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National Coal Research Advisory Committee - Report - Period - December 1973 - November 1974 (10th)


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THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

1975— Parliamentary Paper No. 59

NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH

ADVISORY COMMITTEE

TENTH ANNUAL REPORT 1975

Presented by Command 9 April 1975

Ordered to be printed 23 April 1975

TH E G OV ERN M EN T PRINTER OF AUSTRALIA CANBERRA 1976

Printed by Union Offset Print Co. Pty. Ltd.

NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

TENTH ANNUAL REPORT

The National Coal Research Advisory Committee was formed in December 1964, following recognition by the Australian Government, State Governments and private industry, of the need for increased applied research in Australia into coal utilisation. This was later extended to

cover research into coal winning and beneficiation. Initi­ ally a pool of funds amounting to $520,000 per annum was jointly contributed for the sponsorship of this research. These funds were allocated on the advice of the Committee, whose membership was representative of the contributing

groups.

This agreement was terminated on 30 June 1969, and a new National Coal Research Advisory Committee was nominat­ ed by the Australian Government alone. A sum of up to $260,000 per year for up to three years was set aside by the

Government for allocation on the advice of this Committee.

As from 30 June 1972, the scheme of assistance to coal research was extended for a further five years, with yearly allocations of up to $260,000, the full sum to be granted subject to the maintenance each preceeding year of

total expenditure on Australian coal research at a level no less than in 1971/72, as certified by the Advisory Committee.

In 1974/75, the yearly allocation was increased by $100,000 to $360,000 for the specific purpose of initiating a 1oil-from-coal1 research programme in Australia.

This report is the fifth issued by the Committee in its Second Series of meetings, and covers the period from December 1973 to November 1975 1974/75 allocation of research reported upon herein.

Membership

Sir William Pettingell, C.B.E.

Dr Howard K. Worner

Mr T.K. Duncan

During this period the funds was made, and this is

(Australian Gas Light Company)(Chairman)

(Conzinc Riotinto of Australia Ltd)

(The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Ltd)

(Coal & Allied Industries Ltd)

Mr S.B. McKensey

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Mr R.W. Urie

Dr E.O. Rayner

Mr A. Crowley

Mr B.W. Hartnell, C.B.E.

Mr I.E. Newnham, M.B.E.

Mr C.F. Gartland

(State Electricity Commission of Victoria)

(Department of Mines, New South Wales)

(Queensland Coal Board)

(Joint Coal Board)

(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organ­ ization)

(Department of Minerals and Energy)

The Secretariat of the Committee was provided by the Department of Minerals and Energy, with Dr K.D. Lyall as Executive Officer and Mr J. Ricardo as Minute Secretary.

Functions

The functions of the Committee are:-(a) To keep under review all coal research carried on throughout Australia and overseas, in relation to conservation, winning, beneficiation and utilisa­

tion .

(b) To reach conclusions on scientific, technical and economic grounds as to the directions in which this research in Australia should be strengthened.

(c) To review annually all relevant research programm­ es in Australia, and to recommend to the Minister for Minerals and Energy those programmes that should be supported, and the amount of financial contributions which should be made to each of them from the funds provided.

Meetings of Advisory Committee

During the period under review, two meetings in the Second Series of the Committee have been held, as follows:

Thirteenth meeting, 29 May 1974, Melbourne

Fourteenth meeting, 15 November 1974, Sydney

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At its thirteenth meeting (second series), the Committee considered reports of progress in research projects from July to December 1973, and submissions for assistance with research projects in the ensuing financial year, accompanied by recommendations from the Technical Subcommittees. The Committee then finalised its Advice and

Recommendations for allocations of research funds in 1974/75.

At its fourteenth meeting (second series), the Committee considered reports of progress in research projects from January to June 1974, accompanied by comments and recommendations from the Technical Subcommittees. A

statement of receipts and expenditures from the Coal Utili­ sation Research Trust Account for the financial year 1973/74 was received by the Advisory Committee. The Committee also finalised this Tenth Annual Report.

Activities of Subcommittees

There are three standing Technical Subcommittees covering the fields of Coal Winning and Beneficiation, Combustion and Gasification, and Coal Processing. The mem­ bership, terms of reference, and details of meetings of the Subcommittees are given in Appendices 1, 2 and 3 of this

report.

Recommendations and comments by Subcommittees

The future of the coal industry, and the need for a reappraisal of coal as an energy source in the context of shortages and escalating costs of liquid fuels, has provided common ground for consideration by the Technical Subcommitt­ ees in the past year.

The Subcommittee on Coal Winning and Beneficiation has in particular noted that further research is required into underground mining methods which would lead to greater extraction of coal. In this respect, the development of A.C.I.R.L. expertise in rock mechanics and strata control

techniques through collaboration with the mining industry in operating mines appeared particularly valuable.

The Subcommittee on Combustion and Gasification has commended the progress made in sponsored combustion research, but sees the need for considerably more activity in this area to support the upsurge of industrial interest

in coal as an alternative to liquid fuels. The Subcommittee will hold an additional meeting to review all relevent coal research activities in order to indicate research priorities

to prospective researchers when requests for 1975/76 research submissions are sent out early 1975.

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The Subcommittee on Coal Processing has been pleased to note the progress made to date with the approved programme of carbonisation research employing the new experimental coke ovens at A.C.I.R.L., and the fact that these facilities are now the equal of the best of overseas

facilities in this research area. The quality of coal processing research being conducted by the University of Melbourne and the University of New South Wales has been highly commended. This work shows promise of producing some outstanding results as a consequence of the high calibre of graduate student now being attracted to fuel/energy tech­ nology.

1Oil-from-coal1 research

In its submission to the National Coal Research Advisory Committee for research support in 1974/75, the Board of Management of Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories included a proposal relating to the production of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The submission was prepared with due regard to the amount of funds at the disposal of N.C.R.A.C. and an expenditure of $35,000 in

1974/75 was proposed. It was pointed out, however, that A.C.I.R.L. was capable of mounting a larger effort in this field, and that in view of the urgency of the situation, the Board considered that a research programme involving expenditure of $100,000 in 1974/75 would be justified.

Following discussion with N.C.R.A.C., through those members of the Board of Management of A.C.I.R.L. who are also members of the Advisory Committee, the Board prepared a detailed 'oil-from-coal1 submission to the Minis­

ter for Minerals and Energy. The allocation of research funds for 1974/75 has since been increased by $100,000 to $360,000 for the specific purpose of supporting the A.C.I.R.L. programme.

Broadly, the programme is concerned with the application of specific conversion processes to Australian coals. Initially, the definition of coal parameters with respect to solvent refining routes will be given priority, and close liaison will be maintained with Pittsburg and Midway Mining Company (PAMCO) which is currently commission­ ing a solvent refining plant in the U.S.A.

Energy for the future

The Advisory Committee is conscious of the fact that the impact of escalating liquid fuel costs on world markets has scarcely been felt in Australia. In an effort

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both to protect and pursue this advantage, the Committee has submitted to the Minister for Minerals and Energy a paper entitled "Australia— self-sufficient in energy" which sets out the Committee's views on the vital role to be played by

coal in satisfying Australian future energy requirements.

The paper stresses the need for a national approa­ ch to energy policy and energy planning. In the Committee's opinion, such an approach is essential to the definition of consistent strategies for exploration and evaluation, min­

ing, transport and utilisation of our coal resources. Without a national approach, priorities for coal utilisation - electricity generation, gasification and liquefaction -

cannot be rationally assessed.

The following have been recommended to the Minister for Minerals and Energy:

1. An exploration and evaluation programme that will define, by 1980, the nation's coal resources with particular emphasis on open-cut coals suited to coke-making and the production of hydrocarbon

fuels.

2. An extensive research programme that will provide, " by 1985, the background data needed for the devel­ opment of a rational programme for winning, trans­ porting and using Australian coals.

3. A detailed assessment of overseas technology and, where necessary, the development of local tech­ nology that will provide, by 1990, acceptable sub­ stitutes for all imported hydrocarbon fuels.

Symposium sponsorship

The Advisory Committee at its meeting of 5 Novem­ ber 1973, expressed concern that community appreciation of the value of coal as an energy source should be adversely influenced by inefficient plant practice in the areas of

combustion and electrostatic precipitation, as they relate to the control of power station and industrial emissions.

The Committee felt that the Institute of Fuel was an appropriate body to stimulate and promote wider discuss­ ion in these areas, and that its 1974 conference in Adelaide on "The Changing Technology of Fuel", would provide a suit­

able occasion to do so. The Committee, therefore, requested that the Institute examine the possibility of incorporating a one day symposium on the topic of electrostatic precipita­ tion as part of its 1974 conference programme.

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As a result of these representations, a one day symposium entitled "The Changing Technology of Electrostatic Precipitation" was held on Friday 8 November 1974 at the Hotel Australia, Adelaide, immediately following the Institute conference. Eight Australian papers, and seven

from the U.S.A., U.K., East Germany and Sweden, were presented at the symposium. Financial assistance toward the cost of symposium preprints and publication of proceedings was provided by NCRAC.

The Advisory Committee acknowledges the responsib­ ility assumed by the Institute of Fuel in accepting the Committee's suggestion, and wishes to record its sincere appreciation for a highly successful symposium.

Allocations of research funds

On 14 December 1973, the Committee invited sub­ mission of applications for financial assistance with coal research programmes in the year 1974/75. Applications were received in respect both of new projects and of projects already being assisted.

Full schedules of allocations of research funds for 1974/75 appear in Appendix 4 of this report. These allocations are set out in brief in the following table:-Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories

University of Melbourne

$310,000

Department of Metallurgy $ 10,000

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of New South Wales

$ 7,000

School of Chemical Engineering

Wollongong University College

$ 14,000

Department of Geology

University of Newcastle

$ 8,000

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Queensland

Department of Mining and Metallurgical

$ 9,000

Engineering $ 2,000

$360,000

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Total expenditure on coal research

The expenditure on coal research by all agencies known to be engaged in this field in 1973/74 was $4,837,100. Expenditure according to sources of funds, with comparative figures on a uniform basis back to 1964/65, are given in the

following table.

Commonwealth States Industry Universities Total (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)

1964/65 518,600 310,900 685,900 134,400 1,649,800

1965/66 771,400 461,900 802,700 130,900 2,166,900

1966/67 797,800 579,800 801,700 181,500 2,360,800

1967/68 856,000 679,800 918,700 166,000 2,620,500

1968/69 807,200 902,400 1,448,800 129,100 3,287,500

1969/70 869,100 751,300 1,866,100 166,200 3,602,700

1970/71 1,002,700 917,400 2,031,500 121,700 4,073,300

1971/72 973,900 1,042,300 2,398,200 97,800 4,512,200

1972/73 1,035,900 1,002,000 2,922,300 99,500 5,059,700

1973/74 1,013,400 1,264,500 2,420,000 139,200 4,837,100

Sponsorship of research projects by other bodies

The Committee is pleased to note the sponsorship of other coal research projects in Australia during the period under review.

The Victorian Brown Coal Research Committee, with funds contributed by the Victorian Government and the State Electricity Commission of Victoria, has continued its spon­ sorship of research in 1974/75 with an allocation of

$12,000 to the Institute of Materials Research in the Department of Metallurgy, University of Melbourne for a project entitled "Chemical and Physical Modifications of Brown Coal"; and an allocation of $12,400 to the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Melbourne for projects entitled "Colloidal Properties and Ion Exchange of

Raw and Dewatered Brown Coal" and "Properties and Uses of Dewatered Brown Coal".

Sponsorship of underground strata control research by four major New South Wales coal producing groups is con­ tinuing at the Australian Coal Industry Research Laborator­ ies at a rate of $30,000 per annum over the three year

period ending 30 June 1975. These groups are the Electric­ ity Commission of N.S.W., the State Mines Control Authority of N.S.W., the B.H.P. - A.I. & S. group, and the N.S.W. Combined Colliery Proprietors' Association. The funds are channelled to A.C.I.R.L. per medium of The Australian Coal Utilisation Research Association.

In 1973/74, approximately $23,000 was spent by coal mining companies supporting work in their own mines to facilitate the N.C.R.A.C. - approved research projects being carried out by A.C.I.R.L. The Advisory Committee acknowled­ ges these grants as significant contributions towards the overall programme of research carried out by A.C.I.R.L. within the scope of the Committees approval.

Research by A.C.I.R.L. into the mining of the Greta Seam is being supported by the Greta Coal Research Committee to $80,000 in 1974/75.

The Joint Coal Board has continued its annual support of A.C.I.R.L. programmes to the extent of $50,000 in the year 1974/75 for mining research and research into the nature of water discharges from mining operations.

The Electricity Commission of New South Wales has also continued its support of research on the electrostatic precipitation of high-resistivity fly-ash in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University College, Wollongong in

1973/74 covering research expenses and the salary of a research assistant seconded from the Commission.

Liaison with other bodies

Contact has been maintained with the Fuel Committ­ ee of the Electricity Supply Association of Australia, by exchange of information through the Executive Officer of N.C.R.A.C. The Executive Officer has continued as a member of the Victorian Brown Coal Research Committee. Visits to

research establishments by the Executive Officer have also continued.

