Miller General Manager and Director Hastings Deering (Old) Ltd, Old

Members Mr G. Blitner Chairman Northern Land Council, N.T.

Mr C. Bourke, m b e (General Manager) Aboriginal Development Commission Mrs R. Colless Aboriginal and Islander Alcohol

Rehabilitation Service, Cairns, Qld

Mr J. Cooley General Manager Programs Division Department of Employment and

Youth Affairs

Mr R. Gregory Secretary United Trades and Labour Council, S.A.


Mr Robert Isaacs, W.A.

Mr F. Lovegrove Point McLeay Aboriginal Community, S.A.

Mrs E. Mason Managing Director Elizabeth Mason and Associates, N.S.W.

Mr C. Perkins Special Adviser to the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Chairman of the Aboriginal Development

Commission, Canberra

Mr L. Ah Toy Chartered Accountant, N T. and President of the N.T. Branch of the Confederation of Australian

Industry Mr A. J. Webber Director Webber and Associates Sydney, N.S.W.

Com m onwealth Employment Promotion Com m ittees fo r the Disabled As part of the Department's contribution to the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP), Commonwealth Employment Promotion Committees for the Disabled were established in each State and the Northern Territory. (In the A.C.T. a spokesman was appointed instead of a full Committee.)

Each Committee encourages employers to adopt more positive policies towards recruiting disabled persons. Their membership consists of a Chairman, a major employer, a representative each of employers’ organisations and trade unions, two disabled persons, a representative of the State-Territory IYDP Committee and the Regional Director of the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs.

Each Committee works closely with the CES in the Department's campaign to place more disabled job seekers in employment. The Chairmen of the Committees at 30 June 1 981 were:

NEW SOUTH WALES Mr J. T. Donohoe Managing Director Walton's Ltd

VICTORIA Mr J. W. Pratt Chairman and Managing Director Australian Safeway Stores Pty Ltd QUEENSLAND

Mr L. T. Padman Managing Director Press Etching Pty Ltd SOUTH AUSTRALIA Mr R. Ferris Managing Director Actil Ltd

WESTERN AUSTRALIA Mr R. Holmes a'Court Chairman of the Bell Group Ltd TASMANIA

Mr A. Kemp Managing Director Kemp and Denning Ltd NORTHERN TERRITORY Mr R. Morris Senior Partner Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co.

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY Mr George A. Colman, o b e Chairman J. B. Young's Holdings Ltd


During 1980-81 Commonwealth Employment Promotion Committees for the Disabled were established in each State and the Northern Territory. Victorian Committee Chairman, M r Bill Pratt (left), watches disabled inventory clerk, Gary Hodgson, 24, at work at a Safeways Pty Ltd store in Victoria. Looking on is CES employment counsellor, Bev. Stubley.

National Youth Advisory Group This Committee advises the Minister of the particular needs and concerns of young people. It informs the Minister of the impact of Government programs affecting young people and suggests ways of improving communication links between

young people and the Government (for additional information see page 52). The members of NYAG at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Mr G. Allan Sandringham, Vic.

Ms R. Calma Nhulunbuy, N T.

Ms A. Chimenton Ringwood, Vic.

Mr M. Cusack Camberwell, Vic.

Mr R. Gilliver Glen Waverley, Vic.

Mr B. Goddard Wyuna, Vic.

Mr G. Hart Evandale, Tas.

Ms L. Hammond North Adelaide, S.A. Ms S. Knowles Scarborough, W.A.

Ms I. Konrads Camperdown, N.S.W Ms D. Linnane

Clayfield, Qld Ms M. Poulos Tamworth, N.S.W.


National Advisory Com m ittee on the Com m onwealth Employment Service The Commonwealth Employment Service Act 1 978 provides for the establishment of a National Advisory Committee to furnish advice to the Minister and the National

Director on the operations of the CES. Committee members at 30 June 1 981 were:

Chairman Mr G. Polites, c m g , m b e Director-General National Employers Industrial Employee Organisations

Mr B. H. Tregillis National Director Commonwealth Employment Service

Mr G. Rees First Assistant Secretary Manpower Policy and Programs Division Department of Employment and Youth


Mr I. Oldmeadow Council of Australian Government

Council Confederation of Australian Industry Mr A. L. Howard National Employers Industrial

Council Mr W. J. Kelty Assistant Secretary Australian Council of Trade




Public Relations The Public Relations Branch is the focal point for dissemination of information and has a co-ordination and advisory role in public information services. The Branch

was created in 1 979, joining four existing journalist positions in the four largest regions—New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia. During 1980— 81 information kits were provided to OCES Managers to help

them explain the Department's services and programs to the community, and the range of departmental publications was reviewed and rationalised. (A full list of publications produced in 1 980—81 is contained in Appendix 28.) Three of the four newsletters— Training Talkback, Youth Affairs Newsletter,

Women and Work Newsletter—were also redesigned as part of the review. A wall chart, explaining the full package of the Department's programs and services, was produced for the first time. The Department is greatly appreciative of the considerable assistance given around Australia by the media, both in disseminating information on job vacancies

and CES services to job seekers and employers, and for special campaigns. In 1 980-81 a series of special promotions was arranged involving the CES and the 0-1 0 Network in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide. In addition, television and radio stations and newspapers throughout the country gave free time and space to local CES offices.

The collective support of the media is of inestimable benefit to the Department in communicating with the public.


Bureau of Labour Market Research

The Bureau of Labour Market Research (BLMR) commenced operation in July 1 980 with the appointment of the first Director, M rN.W . F. Fisher. The Bureau was created in response to growing concern reflected in the reports of the Williams Inquiry into Education and Training and the Crawford Report on Structural Adjustment, over the need for more research with the aim of achieving better understanding of the operation of Australian labour markets and providing an improved basis for the development of labour market policies and programs.

The Bureau has three principal functions:

• the conduct of research into aspects of the labour market by the Bureau's professional research staff, and the publication of research results;

• encouragement of more extensive labour market research in tertiary institutions and other research agencies,particularly through the provision of financial assistance to approved projects;

• to act as a clearing house for information about labour market research activity and co-ordinate, through liaison and discussion, the work of other agencies undertaking such research.

Research program The BLMR's initial research program has been developed following extensive consultations with elements of the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs and other Commonwealth and State departments, employer and union organi­ sations, professional associations and academics. It has three broad groupings— market operations, sectoral studies and institutional analysis.

Research projects were initiated as staff took up duty (mainly in early 1 981). They are designed to achieve a balance between long-run and shorter term needs. Resources have therefore been devoted to several basic information and conceptual studies, which will provide a firm foundation for more detailed later analyses.

On the information side, firstly, these include a study of the measures used in monitoring the labour market and a project devoted to identification and collation of available data and research results on tradesmen's labour markets. Projects examining issues common to all labour markets include studies ol labour force participation, workforce mobility and labour market adjustment.

Secondly, significant resources have also been devoted to projects examining particular issues within the labour market, focusing on both evident current issuer and emerging issues for the future. Two policy issues of current and continuing concern—youth employment anc skilled tradesmen—are being examined in major projects, which could extenc through several stages.


Emerging issues identified include public sector employment, examinations of trends in key areas of professional manpower and the situation of older workers in the labour market. A third area of priority is the evaluation of manpower policies and programs.

Two projects were commenced in this area during the year—a review of youth manpower programs and an examination of the role of the CES as a labour market intermediary. In addition, reviews are underway into the operations of the Relocation Assistance Scheme and the NEAT program.

Labour m arket research grants An aim of labour market research grants is to encourage tertiary institutions and other research agencies to undertake more extensive labour market research by providing financial assistance.

Labour market research grants are approved by the Minister on advice from the BLMR Advisory Council, which is currently in formation. During 1 980-81 a small number of grants was approved prior to the Advisory Council's formation to permit work of particular interest and relevance to proceed.

P ro je c t title a n d d e ta ils A m o u n t o f g ra n t

E x p e rt S e m in a rs o n L a b o u r M a rk e t A d ju s tm e n t. National Institute of $1 800

Labour Studies, Flinders University. Partial costs of two seminars (September 1980 and May 1981) on adjustment processes in occu­ pational labour markets.

C o n fe re n c e o n Y o u th E m p lo y m e n t, E d u c a tio n Ft T ra in in g . ANU Centre $5 000

for Economic Policy Research and Australian Academy of Social Sciences. Assistance to permit the attendance of two overseas visitors and major contributors at the conference.

L a b o u r M a rk e t F lo w s P ro je c t. Institute of Applied Economic and Social $10 000 Research, University of Melbourne. Partial costs of a study into the movement of people into and out of labour market categories.

