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Tertiary Education Commission - Draft report on study leave, dated April 1978 - Draft report


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The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia

T E R TIA R Y EDUCATIO N CO M M ISSIO N

Draft Report on Study Leave

April 1978

Presented by Command 1 1 May 1978 Ordered to be printed 9 June 1978

Parliamentary Paper No. 152/1978

T E R T I A R Y E D U C A T I O N C O M M I S S I O N

D R A F T R E P O R T ON S TUDY LEAVE

April 1978

PUBLISHED BY TERTIARY EDUCATION COMMISSION PRINTED BY UNION OFFSET CO. PTY. LTD.

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T E R T I A R Y E D U C A T I O N C O M M I S S I O N

P R E F A C E T O D R A F T R E P O R T

In July 1977, the Commission received a request from the Minister for Education, which confirmed earlier requests to the former Universities Commission and Commission on Advanced Education, to examine study leave and staff development leave schemes in universities and colleges of

advanced education and to report on the desirability of modifications to the schemes. To assist it in this task, the Commission appointed a Working Party, which has prepared

this draft report.

The Working Party considers that study leave and staff development leave have made a major contribution to the development of universities and colleges in Australia. It points out, however, that in the period since these schemes were introduced, there have been major developments in travel

and communications as well as significant developments within the university and college systems and has concluded that the existing schemes require substantial revision in the light of these changes.

The Commission supports this conclusion and is in broad agreement with the revised arrangements which the Working Party has proposed. However, before it finalises its report the Commission wishes to give interested persons and organis­

ations, including academic staff affected by the proposals, an opportunity to express their views on the report. The Commission has therefore decided, with the concurrence of the Minister, to release the report as a draft and is inviting public comment on it. Comments should be forwarded to:

Acting First Assistant Commissioner, Tertiary Education Commission, P.0. Box 250, CANBERRA CITY. A.C.T. 2601

All comments received by 14 July 1978 will be taken into account in the preparation of the final report.

PETER KARMEL Chairman

iii

April 1978

Emeritus Professor P .H. Karine 1, A.C. , C.B.E., Chairman, Tertiary Education Commission, P.0. Box 250, CANBERRA CITY A.C.T. 2601

Dear Professor Karmel,

In accordance with the request to the Tertiary Education Commission by the Minister for Education and our subsequent appointment as a Working Party to assist the Tertiary Education Commission in its consideration of study leave in universities and staff development leave in colleges of advanced education, we now present the attached draft report.

Yours sincerely,

D.N.P. Dunbar, Commissioner (Universities), Convener C.M. Searby, Commissioner W.L. Hughes, Member,

Universities Council A.W. Wilkinson, Member, Advanced Education Council

iv

C O N T E N T S

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES

Part I - General

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

TERMS OF REFERENCE ENQUIRIES OF FORMER COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES ADOPTED BY THE WORKING PARTY

CHAPTER 2 : AN OVERVIEW

APPROACH TO THE ENQUIRY 4

FORM OF REPORT 5

INTENTION OF RECOMMENDATIONS · 6

OTHER MATTERS 7

Secondment and exchange 7

Outside earnings and other income 7

Taxation matters 7

Part II - Study Leave in Un iv e r s it ie s

CHAPTER 3 : THE PRESENT SITUATION

ORIGINS OF STUDY LEAVE 10

EXISTING STUDY LEAVE SCHEMES 10

OPERATION OF STUDY LEAVE SCHEMES 17

Incidence of leave 18

Duration of leave 23

Location of leave 27

Activities undertaken by academic staff on leave ' 29

Non-academic staff 29

COSTS 29

Direct costs 29

Indirect costs 32

CHAPTER 4 : SUBMISSIONS AND OTHER VIEWS

THE SUBMISSIONS 34

The need for study leave 34

Benefits from study leave 36

Costs of study leave 36

The future 37

OTHER VIEWS 37

GENERAL _ 38

Opinions expressed in other enquiries 38

Overseas practice 40

Other Australian employment 41

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H < N C N

CHAPTER 5 : THE WORKING PARTY'S VIEWS

GENERAL Basic institutional needs The changing Australian academic situation PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE

Nomenclature SPECIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS Special studies programs Resources

Basis of release from teaching duties Periodicity of release Activities during release period OVERSEAS ACTIVITIES

Level of provision for overseas travel Duration of absences overseas Level of overseas travel grants REPORTING AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Reporting Accountability OTHER MATTERS Terms of appointment

Research only staff Non-academic staff

43 43 45 46 47 47 47 48 50 50 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 57 57.

Part III - Staff Development Leave in

Colleges of Advanced Education

CHAPTER 6 : THE PRESENT SITUATION

ORIGINS OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE 60

EXISTING STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE SCHEMES 62

OPERATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE SCHEMES 71

Incidence of leave 71

Activities undertaken by staff on leave 76

Duration of leave 77

Leave periods greater than twelve months 78

Location of leave 78

Part-time leave for staff development 79

Leave of less than three months 79

Non-teaching staff 80

COSTS 81

Direct costs 81

Indirect costs 81

CHAPTER 7 : SUBMISSIONS AND OTHER VIEWS

THE SUBMISSIONS 82

The need for staff development leave 82

Costs of staff development leave 84

OTHER VIEWS 85

Comparative data 85

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CHAPTER 8 : THE WORKING PARTY'S VIEWS

GENERAL 86

Basic institutional needs 86

PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE 88

Nomenclature 89

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS 90

Professional experience programs 90

Resources 91

Basis of release from teaching duties 91

Periodicity of release 92

Activities during release period 93

OVERSEAS ACTIVITIES 94

Duration of overseas absences 94

Financial provision for overseas travel 95

REPORTING AND ACCOUNTABILITY 96

IMPROVEMENT OF FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS 97

Part-time release from teaching duties 97

Scholarship scheme 98

Accountability 99

OTHER MATTERS 99

Terms of appointment 99

Non-teaching staff 100

Part IV - Summary

CHAPTER 9 : SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

GENERAL 102

STUDY LEAVE IN UNIVERSITIES 103

STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE SCHEMES IN COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION 106

APPENDICES A : TERMS OF REFERENCE TRANSMITTED TO UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION 114

B : TERMS OF REFERENCE TRANSMITTED TO COMMISSION ON ADVANCED EDUCATION 115

C : LIST OF SUBMISSIONS RELATING TO STUDY LEAVE IN UNIVERSITIES 117

D : LIST OF SUBMISSIONS RELATING TO STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE IN COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION 118

E : COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION -SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES 119

F : ROLE OF STATE ADVANCED EDUCATION CO-ORDINATING AUTHORITIES 137

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T A B L E S

CHAPTER 3

3.1 Study Leave Provisions in Universities, as at March 1977 12

3.2 Academic Staff Commencing a Period of Study Leave, by University, 1970 to 1975 19

3.3 Proportion of Academic Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Commencing a Period of Study Leave, by University, 1970 to 1975 20

3.4 Proportion of Available Man-Years of Academic Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Taken as Study Leave, by University, 1970 to 1975 22

3.5 Proportion of Available Teaching Man-Weeks of Academic Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Taken as Study Leave, by University, ' 1970 to 1975 24

3.6 Average Number of Months Taken by Academic Staff on Study Leave, by University, 1970 to 1975 25

3.7 Length of Study Leave Periods, by University, 1970 to 1975 26

3.8 Average Number of Months Taken by Academic Staff on Study Leave, by Grade, 1975 27

3.9 Academic Staff Taking All or Part of Study

Leave in Australia, by University, 1970 to 1975 28

3.10 Activities Undertaken During Study Leave, by University, 1975 30

3.11 Non-academic Staff Taking Study Leave (or Equivalent) During the Period 1 January 1971 to 31 December 1975, by Area of Employment and by University 31

3.12 University Travel Assistance Grants, 1975 32

CHAPTER 6

6.1 Study Leave Provisions in Colleges of Advanced Education - 1977 63

6.2 Teaching Staff Taking Staff Development Leave, by State, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 72

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73

6.3 Proportion of Teaching Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Taking Staff Development Leave, by State, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975

6.4 Proportion of Available Man-Years of Teaching Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Taken as Staff Development Leave, by State, Colleges of Advanced

Education, 1975 74

6.5 Proportion of Available Teaching Man-Weeks of Staff of the Grade of Lecturer and Above Taken as Staff Development Leave, by State, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 75

6.6 Activities Undertaken on Staff Development Leave, by Grade, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 76

6.7 Length of Staff Development Leave Periods, by State, Colleges of Advanced Education, . 1975 ' 77

6.8 Length of Staff Development Leave Periods, by Grade, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 78

6.9 Location in Which Staff Development Leave Taken, by Activity Undertaken, 197 5 79

6.10 Activities Undertaken by Staff Who Took Less Than Three Months Leave, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 80

6.11 Non-teaching Staff on Staff Development Leave, by Area of Employment, Colleges of Advanced Education, 197 5 80

APPENDIX E

1 Year in Which Institutions Established as Colleges of Advanced Education 119

2 Fields of Study - Colleges of Advanced

Education, 1975 121

3 Students in Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 128

4 Full-time Teaching Staff by Grade, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 131

5 Staff on Staff Development Leave, Colleges of Advanced Education, 1975 135

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P A R T I - G E N E R A L

C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N

Terms of Reference

1.1 The Minister for Education in his statement to the Parliament on 4 November 1976 on the programs of the education commissions for the 1977-79 triennium, foreshadowed that he

intended, in accordance with his statutory powers, to ask the Universities Commission and the Commission on Advanced Education to undertake investigations into study leave schemes operating

in universities and colleges of advanced education. The Minister wrote to the Chairman of the Universities Commission on 10 November 1976 and to the Chairman of the Commission on Advanced Education on 20 December 1976 conveying formal terms

of reference (copies of the letters are at Appendix A and Appendix B respectively).

1.2 The Universities Commission and the Commission on Advanced Education initiated the collection of information on study leave, but their investigations were not complete at the time of establishment of the Tertiary Education Commission

on 22 June 1977 . The Minister subsequently requested that the Tertiary Education Commission report to him on study leave, under section 7(1)(a)(iii) of the Tertiary Education Commission Act 1977, with the following terms of reference:

To report to the Minister for Education on -

(i) The place of study leave in relation to the functioning of universities/colleges;

(ii) The nature of existing study leave schemes at universities/ colleges, including information relating to eligibility for and conditions of study leave and information on the cost, both direct and indirect, of study leave;

(iii) The desirability of modifications to existing study leave schemes and the possible nature of any such modifications; and

(iv) Any other matters which the Commission considers relevant to this enquiry.

1.3 At its first meeting, in July 1977, the Tertiary Education Commission established a Working Party to prepare a report to assist the Commission's examination of study leave. The Working Party comprised:

Professor D.N.F. Dunbar, Commissioner (Universities), Convener ■ .

Mrs. C.M. Searby, Commissioner

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Dr. W.L. Hughes, Member, Universities Council (Managing Director, Walkers Ltd.)

Mr. A.W. Wilkinson, Member, Advanced Education Council (General Manager, (Personnel and Administration), Shell (Aust.) Pty. Ltd.)

En q u ir ie s of Former Commissions

1.4 In the course of its examination of study leave, the

former Universities Commission invited universities to make submissions addressed to the terms of reference of the enquiry and asked them to provide detailed information on their study leave schemes - including the formal provisions of the schemes and statistical data on the actual numbers of academic staff on study leave in 1975 and earlier years, the duration of their leave periods and grants received. Submissions were also invited from other major interested parties - the Australian Vice­ Chancellors' Committee, the Federation of Australian University Staff Associations and individual university staff associations. A list of submissions received by the universities Commission :

is at Appendix C. ,

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1.5 In accordance with a request made by the Federation of Australian University Staff Associations, submissions were made available in the Universities Commission's offices for perusal j for a period in mid-1977 and the major interested parties, jj listed above, were given the opportunity to make supplementary submissions within a specified time limit. No supplementary submissions were received.

1.6 The Commission on Advanced Education invited State advanced education authorities to make submissions addressed to the terms of reference of the enquiry and to provide detailed statistical information on the operation of staff development leave schemes in colleges in 1975 similar to that requested by the Universities Commission from universities. The Commission j on Advanced Education also invited submissions from the Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education, the Federation of Staff Associations of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education, the NSW Teachers Federation and the Public Service Association of NSW. A number of submissions had been received before the establishment of the Tertiary Education Commission and the balance was subsequently received by the Commission in the latter part of 1977. A list of

submissions on staff development leave in colleges of advanced education is at Appendix D .

Procedures Adopted by the W orking Party

1.7 As noted in preceding paragraphs, a considerable amount of information on study leave schemes in Australian universities and colleges had been collected at the time of the establishment of the Working Party. The Working Party, therefore, decided to base its investigations largely on material already obtained from institutions.

2.

1.8 In addition, the Working Party also sought information on comparative practices in overseas tertiary institutions and in other Australian employment. In the case of the former the Working Party had available to it some information on study

leave practices in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and New Zealand. In the latter case information was obtained from CSIRO and six large technology-intensive companies on the provision made for employees to gain overseas experience.

1.9 The Working Party's approach to the enquiry is set out in Chapter 2.

3.

C H A P T E R T W O : AN O V E R V I E W

2.1 This chapter outlines the approach taken by the Working Party to its task, comments on the form of the report and includes a number of general observations, applicable to both the university and advanced education sectors, which the Working Party wishes to make.

Approach to the Enquiry

2.2 The Working Party considered that its review of study leave and staff development leave should not be limited to the administrative details of existing schemes. It approached its task with the idea of examining the basic concept of study leave and developing from first principles arrangements designed to meet the contemporary needs of both institutions and individual staff members. The Working Party believed that a thorough review of this nature was timely in view of the many changes which have occurred in ; the Australian academic situation since the adoption of the study leave concept (on which staff development leave schemes have also been largely based) in the 1950s.

2.3 ‘ In this regard, the Working Party was disappointed that the submissions received in relation to study leave and staff development leave were concerned primarily with supporting existing schemes and none gave any serious consider­ ation to any alternative forms which might more effectively meet institutional needs. The Working Party examined the possibility of inviting submissions from a wider range of

sources but considered that the terms of reference of the enquiry precluded this.

2.4 Early in its deliberations it became evident to the Working Party that the requirements of the advanced education sector were significantly different from those of the university sector principally because of the emphasis on research as part of the duties of university staff. The Working Party has there­

fore dealt separately with the two sectors in making its recommendations, although there is a close parallel between the two. There are, of course, other differences - perhaps the most important from the point of view of the present enquiry being the role of State co-ordinating authorities in the advanced education sector. Changes have recently occurred in

the nature of some of these State authorities but these changes are not such as to affect the recommendations of the Working Party.