Australian Research Grants Committee

The Committee again notes the approval by the Australian Research Grants Committee of grants for 1975 to some University projects which could have either direct or indirect application to coal winning and utilisation, as

follows:

Professor E.H. Davis, Dr. H.G. Poulos and Dr. P.T. Brown, University of Sydney, $15,643

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"The deformation and failure of soil and rock masses"

Dr. R.W. Bilger, University of Sydney, $18,071

"Air pollution sources and dispersion"

Professor I.K. Lee and Dr S. Valliapan, University of New South Wales, $8,171

"Prediction of strength and deformation properties of rocks and soils"

Professor A.C. Cook, Wollongong University College, $17,181

"Thermal history of the Sydney Basin - a study of coal rank and mineralogical indications of therm­ al regimes related to cover, depth of basement, nature of basement and intensity of magnetic activity"

Dr. T.F. Wall, University of Newcastle, $2,555

"Direct reduction in electrically augmented flames"

Professor I. McC. Stewart, University of Newcastle, $9,500

"Furnace temperature measurement by spectroscopic methods"

Professor O.E. Potter, Monash University, $13,206

"An investigation of the effects of dynamic load­ ing on rock properties and rock failure mechanisms"

Associate Professor B.T. Brown and Professor D.H. Trollope, James Cook University, $10,528

"The behaviour of discontinuous rock masses under polyaxial stress"

Dr. N.J. Clark and Dr. B.G. Baker, Flinders University, $7,430

"Coal to liquid fuel via lanthanide carbide inter­ mediates"

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The Committee appends to this Tenth Annual Report a bibliography of research reports and journal publications containing the results of research projects which have been supported wholly or in part by N.C.R.A.C. funds. This bib­ liography replaces the "Summary of N.C.R.A.C. - assisted research projects" which appeared as Appendix 5 in previous Annual Reports. It is anticipated that the bibliography, updated on an annual basis, will provide readers with easier

access to the results of government sponsored coal research in Australia.

Bibliography, 1965-1974 (Appendix 5)

For the National Coal Research Advisory Committee

W.W. Pettingell, C.B.E. Chairman

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NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COAL WINNING AND BENEFICIATION

Appendix 1

Terms of Reference

Prepare and maintain for the National Coal Resear­ ch Advisory Committee a critical assessment of the technical and economic aspects of processes and techniques in the areas of coal winning and beneficiation, and their latest developments. The Subcommittee should report at suitable intervals to the N.C.R.A.C., indicating where basic inform­ ation is lacking, and those fields in which research and development might possibly lead to significant reductions in the cost of coal winning and preparation for both Australian and overseas markets. The Subcommittee should recommend to N.C.R.A.C. those projects within these areas which it feels

should receive special consideration in the allocation of the stipulated Government funds for coal research.

Membership

Mr S.B. McKensey

Mr A. Crowley

Mr A .H . Hams

Mr C.H. Martin

Mr M.J. Muir

Mr M.J. Smith

(Coal and Allied Industries Ltd)(Chairman)

(Queensland Coal Board)

(Australian Coal Industry Research Labor­ atories)

(Australian Iron and Steel)

(N.S.W. Department of Mines)

(Joint Coal Board)

The Secretariat of the Subcommittee was provided by the Department of Minerals and Energy, with Dr K.D. Lyall as Executive Officer and Mr J.S. Howard as Minute Secretary.

Meetings

During the period under review two meetings of the Subcommittee were held as follows:-13th meeting 21 March 1974 Sydney

14th meeting 16 October 1974 Sydney

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At the thirteenth meeting, the Subcommittee con­ sidered progress reports for the half-year ending 31 December 1973, and research submissions to N.C.R.A.C. for 1974/75. It was noted that A.C.I.R.L. was making good progress with its programme of applying techniques of finite element analysis to the design of mine workings. The Sub­ committee was agreed upon the usefulness of this approach to the investigation during 1974/75 of problems being encount­ ered with the Wongawilli system of coal extraction and

recognised the value of the A.C.I.R.L. programme of model studies which permitted the application and testing of pre­ dicted results in real underground situations. The scarcity of accurate experimental data on the resistance of colliery

airways under specifically Australian conditions was dis­ cussed in relation to the A.C.I.R.L. ventilation programme proposed for 1974/75. It was indicated that data from A.I. & S. collieries could be made available for study and for comparison with available data from overseas sources. The Subcommittee was pleased to note that the development of the A.C.I.R.L. technique for predicting washing plant perform­

ance on the basis of laboratory testing of coal samples had reached the stage at which the technique could be confident­ ly placed before professional bodies (including the Stand­ ards Association of Australia) for evaluation and comment. Support of N.C.R.A.C. was recommended for A.C.I.R.L.

research programmes on continuous laboratory froth flotation tests, assessments of washery magnetites, control of quality of water discharged from mines, and for the University of Queensland programme on the evaluation of coal mining oper­

ations by digital (computer) simulation.

At the fourteenth meeting, the Subcommittee con­ sidered progress reports on sponsored research for the half­ year ending 30 June 1974, and reports on coal research carried out by organisations not supported by N.C.R.A.C. It was noted that due to staff changes, the A.C.I.R.L. prog­

ramme of finite element analyses studies had been briefly interrupted. This hiatus had led, in part, to more accurate predictions in the application of such techniques to current mining situations. Predictions of rock behaviour in new mining situations was considered a distinct possibility in

the near future. The completion of two strata control/ stress measurement exercises in collaboration with mining companies was noted by the Subcommittee. It was generally observed that A.C.I.R.L. expertise in the area of rock mechanics and strata control was being increased signifi­

cantly through collaboration with industry. This was to be commended and given every encouragement, in particular with respect to potential greater extraction of coal. The Sub­ committee was informed of three new A.C.I.R.L. - mining

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company exercises in N.S.W. and one involving thick seams model studies on behalf of a Queensland client. In the area of coal preparation research, the methods developed by A.C.I.R.L. for improved correlation of laboratory and wash­ ing plant data had been received most favourably by compan­ ies concerned with washery design, and were to be incorpor­ ated as an appendix in the revision of Australian Standard K205-1970. The immediate problem now was how to simulate normal breakage prior to washing in the case of coal bore

cores. Progress in the development of the A.C.I.R.L. continuous froth flotation device was noted. Ventilation data supplied to A.C.I.R.L. by A.I & S. Pty Ltd were indi­ cated as being under review. Two reverse osmosis pilot devices were reported to have been installed in one N.S.W. and one Queensland operation as a continuation of the A.C.I.R.L. programme of water pollution research.

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NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION OF COAL AND COKE

Appendix 2

Terms of Reference

Prepare and maintain for the National Coal Research Advisory Committee a critical assessment of the technical and economic aspects of processes and techniques for the combustion and gasification of coal and coke, including the design and operation of engines, boilers, furnaces, kilns, and gasification equipment, and the latest developments in these techniques. The Subcommittee should report at suitable intervals to the N.C.R.A.C., indicating where basic information is lacking, and areas in which

research and development might possibly be beneficial to Australian industry. The Subcommittee should recommend to N.C.R.A.C. those projects within this area which it feels

should receive special consideration in the allocation of the stipulated Government funds for coal research.

Membership

Mr R.W. Urie

Mr V.E. Baker

Associate Professor N.Y. Kirov

Dr M.F.R. Mulcahy

Professor I. McC. Stewart

Mr K. Sullivan

(State Electricity Commission of Victoria)(Chairman)

(State Electricity Commission of Queensland)

(University of New South Wales)

(C.S.I.R.O. Divison of Mineral Chemistry)

(University of Newcastle)

(Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories)

The Secretariat of the Subcommittee was provided by the Department of Minerals and Energy, with Dr K.D. Lyall as Executive Officer and Mr J.S. Howard as Minute Secretary.

Meetings

During the period under review two meetings of the Subcommittee were held as follows:-8th meeting 29 March 1974 Sydney

9th meeting 23 October 1974 Melbourne

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At the eight meeting, the Subcommittee considered progress reports for the half-year ending 31 December 1973 and research submissions to N.C.R.A.C. for assistance during 1974/75. This business was preceded by a lengthy discussion concerning the future of coal research funding in Australia, and the need for a reappraisal of coal as an energy source in the light of the world energy crisis and potential long term shortages and/or escalating costs of petroleum. The Subcommittee expressed satisfaction with the A.C.I.R.L. programme on coal-firing of kilns, coal-firing having become

of great interest to the industry due to the relative costs of coal and oil. On the basis that further work on coal­ firing would attract a measure of industrial support, the Subcommittee concurred with the A.C.I.R.L. view concerning

the desirability of reviving this previously supported work. The Subcommittee endorsed the proposed A.C.I.R.L. programme for establishing emission levels of nitrogen oxide and car­ bon monoxide from various types of plant. This information was essential in the light of recently published standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research

Council. Support was also recommended for the work of the Department of Fuel Technology in the University of New South Wales for studies of the formation and control of nitrogen oxides in combustion processes. A decision regarding N.C.R.A.C. support for the development of coal-oil mixtures

to replace heavy fuel oil (joint A.C.I.R.L. - University N.S.W. proposal) was deferred until such time as a survey of existing marine and land boilers, together with other sta­ tionary, liquid fuel fired installations, and the factors

involved in conversion to firing coal-oil mixtures, could be carried out. The Subcommittee expressed satisfaction with the University of Newcastle flame radiation and pulverising mill studies and recommended further support to both areas

of research.

At the ninth meeting, the Subcommittee considered progress on sponsored research for the half-year ending 30 June 1974, and reports on coal research carried out by organisations not supported by N.C.R.A.C. The Subcommittee was pleased to note that significant progress had been made

in all areas of sponsored research : namely, the work of A.C.I.R.L. on kiln stoker firing and electrostatic precipi­ tation; that of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Melbourne on brown coal ; the studies of form­

ation and control of nitrogen oxides in combustion processes being carried out in the Department of Fuel Technology of the University of New South Wales - considerable interest in the results of this work had been expressed by overseas workers at a recent conference in Tokyo; and the research

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of the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Newcastle on modelling of pulverised coal furnaces and studies of roll-table mills. The latter studies were being conducted with the support of the Electricity Commission of N.S.W. and the Subcommittee commended this fruitful collab­ oration. It was noted that a Brown Coal Combustion Committee had been established within the S.E.C., Victoria to coordinate all research and development activities into combustion uses of brown coal. The discussion of the previous meeting concerning the future of coal research

funding, specifically in the area of combustion, was resumed. The Executive Officer was asked to provide a summary statement of all current coal research activities against which background each member would provide comment for circulation prior to an additional meeting to be held on 6 December 1974. Arising from this meeting it was antici­ pated that priority areas for research might be indicated when requests for research submissions, 1975/76, were sent out to the various research organisations.

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NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COAL PROCESSING

Appendix 3

Terms of Reference

Prepare and maintain for the National Coal Re­ search Advisory Committee a critical assessment of the technical and economic aspects of processes and techniques for the carbonisation of coal, the production of metallur­ gical fuels, the recovery and utilisation of by-products from such processes, the processing of coal into materials for various requirements, and the latest developments in these techniques. The Subcommittee should report at suit­ able intervals to the N.C.R.A.C., indicating where basic information is lacking, and areas in which research and development might possibly be beneficial both technically and economically. The Subcommittee should recommend to N.C.R.A.C. those projects within this area which it feels

should receive special consideration in the allocation of the stipulated Government funds for coal research.

Membership

Dr Howard K. Worner

Dr K. McG. Bowling

Mr G.E. Edwards

Mr W.L. Hawthorne

Mr F. Pollard

Professor J.S. Ratcliffe

Mr N.G. Thompson

Professor Hill W. Worner

(Conzinc Riotinto of Australia) (Chairman)

(C.S.I.R.O. Division of Mineral Chemistry)

(Joint Coal Board)

(Geological Survey of Queensland)

(Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories)

(University of New South Wales)

(Australian Iron and Steel)

(University of Melbourne)

The Secretariat of the Subcommittee was provided by the Department of Minerals and Energy, with Dr K.D. Lyall as Executive Officer and Mr P.L. Spurrier as Minute Secretary.

Meetings

During the period under review, two meetings of the Subcommittee were held as follows:-

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Melbourne 10th meeting 23 April 1974

11th meeting 7 November 1974 Sydney

At the tenth meeting, the Subcommittee considered reports of research progress to 31 December 1973 and research submissions to N.C.R.A.C. for support during 1974/75. It was noted that recent developments had contin­ ued to accentuate the importance of coal as a prime natural resource, and in this context the Subcommittee expressed concern at the declining value of a fixed annual Australian Government subvention to research which was essential for the orderly exploration, exploitation and conservation of Australian coal resources. The Subcommittee was informed

that the A.C.I.R.L. programme on coal oxidation would be concluded during 1974. The Subcommittee considered the results obtained to date to be of great practical importance and expressed concern that further investigation would be curtailed through lack of adequate funds. A.C.I.R.L. was complimented on the success of its work on coke oven blends and support recommended for continuing studies. Support was also recommended for the application of computer techniques to the prediction of coke physical properties from the properties of the blend coals, and renewed studies on form coke production. The latter were considered of the highest importance in view of current extraction methods which often involve irretrievable loss of coal not presently usable in conventional coking practice. The Subcommittee recommended high priority support be given to the A.C.I.R.L. proposed study on the applicability of Australian coals to processes

for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Continuing support was recommended for the University of Melbourne, Department of Metallurgy research on metallurgical applica­ tions of brown coal and for the research of the Department of Chemical Engineering into dewatering of bed-moist brown coal. Continuing support was also recommended to the ore reduction studies being carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, and to the application of coal petrology to problems of carbonisa­ tion in the Department of Geology, University College Wollongong.