Class o f '71 P ro je c t. National Institute of Labour Studies, Flinders $4 000

University. Partial costs of a follow -up study of 4000 young people surveyed in South Australia in 1971, to assess characteristics which determine subsequent employment patterns.

W ork P a tte rn s o f M a rrie d W om en . Sydney University, Economics $3 000

Department. Assistance to complete research on the work patterns of married women in the Sydney metropolitan area, examining the likely demands of married women for different types of jobs under various family and economic circumstances.

M e a su re s o f P e rfo rm a n c e o f L o c a l L a b o u r M a rk e ts in N.S . W. Australian $2 300

National University, Geography Department. Assistance to complete a doctoral thesis which seeks to develop improved measures of local labour market performance in rural N.S.W.

Conferences and seminars also form a major part of the Bureau's role of co­ ordinating labour market research and dissemination of information about labour market research. In June the Bureau convened a two-day research workshop to review the range of research information available on the tradesmen labour markets

and the general directions for future research. Participants were drawn from


Commonwealth and State governments, the education sector, industry organi­ sations and trade unions, and universities. The Bureau also assisted in bringing to Australia in February 1 981 Dr Beatrice Reubens, Senior Research Associate, Conservation of Human Resources, Columbia University, who addressed a BLMR seminar on 'Apprenticeship and Technical Training’ and Dr Ralph Smith, Deputy Director, United States National

Commission for Employment Policy, who spoke on 'Recent Developments in North American Manpower Policy' at a later seminar. In May, 1 981 the Director visited Japan, North America, the U K. and Europe to meet with government and academic labour market researchers for discussion concerning overseas research practice and emerging trends. This visit has proved valuable in achieving BLMR access to overseas labour market research, and in identifying 'best practice' in research management, research sponsorship and, particularly, the dissemination of results to potential users.

The first issue of the Bulletin of Labour Market Research, a quarterly research newsletter intended to disseminate information about current labour market research activity in Australia, was prepared in June 1 981. Continuing emphasis has been placed on the provision of advice and assistance to organisations or individuals undertaking research or requiring access to labour

market research results. This has involved continuing detailed discussions with employer bodies, professional associations, government agencies and academic researchers. As a means of encouraging greater interest in labour market research amongst under-graduate and post-graduate students, the BLMR prepared and circulated a list of labour market topics suitable for dissertation research.

The BLMR Advisory Council is to be the principal source of advice to the Minister for Employment and Youth Affairs on the research priorities to be pursued by the BLMR and on the approval of applications for labour market research grants. Its membership will be drawn from business and industry, State governments, the union movement and academia, and will have a youth representative.




Organisation of the Departm ent The divisional structure of the Department is:


Youth Affairs and Projects Division: Undertakes a range of projects across the spectrum of departmental activities. It is responsible for the Women's Bureau and the Department's international obligations and interests and the Office of Youth Affairs. The Division also co-ordinates the presentation and preparation of policy

matters affecting more than one Division and serves as the Department's point of liaison with the Minister's office. It provides secretariat services for national consultative bodies on employment as well as the National and State Employment Discrimination Committees. The Office of Youth Affairs co-ordinates and consults on Commonwealth Government

programs and proposals affecting youth, and seeks greater co-ordination and consultation with government and non-government agencies on proposals affecting youth as well as advising on youth needs and assistance.

Manpower Policy and Programs Division: Monitors the labour market and develops policy on manpower and training schemes. It develops programs to promote and support training in industry and commerce and is responsible for programs supporting apprenticeship and trade training. It also develops programs to correct particular skills imbalances. The Division provides secretariat services for

the National Training Council and its Industry Training Committees, and for the Common wealth-State Apprenticeship Committee. It also administers community- based manpower schemes which are not delivered through the CES, such as the Community Youth Support Scheme.

Manpower and Industry Studies Division: Analyses current and prospective trends in the economy and their effects on industry structure and the outlook for specific occupational classifications. It produces short-term forecasts of labour demand for a range of occupations and provides policy advice on employment effects of changes in industry policy and structure.

Management Services Division: Responsible for the overall administration and control of personnel, establishment and staffing levels as well as for finance, budgetary and accounting services for the department (including the CES). The division is responsible for property and supply policies and carries out organi­

sational development as well as personnel service, accommodation, printing, security and general support functions.



CES Planning and ADP Division: Prepares long-term strategic plans for the development and operations of the CES and develops new CES services. It undertakes applied research into CES operational practices and the servicing of client needs, services the advisory and consultative bodies of the CES, and develops and implements departmental ADP systems.

CES Programs Division: Develops and implements vocational counselling services and programs in the specialised fields of employment activity for persons with physical, mental and social handicaps. It develops and implements policy for CES services to young people, migrants and Aboriginals. The Division services the

National Employment Strategy for Aboriginals Program.

CES Operations Division: Responsible for the development and control of policies for the national operations of the CES. It formulates and reviews policy and procedures in offices of the CES and controls staffing matters in respect of those offices. The Division monitors the progress of CES leasing and furniture programs, develops CES staff training policies, plans and administers CES marketing activities and develops policy for, and produces, occupational information.

Managem ent services

The period 1 980—81 saw the creation of a major Function Review Task Force to critically examine all areas of the Department's operations. The review resulted in the redeployment of seventy-eight positions to the CES's

Australia-wide network. The Melbourne-Canberra transfer program continued and at 30 June 1 981 phase two of the transfer program was almost complete. Significant management initiatives included organisational and structural reviews of the Office of Youth Affairs, the Women's Bureau and the Manpowerand

Industry Studies division, and the improvement of financial information services to managers to co-ordinate more closely budgeting and estimating processes and to tighten controls on rates of expenditure. Improvements were made in typing services and communications; facsimile transmission facilities were upgraded and word processing equipment was

purchased. The Internal Audit Unit developed a systems-based audit approach and a long­ term audit plan for all auditable areas of the Department's operations. The annual audit program has been expanded from basic compliance matters to include cost effectiveness and efficiency auditing.

Staff exchanges were again arranged with employment departments in the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand and with the Western Australian Department of Education and the South Australian Regional Office of the Public Service Board. Negotiations are proceeding for interchanges with the private sector. The Department also supported four Aboriginal officers in their applications to undertake full-time study in Australia. Two Aboriginal officers are studying overseas under Aboriginal Study Awards.

CES Office modernisation program

The 1980— 81 financial year was the third of a five-year modernisation program designed to upgrade existing sub-standard CES Offices. The new style CES Offices, known as Job Centres, are accommodated in shop-front, ground-floor


premises within central business districts, where they are more accessible to the public. The modernisation program has already resulted in:

e ninety-eight CES Offices being relocated to modern premises; • twenty-five being improved to new standards by capital works or additional space; • thirty-tw o additional new office establishments; • twenty-six leases secured for Zone Offices;

• eight premises arranged for CES Training Centres.

A total of 1 23 offices have been upgraded to Job Centre standard. The number still to be upgraded either by relocation or civil works is sixty-three. However, in this regard, as at the end of June 1981, leases had been secured to relocate or provide additional space in a further twenty-seven existing officesto upgradethem to the new Job Centre standard.

In addition to the program of relocating CES Offices, three Job Centres were established during the year in areas where the CES did not previously have an Office. The 1 980—81 leasing program also secured premises for three Zone Offices in Western Australia.

A list of new and relocated Job Centres and Zone Offices is contained in Appendix 27, accompanied by a list of all existing CES Offices, branch offices and agencies in their respective Zonal configuration.

CES training

Considerable gains have been made in the past few years in training within the CES. Overall, the number of formal training days per unit of staff has increased from about 0.5 in 1977 to about 6.0 in 1980-81. This is due partly to an increased number of training staff but more importantly to improved methods of training.