2.5 One aspect of the enquiry which has caused the

Working Party continuing difficulty was the shortage of reliable data on the incidence and cost of study leave in both univer­ sities and colleges. The information collected and used was

4.

sufficient to enable some general conclusions to be drawn and some trends to be identified, but in accuracy and statistical quality it falls far short of that available to the Commission in the normal statistics relating to universities and colleges of advanced education. The Working Party has included in its recommendations proposals

designed to improve the quality of data so that, in future, more reliable and precise material will be available.

2.6 A particular difficulty with the data has been the problem of identifying study leave in a context of many other forms of leave or absence from duty in the lecture room. For example, some universities regard short absences to attend

conferences as part of study leave, others do not. Some adopt different attitudes depending on whether the absence involves travel overseas. As well as conference leave^ other opportunities such as special leave, leave without pay, leave with partial pay, field work, business trips and duty journeys

of various kinds are to be found in most institutions. The Working Party has, as a result, found difficulty in making a consistent assessment which will reasonably reflect the study leave activity in each institution. It has chosen, however,

to concentrate its attention principally on extended periods of paid release from teaching duties which it believes have been characteristic of study leave and staff development leave schemes in a way which other forms of release have not.

2.7 The Working Party has attempted, despite the limitations of the available data, to assess the level of study leave activity in universities and of staff development activity in colleges from the point of view both of the institution and the individual member of staff. Limits have been suggested for these kinds of activities in terms of the total time each year which can be reasonably used for these purposes by the staff of each institution taken in aggregate. At the same time a maximum period of absence is proposed for

each member of staff in each three year period. These two constraints, taken together, are designed to enable each institution to provide opportunities appropriate to the needs of staff while at the same time keeping the total absence from

regular teaching responsibilities to an acceptable level.

Form of Report

2.8 As noted earlier, the Working Party decided that university study leave schemes and college staff development leave schemes should be considered separately. The report has therefore been divided into two main sections. One,

consisting of Chapters 3, 4 and 5, deals with study leave in universities while the other, consisting of Chapters 6, 7 and 8, relates to staff development leave in colleges of advanced education. In each case the first chapter sets out

in summary the existing arrangements; the second chapter outlines the submissions received and their contents, while in the third chapter are set out the Working Party's views

and recommendations. It should be noted in relation to some

5.

parts of Chapter 8 that arguments which apply equally to colleges and universities and which have already been stated in Chapter 5 have not been repeated in detail.

2.9 Chapter 9 contains a summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party for both sectors.

I ntentio n of Recommendations

2.10 The Working Party has been very conscious of the considerable variety in the terms of appointment of staff in the various colleges and universities, the autonomy of such institutions in fixing many of these conditions and the extent to which it is possible to vary such terms and conditions except by agreement between the parties concerned. For these reasons the Working Party has sought to couch its recommendations in a form which places the principal responsibility for action on the universities, the colleges of advanced education and the State co-ordinating authorities;

such action to be taken within certain limits set down by the Tertiary Education Commission.

2.11 The Working Party has attempted to assess the net : effect of its recommendations in terms of the effective use of real resources and the benefits to institutions, students and staff.. In universities there will be noticeable reductions in the average duration of absence from the lecture room but there may be more frequent absences which will maintain the level of research activity without detracting from the teaching obligation. Only those staff who are able to establish a need

to be released from teaching will participate in the proposed programs. Staff who are granted assistance to travel abroad for research or other approved purposes will be absent for shorter periods and will seldom receive grants in support of dependants.

2.12 Nevertheless, the general level of opportunity for sustained research for those members of staff able to make a good case based· on their capacity and the interests of the institution will be no lower than at present. '

2.13 In colleges of advanced education, the Working Party seeks to shift the emphasis from the desire on the part of individuals to improve their formal qualifications to the need for wider and continuing professional experience for the teaching staff if they are to provide the highest qualities of education expected in the colleges. More staff should be able to engage in work programs in industry or business with consequential benefit to all concerned. While the need to improve qualifications is less and less evident among the staff of the colleges, the Working Party has proposed the introduction of a scholarship scheme which will offer some staff the opportunity to gain higher formal qualifications.

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2.14 In both universities and colleges the rapid growth in staff numbers in the early years of the present decade would have resulted in an increasing demand for resources to be devoted to study leave and staff development programs in

the next few years. The Working Party holds the view that this demand should be contained within the limits suggested which may well require more selectivity of proposals and greater need to justify absences from the classroom or

lecture room while at the same time continuing to provide a reasonable opportunity for those best able to take advantage of it.

Other Matters

2.14 Secondment and exchange. The Working Party has given little attention to the possibilities of staff being exchanged between institutions or being seconded from one to another for specific periods and purposes. Such lack of

attention is not because the Working Party sees no merit in such arrangements but because they appear to be outside its terms of reference. Both procedures offer considerable opportunities for staff development and in times of relatively

stable staff numbers both represent important avenues for maintaining the quality of teaching and injecting new ideas. Any efforts to develop the use of these practices on a more widespread basis should be encouraged.

2.15 Outside earnings and other income. In many cases staff going on leave are able to obtain grants or scholarships to assist them in meeting expenses particularly in relation to travel overseas. Staff are also often able to secure employment, perhaps only part-time, while they are on leave

and are thus able to supplement their normal salary for a period. The attitude of the institution to such earnings varies but in all cases a procedure is adopted which is intended to encourage staff to seek funds from other sources

so that the calls being made on university or college funds will be reduced. Frequently the grant from the institution is reduced, but unless the total funds retained by the staff member are greater than the sum available from the institution

there is little or no incentive to seek outside assistance.

2.16 Particular problems may be seen as arising when college staff on leave accept employment with other instrument­ alities or firms. It may well result in a member of staff receiving two salaries simultaneously. The Working Party does not wish to attempt to set down criteria which should be

applied but simply draws attention to the problem and points out that a principle widely adopted in such circumstances is that the staff member should suffer no loss in income nor any substantial increase.

2.17 Taxation matters. As will be noted in Chapters 4 and 7, both FAUSA and FSAACAE included in their submissions proposals suggesting that the Asprey Committee's recommendation on tax deductibility for dependants' expenses incurred as a

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direct consequence of participating in a program of study leave or staff development leave should be endorsed by the Commission and recommended to the Government for adoption. The Working Party does not see such a recommendation as

falling within its terms of reference but in view of its recommendations on travel assistance for work overseas the point would have little relevance. The Working Party considers that the staff associations should make represent­ ations direct to the Treasurer if they wish to pursue this matter.

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PART II - S TUDY L EAVE IN U N I V E R S I T I E S

C H A P T E R T H R E E : T H E P R E S E N T S I T U A T I O N

Or ig in s of Study Leave

3.1 Study leave (or "sabbatical leave" as it has been

more commonly known) is the release from teaching commitments for one year in every seven granted by universities to academic staff to enable them to undertake a sustained period of research or to familiarise themselves with the latest developments in their fields of study. The term "sabbatical" appears to be derived from the Biblical "Sabbatical Year". (1)

3.2 As long ago as 1860, the University of Sydney

granted leave without pay to a professor to spend a year visiting laboratories in Europe and the United Kingdom, but the practice of granting formal sabbatical leave is believed to have originated at Harvard University in 1880 in response to the need to bring American academics into closer contact with the centres of learning in Britain and Europe. Similar,

considerations led to the granting of sabbatical leave in Australian universities. Although such leave has been granted in one form or another to certain categories of staff in the older universities for many decades, it is only since the Second World War that it has become widely available. All universities have developed formal schemes which make broadly

similar provisions for pro rata leave, travel grants and a range of other conditions. In the Australian context the emphasis of sabbatical leave has been on extended periods of travel to tertiary institutions and research centres in Europe and North America. In recent years the term "sabbatical leave" has been replaced by the name "study leave" in order to emphasise the academic nature of activities undertaken on

leave.

Ex is t in g Study Leave Schemes

3.3 Study leave is available to academic staff in all Australian universities. The basis on which staff may obtain study leave is set out in study leave rules or in conditions

(1) A biblical reference sometimes quoted in relation to "sabbatical year" is Deuteronomy, 15. See Sawer G., "Study Leave in Australian Universities" (republished from Quadrant) Vestes Vol. X, No. 4, December 1967, p. 224. The concept of a "sabbatical year" is perhaps better expressed in Leviticus, 25.

10.

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of appointment of staff. In most universities academic staff may apply for leave in the expectation that it will be granted subject to departmental commitments to teaching and to approval of the study program proposed. In some institutions -

notably the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University, the University of Western Australia, James Cook University of North Queensland and Monash University - study leave is regarded as a contractual right of eligible staff

and this is formally incorporated in conditions of appointment.

3.4 Study leave schemes at all Australian universities have common basic features; variations occur in matters of detail. Table 3.1 sets out the major features of study leave schemes as at March 1977. These provisions are used as a broad

guide and institutions apply them with some degree of flexibility to meet departmental convenience and the wishes of individual academic staff.

3.5 Academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above are eligible for study leave in all universities. In most universities principal or senior tutors are also eligible for leave, but sometimes under more limited conditions. Most universities also provide for certain grades of non-academic

staff such as the registrar, the university librarian and other senior administrative, library and computing staff to be granted a form of study leave.

3.6 All institutions require academics wishing to take a period of study leave to apply formally and to submit some form of plan of proposed activities. Procedures for approval vary between institutions. Most commonly approval is given by the governing body or the vice-chancellor as its delegate, often

acting on the advice of a study leave committee which considers all applications.

3.7 The standard provision for study leave is one year of leave after six years of service. Some institutions also allow staff to remain on study leave during the period known as the 'long vacation' in addition to the one year leave period. All universities make provision for leave to be taken on a pro

rata basis, usually at the rate of six months leave after three years of service. Pro rata leave is generally granted in such a way that the total study leave and assistance granted for short periods of leave will not exceed the maximum available

in each seven year period.

3.8 The Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University, because of its development as a national research institute, has adopted a scheme which provides for more liberal leave entitlements. Professors at the Institute

are entitled to one year of study leave in every four years, professorial fellows and senior fellows are eligible for one year of study leave in every six years and fellows are entitled to one year of leave in every seven years.

11.

■ετ

table 3.1 (continued)

University E ligible academic s ta ff

Minimum period of service before leave can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

Pro-rata leave available

Leave available in Australia

Full

salary and financial assistance

Non-academic s ta ff receiving leave privileges

Macquarie Full-time permanent sta ff of senior tutor level and above

3 years 12 months

after 6 years

J in

special cases

J Non-teaching members of rank equivalent to registrar and above

Wollongong Lecturer and above 3 years „ „ J In excep­

tional circum­ stances

J University librarian

Principal tutor 6 years 6 months

after 6 years

Melbourne Lecturer and above

Principal tutor

3 years 12 months

a fte r 6 years

6 months after 6 years

J J J None, but special leave

for short periods may be granted

Monash Lecturer and above n.a. 12 months

a fte r 6 years

J y y Staff of equivalent rank

of senior lecturer and above in the library and administration

Provision for replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following leave

Nil To vice- Equal to .

chancellor period of

leave - m ay be served at another in stitu tio n of higher educ­ ation in Australia

Nil To Staff Equal to

Committee of period of Council leave

Limited To Council 1 1 I I

provision

Nil To Council

Principal tutor n.a, 6 months

a fte r 6 years

table 3.1 (oontinued)

E ligible academic s ta ff

Minimum period of service before leave can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

Pro-rata leave available

Leave available in Australia

Lecturer and above

3 years 12 months

after 6 years

J J

Principal tutor 3 years 6 months

afte r 6 years

Full-time permanent teaching staff

3 years 12 months

after 6 years

J /

Ful1-time permanent staff of lecturer level and above plus senior tutors on

appointment until retirement

3 years 11 I t J May be

permitted by vice­ chancellor

Ful 1-time permanent s ta ff of senior tutor and above

n.a. 11 11 J In excep­

tional circum­ stances

Full-time sta ff of lecturer level and above

3 years It I I J J

Senior teaching fellow and principal teaching fellow

9 months afte r 6 years

University

Full

salary and financial assistance

Non-academic staff receiving leave privileges

Provision for replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following

leave

La Trobe

Deakin

Queensland

M

James Cook

G riffith

Senior librarian and above

Permanent full-tim e general and library s ta ff where a specific university need can be demonstrated

Librarian, deputy lib ra ria n , and some counselling s ta ff.

Senior members of general sta ff may apply.

Staff with salaries and conditions related to associate professor and above

University librarian

Nil

n.a.

Limited provision

Limited provision

Limited provision

To Council Equal to

within 2 months period of leave

n.a. " "

To Education Committee of Professorial Board within

3 months

To Study Leave Committee within 3 months

To School Standing Committee within 2 months

TABLE 3.1 (aonti-nued)

University E ligible academic s ta ff

Minimum period of service before leave can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

Pro-rata leave available

Leave available in Australia

Full

salary and financial assistance

Non-academic s ta ff receiving leave privileges

Provision for replacement Report required of s ta ff on following leave leave

Minimum service required following leave

Adelaide Full and half­

time s ta ff of senior tutor level and above

6 academic terms 3 academic terms after

6 years

V J j None j

Flinders Senior tu to r/

demonstrator and academic sta ff of lecturer level and above

3 academic terms

I I I I

J In special

cases

j Librarian and director of

computing services

Western Australia Senior tutor and 3 years 12 months V j j University librarian ,

above after 6 years deputy and divisional

librarians, librarians; Extension Service Director, Deputy Director and o ffice rs; Director of Electron Microscopy Centre; Director and Deputy Director of Computing Centre; Executive Officer of Language Laboratory; Director of Education Research Unit.

Nil

Nil

Yes, through study leave

replacement fund

To Council Equal to

within 3 months period of leave

To Council through the Study Leave Committee

within 2 months

To vice­ chancellor within 1 month

Murdoch Lecturer and n.a. « it V J J University librarian,

above senior librarians,

librarians, director of external studies

To vice­ chancellor

n

16.

table 3.1 (continued)

Provision for replacement Report required of s ta ff on following leave leave

Minimum service required following

leave

Tasmania Lecturer and n.a.

above

Senior tutor n.a.

Australian National

School of Lecturer and n.a.

General above (senior Studies tutors after 10 years service)

12 months after 6 years

6 months after 6 years

Staff with salaries equivalent to reader and J above may be granted 3

to 6 months leave after 6 years service

12 months J J

a fte r 6 years

J May be granted from time

to time to senior s ta ff, e.g. librarian , wardens of halls of residence

Limited To Council

provision

Limited To Council

provision

Institute Fellow and above n.a.

of Advanced Studies

Professor: J n.a. J n.a.