At the eleventh meeting, the Subcommittee consid­ ered progress on sponsored research for the half-year ending 30 June 1974, and reports on coal research carried out by organisations not supported by N.C.R.A.C. Initial discuss­ ion concerned the A.C.I.R.L. programme of coal oxidation research. It was agreed that this work had made a valuable contribution to our understanding of the oxidation of coal in stockpiles and the problems of storing coal under

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controlled/laboratory conditions. These studies may be extended in a collaborate programme between A.C.I.R.L. and the University of N.S.W. to examine the role of bacteria in preventing oxidation. Brown coal oxidation studies by the University of Melbourne were also discussed; an explanation of the correlation between coal rank and oxidation rate was foreshadowed. Progress of A.C.I.R.L. work on coke oven blends, consisting of high and medium volatile coals, was noted and commended. A.C.I.R.L. test coking facilities are now considered the equal of the best overseas research

facilities in this area. Both the University of Melbourne (Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering) and the University of N.S.W. were congratulated on the substantial progress of their processing research; the Melbourne work is adding

considerably to our knowledge of carbons, carbon reactivity and reduction phenomena, and to the potential utilisation of brown coal in non-fuel applications; the N.S.W. studies

have made significant advances in spouted bed technology with respect to the reduction of S02 by coal-derived carbons and to the development of the necessary technology required for catalytic methanation (gasification) of Australian coals

for Australian markets. Coal petrography studies being carried out at Wollongong University College are leading to an improved appreciation of the behaviour of specific macerals in coal washeries; this will lead to a better understanding of the performance of certain coals in blends

for coke making.

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NATIONAL COAX; RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

ALLOCATION OF FUNDS FOR COAL RESEARCH 1974/75

Appendix 4

1. AUSTRALIAN COAL INDUSTRY RESEARCH LABORATORIES $310,000

A total allocation of $310,000, including $100,000 specifically endorsed for coal conversion research, is recommended to be paid to ACIRL towards the cost of the following programme, with individual priorities to be deter­ mined by the Laboratories' Board of Management, Five projects, for which no formal proposals were submitted for

1974/75, are endorsed as areas in which the Committee approves the inclusion, within the recognised programme, of such commissioned research as ACIRL may be able to attract in this year.

COAL UTILISATION RESEARCH

(a) Coal Carbonisation

(i) Coke oven blend studies

(ii) Computer study of coke oven blends

(iii) Form coke studies

This project is of continuing importance to the usage and marketing of Australian coals. Proposals relate to the evaluation of the behaviour of Australian coals in coke oven blends used overseas, to the calcula­ tion of coke physical properties from the properties of coke oven feed coals and to the assessment of form coke processes for Australian needs. Alternative methods of

coke manufacture will contribute to the efficient utili­ sation of Australia's coal resources and offer a means of conserving our reserves of prime coking coals.

Continued support in the area of coal carbonisa­ tion is recommended.

(b) Coal Oxidation

Approved area for commissioned research,

(c) Production of Liquid Fuels from Coal

Because of the current shortage of heavy fuel oil it is recommended that a high priority be given to this proposed study of the applicability to Australian coals

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of all known coal liquefaction processes for the produc­ tion of synthetic liquid fuels. Close liaison will be maintained with Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Company (PAMCO), which is currently commissioning a solvent

refining coal plant in the USA.

(d) Industrial Combustion Research

(i) Tunnel kiln firing

Renewed interest is being shown by the clay industry in firing tunnel kilns with coal. It is anticipated that the proposed investigations into the coal firing of top and side fired tunnel kilns will attract a measure of industrial support and will widen the range of potential users of coal fired

kilns. It is recommended that this previously supp­ orted project be given further assistance.

(ii) Control of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide formation during combustion

At present, no basic data have been collected for industrial coal fired plants in Australia. The sugg­ ested programme for establishing emission levels of nitroden oxides and carbon monoxide from various

types of industrial coal fired plant is considered a matter of urgency in view of the proposed standards recently published by the National Health and Medical Research Council.

COAL MINING RESEARCH

(a) Rock Mechanics and Strata Control

(i) Design of mine workings using finite element analysis

(ii) Strata control and roof support

These two areas of research have continued to yield valuable information to the mining industry and further support is recommended.

(b) Development of Continuous Miner/Mobile Roof Support System

Approved area for commissioned research.

22-

(c) Non-Destructive Testing of Wire Ropes

Approved area for commissioned research.

(d) Development of Mobile Conveyor Systems

Approved area for commissioned research.

COAL PREPARATION RESEARCH

(a) Froth Flotation

It has not previously been possible to establish a satisfactory correlation between laboratory batch tests and continuous plant operations. Support is recommended to enable a continuous laboratory test to be developed.

(b) Evaluation of "Dyna Whirlpool" Washing Device

Approved area for commissioned research,

(c) Assessment of Washery Magnetite

The use of the appropriate grade of magnetite in washing plants has a significant effect on the efficiency and cost of processing. Support is recommended for this new proposal to be carried out at ACIRL's Coal Prepara­

tion Research Stations.

(d) Control of Mine Water Quality

This programme will provide industrial information on methods of controlling inorganic salts or acids in mine water discharges. This work needs to be done and is recommended for support.

2. UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE ; DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGY

$ 10,000

Metallurgical Applications of Brown Coal

Useful results have been achieved from this project to date. The proposals include determining the optimum reactivity for processes carbon in the metallising reactions of ore/carbon and ore/flux/carbon pellets, and establishing whether brown coal char can be used in electrodes for steel melting furnaces. Continued support is recommended.

3. UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE : DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING $7,000

Dewatering Bed-Moist Brown Coal

This project has proved most successful and has now been patented. Proposals relate to purification of effluent water removed in the process. Large scale ex­ penditure will now be required to develop a pilot plant. Meanwhile, support is recommended for the proposed ancil-

liary work on this project.

4. UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES : SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING $14,000

(a) Reduction of Sulphur Dioxide with Coal Derived Carbons

Support is recommended to enable this project to be completed. Sulphur dioxide conversions of up to 90% have been achieved in spouted bed equipment and the process offers a potential application for coal chars to the purification of smelter gases.

(b) Ore Reduction Processes

New and relevant information may be developed through this project. One objective will be to examine the feas­ ibility of reducing metal carbon levels significantly below those produced in orthodox processes. Continued

support is recommended.

(c) Catalytic Methanation of Coal Products

Catalytic methanation of coal volatiles for such subsequent uses as motor fuel, domestic gas and metall­ urgical processes, will be examined for technical and economic feasibility. Support is recommended.

(d) Formation and Control of Nitrogen Oxides in Combustion Processes

Continued support is recommended for this project which is hoped to approach completion in 1974/75.

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5. WOLLONGONG UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ; DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

$8,000

The Use of Coal and Coke Petrographic Techniques in the Assessment of the Carbonisation Behaviour of Australian Coals

This work continues to make a valuable contribution to knowledge of the coking and blending potential of Australian coals for both domestic use and for export. Collaboration with Australian and international organisa­

tions has been maintained and further support is recommended.

6. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE : DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL $9,000

ENGINEERING .

(a) Modelling and Full-Scale Probing of Combustion and Radiation from Pulverised Fuel Flames ~

Field trials will be carried out at Munmorah power station during 1974 and a computational model is in preparation. Continued support is recommended as this project appears to be reaching a definitive stage.

(b) Characteristics of Coal Pulverising Mills

Plant performance of roll and table pulverising mills have been found to differ significantly from manufactur­ ers performance specifications. The development of a suitable computational model for such mills could lead to worthwhile economic benefits for users and to the devel­

opment of new design criteria for pulverising mills. Continued support is recommended.

(c) Introductory Laboratory Studies - "in Situ" Gasification of Coal

It is suggested that this proposal receive support to enable a preliminary feasibility study to be carried out.

7. UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND ; DEPARTMENT OF MINING $2,000

AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING

Evaluation of Coal Mining Operations by Digital Simulation

It is proposed to develop and apply simulation techniques to the evaluation and design of coal mining operations. The training of mining engineers in these

-25-

techniques would be of benefit to the coal industry and support is therefore recommended.

Appendix 5

NATIONAL COAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE

RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1965^1974

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AUSTRALIAN COAL INDUSTRY RESEARCH LABORATORIES

COAL WINNING AND BENEFICIATION A. Reports

P.R.66-3 "The Application of the Avery Ash Density Meter to the Testing of Coal Products from the North­ ern N.S.W. and West Moreton Coal Fields" by A.J. LePage and K. Mahony.

P.R.66-4

P.R.66-7

P.R.67-7

P.R.

P.R.

68-1

68-2

P.R. 68-3

P.R. 69-1

P.R.69-5

"Continuous Indication of Coal Ash using Beta Rays" by J.F. Cudmore, K. McNaughton and V. Crestani.

"Model Simulation in the Coal Mining Industry" by F.E. Jaggar.

"The Importance of Shape and Width of Mine Road­ ways in a Stressed Environment" by F.E. Jaggar

"Roof Bolt Anchorage in Mudstone" by B.J. Howe

"Strata Behaviour Surrounding the Balgownie Seam at South Bulli Colliery" by F.E. Jaggar.

"Magnetite in Coal Washing Practice - A.C.I.R.L. Symposium December 1967" by V.J. Moran.

"Tests on a 2 inch Compound Water Cyclone" by A.J. LePage.

"Spontaneous Combustion of Coal - Development of Laboratory Methods of Assessment" by J.F. Cudmore.

P.R.70-1 "Washability Predictions from Coal Bore Core Data" by J.F. Cudmore.

P.R.70-5

P.R.70-6

P.R.71-1

"Model Investigation to determine the Signific­ ance of Slotting the Roof Strata of Roadways for Stress Relief" by F.E. Jaggar.

"An Appraisal of the C.S.I.R. Triaxial Strain Measuring Instrument" by O.A. Momoh.

"The Finite Element Method and its Application in the Investigation of Underground Mining Problems" by N. Wareing.

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P.R.71-3 "A Study of the Efficiency of Fine Coal Washing Systems" by A.J. LePage.

P.R.71-4 "The Use of Zeta Potential in Investigations into Coal Slurry Flocculation" by B. Proudfoot.

P.R.71-5 "Prediction Studies using Coal Bore Core Data" by J.F. Cudmore.

P.R.72-1 "Prediction of the Mining Properties of Roof and Floor Rocks from Bore-Core Samples" by R.E. Guyot.

P.R.72-2 "An Investigation of the Performance of a Deep Cone Separator with Tailings from several north­ ern N.S.W. Coal Washing Plants" by J.L. Horseman.

P.R.72-3 "An Examination of the Effect of Agitation in Water on the Size and Float-Sink Characteristics of selected coals as a Preliminary to Wash Plant Design" by A.J. LePage and J.L. Horseman.

P.R.72-4 "Suppression and Prevention of Fires in Coal Refuse Heaps" by J.F. Cudmore and L. Cremer.

P.R.72-5 "Treatment of Mine Drainage" by L.O. Burke and J.F. Cudmore.

P.R.72-6 "Investigation of Strata Behaviour in Roof and Floor using Slotting for Stress Relief" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.72-8 "Application of the Finite Element Method to some problems associated with a Pillar Extraction Method in Coal Mines" by 0.A. Momah.

P.R.72-9 "An Evaluation of a Rapped Sieve Bend" by J.L. Horseman.

P.R.72-10 "Treatment of a Slurry of High Slimes content in Small Diameter Water Washing Cyclones" by J.L. Horseman.

P.R.72-11 "Investigation of Strata Behaviour using a Slotting Technique in conjunction with Roof Bolts and Straps" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.73-2 "Creep in Rocks - Literature Survey and Tests on some South Coast Coal Measure Rocks" by R. Newman.

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P.R.73-4 "Model Investigation to determine the Effective­ ness of a Sacrifice Roadway in the Wongawilli Seam at Nebo Colliery" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.73-7 "Numerical Investigations into the Significance of Rock Properties and Support on the Stability of Colliery Openings - Part 1" by S.F. Lackey.

P.R.73-10 "Correlation of Laboratory and Plant Washability - A Seam from the Lambton Sub Group of the Newcastle Coal Measures" by A.J. LePage and R.H. Sanders.

P.R.73-13 "Numerical Investigations into the Significance of Rock Properties and Support on the Stability of Underground Roadways in Coal Mines - Part 2" by S.F. Lackey.

P.R.73-16 "Correlation of Laboratory and Plant Washability Data - A Seam from the Sydney Sub Group of the Illawarra Coal Measures" by A.J. LePage and R.H. Sanders.

P.R.74-1 "Correlation of Laboratory and Plant Washability Data - A Seam from the Bowen Basin, Queensland" by A.J. LePage and R.H. Dunstone.

P.R.74-2 "Correlation of Laboratory and Plant Washability Data - A Second Seam from the Sydney Sub Group of the Illawarra Coal Measures" by A.J. LePage and R.H. Sanders.

P.R.74-3 "Use of Laboratory Data for Preparation Plant Prediction and Assessment" by A.J. LePage and B. Proudfoot.

P.R.74-10 "Improving Pillar Extraction Techniques with Strata Control Research" by S.F. Lackey.

"Model Investigations to Determine Optimum Fender Sizes relation to the Wongawilli System of Coal Extraction under Different Roof Conditions"

P.R.74-13 "Part A - 4 metres of Laminated Shale Overlain by Layered Sandstone" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.74-14 "Part B - 28 metres of Laminated Shale Overlain by Layered Sandstone" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.74-15 "Part C - 43 metres of Layered Sandstone" by R.T. Hall.