All new entrants to CES Offices undergo an initial training program and in 1 980— 81 some 600 officers participated. Because of the increasing and rapidly changing demands on the CES and staffing and financial resource constraints, increased attention is being focused on ways of further improving the quality of on-the-job training in CES Offices.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9

10 11 12 13 14





19 20 21


23 24 25 26 27




Main departmental expenditure (including the CES network) 82

Administrative expenditure, department (other than CES network) 82 Administrative expenditure—CES network 83

Payments to or for the States 84

Capital works and services 84

Special appropriations 85

Revenue 85

Distribution of full-tim e staff, by function, at 30 June 1 981 86

CES staffing, by function, at 30 June 1 981 87

CES staffing, central and regional offices, at 30 June 1 981 87

Main CES transactions—registrations, vacancies notified and vacancies filled 88 CES self-service transactions 89

Professional Employment Office transactions 90

Civilian population, aged 1 5 years and over, by employment status 1 980 —June 1981 90

Civilian population, 1 5 years and over, by employment status, annual averages 1966-67 to 1980-81 92

Participation rates, total unemployment rates and average duration of unem­ ployment, by sex and age, annual averages 1 979—80 and 1 980—81 93 Employed persons, by sex, State and Territory, annual averages, 1979-80 and 1980-81 95

Unemployed persons, unemployment rates by State and Territory, whether looking for full-tim e or part-time work, annual averages 1 979—80 and 1 980—81 96 Overtime, annual averages 1 979—80 and 1 980—81 97

Job vacancies, by sex and industry, Australia, May 1 980 — May 1 981 98 Employed persons, by industry, annual averages, 1 979-80 and 1 980—81 99 Aggregate weekly hours worked by employed persons, annual averages 1979-80 and 1980-81 99

Notes on data sources 1 00

NEAT approvals and expenditure 1 975—76 to 1 980-81 1 01

Skills-in-Demand projects 102

Expenditure on Training in Industry and Commerce Programs 1 02

CES Leasing Program 1980-81 103

Publications and periodicals 1 980-81 11 2


A p p e n d ix 1 M a in d e p a rtm e n ta l e x p e n d itu re ( in c lu d in g th e CES n e tw o rk )


E x p e n d itu re ($ )

ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

Salaries, allowances, overtime 33 398 713 25 674 1 15

General expenses 10 399 765 8 946 823

Employment training and assistance 165 433 336 112 434 193

Total 209 231 814 147 055 131

CES network Salaries allowances, overtime 61 374 712 53 955 697

General expenses 10 801 671 10 330 287

Total 72 176 383 64 285 984

Payments to or for the States 50 784 1 076 074

Capital works and services 372 004 609 945

Special appropriations 59 344 54 907

Grand Total 281 890 329 213 082 041

A p p e n d ix 2 A d m in is tra tiv e e x p e n d itu re — d e p a rtm e n ta l (o th e r th a n CES n e tw o rk )

E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 -8 0

S a la rie s a n d p a y m e n ts in th e n a tu re o f sa la ry Salaries and allowances 33 110 634 25 429 880

Overtime 288 079 244 235

Total 33 398 713 25 674 1 15

G en era/ e xp en ses Travelling and subsistence 1 913 800 1 494101

Office Requisites, equipment etc. 1 005 429 860 329

Postage, telegrams and telephones 2 878 968 3 035 896

Office Services 157736 124 205

Information Services 1 654 253 1 069180

Motor Vehicles 728127 620 370

Freight and Cartage 208155 170 213

Consultants 98 618 112 809

Boards, Committees and Advisory Councils—fees and ex-penses 212 917 160 921


E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

Computer services 887105 772 603

Employment strategies for Aboriginals and the Disabled 427 707 296 997 Bureau of Labour Market Research—sponsored research 31 737 —

Incidentals and other expenditure 195 213 209199

Australian Frontier Futures Conference Contribution — 20 000

Total 10 399 765 8 946 823

E m p lo y m e n t tr a in in g a n d a ssista n ce CRAFT 64 450 866 42701 712

Special Apprentice Training 3 618 992 3 1 0 0 0 0 0

Skills Training 11 940 675 1 0 200 000

Industry Training Services 2 999 922 2 005 817

School-to-Work Transition 4 703 1 61 3 000 000

Pre-Apprenticeship 1 586 806 1 145 351

Assistance for Work Experience 41 254 850 24 158 000

Aboriginals 13 928 341 11 000 000

Disabled 2 718 658 1 000 000

RAS 1 264 865 1 049 835

FAS 302 754 219. 685

Occupational information 1 619 992 560 844

FRSVTS 286 549 220 458

Community-based Youth Support Scheme 14 163 288 1 1 709 000

Assistance to Youth Organisations 500 000 300 000

International Youth Exchanges 42 843 —

Youth Studies 48 078 63 491

Act of grace payments 2 696 —

Total 165 433 336 1 12 434 193

Grand Total 209 231 814 147 055 131

A p p e n d ix 3 A d m in is tra tio n e x p e n d itu re — CES n e tw o rk

E x p e n d itu re ( $ )

Ite m 1 9 8 0 —81 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

S a la rie s a n d p a y m e n ts in th e n a tu re o f sa la ry Salaries and Allowances 61 182 660

Overtime 192 052

53 792 874 162 823

Total 61 374 712 53 955 697


E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

G e n e ra l exp e n se s Travelling and subsistence 770 508 610 266

Office requisites, equipment etc. 1 228 856 1 051 513

Postage, telegrams and telephones 5 845 179 6 163 790

Office services 1 225 915 965 316

Motor vehicles 600 573 511 693

Freight and cartage 177 318 144 997

Payments to CES Agents 714 730 627 025

Incidentals and other expenditure 238 592 255 687

Total 10 801 671 10 330 287

Grand Total 72 176 383 64 285 984

A p p e n d ix 4 P a ym e n ts to o r fo r th e S tate s

E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

Apprentices in State government establishments 50 784 1 076 074

Total 50 784 1 076 074

A p p e n d ix 5 C a p ita l w o rk s and services

E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

Computer equipment 372 004 609 945

Total 372 004 609 945


Appendix 6 Special appropriations

E x p e n d itu re ( $)

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

First Division Officer—salary and allowances 59 344 54 907

Total 59 344 54 907

A p p e n d ix 7 R eve nue

M is c e lla n e o u s R e c e ip ts

Ite m 1 9 8 0 -8 1 1 9 7 9 - 8 0

Miscellaneous receipts 654 926 834 418

Total 654 926 834 418

The figures quoted in th is report for the financial year 1 9 79—80 vary from the figures show n in the previous A nnual Report. CES N etw ork costs include the cost of CES and Zone offices, whereas in the previous A nnual Report the CES costs also included CES M anagem ent costs in Regional and Head Offices.


A p pe ndix 8 D is trib u tio n o f fu ll- tim e sta ff, b y fu n c tio n , at 3 0 J u n e 1 981 (a)

C e n tra l O ffic e

F u n c tio n M e lb . C a n b e rra N .S .W . Vic. Q ld S .A. W .A. Tas. N T . A .C .T . T o ta l

P o lic y G ro u p a n d M a n a g e m e n t S e rvice s Executive Management and Support Public Relations Internal Audit Youth Affairs and Projects

Management—Personnel and Establishments —Finance/Budgetary —Administrative Services Manpower and Industry Studies Manpower Policy and Programs Bureau of Labour Market Research C o m m o n w e a lth E m p lo y m e n t S e rv ic e

Executive Management and Support Training Programs Aboriginal Employment Vocational Psychology

Special Services Planning and A.D P.—Corporate Planning —A.D.P. Operations: Employment Operations

Resources Marketing and Occ. Info. Zone Offices OCES/PEO/YJC/CRC

2 17

8 5

2 2 2 3

3 3 2 3

2 50 3 3 2 1

16 29 48 53 32 20

— 26 41 35 22 11

75 62 45 54 39 25

10 47 21 18 10 14

23 65


30 33 17 17

8 3 2 3 1

15 — 21 22 7 9

12 — 33 11 27 17

9 — 8 17 11 7

19 — 37 32 16 16

46 4

30 — 17 19 15 13

25 11 12 6 7

— — 24 22 15 10

— — 1 209 1 074 632 357

323 338 1 556 1 412 862 531

2 2 2 5 39


20 3 1

1 1 — — 63

23 9 9 — 239

12 7 4 — 158

22 12 6 — 340

13 5 1 — 139

14 8 4 — 211


1 1 19

10 5 — — 89

26 1 31 2 160

9 5 2 1 69

11 5 2 1 139


6 7 3 —



4 3 1 69

9 — — — 80

363 118 67 51 3 871

529 190 132 60 5 933

(a) A t 30 June 1 981 the number of fu ll-tim e operative staff em ployed in the Departm ent totalled 5933, w h ich represents an increase of 1 64 staff over the previous tw elve m onths.

A p p e n d ix 9 CES s ta ffin g b y fu n c tio n at 3 0 J u n e 1 981

F u n c tio n

CES Management and Support Services Automatic Data Processing OCES/PEO/YJC

National Training Schemes Aboriginal Employment Vocational Psychology

C O N .S .W . Vic. Q /d S .A.

s ta ff s ta ff s ta ff s ta ff s ta ff

112 86 79 52 42

54 1 — 5 —

— 1 201 1 072 632 354

15 20 24 7 9

8 32 12 26 17

11 10 22 13 11

W .A s ta ff


s ta ff

N T .

s ta ff

A C T .

s ta ff

T o ta l s ta ff

31 15 7 — 424

363 120 65 51 3 858

10 5 3 — 93

26 1 30 2 154

9 6 2 4 88

4 677

A p p e n d ix 10 CES s ta ffin g , c e n tra l and re g io n a l o ffic e s at 3 0 J u n e 1 981

Central Office Melbourne 200

N .S .W . Vic. Q /d S.A W .A. Tas. N T . A C T .