12 months in '

A years Reader/Senior Fellow: ' ■

12 months in 6 years Fellow':

12 months in 7 years

n.a. To Council

Equal to period of leave

Equal to period of leave - waived i f member takes

up duty at another Australian university or

University of Papua-New Guinea

n.a.

3.9 It is generally expected that academic staff will take their study leave period overseas. Although most universities permit the taking of study leave within Australia, many universities actively discourage the practice.

3.10 All universities provide study leave on full salary and all schemes provide for additional financial assistance in meeting travelling and associated costs. Some universities tie the level of financial assistance to current international

air fares, usually allowing the staff member a full return fare to the relevant destination together with a proportion of the fares of spouse and children. Other universities have schedules of grants which take into account numbers of dependants but are not directly tied to current air fares. A small number of institutions makes provision for separately identifiable

living allowances in addition to travel grants. In many cases, staff going on study leave are able to obtain funds from sources outside the university and university grants are generally reduced on a sliding scale related to the amount of outside assistance.

3.11 All universities require each member of staff returning from study leave to submit a report of activities, usually to the university's governing body. Most institutions require staff returning from study leave to continue in the

service of the university for a period at least equal to the period taken on study leave.

Operation of Study Leave Schemes

3.12 The Working Party has examined the pattern of study leave taken over the years 1970 to 1975 using the following sources of information:

(a) detailed data on university staff on study leave in 1975 collected by the former Universities Commission;

(b) material on university staff on study leave published annually by the Australian Vice­ Chancellors' Committee;

(c) additional details provided by individual universities.

This gives a broad picture of the actual operation of study leave schemes, but it must be stressed that the quality of the basic data available is not comparable with that contained in the regular statistical collections from universities. As a result, the tables presented in this report lack precision. Considerable problems surround the collection of precise data

in this area particularly in relation to matters of definition and the different approaches adopted by individual universities. Nevertheless, the data as presented are sufficiently reliable to allow broad trends to be identified both nationally and within institutions.

17 .

3.13 University study leave schemes exist alongside other provisions for short periods of leave - generally termed 'conference leave' or ’special leave'. Universities treat short periods of leave in different ways; not all regard such brief absences as study leave. With the aim of achieving

some degree of consistency in approach, the Working Party has excluded from its examination of study leave data all leave periods of less than three months duration. ! 3.14 Inoidenae of leave. There is a variety of ways in |i !

which the incidence of study leave and its impact on the university system can be measured. The Working Party has ! chosen to examine the incidence of leave in four ways. The first is in terms of actual numbers of academic staff commencing study leave periods in each year. This simply indicates the number of staff absent independent of the size of the institution.j Secondly, the number of staff commencing leave periods may be expressed as a proportion of all staff to give some indication ; of the effect in relation to total staff numbers, without

taking into account the duration of the absences. Thirdly, the impact of study leave may be considered in terms of the total length of time members of staff in the aggregate are absent, since some leave periods may be much shorter than the- i theoretical twelve months. This combination of staff number and time may be conveniently measured in terms of man-years of leave taken as a proportion of the total number of man-years of staff time. The effect on teaching activity is, however, most apparent when leave is taken during the normal teaching

term or semester. It may therefore be appropriate, fourthly, to consider absences during teaching time only. Such an effect may be measured in terms of the periods of absence of staff during the normal teaching sessions of the year as a proportion of the total teaching time available for all staff. A convenient unit for measuring such periods is the "teaching man-week" - the amount of teaching done by one man in one week. Each of these measures provides a different perspective on the effect of study leave; each has inherent limitations. While caution must be exercised in their interpretation, the four measures taken together provide useful information on broad trends. '

3.15 Table 3.2 sets out the number of staff, by institution, commencing a period of study leave in each year from 1970 to 1975. In that period the number of staff commencing a period of leave increased from 550 in 1970 to 928 in 1975. However, it should be remembered that this increase took place at a time of significant expansion in universities during which the number of full-time academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above rose from 5,870 to 8,110.

3.16 Table 3.3 relates the number of academic staff commencing periods of study leave to the number of academic staff in each institution of the grade of lecturer and above for each year from 1970 to 1975. The table shows that the proportion of academic staff commencing leave periods rose noticeably from 9.4 per cent in 1970 to 11.8 per cent in 1973 and subsequently levelled out at 11.4 per cent in 1975. It is

18.

TABLE 3.2

ACADEMIC STAFF COMMENCING A PERIOD OF STUDY LEAVE(a), BY UNIVERSITY, 1970 TO 1975

University 1970 1971 197 2 1973 1974 1975

Sydney 97 92 98 94 93 104

New South Wales 58 53 60 75 98 110

New England 29 29 30 40 42 32

Newcastle 17 18 27 23 17 23

Macquarie 4 19 25 37 37 51

Wollongong 3 4 4 8 13 12

Melbourne 34 38 50 66 58 83

Monash 69 60 79 94 78 93

La Trobe 17 21 27 35 38 41

Deakin • · • · • - • ■ - - • ·

Queensland 51 64 96 72 77 87

James Cook 9 4 13 17 18 22

Griffith ■ · • · • · - · • · -

Adelaide 49 55 49 65 58 75

Flinders 24 15 21 29 36 25

Western Australia 35 53 54 67 58 42

Murdoch • · - · • · - - ··

Tasmania 17 10 30 36 42 43

Australian National

School 21 37 45 42 42 38

Institute 16 23 33 25 22 47

TOTAL 550 595 741 825 827 928

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

S o u r c e : AVCC 'Study Leave Abroad1 Lists (as corrected by universities) and information on staff on study leave in 1975 provided by universities.

19

TABLE 3.3

PROPORTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) COMMENCING A PERIOD OF STUDY LEAVE(b), BY UNIVERSITY, 1970 TO 1975

University 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

per -per per per per per

cent cent cent cent cent cent

Sydney 13.1 12.0 12.0 10.6 10.3 10.8

New South Wales 8.4 7.2 7.8 8.7 10.6 10.6

New England 12.6 12.0 12.0 15.9 14.6 10.5

Newcastle 10.4 10.1 13.7 10.6 7.4 9.3

Macquarie 1.9 7.8 9.3 13.0 11.8 14.4

Wollongong 5.0 5.9 5.3 10.1 14.3 10.8

Melbourne 4.7 5.3 6.9 8.1 6.6 9.0

Monash 13.2 10.7 13.5 15.2 11.7 13.3

La Trobe 9.2 9.7 11.0 13.0 12.2 12.1

Deakin • - • · • · • · • · • ·

Queensland 7.6 9.1 13.1 9.2 ,9.6 10.2

James Cook 9.9 3.7 11.7 14.4 13.7 16.4

Griffith • · • · - · - · -

Adelaide 10.7 11.5 10.4 12.8 10.9 13.7

Flinders 19.5 10.3 12.8 16.3 18.3 11.4

Western Australia 9.4 13.2 13.4 15.3 12.6 8.6

Murdoch • · • - • - • · • - -

Tasmania ■ 10.6 5.8 15.6 18.3 19.7 19.0

Australian National

School 8.2 14.1 16.4 14.5 13.5 13.4

Institute 7.3 10.6 14.6 11.0 9.4 17.8

ALL UNIVERSITIES 9.4 9.6 11.4 11.8 11.0 11.4

(a) Full-time academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above; in the case of the Institute of Advanced Studies - ANU: professors, professorial fellows, senior fellows and fellows.

(b) Excluding leave of less than three months.

S o u r c e : AVCC 'Study Leave Abroad1 Lists (as corrected by universities) and information on staff on study leave in 1975 provided by universities.

20

apparent from Table 3.3 that there are significant differences between universities in the proportion of academic staff commencing periods of leave in each year. While these differences may in part reflect the relative availability of

study leave between institutions, a major part of the difference may also be accounted for by a tendency for staff in some institutions to make greater use of short periods of leave at more frequent intervals. At those institutions where a

significant number of academic staff take two or more short periods of study leave within a six year period rather than a full year of leave after a six year interval the proportion of academic staff departing in each year would be correspondingly higher.

3.17 As the length of individual study leave periods actually taken varies, the third approach mentioned in para­ graph 3.14 may be used as an informative measure of the commitment of university staff resources to study leave by comparing the number of "man-years" of leave taken by academic

staff starting a period of study leave each year with the total number of available "man-years" for academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above in that year. This measure gives an indication of the notional proportion of academic staff absent

from an institution on study leave at any given time throughout a year. Table 3.4 shows the proportion of total available "man-years" of staff of the grade of lecturer and above taken as study leave by staff commencing leave periods in each year

1970 to 1975 . For the university system as a whole, there was a moderate increase in the absence of staff on study leave from 7.7 per cent in 1970 to 9.2 per cent in 1972 followed by a tapering-off to 8.5 per cent in 1975. There are marked

differences in the proportions of staff on leave in a given year between universities and from year to year within individual institutions. These differences may be attributable to such factors as the relative availability of leave, the extent to which academics take the full length of leave available under

study leave schemes and a trend over the period towards the taking of shorter periods of leave at more frequent intervals.

3.18 It is difficult from the available data to draw firm conclusions about the extent to which academic staff at Australian universities have taken the full amount of leave for which they are eligible under university study leave

schemes. It is sometimes argued that if all eligible academic staff used their maximum study leave provision of one year of leave after every six years of service then one in seven (or 14 per cent of academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above) would be absent on study leave in each year. However, in truth, the taking of full study leave allowances would result in a level of staff absences of 14 per cent only in a

situation where there is a static population in the eligible class of staff. At a time of.expansion in staff numbers, as occurred over the years 1970 to 1975, a proportion of new staff would not be immediately eligible for study leave, due

to minimum period of service provisions and the need to accrue leave credits. Consequently, even if all staff took their study leave in full as they became eligible, the proportion of

21.

TABLE 3.4

PROPORTION OF AVAILABLE MAN-YEARS OF ACADEMIC STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) TAKEN AS STUDY LEAVE(b), BY UNIVERSITY, 1970 TO 1975

University 1970 1971 19 72 197 S 1974 1975

per per per per per per

cent cent cent cent cent cent

Sydney 10.2 9.5 9.5 8.1 8.3 8.1

New South Wales 7.3 7.1 7.0 7.4 8.1 8.0

New England 11.1 10.1 9.7 14.2 10.6 7.8

Newcastle 9.3 9.7 12.4 9.1 6.7 7.1

Macquarie 1.0 6.5 7.5 11.0 9.8 12.4

Wollongong 5.3 5.8 6.1 8.2 10.5 7.9

Melbourne 4.2 4.6 5.6 6.3 4.8 6.9

Monash 10. 9 8.5 9.5 11.1 8.4 9.1

La Trobe 7.3 7.0 7.7 10.3 8.5 9.2

Deakin ·· • · - - • · - · - ·

Queensland 6.8 7.5 11.3 7.7 8.0 7.6

James Cook 9.5 2.4 9.8 11.9 11.2 13.6

Griffith • · - - - · • · - · ' “

Adelaide 8.4 10.1 9.0 10.4 9.0 10.6

Flinders 15.9 10.0 10.3 12.1 13.8 8.0

Western Australia 7.3 10.4 11.9 12.0 10.2 6.5

Murdoch • - • · • · • - • · -

Tasmania 8.4 4.8 10.9 11.1 13.7 12.1

Australian National

School ■ 6.2 10.5 12.2 11.1 10.8 9.2

Institute 5.4 7.3 10.9 7.4 7.8 10.1

ALL UNIVERSITIES 7.7 7.9 9.2 9.2 8.6 8.5

(a) Full-time academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above; in the case of the Institute of Advanced Studies: professors. professorial fellows, senior fellows i and fellows.

(b) Data relate to staff commencing study leave periods (excluding leave of less than three months) in each year.

S o u r c e . - AVCC ' Study Leave Abroad1 Lists (as corrected by universities) and information on staff on study leave in 1975 provided by universities.

22

staff absent in each year would be somewhat less than 14 per cent. Detailed information on the number of eligible staff each year is not available, but the data in Tables 3.2 to 3.4 suggest that, on an Australia-wide basis, academic staff have generally taken less than the theoretical period of absence available under the various university study leave schemes.

3.19 A further approach as indicated in paragraph 3.14 is to consider the effect of study leave on university teaching programs by comparing the total number of teaching weeks taken as study leave in a particular year with the total number of available "teaching man-weeks" in that year. Table 3.5 sets out the proportion of the total number of available "teaching man-weeks" of staff of the grade of lecturer and above taken as study leave, by university, 1970 to 1975. The data presented

in the table are subject to the limitation that the calculation of teaching weeks taken as study leave is based on standardised terms dates and does not take into account varying term and semester dates between universities, within individual institu­

tions and across the years under study. Similarly, a standardised number of teaching weeks per year has been used in the calculation of available "teaching man-weeks". Nevertheless, subject to these limitations of the data which may distort the figures for individual institutions, the table

serves to illustrate approximate proportions of university teaching resources committed to study leave. The table shows that for all universities the proportion of available teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above taken as

study leave rose from 8.4 per cent in 1970 to 9.5 per cent in 1973 and subsequently tapered off to 8.8 per cent in 1975.

3.20 Duration of leave. Table 3.6 shows the average _

number of months taken by members of academic staff commencing study leave in each of the years 1970 to 1975. The average length of leave declined from 9.9 months in 1970 to 8.9 months in 1975. Table 3.7 shows the proportion of total study leave absences in each university which were of 5-7 months duration or of 10 months or more for each of the years 1970 to 1975.

It is apparent that the majority of leave periods taken were of either approximately six or twelve months duration and that there is a discernible trend towards shorter leave periods. For all universities the proportion of leave periods of 10 months or more fell from 58.9 per cent in 1970 to 45.5 per cent in 1975 whilst the proportion of leave periods of 5-7 months duration

increased from 17.8 per cent in 1970 to 26.7 per cent in 1975.

3.21 Two other relationships (a) the academic rank and (b) the length of leave discipline group were also considered for

length of leave and periods and the year 1975.

23.

