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Welfare and Health - Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health - 2nd Report (Mr P. H. Bailey) - Consultative arrangements and the co-ordination of social policy development, November 1977


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The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia

C O N S U L T A T IV E A R R A N G E M E N T S A N D T H E C O -O R D IN A T IO N O F S O C IA L P O L IC Y D E V E L O P M E N T

Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health

Second Report

November 1977

Presented by Command 1 June 1978

Ordered to be printed 9 June 1978

Parliamentary Paper No. 176/1978

.

i

■

Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health

Second Report

November 1977

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

AND THE

CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT

AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING SERVICE CANBERRA 1978

© Commonwealth of Australia 1978

ISBN 0 642 03517 2

Printed by Watson Ferguson and Co., Brisbane

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

Task Force Members:

Mr l>„H. BAILEY (Chairman)· Mr E. S. LIGHTLY Mr J. D. RIMES

Secretary to the Task. Force:

Mr B. Ayers Phone 723547

c /- Department o f the Prime- Minister & Cabinet CANBERRA, A.C.T. 2600 Phone 723955

18· November 1977

Dear Prime· Minister

We have the honour to transmit with this letter the Second Report, of the Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health.

The Report deals with the aspects of our terms of reference not covered by our First Report. These are. the need, for the establishment of consultative arrangements for the Commonwealth, and the continuing machinery required to co-ordinate

social policy development at the Commonwealth level.

We have added a short section on the need for an inquiry, in the two mainland Territories, into arrangements for the administration and delivery of programs in health, welfare and community development.

The Rt. Hon. Malcolm Fraser, C.H., M.P., Parliament House, CANBERRA A.C.T. 2600

Second Report

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS AND THE CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT

Page

Preface (iv)

Summary of Findings and Recommendations (vii)

PART 1 - CONSULTATION

I. The Need for Consultation 1

Terms of Reference 1

Method of Inquiry 1

Existing Consultative Arrangements 2

The Need for Consultation 5

II. On Consultation 9

The Meaning of Consultation 9

A Model for Consultation - the VCCSD 12

The Prerequisites of Consultation 14

(a) Scope 14

(b) Goals 16

(c) Trust 17

(d) Continuity and Flexibility 17

(e) Openness of Discussion 18

(f) Concentrating on Real Issues 19

(g) Some Influence on Policy 20

(h) Suitably Representative Membership 21 (i) Availability of Resources 22

The Major Pitfalls 24

(i) Unrealistic Expectations 25

(ii) Tokenism 25

(iii) Politicking 27

III. Non-Government Organisations 29

Existing Arrangements for Consultation 29 The Difficulty of Obtaining Information 30 A Picture of the Non-Government Sector 32 National Organisations 36

The "Co-ordinating" Agencies 38

IV. Existing Consultative Arrangements with Non-Government Bodies 42

Present Arrangements 42

Consultative/Advisory Arrangements 43 Future Roles for Consultative/Advisory Arrangements 46

Consultation for Decision-making 49

Consultation in a Federal System The Complications of a Federal System 52 The Growing Interest in Consultation 54 Each Level of Government has Responsibilities 56

Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health

V. 52

(Vi)

VI. Roles in the Consultative Process 60

Commonwealth Officers 60

State Officers 64

Local Government Participants 65

Non-Government Participants 65

VII. Proposals for Commonwealth Consultative Arrangements 67

Consultation at Ministerial Level 67

Consultation at Official Level 68

- with States 69

- with Local Government 69

- with Non-Government Bodies 69

A National Consultative Council 70

Cost 73

National Non-Government Conference 74

PART 2 - THE CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT

VIII. Introductory - The Existing Situation 75

The Terms of Reference 75

The Existing Position 75

IX. The Need for New Machinery 78

How the Need Arises 78

Policy for Client Groups 80

Policy Analysis and Review 83

The Allocation of Resources 90

X. Should the New Machinery be Continuing? 92

XI. The Machinery Required 95

A Cabinet Committee on Social Development 96 A Standing Committee of Permanent Heads 97 Officer Level Support: Alternatives 99 1. A Ministry of Social Welfare/Development 99

2. A Single Welfare/Health Department 100 3. A Social Policy Unit 102

Scope ' 107

The Commonwealth to Speak with One Voice 108 Cost 111

Conclusion 112

PART 3 - THE TERRITORIES

XII. The Need for an Inquiry in the Territories 113

Background 113

The Existing Situation 113

The Need for an Inquiry 116

(vii)

ATTACHMENTS TO SECOND REPORT

Attachment Page

PART I

A. First Report - Summary of Findings and 120

Recommendations

B. Statement by the Prime Minister when tabling 128 the Report of the Committee on the Care of the Aged and the Infirm and the First Report of the Task Force - 17 February 1977

C. Report on Seminars 133

D. Task Force Discussion Paper No. 7 - Consultation 177

E„ Commonwealth Government Co-ordinating and 208 Consultative Arrangements

F. The Non-government Sector 261

G. List of Submissions to the Task Force 295

H. Cost of Selected Commonwealth and State Level 297 Consultative Arrangements

I. List of National Organisations in Health/Welfare/ 299 Community Development

PART II

J. Co-ordination of Social Policy - Recommendations 304 of Recent Commonwealth Inquiries

Ko Task Force Discussion Paper no. 6 - Co-ordination 320

(ix)

PREFACE

The Terms of Reference for the Task Force are -1. Against the background of the Government's Federalism policy and its concern at the proliferation and overlap of Commonwealth services and programs in the health, welfare

and community development fields, the Task Force shall examine and report on -(a) the identification of particular services and programs, currently being undertaken by the

Commonwealth, in the health, welfare and community development fields, which could be better delivered by a State, local government or voluntary agency and the administration of which could be transferred to the States;

(b) the possibilities for elimination of individual programs and consolidation into broader based programs in a manner which enables more efficient and economic delivery whether by the Commonwealth or the States,

and the establishment of appropriate consultative arrangements with the States, local government and voluntary agencies on future policy planning, administration and

service delivery in the health, welfare and community development fields;

(c) the possibility of achieving better co-ordination and avoiding overlap by more specific definitions of programs, eligible projects and eligible organisations, having

in mind that co-ordination could be effected at the State and local government level without Commonwealth involvement; and

(d) the continuing machinery which should be established to co-ordinate social policy development at the Commonwealth level.

2. The Task Force shall -include in its consideration available analyses and recommendations arising from other inquiries including the Commission of Inquiry into Poverty, the Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, the Administrative Review Committee, and the Committee on Care of the Aged

and the Infirm; and

(a)

(X)

(b) take account of views expressed by consumer groups and voluntary agencies, noting the Government's support of the concept of maximum realistic community participation in health/ welfare programs funded by the Commonwealth.

2. In our First Report we concentrated on the aspects of

our terms of reference which were concerned with changes in the

locus of administration/delivery of certain Commonwealth

programs in the fields of health, welfare and community

development. This involved following up paragraphs 1 (a) to (c)

of the terms of reference, except in relation to the reference

in paragraph (b) to consultative arrangements. A summary of the

findings and recommendations in our First Report is set out in

Attachment A.

3. We have divided this report into three parts, in which

we examine and make recommendations on -Part I: consultative arrangements with the States, local government and voluntary agencies (paragraph (b) of the terms of reference);

Part II: the need for continuing machinery to co-ordinate social policy development (paragraph (d) of the terms of reference);

Part III: the need for an inquiry in the Territories.

4. The time between presentation of our First and Second

Reports has been substantial. This was in large part related

to the appointment of our Chairman as leader of the Commonwealth

Follow-up Group for the First Report, in relation to which he

was fully occupied between February and June. The background is

set out in Attachment B , which reproduces the statement of the

Prime Minister in the House of Representatives on 17 February 1977.

5. We resumed our inquiries in late June and this report

is the outcome. Although we have to some extent been influenced

by the outcome of discussions relating to our First Report, we

consider that whether or not our First Report proposals are adopted, there is a need for consultative arrangements along the

lines recommended in Part I; and we are equally convinced that

improved machinery is necessary for co-ordination at the national

(xi)

level of social policy development, along the lines recommended in Part II.

CO-OPERATION

We record here our gratitude to the very many people

and organisations who made such significant contributions to

our work, in many cases well beyond the ordinary call of duty.

In this we include members of the non-government organisations,

local government councillors and officers (who also provided

venues for our seminars), and officers from State and Commonwealth departments and agencies. Without their assistance

this report would not have been possible. Though we are responsible for the outcome, they have helped us greatly.

We add, too, thanks to our small staff, mostly changed

between this and the first leg of our inquiry. These are our hard-working and effective secretary, Mr Bernie Ayers; our two

continuing and effective researchers Mr John Simpson and Mrs Claudia Leslie; Miss Libby Lucas and Ms Carolyn Stuart who

joined us for particular stages of the inquiry; Mr Mark Johnston

who assisted particularly with Part 2; and our invaluable and patient steno-secretaries Miss Jan Robinson and Mrs Hilda Carter

and their reliefs Miss Roslyn Tassaker and Miss Jenny Hodgson.

(xiii)

SUMMARY OF REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS

PART I - CONSULTATION

The Need. Commonwealth departments have in operation no

less than 189 consultative arrangements involving people

outside Commonwealth departments, of which some 109 are of

a consultative/advisory nature. The remaining 80

arrangements have recommending/decision-making functions

(paragraphs 11, 93, 107). In addition, there are a great

many informal consultative arrangements (paragraphs 8-9) .

Despite the large number of consultative arrangements, there is no body which has a broad-ranging consultative

function concerned with the health/welfare/community

development field as a whole (paragraph 13). There is a

need for a body with these functions, to recognise the role

of non-government organisations, to assist officers to keep

in touch with emerging concepts and to promote co-operation

(paragraph 15).

Commonwealth arrangements with the States are reasonably

adequate, but are deficient in relation to local government (paragraphs 16, 17-18). A more systematic approach than

exists at present is desirable for consultation with non­ government organisations (paragraph 19).

The Meaning of Consultation. The Task Force sees

consultation as a self-contained process as well as being

part of advisory, recommending and decision-making

processes. It is relevant to planning, administration and service delivery; promotes the sharing of information, the pinpointing of needs and the narrowing of options; and

identifies needs for evaluation, review and action.

Consultation is concerned with influence but does not involve the exercise of power (paragraphs 24-27).

(xiv)

5. A Model For Consultation. We commend as a model the

Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development

(VCCSD), a body which practises the art of consultation

over a broad field. The VCCSD participants are roughly

equally drawn from non-government organisations (8), from

State/local government (7) and from the Commonwealth (5)

(paragraphs 29-31).

6. Effective Consultation. The Task Force has identified as

essential for the development of effective consultative processes -. clear definition of goals (paragraphs 36-38) . the development of trust (paragraph 39)

. continuity of attendance and adaptability (paras. 40-42) . openness of discussion (paragraphs 42-43) . discussion of real issues (paragraphs 44 - 45) ’

. influence on policy and action (paragraphs 46-48) . representativeness of participants (paragraphs 49-51) . provision of adequate resources (paragraphs 52-56).

It is also important to avoid the major pitfalls associated with consultative processes - unrealistic expectations as

to outcomes (paragraph 58), tokenism (paragraphs 59-60)

and politicking (paragraphs 61-63).

7. Non-Government Organisations. Non-government organisations

and agencies active in health/welfare/community development,

of which there are at least 15,000 throughout Australia

(possibly four times as many) make a contribution so.

important that effective consultation with them is

essential (paragraphs 72 -75).

8. Inadequate information is available about the activities

of non-government organisations. It is needed to provide

a sounder basis for planning, improved administration, a

basis for evaluation, and a guide to consultation. Action

which is being taken to improve the accuracy and coverage

of information should be supported and facilitated by the

Commonwealth (paragraphs 76-78).

(xv)

9. National Non-Government Organisations. The rate of growth

of national non-government organisations is probably

somewhat excessive at the moment and is associated with expectations of Commonwealth interest and support. It is

recommended that a national conference of national non­

government organisations be called to discuss mutual

problems and work out how best to provide members for the

proposed National Consultative Council (paragraphs 79-84, and see also paragraphs 85-92 as to styles of organisation).

10. National Consultative Council. The Task Force recommends

the establishment of a National Consultative Council which

would -. be modelled on the VCCSD . have about 25 members . have a balance in membership of the relevant parties

(Commonwealth departments, States, local government, non-government bodies, the mainland Territories and some nominees) . be associated with the social policy unit (see item 27

infra)

. have power to appoint standing committees or working groups . meet 3 - 4 times a year in Sydney, Melbourne or Canberra . be reviewed after 2 - 3 years.

(paragraphs 156-159).

11. The Commonwealth should not establish its own consultative arrangements at State and local levels but should seek

involvement in arrangements developed by States and at

sub-State levels (paragraphs 119-123).

12. Consultation at Ministerial Level. There is no need for major change in the now well-established consultative

arrangements for meetings of Commonwealth and State Ministers holding like portfolios in health, welfare and

community development fields, but acceptance should be given in principle to meetings of Ministers of different

portfolios when a suitable subfeat emerges. The maximum exchange of information about proceedings of Ministerial

meetings should be undertaken (paragraphs 145-147) .

(xvi)

Consultation at Official Level. Consultative/advisory

arrangements developed by the different Commonwealth

departments have somewhat different emphases, and there is

a tendency for advisory bodies to run into difficulties in

their relations with "parent" departments and Ministers

(paragraphs 97-100, 153). The proposed National

Consultative Council and its sub-committees and working

parties should reduce the need for separate advisory

bodies having a fairly general role, but specialist advisory

arrangements will continue to be necessary (paragraphs

102-106, 153).

Consultative arrangements with a recommending/decision­

making function have been developed most effectively by .

the Department of Health. More systematic consideration

needs to be given by the other departments in the field

to bringing outside expertise into consultation, and

regular review of the arrangements is desirable

(paragraphs 107-112, 149, 154).

Consultation with States. A substantial number of the

Commonwealth's consultative arrangements involve the

States, and in general the arrangements seem to be

reasonably adequate. They would be improved if the program

grants proposed in our First Report are introduced

(paragraphs 15, 111-112, 151).

Consultation with Local Government. There is little

participation by local government in existing Commonwealth

consultative arrangements and consideration needs to be

given to including local government more often (paragraphs

16-18, 152).

Roles in the Consultative Process. The role of Commonwealth

officers in the national consultative processes recommended

by the Task Force (see item 10 supra) is vital. It is

recommended that officers participate in the national process, not as individuals but on the clear understanding

(xvii)

that they speak from within the context of their

departmental experience and without commitment to future

actions of the department (paragraphs 130-134). The roles of Commonwealth officers are outlined in paragraph 135:

it is suggested that they might be normative in relation to the roles of State Government officers and of local

government and non-government participants (paragraphs 136-143).

PART 2 - CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT

18. The Need. There is no existing continuing machinery for

the development of social policy covering the broad

spectrum of the health, welfare and community development

fields, despite numerous interdepartmental consultative

or co-ordinating arrangements (paragraphs 166-168). While

there are formal and informal co-operative and

co-ordinating mechanisms, these do not extend to the

continuing and detailed development of social policy as a whole (paragraph 169).

19. However well departments co-operate, there are aspects of

social policy development which cannot effectively be handled without new machinery of a continuing nature (paragraphs 170-174, 199-204).

20. First, departments are not able to develop an effectively co-ordinated policy for client groups whose needs extend

beyond the functions of any one department (paragraphs

175-177). Unless there is adequate machinery to co-ordinate the development of policy for client groups -

likely to be an increasingly marked feature of the health/

welfare/community development fields in coming years - existing programs are unlikely to be effectively used and

significant gaps or duplications in service delivery will

tend to occur (paragraphs 178-181).

(xviii)

21. Second, a continuing application of resources to policy

analysis and review in the social policy field is necessary

if the most effective use is to be made of available

resources. These activities will require research across

the field as a whole (an activity individual departments

cannot readily undertake) and also more carefully planned

collection of information and statistics (paragraphs 180-194).

22. Third, the most difficult decisions in health/welfare/

community development revolve around the alloeation of

resources. The surest way to achieve co-ordinated policy

would be to vest, in the one body, responsibility for

allocation of resources and social policy development

(paragraphs 195-198 and 217-218).

23. Continuing Machinery. The Task Force sees continuing

machinery as being necessary to meet the needs and

deficiencies outlined in items 18-22 supra and to discharge

the functions summarised in paragraph 198 (paragraphs 199-204).

24. The Social Policy Field. In order to make any new machinery

effective in the development of co-ordinated social policy,

the Task Force recommends that the Cabinet make an initial

policy determination to the effect that the social policy

field (health/welfare/community development) should be

taken as a whole for purposes of consultation and the

development of policy (paragraphs 205-207).

25. Cabinet Committee on Social Development. The Task Force

recommends the appointment of a Cabinet Committee on Social

Development comprising the relevant Ministers and chaired

by a senior Minister not in the field. The Committee might

well meet on an ad hoc basis and could if desired be given

decision-making powers (paragraphs 209-211).

(xix)

26. Standing Committee of Permanent Heads. A standing

committee of the relevant permanent heads should be

available on a flexible basis to assist in the

co-ordination of social policy development by advising

the proposed Cabinet Committee on Social Development and

by supervising the work of the officer level support

group we propose in the following recommendation (paragraphs 212-216).

27. Officer Level Support. After reviewing the alternatives

of a new Ministry of Social Welfare along the lines

proposed by the Royal Commission on Australian Government

Administration, and the establishment of a single Welfare/

Health Department, the Task Force suggests that as a

minimum response, a social policy unit, preferably located

in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, be appointed for an initial period of say 2 - 3 years (after

which there would be a review) (paragraphs 217-222, 240).

The new unit would -. be small (10-20 officers) . be staffed largely by rotation . use Task Force and short-term project methods . have a degree of independence in operation

. emphasise co-operative co-ordination . support the proposed Cabinet Committee on Social Development and standing committee of Permanent Heads

(paragraphs 222-223) .

28. If a larger response than the unit proposed in item 27

supra is felt to be desirable, the Task Force considers

the appointment of a Minister and Department of Social Welfare (or Development) along the lines set out in

paragraphs 217-218 would be the best alternative.

29. In addition to the functions listed in item 27 supra,

the social policy unit (and more so the Social Welfare

Minister and Department - item 28 supra) could assist the Commonwealth to speak with one voice in areas where this is at present difficult: in relations with States,

in matters of international concern, in the support of

(xx)

across-the-fieId. research and in relation to the proposed

National Consultative Council (paragraphs 234-238).

PART 3 - THE TERRITORIES

30. The Present Position. Evidence was given to the Task Force

that the administration and delivery of health/welfare/

community development programs in the Australian Capital

Territory and the Northern Territory are complex and

confusing, and lack machinery for co-ordination

(paragraphs 242-251).

31. An Inquiry. The Task Force has concluded that the

situation in the two mainland Territories is sufficiently

complex to warrant thorough inquiry. We recommend· a

review of the position at an early date, in which the

non-government organisations should be involved. The

object of the review would be to recommend ways of

providing consultative mechanisms, and of simplifying,

co-ordinating and rationalising the development of

policy and the activities of administration and service

delivery in the Australian Capital Territory and the

Northern Territory (paragraphs 252-257).

MAIN FEATURES OF PROPOSALS FOR CONSULTATION AND CO-ORDINATION

National Consultation on Health, Welfare and Community Development (Part I of Report)

Commonwealth Officers

Local

Government Members

State Officers

NATIONAL CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL

Non­

Government Members

Territory Members

Nominated Members

Co-ordination of Commonwealth Social Policy Development (Part II of Report)

MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE

PERMANENT HEADS COMMITTEE

Social Policy Unit

COMMONWEALTH DEPARTMENTS

PART I - CONSULTATION

1 .

I * THE NEED FOR CONSULTATION

Terms of Reference

This Part of our report is concerned with paragraph

1 (b) of our terms of reference, which requires us to examine and report on -" (b) ...the establishment of appropriate consultative arrangements with the States, local government and

voluntary agencies on future policy planning, administration and service delivery in the health, welfare and community development fields".

Method of Inquiry

2. We decided that the only effective way to determine

whether some new processes of consultation are desirable, and what form they should take, would be to consult as many as

possible of those who might in some way or other be involved

in the new processes.

3. In the course of preparing our First Report we found that, on issues of general rather than particular interest, we

obtained better results by discussion with groups than by arranging one-to-one interviews in a "hearing" style.

Accordingly, we decided to invite anyone interested to attend

a series of seminars which we proposed in each State capital.

In the end, we held 13 seminars in the States and a seminar for a selected group of national organisations in Canberra.

These involved over 200 people, representing more than 300

non-government organisations, and both local government associations and particular local authorities. We have set out

in Attachment C a report on these seminars on consultation. The

Discussion Paper which formed the basis for the seminars is

reproduced at Attachment D.

4. In addition, we asked departments in the health/

welfare/community development fields to list for us all their formal consultative arrangements. The results are shown, together

2.

with an analysis, in Attachment E.

5. Finally, we decided we should seek the assistance of

State-level and national-level non-government organisations

active in health/welfare/community development by advising us

how they perform their functions on behalf of their member

organisations. We felt it important to obtain this information

to provide a basis for considering how best the Commonwealth

could improve its arrangements for consulting with non­

government organisations. To this end, we asked 183

organisations to complete a questionnaire, and express our

thanks to the 98 organisations who responded. An analysis

of the responses to the questionnaire is included in

Attachment F, and its implications are considered in Chapter

III. '

6. We record immediately our thanks to the many people

and organisations who have helped us in clarifying our thinking

and developing proposals about consultative arrangements; who

have provided us with information in response to questions or

questionnaires; and who have prepared submissions for us. A

list of those who attended our seminars is appended to Attachment C, and a list of those who prepared submissions or

wrote to us is set out in Attachment G. Without their

assistance, we could not have written a report based so much on

what we believe to have been a generally emerging pattern of

thinking.

Existing Consultative Arrangements 7. The first question to be answered is whether there is

a need for further consultation between Commonwealth departments

and the community.

8. We are aware that a great deal of informal,

unstructured consultation takes place within and between departments, and with State officers, representatives of non­

government organisations and, less frequently, with

representatives of local government. In many ways this kind of

consultation is the most desirable. It is purposive and

3.

free-flowing, has a high degree of flexibility, and is

normally seen by the parties as mutually beneficial. Nothing

we say below should be read as detracting from the value of

these informal consultative processes. They are part and

parcel of all good administration, and should be maintained and used wherever possible.

9. Nevertheless, there is also a place for consultative

arrangements of a more structured nature. Informal

arrangements can lapse when the particular individuals involved

move on, can founder on disagreements, and can be felt by those

not included to be exclusive and to give an unfair advantage to

those "within the circle". They may be inappropriate where formal outcomes are sought, they tend to be transient, and

they can become unmanageable if the numbers involved are

substantial. It is with this more structured area of

consultative activity with the community that the remainder

of our report is primarily concerned.

10. In response to our inquiries (see paragraph 4)

departments with functions in the health/welfare/community

development fields indicated that there are in existence some 300 consultative arrangements. These range from Ministerial Councils through committees involving State, non-government or local government bodies to inter-departmental and even intra-

departmental arrangements. (A complete list appears in

Attachment E.) It might be thought that, with all of these,

there would be no need for further machinery - indeed, that the movement should be towards pruning and rationalising rather than

extending the existing machinery.

11. Examining these 300 consultative arrangements a little

more closely, it emerges that no less than 189 involve people "outside" Commonwealth departments. It is with these "outside" arrangements, their adequacy and their shortcomings, that this

report is primarily concerned. In the following table, we

summarise the position:

4.

Departmental Consultative Arrangements with ''Outside Bodies (As at 31 October 1977)

Aboriginal Affairs 15

Environment, Housing and Community Development 11 Health 85

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs 15

Social Security 31

Veterans' Affairs 32

189

Of the 189 consultative arrangements, some 109 are of a

consultative/advisory nature. That is, they involve discussion,

information-exchange and in many cases an element of advice, but

not to the extent that their advice must necessarily, or even

virtually always, be sought before a decision is taken on some

issue relevant to the consultative group.

12. Despite this large number of consultative

arrangements, many of those who attended our seminars have said

they find it difficult to make effective contact with officials;

that they are deprived of any satisfactory input in terms of

planning; and that in some cases their potential contribution

and role does not seem to be fully understood.

13. Part of the answer seems to be that there is no body

which has a broad ranging consultative function concerned with

the health/welfare/community dev elopment field as a whole. With

the exception of the National Consultative Council on Social

Welfare, which is advisory to the Minister for Social Security,

the State and Territory Consultative Committees on Social

Welfare, which are advisory to the Director-General of Social Security, and the National Health Services Advisory Committee,

which is advisory to the Minister for Health and the Hospitals

and Health Services Commission, the arrangements are mostly

constituted so as to relate either to particular programs or

to particular client groups. Characteristically, the consultative arrangements tend to be program-related, client-

related, or a mixture of both.

5.

14. Program-related arrangements are valuable, e.g. the Commonwealth/State Rehabilitation Committees (two States), the

Joint Pathology Working Party, the Central Office (Veterans'

Affairs) Advisory Committee on Artificial Limbs and Surgical

Appliances, and they often include representatives from

departments with related program responsibilities. Client-group

related arrangements also serve a valuable purpose, e.g. the National Advisory Council for the Handicapped (NACH), the

National Tuberculosis Advisory Council and Shelter, in that

they overview a number of programs from the vantage point of a

particular target group. Target or client groups present problems of particular difficulty in health/welfare/community

development, as we point out in Part 2, Chapter IX. However,

neither type of arrangement has as part of its charter a broad

responsibility for policy or administrative overview and, as we

indicate in Chapter IV, the existing general bodies tend to be

advisory rather than consultative in nature and not to have a

large degree of legitimacy with the non-government and local

government sectors.

The Need for Consultation 15. We have identified four main reasons for considering

that improved consultative arrangements are desirable in the health/welfare/community development fields -(a) the non-government organisations play a much larger

part in the total spectrum of service provision in

these fields than is usually recognised, and in addition have available to them people with skills

which are in short supply and often not available

within the public service - see Chapter III for an

account of the non-government sector; (b) although it is becoming trite to say so, the fact is that rapid changes are taking place in our community:

and it is of great importance that those in the public service involved in health/welfare/community

6.

development should keep closely in touch with thinking

in the community at large, and particularly with

thinking that extends beyond the sector of non­

government activity with which they in their

functional departments are primarily related - though

this should be to supplement rather than in any way

supplant the traditional and important lines which run

through Parliament and Ministers to the public service?

(c) there is an increasing demand in the sections of the

community concerned with providing services in health,

welfare and community development for better access to

the public service so that they can be kept more in

contact with thinking at administrative and policy ·

levels and contribute to the formulation of lines of

action;

(d) as activities in the health/welfare/community

development fields grow and become more precisely

focused, there is an ever increasing need for

co-ordination of the efforts of Commonwealth and State

Governments, of local government and of the non­

government sector if waste, duplication, overlap and

even competition are to be avoided: there is at

present no adequate way of achieving this at national

level., .

16. Consultation with the States, which normally takes

place in the context of the decision-making processes, seems to

be reasonably adequate, though with some room for improvement as

discussed in Chapters V and VI. In addition to specific machinery related to particular programs, there are numerous

broad-based Ministerial Committees and Councils, of which the

Health Ministers' Conference is the most developed. These are

well suited to maintaining general oversight of the separate

fields and arranging for consultation on specific matters as

they emerge. Consultative arrangements with the States will be

strengthened if the program grant arrangements we recommended

7.

in our First Report are adopted, because co-operative decision­ making processes are an integral part of the proposed program

grants. They will also be strengthened if the recommendation

we make for ad hoc meetings of Ministers on a broader basis

is adopted - see Chapter VII, paragraphs 146-147.

17. We have had many discussions with representatives of

local government. They have endorsed the comments in our First Report (paragraphs 55-60) that local government is emerging as

an important centre for co-ordinating and stimulating action at

local levels in the community in health/welfare/community

development. At this point of time, it is not possible to

indicate generally the roles every local government in Australia

might assume. On the other hand, we are satisfied that, even

over the period of our inquiry, there has been a marked increase

in interest and in the extent to which careful thought has been

given by local governments to their roles in these important fields. We consider local government to be a vital element in

consultation, as will be seen from our recommendations in

Chapter VII, and we are confident that the coming years will

see an increasingly valuable contribution by growing numbers of

local authorities.

18. We draw attention to the virtual non-participation of

local government in the 189 consultative arrangements Commonwealth departments have with "outside" bodies. Only one

is with local government exclusively. It relates to Regional Organisations of Councils (No. 54 in Attachment E).

There are only three other arrangements in which local government

participates. These are the State and Northern Territory

Consultative Committees on Social Welfare and the six State Homeless Persons Advisory Committees - both arrangements associated with the Department of Social Security - and

the Steering Committee of the Local Government Ministers' Conference which is associated with the Department of

Environment, Housing and Community Development (No. 44 in Attachment E). To some extent, this is a product of the past

lack of interest of local government in health/welfare

8.

community development matters. We recommend that, in the light

of local government's growing interest and activities in these

matters, consideration be given to including local government

representation in more of the Commonwealth's consultative

arrangements.

19. Our overall conclusion is that there is need for a

more systematic approach to consultation with non-government

organisations than exists at present. There is also some need

for review of existing consultative arrangements not including

local government and non-government bodies. In the remainder

of our report we -. set out our analysis of the essential ingredients of consultation (Chapter II); ,

. give grounds for considering the non-government sector to be an important but somewhat neglected element in the consultative process (Chapter III);

. review existing consultative arrangements with the non-government sector (Chapter IV);

. consider the implications of our federal system for the respective responsibilities in the consultative process of government and non-government organisations (Chapter V); . outline roles for the members (particularly

Commonwealth officers) of the consultative processes (Chapter VI);

. make recommendations for new broad purpose consultative arrangements at the national level (Chapter VII).

9.

11· ON CONSULTATION

The Meaning of Consultation

20. Our terms of reference require us to make

recommendations about "consultative arrangements with the States,

local government and voluntary agencies". It soon became

apparent that there are widely differing views about what

constitutes "consultation". It can range from fairly informal

ad hoc meetings between people which have no particular purpose

and are probably more in the nature of "getting to know you"

encounters, to the structured style of consultation associated

with medical specialists, where the client seeks the advice of

the consultant physician and in the normal course treats it as

entirely authoritative and self-contained. It can, in departmental interpretations, range from activities forming an

integral part of the decision-making process to the kind of consultative activity embodied in the Victorian Consultative

Committee on Social Development (see Attachment D, Annexure H for details).

21. We examined the 300 consultative arrangements listed

for us by departments in response to our requests (see

Attachment E) to see whether they shed any light on the meaning of "consultation". Eliminating as not directly relevant to this part of our report the 111 or so arrangements not involving

"outside" individuals or bodies, this left us with some 189

arrangements to examine. With the assistance of departments,

which we gratefully acknowledge, we analysed each of these

arrangements to ascertain whether they could be categorised

rather more closely than simply as "consultative".

22. What emerged from the analysis was that the 189

"outside" consultative arrangements can be divided reasonably satisfactorily into two major groups: those having consultative

or advisory type functions and those having recommending or

decision-making functions (see table in paragraph 93)- These two categories are consistent with current discussions about

participation which see a spectrum of involvement ranging from

10.

merely token forms of intimation to an active and integral part

in the making of executive decisions. .

23. In view of the general assumption that there is littlej

participation in the sense of direct "outside" involvement in J

the decision-making processes, we were surprised to discover i

that more than one third of the 189 arrangements had recommending/!

decision-making functions (we had expected them to be largely of 1

the consultative/advisory type).

24. We discussed in our seminars, and with others j

interested, whether the phrase "consultative arrangements" in our

terms of reference should apply to all the 189 arrangements

identified in the previous paragraph. The generally agreed , !

conclusion is that all the arrangements involve consultation

in some degree. However, aonsultation seems to us to be a

self-eontained process in itself, as well as to be a part, often

a desirable part, of advisory, recommending and decision-making j

processes. For reasons which will become apparent, it is

desirable to emphasise the distinctiveness and value of the

consultative element. This interpretation of the meaning of

consultation, incidentally, accords with that of the Oxford j

Dictionary, which defines it as the act of consulting,

deliberation and conference. It does not necessarily involve j

decision-making, the making of recommendations or even the ;

preparation of advice. Indeed, once it does, the position of

departmental officers, whose role is to advise and recommend,

becomes extremely difficult. Almost inevitably, they have to dissociate themselves from the body, or reserve their position,

and at once the consultative link is broken. The parties cease

to contribute on an equal basis, with the government group

listening and the other groups contributing - a hearing or

advisory process rather than a consultation.

25. If it is accepted that consultation is, and to a

considerable degree needs to be, an activity in .its own right, it

follows that consultative arrangements (as in our terms of

reference) can be envisaged that are distinct from advisory

11.

and decision-making processes in which consultation is or should

be an element. In the real world, these activities are often

associated with consultation, but our point is that the

consultative aspects will not be well done unless certain

principles, which we discuss in the following sections of this chapter, are adhered to. Consultation is not simply an inferior

part of a "ladder of participation" but has its own rules for

success, its own goals and its own justification. Through

consultation important information can be shared; needs can be

pinpointed; the range of options to meet any particular purpose

can be narrowed; the need for evaluation or review of policies

or programs can be assessed; and there can be identification of requirements for action. '

26. Consultative processes not requiring in addition the

discharge of advisory/recommending/decision-making functions can

be developed to cover a wider range of activity, and this is the

basis of our recommendation (paragraphs 155-162) for a broad

purpose national consultative body. We see it as covering each of the three elements mentioned in our terms of reference - policy

planning, administration and service delivery - and to operate in such a way that it is influential, but not in a formal fashion.

Consultation in relation to planning is important because of the high degree of sophistication of thought and experience

available in the community which the public service should

make every effort to tap (see paragraphs 15 and 75).

Consultation is important in relation to administration, because so much more can be done, and often more economically

and personally, by non-government organisations, and local

authorities, than by either Commonwealth or State public services. Further, administration is never effective unless

roles and objectives are clear. Where several groups are operating in the same field, it is important to have means of

checking out what each is doing and of reconciling any divergencies that may appear. Consultation about service

delivery is also important, because this is the nub of all programs. It is only through consultation that really good

12

service, which also avoids unnecessary duplication and minimises

confusion to the client, can be given.

27. It may help to conclude this note on the meaning of

consultation by indicating briefly what it is not. It is not an

activity directly linked to the decision-making process,

although one of its objects is to extend and develop the

thinking of those who make decisions. It is not designed to

allocate resources, although it may discuss such issues. It is

not designed to be advisory to any one person or officer,

although it may at times decide to send advice to such a person.

Rather, its object is to bring together, and to illuminate the

perceptions of the participants, each of whom will have his or

her own responsibilities for action. It is not designed to be a

pressure group, except insofar as the exchange of information:

and well-based views leads to compelling conclusions. It is,

in short, a process facilitating open discussion, careful

deliberation and effective conference. But, as we indicate in

paragraphs 46-48, it will need to have some influence on

administrative and policy issues if it is to be meaningful.

Consultation is concerned with influence but does not involve

the exercise of power.

A Model for Consultation - the VCCSD

28. It might be felt that our definition of consultation,

while didactic, is not relevant to the practical needs of day

to day administration. We disagree. Many of the deficiencies

in current policy, administration and service delivery could

have been reduced or eliminated if there had been rather more

consultation of the kind we have described. Moreover, there

does exist, in the form of the Victorian Consultative Committee

on Social Development (VCCSD), a working body which practises,

over a broad field, the art of consultation as we have defined

it (see Attachment D, Annexure H for details).

29. The VCCSD grew out of a need seen in the early 1970's

for the Commonwealth Department of Social Security in Victoria,

the Victoriah Department of Social Welfare and the Victorian

13.

Council of Social Service to consult together on matters of mutual interest. This informal arrangement developed in 1974

into the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development

which consists of 20 representatives. The participants are

roughly equally drawn from non-government organisations (8), from State/local government (7) and from the Commonwealth (5).

It includes the Municipal Association of Victoria (MAV), which was

a party to the creation of the Committee in 1974. The

emphasis in the VCCSD is on consultation along the lines we

have defined. It is essentially a forum for regular (two

monthly) exchange of information and ideas on social planning

and development. It aims to facilitate the sharing of expertise between federal, state, local government and non-government

welfare agencies to achieve a common objective of social

development in Victoria. In the course of its work the VCCSD regularly reaches conclusions or formulates recommendations

which are brought to the notice of the appropriate authorities.

30. We suggest that the VCCSD should become the model

for broad purpose consultative arrangements at Commonwealth,

State and sub-State levels. When we suggest that VCCSD become

the model for broad purpose consultations, we do not mean that

it should be regarded as a stereotype, to be slavishly followed.

Indeed, the VCCSD is itself in a process of continuing

evaluation, adaptation and change. As with the administrative arrangements associated with the Community Health Program,

which we suggested should be a model for the program grant

arrangements recommended in our First Report, so in the

procedures and processes developed by the VCCSD we see

incorporated the main elements in successful consultation.

These are an understood scope; defined goals; trust; continuity associated with flexibility of operation; openness of discussion; concentrating on real issues; some influence on policy; a

suitably representative membership; and the availability of

appropriate resources.

31. These prerequisites for the operation of a

successful consultative process emerged from our seminars on

14.

consultation. We found that although reservations were

sometimes expressed about the viability of "pure" consultative

processes, discussion among the seminar participants usually

resulted in agreement that the consultative process is an

activity worthwhile in itself, and that some development of

the process is desirable provided only that the prerequisites

are complied with. We now discuss each of these in turn.

The Prerequisites of Consultation

32* In what follows, we describe the main elements in

a successful consultative process. We propose, as described in

more detail in Chapter VII, the establishment of a national

consultative body for the health/welfare/community development

field based on the VCCSD model. But the essential elements in

a consultative process need to apply even where it is associated

with advisory, recommending or decision-making processes. We

recommend that the consultative aspects of arrangements with

these functions be reviewed with these elements in mind.

33.. (a) Scope. A question raised in many of our seminars

was whether the health/welfare/community development fields

constitute an area that is either too wide or too narrow for

the most effective form of consultation. Many organisations,

and particularly those representing the aged and the handicapped,

pressed for specialised consultative forums in which the many

needs of these groups could be assessed and reviewed. On some

occasions, the suggestion was made that no broad consultative

mechanism was necessary: all that was required was a series of

specific arrangements for consultation. However, the general

view, with which we agree, was that specialised consultative

arrangements need to be associated with consultative

arrangements with broader scope if there is to be adequate

sorting out of priorities and appreciation of the potential of

action in one field to affect people in another field.

34. Another point put to us with some force is that

the health/weIfare/community development field is not self-

contained. Increasingly, it is becoming apparent that action in

15.

the economic area - in relation to taxation, tariffs, industry

support and so on - has very important implications for health/

welfare/community development. Accordingly, there was some

thought that any consultative mechanism should extend more

broadly to cover economic interests. We accept the point that

action by governments or others in the economic, employment and even defence fields can have significant implications for

welfare. But we consider the links and implications need to be

identified, explored and acted upon by machinery outside the

broad purpose consultative arrangements we envisage. In these

matters, we shall be suggesting in Part 2 of this report

(paragraphs 222-230) a new unit that will have a responsibility for raising matters such as this for consideration. It is our

view that consultation covering the health/welfare/community development field would make sense in itself and an

important contribution to the development of policy and the

improvement of administration and service delivery.

35. Finally, it needs to be determined whether the consultation should be related to planning, to administration or to service delivery. For reasons we have already mentioned, the

broad purpose consultative processes we envisage should be such

as to allow issues in any of these fields to be raised.

However, basing ourselves on experience with the VCCSD,

consideration of future plans and possibilities is probably

the area in which, at least at the beginning, consultation

would be most effective. Attention might be concentrated on

sharing information about the -plans and hopes of each of the main groups - the Commonwealth, the States, local government

and non-government groups. Discussion of questions of

administration could well become somewhat threatening, and it

may be that issues of this kind are best left until the consultative process has become well established. Issues relating to service delivery could emerge as being quite

important for a national consultation, but it could be

preferable to avoid discussion of matters associated with the funding of particular organisations (see also paragraph 62).

16.

36. (b) Goals. It became clear from the seminars that

possibly the most important elements in a good consultative

process are a clear definition of goals (or desired outcomes),

and a continuing commitment to those goals. We have outlined

in some detail in Attachment C (see especially paragraphs 59-64) the main outcomes which can be achieved through the consultative

process. Although not all of these will necessarily apply in

relation to each matter discussed, these can be summarised as -. exchange of information

. clarification of positions

. exposure and analysis of -consumer needs policy deficiencies administrative arrangements service delivery problems ,

. influence on planning, policy formulation and decision-making . informal co-ordination of activities

37. There is at present no machinery by which the

Commonwealth is able to obtain the inputs which broad purpose

consultation with the scope and goals described above would

achieve. In Chapter VII we recommend the establishment of

national consultative arrangements for this purpose. Here, we

express our view, based on many hours of discussion and our own

research and deliberations, that the development and review of

policy and programs in the health/welfare/community development

fields, and the effectiveness of their administration and

delivery, would be greatly enhanced by the establishment of

the broad purpose national consultative arrangements we propose.

38. We recognise that broad purpose consultative arrangements of the kind outlined above may not always serve

effectively as innovatory, "ginger group" bodies. We see these

bodies as usually needing to have specific terms of reference

and a limited life - essentially, to be of task force style.

The inspiration for the establishment of these special task force type operations could emerge from the consultative process,

or it could emerge from needs perceived by Ministers or

departments.

17.

39. (c) Trust. An essential ingredient in the

consultative process is trust. Without it, the freedom of

discussion and the exchange of information which are vital

elements in consultation will not occur effectively. Indeed,

there is a vicious circle which, if not broken by adequate

information flows and exchanges, can reduce the level of trust

and thus ultimately lead to frustration of the consultative process.

40. (d) Continuity and Flexibility. Continuity of

membership and regularity of meetings, are of great importance

to a successful consultative process. It is only as people

begin to know and trust each other better, and to understand

the contribution they can make to the consultative process,

that the necessary mutual confidence can be developed. Although

there was some division of views on the subject, most people

considered that a broad purpose consultative arrangement

would be most effective if the use of proxies was avoided

wherever possible. People should only accept appointment if

they can give the necessary time. If the subject matter becomes too specialised, then the preferable course is to

remit it to a sub-committee rather than bring experts to sit in

for the normal members - though there could be occasions when

the consultative body could usefully agree to invite experts for a particular discussion. In several seminars the point

was made that reasonable frequency of meetings is important,

and that the meetings need to last for a substantial period - usually more than one day - if the desirable levels of continuity, and adequate exchanges between the members, are

to be achieved. These points are taken into account in our proposals in Chapter VII.

41. Consultation is a free-flowing form of association.

As such, attempts should not be made to restrict its form too

tightly. Over the three years of its existence, the VCCSD has

experienced significant developments both in style and in membership. The same process is likely to occur in any new consultative arrangements. Not only must time be allowed for

18.

changes to take place, there must also be an acceptance that

when the consensus is towards change, it should in the normal

course be accepted. Consultation is not some kind of command

performance where an expert (or inexpert) group of public

servants, summons others to their presence and gives (or

requests) advice. Rather, it is an association of equals,

all of whom stand to gain from the consultative process and all

of whom are capable of contributing to it. At the same time,

we are aware that the VCCSD has developed some quite firm rules

of procedure and a fairly well clarified set of expectations

which participants have of each other. We see these as

essential, and urge that they be an important ingredient in

the early meetings of the new consultative body.

42. (e) Openness of Discussion. In several seminars it

was suggested that any freedom of information legislation should

cover the broad purpose consultative processes proposed by the

Task Force. The object of these suggestions was to ensure that

each member, and particularly public servants, attending a

consultation be authorised to make the maximum disclosure of

information. While it is natural that those representing

departments will on occasions wish (or need) to withhold

information, our view is that the nexus of trust and understanding developed in the course of the consultative

process should be sufficient to enable large disclosure

of information without the undesirable consequences which public

servants fear. Indeed, an effectively working consultative

forum should allow sensitive problems to be aired and

sympathetically discussed, and solutions canvassed, in a way

beneficial to all concerned, and particularly the departmental

officers.

43. Unless there is substantially complete disclosure

of information held by all the parties to a consultation, it

may be preferable not to hold the consultation at all. The need

to allow departmental officers substantial latitude in disclosing

information is one of the reasons leading us to suggest that the

broad purpose consultative arrangement we propose be not

19.

advisory to any particular Minister or Ministers. This at once

places officers of the department or departments in a difficult

position, because they have not only to participate in the

consultation but to cope with its formal advisory role. The

better course is to have a consultation to which all parties

are committed, but which is not captive to any particular group,

although allowing all parties full freedom to follow up the

outcomes in their own ways and spheres.

44. (f) Concentrating on Real Issues. Many of those we

met in our seminars viewed the consultative process with

disfavour because they felt the subjects discussed were likely

to be innocuous and to have little relevance to the cutting

edges of policy and administration. It was strongly urged upon us that unless the consultation is on issues of real significance

to the various parties, including particularly officers from

departments, it would be better to avoid it. Nothing irritates competent and busy people more than finding that they are

unable to discuss the issues they know to be of significance.

45. We will be suggesting later that it is a particular

responsibility of officers from government departments to

introduce real issues for discussion. This means that they will need to anticipate the matters on which, over the months

ahead, they may need to advise their Ministers, and on which

consultation would be valuable. It may not be useful or practicable to discuss some issues, e.g. the particular amount

by which a pension rate should rise. It could, nevertheless,

be valuable to engage the consultation on a consideration of the factors which need to be taken into account when changes in pensions or other services are in prospect. We consider an

informed discussion in the consultation would be likely to

lead to better advising of Ministers about the issues. We add

that it will of course be apparent to the members of a consultation when decisions have been taken by governments

without prior consultation. On each significant occasion that this occurs, there will inevitably be a diminution of the trust

between departmental officers and other members of the

20.

consultation, unless the officers can give a valid

explanation of the reasons for not raising the matter for

discussion.

46. (g) Some Influence on Policy. There was a clear

recognition in most of the seminar discussions that the

involvement of public servants in a broad-based consultative

process almost inevitably requires that it have no decision­

making role. If it were to have such a role, then departmental

officers would have to speak strictly in accordance with

departmental policy and would have to reserve issues for

Ministerial decision. The VCCSD has managed to include

successfully officers from a number of State and Commonwealth

departments on the ground that it is a consultative and not a

decision-making body. We consider this an integral element

in a successful consultation in which representatives of

government and non-government agencies are involved (roles of

departmental officers are discussed in Chapter VI) .

47. Nevertheless, the point was put to us with some force

in most, of our seminars that unless the consultative process

would have some influence on decisions relating to policy

and administration, it would be fairly pointless. We agree.

It will be difficult to draw clear distinctions between .

discussions, and even recommendations from the consultative

body, which fall within the proper ambit of a consultative

body with no decision-making authority and those which would

transgress the boundaries and attempt or imply a direct

involvement in decision-making. It will finally have to be

left to the good sense of those involved in the process to put

first the objective of maintaining an effective consultative

process, and second a formal involvement in decision-making.

48. Associated with influence on policy making is the

need, again expressed almost universally, for feedback from

the consultative process. Although the participants should

not in any sense be regarded as strictly accountable for their

actions following discussion in the consultation, understanding,

trust and sharing will not flourish unless each member

21.

recognises some obligation to explain or in other ways provide

feedback where his or her organisation has taken action

following discussion in the consultative process. Just as

there should be no formal association of the consultative

process with decision-making, but nevertheless there should

be a proper degree of influence, so in the post-decision or

post-action stages there should be no strict accountability

but a willingness to discuss, explain and expose issues.

49. (h) Suitably Representative Membership. The members

of a consultative process concerned with the broad field of

health/welfare/community development will need to be well chosen if it is to be effective. While the nominees of Commonwealth

and State departments*, and probably of local government, carry

their own legitimacy , this is not quite so readily achieved in

the case of the non-government organisations. Although the

Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), the Australian

Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled (ACROD), and the

Australian Council on the Ageing (ACOTA) are "umbrella" type

organisations, many of the bodies within their membership do

not accept them as spokesmen. In this, they have not succeeded fully in carrying out the co-ordinating function - admittedly

difficult - for which part of their subsidy from the Commonwealth is granted. On the other side, we found in some

States organisations speaking on behalf of groups of handicapped

persons which said that no organisation but their own could speak for them. Unless the participants all have a degree of

legitimacy, the effectiveness of the consultation will rapidly

diminish, as it will be found that the "representatives" do not have working lines of communication to and from those they

represent. The VCCSD experience has been that the non-government organisations in particular are finding a need to improve their

links with their own clientele - a salutary but often slow and

difficult process. The same would be necessary at national level, and the links might be even more difficult to establish effectively because of the very wide geographical as well as

subject-matter coverage.

* See also paragraph 137.

22.

50. The representation of "consumers" or "clients" presents

a problem. Although our terms of reference may assume that

voluntary agencies represent consumers/clients, that assumption

may not always be justified, more especially when the consumer

is part of a general group, e.g. the sick or the poor, rather

than a specially identified group, e.g. sporting groups or a

paraplegic. On other occasions, the relevant voluntary

organisations are virtually the only possible representatives,

e.g. the associations for the intellectually handicapped and

pre-school bodies. We see no easy or early answer to obtaining

satisfactory representation from "consumers/clients". Although

the deficiency should not perhaps be rated as too large, we

see a need to keep open the option of including consumer/client

representatives on consultative bodies, if suitable representatives

can be found.

51. The non-government organisations discussed with us

at some length whether participants to represent them should

be selected or elected, and if elected how the process should

take place. The general preference was for the organisations

themselves to nominate a person - and a particular person

rather than a panel of- names from which a selection would be

made by a Minister or department. If an organisation is

significant enough to be represented in a consultative process,

then its nomination should be accepted. We note in this ■

connection that a consultative body is not the same as an

advisory body, and that the same considerations need not

necessarily apply when an advisory body is being chosen.

52. (i) Availability of Resources. Experience in the

United States in the early 1970's shows that consultation must

not be regarded, if it is to be effective and not counterproductive, as a "cheap option". Resources of several

kinds are needed if it is to work well: resources of skill,

of time, and also of money. Unless people with skills are

drawn into the consultative process, it will not work well.

This applies just as much to the representatives from

Commonwealth departments as it does to participants from the

23.

States, from local government and from non-government

organisations. In the case of the latter, many of the

participants will be serving in a voluntary capacity. As such,

they are likely to have skills, but equally to find time a real problem.

53. Busy people can always find time for an activity

that is worthwhile, but will very quickly withdraw if they

consider the effort is not being productive. Once they

withdraw, the process itself reduces in effectiveness and will

quickly end up in vacuity. Another aspect of time as a resource is that a consultative process cannot be completed effectively

if meetings are too short - see paragraph 40.

54. Time is also needed for adequate discussion of issues.

The VCCSD has indicated that it takes at least 10 weeks for an

item of business to be taken through the consultative process,

commencing with written notice 14 days before the two-monthly

meetings and proceeding through consideration in committees

and back to plenary session. While any new consultative

arrangement at national level will need to develop its own

procedures, these are unlikely to result in quicker handling

of an issue than in the VCCSD, if the object of full and proper consultation is to be achieved. Consultative machinery cannot

be asked to produce quick results: although the members will no

doubt work extremely hard during the processing of an issue,

the consulting itself needs time and this may give a somewhat

illusory air of tardiness.

55. A meaningful consultative process will yield benefits

for all participants. In principle, all should therefore

contribute to it. Not all participants need, however, contribute to money costs. For individuals and those representing some

non-government organisations, the skill and time involved will usually represent an adequate contribution. Other organisations,

including governments, could be expected to meet the costs of

their officers. Because the broad level consultative

arrangements we propose are of national importance, it would be reasonable to expect the Commonwealth to meet a substantial

24.

portion of the cost. But this need not add up to large sums -

possibly $100,000 a year in direct money costs to the

Commonwealth. We show in Attachment I the cost of various

existing consultative arrangements: those we propose need be

no more expensive than some of those already in operation.

56. A further aspect of cost may not arise in the initial

phases of establishing new consultative arrangements, but is

certain to arise sooner or later. It concerns the costs which

national organisations inevitably incur if they are to maintain

active links with the organisations they represent. For example,

we were told by the Victorian Council on the Ageing that a full

round of consultation with member organisations on a paper of

say 10 pages, which involved having the paper copied for

circulation, would cost the Council upwards of $1000, including

postage. While some of the communication associated with new

consultative machinery would no doubt take place in any event,

it has to be recognised that as the links become more effective-

and of course therefore of more value to those in the centre -

the costs associated with the consultative process will increase

In our view, they will increase in nothing like the same

proportion as will the benefits, in terns of more effective

administration, finer tuning of policy and better delivery

of service.

The Major Pitfalls *

57. In the foregoing paragraphs we have set out what

seem to us to be the essential ingredients of a successful

consultative process. Inherent in each of these are matters

which need to be avoided, for example a decision to set up a

consultative process without recognising that there are costs

inevitably associated with it. But there are three "don1ts"

which are so important that we think it worth mentioning them

separately. They are the need to avoid the generation of

unrealistic expectations; the importance of avoiding tokenism;

and the need to refrain from politicking.

25.

58. (i) Unrealistic Expectations. Nothing would more

quickly and effectively kill a broad purpose consultative

process of the kind we have outlined above than the generation

of unrealistic expectations at its inception. Consultation is,

as we have explained, an activity in its own right, and must be

seen as such by all the participants. While it is possible

that misconceptions by two or three could be handled effectively

by the broad purpose consultative process in its early stages,

that would not be the case unless most participants had clearly

in their minds its scope and objectives - see paragraphs 33-38

above. Not only the participants themselves, but also the

organisational media from which they come, will need to understand the process. This will inevitably mean a period of

learning in the early stages, and we draw attention to the need

to ensure that this occurs. Otherwise, even if the participants

themselves are clear about the nature of the process in which

they are engaged, they will increasingly find their organisations

questioning the activity. One possibility would be for the

relevant organisations to conduct a series of seminars,

possibly preliminary to the first meeting of any new consultative

machinery, to discuss this report and in particular the section

on prerequisites of consultation. Following this, the first

stages of the consultative process might well be to work out in

more detail, and with some agreement as to procedures, how the

process should work.

59. (ii) Tokenism. To the extent that the process of

consultation is regarded unfavourably, it is probably due

almost entirely to the practice too often indulged in of claiming, following a "consultation", that the person consulted

has agreed with whatever line of action is now being taken.

Those consulted normally feel aggrieved by misrepresentations

of this kind, which are at the best disingenuous. We will be suggesting two ways of avoiding misuse of the consultative

process. The first is to make it clear that the object of a consultative process is not to give advice even though it may

on occasion result in the tendering of advice. Accordingly,

26.

it should not be said, or implied, that the consultative process

has led to a recommendation unless this has been explicit.

More important, the consultative process should not be linked

specifically to any particular Minister or Ministers. This

is the way the VCCSD operates. It gives those engaging in the

consultative process, and the Ministers and their departments,

a desirable degree of flexibility and potential for disengagement.

Although there are sometimes short run advantages in being able

to cobble the consulting process more tightly into the decision­

making process, the balance lies very much we believe with

leaving it uncomplicated by the requirements of the decision­

making processes. It will then survive and grow not by proving

itself acceptable to those making decisions, but rather by

making it possible for them, when they make important decisions,

to be advised by an in-depth, broad-ranging and perceptive

consultative process. There may well be reasons why, in

particular cases, the outcome of the consultation appears to be

disregarded. That is the nature of political decisions, and

reflects no necessary discredit on either the consultative or

the decision-making processes. What is necessary, however, is

to ensure that neither is too much entangled with the other.