Regional offices 149 137 103 79 76 27 42 6 619

OCES 1 201 1 072 632 354 363 120 65 51 3 858

Total 4 677

A p p e n d ix 7 7 M a in CES tra n s a c tio n s — re g is tra tio n s , v a c a n c ie s n o tifie d an d v a c a n c ie s fille d


% C h a n g e % C h a n g e

S ta te 7 8 - 7 9 ( 7 8 - 7 9 / 7 9 - 8 0 ) 7 9 - 8 0 ( 7 9 - 8 0 / 8 0 - 8 1 ) 8 0 - 8 7

N.S.W. 575 738 -3 .5 % 555 790(6) + 6.3% 590 844

Vic. 492 402 -4 .1 % 472 416(6) -3 .3 % 456 6 7 7 (d )

Qld 308 477 + 5.3% 324 828 + 14.4% 371 574

S.A. 148 757 -2 .0 % 145 855 + 2.0% 148 841

W.A. 173189 -8 .6 % 158 257(a) + 4.7% 165630

Tas. 46 075 + 5.9% 48 780 + 9.1% 53 218

NT. 27 029 + 3.3% 27 919 + 0.8% 28 146

Aust. 1 771 667 -2 .1 % 1 733 845(c) + 4.7% 1 814 930(

V a ca n cie s n o tifie d

% C h a n g e % C h a n g e

S ta te 7 8 - 7 9 ( 7 8 - 7 9 / 7 9 - 8 0 ) 7 9 - 8 0 i< 7 9 - 8 0 / 8 0 - 8 1 ) 8 0 - 8 1

N.S.W. 213 939 + 5.6% 225 859(6) + 19.2% 269 288

Vic. 211 166 -5 .4 % 199760(6) + 9.5% 218 642 (6)

Qld 116 856 + 6.9% 124 954 + 33.1% 166253

S.A. 55 210 -2 .9 % 53 629 + 2.6% 55 005

W.A. 60 802 + 0.1% 60 870(a) + 16.9% 71 153

Tas. 18 116 -10 .5% 16 208 + 9.6% 17 772

N.T. 14 136 + 34.1% 18 957 + 14.4% 21 695

Aust. 690 225 + 1.5% 700 237(c) + 17.1% 819 808(6)

V a ca n cie s fille d

% C h an ge % C h a n g e

S ta te 7 8 - 7 9 ( 7 8 - 7 9 / 7 9 - 8 0 ) 7 9 - 8 0 ( 7 9 - 8 0 / 8 0 - 8 1 ) 8 0 - 8 1

N.S.W. 143.776 + 11.0% 159 615(6) +1 6.4% 185 846

Vic. 1 56 501 -0 .4 % 155886(6) + 7.8% 167 970(6)

Qld 94 153 + 4.6% 98 480 + 29.5% 127 483

S.A. 41 308 -2 .5 % 40 263 + 0.2% 40 348

W.A. 47 747 + 3.5% 49 429(a) + 13.7% 56 222

Tas. 12 265 -0 .7 % 12 180 + 12.0% 13 639

N.T. 9 920 + 39.0% 13 789 + 16.4% 16 057

Aust. 505 670 + 4.7% 529 642(c) + 14.7% 607 565(6)

(a ) Incl. estimates for J u ly 1979.

{b) Incl. estimates for A p ril and M ay 1 980. (c) Incl. estimates for J u ly 1979 for Western Australia, A pril and M ay fo r Victoria and N ew South Wales to 1 981. (


Appendix 72 CES self-service transactions

S e lf-s e rv ic e p la c e m e n ts

% c h a n g e

S ta te 7 9 - 8 0 ( 7 9 - 8 0 / 8 0 - 8 1 ) 8 0 - 8 1

N.S.W. 35 088 + 58.4% 55 593

Vic. 36 940(a) + 29.3% 47 761(a)

Qld 13 748 + 98.1% 27 236

S.A. 7 538 + 31.2% 9 891

W.A. 14 296 + 12.9% 16 146

Tas. 2 419 + 46.3% 3 538

N.T. 7 036 + 38.5% 9 747

Australia 117 065(a) + 45.1% 169 912(a)

S e lf-s e rv ic e as a p e rc e n ta g e o f to ta l p la c e m e n ts

S ta te 7 9 - 8 0 8 0 - 8 1

N.S.W. 22.7% 23.5%

Vic. 36.9%(a) 31.4%(a)

Qld 13.6% 17.7%

S.A. 19.5% 20.2%

W.A. 30.6% 23.4%

Tas. 1 9.6% 20.9%

N.T. 60.7% 40.8%

Australia 25.2 %(a) 24.2%(a)

( a ) Victorian figures for Septem ber 1 980—January 1 981 have been excluded due to industrial action. Figures for

1 9 7 9 -8 0 have been adjusted to enable comparisons.


Appendix 13 Professional Employment Office transactions

1 9 7 9 - 8 0 1 9 8 0 - 8 V

R e g is tra tio n s V a n c a n c ie s re c e iv e d V a ca n cie s f ille d R e g is tra tio n s V a ca n cie s re c e iv e d V a c a n c ie s fille d

N.S.W 12 108(a) 4 510(a)

Vic. 10 891 (b ) 5 056(6)

Qld 5 971 1 856

S.A. 5 516 1 194

W.A. 4 398(c) 921 (c)

Tas. 1 828 770

A C T . 1 704 762

N.T. 610 566

1 155(a) 11 754 4184

1 847(6) 3 739(6) 2 129(6)

1 039 5 586 1 500

611 4 721 1 112

600(c) 4 880 927

437 2 318 910

204 1 383 912

176 527 409

1 046 693(6) 743 415 490

675 193 176

Australia 43 026 15 635 6 069 34 908 12 083 4 431

’ Excludes figures for all States for June 1981. ( b ) Figures for tw o weeks only in M ay 1 980.

(a) Excludes figures for A pril 1 980. (c) Excludes figures for J u ly 1 979.

(d) Excludes figures for September 1 980 to January 1 981 inclusive.

A p pe ndix 14 C iv ilia n p o p u la tio n , aged 1 5 years and over, b y e m p lo y m e n t sta tu s 1 9 8 0 — J u n e 1 981