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P.R.74-16 "Part D - 43 metres of Massive Sandstone" by R.T. Hall.

P.R.74-17 "Part E - The Adaptability of the Wongawilli System to different Strata Conditions - A Summary and comparison of the results of Parts A, B, C and D of this series" by R.T. Hall.

"Model Investigations into Problems Considered of Practical Importance to the Coal Mining Industry"

PART A - "Roadway Supports" February, 1971 Report Nos. 3144 to 4244 Inclusive

PART B - "Optimum Pillar Size Between Roadways" - June, 1971 Report No. 4344

PART C - "Stability of Intersections" August, 1971 Report Nos. 447-452 Inclusive

PART D - "Different Roof Conditions and Report Nos. 453 to their Effect on the Perform- 458 Inclusive ance of Roof Bolts and Steel Straps" - October 1971

PART E - "A Comparison of the Yielding Report Nos. 459 to Pillar Technique and the 460 Inclusive Sacrifice Roadway Technique as used for Roadway Protec­ tion in Bord and Pillar Mining" - November 1971

PART F - "Different Roof Conditions and Report Nos. 473 to their effect on the perform- 474 Inclusive ance of Timber Bars and Yielding Legs" - November 1971

PART G - "Effect of Joint Systems" - Report Nos, 475 and November 1971 476

PART H - "Effect of Roadway Shape" December 1971 Report Nos. 477 to 481 Inclusive

PART I - "Support of Intersections - A Report Nos. 482 to Comparison of three methods" 484 Inclusive - February 1972

PART J - "Superadjacent Roadways" - Report No, 485 February 1972

-31

"A Summary of the 1970-1972 Report No. 446 Model Programme and Recomm­ endations for Further Research" - March 1972

Supplement to PART A - "Roadway Supports" - November 1972 Report No. 452

Supplement to PART A - "Roadway Supports" - January 1973 Report No. 452A

Supplement to PART C - "Stability of Report No. 453 Intersections" - January 1973

"Underground Monitoring of Strata Control Procedures"

"Slotting the Roadway Floor at A.I.S. Corrimal Colliery" - Report No. 409 October 1973

"The Monitoring of Roof Move- Report No. 402 ment at Nebo Colliery to determine the effectiveness of Sacrifice Headings" - December 1973

"A Study of the effective- Report No. 414 ness of a Roadway Support System for Stone Roof Con­ ditions at South Bulli Colliery" - January 1974

"The Monitoring of U.S.B.M. Report No. 413 Stress Measuring Cells at Oakdale Colliery to deter­ mine the Degree and Extent of

Stress Relief Afforded to Development Headings by the Advance Extraction of Flank Pillars" - May 1974

COAL WINNING AND BENEFICIATION B. Publications

1967

BARNES, E.L.S., "Direct Stress Measurements". SYMPOSIUM ON STRESS AND FAILURE AROUND UNDERGROUND OPENINGS, University of Sydney March 1-2, 1967.

-32-

JAGGAR, F., "Designing and loading of Models of Underground Structures". SYMPOSIUM ON STRESS AND FAILURE AROUND UNDER­ GROUND OPENINGS, University of Sydney March 1-2, 1967.

POLLARD, F., "Monitoring Coal Quality". Paper presented on the COAL PREPARATION SOCIETY and the INSTITUTE OF FUEL, Sydney, June 14, 1967. .

STANBURY, C., Interpretation of Washability Data". Paper presented to the COAL PREPARATION SOCIETY, Newcastle, May 25, 1967.

1968

SULLIVAN, K.M., "General Industry's need for COAL PREPARA­ TION". Paper presented to the COAL PREPARATION SOCIETY, Newcastle, 20 November 1968.

1969

JAGGAR, F.E., "Model Research as an aid to problem solution, particularly with respect to Mining Applications". Paper presented at the VACATION SCHOOL ON ROCK MECHANICS, Univer­ sity College of Townsville, May 1969.

JAGGAR, F.E., "Some Examples of Modelling Mine Structures". ROCK MECHANICS SYMPOSIUM, University of Sydney 19-20 February 1969.

LePAGE, A.J., "Activities of ACIRL in the Field of Coal Preparation Research". Paper presented to the COAL PREPARA­ TION SOCIETY, Maitland 19 November 1969.

1970

JAGGAR, F.E., "The Use of Models to Predict Support Resis­ tance Requirements for Longwall Faces". SYMPOSIUM ON LONG- WALL MINING, Wollongong University College, 24-26 February 1970, A.I.M.M. Illawarra Branch.

LePAGE, A.J., "The Correlation of Exploration Information to Optimum Washing Processes". SECOND BOWEN BASIN SYMPOSIUM, Brisbane, 7-9 October 1970.

LePAGE, A.J. and BURDON, R.G., "Recent Developments in Coal Preparation". CONFERENCE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF OUR FUEL AND ENERGY RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS, Brisbane, 4-6 November 1970. Paper 15. Institute of Fuel. Australian Membership.

1971

POLLARD, F., "Radiography of Coal Bore Cores". MINE AND QUARRY MECHANISATION, 1971.

-33-

POLLARD, F., STANBURY, C., NORRIS, B. , and BURKE, L., Lectures on coal laboratory operation and determination of washability characteristics. COAL PREPARATION SOCIETY OF N.S.W. - Coal Preparation Study Course 1971. Sydney, Joint

Coal Board, 1971.

1972

CUDMORE, J.F., "Prediction of Properties of "As-Mined" Coal from Exploration Bore Core Data". AUSTRALIAN MINING, £4 (3) March 1972. 52-57.

CUDMORE, J.F., "Extending Information from Coal Bore Cores". AUSTRALASIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY. Annual Conference, Newcastle May-June, 1972.

1973

HAMS, A.H., "Current ACIRL Research of Relevance to Mechan­ ised Mining". MECHANISED MINING SEMINAR, New Zealand, 19-23 November 1973, New Zealand Institute of Mining Inc.

1974

CUDMORE, J.F., "Coal Quality Factors in Exploration and Mining". AUSTRALIAN MINERAL FOUNDATION INCORPORATED - Work­ shop Course on Geology and Geophysics in Coal Exploration and Mining, School of Mining Engineering, University of N.S.W. July 1974.

JAGGAR, F.E., "The application of geological and geochemical data to the solution of strata control problems in Mining". Reference as above.

STANGURY, C., "Laboratory X-Ray logging and interpretation of Bore Cores". Reference as above.

COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION A. Reports

P.R.66-1 "An Investigation of Coal Fired Closed Cycle Gas Turbines for Electric Power Generation" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.66-2 "The Testing of various Australian Bituminous Coals in a Packaged Boiler fitted with a Chain Grate Stoker" by W.P. Shannon.

"The Combustion of several Australian Bituminous Coals in an Underfeed Stoker" by N.R. Gambetta P.R.66-5

-34-

P.R.67-1 "Report on the Operations of a Vekos Powermaster Coal Fired Firetube Package Boiler" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.67-2 "The Efficiency of a Water Spray in Reducing Dust Emissions from Boiler Plant during Soot Blowing" by J .A. Dixon

P.R.67-3 "Report on the Operation of a Coal Fired Multi­ purpose Clayware Dryer" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.67-8 "Laboratory Techniques for the Examination of the Combustion Characteristics of Coal - Part 1 - A Small Furnace Test" by V.J. Moran

P.R.68-6 "Design of a Packaged Automatically Controlled Coal Fired Air Heater" by N.R. Cambetta

P.R.68-7 "Report on the Operation of a Low Ram Stoker fitted to a Packaged Coal Fired Firetube Boiler" by N.R. Gambetta

P.R.68-8 "Development of a Milled Coal Firing System for Top Fired Ceramic Kilns" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.68-9 "Study of the Production of Hydrogen by a Steam Iron Process" by V.J. Moran

P.R.69-2 "The Study of Flow in a Water Model of a Down­ draft Intermittent Kiln" by N.R. Gambetta

P.R.69-3 "Gravity Flow in FieneCoal in a FBn equipped with a Flow-Corrective Insert" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.69-4 "Laboratory Techniques for the Examination of the Combustion Characteristics of Coal - Part 2 - A Small Furnace Test" by V.J. Moran

P.R.73-5 "The Laboratory Examination of Low Sulphur Coals in relation to their Electrostatic Precipit- ability" by K.M. Sullivan

P.R.74-4 "Coal Firing the Tunnel Kiln" by K.M. Sullivan

COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION B. Publications

1965

SULLIVAN, K.M. "The Reduction of Smoke from Coal Fired Boilers and Furnaces"

CLEAN AIR CONFERENCE, University of N.s.w. 17-20 August 1965. Paper 6

-35-

1973

TASSICKER, O.J. and SULLIVAN K.M. "Estimation of Precipi­ tator Performance for Collection of Fly-Ash by examination of low-sulphur coal bore cores"

66th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOCIA­ TION, Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. June 24-28, 1973 Paper 73-311

1974

SULLIVAN, K.M. "Characteristics and electrostatic precip- itability of Fly Ash from a laboratory examination of Low Sulphur Coals" CLEAN AIR, 8_ (2) May, 1974 33-36

COAL PROCESSING A. Reports

P.R.67-4 "An Investigation of a Coal Washery Magnetite" V.J. Moran by

P.R.67-5 "The indication of Ash of Low Rank Coal using Rays" by F. Pollard and R.E. Guyot Beta

P.R.67-6 "Solvent Extraction of Coal - Batch Autoclave Studies" by J.F. Cudmore and R.E, Guyot .

CO VO

p5

pJ

"Nitrogen Enriched Coal" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.68-5 "Use of Coal Tar as a Road Surface Binder" by P.A. Bradley

P.R.69-6 "Solvent Extraction of Coal - Further Laboratory Studies" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.69-7 "Thermal Analysis of Coal" by P. Dugan and V.J. Moran

P.R.70-2 "Evaluation of a Continuous Coking Method for of Australian Coals" by V.J. Moran use

P.R.70-3 "Nitrogen Enriched Coal - Further Laboratory and Pilot Scale Studies" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.70-4 "Nitrogen Enriched Coal - Agricultural Trials" J.F. Cudmore by

P.R.71-2 "Coke Quality Control by Coal Preparation - A Review" by J.F. Cudmore

-36-

P.R.72-7 "Coke Quality Control by Coal Preparation - Phase II" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.73-1 "Evaluation of Coking Coals for Export Marketing - Report on an Overseas Study" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.73-3 "Vitrinite Release by Impact Breakage" by L.O. Burke and J.F. Cudmore

P.R.73-C "A Study of Coal Bulk Density and its influence on Quality of Coke Produced in A.C.I.R.L.'s Pilot Test Ovens" by L.O. Burke and J.F. Cudmore

P.R.73-8 "Coal Oxidation - Part 1 - Theoretical, Experi­ mental and Analytical Methods used in the Inves­ tigation of Coal Oxidation" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.73-9 "Coal Oxidation - Part 2 - Controlled Oxidation of Greta Seam Coal" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.73-11 "The Fifth I.C.C.P. Exercise" by J.F. Cudmore

P.R.73-12 "A Comparative Study of a Manual and an Automatic Gieseler Plastometer" by L.O. Burke

P.R.73-14 "Coal Oxidation - Part 3 - Controlled Oxidation of Bulli Seam Coal" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.73-15 "Coal Oxidation - Part 4 - Controlled Oxidation of Big Seam Coal" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.74-5 "Coal Oxidation - Part 5 - Controlled Oxidation of Bowen Basin Coking Blend" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.74-6 "Comparison of Analytical and Carbonising Proper­ ties of a Western Canadian (Cretaceous) Coal and some Australian (Permian) Coals" by L.O. Burke and J.F. Cudmore

P.R.74-7 "Coal Oxidation - Part 6 - Storage of Coal Samples by R.E. Guyot

P.R.74-8 "Coal Oxidation - Part 7 - Kinetic Sttdies" by R.E. Guyot

P.R.74-9 "Coke Oven Blend Studies - Additions of High Volatile Coking Coals to Medium Volatile Coking Coals" by L.O. Burke

P.R.74-1 "Coal Oxidation - Part 8 - Stockpile Studies" by R.E. Guyot

“37"

P.R.74-18 "Effects of Oxidation on Coal Properties related to Industrial Use" by F. Pollard and R.E. Guyot

COAL PROCESSING B. Publications

1967

CUDMORE, J.F., "Needs in foundry coke research". FRI NEWS, 17 (1) March, 1967

1968

CUDMORE, J.F. "Solvent extraction of some Australian coals". INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, AUSTRALIA. Chemical Engineering Conference, Adelaide 7-8 August, 1968

1969

CUDMORE, J.F. "Nitrogen enrichment of some Australian coals". SYMPOSIUM ON CHEMICALS AND OILS FROM COAL, Dhanbad, India 6-8 December, 1969 Central Fuel Research Institute

CUDMORE, J.F. "Dissolution of coal in anthracene oil". SYMPOSIUM ON CHEMICALS AND OILS FROM COAL, Dhanbad, India 6-8 December, 1969 Central Fuel Research Institute

1970

PROUDFOOT, B. "Laboratory tests for coking coal and their application in an exploration programme". SECOND BOWEN BASIN SYMPOSIUM. Brisbane 7-9 October, 1970

1971

CUDMORE, J.F. "Evaluation of coals for coke making". QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT MINING JOURNAL T2 (838) August, 1971. 301-311.