TABLE 3.5

PROPORTION OF AVAILABLE TEACHING MAN-WEEKS OF ACADEMIC STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) TAKEN AS STUDY LEAVE(b), BY UNIVERSITY, 1970 TO 1975(c)(d)

University 19 70 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

per per per per per per

cent cent cent cent cent cent

Sydney 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.8 8.9 7.7

New South Wales 6.6 5.8 7.4 6.7 8. 2 7.3

New England 10.1 9.0 12.1 14.4 11.9 10.8

Newcastle 9.4 9.6 12.1 9.3 8.9 6.4

Macquarie 2.0 5.1 7.2 9.6 9.4 12.4

Wollongong 8.0(e) 6.6 4.0(e) 8.4 6.2 11.5

Melbourne 3.6 4.9 5.7 5.7 5.8 6.2

Monash 10.5 10.0 10.1 11.4 10.1 8.7

La Trobe 6.0 8.2 5.1 10.9 9.6 9.3

Deakin - · • · • · • - - · - ·

Queensland 6.9 7.7 9.4 8.9 8.9 8.0

James Cook 7.4 3.9 6.8 10.8 12.0 15.9

Griffith • ■ • · - · • - -

Adelaide 12.0(e) 11.8 10.0 9.7 9.2 11.8

Flinders 9.6 11.1 8.6 10.6 12.1 12.6

Western Australia 6.7 10.2 10.2 12.1 10.8 7.7

Murdoch · - - · • · - · • ■ -

Tasmania 10.8 7.4 9.0 10.7 12.1 13.2

Australian National

School . 7.5 10.8 12.3 12.4 9.2 10.9

Institute · ■ • · • · • · - · • ·

ALL UNIVERSITIES 8.4 8.2 8.8 9.5 9.0 8.8

(a) Full-time academic staff of the grade of lecturer and above.

(b) Excluding leave of less than three months.

(c) Calculated in terms of standardised terms dates.

(d) Information in this table is not strictly comparable on a year-by-year basis with the data in Tables 3.2 to 3.4 as it is derived from the number of teaching weeks taken as study leave which fall within calendar years and is not related to staff commencing study leave in a particular year.

(e) Partly estimated.

Source: AVCC 'Study Leave Abroad' Lists (as corrected by universities) and information on staff on study leave in 1975 provided by universities.

24.

TABLE 3.6

AVERAGE NUMBER OF MONTHS TAKEN BY ACADEMIC STAFF ON STUDY LEAVE(a) , BY UNIVERSITY,, 1970 TO 1975

University 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

Sydney 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.1 9.6 9.0

New South Wales 10.5 11.8 10.8 10.1 9.2 9.0

New England 10.6 10.1 9.8 10.7 8.7 8.9

Newcastle 10.8 11.5 10.8 10.2 10.8 9.1

Macquarie 6.2 9.7 9.7 10.1 10.0 10.4

Wollongong 12.8 11.9 13.7 9.7 8.9 8.8

Melbourne 10.6 10.4 9.7 9.4 8.8 9.2

Monash 9.9 9.5 8.5 8.8 8.6 8.3

La Trobe 9.4 8.7 8.5 9.5 8.4 9.2

Deakin • - • · • - • - - · • ·

Queensland 10.8 9.9 10.4 10.1 10.0 9.0

James Cook 11.4 7.8 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.9

Griffith • · • · • · • - • · -

Adelaide 9.4 10.6 10.4 9.7 9.9 9.3

Flinders 9.8 11.6 9.6 8.9 9.1 8.5

Western Australia 9.3 9.5 10.8 9.5 9.7 9.0

Murdoch - · • - • · - · ·· -

Tasmania 9.4 10.0 8.3 7.3 8.3 7.7

Australian National ,

School 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.6 9.4

Institute 8.9 8.2 9.0 8.1 10.0 6.8

ALL UNIVERSITIES 9.9 9.9 9.7 9.4 9.3 8.9

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months. .

Source ■ . AVCC ' Study Leave Abroad" Lists (as corrected by universities) and information on staff on study leave in 1975 provided by universities.

25

LENGTH OF STUDY LEAVE PERIODS, BY UNIVERSITY, 1970 TO 1975

TABLE 3.7

1974 1 975

Study Leave Absences 5-7 Months

Study Leave Absences 10 Months

and Over

Study Leave Absences 5-7 Months

Study Leave Absences 10 Months

and Over

per cent per cent per cent per cent

20.4 52.7 23.1 48.1

42.9 45.9 34.5 44.5

31.0 42.9 12.5 53.1

11.8 76.5 30.4 56.5

21.6 62.2 19.6 74.5

30.8 38.5 25.0 41.7

19.0 37.9 18.1 42.2

30.8 41.0 32.3 34.4

31.6 26.3 31.7 46.3

23.4 66.2 37.9 47.1

27.8 66.7 22.7 68.2

·· • o - -

29.3 66.5 18.7 60.0

27.8 25.0 16.0 20.0

34.5 55.2 28.6 52.4

.0 - -

33.3 35.7 44.2 16.3

23.8 59.5 23.7 50.0

13.6 63.6 17.0 21.3

28.1 49.9 26.7 45.5

Table 3.8 shows the average length of study leave periods, by grade, of academic staff commencing leave in 1975. The table shows that academic staff of the grade of senior lecturer and associate professor/reader generally took longer leave periods - the average number of months taken by staff in these grades being 9.3 and 9.1 months respectively. The average

length of leave taken by professors in the year examined was 7.6 months which was considerably below the average for all grades.

t a b l e 3.8

AVERAGE NUMBER OF MONTHS TAKEN BY ACADEMIC STAFF ON STUDY LEAVE(a), BY GRADE, 1975

Grade ,

Number commencing study leave in 1975

Average months on leave

Professor 141 7.6

Associate Professor/Reader 152 9.1

Senior Lecturer 348 9.3

Lecturer 262 8.9

Principal Tutor, Senior Tutor, Senior Demonstrator

25 8.4

ALL GRADES 928 8.9

(a) Excluding leave' of less than three months.

3.22 Analysis of data on lengths of study leave periods taken by staff commencing leave in 1975 by broad discipline group showed no major differences between academic staff employed in science and technology faculties and staff in humanities and social science faculties. However, in that year the average number of months taken by academic staff in

science and technology based faculties was slightly higher than the average for staff in humanities and social science based faculties.

3.23 Location of leave. In accordance with the original philosophy behind the granting of study leave for Australian academics, the majority of study leave taken is spent overseas. Table 3.9 sets out the proportion of staff commencing study

leave in the years 1970 to 1975 who spent all or part of their study leave periods in Australia. While there are marked variations between and within institutions, there has been a

27.

2 8.

significant increase in the proportion of staff spending study leave in Australia. In 1970, 0.7 per cent of academics taking study leave spent all of their leave period in Australia, while in 1975 the proportion was 4.6 per cent. Over the same period

the proportion of staff taking all or part of their leave period in Australia increased from 1.8 per cent to 10.5 per cent. At two institutions the proportion of staff taking study leave in Australia has been noticeably high in recent years - 20.9

per cent of staff from the University of Tasmania commencing a period of study leave in 1975 spent all of their leave in Australia and, in the same year, 21.1 per cent of staff at the School of General Studies at the Australian National University

commencing a period of leave spent that leave in Australia.

3.24 Activities undertaken by academic staff on leave. An analysis was undertaken of 869 study leave reports of staff returning from leave in 1975. The results are contained in Table 3. 10. The table shows that 48 per cent of those on study

leave were engaged in direct research; 28 per cent undertook a multi-visit tour of institutions engaged in work of interest to the staff member. The remaining leave periods were distributed between teaching, improvement of teaching, professional practice or further study.

3.25 Non-academic staff. Whilst most universities make provision for certain senior members of their non-academic staff to take study leave (or an equivalent), the numbers of non-academic staff who actually take such leave are small.

Table 3.Ί1 shows the total numbers of non-academic staff from each institution taking study leave (or equivalent) over the years 1971 to 1975 inclusive, by category. In the five year period 113 non-academic staff took periods of leave which

represents little more than one staff member per year for each university. The average duration of leave taken by non-academic staff (not shown on the table) was 6.3 months.

Costs

3.26 Direct costs. The information provided by universities indicates that the direct costs attributable to the study leave system are comparatively small, the principal expenditure being in the form of travel grants and other assistance to staff. Seven hundred and ninety-five of the nine hundred and twenty- eight academic staff commencing study leave periods in 1975 received travel grants. Total university expenditure on those grants amounted to $1.58 million which represented an average of $1,987 per staff member receiving a grant.

3.27 Table 3.12 sets out data on the levels of grants

made to staff commencing leave periods in 1975. The table shows that the majority of grants made were in the range of $1,000 to $3,000. As noted in paragraph 3.10, the means by which travel assistance grants are determined varies from

one university to another. A detailed examination of travel assistance grants made to academics commencing a period of study leave in 1975 revealed that there was a wide range in

29 .

TABLE 3.10

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN DURING STUDY LEAVE, BY UNIVERSITY, 1975

(a)

Proportion Undertaking Each A ctivity

University

Direct Research

Multi­ v is it Tour

Teaching

Further Study

Improvement of Teaching Professional Practice

Illness

per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent

Sydney (b) 56 26 5 8 4 1 0

New South Wales 37 29 9 9 5 9 2

New England 64 17 4 4 10 1 0

Newcastle 41 35 4 9 2 8 1

Macquarie (c) n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

Wollongong 31 48 8 9 4 0 1

Melbourne 45 31 9 5 4 5 1

Monash 49 27 7 8 4 5 0

La Trobe 44 26 6 14 8 2 0

Queensland 39 34 7 10 6 3 1

James Cook 56 20 4 15 2 2 1

Adelaide 47 26 6 6 10 4 1

Flinders 54 32 7 2 4 1 0

Western Australia 50 27 6 7 6 3 1

Tasmania 53 29 5 4 5 3 1

Australian National

School 56 19 10 5 - 5 4 1

Institute 62 22 9 4 0 2 1

48 28 7 7 5 4 1

(a) ( i) Direct research - involving working at a fixed .place on a specific problem or problems,, This w ill include writing of books.

( ii ) M u lti-v is it tour - seeing a number of universities and institutions engaged in work of interest to the s ta ff member.

( i i i ) Teaching - both undergraduate and graduate teaching on either a formal basis or given informally. Included in this category is the presentation of papers at conferences.

(iv) Further study - involving formal enrolment in undergraduate or graduate courses, completion of Ph.D. theses and attendance at conferences other than when presenting papers.

(v) Improvement of teaching - involving study of teaching techniques or acquisition of data and further knowledge of advancement of teaching capability.

(vi) Professional practice - some staff members in professional schools take study leave in professional practice although the work may sometimes be on research and may d iffe r lit t le from that done by others working in a university. In some cases the professional practice is normal routine practice - undertaken with the object of keeping the s ta ff member in touch with the profession.

(v ii) Illness - either of the sta ff member or members of his family which necessitates interruption to the study leave program. .

(b) Only a small sample of 1975 reports was received.

(c) No reporting requirement in 1975.

Source: Reports of university academic staff returning from study leave in 1975.

30.

TABLE 3.11

NON-ACADEMIC STAFF TAKING STUDY LEAVE (OR EQUIVALENT)(a) DURING THE PERIOD 1 JANUARY 1971 TO 31 DECEMBER 1975, BY AREA OF EMPLOYMENT AND BY UNIVERSITY

Area of Employment

UnWersity Administ­ ration

Finance and Statistics Library

Health and Counselling Computer Service

Building Section

Adult Education

Union O fficials, S Wardens of Halls

Other Total

Sydney 2 2 1 3 1 1 10

New South teles 1 1 1 1 4

New England 4 1 1 1 7

Newcastle 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 9

Macquarie 2 . 1 3

Wollongong 1 1

Melbourne 3 1 2 3 3 12

Monash 5 1 1 1 1 2 11

La Trobe 1 4 2 7

Deakin ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· *· .<* ··

Queensland 3 2 3 1 1 10

James Cook 1 1 2

G riffith ·· . . ·· *· • o ·· ·· ·· ·· -

Adelaide 1 1 3 1 6

Flinders 1 4 1 1 7

Western Australia 1 4 1 1 2 9

Murdoch oe .. ·· ·« ·· ·· ·· ·· ··

Tasmania 1 2 1 4

Australian National 3 2 3 2 1 11

TOTAL

28 9 30 16 7 3 9 5 6 113

NUMBER

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Source: Information provided by universities on non-academic s ta ff absences 1971-75.

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the average level of grants made available by individual institutions. However, the Working Party had no information on the numbers of dependants of individual academics or on the extent to which university grants were reduced due to external awards.

TABLE 3.12 .

UNIVERSITY TRAVEL ASSISTANCE GRANTS, 1975

Amount of Grant

Staff Receiving Grants

$

1 to 1,000 118

1,001 to 2,000 308

2,001 to 3,000 258

More than 3,000 111

3.28 Another element of direct cost which could be incurred is in the temporary employment of staff to replace the staff on study leave but, in practice, very little provision is made by most universities. The University of Western Australia is the only institution which makes special budgetary provision for

such replacements. The funds so provided are used to bring to Western Australia academics from overseas universities in order to decrease the University's isolation from the world's academic community. The sum set aside for this purpose by the University of Western Australia was $321,000 in 1975.

3.29 In other universities study leave is arranged at times and for periods which, in general, enable the teaching commitments to be met by rearrangement of duties and sharing of responsibilities among existing staff. In very small departments this, sometimes can create difficulties, of course, and occasionally it is found necessary to employ part-time specialist staff. Based on a survey undertaken by the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (the results of which were contained in the Committee's submission on study leave) it is estimated that in 1975 the total cost of provision of replacement staff for all universities other than the University of Western Australia was $85,000.

3.30 Indirect costs . It is in the area of salaries and

salary related costs that the major expenditure may appear to occur; the claim is sometimes made that the salaries of academic staff on leave are an indirect cost of the system of study leave. The Working Party has commented on this matter in paragraph 5.20.

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3.31 It is of course possible to make an estimate of

the salary costs of staff on leave. Based on available data on "man-years" of absence in each grade in 1975 and assuming an average salary level for each grade, it is estimated that the salaries and salary related costs

(superannuation, workers compensation and payroll tax) of staff on study leave in 1975 amounted to $13.8 million.

3.32 Using the above data it follows that the share of

resources which may be attributed to study leave in 1975 was $15.8 million which represented 3.5 per cent of the general recurrent grants to Australian universities in that year.

33.

C H A P T E R F O U R : S U B M I S S I O N S A N D O T H E R V I E W S

The Su bm is sio n s

4.1 Submissions on study leave were received from the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee, the universities, the Federation of Australian University Staff Associations (FAUSA) and individual university staff associations. In addition, the Tertiary Education Commission received correspondence on study leave from university academic staff. The submissions, which are listed in Appendix C, varied in length from one or

two pages to over fifty pages. They addressed themselves primarily to the need for study leave for university academic staff and the benefits derived from it by universities and the community. A number of specific matters relating to the financial impact of study leave on university academics were also raised, particularly in submissions by FAUSA and the staff associations.