C iv ilia n p o p u la tio n a g e d 15 years

E m p lo y e d U n e m p lo y e d

L a b o u r F u ll P a rt

L o o k in g L o o k in g

fo r fu ll- fo r p a rt

a n d o ve r fo rc e tim e tim e T o ta l tim e w o rk tim e w o rk T o ta l

U n e m p lo y m e n t rate

P a rtic i- L o o k in g L o o k in g

p a tio n fo r f u l l - fo r p a rt

ra te tim e w o rk tim e w o rk T o ta l



1 9 8 0 June 5 348.9 4 179.2

July 5 358.0 4 189.5

Aug. 5 364.2 4 180.0

Sept. 5 372.1 4 221.1

Oct. 5 380.4 4 195.6

Nov 5 392.1 4 189.6

Παη R / i m 9 Λ 'iO R 1

3 766.4 203.9 3 970.3 193.1

3 784.0 200.2 3 984.2 190.0

3 762.9 208.0 3 970.9 193.3

3 795.9 214.1 4 010.0 197.9

3 787.7 213.2 4 000.8 180.1

3 780.3 226.5 4 006.7 171.4

9 RRD R 91 Q R δ rvsn a

1 2 2 .1

p e r c e n t

15.8 208.9 78.1

15.4 205.3 78.2

15.8 209.1 77.9

13.2 211.1 78.6

14.7 194.8 78.0

11 5 1 8 2 8 7 7 .7

'-><> 1 226.2 __________

4 9 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.5

4 3

7.2 5 0

7.1 4.9

7.1 5.0

5.8 5.0

6.4 4.6

4 . 8 4 4

7y»7 Jan. Feb. 5 420.6 4 271.4 3 855 8 195.6 4 051.4 203.6 1 6.4 2 2 0 .0

Mar. 5 431.2 4 278.9 3 860.4 215.3 4 075.7 185.8 17.5 203.2

Apr. 5 439.3 4 256.2 3 854 2 214.1 4 068.3 171.7 16 2 187 9

May 5 447.8 4 257.1 3 842.8 221.4 4 064.2 175.5 17.3 192.9

June 5 456 3 4 244.3 3 841.3 221.5 4 062.8 169.2 12.3 181.5


7 8 . 8

78.8 78.2 78.1 77.8

b . U

4.6 4.3 4.4 4 2

/ . / D . Z

7.5 4.8

7.0 4.4

7.3 4.5

5.3 4.3

1 9 8 0 June 5 485.5

July 5 493.7

Aug. 5 500.4

Sept. 5 508.9

Oct 5 51 6.7

Nov. 5 528.4

Dec. 5 537.9

2 459.6 1 474.2 788.3

2 475.9 1 483.6 812 2

2 459.0 1 461.8 814.0

2 509.7 1 497.1 818.3

2 466.1 1 473.3 811.9

2 476.0 1 472.1 829.7

2 514.9 1 507.8 801.3

2 262.4 144.7

2 295.8 134.8

2 275.8 139 4

2 315.3 137.6

2 285.2 127.0

2 301.8 131.3

2 309.1 151.2

52.5 197.1 44.8

45.2 180.0 45.1

43.8 183.2 44.7

56.8 194.4 45.6

53.9 180.9 44.7

42.8 174.1 44.8

54.5 205.8 45.4

8.9 6.2 8.0

8.3 5.3 7.3

8.7 5.1 7.5

8.4 6.5 7.7

7.9 6.2 7.3

8.2 4.9 7.0

9.1 6.4 8.2

1981 Jan. 5 549.5 2 397.8 1 489.8 71 1.5 2 201.3 158.7 37.7 196.5

Feb. 5 558.2 2 473.4 1 485.2 784.2 2 269.3 154.7 49.4 204.1

Mar. 5 568.6 2 521.0 1 479 0 835.4 2 314.4 144.9 61.7 206.6

April 5 576.9 2 509.2 1 500 7 820.4 2 321.1 134.8 53.3 188.1

May 5 585.4 2 495 6 1 492.2 820.9 2 313.0 132.1 50.5 182.6

June 5 594.0 2 484.9 1 497.2 819 0 2 316.2 120.5 48.3 168.7

43.2 44.5 45.3 45.0 44.7 44.4

9 6 9.4 8.9 8.2 8.1 7.4

5.0 8.2

5 9 8.3

6.9 8 2

6.1 7.5

5.8 7.3

5.6 6.8


1 9 8 0 June 10 834.4 6 638.8 5 240.6 992.2 6 232.7 337.7 68.3 406.0

July 10851 7 6 665.4 5 267.7 1 012.4 6 280.0 324.8 60.6 385.4

Aug. 10 864.7 6 639.0 5 224.7 1 022.0 6 246.7 332.6 59.7 392.3

Sept. 10 881.0 6 730.8 5 293 0 1 032.3 6 325.3 335.5 70.0 405.5

Oct. 10 897.1 6 661.7 5 260.9 1 025.1 6 286.0 307.1 68.6 375.7

Nov. 10 920.5 6 665.5 5 252.4 1 056.2 6 308.5 302 7 54.3 357.0

Dec. 10 941.2 6 821.5 5 368.4 1 021.1 6 389.5 357.4 74.6 432.0

1981 Jan. 10 962.6 6 649.4 5 313.5 905.6 6 219.1 377.0 53.4 430.4

Feb. 10 978.8 6 744.8 5 341.0 979.7 6 320.7 358.4 65.8 424.1

Mar. 10 999.9 6 799.9 5 339.4 1 050.7 6 390.1 330.7 79.2 409.9

April 11 016.2 6 765 4 5 354.9 1 034.5 6 389.4 306.5 69.5 376.0

May 11 033.2 6 752.7 5 335 0 1 042.2 6 377.2 307.7 67.8 375.5

June 11 050.3 6 729.2 5 338 5 1 040.5 6 379.0 289.7 60.6 350.2

S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.

61.3 61.4 61.1 61.9 61 1 61.0 62.3 60.7 61.4 61.8 61.4 61.2 60.9

6.1 5 8

6.0 6.0 5.5 5.4 6.2

6.6 6.3 5.8 5.4 5 5


6.4 6.1

5.6 5.8

5.5 5.9

6.4 6.0

6.3 5.6

4.9 5.4

6.8 6.3

5.6 6.5

6.3 6.3

7.0 6.0

6.3 5.6

6.1 5.6

5.5 5.2

A p pe ndix 15 C iv ilia n p o p u la tio n , aged 15 years an d over, b y e m p lo y m e n t sta tu s, a n n u a l a v e ra g e s (a ) 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 to 1 9 8 0 -8 1

Civilian Employed Unemployed Unemployment rate

p o p u l a t i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

aged Looking Looking Partici- Looking Looking

15 years Labour Full Part for full- for part- pation for full- for part

and over force time time Total tim ework tim ework Total rate tim ework tim ework Total



per cent

1966-67 4 084.1 3 429.5 3 240.2(b ) 125.4(6) 3 386.6 38.9 4.0 42.9 84.0

1967-68 4 166.8 3 486.2 3 272.8(b ) 137.1 (6) 3 443.1 38.7 4.5 43.1 83.7

1968-69 4 263.8 3 552.4 3 346.2(6) 132.0(6) 3 512.2 33.9 6.2 40.1 83.3

1969-70 4 372.1 3 635.8 3 409.2(6) 137.5(6) 3 595.7 34.9 5.2 40.1 83.2

1970-71 4 477.2 3 719.3 3 533.4(6) 114.3(6) 3 675.5 38.3 5.5 43.8 83.1

1971-72 4 590.8 3 793.9 3 600.4(6) 112.3(6) 3 730.8 56.0 7.2 63.2 82.7

1972-73 4 679.0 3 859.1 3 632.3(6) 125.4(6) 3 786.0 61.2 11.9 73.1 82.5

1973-74 4 776.6 3 927.9 3 697.5(6) 142.1 (6) 3 869.7 46.6 11.6 58.2 82.2

1974-75 4 867.1 3 962.8 3 710.9(6) 136.2(6) 3 839.9 107.8 15.3 123.0 81.4

1975-76 4 946.4 4 002.1 3 668.4(6) 152.3(6) 3 851.5 133.5 17.1 150.6 80.9

1976-77 5 026.8 4 041.6 3 692.6 178.4 3 871.0 152.4 18.3 170.7 80.4

1977-78 5 116.9 4 073.1 3 665.7 198.1 3 863.8 191.0 18.4 209.3 79.7

1978-79 5 215.1 4 099.5 3 679.4 198.8 3 878.2 206.9 14.3 221.3 78.6

1979-80 5 306.1 4 158.5 3 743.9 204.3 3 948.2 194.4 15.9 210.3 78.4

1980-81 5 406.5 4 236.8 3 820.8 212.0 4 032.8 188.6 15.5 204.1 78.4

1.1(6) ' ( b ) 1.2

1.2(6) ' ( b ) 1.2

0.9(6) 3.6(6) 1.1

0.9(6) ' ( b ) 1.1

O .Q (b) ' ( b ) 1.2

1.1(6) ' ( b ) 1.7

1.8(6) 5.3(6) 1.9

1.0(6) 8.4(6) 1.5

1.6(6) 5.5(6) 3.1

3.2(6) 9.7(6) 3.8

4.0 9.3 4.2

4.9 8.5 5.2

5.3 6.7 5.4

4.9 7.2 5.1

4.7 6.8 4.8


1966-67 4 157.3 1 532.7 1 108.6(6) 349.6(6) 1 484.7 33.9 14.1 48.0 36.9

1967-68 4 247.9 1 597.9 1 150.4(6) 372.6(6) 1 545.6 36.5 15.8 52.3 37.6

1968-69 4 346.9 1 652.3 1 178.6(6) 398.9(6) 1 599.6 34.6 18.1 52.6 38.0

1969-70 4 453.1 1 743.1 1 201.1 (6) 435.1 (6) 1 689.5 32.6 21.1 53.6 39.1

1 970-71 4 560.8 1 843.9 1 292.5(6) 455.3(6) 1 790.6 33.2 20.2 53.3 40.4

1971-72 4 673.4 1 872.6 1 339.2(6) 463.8(6) 1 809.2 42.8 20.6 63.4 40.1

1972-73 4 767.4 1 975.0 1 3 56.1 (6 ) 496.0(6) 1 8 9 4 .5 — Λ ~ Τ P.---- . n?. --Z.· S£ju»B- .. n i -i

2.5(6) 3.0(6) 3.1

2.7(6) 3 2 (6 ) 3.3

2.5(6) 3.7(6) 3.2

2.2(6) 3.9(6) 3.1

1.9(6) 3.6(6) 2.9

2.2(6) 3.9(6) 3.4

i y / ,3— / *+ 1974-75 4 967.7 2 140.3 1 416.9(6) 591.2(6) 2 016.2 82.0 4 Ζ.Ί i Z4. i

1975-76 5 056.0 2 228.8 1 378.5(6) 642.2(6) 2 077.8 96.3 54.7 1 51.0

1976-77 5 143.3 2 249.0 1 389.7 704.9 2 094.6 104.7 49.8 154.4

1977-78 5 243.5 2 302.0 1 399.1 717.6 2 116.7 131.1 54.2 185.3

1978-79 5 344.3 2 325.2 1 411.6 729.6 2 141.1 135.0 49.1 184.1

1 979-80 5 440.2 2 402.2 1 449.1 759.5 2 208.6 141.7 52.0 193.6

1980-81 5 543.2 2 482.0 1 486.7 806.6 2 293.2 138.9 49.8 188.8

(a) 1 9 6 6 -6 7 to 1 9 7 7 -7 8 average o f quarterly estimates; 1 9 7 8 -7 9 to 1 980-81 average of m onthly estimates. (.b ) Data for A ugust only. * Subject to sam pling variability; to o high for m ost practical uses.