In this way, both will operate to the best effect.

60. We have already dealt with the other aspect of

tokenism. This is that consultation is not really an activity

in itself, but only a pretence at providing certain people

with what is held out to be some form of "participation"

(paragraph 25). We understand fully the desires of those who

wish to "participate" in the narrow sense of taking part in actual decision-making. But there are many more who, realising

the complexities of this process, consider they can make a

useful, and possibly even more effective contribution through

taking part in a consultative rather than a "participative"

process. If the nature of the consultative process is properly

understood, there need be no allegations whatever of tokenism.

Rather, there will be a growing appreciation of the importance,

in a democratic community, of ensuring that the views of all are

27.

heard by all who have some responsbility for carrying out

action in a particular field.

61. (iii) Politicking. A consultative process will very

quickly be negated if it becomes the forum for excessive

"barrow-pushing" by the participants. Many of those

participating in a consultative process will of course represent

interests - departmental or non-government or local government.

A condition of participation in the consultative process is a

refraining from one-eyed pursuit of these interests -

politicking in the sense in which we have used it here.

62. The most important means of avoiding "politicking"

in the consultative process is to select people who are capable

of maintaining a reasonably objective position even where the

immediate interests of their organisations could be in some

jeopardy, and who understand the limits to which "barrow-pushing"

can be taken in the consultative process. We recommend that

this characteristic be kept in mind as individuals are selected

to participate in the consultative process. Continuity of

membership (paragraphs 40 - 41) will also contribute to the

development of satisfactory consultative processes. However, if it nevertheless becomes apparent that some subjects give

rise to particular difficulties, the wisest course, especially

in the initial stages, may be to refrain from discussion of

them. We found during our seminars that one of the more

threatening situations experienced by non-government

organisations is discussion of the allocation of funds to them

and to other organisations in a similar field. Almost always,

the view was expressed that this kind of discussion would not appropriately be the subject of broad-based consultative

processes. The VCCSD has, it seems, managed to operate

successfully by ensuring that its discussions are primarily

directed at the sharing of information and views on the

development of procedures for social planning and development

in Victoria. In particular, it avoids discussions which would involve the allocation of funds to organisations represented

on the Committee.

28.

63. Accordingly, we suggest not only that the subjects

listed for discussion be carefully considered, but that funding

issues be avoided. Further, we suggest that it be recognised

that recommendations are not a primary objective of the

consultative process. If the consensus is that a particular

recommendation should be made to any body, there is no prima

facie reason for avoiding making it. But if the whole purpose

of the consultation is seen as being the definition of

recommendations, then at once the consultation will tend to

become a political forum in which interests are pressed, rather

than information and views exchanged and discussed.

29.

III. NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

64. It is our purpose in this chapter to describe as best

we can the extent of the non-government sector active in health/

welfare/community development, thereby showing that it is not

only desirable, but positively necessary, for government

agencies to develop adequate lines of communication with it. We

also report our finding that, at State and national levels, non­

government co-ordinating organisations fall into a number of

relatively distinct groups, with implications for the roles they

can play in the consultative process.

Existing Arrangements for Consultation with Government 65. As indicated in Chapter I, there are some 189

consultative arrangements between Commonwealth departments and

non-government bodies, of which 109 are of a consultative/

advisory nature (paragraphs 10-12) and cover a fairly wide

range of activities.

66. However, most of the arrangements are associated with

specific programs, for example with rehabilitation, with refugees, with health employee training and with Aboriginals.

The arrangements tend to be confined to the responsibilities of a particular department, although in 21 cases there has been a

degree of co-ordination at the departmental level, in that more than one department has been associated with the arrangement.

Nevertheless, the pattern remains one of consultation related

to the specific programs of each department, and leaving substantial gaps where it might have been expected that

consultation would be of some value. For example, there appear to be no adequately representative broad-based consultative

arrangements relating to many significant client groups - the aged, the handicapped, youth, ethnic communities and so on.

67. The absence of comprehensive consultative arrangements

stems in part from the pragmatic nature of departmental operations. Departments have been wary of becoming involved in

consultative arrangements because of the risks of generating

30.

additional pressures on themselves and their Ministers, and

consultation has been sought only where that has seemed useful

in relation to the administration or development of a particular

program. Another reason is, we suspect, that departments (like

the community generally) are not well informed about the size

and complexity of the non-government organisation· field.

The Difficulty of Obtaining Information

68. We have made substantial efforts to obtain reliable

information about the activities of non-government organisations

in health/welfare/community development. This is needed if

satisfactory arrangements are to be developed for consultation,

planning and service delivery. We found, as did the Henderson

Poverty Inquiry, the Committee on Care of the Aged and the .

Infirm and the Family Services Committee before us, that it is

not possible at present to assemble any reliable and

comprehensive picture.

69. An illustration of the difficulty of reaching even

reasonably comprehensive and accurate figures is the very

different results obtained from printouts from the computers of

the Department of Social Security in Canberra (and in its

N.S.W. branch) and the information contained in directories of the Councils of Social Service. Both these organisations have

comprehensive interests and, although their information has not

been compiled with the objectives of the Task Force in mind, it

is the most adequate readily accessible. The two organisations

use different definitional bases and thus the comparison has had

to be limited to the common areas. The number of ethnic

organisations in New South Wales and South Australia as

recorded by Social Security and COSS illustrates the problem -

31.

Ethnic Organisations

Social Security COSS Directory Printout (Canberra)

New South Wales 663 23

South Australia 342 105

NOTE: The Social Security figures are derived from the Canberra data base. The New South Vales data base shows a different figure again (28 compared with 663), because of the different purposes for which the classifications are

used. The New South Wales data base figure is shown in the next paragraph.

70. We examined more closely the information available

from the Social Security printout and the COSS directory in New

South Wales, directing our attention to types of service

provided. The results were as follows -Non-Government Organisations in New South Wales

Aged persons homes and organisations Ethnic groups Welfare agencies Gcrrmunity aid and information centres

District community and home nursing services

Social Security 03SS

Printout (N.S.W.)

Directory

100 172

28 23

474 42

95 47

44 24

— —

741 308

The main reason for the differences is in the purposes for which the

different lists have been compiled. The Social Security Canberra list is fairly complete, the New South Wales list directed at major

service organisations - as with the COSS Directory. In the time

available to us, it has not been possible to attempt a detailed reconciliation of these figures. However, we draw attention to

them as illustrating the difficulty in obtaining any clear and

accurate picture of the extent of the non-government activities in the health/welfare/community development fields. We set out

in more detail in Attachment F a summary of the problems of obtaining information and an analysis of some of the material

32.

available0

A Picture of the Non-Government Sector

71. Despite the difficulties of obtaining a clear picture >

of the activities of the non-government sector in health/ welfare/community development, what we have been able to piece

together gives a useful indication of its size, its

comprehensiveness and its significant contribution.

72. The size of the non-government sector is indicated to

some extent by the number of organisations identified in the

Directories held by Councils of Social Service in each State

and Territory. The Directories do not, however, purport to

contain a complete list of operating agencies. On the basis j j

of informed opinion, it seems likely that there must be at least

15.000 organisations and agencies throughout Australia active

in health/welfare/community development.* Many of these would

employ staff - some, such as institutions for the

rehabilitation of the handicapped, substantial numbers of staff

- and around each is likely to be an involved group of people

ranging from possibly a small committee to a quite large body

of helpers. Thus one can assume that several hundred thousand

people are fairly actively involved, both as paid staff and as

volunteers, in providing services through one or other of the

15.000 and more non-government organisations. Even taking in

the large numbers employed in hospitals and other health

institutions, the number actively associated with the provision

of non-government services must be substantially in excess of

the numbers involved in the provision of government services.

(It is estimated that some 70,000 persons are employed by governments in the health/welfare field, with a further 180,000

in public (both government owned and religious and charitable) hospitals.)

* The inquiries recently made in association with the development in Victoria of the FACS (Family and Community Services) Program suggest that, if an assessment of the number of organisations and agencies is developed from regional and local levels up, rather than from State level

down, the number might be more in the vicinity of 60,000 for Australia as a whole (20,000 for Victoria alone). See also Attachment F.

33.

73. The services offered by non-government organisations

and agencies appear to be very much larger in number than the

organisations and agencies themselves. Although it has not been

possible to obtain comprehensive information, the COSS

directory in New South Wales suggests that there is an average

of five services provided by each of the 450 organisations

listed (the list appears to cover about 10% of known

organisations and agencies). A similar position appears to

apply in other States, which means that the number of services

provided in all States by non-government bodies must be very considerably in excess of the 15,000 or so organisations and

agencies. *

74. Another indication of the size and importance of the

non-government sector is the extent to which it is used by the

Commonwealth and State Governments to support or assist health/

welfare/community development objectives. Up to date figures

are not available, but a research project conducted by the

Kuring-Gai College of Advanced Education suggests that in 1974/75 some $250m. of Commonwealth and State funds were

provided in the welfare field (with limited coverage of health and community development - see Attachment G, page 3, of our First Report). However, these figures appear to understate the

position as it appears from an analysis of the budget papers for

the same year, and having in mind the broader scope of the Task Force's inquiry. For example, for Victoria and South Australia

the Kuring-Gai figures are $27 million and $10 million

respectively, while the budget papers suggest figures of about $37 million and $34 million. Although these amounts are not

large by comparison with the total of government outlays in the

health/welfare/community development fields, they are substantial when the wholly government-provided expenditure on

hospital and clinical services, on cash benefits to persons and

* The FACS inquiries, which include a larger number of ■ organisations/agencies, suggest that for its list the average number of services provided by each would be 4. See also Attachment F.

34.

on housing are eliminated. These Commonwealth and State grants

might amount to about one fifth of the expenditures by both

levels of government in areas within which there is substantial

shared activity in the provision of services. They do not of

course measure the full extent of the contribution made by non­

government organisations, which derive substantial funds from

private sources and of course draw on a great deal of voluntary

effort.

75. The first conclusion to be drawn from these figures is

that consultation with the non-government sector should not be

seen as a somewhat peripheral activity. Rather, recognising not

only the large number of people involved, but the very high

degree of expertise, devotion and service given by them,

consultation becomes imperative rather than an optional extra.

The contacts the Task Force has had with those working in the

non-government field suggest that in many areas they have very

much more knowledge, and often a greater depth of experience,

than can be found among any but a few employed by the public

service. This is not to deprecate the devotion and skill of

many employed in the public service, but only to make the point

as strongly as we can that the public service has by no means a monopoly of skills, knowledge and ideas about the way things

happen and should happen in the health/welfare/community

development fields. There can be no thought that any government

could substitute its own services for those provided by the non­

government agencies. The cost to the government would be

altogether too large, and the uncostable items such as the

willingness of people to assist in unexpected ways, and the

degree of committed personal service, could simply not be

provided.

76. The second, conclusion is that ways need to be found of

gathering together information on a systematic basis about the

activities of the non-government sector. Too often, the knowledge of public servants tends to be limited by dealing only

with applications for funds from organisations linked to a

35.

particular grant program. It is often restricted also to

meetings with representatives from non-government organisations who are members of such consultative arrangements as are

currently in operation; and to the occasional contact which

arises through conduct of reviews and inquiries.

77. Serious efforts are currently being made to improve the accuracy and coverage of information. Thus the Victorian

Council of Social Service is currently engaged, with the

Department of Social Security (Victorian Branch) and the

Victorian Department of Social Welfare, in developing the Victorian Social Information System (VSIS). Based on the

American social welfare agency classification UWASIS (United

Way of America Service Information System), data is being gathered and fed into a computer with the object of producing a comprehensive directory as a referral device for social

welfare and health agencies in Victoria. Questionnaires have

been sent to some 5,500 organisations (government and non­

government) throughout the State. Difficulties have been encountered in achieving a comprehensive coverage, because it

seems that some organisations see no need for providing the

information, given that they already have full client workloads and do not need to make their services more widely known. We

recommend that the Commonwealth continue to give support to this

important tripartite venture and that as soon as possible it consider facilitating similar projects in the other States.*

7 8 . National collection of information on the

current VSIS basis would not give adequate information

about either coverage or use of non-government agency

services. The Welfare Ministers, the National Consultative Council on Social ‘ Welfare, and the Department of Social Security

are all aware of the need for national statistics, and we recommend that steps be taken, on a tripartite basis, to develop

a basis for them. Amongst the more important outcomes of such

statistics would be -* a feasibility study is being undertaken in New South Wales - see Attachment F .

36.

. a sounder basis for planning and the determination of policies

. improved administration of services, through awareness of what currently exists

. greater general awareness of what is available in the community - valuable for governments, non-government agencies, professional people and consumers

. a basis for evaluation of existing services

. the availability of information about those who might appropriately be consulted on particular issues.

National Organisations

79. We have expressed the view that the Commonwealth

government should be primarily responsible for consultation at

the national level, with other levels of government being

responsible for consultation at other levels. · (See especially

Chapter V, paragraphs 121-127.) Accordingly, we took steps to

identify what national organisations exist, so as to obtain an

idea of the number of bodies that might need to be brought into

consultation.

80. Our initial expectation was that the total might be

15-20, including the three "umbrella" welfare organisations ~ the

Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), the Australian

Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled (ACROD) and the

Australian Council on the Ageing (ACOTA). We have identified no

less than 107 - see Attachment H . (This list does not include

the eight national consultative/advisory mechanisms established

by the Commonwealth, e.g. the National Consultative Council for

Social Welfare.) It is almost certain that the list is still

not comprehensive. The largest number of national organisations

(31) are associated with ethnic communities; the next largest

group (27) is of organisations representing specific disability

groups, with the handicapped organisations being the largest

sub-group. There are 20 general welfare organisations and 10

health-oriented organisations.

81. There appears to be a strong movement at present

towards the formation of new national organisations. The most

37.

recent that has come to our notice is the Lone Parents

Federation, established earlier this year. In part, the trend

is associated with a desire to put pressure on the Commonwealth

to provide funding support. These pressures will be abated,

though not removed, if the recommendations in our First Report

are adopted. They will be increased to the extent that the Commonwealth continues or expands its assistance to the non­

government sector, and also if Commonwealth departments extend

their consultative arrangements associated with particular

programs. On the other hand, our proposals for a national consultative process will if anything tend to slow down the rate

of growth of national organisations, as only a limited number

will be able to send representatives to the consultation at any

one time.

82. In our view, the rate of growth of national non­ government organisations, and the resources being put into them,

are probably somewhat excessive. We are aware that in many cases

an important reason for establishing a national organisation is a desire on the part of State or sub-State bodies to meet with, and learn from, the experience of like bodies in other States.

We also consider that the growth of national organisations may

to some extent reflect dissatisfaction with the way the

specifically co-ordinating agencies such as ACOSS, ACROD and

ACOTA are working.

83. Non-government organisations should if possible

discuss, and attempt to resolve themselves rather than by government decision, some of the difficult issues associated with arranging adequate consultation with governments. On many

occasions it has been said to us by representatives of State

and national level organisations that the non-government organisations have a need to set their own houses in order. They

are often in disagreement among themselves and to some extent

their activities are competitive rather than complementary.

84. One function of the new policy co-ordinating unit we

have proposed in Part 2 of this report might be to assist in

38.

arranging, in consultation with Commonwealth and State

departments, and with representatives of non-government

organisations, a national conference at which national

organisations might meet to discuss mutual problems and in

particular to formulate proposals for selecting representatives

to attend the national consultation we propose in Chapter VII.

The "Co-ordinating" Agencies

85. As we became increasingly aware of the complexity of

the activities of non-government agencies in the health/welfare/

community development fields, and of the lack of adequate

information, we decided to ask "State level" and "national

level" organisations to assist us by completing a questionnaire

designed to define their relationships with their member

organisations. We avoided using the term "co-ordinating agency"

because co-ordination is a word with many meanings and nuances.

Instead, we adopted the terms "State level" and "national level"

to describe bodies which appeared to stand in some way for other

organisations at either the State or the national level in the

sense that their functions appeared to involve in whole or in

part the performance of tasks for or on behalf of member groups

or organisations within the State or across Australia generally.

We felt that it could only be through ascertaining how the

"co-ordinating" agencies work and relate to their members that we

would be able to develop proposals enabling non-government

organisations to make the most effective contribution possible to

consultative arrangements.

86. Our questionnaire was addressed to all the State level

organisations of which we had become aware either through

correspondence or through departmental or other lists. It went

also to the national organisations which we planned to invite to our national seminar on consultation. Thus it went to a limited

sample and may prove to have an unrepresentative base. On the other hand, our experience suggests that we managed to reach

reasonable cross-sections of the organisations concerned. We

set out below the main conclusions we have drawn, as we think

39.

they are important not only to assist in drawing up consultative

arrangements but for policy and administrative purposes generally

The results are set out in more detail in Attachment F.

87. We found that the State level or national level bodies

could be divided into two broad types -. the "co-operative co-ordinators", which use processes of consultation and discussion for such co-ordination as they achieve; and _

- . the "corporate co-ordinators", which exercise a degree of co-ordination through' the existence of formal controls over the service delivery outlets associated with them.

88. Within the first type of co-ordinating body, the

"co-operative co-ordinators", we distinguished four groups -A. Range of Services - Specific Client Group; the agencies belonging to this group may provide many services for specific interest or client groups, e.g.

Councils on the Ageing. The services can be many and varied, but each agency has the common goal of alleviating the stress upon a particular group of individuals, for instance the N.S.W. Council for the

Mentally Handicapped.

B . Specific Service - Specific Client Group; this group has a somewhat restricted focus, an example being the Voluntary Care Association whose members operate nursing homes and retirement villages for the aged.

Specific services and clients are involved.

C . Specific Services - Broad Client Group: only six organisations responding to the questionnaire fitted into this category, an example being the New South Wales Council of Community Nursing, which provides a

specific service to a broadly based client population.

D. The Broad Basers: these organisations tend to have a broad and philosophical approach to the provision of health and welfare services to the community as a whole and those in it at a disadvantage. They focus, as need

is perceived, on particular issues of concern and use their size and strength to exert pressure, mainly on government. The Councils of Social Service are the main example; regional community development

organisations discharge similar functions.

89. Within the second type of co-ordinating body - the

ncorporate- co-ordinators" - we identified a further three groups -

40.

E. Range of Services for Specific Client Group: these agencies provide a range of services to a specific client group - for instance, the Multiple Sclerosis Society and the Spastic Welfare Association. The services vary from therapeutic to caring for the general welfare of the specific client groups.

F . Range of Services for Broad Client Group: this group provides many different services to many groups in the community and includes almost all the religious organisations responding, examples being the Salvation Army and the YMCA. Service outlets are established according to perceived needs rather than geographic considerations, with regional administrative units established by reference to the service outlets.

G. Area Branch Co-ordinators: the three agencies in this group perform a true co-ordinating function, an example being the W.A. Slow Learners Association. The co-ordination of autonomous branches is achieved by a board of management made up of representatives of the branches, with each branch providing basically the "

same service to a geographically determined area. The board does not, however, own the branches.

90. The national organisations appear to us to fit into

the same groupings as the State level organisations, although

they have two characteristics not normally shared by the State

level bodies. First, they are generally one step further

removed from service delivery than their State counterparts.

Thus they will tend to concentrate more on broad issues of

policy and direction, and less on the day to day management of

problems, than do the State level bodies. Second, the national

organisations are distinctly more concerned with developing and

maintaining relationships with government than are many of the

State level organisations. They are thus seen as something of

a buffer or intermediary between Commonwealth departments at the

policy level and those actually providing services at the State

or sub-State level.

91. We submit these findings in an endeavour to promote

discussion of the issues and to help in developing effective

consultative and working processes. We recognise that our

findings represent only first steps, but we believe them to be in the right direction. Further information, and an analysis of

the main services provided by non-government organisations in

ί

41.

New South Wales and South Australia, and their main client

groups, are included in Attachment F.

92. For purposes of developing consultative arrangements,

the important conclusions seem to be -(a) that until a great deal more information is available,

it is difficult to work out how the non-government

organisations can best be represented in broad-based

consultative arrangements - hence our proposals for

better data (paragraph 7 8) and a Conference (paragraph 84); (b) it is incumbent on the non-government organisations

themselves to do a good deal of the work in sorting

out and clarifying functions, if they are to be more

involved in partnership with governments in the

provision of services;

(c) that at both State and national level, consultative

arrangements will need to take account of the two

broad types of "co-ordinating" agency - the

"co-operative" and the "corporate" - if they are to

be representative of styles of organisation as well

as of areas of service; (d) that the national consultative arrangements we

propose could readily focus on issues of broad national policy and concern, because this tends to

be the main focus of national level non-government

bodies.

42.

IV. EXISTING CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS WITH NON-GOVERNMENT BODIES

Present Arrangements

93. As indicated in Chapter II (paragraphs 21-23), the

existing arrangements for departmental consultation with

"outside" bodies and individuals can be divided into two broad

categories, those with a consultative/advisory function and

those having a recommending/decision-making role. The

consultative/advisory group are larger in number than the

recommending/decision-making group, as indicated in the following

table -

Departmental Consultative Arrangements with "Outside" Bodies (as at 31 October, 1977)

Department Consultative/ Recommending/ Total

Aboriginal Affairs

Advisory

7

Decision-making

8 15

Environment, Housing and Community Development 11 - 11

Health 36 49* 85

Immigration and Ethnic 10 5 15

Affairs Social Security 27 4 31

Veterans' Affairs 18 14 32

109 80 189

* 32 of these have a legislative basis

Fuller details are shown in Attachment E. '

94. When these arrangements are analysed more closely, it

emerges that most are either "advisory" or "recommending" in

nature. There are few arrangements having primarily consultative

roles - the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development

being an example. Equally, there are few, and these are confined

to the health field, involving delegations allowing the exercise

of decision-making functions. The reason for the relative

* Examples are the Joint Committee on Pharmaceutical Benefits Pricing Arrangements (Attachment E, No. 129) , the Medical Benefits Advisory Committee (on appeals from Health Insurance Commission decisions on benefits) (No. 97) and the Therapeutic Goods Advisory Committee (No. 120) .

43.

absence of strictly consultative and actual decision-making mechanisms is probably that the arrangements have been

developed by departments in association with the discharge

of specific administrative or executive functions. The purely consultative mode has probably not been developed because of

pressures from outside members or potential members for a formal advisory role and the absence of provision within

departments for effective handling of input of a purely

consultative nature. Decision-making powers have not been

conferred because these are normally reserved for the Minister or the departmentr often by legislation.

95· !n the following paragraphs we examine existing arrangements in the consultative/advisory and recommending/

decision-making categories and draw some conclusions.

Consultative/Advisory Arrangements

96. Some two thirds of the 109 consultative/advisory arrangements with "outside" bodies or individuals are

exclusively with States, non-government bodies or individuals. About one third have representatives from more than one of

these groups, but there are only 15 arrangements which include representatives from local government. They are associated with departments as follows -Consultative/Advisory Arrangements with

l rOubside" Bodies (as at 31 October 197 7.) States Local Govt .

Exclusively with Non-Govt.

With States and/or Local Govt. and Non-Govt.

TOTAL

Aboriginal Affairs Environment, Housing and - - 6 1 7

Community Development 4 1 5 1 11

Health Immigration and Ethnic 9 14 13 36

Affairs 9 - 1 - 10

Social Security 3 - 5 19 27

Veterans' Affairs 4 - 11 3 18

29 1 42 37 109

44.

97. The consultative/advisory arrangements associated

with the different departments have somewhat different emphases, as indicated below -Department

Aboriginal Affairs

Health

Main Emphasis

Planning and exchange of information. Examples; Aboriginal Advisory Council in New South Wales (see Attachment E, No. 24) and the National Aboriginal Conference

(No. 28).

About half (14) concerned primarily with planning and another 11 with evaluation and technical/research functions. Examples: Pathology Services Working Party (No. 93) and Working Party on Religious and Charitable Nursing , Homes (No. 119) - both planning;

Commonwealth/State Conference on Aboriginal Health Services (No. 136 - evaluation; Clinical Trial Committee (No. 126) - technical/ research.

Environment, Housing and Community Development

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

Social Security

Veterans' Affairs

Exchange of information (policy consultation takes place in Ministerial meetings). Examples: Australian Sports Council

(No. 50); Shelter (No. 48).

Exchange of information and evaluation. Example: The only body is the Australian Ethnic Affairs Council

(No. 186).

Planning rather than research or technical advice. Examples: the Refugee Resettlement Co-ordinating Committees in four States (Nos. 239-242); Homeless Persons Advisory Committees in all States (Nos. 248-253).

Exchanges of information. Example; Local Medical Officers Advisory Committee (No. 272).

98. As we have already indicated, the VCCSD is probably

the only body which has consultation as its primary purpose.

This Committee is attended by officers from relevant

Commonwealth departments (normally at State level) and from

45.

State departments, local government and non-government

organisations. The National Advisory Council for the

Handicapped (NACH) clearly is linked into the decision-making

process in substance, if not in form. Its name does of course

indicate that it is an advisory body, rather than a

consultative mechanism. On the other hand, the more recently

created Consultative Committees on Social Welfare (CCSW) in

all States except Victoria, and the National Consultative

Council on Social Welfare (NCCSW) carry the title "consultative".

However, an examination of their terms of reference indicates

that their function, as with that of the Women's Welfare

Issues Consultative Committee (WWICC) is specifically advisory -

to the Minister in the case of NCCSW and WWICC and to the

Department of Social Security in the case of the CCSW's. Even

further along the spectrum towards decision-making functions

are the former Childhood Services Consultative Committees.

While in formal terms their purpose was to provide a forum for

exchange of information and facilitate discussion as well as

to advise the Interim Committee of the Children's Commission

on applications for grants, they turned out to be in effect the bodies which determined, through recommendation, the fate

of applications for financial assistance under the Children's

Services Program; Details about these bodies are set out in

Annexures Η, B, C and G respectively to Attachment D.

99. In our view, all these bodies have served valuable

purposes. However, they have suffered from the inevitable

consequence of being fairly firmly tied into the advising

and decision-making structure. Their proceedings have not,

for example, been accessible. Thus during many of our seminars we heard criticisms to the effect that the members of a

consultative or advisory body were not free to disclose to "outsiders" (often members of the relevant non-government

organisation) what business was being discussed or what was

the outcome of discussion. Thus in the eyes of many of those

active in non-government organisations, these bodies do not

have a high degree of legitimacy and are not seen as being able

46.

to speak for the groups they appear to represent. In some

cases, it seems that departmental officers, if present at the

meetings of these bodies, have appeared more as defenders of

government policy or to answer criticisms than as an integral

part of a consultative arrangement. Accordingly, the

relationship between the body and members of the relevant

department has not always been easy - and usually somewhat

unclear. That will continue to be the case while these arrangements tend towards the advisory/decision-making end of

the spectrum. It is extremely difficult for senior officers,

with their own advisory and decision-making roles, to

participate fully and equally in such processes.

100. We note that in recent times the Minister for Health

has announced the establishment of a National Health Services

Advisory Committee (NHSAC), which will be attached to the

Hospitals and Health Services Commission (see Attachment D,

Annexure I). Here again, it seems inevitable that the advice

will be directed to the health field. It will not be equipped

to assist with cross-functional problems and could tend to

become advisory rather than consultative in nature. We

understand and appreciate the desire of Ministers to have

"outside" advice, but warn of the danger that the body could

become associated with the department, the professions, and

their activities and give insufficient weight to consumers and

the wider community. '

Future Roles for Consultative/Advisory Arrangements

101. Because the main emphasis in existing arrangements is

on the provision of advice (or on the processes directly

associated with decision-making), the consultative arrangements

we propose in Chapter VII will not represent a duplication. However, there could be some overlap, because the advising

role normally includes an element of consultation. The

question therefore arises how the existing machinery, and the

new machinery we have proposed, could be rationalised.

47.

102 First, there are the bodies specifically set up to

provide advice and consultation. These include the NCCSW, NACH,

WWICC and the Homeless Persons Advisory Committees to Social

Security; the NHSAC to Health; and the Australian Ethnic

Affairs Council to Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. These

bodies are advisory to the Minister, and cover a field related

to the activities of the one department. We see them as

continuing in the interim period to operate as they are, but

on the basis that, as the new broad national consultative

process we propose is established, there should be a review

of their roles. In the long run they would probably become

(without any loss of status we hope) important arms of the new

National Consultative Council, probably as "Committees" of that

body. They might undertake a variety of tasks, inquiries and

research at the behest of the Council as well as maintaining

an initiatory role. If there were to be a rationalising of

the work of these existing bodies in the way outlined above, the new National Consultative Council might well include among

its members at least one of the members of the existing bodies -

or possibly more in the interim stages.

103. We are not insensitive to the valuable function these bodies can discharge. The Homeless Persons Advisory Committees,

for example, being based in each State, make it possible at

little cost to bring expertise into the administrative

processes and to give the relevant staff better insights into the philosophy and effectiveness of the program. This seems

to have been the case with the former Childhood Services

Committees. An important aspect of these bodies is to ensure that the advisory group, which tends to become very much

involved in the decision-making process, has some legitimacy as far as consumers and the non-government sector generally

are concerned. However, we point out that there must inevitably be a tendency to duplicate where both the Ccrmonwealth

and the States are involved in related fields. The Homeless Persons program was one of those which, with this in mind, we recommended be included in the proposed Sheltered Accomodation

48.

program grant. The same would go for the Childhood Services |

Program, if this became part of a broader program grant. These I

programs would thus become the subject of State rather than

Commonwealth consultative arrangements and thus avoid the risk of doubling up - see Chapter V.

104. To some extent, the future of the existing advisory ; : j

bodies depends upon the desire of the Minister and department ! ; ! i

to have an advisory body responsible direct to them. If the j ! Ϊ

consultative/advisory role is to be maintained with an | ■ . , j

emphasis on tendering advice, then these special groups may j

need to continue to be formally attached to the Minister. On

the other hand, as the consultative process develops, it may | j

seem preferable for these bodies to work with and to the ! I

broader based consultative arrangements. As we have indicated j

in Chapter II, there may under this second alternative be less J

immediate and direct influence on the policy and administrative processes of government, but in the longer run there may be

a much more satisfactory flow both ways, with the development

of greater understanding, greater goodwill and a much more

equal and co-operative operation on the part of both government

and non-government bodies. Those certainly are the kinds of

outcome which should be the product of good consultative processes.

105. Second, there are the considerably more numerous

specialist advisory arrangements, some of which are mentioned

in paragraph 97. In some cases, there is every reason why

these should continue. We see, for example, no way by which

the role of the Repatriation Local Medical Officers Advisory

Committee could be superseded for most purposes by the

proposed National Consultative Council. On the other hand,

there may be bodies such as the Committee on Information and

Display Centres for the Handicapped (its function is largely

exchange of information) which could become a sub-committee of

the National Consultative Council and therefore meet within a

wider context than at present. We suggest that the role and need for these more specialised advisory bodies might be

49.

reviewed as the National Consultative Council develops.

106. Our proposal for a National Consultative Council may well assist in rationalising the Commonwealth's

consultative/advisory arrangements. It should save the need

for the establishment of as many ad hoc arrangements as exist,

and should contribute to the rationalisation of existing bodies.

We recommend that the pressures, which seem to be growing, for a rapid development in consultative arrangements be

channelled into the development of the National Consultative

Council, with such working committees as appear to be necessary

from time to time.

Consultation for Decision-Making

107. We now turn to the 80 consultative arrangements more

directly associated with decision-making (table in paragraph 93)

though, as we indicated in paragraph 94, there are very few

which actually take decisions. The orientation of these bodies

towards the Departments of Health and Veterans' Affairs seems

to be associated with the rather better defined health/medical

functions of these Departments. In the case of the Department of Health, the functions of recommending/decision-making bodies

are often fairly precisely defined. Some 39 are classified in Attachment E as having a primarily regulatory function and,

of these, 31 are provided for by statute. These bodies are

really an extension of the Department's activities through

the use of outside experts. Our conclusion is that they are

effectively and imaginatively used by departments.

108. It is natural for departments to develop recommending/

decision-making bodies in areas where their own expertise is not

great, or there is expertise in the community which can readily

be tapped. We support arrangements of this kind, and are convinced by the argument of the Department of Health that the only practicable and economical way of accomplishing many of

the specialised jobs it has to do is to draw on outside experts. We have not seen it as our task to examine each one of these arrangements in turn and determine whether it should be

50.

retained, revised or disbanded. At the same time, we are

impressed by the practice in the National Health and Medical

Research Council, which currently has about 65 committees in

operation, of reviewing its standing committees every three years

and of eliminating any that seem to be unnecessary. We endorse

the practice of systematic review as one which should be adopted by all departments.

109. We have not had the opportunity to examine individually

all the recommending/decision-making arrangements listed in

Attachment E. However, we note that in the two departments with

a less clearly defined range: of functions - Social Security and

Environment, Housing and Community Development - the emphasis

is on consultative/advisory rather than recommending/decision­

making arrangements. There is a need for more systematic consideration to be given to instituting arrangements at the

recommending/decision-making end of the consultative spectrum

which would bring outside expertise to bear in areas such as

income support payments and services, accommodation for the aged

and related services, community recreation and support.

110. Consultative arrangements with the States are about

equally divided between those of a consultative/advisory nature

and those which are in some way integrated into the decision­

making structure. In particular, we draw attention to the

broadening responsibilities of the Health Ministers Conference,

of the State Standing Committees on Health Expenditure (amalgamating the three committees hitherto concerned with the

Medibank Hospitals Agreement, the Community Health Program and

the Hospitals Development Program) and of the Hospitals and

Allied Services Advisory Committee (HASAC) (see Attachment E,

Nos. 55, 98 and 91 respectively). These arrangements seem to us

to provide a suitable framework for consultation in the health

field between Commonwealth and State administrations.

Arrangements in the welfare field are not as well developed,

although Commonwealth and State welfare administrators have

recently developed a practice of meeting immediately before the meetings of Welfare Ministers, which we understand are now on an

51.

annual basis. There are also arrangements for meetings of

Recreation Ministers, of Ministers responsible for Aboriginal Affairs and so on.

111. If the program grants proposed in our First Report are introduced, there will be effective provision for joint

Commonwealth-State consultation across the broad areas of policy and service-delivery associated with each of those program grants.

The Follow-up Group appointed by the Government to discuss the

Task Force's First Report with States and with representatives of

local government and non-government organisations has discussed these aspects carefully with those concerned. If the agreements

which it is envisaged would be entered into with the States

provide for forward funding and for sharing of costs, as well as

for joint determination of policy, then there will be no need for

us to make further proposals in this area.

112. Above all, it seems to us unwise to attempt to

specify too precisely what kinds of consultative machinery should

operate in association with the decision-making process. It is

important that the machinery be used flexibly, and either

abandoned or modified, or new machinery introduced, whenever dictated by the objective of efficient decision-making processes.

52.

V. CONSULTATION IN A FEDERAL SYSTEM

The Complications of a Federal System

113. The existence in a federal system of three levels of

government adds a dimension to consultative arrangements not

experienced in institutional form in "unitary" countries such

as Britain and New Zealand. There is no simple governmental

dichotomy matching the "in the centre - out there" (central -

local) pattern of most discussions about consultation. Those

vexed by the added complexity of having a system of sovereign

States between the national (federal) government and local

governing bodies have argued for the ultimate abolition,

or withering away, of the middle group - the States. At the

same time, we cannot but be aware that there are moves in many of the unitary countries to interpose layers of government

between the national and the local level. In the present day

context, Australia is probably fortunate in having a three

level system, and the only practical - and also probably the

best — course is not merely to accept the fact, but to use the

system to the maximum advantage.

114. The existence of the federal system has given rise to

a large number (98) of consultative arrangements between the

Commonwealth and the States (including 56 exclusively with the

States). Half the bodies are consultative/advisory and half are

recommending/decision-making in nature. They range from

Ministerial level consultations such as the Health Ministers' and

Welfare Ministers 1 Conferences to groups with very specific

objectives such as the consultative/advisory Albury-Wodonga

Development Corporation Government Officials Committee on

Social Development (Attachment E , No. 225 - Social Security and

State departments) and the recommending/decision-making

Commonwealth/State Co-ordinating Committees on Nursing Home Accommodation (Attachment E, No. 102 ~ Health, Social Security and

State health departments). The arrangements are summarised in

the following table -

53.

Commonwealth/State Consultative Arrangements (at 31 October 1977)

Consultative/ Recommending/ Advisory Decision-Making

Exclusively with States Including Local &

’Non-Govt.

Exclusively with States Including Non-Govt.

Total

Aboriginal Affairs - 1 3 3 7

Environment, Housing and Community Development 4 1 5

Health 9 13 11 1 34

Immigration and Ethnic Affairs ' 9 1 10

Social Security 3 19 3 1 26

Veterans 1 Affairs 4 3 9 - 16

TOTAL 29 37 27 5 98

115. We note again in this context (see also paragraphs

8 and 9fi) that local government is included in relatively few

consultative arrangements, and in none that involve the

recommending/decision-making process. We recognise the

background to this virtual exclusion of local government

representation, but comment that if local government is to play a larger role in health/welfare/community development it will need greater involvement in the Commonwealth’s consultative

arrangements. The nature of this involvement is not necessarily

obvious, and we consider it should be the subject of discussion

between the relevant Commonwealth and State agencies, and with

local government representatives.

116. In our First Report, we outlined in oversimplified

form the roles we considered the Commonwealth, the States and local government should have in the health/welfare/community

development fields (paragraphs 47-60) and also the role we

considered non-government organisations should play (paragraphs

61-66) . Here we concentrate on the way the consultative process should be fitted into the federal system, using the

54.

117. Essentially, the consultative process needs to bring

together those who have concerns about a particular activity,

whether in its planning, administrative or delivery aspects. It

brings to the "centre" the views and experience of those "out

there", and conveys to those "out there" what is happening

"at the centre". To the extent that the Commonwealth's role

emphasises national planning, evaluation and review, the

national consultative processes should be concentrated on those

activities. To the extent that the States are the main providers

of services and allocators of resources, their consultative

processes should concentrate on those activities. To the extent

that local government is concerned with small area services

through identifying needs and arranging that they be met, either,

through co-ordinating the activities of others or through

providing the services direct, its consultative processes should

be concentrated on those matters.

118. In reality, each level of government conducts, or

has concern about, the activities which are the primary concern

or responsibility of other levels. For example, the Commonwealth may be greatly concerned about the location, size or objectives

of a community health centre or recreation field or homeless

persons' hostel, even though its role is primarily to ensure

that overall policies and guidelines are such as will enable the

on-the-ground service to meet the greatest need. The States

and local government bodies will be concerned with the kinds of

policies, and their development, for which the Commonwealth has .

primary responsibility. The States will be concerned with local

area activities, and that they fit into broader plans the State

has or may be developing for the area, for example in relation

to housing, transport or the provision of schools. And so on.

The Growing Interest in Consultation

119. The interconnected nature of so many of the

activities of government has led many to the view that three

levels are too many. It has also led to the suggestion that

roles there outlined as a guide.

55.

the consultative process should be developed as one continuous

stream, starting from the local or grass-roots level; continuing to State level by drawing on the same people and building on the

local consultative arrangements; and proceeding ("upwards" or

"inwards") by the same processes to the national level. It would follow that this would require a nationally established network

of consultative arrangements, with servicing by Commonwealth

staff to ensure continuity and a flow of information, views and other inputs between the levels.

120. Although attractive in its logic, we have concluded

that a nationally devised and supported consultative network of this kind would not be the best. It could very easily lead to

excessive concentration on national concerns, at the expense

of local and State level concerns, and could become unwieldy

and expensive. Further, there are as we have suggested

important respects in which the main concerns of the

Commonwealth, State and local governments are different. A consultative process designed for the Commonwealth would not

necessarily be appropriately constituted to illuminate the main

State concerns, or those of local government.

121. Rather, we see each level of government as having a need, for its own purposes, to establish its own consultative

arrangements. The requirement that this Task Force make

recommendations on consultative arrangements, and the recent establishment of new Commonwealth consultative/advisory machinery

in the welfare and health fields, are evidence of this concern

at national level. The existence of the VCCSD, the emergence in

other States of consultative mechanisms, and the committee in

South Australia inquiring into Community Development and Assistance (the Corbett Committee), are evidence of the concern

at State level (see Attachment C, section 3.6.3). There is also abundant evidence of the continuing, and indeed growing,

interest and activity of local governments in the process of

consultation. One example of this is the continuation of the arrangements for regional groupings of councils, particularly

in the metropolitan areas, that have survived the withdrawal of

56.

subsidy arrangements from outside. Another is the view,

expressed regularly at consultations with local government

representative^ that local government is in an ideal position

to serve as a catalyst in the community, and to mobilise support

for particular community development or other objectives in

health and welfare. These processes all require consultation,

often through a community development officer or social worker

attached to a particular local authority or group of authorities.

Each Level of Government Has Responsibilities

122. Accepting that all levels of government are becoming

increasingly aware of the need for consultation, and that their

needs are not altogether the same, the question arises whether

each level should draw up its own comprehensive arrangements.

For the Commonwealth, this would involve machinery at least .

at national, State and local levels. The States would

presumably need State and sub-State level arrangements, and local

government might wish to organise regional and local level

arrangements. This all sounds to be very complex and would, in

our view, be excessive, inefficient and uneconomic.

123. Instead, we propose that each level of government be

recognised as being responsible for organising the appropriate

forms of consultation for its level, and that it invite the other

levels of government to be involved as appropriate. In

practice, this would mean representation of all levels of government in Commonwealth and State level consultations, -and probably ad hoc representation of suitable Commonwealth

locally based officers at sub-State consultations. Co-operative

arrangements along these lines are already operating in Victoria,

with the VCCSD, which was established through the joint efforts

of representatives of Commonwealth, State, local government and

non-government agencies and could, as we have suggested, be a

model for broad purpose consultative arrangements in other

States and at national and possibly sub-State level.

124. It was suggested to us on a number of occasions that

the consultative arrangements might be patterned rather differently at each level of government. At the Commonwealth

57.

! level they could be "horizontal". That is, they could be broad-

j based, with the establishment of specialist sub-committees, e.g. concentrating on particular client groups, working to the

broad-based body. At State level, the arrangements could be

"vertical", with emphasis on client groups or areas of

specialty, and with little need for a broad-based consultation

except perhaps as a combination of the "vertical" arrangements.

At local government level, the arrangements might again be

"horizontal", but different from the national level consultations

in that not only consultation, but also decision-making and

management, might be discharged by the one body.

125. We find the foregoing "horizontal/vertical/horizontal" pattern attractive as a statement of the options. It is

consistent with our description of the primary roles of the

various levels of government in the health/welfare/community development fields, at least for the Commonwealth and for sub-State consultations. However, there may be difficulties at

the State level. We see there just as great a need for horizontal as for "vertical" arrangements, and our judgment is

that on the whole it is the "horizontal" dimension that is lacking. Moreover, the State - Victoria - which has developed

the most comprehensive consultative mechanisms has opted for the broad-based horizontal style pattern with the use of specialist sub-committees as required. We consider, too, that adopting

the "vertical" style at State level would tend to leave more power in the hands of the "central" (State) government, which

would also be able to play off the interests of one "vertical" group against another. Accordingly, our inclination is towards

the establishment, at each level, of "horizontal" style consultative arrangements, with "vertical" sub-committees working in areas where greater concentration is necessary. Program-

related arrangements could, as we suggested earlier, be added as necessary to meet the needs of Ministers or their departments.

126. At each level, the relevant government should be

primarily responsible for organising its own consultative arrangements. Our hope and expectation is that at each level

58.

provision would be made to include representation from the

other levels of government. For Commonwealth and State level

broad purpose consultations, all levels would need to be

represented, but at sub-State level representation could be

more selective. The development of consultative arrangements

for the Commonwealth would then become a matter of developing,

at national level, broad-based consultative machinery that

would include representatives from the relevant Commonwealth

departments; from the States; from local government; and from

non-government organisations. It would look to the States

and local government (or regional organisations) for

representation in consultations they had arranged, rather than establishing its own arrangements.

127. Informal discussions in Victoria fortify us in our;

view that it makes sense to leave State-level and intra-State

consultation to State governments and sub-State bodies. It

seems that the pattern of consultative arrangements for State

governments is along much the same lines as for the Commonwealth

(see Attachment E for the Commonwealth arrangements). But the

total number of State arrangements seems likely to be much

higher than for the Commonwealth which, given the smaller areas

covered, indicates that States are a good deal more involved with local communities and organisations than the Commonwealth.

It makes sense to build on these arrangements where more is

required than to envisage a new, and largely duplicating, set

of Commonwealth-instituted arrangements. It also seems that,

because of the larger number of State consultative arrangements,

the Commonwealth-State machinery looms proportionately less

large in the overall State picture than it does in the

Commonwealth picture (where exclusive Commonwealth-State

consultative arrangements represent about one third of the total

and arrangements involving the States and other "outside" bodies

represent more than one half of the total (see paragraph 96)).

This is, of course, as it should be in a 'federal system. It

means that what we are proposing represents a clarification and

extension of the existing situation rather than a change in

policy.

59.

128. This chapter so far has been relatively silent about

the place of non-government organisations in the consultative

arrangements. From our discussions with representatives of

these bodies, we consider the arrangements outlined above would

in general be acceptable. They would give the. organisations

an opportunity to consult with each level of government, to be

informed of developments and to make their own contributions.

They would recognise the important role non-government

organisations play in health/welfare/community development.

They should also serve, by bringing all the relevant parties

together, to produce more co-ordinated policies, administration

and service delivery at national, State and local levels. In

the next chapter we examine in some detail the roles of the various representatives in the consultative processes and in

Chapter VII we set out our proposals for a new Commonwealth

consultative mechanism.

60.

VI. ROLES IN THE CONSULTATIVE PROCESS

The Role of Commonwealth Officers

129. During our seminars, a good deal of attention was

focused on the proposition in our Discussion Paper (Attachment D)

that members of consultative arrangements drawn from government

departments should be permitted (or expected) to speak as

individuals. We record in section 3.5.3. of Attachment C a

range of the views expressed. It was put to us that a

departmental officer can hardly attend a consultation as an individual. Acting strictly in this capacity, he or she

would be unlikely to be able to make an effective contribution.

At the other extreme, it was suggested that if officers attend !

in a strictly representative vole, in which they might well incur j

commitments on behalf of the department, all they would be able

to do would be to adopt the "departmental line", again reducing

the effectiveness of the consultative process. There was also

general agreement that it would not be acceptable to have

departmental representatives present as observers. In that

capacity, while they would be able to derive some advantage from

hearing what others said, they would not be able to contribute

in a positive way.

130. We are in sympathy with the objections mentioned in

the preceding paragraph to three possible roles for departmental

officers attending consultations. Our view is that the only

viable role is for departmental officers to be accepted as

officers, i.e. not as "individuals", and on the clear

understanding that they speak from within the context of their

departmental experience, but without commitment to future

actions of the department, i.e. not as "spokesmen". If

any commitment is to be given, then that commitment would have

to be explicit. That is of course contrary to the normal

expectation and practice, which seems to be that unless a

departmental officer expressly indicates that he has made no

commitment, those with whom he is discussing an issue will

assume that he has made such a commitment, and are likely to

61.

hold him to it at a later date. To expect commitments to be

given on anything but an explicit basis would be to negate the

objectives of the broad purpose consultative arrangements we recommend in Chapter VII. Their whole point is to facilitate

a free and open discussion of alternatives, and to allow people

to be influenced by the flow of discussion. If a departmental

officer felt that his department (or he himself) would

subsequently be held to any comments he made, then he would

clearly find it difficult to participate in discussion on any

but a most limited basis. The VCCSD has, we understand,

evolved its procedures along these lines so that departmental

officers can make effective contributions.

131. We cannot emphasise enough the importance for any

effective consultative arrangement involving departmental

officers that they attend as officers, but without committing

their department except where the commitment is express and

explicit. Only in this way can the clear line of authority through departmental officers to their Minister and the

Government be preserved. It is no part of our proposal to reduce the accountability of officers to Ministers and of

Ministers to Parliament for actions of the administration.

Rather, it is to promote awareness in departments of alternatives

and of trends of thought which might not otherwise come to

notice, so that in their advising of Ministers and in their conduct of administration they can be more aware of issues and

more sensitive in their advice to Ministers. In the fields of

health, welfare and community development this kind of sensitivity is of very high importance.

132. Apart from the question of roles, those who attended our seminars also raised the question of the extent to which departmental officers would be able to provide information and

background to participants in the consultative process. Some

went as far as to suggest that any "freedom of information" legislation introduced by the Commonwealth should expressly apply to the proceedings of consultative bodies. We have

62.

discussed this issue in more detail in paragraphs 42-43.

133. Our view is that unless departments are willing to

make information and background fairly freely available to the

participants in a consultative body on the basis that, if

necessary without attribution, it and its implications can

be discussed by the participants with those they represent, it would be"preferable not to establish the consultative

arrangement. It is true that some information could lead to

critical comment. On the other hand, the existence of the

consultative process, and the trust built up as it develops,

are likely to be such that information revealing deficiencies

in administration or policy will be dealt with more responsibly,

and probably at an earlier stage in the development of a

problem, than would be the case if the information were to be

withheld and come out at a later date.

134. We make the point that all organisations have a need

to preserve the confidentiality of some information. That will

apply to State governments, to local governments and to non­

government organisations just as it will to the Commonwealth

Government. There will need to be an understanding all round

that there are some limits to openness - limits which it will

be in the interests of all to keep to a minimum, so that there

is free exchange, but equally on the basis that there is proper

safeguarding of potentially sensitive information, from

whatever source it comes. ,

135. We recommend that the role of the Commonwealth

officer in a consultative process of the kind we have

recommended be that he or she should -. speak from the context of the department, neither as an "individual" nor merely as a "spokesman" but on the basis of no commitment unless this is

made explicit at the time.

. explain Government and departmental policies, and provide background, but not adopt a debating position

63.

. inform the other participants to the maximum extent possible about issues of which the department has knowledge, but not to the extent of attempting to propagandise

. discuss issues raised on as frank a basis as possible, but refrain from "addressing” the consultation

• ctuestion other participants about their views, but not m a spirit of cross-questioning

. participate fully in the consultative processes, neither adopting the dissociated stance of an observer nor seeking to dominate the discussion

• listen to what is said carefully, making every effort to understand it, and not ignoring, wilfully misunderstanding or misreporting it in any follow-up action . follow up discussions in the consultation by taking

whateveraction may be appropriate in the circumstances, and by taking fully into account the outcome of the discussions in the consultation

. provide feedback to the participants when government decisions have been taken following discussions in the consultation, but not on a basis that would imply or lead to some kind of strict accountability . supply agenda material on the basis of making the most

effective use possible of the consultative arrangements, but without seeking to determine unilaterally the course the consultation would take or the subjects it would discuss

136. We consider that if officers can be permitted to attend meetings of consultative arrangements on the foregoing

basis, illuminated by our comments in Chapter II about what

consultation is and is not, then considerable benefit will derive both to the department and the government and also to the

other participants in the consultative process. This has clearly been the case with the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development (attended by both Commonwealth and State officers), and we consider like benefits could accrue to all

those involved in a national, consultative process, including participants coming from other organisations (we refrain from

using the more formal "representing"). We add that our suggestion above that Commonwealth officers who are members of

a consultative arrangement should as appropriate follow up

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discussions in the consultative process, and provide feedback to

a later meeting of the consultation, are very much in line with

the proposals made by the Royal Commission on Australian

Government Administration for the development of guidelines to

allow officers in the public service to be more accessible to

individuals or groups. These proposals are discussed in

paragraphs 6.3.23-28 of the Royal Commission's Report. We note

that the Royal Commission saw the Public Service Board as having

a major role in defining and refining the guidelines.

137. Particularly in the early stages, some difficulties

may be experienced as officers establish their roles and as

understanding is developed among the participants. For this

reason, but more importantly because the consultative process,

to be effective, will require a high level of contribution from

the select group of participants, we recommend that the

Commonwealth, officers be of senior status. Having in mind the

importance of continuity in attendance (see paragraphs 40-41),

not all Commonwealth departmental heads may be able to be the

departmental participant. If not, then the officer nominated should be senior, and with ready direct access to the

departmental head. An alternative could be for the departmental

head to be the member, but to nominate a senior officer who

would normally attend in his place. We understand that the

VCCSD operates on the basis that those attending from

departments are of senior status, including departmental heads.

Role of State Officers

138. It will of course be a matter for each State

Government to determine whether it is willing to send a

representative from its administration to any national

consultation. Assuming State Governments are willing to do

this, it will also be their responsibility to determine the

basis on which their officers can attend the consultation.

139. We consider the basis we have outlined for

Commonwealth officers should provide a suitable framework for

participation by State officers. If it is found that for some

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reason the framework we have proposed is unsuitable for either

Commonwealth or State officers, then that might in itself become

the subject matter of discussion in the consultative process.

It seems important that as far as possible Commonwealth and

State officers attend meetings of consultative arrangements on

the same basis, and that they work within the same understandings.

Role of Local Government Participants

140. Local government participants in the proposed broad purpose consultative process will probably have a more difficult

role than any others. Local government is so different between

the States that it will be extremely difficult for any

representative to contribute in a way that will adequately reflect the position of local government on any particular issue.

Nevertheless, we see it as extremely important that the voice of local government should be heard in any national consultative process. It may well be that a need could emerge for some form

of sub-committee of the consultative body to develop in more

depth than could the body itself the implications for local

government of the outcomes of some of the issues considered in

the consultative process.

141. Notwithstanding the difficulties we have mentioned in

the way of arranging for suitable local government

representation on a national consultative body, we express the

hope that local government will be willing to participate. A continuing exchange of views and reminder of the existence of

local government will be an important element in any successful

and forward-looking consultative process.

Role of Non-Government Participants 142. To a large extent, we consider participants drawn from

non-government organisations should find the framework we have outlined for participation by Commonwealth officers appropriate to their circumstances. However, during our seminars most representatives of non-government organisations recognised that

their role as representatives was clearer and more easily defined

than that of public servants. They speak on the whole for rather

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less complicated organisations than are governmental

departments, and on the whole are more able to commit their

organisations. Nevertheless, experience in the VCCSD suggests

that the non-government organisation representatives will

increasingly discover, as the consultative process develops,

that they need to build better links with the organisations for

whom they stand. With over 100 national organisations (see the

list in Attachment H) there is no chance that more than a very

small group of national organisations can be directly

represented on a national consultative body, let alone the many

hundreds of State level organisations and the thousands of

sub-State organisations. Accordingly, it may be expected that

the non-government organisation representatives will experience

increasing difficulty in speaking definitively for the broad

range of organisations they represent. In the longer term, it

may be that it is they rather than the public servants who will

find a need to qualify what they say and, in particular, a need

to go back to their organisations before they can express views.

143. If this is the direction of developments in the

future, it will be all to the good. The consultative process

will derive added richness from the contribution which

increasingly well informed participants from non-government

organisations can make. It will also broaden the total

understanding of the consultative process and make it less

threatening to the public service members, because of the wider

understanding of the difficulties of "speaking for" any

particular body or bodies. Thus we see the consultative

processes we have proposed as leading to an increased

sophistication in understanding, and continually improving

relations between the government bureaucracies and those who

work with and for non-government organisations.

67.

VII. PROPOSALS FOR COMMONWEALTH CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

144. In the preceding chapters we have reviewed the need

for consultative arrangements, identified significant elements

in the consultative process, and' suggested patterns of action in the context of a federal system. In this chapter we draw together our findings and make recommendations relating to

consultative processes for which the Commonwealth has a major

responsibility. This responsibility has in the past been

associated with program administration (paragraphs 10-13). We

see a need also for a new, broad-based consultative arrangement to consider social policy and related administrative and

delivery issues (paragraphs 13, 15 and 106) .