4.2 The need for study leave. The submissions were ;

unanimous in arguing that the system of study leave has been vital to the research contribution of university academic staff and, hence, essential to the fulfilment by Australian universities of their proper role in society - the expansion of the boundaries of human knowledge in all fields of intellectual endeavour through original research. Most made the point that research projects, whether they be in the fields of science and technology or humanities and the social sciences, characteristically require for their successful completion some extended periods of uninterrupted involvement. While academic staff have time available to carry out research inter­

spersed between teaching and routine administrative commitments (assessment, student advising, supervision of higher degree students, participation in administrative committees), the increasing burden of these commitments restricts their opportunities to discharge effectively their research obligations. The periodic release from teaching and administ­ rative duties permitted by the study leave system was seen to provide the period of sustained concentration necessary for many research projects to bring them to fruition. The

submissions drew attention to the existence of sabbatical leave provisions in universities in the United Kingdom, North America and New Zealand as evidence of the world-wide recognition of the need for university academics to have this form of release.

4.3 The submissions stated that the emphasis on the taking of study leave overseas stems from the particular historical and geographical circumstances of Australian universities. Australian institutions have suffered from

their remoteness from centres of learning in Europe and North America and from the fact that Australia is in itself a vast, sparsely populated continent. The existence of a large number of institutions in the Northern Hemisphere, separated by

34.

relatively short distances, has encouraged a process of exchange of information and ideas between those universities. Australian universities have been cut off from this inter­ action and, as a number of submissions stressed, those

institutions in Western Australia, North Queensland and Tasmania are remote even from the exchange between institutions in the more closely settled areas of Australia.

4.4 Many other reasons were cited in support of the

emphasis placed on overseas travel in all study leave schemes. Submissions pointed out that the Australian university system is of relatively recent origin. Before 1950 there was, with

a few notable exceptions, little research carried out in Australian universities and almost no research training (the first Ph.D. was not awarded until 1947). Advances in science and technology, humanities and the social sciences have emanated principally from institutions in Europe and North America and

the granting of overseas study leave has been the principal means by which Australian universities have kept in direct touch with world developments. Similarly, the granting of overseas study leave has enabled Australian academics to obtain access

to extensive library and research facilities not available in Australia.

4.5 In a number of submissions and in letters from

academic staff it was also pointed out that in certain disciplines such as in foreign language studies there is a particular need for scholars to spend time in other countries if they are properly to develop their skills. In other disciplines the number of academic staff working in the

speciality in Australian universities is so limited that these academics need the opportunity for regular interaction with larger centres of study in overseas institutions.

4.6 In summary, the major purposes which submissions identified as being served by the study leave system were:

. it provides academics with the opportunity to undertake a period of sustained research released from teaching and administrative duties;

. it enables academics active in research to familiarise themselves with the latest develop­ ments in their special fields of study by visiting overseas institutions and meeting other

scholars;

. it provides access to research facilities, libraries or original source material not available in Australia;

. it reduces the isolation imposed on Australian universities by their geographical isolation from major centres of learning; and

. it provides academic staff with the opportunity to refresh themselves intellectually and develop new insights into their fields of study.

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4.7 Benefits from study leave. A number of submissions addressed the question of the benefits which accrue to universities and to the community from study leave. In general, the system of study leave has enabled Australian universities to maintain a high standard of research and to keep abreast of the latest developments occurring in institutions of higher learning around the world. Universities have passed these benefits on to government, industry and the community through their research publications, teaching programs and through academic consultancy. In addition, some submissions pointed out that the interaction of Australian academics with overseas

institutions had improved the international standing of Australian universities and contributed to the recruitment of overseas academics to Australian institutions. The FAUSA submission put forward a more specific list of benefits arising from study leave including improvement of teaching standards, the introduction of new undergraduate and postgraduate courses, the establishment of overseas contacts, broadening of academic perspectives and intellectual refreshment and the conduct of business overseas for universities by academic staff on study leave.

i

4.8 Costs of study leave. A number of submissions

commented on the costs of the study leave system. They argued; that the only costs incurred were the travel grants made to academic staff, as there is generally no provision made for the replacement of academic staff going on study leave. It was said that.since travel grants do not reimburse full travel costs and other expenses universities derive disproportionately greater benefits from their study leave programs. Attention was drawn to the fact that travel grants constitute only a very

small proportion of university recurrent budgets.

4.9 Those submissions which commented on costs took the view that the salaries of staff on leave could not be considered as part of the costs of the study leave system since such staff should be regarded as performing part of their normal university duties. The submissions rejected the argument that universities were overstaffed to the extent of the number of staff absent

on leave since academics, whose duties require them to both teach and do research, expand their teaching load in those years when not on leave (at the expense of research activity) in the expectation of undertaking a sustained period of research 1 during study leave, thus resulting in a balanced teaching and I research commitment. I!!;

4.10 The FAUSA submission, and those of individual staff 1

associations, drew particular attention to financial burdens incurred by university academic staff taking study leave, , particularly those with dependants. Data on this matter were set out in some detail in the FAUSA submission. Based on a

survey of 102 academic staff who went on study leave in 1975, FAUSA estimated that an academic going overseas on study leave in typical circumstances in that year for 3-6 months would have incurred additional costs, not covered by university travel grants, of approximately $3,700, and, if the absence was 1

between 10 and 12 months, the additional cost would have been of the order of $5,700. It was argued that any prooosals for

36.

modification of study leave schemes should aim to alleviate the financial burden on individual academics.

4.11 Several submissions pointed out that under the present taxation system the travel assistance grant paid by universities in respect of dependants is taxable and that travelling and other expenses incurred in relation to dependants

accompanying academics on study leave are not tax deductible. The submissions urged that any recommendations to the Government on study leave should include support for the proposal of the Taxation Review Committee (Asprey Committee) on this matter. The Asprey Committee had proposed that the amount of a

reasonable allowance provided by the employer to cover the fares of the employee, spouse and dependent children, and the extra expenses which fall on the employee in undertaking the study leave and are met by way of a per diem allowance, should not be

included in income when an extended period of leave is involved. (1)

4.12 The future. Submissions were emphatic in their defence of the existing study leave system and in no case was any fundamental change to present schemes suggested. The FAUSA submission stressed that study leave should be "a basic right of university academic staff" and proposed that, in future, study

leave also be considered in all institutions as an "obligation of academic staff". This sentiment was echoed in submissions by some staff associations.

4.13 All submissions took the view that study leave schemes should continue to be administered by individual institutions in accordance with local requirements. However, a number of possible administrative changes received general support, including:

. greater scrutiny of proposed study leave programs;

. more effective reporting procedures, including the public availability of leave reports;

. greater emphasis on shorter periods of leave at more frequent intervals; and

. greater flexibility in the administration of schemes, including full transferability of credits between institutions.

Other Views

4.14 Although submissions were not sought by general advertisement, the Working Party has been aware of editorial and other public criticism of the study leave system and has treated these criticisms seriously in its consideration of

study leave. 1

(1) Taxation Review committee (Asprey Committee), Full Report, 1 January 1975, paragraphs 9.63 to 9.66.

37.

4.15 The most commonly voiced criticism is that the system of study leave is a generous fringe benefit which enables academic staff and their families to enjoy long periods abroad at the institutions' and the taxpayers' expense without producing any tangible benefits to the university system and to the community. Many believe that

lack of adequate administrative supervision of schemes has led to widespread abuse of study leave opportunities.

4.16 At a time when there are considerable constraints on the funds available for universities, study leave is also seen by many to impose unjustifiable costs on the university system - both in terms of direct university expenditure on travel assistance grants and through the salaries of academic staff absent on study leave. It is argued that in order to support the study leave system universities are substantially overstaffed - the claim being made that there could be considerable savings achieved by the abolition of study leave with a consequent reduction of university academic staff

establishments. Some critics point out that continued high levels of expenditure on academic study leave has an adverse effect on students because resources are diverted from teaching and other priority programs in order to sustain the study leave system.

4.17 A fundamental criticism is that the present system of study leave is outdated and is no longer relevant to the contemporary needs of universities. Australia is not as isolated from other centres of learning as it used to be due to developments in communication and travel and the need to travel overseas has correspondingly diminished. Proponents of this view argue that overseas study leave should not be an entitlement of all academic staff but rather should be granted only when an academic has made a strong case for study leave.

. General

4.18 Other information on study leave which the Working Party has taken into account included the opinions expressed in a number of enquiries related to tertiary education, the provisions made in overseas institutions to meet the needs served by study leave in Australian universities and practices followed in other areas of employment within Australia.

4.19 Opinions expressed in other enquiries. Although there has not previously been any investigation at the national level directed toward a broad assessment of the place of study leave in relation to the functioning of universities, study leave has been considered, in passing, in the context of a number of independent enquiries into matters related to the tertiary education system. These enquiries have all acknowledged the particular needs of Australian academics arising from Australia's geographical situation and have supported study

leave on the ground of its contribution to the research effort

38.

of universities. The Report of the Committee on Australian Universities(2) (Murray Committee), in 1957, observed:

226. (The) problem of Australia's isolation is more pronounced when one considers the need for adequate study leave for staff. Whereas periods of leave for study and research are desirable in the conditions of service of any university teacher, for Australian university staffs they are essential, if the teachers are to keep abreast of the most recent developments in their particular fields of

study. The seats of learning and the libraries available for research are in most subjects situated in either Europe or America, and it is necessary that Australian university teachers should be given opportunities from time to time to

refresh their minds and enlarge their knowledge by consulting the best sources of information and inspiration on their own subjects.

The Report of the Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia(3) (Martin Committee), in 1964, echoed the sentiments of the Murray Committee:

Leave of absence for study overseas is generally accepted in academic circles as one means of keeping informed of new developments in a particular subject; and even where adequate travel funds, accommodation, libraries and equipment for reproducing source materials are available in Australia, the

necessity for Australian scholars to go overseas periodically is not removed. Geographically they are isolated and, whether engaged in research or teaching, they need the spur of recurrent association with scholars overseas. Furthermore, university staff working in the language, the literature,

the art or the history of other countries need to spend some time in these places'. . . . The Committee wishes to emphasis the importance of granting study leave to university staff as a means of raising the standard of departmental teaching and research.

4.20 Study leave has also received consideration in the course of reviews of the level of academic salaries. Mr. Justice Campbell in the Report of the Inquiry into Academic Salaries(4), in 1973, wrote:

Australia is a long way from many of the older and more sophisticated centres of learning and I believe that it should be obligatory on academic staff members to take regular leave in order to refresh their minds and widen their horizons.

(2) Report of the Committee on Australian Universities (Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, 1957) page 63.

(3) Report of the Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia (Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, 1965) page 12.

(4) Report of the Inquiry into Academic Salaries, 1973 (AGPS, Canberra, 1973) page 18.

Subsequently, in his capacity as Academic Salaries Tribunal he stated in the 1976 Review(5):

Study leave is enjoyed by few other groups in the community and I am fully conscious of the advantages that are said to accrue to academics from this privilege. However, I am convinced that study leave is an efficient and economical way of advancing university research and teaching in Australia.

4.21 Overseas practice. The Working Party had available to it information on sabbatical and study leave practices in universities in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Although the material was not comprehensive, it served to establish the general position in overseas institutions for comparative purposes. In all of the countries studied universities recognise that there is a need for their academic staff to have opportunities for release from normal duties to enable them to carry out research, activities related to improvement of their teaching or to obtain

1 intellectual refreshment' and the majority of institutions have arrangements which allow for this. The detailed study leave provisions at universities in those countries have certain basic similarities to those provisions existing at Australian universities, but Australian provisions are noticeably more generous, particularly in relation to the payment of salary and travel assistance grants.

4.22 The provision of study leave or sabbatical leave for the purposes of undertaking research or scholarly work at the rate of one year of leave after six years of service is common practice in institutions in Canada, United States and the United Kingdom although in none of these countries are provisions as uniform as those existing within Australian universities. In the United Kingdom, study leave arrangements may vary significantly between institutions and, in many cases,

the universities may provide for release from teaching duties for research purposes by other means.

4.23 A survey of selected universities in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom undertaken by the Office of Institutional Research at McMaster University, Ontario, in 1974(6) indicated that the average proportion of salary paid to academics on study leave from Canadian universities was approximately 90 per cent for a six month leave period and 75 per cent for twelve months; universities in the United States generally paid full salary to academics taking sabbatical leave of six months duration but only 50 per cent of salary to those taking leave of twelve months. British universities generally paid full salary to academics taking

study leave regardless of length of leave. The survey noted

(5) Academic Salaries Tribunal - 1976 Review (AGPS, Canberra, 1976) page 112.

(6) Sheelagh C. Booth and Eliot C. Higbee, Comparative Study of Sabbatical Leave Practices in Selected Commonwealth and U.S. Universities (office of Institutional Research, McMaster University, 1974).

40.

that Canadian, United States and British universities did not, as a matter of policy, provide travel assistance grants to academics taking study leave.

4.24 The arrangements adopted by New Zealand universities to provide for release from teaching duties for their staff for research and overseas study purposes more closely resemble the study leave schemes of Australian universities. The

schemes operating in New Zealand universities, sometimes called "refresher leave", "extended research leave" or "overseas leave" generally provide for similar grades of staff to be eligible for leave and leave is usually granted at a rate which approximates the one year of leave after six years of

service standard which applies in Australian university schemes. As with Australian study leave schemes, overseas travel and study is considered an important element of the schemes and

is encouraged. Full salary and travel assistance grants are paid to academics taking leave, but in many cases there is no separate grant made in respect of dependants. The granting of leave is not considered to be a right or entitlement of

academic staff in New Zealand universities.

4.25 Other Australian employment. The Working Party also obtained information from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and a number of major business organisations engaged in operations using rapidly developing technologies on the methods they used to keep in

touch with the most recent world developments in their special fields of interest. CSIRO provides for participation in international science through a specific program of overseas visits. All scientific staff may apply for overseas visits

although there is no entitlement to such travel. Under existing arrangements all visits are submitted for approval to the Oversea Visits Committee which has final responsibility for approval of all overseas visits by Commonwealth employees.

In recent years 120 CSIRO staff per year (approximately 9 per cent of research staff) have travelled overseas under these arrangements. As visits under the overseas travel scheme are generally only of 2 to 3 months duration the proportion of research staff absent, in terms of man-years, has been less

than 2.5 per cent in recent years.

4.26 CSIRO staff making overseas visits are entitled to full salary and payment of full fares. When a staff member's period of absence is for twelve months or more full fares and allowances are also paid in respect of dependants. However, when the member's period of absence is between six and twelve months, half fare only is paid in respect of dependants and, when the member's period of absence is less than six months,

no fares or allowances are paid in respect of dependants.