S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e ] Cat. No. 6203.0, 6204.0.

‘to. 1 y j . 1 \«-Z f — . , —

44.1 6.3(6) 6.8(6) 6.8

43.7 7.0 6.6 6.9

43.9 8.6 7.0 8.1

43.5 8.7 6.3 7.9

44.2 8.9 6.4 8.1

44.8 8.5 5.8 7.6

A p p e n d ix 16 P a rtic ip a tio n rates, to ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t rates and average d u ra tio n o f u n e m p lo y m e n t, b y sex and age, a n n u a l averages 1 9 7 9 —8 0 and 1 9 8 0 —81

1 9 7 9 - 8 0 1 9 8 0 -8 1

A g e ( years

P a rtic ip a tio n U n e m p lo y m e n t

A v e ra g e d u ra tio n o f P a rtic ip a tio n

rate rate u n e m p lo y m e n t rate

p e r c e n t w e e k s p e r c e n t

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te


A verage d u ra tio n

u n e m p lo y m e n t

w e e k s

15-19 64.5 15.2 21.9 66.3

20-24 91.2 8.6 27.2 91.6

25-34 95.8 4.0 -


- 95.8

35-44 95.6 95.7

45-54 91.7 2.4 91.1

55-59 82.3 • 35.5 1 82.3

60-64 53.3 2.8 ■ ! 50.0

65 and over 11.4 I 11.3

Total 78.4 5.1 30.0 78.4

14.4 21.9

7.8 29.9

3.8 32.5

2.3 2.8



! . 1 I *

1 J

4.8 33.9

A v e ra g e A v e ra g e

P a rtic ip a tio n U n e m p lo y m e n t d u ra tio n o f P a rtic ip a tio n U n e m p lo y m e n t d u ra tio n

rate ra te u n e m p lo y m e n t ra te rate u n e m p lo y m e n t

A g e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(ye a rs p e r c e n t w e e k s p e r c e n t w e e k s


15-19 59.7 20.1 25.0 61.6

20-24 70.4 9.2 30.0 70.7

25-34 51.6 6.7 52.9

35-44 57.9 4.3 58.0

45-54 47.8 4.0 48.2

55-59 27.8 ] f ' 27.7 29.2

60-64 12.9 * 12.7

65 and over 2.7 J ί 2.7

Total 44.2 8.1 27.4 44.8

18.2 24.7

9.1 34.8

6.5 22.5

4.2 |


j *

7.6 28.4

Married women

15-19 49.0 * n.a. 47.8

20-24 56.6 8.0 n.a. 54.9

25-34 47.0 6.6 n.a. 47.6

35-44 56.8 4.0 n.a. 57.0

45-54 46.5 3.9 n.a. 46.8

55-59 25.7 j [ n.a. 27.7

60-64 11.7 * n.a. 11.7

65 and over 2.9 J l n.a. 3.3

Total 42.1 5.3 24.0 42.3

8.3 n.a.

6.4 n.a.

4.0 n.a.

3.3 n.a.


f I n.a.


l J n.a.

5.0 23.9

* Subject to sam pling variability; to o high for most practical uses, n.a. N ot available. S o u rc e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.

A p p e n d ix 77 E m p lo ye d persons, by sex, S ta te and T e rrito ry , a n n u a l averages, 1 9 7 9 —8 0 an d 1 9 8 0 —81

Ό 0 0

N.S.W. 1 392.1 773.9 2 166.0 1 421.0

Vic 1 059.2 612.3 1 671.5 1 074.3

Qld 590.7 313.8 904.5 611.1

S.A. 351.8 201.2 553.0 353.0

W.A. 347.2 191.9 539.1 362.5

Tas. 112.7 59.7 172.4 114.5

NT. 34.1 15.9 50.0 35.1

A.C.T. 60.6 39.8 100.4 61.3

796.9 634.4 333.5 204.6 202.2

61.4 18.5 41.6

2 217.9 1 708.7 944.6 557.6

564.7 175.9 53.6 103.0

4 032.8 2 293.2 6 326.0

S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.

* Subject to sam pling variability; to o high for m ost practical uses. S o u r c e : A B S , T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.

A p pe ndix 19 Overtime, annual averages 1 979—80 and 1 980—81

A v e ra g e w e e k ly o v e rtim e h o u rs w o rk e d

P e r e m p lo y e e w o rk in g o v e rtim e

P ro p o rtio n o f

e m p lo y e e s in th e s u rv e y w o rk in g o v e rtim e

p e r c e n t

Mining 4.7 9.0 51.8 5.1

Manufacturing 2.2 7.4 29.6 2.2

Electricity, gas and water 1.7 7.3 23.3 1.8

Construction 2.0 7.2 27.3 2.1

Wholesale Trade 1.2 6.6 17.7 1.3

Retail Trade 0.7 4.2 15.7 0.7

Transport and Storage; Communication 2.4 6.9 34.6 2.6

Public Administration; Community Services 0.5 7.3 7.0 0.5

Other 0.5 5.2 10.5 0.5

Total 1.4 6.9 19.9 1.4

9.4 54.6

7.4 29.9

7.7 23.2

7.4 28.6

7.0 18.8

4.2 17.3

7.4 35.2

6.9 7.6

4.6 10.6

7.0 20.7

S o u r c e : ABS, O v e rtim e , Cat. No. 6330.0.

A p p e n d ix 20 J o b va ca n cie s, by sex and in d u s try , A u s tra lia , M a y 1 9 8 0 - M a y 1981

1 9 7 9 - 8 0 M a y A u g . N o v. Feb. M a y 1 9 8 0 -8 1

average 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 0 1981 1981 average

Number of Vacancies Ό00

B y sex For males 13.6 12.5 12.6 13.3 12.6 14.4 13.2

For females 4.9 3.6 4.3 5.4 6.0 5.1 5.2

For males and females 15.1 13.7 13 2 15.5 14.9 16.2 15.0

B y in d u s try Manufacturing 9.8 9.1 9.7 9.2 10.4 10.0 9.8

Metal products, machinery and equipment 5.4 5.4 4.4 4.4 6.1 5.8 5.2

Basic Metal and fabricated metal products; other machinery etc. 4.4 4.6 3.4 3.6 5.0 4.1 4.0

Transport equipment 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.7 1.2

Other Manufacturing 4.3 3.7 5.2 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.6

Other Industries 23.8 20.7 20.4 25.1 23.1 25.7 23.6

Wholesale and retail trade 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.4 4.1 5.4 4.5

Transport and storage; communication 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.4

Public Administration; community services 10.3 9.3 9.0 8.6 8.2 9.7 8.9

Other 7.0 5.8 5.8 10.6 9.5 9.6 8.9

Total 33.5 29.8 30.1 34.3 33 5 35.7 33.4

Job Vacancy rate per cent

Total 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

S o u r c e : ABS, J o b V a c a n c ie s , Cat. No. 6231.0.