Consultation at Ministerial Level

145. There are now well-established consultative

arrangements for Commonwealth and State Ministers in health, welfare and community development portfolios. These in many

cases have supporting official structures (paragraph 110).

We see no need for major change in the Ministerial Councils in which Health Ministers, Welfare Ministers, Recreation Ministers, Local Government Ministers, Aboriginal Affairs Ministers and Immigration and Ethnic Affairs Ministers meet to further the

exercise of their portfolio responsibilities.

146. There has, however, been some discussion in particular Councils of Ministers, e.g. the Welfare Ministers,

of the possibility of holding broader based Ministerial meetings when issues involving more than one portfolio are under discussion, e.g. children's services programs. In our view, it would not be desirable to establish meetings on a regular basis

of Ministers of all portfolios in the health/welfare/community development fields. The meetings would tend to be large and,

with the many other demands on Ministerial time, would almost certainly be difficult to arrange. Instead, we recommend that acceptance be given in principle to the idea of arranging for meetings of Ministers of different portfolios when the subject

68.

demands. Ad hoc meetings arranged in this way might normally

be confined to one particular subject and the Ministers

attending would be invited according to their portfolio interest.

Thus all Ministers with interests in health/welfare/community

development would not necessarily be invited to attend any

particular meeting, but there would be acceptance in principle

that any having a portfolio interest would automatically be under invitation.

147. Given that meetings of Ministers with different

portfolio interests will be relatively infrequent, we suggest

that the maximum exchange of information, minutes, etc. about

the proceedings of particular Ministerial meetings be undertaken.

We note that already the Health Ministers invite the Minister for

Social Security, and on occasion Ministers with other portfolios,

to attend for discussion of relevant topics.

Consultation at Official Level

148. Most Commonwealth consultation at official level is

conducted in association with the administration of particular

programs (paragraphs 66-67 and 93-95) . We see a continuation of

such consultation as desirable. Where the function is consultative/advisory rather than recommending/decision-making,

we envisage the creation of new arrangements through

development of a National Consultative Council and associated

committees (paragraph 106).

149. Where the function is recommending/decision-making we

suggest that consideration be given to introducing arrangements

in relation to some programs where no consultative mechanisms

presently exist (paragraph 109).

150. The parties with which consultation is likely to need

to take place are the States, local government and non­

government bodies. We indicate in the following paragraphs our

findings and recommendations in relation to each of these

parties.

69.

151. Consultation with States. Of the 189 consultative

arrangements the Commonwealth has with "outside" bodies, 56 are

exclusively with representatives of State Governments. In our

view, consultative arrangements with the States are reasonably

adequate (paragraph 15), and will be improved if the program

grants in our First Report are introduced (paragraph 111). We

repeat our view that it would be unwise to attempt to specify

too precisely what kinds of consultative machinery should be developed between the Commonwealth and the States at officer

level. The arrangements are numerous and the important

objective is to leave development or discontinuance of

arrangements to the actual needs of particular programs and activities (paragraph 112).

152. Consultation with Local Government. We draw attention to the fact that local government virtually does not participate in the 189 consultative arrangements Commonwealth

departments have with "outside" bodies (paragraphs 18, 115·)· We recommend that consideration be given to including local government representation in more of the Commonwealth's program-

related consultative arrangements in health/welfare/community

development which it administers directly rather than through the States. Where the administration is through the States, provision should be made in program grants or other arrangements

for as much participation by local government as is feasible,

given the nature of the program (paragraphs 16-18).

153. Consultation with Non-Government Bodies. Consultative

arrangements with non-government bodies are fairly equally divided between consultative/advisory arrangements and recommending/decision-making arrangements, with a slight preponderance of the consultative/advisory style (paragraph 93).

In relation to the aonsultat'Lv e/advisory arrangementsj we have

concluded that -

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(a) the broadly based bodies, such as NCCSW and WWICC,

emphasise their advisory rather than their

consultative role and as such have encountered

difficulties which would have been reduced had it been

made clearer whether they were intended to be primarily

advisory or primarily consultative (paragraphs 98-100); (b) these bodies would desirably move either towards the

new broad-based national consultative arrangements we

propose or towards a more expressly advisory role

(paragraphs 102-104). We also suggest some

rationalisation of existing advisory arrangements of a

more specialised character (paragraph 105);

(c) if the National Consultative Council proposed below

is established, many of the existing bodies might

either cease or become committees of the Council

(paragraph 106).

154. In relation to recommending/decision-making

arrangements} we -(a) commend the use made by the Department of Health of

outside experts (paragraph 108) and recommend that more

systematic consideration be given to drawing in outside

expertise (paragraph 109);

(b) recommend that the practice be adopted of reviewing

consultative arrangements from time to time, and at

least every two years, so that the need for continuance

can be assessed and any requirement for change in terms

of reference brought to notice - the NHMRC practice is

to be supported (paragraph 108).

A National Consultative Council 155. We consider it neither necessary nor desirable that the Commonwealth establish its own consultative arrangements at

State and local levels (paragraphs 119-120). Rather, the

Commonwealth should seek involvement in consultative

arrangements developed by States and at sub-State level to

71.

obtain appropriate inputs from those levels (paragraphs 121 and 123).

156. However, we see a need for a more broadly based

national consultative forum in the health/welfare/community

development fields. This would enable some rationalisation of existing structures, and assist in the harmonising of inputs

from all the relevant sources (paragraph 105). At the present, the Commonwealth receives no considered input from the

community as a whole - non-government organisations, experts,

States and local government (paragraphs 16-19). It has no

ready means of tapping, in a non-partisan forum and across the

social policy field as a whole, how its programs and policies are being experienced and where change might be desirable.

157. We consider the existence of a body with a broad

purpose- consultative role would make an important contribution

to the effectiveness of policy planning, administration and service delivery .in the health, welfare and community

development fields and accordingly recommend that a National Consultative Council be established. The purpose of the

National Consultative Council would be to bring together people

from the Commonwealth, State, local government and non­

government milieux to consult on matters of broad national concern in the health/welfare/community development

fields. The outcomes of a consultative process of this kind cannot be predicted but, based on experience with the VCCSD, the

process should be of benefit to all parties. It would put Commonwealth officers in touch with thinking, action and plans

of States, local government and non-government organisations active in the field. It would give them an opportunity to

discuss issues of mutual concern with people from the other milieux and would enable them to convey information about Commonwealth programs. It would help put into perspective, and to rationalise, existing consultative machinery, having more

specific purposes or having a more specific place in the decision-making processes. The National Consultative Council

72.

would not act as a pressure group, but would have the right, if

it so desired, to reach findings or recommendations about

particular matters. We consider similar benefits would accrue

to the other members of the proposed national consultative forum.

158. More specifically, we recommend that the National

Consultative Council -(a) be modelled in general on arrangements for the VCCSD,

including as to the balance in its membership between

the various parties needing representation;

(b) be about 25 in number;

(c) have membership along the following lines -. an officer from each of the six departments ; with important responsibilities in health/, welfare/community development (Aboriginal

Affairs; Environment, Housing and Community Development; Health; Immigration and Ethnic Affairs; Social Security; Veterans1 Affairs), with provision for others as required by the agenda, e.g. Education and Employment and Industrial Relations 6 - 8

. a representative from each State and, if Health and Welfare Ministers so decide, an officer from the groups supporting the Health and Welfare Ministers' Conferences 6 - 8

. a person (either an officer or a person from local government or non-government bodies) from each of the mainland Territories (see paragraph 254) - 2

. two local government representatives nominated by the Australian Council of Local Government Associations 2

. a representative nominated by each of the three national welfare co-ordinating agencies (ACOSS, ACROD and ACOTA) and by up to 6 other national organisations 7 - 9

. up to 3 other persons (including a chairperson) nominated by Commonwealth Ministers in the health/welfare/community development fields in consultation with

the Prime Minister 1 - 3

24 32

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(d) be associated with the social policy unit we recommend

in Part 2 of this report and accordingly not be

formally associated with or advisory to any particular

Minister in the health/welfare/community development

field, but rather be free to make an input if and as

that seems appropriate in the light of the outcomes of

the consultative processes; (e) be serviced either from the social policy unit; or, on

lines analogous with the VCCSD, by a national body

such as ACOSS on a trial basis for say 2 - 3 years;

(f) meet approximately 3 - 4 times a year, probably in

March, July and October, and have power to appoint

standing committees or working groups that would, as with the sub-committees of the VCCSD, take matters

further and be able to include more specialised participation;

(g) not necessarily meet in Canberra, although for reasons

of economy it would most likely need to meet in

Sydney, Melbourne or Canberra.

(h) be reviewed after 2 - 3 years (in association with

(e) above).

159. For it to develop adequately, the new National

Consultative Council will need to work out for itself

consultative modes and processes along the lines discussed in Chapter II (paragraphs 33-63).

160. The roles of Commonwealth officers, and of other participants in the National Consultative Council, will need to be developed with care and over time. We propose that the

basis for the participation of Commonwealth officers be as set

out in Chapter VI (paragraph 135).

161. Cost. We have given some thought to the possible

cost of a National Consultative Council along the lines we have

proposed (see paragraphs 52-56). It would be wrong to attempt to operate a consultative process of this kind on a shoestring.

74.

On the other hand, we consider it should not be unduly expensive

to any of the parties, because there will be a benefit to all

from participation and each participant organisation can

reasonably be expected to bear a share of the total cost, having

in mind that this includes skills, time and money costs. The

cost of existing Commonwealth consultative arrangements varies

from some $597,000 (1977-78 appropriation) for the very large

National Health and Medical Research Council through $155,000

for NACH to $51,000 for NCCSW. The cost of selected

consultative arrangements is shown in Attachment H.

162. Assuming three meetings a year, and some activity

related to committees and working groups, and noting that the

VCCSD costs approximately $45,000 a year, our rough estimate

is that the National Consultative Council should cost the :

Commonwealth about $100,000. This would include provision for

fares for representatives of non-government organisations and

for the experts nominated by Commonwealth Ministers, and assumes

that the cost of sending State officers would be met by the

States.

A Conference of National Non-Government Organisations

163. We recommend that plans be developed for the holding

of a conference of national non-government organisations in the

health/welfare/community development fields. An important

purpose of the conference would be to provide machinery for

these organisations, now numbering over a hundred (see Attachment i) to determine how best the non-government sector

could be represented on the National Consultative Council (paragraph 84). A function of the National Consultative

Council might well be to consider what other items might be placed on the agenda of the proposed national conference. If

the conference proved a success, then consideration might be

given to repeating it from time to time as issues emerged which

would benefit from a broader based discussion of this kind.

PART 2

T H E C O - O R D I N A T I O N

O F S O C I A L P O L I C Y D E V E L O P M E N T

75.

THE CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT

VIII. INTRODUCTORY - THE EXISTING SITUATION

The Terms of Reference

164. By paragraph 1 (d) of its terms of reference, the

Task Force is required to examine and report on -" (d) the continuing machinery which should be established to co-ordinate social policy development at the Commonwealth level."

165. For the purposes of this inquiry, we have not assumed

that this portion of our terms of reference is an intimation

that continuing machinery will automatically be introduced.

Rather, we consider our first assignment is to determine whether

or not some form of machinery is required. If it is, then we need to consider what form it should take, and whether it should

be continuing or ad hoc.

The Existing Position 166. Our inquiries have revealed that there is in effect

no existing continuing machinery for the development of social policy in Australia. For the same reason, neither Cabinet nor

Committees of Cabinet have been able, in any systematic or continuing way, to review or consider in a broad context the direction social policy should take, or the options among which

choices could be made. This has been the subject of comment

and recommendation in many recent reports - see Appendix J for

extracts.

167. our own researches have confirmed the findings of these bodies. We were provided by Departments with a list of the standing co-ordinating and consultative arrangements with

which each department is associated. While the co-ordinating arrangements within departments, and between departments and the States, are numerous, reasonably comprehensive and developing,

those between departments in the health, welfare and community

development fields are few in number and usually about issues with relatively minor policy significance. Although more than

76.

300 co-ordinating or consultative arrangements were in

operation at end October 1977 (Attachment E), there was not one body which could be described as having the role of

co-ordinating social policy development, or even of

co-ordinating development of policy between two departments.

There were less than half a dozen committees concerned with

"client groups", which typically contain individuals obtaining

assistance from more than one department. There is an inter­

departmental committee on the South Sea Islanders (but it does

not include Health); there are broader-based committees on women

and refugees with functions extending well beyond the health/welfare j

field, but they do not focus on the health/welfare/community

development field; and a Standing Interdepartmental Committee^

on Rehabilitation (SIDCOR).* The list stops there.

168. The fact that there is no general policy co-ordinating machinery at official level is not necessarily a matter for

criticism. It has been shown that, with few if any exceptions,

interdepartmental committees are not successful in co-ordinating

the development of policy, at any rate on a continuing basis.

The findings of the Royal Commission on Australian Government

Administration, based on specific case studies, are the leading

example, and they follow much prior official criticism of this

particular role for interdepartmental committees. Nor has there

in recent years been an active Ministerial Committee in- the

social policy field: proposals from the functional departments

have been taken, as they emerged, by the Cabinet and there has accordingly been no call for supporting official machinery to

provide a continuing co-ordination effort at the initial

developmental stages of new policy.

169. This is not to say that departments in the health/

welfare/community development fields do not co-operate on many

issues. In fact they do, on an ad hoc basis and related to

their own particular policy or administrative concerns. There is

also a regular fortnightly meeting of the permanent heads of

Health, Social Security and Veterans' Affairs which has no

* see Attachment E, Nos. 211,219,178,210 respectively.

77

prepared agenda but serves as an instrument for consultation and

co-ordination between the three departments at permanent head

level. The existence of standing machinery is not necessarily

an indication of co-operation; nor is its absence an indication

that co-operation and co-ordination do not occur. Furthermore,

s the Departments of Finance and of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

have important co-ordinating roles, and they undoubtedly

: exercise them in the social policy field. However, these

departments rightly regard their roles as not really extending

to the continuing and detailed development of policy. The

Department of Finance is concerned primarily with financial

matters and the allocation of resources, the Department of the

Prime Minister and Cabinet with the development of major policy

and overall policy co-ordination, and with the co-ordination of policy as it evolves and as problems emerge in the course of

administration.

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IX. THE NEED FOR NEW MACHINERY

How the Need Arises

170. The question requiring answer is whether there is a

need for machinery to co-ordinate social policy development,

or whether the lack of such machinery proves that there is no

need for it. Our conclusion is that there is a need. We see

a number of reasons, two of which stand out. First, certain

groups feel they have not adequately been catered for - the

aged, youth under stress, ethnic communities and at least some

groups of handicapped persons are examples. Second, there is

an absence, in the social policy field, of machinery for

careful, co-ordinated and across-the-board analysis of policies,

and of continuing research and review across the field as a

whole. This absence is conducive to the development of

fragmented policy and of overlap or gaps in administration.

(By the "social policy field" we mean primarily health,

welfare and community development, but recognising that on

occasion issues in such fields as education, employment and

even taxation policy can be relevant.)

171. In our view, departments are not structured to cope

well with either of the deficiencies referred to in the

previous paragraph - the development of policies for client groups and the development of a co-ordinated social policy.

These deficiencies relate to activities which are not the

function of any one existing department, and could not,be

without making that department in some sense an "overlord".

The deficiency has not arisen because the relevant departments

have not discharged their functions properly. Rather, it seems to be associated with the fact that they, as departments

elsewhere, are organised on functional lines. The Department of

Health has primary responsibilities in the health field, and for­

th e development of policy in that area. Social Security has

as its primary function the provision of income maintenance

(pensions, family allowances, unemployment benefits etc.) and has more recently added some "softer" welfare functions. Its

policy development responsibilities relate to that field.

79.

The Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development,

insofar as it operates in the social policy field, is primarily

concerned with housing and the facilitation of social

development and change as perceived through analysis.

172. The separate functional emphases of each department,

and their separate and relatively equal status, mean that

(rightly) they devote their main energies to the discharge of

their own functional tasks. They do not have a mandate to

discharge broad overall policy development functions extending

into the areas of other departments. To give each of them such

a role would lead to competition and overlap. To give the role

to only one would lead rapidly to its developing an overlord

role, which we take to be unacceptable in theory and unworkable in practice.

173. This is not to say that there are not deficiencies

in the way departments work at present which could be remedied by improvements in their own functioning, without a need for

any new machinery. Indeed, most of the deficiencies brought

to our notice are of this kind. For example, it was drawn to our

attention in connection with the inquiries leading to our

First Report that Aged Persons Homes are often not located in places of greatest need. While to some extent this kind of

defect may be a consequence of the way financing of a program is

arranged (the subsidies are most likely to be availed of in ■

the more affluent areas) the program is felt not to have given

priority to areas of need. Problems of this kind are not,

except indirectly, dealt with in this report. What we are concerned with is possible deficiencies in the machinery

available for the development and review of social policy in

the broader, overall sense.

174. Social policy, where it is developed, is the product

of two distinct but complementary processes. First, and historically of most significance, it is developed as needs are

identified in the community for government assistance - as new client or interest groups emerge or are identified, or as their needs change. Recent examples are the emergence of the women's

80.

movement and the identification of the need for women's refuges.

Second, social policy is developed as a result of analysis of

existing policies and of research. This is associated with

the emergence of the social sciences as significant disciplines

in their own right. A good example is the introduction of the

new family allowances, following examination by the Income

Security Review. Neither process - outside pressures or

internal research and review - is readily handled by a single

functional department when it involves broad issues and action

in the social policy field. Nor is there machinery at present

which could handle issues across the whole field.

Policy for Client Groups

175. In a sense, all policy and administration is directed

to client groups - those who are ill, under-privileged, without

adequate income and so on. The Departments of Health, of

Social Security and of Environment, Housing and Community

Development exist to meet the needs of these very broad groups in

society. It may indeed be a measure of their success that the

focus is now on groups identifying themselves as having special

needs not adequately catered for - ethnic groups, the aged, the

handicapped and groups within them, and so on. But each of these

groups has needs extending beyond the functions of one

department, and it is not possible under existing arrangements

either for them to obtain the satisfaction they want or for

governments readily to devise the programs they would like to

offer. For example, the pre-school movement is aware of a

need to involve other departments than Social Security, as are

the aged, ethnic communities and the handicapped. Governments,

for their part, have not found it easy to respond. There is

a need for machinery to facilitate the co-ordination of

departmental thinking with the object of developing policies

that can be followed in a coherent and co-ordinated fashion by

the functional departments and that will avoid the emergence

of inequities between the various groups.

176. Governments do, of course, respond to the needs of

identified groups. Both the Department of Veterans' Affairs

81

and the Department of Aboriginal Affairs are committed to

promoting, across the whole spectrum of government assistance,

programs for their client groups. There are, as we indicated

in our First Report, special reasons for the establishment of

these departments (paragraph 256). We regard their separate

existence as not necessarily permanently desirable but rather

as a manifestation, for the present, of the concern felt for

the needs of these groups. More recently, the-Commonwealth has

responded to other pressures and needs of this kind by the

establishment of the -. Office of Women's Affairs in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

. Office of Child Care in the Department of Social Security

. Commissioner for Community Relations responsible to the Attorney-General

. Ethnic Affairs Branch in the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

. Office of Youth Affairs in the Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development.

177. Hitherto, the practice has normally been to locate

the office or bureau in the department whose functions are most nearly associated with it - or with the Department of the

Prime Minister and Cabinet, as with the Office of Women's Affairs

or previously with the Office of Education, the Office of

Aboriginal Affairs and the Office of Environment and Conservation.

Where such an office or bureau is established in a functional

department there is an inherent risk that it will become

excessively concerned with the affairs of that department, or

cease to have much effect beyond the department.

178. To the extent that the "client group" offices or bureaux administer programs, they tend to overlap with the

activities of the functional departments. Allocating even

experimental programs to such groups tends to deflect their attention from their trouble-spotting and policy-developing

role to the problems of administration. With care, wasteful

duplication and deflection from the main task is avoidable, but there is always a risk. The alternative is for the office or

82

bureau to refrain from administering programs and to work by

influencing the relevant functional department or departments.

This is the way in which the Office of Women's Affairs works,

and is intended to be also the method of working for the Office

of Youth Affairs and the Ethnic Affairs Branch.

179. The obvious question to be answered is whether each

of these groups should look ultimately to the creation of its

own department administering all relevant services. Our answer

is unequivocally "no". Rather, we see it as essential, if

social policy development and consequential administrative

arrangements are to achieve any degree of rationality, order

and economy, to ensure that the needs of all these groups are

properly sorted out and comprehended within adequate policy and

administrative arrangements. It seems clear that as social

awareness develops, the demand by special groups for their own

programs will if anything increase rather than diminish. What

is needed is a way of handling them effectively in terms of the

development of policy and consequential administrative

arrangements. Often overlooked is that client groups use

general programs as well as needing specific programs, and a

careful evaluation of the most effective alternative, without

excessive injection of departmental interests, is desirable.

180. The primary objective is effective and co-ordinated

development of social policy. This will best be achieved if the

"client group" units in the social policy field - primarily health, welfare and community development - which have interests

ranging beyond the functions of any one department are in some

way co-ordinated. We discuss the options in paragraphs 217­

230. If appropriately co-ordinated, they will be able to

interact on each other and more effectively work out techniques

for promoting, through the relevant functional departments, the

interests of those with whom they are concerned. The current

practice of establishing offices of this kind is a recognition

that functional departments have not always been able to cope

adequately with the special needs of particular groups. But the

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work of the youth oriented group must, for example, to some

extent be associated also with the work of the ethnic affairs

group (there are young people of ethnic origin other than Australian) and likewise with the work of the children

oriented groups and so on.

181. The more socially aware Australian community of the

1970's and 1980's is likely to continue to throw up new client

groups and new focuses of interest and concern. The thought of

ever-increasing numbers of special cells, and the consequent

attempts at developing ever more special policies, is daunting

to say the least. The inevitable result would be not only

policy confusion but also duplication, proliferation and overlap

in adminstration. What is needed is a way of bringing- together all these concerns so that, in collaboration with the

functional departments, they can be carefully and systematically analysed and alternatives for action devised for consideration

by Ministers. It is our judgment that this is one of the newly emerging problems - and challenges - in the social policy

field. In some way, governments must be able to respond and

take initiatives in relation to groups in need without creating policy confusion. They must also be in a position to review

existing programs to ensure that overlap is not developing, and

to review priorities from a rational base. Machinery to assist the government in these functions does not at present exist in

any one place. (Options are discussed in paragraphs 218 and 224.)

Policy Analysis and Review 182. The second gap we have detected in existing machinery for policy development relates to activities which can be

broadly described as policy analysis and review. Increasingly,

attention is being focused on the social and physical environment and the need to change that environment if disadvantaged individuals are to be assisted effectively. This

contrasts markedly with past views on social welfare which

emphasised a need to change the individual to fit into society. This gradual change in approach and consequent awareness of, for

84.

example, the effects of housing on health and education and the

effects of employment and income security on health, highlight

the interdependence of social programs. To some extent, programs

in apparently separate functional fields - for example health,

housing, education and income security - can be alternatives.

Further, the way they are designed can affect significantly the

achievement of "other" objectives in the social policy field.

What is needed is a continuing means for keeping these policies under review and, in collaboration with the functional

departments, of ensuring that the right mix of programs is

developed. This will give maximum achievement of objectives

while avoiding overlap or inconsistency in both policy and

administration.

183. It will not be possible to achieve the clear benefits

resulting from analysis and review of the kind described in the

previous paragraph unless there is a continuing body concerned

with organising appropriately directed research (it should not

attempt to do too much of this itself). In the context of the

government service, research is essentially and necessarily

action-oriented. Each of the functional departments has - and

should have - its own policy analysis and review group, and

should carry out research within its functional boundaries.

However, issues which transcend the boundaries of any one

department cannot readily be dealt with by that department. In

some cases, two or more departments could co-operate, but

co-operation is not readily achieved because of the functional imperatives of each department. In some cases, such work can be

done by appointing special inquiries. But this is not

necessarily the quickest (or the most economical) option,

because of the inevitable cost of instituting special machinery

and of the need to gain the acceptance of functional departments.

184. We are far from the first group to identify the need

for effective research, policy analysis and review that straddles

the social policy field as a whole. The Royal Commission on

Australian Government Administration found this to be a need in

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the course of its inquiries, as did its Health Welfare Task

Force. Many submissions made to us emphasised this need. It

is also the subject of strong and very specific recommendations by the Henderson Poverty Inquiry and the Family Services

Committee. The Woodhouse Report on a National Rehabilitation

and Compensation Scheme contained recommendations to the same

end. The findings of these and other inquiries are summarised

in Attachment J. The establishment of the Social Welfare

Commission, and of the Hospitals and Health Services Commission,

were attempts in somewhat different form to embody in

institutions a core of persons committed to research.

185. Even if the Commonwealth does move out of some

aspects of the administration of programs as proposed in our

First Report, there will remain a need for research related to broad policy development. Indeed, there will be a greater

need for it, as the proposed program grants emphasise the

Commonwealth role in the development of policy and in spotting

the need for change and innovation. We note that both the

Department of Health and the Department of Social Security are currently funding research activities - through respectively the

School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at the University of Sydney and the proposed Social Welfare Research Centre at the

University of New South Wales. These are in themselves valuable

initiatives, but we see a need for co-operation and for

assessment, from a broad social policy standpoint, of priorities

and of what still is necessary.

186. Policy development should be linked closely to review

and evaluation. The need for both review and evaluation, and for

associated research activities, was stressed by us in our First

Report, and was the basis for our recommendation that a Welfare/ Health Research Program Grant be established. Otherwise, there

is no check on the effectiveness of programs in themselves, or when compared with related programs. There have, we understand,

been discussions by the Follow-up Group (see Attachment B for the Prime Minister's announcement) with the states about building

86.

into the proposed new program grants provision for evaluation of

the effectiveness of the new broadbanded programs. That is a

useful step forward. However, evaluation and review of

departmental administration are activities which on some

occasions are better conducted by "outside" bodies, more

especially if the programs are concerned with client groups

whose interests are not wholly met by the one department.

187. While a continuing self-awareness and questioning is a necessary part of all good administration, systematic

evaluation and review is better carried out by teams of people

who have developed expertise and who are not subjected to the

conflicting loyalties which arise if one is both administering

a program and at the same time critically reviewing it. And it

is not practical to expect one functional department to review ’

another's work. Governments have over time made good use of

public inquiries of one kind and another for the purpose of

reviewing programs, and will continue to. But we see a need for

a mechanism which, through continuous operation and therefore

closer contact with the functional departments, is able to

concentrate on problem areas more quickly and often with less public exposure than is the case with public inquiries and, most

importantly, to contribute to resolution of the underlying policy

issues.

188. Review and evaluation are closely related to policy

development. In the past, there has been a tendency to introduce new distinct programs to meet newly recognised needs, where

sometimes a redirection or restructuring of existing programs

could have achieved immediate objectives. The Aged Persons

Hostels program, and some aspects of the Australian Assistance Plan and the Regional Organisations Assistance Program, are

examples. In other cases, attempts to develop new policies will

be found to require modification of existing policies or will

expose weaknesses in existing policy or administration, e.g.

the implication for income tax deductions of the family allowances scheme and for governmental rental policies of the

87.

HAVE experiment.

189. We see all these activities - new policy development,

research, evaluation and review - as needing to he conducted

outside the existing range of departments when cross-

departmental problems are involved. This is not to deny at all

the importance of each department having its own policy, review

and evaluation machinery. These already exist, and in some

cases may need strengthening. But it is clear that the

substantial research efforts of the functional departments,

especially Health and Social Security, are - properly - devoted

to the functional areas of each department. Moreover, it is

apparent that little consultation takes place between the

research groups in different departments to ensure that their activities lead to policy development according to an overall

plan and in such a way as to avoid duplication and gaps. To

avoid duplication, existing workers in complementary fields should in suitable cases be brought together to work on a

project. To avoid gaps, problems not being covered adequately

because of their cross-functional nature should be the subject of work by a team assembled from the different departments, or

by the commissioning of a research project.

190. The existence of research capacity in the functional

departments is also an important prerequisite to the success and effectiveness of machinery serving the social policy field as a

whole. But to avoid duplication of activities, and to ensure that thinking and analysis are conducted across the whole field,

machinery is required. Any existing functional department which

attempted to carry out this function would either duplicate activities of other departments, or be seen as intruding into

their affairs and accordingly be resented. Machinery which is seen as complementary to, and co-operating with, the existing departments, and which is largely built up of people seconded

from them, seems to us to have more chance of success, and of efficient and economical working, than any other possible solution to the problem of providing policy analysis and review,

88.

based on systematic research and evaluation across a field in

which some 40% of the Commonwealth's funds are expended.

191. An important incidental advantage of new machinery

for policy development and review is that it would create a

continuing requirement for adequate basic information. At

present there is a bewildering, and multiplying, number of

requests made on departments, on State and local governments,

and on non-government agencies, for information. There is a

need at Commonwealth level to co-ordinate the efforts being

made by so many people to ensure that proper priorities are

given to the various needs; to ensure that the most economical

means are used to gather and collate social data; and to ensure

that a uniform national basis for statistics is developed. ■

192. Both health and welfare administrations at

Commonwealth and State level are becoming increasingly aware

of this need, and are taking steps to rationalise the position.

But there are needs which it is difficult for any single

department or group of departments to achieve. We are not

thinking of any machinery which would duplicate the activities

of the existing functional departments or of the Australian

Statistician. Rather, we are thinking of a body which, in

consultation with all those concerned, would be able to evolve

a coherent plan for the production and dissemination of

valuable statistics. It would not itself need to carry- out a

large research program. As with the Royal Commission on

Australian Government Administration, we see the new machinery

as primarily concerned to ensure that most effective use is made

of available resources both inside and outside the

administration. *

* The need for improved research in the social policy area was the subject of comment by the OECD group which examined Australia's science policy in 1974. It commented that "social science research is extremely dispersed throughout

the Australian system, undersupported and insufficiently related to the other aspects of scientific activity".

89.

193. The need for better policy development is not the only reason for proposing a research resource concentrating on the

social policy field as a whole. There are urgent problems of an

administrative nature that also need attention. For example,

there is a need for far greater rationalisation of Commonwealth,

State and local government activities in the health/welfare/

community development fields than we were able to encompass in

our First Report. That was only a start. Further careful work

and discussion could, we are convinced, produce still further

economies in administration, better service delivery and greater

satisfaction to clients. The tendency to a burgeoning of

regional offices for each of the departments and agencies

involved in the social policy field is also alarming. The

Seebohm Inquiry in Britain provided some valuable insights into

local delivery which are applicable there, but we need to consider much more carefully just how the "one stop shop"

principle can be applied in Australian conditions.* The

Northwest One Stop Welfare Shop (NOW) experiment, one method of

achieving improved delivery, needs careful evaluation along with other similar experiments, and the results used to improve

delivery arrangements generally. This is not a task for ad hoc

machinery, but for a continuing effort in evaluation and

research leading to soundly based administrative innovation.

This is a cross-departmental, cross-governmental issue and we

see no single department as being able to discharge the task effectively.

194. The existence of machinery of the kind we have envisaged would, we believe, act as a continuing stimulus to

departments to improve their own performance. This in itself would be a valuable contribution to the more effective discharge

of departmental responsibilities in the health, welfare and

community development fields. The machinery would also, we

believe, contribute to the harmonious working together of

Commonwealth, State and local government agencies. It would not be seen by any as a rival, because it would not administer any programs. Rather, its objective would be to become a point

for consultation, an agency for reconciliation, a mechanism for

* See also the Central Policy Review Staff Report "Relations between Central Government and Local Authorities", 1977.

90

promoting co-ordinated development, and a means of improved performance.

The Allocation of Resources

195. In the administration of health, welfare and community

development programs the crunch point usually comes when

decisions have to be made about the allocation of resources. It

is as decisions of this kind are taken that those responsible

come to grips with the weight they or others place on particular

goals. Within departments, decisions are usually made by the

Minister in consultation with his officers and, before the Budget,

in bilateral talks with the Department of Finance about funds

available in the budget year and likely to be available during the forward estimates period.

196. The need to plan for manpower resources has

increasingly been recognised as a new element to be taken into

account when decisions are made about resource allocation.

Manifestations of the recognition of the importance of manpower

needs are the survey the Hospitals and Health Services

Commission has been conducting on needs in the health field and

the inquiry into how best to co-ordinate education in the social welfare and related fields being conducted for the

Department of Social Security by Eva Learner.

197. The Royal Commission on Australian Government

Administration was so concerned with the importance of the

effective allocation of resources within the health, welfare and

community development fields that it proposed the establishment

of a new Department of Welfare which would have specific

responsibility for integrating the preparation of forward

estimates and budgets for this whole area of government. We will discuss later the options available for achieving a rational

allocation of resources across the broad social field, but here

emphasise the importance of making real efforts to achieve

policy-based allocation of resources. Whatever the precise machinery, if budget and forward estimates decisions are to be

based on adequate information about the relationships between

91.

programs in the social policy field, especially those

administered by more than one department or more than one level

of government, there is a need for inputs beyond those presently

available in the relevant departments or agencies with a

co-ordinating role, e.g. Finance, Prime Minister and Cabinet and the Public Service Board.

198. In summary, we see a need for new machinery with the primary functions of -(a) analysing the implications for social policy of

"client group" needs where these extend beyond the functions of one department;

(b) assisting the development by the functional

departments of complementary action and policies

designed to meet the needs of "client groups" in the

most effective possible way;

(c) undertaking, co-ordinating or arranging, particularly where problems cross departmental boundaries -(i) the development of new proposals, including the necessary research;

(ii) review and evaluation of existing programs and

policies;

(d) rationalising and promoting the collection of

information and statistics relating to the health,

welfare and community development fields as a whole; (e) advising on priorities relating to resource allocation,

as between the programs of the different departments,

and on the problems associated with increasing expenditures in health/welfare/community development.

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X. SHOULD THE NEW MACHINERY BE CONTINUING?

199. Our terms of reference raise the question whether

machinery to carry out the functions we have described above

should be of a continuing nature. The alternatives are to make

some rearrangement of existing machinery; to look to a series of

ad hoc arrangements; to develop new methods of functioning for

existing machinery; or to develop some combination of these.

Given the scarcity of resources - both funds and, possibly more

importantly, manpower - machinery of a continuing nature should

only be established if existing machinery cannot be adjusted to

meet the needs and if special use of resources by ad hoc

inquiries which draw in outside as well as departmental

resources cannot adequately meet the identified needs.

200. There are undoubtedly areas where the existing

machinery could be improved. For example, a good deal of what

is required in the co-ordination of administrative activities in

the fields of health, welfare and community development might be

achieved by broadening the fortnightly meeting of the

departmental heads of Health, Social Security and Veterans'

Affairs. We agree. But transforming the arrangements from a

small, relatively unstructured and confidential meeting to a

broader-based consultative and decision-making mechanism with

comprehensive responsibility for the whole field as outlined in

Chapter IX suggests a change in kind. Without a small

continuing servicing unit, the existing informal arrangements

would be unlikely to grapple adequately with the very major

issues we have identified in the previous section. It is

hardly possible that, without some support of its own, the

departmental heads' group could effectively grapple with the

client group problems; the need for across the field policy

development, research, evaluation and review; the need for co-ordinated statistical activity; and the need for allocation

of resources.

201. Attempting to achieve the objectives by a series of

ad hoc inquiries is also unlikely to be satisfactory. While

93.

over recent years the merit of such inquiries has been

demonstrated, the very fact that they have been ad hoc has given rise to new problems. For example, it has been necessary to

attempt a rationalisation of the "ad hoc" and not always

reconcilable recommendations of this Task Force, of the Holmes

Committee and of certain aspects of the work of the Income

Security Review. Similar problems have arisen in connection with the inquiries into national superannuation, Aboriginal

Affairs and Medibank. The effort involved in rationalising

ad hoc inquiries is substantial. Further, each of the inquiries has generated its own need for statistics - or, because of the

terminating arrangements involved, has gone without them. In

these ways there has been risk of opening up and repeating,

within departments, much of the work done by the ad hoc

inquiries in order to determine which of the issues need most

urgent attention and greatest priority in allocation of

resources. These dilemmas are inherent in ad hoc arrangements,

and will always involve substantial additional work at official

level if there is to be continued co-ordination in policy and the administration of programs. On the other hand, it is probable

that, given existing arrangements, ad hoc reviews have provided advice more rapidly than if departments had been asked to

undertake the task; that the public focus of an independent

inquiry has enabled consumer, community, academic and other

views to be more readily obtained; and that the contemplatable

alternatives are much wider than if a departmental operation

was involved.

202. A third possibility would be to impose on existing machinery the task of developing social policy in a

co-ordinated fashion. Although this is a part of the solution,

we shall explain in the next chapter why we consider a new form

of mechanism is needed for this purpose. We have also explained, in Chapter IX, some of the issues (particularly client groups

and analysis of policy issues involving more than one

department) which we see as not being manageable by departments, however effectively they work.

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203. Our conclusion is that,for most purposes, continuing

machinery would be more effective, no more expensive (and

possibly less so) and, when taken in association with our

proposals for consultative arrangements set out in Part 1 of

this report, represents the desirable alternative if the needs

outlined in the previous section are to be met at all adequately.

This would not exclude the need for ad hoc inquiries, but would

help confine the need to occasions when they would be most

effective.

204. Accordingly, we recommend that continuing machinery,

not necessarily involving the allocation of large resources, be

established to assist in the co-ordination of social policy

development at the Commonwealth level. ;

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XI. THE MACHINERY REQUIRED

205. If the Government wishes to establish machinery for

the co-ordination of social policy, the first question requiring

answering is one of policy. It is whether the Government wishes the social ’ policy field to be taken as a whole for purposes of

consultation and the development of policy. Hitherto, practice

has been to leave each Minister and department to develop

policies, within the broad framework of Government policy, as

needs emerged. Although there has been a general and pragmatic assumption that departments should work together - the

fortnightly meeting of the three permanent heads is a reflection

of this - there has been no overall government policy to this

effect, and consequently no administrative machinery.

206. We are convinced that the health/welfare/community

development field is an entity - not just a series of separate

functional programs - and that it will make sense in all ways to

treat it as such. The activities of Ministers and their departments will not only be assisted, but enhanced in

effectiveness, if there is recognition by government of the interrelated and interdependent character of policies and

programs in the field of social policy (meaning primarily

health, welfare and community development but extending on occasion to issues involving education, employment and even

taxation policy - see paragraph 170) . Accordingly, we recommend

that a decision be taken that the social policy field should be

treated as an entity for purposes of policy development.

207. Having made such a decision, the second question is

what kind of machinery is required to make the co-ordination of social policy development a reality. In Chapter IX we discussed some of the central tasks any such new machinery will be expected

to undertake. We concluded (paragraph 198) that among these

would be -. attention to "client groups" requiring action by more than one department '

. policy analysis and review across departmental boundaries

96

. rationalising and promoting the collection of information and statistics across health/welfare/ community development

• advising on priorities in resource allocation as between departments and on the problem of escalating expenditures.

208. We discussed with those interested, including those

in the health/welfare/community development fields, a range of

alternatives identified and briefly assessed in our Discussion

Paper T.F.6 (the text is reproduced as Attachment K). Out of

that discussion, we have reached the conclusion that new

machinery is desirable at Ministeral and official level, as follows -A. a new Cabinet Committee

B. a committee of permanent heads C. officer..,level support, which might be -a new "policy" Ministry, or a large health/welfare department, or

a social policy unit

We discuss these proposals in the remainder of our Report.

A Cabinet Committee on Social Development

209. It is, in our system of responsible government,

Ministers who make final decisions on policy issues and who are

ultimately responsible for the way departmental administration

works. If a decision is taken, as we recommend (paragraph 206),

that for purposes of policy development the social policy field

be treated as an entity, it would follow that a Ministerial

Committee should be formed to bring together the Ministers

concerned. For purposes of reference we shall, in the remainder

of this Chapter, refer to the proposed Committee as the Committee

on Social Policy Development.

210. It would not be appropriate for the Task Force to

attempt to specify with any precision the way in which the new

Cabinet Committee might work. It would provide a policy level

forum for issues in the health/welfar e/community development

fields. For purposes of dealing with the development of social

policy issues, it could well be in effect an ad hoc body,

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called together as occasion required. We would not expect the

issues in this field to be numerous, although they would be

important. Indeed, the Committee might in such cases not reach

decisions, but provide a means for consideration prior to

examination and decision by the Cabinet. If, in addition, the

Committee were to take some of the submissions currently taken

by the Cabinet or Committees such as the General Administrative

Committee, it might need to meet more regularly, and in at least

some of these cases a decision-making authority could be appropriate.

211. Whatever the function of the proposed Committee, we see it having as continuing members the Ministers with direct

responsibilities in the field - Aboriginal Affairs, Environment,

Housing and Community Development, Health, Social Security and Veterans' Affairs. It could well be that the Treasurer, or a Minister Assisting the Treasurer, should be a standing member of

the Committee. It could also have as members, according to agenda, the Ministers for Education, Employment and Industrial

Relations and Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. It would be desirable for the Committee to be chaired by a senior Minister not having a portfolio in the health/welfare/community development field, unless the options of a Ministry of Social Welfare or of a large Health and Welfare Department (see below)

are preferred. Its business would be determined, as with other

committees of Cabinet, by the Prime Minister or the Cabinet itself, and the chairman, but it would be desirable for it to have also an authority, subject to consultation with the Prime

Minister, to review material coming up from departments in the health, welfare and community development fields prior to the preparation of formal papers for consideration by Cabinet. In this way, it would assist in the process of sorting out issues

for Cabinet consideration, but without assuming the role of

Cabinet in the determination of top policy issues.

A Standing Committee of Permanent Heads We see it as important that, as with other standing 212.

98.

committees of Cabinet, there be associated with it a standing

committee of the permanent heads in the social policy area. .

213. The permanent head of a department is the officer

principally responsible for advising his Minister on matters

relating to that department, and for its general working (see

section 25 (2) of the Public Service Act). If, as we recommend,

the government determines that the social policy field is to

form an entity for purposes of policy development, it will be the

responsibility of permanent heads to ensure that this policy is

carried out. It could be argued that adding this function to

the existing meeting of the permanent heads of Health, Social

Security and Veterans' Affairs would be sufficient. It could

also be argued that no special machinery is required - that all

that is required is for the obligation to be placed squarely on

Ministers, permanent heads and their departments and that

co-ordinated policy development will automatically flow.

214. In our view, some change in machinery arrangements is

required to reflect a policy change of this importance, even if

only to serve as a standing reminder of the need for

co-ordination and seeing the field as a whole. Our proposal is

that the committee of permanent heads should advise the Cabinet

Committee on Social Development and should be associated with the

continuing machinery at officer level - departmental or in the

form of some special unit - which we discuss in the following

sections of this chapter.

215. We do not see the permanent heads committee as needing

to meet unduly frequently, nor as necessarily superseding the

existing meeting of the heads of Health, Social Security and

Veterans' Affairs. Rather, it would be a means of ensuring

broader co-ordination across the whole field, and accordingly would, as with the Ministerial Committee, include as continuing

members the permanent heads of the Departments of Aboriginal

Affairs, Health, Social Security and Environment, Housing and

Community Development and, as business required, Employment and

Industrial Relations, Education and Immigration and Ethnic

99

Affairs. It would be desirable to include also Treasury and/or

Finance, as occasion demanded. This body would have a

resemblance to the Social Resources Group of the Victorian

Co-ordination Council and would serve as a clearing house for

issues - referring them to the new official level machinery

for attention and, where it wished, considering material from

that machinery. It would be serviced by the official level machinery.

216. We suggest the permanent heads committee be regarded as

a "plenary" group, rather like the Victorian Co-ordination

Council. (For a further note on the Council, see paragraph 235).

As such,'it could serve as a clearing house, assign tasks to sub­

committees and possibly arrange that these groups be chaired by

the head of the "lead" department. Any sub-committee work could be serviced by the continuing official level machinery,

alternatives for which we discuss in the following paragraphs.

Officer Level Support: Some Alternatives 217. 1. A Ministry of Social Welfare/Development. The

first of the alternatives for officer level support for the new policy of treating the health/welfare/community development field as a whole for purposes of policy co-ordination and development would involve the creation of a special new department, headed by

a Minister of Social Welfare (or Social Development). This was the solution recommended by the Royal Commission on Australian

Government Administration (for a summary, see Attachment J). It saw the Department as being in the charge of a senior Minister of

Cabinet rank who would chair the proposed Cabinet Committee and, in general terms, have responsibility for co-ordinating government policy and administration in the broad field of social policy. The Royal Commission recommended that the Ministry be

responsible for -(a) achieving a simplified and coherent administrative

structure; (b) co-ordinating the formulation and review of social

policy;

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(c) planning, arranging and co-ordinating the research

necessary for policy formulation and review;

(d) co-ordinating consultation and negotiation with other

levels of government and non-government agencies;

(e) integrating the preparation of forward estimates and

budgets for the health, welfare and community development areas.

We agree with that statement of responsibilities.

218. It is inevitable that establishing a new department

would give rise to certain additional costs. If the department

were kept small, these would not need to be substantial, but a

certain degree of autonomy in administration is desirable if

departments are to manage their'own affairs effectively. The ;

main means of policy and administrative co-ordination would be

through the preparation of a co-ordinated health/welfare/

community development budget much as did the Department of

Defence in the post-war years until 1972. Another important

means of co-ordination would be through allocating responsibility

to the department for handling client group problems involving

more than one functional department. It might well be

appropriate to locate by stages in the new department all the

"client group" units to which we have referred in paragraph 176,

thereby providing a vehicle for co-ordinating policies towards

them and assuring some integration of program follow-up by the

functional departments. The new department itself would not

administer service delivery programs. The capacity of the

department to arrange or conduct research would also make for a

significant input into policy development, as would its

charter to conduct or arrange for reviews, and therefore to have

an impact on administrative and delivery arrangements. We find

this alternative attractive if a major initiative is to be taken

in the field.

219. 2. A Single Welfare/Health Department. A suggestion

that has been raised with us on several occasions is that a

single Department of Health and Welfare be established by

101.

amalgamating the existing Departments of Health and Social

Security. This would require major administrative changes, and would need to be justified on grounds of administrative

advantage as well as of co-ordination of social policy

development. We are not satisfied that an amalgamation of this kind would be viable.

220. Establishing a large department is a course that has been adopted after deliberation in both Britain and the United

States (in the latteralong with Education) . So far, neither a

State nor the Commonwealth has seriously moved towards the

establishment of a single department covering this wide span of

social policy and administration. There is accordingly no

Australian experience on which to base any comments. However, reports of developments since the establishment of the

Department of Health and Social Security in Britain, and of the

problems experienced by the Department of Health, Education and

Welfare in the United States, are not such as to suggest an eager following of that particular pattern. Following it in Australia

would in any case be rather more difficult while the view is

accepted that the Constitution does not permit the appointment

of Ministers of full rank who do not have exclusive administration of a department. Establishment of a large department of this kind could also entail other administrative

changes, such as examining the possibility of separating off

from the new department what might be termed the benefit administration aspects of both Health and Social Security, and

possibly also incorporation of aspects of the Department of

Environment, Housing and Community Development.

221. In any event, our discussions with welfare and health administrations, both in the Commonwealth and in the States, seemed to warrant the conclusion that the relevant professional groups are not yet ready for amalgamation into one administrative

unit. The approaches of medical and welfare administrations are, often for good reason and based deep in history, different.

102.

Although there is clear sign that the approaches of the two major

professions of medicine and social work are becoming less

radically opposed, they would still not fit happily together in

an integrated administration. This may be a solution for the

1980's, but it does not appear to us to be an acceptable option at this stage.

222. 3. A Social Policy Unit (Or Office of Social Policy

Development). If the alternatives of a new Ministry of Social

Welfare (or Social Development) or of a large Health and Welfare Department are not preferred, then the objectives we have in

mind could in significant measure be achieved by the creation of

a small unit at officer level with a degree of independence in

operation and with an emphasis on co-operative co-ordination. .

Whatever form it takes, a resource of this kind is essential if

there is to be effective co-ordination of social policy

development. This kind of activity has been undertaken in the

past, although usually it has operated for only a short time.

For example, there was a small unit in the Department of the

Cabinet Office in 1968-70 which assisted the Welfare Committee

of Ministers and the standing committee of permanent heads

associated with them. The outcome was some ordering of

priorities and a combined presentation to the Budget Cabinet in

two successive years of a welfare budget in which options were

set out for decision. A more recent example, rather more

directed at achieving particular ends without the assistance and

support of a Ministerial Committee, is represented by the Follow­

up Group appointed to advise the Government in relation to the

report of the Committee on Care of the Aged and the Infirm and

the First Report of this Task Force. Another example is the

Income Security Review, which has had the task of developing

policies in the income maintenance field and has worked with members from several departments, and with official backup from

within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. In earlier times, the Priorities Review Staff provided an input on social policy matters, within the framework of a much wider-

103

ranging mandate. It was located initially in the Department of

the Special Minister of State, was ultimately transferred to the

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in 1974, and was

then disbanded.

223. The functions of the small unit, to which we refer as the social policy unit, would as we see them be -. to support the proposed Social Development Committee of Cabinet on matters of social policy development

. to assist the proposed permanent heads committee in carrying out its tasks, including those of any sub-committee it might establish

. to ensure the co-ordinated development and review of social policy, including through appropriate research activity (not necessarily carried out by the unit itself).

In supporting the Cabinet Committee, the unit would provide

advice and background material relating to social policy issues,

but not the Committee secretariat unless this were specifically decided upon. In supporting both the Committee and departments

the unit would avoid acquiring a large staff. Rather, we see it

as working with a minimum establishment of its own - say 10-20 -

and drawing for its main strength on the resources of the

departments themselves through staff rotation or temporary

secondment. Attachment to the unit would, we hope, be seen as a mark of preferment by officers in the functional departments.

This mode of working is essential if the unit is to co-ordinate

rather than attempt to usurp the position of departments in the

field.

224. Because the unit would be small in size, and would work with task force type groups seconded for a particular

assignment, it could not be expected to deal with more than the major issues associated with the development and review of

social policy. Nor could it be expected to have sufficient

authority to integrate the preparation of forward estimates and budgets for health/welfare/community development in the same way as could a Ministry of Social Welfare (see paragraph 218

104.

above). Equally, it would not be appropriate for the unit to

absorb the various client group cells now established in

departments (paragraph 176), as could the Ministry of Social

Welfare. It would, however, have a role in bringing client

group cells together to ensure that in developing programs for

their clients, e.g. youth, migrants, children, there was some

integration of policy and avoidance of overlap or duplication.

As the influence of the unit extended, it might discharge a role

in budgetary planning for the social policy field as a whole -

but it could hardly have this as a main function, as would the Department of Social Welfare.

225. Even if the unit has to be restricted in the tasks it

undertakes, it should still be able to make a significant

contribution to the very difficult problems associated with the social policy field as a whole, such as -, the desirable mix of income benefits and services (an aspect of the Income Security Review)

. the future financing of programs in the social policy fie Id

. the most effective methods for delivery of benefits/ services (including problems of both access and economy in operation)

. the best mix of programs to meet the needs of client groups, given the resources (money and manpower) available

. developing a "Commonwealth" view and policy for issues ranging across the responsibilities of more than one department (see paragraphs 234-238), for

- international discussions, treaties etc. - discussions and negotiations with the States - contact with "outside" bodies, including the National Consultative Council proposed in Part I

of this report

. assisting in and monitoring the development of statistics and adequate information about activities, results etc. in the field of activity covered by social policy . assisting in sorting out how best to deal with

emerging issues of general concern in the social policy field, e.g. compensation.

105.

226. in terms of resources, proceeding by the establishment

of a small unit or office would be the most economical. It would

not involve a new department and it would require little more in the way of personnel than are currently engaged on the ad hoc

inquiries in progress. On the other hand, it would not be able

to exercise as much influence as a new Minister and Department. Whether unit or department, there would be a need for

negotiations with functional and client group departments for staff to serve for limited periods, either directed to the

accomplishment of particular projects or on a continuing basis for periods of say two or three years, after which they could be expected to return to their departments. We look forward to the

time when secondments would also be negotiated with the States,

with local government bodies and with non-government agencies and note the reference on this matter to the Advisory Council for Intergovernment,Relations.

227. The unit would need to be associated with a Department

and Minister for purposes of staffing and budget, but would be expected to have sufficient status and capacity to stand for the

most part on its own feet in its dealings with departments in the fields of health, welfare and community development and on social policy matters generally. It would to a large degree depend for its survival and effectiveness on its capacity for

working with the functional and client departments in the field and in enabling them to see the broader field within which their

own important activities need to fit according to consciously

determined allocations of priorities and resources. Thus its role would be primarily supportive and collaborative. It should

nevertheless have a right to provide a comment for the proposed Cabinet Committee on proposals in the health, welfare and community development fields which seemed to it to involve issues extending beyond the responsibilities of any one

department, and where those broader issues had not been adequately canvassed in the proposal. It would also have a right to raise with the Chairman of the Committee issues which it

106

considered would usefully be discussed with the Committee.

228. One of the more difficult problems associated with the

creation of a unit of the kind we have outlined is to which , Minister and department it should be attached. If it were

attached to a department with functional responsibilities in the -

social policy field, the status of that department would !

naturally be enhanced. But there would be a considerable risk '

that its concerns would feature more prominently in the thinking ;

of the office or unit than would the concerns of the other

departments. This would, we consider, be unfortunate.

Accordingly, we do not recommend attachment of any such unit to

one of the Ministers in the field. The alternative is to j

attach the unit to the Prime Minister or another senior Minister |

whose portfolio concerns do not extend to health, welfare and

community development. In either case, the Prime Minister or the

senior Minister could be expected to be Chairman of the proposed

Cabinet Committee on Social Development. It has to be recognised

that any senior Minister, and particularly the Prime Minister, is

likely to be burdened already with heavy portfolio

responsibilities. This means that he is unlikely to be able to

give as much time as a separate Minister appointed for the

purpose. But it is the nature of the office or unit alternative

that it would operate in rather lower key than would a separate

Department of Social Welfare and that it would largely work at

departmental level, with contact with the Minister on the more

important issues rather than daily resort on current matters.

229. If it were decided that the small policy unit should

be located in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet,

and this is the option we prefer, the question of its

relationship to the existing Priorities and Evaluation, and

Community Affairs and Welfare Divisions wculd need to be resolved.

The unit is concerned with policy development rather than with

policy co-ordination, and would be more akin to the policy unit

recommended by the Royal Commission on Australian Government

Administration (paragraph 11.5.21) than it would be to the

107.

j j Cabinet Office also recommended by the Royal Commission

1 1 (paragraph 11.5.12). However, we recognise that the policy

J developing and co-ordinating functions are closely related and emphasise primarily the need for the unit, if it is to be

effective, to have its own identity, somewhat insulated from the day to day pressures, and with clean and continuing

responsibilities to the health/welfare/community development

departments, to the permanent heads ' committee and to the Cabinet Committee.

230. We draw attention to the need for Ministers to want, support and give guidance to the new official-level machinery if

it is to work effectively at what will .obviously be a very

difficult task. Assuming that the overlord type of Minister is not wanted, the alternative we have suggested is a Committee

of Cabinet that would, under Cabinet and the Prime Minister, have responsibility for the co-ordination of policy and administrative issues arising in the social policy field. In this important task, we believe Ministers could be greatly

assisted by being able to draw on the proposed social policy

unit, naturally with appropriate involvement of the standing committee of permanent heads, to which the unit would also, and probably mostly, work.