1972

CUDMORE, J.F. "Application of coal petrology within A.C.I.R.L.". Paper presented at a Meeting of the Sub­ committee on Industrial Applications of Coal Petrology - Conference of the International Committee for Coal

Petrology Belgrade, 11-12 September, 1972

CSIRO MINERALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES

CSIRO was eligible for financial support over the four year period July 1965 to June 1969. During this time a number of research projects in the former CSIRO Division of Coal Research were initiated or extended with the aid of

-38-

NCRAC funds. Some projects continued when NCRAC funding ceased. The given list of publications has resulted from projects which have at Some time received NCRAC funds. The list is not complete in as much as the results of some projects remain to be written up for publication. The publ­

ications are grouped under the project headings as they appear in Appendix 5 of the 1973 Annual Report.

HIGH TEMPERATURE CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COAL ASH

Measurements of the viscosity of supercooled slags at 750° to 1100 C. Boow, J. Fuel, 48(2), 171-178, 1969.

Fireside deposits and their effect on heat trans­ fer in a pulverized-fuel-fired boiler: Part III. The influence of the physical character­ istics of the deposit on its radiant emittance and effective thermal conductance. Boow, J. and Goard, P.R.C. J. Inst. Fuel, 42(346), 412-419, 1969.

Sectioning of friable deposits for microscopic examination. Zeidler, W. and Ramsden, A.R. J. Aust. Ceram. Soc., j5(l), 28-29, 1969.

Desirable physical and chemical properties of refractories resistant to corrosion by coal-ash slags. Boow, J. J. Aust. Ceram. Soc., 5(2), 45-54, 1969.

COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

Application of electron microscopy to the study of pulverized-coal combustion and fly-ash forma­ tion. Ramsden, A.R. J. Inst. Fuel, 41(335), 451-454, 1968.

An investigation of the combustion processes of single coal particles. Shibaoka, M. J. Inst. Fuel, 42, 59-66, 1969.

Further evidence for internal burning in particles of pulverized coal. Ramsden, A.R. and Smith, I.W. Fuel, 47(3), 253-256, 1968.

Kinetics of combustion of pulverized fuel: A review of theory and experiment. Mulcahy, M.F.R. and Smith, I.W. Rev. Pure Appl. Chem., 19, 81-108, 1969.

-39-

Formation and decomposition of surface oxide in carbon combustion. Tucker, B.G. and Mulcahy, M.F.R. Trans. Faraday Soc., 65(1), 274-286, 1969.

Combustion of coal in thin sections. Shibaoka, M. Fuel, 48(3), 285-295, 1969.

Reactions of OH radicals in the H-NO„ and H-NO^-CO systems. Mulcahy, M.F.R. and Smith, R.H. J. Chem. Phys, 5£(12) , 5215-5221, 1971.

Physical adsorption of carbon dioxide on graphon. Tyler, R.J. and Wouterlood, H.J. Carbon, 9(4), 467-472, 1971.

Fluidizing feeders for providing fine particles at low, stable flows. Hamor, R.J. and Smith, I.w. Fuel, 50(4), 394-404, 1971.

Kinetics of combustion of size-graded pulverized fuels in the temperature range 1200-2270°K. Smith, I.W. Combust. Flame, 17(3), 303-314, 1971.

Measured temperatures of burning pulverized-fuel particles, and the nature of the primary reac­ tion product. Ayling, A.B. and Smith, I.W. Combust. Flame, 18, 173-184, 1972.

The Kinetics of combustion of pulverized semi­ anthracite in the temperature range 1400- 2200°K. Smith I.W. Combust. Flame, 17, 421­ 428, 1971.

Combustion rate of bituminous cogl char in the temperature range 800 to 1700 K. Sergeant, G.D. and Smith, I.W. Fuel, 52, 52-57, 1973.

Internal burning of pulverized semi-anthracite: The relation between particle structure and reactivity. Smith, I.W. and Tyler, R.J. Fuel, 53., 312-321, 1972.

Calculation of burnout of polydisperse suspensions of low- and high-reactivity pulverized fuels. McKenzie, A., Smith, I.W. and Szpindler, G. a Donau. J. Inst. Fuel, £7(391), 75-81, 1974.

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Relative roles of chemical and mass-transfer rate control in fluidized-bed combustion of coal chars. Sergeant, G.D. and Smith, I.W. Fuel, 52, 58-60, 1973.

Measured and calculated burning histories of large carbon spheres in oxygen. Roberts, O.C. and Smith, I.W. Combust. Flame, 21, 123-127, 19 73.

Kinetics of combustion of a pulverized brown coal char between 630 and 2200°K. Hamor, R.J. Smith, I.W. and Tyler, R.J. Combust. Flame, 21, 153-162, 1973.

Industrial and laboratory-scale determinations of the combustion rate of pulverized semi-anthra­ cite. Hein, K. and Smith, I.W. J. Inst. Fuel, 47(392), 162-167, 1974.

Rate processes in pulverized fuel combustion. Smith, I.W. Proc. First Aust. Conf. on Heat and Mass Transfer, Section 6, 25-32, May 1973.

The reactivity of a porous brown coal char to oxygen between 630 and 1812°K. Smith, I.W. and Tyler, R.J. Combust. Sci. Technol., In press.

Pulverized-fuel combustion rates and calculations of flame behaviour. Smith, I.W. Process Chem. Eng., 26(10), 8-14, 1973.

Coal combustion for power generation. Smith, I.W. Proc. Nat. Chem. Engng. Conf., 'Process Indus­ tries in Australia - Impact and Growth1, 341­ 349, 1974.

Heat exchange between a particle and its surround­ ings: A theoretical study. Smith, I.W. and Watts, A. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry, December 1968.

Studies of the combustion rate and structure of pulverized fuels burned in the C.15 trials (1969) of the I.F.R.F. Part 1. Measurement and analysis of the combustion rate of anthracite. Smith, I.W. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chem­ istry. December 1970.

Studies of the combustion rate and structure of pulverized fuels burned in the C.15 trials (1969) of the I.F.R.F.. Part 2. Microscopic

I

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examination of the structural changes in the solid particles in a pulverized bituminous coal flame. Szpindler, G. a Donau. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry. April 1971.

The temperature of burning pulverized-fuel part­ icles. Ayling, A.B., Mulcahy, M.F.R. and Smith, I.W. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemis­ try . May 1971.

Studies of the combustion rate and structure of pulverized fuels burned in the C.15 trials (1969) of the I.F.R.F. Part 3. Microscopic examination of the structural changes in the

laminar-flow reactor. Szpindler, G. a Donau. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry. October 1971.

Numerical simulation of pulverized-fuel combustion. McKenzie, A. and Smith, I.W. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry. February 1973.

Studies of the combustion rate and structure of pulverized fuels burned in the C.15 trials (1969) of the I.F.R.F. Part 4. Microscopical examination of the structural changes in the

solid particles in a pulverized anthracite flame. Szpindler, G. a Donau. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry. July 1972.

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF FLAMES

Application of mass spectrometry to the study of flames. Matthews, C.J. Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. , 18, 311-327, 1968.

Data for calculating adiabatic flame temperatures. Smith, M.Y. J. Inst. Fuel, £2^341), 248-250, 1969.

The catalytic formation of sulphur trioxide in fuel-rich propane-air flames. Durie, R.A., Matthews, C.J. and Smith, M.Y. Combust. Flame, 15(2), 157-165, 1970.

Distribution of sulfur species in the burnt gas of fuel-rich propane-air flames. Johnson, G.M., Matthews, C.J., Smith, M.Y. and Williams, D.J. Combust. Flame, 15, 211-214, 1970.

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The effect of sulfur dioxide on hydrogen-atom re­ combination in the burnt gas of premixed fuel- rich propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames. Duri, R.A., Johnson, G.M. and Smith, Μ.Y. Combust. Flame, 17, 197-203, 1971.

The effect of nitric oxide on the recombination of H atoms in fuel-rich propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames. Smith, M.Y. Combust. Flame, 18, 293­ 295, 1972.

A simple method for determining the supply rate of nebulized salt solution to a flame. Johnson, G.M. and Smith, M.Y. Spectrochim. Acta, 27B, 269-272, 1972.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF FLY ASH

Application of electron microscopy to the study of pulverized-coal combustion and fly-ash formation. Ramsden, A.R. J. Inst. Fuel, 41(335), 451-454, 1968.

A microscopic investigation into the formation of fly-ash during the combustion of a pulverized bituminous coal. Ramsden, A.R. Fuel, £8 (2) , 121-137, 1969.

Some microscopic features of fly-ash particles and their significance in relation to electrostatic precipitation. Paulson, C.A.J. and Ramsden, A.R. Atmos. Environ., 4(2), 175-185, 1970.

Factors influencing the efficient operation of electrostatic precipitators for pulverized-fuel ash. Durie, R.A. and Potter, E.C. Proc. 1969 Clean Air Conf., Vol. 1, 1.7.1-1.7.14.

Factors influencing the efficient operation of electrostatic precipitators for pulverized-fuel ash. Durie, R.A. and Potter, E.C. Aust. Chem. Process Engng, 23i(9) , 18-27, 1970

Feeding solids into gas streams. Paulson, C.A.J. and Philipp, D.H. Chem, Engng., 7£(19) r 94, 96, 1972.

Mitigating fly-ash emissions in Australia: The role of the CSIRO testing facility. Durie, R.A., Paulson, C.A.J. and Potter, E.C. Aust. Chem. Process. Engng, 2S_(1) , 24-30, 1972.

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Nomogram for estimating the performance of electro­ static precipitators (using the Deutsch formula = 1-e /Q). Paulson, C.A.J. Process Technol. Internet., 18(8/9), 339, 1973.

Investigation of the electrostatic precipitation of fly-ashes from Loy-Yang seam coal. Paulson, C.A.J. CSIRO Division of Mineral Chemistry. October 1971.

FLUIDIZED BED NON-SLAGGING GASIFICATION

Some theoretical and experimental studies on fluidized gasification of solid fuels. Institution of Engineers, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering Transactions, MC4(2), 234-240, 1968.

MISCELLANEOUS

The differentiation of macerals by thin-film colouring. Shibaoka, M. Aust. Inst. Mining Met. Proc., No. 233, 17-19, 1970.

Silica ratio estimation from carbon dioxide content, ash yield and pyritic-sulphur content of Australian bituminous coals. Shibaoka, M. Fuel, 49(4), 431-435, 1970.

CSIRO DIVISION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

N.C.R.A.C. - sponsored research, July 1965 to June 1968, concerned the hydrogasification of brown coal and a study of the feasibility of a combined gas turbine - steam cycle for power generation.

Report No. CE/R25 C.S.I.R.O., Division of Chemical Engineering, Hydrogasification of Brown Coal.

Part I. "Experiments with 3 ft. Deep Bed Co-current Reactor - A New Assessment", Birch, T.J., June 1969.

Part 2. "Experiments with 19 ft. Deep Bed Counter­ current Reactor", Birch, T.J., September 1969.

Part 3. "Experiments with a Two Stage Reactor", Birch, T.J., June 1970.

Report No. CE/R20 C.S.I.R.O., Division of Chemical Engineering

"The Combined Gas Turbine-Steam Cycle for Power Genera­ tion Under Australian Conditions", Peeler, J.P.K. and Piggott., K.L., April 1970.

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DEPARTMENT OF SUPPLY, AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES

"THE COAL-BURNING GAS TURBINE PROJECT", Report of the Interdepartmental Gas Turbine Steering Committee, Department of Minerals and Energy/Department of Supply, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra

1973.

This project for the development of an industrial gas turbine fired by coal was initiated by Aeronautical Research Laboratories in 1948 commencing with laboratory studies. In 1957 the Department of National Development

assumed responsibility for its sponsorship, with subsequent participation by the Joint Coal Board. With financial assistance from private industry a 1250 HP Ruston and Hornsby Model TA Gas Turbine was purchased and installed at the

laboratories. Following conversion to coal firing, and trial runs and measurements, it was agreed that certain design modifications were necessary to achieve more satisfactory blade life. These modifications were sponsored by N.C.R.A.C. during the period 1965 - 1968. Trials on New South Wales Greta-seam coal were completed in mid-1970, and indicated that the modifications had successfully improved the turbine blade life to a minimum of about 25,000 hours, which should be satisfactory for commercial operation. Further improve­ ment would be possible with specially plated blades.

Copies of the Report are available from the Department of Minerals and Energy, Box 2831AA, G.P.O. Melbourne, 3001.

STATE ELECTRICITY COMMISSION OF VICTORIA

BOILER DEPOSIT FORMATION

PR-1 "Formation of Boiler Deposits from the Combustion of Victorian Brown Coals" by L.J. Garner.

PR-2 "Palynological Investigations of Victorian Brown Coals" by G.E. Baragwanath and L.T. Kiss.

MR-26 "Measurement of the Sand Content of Brown Coal and Briquettes" by L.J. Garner and H. Better.

MR-31 "Examination of Fireside Deposits from Hazelwood No. 2 Boiler" by S.C. Sharp.

IR-2 "Coal Quality and Boiler Performance : C6 Boiler Tests with Morwell "Test Block" Coal, 1964/65, by L.J. Garner, R.S. Higgins, G. Bonafede and V. McGoldrick.

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IR-3 "Aerodynamic Model Investigation of Furnace Bottom Fouling in Morwell Power Station Boilers, by A.J. Addlem.

MR-6 3 "Deposit Test Studies at No. 8 Boiler, Morwell Power Station", by G. Bonafede.