4.27 None of the six major companies approached by the Working Party had provisions comparable to university study leave. In most instances staff are able to gain overseas experience through transfer to overseas branches of a parent

organisation or exchange arrangement with overseas based

41.

companies. Knowledge of overseas developments was therefore expected to be gained while "on the job". The companies approached also made limited provision for short, special purpose overseas visits for attendance at conferences, seminars and short training courses or to gather information on specific technological developments. -

C H A P T E R F IVE : T H E W O R K I N G P A R T Y ' S V I E W S

5.1 As noted in Chapter Two, the Working Party's approach to its examination of study leave was to seek to identify the basic purposes served by study leave schemes, to assess existing study leave provisions in relation to those purposes and to propose modifications which might enable institutions to meet their needs in a more efficient and effective manner.

General

5.2 Basic institutional needs. Following its examination of submissions and other available information the Working Party has identified certain basic needs of the Australian university system that have been served by the existing system

of study leave and which it believes have continuing relevance today. First, the Working Party is convinced that it is essential to the well-being of the Australian community that its universities continue to fulfil their role of expanding the frontiers of knowledge in all fields of intellectual endeavour through their research and scholarly activities.

Academic staff are obliged under their contracts of service to undertake both teaching and research, and, in order to enable universities to maintain an adequate level of research activity, there is a continuing need to provide teaching and research

staff with the opportunity of periodic release from teaching and routine administrative duties to carry out research for a sustained period. As noted in paragraph 4.21, the need for academic staff to be periodically released from teaching duties

to undertake sustained research has been recognised in the operations of universities in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The need for a sustained

research effort in Australian universities has been highlighted by the OECD Examiners' Report "Science and Technology in Australia"(1) which drew attention to the relatively small amount of basic research activity carried out in Australia in

comparison with other Western countries.

5.3 Secondly, the Working Party accepts that there is a , clear need in many instances for university academic staff to travel overseas whether in pursuit of research projects, utilising equipment and resource material found only overseas

or keening abreast of developments in overseas institutions. If universities are to bring to Australia the latest develop­ ments in science and technology and to transmit to the community international trends of thought in the humanities and social

sciences, this interaction is essential. The need for academic staff to work overseas is particularly acute in those disciplines 1

(1) OECD Examiners' Report on Science and Technology in Australia (AGPS, Canberra, 1974).

related to foreign languages, culture and civilisation and in specialist fields in which little or no comparable work is being undertaken within this country. As noted in paragraphs 4.25 to 4.27, the value of overseas visits has been recognised in both Government and private employment in Australia. CSIRO operates an overseas travel scheme for precisely these purposes and major business organisations have developed mechanisms to provide overseas experience for selected staff.

5.4 In this regard, the Working Party wishes to draw attention to some of the material which it had before it on the benefits to institutions and the community arising from the precision of opportunities for periods of sustained research and for overseas travel through the existing study leave system. The Working Party had the opportunity to examine 869 study leave reports submitted by university academic staff returning from leave in 1975. Table 3.10 shows

the types of activities undertaken by those academic staff in broad :erms. The full range of university disciplines was repre anted and the following were some typical cases - a professor of dental medicine travelled to the United States, Europe, China, Japan and Indonesia over a five month period ; visiting dental education institutions; a senior lecturer from a department of obstetrics and gynaecology visited a number of centres in Europe over a seven month period in order to study particular medical techniques; a reader in entomology was visiting professor for twelve months at a pesticide research centre located in a North American university; a professor of history travelled to the United Kingdom to search out source material unavailable Jn Australia in connection with a work on a prominent figure in the early years of Australian settlement. The reports examined by the Working Party suggested that, as a result of their opportunities for research and work overseas, academic staff had been able to enrich their institutions with a wide range of research results, new techniques and methods, greater depth of understanding of world developments in particular fields of study and in overseas tertiary institutions as well as establishing for Australian universities important

links with the international world of scholarship. -5.5 While it appears that on occasion some university academic staff have taken unreasonable advantage of the opportunities for research and overseas travel provided by study leave,the Working Party found no evidence of widespread misuse of the study leave system. It believes that in most

cases study leave provisions have been properly utilised in accordance with their purposes and spirit.

5.6 There does not seem reason, either, to doubt that the activities undertaken as a result of these opportunities are generally of benefit to teaching programs of universities and, hence, to students. The benefits may take several

forms - academics who have engaged in sustained original research in a particular field will be in a position to pass on a greater depth of knowledge of their disciplines to

44.

students; the ideas and knowledge gained by academics during periods overseas may often form the basis of new courses or new elements in existing courses; and in those disciplines related to the language, culture and civilisation of foreign countries (or any other aspects of foreign countries) students are likely to gain considerably if their teachers are familiar, at first hand, with the countries concerned.

5.7 The changing Australian academic situation. Notwith­ standing its view that the study leave system has over the years brought significant tangible benefits to universities, the Working Party considers that the time has come for changes

in study leave provisions. There is force in the criticism that existing study leave schemes, the essential features of which evolved in the early 1950s, are no longer appropriate to the contemporary situation of Australian universities; the

past thirty years have witnessed many changes in the university system and in the Australian community which have had direct implications for the operation of study leave schemes.

5.8 Remarkable developments have taken place in the field of transport. With the advent of regular and faster air services, travel to Europe and North America has become rapid and convenient compared to the extended sea journeys required in the 1950s. Consequently, shorter periods of study leave have become practical and are increasingly popular. Table 3.7

shows that even within the period 1970 to 1975 there has been a move towards shorter periods of absence on leave.

5.9 The isolation of Australia has been reduced by marked improvements in communication by radio, cable, telephone and television and a greater and more rapid interchange of printed material. Improvements in photocopying techniques and micro­

copying processes have also contributed to much more effective international interchange of information. Direct personal contact by satellite link between specific laboratories is now a practical reality.

5.10 The same period has also seen marked expansion and development of the Australian university system. The number of universities in Australia has increased from 8 in 1950 to 19 in 1978 . The system of colleges of advanced education has been developed. There have also been significant improve­ ments in library holdings and research facilities in Australia which, together with the increasing international recognition

of Australian research achievements in many areas, has meant that there is a growing tendency on the part of university staff to take their study leave in institutions in Australia - perhaps in CSIRO; perhaps in another university. Indeed in

some disciplines, such as, for example, geology and biology, Australian history and government, materials essential to the research work may be available only in Australia so that academics may see little direct benefit in travelling abroad. As noted in paragraph 3.23, Table 3.9 shows that there is a discernible trend towards the taking of study leave periods in Australia.

45.

5.11 Other developments have also eroded some of the traditional justifications of study leave schemes. Passage of legislation making long service leave a right of university staff has given academic staff periodic opportunities for

'intellectual refreshment' which were formerly seen to be available only through the system of study leave. General improvements in the recruitment situation of universities have meant that the provision of generous study leave schemes can no longer be considered a vital factor in the attraction of

academic staff of high calibre to Australian institutions.

5.12 The Working Party considered all these factors in relation to study leave and has come to the conclusion that the present system of study leave with its emphasis on extended periods of leave taken overseas does not match the current needs of institutions. The Working Party believes that it will be necessary for universities to re-orient existing schemes better to meet the important needs for periods of uninterrupted research for academic staff and for overseas experience and to achieve more effective use of available resources.

The Working Party recommends:

(1) that universities revise their existing arrange­ ments for study leave to take account of the changes in the Australian academic situation which have occurred in the past thirty years in a way which makes appropriate provision for the following

institutional needs: '

(a) the need for members of academic staff, chosen on the basis of proposals for research or scholarly work, to have the opportunity periodically to carry out

sustained research or scholarly activity free from teaching and routine adminis­ trative duties; and

(b) the need for some members of academic staff to work overseas in order to keep abreast of developments or to use research facilities or resource materials not available in Australia.

Proposals for Change

5.13 The universities themselves have primary responsibility for the administration of arrangements for sustained research or for overseas travel. The Working Party, however, has developed certain proposals which it sees as an appropriate basis for universities to use in revising their existing study leave provisions.

46

5.14 The essence of the Working Party's approach is that the provisions which universities adopt to provide for periods of sustained research and to permit overseas travel should closely relate to those basic needs identified in Recommendation (1). The Working Party sees the need for

sustained research as being paramount and believes that, where possible, opportunities for research activity in Australia Should be utilised and university provisions should not encourage automatic overseas travel for extended periods, as occurs under present study leave arrangements. It is therefore proposing

that universities introduce arrangements which provide separately for periodic release from teaching duties for research purposes, and for travel assistance grants for those staff members with a demonstrated need to work overseas for research or other purposes.

The Working Party therefore recommends:

(2) that each university make the revisions proposed in Recommendation (1) in accordance with the following requirements:

5.15 Nomenclature. The Working Party has noted the concern expressed in some submissions and letters from academic staff in relation to the term "sabbatical leave" or "study leave". The use of these terms is misleading and tends to create a false

impression both in the minds of academic staff and in the community at large. The implication is strong that academic staff are being freed from their regular duties for purposes with a substantial recreational content rather than to carry out particular investigations of benefit to their universities and

their fields of study. The protracted absence of academic staff frequently accompanied by their families leads easily to the conclusion that study leave provides substantial opportunities for relaxation. The Working Party believes that more appropriate

terminology is desirable to describe arrangements for release from teaching duties for protracted periods of uninterrupted research or scholarly activity.

The Working Party recommends to universities that:

(2) (a) use of the term "sabbatical leave" or "study leave" be discontinued.

Sp e c ia l St u d ie s Programs

5.16 Special studies programs. Universities should meet the need to provide periods of uninterrupted research for their academic staff through the establishment of arrangements which might be known as 'special studies programs'. Under these

programs, departments, schools and faculties should arrange their teaching timetables in such a way as to enable some members of academic staff, periodically, to be released from teaching and routine administrative duties for the purpose of undertaking

sustained research. The release from teaching duties granted

under such schemes should not in any sense be considered 'leave', but rather the member of staff undertaking research on this basis should be regarded as performing part of the normal duties expected of an academic staff member.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (b) arrangements, which might be known as a special studies program, be established to provide an opportunity for some members of academic staff to undertake a period of sustained research or scholarship, from time to time, by their being released from teaching and administrative duties;

5.17 The Working Party proposes that academics granted release from teaching duties for an approved purpose under a special studies program could normally be expected to spend that period within Australia unless a particular need to work overseas is demonstrated. The arrangements which in the opinion of the Working Party should apply if the academic staff member wishes to work overseas are set out in paragraphs 5.31 to 5.37.

5.18 Universities would be expected to determine their own internal mechanisms for the detailed administration of special studies programs. If a university so wishes, there seems to be no reason why such a program could not be administered at the school, faculty or departmental level as appropriate, depending on the nature of the task being undertaken, the length of the ; release period and the location of the proposed research activity-i

5.19 Resources. In paragraph 3.31, the Working Party noted I that, for all universities, the apparent indirect costs (salaries j and on-costs of staff taking study leave) of the system of study | leave in 1975 were $13.8 million. The commitment of staff I resources to study leave in that year amounted to 8.5 per cent | of available man-years of academic staff of the grade of lecturer : and above and approximately 8.8 per cent of available teaching i man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above. In view i

of the level of resources devoted to the provision of opport­ unities for sustained research and overseas travel purposes through the system of study leave and the effect on teaching programs of universities of the allocation of staff time to

these activities, the Working Party has given close consideration to the consequences of some change in the degree of commitment of universities to such activities. ;

5.20 An argument is sometimes advanced by critics of the study leave system that substantial immediate savings in salaries could be made as a result of limitation of opportunities for release from teaching duties and that such reductions would have no ill effect on university operations. The Working Party does not accept the validity of this argument for a number of reasons. The first is related to the particular nature of the duties of university academic staff. By the very nature of univer­

sities, and, as manifested in their contracts of service, academic staff have a duty to undertake both teaching and

48.

research as part of their regular activities. It is normal practice for academics to expand their teaching load prior to going on study leave, at the expense of their research commitment, in the expectation of having a sustained period of research while on study leave. This results in a balanced

teaching and research commitment. Consequently, any potential staff savings, which might arise in the longer term through reduction in the number of staff or an increase in teaching load, could not be realised without reducing the level of research activity in universities. The second is that, as noted in paragraphs 3.28 and 3.29, the level of provision made by universities for temporary staff to replace those taking study

leave is minimal and therefore no significant savings could be made through that avenue. The third is that the majority of university academic staff eligible for these opportunities are

tenured and therefore university establishments could not be quickly reduced.

5.21 On the other hand the Working Party sees no grounds for increasing the share of the resources available to universities which is devoted to the support of special studies programs. Indeed, some modest reduction in such provision

seems desirable in view of the changes in circumstances which have occurred in the past 30 years and the acknowledged lack of control in some of the existing study leave schemes.

5.22 The indirect costs of the present study leave schemes are difficult to quantify in terms which represent a satisfactory measure of the impact on the institutions and the community. Any effective measure must take into account the benefits both

direct and indirect such as the contribution to the visibility of Australian scholarship in the world scene as well as the apparent drawbacks such as the absence of teaching staff from the lecture room or teaching laboratory. The salary cost alone does not present a properly balanced assessment of the cost.

In the Working Party's view, the most appropriate measure is to relate the level of.release from teaching duties under special studies programs to available teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above. As is evident from Table 3.5 and paragraph 3.19 the information available to the Working Party is limited. It is clear, however, that the impact of

study leave varies from one university to another depending on such factors as the maturity of the university, the spread of faculties and its geographical location. In these circumstances and in view of its belief (see paragraph 5.23) that staff should have no entitlement to such release, the Working Party has

found it necessary to make a judgement of the level of resources appropriate to the purposes identified in Recommendation (1). It considers that the amount of release granted to members of the academic staff of each university in aggregate in each year

should not be greater than seven per cent of the total available teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

49.

(2) (c) the total amount of release from teaching duties granted to the academic staff in aggregate in each year under the special studies program be not greater than seven per cent of available man-weeks of teaching time of staff of the grade of lecturer and above.

5.23 Basis of release from teaching duties. It was noted in paragraph 3.3 that release from teaching duties for research ! j and overseas travel purposes is regarded as a right under existing study leave schemes in a number of universities and in j paragraph 4.12 that the submissions from FAUSA and some other j bodies argued that such release should be a right of academic j

staff in all universities. The Working Party rejects the view expressed in those submissions that these institutional needs ji are equally applicable to all academics. It does not accept ί that provisions which universities have developed to meet these needs should be a right or entitlement of all academic staff. Although all members of academic staff have an obligation to > ;

teach and to research, the proportion of time and effort devoted ; ; to one or the other of these activities may well be different ' ' for different individuals and may also vary in any given case, with time, either during a year or at different stages in a j career. In the same way the opportunity to pursue uninterrupted : research or scholarship may be more appropriate to some than |

to others. The need to work overseas may, similarly, vary j .between disciplines and individuals. The Working Party holds strongly to the view that research and travel opportunities provided by universities to meet their institutional needs ;

should be provided for those who can most benefit from them and not as a general entitlement to all academic staff independent of their capacity to make effective use of such opportunity.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (d) the granting of release from teaching and . administrative duties to an academic staff member for research purposes under the special studies program be not an entitle­

ment but be based on the needs of the institution and the capacity of the staff member to make effective use of such an opportunity.