Scope 231. Although the social policy machinery we have described

would be primarily concerned with the activities now carried out by the Departments of Aboriginal Affairs; Environment, Housing

and Community Development; Health; Immigration and Ethnic Affairs; Social Security and Veterans' Affairs, there are clearly

a number of other programs which are closely related but are

administered by other departments. There are, for example, significant implications for the administration of unemployment benefits arising from the activities of the Commonwealth Employment Service, and in a deeper sense experience with the

tertiary allowance has important implications for the success

108.

of programs supporting the poor and socially less favoured

groups. There are important implications for programs

administered by the Department of Social Security arising from

operation of the Commonwealth/State Housing Agreements.

Administration of means tests, apart from adding complications

to the health/welfare/community development field, has important

implications for income tax policies.

232. Whatever new machinery is established should not be

precluded by its charter from drawing to attention the

implications for social policy, its development and its

administration, of activities in related fields. It should also

be able to take the initiative in ensuring that options outside

the heal th/welfare/community development field which would 1

achieve social policy objectives might be considered as

alternatives to programs developed within the narrower scope of social policy as defined by reference to the six administering

departments. On the other hand, we would not see the new

machinery as becoming involved in policy proposals which are of a highly technical nature, for example with the determination of

food standards. The emphasis should be on co-ordination between

programs affecting the achievement of overall social policy objectives.

233. Our comments about scope would apply whichever of the

several options outlined above are adopted. The Cabinet

Committee on Social Development should be seen as having a wide

rather than a narrow charter, and it will be most use to the Cabinet as a whole if it does range broadly over the issues,

sorting out those that need to come to Cabinet. The new

Ministry, if established, would need such a charter, as would

any policy group within a newly structured large Department of

Health and Welfare. The same would apply to the proposal for a

small social policy unit.

Assisting the Commonwealth to Speak with One Voice

234. An important element in the development of social policy in the future will be consultation and work with those in

109.

the States, in local government and in non-government

organisations who are active in the health/welfare/community

development fields, as well of course as contact with those

engaged in research. Experience with the Follow-up Group for

our First Report suggests that there is a valuable role for at

least a small unit in ensuring that relations with States,

local governments and non-government organisations are maintained

in an effective way. Where there is a need for relationships

across the functional boundaries of two or more departments, the

new machinery we have proposed should be able to play a mediating and constructive role, particularly where difficulties

arise in the course of administration of similar or related services by more than one body, at both the policy and the

administrative level. It could provide an impartial body of appeal or review.

235. States, local government and non-government bodies are

themselves beginning to develop units or groups which serve to

co-ordinate and develop policy and administration in the health/

welfare/community development fields. One example is the Social

Resources Group of the Victorian Co-ordination Council, a body

established by legislation and designed to advise the Victorian

Government on the effects of adopting major proposals or

objectives as policies of the government; on priorities to be established within a policy or between competing policies; and

on specific plans or projects in the public and private sectors. Another is the recently established Queensland Welfare Agencies

Advisory Council, which aims to co-ordinate the views of a wide

range of non-government agencies and present them to government

on a broad policy-oriented basis. All these groups experience

difficulties in establishing effective contact with the

Commonwealth - as do the client groups - because the Commonwealth's functional and associated policy divisions do

not line up with their concerns and functional needs. They tend to be referred from one department to another, without being able to find any to accept responsibility for their need -

110.

a situation arising because those needs often fall between the

existing functions of departments rather than within the

functions of any one of them. In this area, the new machinery

could have an important facilitating role, meeting and

discussing in a full policy context the problems being raised;

sorting out in consultation with the relevant functional

departments what policies etc. might need consideration, review

or development; and bringing the issues to Ministerial attention.

236. The new machinery could also be of value in ensuring

that issues of international concern involving more than one

functional department are appropriately handled. The area of

community development (in the more modern sense of broad social

policy rather than the narrower sense in which it tends to b e ·

used in Australia) is attracting increasing attention

internationally. The new machinery we have proposed could

assist departments to examine the implications of international

thinking and action for social policy development here, and in

preparing an Australian response to overseas developments.

237. In the area of research into the planning and delivery

of services we recommended, in the First Report, that a new

program grant "Welfare/Health Services Planning Grant" be

established. It would be appropriate for the social policy unit

we have proposed (or any new department) to negotiate and

administer this program grant for the States, and to obtain

decisions on whether, as has been proposed to us, it should be

available for research related to the activities of local

government or non-government organisations. We think it should.

The new program grant would need to be developed having regard to, and so as to produce a co-ordinated whole with, the existing

Health Services Planning and Research Grant and the grant for

the Social Welfare Research Centre at the University of New South

Wales.

238. Finally, the new machinery could play a valuable role

in relation to the National Consultative Council we have proposed

111.

in paragraphs 155-162. We leave open the question whether the

new social policy unit - or department - should service the

Consultative Council. It may be preferable, as indicated in

paragraph 158 (e) , for this to be carried out by a non-government

organisation, to keep the Council more "neutral". Whatever

decisions are reached about servicing the new Consultative

Council, the new official level machinery will need to play an

important part in the Council's work. It may on occasion, and

in consultation with the functional departments, identify areas

for discussion by the Council, and it could be responsible for ensuring follow-up when cross-departmental issues are raised in the Council.

Cost

239. The final option at officer level - a social policy unit or office - is clearly the least costly in terms of the allocation of resources and of change to existing arrangements.

We believe an effective unit or office could be established using

little more than has in effect been gathered together in the

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in the development

of recent important ad hoc inquiries. There are, for example, staff associated with the Income Security Review; and there are others who are involved in ad hoc exercises on the co-ordination

of social policy and administration either within the Department

or on secondment. If, in addition to drawing together suitable

elements from those sources, there were to be a small recruitment of seconded officers from the action departments, then the unit would," in our view, have sufficient resources to

commence operations.

240. The establishment of a unit would have the further advantage that, after a period of say 2-3 years, its operations should be reviewed. If it had proved sufficiently effective in

stimulating co-ordinated activity among the action departments,

it might not be necessary to continue it in existence. Alternatively, if it had shown that there are alternative ways of administering existing programs, for example by moving in

112.

stages towards a benefits administration which would cover the

major Health and Social Security benefits, and a more policy-

oriented health/welfare department, then the unit or office

might be merged in the latter. Above all, we are convinced that

the application of careful and continuing thought by a small

separate unit or office within the administration; working with

functional departments; attuned to political factors; aware of

developing thinking and needs in the community at large; and

concerned with emerging requirements for change in programs to

maintain effectiveness or eliminate unnecessary expenditure;

could justify its small cost many times in terms of improved

social policy development and the improvements in administration which would inevitably flow from it„

Conclusion ;

241. We conclude that if the Government wishes to tackle

seriously the needs for social policy development machinery and

the closely associated matters we have discussed above, it

should -(a) determine that the health/welfare/community development

field be treated as an entity for purposes of policy

development (paragraph 206);

(b) appoint a Social Development Committee of Cabinet (paragraph 209);

(c) appoint a standing committee of permanent heads

analogous to those serving existing standing

committees of Cabinet (paragraph 212); and

(d) authorise the establishment of a social policy unit preferably located in the Department of the Prime

Minister and Cabinet, as officer level support for

(b) and (c) above and to discharge the functions

summarised in paragraphs 223 and 235 (an alternative

involving larger change but having greater capacity,

particularly in the allocation of resources, could be

to appoint a new Minister and Department of Social Welfare)(paragraphs 217-218).

PART 3 - THE TERRITORIES

113.

XII THE NEED FOR AN INQUIRY IN THE TERRITORIES

Background

242. We received a number of oral and written suggestions

during our inquiries to the effect that we should extend them to

take into account the problems of the Commonwealth's Territories

in the health, welfare and community development fields. Our

terms of reference, however, make no mention of the Territories.

Further, we concluded that it would not be feasible to formulate

recommendations relating to the Territories without a substantial extension of our work, and that in any case rather

different terms of reference would be required.

243. The two mainland Territories differ from each other

in important ways. The Australian Capital Territory is small

in area but Canberra is fast becoming a relatively densely

populated centre (200,000) situated wholly within the South­ East Region of New South Wales. In contrast, the Northern

Territory is large in area - larger than Victoria, South

Australia or Tasmania. Less than half of its population of

100,000 lives in Darwin, the rest is sparsely distributed throughout the Territory. As such, they present problems in some cases similar, but in others rather different.

Nevertheless, they appear to have more in common with each

other than they do with the seven external territories, of

which only three (Norfolk Island, Cocos Island and Christmas

Island) are significantly inhabited. Accordingly, the

investigations we propose should be confined to the two mainland

Territories.

The Existing Situation

244. The two Territories are moving, but at different speeds and possibly with different ultimate destinations,

towards forms of self-government.

245. In the Northern Territory some functions have already been transferred and it is expected that "state-type" welfare

114.

functions will he transferred during 1978 and health functions

during 1979 under the proposed self-government arrangements.

Already two departments, the Department of Resources and Health,

and the Department of Community and Social Development, have

been created within the Northern Territory Public Service to

prepare to accept health/welfare responsibilities when

transferred.

246. Moves towards self-government in the A.C.T. have not

gone as far as those in the N.T. Recently, however, the

Minister for the Capital Territory released details of a

proposed program for constitutional development of the A.C.T.

247. Given that some form of greater self-government is

on the way for each Territory, it is the view of the Task Force

that the transition would be smoother if health/welfare/ "

community development policy, administrative, delivery and

consultative arrangements were sorted out in the near future.

In this way problems inherent in the existing system, or likely

to emerge if a State-like pattern is adopted, can be identified

and solutions found before the anomalies are built into the

devolved arrangements.

248. That there are grounds for an inquiry is supported

by an examination of existing health, welfare and community

development services. The first impression is of excessive

administration. Although the present populations of the

Territories are small, there is a surprisingly large number

of government agencies involved with program administration.

2 4 9 . A list of the more significant authorities which play

a part in the administration of health/welfare/community

development programs in the Territories follows -Australian Capital Territory

1. Welfare Branch - Department of the Capital Territory 2. Recreation and Tourism Branch - Department of the Capital Territory State Headquarters Sydney - Department of Social

Security (certain A.C.T. applications are channelled to the State office)

3.

115.

4. Regional Office Canberra - Department, of Social Security 5. Capital Territory Health Commission.

Northern Territory

1. Regional Office - Department of Aboriginal Affairs 2. Social Development Branch - Department of the Northern Territory 3. State Headquarters Adelaide - Department of Social

Security (certain N.T. applications are channelled to the State office) 4. Regional Office Darwin - Department of Social Security 5. Department of Community and Social Development 6. Department of Resources and Health

7. Health Department (approval in principle has recently been announced for the establishment of a Northern Territory Health Commission, but this is unlikely to be implemented prior to transfer of health

functions to the Territory).

In addition to these specifically Territory-oriented

administrative agencies all the relevant Commonwealth departments

operate along much the same lines as they do in or in relation to the States. But their detailed administrative arrangements are

dissimilar, e.g. Social Security works through its nearest State

office, Health has established or is establishing Territory

Health Commissions, Veterans' Affairs uses Territory (or State) Repatriation hospitals. There has been no overall consideration

of the most satisfactory way of arranging Territory-oriented

functions, and certainly there has been no uniformity in

approach (though uniformity is not necessarily desirable as

between departments). It is this multiplicity of ad hoc

arrangements, many no doubt the most sensible in themselves,

which seems to be at the root of many of the problems described

to us by those active in the field in the Territories.

250. On the welfare side, the Territories appear to be on much the same basis as a non-metropolitan area of a State.

Decisions on benefit entitlements or capital grants provided by the Department of Social Security are passed to a State Headquarters (Sydney or Adelaide) and sometimes to the Central

Office (Canberra) for resolution. This situation seems anomalous to residents of the Territories, and Territorial

116.

offices of the Department may be necessary in a self-government

situation. Meanwhile, some "State-type" functions are

administered from the Department of the Capital Territory or the

Department of the Northern Territory in Canberra or Darwin.

Thus, the locus of the "federal" functions tends to be outside

the Territory, and allocations are seen as part of the State

rather than as a separate Territory problem. There appears to be

no mechanism to co-ordinate the approach of the many agencies

involved. In relation to some community development programs

with which the Department of Environment, Housing and Community

Development and the relevant Territorial department are

associated, there seems to be a similar absence of co-ordinating

machinery. On the health side, other arrangements apply, with

the health administrations in the Territories being funded to .

co-ordinate and deliver health programs and activities as

they see fit. As a result, a number of national health programs,

e.g. the Community Health Program, the Hospitals Development Program, and the Health Services Planning and Research Program,

either do not currently operate in the Territories, or do not

operate in the same way.

The Need for an Inquiry

251. We have been advised by many people that the

unco-ordinated pattern of administration in each Territory,

particularly with regard to social welfare programs, is a

source of constant frustration, both to clients and to

voluntary organisations attempting to provide services in the Territories.

252. We are convinced, even with our superficial look at

the situation, that services need to be better co-ordinated,

that cross-delegations for professional workers should be encouraged and that delegations need to be reviewed. To assist

Aboriginals, there may be merit for one point of reference for

welfare assistance to be established in the Northern Territory,

at least until welfare programs are better co-ordinated.

117.

253. Furthermore, the rationalisation of intra-Territory

consultative mechanisms on health, welfare and community

development issues needs to be explored. This appears to be

required not only between Territorial agencies and Commonwealth

Departments but also to link agencies, departments and

voluntary organisations active in the Territories. Consultative

Committees of Social Welfare have recently been appointed in

the Territories with functions similar to those of the State

Consultative Committees on Social Welfare (see Attachment D,

Annexure C). We are, however, in some doubt whether these provide an effective means for consultation between government

agencies.

254. It is in our view essential that the Territories be

part of any consultative arrangements at the national level and

we have proposed representation from each of the mainland

Territories in our proposed National Consultative Council (see paragraph 158(c)).

255o We consider there is considerable potential for

attempting to simplify, co-ordinate, rationalise and devolve

policy functions and services within the Territories along

much the same lines as envisaged in our First Report for

Commonwealth programs administered in the States. It is not

inconceivable that the principles there enunciated could indeed

be taken further, given that both aspects of the administration

are currently in Commonwealth hands. A determined effort,

preferably associated with either one inquiry or one for each

Territory and including non-government agencies, seems to be required before the patterns for self-government have become

fixed and inexorable.

256. Accordingly, we recommend that at an early date a

review, in which the non-government organisations should be

involved, be made of the situation and needs of the Territories

in relation to health, welfare and community development, both

in general and in the light of the recommendations in our two

reports and their implementation. '

118

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

ATTACHMENTS TO SECOND REPORT

Consultative Arrangements and the Co-ordination of Social Policy Development

November 1977

119 .

ATTACHMENTS TO SECOND REPORT

Attachment Page * I .

PART I

A. First Report - Summary of Findings and 120

Recommendations

B. Statement by the Prime Minister when tabling 128 the Report of the Committee on the Care of the Aged and the Infirm and the First Report of the Task Force - 17 February 1977

C. Report on Seminars 133

D. Task Force Discussion Paper No.7 - Consultation 177

E. Commonwealth Government Co-ordinating and 208 Consultative Arrangements

F. The Non-government Sector 261

G. List of Submissions to the Task Force 295

H. Cost of Selected Commonwealth and State Level 297 Consultative Arrangements

I. List of National Organisations in Health/Welfare/ 299 Community Development

PART II

J. Co-ordination of Social Policy - Recommendations 304 of Recent Commonwealth Inquiries

K. Task Force Discussion Paper No. 6 - Co-ordination 320

120.

Attachment A/1 (Preface page (v))

ATTACHMENT A

First Report: Proposals for Change in Administrative and Delivery of Programs and Services

I . FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The Task Force has interpreted the welfare/health field broadly rather than narrowly, and accordingly has reviewed programs involving total Commonwealth outlays in excess of $8,800 m. in 1975-76, or some 40%

of the total Budget.

We have worked within the parameters set by our terms of reference which refer to the Government's Federalism policy and which envisage devolution from the Commonwealth to States, local government and non-government bodies.

In our discussions with Commonwealth and State officers, with representatives of local government and non-government organisations, and with individuals we found acceptance of our approach which took the Community Health Program as a working model, and which

envisaged the possibility of programs being administered or delivered differently in different States.

During some of our many discussions reservations were expressed about the Federalism policy, the main grounds being a fear that it will be used by the Commonwealth as a "cost cutting" exercise and that the objectives of some programs, if devolved, may suffer:

the need for consultation for negotiation of agreements where devolution is intended, and for some assurances about continuation of programs were emphasised.

It must be recognised that devolution requires some risk-taking, but we consider the advantages in the effectiveness and delivery of programs outweigh the disadvantages.

We have found evidence of a degree of overlap, duplication, proliferation and excessive administration with regard to Commonwealth programs which we believe could be reduced by adopting the

recommendations contained in our report.

Attachment A/2 121.

7. We conclude that the most important functions for the Commonwealth are, as the national government, to establish and watch over national policy in the welfare/health field, to be the source of income maintenance payments, to be a funder of programs administered by the States or other bodies and to be an initiator. Our changes will facilitate discharge of these unique roles.

8. We have identified ten methods of program administration available to the Commonwealth: from this range, we have selected the "Program Grant", a type of block grant of which the Community Health Program is an example, as the vehicle for four of our most important recommendations and as a stage towards possible "absorption". |

9. We consider the States' central position in the provision of welfare/health services should be recognised and encouraged by giving them, within the proposed new broadbanded Program Grants, greater

flexibility and decision-making powers: the Commonwealth will need to retain power to establish and review policy objectives.

10. We believe the growing awareness in local government circles of its potential to act effectively in the welfare/health field, and its growing capacity, particularly in service delivery, should be encouraged primarily through influencing the States in this direction rather than by direct Commonwealth action.

11. Where the Commonwealth is using non-government agencies to assist in carrying out a program .and administrative responsibility is being devolved to the States (and this is a desirable pattern), the Commonwealth should ensure that the interests of non-government agencies are fully protected. 1 2

12. A number of important elements should normally be included in the agreements which it will be necessary to draw up with the States for administration and/or delivery of programs: a clear statement of roles; a

fixed terminating date and/or an established forward planning program; provisions for consultation, evaluation and the acknowledgement of Commonwealth assistance; and, where transfers of staff are involved, careful protection of their interests.

122. Attachment A/3

13. We draw attention to the proliferation of consultative arrangements with the States, other bodies and the community in relation to many existing programs and suggest a moratorium on the establishment of new consultative mechanisms until our next report which deals with co-ordinating arrangements.

14. We propose that four new "Program Grants" be developed in consultation with the States that would involve the ultimate bringing together of 26 programs at present operating separately and representing grants amounting

to $272 m. in 1976-77.

(a) Community Health and. Care (CHAC) Program, designed to provide a more comprehensive basis for developing health care at local community level, emphasising prevention rather than cure3 and care of people in their homes rather than in

institutions, and based as indicated below on the existing Community Health Program and a further eight programs* -

Community Health Program (Except assistance for women's refuges, for which see (b) - Sheltered Accommodation (below) Family Planning Program Paramedical Services Delivered Meals Subsidy Home Care Services (including welfare officers) Home Nursing Service Subsidy Domiciliary Nursing Care Benefit

Handicapped Persons Assistance Act - non-residential aspects (except sheltered employment allowance) Handicapped Child's Allowance

The 1976-77 appropriations for all the programs shown above amount to $134.9 m.

(b) Sheltered Accommodation (SHACC) Program to give the States a broadbanded program to facilitate greater co-ordination and flexibility, and better meeting of local needs3 in the provision

The main features of each Program are described in Attachment E to the first report.

Attaehment A/4 123.

of sheltered accommodation, and based on the following six welfare accommodation programs* -Aged or Disabled Persons Homes Personal Care Subsidy

Homeless Persons Assistance Women’s Refuges Handicapped Persons (accommodation aspects) Handicapped Children’s Benefit

The 1976-77 appropriations for these programs amount to $44.4 m. ~

(c) Community Assistance and Recreatioii Program (CARP) to draw together in stages into the one program such funds as the Commonwealth has available for the development of community . infrastructures, so that the States have maximum flexibility in encouraging local initiatives while exercising an effective co-ordinating role, and based on the following ten programs* -

Area Improvement Program Capital Assistance for Leisure Facilities Senior Citizens Centres National Fitness Program Life Saving Assistance Program

Assistance to Youth Activities Program And, at a later date: Community Information Centres Welfare Rights Program

Children's Services Program Community Arts Program

The 1976-77 appropriations for all the programs shown above amount to $91.5 m.

(d) Welfare/Health Services Planning Grants to stimulate planning and research in the delivery of the proposed new program grants and in other areas while avoiding funding of continuing State administration (the grant would supersede the existing Health Services Planning and Research Grants, for which the 1976-77 appropriation is $ 1 m ) .

The main features of each Program are described in Attachment E to the first report.

124. Attachment A/δ

Sport: In relation to the specific reference to the Task Force of the extent to which the Commonwealth should assist sporting activities, we propose that

Commonwealth assistance be for international sport and the funding of national bodies through a restructured grant to be named Support for International Sport and National Sporting Bodies: in this program, the

Commonwealth should fund directly the organisations involved, maintain close liaison with relevant State agencies, and develop machinery for consultation with sporting representatives and experts.

Rehabilitation: We have become convinced that the States could effectively discharge the primary co-ordinating and operating role in rehabilitation: to this end we recommend progressive transfer to them of

the Commonwealth's Rehabilitation Centres and any associated institutions. More specifically, we recommend:

(a) as a first step, negotiation with South Australia for transfer of the Commonwealth's Rehabilitation Centre;

(b) consideration of staffing of the new Camperdown Centre (N.S.W.) by the State rather than the Commonwealth;

(c) funding under the Hospitals Agreements with the States be considered either when a Centre is handed over, or reasonably early thereafter.

Pathology Laboratories: We recommend that, to give the States the opportunity progressively to provide a comprehensive pathology service, and to relieve the Commonwealth of a function which it no longer needs to perform:

(a) negotiations be commenced for transfer of the Port Pirie and Kalgoorlie Laboratories to South Australia and Western Australia respectively;

(b) discussions continue with Tasmania with a view to establishing a unified laboratory at Launceston and investigating the same possibility for Hobart;

Attachment A/6 125

(c) consideration be given to transfer of laboratories in the other States, but only on a basis that will not increase the overall cost to the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth would continue to have direct access to the operation of pathology laboratories through those in Canberra and Darwin.

18. Blood Transfusion: To avoid the existing complex funding arrangements involving the Commonwealth and each State, and to assure the excellent Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service of continuing funds, we recommend that financing be arranged under the Hospitals Agreements with the States, with the Red Cross continuing to meet a small proportion (currently 5%) of the cost.

19. Therapeutic Goods; Vie endorse and recommend ; continuation of the efforts of the Department of Health, in consultation with the States, to develop single Australian standards for control of therapeutic goods.

20. School of Public Health and Tropical .Medicine; The School should be developed, under its new Director, along the lines proposed by the 1975 Committee of Review, but with an examination by 1980 of the possibility of negotiating for incorporation of its

functions in the University of Sydney.

21. Institute of Child Health: Negotiations should take place for absorption of the functions of the Institute into the University of Sydney, but with preservation or completion of valuable research activity.

22. Supporting Mother's Benefit: As a means to more humane, effective and economical administration, we recommend that State officers be appointed agents for the Commonwealth in relation to supporting mother's benefit (and any wider benefit that may be proposed)

so that no fresh determination of eligibility is required when, at the expiration of six months, assistance under the States Grants (Deserted Hives) Act ceases and the supporting mother's benefit commences: further options are recommended if the Commonwealth decides to meet the full cost of the first six months.

126. Attachment A/7

The Task Force considers that while the long term aim for welfare/health programs should be to meet all needs within programs administered by functional departments, there are occasions when special needs will require special treatment, for example by the

establishment of "client group" departments such as Aboriginal Affairs and Veterans' Affairs.

Veterans' Affairs; In relation to the Department of Veterans' Affairs we recommend that, consistent with continuing top level care for veterans and their dependants:

(a) Repatriation hospitals be included within the Hospitals Development Program for the relevant State, without changing funding arrangements, and more effective means of consultation at

operational level be established;

(b) instructions for Repatriation Local Medical Officers (L.M.O.'s) be reviewed to give greater priority to hospitalisation in the nearest suitable State hospital (country or metropolitan);

(c) Veterans' Affairs encourage L.M.O.'s, in the interests of effective use of services in short supply, to obtain nursing and home care services through the local community health program.

Aboriginals; The Task Force endorses as objectives the recommendations of the Hay Report on transfer of programs to functional Commonwealth departments and recommends;

(a) improved consultation procedures with State departments;

(b) grants to States and non-government bodies to be on a three year basis.

Migrants: The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, a functional department in relation to bringing migrants to Australia, should be permitted to develop immediate post-arrival services for migrants

and;

Attachment A/8 127.

(a) assume responsibility for immediate post-arrival welfare (and possibly employment) services;

(b) assume responsibility for a Telephone /

Interpreter and Translation Service which should be operated in co-operation with and as a service agency for States, local government and non-government organisations;

(c) develop the Ethnic Affairs Office, as an 1

advisory, program developing and monitoring ’ agency but not an administering body except for programs on an experimental basis.

while avoiding becoming a "client" department. |

27. Negotiations should take place with each State for the j Commonwealth to assume full responsibility for ;j post-arrival migrant accommodation. ; ■

28. Good Neighbour Councils: Having in mind developments in migration patterns and the major Commonwealth contribution, an independent review should be made of the functions and future role of the Good Neighbour Councils.

1 2 8 . Attachment B/l

(Preface page (v))

ATTACHMENT B

STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER THE RTT~ HON. MALCOLM FRASER, C . ΙΓΓ7~ΐ4. P . , MADE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ON 17 FEBRUARY 1977 * I WHEN TABLING THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CARE

OF THE AGED AND THE INFIRM AND THE FIRST REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH.

Mr Speaker,

I table two reports -The "Report of the Committee on Care of the Aged and the Infirm"

and

The First Report of the Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health entitled "Proposals for Change in the Administration and Delivery of Programs and Services".

I also seek leave to make an accompanying statement.

In June and July 1976 the Government established two enquiries in the health and welfare fields. The first, the Committee of Inquiry into Care of the Aged and the Infirm, was announced on 6 June and was chaired by Mr A. S. Holmes. The second, the Task Force on

Co-ordination in Welfare and Health, chaired by Mr P. H. Bailey, was announced on 23 July.

The 'Holmes’ Committee was asked to examine and report on

the effectiveness and efficiency of existing Government programs and arrangements for the care of the aged and the infirm;

the appropriate role of the Commonwealth Government, bearing in mind the responsibility of State and Local Governments and the

activities of voluntary agencies;

and the relationship between programs for the aged and the infirm and other health and welfare programs.

Attachment B/2 1 2 9 .

Since it is the Government's objective to provide assistance to those most in need and to encourage self-reliance and local participation the Committee was requested to have particular regard to :

- the scope for greater coherence in planning new programs and for the rationalisation of existing arrangements, including the examination of possible new approaches;

- and the scope for making economies in expenditure while not compromising desirable long-term arrangements.

The Holmes Committee reports that despite large and rising expenditure, there is a good deal of dissatisfaction with current programs.

In the Committee's view, this is due to a number of causes including :

- a lack of co-ordination between various levels of Government and between Government and non-Government sectors;

- a concentration on institutional accommodation rather than on developing comprehensive domiciliary services;

- and a failure to develop procedures designed to match services to individual requirements.

The report says that there are a multiplicity of programs and delivery agencies and a failure to appreciate the interdependence between programs which leads to confusion, inefficiency and waste. .

The proposals put forward in the Committee's report involve

- a consolidation of various programs for domiciliary care into a single community care program;

- possible changes in the approach to funding the operating costs of nursing homes. The report for example raises the possibility of including the costs of nursing home care within the health insurance arrangements.

1 3 0 . Attachment B/3

- a review of the need for the Commonwealth to subsidise capital outlays on self-contained accommodation, hostels and nursing homes;

- a considerable expansion in the use of assessment and rehabilitation teams; and

- the possible negotiation of new cost-sharing arrangements with the States.

Honourable Members will recall the decision to establish the Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health arose out of the Government's concern at the proliferation, duplication and overlap of Commonwealth programs and services in the Health, Welfare and Community Development fields. Against the background of the Government's federalism policy the Task Force was asked to :

- identify Commonwealth programs which could be better delivered by the States, Local Government or voluntary agencies and whose administration could be transferred to the States;

- examine the possibilities for consolidating individual programs into broader based ones to enable more efficient and economic delivery.

The Task Force was also asked to propose ways and means of achieving better co-ordination and report on consultative and co-ordinating machinery at the Commonwealth level and between the Commonwealth and the States. This will be done in a second report which will come forward

later in the year.

In its first report the Task Force claims there is sufficient evidence to warrant changes in existing patterns of administration of programs and delivery of services. The report says that over-lapping has resulted

largely from having programs devised on a variety of bases. The report also refers to instances of inadequate information flow, proliferation and over-administration.

The Task Force recommends the consolidation of some 26 existing individual programs into four broadly defined program grants. The Task Force believes the Commonwealth should be concerned mainly with national planning, with establishing objectives, priorities and

standards, with evaluation and with innovation. It sees the

Attachment B/4 1 3 1 .

States, with regard to those programs they share with the Commonwealth as developing programs for approval within broad guidelines and carrying out the detailed administration of agreed programs.

_ In the report's view there should be regular consultation between the States, the Commonwealth, Local Government bodies and voluntary agencies.

The report also contains a range of other recommendations relating to specific programs including for example :-. Pathology Laboratories

. Rehabilitation Centres

- and the immediate post-arrival welfare of migrants.

In proposing various administrative changes, both reports make suggestions as to how the Commonwealth can safeguard the role of local and voluntary agencies delivering health and welfare services in the community. Both reports in their preparation involved extensive consultation with Commonwealth and State officers and local and voluntary bodies.

The Government has given preliminary consideration to the reports. Our view is that these reports raise important issues in the health and welfare fields which merit serious consideration. They should form the basis of discussion, without commitment at this stage, of possible new arrangements with States and others involved

in the programs covered by the reports. The Commonwealth itself is examining the reports as presenting options for new administrative arrangements to enhance the efficiency of program delivery without reducing the provision or quality of services. The Commonwealth has no intention of altering the financial balance between the Commonwealth and the States. It will ensure the continuation of the important activities of local and voluntary bodies.

The Government has not taken any firm decisions on the recommendations in the reports. They are being made available to enable Honourable Members and all others who are interested to have the opportunity to comment on the proposals the reports contain. The views that are expressed

1 3 2 . Attaahment B/5

about the reports will be taken into account in our continuing examination of the reports. In this regard I have arranged for copies of both reports to be sent to the

Premiers.

To enable this continuing examination the Government has decided to set up a follow-up group to consult and conduct discussions with relevant Commonwealth Departments and the States. The group which will be located

in my Department will be led by the Chairman of the Task Force, Mr Peter Bailey. It will include Dr Sidney Sax who was a member of the Committee on Care of the Aged and the Infirm. The group will be assisted by officials from other

Departments including Treasury, Finance, Health, Social Security, Environment, Housing and Community Development and the Public Service Board.

The broad timetable for handling the reports that the Government has in mind is that the follow-up group will commence its work immediately and proceed to have consultations with the appropriate Commonwealth Departments

on the reports. Premiers have been asked to provide initial broad reactions or comments by early April so that, as appropriate, discussions may proceed between the follow-up group and State officers between mid-April and early June.

There could also be consultation with major voluntary organisations should the need arise. The purpose of those discussions would be to clarify the matters which should be the subject of discussion and decision at Ministerial level

between the Commonwealth and the States at, for example, a Premiers' Conference.

Mr Speaker, these reports are significant documents warranting close scrutiny and consideration. Measures as wide ranging as those envisaged in the reports require time for examination, reflection and debate. Many

of the proposals they contain affect Governments at all levels, non-Government agencies, and the community. They will be of interest to many. The Government’s intention in making the reports available is to provide an opportunity

for those interested to give their views so that the Government can take those views into account before taking decisions on any particular proposals in the reports.

Mr Speaker, the Committee on Care of the Aged and the Infirm and the Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health are commended for their efforts. I table the reports for the information of Honourable Members.

Attachment C/1 133.

(Paras. 3, 31 and 129) ATTACHMENT C

REPORT ON SEMINARS

CONTENTS

Introduction

Planning and Preparation of the Seminars

The Seminar Discussion

Need for Consultation

Problems and Limitations of Consultation

Definition of Consultation

'Specialist' or 'Generalist' Focus

The 'Ideal' Consultative Mechanism Role and Function

Representation on Consultative Machinery

Role of Government Representatives

Resources

Evaluation and Review

Consultative Bodies at National, State and sub-State Levels Present Moves towards Consultation in the States

Suggestions for Sub-State Level Consultation

Suggestions for State Level Consultation Suggestions for National Level Consultation Consultation with Health Oriented Organisations

Summary of Seminar Discussions

Task Force Reflections on the Seminars

Selection

Resources Role and Function Historical and Contextual Factors

Conclusion

Annexure A - Seminar Participants Annexure B - Task Force on Regionalisation and Community Participation (N.S.W.) Terms of Reference

Page

C/2

C/3

C/5

C/5

C/7

C/9 C/10

C/10 C/ll C/12

C/13 C/16

C/17

C/17 C/18

C/21 C/22

C/23 C/2 5

C/25

C/27 C/27 C/28 C/28 C/28 C/30

C/32 C/44

1 3 4 . Attachment C/2

REPORT ON SEMINARS

Introduction

This report has been written in two parts. The first part (paragraphs 1 to 151) provides a description of how the series of seminars was planned and carried out by the Task Force and reports on those matters which arose out of .

the seminar discussions. The second part (paragraphs 152-177) looks at the series of seminars more as a case study in consultation and relates the impressions of the Task Force of how far the seminars went towards achieving the original objectives, the difficulties encountered along the way and how valuable the seminar is in the process of consultation.

2. While some literature exists on the subject of consultative processes and mechanisms, it was felt by the Task Force that this may not appropriately be generalised to the Australian scene. .

3. Further, it seemed to be imperative that the Task Force received, directly from those affected, up-to-date and relevant information and comments on the many aspects of the consultative process.

4. As a result of the experience of the seminars

arranged by the Follow-up Group, we saw a number of added advantages in a seminar approach. To call for submissions is a common practice in inquiries such as this, but there are disadvantages in written submissions (often associated with one to one hearings) -

. preparation is time consuming; . a biassed sample can often result; and . views can often be expressed more easily and clearly by the spoken rather than the -

written word.

5. With these goals in mind the Task Force took the

decision to approach those involved, via a series of seminars to be held in each State, and to hold a seminar in Canberra to involve national organisations.

6 . Specifically, the objectives of the seminars were seen to be:

. to promote discussion of the meaning of consultation; , to clarify what it is desired or believed consultation can achieve; . to examine the implications of consultative machinery

for all levels of government and for voluntary agencies; . to suggest the principles upon which successful ongoing consultation should be based.

Attachment C/3 135.

7. In the event, the Task Force found that the seminar approach achieved all of these objectives and also made it possible for more people to have a direct interchange with the Task Force in the limited time available in each State.

The conclusions from the seminars provided a major input to the Task Force's consideration of the question of consultation in the main body of the report.

Planning and Preparation of the Seminars 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3

8 . At the outset a discussion paper (No. 7) on

consultative arrangements was prepared by the Task Force. This document (see Attachment D) followed previous papers relating to the First Report, and Discussion Paper No. 6 (see Attachment K) on co-ordination at the national level which related to the Second Report.

9. Discussion Paper No. 7 raised a number of questions regarding consultation and possible consultative mechanisms, discussed various options and provided information on many existing consultative mechanisms.

10. This paper, together with an invitation to attend a seminar at a later date, was distributed as widely as possible: to organisations and individuals who had expressed interest in the Task Force's area of inquiry; those from whom

the Task Force had received submissions; those who had attended seminars arranged by the Follow-Up Group; and a number of "umbrella" voluntary organisations and local government organisations with the request that the discussion paper be

further distributed to interested bodies. Through the Department of Social Security the discussion paper was distributed to all members of the consultative committees established in 1976 and 1977 by the Minister for Social Security, Senator Guilfoyle. Copies were also distributed to

all relevant Commonwealth and State government departments.

1 1 . State government department representatives were invited to attend the State seminars on an observer or a participatory basis. Representatives attended seminars in all States.

12. The seminars were then arranged to be held throughout August 1977, the number being determined by the number of acceptances received. In order to give participants a reasonable opportunity to present and discuss their views,

it was decided that each seminar should be limited in number to 25 participants plus the members of the Task Force and of the Task Force secretariat.

13. With these considerations in mind 3 seminars were held in Melbourne; 1 in Hobart; 2 in Brisbane; 3 in Sydney; 2 in Adelaide; 2 in Perth and one seminar for national organisations in Canberra - a total of 14 in all. In most

States the Local Government Association was able to organise

1 3 6 .

Attachment C/4

a venue for the seminars, and the Task Force very much appreciated this assistance.

14. The procedure for inviting participants for the national seminar differed from that of the State seminars.

15. The criteria for selecting national bodies to invite were:

(i) Standing, i.e. , those bodies well established and able to contribute to the seminar;

(ii) Representation, i .e ., bodies were chosen to cover as broad a range of functions' and client groups as possible; it was on this basis that the claims of organisations representing certain disability groups had

to be rejected.

16. With these considerations in mind, 29 national bodies were invited to this seminar. ;

17. More than 250 representatives attended the seminars, , many of whom were members of more than one organisation. While j other options for the membership of each particular seminar ' were considered the Task Force felt that a good ’mix' of voluntary organisations and local government representatives would achieve our objectives more satisfactorily.

18. A list of those who attended the seminars is provided at the end of this report (Annexure A) and the Task Force wishes to record its appreciation to all those who attended the seminars. However, it should not be. inferred that the

individuals listed would necessarily concur with any of the opinions or recommendations contained in either this report of the seminars or the full report.

19. The Task Force favoured a non-structured approach to the conduct of the seminars, mainly because it wanted to know what issues might emerge as being important to the participants. In the event, different problems, situations,

attitudes and approaches did emerge between States, and even between seminars in the same State.

20. Toward the later seminars, and with the assistance of a framework for recording the seminar discussions, patterns began to emerge through the apparent ’fog’ of the relatively unstructured discussion. Questions or problems identified in previous seminars could be put to those in later seminars, and aspects which had not emerged in previous seminars could be focussed on and examined in more detail.

21. The one element of structure the Task Force introduced was a request to the four or five major "umbrella" organisations (see Annexure A) to open each seminar with a

Attachment C/S 1 3 7.

five minute discussion or comment on the Discussion Paper No. 7 (Attachment D).

22. The Task Force found these opening statements most useful in raising questions which required consideration by the participants. The Task Force felt that in the three hours available, and given the limited number of participants, a reasonable opportunity was provided for each member to have his/her views heard.

The Seminar Discussion

23. Naturally it is not possible to reflect adequately the multiplicity of views presented to the Task Force by the more than 250 participants who represented even more organisations. However, what follows is an attempt to extract

common themes reflecting the opinions, desires, concerns and reservations of those who attended the seminars.

Need for Consultation

24. Participants expressed the view that voluntary groups have successfully mobilised considerable community initiative and resources. They do not see themselves as having only a residual role, i.e. filling gaps not filled by government action,

important as such a role is. They see themselves as making a positive contribution as providers, but also contributing significantly in research, regionalisation, questions of accessibility and evaluation etc. They also have a strong

sense of identity and commitment to their goals, combined with much expertise and experience in their own fields. They therefore feel they represent an invaluable resource for the

government in the welfare/health area.

25. These organisations see a great need for long-term policy planning, and have a strong wish to contribute to the development of such policies via some consultative mechanism.

26. However, while several of the larger, 'established' organisations are satisfied with their relationship with the bureaucracy, the majority of the other organisations feel that their relationship with governmental bureaucracies, both

Commonwealth and State, leaves something to be desired. Voluntary organisations tended to feel they are manipulated by "the bureaucracy" and not consulted before decisions are taken which seriously affect their operation, and local government

tended to feel ignored by other levels of government.

27. Some bodies expressed bewilderment in the face of the multiplicity of mechanisms for departmental decision-making and funding. To those attempting to find their way around the bureaucracy, it almost seems that the complexity is designed

to frustrate rather than to assist local initiative.

1 3 8 .

Attachment C/6

These bodies expressed the difficulty they encounter in attempting to discover which department they should approach on a particular matter. For people and organisations in their

situation the need for a consultative process was clear, even if the only advantage was to clarify which department and which area they should approach.

28. It was further suggested that departments would benefit, not only by knowing what the voluntary sector is doing, but also from an exchange of information regarding their own activities.

29. Another aspect of the need for consultation was a general feeling that it is critical that the Commonwealth government maintain an interest in and be informed about what is happening at all levels of government. This was expressed particularly with respect to the policies and administration of programs which have been or may be devolved to other levels of government.

30. It was felt that federalism could lead to an isolation of Canberra from problems which might arise for those working at the 'grass-roots’ level.' Consequently there was a strong wish for the Commonwealth to be involved via some form of

consultative process at all levels. However, rather than setting up its own consultative process at other than national level most expressed the view that the Commonwealth should be involved with processes already in existence or possibly being established by State and other levels of government.

31. The need felt for consultation by these organisations may in part be a reflection of an underlying belief in a need to encourage the generation of a self-sufficient community. "Welfare" was seen not merely as the channelling of material means to persons without means - this is inadequate and

inefficient. There was a rejection of what was seen to be a paternalistic one-way flow from top to bottom, and a clear desire for the community to play a more significant part in the formulation of policies which affect their lives, and for individuals to be able to take more control of their own lives, rather than being dependent on institutions.

32. With only a few exceptions the goal of consumer participation was not seen as being a replacement of any government contribution. The general feeling seemed to be that decisions such as the specific allocation of funds are best taken by well-informed public servants (with the possible exception of the local level, discussed later). However, the organisations wished to be given the opportunity to contribute to the

informational context in which these decisions are taken.

33. One dimension which emerged and which throws some light on the need for consultation is the relationship between the organisations themselves. The organisations ranged from

Attachment C/7 1 3 9 .

'established', strong, politically effective groups to small and emerging groups with no established line of access or "political clout". In terms of their aims they ranged from those with broad welfare and co-ordinating roles to specific disability or target groups.

34. The strong sense of individual identity of some organisations was evidenced by the rejection of the possibility that another organisation with apparently similar target groups or goals might be able to represent adequately their own organisations. From their point of view their problems differed, and as a consequence their philosophies and practices differed.

Problems and Limitations of Consultation

35. Discussion Paper No. 7 (Attachment D) raised a number of questions to be considered. Much of the discussion involved an attempt by the participants to define the qualities of satisfying, meaningful consultation.

36. It was agreed that by setting up consultative arrangements expectations were raised. A significant proportion of the participants had had experience of what had been termed "consultation", which, when faced with the outcome, frequently

left them with a sense of futility and frustration. However, it was fully realised that consultation takes place in a context which includes many other influences such as political pressures, statutory constraints, the operation of pressure groups, the economy, and community attitudes.

37. It was also stressed that there will be a delay in full effectiveness, as trust and communication are built up by the consultative body, and that consultative processes should be seen to replace informal networks and methods of communication.

38. During the course of the seminars the participants were able to highlight for the Task Force particular factors which contributed to unsatisfactory consultation. Many of the criticisms raised could be subsumed under the heading of

'tokenism'. The basis of this appeared to the participants to be a lack of real commitment to the process of consultation by governments or bureaucracies. Evidence of what was seen to be lack of commitment include - by-passing of the body or ignoring

of suggestions or advice; lack of secretariat support or resources; meetings called infrequently and/or without sufficient notice to allow for preparation; lack of input from governmental representatives and lack of feedback from governments and departments.

3 9 . A related feeling which emerged from the discussions was that of 'consultation' being used as a form of manipulation or placation. It was felt that governments may use a consultative mechanism as a tool to stave off protest or as a

smoke-screen. The mechanism under those circumstances may not have any meaningful items referred to it, or may be blamed in some way for unpopular decisions taken by the government. The

140 Attachment C/8

consultation was seen to exclude political manoeuvering or pressure-group practices. Members believed it to be most important that the process is not manipulated either by its members or outside interests.

40. The second 1 pitfall1 identified by the groups involved what might be termed a lack of legitimacy. One factor contributing to this is ambiguity regarding a consultative body's role or function. It appeared that these are frequently unclear and lead to confusion in the minds of both the members

and others as to exactly what is expected of them and what they might expect in return. A real need was seen for the process of consultation to be interpreted correctly by the community in order to avoid the disappointment born of unrealistic or incorrect expectations.

41. One contributing factor to this unsatisfactory situation is 'blanket' confidentiality relating to matters discussed at meetings. In the early stages of operation considerable community interest exists. However, without the possibility of feedback regarding deliberations or submissions' received etc., interest deteriorates and representatives begin to lose credibility with their members and with the community. This lack of feedback or communication frequently extends to relationships with other committees on similar or related matters, limiting the usefulness of either when the subject matter requires a co-ordinated approach.

42. The problem here was the necessity to balance the openness of discussion which is necessary for a meaningful consultation and builds up trust between members, with the need to give and receive adequate feedback from the organisations which they represent.

43. Another factor which may contribute to the lack of legitimacy of a consultative body relates to the selection of members. . In this respect the following problems were raised:

. given the need for a manageable size, the members of the body could never be representative of the range of organisations involved;

. the possibility that organisations themselves may not be (and perhaps could never be) truly representative of their members

. how to obtain client representation: some organisations provide services, others represent clients and some carry out both functions. It was believed that there was a need to be aware of the differences between these roles and to ensure that any consultative body included all types of organisations;

Attachment C/9 1 4 1 .

• how to ensure representation of newly emerging groups, or unidentified need groups, for example, self-help groups, the disadvantaged family, the unemployed.

44. These questions were considered to be of great importance by the participants at the seminars, and suggestions were made (discussed at paragraphs 65 to 78) as to how these problems may be overcome.

Definition of Consultation

45. From these discussions of the limitations and problems of present consultative mechanisms emerged a more clearly defined view of the process of consultation - how consultation should be defined, what can be expected from it, and what would be the

characteristics of "the ideal" consultative mechanism.

46. The definition of 1 consultation' which Discussion Paper No. 7 put for the consideration of participants at the seminars was - "the act of consulting; deliberation; conference" as applied to policy planning, administration and service

delivery.

47. Major questions which arose included - should consultation have more than an influence on decision-making? Does consultation include an advisory role? Does consultation include funding or finance decisions?.

48. While some participants expressed a need for an advisory/recommending/decision-making role, in the course of the discussion many participants appeared to come to the view that there could be disadvantages in a consultative body being required to make recommendations, particularly on the matter of funding. The variety and disparity of interests represented

at the seminars and the depth of emotional feeling regarding their own clients indicated that on some issues a consultative body would have difficulty in obtaining consensus. It was felt that a decision-making role might tend to divide the body along organisation lines because of the representatives1

own special interests and the need to account to their own members for particular decisions on fund allocations.

49. It was felt that the allocation of resources is the responsibility of government and that the best "decider" is a well-informed public servant. However, while seminar members felt that a consultative body should not be required to make

recommendations, there was a desire to reserve the option to recommend if that was the wish of the representatives.

50. Members felt that an exception to the general principle of a consultative, rather than a decision-making or advisory role, might exist in the case of a committee at the local level. It was believed that consultation might have more of a decision-making focus at this level, for the

reasons that the situation is usually less complex, better understood by local people, normally involving less financial

1 4 2 . Attachment C/10

input, and more easily monitored. Further, decisions on specific projects can be made at the local level, whereas this is less possible at State or national levels.

51- In relation to a more positive role for a consultative process participants expressed a need to be heard, to exchange views, to share information and to influence decision makers. They were of the opinion that this communication would lead to

improved co-ordination between government and agencies, and between the agencies themselves; exposure and analysis of service delivery problems; mobilisation of existing resources and information already collected; and to a greater·influence on the direction and nature of social policy and research.

52. Participants wished to be involved in longer-term and broader-based policy development, to provide from their own areas inputs regarding implications and repercussions of various policy options but not necessarily to make decisions.

'Specialist' or ’Generalist1 ' Focus

53. In many seminars, the definition of consultation led to a consideration of whether the consultative mechanism should have a 'target'group (specialist) focus or should have a more broad-based (general) welfare approach. It was believed

that this question needed to be resolved before the question of representation on a consultative body could sensibly be considered.

54. The well-established 'target' group organisations expressed satisfaction with their present consultative processes, wishing to maintain these regardless of other mechanisms being established. They felt that only a 'target'group focus would provide the depth of understanding and experience necessary to present their interests adequately.

55. One compromise which appeared to receive a good deal of acceptance was that of the establishment of a broad-based consultative body with sub-committees focussing on specific target groups. In this way it was felt that organisations representing target groups would have a greater opportunity to contribute, and that the many organisations involved would have a greater chance of being represented.

56. Another suggestion was that perhaps the problems and foci may differ at different levels of government. At the local level consultation might be of a 'generalist' nature, at State level it might be more appropriate for the consultation to focus on 'target' groups, and at the national level the need might be for a broad-based 'generalist' focus again.

The 'Ideal' Consultative Mechanism

5 7 . The element which is crucial to a good consultative process is that of commitment to the basic assumptions of consultation - that it is a co-operative exercise between

Attachment C/ll 1 4 3 .

government and the community. If one of the parties is not committed to its own and the other party's involvement then the consultative process is likely to collapse under the weight of distrust and frustration and any existing communication and co-operation between the parties involved would be jeopardized.

58. Given mutual commitment the effectiveness of the process or mechanism is dependant on its form. Specific goals and needs must be carefully thought out so that the role, functions and memberships etc. are appropriate.

Role and Function

59. Clear definition of the role of the mechanism will require detailed consideration of what it is hoped to achieve.

60. The goal of consultation was seen to be the possibility of influencing policy forming or decision-making with respect to any or all of the following functions:

. identification of consumer needs and deficiencies . investigation of solutions to identified problems . monitoring of community trends . review of the effectiveness of on-going programs . promotion of research . review of the standard of provision of services to

individuals or community groups . policy formulation and longer-term planning . exchange of information . co-ordination of activities . clarification of positions . promotion of attitude change

. sharing or rationalisation of resources . exposure and analysis of service delivery problems

61. One expectation of the participants is that the consultative body would have referred to it real issues for their deliberation, and also that the members themselves may initiate agenda items. The participants see as crucial that agenda items are nominated before action is taken, as without

this, the process would be merely tokenism.

62. The seminar participants also believe that there should be a reasonable assurance that the views expressed by the members will have some influence on policy-making, and that if a recommendation is forthcoming that this be taken seriously by

decision-makers.

6 3. it was believed that the timing of issues should be related to important decision-making periods of the year - e.g. pre-budget and budget processes, Premier's Conferences, etc., and that meetings should be sufficiently frequent - 5 times a year - to allow consideration of these issues at the appropriate

time.

1 4 4 . Attachment C/12

64. The importance of the development of trust between representatives has been mentioned previously, and the participants considered that continuity of representatives, sufficiently frequent meetings, and an informal discussion approach would contribute to the development of this trust. The avoidance of certain specific issues for decision - e.g. allocation of grants, was seen as promoting this. Some members strongly believed that the aim of the consultation

and the development of trust should be via conflict resolution rather than conflict avoidance.

Representation on Consultative Machinery

65. The question of representation on consultative machinery and the method of selection of these members were seen to be of great importance.

6 6 . It was suggested that this depended very much on the purpose, function and role of the mechanism, and on whether it was to be focussed on broad welfare questions or on specific . target groups. Both service-providing and client organisations should be included in the membership of the body.

67. The problem was seen to be that of balancing the wish of the many organisations to be represented with the need to keep the numbers at a manageable level. It was generally felt that around thirty members was the maximum number for satisfactory consultation although some felt that considerably less than 30 was preferable.

6 8 . A number of options for methods of selection was canvassed but there appeared to be a general agreement that organisations which have been selected to be represented should be asked to nominate someone to represent them. The option of providing a list of possible members from an organisation was not favoured - the feeling being that if the government regarded the organisation as having sufficient legitimacy to be requested to be on the consultative body then the government should accept that organisation's nominee without question.

69. However, as mentioned previously many organisations were not satisfied that their relevant 1 umbrella1 organisation would be able to represent them adequately and would therefore wish to have their own representatives on such a body.

70. A further suggestion for the incorporation of more of the organisations which wish to be represented was for a list of these groups to be compiled and for representatives of these groups to be co-opted on the body on a rotating basis.

71. One method of selection which came under criticism was that of selection by a Minister. In this case the member is seen to be accountable to the Minister and not to the context from which he/she is drawn. This method of selection changes the nature of the consultation completely.

Attachment C/1S 145

72. The question of the need for emerging groups and unformed need groups was also raised. It was agreed that 'new' groups have difficulty in breaking into the established system — obtaining recognition and particularly receiving grants from various sources. Some groups expressed the difficulty they had

even in becoming affiliated with established non-government bodies.

73. _ The representation of unformed need groups, particularly if these need groups are more transitory in nature, e.g. the unemployed, was considered to be essential. It was suggested that the government might fill several places by selecting expert or experienced persons who may be well known in the field though not associated with any particular organisation. In this way the needs of emerging or unformed groups might be given recognition.

74. A further suggestion involved the concept of a mobile task force type mechanism, based on the capital city, which could reach out to seek/identify unmet or changing needs and would be particularly appropriate in States with a widely

scattered population.

75. Other attempts to improve the process of consultation and links with the community included the compiling of a register or data bank of organisations by central interest and function to serve as a basis for future consultation; wider use of discussion papers; tapes etc; and the ability to receive

and consider submissions.

76. Finally, on the question of governmental representation there was a strong belief that all levels of government - Commonwealth, State and local - must be represented, perhaps in differing proportions depending on the level at which the consultative body is established.

77. Participants were strongly of the opinion that departmental representatives need to be of a sufficiently senior level to make a real contribution to the discussion; that the attending officers be appropriate for the area under discussion; and that all the relevant departments should be

represented.

78. It was felt to be crucial that departments should take this representative function seriously and that notice be taken of reports from departmental officers regarding the consultations in which they had engaged.

Role of Government Representatives

7 9 . Seminar participants were divided on the question of the role of government representatives - on whether they wish these representatives to speak as 'individuals' or as 'departmental representatives’.

146. Attachment C/14

80· They recognised that their own role as representatives of organisations, while ambiguous in many respects, was more clear and easily defined than that of a public servant representative. In a sense, their organisations are more , likely to accept the assumption by their "reprsentative" of a significant degree of "speaking for" the organisation than are government departments.

81. They were, however, aware that unauthorised divulgence of information may have serious repercussions for departments and governments. These repercussions were seen to involve not only the divulgence of confidential information but also the possibility of a public servant committing his government to a particular course of action.

82. The requirement then to obtain approval before divulging certain information or even the uncertainty of the status of information, and the need to be circumspect regarding future government policy was seen to be an inhibitory factor to spontaneity of input from public servants. This is not to say that the participants were in agreement with these ; constraints. They were, in general, quite firm in their belief that departments should be more open with their information and willing to divulge and discuss their intentions before action is taken.

83. These were some of the issues raised regarding public servants being required to speak as departmental representatives.

84. A different approach suggested was for the public servant to speak "as an individual". There was some doubt whether this is possible at all, but if it were possible, it was queried whether a public servant speaking as an individual

is a worthwhile proposition - in terms of the goals of consultation. It was felt by many participants that if consultation is about governments meeting with non-government agencies, then it is necessary that comments by public servant representatives have legitimacy and departmental backing.