A p p e n d ix 21 E m p lo y e d p e rso n s, b y in d u s try , a n n u a l averages, 1 9 7 9 - 8 0 a n d 1 9 8 0 -8 1

1 9 7 9 - 8 0 1 9 8 0 -8 1

In d u s try d iv is io n o r s u b d iv is io n

F u ll tim e P a rt tim e T o ta l F u ll tim e P a rt tim e T o ta l


Agriculture and service to agriculture 315.6 58.8 374.3 313.6 68.3 381.9

Forestry, fishing and hunting 23.0 . 27.0 28.9 . 31.8

Mining 80.9 * 82.5 85.8 * 87.6

Manufacturing 1 152.0 72.5 1 224.5 1 166.5 74.4 1 240.8

Food, beverage and tobacco 175.4 16.2 191.6 159.5 16.0 175.4

Metal products 198.5 6.5 205.0 215.0 7.9 222.8

Other manufacturing 778.1 49.7 827.9 792.1 50.5 842.6

Construction 436.3 44.6 480.8 440.8 47.1 487.9

Wholesale and retail trade 971.7 271.9 1 243.6 980.6 288.4 1 269.0

Transport and storage 313.5 27.2 340.7 319.7 28.0 347.7

Finance, property and business services 415.6 72.8 483.3 453.5 84.3 537.7

Community services 717.1 225.6 942.6 757.2 247.2 1 004.4

Recreation, personal and other services 223.1 155.3 378.4 233.6 154.7 388.4

Other industries 492.8 27.1 519.8 508.2 27.8 536.0

Total 5 166.4 960.9 6 102.4 5 288.3 1 025.0 6 313.3

* Subject to sam pling variability; to o high for most practical uses. S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.

A p p e n d ix 22 A g g re g a te w e e k ly h o u rs b y e m p lo y e d p e rso n s, a n n u a l averages, 1 9 7 9 - 8 0 an d 1 9 8 0 —81

1 9 7 9 - 8 0 1 9 8 0 -8 1

F u ll tim e

w o rk e rs P a rt tim e

w o rk e rs T o ta l

F u ll tim e

w o rk e rs P a rt tim e w o rk e rs T o ta l

million hours

Males 149.7 3.2 152.9 154.6 3.4 157.9

Females 52.9 11.2 64.1 54.9 12.1 66.9

— Married women 29.1 9.0 38.1 29.1 9.5 38.6

Total 202.6 14.4 217.1 209.4 15.4 224.8

S o u r c e : ABS, T h e L a b o u r F o rc e , Cat. No. 6203.0.


A p p e n d ix 2 3 N o te s o n d a ta so u rce s

Most of the data used in both the section on the labour market in 1980-81 and in Appendixes 14 to 22 were obtained from the following publications issued by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). The L a b o u r F o rc e , A u s tra lia (Catalogue No. 6203.0)—issued monthly

J o b V acancies, A u s tra lia (6231.0)—issued monthly O ve rtim e , A u s tra lia (6330.0)—issued monthly L a b o u r F o rc e E x p e rie n c e D u rin g 1980, A u s tra lia (preliminary) (6205.0)—issued annually Other related major ABS publications are as follows:

U n e m p lo y m e n t, A u s tra lia , P re lim in a ry E s tim a te s (6201.0)—issued monthly The L a b o u r F o rce , A u s tra lia (Preliminary) (6202.0)—issued monthly The L a b o u r F o rce , A u s tra lia (6204.0).—issued annually U n e m p lo y m e n t, U n d e r-e m p lo y m e n t a n d R e la te d S ta tis tic s , A u s tra lia , F e b ru a ry 1 9 7 8 to F e b ru a ry 1 9 8 0 (6236.0)—irregular

Further information about these and other ABS publications can be obtained by writing to: Information Services Australian Bureau of Statistics P.O. Box 10 Belconnen, A.C.T. 2617

It should be noted that, because the majority of the statistics used in the written section of the report and in Appendixes 14 to 22 are derived from sample surveys conducted by the ABS, they are in the form of estimates and, as a result, are subject to sampling variability. For further information on the standard errors associated with the various estimates, reference should be made to the relevant ABS publications set out above.


A p p e n d ix 24 N E A T a p p ro v a ls a n d e x p e n d itu re 1 9 7 5 —7 6 to 1 9 8 0 —81

F o rm a l O n - th e - J o b S Y E T P E P U Y

N o . $m N o . $m N o . $m N o. $m

1975-76 6 390 34.6 4 260 5.5

1976-77 10 260 11.4 14 400 13.6 9 590 6.6

1977-78 9 800 12.9 28 000 23.7 66 000 47.1 2 350 1.2

1978-79 7 900 10.0 19 400 22.8 66 350 82.6(a) 4 500 2.3

1979-80 7 200 8.0 14 710 15.6 44 300 25.5 4 200 3.0

1980-81 1 800 3.0 15 400 8.5 61 400 41.3 4 450 3.5

O th e r T o ta l

N o . $m N o.

10 650 34 250 106150 98 150

70 400

14 850(Z>) 22.1 97 900

$ m

40.1 31.6 84.9 117.8 52.2 78.4

(a) The high level of expenditure in 1 9 7 8 -7 9 , compared w ith the numbers approved for training, reflects the high level of c a rry-ove r' expenditure, i.e. com m itm ents incurred in 1 9 7 7 -7 8 w h ich were met in 1 9 7 8 -7 9 .

( b ) This includes groups such as Aboriginals, the Disabled, special groups and NEAT assistance granted under such programs as S kills in Demand, the Special A pprentice Program, pre­

apprenticeship allowances and the S c h o o l-to -W o rk Transition Program.

A p p e n d ix 2 5 S k ills -in -D e m a n d p ro je c ts

N a m e o f p ro je c t a n d lo c a tio n F u n d s A p p ro v e d (a )

N o . o f tra in in g

p la c e s a p p ro v e d

C/W/State Trade Training Program (W.A.) (a) $ 800

Plasterglass Ceiling Fixers (W.A.) 17 608 10

Self Employed (S.A.) 77 592 40

Home Health Aides (Vic.) 24 635 10

Secretarial Training (A C T.) 124 942 30

Skilled Cotton Irrigation Workers (N.S.W.) 1 5 728 20

Apprentice Draughtsmen and Women (N.S.W.) 707 000 200

Chainsaw Safety and Softwood Tree Fellers (N.S.W.) 32 059 18

A N M —Kockums Mechanical Harvesting Equipment Course (N.S.W.) 23 568 12

ANM Training for Mill Staff (N.S.W.) 238 025 156

Taxi Driver Training for Special Purpose Taxis (N.S.W.) 62 450 240

Fruit Tree Pruners (Vic.) 13 519 40

Computer Programmers (N.S.W.) 256 000 160

Clothing Machinist Wollongong (N.S.W.) 1 855 10

Clothing Machinist Granville (N.S.W.) 1 877 10

Clothing Machinist (W.A.) 12 252 30

Timber Orderman Sawyers and Wood Machinists (N.S.W.) 148 824 113

Clothing Machinist, Melbourne College of Textiles 45 238 90

Clothing Machinist, Whitehorse Technical College (Vic.) 35 689 70

Clothing Machinist, Marleston (S.A.) 55 400 116

Total 1 894 260 1 375

(a ) These figures do not include payments under the CRAFT Scheme.

A p p e n d ix 2 6 E x p e n d itu re on T ra in in g in In d u s try and C o m m e rc e P rog ram s

1975— 76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81

Manpower Development Scheme Trainer Training Subsidy Group Training Schemes

$ $

223 796 311 759

242 840 82 890 8 425 16 387

$ $

442 101 555 789

1 59 517 202 343

36 536 25 075

$ $

845 759 1 690 243

162 576 138 172 27 311 4 944


1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81

Training Assistance Program 78 414 60 021 66 181 189 819

Basic Training Aids 10 986 — 4 189 8 297 31 427 80 364

Training Officer Scholarship Scheme 33 814 9 622

ITC Travel Assistance — 107 275 144 481 161 013 313 715 362 152

Promotion and Research — — 43 597 75 125 192 628 242 546

Training Officer Program Travel 8 807 4 370

ITC Marketing Grants — — — — 1 34 001 364 638

ITC Establishment Grants — — — — 34 000 30 000

ITC Development — — — — 65 311 82 493

Total 618 861 566 348 890 442 1 093 823 2 005 354 2 999 922

A p p e n d ix 27 CBS L e a sin g P ro g ra m 1 9 8 0 —81

N e w O ffic e s O ffic e re lo c a tio n s

im p ro v e d a c c o m m o d a tio n J o b C e n tre s Z o n e J o b C e ntres

N e w S o u th W ale s

Revesby Campsie

Gosford Liverpool

Narrabri Inverell Leeton


V ic to ria

Boronia Fitzroy

Moonee Ponds Waverley

Dandenong North Melbourne Ringwood

Q u e e n s la n d

Coolangatta Longreach

Southport Mt Isa Toowoomba Indooroopilly

S o u th A u s tra lia

Warradale Renmark Murray Bridge



New Offices Office relocations

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------im p ro v e d

J o b C e n tre s Z o n e J o b C e n tre s a c c o m m o d a tio n

W e ste rn A u s tra lia

Perth Gosnells Midland

Victoria Park Mandurah Broome

Inglewood Morley

T asm an ia

Kings Meadow

N o rth e rn T e rrito ry


Zonal configuration of CES O ffices, Branch Offices and Agencies as at 30 June 1981