5.24 The Working Party would expect that the granting of approval for release under a special studies program would be subject to academic staff submitting detailed proposals of projects to be undertaken to the appropriate authority established by each university, as indicated in paragraph 5.18.

5.25 Periodicity of release. The Working Party considered the question of the duration and frequency of release periods which should be available to university academic staff for the purposes of sustained research. The present study leave period of a full year of release after six years of service is grounded essentially in tradition. Some submissions argued that many

50.

years of experience of the operation of study leave schemes had shown that one year after six years was the most appropriate frequency, but no compelling evidence was advanced in any of the submissions to support that contention.

5.26 From the data on university study leave before it, the Working Party has noted that there has been a clear trend in recent years towards the taking of shorter periods of study leave (paragraph 3.20 refers). Indeed a number of submissions

stressed the desirability of having shorter, more frequent periods of leave. In view of the rapid changes now evident in the rate of growth of knowledge and learning in all fields,

the Working Party supports the contention that academic staff should have shorter periods of release from teaching more frequently rather than a single period of twelve months after a six year interval. Shorter periods of release are also

likely to cause less disruption to teaching programs and will place less pressure on academic staff carrying out extra duties so that colleagues may be released from teaching to pursue research. Accordingly, the Working Party considers that the

amount of release granted to an individual member of the academic staff of a university should be no greater than thirteen teaching weeks in any three year period.

5.27 In fixing this period the Working Party is aware that academic staff will also have available vacation periods for sustained research. Staff members seeking release from teaching duties during term time will be able to combine such release periods with vacations. The Working Party sees this as an

appropriately flexible arrangement which will enable members of academic staff, with approval, to adjust their research and teaching commitments to the needs at the time of the department or faculty. The combination of the proposed limits on the

aggregate teaching weeks of release each year and the maximum release in any three year period for an individual member of staff should enable the university to achieve a suitable balance between the needs of the students and staff.

5.28 The Working Party accepts that sometimes circumstances may arise which make it desirable for an academic staff member to be released from teaching and administrative duties for more than thirteen teaching weeks in a three year period and considers

that universities should be in a position to grant such release. However, extended periods of release require special justifi­ cation and should be granted only after the academic staff member concerned has submitted a detailed proposal outlining the

specific project to be undertaken and the necessity for release in excess of thirteen teaching weeks.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (e) unless there are. exceptional circumstances, the total release from teaching and adminis­ trative duties granted to an individual academic staff member under a special studies program be not more than thirteen teaching weeks in any

three year period.

51.

5.29 Activities during release period. The Working Party believes that within universities the major reason for release from teaching is to maintain the level of research activity and therefore considers that release from teaching and administrative duties under special studies programs should be principally for research purposes. However, there may be other scholarly activities which academic staff should undertake for the benefit of their institutions which require

that the staff member be released from teaching duties. Typical activities other than research for which release could be granted are those related to the improvement of teaching, work in professional practice related to the academic staff member's discipline, attendance at conferences and seminars,

teaching or presentation of papers at overseas tertiary institutions, visits to overseas research establishments or tertiary institutions. The Working Party considers that all such activities which require release from teaching and administration, should be undertaken within the auspices of

special studies programs and counted as part of the period of release available under those programs. Most universities provide leave, to enable academic staff to attend conferences both within Australia and overseas. In some universities time

taken to attend conferences is a charge against study leave 1 credits, in others it is not. The Working Party considers that attendance at conferences, equally with other activities which involve release from teaching and administrative duties,

i.e. absences which occur during the teaching periods of the year, should be regarded as part of the special studies programs and absences for such purposes should be included in the time available for release under the programs.

5.30 The Working Party has noted, from the information available to it (Table 3.10 refers) that approximately 7 per cent of all university academics returning from study leave in 1975 had been engaged in further study, in many cases involving participation in formal courses. In accordance with its view that release from teaching should generally be for research purposes, the Working Party would not wish to encourage the use of release periods by academics for partici­ pation in formal courses for the purpose of improving ' qualifications.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (f) any release from teaching and administrative duties for scholarly purposes (e.g. for the improvement of teaching or to attend a conference) be regarded as release under the special studies program.

Overseas Ac t i v i t i e s

5.31 The Working Party recognises the continuing importance of overseas experience for university academic staff actively engaged in research. It takes the view, however, that if funds are to be provided to assist staff who have a need to work

52.

overseas then careful consideration must be given to the quality of the proposed project or program, the capacity of the member of staff to complete it successfully and the relevance of it to the interests of the university. To this

end it believes that the resources now devoted to overseas travel through study leave schemes would be better used if all academic staff wishing to travel overseas, whether for

research, attendance at conferences, or other approved purposes, were to compete for grants for travel assistance on the basis of specifically identified projects or needs.

5.32 One possibility considered by the Working Party was that grants for overseas travel by all university academic staff should be administered by a single independent body operating in a manner similar to the way in which the Australian Research Grants Committee (ARGC) disburses research grants. This approach would have enabled academic staff to compete for travel grants on an equal footing on an Australia­ wide basis. However, the Working Party rejected this alternative

because it believes that the needs of universities differ and that each institution should be responsible for administering the travel programs of its own staff in a manner best suited to its own detailed needs.

5.33 The Working Party therefore proposes that each university should establish its own arrangements to administer the funds available for travel assistance for research or other approved scholarly work overseas. Such arrangements might include a system of peer review. Academic staff, released

from teaching duties, wishing to obtain financial assistance for overseas travel, should be required to submit applications setting out specific programs of activity to be undertaken while overseas.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (g) arrangements be established under which financial assistance for travel purposes may be made available to members of academic staff who establish a specific case to work

overseas on approved research or other approved activities while released from teaching and administrative duties under the special studies program.

5.34 Level of provision for overseas travel. As noted in paragraph 3.26 total university expenditure on travel assistance grants to staff taking study leave in 1975 amounted to $1.58 million. The Working Party has found some difficulty in

suggesting a reasonable level of annual expenditure in the form of travel grants. The information available shows considerable variations from university to university. There is also a wide range of grants to individuals, the cost of travel has

shown sharp increases and decreases, the numbers of staff have increased since 1975 and the Working Party is proposing significant changes in the old form of study leave. On balance

53.

the Working Party takes the view that an annual provision of 0.5 per cent of the total cost of academic salaries by each university should provide a reasonable level of support not greatly different from the cost of the comparable level of

support for overseas travel in 1975· Such a fund should enable each university to develop arrangements suited to its own requirements both in terms of the number of staff to receive grants and the size of grant to each.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (h) total annual expenditure on overseas travel assistance grants to members of academic staff be no greater than 0.5 per cent of the total cost of academic salaries.

5.35 duration of absences overseas. The Working Party proposed in Recommendation 2(c) that the total release from teaching duties under a special studies program which should be granted to a member of the academic staff by a university be no greater than thirteen teaching weeks in any three year period.

If an academic staff member is granted release for a single period of thirteen weeks it may be possible for that staff . member to have as long as six months available for the purposes of uninterrupted research if the period of release from teaching

is used in conjunction with a vacation period. The Working Pa^ty has already drawn attention to the remarkable changes in travel and communication in the last twenty or thirty years. These changes make it possible for much to be achieved in shorter visits overseas which may also need to be more frequent than in

earlier times when scholarship advanced more slowly. The arrangements now being proposed will offer universities the opportunity of arranging periods of release for research, some of which may involve work overseas, at a frequency and of duration more closely related to the specific needs of both the

institution and the staff.

The Working Party recommends to each university that:

(2) (i) unless there are exceptional circumstances, any period of absence overseas from the university be not greater than six months.

5.36 Level of overseas travel grants. The Working Party considers that universities should determine the level and form of grants to be made available to academic staff going overseas to undertake approved activities within the constraints of the

total funds available for overseas travel purposes. In accordance with its view that grants should be provided on a merit basis rather than as an entitlement, the Working Party would see no barrier to the provision of a travel assistance

grant to an academic staff member on any occasion on which approval is given for overseas work, regardless of the length of the period overseas, provided, of course, that a specific need is demonstrated. .

54.

5.37 The Working Party supports the widely held view that members of academic staff absent overseas for long periods should be accompanied by their spouse and dependent children and it acknowledges that frequently staff incur some financial

loss as a result. At the same time there is little sympathy in the community for financial support of the dependants in such circumstances. The Working Party believes that an absence of up to six months by the member of staff from the other members of the family would not be unreasonable and, convinced as it is of the desirability of shorter overseas visits for other reasons,

the Working Party considers that more effective use could be made of the resources available for overseas travel if univer­ sities did not provide any grants in respect of dependants when the academic staff member's overseas visit is of six months

duration or less. The adoption of this approach would enable universities to use available funds for more overseas visits by staff members themselves. In addition, the financial burden on a staff member taking a short period of leave unaccompanied by dependants would be reduced. Moreover, in the light of

information on the practices adopted in other research oriented employment (see paragraphs 4.21 to 4.27) the Working Party believes that its present proposals are more in accord with community practices and expectations.

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (j) the level and form of travel assistance grants be determined by the university, subject to the proviso that grants may be made in respect of dependants only in those

exceptional cases where the staff member's period of absence is greater than six months.

Reporting and Ac c o u n ta b ility

5.38 Reporting. The Working Party considers that it is reasonable to expect academic staff obtaining release from teaching duties under special studies programs to submit reports of activities undertaken. Such reports will enable assessment

of both the use which is made by individuals of such opportunities and the effectiveness of the operation of special studies programs as a whole. All universities make provision for some form of reporting under existing study leave schemes, although the

requirement for a report is of only quite recent origin in one university. The evidence available to the Working Party suggests, however, that although reports are generally of a reasonable standard there is considerable variation between institutions in

the enforcement of reporting requirements. The Working Party recommends that all academic staff completing periods of release from teaching duties be required to submit reports. The nature of reports required will, of course, vary depending on whether release is granted, say, for attendance at a conference within Australia or for a six month period overseas, but should be of

a kind which will enable universities to fulfil the requirements of accountability in relation to their special studies programs.

5.39 The Working Party also believes that there should be some follow-up of reports. The reporting system used in the University of Queensland may serve as a model for other institutions. That university requires the staff member to

55.

submit the report together with the previously approved plan of activities and to comment on any variations from the proposed plan. Academic staff may also be required to appear before that university's Study Travel Committee with a revised report if the initial report is unsatisfactory.

5.40 In view of the significant benefits which may accrue to universities and the community from properly planned activities under special studies programs, the Working Party believes that it is desirable that the nature of activities undertaken should be more widely known. The Working Party agrees with the view expressed in a number of submissions that reports by staff should be publicly available. :

The Working Party recommends that in each university:

(2) (k) academic staff obtaining release from teaching duties under the special studies program be required to submit such reports as would enable the university to fulfil effectively the requirement in Recommendation (3) below.

5.41 Accountability . A considerable part of the criticism of study leave schemes stems from the fact that universities are not seen to be accountable for substantial sums of public money expended in this way. The Working Party believes that it would be desirable for universities to make more information publicly available on the operation of their special studies programs including the general benefits to themselves and the community which result. An appropriate vehicle for transmission of this

information would be the university annual report. In addition the Working Party considers it desirable that universities should provide statistical information on the operation of their special studies programs annually to the Tertiary Education Commission in a form to be determined by the Commission, so that the effectiveness of the programs may be assessed and if necessary the basis of funding revised.

The Working Party recommends:

(3) that each university publish information annually on the operation of the special studies program, including data on grants made for overseas travel purposes, and provide such other statistical data on the program to the Tertiary Education Commission as is determined by the Commission.

Other Matters

5.42 Terms of appointment. The Working Party recognises that the terms of appointment of staff at several universities (paragraph 3.3 refers) provide that study leave is a right for eligible academic staff. At other institutions study leave, although mentioned in terms of appointment, is granted on a discretionary basis. Even in those cases where study leave is

56 .

an entitlement under the conditions of service there may be no entitlement to a travel grant. In view of the considerable variety both in the formal terms and conditions under which study leave is provided and in the custom adopted by univer­

sities, the Working Party considers that universities should examine these terms of appointment, and where possible, bring them into accord with the proposals outlined in preceding paragraphs. The Working Party further recommends that universities should frame provisions in future terms of appoint­ ment to accord with the proposals outlined above.

The Working Party recommends:

(4) that each university

(a) examine terms of appointment of existing academic staff, insofar as they relate to study leave, with a view to accommodating the proposals contained in Recommendation

(2) (a) to (k) ; and

(b) base relevant terms of appointment of new academic staff on the proposals contained in Recommendation (2) (a) to (k).

5.43 Research only staff. In addition to teaching and research staff, a certain proportion of the academic staff of Australian universities are engaged only to pursue research and have no teaching commitments. Almost half of such "research only" staff in the Australian universities are employed in the

Institute of Advanced Studies of the Australian National University.

5.44 The Working Party has considered the position of research only staff in relation to participation in special studies programs. It believes that, although there is no call for research only staff to be granted release for research purposes in the same way as proposed for teaching and research

staff, there may be a need for research only staff to be absent from their institutions for other scholarly purposes such as attendance at conferences within Australia and overseas, or visits to overseas educational institutions and research centres

to undertake particular research projects or to stay abreast of world developments. The Working Party therefore considers that universities should continue to provide opportunities for research only staff to undertake these activities provided that the maximum length of absence of such staff from their universities

is no greater than the period of absence available to teaching and research staff under special studies programs, the cost of overseas travel being met within the limit set in Recommend­ ation 2 (h) .

5.45 Non-academic staff. It was noted in paragraph 3.5 that certain categories of non-academic staff are eligible for study leave (or equivalent) privileges under existing university arrangements. Given the nature of the needs which study leave

57 .

has been designed to serve, the Working Party considers that there is no case for the participation of non-academic staff in special studies programs or in the overseas study arrange- J j i ments applicable to academic staff. Where there is a need for non-academic staff to travel overseas for specific purposes

pertinent to their duties, each institution should make such provisions as it deems necessary and appropriate.

5.46 It was noted in paragraph 3.25 that the average length of absence overseas of non-academic staff on leave was just over six months. The Working Party believes that if there is a need for non-academic staff to travel abroad for specific purposes, absences generally should be not more than 2 to 3 months duration.