85. In the discussions this question was related to that of whether the consultation should be 'closed' or ’open’. 'Closed1 consultation i.e. closed to those outside the actual process, was seen to have the advantage that, as trust between members develops, government representatives might feel secure

enough to divulge information or express opinions which would lead to greater understanding between the parties, but which might not be possible if they became general knowledge. (The previous discussion on the role of the departmental

representative is relevant here). It was felt that while this would fulfil one of the goals of the consultative process - i.e. increased understanding between government and organisations - it would tend to create another elite (of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of organisations rather than m e m b e r s of organisations) with 'inside1 information and the appearance (and possible reality) of a paternalistic approach to the community in general.

Attachment C/15 147

86. On the other hand, total openness and total accountability of the consultative process itself was seen to run the risk of stifling discussion not only for public servants, but for representatives of organisations as well. There was a suggestion that statements, agreements, compromises or suggestions by a representative from an organisation which,

in the context of the discussion, may be reasonable and sensible, may not find favour with the sometimes more single- minded approach of the people "on the ground".

87. Several suggestions were put which may go some way toward a resolution of the three main problems described above.

8 8 . In the first place, the role of the departmental representative should be clearly articulated. From the discussions in the seminars this role would include the contribution of agenda items; a willingness to listen; provision of information which is rather more detailed than may have been released but is not 'sensitive1 or confidential; indications as

to the reasons certain advice has not been accepted; and discussion of the rationale behind decisions already taken, or the broader context in which certain decisions might be seen.

89. On the question of whether public servants speak as 'individuals' or as 'departmental representatives' it was thought that it may be possible to find some compromise if these representatives were to speak as departmental representatives but on a "without commitment" basis. Other arguments have been put previously for these representatives

to be of a sufficiently senior level, and this is a further argument for that case. The public servants selected would also need to have or develop experience in consultative processes so that they may make the maximum contribution while avoiding the obvious pitfalls inherent in the process.

90. The problem of 'open1 or 'closed' meetings may also be amenable to a balance or compromise. In this respect the practice of the VCCSD was seen to be of interest. Meetings of this body are recorded in minutes which are for distribution, but these minutes, while revealing the content of the

deliberations, do not attribute statements to particular individuals. '

91. Two other requirements mentioned previously became important in the context of the difficulties mentioned above. Firstly, participants believed that governments and departments should be more prepared to share some of their information,

and therefore power, with other agencies working in the same field. ■

92. Secondly, participants felt that the community and particularly members of organisations represented in the consultative process should appreciate the overall goal and need for a co-operative effort among all concerned. They believed

that a holistic rather than a piece-meal view of planning for

1 4 8. Attachment C/16

the welfare/health field is imperative if resources are to be used economically and rationally and with the greatest benefit possible for client groups.

93. These needs for both a willingness on the part of bureaucracies to share their power, and for the non-government sector to appreciate the need for a broader view were repeatedly appreciated in the seminars. It was believed that this would involve a proper interpretation of the process of consultation by the bureaucracy and by the community at large.

94. It was accepted that this process of education may take some time to come to fruition but the benefits were seen to be enormous.

Resources

95. The following resources were seen to be essential if the consultative machinery is to operate successfully:

. Time is required if members are to be able to i

prepare themselves effectively for meetings. This may simply be personal preparation, but may frequently involve the necessity to canvass members for their views on items which are or to be or have been discussed. This is an essential aspect of consultation ensuring that the opinions expressed in fact reflect those of the people involved.

. Money. The question of financial resources was raised frequently.

Travelling expenses, particularly in the case of a national consultative body, raised many problems for organisations. It was felt that if the organisations were expected to pay fares, etc., smaller organisations would be prohibited from attending, thus introducing a bias into the consultation which would be disadvantageous

to the whole process.

Feedback to members of organisations was also seen to be an expensive item involving outlays for items such as photocopying, materials, postage. Even distribution of minutes of a meeting can be an expensive proposition

for some smaller organisations, quite apart from other more expensive items such as the preparation and distribution of discussion papers and surveys.

. Information- Informed discussion involves the capacity to obtain relevant information, often at relatively short notice. This information capacity might involve the preparation of data systems or

the necessity to employ part or full-time research assistants. Some organisations already have some research capacity, and others may find it is not

Attachment C/17 1 4 9.

necessary, but some research capacity was seen to be necessary for an adequate consultative body.

. Secretariat. Unanimous agreement was found regarding the necessity for some form of secretariat. It might be that this secretariat could carry out some of the tasks mentioned above - distribution of discussion papers,

research etc. Without this support the participants believed that the task of meaningful consultation would be virtually impossible.

The VCCSD model of all parties sharing the responsibility for secretariat and resource provision was generally considered an acceptable method.

Evaluation and Rev.i ew

96. Participants believed that whatever mechanism is established should be sufficiently flexible to evolve as needs, objectives and perceptions change.

97. Along with this flexibility, it was considered essential that the operations of the mechanism should be reviewed and evaluated on a regular basis.

98. The review processes need to be considered in the planning stages so that the data which will be required for assessment can be built into the process, and available when a review takes place.

Consultative Bodies at National, State and sub-State levels

99. The general principles of the 'ideal' consultative mechanism were a major aspect of the seminar discussions. However, the participants also considered the form which the mechanism might take at various levels of government.

100. The Task Force Discussion Paper No. 7 proposed a number of options for the establishment of a consultative mechanism for the Commonwealth at each level of government - national, State, and sub-State. Basically, these options

involved questions relating to which level of government should take the initiative in setting up a consultative mechanism, and the method by which the Commonwealth government, other levels of government and the non-government sector might be represented. (For details see Discussion Paper No. 7 Attachment D).

101. It became clear from the seminar discussion that the organisations and local government represented did not wish the Commonwealth to establish its own consultative mechanism at State and sub-State level. It was thought that this would

further confuse an already complex situation without any clear advantages.

1 5 0. Attaohment C/18

102. On the other hand, there was a strong wish for the Commonwealth to be represented and involved at both the State and sub-State level, preferably normally by State or regional personnel rather than Canberra head office personnel. Indeed, a strong belief that all levels of government should be represented at each level was evident.

103. Of the other options for State and sub-State level presented in the Task Force discussion paper, there was virtually unanimous agreement that there should not be separate bodies, one for local government, one for voluntary agencies.

104. Ad hoc arrangements also were not considered a viable proposition. An ongoing process was believed to demonstrate a stronger commitment; to encourage the development of a co-operative spirit between the parties; to provide more guarantees of active use being made of the committee; to promote the development of processes for obtaining continuing feedback from the community and organisations; and to develop expertise in the principles and methods of consultation.

105. The need for diversity of approach from State to State was frequently expressed. Each State has special needs, particularly the isolated States and those with scattered populations, and the opinion of the participants was that the States should set up consultative arrangements according to their own particular needs, and that the Commonwealth should be invited to be represented on whatever body might be established in this way. In each State there appeared to be at least the potential for suitable consultative structures, but in each State the approach was different - depending on geographic, social and political factors. This is discussed in more detail in paragraphs 107 to 133.

106. Victoria was the only State with a formally established consultative body - the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development. Many participants were familiar with this model, which has been operating for ' approximately three years, but felt that for their own State the concept would need to be modified. However, the basic concept of using existing or emerging mechanisms, perhaps by altering their function, membership, etc., was a common suggestion. Another commonly held belief was the need for a start to be made at grass-roots level when thinking about consultation.

Present Moves toward Consultation in the States

New South Wales

107. New South Wales has established a regional approach to the administration and delivery of health services in which attempts have been made to include community participation through community committees.

Attachment C/19 1 5 1 .

108. In January, 1977 the New South Wales Government established a Review of New South Wales Government Administration. The Review is to report on improvements in the machinery of Government and State Government administration and to advise upon the implementation of such improvements as the Government decides upon.

109. Subsequently, the Premier approved the establishment of a Task Force on Regionalisation and Community Participation. The full terms of reference of the Task Force are listed in Annexure B to this attachment. It will be reporting and recommending, where necessary, on a range of matters associated with regionalis­

ation and community participation, including: the conceptual and philosophic basis for regionalisation; methods by which community participation can be achieved in the planning, development and operations of State Government administration within a regional

framework; and the political, economic and social consequences for New South Wales of a program of regionalisation and community participation.

Victoria * 1 1 1

110. As part of the newly introduced Family and Community Services Program, Regional Consultative Councils (R.C.C's.) are being established in each of the 18 State regions. The R.C.C's. comprise persons elected by local government, local organisations

and voluntary agencies, and observers and representatives of Government departments.

111. Draft legislation is at present before Parliament to establish, among other things, a Child Development and Family Services Council. The membership of the Council will comprise representatives of relevant State Departments, the Commonwealth

and local government, nominees from the Victorian Council of Social Service, the Children's Welfare Association, the Australian Pre-School Association, the Institute of Early Childhood Develop­ ment, and persons representing welfare recipients in the community

at large. The council will have 26 members, including a chairman on a part-time salary basis. It will have a secretariat and research staff. The Council will advise the Ministers, carry out investigations, maintain liaison with related agencies and

individuals, initiate public discussions, and advise on principles relating to licensing, contracts and registration. '

112. The State Co-ordination Council, established in 1976, comprises the heads of Government Departments and agencies. The Council has established a Special Task Group on Co-ordination of

Health, Welfare and Community Development, comprising Permanent Heads and senior officers of departments in the social resources area. The Group held discussion with the Follow-up Group to the First Task Force Report and consults with voluntary agencies and

local government with a view to developing a Victorian Government position on these broad issues. The State Co-ordination Council Act also provides for the establishment of a Community Advisers Panel to give input to the Cabinet's considerations from the

private sector.

152. Attachment C/20

113. The Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development (VCCSD) has been operating for 3 years. It is supported by the Commonwealth Department of Social Security and the State Department of Social Welfare and has representation of relevant Commonwealth and State Departments. Its membership and operation are described in detail in Attachment D, Annexure H.

Queensland

114. Queensland has had for a number of years a policy of decentralising the programs and services of some of its health, welfare, community development programs.

115. Within the Department of Children's Services, a model of what might be future consultative arrangements, is to be found in the Advisory Committee on Residential Care. This Committee was established by the Queensland Government. Member­ ship includes representatives of the Governing Authorities of residential care facilities operated by the voluntary sector, the Matrons and Superintendents Association and the Department of Children's Services. ,

116. An interesting historical evolution of a form of consultation has been the progressive development of the network of 19 Area National Fitness Committees of the National Fitness Council since the late 1940's. These consist of representatives

from Local Government, State Government agencies, local sporting and recreational groups and have decision-making capacity with respect to the allocation of resources in the promotion of community recreation opportunities. A further diversification of responsibilities has occurred with the Council's involvement in

sports medicine, Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme, Youth Council, Recreation for the Handicapped and Ethnic Recreation Services.

117. In 1976 the Queensland Minister for Health released a White Paper on Community Health in which it was recommended that, at the time of establishment of a new Community Health Services Centre, discussions be held with members of the particular community regarding implementation of the service.

118. It was recognised that in some areas a community welfare council may already exist which may be included in such discussions.

119. At Ipswich a Community Committee is functioning and provides for an interchange of advice between the Community Health Services Centre and the community.

South Australia

120. In the 1972 South Australian Community Welfare Act provision was made for establishing Consultative Councils for Social Development through the State. Functions included inquiring into welfare matters in the community, advising the Minister of Community Welfare and assisting in the co-ordination

Attachment C/21 153.

of local services. Membership included community, local government and State Government representatives and the local State Member of Parliament (or his nominee). The first Councils were set up in 1973.

121. In December 1974, an agreement was reached between the Commonwealth Minister for Social Security and the State Minister of Community Welfare to allow co-operation between the Consultative Councils and the Regional Councils for Social Development which had been recently formed under the Australian Assistance Plan. The Consultative Councils were renamed Community Councils for Social

Development. Membership was expanded to include additional community representation and a Commonwealth Government represent­ ative. Community Councils were represented on the relevant Regional Councils. In 1975, Community Councils began to advise

the Community Welfare Grants Advisory Committee on local applications for grants. At present there are 26 Community Councils and three sub-Councils covering the settled areas of the State. Seven Community Development Officers are employed by them.

122. Following the winding down of the Australian Assistance Plan by the Commonwealth Government, in early 1977 the State Government formed a Committee on Community Development and Assistance to review the roles of Community Councils, local

government, regional bodies, voluntary organisations and the State Government in community affairs and the funding of community groups. The Committee is due to report by 30 January 1978.

123. In August 19 76 , the South Australian Government approved the recommendations of the Committee on Uniform Regional Boundaries

Western Australia

124. In Western Australia the State Government is finalising the establishment of 7 regional centres, each with a small staff of up to 5 officers, under the control of regional administrators.

125. These administrators are required to establish consultative links with local government, State and Commonwealth departments and community groups within the regions.

126. The administrators are currently being appointed as Chairmen of the Regional Development Committees that have existed for many years under the direction of the Department of Industrial Development. These committees draw membership from local government, local industry and local promotion groups.

127. There are proposals that these committees, which consider mainly resource development aspects, should be expanded to allow consideration of community development matters.

128. Other alternatives for community involvement are being considered.

129. The Department of Community Welfare is in the process of further regional!sing its decision-making process, and other State

154. Attachment C/22

Government Departments are examining their activities with a view to further regionalisation.

Tasmania

130. Tasmania has three well-established planning regions, and the Regional Councils for Social Development in these regions have been continued by State funding after the withdrawal of the Commonwealth from the Australian Assistance Plan.

131. The State and Commonwealth Governments are supporting moves by handicapped groups to rationalise services and funding arrangements in each region.

132. In 1977 a review of the Child Welfare Act, was commenced with the purpose of establishing a broader and more effective social welfare service generally. A sub-committee formed to examine community services and the role of the community in providing services is taking note of the moves toward the formation of local consultative councils in other States, particularly those being established in South Australia. The Committee is also examining the proposition that a State Consultative Council of ; Social Development be established.

133. The Department of Social Welfare is also embarking on a program involving decentralisation of its services, and is investigating arrangements by which aspects of the decision-making process can be handed down to a more local level. As pilot projects, several of the Department's programs are already being assisted by local committees of management with representatives from voluntary organisations.

Suggestions for Sub-State Level Consultation

134. At the sub-State level suggestions included the use of local councils, Regional Councils for Social Development (where these are still in existence), Regional Organisations of Councils, existing voluntary organisations at branch level, or existing

local community welfare agencies. A further suggestion was for itinerant forums - see paragraph 139.

135. As mentioned in paragraph 50 it was suggested that factors operating at the local level might alter the nature of consultation at that level. More of a decision-making element could perhaps be introduced than might be possible at other levels.

136. Regarding the local level generally, several problems were raised. One was the varying capability and interest which local government may have in consultative arrangements and their consequences for service delivery. Most local government representatives saw local government's role as that of facilitator, advocate, broker, and stimulator but did not necessarily wish to include service delivery on any significant scale. However some local government bodies did wish to become involved with service delivery. The differences depend on traditional roles, present trends, financial restraints, the interests of those involved.

Attachment C/23 155.

Local government, however, was recognised by all as being capable of, and having in fact in many instances played, a significant role in the development of welfare/health services at the community level.

137. Mention has been made of a preference for Commonwealth personnel from State or regional offices rather than Canberra head office personnel. One difficulty raised regarding this form of representation involved the calibre of State and Federal government representatives available at the local level. It was

felt that, at that level, they may not necessarily have any interest, experience or expertise in the problems being discussed.

138. While participants expressed the wish for consultation to "start from the bottom up", one consideration would be the fact that at this level some specific client groups may not exist in sufficient numbers to meet the criteria for a viable service or facility. Consultation for these groups might therefore need to be incorporated into whatever mechanism is established at the regional or State level.

Suggestions for State Level Consultation

139. As mentioned previously, the VCCSD aroused considerable interest as a model for a State level consultative mechanism. Perhaps a modification of this was the suggestion for a task­ force approach incorporating a central body based in a capital or provincial city but moving around the State to a series of forums

to seek out and identify the needs of various communities. The former Childhood Services Consultative Committees established in 1974 by the Interim Committee for the Children's Commission were

also mentioned as a possible model. There were also a number of suggestions for a model based on the three program grants recommended in the First Report of the Task Force.

140. A conference held on a regular basis for the purpose of focussing on emerging or present problems was also suggested by a number of participants.

141. Other suggestions included a body comprised of representatives -. from regional organisations; or .

. from the larger co-ordinating organisations, e.g. the relevant State's Council of Social Service, the State division of the Council on the Ageing, the Council on Rehabilitation of Disabled; or . from a variety of bodies organised at the State

level; or

. from national organisations but the representative to be from the State level of these bodies.

142. One further suggestion for encouraging communication between voluntary agencies, local government and State Departments was the establishment of a liaison unit within State Departments. This unit was not seen as replacing a consultative process, but

1 5 6 . Attachment C/24

as an additional facilitating apparatus. The responsibility of this unit (or person) was seen to be that of making contact with community groups, and to be a point of contact for information or referral to appropriate officers within the department.

143. The State Consultative Committees on Social Welfare (established in 1976 by the Minister for Social Security) were discussed in some detail, and members of these committees attended each seminar. Their establishment was welcomed and thought to be a valuable initiative towards the inclusion of otner elements in the social welfare policy development area. However, many participants felt that at this stage these committees did not fulfil the requirements for an adequate consultative process. They were felt to be too narrow in their terms of reference, too secret, and with two meetings a year, did not meet sufficiently frequently to develop meaningful relationships between the members or to consider items as effectively as might be wished. Services by a secretariat were wanting and funds were seen to be inadequate to allow linking back

to the community.

144. Regarding the general question of State-level '

administration and processes there was some concern expressed that what may happen is that one form of centralised decision­ making (at Commonwealth level) may simply be replaced by another form of centralised decision-making (at State level). Voluntary organisations and local government were also

apprehensive that there would not be sufficient guarantees that their role and funds would be protected if/when Commonwealth functions were devolved to the States.

145. Mechanisms for consultation which are being investigated or promoted in some States at the present time have been discussed briefly in paragraphs 107 to 133.

Suggestions for National bevel Consultation

146. At the national level a number of options were proposed for a consultative process. These would be seen to fall into three categories.

147. The first involved the question of whether at the national level major target groups should have their own consultative mechanism - i.e. the aged, children, the handicapped etc. While the advantage of this 1 specialised1 approach would be a depth of understanding of a particular section of the community, the disadvantage is that this would not provide for the major areas seen to be necessary at the national level.

148. The second group of options focussed on a broad-based body the major goal of which would be to consider broad future social policy planning. Some of the suggestions for this approach included the use of existing 'umbrella1 organisations with or without additional selected individuals; or

representatives of selected national organisations.

Attachment C/25 157.

149. The same problems arise because of the need to limit the numbers of representatives for effective consultation to approximately 30 persons, and the wish for representation by many more organisations than could be accommodated. However,

this might be alleviated by the use of sub-committees. The problem of representation of new and emerging groups is also not resolved by either of the two options discussed above.

150. The third group of suggestions attempted to accommodate all the requirements for a national consultative body discussed above, and was process-oriented rather than structure-oriented.

151. These suggestions included the task-force model mentioned in the previous section; and national conferences at perhaps three yearly intervals, on the New Zealand model, where people would be drawn together for the discussion of issues of

national importance in the social development field.

152. Finally, the concept of a small steering committee which would focus on particular problems as or before they arise was advanced. It was thought that this committee could initiate seminars four or five times a year on particular problem areas,

and that these seminars might draw together all those closely involved with the selected area. The advantages of this suggestion were seen to be its flexibility in being able to focus

on both special target groups and general social policy develop­ ment; the possibility of having in the consultative process only those bodies which are really interested in the subject; the possibility of including a greater number of the relevant

organisations; a greater concentration of expertise in a particular area; and the possibility of including emerging or new organisations whenever relevant.

Consultation with Health Oriented Organisations

153. One aspect of the seminars of which the Task Force is aware was the strong 'welfare' rather than 'health1 orientation of the seminars. This emerged not only in the relatively few representatives from what might be termed the health sector, but also in the direction of the discussion.

154. The reasons for this can only be speculations. It may be that the health area has essentially a more technical component which might be seen to limit the usefulness of a consultative approach. It may also be that what has been termed

the 'medical model', with all its implications, has had the effect of continuing to span, in people's minds, areas which might now usefully be opened up to a more consultative method.

155. Although community health has moved in this direction, it has had a limited success or impact up until the present. There is also a relative absence of community-based organisations in the health field.

158. Attachment C/28

Summary of Seminar Discussions

156. Of the themes which emerged from the seminars, the following might be considered to be of major importance:

. that voluntary agencies and local government wish to play a part in the broad development of policy but are not anxious (and often feel themselves not competent) to become involved in detailed decision-making, particularly in the allocation

of resources;

. that policy development might appropriately be contributed to via some form of consultative process;

. that a satisfactory consultative process requires careful planning and preparation and education of all those involved, including the community;

. that the consultative process should not be imposed from above, but should develop naturally from ' initiatives already beginning to be taken at a variety of levels;

. that the Commonwealth should be involved at all levels but should only be the initiator in developing a mechanism at the national level;

. that sufficient guarantees must be available to ensure protection of the roles of voluntary agencies and local government; and

. that the development of any satisfactory on-going consultative arrangement will take time.

157. Finally and most importantly, what emerged from the seminars was the conviction that the success of a consultative arrangement will depend on the flexibility of those involved, on the capacity of members and the community at large to take a broader view of welfare and health than has previously been the case, and most particularly on the commitment of all parties to ensure its success.

Attachment C/27 159.

TASK FORCE REFLECTIONS ON THE SEMINARS

152. After the 14 seminars were completed we came to the conclusion that there would be value in putting to paper some of our reflections on the consultative process in which we had in effect been engaged.

153. When we commenced our planning for the seminars, we were not as aware of the 'do's' and 'don'ts' of consultation as we now are. The problems raised in our preparatory discussions were, in fact, discussed by participants when, in due course, we made our visits to the States. These difficulties included

doubts about what might be gained by holding a series of consulta five seminars; doubts as to whether participants would agree to a discussion on 1 consultation’ when many were known to be pre­ occupied with the possible effects of the recommendations of the First Report, and the contemporaneity of the Federal Government's budget-cutting exercise; and doubts about whether we could find

a sufficiently common approach to warrant basing proposals on it.

Selection

154. On a more practical side, difficulty was experienced in obtaining what the Task Force considered to be a satisfactory distribution list: the vast number of organisations involved in welfare presented a formidable problem in selecting those to whom invitations might be sent. The method finally decided on

is at paras 10 and 11.

155. Attempts were also made to identify and include newer, less established groups, but the Task Force felt that, without a register of these organisations in particular, this effort was not very successful.

156. While the number of seminars in each State was limited only by the number of acceptances received, this was not possible in the case of the National Seminar in Canberra. With only one seminar possible in this case, and the still felt need

to limit numbers, many organisations who wished to participate could not be invited. The Task Force was then in the difficult position of having to decide on its own criteria for invitations (see paras 14,15), this unfortunately involving the need to

exclude many organisations from participation. The strength of the feelings of some organisations who wished for an exception to be made in their case made this task quite a difficult one, " but in fairness to other organisations the Task Force felt

impelled to be inflexible and to stand by its original criteria.

157. The general problem of selection of organisations on a consultative body was therefore experienced in a most concrete manner by the Task Force.

160. Attachment C/28

Resources

158. The time involved in arranging the 14 seminars was quite significant, as was the cost of preparation and printing and distribution of the discussion paper and the many interstate phone calls needed when arranging such meetings at a distance. The time and resources involved in

the Task Force travelling around the States and that of the participants was also a significant cost.

Role and Function

159. While the subject of our seminars was 'consultation1 per se, the Task Force hoped the seminars would fulfil similar functions to those described for the consultative process itself (described at paras 59 to 64): identification of problems, investigation of solutions, review of the effectiveness of present mechanisms, exchange of information, etc. In general our broad goal was to hear what those in the area had to say, and for their part the wish of the participants was to exercise some influence on decision-making. .

Historical and Contextual Factors

160. Obviously, one role of the Task Force was not that of departmental "representatives", yet we found that at times we encountered situations which resembled those which might be encountered by departmental officers in a consultative process. For example, when participants expressed their dissatisfaction with present consultative mechanisms which had shown evidence of 'tokenism' or 'lack of legitimacy1, the Task Force was aware of the existence of certain similar reservations operating for the participants regarding the Task Force itself. Unfortunate coincidental timing of the inquiry of the Task Force with an extensive budget-cutting exercise by the Commonwealth Government left many people with the belief that the purpose of the Task Force exercise was to follow up in some concerted way the general reduction in financial allocations being experienced by welfare organisations and to a lesser extent, by local government.

161. For the Task Force, this linking of the First and Second Reports and of the seminars on consultation with other aspects of the government's policy created some problems. It is perhaps impossible for policies etc. to be seen in isolation, but one useful role the Task Force sees for a consultative process is that it might provide some opportunity for a clearer

understanding of the existence or otherwise of a relationship between government action in the welfare field and other government action, by a broadening of the context.

161.

162. A further historical or contextual influence of which the Task Force was aware was the feeling which had been generated for some of the organisations by certain of the recommendations made in the Task Force's First Report. While it seemed only fair to allow expression and consideration

of these strong reservations, the Task Force was also conscious of the limited time available for discussing 'consultation', for which purpose the seminars had been arranged.

163. What emerged from the historical, contextual and attitudinal issues we have discussed was a belief that, difficult as it might appear, an approach is needed whereby issues are, to a certain extent, encapsulated. Ideally - and

it is granted that the situation will never be ideal all participants in consultation will have the ability and will to avoid 'leakage' of feelings generated by one issue so that these did not substantially interfere with the consideration of other issues under discussion.

164. The participants also expressed frustration with the fact that they had spent time and energy giving evidence to a number of recent enquiries. In the view of many participants, they had not seen a great deal of evidence that their submissions had been noted or that, when reports of these inquiries did

reflect their wishes and concerns, governments had accepted and implemented the reports. This appendix, and we hope the report itself, represents the Task Force's response to the former

criticism. The latter criticism of course relates to an area which is not the prerogative of the Task Force.

165. Again, the participants may at times have felt that the Task Force should have been able to give more information and feedback, particularly regarding the outcome of the First Report. This the Task Force would have been pleased to be able

to do. However, as might be the case with departmental representatives in a consultative process, the Task Force was frequently not in a position to give further information (mainly because no decisions had yet been made), or to appear to commit the government to any particular course of action.

166. It was in this respect particularly that the seminars held by the Task Force were not 'consultations' per· se. On the matter of consultation, the Task Force did not have information which it could share with participants in the same way that

departmental officers might have such information.

167.. While we considered it appropriate in the context of the seminars to hold back in this manner, we would stress that such an approach does not contribute to the consultative process as we have defined and discussed in our main report.

I Attachment C/29

162 Attachment C/30

168. One related issue with which the Task Force was confronted was not so much a lack of legitimacy as too much legitimacy. It seemed that the Task Force was frequently taken to be more authoritative or powerful than could be the case. When this situation arose the Task Force could only indicate its role vis a vis the governmental and other factors operating within the area of its terms of reference.

169. The above issues demonstrate the bind in which many participants, and indeed the Task Force, found themselves. While some participants may have been experiencing somewhat negative feelings toward the Task Force, they were also in the position of wishing to maintain a relationship with those who were seen to be the 'decision-makers’.

170. These constraints, we suspect, would be common 1 hidden agenda1 in the consultation process. They, along with no doubt many others, should be given recognition, and attempts made to identify the nature of the difficulties encountered,

and to find an approach which would satisfy the needs of the situation. ,

171. On another issue, we realised that the relative lack of structure (particularly in our earlier seminars) may have tended to promote some confusion, but we were of the opinion that it was more important for our purposes to allow the themes and ideas to be generated by the group - and not by perhaps incorrect assessments by the Task Force as to what would be the main issues to emerge.

172. Apart from a possible sense of confusion for the participants, this lack of structure occasionally led to a situation in which one organisation was seen to have presented its own individual preoccupations and problems more forcefully than others. The Task Force found it important therefore to attempt to maintain a balance and to draw out the quieter and less forceful members. .

Conclusion

173. The above discussion might give the impression that the seminars were a trying time for the Task Force and the participants and that the difficulties outweighed the satis­ factions. From the Task Force point of view at least, this was certainly not the case.

174. The Task Force greatly appreciated the response it received to the invitations to attend the seminars, and . participants appeared to have prepared themselves most thoroughly for the seminars. Many had prepared charts, papers, discussion points, and in some cases, had even arranged pre­ liminary seminars on Discussion Paper No. 7. This effort on the part of participants contributed greatly to the seminar discussions and consequently to our broader task.

Attachment C/31 163.

175. We were also impressed by the participants’ willingness to get on with the job even though it was clear that many participants would have liked to thrash out other problems. It was this willingness to direct their attention

from their own specific interests and toward general broader issues which allowed the goals of the seminars to be achieved. It is an encouraging sign for the consultative processes we have recommended. Where, as was frequently the case, it

appeared that no consensus was likely to be achieved, the participants, in the main, accepted their different positions and proceeded to other aspects of the issue.

176. The Task Force was aware that the mere fact of consulting via the seminars would inevitably raise expecta­ tions not only for the participants but for their membership as a whole. However, in relation to a particular outcome, the Task Force felt very much in the position of a doctor who, while identifying a problem and raising awareness, is not able

to guarantee that he will be able to treat the problem or that the outcome will be successful.

177. The Task Force does hope, however, in its Second Report and in this appendix, that we have been able to indicate that we have indeed heard the views of those who attended the seminars, that careful consideration has been given to these views, and that as a Task Force our thinking was influenced by their input. Vie also hope that this set of reflections on

the process will give further insight into the proposals and comments we have incorporated in the report.

164 Attachment C/32

SEMINAR PARTICIPANTS

ANNEXURE A

MELBOURNE - 3 - 4 AUGUST 1977 (3 SEMINARS)

OPENING SPEAKERS

ALLEY, Mrs Diane BRYDON, Mr Keith

CORRELL, Mr Denys

CUSACK, Mr Michael

GREENWOOD, Cr Leonard

HILGENDORF, Mr Murray

PEDDLESDEN, Mr James

PETERSON, Mr Edward

SLADE, Ms Jennifer

SPALDING, Mrs Barbara

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

BAXTER, Mr Robert CAMPBELL, Ms Beris DREW, Mr Daniel ELTEAM, Mr Timothy FULLER, Ms Joan GRIFFIN, Dr James KELSO, Miss Margaret LACEY, Mr Graham McCALLUM, Mrs Edyth McNAMARA, Mr John

METCALFE, Mr Richard PULLINGER, Mr Barry ROBINSON, Mr David SPINDLER, Mr Sydney

SUSSEX, Miss Meredith WERNE, Mr Norman

Victorian Council on the Acreino Municipal Association of Victoria Australian Council for

Rehabilitation of Disabled - Victorian Division Victorian Council of Social Service Municipal Association of

Victoria

Australian Association for the Mentally Retarded (STAR) Victorian Council on the Ageing :

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled - Victorian Division Victorian Council of Social

Service

Victorian Council of Social Service

I

I

Shire of Diamond V a l l e y City of Melbourne Shire of Mildura City of Berwick City of Heidelberg City of Melbourne City of Camberwell City of Broadmeadows City of South Melbourne North-West Melbourne Regional

Organisation of Councils Shire of Corio City of Waverley City of Benalla Victorian Association of

Regional Councils City of Sunshine Shire of Eltham

i

] Attachment C/33 165

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

ANDREWS, Mr D.

BENYEI, Ms Dorothy BRODRIBB, Mrs Elizabeth

CROWE, Mrs Margaret

DUDLEY, Mrs Susanita

EDWARDS, Mrs Kathleen

FISHER, Major Gordon GOODE, Mr James

GREGORY, Mr Graeme

HENRY, Mr Garry HENSHER, Mr Andrew JACKSON, Mr Roy

JOEL, Mr Gavin

JOHNSON, Rev. John

KAYSER, Mr Norman

KING, Mrs Ethleen

LONG, Mrs Beverley McCAUGHEY, Ms Winsome

McGLASHAN, Mr James

MALCOLM, Mrs Rosalie MOREY, Mr Burnard

MORROW, Ms Ann PAPADOPOLOUS, Mr George

RAGGATT, Mr Ronald RAY, Mr Michael

READING, Ms Margaret SCOTT, Mr David

TOKEN, Ms Joan

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Citizens Advice Bureau Paraplegic and Ouadrinlegic

Association Womens Welfare Issues Consultative Committee North-west Regional Council for

Social Development Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee Salvation Army

Collingwood Community Health Centre Children's Welfare Association of Victoria Victorian Hospitals Association

Good Neighbour Council Baptish Social Service Department

Paraplegic and Quadriplegic Association Uniting Churches Department of Adult Care Melbourne Jewish Philanthropic

Society and. Montefiore Homes for the Aged Australian Pre-School Association

Community Child Care Victorian Play Groups Association National Committee on Spinal

Injuries (ACPOD) Australian Red Cross Society Victorian Sheltered Workshops Advisory Council

Community Child Care Australian Greek Welfare Society Presbyterian Social Services

Community Development Workers Association Interested Individual National Consultative Council

on Social Welfare Yooralla Society of Victoria

166 Attachment C/S4

WHITE, Mr Peter North Richmond Family Care

Centre

WILLIAMSON, Miss Audrey Royal Australian Nursing Federation

WILSON, Mr John Victorian Association of

Voluntary Care Aoencies

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS ■

COUTTS, Mr R. Premiers Department

Attachment C/S5

167

HOBART - 10 AUGUST 1977 (1 SEMINAR)

OPENING SPEAKERS

DRYSDALE, Mr John HOWELL, Mr John

WALKLEY, Mr Ian

WATT, Mr Alexander

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

GEALE, Mr Kerry

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

Tasmanian Municipal Association Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled - Tasmanian Division

Tasmanian Council of Social Service Tasmanian Council on the Ageing . .

City of Launceston

ALLWRIGHT, Mrs Margaret

ATKINSON, Miss Correa

BUCKLEY, Ms Jean CASTLEY, Ms Shirley

COLVILLE, Rev. James

DAVIES, Mr Michael FIDLER, Ms Rose FITZGIBBON, Ms Peta

HUBBLE, Mr John

LEE, Mr R.C. LICKLISS, Prof. Norelle

NEWTON, Mr John

RIX, Mr Edward

RYAN, Mr Peter

VINCENT, Mr Robert

Royal Australian Nursing Federation Australian Pre-School Association

Interested Individual Tasmanian Council of Social Service

State Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Association of Social Workers Women's Shelter

Tasmanian Council of Social Service Southern Recreation Association Vol untary Care

State Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Tasmanian Association of Sheltered Workshops Australian Social Welfare

Union Association Retarded Children’s Welfare Association of Tasmania South Tasmanian Regional

Council for Social Development

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS

IBBOT, Mr Anthony KLITZKE, Ms Marian STUMP, Mr Neil

Department of Education Social Welfare Department Social Welfare Department

168 Attachment C/36

BRISBANE - 11 AUGUST 1977 (2 SEMINARS)

OPENING SPEAKERS

CLAY, Mr Colin

DIXON, Cr Roy GUILFOYLE, Mr Denis

LAURIE, Rev. Alexander

REYNOLDS, Mr Ray

SEGAL, Mr Graham

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

DAVESON, Mrs Carmel DUGGAN, Mr John

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

COLLINS, Mr Neville

CUSHING, Mr Francis DELBRIDGE, Mr Frederick FALLON, Mr Harold

FARMER, Mr Miles

FAZLDEEN, Mr Allan

GOODE, Rev. Thomas HEATLEY, Ms Joan

JACKSON, Dr Pamela

JORDAN, Mr Peter

NOLLER, Rev. Dr Charles

PARK, Mrs Elizabeth

Queensland Welfare Agencies Advisory Counci1 Local Government Association Queensland Council of Social

Service

Queensland Council on the Ageing Australian Council on Rehabilitation of Disabled

- Queensland Division Local Government Association

Mackay City Council Toowoomba City Council

Queensland Sub-Normal Children's Welfare Association Society of St Vincent de Paul Blue Nursing Service Council Lone Fathers Association of

Queensland Queensland Society for Crippled Children Creche and Kindergarten

Association of Queensland Board of Welfare Services Queensland Association of Regional Councils for

Social Development Australian Pre-School Association Australian Association of

Social Workers Queensland Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Women's Welfare Issues

Consultative Committee

Attaahment C/37 169.

PETERSON, Mr Keith TICEHURST, Ms Mary

TUCKER, Mrs Shirley WORTH, Mr M.

Parents Without Partners Queensland Association of Occupational Therapists Inala Community House

Queensland Association of Regional Councils for Social Development

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS

Department of Community Welfare Services and Sport Premiers Department

MATCHETT, Ms Ruth

SMITH, Mr Patrick

170 Attachment C/38

SYDNEY 17 - 18 AUGUST 1977 (3 SEMINARS)

OPENING SPEAKERS

CLOHESY, Mr Michael

COX, Mrs Eva

FINK, Mrs Averil GAERTNER, Mr Paul

L'ORANGE, Ms Helen

McLEAN, Mr Peter

MILES, Mr Graham

QAKESHOTT, Dr Robert

STEVENSON, Ms Claire

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

EFRAEMSON, Mr David

HALL, Mr John

SANSOM, Mr Graham

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

ARTHURS, Mr Harold ATKINS, Mr Gordon

BERNARD, Mrs Patricia

BOYCE, Mr Neville BROOKS, Mr Robert

BROWN, Miss Pamela CHECKLEY, Mrs Elizabeth

CHILD, Dr John

N.S.W. Council of Social Service N.S.W. Council of Social Service N.S.W. Council on the Ageing Australian Council for

Rehabilitation of Disabled - N.S.W. Division N.S.W. Council of Social Service Sub-Normal Children's Welfare

Association Local Government Association

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled : - N.S.W. Division N.S.W. Council on the Ageing

N.S.W. Local Government Workers Association Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils

Illawarra Regional Organisation of Councils

Aid Retarded Persons Voluntary Care Association of N.S.W. and A.C.T. ' Advisory Council for

Inter-Governmental Relations Gosford District Hospital Association of Sheltered

Workshops of N.S.W. Australian Red Cross Society State Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Australian Hospitals

Association

Attachment C/39 171.

COBURN, Mr Donald

COCHRANE, Ms S.

CREWS, Mr Bill DUCKETT, Mr Stephen

GOULD, Mr John GRANT, Mrs Annette HARRIS, Mr James

HAYES, Mr A.

HELLEWELL, Mr Kenneth HENDRY, Miss Lila

HILL, Major Albert HUNTER, Miss Roslyn

HURCOMB, Mrs M.E. INNES-BROWN, Miss Helen

LOOVER, Mrs L.

McLEOD, Mr Neil McNULTY, Mrs Barbara

MASON, Mr Laurence MAWDSLEY, Mrs Elizabeth HERRINGTON, Mr Robert

NEELY, Mr David NORTON, Mrs Francis

PEARSON, Mr Herbert POUTNEY, Miss Helen

QUAIL, Mr Robert QUINN, Mr P.E.

QUIRK, Mr Peter

RAMSAY, Mr Donald

REEVES, Mr Terence ROBERTSON, Mr Robert

Church of England Retirement Villages Illawarra Regional Council for Social Development Wayside Chapel University of N.S.W., School of

Health Administration Leichhardt Inter-Agency Anglican Home Mission Society Royal N.S.W. Institute for Deaf

and Blind Children Civilian Maimed and Limbless Association Sydney Home Nursing Service N.S.W. Society for Crippled

Children Salvation Army Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee

Sydney City Mission N.S.W. Council of Community Nursing Ethnic Communities Council

of N.S.W. Spastic Centre of N.S.W Australian Pre-School Association Australian Services Council Union of Australian Women N.S.W. Country Pre-School

Association Smith Family Sydney Day Nursery and Nursery Schools Association . Returned Services League Association of Self-Help

Organisations and Groups (ASHOG) Adult Deaf Society of .N.S.W. State Consultative Committee

on Social Welfare N.S.W. Association of Child Caring Agencies Australian Pre-School

Association Society of St Vincent de Paul N.S.W. Baptist Homes Trust

172 Attachment C/40

SMITH, Mr Malcolm

THORNTON, Rev. Bruce WALKER, Mr Ross

WILLIAMS, Ms Lorraine

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS

BALDWIN, Mr Anthony BEVAN, Mrs Audrey JACKSON, Mr Geoffrey

RUTLEDGE, Ms Pamela

N.S.W. Council for the Mentally Handicapped Sydney Rescue Work Society Diocese of Canberra and

Goulburn

Family Planning Association of N.S.W.

Department of Local Government Department of Education Sport and Recreation Service of N.S.W. Health Commission of N.S.W.

Attachment C/41 173

23 AUGU S T 1977 (2 SEMINARS)

ί 1 OPENING SPEAKERS 5 ---------------- ! j HULLICK, Mr James ; ! KENNEDY, Ms Narelle MCLENNAN, Miss Joy McKEWAN, Mr Andrew SNAITH, Mr Ivor ■ ! ADELAIDE - 22 -

WAGSTAFF, Miss Margaret

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABBOTT, Aid. Dennis ALTUS, Mr Kenneth JEFFERSON, Ms Jennifer HALSE, Mr Leigh

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

BARNETT, Ms Kate

CHURCH, Miss Patricia

DARCY, Mr Harold DICKINS, Mr Kelvin FLAHERTY, Mr Howard GARRETT, Mrs Barbara

GLASSON, Mr Robert HARRIS, Mr Mac

HOCKING, Mr Stuart

MCDONALD, Aid. Iris

McMAHON, Ms Dawn MAYO, Mrs Eric MUNE, Ms Marie

PITCHFORD, Mr John QUIRK, Mr Christopher

TREMBARTH, Ms Margaret

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS

Local Government Association S.A. Council of Social Service S.A. Council on the Ageing Local Government Association Australian Council for

Rehabilitation of Disabled - S.A. Division S.A. Council of Social Service

Local Government Association District Council of Tatiara Local Government Association Town of Naracoorte

National Consultative Council on Social Welfare Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee

Spastic Centre Adelaide Central Mission Voluntary Care Association S.A. Council of Social Service

Australian Red Cross Societv S.A. Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Phoenix Society Sheltered

Workshop

Henley Community Aid and Advisory Centre Childers Street Women.'s Shelter Good Neighbour Council

S.A. Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Voluntary Care Association Royal Australian Nursing

Federation Australian Pre-School Association

BISHOP, Mr Andrew Premiers Department

174 Attachment C/42

PERTH - 24 AUGUST 1977 (2 SEMINARS)

OPENING SPEAKERS

BARROW, Mr Edward

MORRIS, Mr Neville SMITH, Mr George STATON, Mr Laurence STICKLAND, Mr Harold WALKER, Mr Leslie

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

CATTALINI, Miss Helen COFFEY, Mr Ronald HARRIS, Mrs Alison NOWLAND, Mr Vern

O'MEARA, Mr Laurence

NON-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ETC.

BUCHANAN, Ms Betsy COLLINS, Mrs Catherine COUCHE, Mr William

DORRICOTT, Mr Dennis

GARRETT, Ms Gabrielle GREEN, Mrs Marilena GREEN, Ms Marjorie

GUHL, Ms Jenny HERNE, Mr Gerald LAMBERT, Mr Clive

LYNCH, Mr Frederick

MICHELL, Mr Joseph MILLS, Mr Arthur

SAMBELL, Archbishop Geoffrey

SAME, Ms Robyn TANG, Ms Rosemary WATSON, Mr Leslie

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled - W.A. Division W.A. Council of Social Service Christian Welfare Centre W.A. Council on the Ageing Local Government Association Australian Association for the

Mentally Retarded

City of Fremantle Local Government Association City of Gosnells City of Fremantle Shire of Kalamunda

Australian Social Welfare Union Catholic Education Commission Anglican Health and Welfare Services Paraplegic and Quadriplegic

Association Social Security Union Catholic Family Welfare Australian Pre-School

Association Watchdog Spastic Welfare -

Slow Learning Children's Group Mentally Incurable Children's Association

Spastic Welfare W.A. Consultative Committee on Social Welfare National Consultative Council

on Social Welfare W.A. Council on the Ageing W.A. Council of Social Service Voluntary Residental Care

Association

Attachment C/43 17 5

WILEY, Ms Maureen WOOLCOTT, Miss Nancy

STATE DEPARTMENTAL OBSERVERS

CARLTON, Mr Ronald DAVIES, Mr Larry HAINES, Mr John McCULLAGH, Mr George

Social Security Union Royal Australian Nursing Federation

Treasury Department Public Health Department Treasury Department Department for Community

Welfare

176. Attaohment C/44

ANNEXUKE B

TASK FORCE ON KBGIONALISATION AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION (N.S.W.)

Terms of Reference

(i) to examine the conceptual and philosophic basis for a regional approach to public administration in New South Wales;

(ii) to review previous initiatives and to investigate the organisational and operational programme of regionalisation including financial aspects as it would affect individual State Government Departments, Agencies and Statutory Bodies in the exercise of

their various functions and responsibilities;

(iii) to define the specific bases which might comprise New South Wales regions in geographic, demographic, administrative (public) and community terms with a view to recommending ways of achieving a framework

for regional!sation of State Government administration and a basis for local community participation;

(iv) to review the appropriateness and compatibility of the various present boundaries defined for individual Government agencies and generally, with a view to recommending a degree of commonality and compatibility of such boundaries for planning and administrative purposes;

(v) to explore the various methods by which community participation can be achieved in the planning, development and operations of State Government Administration in New South Wales within a regional

framework;

(vi) to comment upon the political, economic and social consequences for New South Wales of a programme of regional!sation of State Government Administration and community participation with particular reference to relationships with local government and with Federal Government;

and finally, to report to the Commissioner fully on all these matters and to recommend such action and changes as considered necessary and appropriate within the terms of reference of the Review of New South Wales Government Administration to achieve the objectives

of regionalisation and community participation.

The Task Force is expected to submit its report early in 1978.

Attachment D/1 (Paras. 3, 98 and 253) 177.

ATTACHMENT D

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

Discussion Paper No. 7

Contents

Paragraph Page

2. Purpose of Paper 179

4. The Meaning of "Consultation" 179

7. Focus for Discussion 180

9. Five Practical Issues 181

14. Possible Consultative Arrangements 183

15. A. National Level 183

16. B. State Level 184

17. C. Sub-State Level 186

18. Conclusion 187

Annexures

A. Terms of Reference - see paragraph 2 189

B. National Advisory Council for the 191

Handicapped - see paragraphs 9 and 15 (i)

C. Commonwealth Government Social 193

Welfare Consultative Bodies - see paragraphs 9, 15(i), (ii) and 16 (ii)

D. Advisory Council for Inter-Government 196

Relations - see paragraph 9

E. Summary of main features of list of 198

Commonwealth Government Co-ordinating and Consultative Arrangements (not included in this attachment, but an updated summary can be found in

(Attachment E, paragraphs 10-13).

178 Attachment D/2

Main Commonwealth Consultative-Type Mechanisms Related to Specific Welfare/Health Concerns and Involving the Non-Government Sector - see paragraph 15

Childhood Services Consultative Committees - see paragraph 16 (i)

Victorian Consultative Council on Social Development - see paragraph 16 (iii)

National Health Services Advisory Committee (The Minister for Health announced the establishment of this Committee on 9 September. It is included now as a further example of consultative/advisory

arrangements)

Page

199

201

203

206

Attachment D/3 179.

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

The Task Force is proceeding with an examination of appropriate consultative arrangements in the welfare/health/community development fields in accordance with its terms of reference. This does not

imply any Government decisions (either Commonwealth or State) at this stage on the findings or recommendations contained in the Task Force's First Report.

Purpose of Paper

2. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate

discussion about how, and whether, mutually acceptable consultative mechanisms can be developed for the Commonwealth's programs, and particularly the program grants recommended in the first report of the Task Force, if these

are put into effect. It thus pursues the implications of the second half of paragraph 1 (b) of the Task Force terms of reference (set out in Annexure A), by which the Task Force is required to examine and report on -

"...the establishment of appropriate consultative arrangements with the States, local government and voluntary agencies on future policy planning, administration and service delivery in the health, welfare and community development fields."

3. The paper builds on earlier discussions and

submissions, including many in response to its paper T.F. (W/H) 6 (Co-ordination in Welfare/Health)*; and is part of the work leading up to the second report of the Task Force. It is hoped that this report will be completed by the end of September.

The Meaning of "Consultation"

4. In some contexts, "consultation" contains an advisory or even a decision-making element. For the purposes of the Task Force, we are intending to follow

* See Attachment K.

180. Attachment D/4

through its strict meaning as "the act of consulting; deliberation; conference" and to apply this interpretation to the procedures mentioned in our terms of reference, viz. "policy planning, administration and service delivery".

5. Although for some a strict interpretation of

"consultative" arrangements will not be sufficiently action-oriented, we note that meaningful consultation can be of great importance:

. it brings together in an ordered way people needing to exchange views and information or to deliberate on issues

. the issues can be of considerable importance, e.g. of a policy, administrative or service delivery nature ■

. clarification of positions, and changes in attitudes, can be effected through consultation

. consultative processes can have a significant influence on decision-making and longer term planning.

These seem to be the main elements in meaningful consultation.

6. Notwithstanding these comments on the meaning and value of consultation as such, we recognise that corporate processes often include, as well as consultation, varying elements which are advisory, recommending or decision-making

in character. If any of these elements are felt to be desirable in association with the options for consultative arrangements listed in paragraphs 15-17, we would be glad to be advised (notwithstanding the limitation in the terms of

reference); and we would welcome suggestions about elements in meaningful consultation not listed in the previous paragraph.

Focus for Discussion 7 *

7. To help bring discussion of "consultative arrangements" to a practical level, we suggest that it be directed at -

Attachment D/5 181.

(a) the arrangements the Commonwealth itself could or should make for consultation at national, State and sub-State levels; and

(b) the arrangements which would exist if the changes proposed by the Task Force in its first report, and particularly the program grants, were to be implemented.

In relation to (a), the Task Force will be reviewing the Commonwealth's existing consultative arrangements in the health/welfare/community development fields and, if considered desirable, will make recommendations about action

the Commonwealth could take. It is hoped that the principles underlying its eventual findings may be found relevant at other levels. In relation to (b), it should be noted that under the proposed program-grant arrangements the

Commonwealth would be mainly concerned with national policy, the establishment of broad guidelines, evaluation, and the overall level of funding. Decisions on specific projects, allocation of funds and administration would be made by the

States in consultation, as appropriate, with local government and non-government bodies. The focus is thus on consultative arrangements which the Commonwealth will need for the effective discharge of its national policy, funding

and initiating roles.

8. If the Task Force recommendations in its first report are modified, or not adopted, consultative arrangements could still be of relevance to the continuing programs as indicated in paragraph 7 (a), and therefore it

seems worth considering these matters ahead of final decisions on the recommendations.

Five Practical Issues 9

9. Consultation takes time. The Task Force

believes that consultative arrangements should be reasonable in their demands on people's time and resources, and would like to see mechanisms developed vtiiich as far as possible rationalise the existing situation while covering the field more effectively. In suggesting this, it would not want to

curtail - now or in the future - any valuable mechanisms which enable people to get together to discuss common problems, plans, priorities etc. The need for some specialised consultative arrangements, such as the National

Advisory Council for the Handicapped (Annexure B), is

182. Attachment D/6

recognised. There may also be a need for rationalisation in relation to, and co-ordination with, arrangements of a more general nature such as the NCCSW (Annexure C), and possibly the Advisory Council for Inter-Government Relations

(Annexure D). What is necessary is that roles and functions be clarified and the efforts involved be effective.

10. Second, with the assistance of the six

Commonwealth departments associated with the welfare/health/community development fields, the Task Force has identified more than 200 consultative arrangements with which they are associated (Annexure E). It is intending to

review these in collaboration with the departments concerned, and would be glad of advice of any views or experience you may have of the arrangements.

11. Because of the time factor, and the number of

existing arrangements, it may be desirable that each : particular consultative arrangement should cover as wide a field as possible, and be used only vdien there is an issue needing consultation. This need could be brought to notice either by the consultative body or by the relevant Minister or Department. The same factors may well lead to different arrangements in different States - the Task Force does not necessarily consider uniformity at State or sub-State level to be a desirable objective. What is important is workable and meaningful consultation.

12. Fourth, we note that the method of selection of

members of consultative bodies is of great importance. It is essential that representatives of organisations involved in the consultative process are themselves capable of accurately reflecting the views and approach of those they represent. Aspects to be considered are whether -

(a) those representing organisations should be selected by the organisations by proper elective process or alternatively be selected by governments from a list supplied by the organisation;

(b) those drawn from government departments should be permitted (or expected) to speak as individuals;

(c) expert members of consultative bodies should be selected from a panel of names drawn up by a process of consultation.

Attachment D/7

183.

The Task Force would welcome comment on the matter of selection.

13. Finally, we raise the question what support a

purely consultative body should have, apart from assistance with the expenses of attending meetings. On one view, the members of such bodies bring with them their own expertise, and do not need more support than in attending meetings.

Alternatively, it could be put that these bodies need their own staff, or at least access to other resources through the relevant department. The Task Force would welcome your views.

Possible Consultative Arrangements

14. Set out below are some options for consultative arrangements in the health/welfare/community development fields at national, State and sub-State levels that the Task Force has set down to promote discussion. In each case, we

look first at optional arrangements for Commonwealth programs and then, to narrow the focus, raise questions about how these options might apply in relation to the proposed program grants.

15. A. National Level. As indicated in paragraph 10

and Annexure E , and Annexures B to G and I, the. Commonwealth already has numerous consultative arrangements in operation, and the main question is what if any changes are necessary. At the national level the main options appear to be:

(i) Continue to appoint consultative bodies to deal with specific activities/concerns, as appears to have been the practice to date: examples are the National Advisory Council for the Handicapped (Annexure B) , the Women's Welfare

Issues Consultative Committee (Annexure C) and the Australian Ethnic Affairs Council (see Annexure F which sets out a list of these kinds of consultative mechanisms).

For all or each of the proposed program grants, this could mean either using existing consultative bodies or establishing a new consultative arrangement (s) for the program grants. ( i i ) *

(ii) Establish one (or up to three) national consultative bodies in the health/welfare/

184. Attachment D/8

community development fields with wide terms of reference and including -representatives from national local government bodies - representatives from

national non-government bodies - expert individuals

with either specialist sub-committees or with a rationalising function in relation to consultative arrangements in relevant specialised areas. An example is SCCSW

(Annexure C) . For all or each of the proposed program, grants, the broad consultative body or bodies could be sufficient; or could be supplemented by special sub-committees or subsidiary consultative arrangements.

(Hi) Establish two separate consultative arrangements, each covering the whole health/welfare/community development field, one of which would be for representatives from local government and the other for representatives from non-government organisations. For all or each of the proposed program grants, either these two consultative bodies Would be sufficient, or there might need to be special sub-committees drawn from both.

Representatives of State Government have not in the past been appointed to national consultative bodies, but have in some cases had opportunity to make their views known and even to participate in the formulation of national policy and planning, e.g. through Ministerial Councils and bodies such

as the Hospitals and Allied Services Advisory Council. Through the administrative arrangements proposed for the program grants, the States would also be involved in joint decision-making. Would there be value in their involvement

in the Commonwealth's national consultative processes? 1 6

16. B. State Level. It could be argued that the

States should be responsible for all consultative arrangements at State/sub-State level, but the following options are listed to elicit comment:

Attachment D/9 185.

d) The Commonwealth could continue to appoint a series of separate consultative bodies in each State, which could include State representation if desired, along the lines of the former

Consultative Committee on Children's Services (though their functions extended beyond consultation - see Annexure G). For all or each of the proposed program grants,

the fact that no such bodies currently exist would mean that new consultative arrangements would have to be established.