Z o n e s O C E S B ra n c h O ffic e s A g e n c ie s

N e w S o u th W ales

City Bondi

Campsie City South Maroubra Junction Kings Cross Leichhardt Marrickville Martin Place Mascot City West Wynyard


Sutherland Bankstown

Bega Eden (F/T)

Cooma (F/T)


Campbelltown Carringbah Hurstville Liverpool Nowra Revesby Rockdale Sutherland Warilla Wollongong

Kiama (P/T)


Parramatta Auburn



Z o n e s O C E S B ra n c h O ffic e s A g e n c ie s

Burwood Fairfield Granville Mount Druitt

Parramatta Penrith St. Marys


North Shore Brookvale

Chatswood Gosford Hornsby Manly

North Sydney Rozelle Ryde

Lismore Armidale Glen Innes


Casino Kyogle


Coffs Harbour Bellingen


Grafton Maclean (F/T)

Kempsey Port Macquarie (F/T) Laurietown

Macksville, Nambucca Heads Wauchope

Lismore Ballina

Murwillumbah Byron Bay

Tweed Heads Forster

Taree Gloucester

Orange Bathurst

Broken Hill Willcannia

Dubbo Bourke (F/T) Brewarrina

Cobar Coonabarabran Coonamble Gilgandra

Narromine Nyngan Wellington

Katoomba Lithgow Mudgee (F/T) Kandos


Orange Parkes Condobolin

Forbes Lake Cargelligo West Wyalong


Z o n e O C E S B ra n c h O ffic e A g e n c ie s

Canberra(a) Canberra

Woden Belconnen

Newcastle Broadmeadow

Cessnock Charlestown Inverell

Kurri Kurri

Maitland Muswellbrook (F/T) Scone


Warrabri Gunnedah (F/T) Collarenebri

Moree (F/T) Walgett

Newcastle Tamworth Wyong


Albury Albury

Cowra Goulburn Bowral (P/T) Yass

Griffiths H ay(P/T)

Leeton Deniliquin (F/T) Finley

Queanbeyan Wagga Wagga Tumut (F/T) Cootamundra

Gundagai Junee Temora

( a ) Canberra is te chnically not a Zone, but a sub-region of the N ew South Wales Region.

V ic to ria

Northern Country Bendigo Wedderburn (P/T) Castlemaine

Echuca Nathalia (P/T)

Kyneton Rochester


Tongala (P/T) Koondrook (P/T)


Cohuna (P/T) Ouyen (P/T)

Seymour Euroa (P/T) Alexandra


Kilmore (P/T) Mansfield (P/T) Yea (P/T) Kyabram (P/T) Cobram

Swan Hill Wycheproof (P/T)

Numurkah Robinvale


Sea Lake (P/T) Nyah West (P/T) Benalla (P/T) Corryong

Mytleford Yarrawonga


Zones OCES Branch Offices Agencies

Western Country Ararat Stawell (F/T)

St Arnaud (P/T)

Ballarat Maryborough (F/T) Daylesford

Colac Corio Geelong Hamilton Casterton (P/T)


Horsham Donald (P/T)

Edenhope (P/T) Warracknabeal (P/T) Nhill

Portland Warrnambool Cobden

Port Fairy


Bairnsdale Orbost (P/T)

Dandenong Morwell Moe (F/T) Tarralgon


Oakleigh Sale Springvale

Warragul Wonthaggi (P/T)

Leongatha (P/T)


Western Footscray

Moonee Ponds Newport Niddrie Gisborne

Sunbury Woodend

North Melbourne St Albans Sunshine Yarraville Werribee

Melton (P/T) Bacchus Marsh

Northern Brunswick

Clifton Hill Coburg Fitzroy Glenroy

Heidelberg Lalor Montmorency Preston

Eastern Boronia

Box Hill Camberwell


Zones OCES Branch Offices Agencies


Melbourne Richmond Ringwood

Healesville Yarra Junction

Southern Elsternwick


Malvern Mentone Moorabbin Prahran Rosebud South Melbourne St Kilda

Hastings Mornington


Townsville Aitkenvale

Atherton Ayr

Mareeba (P/T)

Bowen Home Hill

Cairns Babinda

Cooktown Gordonvale Kuranda

Mossman Thursday Island

Ingham Cardwell


Innisfail El Arish

Mt Isa Boulia


Townsville Charters Towers


Ipswich Charlevi lie Cunnamulla


Coolangatta Dalby Chinchilla


Inala Roma

Ipswich Boonah

Esk Gatton Laidley Lowood

Mermaid Beach Southport



Zones OCES Branch Offices Agencies

Toowoomba Oakley

Warwick Dirranbandi

Goondiwindi Inglewood St George Stanthorpe


Rockhampton Bundaberg Gin Gin

Gladstone Biloela

Gympie Kingaroy

Murson Nanango Wondai

Longreach Barcaldine

Blackall Winton

Mackay Proserpine


Maroochydore Caloundra

Noosa Heads

Maryborough Childers

Eidsvold Gayndah

Monto Mundubberra Pialba

Nambour Rockhampton Emerald

Mt Morgan Yeppoon Blackwater

North Brisbane Alderley Brisbane Chermside

Fortitude Valley Indooroopilly Nundah Redcliffe

Caboolture (F/T)

South Brisbane Annerley Beaudesert

Cleveland Coorparoo Mt Gravatt South Brisbane Woodridge Beenleigh

Wooloongabba Wynnum


Zones OCES Branch Offices Agencies

South Australia

Southern Edwardstown

Glenelg Morphett Vale Victor Harbour

Mt Gambler Bordertown

Millicent Naracoorte

Murray Bridge Noarlunga Norwood Unley Warradale

Mt Barker

Northern Campbelltown

Elizabeth Enfield Gawler Clare


Pt Augusta Coober Pedy

Copley Oodnadatta

Pt Pirie Peterborough

Point Pearce Wallaroo Yorketown

Salisbury Whyalla

Central Beverley

Croydon Park Grenfell St King Willia Street

Mile End


Pt Adelaide Pt Lincoln Renmark


Balmera Berri Loxton Waikerie

Western A ustra/ia

Southern Albany Katanning

Bunbury Cannington Cockburn Gosnells

Collie (F/T) Busselton

Fremantle Kwinana Manjimup Victoria Park

Mandurah (F/T) Bridgetown


Zones OCES Branch Offices Agencies

Central Northern Broome Carnarvon Geraldton

Perth West Perth Pt Hedland


Derby Onslow Kununurra Wyndham

Eastern Esperance

Greenwood Innaloo Mirrabooka Morley

Mt Hawthorn Kalgoorlie Merredin Midland Northam




Burnie Smithton

Devon port Eastern Shore Glenorchy Hobart

Kings Meadow Kingston Launceston Mowbray


Northern Territory

Alice Springs Casuarina Darwin Commercial Darwin Industrial


Tennant Creek (F/T)


A p p e n d ix 2 8 P u b lic a tio n s a n d p e rio d ic a ls 1 9 8 0 -8 1 *

Publications • Employment Prospects by Industry Et Occupation, July 1980 • Training manuals: Basic Skills

—Workshop Safety Roof Plumbing —Introduction and Drainpipes —Spouting and Guttering —Deck fixing and Materials —Decking and Flashing —Calculations and Water Storage —Stormwater Drainage

Carpentry and Joinery —Basic Hand Tools —Timber Technology—Fastenings and Fittings —Timber preparation—Timber Joints • Apprenticeship Statistics • Guidelines for Employers—Equal Opportunities for Women • Facts on Women at Work in Australia 1979 • Work Wise—a self-help guide • Education for Leisure • National Committee on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation 6th Annual

Report • Department of Employment and Youth Affairs Annual Report 1979-80 • Workbook for Women • Discrimination in Job Advertisements • The Ewen Report on Training of Youth Workers • Job Guide for Victoria 1981 • Job Guide for Tasmania 1981 • Job Guide for Queensland 1981 • Job Guide for South Australia 1981 • Job Guide for Western Australia 1981 • How you can profit by using the CES • Career Planning Pack • Employment Aspects of Major Development Projects • Careers Resource Guide • Harvest Timetable—Australia

Periodicals • Monthly Review of the Employment Situation • Training Talkback • Women and Work Newsletter • Aboriginal Employment Newsletter • Youth Affairs Newsletter

'This list does not include the considerable number of information leaflets produced by the Department each year.