MR-9 5 "An X-Ray and Microscopic Study of Hard, Bonded Superheater Deposits and Synthetic Mixtures of Salts", by D. Bartlett and J. Pogacic.

MR-9 8 "Results of Tests on the Experimental Furnace Using Coal from Large-Diameter Bores", by R.C. Ledger.

MR-115 "A Study of Melting and Softening Characteristics in Loy Yang Ash and Fireside Deposits, by D.J. Bartlett.

MR-121 "A Review of the Possible Effects of On-Load Water Washing on Superheater Tubes to Improve Boiler Availability with articular Reference to Thermal Fatigue", by J.D. Newton.

PR-3 "Fireside Corrosion in Latrobe Valley Boilers (Superheater Tubes)" by G. Bonafede and A.R. Ellery

IR-8 "Survey of Some Physico-Chemical Problems Assoc­ iated with Boiler Fouling", by G. Bonafede.

MR-129 "The Incidence of 'White' Furnace Deposits" by R.C. Ledger.

MR-154 "Chemistry of Fireside Deposits from Hazelwood Boilers : Part 1" by G. Bonafede and M. Dent.

MR-174 "Chemistry of Fireside Deposits from Hazelwood Boilers - Part 2" by G. Bonafede and M. Dent.

MR-175

MR-1.81

"The Effect of Ash Fouling on Heat Transfer to Boiler Tubes - Part 1, Comparison between Furnace Heat Transfer Rates Through Initial Layers of Brown Coal Ash", by H. Becker

"A Study by Electron and Optical Microscopy of Fly Ash Particles from Brown Coal-Fired Boilers - Part 1, Samples from Hazlewood Power Station Boilers" by G. Bonafede.

MR~181

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MR-182 "The Relationship Between Time and Deposit Weight in the 50 lb/h Experimental Furnace" by R.C. Ledger

MR-193 "Environmental Factors Affecting Deposition in the 50 lb/h Experimental Furnace" by R.C. Ledger

202 "Chemistry of Fireside Deposits from Hazelwood Boilers - Part 3" by G. Bonafede and M. Dent.

209 "Chemistry of Fireside Deposits Formed During Combustion of Latrobe Valley Coals" by G. Bonafede.

212 "Preparation of C6 Boiler at Yallourn Power Station for a Test with Loy Yang Coal" by W.J. Morley.

215 "A Study by Electron and Optical Microscopy of Fly Ash Particles from Brown Coal-Fired Boilers. Part 2 : Samples from Yallourn, by G. Bonafede.

241 "An Evaluation of Loy Yang Coal as a Fuel for Power Station Boilers" by R.S. Higgins and W.J. Morley.

245 "The Effect of Ash Fouling on Heat Transfer to Boiler Tubes, Part 3. Comparison of Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer Performance of Ash Deposits from Loy Yang, Yallourn and Morwell Coals" by H.B. Becker.

258 "Brown Coal Ash - Its Formation and Solubility" by R.G. Deed

287 "A Study by Electron and Optical Microscopy of Fly- Ash Particles from an Experimental Furnace Burning Brown Coal" by P. Dimitrakakis.

BROWN COAL COMBUSTION

MR-3 9 "Refractory Failure, Hazelwood Gas Offtake Ducts", by G. Bonafede and R.S. Higgins.

MR-4 3 "Instability of Combustion of Yallourn Έ ' Boilers" by J.B. Murray

MR-6 4 "High Teirperature Corrosion - Investigation of Possible Occurrence in L.V. Boilers - Interim Report" by A.R. Ellery and G. Bonafede.

MR-87 "Review: The Spontaneous Combustion of Coal, with Particular Reference to the Storage of Brown Coal Briquettes" by T.R. Johnson.

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MR-96 "Spontaneous Combustion in Briquette Packs" by J.B. Murray

MR-106 "Further Model Investigation of the Burner Pipes of Morwell Power Station Boilers" by A.J. Addlem.

MR-123 "Model Tests of a Circular Burner Proposed for Stage 4 at Hazelwood Power Station" by R.P, Llewelyn.

MR-127 "The Temperature Distribution in a Heat Flux Meter Pad" by R.P. Llewelyn and R.C. Joynt.

MR-166 "The Resistance of Packed Beds of Briquettes to the Flow of Air" by T.R. Johnson and J.A. Norman.

MR-177 "Particle Trajectories in Gas Streams" by J.M. Green and R.P. Llewelyn.

MR-187 "On-Load Water Washing of Superheater Tubes to Improve Boiler Availability - Part 1, Initial Study at Morwell Power Station" by A.R. Ellery.

MR-192 "The Feasibility of Burning Latrobe Valley Coals in Slag-Tap Boilers" by R.S. Higgins and R.C. Ledger.

206 "Design of a Branched Flow Separator" by J.M. Green.

208 "Yallourn W Chimney Model Pressure Survey: Second Series of Tests" by R.J. Griss and J.A. Hart.

213 "A Gas Turbine Cycle for Use with Solid Fuel" by L.A. Juniper and W.J. Morley.

219 "A Survey of Coal Combustion in Fluid Beds and Possible Application to the Drying and Combustion of Victorian Brown Coal" by R.C. Ledger

220 "Separation of Solid Particles in a Sink-Vortex Flow" by R.P. Llewelyn and J.A. Hart.

222 "The Use of Natural Gas as a Tracer in Aerodynamic Models" by C.L. Curnick.

227 "Preliminary Investigations of Environmental Factors Affecting Brown Coal Ash Deposition in the 75 lb/h Experimental Furnace" by B. Anderson.

229 "Note on a Possible Source of Error in Sampling Gas-Borne Pulverised Fuel" by J.A. Hart.

230

238

243

244

246

247

248

251

252

253

254

256

257

261

268

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"On-Load Water Washing of Superheater Tubes to Improve Boiler Availability. Part 2 s Interim Report on the Metallurgical Effects of Two Years' Operation is No. 7 Boiler, Morwell Power Station" by J.D. Newton

"Investigations into Furnace Heat Absorption and Radiation from Large Brown Coal Flames" by P.T. Waring.

"Design and Testing of a Lightweight Suction Pyrometer" by L.A. Juniper and P.T. Waring.

"Correction of Radiation Errors in Pad-type Heat Flux Meters" by H.B. Becker.

"Effect of Drying on the Breakage of Brown Coal" by M.J. McIntosh.

"An Experimental Furnace for Brown Coal Investiga­ tions" by B. Anderson.

"The Relative Ignition Temperatures of Brown Coal Chars" by D.J. Allardice.

"Development of Flue Gas Oxygen Sampling Equipment" by J. LeNoury.

"The Effect of Ash Fouling on Heat Transfer to Boiler Tubes, Part 2. Thermal Properties of Particulate Brown Coal Ash" by H.B. Becker.

"Hazelwood Boiler Performance Analysis - and Test­ ing of Computer Programs" by H.B. Becker and P.T. Waring.

"Flame Studies in Yallourn C.6 Boiler" by L.A. Juniper and J.A. Norman.

"Hazelwood Boiler Performance Analysis" by P.T. Waring.

"Preliminary Study of Off-load Boiler Cleaning at Hazelwood Power Station" by L.T. Kiss, L.K. Ingram and K.L. Herd.

"Prediction of Brown Coal Drying in a Mill-Drying System" by M.J. McIntosh

"Ignition of Latrobe Valley Brown Coals - Single Particle Studies" by G.R. Thomas.

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270 "The Effect on Combustion Stability of Water Additions to Pulverised Brown Coal Flames" by B. Anderson.

278 "A Modified Design Method for Two-Dimensional Contracting Bends" by J.A. Hart.

285 "On-Load Water Washing of Hazelwood Boiler Tubes" by J.D. Newton, A. Temishchenko and G.M. Goonan.

290 "Ignition of Latrobe Valley Brown Coals - Effect of Coal Source and Lithotype" by D.J. Allardice and R.C. Ledger.

BROWN COAL PROPERTIES

MR-33 "Briquette Protective Coating Project, Evaluation of Briquettes Coated on 28 and 29 September and 20 October 1955" by J.B. Murray.

MR-37 "Briquette Protection Coating Project, Evaluation of Briquettes Coated on 13 and 14 December 1965, and Recommendations Concerning Future Work" by J.B. Murray.

MR-4 8 "Rapid Ash Determination of Brown Coal - Part 1. Investigation of X-ray Absorption and Scattering Methods" by L.T. Kiss and W.M. Drew.

MR-5 5 "Analysis of Special Coal Samples from No. 1 Level, Morwell Open Cut" by J.B. Murray

MR-75 "Evaluation of Further Samples of Bitumen Emulsions for Briquette Protective Coating" by J.B. Murray.

MR-80 "Evaluation of Shell Bitumen Emulsion R.2201 for Briquette Protective Coating" by J.B. Murray.

MR-8 5 "Some Tests of 'H'-Type Briquettes made on 14 February at Morwell Briquette Factory with No. 5 Cut Coal" by J.B. Murray.

MR-9 7 "Briquette Protective Coating Project - Large-Scale Pilot Plant Tests, 8 March and 5 April 1967" by J.B. Murray.

MR-100 "The Occurrence of Marcasite and Pyrite in Latrobe Valley Brown Coal - Part 1" by W.M. Drew.

MR-101 "Evaluation of Mobil Oil Resin Emulsion EXAU 28/17 M as an Anti-Tack Coat in Briquette Protective Coating" by J.B. Murray

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MR-102 "Latrobe Valley Open Cuts - Statistical Studies of Dredger Coal Sampling and Sample Reduction" by L.J. Garner.

MR-110 "Briquette Protective Coating Project - Large-Scale Pilot Plant Test - 22 November 1967" by J.B. Murray

MR-118 "Review - Brown Coal as a Nitrogenous Fertilizer" by I. McPhail.

MR-132 "Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Briquettes and Briquette Char at Ambient Tempera­ tures" by H.B. Becker.

MR-145 "The State of Combination of the Inorganic Ash­ Forming Constituents of Yallourn Brown Coal" by J.B. Murray.

MR-149 "Inorganics in Brown Coal Char and Some Comments on their Methods of Analysis" by J.B. Murray.

MR-155 "The Determination of the Oxygen-Containing Func­ tional Groups in Victorian Brown Coal" by J.B. Murray and I. McPhail.

IR-9 "A Fusion Technique for the Comprehensive Analysis of Coal Ash and Silicate Rocks by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry" by P.L. Boar and L.K. Ingram.

MR-167 "A Modified Schutz Method for the Determination of Total Organic Oxygen in Brown Coal and Brown Coal Chars" by K.A. Herd and D.G. Cooke.

MR-178 "The Migration of Alkali Salts in an Inert Porous Medium" by D.J. Bartlett and G. Bonafede.

MR-186 "Changes in Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups During the Briquetting of Yallourn Brown Coal" by J.B. Murray and I. McPhail.

MR-191 "The Yields and Properties of Volatiles and Chars from Yallourn Brown Coal" by J.B. Murray.

MR-196 "Active Carbon" by W.O. Stacy.

MR-199 "Thermal Dewatering of Morwell Brown Coal with Particular Reference to the Chemistry of the Process" by T.J.E. Ireland.

203 "The State of Combination of the Major Inorganic Ash-Forming Constituents in Morwell Coal" by J.B. Murray.

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217 "A Preliminary Investigation of the Properties of Dewatered Coal" by D.J. Allardice.

224 "The State of Combination of the Major Inorganic Ash-Forming Constituents in Yallourn North Extension Brown Coal" by J.B. Murray.

233 "The State of Combination of the Major Inorganic Ash-Forming Constituents in Coal Samples from the Loy Yang Field" by J.B. Murray.

237 "The Determination of Methyl and Methylene Groups in Brown Coal" by L.K. Ingram.

249 "The State of Combination of the Major Inorganic Ash-forming Constituents in Additional Coal Samples from the Loy Yang Field" by J.B. Murray and G. Bonafede.

255 "The Changes in Functional Group Contents of Natural and Ion Substituted Morwell Brown Coals During Carbonisation" by J.B. Murray and R.C. Ledger.

264 "The State of Combination of the Inorganic Con­ stituents of Brown Coal Chars" by J.B, Murray and R.C. Ledger.

277 "The Yields and Properties of Char and Volatiles from Carbonised Morwell Brown Coals" by J.B. Murray.

279 "The Hydrogenation of Victorian Brown Coals - A Summary" by D.J. Allardice.

281 "Rapid Measurement of Ash Content of Brown Coal using Atomic Radiation" by R.C. Joynt.

286 "Thermal dewatering of Brown Coals. Part 1: A Review of the Fleissner Drying Process" by D.J. Allardice.

STATE ELECTRICITY COMMISSION OF VICTORIA

PUBLICATIONS

"Research into the utilisation of Victorian Brown Coals for Power Generation" by L.J. Garner. National Chemical Engin­ eering Conference 1974, Process Industries in Australia - Impact and Growth, Surfers Paradise, Queensland. July, 1974.

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"Ignition of Latrobe Valley Brown Coals" by D.J. Allardice, B. Anderson, R.C. Ledger and G.R. Thomas. Paper 4, Institute of Fuel Conference (Australian Membership), Adelaide, November 1974.

"Swirl Burner Design for Pulverised Brown Coal" by L.J. Garner, J.A. Hart, T.R. Johnson and W.J. Morley. Third Members Conference of the International Flame Research Foundation, May, 1974.

"Investigations on Factors Affecting the Combustion of Victorian Brown Coals" by R.S. Higgins, W.J. Morley and L.A. Juniper. Fourth All-Union Conference on the Combus­ tion of Solid Fuels, Novosibirsk, USSR, October, 1973.