(ii) The Commonwealth could establish one (or not more than three) State level bodies to cover the whole health/welfare/community development fields, as in 15 (ii), but with representation

of organisations at State rather than national level, e.g. the State Consultative Committee on Social Welfare. (Annexure C). For all or each of the proposed program grants,

the broad consultative bodies might be sufficient, or special sub-committees or subsidiary consultative arrangements might need to be established - c.f. 15 (ii) above.

(Hi) The Commonwealth could have a role as member of one (or up to three) consultative bodies covering the health/welfare/community development fields which is organised at State

level under State, joint Commonwealth-State, or other co-operative auspices (including local government or non-government), provided the body were to be recognised as an authentic and broad-based consultative mechanism: the VCCSD

is an example of this kind of arrangement arising from a joint Commonwealth, State and non-government initiative (see Annexure H) . For all or each of the proposed program grants,

the broad consultative body or bodies could be sufficient, provided the consultative body agreed to cover relevant aspects of program grants; or could be supplemented by special sub-committees or subsidiary consultative arrangements.

186 Attachment D/20

(iv) Two separate State level consultative committees, each covering the whole health/ welfare/community development field, could emerge, or he organised by the State, one of which would he for representatives from local government and the other for representatives from non-government organisations, with the Commonwealth being a member (c.f. IS (iii)), For all or each of the proposed program grants,

either these two consultative bodies would be sufficient, or there might need to be special sub-committees drawn from both.

(v) No direct Commonwealth involvement in State level consultative processes, but with, feedback to the Commonwealth through the State and through the Commonwealth national consultative, arrangements. For all or each of the proposed program grants,

the Joint Commonwealth/State administrative and policy-determining machinery envisaged under the program grant arrangements would provide a vehicle for feedback to the Commonwealth, but a provision requiring feedback on consultative outcomes might need to be included in the relevant agreement.

If option 16 (ii) , (iii) or (iv) is preferred, a decision would be necessary whether local government and non-government bodies would be represented through State level bodies, or whether there could be some form of area representation, e.g. through the regions already established in some States, through regional groupings of local government or through RCSD's where these still exist.

17. C. Sub-State Level. The basic question here is whether the Commonwealth should participate in consultations at the sub-State level to get feedback on local perceptions of problems and reactions to new or existing programs. The main options seem to be -

(i) Use, or modify as necessary, ad hoc consultative arrangements made by the Commonwealth. For all or each of the proposed program grants. ad hoc consultative arrangements could be used or established as seemed necessary.

Attachment D/ll 187.

(ii ) The Commonwealth could organ-tee consultative arrangements at the sub-State level, one possibility being that these could be based on its own services, e.g. the regions used by the Department of Social Security. For all or each of the proposed program grants,

if the Commonwealth wanted to consult directly at the sub-State level it could use these mechanisms and would need to consider whether the States should be involved. -

(iii) The Commonwealth could participate in some way (including possibly by invitation) in consultative arrangements which have been developed by the State or local bodies, e.g.

established State regional arrangements, the Community Councils in South Australia, (he ROC's and some local action groups (often emerging

from the former RCSD's), and groupings of community health organisations. For all or each of the proposed program grants, consultation involving the Commonwealth could be ad hoc or continuous, depending upon the understandings reached.

(iv) No direct Commonwealth involvement in sub-State consultative arrangements but, as in 16 (v), feedback through the State and. through the Commonwealth ’s national consultative arrangements. For all or each of the proposed program grants,

this would clearly throw consultative arrangements back to those outlined in 15.

Conclusion

18. This paper has presented a number of options, by

no means all-embracing, for Commonwealth consultative arrangements in the health/we1fare/community development fields. Annexures also provide an outline of several models either in operation or that have operated in the past.

19. We have listed in paragraphs 15, 16 and 17 the

main options we see for consultative arrangements at national, State and sub-State levels. We want to hear the views of as many as possible of those who would be involved

188. Attachment D/12

on these and any other options that might be preferred. Note that we have also sought views in paragraphs 6, 10, 12, 13 and 15 (last section).

20. The Task Force intends to organise seminars in each State commencing early in August to discuss the issues raised in this paper. The arrangements for these have yet to be settled but if you would be interested in attending a seminar, please write or telephone the Task Force by 22 July; we will then let you know time and place. We would also welcome any written comment you may be able to

send in advance of the seminar. 4

4 July 1977

Attachment D/13 189.

ANNEXURE A (Paragraph 2)

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH * 1

TERMS OP REFERENCE

1. Against the background of the Government's Federalism policy and its concern at the proliferation and overlap of Commonwealth services and programs in the health, welfare and community development fields, the Task Force shall examine and report on -

(a) the identification of particular services and programs, currently being undertaken by the Commonwealth, in the health, welfare and community development fields, which could be better delivered by a State, local government or

voluntary agency and the administration of which could be transferred to the States;

(b) the possibilities for elimination of individual programs and consolidation into broader based programs in a manner which enables more efficient and economic delivery whether by the Commonwealth or the States, and the

establishment of appropriate consultative arrangements with the States, local government and voluntary agencies on future policy

planning, administration and service delivery in the health, welfare and community development fields;

(c) the possibility of achieving better co-ordination and avoiding overlap by more specific definitions of programs, eligible projects and eligible organisations, having in mind that co-ordination could be effected at the

State and local government level without Commonwealth involvement; and

(d) the continuing machinery which should be established to co-ordinate social policy development at the Commonwealth level.

2. The Task Force shall -(a) include in its consideration available analyses

190. Attachment D/14

and recommendations arising from other inquiries including the Commission of Inquiry into Poverty, the Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, the Administrative Review Committee, and the Committee on Care of

the Aged and the Infirm; and

take account of views expressed by consumer groups and voluntary agencies, noting the Government's support of the concept of maximum realistic community participation in health/welfare programs funded by the

Commonwea1th.

Attachment D/15 191.

ANNEXURE B (Paragraphs 9 and 15 (i))

NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR THE HANDICAPPED

Background; National advisory bodies were recommended in the Griffith (1970) and Senate (1971) Reports, while the Woodhouse (1974) Report favoured'a special

department to take responsibility for rehabilitation. NACH was established in December 1974.

Purpose; To consider the special needs of handicapped people and advise the Minister for Social Security on the organisation, development and operations of rehabilitation services. This

includes advice on -. Commonwealth programs . Co-ordination and integration of Commonwealth services with others

available

. Standards of services and facilities . Training facilities for the handicapped . Research

. Stimulation of community interest and support.

The Council is also to assist in organising public discussion on rehabilitation of the handicapped.

(Note that the terms of reference of this Council appear to extend beyond consultation as defined in paragraph 4 of the paper, in that its purpose is stated to be to advise the Minister.

In addition, the Council has had an allocation of funds for research - see below).

The twelve members (Part-time) are selected for their particular expertise in the fields of disablement and rehabilitation. They do not represent any employing or parent body.

Membership;

192. Attachment D/lt

Membership currently includes State officials, a retired Commonwealth officer, academics, senior health services personnel, ex-parliamentarians, and people from voluntary organisations.

Structure: The Council has established committees on Vocational and General Aspects of Rehabilitation; Medical Aspects of

Rehabilitation; Education and Research; Publicity and Journal; Invalid Pensions; Rehabilitation Engineering Aids and Appliances ; Handicapped Persons Assistance (Priorities); Consultation.

Administrative Arrangements: The support staff is currently 5 full-time officers provided by and housed in the ; Department of Social Security. The Council was granted $50,000 in 1975-76 to fund research and data gathering projects, · no corresponding appropriation was made in 1976-77. In 1975-76, ten meetings were held covering twelve days, but since then meetings have been quarterly.

Attachment D/17 193

ANNEXURE C (Paragraphs 9, 15 (i) , (ii) and 16 (ii) )

COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT SOCIAL WELFARE CONSULTATIVE BODIES

Background: In pursuance of undertakings to provide effective mechanisms for co-operation and interchange of ideas with interested groups in the social welfare field, a National Consultative Council on Social Welfare (NCCSW) and a Women's Welfare Issues Consultative

Committee (WWICC) were established in 1976. In addition, Consultative Committees on Social Welfare have been established in each State (except Victoria, where the VCCSD operates - see

Annexure H) and Territories.

There are no formal links between these Committees, but it is expected that they will establish their own work priorities and exchange information on specific issues as they arise. The State and Territory Committees will be concentrating on matters of particular relevance to their own State or Territory. Primary

advice on specific welfare matters is to continue to come from specialist advisory committees already established e.g. National Advisory Council for the Handicapped, and duplication is to be avoided.

Purpose; The functions of the committees are summarised below:

National Consultative Council on Social Welfare To advise the Minister for Social Security on current issues in social welfare relevant to the Minister's portfolio, including -

„ social welfare priorities . gaps and deficiencies in social welfare programs ■

194. Attachment D/18

. modifications to on-going programs . the contribution of voluntary-organisations and their relationship to Commonwealth responsibilities

. data requirements for research, program evaluation and assessment of priorities . consultation with community groups and beneficiaries. Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee Within the responsibilities of the Commonwealth

Government to advise the Minister for Social Security on issues relating to the special welfare needs of women arising from the structure and delivery of Commonwealth social

security and welfare programs.

State Consultative Committees on Social Welfare To advise the Director-General of Social ; Security on aspects of the Department's social security and welfare programs as they affect that State or Territory. In particular, the Committees are to

. review the delivery of Commonwealth social security programs . look at the relationship between the Department's programs and welfare services

of other departments (Commonwealth and State) . advise on the Department's social welfare programs and services, and the

effectiveness of service delivery . provide an assessment of welfare services and roles of local government and voluntary agencies, and their

relationships to the Department's programs.

(Note that the Committees' terms of reference appear to extend beyond consultation as defined in paragraph 4 of the paper, in that their purpose is stated to be to advise the Minister or the Director-General.)

Membership: _

Members of the various committees are appointed by the Minister after consultation with some organisations. They are drawn from National and

Attachment D/19 195.

State welfare bodies, welfare client groups and voluntary social welfare agencies, relevant Commonwealth departments, social welfare professionals, academics in the social sciences,

and suitably qualified people active in the social welfare field. Members of the NCCSW and WWICC are drawn from all States and Territories. Some members of WWICC are drawn from women's organisations and one is an officer of the

Department of Social Security. State and local governments are represented on State committees.

Membership currently is NCCSW - 14, WWICC - 15, State and Territory Consultative Committees - each from 7 to 10.

Administrative Arrangements; The committees normally meet twice annually. More frequent meetings may be arranged and sub-committee activity is envisaged. The two

national committees are serviced by a small secretariat in the central office of the Department of Social Security, and the State and Territory committees by the appropriate State office of the Department. Sub-committees of the

two national committees will be serviced by the State office which is administratively most convenient. It is not expected that the staff servicing the committees will provide research

support; such support will be provided by the existing research staff in the Department.

196. Attachment D/20

ANNEXURE D (Paragraph 9)

ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR INTER-GOVERNMENT RELATIONS

Background; The Council was established by the ACIR Act 1976 following agreement at April 1976 Premiers' Conference. Queensland is not participating in the Council. The first meeting was held in Hobart on 10 June 1977.

Purpose; To provide advice on the improvement of inter-government co-operation, and to that end to inquire into and report on such matters relating to inter-government co-operation as may be referred to it by a Premiers' Conference. In

its operation, the Council will promote wide discussion and dissemination of ideas.

(Note that the charter of this Council appears to extend beyond consultation as defined in paragraph 4 of the paper, in that its purpose is stated to be to advise the Premiers' Conference.)

Membership; Twenty-one members comprising five representatives of the Commonwealth (3 Government members and 2 Opposition members); 5 State representatives - one from each State Parliament; 6 local government representatives and 5 citizen representatives. Government members are nominated by the participating

governments, the Leader of the Federal Opposition, and the Australian Council of Local Government Associations. Community representatives are appointed after consultation by the Prime Minister with the participating Premiers. Observers from the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assemblies attend Council meetings. All

appointments are made by the Governor-General.

Structure: The Council operates under the Premiers' Conference but can itself seek references on its

Attachment D/21 197.

own initiative from that Conference. Local government can suggest references through their State Premiers.

Administrative Arrangements: The costs of the Council are being shared by agreement among the 3 spheres of government. It was intended that the Commonwealth and the

States each meet 45 per cent of the Council's cost, the remaining 10 per cent being contributed by local government. Following Queensland's non-participation in the Council,

the Commonwealth will contribute an extra 7 per cent. Funds for 1977/78 are $300,000. A small independent secretariat is being established in Hobart.

Attachment Ό/22 198.

ANNEXURE E

Summary of main features of list of Commonwealth Government Co-ordinating and Consultative Arrangements (not included in this attachment, but an updated summary can be found in

(Attachment E, paragraphs 10-13).

Attachment D/23 199.

ANNEXURE F (Paragraph 15 (i))

MAIN COMMONWEALTH CONSULTATIVE -TYPE MECHANISMS* RELATED TO SPECIFIC WELFARE/HEALTH CONCERNS AND INVOLVING THE NON-GOVERNMENT SECTOR

A. Social Security

Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee (organisations and individuals representing women's interests - see Annexure C for details)

National Advisory Council for the Handicapped (persons eminent in various fields of planning and service delivery for the handicapped - see Annexure B for details)

Refugee Resettlement Co-ordination Committees in N.S.W., Vic., Qld. and S.A. (Commonwealth - Social Security, Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Health, Education, Employment and Industrial

Relations; State Departments; voluntary organisations)

B . Health -

The Commonwealth Department of Health and the non-government sector (often through professional, industrial etc. bodies) are involved in a number of consultative

arrangements dealing with specific activities/conearns including -health insurance nursing homes

therapeutic goods biological standards pharmaceutical benefits specialised madical research

C. Environment, Housing and Community Development

Shelter - community forum on housing policy (representatives of waIfare bodies and individuals consult regularly with the _ _ Department and occasionally with the Minister).

200. Attachment Ό/24

D . Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

Australian Population and Immigration Council (chaired by Minister; consists of academics in fields of demography, economics, sociology, urban studies and international relations;

industrialists; union leaders; representatives of voluntary and ethnic organisations)

Australian Ethnic Affairs Council (ethnic community leaders, people involved in migrant welfare and education, union leaders, prominent academics)

National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council (Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications, ethnic community leaders, persons experienced in ethnic broadcasting and teaching English) .

E. Aboriginal Affairs

National Aboriginal Conference (35 elected representatives). *

*NOTE A list of current consultative and co-ordinating arrangements associated with departments in the health/welfare/community development field has been prepared by the Task Force and is available

on request. It is contained in document T.F. (W/H) 8 (an extended and updated text of T.F. 8 is reproduced as Attachment E to this Report).

Attachment D/25 201.

ANNEXURE G (Paragraph 16 (i))

CHILDHOOD SERVICES CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEES

Background: In 19 74 the former Interim Committee for the Children's Commission, in consultation with the States, established these committees in each

State and the ACT.

Purpose: .

To provide a forum for exchange of information; to facilitate discussion on matters related to the development and rationalisation of services for young children within the State, including priority setting and further planning; and to provide advice to the Interim Committee on applications from within their State for

financial assistance under the Children's Services Program.

(Note that the terms of reference of these Committees thus appear to have extended beyond consultation as defined in paragraph 4 of the paper, in that their purpose included advice to

the Interim Committee on applications for financial assistance.)

Membership: There were some differences between Committees, but generally membership included the following:

. State Government officials from the welfare, education, health and recreation areas . selected representatives from local

government

. selected representatives from non-government organisations ’ . other experts . . a representative of the Interim Committee.

Members were appointed by the Minister assisting the Prime Minister, in consultation with relevant State Ministers. Where possible, there was also consultation with local government

associations and non-government organisations.

202 Attachment D/26

Structure: The Committees considered matters referred to them by the Commonwealth and the State or from another source if members agreed. The only formal reporting back procedures related to the Committees' advisory role in relation to applications for funds. Where appropriate, the Committees used sub-committees or task groups.

Administrative Arrangements: State based officers of the Interim Committee for the Children's Commission serviced meetings of the Committees. Although arrangements varied between States, meetings were generally held at

reasonably regular intervals as required. In busy periods this may have been twice monthly; in others, every two months.

Attachment D/27 203.

ANNEXURE H

VICTORIAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Background: During 1974, meetings were held between representatives of the State Social Welfare Department, the Australian Department of Social

Security, Victorian Council of Social Service and the Municipal Association of Victoria, to discuss proposals for greater co-ordination and integration at all levels of the welfare field. The outcome was the establishment of the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development.

Purpose:

The VCCSD is a forum for sharing and interchange on the development of procedures for social planning and development in the State of Victoria. It has the task of developing a

deliberate strategy to facilitate the sharing of expertise of Federal, State and local government and the non-government welfare agencies to achieve a common objective of social development

in Victoria.

Membership: It is comprised of representatives from the Victorian State Offices of Commonwealth Government Departments, State Government Departments and bodies responsible for

federating and co-ordinating local government and non-government welfare interests, operating in Victoria on a State-wide basis, that are interested and involved in sectors of social development. There are presently 21 organisations directly represented.

Structure: General management is provided by a Steering Committee currently consisting of Commonwealth and State Government Departments (numbering 2), organisations representing local government (1) and organisations representing voluntary bodies

(3). Sub-committees (presently 8 - Information, Integration of Health/Welfare Programmes, Ethnic Affairs, Youth Accommodation, Implementation -

204. Attachment D/28

AAP, Planning Structures, Funding, and Relations with the Community) are established to consider either on-going or major issues.

The Steering Committee has the responsibility for preparing agenda items for the VCCSD meetings held every 2 months. It ensures that the sub-committees are carrying out the work programme agreed to at VCCSD meetings. The Steering Committee has the power of recommendation only.

The VCCSD protects the autonomy and independence of its members through the careful development of rules and procedures. These procedures ensure that each member of the VCCSD is given

sufficient time to examine each issue placed before the VCCSD and for it to achieve unanimous or near-unanimous agreement on a co-operative basis. This process negates the possibility of

one member of the VCCSD getting a decision on a particular issue from the VCCSD before all the members have had the opportunity to consider the issue in detail. A minimum time of 10 weeks is

required to handle an item of VCCSD business in accordance with its procedures. These procedures protect the process of consultation.

As a consultative body, the VCCSD does not purport to be a co-ordinating body, assumes no executive authority and does not exert any sanction over its members.

The VCCSD is constantly communicating with its membership on ways to develop consultative mechanisms for involving the rest of the community. These consultative mechanisms

include -. a position statement obtained from the community, e.g. by survey . formation of views by those involved

through provision and exchange of information . a process thereby the community is assisted in developing recommendations on

the allocation of available resources.

Attachment D/2 9 205.

This consultative process is only possible by combining the expertise and resources of its members.

Administrative Arrangements: The Committee is funded or resourced by all those involved to varying degrees and operates with a Secretariat of 3. At this stage, the

Secretariat is maintained through a cash grant from the Victorian Social Welfare Department, a project officer supplied by the Victorian office of the Commonwealth Department of Social

Security, and the provision of administrative services and facilities (including office space) by VCOSS. These arrangements are under review in an effort to have broader based support.

The Steering Committee determines work priorities for the Secretariat as directed by the VCCSD.

The Secretariat services the VCCSD Steering Committee and the sub-committees by preparing background material for the above committees; assisting the Steering Committee in the preparation of the agenda for the VCCSD meeting;

and acting as minute secretary to the VCCSD and to the Steering Committee. Sub-Committees are serviced by various member organisations.

206. Attachment Ό/30

ANNEXURE I

NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES ADVISORY COMMITTEE

(This is an additional annexure not included in the original Discussion Paper No. 7)

Background: Establishment of the National Health Services Advisory Committee was announced by the Minister for Health on 9 September 1977. As at the

date of writing no appointments had been announced.

Purpose:

To provide a widely-based forum in which health policy issues can be debated and from which advice can flow to the Government. The ;

Committee has the following functions:

. to express opinions to the Minister and/or the Hospitals and Health Services Commission on matters referred to it by the Minister, the Department of Health, or the Commission. . at its own initiative, but subject to the

approval of the Minister, to investigate and report to the Minister on any health service matter. . to recommend on the nature of, and

priorities for, studies of topics related to health policy issues. . to receive and comment on broad issue papers and research findings on matters

related to health services in Australia.

Membership: Chairman: Full-time Commissioner, Hospitals and Health Services Commission plus the nominees of 16 organisations.

(Australian Institute of Hospital Administrators Australian Hospitals Association National Standing Committee of Nursing Homes Royal Australian Nursing Federation Australian Medical Association Pharmaceutical Society of Australia National Health and Medical Research Council

Attachment D/31 207.

Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education Australian Council of Social Service Australian Council of Trade Unions Australian Council of Salaried and Professional Associations

The Director-General of Health or his nominee The Royal Clinical College of Australia Australian Dental Association National Standing Committee of Private Hospitals.)

Structure: The Committee has been appointed under Section 20 (1) of the Hospitals and Health Services Commission Act 19 73.

The Committee will report to the Minister, on matters referred to it by the Minister, and, unless the Minister otherwise directs will report to the Commission on the results of all

other investigations and inquiries carried out by it. *

Administrative Arrangments: The Committee will be serviced by the Secretariat of the Hospitals and Health Services Commission. It is expected that the Committee will meet twice a year, say March and September.

ίί

208. Attachment E/l

(Para. 1 Che. 1 to V, VII and VIII)

COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT CO-ORDINATING AND

CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

ATTACHMENT B

This attachment lists (see table at end) the 300 co-ordinating and consultative arrangements associated with six Commonwealth Departments working in the welfare/ health/community development fields. The list groups the

arrangements according to the "levels" (Ministerial, . interdepartmental etc.) at which the mechanisms operate and indicates the main functions (planning, management, research etc.) performed by each arrangement.

2. The main features of the co-ordinating and consultative arrangements are summarised in two tables associated with paragraphs 5 and H below. In the table associated with paragraph 5 we have shown how many arrangements each department has at each "level". In the table associated with paragraph 11 we have shown how many arrangements are of a consultative/

advisory nature, and how many have a recommending/decision­ making function.

3. In the case of arrangements amongst Commonwealth departments or agencies, abbreviations for the names of departments or agencies represented (the chair department is listed first) are as follows:

A.A. A.G's. B . & C . A . C.

D. D.C.T. D. N.T.

Ed. E. H.C.D.

E. I.R.

F. F.A. H. H. H.S.C.

I. & C. I.E.A. N.R. P.M. & C

P.S .B.

Department of Aboriginal Affairs Attorney-General1s Department Department of Business and Consumer Affairs Department of Construction

Department of Defence Department of the Capital Territory Department of the Northern Territory Department of Education

Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development '

Department of Employment and Industrial Relations Department of Finance Department of Foreign Affairs Department of Health Hospitals and Health Services Commission Department of Industry and Commerce

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs Department of National Resources Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet Public Service Board

Attachment E/2 209.

SIDCOR Standing Interdepartmental Committee on Rehabilitation S.S. Department of Social Security Tsy. Department of the Treasury V. A. Department of Veterans' Affairs.

4. The "levels" at which the departments' co-ordinating and consultative arrangements operate have been classified as -. Ministerial .

. Intra-Departmental . With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies . With outside bodies - State and local government, non-government and the community.

Arrangements with "outside" bodies, including with other levels of government, are listed under the Commonwealth department making the major input or having the major policy involvement.

5. The table on page 2 1 0 opposite summarises the numbers of arrangements at each "level" as set out in the list at the end of this Attachment. ;

6. The table sets out the estimated number of

consultative and co-ordinating arrangements of the six Commonwealth departments in the welfare/health/community development fields as at 31 October 1977. While the table gives

an idea of the number of mechanisms at various levels, there appear to be qualitative differences between the various departments' arrangements which are not readily apparent in this sort of table. For example, although the Departments of Social Security and Health each have a similar number of arrangements with other Commonwealth departments or agencies, the Department of Social Security is involved, within arrangements at this level, with more than twice the number of other Commonwealth departments or agencies as is the Department of Health. The latter's involvement is largely as chair department of small committees dealing with specific matters whereas Social Security's involvement is more as a participant

in larger committees which tend to be concerned with wider ranging matters. This probably is a function of the respective subject matters of each department and the pattern tends to be similar for arrangements these departments have with * outside bodies.

7. E.H.C.D's. greater number of Ministerial arrangements may well be a product of recent initiatives in these areas and of the need, at this stage, for an emphasis on developing working arrangements at Commonwealth/State level. It should be noted that there are few co-ordinating/ consultative links between E.H.C.D. and departments in the welfare/health field. 8

8. The three client-group departments - Veterans' Affairs, Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, and Aboriginal Affairs -

210. Attachment E/3

(See paragraph 5 opposite)

Co-ordinating and Consultative Arrangements - Summary (as at 31 October 1977)

Level of Arrangement Department

Aborig- EHCD Health Immig- Social Veterans' Total inal ration Security Affairs

Affairs & Ethnic

Affairs

Ministerial 1 5 2 1 2 - 11

Intra-departmental 1 3 21 1 9 14 49

With other C'wealth Departments or Agencies

A. Chaired by above Dept.

B . Chaired by other Dept, and on which above Dept. has main Welfare/Health

interest

C. Other Welfare/ Health Dept, has main interest

With Outside Bodies

A. Above Dept, has main C'wealth interest , 15 11 85 15 31 32 189

B. Other Welfare/ Health Dept, has main interest (D* (-)* (9)* (2)* (4)* ' (8)*

TOTAL 32 22 120 24 56 46 300

* not included in total.

NOTE: Where the same kind of arrangement exists in a number of States and/ or Territories each arrangement is regarded as having a separate existence. Thus for purposes of determining the number of co-ordinating and consultative arrangements, some similar arrangements

are counted several times, e.g. the State and Territory Consultative Committees on Social Welfare as 7 (Nos.227-233), the Homeless Persons Advisory Committees as 6 (Nos.248-253) and the Nursing Homes Advisory Committees as 6 (Nos. 112-117).

5 3 11 6 4 - 29

1 0 - 1 1 1 0 - 2 2

(6) * (5) * (22) * (5) * (15)* (13) *

Appendix E/4 211.

have a variety of links with other Commonwealth departments, including those in the welfare/health fields, which reflect the need to co-ordinate their responsibilities with the functional responsibilities of other departments.

9. The 300 arrangements shown in the table on page 210 have also been classified according to the nature of their main activity. A sixfold classification of activities has been used, as follows -

. Planning (P) . Evaluation (E) . Management/Administration (M/A) . Regulatory (R) . Technical/Research (T/R) . Information (I).

Set out below is an indication of the activities included in each classification. At paragraph 97 of the Report there is a brief analysis of the different weights departments attach to the different types of committees.

Planning; includes bodies concerned with the more efficient or economic achievement of the government's objectives or with ways in which existing programs or mechanisms could be improved.

Evaluation; includes bodies whose main function is to examine areas of government activity to ascertain whether the objectives behind that activity are being obtained. Whereas planning is forward-looking and may be concerned with providing options for implementing new government

policies, evaluation is essentially concerned with assessing the performance of given activities, and may take the form of special pilot studies or regular efficiency • audit procedures.

Management/Administration; includes bodies which are primarily concerned with the ways the administration is structured so that it may function as efficiently as possible. The mechanisms are usually intradepartmental but, as in the case of the Welfare Group Users Meeting, may also be concerned with a particular question of administrative efficiency over an area of the public

service.

Regulatory: includes mechanisms concerned with ensuring that standards established by legislation or regulation are complied with. Regulatory bodies may also be involved in determining the conditions which apply to a government program and with administering the controls implied by those conditions.

Technical/Research: includes bodies actually involved in technical or research activities, or directly concerned with such matters.

212. Appendix E/S

Information: this is the broadest ranging of the categories. On the assumption that all the arrangements listed involve some form of co-ordination and consultation, the arrangements in this group tend to be residual, i.e. do not have, as a main activity, one of those listed

above. These arrangements exist mainly for the dissemination of information amongst their constituent members. They may also provide a focal point for co-ordination of a range of related activities (with

regard to which they may have an advisory function) or for liaison between different levels of government or between the public and private sectors.

10. The following table sets out the number of co-ordinating and consultative arrangements each department has according to its main activity as described in the preceding paragraph:

Commonwealth Government Co-ordinating and Consultative Arrangements ~ Classification According to Main Activity

Department Main Activity

P E M/A R T/R I Mix Total

Aboriginal Affairs

9 5 2 - - 16 - 32

EHCD 4 1 - - - 14 3 22

Health 28 10 8 42 4 17 11 120

Immigration & Ethnic Affairs 3 1 - 1 - 12 7 24

Social Security

21 5 6 - - 7 17 56

Veterans' Affairs

4 6 2 1 2 30 1 46

Total 69 28 18 44 6 96 39 300

11. Given the concern of the Task Force with consultation, it asked departments to classify the 189 arrangements with "outside" bodies (the fourth category in the table on page 210) according to whether they have consultative/advisory or recommending/decision-making functions (see Report, Chapter II, paragraphs 21-23). 1 2

12. It emerges that Departments have 109 consultative/ advisory (C/Ά) and 80 recommending/decision-making (R/D) arrangements with "outside" bodies. These are summarised in the table on page 213.

Appendix E/6 213

The Nature of Consultative Arrangements

with Outside Bodies - Summary

C'wealth Function Participants in Consultative Dept. Arrangements with the Commonwealth

(a) (b) (c) (d) Total

State Local Non- Mix of

Govt. Govt. Govt. (a),(b),

(c)

Aboriginal C/A - - 6 1 7

Affairs R/D 3 - 2 3 8

EHCD C/A 4 1 5 1 11

R/D - - - - -

Health C/A 9 - 14 13 36

R/D 11 - 37 1 49

Immigration & C/A 9 - 1 - 10

Ethnic Affairs R/D 1 — 4 - 5

Social C/A 3 - 5 19 27

Security R/D 3 - - 1 4

Veterans 1 C/A 4 - 11 3 18

Affairs R/D 9 - 5 - 14

Total C/A 29 1 42 37 109

R/D 27 . - 48 5 80

Grand Total 56 1 90 42 189

NOTE; Under (a) , (b) and (c) are the numbers of arrangements between the Commonwealth and each kind of outside body; under (d) are the numbers of arrangements between the Commonwealth and more than one of (a) , (b) or (c) . Although there is only one arrangement exclusively with Local Government (column (b)) there are three kinds of

arrangements in which Local Government is involved with other "outside" people (see Report, paragraph 18).

LIST OF

COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT CO-ORDINATING AND CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

Level

Department of Aboriginal Affairs

Name of Arrangement Function

Ministerial

Intra-Departmental

With other Commonwe a1th Departments or Agencies

(1) Australian Aboriginal Affairs Council

(2) Conference of Regional Directors

A. CHAIRED BY ABORIGINAL AFFAIRS

(3) Central Co-ordinating Committee on Aboriginal Affairs

(A.A„, H., Ed., S.S., EoH.CoDo, E.I.R., A.G's.)

(4) IDC on Aboriginal Employment and Vocational Training in N.T.

(A.A., Ed., H., E.I.R., Darwin Community College)

(5) IDC on Works Programs at Aboriginal Communities (in N.T.)

(A.A0, C., Ed., H ., N„T., N.T. Legislative Assembly)

(6) IDC on Aboriginal Affairs at Alice Springs

(A.A., H., Ed., E.I.R., Co, N.T.)

(7) Area Co-ordinating Committee, Cairns (A.A., Ed., S.S., E.I.R.)

I

I

I

P

E

I

I

Has not met in 1977

Frequency of Meeting

Annual

Bi-annual

Approx. once a year*

Monthly

Monthly

Undecided

Monthly

214. Attachment E/7

(Aboriginal Affairs)

Function Frequency of Meeting

Monthly

As required

Monthly

(11) IDC on Aboriginal Education in N 0T . and E

N .T . Sub-Committee (Ed,, A,A.)

(12) IDC on Malaria Control in Torres Strait E

(F.A., A,A., H.)

(13) Interdepartmental Liaison Committee with I Department of N.T.

,(N.T., A . A . )

(14) Northern Territory Co-ordinating Committee p

(N.T, , C. , Ed. , A.A. , D. , F 0 « A.G's". , S.S, , Η., I.E .A. etc,)

Every 6 weeks

When required

3rd Monday of each month

Ad hoc when required

Attachment E/8

Level

With other Commonwea1th Departments

or Ag¥ncTes TcontdT)

Wich_ Outside Bodies ~

(15) Council for Further and Technical Education -Resource Committee (Ed., A.A., E.I.R., Darwin Community College)

(16) IDC on Water Needs (NAT,, A.A., H., Ed., C.)

(17) IDC on Australian/New Guinea Border (F.A., A.A., P.M. & C., N.R., A.G's., D.,

Name of Arrangement

(Aboriginal Affairs)

Function

Frequency of Meeting

4-6 weeks

6 weeks

As required*

Tsy. & E.A., H.)

A „

BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST

IDC on South Sea Islanders - see under Social Security (211)

I~D Working Group on Women's Affairs - see under Social Security (219) Working Party on Rehabilitation in Northern Territory - see under Health (86)

IDC on Provision of Health Services in N.T. - see under Health (85) I-D Working Party on Interpreters and Translators - see under Social Security (217)

Task Group on Youth Affairs - see under E.H.C.D. (43)

ABORTGINA..L AFFAIRS HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST 1 )

(18) Australian Aboriginal Affairs Council Standing Committee of Officers

(C'wealth/State)

(I) See Attachment 13, patugi: aphs 5, 6, * Has not met in 1977

R/D Bi-annual

216. Attachment E/9

Level Name of Arrangement

(Aboriginal

F u n c t i o n ^

With Outside Bodies TCoivEcT.)

(19) Aboriginal Advisory Council (W.A.)

(14 elected Aboriginals make recommendations to State Minister on Aboriginal welfare)

I R/D

(20) Aboriginal Affairs Co-ordination Committee ( V I . A . )

(A.A./Ab.Advisory Council/State depts.)

(21) Aboriginal Lands Trust (W.A.)

(9 Aboriginals appointed by State Minister)

(22) Aboriginal Advancement Committee (S.A.)

(A.A., State depts.; Ab. Committees)

P C/A

P R/D

P R/D

(23) Aboriginal Housing Board (S.A0) .

(A.A.; State depts.; N.A„C. & Ab. C* tees)

(24) Aboriginal Advisory Council (N.S.W.)

(9 elected Aboriginals)

(25) C'wealth/State Co-ordinating Group (N.S.W.)

(A.Ao; State depts.)

(26) Health Function Committee

(C'wealth - A.A., H .; State health)

P R/D

P C/A

I R/D

I R/D

(27) Regional Conferences of Aboriginal I

Organisations and C'wealth and State departmental officers

(1) See Attachment E, paragraphs 5, 6 .

R/D

Affairs)

Frequency of Meeting

Bi-annual

3rd Tuesday of each month

Usually twice a year

Twice yearly

4 per year

Monthly

Every 3 months

Every 2 months

Bi-annual

Attaohment E/10 217.

Level Name of Arrangement

(Aboriginal Affairs)

Function

With Outside (28) National Aboriginal Conference (NAC) Bodies (and State Branches)

(Contd.) (35 elected representatives)

C/A

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

Annual*

Bi-annual* (29) Council for Aboriginal Development (5 Aboriginals nominated by Minister; 5 members of National Executive of NAC)

(30) Consultative Committee on Bilingual Education E C/A in N.T. '

(A.A., Ed.; non-departmental experts)

(31) Mission and Church Authorities Health e| R/d Advisory Conference

(A.A., H., Ed., N.T., Church bodies)

(32) Community Service Planning Committee P C/A

(A.A., N.T. Council of Social Service, community agencies)

B. OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST' — — — — — — —

. C'wealth/State Conference on Aboriginal Health Services - see under Health (136)

Approx. every eight months

Every 3 months

Every 3 weeks

Has not met in 1977

218. Attachment E/ll

Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development

Frequency o£ Meeting

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual (more frequently when Agreement is being

negotiated)

As required

Weekly

Weekly

Fortnightly

As required

Ad hoc

Attachment E/12

(Ε-Η.& C.D.)

Level

With other Commonwe a1th Departments or Agencies

(Contd.)

With Outside Bodies

Name of Arrangement

(43) Task Group on Youth Affairs (E.H.C.D., S.S., H., A.A,, I.E.A., E.I.R., P.M. & C,, F ,)

BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST '

. Natural Disasters Organisation and Task Force - see under Social Security (218)

. I-D Working Group on Women’s Affairs see under Social Security (219)

Function

IDC on Lebanese Migrants IEA (180) see under

. IDC on Ethnic Media - see under IEA (181)

. I D C o n Migrant Health - see under IEA (182)

(44) Steering Committee of Local Government Ministers Conference

(E.H.C.D., State departments, Australian Council of Local Government Associations)

(.1) CA

(45) Standing Committee on Recreation

(E.H.C.D., State Depts.)

(1) See Attachment E, paragraphs 5, 6

Quarterly

F requency of M e e t i n g

Biennial

Annual

220. A t t a c h m e n t E / 1 S

(E.H

Level Name of Arrangement Function

(1 )

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

(46) Capital Cities Secretariat

(E.H.C.D., reps. of six State capitals)

(47 C'wealth and State Housing Officers Conference

(E.H.C.D., State Departments)

I CA

I CA

(48) Shelter - community forum on .housing policy I CA (reps, of welfare bodies and individuals)

(49) Housing Research Advisory Committee - to I CA Australian Housing Research Council

(E.H.C.D., State Depts.)

(50) Australian Sports Council I CA

(14 appointed by Minister; deptmental rep.)

(51) C'wealth (of Nations) Youth Liaison I CA

Committee

Close liaison between EHCD and (52) Conference of Australian Youth Organisations X

(53) Confederation of Australian Sport and other National Sporting Bodies I CA

(54) Regional Organisations of Councils I CA

* Has not met in 1977 -

(1 ) See AttachmentE , paragraphs 5, 6

.C.D.)

Frequency of Meeting

At least annually

Annual

Occas. with Min.; regul. with dept.

Quarterly

Future uncertain*

Under review*

As required

As required

As required

Attachment E/14 2 2 1

Department of Health

Level Name of Arrangement Function

Ministerial

Intra-departmental

(55) Aust. Health Ministers Conference I

(56) Meeting of C ’wealth and State Ministers responsible for Health and Law Enforcement - on drug abuse I

(57) Hospitals and Health Services Commission (D P

(58) Health Financing and Insurance Evaluation E,P and Development Working Party (of HHSC)

(HHSC, H., HIC.)

(59) Special Projects Working Party (of HHSC) P

(HHSC, H.)

(60) Health Insurance Commission M/A

(61) Pharmaceutical Benefits Listing Liaison Committee I

(62) Dept. of Health Pathology Equipment Committee P

(63) Safety in Hospitals Interim Committee M/A

(64) Working Party on Communications Technology T/R . in Health Care Delivery

(1) Although the HHSC & HIC are independent statutory bodies, they are of their close inter-relationships with the Department of Health.

Has not met in 1977

Annually

As required

As required, at least quarterly

Every 2 months or as required

Every 2 months or as required

Monthly

Every 2 months

Twice yearly

As required

As required*

listed here because

Frequency of Meeting

222. Attachment E/15

Intra-departmental (Contd.)

Level

(65) Departmental Estimates Committee

(66) Conference of Directors of Health

(67) Assistant Directors (Executive Services) Conference

(68) Statistical Priorities Committee

(69) Health Library Committee

(70) Quarantine Officers (Animals) Conference

(71) Quarantine Officers (Plants) Conference

(72) Conference of Pathologists

(73) Conference of Medical Laboratory Technologists

(74) Assistant Directors (Pharmaceutical) Conference

(75) Working Party on Health Maintenance Organisations

(76) Co-ordinating Committee on Alcohol and Drugs

(77) ADP Priorities Committee

Name of Arrangement

(Health)

Frequency of Meeting

As required

Annually

Annually*

As required*

As required

Annually*

Annually*

Usu. Annually*

Usu. Annually

Annually (exc. 1976)

1976 (3) , 1977 (1) to date

As required

Usu. monthly

Has not met in 1977

Attachment E/16 223

(Health)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

With other Commo nwe a1th Departments or Agencies

A. CHAIRED BY HEALTH

(78) IDC on Fees and Allowances

(H., F., V.A., P.S.B.)

(79) Registration Committee

(H., C'wealth Actuary)

(80) Working Party on Medical & Surgical Aids and Appliances

(H., S.S., V.A.)

(81) Pharmaceutical Benefits Pricing Bureau (Η., I. £ , C.) .

(82) Committee on Electrical Safety in patient care areas. .

(H., C ., V.A., D., Capital Territory Health Comm.) (83) Steering Committee on Disaster Relief including working parties on Materials

& Facilities & Medical

(H., D., V.A.)

(84) Welfare Group Users Meeting

(H., S.S., V.A., F.r; Chairman rotates between representatives)

R

E

P, E

R

P

P

M/A

* Has not met in 1977

Frequency of Meeting

About 4 times each year

As required

Approx, monthly till April 1975, since then as required

As required - at least twice each month

Twice yearly

3-4 times p.a.

Monthly*

Attachment E/17

(Health)

Level

With other Commonwe a1th Departments or Agencies

(contd.)

Name of Arrangement Function Frequency of

Meeting

(85) IDC on Provision of Health Services in P Monthly

N.T. .

(H. , A . A., Ed., D.N.T.) (NOTE: Health also chairs Steering Committee of the N.T. Council for Alcoholism and Drug Dependency)

(86) Working Party on Rehabilitation in N.T. P - development of a Rehabilitation Centre in Darwin

(H., S.S. Ed., D.N.T., A.A.)

(87) Hospitals and Community Health Services P Working Party (of HHSC)

(HHSC, Η. , V .A .)

(88) Working Party on Contributor Representation I on Boards of Registered Medical & Hospital Benefits Organisations

(Η., B . & C.A., E.I.R., Productivity)

B. CHAIRED BY OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND ON WHICH HEALTH HAS MAIN WELFARE/HEALTH INTEREST (Chair Department listed first)

As required*

Every 2 months or as required

As required

(89) Committee on Occupational Safety and Health in C'wealth Govt. Employment P ,E

(Productivity, H ., P.S.B. C ., Telecom; Union Reps.) Has not met in 1977

Monthly

(Health)

L e v e l N a m e of A r r a n g e m e n t

With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies

(Cont.)

C. BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST

Task Group on Youth Affairs - see under EHCD (43)

Standing Interdepartmental Committee on Rehabilitation - see under Social Security (210)

IDC on Research Grants and Social and Environmental Goals - see under Social Security (216)

Natural Disasters Organisation and Task Force - see under Social Security (218)

I-D Working Group on Women's Affairs - see under Social Security (219)

IDC on Rationalisation of Computing Resources in the Welfare/Health area - see under Social Security (221)

IDC on Australian Institute on Mental Retardation - see under Social Security (212)

IDC on Counter-Staff - see under Social Security (222) IDC on Lebanese Migrants - see under IEA (180)

IDC on Refugees - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (178) IDC on Ethnic Media - see under IEA (181)

IDC on Migrant Health - see under I.E.A. (182)

Central Co-ordinating Committee on Aboriginal Affairs - see under Aboriginal Affairs (3)

IDC on Aboriginal Employment & Vocational Training in N.T. - see under Aboriginal Affairs (4)

IDC on Works Programs in Aboriginal Communities - see under Aboriginal Affairs (5)

Attachment E/19

(Health)

Attachment E/20 227

Level

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

(91)

(92)

(93)

(94)

(95)

(96)

(97)

(98)

Hospitals & Allied Services Advisory Council (and Committees)

Name of Arrangement Function

(C'wealth-H., HHSC, S.S. State departments) V. A. ;

Fees and Benefits Liaison Committee

(Η., A.M.A.)

Prl

P,E

Pathology Services Working Party P

(H., N.S.W. Health Comm., pathology orgs.)

Research and Evaluation Working Party E, T/R (of HHSC)

(HHSC, H., HASAC, NHMRC)

Standing Committee on Health Manpower Training P

(HHSC, HAS AC, Aust.' Hospitals Assoc.)

Medical Benefits Schedule Revision Committee R

(H., A.M.A., HIC)

Medical Benefits Advisory Committee (Statutory) R

(H., A.M.A., HIC)

State Standing Committees on Health Expenditure - is concerned with: P

. Medibank Hospitals Agreement . Community Health Program

C/A

C/A

C/A

R/D

C/A

R/D

R/D

R/D

!.THfiVourAK;;., „ Λ .-trt-/,. r

(Health) Frequency of Meeting

Twice yearly

As requested by A.M.A. or Dept.

Irregular, but approx. bi­ monthly

Every 2 months or as required

Every 2 months

Approx. 8 times p. a.

Approx 6 times p. a.

Twice yearly

228. Attachment E/21

Level

(Health)

Frequency of Meeting

Twice yearly

4-5 times p .a.

4 times p.a.

Approx. 10 times p.a.

As required

to to VO

Attachment Έ/22

(Health)

Frequency of Meeting

As required

Approx 3 - 4

times p.a.

Infrequently, but as required

As required*

Usu. twice yearly

Attachment E/23

(Health)

Frequency of Meeting

Level

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

Name of Arrangement

(122) National Therapeutic Goods Committee

(C1wealth/State health)

(123) National Biological Standards Laboratory Inspection Unit

(NBSL, State health)

R R/D

(124) Meeting between NBSL and National Council of the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries

I C/A

(125) Meeting between NBSL, Aust. Pharmaceutical Manufacturers’ Assoc. & State Health officers

I C/A

(126)

(127)

Clinical Trial Committee

(H., NBSL, pharm. firm concerned)

Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (Statutory) and

. Congenital Abnormalities Sub-Committee

(independent committee of private medical practitioners and specialists)

. Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee

(Sub-committee of Drug Evaluation Committee)

2 - 3 times p. a.

As required

As requested by NCCPI

Approx, every 6 months

As requested

6 times p.a. (Sub-C'tee: 3 times p.a.;

10 times p.a.

Attachment E/24 231.

(Health)

L evel Name of Arrangement Function

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

(128)

(129)

(130)

(131)

(132)

(133)

Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (Statutory) R

(medical practitioners, pharm. chemist, pharmacologist, Dept, of Health pharmacist)

Joint Committee on Pharmaceutical R Benefits Pricing Arrangements (Statutory)

(H., F ., I & C., Pharmacy Guild Of of Aust.; Chairman is Deputy President of Conciliation & Arbitration Commission)

Friendly Societies Pharmacies/ R Departmental Committee on Pharmaceutical Benefits

(Friendly Societies, H.)

R/D

R/D

R/D

Human Pituitary Advisory Committee T/R (Statutory) and sub-committees R/D

(H., private experts)

Working Party to Report to the Health I Ministers Conference (aspects relating to nursing)

C/A

(C'wealth/States)

National Tuberculosis Advisory Council P J C/A (C1wealth, States, private practitioners)

Frequency of Meeting

3 times p.a.

As required

As required

Twice yearly

Twice yearly

Annually

232. Attachment E/25

(Health)

Level

With Outside (134) Bodies (Contd.)

(135)

(136)

(137)

Name of Arrangement

Australian Dental Services Advisory Council P ADSAC has committees on auxiliary dental personnel training; field operations; equipment, materials and building;

evaluation and review.

(C1wealth, States, A.D.A.)

Advisory Committee on Smoking Education P (H., States, reps, from Anti-Cancer Council of Vic. & Aust. Council on Smoking & Health)

C'wealth/State Conference on Aboriginal Health E Services

(H., A.A.; State health; rq>. of National Aboriginal Conference)

Joint Working Party (C1wealth/State) on Model P Food Legislation and Food Law Revision Task Force

Function

(C1wealth - H., A.G's., B. & C.A.; States) -(138) National Health Services Adv. C'ttee I,P

(HHSC (chair); broad range of non-govt, organisations in health field as well as ACOSS, and trade union organisations)

(139) Food Policy Committee of Australian Federation I of consumer organisations (H., AFCO, N.S.W. & Vic. Home Economics Assoc.)

Has not met in 1977

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

Annually*

As required*

C/A Annually

Annually*

4 times p.a.

tv u> to

Attachment E/26

(Health)

With Outside (140) Bodies (Contd.)

Council of the Aust. Assoc, of Dietitians

(H., State & territory Dietetic Assoc's.)

(141) Hospitals Development Program - specific arrangements

(a) Sunshine Hospitals and Health Services Complex Policy Committee

(H., State, hospital, vol. org.)

(b) Whyalla Hospital Planning Team

(H.,State) (c) Campbelltown Hospital Planning & Development Committee

(H., State) (d) Launceston New General Hospital Steering Group

(H., State)

(e) Para District Hospital Planning Team

(H., State)

Function

I C/A

P R/D

(142) Review Committee for Feasibility Study of E Processing Data for Health Centres in S.A.

(H., State, Adelaide University)

R/D

Twice yearly

Frequency of Meeting

Monthly

Monthly

Monthly

3 weekly

Weekly until design completed

Approx, every 3 months

234. Attachment E/27

(Health)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

(143) National Medical War Planning Committee (currently has a standing committee, 9 sub-committees and 6 State committees; its membership, structure & role are under review)

(Η., E . & I.R., I. & C., D.,; A.M.A., A.D.A., Natural Disaster Org. ; States)

(144) Albury-Wodonga Health Planning Team

(H., Vic., N.S.W., Albury-Wodonga Dev. Corp.) with Task Forces on:

(a) Rehabilitation & Chronic Disabilities Services

(b) Mental Retardation Services

(c) Domiciliary Services

R/D

C/A

(d) Psychiatric Services

(e) Border Anomalies

(145) Conference on Provision of Laboratory Facilities at Townsville Hospital

(H., A'.U.C., State)

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

As required*

Every 2 months

Monthly

Monthly

Monthly, as req.

Monthly

Yet to meet

Monthly (up to 21/7/76 - currently in abeyance)

Has not m e t in 1977

(151) Standards Association of Australia and E Consumer Standards Advisory Committee - the Department of Health is represented on 51 SAA sub-committees; V.A. is also

involved

C/A

(Health) Frequency of Meeting

2-3 times p.a,

As required

Monthly

Monthly

As required

Various

Attachment E/29

(Health)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

With Outside (152) Bodies (Contd.)

(153)

(154)

(155)

(156)

Influenza Vaccine Committee

(H. , Private experts)

National Standing Control Committee on Drugs of Dependence

(C'wealth - B. & C.A., H ., A.G’s.; State depts.)

Drug Education Sub-Committee of the National Standing Control Committee on Drugs of Dependence

(C1wealth - Η ., E.; States; private experts)

Joint Pathology Working Party

(H., HHSC, Cap. Terr. Health Comm., V.A.; Royal College of Path, of Aust., A.M.A., Aust. Assoc, of Clinical. Biochemists, Aust. Inst, of Medical

Technologists; States)

Committee to consider factors contributing to the high cost of health buildings

(C'wealth - H ., C .; States; architectural firms & quantity surveyors working for N.S.W. Health Commission)

P,T/R R/D

R/D

C/A

C/A

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

Annually* (handled by correspondence in 1976 )

At least twice p.a. or as required

Usually 2-3 times

u>

As required

4-6 times p. a.

Has not met in 1977

Attachment E/30

(Health)

With Outside (157) Bodies (Contd.)

(158)

Level Name of Arrangement

Sub-Committee on Nursing Personnel Survey

(HHSC, H ., E.I.R., Royal Australian Nursing Fed’n., reps. from nursing education orgs.)

Steering Committees on Commissioned Research (in the areas of quality assurance; health costs statistics and cost effectiveness studies; health manpower supply and productivity;

feasibility studies in alternate health systems)

(HHSC, H ., State Depts. HASAC, relevant professional bodies)

(159) Radiological Services Standing Committee (HHSC, Η., V .A ., HASAC)

(160) N.S.W. Health Commission - Western Metropolitan Health Regional Planning & Development C'ttee (N.S.W. Health Comm.; C'wealth - H.)

(161-166) Medical Services Committees of Enquiry (Statutory) - in each State (Η., A.M.A.)

Function

P,T/R

T/R

R/D

C/A

C/A

C/A

R/D

Frequency of Meeting

Every 3 months

At least twice p./a.

As required

Every 4-6 weeks

As required

238. Attachment E/31

Function Frequency of Meeting

C/A Annually * &

(Health)

R/D As required

R/D As required

Working Party to delineate roles of Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service Centre at Camperdown and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Medical Rehabilitation Unit - see under Social Security (224)

Advisory C ’ttees on Homeless Persons - see under Social Security (248-253)

Refugees Resettlement Co-ordination Committees in N.S.W., Vic., Qld., & S.A. - see under Social Security (239-242)

Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development - see under Social Security (247)

Committee on Information and Display Centres for the Handicapped - see under Social Security (245)

(Health)

Level Name of Arrangement

With Outside . Central Office Advisory Committee on Artificial Limbs and Bodies Surgical Appliances - see under Veterans' Affairs (269) (Contd.) . Health Administration Advisory Panel - see under Veterans' Affairs (284)

. Health Function Committee - see under Aboriginal Affairs (26)

, Mission and Church Authorities Health Advisory Conference - see under Aboriginal Affairs (31)

cy X Oo

Attaahmant

Level

Ministerial

Intra-departmental

With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies

of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

Name of Arrangement Function

(175) Conference of C'wealth/State Immigration and I Ethnic Affairs Ministers

(176) Meetings of Regional Directors of Department of I Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

A, CHAIRED BY IMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC AFFAIRS

(177) Working Party on Methods of Co-ordinating P Advisory Services for Migrants

(I.E.A., S .S . , P .M. & C., Ξ .I. R. — ha S never met; future uncertain)

(178) IDC on Refugees P

(IoE.A., S.S., F.A., P.M. & C., E.I.R., Ed.)

(179) Standing IDC on Immigration

(the then Labor & Immig., Housing & Const., S.S., Ed. etc. - this C'tee has not met)

(180) IDC on Lebanese Migrants

(IoE.A., S.S., H. , Ed., E.I.R., B.C.A., E.H.CoD.)

E, I

(181) IDC on Ethnic Media E, I

(I.EoA, , , Ed. , S.S., H. , E.I.R. , E.H.C.D. etc.)

(182) IDC on Migrant Health E, I

(I.E.A., S.S. , H.)

Has not met in 1977.

Frequency of Meetxnq

Twice yearly

As required

Has not met

Quarterly

Has not met

As required

As required

As required*

Attachment E/34

(Immigration and Ethnic Affairs)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

With other Commonwealth Departments

or Agencies (Contd.)

B. CHAIRED BY OTHER DEPARTMENT AND ON WHICH IMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC AFFAIRS HAS MAIN WELFARE/HEALTH INTEREST (Chair Dept, listed first)

(183) Working Party on C'wealth Migrant Hostels M/A, R Quarterly (Eol.R., I.E.A., S.S. , Ed.)

C. BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST '

. IDC on South Sea Islanders - see under Social Security (211)

. Working Party on Interpreters/Translators - see under Social Security (217)

. I-D Working Group on Women's Affairs - see under Social Security (219) . IDC on Counter Staff - see under Social Security (222)

. Task Group on Youth Affairs - see under E.H.C.D. (43)

With Outside A Bodies IMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC AFFAIRS HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST — — -

(1 )

(184) Meetings of Commonwealth/State Immigration and Ethnic Affairs Officers I,P, R/D Twice yearly M/R

(prior to Ministers’ meetings) (C’wealth/State)

(1) See Attachment E, paragraphs 5, 6

242. Attachment E/35

(Immigration and Ethnic

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

(185) Australian Population & Immigration Council P

(Chaired by Minister; consists of academics in fields of demography, economics, sociology, urban studies and international relations; prominent industrialists; union leaders; reps, of voluntary organisations and ethnic organisations)

(186) Australian Ethnic Affairs Council I, E

(Ethnic community leaders, people involved in migrant welfare and education, union leaders, prominent academics)

(187) National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council I

(I.E.A. & Posts & Telecommunications, ethnic community leaders, persons experienced in ethnic broadcasting and teaching English)

(188) Committee on Overseas Professional E

Qua1ifications

(Prominent academics, employers of professional workers, a judge)

(189) National Accreditation Authority for R Translators & Interpreters (being established)

(persons involved in training of interpreters and translators, practicing interpreters and translators, reps. of non-English speaking migrant groups) E, paragraphs 5, 6

R/D

C/A

R/D

R/D

R/D

Affairs) Frequency of Meetings

3 times p.a.

As required

As required

6 times p.a.

Not yet established

(1) See Attachment

Attachment E/S6

Level

With Outside Bodies (Contd.)

Name of Arrangement

(Immigration and Ethnic Affairs)

Function

Twice yearly

As required

(190) Working Group on Problems of Migrants :

(I.E.A., State depts.)

(191) Working Group on Commonwealth/State ] Co-operation (Production of Multi­ Lingual Information Material)

(IoE.A., S.S., State depts.)

(192- Commonwealth/State Co-ordinating Committees ] 197) on Ethnic Affairs

(IoE.A., each State)

(198) Standing Committee on Ethnic Affairs I (I.E.A., States)

B. OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST

. Refugees Resettlement Co-ordination Committees in N„S.W., Vic., Qld. and S.A. - see under Social Security (239-242)

. Standing Committee on Inter-country Adoptions - see under Social Security (243)

C/A

C/A

C/A

Frequency of Meeting Twice yearly*

C/A Twice yearly*

* Has not met in 1977

244. Attachment E/37

Level

Department of Social Security

Name of Arrangement Function

Ministerial

Intra-departmental

(199) Welfare Ministers Conference

(200) Commonwealth/State Conference between Ministers responsible for workers compensation and third party motor vehicle insurance

(201) Directors Conferences

(202) Departmental Co-ordinating Committee

(203) Management Review Committee

(204) Computer Operations Committee

I

P

I

M/A

M/A

M/A

(205) Network Planning Committee M/A

With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies

(206) Systems Changes Committee M/A

(207) Social Welfare Research Review Panel E

(208) Working Party on Social Welfare Statistics P

(209) Computer Users Group P, I

A. CHAIRED BY SOCIAL SECURITY

(210) .Standing Interdepartmental Committee on I Rehabilitation

(S.S., H., V.A., F., Ed., E.I.R., H.&H.S.C., Tsy.)

Frequency of Meeting

Annually

Ad hoc

Annually

Quarterly

Quarterly

As required (approx. 6 monthly)

As required (approx. 6 monthly)

Quarterly

As required

As required

Monthly

Quarterly

Attachment E/38

(Social Security)

With other Commo nwe a1th Departments or Agencies

(Contd.)

(211) IDC on South Sea Islanders (S.S., A.A., P,M0 & C., I.E.A, Tsy., E.I.R., Ed.)

(212) IDC on Aust. Inst, on Mental Retardation (S.S., H., Ed., F., PoM. & C.)

(213) IDC on Assistance for People Living in Australia and Overseas (S.S., P.M. & C., Tsy., F., I.E.A.)

E

I

P

Frequency of Meeting

As required

As required

As required

B. CHAIRED BY OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND ON WHICH SOCIAL SECURITY HAS MAIN WELFARE/HEALTH INTEREST (Chair Dept, listedfirst)

(214) Income Security Review Group P

(P.M. & C., S.S., Tsy., V.A., E.I.R., F.)

(215) Rehabilitation Services Committee P

(Cap.Terr.Health Comm., S.S., V.A., D.C.T., E„I.R., P.S.B., Voluntary agencies by invitation, as required)

(216) IDC on Research Grants and Social and P

Environmental Goals

(Science? the IDC is temporarily dormant but the Dept, of Science is expected to revive it in some form in the near future. The Depts. of Social Security and Health have been involved

in the IDC in the past)

As required

Every 6 weeks

E«d \ C m

246. Attachment

(S o c i a l Secu r i t y )

Frequency of Meeting

With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies

(Contd.)

(217) Working Party on Interpreters/Translators

(P.ScB., S.S., I.E.A., E.I.R., Ed., A.A.)

(218) Natural Disasters Organisation and Task Force -

(D. (chairs the Organisation), P.M. & C. (chairs Task Force), S.S„, V.A., Η., E.H.C.D., Eol.R. etc.)

E

P

As required

As required* Presumed inactive*

(219) I-D Working Group on Women’s Affairs E

(P.M. & C., S.S. , H. , E.H.C.D., A.A., E.X.R., A.G's., P.S.B., Ed., I.E.A., F.A.)

(220) IDC on ADP M/A

( P i S . B . , S.S., Tsy. , D . and other

departments as required)

(221) IDC on Rationalisation of Computing Resources P in the Welfare/Health Area (P.S.B., S.S., Η., V.A., F.)

(222) IDC on Counter-staff p

(P.Mo & C., S.S., P.S.B., D.CoT, E.I.R., Health Ins.Comm., I.E0A,, V 0A 0, F.A., A.G's., etc.)

(223) IDC on Passenger Transport Concessions p

(Trans., P„M. & c . , F., S.S., Ed., V.A., Admin„Services, D.C.T., E. & I.R.)

As required

As required (approx, monthly)

As required (Approx. monthly)

As required

As required

Has not met in 1977

Attachment E/40 247.

(Social Security)

Frequency c Meeting-

With other Commonwealth Departments or Agencies

(Contd.)

C. BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST

. Working Party on Medical and Surgical Aids and Appliances - see under Health (80) . Welfare Group Users Meeting - see under Health (84)

o Working Party on Rehabilitation in Northern Territory - see under Health (86)

. Working Party on Methods of Co-ordinating Advisory Services for Migrants - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (177)

. IDC on Lebanese Migrants - see under Immigration and Ethnic Affairs (180)

. IDC on Refugees - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (178)

. IDC on Ethnic Media - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (181) . Standing IDC on Immigration - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (179) . IDC on Migrant Health - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (182)

. Working Party on C'wealth Migrant Hostels - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (183)

. Informal IDC on the Housing Allowance Voucher Experiment - see under E.H.C„D. (42)

. Task Group on Youth Affairs - see under E.H.C.D. (43)

. Area Co-ordinating Committee, Cairns - see under Aboriginal Affairs (7) . Northern Territory Co-ordinating Committee - see under Aboriginal Affairs (11)

248 . Attachment E/41

Function(1) F-£^-H Meeting

( S o c i a l S ecurity)

R/D As required*

C/A 4/6 per year

C/A Twice yearly

C/A Twice yearly

Attachment E/42 249.

L e v e l

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s ( C o n t d . )

(234) Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee (organisations & individuals representing women's interests)

N a m e of A r r a n g e m e n t

(Social Security)

Frequency of

Function

(235) National Advisory Council for

(chaired by Mr Justice Meares

the Handicapped I

the Council

comprises persons eminent in various fields of planning & service delivery for the handicapped. Members are appointed in their individual capacities, not as representatives of organisations. The Council has standing

committees on key aspects of rehabilitation planning.)

(236) Social Welfare Research Centre Έ

(University of New South Wales)

(237) Joint Commonwealth/State Rehabilitation Co-ordination Committee (S.A.)

(G'wealth - S.S. departments) V.Ao, E.I.R.; State

(238) State Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation I and Restorative Care (W.A.) · ·

(C'wealth - S.S., V .A.; State depts.; Royal Perth Rehab0Hosp.; W.A„ orthopaedic Assoc.)

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

Meeting

Twice yearly

Quarterly (& C 'tees bi­ monthly)

Not yet established; negotiations still taking place between Govt, and Uni. of NiS.W.

As required

As required

250 · Attachment E/4S

L e v e l

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s ( C o n t d .)

(Social Secu r i t y )

N a m e of A r r a n g e m e n t Function

(239- Refugee Resettlement Co-ordination Committees p 242) in N.S.W., Vic., Qld. & SoA..

(C'wealth - S.S., I.E.A., H., Ed., E.I.Re­ state depts.; voluntary organisations)

(243) Standing Committee on Inter-country-Adoptions P (C'wealth - S.S., P.M. & C., I.E.A., A.G’s., F.A., F., D.C„T., D.N.T0; State depts.)

(244) C'wealth/State Officers Steering Committee P on National Compensation

(C'wealth - S.S„, D.C.T., D.N.T.; State Departments and Insurance offices)

(245) Committee on Information and Display Centres I for the Handicapped

(C'wealth - S.S., H., V.A.; NACH, ACROD, Independent Living Centre, Melbourne)

(246) Commonwealth/State Officers meeting on p,i Children's Services Program

(C'wealth - S.S.; State departments)

(247) Victorian,Consultative Committee on Social P Development - see Report, Chapter n paras. 28-30. '

(C'wealth - S.S., V.A., H.; State depts.; vol. orgs.) . . .

C/A

R/D

R/D

C/A

C/A

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

As required

As required

Ad hoc

As required

Twice yearly

Monthly

Attachment E/44

(Social Security)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

Frequency of Meeting

With Outside (248- Advisory Committees on Homeless Persons Bodies 253) - in each State

P,E C/A As required

Bodies (Contd.) (C1wealth - S.S., H.; State depts.; local

govt., voluntary organisations)

(254) Working Party on Refugee Welfare P R/D As required

(C'wealth - S.S., D.N.T.,; N.S„W. & SoA„ depts.)

B. OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST

. HASAC - see under Health (91)

. Commonwealth/State Co-ordinating Committees on Nursing Home Accommodation - see under Health (102-105)

. Central Office Advisory Committee on Artificial Limbs and Surgical Appliances - see under Veterans' Affairs (269)

. Working Group on C'wealth/state Co-operation (Multi-Lingual information material) - see under Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (191)

252 . Attachment E/45

L e v e l Name of Arrangement Function

D e p a r t m e n t of V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s

Frequency of Meeting

Intra- (255) Meetings of the Repatriation Commission Depar tmental (256) Meetings between Deputy Commissioners and Central Office Staff

(257) Central Office Medical Consultants Committee

(258) Central Rehabilitation Advisory Committee (& Consultant Sub-Committee)

(259) Central Office Infection Control Committee (Branch committees in each State)

(260) Medical Records Steering Committee -(261) Biomedical Engineering Steering Committee

(262) Central Safety Committee (Branch Committees in each State)

(263) Films Committee

(264) Standing Committee on Nursing Education

(265) Central Office Works Committee (Branch committees in each State)

(266) Central Office Specialised Equipment Committee (Branch committees in each State)

(267) Central Office Uniforms Committee (& Branch committees) -

* Has not met in 1977

Ά, R Weekly

I Annually*

E 3 times p.a.

E As required

I Quarterly

E As required

T/R As required*

R As required*

I As required

E As required

P 4-6 p.a.

P 4-6 p.a.

I As required*

Attachment E/46 253·

( V eterans Affairs)

Level Name of Arrangement Function

Frequency of Meeting

Intra- (268) Drug Committee (with Health Advisers) E As required

Departmental (Contdo)

With other Commonwealth Departments

or Agencies

BODIES ON WHICH OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN INTEREST

. Income Security Review Group - see under Social Security (214)

. Standing IDC on Rehabilitation - see under Social Security (210)

. Rehabilitation Services Committee - see under Social Security (215)

. Natural Disasters Organisation and Task Force - see under Social Security (218)

. IDC on Rationalisation of Computing Resources in Welfare/Health area - see under Social Security (221)

. IDC on Counter-Staff - see under Social Security (222)

. IDC on Passenger Transport Concessions - see under Social Security (223)

. IDC on Fees and Allowances - see under Health (78)

o Working Party on Medical and Surgical Aids and Appliances - see under Health (80)

. Committee on Electrical Safety in Patient Care Areas - see under Health (82)

. Steering Committee on Disaster Relief - see under Health (83) . Welfare Group Users Meeting - see under Health (84)

. Hospitals and Community Health Services Sub-Committee - see under Health (87)

254. Attachment E/47

(Veterans' Affairs)

(1) Frequency of Function Meeting

With Outside A. VETERANS1 . AFFAIRS HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST Bodies (269) Central Office Advisory Committee on · · I Artificial Limbs & Surgical Appliances

(V0A., S.S., H., ACROD., Limbless Soldiers Assoc. of Aust.)

(270) Central Office Medical Advisory Committee I (V.A., private medical practitioners)

(271) Central Office Medical Research Advisory T/R Committee

(V„A.; Uni. staff)

(272) Local Medical Officers' Advisory Committee I (V.A., L.M.O's.)

(273) Periodic negotiations between Veterans' I Affairs and State mental health authorities regarding agreement with all States except Tasmania to provide mental hospital care in

repatriation wings of State mental hospitals

(a standing committee has been set up in N.SoW.)

(274) Australia^ Hospitals Association I

(V„A. is an associate member)

(1) See Attachment E, paragraphs 5, 6 * Has not met in 1977

C/A

C/A

R/D

C/A

R/D

C/A

As required*

Annually

3 times p.a.

Quarterly

As required

Congress, meets annually

Attachment E/48 255 .

(Veterans'

Level Name of Arrangement Function

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s T c o n t d . )

(275) Productivity Promotion Council of Australia

(State branches of the Dept, are members. The Council consists of C'wealth & State depts o, local government, employer orgs., trade unions etc.)

I C/A

(276) Participation in civil defence organisations established by State governments

(277) Medical Superintendents in all RGB's are represented in -(a) Medical Superintendents' Assoc. (b) Assoc, of Casualty Directors

(278) Nursing staff at RGH's are likewise involved with nursing associations, incl„ -(a) Royal Australian Nursing Federation (b) Royal District Nursing Service

(279) International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics

(Aust. body was established under auspices of V„A. in 1972)

(280) Lincoln Institute for Paramedical Training

(Vic„ - V.A. represented on curriculum development of the Institute's School of Prosthetics and Orthotics)

R/D

C/A

C/A

C/A

R/D

As required

Affairs)

F r e q u e n c y of M e e t i n g

Varies between States

Varies between States

Varies between States

At least one seminar each year

Advice given on request

256 . Attachment E/49

Level

With Outside Bodies TContT)

Name of Arrangement Function

(281) Accreditation and Affiliation with I R/D

universities and learned bodies

(V.A. and most learned colleges)

(282) N.S.W. Health Commission Liaison Committee I R/D

(N.SoW„ Health Commission and V.A.)

(283) Informal liaison with ex-service organisations I C/A

(284) Health Administration Advisory Panel I C/A

(to assist Uni, of N.SCW C in the field of hospital administration)

(V„A., Η o; Uni. of N.S.W=, State health etc.)

(285) Victorian Council on the Ageing I C/A

(V.A. is a member)

(286) Committee for rationalisation of hospital p R/D services in Brisbane metropolitan region (V.A.; State health; hospitals)

(287) Queensland Medical Training Liaison Committee I R/D (V0A .; State)

(288) Queensland State Hospitals Appointments M/A R/D Committee (incl. RGH Greenslopes) (V.A,; State)

( V e t e r a n s 1

* Has not met in 1977

Quarterly

As required

Annually

Quarterly

As required

As required*

Twice a year

A f f a i r s )

F r e q u e n c y of M e e t i n g

Attachment E/50 257 ·

Level

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s ( C o n t d . )

Name of Arrangement Function

(289) Queensland Council on the Ageing I C/A

(V.A. is represented)

(290) Pathology Services Advisory Committee (Qld„) E R/D

(V„A.; State health; hospitals)

(291) RGH Daw Park/Flinders Medical Centre Joint P R/D Working Party

(V.A.; Flinders Uni.)

(292) Home Care Services Advisory Committee (S.A.) I C/A

(VoA 0; State; metropolitan hospitals)

(293) Pharmacy Advisory Committee (S.A.) I C/A

(V.A.; reps, from main hospitals)

(294) Coronary Care Advisory Committee (S.A.) I C/A

(V.A.; State; hospitals; National Heart Foundation)

(295) Gastro-Enterology Advisory Committee (S.A.) I C/A

(V.Ao; State; hospitals; Flinders Medical Centre)

(296) Electrical Committee (S.A0) m /Α C/A

(V.A.; State hospitals)

(Veterans'

Has not met in 1977

Annually

A f f a i r s )

Frequency of Meeting

As required

Every 3 weeks

Monthly

Ad hoc*

Ad hoc

)For last two )years )discussion )has taken )place through )informal )contacts.

258· Attachment E/51

(Veterans' A f fairs)

Level

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s (Contcf.)

(297) Southern Domiciliary Care Services Co­ ordination Committee (S»A.)

(VoAo; State depts,)

(298) Perth Medical Centre/RGH Hollywood Co-ord. Committee

(V.A.; State; Uni. of W.A „)

(299) Informal Liaison between Royal Hobart Hospital and RGH Hobart

(300) Council on the Ageing (Tas.)

(V.A1s Medical Social Worker in Tas. is Secretary)

N a m e of A r r a n g e m e n t Function

R/D

R/D

R/D

C/A

Frequency of Meeting

Six weekly

Infrequent

As required

Monthly

B„ OTHER WELFARE/HEALTH DEPARTMENT HAS MAIN COMMONWEALTH INTEREST :

. Joint C'wealth/State Rehabilitation Co-ordination Committee (S.A.) - see under Social Security (237)

. State Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation & Restorative Care (W.A.) - see under Social Security (238)

. Committee on Information and Display Centres for the Handicapped - see under Social Security (245)

. Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development - see under Social Security (247) . HASAC - see under Health (91) . . .

. Standards Association of Australia - see under Health (151)

Attachment E/S2

(Veterans* Affairs)

L e v e l Name of Arrangement

W i t h O u t s i d e B o d i e s (Contd>,)

Joint Pathology Working Party - see under Health (155)

Radiological Services Standing Committee - see under Health (159)

260· Attachment E/52

Attachment F/l (Para. 5 and Ch. Ill) 261.

ATTACHMENT F

THE NON-GOVERNMENT SECTOR

A major focus of the Task Force has been the investigation of the non-government sector, because of its importance in health, welfare and community development.

2. We use the term "non-government" rather than "voluntary", as the inclusion of private and profit-making agencies and organisations is appropriate and necessary (see First Report, footnote page 17).

The Task Force was concerned to find -. the size and structure of this sector and the nature of its activities (Part I of this Attachment); and

. the methods it uses to co-ordinate its activities and cater for the need for communication and consultation within the sector and with government (Part II of this Attachment).

3. With these two objectives the Task Force set about acquiring as much information as was practicable, and the results are set out in this attachment. Constraints of time and availability of information mean that our success has been

limited, particularly with the first task, but we believe what we have found - and not found - will assist and should promote further work in this area. 4

4. The information in this attachment relates mainly to Chapter III, but has implications for many sections of the report.

262. Attachment F/2

PART I

THE NON-GOVERNMENT SECTOR

THE PROBLEMS OF ASCERTAINING THE SIZE, STRUCTURE AND NATURE OF THE NON-GOVERNMENT SECTOR IN HEALTH, WELFARE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

The Existing Situation

When the Task Force attempted to obtain some appreciation of the size, shape and nature of the non­ government sector in health, welfare and community development, it found that there is nowhere gathered either enough or appropriate information to provide the full picture. There are pockets of various sizes with detailed information of discrete sectors. But this information, having been gathered

from differing standpoints, concentrates on different facets , of the sector. For instance, the Department of Social Security and the Councils of Social Service both have an interest in aged persons1 ' organisations but, because Social Security's interest is centred around funding issues and the Council of Social Service's around referral and service availability, the register of aged persons' organisations both keep, differs. These sources cannot be combined to produce one large and complete picture because of the risks of adding unlike elements, double counting and the differing definitional bases and parameters of gathered information.

Some Current Initiatives 2 * * * * *

2. No-one to date has successfully completed a comprehensive survey of the organisations in and activities of the non-government sector in health and welfare. However, a first step towards establishing an information base is being taken in the form of a tri-partite venture on the part of the Victorian Council of Social Service, the Victorian Department of Social Welfare and the Department of Social Security. This venture, the Victorian Social Information System (VSIS), see Chapter III para. 77, has as its initial objective the _ production of a comprehensive directory as a referral device. It is envisaged that the data base, which uses the United Way of America Services Identification System (UWASIS) as the method of classification, will eventually be expanded to provide

a complete and comprehensive picture of both the government and non-government sectors in health and welfare as a social ^ planning tool, containing not only service details but client statistics, and financial information. VSIS has contacted

5500 State level organisations and agencies (an estimated 2/3 of which are non-government). Using other criteria, the architects of the Victorian Family and Community Services

Attachment F/3 263.

Program have estimated that there are some 20,000 State, local and sub-local organisations, with some 25,000 service facilities offering approximately 4 services per facility (the main ference is that VSIS records State level organisations, while FACS includes local or regional level organisations as well) .

3· Plans are under way in New South Wales to establish an information system similar to VSIS. It will have the dual objectives of producing a directory and providing data for

social planning. This project is being developed by the New South Wales Council of Social Service and is funded from the State Department of Youth and Community Services. Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education is providing technical expertise

and the Department of Social Security will also be involved in a yet to be determined way.

4. Although the New South Wales project will be using the UWASIS classification, which will certainly enable comparison of Victoria and New South Wales information, New South Wales anticipate a different approach to that of Victoria in defining the parameters of the health and welfare

field.

5. Some Dimensions. There are obviously several dimensions to a picture of the non-government sector in health and welfare, and these dimensions must be defined in a universally accepted way before discussion of any value can

take place.

6. Scope. It must be decided what organisations are

to be included. This at times becomes a moot point. For instance - should community service clubs such as Rotary be classified as community development? And should there be inclusion of public hospitals, which are seen by many to be government institutions, but in a strict definitional sense

are mostly non-government? The border around the periphery must be defined before discussion of actual size can take place.

7. Shape and Structure. The structure of the non­

government sector is such that a different picture will be revealed according to where a cross-section is taken. For instance, a cross-section on a service delivery basis will reveal a different picture to a cross-section on an organisational basis. A cross-section on a program basis, say of children's services, will reveal a completely different picture to a cross-section of children's organisations. Thus

it is imperative that the structural dimension is carefully considered and understood. Cross-sections at State, regional and local level will also reveal completely different pictures. 8

8. Goals. The goals and service systems of the non­

government sector are determined and affected by many factors.

264 Attachment F/4

How goals are perceived and translated into action depends upon what resources can be gathered together, and from where. The network of dependencies and communications will affect the service delivered and to whom and will change over time.

Services in N.S.W. and S.A.

9. The State Councils of Social Service, by undertaking to compile a directory of agencies and organisations in the health and welfare field, have as a by-product produced perhaps the most comprehensive picture yet available of participants.

10. To obtain some idea of activities, the Task Force decided to analyse the COSS Directories for New South Wales and South Australia. Tables 1 to 4 on pages 267-270 are an analysis, by reference to the number of organisations involved and the services offered, of the information in the Directories. An explanation of the matrix used follows the tables.

11. In considering this analysis there are several .

reservations which restrict the conclusions that can be drawn, viz. - ■

(i) COSS Directories do not aim or attempt to cover the entire field and cannot therefore be criticised for not doing so. According to informed opinion in N.S.W. there are some 6000 non-government organisations in health and welfare. The number

in South Australia is probably less, but may not be as m u c h l e s s as would b e expected by reference to population numbers. Given that the New. South . Wales COSS Directory is concerned primarily with welfare agencies, the coverage of health agencies

is not comprehensive. In addition, the Directories do not include the more locally-based organisations, but maintain a focus on agencies and organisations with broad geographic application and high client

incidence.

(ii) Definition of what should be included as health and welfare, and what should be excluded, varies between the two States, making comparison difficult.

(iii) The difference in classification of agencies between the two States has presented problems of selecting common categorisation, for instance what may be seen as a family service in New South Wales may be . classified as a multi-client service in South Australia

(iv) Double-counting may well have occurred on tables 1 and 3 as large multi-service organisations frequently have services listed under several sections, it not

Attachment F/5 265 ·

always being obvious which organisation controls which service. ■

(v) The South Australian Directory clearly indicates whether agencies are operated by the government or non-government sector. However this clarification was not always obvious in New South

Wales, allowing room for error in applying somewhat uninformed judgment to this choice.

(vi) With tables 2 and 4 distinction has not been made between service facilities and actual services. The data does not allow this distinction to be made. It means that the total figures of these two charts

represent neither one nor the other but a , conglomeration of both.

266 Attachment F/6

Features

Given the limitations stated there are still several broad observations which can be made from an analysis of these four tables.

1. Both State directories show a coverage of approximately 450 organisations (467 in New South Wales and 452 in South Australia) providing an average of approximately 5 service facilities and/or services per organisation (2223 in New South Wales and 2279 in South Australia).

2. In both States there are more organisations for the aged/pensioner group than for any other single client group.

3. There appears in both States to be a large proportion of organisations providing accommodation, particularly in the aged/pensioner area. In New South Wales each organisation provides 3.3 facilities and South Australia 2.1 facilities.

4. In both States, the client group with the most even and comprehensive distribution of organisations and services/ facilities is the handicapped.

5. Involvement of government in health and welfare service provision influences the involvement of the non-government sector. An overall view of the four tables tends to support the fact that in areas in which government is involved there is less involvement from the non-government sector - rehabilitation and domiciliary support would appear to be two good examples.

6. These observations are provided from the information available as a basis for discussion, but are not intended to present a complete picture.

Conclusions

The non-government sector in health and welfare is largely uncharted. The size, nature and distribution of the services delivered are not known with any precision. Work under way will make an important contribution to knowledge, but more will be required - with constant up-dating - if the picture is to be accurate, comprehensive and provide a useful

tool for effective national social policy planning and the development of adequate representative consultative mechanisms.

Attaahment F/7 267

TABLE 1 - NEW SOUTH WALES

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS - WELFARE AND HEALTH - ORGANISATIONS BY MAIN SERVICE/CLIENT GROUP

VOLUNTARY SECTOR

SERVICE DELIVERY CLIENT GROUP CHART

STATE: New South Wales

MAIN SERVICE 1

SERVICE 1 | CLIENT GROUP

1 Aged/Pensioner

Youth and Child

[ Mothers Infants Widows

.

j Family

Migrant

Aboriginal

Ex-Servicemen/Women

Handicapped

Ex-Prisoners/Delinquents Alcoholics/Drug Addicts

Multi Client

Community General

u 0) 5 O Total

Total from Table 2

Accommodation 132 9 7 2 5 3 5 4 167 546

Rehabilitation 1 7 3 11 22

Workshop 1 11 12 78

Day Centre 1 1 37

Social/ Recreational

18 2 2 22 88

Counselling/ Advice

3 8 2 1 2 2 5 23 147

Special Education 2 7 2 11 51

Domiciliary Support

1 1 2 117

Information 1 1 1 1 1 5 95

Research/Public Education

1 2 3 30

Material Assistance

2 2 2 2 4 1 1 14 76

Fund Raising 1 1 17

Community Service 3 1 71 75 17

General Health 17 1 1 4 1 3 27 69

General Welfare 2 3 1 8 12 7 2 7 42 790

General Health/ Welfare

1 3 1 3 13 3 4 28 16

Co-ordinating Health

1 1

Co-ordinating Welfare

1 6 3 4 5 19 24

Co-ordinating Health/Welfare

2 1 3 3

Total 155 41 20 20 23 11 14 58 13 22 88 2 467

Total from Table 2 333 302 34 109 65 21 651 274 46 165 319 5 2223

SOURCE: N.S.W. Directory of Social Service Agencies, 8th Edition 1975

Attachment F/8 268. TABLE 2 - NEW SOUTH WALES

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS - WELFARE AND HEALTH - ALL SERVICES AND CLIENT GROUPS___________

STATE: New South Wales

ALL SERVICES 2

Ck P o eg o

Z W H

υ

Lg ed/P ens io ner

Youth and Child

Mothers Infants Widows

Family

Migrant

1 | Aboriginal

Ex-Servicemen/Women

Handicapped

Ex-Prisoners/Delinquents Alcoholies/Drug Addicts

Multi Client

Community General

Other

Total

Total from Table 1

QRPVm?

Accommodation 292 115 13 2 7 8 33 48 25 2 1 546 167

Rehabilitation 6 1 11 4 22 11

Workshop 1 3 1 1 1 67 4 78 12

Day Centre 4 1 1 31 37 1

Social/ Recreational

1 32 2 1 5 2 3 10 3 28 1 88 22

Counselling/ Advice

1 5 5 17 13 1 3 14 4 4 79 1 147 23

Special Education 5 1 1 3 39 2 51 11

Domiciliary Suppor' : 3 62 52 117 2

Information 1 1 2 9 1 1 14 2 2 61 1 9b 5

Research/Public Education

3 1 1 3 1 13 2 2 3 1 30 3

Material Assistance

1 5 4 6 2 11 2 8 36 1 76 14

Fund Raising 2 1 1 13 17 1

Community Service 2 1 1 3 10 17 75

General Health 24 18 1 1 1 9 3 2 10 69 27

General Welfare 2 1 1 83 8 605 15 75 790

42

General Health/ Welfare

3 3 2 4 4 16 28

Co-ordinating Health

1

Co-ordinating Welfare

1 7 3 7 6 24 19

Co-ordinating Health/Welfare

2 1 3 3

Total 333 202 34 109 65 21 651 274 46 165 318 5

2223

Total from Table 1 155 41 20 20 23 11 14 58 13 22 88 2

467

SOURCE: N.S.W. Directory of Social Service Agencies, 8th Edition 1975

Attachment F/9 269

TABLE 3 - SOUTH AUSTRALIA

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS - WELFARE AND HEALTH - ORGANISATIONS BY MAIN SERVICE/CLIENT GROUP

STATE: S.A.

ORGANISATIONS 3 CLIENT GROUP

jed/Pensioner

Youth and Child

Mothers Infants Widows

| Family 1

------------------

— -------

iMigrant

1 1 Aboriginal

Ex-Servicemen/Women 1

--

— — —

---------------

------

Handicapped

Ex-Prisoners/Deiinquencs* Alcoholics/Drug Addicts

Multi Client

Community General

Other

Total

Total from Table. 4

SERVICE <

Accommodation 86 10 4 1 3 3 8 2 1 118 248

Rehabilitation 1 1 5 7 24

Workshop 1 6 7 18

Day Centre 3 1 4 251

Social/ Recreational

3 15 66 1 2 4 1 92 302

Counselling/ Advice

1 3 4 4 13 1 5 2 2 2 37 157

Special Education 1 . 1 4 1 5 3 15 24

Domiciliary Suppor 1 1 1 3 28

Information 3 4 1 8 45

Research/Public Education

1 1 2 2 6 32

Material Assistance

2 1 1 4 2 1 1 12 101

Fund Raising 1 2 3 7

Community Service 1 1 15 17 33

General Health 9 2 1 1 1 1 3 18 23

General Welfare 4 1 6 15 4 2 14 11 1 7 4 69 955

General Health/ Welfare

2 3 3 1 1 1 11 1

Co-ordinating Health

1 1 1

Co-ordinating Welfare

1 3 11 1 2 1 19 22

Co-ordinating Health/Welfare

2 1 1 1 5 7

Total 107 34 27 23 105 13 23 57 7 14 30 12 452

Total from Table 4 352 84 629 597 187 18 53 116 43 129 48 25 2279

SOURCE: Directory of Social Welfare Resources - South Australia, 1976

Attaehment I/I Ο 27 0. TABLE 4 - SOUTH AUSTRALIA

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS - WELFARE AND HEALTH ~ ALL SERVICES AND CLIENT GROUPS__________ _

STATE: S.A.

ALL SERVICES 4

1 B l 0 T «a -

§ . ( U

Ή

Λ

Ο .

Ή c (Q rC

4-» 3 0

Mothers Infants Widows

Family

Migrant

! Aboriginal

Ex-Servicemen/Women

Handicapped

Ex-Prlsoner's/pelihquents Alcoholics/Drug Addicts

Multi Client

Community General

Other

Total

Total From Table 3

SERVICE Accommodation 149 38 10 2 1 8 12 16 8 4

248 118

Rehabilitation 5 1 1 1 -11 4 1

24 7

Workshop 1 1 1 1 14

18 7

Day Centre 2 2 244 2 1

251 :4

Social/ Recreational 139 23 4 3 96 1 8 8 8 3 6 3 302

92

Counselling/ Advice

14 9 11 21 40 2 13 15 12 12 3 5 157 37

Special Education 2 1 2 2 11 2 4

24 15

Domiciliary Suppori . 2 1 24 i

28 3

Information 2 3 1 1 16 1 3 7 4 5

2 45 8

Research/Public Education 2 1 1 6 3 1 7 2 1 6 2 32

6

Material Assistance

14 2 8 12 1 10 6 6 41 1 101 12

Fund Raising 1 2 1

3 7 3

Community Service 9 2 2 1 2 17

33 17

General Health 9 2 1 3 2 2 1 3

23 18

General Welfare 1 344 561 1 3 10 33 2

955 69

General Health/ Welfare

1 1 11

Co-ordinating Health

1 1 1

Co-ordinating Welfare

1 2 3 14 2 22 19

Co-ordinating Health/Welfare

2 2 3 7 5

Total 352 84 629 59 7 187 18 53 116 43 129 48 23

2279

Total from Table 3 107 34 27 23 105 13 23 57 7 14 30 12

452

SOURCE: Directory of Social Welfare Resources - South Australia, 1976

Attachment F/'ll 271

Explanation. of Matrix

SEJB.VXCE: GROUP C'LASSI P ICATION.S.

Accommodation - includes hostels, emergency accommodation, housing plans, special housing units, nursing homes. Does not include holiday homes.

Rehabilitation - includes units or programs specifically for the physical or psychological restoration of individuals by specific therapeutic means, day hospital etc.

Workshop - includes sheltered employment, industrial therapy, vocational assessment and retraining, job placement.

Day Centre — includes supervised care of both old and young - not specifically therapeutic in approach, but designed to relieve family pressure and provide a physically/psychologically conducive environment.

Social/Recreational - includes leisure or holiday facilities recreational organisations/clubs, social clubs, cultural programs. Facilities offering programs for maintaining; the healthy development of children.

Counselling/Advice/Support - includes formal professional counselling, crisis intervention, family support and advice, sponsors, foster parents for children, hospital visiting, legal services, marriage guidance, professional advice.

Schooling/Special Education - includes special schools for handicapped, English lessons for migrants, special adult education, safety programs, home management, etc.

Domiciliary/home support - includes housekeeping, both emergency and long term, and supportive services aimed at non­ medical maintenance of a home situation.

Information/communication - includes all specific information giving services, citizens advice bureaux, newsletters and magazines, forums for facilitating contact of interest groups or individuals, interpreting and translation services.

Research/Public Education - includes surveys, research, public education, promotion and protection of interests, championing of causes, investigations, advocacy, obtaining support (non- financial) for a cause.

Financial/Material Assistance - includes monetary payments whether emergency, standard benefit or repayable loans. Also includes provision of meals, food packages, clothing, transport,

272. Attachment F/12

providing club houses or amenities.

Fund Raising - includes conducting appeals, enterprises and profits diverted for special purpose organisations specifically directed towards obtaining government subsidies for others.

Community Service - includes all organisations not providing a specific health or welfare service but whose aim is to promote quality of individual, family and community life for all, not just those implied to be disadvantaged.

General Welfare - includes all organisations which provide welfare services either unstated in nature, or flexible and large enough to provide for practically every welfare need of the client.

General Health/Welfare - includes all organisations which provide welfare and health services either unstated in. nature or flexible and/or large enough to provide for practically every welfare or health need of the client. Includes Aboriginal missions. "

Co-ordinating Health, Welfare, Health/Welfare - agencies whose stated objective is the co-ordination of other agencies. Co-ordination in this context appears in practice to mean the gathering together of agencies for consultation and discussion on common issues whether it be service delivery or funding problems. The co-ordinating agency sometimes has the

constitutional power to co-ordinate the service delivery of its member organisations, however it would be a natural by-product of consultation. The co-ordinating body also performs the function of representing the collective views of its member organisations to government.

CLIENT GROUP CLASSIFICATIONS

Aged/Pensioner/Chronic Illness - includes all aged, whether disabled, disadvantaged or healthy. Also includes those suffering from long term degenerative or terminal illnesses requiring institutional care, and invalid pensioners not catered for by handicapped organisations. Excludes migrants and Aboriginals.

Youth and Child - includes healthy and disadvantaged children and teenagers not physically or mentally disabled. Both boys and girls - all except babies, migrants, Aboriginals and handicapped.

Mothers, Infants, Widows, Women - includes all maternal and infant problem groups, housewives, widows, working women, disadvantaged as well as healthy, not disabled physically or mentally.

Attachment F/13 273.

Family - includes all families, healthy, deprived or disadvantaged. Whether afflicted by poverty or having to care for a disabled member or just requiring a healthy secure environment in which to maintain their family status. Single parents also.

Migrant - includes all migrants whether healthy, well- integrated, disadvantaged or physically or mentally handicapped, including children, families, aged and chronically ill.

Aboriginal - includes all Aboriginals whether healthy, handicapped, disadvantaged, children, families and aged.

Ex-Servicemen/Women - includes all ex-servicemen and women whether healthy, disadvantaged or disabled. Does not include children of ex-servicemen or their families. Also includes sailors and seamen.

Handicapped and Disadvantaged - includes all handicapped and disabled, physical or psychological. Handicap generally of a permanent nature but not necessarily terminal or progressive. Includes infants, children, youth, adults. Excludes migrants,

aboriginals and ex-servicemen. The disadvantaged in this category are minimal but are those not covered by any other category (e.g. handicapped child living in outback is disadvantaged).

Ex-prisoners, Delinquents, Alcoholics, Drug Addicts - although disabled or disadvantaged these client groups usually have separate services and warrant special mention. Excludes migrants, Aboriginals, ex-servicemen, and families of these

clients. Includes youth and children where they are the subject rather than the object.

Multi-client - this category is included for services which are offered_to unspecified or several client groups. There is implied disadvantage in this group and the agencies offering services are in the helper role.

Community General - this group implies no focus on any particular client group, i.e. the services offered to this group are not from a "helper" to the needy standpoint. This group includes the community at large and services are directed

towards enhancing life for all.

Other - includes discrete groups or combinations of groups not readily classifiable, for instance services to cancer patients, who are not seen as long term or chiropody services or services to patients in hospital.

274 Attachment F/14

PART II

RESULTS OF SURVEY OF SELECTED STATE AND NATIONAL LEVEL NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

In this Part we set out the results of our analysis of questionnaires sent to 154 non-government State-level organisations, and 29 national organisations.

2. We were interested primarily for the purposes of our inquiry into consultation, but also to throw some light on the need for the co-ordination of social policy development, to obtain an insight into the ways in which State and National level organisations relate to those in the field. We recognise that the organisations to which we sent questionnaires do not necessarily constitute a representative sample. Nevertheless, we believe the results are valuable.

3. To the 98 responding organisations, the Task Force extends its gratitude and appreciation. We understand that ; many others did not respond because they did not see themselves as 'State-level1 agencies as defined in the questionnaire

(see questionnaire, Annexure A). 4 5 6 * * * * *

4. We recognise that those responding have put considerable time and effort into their replies - some a great deal - and we are aware of the problems many organisations experience in responding to questionnaires from government inquiries. We believe the efforts put into the responses have been worthwhile and hope that our analysis of the returns will prove to be of interest not only to those responding, but also to a wider readership.

Aim

5. As stated in Chapter II, the Task Force considered an investigation into systems of co-ordination in the non­ government sector would enable more enlightened, efficient and comprehensive structuring of any planned consultative arrangements with this sector of the health/welfare field and provide a basis for work directed at co-ordinating social policy development.

Method

6. The list of 154 "State-level" agencies in all States was compiled from agencies in COSS Directories, from our own Task Force submission lists, and from information supplied by the Commonwealth Departments of Health; Social Security; Veterans’ Affairs; Environment, Housing and Community

Development; and Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.

Attachment F/15 275.

7. A complete coverage of all State-level organisations was not intended in drawing up this list, as the Task Force realised there was not a reliable means of identifying all organisations. Rather, we selected organisations

known for their co-ordinating activities, or whose title suggested this to be one of their functions.

8. National organisations invited to attend the National Seminar (see Attachment C) were requested to complete a similar questionnaire. The text of both questionnaires is set out at pages 291 to 294.

9. The survey consisted of 9 questions (8 in the case of national organisations) relating to the activities, membership, method of operation, inter-agency and governmental relationships of the organisations.

Results

10. The questions were not always interpreted in the same way. This, coupled with the varying length and detail of answers, made precise compilation of the results impracticable. However, essay-type answers rather than multiple choice box selection or one word answers allowed

respondents to describe their organisation more accurately.

11. Each group responding to the questionnaire has developed its own methods of catering for the need for co-ordination, consultation and communication both within its own organisation, with other organisations and with government.

12. There did, however, emerge certain patterns common to several organisations which led to the construction of two broad groups and 7 classifications covering the two groups (see page 276).

13. The two broad groups are defined as the "co-operative co-ordinators" and the "corporate co-ordinators", the division being based upon the constitutional power of the organisation to influence the service delivery of its member organisations or agencies. The dividing line is fine, and

the Task Force hopes organisations which consider themselves to have been wrongly classified will appreciate our problems with classification. * 1 4

14. Categorisation within the two broad groups has been made according to breadth of client interests and service provision of member agencies.

276 Attachment F/16

TYPE 1 Co-operative Co-ordinators

Group A - Range of Services - Specific Client Group

Group B - Specific Service - Specific Client Group

Group C - Specific Service - Broad Client Group

Group D - The Broad Basers

TYPE 2 Corporate Co-ordinators

Group E - Range of Services - Specific Client Group

Group F - Range of Services - Broad Client Group

Group G - Area/Branch Co-ordinators

15. The table on page 290 reveals that 41 of the 75

responding State-level agencies are of the co-operative . co-ordinating type and 18 within the corporate group. However, at the National level the numbers in these two groups were 9 and 10 respectively. This shows a more even distribution between the two groups on a national level which is probably

due to a number of peak bodies possessing a different structure to their state counterparts, e.g. the Good Neighbour Movement, whose two responding State branches belong to TYPE 1, while the co-ordinating body belongs to TYPE 2. This situation is

explained in paragraph 13 „

16. There are alternatives to this group basis for distinguishing between co-ordinating agencies, e.g. by studying the financial patterns and relationships of agencies. However, on the basis of the questions in the questionnaire and the replies received, it appeared that the present classification is the most appropriate.

17. Twenty responding organisations could not be classified. The reasons for this varied greatly, in some cases the questionnaire was inappropriate, in others classification on the basis of the information supplied would have required unwarranted assumptions on the part of the Task Force.

18. The results of the survey are not conclusive. However, we believe they present a practical starting point for further discussion and investigation and indicate positively that, contrary to the belief held by many, there are identifiable broad common patterns of operation in the non­ government sector in health and welfare. This has important implications for the establishment of consultative machinery which must take into account existing networks and structures

in the non-government sector and also for any attempt to collect comprehensive information about non-government organisations.

Attachment Ff17 277

19. On this basis the detailed analysis of the replies is presented.

TYPE 1 - Co-operative Co-ordinators

20· This category of organisations has no constitutional or executive power to co-ordinate the services of its member organisations. Many profess to co-ordinate as part of their mandate, but have no formal power to alter or rationalize the

service provision of their member organisations. Rather organisations in this category provide a forum for consultation between member agencies. A usual (and desirable) by-product of this process is co-ordination, as each agency can plan and deliver its service with a fuller knowledge of other services and current philosophies and techniques already

in operation in their particular field and/or area. The formation of these consultative bodies seems to have been generated by one or two agencies forming an alliance and other agencies showing interest and joining in. The resultant body then performs a facilitating, educative and advocacy function

for the collective purpose of the member organisations. No one organisation has the resources in terms of funding or manpower to perform this function for its allies, but a collective effort representing a small contribution in time, effort or finance from many organisations produces this

separate organisation which then develops expertise and services from which each individual member agency can benefit. Each member agency remains autonomous. In many cases agencies will belong to more than one State-level or national

organisation, usually for different purposes. For instance, a sheltered workshop may well belong to its State Sheltered Workshop Association and to the State branches of ACROD and ACOSS, the first organisation having a service focus, the second a

client focus and the third a broadly based combination of both.

21. A strong feature throughout this category is support and expert advice to member agencies. Promotion of the causes of member agencies tends to vary and would appear to be related firstly to the size of membership and secondly to

the diversity of interests among members.

22. If the co-ordinating agency has a small membership, the managing board or council generally consists of one or two representatives from each member organisation. The management of the large co-ordinating agency consists of

elected representatives from member agencies and the sheer size of membership and the restrictions on possible size of the board or council necessarily means many member agencies cannot have a representative on the board.

23. All organisations of this type have general meetings of all members (both organisations and/or individual members) usually on an annual basis. Communications with members vary

278. Attachment F/18

greatly in nature and frequency. Most organisations circulate the minutes of board or executive meetings to their membership and communicate more informally by phone, newsletter, etc.

24. Most organisations make use of ongoing expert sub­ committees and project-based short-term sub-committees. Both study situations concerning the members and make recommendations to the governing body.

25. The information available does not permit detailed analyses of the financial relationships of these organisations with their members and with government. However there is a lack of close and complex funding ties between organisations of this

type and their members. Members generally pay a membership fee, and belonging to the co-ordinating agencies carries a philosophic commitment to the ideals of the co-ordinating agency and a concomitant responsibility for the co-ordinating agency to protect the interests of its members. However, the co-ordinating agency is not able to exercise the degree of control which member financial dependency brings to many of the corporate

co-ordinators. It is not uncommon for the co-ordinating : agency to perform an advocacy function on behalf of a member agency requesting government subsidy, but if application is successful the funds are given directly by the government to

the intended recipient,

26. The network of communications with other co­ ordinating organisations is generally extensive. It varies from joint membership of the respective co-ordinating agencies, through joint seminars, reciprocal participation on sub­ committees to informal contact on a needs basis.

27. Contact with government varies to the extent that a co-ordinating body has been successful in promoting its cause or those of its members to government. It appears that a substantial amount of contact with government is on funding

issues.„

Group A . Range of Services - Specific Client Group

28. The agencies belonging to this group of co-ordinating agencies provide many services for a specific interest or client group. Although the services are many and varied, each agency has the common goal of alleviating the stress upon a particular group of individuals, for instance the Councils on the Ageing who work to alleviate the problems of the aged. The size of responding agencies in this group varied, and consequently so

did the methods of effectively serving their membership. An important activity is promoting public awareness of the needs of the client groups. This group appears, however, to make little use of "outside" expert advisory committees: rather,

they tend to use project-oriented sub-committees. Conditions for membership overall seem fairly flexible, the ability to pay the required membership fee having strong influence.

Attaehment F/19 279.

29. National organisations in this group appear to operate in a similar fashion.

Group B . Specific Service - Specific Client Group

30. Organisations in this group have member agencies who supply fairly specific services to a specific client group. There is obviously a client and service requirement for membership. Important activities are representation to government, support and advice for members, and promotion of a

forum for consultation. Membership tends to be larger in this group than in A, but this may well just be due to this particular sample. Examples are all the Voluntary Care Associations responding and also the Victorian and Queensland Branches of the

Australian Pre-School Association. There were no significant differences between State-level and National organisations.

Group C . Specific Service - Broad Client Group

31. This is a somewhat exclusive group, instanced by the fact that it includes only 6 agencies. The Hospitals Association of New South Wales is a prime example of this group, its members offering hospital services to the community. Methods of operation are similar to groups A and B.

Group D . The Broad Basers.

32. Members of this group are characterised by their large and diverse memberships and the breadth of issues in which they are involved. The Councils of Social Service, and the Division of the Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, are examples. Because of the multiplicity of interests of member organisations,

the Broad Basers make extensive use of sub-committees and seminars. Liaison with other State or National-level organisations is often almost automatic by virtue of the fact that so many of the State-level agencies also belong to a Broad

Baser.

33. Because of their power and influence and their extensive information and communication network, member agencies tend to see an advantage of membership as being able to "plug into" this network. The Broad Basers cannot hope to fully represent the individual views of their entire membership. They tend to take

a broad and philosophical approach to the provision of health and welfare services to the community as a whole and to those in it at a disadvantage. They focus, as needs arise, on particular

issues of concern; promoting communication, information flow and "justice" and using their size and strength to exert pressure, (mainly on government).

280.. Attachment F/20

TYPE 2 - Corporate Co-ordinators

34. As the title of this category of organisation suggests, the co-ordinating agency has some form of corporate power over its members. In some cases the co-ordinating body technically "owns" the outlets - as is the case with many of the religious organisations responding, who have substantial policy and financial control over their service delivery agencies. Other organisations in this category have been established by their member organisations with substantial constitutional powers over

their basically autonomous members, e.g. the relationship between the Australian Hospitals Association and its three State branches. In this latter case the parent body establishes standards and principles of operation to which members must adhere to retain membership.

35. There are often substantial financial ties between parent body and member agencies amounting on occasions to reciprocal dependency. For instance, the National Executive of ; the Returned Services' League is wholly supported by State branches through a percentage of individual members'

subscriptions, but the national executive distributes to the State branches a Commonwealth Government subsidy. The Royal Flying Doctor Service also provides a means of distributing Commonwealth Government subsidy to Flying Doctor services throughout Australia, who all pay a membership fee back to the parent body. The management unit or parent body is generally made up of representatives from the service delivery outlets.

Funding control provides a useful tool for the achievement of service co-ordination, but even with parent bodies who do not have this financial relationship with their members, there still exists a large amount of control as instanced with the Australian Hospitals Association.

36. "Membership" of the corporate co-ordinators tends to be smaller than is the case with the co-operative co-ordinators. The managing body is usually representative of all the members and is the policy development forum which sets the standards and methods of operation. In many cases individual agencies or

interest groups within these organisations have sought membership of other co-ordinating agencies - for example a Salvation Army Sheltered Workshop may also belong to the Sheltered Workshop Association.

37. The corporate co-ordinators receive substantial government funding in many cases, but the funding is usually applied for under a specific program and thus intended for a particular service. They rarely receive funding for their own co-ordinating activities.

38. Within this category there are three groups, viz. -

Attachment F/21 281.

Group E. Range of Services - Specific Client Group

39. As the title suggests, this group provides a range of services to a specific group. Examples are the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Queensland and the Spastic Welfare Association of Western Australia. Generally, services from

specific therapeutic to general welfare are supplied through several outlets, each outlet not necessarily supplying the same service as another. Although client demand may be greater than the agency can cope with, it is usually not large enough to warrant establishment of extensive branches offering the same

service to a small geographically determined area.

Group F . Range of Services - Broad Client Group

40. This group is made up almost entirely of religious organisations. The organisations are extensive both in terms of numbers of different service delivery outlets and the range of clients catered for. Both parent body and individual outlets maintain extensive contacts with "outside" co-ordinating and

service delivery agencies. This group tends to be well represented by their own peak organisations. Service delivery outlets tend to have been established according to perceived needs of communities and/or groups and available premises rather

than by geographic considerations. Once established, regional administrative structures are then superimposed. The Red Cross and the Catholic Social Welfare Commission are national bodies in this category.

Group G . Area/Branch Co-ordinators

41. This group, as their name suggests, co-ordinate the services of branches. Each branch offers basically the same service to an area that has in most cases been geographically or demographically determined. Branches may offer only one or

several services, the important factor being that branches offer similar services.

42. The management unit or co-ordinating body is representative of all branches. Often, but not always, there are strong financial ties between the parent body and the branches - for instance the Royal Guide Dogs for the Blind, whose state members, according to a formula, fund the national

or parent body.

43. There generally are no members of this type of co-ordinating agency, other than the officially recognised branches.

44.. New branches are established either at the initiative of the parent, body, or by established agencies joining the organisation. In many cases, when the latter occurs the assets

282 Attachment F/22

of the joining agency are included in the records of -the parent body, but the joining agency retains power over their disposal, within the guidelines laid down by the parent body,

45. It should be noted that some one third of responding national organisations have been placed in this group. This applies to ACOTA, Good Neighbour Movement and the Australian Hospitals' Association, even though their State branches fall into other groups. This is because the national organisations perform a different function to those at the state level. The

latter co-ordinate the activities of a multiplicity of autonomous service delivery member organisations, whilst the former co-ordinate the activites of. state-level branches, which are their only members.

Att-affhment- F/2S 283

RESPONDENT ORGANISATIONS

STATE LEVEL AND NATIONAL·

BY ALPHABETICAL ORDER WITH CATEGORY INDICATION

Advisory Council on. Visual Handicap - ffe¥ South. Wales Association for the Mentally Retarded - South Australia Association of Blind Citizens - .

Hew South Wales Association of Child Caring Agencies - New South Wales Association of Disabled - Tasmania

Association of Youth Clubs - Victoria Australian Association for Rudolph Steiner Curative Education

Australian Association for the Mentally Retarded Australian Cancer Society Australian Catholic Social Welfare

Commission

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled ’

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled - New South Wales Division Australian Council for Rehabilitation of

the Disabled - Queensland Division Australian Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled - Western Australian Division Australian Council for Rehabilitation of

the Disabled - Tasmanian Division Australian Council of Churches Resettlement Department - New South Wales Australian Council of Community Nursing Australian Council of Local Government

Associations Australian Council of Rural Youth Australian Council of Social Service Australian Council on the Ageing

Australian Deafness Council Australian Ethnic Affairs Council Australian Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council

Australian Federation of Family Planning ' Associations Australian Hospitals Association

* Not Classified

B

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X-

X

X

284

Australian Jewish Welfare Society - New South Wales Australian Pre-Schools Association Australian Pre-Schools Association -

Victorian Branch Australian Pre-Schools Association - Queensland Branch Australian Red Cross Australian Services Council Baptist Union Social Services Department -

Victoria

Brisbane Youth Services Catholic Family Welfare Bureau - Tasmania Child and Family Welfare - Standing Committee - Western Australia Christian Welfare Centre - Western

Australia

Church of England Diocese of Sydney Church of England Diocesan Co-ordinating Committee - Victoria Childrens Weifare Association - Victoria Civilian Maimed and Limbless Association -

Victoria

Community Child Car e - Victoria Consultative Committee on Social Welfare - Western Australia Council for the Mentally Handicapped -

N e w South Wales Council of Community Nursing - New South Wales Council of Churches - Western Australia Council of Social Services - Queensland Council of Social Services -

Western Australia C o u n c i l of Social Services - Tasmania Council on the Ageing - New South Wales Council on the Ageing - Victoria Council on the Ageing - Queensland Council on the Ageing - South Australia Council on the Ageing - Tasmania Council to Homeless Persons - Victoria Creche and Kindergarten Association of

Queensland

Day Nurseries and Nursery Schools Association - Sydney Ethnic Communities Council - Victoria Family Planning Association of

New South Wales Institute for Deaf and Blind - New South Wales *

* Not Classified

Attachment 5/25 285

Good Neighbour Council - Victoria Good Neighbour Council - Tasmania Good Neighbour Movement Hospitals Association of New South Wales Hospitals Association of Victoria Lone Parents Federation Mental Health Association - Western Australia Methodist Homes for Children -

Western Australia Multiple Sclerosis Society of Queensland National Youth Council of Australia Paraplegic and Quadriplegic Association ~

Western Australia Playgroup Association Queensland Welfare Agencies Advisory Council Returned Services' League of Australia Royal District Nursing Service - Victoria

Royal Flying Doctor Service Royal Guide Dogs for the Blind Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind Salvation Army - Eastern Command

Salvation Army - Western Australia Shelter Shelter - South Australia Sheltered Workshop Association

Slow Learning Children's Group - Western Australia Spastic Association - Tasmania Spastic Welfare Association -

Western Australia Spastic Welfare League - Queensland Subnormal Childrens Welfare Association - New South Wales

Star - Victorian Association for the Retarded Temperance Alliance of South Australia Uniting Church Social Services Department -

Victoria

Voluntary Care Association of New South Wales Voluntary Car e Association of Victoria Voluntary Car e Association of Western Australia

Voluntary Care Association of Tasmania Yooralla Society of Victoria Y.M.C.A. - Queensland Youth Council of Victoria

* Not Classified

286. Attachment F/26

SURVEY OF SELECTED STATE AND NATIONAL LEVEL ORGANISATIONS

CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT ORGANISATIONS

TYPE 1 ~ THE CO-OPERATIVE CO-ORDINATORS

GROUP A - Range of Services - Specific Client Group

State Level

Association for the Mentally Retarded - South Australia Association of Child Caring Agencies - New South Wales Australian Council of Churches - Resettlement Department - New South Wales

Community Child Care - Victoria Council for the Mentally Handicapped - New South Wales Council on the Ageing - New South Wales Council on the Ageing - Victoria Council on the Ageing - Queensland Council on the Ageing - South Australia Council on the Ageing - Tasmania Ethnic Communities Council - Victoria Good Neighbour Council of Victoria Good Neighbour Council of Tasmania Mental Health Association - Western Australia Star - Victorian Association for the Retarded Youth Council of Victoria

National Level

Australian Association for the Mentally Retarded Australian Services Council National Youth Council of Australia

GROUP B - Specific Service - Specific Client Group

State Level

Association of Youth Clubs - Victoria Australian Pre-Schools Association - Victoria Branch Australian Pre-Schools Association - Queensland Branch Council to Homeless Persons - Victoria

Creche and Kindergarten Association of Queensland Playgroup Association - Victoria Sheltered Workshop Advisory Council - Victoria Voluntary Care Association of New South Wales Voluntary Care Association of Victoria Voluntary Care Association of Western Australia Voluntary Care Association of Tasmania

National Level

Australian Council of Rural Youth Australian Pre-Schools Association

AttaaJment F/2 7 287

GROUP C - Specific Service - Broad Client Group

State Level

Council of Community Nursing - New South Wales Hospitals Association of New South Wales Hospitals Association - Victoria Temperance Alliance of South Australia

National Level

Australian Council of Community Nursing SHELTER

GROUP D - The Broad Basers

State Level

A.C.R.O.D. A.C.R.O.D. A.C.R.O.D. A.C.R.O.D.