"Flame Measurements in a Brown Coal Fired Furnace" by L.A. Juniper. European Combustion Symposium, Combustion Institute, Sheffield, September, 1973.

"Experience in the Use of Brown Coals from the Latrobe Valley, Australia" by R.S. Higgins, G. Bonafede and L, Hoch. 1973 Lignite Symposium, Grand Forks, North Dakota, U.S.A., May, 1973. .

"Ignition of Coal Particles without Temperature Jump" by G.R. Thomas, A.J. Stevenson and D.G. Evans. Combustion and Flame 21, 133-136 (1973).

"Modelling the Ignition of Brown-Coal Particles" by A.J. Stevenson, G.R. Thomas and D.G. Evans. Fuel, 1973, Vol. 52, October.

"Prediction of Brown Coal Drying in a Mill-Drying System" by M.J. McIntosh. First Australasian Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer, Monash University, May, 1973.

"The Zone Method Analysis of Radiant Heat Transfer; a Model for Luminous Radiation" by T.R. Johnson and J.M. Beer. Paper 4, Fourth Symposium on Flames and Industry (Predictive Methods for Industry Flames), Imperial College, London, September, 1972.

"Comparison of Calculated Temperatures and Heat Flux Dis­ tributions with Measurements in the Ijmuiden Furnace" by T.R. Johnson, T.M. Lowes and J.M. Beer. Paper 11, Fourth Symposium on Flames and Industry (Predictive Methods for

Industrial Flames), Imperial College, London, September, 1972.

"Radiative Heat Transfer in Furnaces; Further Development on the Zone Method by Analysis" by T.R. Johnson and J.M. Beer. 14th Symposium (International) on Combustion, Pennsylvania State University, August, 1972.

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"The Measurement of Heat Flux in Furnaces and its Applica­ tion to Brown Coal-Fired Boilers" by P.T. Waring and W.J. Morley. The Institution of Engineers, Australia, Thermodynamics Conference - Industrial Applications, Adelaide, August, 1970.

"A Study of Radiation in Brown Coal Boiler Furnaces" by P.T. Waring. IFRF 2nd Members Conference, Ijmuiden, May, 1971.

"Research on Brown Coal Utilization in the State Elec­ tricity Commission of Victoria" by T.R. Johnson. IRFR 2st Members Conference, Ijmuiden, June, 1969.

"Research into the Combustion of Victorian Brown Coals in Large Power Station Boilers" by L.J. Gamer. 3rd All-Union Conference on Combustion of Solid Fuels, 1969.

"The Ignition of Pulverized Brown Coal" by G.R. Thomas, I.J. Harris and D.G. Evans. Combustion and Flame, Vol. 12, No. 4, August 1968.

WESTERN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT CHEMICAL LABORATORIES

Donnelly R.P., Brennan L.J., McMullan w. and RouiJ.lard A . , "Reduction of Iron Oxide in Ilmenite Beach Sands. Part I Australian Mining March 1970 p 59. Part II Australian Mining April 1970 p 52.

Donnelly R.P., Brennan L.J. and Rouillard A., "Comparative Determinations of Reactivities of Chars, Cokes, Charcoals and Graphite by a Thermogravimetric Method" Fuel 49 (1970) p 49.

QUEENSLAND MINES DEPARTMENT

Beeston, J.W., 1974a: Petrographic studies and evaluation of a coal seam at Kemmis Creek. Qd Govt Min. J . 75 (867).

Beeston, J.W., 1974b: Petrographic studies and evaluation of a coal seam at Lake Elphinstone. Qd Govt Min. J . 75, 126-129.

Beeston, J.W., 1974c: Petrographic studies and evaluation of a coal seam in the Broadmeadow area. Qd Govt Min. J. 75, 316-319.

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Bees ton, J.W., and Davis, A., 1973: Petrographic studies and evaluation of a coal seam in the St. Albans area. Qd Govt Min. J . 74, 353-357.

Carr, A.F. and Davis, A., 1973; Petrographic studies and evaluation of the Goonyella Middle seam, Red Hill. Qd Govt Min. J . 74, 22-28.

Davis, A., 1969; Petrography of the main lower seam in Blackwater N.S. 2, 3 and 6. Qd Govt Min. J. 7_0, 147-156.

Davis, A., 1970; Petrography of a coal seam in Rugby D.D.H. Nos. 2 and 3. Qd Govt Min. J. 71, 113-117.

Davis, A., 1971; The optical properties of some Bowen Basin vitrinites. Rep, Geol. Surv. Qd, 62.

Davis, A., 1972; Petrographic studies and eval­ uation of a coal seam at Suttor Creek. Qd Govt Min. J . 73_, 114-122.

Davis, A., 1973; Petrographic studies and eval­ uation of the Poitrel Upper seam. Qd Govt Min. J. 74, 12-21.

Taylor, D.A., and Davis, A., 1970: Petrographic studies and evaluation of coal seams from bore­ holes N.S. 37 and N.S. 42, Theodore. Rep. Geol. Surv. Qd , 42

UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES : SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Mathews, C.T. "Particle Turbulence Studies in Solids - Fluids Transport Systems". M.Sc Thesis University of New South Wales, 1966.

Minh, N.H. "A Cold Model Spouted Bed Study - Low Temperature Coal Carbonisation". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1966.

Bakker, N.A. "The Chlorination of Coal". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1967.

Simmul, R. "Spouted Bed Carbonisation". B.E. Thesis Univ­ ersity of New South Wales, 1967.

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Barton , R.K., Rigby, G.R. and Ratcliffe, J.S. "Fluids- Solids contacting in spouted Beds - A Review". Trans. I.E. Aust., May, 1968, pp. 95-104.

Barton, R.K., Rigby, G.R. and Ratcliffe, J.S. "The Use of a Spouted Bed for the Low Temperature Carbonization of Coal". Trans. I.E. Aust., May, 1968, pp 105-112.

Overcash, M.R. "Design and Optimization Study on the Flo­ tation of Coal". M.Sc. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1968.

Ratcliffe, J.S. and Rigby, G.R. "Low Temperature Carbon­ ization of Coal in a Spouted Bed-Prediction of Exit Char Volatile Matter". Trans. I.E. Aust., May, 1969, pp. 1-6.

Barton, R.K. and Ratcliffe, J.S. "The Rates of Devolatil­ ization of Coal under Spouted Bed Conditions". Trans. I.E. Aust., May, 1969, pp. 35-41.

Barton, R.K. "The Low Temperature Carbonization of Coal in a Spouted Bed with Particular Reference to Rates of Devola­ tilization". Ph.D. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1969.

Rigby, G.R. "Use of the Spouted Bed Technique for the Low Temperature Carbonization of Coal". Ph.D Thesis University of New South Wales, 1969.

Mathews, V.T. "The Aqueous Oxidation of Coal Pyrite". Ph.D Thesis University of New South Wales, 1970.

Besley, G.R. "Direct Reduction Studies in a Spouted Bed". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1970.

Lai, A.K. "Multiple Spout Design Considerations in Spouted Beds". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1970.

Quinlan, M.J. and Ratcliffe, J.S. "A Design Equation for the Low Temperature Carbonization of Coal under Spouted Bed Conditions". Trans. I.E. Aust., May, 1971, pp 1-5.

Yeap, P.C. "A Study of Monolayer Drying Rates Using a Single Spouted Bed Technique". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1972.

Ratcliffe, J.S. "Low Temperature Coal Carbonization in Spouted Beds", Paper No. 38F presented at Fourth Joint Chemical Engineering Conference of the American Institute

of Chemical Engineers and Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, September 1973.

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Ratcliffe, J.S. Discussion. Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Chemical Engineering Conference of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and Canadian Society for Chemical Engin­ eering. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 52, No. 2, April, 1974, pp. 206-209.

Quinlan, M.J. "Performance Modelling of the Spouted Bed Reactor". M.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1973.

Skalsky, M. "The Removal of SO- from Flue Gases by reduction with CO2 . B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1973.

Chooi, K.L. "Reduction of Sulphur Dioxide with Coal". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1974.

Hopson, G.C. "The Design of a Plant for the Purification of Raw Substitute Natural Gas. B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1974.

Wong, J.W. "Design of a Plant to produce S.N.G. by Catalytic Methanation". B.E. Thesis University of New South Wales, 1974.

DEPARTMENT OF FUEL TECHNOLOGY

Coal Carbonisation and By-products Research

Maher, T.P., Gas Chromatography applied to the study of the Liquid Products of the Low-Temperature Fluidised-bed Carbonisation of Coal., J. Chromatog. JLO, 324-337 (1963)

Maher, T.P., "The Nature of the Liquid Products obtained by Low-Temperature Carbonisation of two New South Wales Coals". Paper presented to the 1966 Fuel Conference, Newcastle, N.S.W. 17-20th October, 1966.

Maher, T.P., "Semi-Quantitiative analyses of Hydrocarbon Mixtures by Gas Chromatography without complete separation of Components"., Jour, of Gas Chromatog., pp. 355-362 October 1966.

Maher, T.P. and O'Shea., J.M., "Phenolic Groups in Coal Extracts and Residues"., Fuel, Lond. 4£ pp. 283-287, 1967.

Maher, T.P., "Chemicals from Coal by Low Temperature Carbonisation"., Paper presented to the Annual Conference of Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Sydney, August, 1969. Paper No. 5, Coal Section.

Maher, T.P., "The Influence of Temperature, Carrier Gas, and Coal Type on the Composition of the Volatile Products of low-temperature Fluidised-bed Coal Pyrolysis". Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, 1970.

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Kirov, N.Y. O ’Shea, J.N., and Sergeant, G.D., "The Determin­ ation of Solubility Parameters for Coal", Fuel £6, pp. 415­ 425, November 1967.

Kirov, N.Y. and Stephen, J.N., "Physical Aspects of Coal Carbonisation", Research Monograph 1967, pp. 221 (Published under the auspices of the National Coal Research Advisory Committee).

Buchanan, J.E. and Maher, T.P,, "Computer Programme for Analysis of Complex Mixtures by Gas Chromatography without complete Separation of Components". 1968, Journal of Gas Chromatography, September, pp. 474-476.

Maher, T.P. "The Liquid Products from the Low-Temperature Carbonisation of two local Coals". 1968 Fuel, London, £7 pp. 359-372.

Kirov, N.Y. and Maher, T.P., "The Production of High Yields of Coal Tar Bases by Carbonisation of Coal in a Bed Fluid­ ised by a Gaseous Medium containing Nitric Oxide". Prov. Aust, Patent, n. 61119/69

Kirov, N.Y. and Peck, M.A., "Characteristics of Chars from Fluid-Bed Coal Carbonisation", Fuel, ££, London, 1970 pp. 375-394.

Buchanan, J.E. and Maher, T.P., "Computer-Drawn Histograms as 'Fingerprints' of Complex G.C. Fractions"., Journal of Chromatographic Science, Vol. 9 p. 448, 1971.

Barret, D. and Basoeki, A., "Factors affecting particle size in fluidised carbonisation of coal", 2nd National Chemical Engineering Conference, Inst, of Chem. Engrs., (10th-12th

July, 1974).

Baret, D and Sergeant, G.D., "Coal-Oil Mixtures", P.A.C.E., April 1974, pp. 31-32.

Kirov, N.Y. and Maher, T.P., "The Tailoring of Products from the Pyrolysis of Coal", Paper II, Inst, of Fuel Conference on the Changing Technology of Fuel., Adelaide, 5-7th November 1974.

Maher, T.P., "Coal Tars and their Use in Paving Materials", Paper No. 5, Workshop on the Efficient Use of Bitumens, Asphalts and Tars as Paving and Construction Materials", University of New South Wales, 2nd and 3rd December 1974.

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Coal Combustion and Gasification

Kirov, N.Y. and Cruz, I.E., "Gasification of Coal with Pulsed Oxygen and Steam"., Confidential Report of a research investigation to the Australian Coal Industries, June 1966.

Kirov, N.Y. and McColl Stewart, I. (Patentees), "Improve­ ments in or Relating to the Operation of Gas Producers using Air or Oxygen and Steam"., Letters Patent and Specification N. 255, 842.

Sergeant, G.D. and Smith, I.W., "Combustion Rate of Bituminous Coal Char in the Temperature Range 800 to 1700°K", Fuel, 52^, pp. 52-7, January 1973.

Sergeant, G.D. and Smith, I.W., "The Relative Roles of Chemical and Mass Transfer Rate Control in Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Coal Chars", Fuel, 52, pp 58-60, January 1973.

McColl Stewart, I., and Kirov, N.Y., "Pulsed Blast for Temperature Control in Oxygen-Steam producers"., Proc. Fifteenth International Symp. on Combustion, Tokyo, August 1974.

Environment/Air Pollution

Kirov, N.Y. and Iverach, D., "Formation and Control of Nitrogen Oxides in Combustion Processes", Proc. of the 1972 Clean Air Conference, Melbourne, Paper 5, 3, pp. 214-220

Iverach, D., Basden, I.S. and Kirov, N.Y. "Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Fuel-Lean and Fuel-Rich Flames", 14th Inter­ national Combustion Conf., August 1972, Penn. State Univer­ sity, U.S.A.

Iverach, D., Basden, K.S., and Kirov, N.Y. "Formation of Nitric Oxide in Fuel-Lean and Fuel-Rich Flames"., Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1973, pp. 767-775.