Children's Council of Council of Council of Council of Queensland

- New South Wales Division - Queensland Division - Western Australian Division - Tasmanian Division

Welfare Association of Victoria Churches - Western Australia Social Service - Queensland Social Service - Western Australia Social Service - Tasmania Welfare Agencies Advisory Council

National Level

Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled Australian Council of Social Service

288. Attachment F/28

TYPE 2 - THE CORPORATE CO-ORDINATORS

GROUP E - Range of Services - Specific Client Group

State Level

Australian Association for Rudolph Steiner Curative Education Australian Jewish Welfare Society - N.S.W. Multiple Sclerosis Society of Queensland Paraplegic and Quadriplegic Association of Western Australia

Spastic Welfare Association of Western Australia Subnormal Childrens Welfare Association - New South Wales

National Level

Nil

GROUP F - Range of Services - Broad Client Group

State Level

Catholic Family Welfare Bureau - Tas. Church of England Diocese of Sydney Church of England Diocesan Co-ordinating Committee - Victoria Salvation Army - Eastern Command Salvation Army - Western Australia Uniting Church - Social Services Department - Victoria Y.M.C.A. - Queensland

National Level

Australian Catholic Social Welfare Commission Australian Red Cross

GROUP G - Branch Co-ordinators

State Level

Day Nursery and Nursery Schools Association - Sydney Family Planning Association of New South Wales Royal District Nursing Service - Victoria Slow Learning Children's Group of Western Australia

Spastic Welfare League - Queensland

National Level

Australian Cancer Society Australian Council on the Ageing Australian Federation of Family Planning Associations Australian Hospitals Association

Attaahment F/29 289

Good Neighbour Movement Returned Services' League of Australia Royal Flying Doctor Service Royal Guide Dogs for the Blind

ORGANISATIONS NOT CATEGORISED

State Level

Advisory Council on Visual Handicap - New South Wales Association of Blind Citizens - New South Wales Association of Disabled - Tasmania Australian Deafness Council

Baptist Union Social Services Department - Victoria Brisbane Youth Service Child and Family Welfare - Standing Committee - Western Australia Christian Welfare Centre - Western Australia Civilian Maimed and Limbless Association - New South Wales Consultative Committee on Social Welfare - Western Australia

Institute for Deaf and Blind - New South Wales Methodist Homes for Children - Western Australia Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind SHELTER South Australia

Spastic Association - Tasmania Yooralla Society of Victoria

National Level

Australian Council of Local Government Associations Australian Ethnic Affairs Council National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council Lone Parents Federation

290 Attachment F/30

RESPONSES TO QUESTIONNAIRE

NUMBERS IN GROUPS - BY STATE

TYPE 1 - CO-OPERATIVE TYPE 2 - CORPORATES

State A B C D Total E F G Total HC* Total

Hew South Wales k 1 2 1 8 3 2 2 7 5 20

Victoria 6 6 1 1 lb - 2 1 3 3 20

Queensland 1 2 - 3 6 1 1 1 3 1 10

South Australia 2 - 1 - 3 - - - - 1 k

Western Australia 1 1 - 3 5 2 1 1 1 + k 13

Tasmania 2 1 - 2 5 - 1 - 1 2 8.

Total - State Ιό 11 1 10 1+1 6 7 5 18 16 75

Rational 3 2 2 2 9 - 2 8 10 4 23

Total - All 19 13 6 12 50 6 9 13 28 20 98

* H.C. - not classified

(As total is 98 - % totals are of an almost equal amount)„

State level questionnaires sent - 15^ Replies - 79 or 51%

National questionnaires sent — 29 '

Replies - 19 or 65%

(b of the 79 State level agencies responding were in fact national organisations, so these b were included under national in the above table»)

291.

ANNEXURE 'A' Attachment F/Zl TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

Task Force Members:

Mr p. H. BAILEY (Chairman) Mr E. S. LIGHTLY Mr J. D. RIMES

Secretary to the Task Force:

Mr B. Ayers Phone 723547

c/- Department of the Prime Minister & Cabinet CANBERRA, A.C.T. 2600 Phone 73 0416

Dear Secretary,

The Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health has begun to consider the aspects of its terms of reference which were not covered in its First Report. These are the co-ordination of social policy development at the Commonwealth level and the arrangements for consultation with the States, local government and non-government

organisations. The Task Force has already circulated some discussion papers (T.F. Nos. 6 and 7) and is at present organising seminars in each of the States primarily to discuss possible consultative arrangements using paper T.F.

7 as a starting off point.

In order to cover the field as adequately as possible we have written to all the bodies we have been able to identify that may perform a State level function. (To avoid ambiguity the Task Force uses the term "State level

function" to refer to an agency whose full or part-time activity involves performing tasks for or on behalf of member groups or organisations within a state.) If this is not the case for your organisation the Task Force would be

grateful for information on the non-government State level agencies with which it is associated or to which it belongs.

On the assumption that yours is a State level body, and to help the Task Force become more aware of your role and scope, the Task Force would be most grateful if you could provide brief responses on the following points -

(a) a description of the objectives of the . organisation and its responsibilities, e.g. does it provide a forum for consultation, or perform a secretariat function, or have the power to

co-ordinate, rationalise etc. the services provided by its member groups?;

.../2.

292. Attachment F/32

(b) a list of its member/affiliate organisations together with the address and indication of the activities of each one (where this is not immediately evident by the title e.g. sheltered workshop, aged persons hostel, child day care

etc). Could you also indicate by an asterisk each of the member organisations which perform a State level function;

(c) an indication of the means by which the organisation obtains the views of or consults with member/affiliate organisations, e.g. frequency of meetings, numbers usually

attending, decision-making procedures (if the easiest way to do this is to send copy of minutes of a meeting or meetings, these would be

treated as confidential);

(d) what are the conditions for affiliation and what automatic benefits are associated with affiliation;

(e) the relationship between your organisation and other State level non-government bodies;

(f) the peak or national organisations (if any) with which the organisation is associated or to which it belongs;

(g) the equivalent (if any) to your organisation in other States;

(h) the levels of government with which you consult and on what basis (is it regular, occasional or only for grant purposes); '

(i) the amount and purpose of any government subsidy received.

Attached is a list of the State level non­ government organisations to which we have written. The list is by no means exhaustive, there being no completely reliable way to gather this information. Thus it would be of great assistance to the Task Force if you could inform us of State level agencies you know to exist in the health/welfare/community development field and which are not

included on this list.

Attachment F/3S 293.

The Task Force hopes it may be possible for you to reply by Friday, 26 August.

Finally, may I ask you to indicate if any of the material you supply is not available for publication. The Task Force has not yet determined the form of its report, but would like to make available as much information as it

can about the important but relatively uncharted field of non-government co-ordinating organisations, and would like to be able to publish what seems suitable in the light of the returns it receives.

Yours sincerely

294.

Attachment F/34

NATIONAL ORGANISATION QUESTIONNAIRE

(Sent as an Attachment to details on the National Seminar)

ROLE AND SCOPE OF NATIONAL LEVEL ORGANISATIONS

Could you describe the objectives of the organisation and its responsibilities, e.g. is its role essentially to provide a forum for consultation; does it perform a national secretariat function; does it co-ordinate, rationalise etc. the welfare/health etc. services provided by its member groups?

Could you provide the number (or if possible a list) of your member/affiliate organisations together with a short indication (where this is not apparent from the name) of the main activites covered by them, e.g. , sheltered workshop, aged persons hostel, child day care, immediate relief of indigent individuals.

Could you provide an indication of the means by which the organisation obtains the views of or consults with member/affiliate organisations, e.g. frequency of meetings, numbers usually attending, decision-making

procedures? (If the easiest way to do this is to send copy of minutes of a meeting or meetings, these would be treated as confidential.)

What is the relationship between your organisation and other national level non-government bodies?

What is the relationship between your organisation and its affiliates; is it representative of all member organisations or does it primarily represent state level affiliates? What are the conditions for affiliation? What automatic benefits are associated with affiliation?

Could you indicate the extent of present consultation with the Federal Government and the means by which this is achieved; e.g. is it on a regular basis, occasional, only for grant purposes?

What is the amount of and purpose for which government subsidy is received (if at all)?

Attachment G/l (Para. 6)

295.

LIST OF SUBMISSIONS AND SIGNIFICANT CORRESPONDENCE *

A T T A C H M E N T G

Aid Retarded Persons, N.S.W. Association of Self Help Organisations and Groups Australian Catholic Social Welfare Commission Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled, South

Australian Division Australian Council of Social Service Queensland Council of Social Service Victorian Council of Social Service Australian Federation of Family Planning Associations Australian Council on the Ageing

- New South Wales Branch - Queensland Branch - South Australian Branch - Tasmanian Branch

- Victorian Branch

Australian Pre-School Association - Victorian Branch - West Australian Branch Australian Red Cross Society

Broadmeadows, City of (Vic.) Buckley, Mrs J. (Tas.) „

Clarence, Municipality of (Tas.) Collingwood Community Health Centre Community Development Workers Association (Vic.) Council to Homeless Persons (Vic.) Doveton - Hallam Community Health Centre (Vic.)

Ethnic Communities' Council of N.S.W. Graycar, Dr. A. (S.A.) Henderson, Prof. R. F. (Vic.) Henley Community Aid and Advisory Centre (S.A.)

Illawarra Regional Organisation of Councils Kellogg Rural Adjustment Unit Lone Fathers' Association of Australia Maryborough Community Development Council (Qld)

Mentally Incurable Children's Association Metropolitan (Southern) Region No. 4 (S.A.) . Mildura, Shire of (Vic.) Municipal Association of Victoria Nambucca Welfare Committee (N.S.W.) National Council of Women

- of Victoria

- of New South Wales

Northern Melbourne Regional Organisation of Councils No. Northern Region Committee on the Disabled (Vic.) Northern Tasmania Regional Organisation

296 Attachment G/2

North Richmond Family Care Centre (Vic.) North Western Melbourne Regional Organisation of Councils Poppins, Dr J. (Vic.)

Queensland Association of Regional Councils for Social Development Queensland Spastic Welfare League Queensland Welfare Agencies Advisory Council Regional Council for Social Development, Zone 18 (N.S.W.) St Vincent de Paul Society

- New South Wales Branch - State Council of Queensland Salvation Army School of Health Administration, University of New South

Wales

Singleton Community Health Centre Southern Tasmanian Regional Council for Social Development Tasmanian Consultative Committee on Social Welfare Tatiara Local Board of Health (S.A.) ;

Varma, Mr P. (Vic.) Victorian Hospitals Association Ltd. Voluntary Care Association - of Queensland

- of Tasmania

Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils Wide Bay - Burnett Regional Council for Social Development Women's Welfare Issues Consultative Committee

Some of the items listed refer to correspondence or papers handed in at seminars, rather than a formal submission. Where they have contained matters of substance, these have been included in the list.

Attachment Η/1 (Para. 161)

297

COST OF SELECTED COMMONWEALTH AND STATE LEVEL CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

To obtain some indication of the costs of consultative arrangements, the Task Force requested details of identifiable expenditures for the following bodies:

Commonwealth Level

NH&MRC National Health and Medical Research Council

HA SAC Hospitals and Allied Services Advisory Council

LMQAC Local Medical Officers' Advisory Committee

ABAC Australian Ethnic Affairs Council

NCCSW National Consultative Council on Social Welfare

NSWCCSW N.S.W. Consultative Committee on Social Welfare

NACH National Advisory Council for the Handicapped

NACC National Aboriginal Consultative Council

NAC National Aboriginal Conference

A T T A C H M E N T H

State Level

VCCSD Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development

COST OF SELECTED COMMONWEALTH AND STATE LEVEL CONSULTATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

„ , . (1) Fees and

Salaries (2)

Allowances

Fares (3) Other

Expenses

Total

State Level

VCCSD

Commonwealth 1976/77 1977/78 1976/77 1977/78 1976/77 1977/78 Level (Actual) (Est.) (Actual) (Est.) (Actual) (Est.)

NHMRC 370,540 (411,000) 89 ,069 (97,000) 92,005 (89,000)

HA S A C 217,028 (195,000) 3,302 (4,000) 5,309 (7,000)

LMOAC 1,670 (2,756) 1,070 (1,605) 1,900 (2,850)

a e a c (4> (32,545) (15,000) (17,500)

NCCSW 25,000 (28,000) 3,802 (11,800) 3,679 (11,200)

NSWCCSW 5,700 (8,500) 180 (3,350) 121 (600)

NACH 36,500 (89 ,900) 38,100 (48,500) 10,200 (16,000)

NACC 129,414 515,390 5,373

n a c (6) (150,000) (326,000) (30,000)

1976/77 (Actual) 1977/78 (Est.)

Λ5)

(900)

34,000 (36,000) 4,000

(475,000)

(46.000)

(10 .000)

(4,000)

(7)

(8 )

(9)

(8 )

1976/77 (Actual) 1977/78 (Est.)

551,614 (597,000)

225,639 (206,000)

4,640 (7,211)

(65,045)

32,481 (51,000)

6,001 (12,450)

89,300 (155,300)

650,177

(1,037,000)

CO

(1 ) (2)

(3) (1 ) (5) (6 )

(7) (8) (9)

Comprises salaries of departmental representatives and support staff. Comprises fees and allowances (incl. travel) paid to non-governmental participants and allowances (incl, travel) paid to departmental representatives and support staff. Sitting fees are paid to the members qf LMOAC } ABAC; NCCSW; NSWCCSW; & NACH. NAC members to receive salary & allowances determined by Remun.Tribunal, Comprises fares for participants and departmental support staff. &=»

1977-78 estimate only - members of ABAC were appointed in February 1977. . ^

Includes cost of production of annual report and Rehabilitation Engineering Seminar, 9

Estimate for period 12 November 1977-30 June 1978. sa

Election expenses. ||

Office accommodation and equipment. 8

Printing. *

...

Attachment 1/1 (Para. 163)

299.

NATIONAL· NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

A T T A C H M E N T I

When making initial preparations for the seminar for national .non-government organisations in the hea 1th/welt are/eommunity development fields, the Task Force expected to identify possibly 15-20 bodies, but found there was no list available. As a result of checks with relevant

departments and others, a list of 10 4 organisations has· ultimately been assembled. The list does not include bodies established by the Commonwealth Government.

The list at the end of this Attachment is as comprehensive as was practicable in the time available. We do not claim that it is exhaustive and we apologise to those organisations which do not appear. The fact that an exhaustive list of national bodies is not available and

cannot be readily produced is further evidence of the paucity of information presently available on the activities of the non—government sector in the area of health, welfare and community development.

The groupings used in the list are not mutually exclusive. For instance, many organisations listed with the specific disability groups have a health orientation. They have been shown as specific disability groups because of

their specialised rather than general concern with health. In the case of ethnic organisations, we acknowledge that their interests extend well beyond health, welfare and community development. We have listed them because these

issues are major day to day concerns of many members of ethnic communities and dealing with them represents an important part of the activities of the ethnic organisations.

The table which follows summarises the numbers of organisations in each group. '

Group Number of

National Organisations

Ethnic Organisations 31

Specific Disability Groups 24

General Purpose 17

Health 10

CN ΓΟ <Γ Lfi kD

300. Attachment 1/2

Children and the Family 9

Youth and Community Development 8

Veterans 3

Housing 1

Aboriginals 1

TOTAL TO4

Both the table and the list which follows seem to indicate certain imbalances in representation at the national level, both within and between groups. For instance:

. there are four national organisations for the blind and three for veterans but only one each for housing and aboriginal groups;

• the number of 'general health' organisations (1 0 ) is not large, yet with perhaps one or two ; exceptions e.g. Red Cross, there is no clear client or consumer representation: the organisations tend to be associations developed by health professionals rather than

client/consumer type organisations, and it proved difficult to determine vhich professional associations should be listed.

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL

A. General Purpose

I. Australian Council of Social Service* Australian Council on the Ageing* Australian Association of Social Workers Society of St Vincent de Paul Australian Catholic Social Welfare Commission

Uniting Church in Australia - Social Welfare Commission 7. Church of England in A_ustra 1 ia 8 . Australian Frontier Inc. 9. Australian Psychological Society 10. Australian Social Welfare Union II. Dr Barnardo's in Australia 12. International Social Service (Australia)* 13. Legacy Co-ordinating Council 14. Smith Family 15. Salvation Army 16. National Lifeline 17. Australian Pensioners'. Federation

Attachment 1/3 301

B. Specific Disability Groups

18. Australian Council on Rehabilitation of Disabled* 19. Australian Association for the Mentally Retarded 20. Australian Association for Better Hearing 21. Australian Association for Rudolph Steiner Curative

Education

22. Australian Cerebral Palsy Association 23. Australian Federation of Adult Deaf Societies 24. Australian Federation of Speld Associations 25. Australian Orthopaedic Foundation 26. Australian Paraplegic and Quadriplegic Association

27. Australian Society for Multiply Handicapped Children Inc. 28. National Association for Training the Disabled in Office Work 29. National Multiple Sclerosis Society of Australia 30. Wheelchair and Disabled Association of Australia 31. Australian Association of Welfare Workers to the Deaf 32. Australian Guild of Business and Professional Blind

33. Australian National Council for the Blind 34. Royal Guide Dogs for the Blind Association of Australia 35. Australian Federation of Blind Citizens 36. Diabetes Federation of Australia 37. National Heart Foundation 38. Australian Cancer Council 39. Australian Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation

40. Australian Kidney Foundation 41. Australian Foundation on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -

C. Health

42. Australian Medical Association 43. Australian Dental Association 44. Australian Hospitals Association 45. Red Cross * 46. Australian Council of Community Nursing · 47. Royal Australian Nursing Federation 48. Australian Affiliation of Voluntary Care Associations 49. National Standing Committee on Nursing Homes 50. National Standing Committee on Private Hospitals

51. Voluntary Health Insurance Association of Australia

D. Housing

52. Shelter

302 Attaohment 1/4

E. Youth and Community Development

53. National Youth Council of Australia 54. Federation of Australian Sport 55. Australian Council of Rural Youth 56. Australian Association of Youth Clubs

57. Confederation of Australian Youth Orcrani sat ions 58. YMCA ’

59. YWCA 60. Association of Apex Clubs

F. Veterans

61. Returned Services' League of Australia 62. Australian Services Council 63. War Widows Guild of Australia

G. Ethnic Organisations ,

64. Good Neighbour Movement of Australia 65. Baltic Council of Australia 6 6 . Federal Council of Byelorussians 67. Central Council of Croatian Associations in Australia 6 8 . National Federation of Cyprian Communities and

Brotherhoods of Australia 69. Council of Estonian Societies of Australia 70. Australasian Federation of Finnish Societies and Clubs 71. Die Brucke (Association of German Clubs) 72. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Aust. and N.Z. 73. Pan-Macedonian Union of Australia 74. Federal Council of Hungarian Associations in Australia 75. Australian Federation of Islamic Societies 76. Italian Catholic Federation 77. Assemblies of God in Australia, Italian Fellowship

of Churches

78. Latvian Federation of Australia and New Zealand 79. Regional Council of Lebanese Associations in Australia and New Zealand 80. Federal Council of Lithuanian Organisations 81. Lithuanian Catholic Federal Committee 82. Australian Federation of Netherlands Organisations 83. Federal Council of Polish Associations in Australia 84. Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association in Australia 85. Russian Orthodox Church (Abroad) - Australian and

New Zealand Diocese Serbian National Defence Council of Australia 86.

Attachment I/S 303

87. The Free Serbian Orthodox Church Diocese for Australia and New Zealand 88. Serbian Orthodox Church, Diocese for Australia and New Zealand 89. Federation of Slovenian Associations in Australia 90. Federated Council of Ukrainian Organisations

in Australia

91. Plast Ukrainian Youth Association in Australia 92. Ukrainian Autocephalic Orthodox Church 93. Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Autocephalic) of Australia 94. Captive Nations Forum

H . Children and the Family * I .

95. National Marriage Guidance Council 96. Australian Association of Early Childhood Education 97. Australian Pre-School Association 98. Child and Family Welfare Council of Australia

99. Australian Federation of Family Planning Associations 100. Parents Without Partners 101. Lone Parents Federation '

102. Council for the Single Mother and her Child 103. Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital

I. Aboriginals

104. Federal Council for the Advancement of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders

These organisations receive Grants-in-aid from the Australian Government. Assistance to Red Cross is in respect of the Blood Transfusion Service

304. Attachment J/l

(Paras. 166 and 184)

ATTACHMENT J

CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL POLICY - RECOMMENDATIONS OF RECENT COMMONWEALTH INQUIRIES

With the considerable expansion in Commonwealth spending on welfare, health and related programs over the past decade, there has also been an increasing concern with the co-ordination of Commonwealth policies in the broad

social welfare and health field.

The reports of a number of Commonwealth inquiries have drawn attention to the need for improved co-ordination of social policy development. These inquiries include:

. The Commission of Inquiry into Poverty (Henderson Report) . The National Rehabilitation and Compensation Committee of Inquiry (Woodhouse Report) . The Royal Commission on Australian Government

Administration . The Inquiry into Unemployment Benefit Policy and Administration (Myers Report).

This attachment sets out the major findings and recommendations of these inquiries, with respect to the co-ordination of social policies. Some of these inquiries also make recommendations on administrative arrangements for

specific Commonwealth programs, which are not included here since these did not seem, to us, to relate directly to social policy co-ordination. We have reproduced below selected extracts from these reports, to give some idea of their flavour with respect to co-ordination of policy. For more detailed information on the findings of these

inquiries, we refer readers to the respective reports.

The Commission of Inquiry into Poverty

The Poverty Inquiry emphasised the need for social research and proposed a National Social Research Institute. In its First Main Report completed in 1975 the Commission, after discussing the importance of departmental

research programs, continued:

" But departmental research units are only one part of what is required. A National Social Research Institute is even more important. Many of the most

Attachment J/2 305.

important questions for social research transcend departmental boundaries - poverty has legal, educational, medical, housing and town planning aspects. The problems of migrants include employment, housing, health and education. There are many Australian families who are disadvantaged in several

respects and one of the main weaknesses of the existing system of service delivery is precisely that no comprehensive service is provided for them. We need to learn how to do better and no single departmental research unit can achieve this.

Because its activities will transcend departmental boundaries, the National Social Research Institute should be separate from any of the existing departments concerned with the administration of social policy. Much social research requires statistical work, so it should be closely linked with the Australian Bureau of Statistics under the control of the Special Minister of State. It should have the responsibility of responding to and co-ordinating requests for research by departments and for initiating its own research projects. The Danish National Institute of Social Research is a good model.

A great deal of independent critical evaluation is needed of pioneering attempts to improve welfare services which are being made in different parts of this big country. For example, what is the scope for extension to other areas of the experience of the Traralgon Credit Co-operative in debt rescheduling? What can be learnt from the action in Townsville to co-ordinate the activities of social workers there? More use should be made of universities and colleges

to carry out such evaluations; occasionally this may occur spontaneously, though there have not been many examples yet in Australia. But if it is to be systematic this process must be organised and the organisers must also have their own research team, for there can be no guarantee that university or college research staff will be available when an evaluation is required.

One weakness of many experimental programs is that everyone is involved i© doing and no one in recording what is done; so that if the end result is a partial success it is not possible to discuss and analyse the

reasons for success and failure and gain the full value of the experiment for application elsewhere. An

306. Attachment J/S

important function therefore of the Social Research Institute should be to arrange and pay for a research analyst to be included in carefully selected projects, as this Commission has done to report on the Brotherhood of St Laurence Family Centre Project...

Since so many welfare services are organised by the States, it is most important that the Social Research Institute service State departments as well as those of the Australian Government, and learn of the pioneering experiments at State and local levels. There are great potential advantages in the diversity of welfare structures in the different States, but

these will only be fully realised when a research institute can compare and evaluate the results of different structures and techniques over a considerable time.

Continuing intensive research is required to learn more about those who need help but do not approach the welfare services, leading on to action research programs, such as the Family Centre Project of the

Brotherhood of St. Laurence, which try out methods of reaching and helping people.

Research must extend to consumers of a wide range of services, mental health, dental care, housing and employment. Questions must be asked about the accessibility of dental services, for instance, about preferences for housing among those who are eligible

for housing commission accommodation, about the reasons why some young people are unwilling to make use of the Commonwealth Employment Service, and about what Greek and Italian migrant parents think of the

schooling their sons and daughters are receiving. It is because this necessary questioning extends across the services provided by so many different departments that the Social Research Institute should be attached to the office of the Special Minister of State and

should work closely with the Premiers' Departments of the States.

Our experience has been that the deeper we have probed into the question 'Why are some people deprived?', the wider is the range of services and aspects of social policy that are relevant to the answer. They include

transport services - lack of public transport may be an important cause of isolation for old people. They

Attachment J/4 307.

certainly include location of houses and industry and industrial employment practices - the absence of accessible jobs for women is a serious problem for many families. They include some broad and difficult

questions about poor communities and pockets of poor people which we have just begun to explore in our community studies in Heidelberg (Vic.), Newcastle (N.S.W.) and Fremantle (W.A.) . Even these limited studies demonstrate the variety of ways in which a community may be deprived and suggest that action to remedy the situation will need to be equally varied and will require modification of a number of difficult policies at all three levels of government - national,

State and local. We would suggest that such research into deprived communities, into how to help them, and into how to prevent other communities slipping back into deprivation should have high priority in the program of the research institute.

Another important area of research is the measurement of individual poverty in Australia using Australian data...

Many other areas for research could be listed such as the prevalence of 'poverty traps'. Perhaps the most important point to be made, however, is that we need continuous social research. One research project is like a snapshot; it cannot do justice to the processes of growth and change which are the basis of

social development and social policy. To understand what is happening and what should be done, systematic research must be a continuing process. For this a Social Research Institute is essential.

The purpose of such an institute is not research for its own sake but to effect an improvement in the social policies of all levels of government. To achieve this, not only must research be published promptly and distributed widely but there must be close and friendly contact with a large number of departments to whom the institute must appear not just as a critic but as a resource and source of assistance in performing their duties to the satisfaction of their clients." (pages 298-301)

The Commission also drew attention to the need for effective integration and co-ordination of social policies. It proposed the establishment of a Standing Committee on Social Policy:

308 Attachment J/5

" A number of Australian Government departments are engaged in administering social policy. There is an urgent need for better integration of social policies if they are to be effective in giving help to all who need it, including poor people. At present, progress is in fits and starts; child care one month, retraining of unemployed people another, and housing or rural subsidy another. There is little coherent pattern or strategy. Alternatives are not carefully

compared, some groups fare well, others such as lone fathers fare badly.

The Commission believes there is a need for an integrating and co-ordinating mechanism at the Federal level. This may best be in the form of a Standing Committee on Social Policy on which, at a very high

level, the departments working in the social policy field, the Treasury, and other relevant bodies such as the Social Welfare Commission and the proposed Social Research Institute would all be represented.

This Standing Committee would meet regularly, discuss and evaluate plans and proposals for future development, assess priorities, make recommendations each year on the increment of national income which is to be spent on social welfare, and report on the

fulfilment of the (proposed) ten-year plan to eliminate poverty. If this Committee were serviced by the Department of the Special Minister of State and reported to Cabinet through the Special Minister of

State, it would have the advantage of being located close to the Research Institute and the Bureau of Statistics and be separate from existing departments concerned with particular aspects of social policy."

(page 301)

The National Rehabilitation and Compensation Committee of Inquiry

The Woodhouse Committee recommended a major National Compensation Scheme, which was intended to be administered by the Department of Social Security, whose name would be changed to Department of National Compensation

or to Department of Social Insurance. The Committee's report also mentioned that a health and welfare department could be established, to carry out Commonwealth responsibilities with respect to health and welfare services

Attachment J/6 309

(excluding rehabilitation services) and health standards (including the development of standards in such fields as drugs, public health and international health matters).

The Committee was also concerned with the co-ordination of social policy. Volume One of the Committee's Report proposed the establishment of a Department of Social Planning and Policy:

" There is a wider question. In the past no single department has been charged with the responsibility for planning ahead and achieving the necessary degree of operational co-ordination in the field of social welfare generally. A good deal has been done independently by those departments responsible for individual programs; but there has been no general blueprint, nor have the priorities been determined with sufficient clarity.

In a way it is not surprising. The social security systems of most modern countries display little sign of overall planning or internal coherence. A great deal of development has been achieved almost on an ad hoc basis in order to deal with individual problems as they arise. A former Minister of Social Affairs and Public Health of the Netherlands has described the problem:

1 In the early stages of social policy making, for instance, there was a fairly widespread view that social protection was something exceptional, a crutch for the exclusive support of vulnerable groups (personae miserabiles) who could not survive without it.

Some people believed that in the long run, when . the particular vulnerability of these groups had been eliminated, there would no longer be any need for social protection as a specific policy

measure. In many respects, therefore, it is true to say that initially social security policy was principally concerned with "curing symptoms" and was directed to the very limited protection of very limited groups against

certain very limited risks. It was from this base that the present social security systems developed, a particularly rapid expansion having taken place since the Second World War.1

310.

Attachment J/7

The author then has gone on to observe that in many countries the development of social security has been permanently marked by its origins; and he expressed the opinion that piecemeal adjustment and reform had

led to 1 present-day social security arrangements (that) could more appropriately be described as a jungle than as coherent systems'...

The whole problem of social insurance and the services allied to social welfare in general should become therefore the subject of informed oversight by a social welfare planning and policy department under the control of a senior Minister. Such a department should be free from the pressures that sometimes

influence decisions when there is an obligation to discharge some operational function in the field. Instead, the policy department should be in constant communication with and able to assess the achievement

and needs of the servicing groups that would give effect to the various policy decisions once they had been made. The matter is, of course, entirely for the Government but we recommend the establishment of a department -

. able to plan ahead over the whole field of social welfare and health; . in a position to establish priorities and make recommendations to the Government accordingly;

. equipped to estimate long term costs and in the short term make any necessary allocation of funds between the servicing departments; and . ready to act as a sort of arbitrator should

competing claims arise among the various groups performing the practical functions in the field." (pages 126-28)

Later in its Report, the Committee again referred to the functions proposed for the Department of Social Planning and Policy: .

" It should have the responsibility for long-term social welfare planning; the co-ordination of public social welfare policies; and the assessment or preparation of policy proposals and programs.

It would promote and be responsible for legislation across the entire social welfare field including -

Attachment J/8 311.

• assessments of existing legislation against social welfare plans and strategies; • consideration of suggestions for change submitted by the servicing departments or units; . the preparation of drafting instructions for the

Parliamentary Draftsman.

In addition, it would be concerned with continuing policy development; and it would have oversight of major social welfare schemes, including -. the national compensation scheme;

. the national rehabilitation scheme (which we recommend should be directly associated with the planning department as a division); . the community health and welfare program.

It would also be concerned to provide a central information service." (pages 193-4)

The Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration

The Royal Commission recommended the establishment of a Department of Social Welfare to, inter alia, co-ordinate the development of social policy. The relevant section of the Report reads;

" Submissions and other material before the Commission made it clear that government programs concerned with the health and welfare of members of the community were a frequent and growing source of difficulties both in policy and administration. Since

'welfare' is often defined to include all those - policies that affect the health, education, housing and financial self-sufficiency of the individual and family, we should expect difficulties in both the design of appropriate policies and in administration of programs. Studies in Australia, in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States reveal the complexity of the problems, the conflicting principles which underlie different approaches to their solution and the obstacles to be overcome if rational solutions are to be found.

The reasons are not far to seek. First, in one form or another, government policies in welfare bear upon the lives of almost every family...

312. Attachment J/9

Secondly, there is a staggering multiplicity of separate programs composing the whole...

Thirdly, responsibility for the planning and management of these programs is dispersed between federal, State and local levels of government and innumerable voluntary groups and, within the various

levels of government, between departments, commissions and other agencies...

Governments have been aware of these problems for years, and a series of partial inquiries has been conducted here and overseas to illuminate them. The Whitlam Government, for instance, set up a series of

statutory commissions which it hoped would progressively invoke order in this confusion... However, before the Whitlam Government came to an end it had become less optimistic about statutory commissions as effective instruments of change."

(pages 325-6)

In these circumstances, the Commission was requested by the then Prime Minister to report on an appropriate structure for health and welfare:

" The Commission therefore set up a task force to make a special study of this field of government. It was encouraged to do this by the knowledge that there were other fields of government in addition to health

and welfare, where programs, independently conceived, and designed and administered by separate but overlapping agencies, sometimes directed at multiple and partially competing objectives, had led to some

administrative incoherence with its attendant waste and loss of purpose. It was hoped that the study of the health and welfare field might suggest principles of organisation capable of being applied over a wider area of government administration.

Four dominant themes emerge from the report of the task force:

1. There is an immediate need to rationalise the mosaic of health and welfare services which is marked by duplication of roles and responsibilities and which stimulates rather

than reduces the need for institutional care.

Attachment J/10 313.

2. The failure to rationalise these services derives in part from a lack of policy analysis and program evaluation, which itself reflects to some degree an absence of relevant policy-oriented research capacity within and outside government.

3. A rationalisation of services, including possibly a greater devolution of their delivery and more effective division of responsibility between federal, State and" local levels of

government and voluntary agencies, would enable some restructuring, with economies in personnel, particularly in federal departments and agencies: it was acknowledged that this devolution should be achieved only by joint planning and hard bargaining in which the federal government would be prepared to trade : - withdrawal from the front-line administration of services for an enhanced capacity to set principles and standards backed by broad rather than narrowly specific financial supports.

4. A rationalisation of the kind described in 3 above, calling for joint planning, complex negotiations and the restructuring of departments and agencies at all levels of government, could not be achieved quickly: progress might be expedited by federal action which could be seen as an indicator of its willingness to withdraw from some service delivery and to reduce the degree of detail in its control programs financed by special purpose grants, and by joint planning with the States towards block grant and revenue sharing funding of certain health and welfare services.

With these themes in mind the task force concluded that in the federal sphere consideration should be given to changes which might ultimately lead to the complete integration in one 'giant' department of the existing departments and agencies involved in health and social welfare policy and programs. To this end it envisaged the immediate establishment of a single Health and Welfare Commission to replace five existing

statutory authorities, bringing together the heads of existing departments and major agencies with an addition of specialist advisers from outside government. The functions of the integrated

314. Attachment J/ll

Commission would be to act as a co-ordinated source of advice to the government, to rationalise administration, and to review the effectiveness of programs. Similarly the task force contemplated, as a

first step, the consolidation over the next two years of existing departments into two, and the integration of rehabilitation payments and services with welfare and pension benefits payments and with the community

health and social services available to the general community." (pages 327-8)

The Royal Commission concluded this section of its Report:

1. "The Commission is satisfied that the four basic themes enunciated in the task force report (see above) summarise the issues involved, and justify a major effort to rationalise welfare policies and their administration.

2. Such a rationalisation is unlikely unless it is backed by powerful Cabinet and ministerial authority.

3. The immediate task will be to establish, at ministerial and official levels, machinery to provide that authority, and so ensure the participation and co-operation of existing

administrative units.

4. This machinery must be designed not merely to mobilise the knowledge and skills of those in existing departments and agencies, but to draw also upon outside sources of expertise and

stimulus.

5. A major task of those heading this machinery, if it is established, will be to plan and conduct detailed negotiations with States, local· government authorities and voluntary agencies,

leading to firm agreements for the division of responsibility and appropriate devolution.

6. Rationalisation within the federal government should proceed step by step as these negotiations and related internal studies are completed.

Attachment J/12 315

In considering specific ways of embodying these conclusions in recommendations for action, the Commission gave careful thought to the judgment of the task force that eventually it would be desirable to move, over a two or three year period, towards a

single 'giant' department with comprehensive responsibility in the welfare field. The Commission agreed that this should not be a prime objective for the foreseeable future. Whether it would at any time be desirable is a question that may be easier to

answer after some years' experience of the plan the Commission proposes." (pages 328-9)

The Commission recommended that:

"(a) there be a Minister and Department for Social Welfare with a responsibility to co-ordinate government policy and administration in the " broad field of health and welfare; (b) the Minister for Social Welfare be a senior

minister and a member of Cabinet, and if he is given another portfolio, it not be one of those concerned with particular parts of health and welfare policies; (c) the Minister for Social Welfare preside over a

Ministerial Committee including the Ministers for Health, Social Security, Repatriation, and Aboriginal Affairs and for some purposes the Minister for Environment, Housing and Community Development; (d) the Minister for Social Welfare be responsible

for (i) achieving a simplified coherent • administrative structure to give effect to government programs relating to health and

welfare, '

(ii) co-ordinating the formulation and review of welfare policies, (iii) integrating the preparation of Forward Estimates and Budgets for the whole social

welfare area, (iv) planning, arranging and co-ordinating the research necessary for policy formulation and review,

co-ordinating consultation and negotiation with other levels of government and (v)

316. Attachment J/13

voluntary agencies, and between federal agencies, to ensure effectiveness and economy in - the delivery of services to the community - the recruitment, training, employment and organisation of professional workers; the Minister for Social Welfare be supported by

a Consultative Council consisting of: (i) the heads of the departments in the social welfare field, (ii) experts from outside the Service retained

on a short term basis for their expertise in relevant capacities such as policy analysis, financial organisation, access to and delivery of service, and the organisation and use of information, (iii) representatives of selected National

Advisory Councils, (iv) the Director of the Bureau of Social Policy (see below); the Department of Social Welfare be small and designed to provide administrative support for the Minister as Chairman of the Ministerial Committee and for the Consultative Council and

to service task forces and other study groups set up by the Minister for Social Welfare to assist him to rationalise and co-ordinate administration. It should also include a Bureau of Social Policy;

the Bureau of Social Policy should (i) provide some research capacity, but be concerned primarily to initiate and support studies in academic and other

centres of research, (ii) collaborate with the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the development of adequate statistical information as a basis for

policy formulation and review, (iii) have substantial autonomy in the design and conduct of research programs and in the publication of their results (the

Bureau of Agricultural Economics provides a suitable model·)." (pages 328-31)

Attachment J/14 317.

The Inquiry into Unemployment Benefit Policy and Administration

_ The Myers Inquiry was, clearly, concerned with a single aspect of social policy. However, as well as recommendations on the administration of unemployment benefits, Dr Myers expressed some thoughts on policy machinery, proposing a permanent body to review manpower and

social welfare policies. He concluded:

" It is obvious that the concept and philosophy of the unemployment benefit system cannot be isolated from much broader conceptual considerations. The Inquiry believes that regular reviews are necessary to examine the continuing relevance and direction of Government programmes and policies as they affect both manpower and social welfare measures.

In particular, the Inquiry believes that the Government should establish a permanent organisation to undertake a continuous review of both manpower and social welfare policies. The structure of Government administration through Departments dealing with matters such as social security, unemployment,

industrial affairs, productivity and immigration is, of course, necessary for the conduct of Government business. Fundamental issues such as manpower and social security transcend administrative boundaries and influence the decisions of many arms of Government.

It has been put to the Inquiry that an appraisal of these issues including such matters as the pattern of employment and unemployment, future projections of employment demand and its changing nature, the - projected size and changes in the nature of the labour

force, the position of disadvantaged and minority groups, the role of Government in job creation and employment policy, the relationship between formal employment and other social functions, employment in relation to individual and family life-cycle requirements and geographic and related influences on employment opportunity should be conducted at least every five years.

The Inquiry, however, views the problem as one requiring continuing research and development and therefore recommends that the Government establish a permanent organisation outside the departmental

318 Attachment J/15

administrative structure to review manpower and social welfare policies in their broadest sense.·

It is also considered that the extensive effort and valuable contribution of the community to this Inquiry should not be lost and that the material submitted to it should be made available for further investigation

and evaluation by such an organisation." (pages 53-4)

Other Reports

We have examined a number of reports of other Commonwealth inquiries which made recommendations on administrative arrangements in the welfare/health/community development area. Most of these, for example the Toose and Norgard Reports (on Repatriation and the Commonwealth Employment Service respectively), restricted themselves

largely to administrative aspects of specific areas within this broad field.

Similarly, the final report of the National Superannuation Committee of Inquiry concentrated on national and occupational superannuation, with some discussion of how a national scheme could relate to other income security measures. However, the Hancock Report also made passing

reference to the range of separate inquiries into related matters and commented:

" The provision of income in old age and retirement is only one function of social security. Governments are obliged to give attention to questions of priorities and to be alert to the possibility of anomalies and inconsistencies. The breadth of social

security is underlined by various official inquiries appointed in recent years. These have included the Commission of Inquiry into Poverty (with Professor R. F. Henderson as Chairman), the National

Rehabilitation and Compensation Committee of Inquiry (the Woodhouse Committee), the Independent Inquiry into the Repatriation System (Mr Justice Toose) and this Committee. The Priorities Review Staff has also included social welfare within its ambit of inquiry.

Inevitably, the areas of concern of these inquiries overlap; differences of opinion are to be expected; and problems of 'dovetailing' recommendations are likely to arise. The institution (in October 1975) of

an Income Security Review reflects an awareness of these problems.

Attaohment J/16 319.

The Government, instead of constituting the separate inquiries mentioned in the previous paragraph, might have appointed a single inquiry into the social welfare system as a whole. It did not adopt that

course; and it is certainly not the function of this Committee to undertake such an inquiry. The Committee's Terms of Reference directed it to examine and report on various matters pertaining to national superannuation and 'to make recommendations to the Government on a suitable national superannuation scheme'. We have at all times accepted that direction as defining our central responsibility. Our objective has been to propose a viable national superannuation

scheme. The suggestion that national superannuation proposals can only be developed in a total social security context, if acted upon by this Committee, would be a prescription for paralysis. Moreover, the

interdependence of policy is limitless. Taxation ■ policies, monetary policy, wage policies and the requirements for spending on defence, education and other government services all have a bearing on social welfare needs and possibilities. We must, in the end,

leave to the Government the responsibility for ensuring the overall consistency of policy." (page 104)

320. A t t a c h m e n t K / 1

(Para. 208)

ATTACHMENT K

TASK FORCE ON CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE AND HEALTH

CO-ORDINATION IN WELFARE/HEALTH

Discussion Paper No. 6

This paper is circulated to provide a basis for discussion relating to the second report of the Task Force.

2. The second report will concentrate particularly on paragraphs 1 (b) and 1 (d) of the terms of reference. These are as follows-"1. Against the background of the Government's

Federalism policy and its concern at the proliferation and overlap of Commonwealth services and programs in the health, welfare and community development fields, the Task Force

shall examine and report on -(b) ... the establishment of appropriate consultative arrangements with the States, local government and voluntary agencies on

future policy planning, administration and service delivery in the health, velfare and community development fields;

(d) the continuing machinery which should be established to co-ordinate social policy development at the Commonwealth level."

3. The Task Force would be grateful if those

willing to prepare material for its consideration could submit it by mid-February 19 77.

Organisation by Function or Client Group

4. The first report of the Task Force inclines

towards organising departments on the basis that they will administer functional groups of programs. Organisation by client groups, as in the case of Veterans' Affairs and Aboriginal Affairs, is regarded as less satisfactory in the

longer term, although often necessary in the shorter term. Thus the outcome is a "mixed" system, with functional departments being the norm and thereby avoiding duplication, but running the risk of reinforcing the less desirable

aspects of the professional groups usually associated with

Attachment K/2 321

functional administration, e.g. narrow views of function and slowness to adapt to changes in society.

5. Organising administration around client groups tends either to pressures for ever more comprehensive service, as in the case of Veterans' Affairs, or to gradual devolution of programs to functional departments, as seems likely to be the case with Aboriginal Affairs. It may be possible to combine functional and client group orientations within "functional" departments, and this is an issue on which the Task Force would welcome discussion.

Co-ordination

6. The terms of reference clearly indicate concern not only about co-ordination at the Commonwealth level, but also betwen the Commonwealth and the States, and local government and non-government agencies. The primary emphasis in the Task Force's enquiries must naturally be on. Commonwealth arrangements. However, we hope that consultation with State, local government and non-government organisations will produce a result that will make sense to

them also. Here again, the Task Force would welcome discussion of issues and alternatives.

7. Co-ordination is required not only in policy

matters but in administration. If each level of government could have allocated to it distinct and unrelated areas for policy and administration, only an informing function would be required to ensure oo-ordination. But in reality,

exclusive operation is not possible and it is therefore necessary to work out the best ways of co-ordinating policy, administrative and service delivery aspects of programs.

Deficiencies in Present Arrangements

8. In attempting to draw up proposals for

improvement in present arrangements for co-ordination, it is first necessary to identify deficiencies. For its purposes, the Task Force will be looking for "deficiencies" in co-ordination which militate against effective and economical delivery to the beneficiaries, or vdiich fail to prevent duplication or unnecessary overlap in program administration or delivery.

9. In the course of preparing its first report,

which was concerned with the administration of programs, a number of deficiencies in co-ordination came to the notice

322. Attachment K/3

of the Task Force. These are listed below: all relate to some aspect of administration. The Task Force would welcome comment on items in the list and suggestions for others which should be included.

10. The list is as follows -

Area of Deficiency Particulars

1. Policy (a) Inadequate machinery below

Cabinet level for developing proposals for the ordering.of welfare/health priorities and for developing a co-ordinated

"we If are/ health" budget.

(b) As a consequence of (a), the Cabinet is not always in a position to have an adequately informed discussion.

(c) Inadequate machinery for developing co-ordinated policy, between the Commonwealth and the States, and with local bodies.

2. Research (a) A lack of relevant

statistical information, prepared on a carefully co-ordinated basis.

(b) Inadequate facilities for planning, or conducting research, across the various functional fields.

(c) Failure adequately to identify manpower needs and develop methods of training to inset them. '

3. Evaluation (a) Deficiencies in systematic

evaluation of programs and policies at various levels.

(b) Inadequate machinery to ensure the results of evaluation are translated into changes in policy, administration etc.

Attachment K/4 323.

4. Relations Between the Commonwealth and States/local government/ non-government bodies

(a) Insufficient spreading of functions between the various levels on an understood and agreed basis.

(b) a lack of clear and rationalised mechanisms for

(i) consultation

(ii) decision-making

(iii) re-orientation of programs (see also 6 (b)) .

5. Community Involvement (a) Inadequate ways of obtaining a clearer understanding of how, and to vhat extent, the community can best be involved in planning,

decision-making, administration/ delivery and evaluation of programs.

(b) Lack of machinery, and unwillingness of some administrators, to implement (a) vtften agreement is reached.

6. Recognition of "need groups”

(a) The difficulty newly emerging "need groups" have in developing a case for assistance, and in getting administrative action.

(b) The problem of changing the orientation of a program where its objectives have been ' achieved or where the need of a particular group is no longer so

great.

Some Alternatives for Co-ordination

11. If, pursuant to its Federalism policy, the Government devolves a good deal of the responsibility for program administration and delivery in the welfare/health field to States and local bodies, the need for co-ordination

at Commonwealth level will, increasingly be associated with policy formulation and review, and less with administration and delivery. Thus discussion of this phase of the Task

324. Attachment K/S

Force's assignment will be assisted by having available decisions of the Government on its first report.

12. Set out below are some possibilities for change in existing arrangements that could produce better co-ordination either at policy or at administrative level. Some of the possible changes might well be introduced along with others - they are not mutually exclusive. The Task

Force would in this area be assisted by suggestions of alternative possibilities for change, or for refinement of the possibilities. In each case, the suggestions might be related to the area of deficiency identified in paragraph 10, or to other deficiencies not there noted.

13. It has seemed useful, in the following table, to

separate changes in co-ordinating arrangements at Commonwealth level from those which relate to the States, local government and non-government agencies because they involve separate considerations and as far as possible need

to be developed in a complementary way; e.g. it would probably not be sensible to develop a "large" health/welfare department (change 6 (a)) and institute a separate Welfare Ministers' secretariat (change 7).

Possible Change (a) At Commonwealth Level Comment

1. Make no change in

departmental structures, but broaden and formalise existing arrangements

for consultation and planning by providing for regular meetings of relevant departmental heads.

This would develop the existing informal meetings of the Permanent Heads of Health, Social Security and Veterans' Affairs. Would the meeting have powers of decision, and

should it have a regular Chairman? If change 2 is adopted the relationship between the Officials' and the Cabinet

Committee would need to be defined. Advantages: Low Cost, maximum of informality and recognition

of individual Ministerial and departmental responsibility. Disadvantages: Gives no clear leading or co-ordinating role to one particular member; will tend

towards status quo, or dominance of one "functional" or "client"

Attachment Κ/β 325.

department; and will be under pressure to handle largely "brushfire" problems.

2. Appoint Cabinet There is at present no Cabinet

Committee on Health Ccmmittee in the weIfare/health and Welfare. area. The Committee could

assist the decision-making processes, sort out priorities and promote corporate policy formulation. Advantages: Relatively

inexpensive and consistent with other Cabinet arrangements. See also 1 above. Disadvantages: Without strong

and co-ordinated official support, may not have substantial initiating role and. could become dominated by the chair Minister and by

"brushfire" issues.

3. Establish a welfare/ health policy co-ordinating secretariat in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

This would be an arrangement somewhat analogous to that current in the economic field and might work best if there were to be a Cabinet Committee

(see 2 above). Advantages: A relatively small group with access to the Prime Minister and any relevant Cabinet Committee could promote useful policy initiatives. Disadvantages: Added pressure on the Prime Minister and,a risk of "gumming up" at official level; detachment from the "welfare workface"; and a risk of usurping functional Ministerial responsibility.

4 Establish a small

policy co-ordinating and research Office, possibly attached to the Department of Social Security, which would have

opportunity to

The Office could, for administrative purposes, be attached to a department in the we Ifare/health field, say Social

Security, and would advise its views both to the originating Department and to the Minister (Social Security) .

326. Attachment K/7

comment on proposals Advantages: The Office could from all welfare/ develop a reputation for health departments. unbiased research and longer term advising, as has the Bureau

of Agricultural Economics, would be within the welfare/health field, and could discharge a valuable research and

co-ordinating role. Disadvantages: With a cross-departmental function the office might quickly become part of a

"super" welfare department and it would be likely to favour . whatever department it was attached to.

Develop a relatively (a) If many of Social small co-ordinating Security's direct granting department. programs are devolved to the

States, it could well become a co-ordinating department with policy, research and evaluative roles and overall responsibility

for relations with the States in the welfare/health field. Such a development would be emphasised if a pension-paying corporation, analogous to the Health Insurance Commission, were to be established to remove

Social Security's heaviest administrative load. (b) The Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration proposed a social welfare department presided over by a senior Minister and

responsible for co-ordination, formulation and review of welfare policies, for integration of forward estimates

and budgets and for promoting research through a Bureau of Social Policy attached to the department. Advantages: A small flexible

unit, staffed largely by secondment and operating rather

Attachment K/8 327.

like the former Departments of Defence (pre-19 72) and of Post-War Reconstruction. Disadvantages: Dangers of developing into a "super" department and of becoming abstracted from administrative realities and, if a pension-paying corporation is established, the addition of a new statutory body.

6. Large department (a) A Health and Social

Security Department along British lines could bring within one Ministry all the major Commonwealth welfare/health functions, although the amalgamation does not seem to have been altogether successful

in Britain. (b) A Health/Welfare Department could be developed, if many of Social Security's detailed administrative functions are devolved - see 5 (a) above - that would oversee the field, and monitor activities, without becoming a "giant" department as would be the case with a merger

of the two existing departments. (c) The Task Force on Health and Welfare of the Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration proposed that the three major departments be gradually restructured into two (Social Security, Repatriation and Compensation; and Health) and

that the four major statutory authorities be combined in a new Health and Welfare Commission. Advantages: Better top policy

C D - ordination; joint use of

facilities, e.g. computers, readier administrative co-ordination; and more

328. Attachment K/9

effective cross-fertilisation of the separate professional groups. Disadvantages: Cumbrous operation; a possible tendency

to dominate Aboriginal Affairs and Environment, Housing and Community Development; a reduction in the number of Ministers in the welfare/health

field; and (for (c) and possibly (b)) the complication of an added statutory authority.

(b) The Commonwealth and other levels

7. Formalise the current This would parallel the Council Welfare Ministers' of Health Ministers and with a Conference by standing body such as HASAC in establishing a the health area, could promote

standing secretariat, co-ordination at both policy­ making and decision-making levels.

8. Establish a combined This could possibly meet Council of Welfare/ following separate sessions in Health Ministers. the same place of separate Welfare and Health Ministerial

Councils, thus minimising on time and travel and providing an opportunity for joint consultation. There might be a

combined secretariat for the Health and Welfare Ministers' Conferences and it could be linked to the Commonwealth's

co-ordinating machinery.

9. Establish

Consultative committees at State and/or national level

with flexible membership (determined by agenda) from the

Commonwealth, the States, local

Consultative committees of this kind could be modelled on the Victorian Consultative Committee on Social Development.

Thought would need to be given to the relationship to this body of other consultative mechanisms, e.g. the

Consultative Council and Committees on

Attachment K/10 329.

government and Social Welfare and the National non-government Advisory Council for the organisations. Handicapped. There may need to be provision for

representation of local government and non-government organisations involved in welfare/ health activities. This machinery would have the abject of ensuring that local government and non government organisations had an opportunity

to contribute views about policy ■ and to discuss issues relating

to administration and delivery of programs.

Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health, C/- Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, West Block, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600

16 December 1976

(R77/918) Cat.No. 787138X