Iverach, D., Kirov, N.Y., and Haynes, B . , "The Formation of Nitric Oxide in Fuel-Rich Flames". Combustion Science and Technology, 1974, v. 4, p. 159.

Haynes, B., Iverach, D., and Kirov, N.Y. "The Role of Fuel Nitrogen in Nitric Oxide Formation". Process and Chemical Engineering Part 1. April 1974, Part 2, May 1974, pages 22-27, and 27-30 respectively.

Barrett, D., "Removal of Sulphur from Flue Gases". Australian Chemical Engineering, pp. 5-10 (March 1974).

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Hay nes, B.s. Iverach, D., and Kirov, N.Y. "The Behaviour of Nitrogen Species in Fuel - Rich Hydrocarbon Flames"., Proc. Fifteenth International Symp. on Combustion, Tokyo, August 1974.

Barrett, D., and Tio, P.H., "Flue Gas Desulphurisation", Paper 20, Inst, of Fuel (Aust. Membership) Conference on "The Changing Technology of Fuel", November, 1974 (Adelaide).

Ph.D Theses

Dr. I. Cruz, "Studies in the Mechanism of the Gasification of Carbon in a Pulsed Blast Producer" - 1967.

Dr D. Iverach, "The Formation of Nitric Oxide in Flames and Post-Flames Gases" - 1973.

Dr T.P. Maher, "The Influence of Temperature, Carrier Gas, and Coal Type on the Composition of the Volatile Products of Low-Temperature Fluidised-Bed Coal Pyrolysis" - 1970.

Dr. M.A. Peck, "Combustion Studies of Coal iand Related Products" - 1970.

Dr. D. Royston, "Characteristics of Dilute Phase Suspensions in Packed Beds" - 1968.

Dr. J.N. Stephens, "The Physical Properties of Coals during Carbonisation" - 1966.

M.Sc. and M.E. Theses

Mr Basoeki, "Study of Size and Size Distribution of Low Temperature Fluidised-Bed Char" - 1965.

Mr W.W.P. Lau, "Aspects of the Gasification Reaction Rate of Coke" - 1969.

Dr T.P. Maher, "Coal Pyrolysis with reference to the Constitution of the Liquid Products of Low-Temperature Carbonisation - 1964.

Mr J.M. O'Shea, "The Laboratory Extraction of Coals with Solvents" 1968.

Mr I.W. Smith, "Heat Transfer Processes within Hot Fluid- Fine Particle Suspensions - 1970.

Mr K.P. Louwersen, "An Evaluation of the Volatile Products of High Temperature Fluidised Carbonisation" - 1970.

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WOLLONGONG UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ; Department of Electrical g ^ ~ g £ n e e r £ ^ "

McLean, K.J. - 'Influence of Contaminated Collecting Plates on the Performance of Electrostatic Precipitators', Trans. I.E. Aus., Vol EE4, No. 1, 1968.

Tassicker, O.J., "Measurement of Corona Current Density at an Electrode Boundary", Electron. Lett., 1969, 5, pp 285­ 286.

Tassicker, O.J., Herceg, Z. & McLean, K.J. - 1 The Collection of Dust by Electrostatic Precipitation*, Paper No. 1.6, Clean Air Conf., Sydney, 1969.

Tassicker, O.J., Herceg, Z. & McLean, K.J. - 'A New Method and Apparatus to Assist the Prediction of Electrostatic Precipitator Performance*, Trans. I.E. Aus. EE5, No. 2, 1969.

McLean, K.J., "Metal-Glass Contacts in High Electric Fields", Electronics Letters, vol. 5, No. 4, Feb. 1969.

McLean, K.J. - 'Electrical Conduction in High Resistivity Particulate Solids', Doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 1970.

Herceg, Z. - 'Electrical Characteristics of Contaminated Corona Systems', Doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 1970.

McLean, K.J. - 'Some Effects of High Resistivity Fly Ash on Electrostatic Precipitator Operation', Electrostatic Precipitator Symp., EPA, Burmingham, Alabama, 1971.

Herceg, Z. & McLean, K.J. - 'Efficiency of Electrostatic Precipitators and Relationship to Corona Voltage Current Characteristics', 64th Ann. Meeting APCA, Atlantic City, N.J., Paper No. 71-178, 1971.

Tassicker, O.J. - 'The Dielectric Constant of a Dispersoid in Relation to Electrostatic Precipitator Performance', Staub-Reinhalt, Vol. 31, No. 8, 1971.

Tassicker, O.J., 'The Temperature and Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant of Power-Station Fly-Ash', Staub-Reinhalt, Luft, vol. 31, No, 8, Aug. 1971. (English).

Tassicker, O.J., - 'Experiences with an Electrostatic Pre­ cipitation Analyser in the Evaluation of Difficult Dusts', Proceedings International Clean Air Conference, Melbourne, May 1972.

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McLean, K.J., - 'Survey of Australian Experience in Collect­ ing High Resistivity Fly-Ash with Electrostatic Precipitat­ ors' , EPA Contract 68-02-0245, Sept. 1972.

Tassicker, O.J. and Sullivan, K.M., - 'Estimation of Precip­ itator Performance for Collection of Fly-Ash by Examination of Low Sulfur Coal Bore Cores', Paper 73-311. 66th Annual Meeting, APCA, Chicago, June 1973.

Tassicker, O.J., - 'Boundary Probe for the Measurement of Current Density and Electric-Field Strength — with Special Reference to Ionised Gases', Proc. IEE, vol. 21, No. 3, March 1974.

McLean, K.J., and Huey, R.M., - 'Influence of Electric Field on the Resistivity of a Particulate Layer", Proc. IEE, vol. 121, No. 1, Jan. 1974.

Herceg, Z. and Huey, R.M., - 'Model for Corona Modes in Point-to-Plane Device with Coated Electrodes', Proc. IEE, Vol. 120, No. 3, March 1973, P. 394-9.

McLean, K.J. and Thanh, L.C. - 'Effect of a Pulsating Negative Voltage on the Corona Discharge of a Wire Electrode', IEE Gas Discharge Conference, Conf. Pub. No. 118, 19.74.

Thanh, L.C. and McLean, K.J., - 'Some Consequences of Using Pulsed Voltages to Energise Electrostatic Precipitators', Inst, of Fuel Symp. Adelaide, 1974.

WOLLONGONG UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ; Department of Geology

Edwards, G.E. and Cook, A.C., 1972. The design of blends for the production of metallurgical coke, with particular reference to long term aspects of using N.S.W. coals. Proc. Australas. Inst. Min. Metall., No. 244, 1-10.

Cook, A.C., 1973. Reserves of coking coals in New South Wales. Search, 4, 16-20.

Banerjee, R.N., Cook, A.C. and Edwards, G.E., 1973. An introduction to coal petrography - A technique for the Australian coal industry. Joint Coal Board 12 pp + VIII.

UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE : Department of Chemical Engineering

Pulsed Oxygen Gasification of Coal and Coke

Cruz, I. "Pulsed gasification of coal" - Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of N.S.W., 1967

Stewart, I. McC. & Kirov, N.Y. - Aust. Patent 255842, 1962.

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Stewart, I. McC. and Kirov, N.Y. - "Pulsed oxygen admission for control of combustion zone tenperature ...", 15th Inter­ national Symposium on combustion" - 1974.

Flame Radiation Studies

Wall, T.F., Stewart, I. McC., "The measurement and prediction of solids and soot absorption coefficients in the flame region of an Industrial P.F. Chamber" (Fourteenth (Internat­ ional) Symposium on Combustion, Penn. State Univ. 1972).

Stewart, I. McC., Wall, T.F., "Recent advances in radiation prediction and measurement in Combustion Chambers". Proc. of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers Silver Jubilee Session. Ind. Chem. Eng. Vol. XV, £ 1973, p 25-36.

Wall, T.F., Stewart, I. McC., "Tests on the spectral radiation from a large pulverized Coal Flame", Jl. Inst. Fuel, April, 1971.

Stewart, I. McC., Lower, A., Wall, T.F., "A zoned heat transfer model of a large tangentially fired Pulverized Coal Boiler". Fifteenth International Symposium on Combustion, Tokyo, Japan, August 1974.

Wall, T.F., "The development of a mathematical model of an industrial P.F. Furnace", Report : Chem. Eng. 72,1, Univ. of Newcastle, 1972.

Wall, T.F., "The measurement and prediction of thermal radiation from the flame zone of industrial tangentially fired Pulverised Coal Furnaces", Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Newcastle, 1972.

Characteristics of Large Table & Roller Pulverizing Mills

Masson, M.A., "Development of Classification function ..." Project Report, University of Newcastle, Dept, of Chem. Eng., 1972.

Sligar, N.J., "Development of Crushing functions ...", Project Report University of Newcastle, Dept, of Chem. Eng., 1972.

Sligar, N.J., Masson M.A., "Simulation of pulverized fuel production in a roll-table mill", Trans, Instit. Min. & Met. (Section c: Mineral Processing Extractive Metallurgy) Vol. 82, Bull. 814, Sept. 1974.

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In-Situ Gasification

Stewart, I. McC., "In-Situ Gasification of Coal", Paper - Australian Chemical Engineering Conference, Brisbane, July 1974.

Stewart, I. McC., "In-situ Gasification of coal for Power and Gas" Aust. Conference of Institute of Fuel, Adelaide, November, 1974.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE; Department of Chemical Engineering

Carbonisation of brown coal char and briquettes to produce hard char

Evans, D.G. and Bull, F.A. - Brown Coal as a Source of Car­ bon, Proc. R.A.C.I., 34.' 304 (1967).

Production of electrode carbon and electrode pitch from brown coal

Evans, D.G. and Hermann, J.A. - The Porosity of Brown Coal Char, Fuel, £9, 110 (1970).

Evans, D.G. and Hermann, J.A. - The Suitability of Brown Coal Char as a Filler for Carbon Electrodes, Proc. Aust. I.M.M. No. 233, 41 (1970).

Thatcher, P.J. - Electrode Pitch from Brown Coal Tar, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1972.

Dewatering of bed-moist brown coal

Evans, D.G. and Siemon, S.R. - Dewatering of Brown Coal before Combustion, J. Inst. Fuel. £3, 413 (1970).

Rees, G.R. and Evans, D.G. - Extrusion of Brown Coal, Chemeca '70, Session 5, p. 71(Butterworths of Australia, 1970).

Rees, G.R. - Extrusion of Brown Coal, M.Eng.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1970.

Evans, D.G., Higgins, R.S. and Sheddon, I.W. - Dewatering Victorian Brown Coal - an Innovative Idea, 1972 Austral­ ian Engineering Conference, Development and Innovation for Australian Process Industries, Newcastle, p. 56

(Institution of Engineers Australia, 1972).

Murray, J.B. and Evans, D.G. - The Brown Coal/Water System, Part 3: Themal Dewatering of Brown Coal, Fuel 51, 290 (1972).

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Evans, D.G. - Effects of Colloidal Structure on Physical Measurements on Coals, Fuel 52, 155 (1973).

Evans, D.G. - The Brown Coal/Water System, Part 4: Shrink­ age on Drying, Fuel 52, 186 (1973).

Evans, D.G. and Siemon, S.R. - Separation of Water from Solid Organic Meterials. Australian Patent 430626, 23/12/1968; West German Patent P1902.649.4, 21/1/1969; East German Patent AP72227, 28/5/1969; United States Patent 3552031, 5/1/1971; Canadian Patent 900162,

16/5/1972; Polish Patent 69624, 23/5/1973.

Boulton, R.B. and Evans, D.G. - Predicting the Performance of Inertial Separators, 5th Australasian Conference on Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, Christchurch 1974.

Briquettes as a supplementary fuel for cupolas

Rowney, J.E. - Supplementary Firing of Shaft Furnaces, M.Eng.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1970.

Ignition of pulverized brown coal

Stevenson, A.J. - Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Brown Coal Particles, M.Eng.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1972.

Thomas, G.R., Stevenson, A.J. and Evans, D.G. - Ignition of Coal Particles without Temperature Jump, Combustion and Flame, 21, 133 (1973).

Stevenson, A.J., Thomas, G.R. and Evans, D.G. - Modelling the Ignition of Brown Coal Particles, Fuel, 52, 281 (1973).

Weathering of brown coal briquettes

Chiodo, P.J. - Weathering of Brown Coal Briquettes, M.Eng. Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1969.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE ; Department of Metallurgy

Utilisation of Brown Coal Char in Electrodes for Alumina Reduction

"Performance of electrodes containing brown coal char in alumina reduction", N.G. Siviour, J.W. Graham, and G.V. Cullen, Aust. I.M.M. Proceedings No. 237, 55-62, 1971.

A patent derived from the work sponsored by NCRAC has since been granted in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and United States of America, and is pending in Japan.

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Metallurgical Applications of Brown Coal

(a) - the role of chemical reactivity of carbons produced from brown coal, or from blends of these with other carbons;

(b) - the suitability of brown coal char as a material in electrodes for electric arc melting furnaces.

Department of Metallurgy, Institute of Materials Research Progress reports, 1971-1974 by G.V. Cullen, G.M. Pearson and N.G. Siviour.

UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND ; Department of Chemical Engineering

"Utilization of Queensland Coals - Survey and Evaluation* by J.G. Job and D.J. Nicklin, University of Queensland, Department of Chemical Engineering Report, December 1967.

UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA : Department of Chemistry

Cane, R.F., "Microwave Simulation of Chemical Reactions", Nature, 209, 197, 1966.

R 74/1998