The Working Party recommends:

(5) that participation in special studies programs be limited to members of the teaching and research staff. .

58.

P ART III - S T A F F D E V E L O P M E N T LEAVE IN C O L L E G E S OF A D V A N C E D E D U C A T I O N

59.

C H A P T E R S I X : THE P R E S E N T S I T U A T I O N

Or ig in s of Staff Development Leave

6.1 The reasons for creating colleges of advanced education were outlined by the Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia (Martin Committee) when it framed its recommendations "with the object of widening the range of educational opportunities beyond the secondary school, of providing extensive vocational and specialised training and of ensuring that Australia makes a worthwhile contribution to the advancement of knowledge and of achievement". (1)

6.2 The Committee recommended that colleges of advanced education might be developed from technical colleges, agricul­ tural colleqes and specialist institutions and that a range of new institutions, all in country areas of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland should be established. The primary orientation of these institutions was to be technological and practical and the Committee emphasised the need to strengthen'

the type of training offered to men and women who were interested in obtaining employment in the practical world of industry and commerce. The original conception of colleges of advanced education did not include teacher training colleges and government colleges of this type were not incorporated into the advanced education system until 1 July 1973. Some private

teachers colleges have since become colleges of advanced education. The years in which individual colleges were incorpor­ ated into the advanced education system and details of the fields of study, student and staff numbers of each institution are set out in Tables l, 2, 3 and 4 of Appendix E.

6.3 As the primary orientation of the colleges of advanced education was intended to be technological and practical, the Commonwealth Advisory Committee on Advanced Education, appointed in 1965 to assist the government in planning the long-term development of the colleges, placed particular emphasis on the need for liaison between colleges and industry. In "its second report, the Advisory Committee commented that "it is essential

for the colleges to continue to explore and develop their relationships with industry, to encourage exchange of staff, professional, consulting and investigational work on practical industrial problems. A close linkage with industry is vital to good course design, to lively teaching and to attraction of high calibre staff". (2) The Committee considered that study leave could legitimately be used for the development of this contact with industry as well as for self-development. Later in the

(1) Tertiary Education in Australia Report of the Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia to the Australian Universities Commission. Volume 1, Chapter 1, page 1. (Government Printer, Melbourne, 1964).

(2) Commonwealth Advisory Committee on Advanced Education, Second Report 1970-72. Chapter 1, page 3. (Government Printing office, Canberra, 1969).

60.

report, the Advisory Committee stated that "college administ­ rations can make provision for study leave or the gaining of experience without financial loss. Study leave should not be granted as an employment right but there should be flexible arrangements enabling selected members of staff to obtain

leave for appropriate purposes - industrial experience, refresher training, relevant higher qualifications, or attending conferences either in Australia or overseas. We suggest that colleges make provision for such purposes in

their budgets". (3)

6.4 In 1968 the Government established an Inquiry into Salaries of Lecturers and Senior Lecturers in Colleges of Advanced Education (Sweeney Inquiry). The Report of the Inquiry, which also considered and made recommendations on

appropriate conditions of service for college staff, accepted the view that study leave could legitimately be granted to the staff of colleges of advanced education. Such leave was considered appropriate for two broad purposes - the first beincr that opportunities to refresh and develop professional

and vocational knowledge would also develop teaching capacities, the second that teaching staff could be expected to wish to continue their own personal development. In addition, staff of the colleges were considered to be part of a world-wide educational community and were seen by the Inquiry as needing a broad spectrum of experience at least at the national level

and, at best, international. To quote from the Report:

It has long been recognised that excellence of teaching in vocational courses is best maintained by direct and frequent contact between teachers, students and men eminent in the practice of such vocations as medicine, law, and engineering.

Scientists have also increased their competence in research through the publication and subsequent discussion of scientific papers. It seems highly desirable for the institutes to develop further the ways whereby the professional competence of their

staff can be measured, maintained and developed. Consulting work with commerce and industry should be seen as a vital part of the teaching activities of the institutes and an educational opportunity of great value. Management should encourage staff

to seek such opportunities either as part-time assignments in parallel with their normal work or as full-time assignments. Such opportunities should be seen as complementary to the primary educational role of lecturing staff. (4)

6.5 The Australian Commission on Advanced Education (the successor of the Commonwealth Advisory Committee on Advanced Education), in its Fourth Report, stated that teaching staff should be "not only academically well equipped but should have

a record of successful professional experience in the field in

(3) ibid p. 43.

(4) Report of the Inquiry into Salaries of Lecturers and Senior Lecturers in Colleges of Advanced Education. Page 46. (Government Printing Office, Canberra, 1969) .

61.

which they are teaching". (5) The Commission did not consider it appropriate to specify conditions under which study or conference leave might be granted to staff, but stated rather that "staff should be given the opportunity from time to time to refresh their industrial or academic experience by suitable leave arrangements"(6) and that funds should be provided for such leave from recurrent grants.

6 ·6 Within this context, study leave in colleges of advanced education was developed to cover a broader spectrum of activities than similar leave in universities and consequently is often designated "staff development leave". The reasons" for which staff development leave is taken are as follows:

(1) to improve qualifications;

(2) to maintain contact with industry and to refresh professional and vocational knowledge;

(3) to allow for contact with other academic institutions both in Australia and overseas;

(4) insofar as the needs of the employing ;

institution allow, to provide for the personal development of staff.

Ex is t in g Staff Development Leave Schemes

6.7 , The detailed provisions of staff development leave schemes are determined by individual colleges of advanced education. In most States, however, the State advanced education co-ordinating authorities (which have responsibility for the co-ordination and development of advanced education within a State) have laid down broad guidelines for staff development leave schemes. The role of the advanced education authorities in each State in relation to staff development

leave is shown in Appendix F.

6.8 In response to a request from the former Commission on Advanced Education, the State authorities sought information on the detailed provisions of existing staff development leave schemes in colleges. They received a response from 45 institu­ tions (60 per cent of the number of colleges; the number of full-time staff employed in the responding colleges amounting to almost 80 per cent of total full-time teaching staff in the advanced education sector). Details of schemes are given in Table 6.1. It is understood that there are basic similarities between the staff development leave schemes of the colleges within a State, so that teaching staff in colleges not included

in Table 6.1 are likely to have staff development leave conditions similar to those of other colleges in the State that are included in the table.

(5) & (6) Commission on Advanced Education Fourth Report 1976-78, p. 12, paragraphs 2.12 and 2.15. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1975). .

62.

6 3 -

Provision for replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following leave

In special circumstances To CAE within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

Hot normally provided To Council within 3

months

Equal to ' period of leave

in special circumstances To Council within 3

months

Equal to period of leave

n.a. To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

In some cases

To Council within 2 months

Equal to period of leave

In except­ ional circumstances

To Council within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

t a b l e 6.1 (continued)

Institution

Eligible teaching sta ff

Minimum period of service before leave can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

N.S.W. Conservator! urn of Music

Full-time teaching staff Not normally within 6 years

12 months after 6 years

Newcastle CAE Permanent ass. lecturer and above

Not normally within 6 years 12 months after 6 years

Riverina CAE (b)

Not prescribed 3 years 12 months

after 6 years

Sydney Teachers College

Permanent staff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

New South Wales Institute of Teaching sta ff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

Pro rata leave available

Leave available in Australia

Financial Non-teaching s ta ff assistance receiving leave privileges

Provision fo r replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following

leave ___

σι

Technology

VICTORIA .

Victoria Institute of Colleges

Caulfield l.T . Tenured staff(c) 3 years

Footscray l.T. Lecturer and 3 years

above

12 months after 6 years

12 months J

after 6 years

V

n.a.

None

n.a.

Senior administrative, professional or technical s ta ff

H*3o

Π«30

Permanent members of professional, administ­ rative, technical and clerical s ta ff

Professional s ta ff of equivalent level to lecturer or above

Nil To Public

Service Board n.a.

In except­ ional circumstances

To principal within 3 months

n.a.

Nil To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

(n special circumstances To Council within 3

months

Equal to period of leave

n.a. To Council

as soon as possible

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

To Council within 3 months

To Council within 6 months

Equal to period of leave

Equal to period of leave

table 6.1 icontinued)

Provision for replacement Report required of s ta ff on following leave leave

Minimum service required following leave

Gippsland l.A.E.

Permanent f u ll­ time staff 3 years

Lincoln Institute

Lecturer or above

2 years

Preston l.T. Teaching staff n.a.

Royal Melbourne l.T.

Permanent staff After gaining permanency

Swinburne l.T. Lecturer and above n.a.

Victoria College of Pharmacy

Lecturer and above

n.a.

Warmambool l.A.E.

Full-time permanent staff 3 years

12 months after 6 years

J n.a.

12 months · after 6 years

J V

12 months - leave does not accrue

No n.a.

12 months - J

12 months - leave does not accrue

J V

12 months - leave does not accrue

n.a. In special

circum­ stances

48 weeks after 6 years

J V

J - n.a. . n.a.

J lion-teaching s ta ff may Nil

submit proposals

V Senior lib ra ry, n.a.

administrative, technical and computing s ta ff

V n.a. n.a.

V Senior librarian and V

above, comptroller and registrar

V n.a. n.a.

J Senior administrative n.a.

and library staff

To Council

To Council within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

Equal to period of leave

n.a.

To Council

Equal to period of leave

n.a.

To Council within 6 months

Equal to period of leave

n.a, Equal to

period of leave

To Develop­ ment Leave Committee within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

66.

t a b le 6.1 (continued)

Institution

Minimum period

Eligible teaching of service sta ff before leave

can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

Pro rata leave available

Leave available -Financial in assistance

Australia

Non— teaching s ta ff receiving leave privileges

State College of Victoria

SCV Burwood Lecturer and above 2 years 48 weeks

a fte r 6 years

V V j n.a.

SCV Frankston Tenured staff 3 years 12 months

afte r 6 years

J V j Administrative Officer

Category VII and above Librarian II and above

SCV Hawthorn Lecturer and above 2 years 12 months

after 6 years V P.3o j Staff at salary of

lecturer and above

SCV Institute of Early Childhood Development

Full-time teaching staff 3 years 12 months -

leave does not accrue

ho n.a. j Resource centre s ta ff at

Librarian 1 level and above

SCV Melbourne Ful1-time teaching staff 3 years 12 months Leave over

6 months usually only given after 6

years

In special cases

j n.ac

Provision fo r replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following

leave

J To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

In except­ ional circumstances

To Council Equal to

period of 1 eave

n.a.. P i.a * Specified

by Council, not exceed­ ing 12 months

j To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

n . a * To Council

within 3 months

Mot less than 12 months is anticipated

SCV kusden Tenured staff 2 years 12 months J rua.

after G years

J n.a. J To Study

Leave Committee within 3 months

Equal to period of study leave

TABLE 6.1 (continued.)

Non-teaching staff receiving leave privileges

SCV Toorak

QUEENSLAND

Tenured staff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

./ n.a0 y Librarian, registrar,

bursar, and the ir f ir s t assistants

Darling Downs I.A.E. Lecturer and above

3 years 12 months

after 6 years

J n.a. y Library and counselling

s ta ff at lecturer level and above

Kelvin Grove C.A.E.

Lecturer and above

3 years 12 months

after 6 years

1 n.ac y n.a.

Queensland Agricultural College

AIT teaching staff

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. / n.a.

Queensland I.T.

Permanent teaching staff n.a. 12 months

after 6 years

y n.a» y n.ac

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide C.A.E.

Tenured staff 3 years 12 months

after 6 years

/ / ■ I n.a.

Kingston C.A.E. All staff 6 years or

at discretion of Council

12 months after 6 years

y y n.a»

Provision for replacement of staff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following leave

y n.a. Equal to

period of study leave

n.a. To director

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

j To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

n.a. To Council

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

j To registrar

within 3 months

A reason­ able period

Only i f absolutely necessary

To director within 3 months

Determined by Council, not exceed­ ing 1 year

n.a. n.a. Return to

service is assumed

68.

t a b l e 6.1 (aontinued)

Institution

E ligible teaching s ta ff

Minimum period of service before leave can be taken

Maximum period of leave available

Pro rata leave available

Leave available in Australia

Financial assistance

Non-teaching s ta ff receiving leave privileges

Murray Park C.A.E.

Full-time staff 3 years 12 months

a fte r 6 years J n.a. y n.a.

Salisbury C.A.E.

All sta ff After gaining

tenure

12 months after 6 years In special circum­

stances

V j Director and assistant

director

South Australian I.T.

A ll staff(c) 6 years 12 months

after 6 years

J V j n.a.

Sturt C.A.E. Lecturer 111 and above k years 12 months

after 6 years

J J j n.a.

Torrens C.A.E. All staff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

J J j n.a.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Church lands Teachers College .

All sta ff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

J V j Staff on academic

salaries

Provision for replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required f o l1 lowing

leave

J To director

within 3 months

Three times the period of study leave, or two years,

whichever is lesser

J To director

within 3 months

Equal to period of leave

n.a. To Council

within 3 months

Three times the period of leave, or two years,

whichever is lesser

J To Council

within 3 months

Minimum replacement

Equal to period of leave

In except­ ional circumstances

To principal Equal to

period of leave • -

t a b l e 6.1 (continued)

Provision for replacement Report required of s ta ff on following leave 1 eave

Minimum service required following leave

Claremont Teachers College

A ll s ta ff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

/ V y Staff on academic

salaries

Graylands Teachers College

All staff 2 years 12 months

a fte r 6 years

J y J Staff on academic

salaries

Mount Lawley Teachers College

All staff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

J J J Staff on academic

salaries

Western Australian I.L (b)

All staff 3 years 12 months

after 6 years

V V V Staff on professional

salary scales

Western Australian Secondary

Teachers College

All staff 2 years 12 months

after 6 years

y V y Staff on academic

salaries

Not normally n.a. provided

Not normally n.a. provided

Not normally n.a. provided

J n.a.

Not normally n.a. provided

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

TASMANIA

Tasmanian C.A.E.

All staff n.a. 12 months

after 6 years

V n.a. y Some senior administ­

rative categories

In smaller departments To principal within 1

month

Equal to period of leave

Non-teaching sta ff receiving leave privileges

Provision fo r replacement of s ta ff on leave

Report required following leave

Minimum service required following

leave

Principal, ass. principal, registrar, ass. registrar, bursar, s ta ff registrar, librarian , dep. librarian ,

director of health services, and computer centre s ta ff on academic rates of salary

To Council on return from project

Equal to period of leave

(a) Policy currently under review.

(b) Institution has separate industrial leave policy.

(c) Study leave benefits d iffe r fo r senior s ta ff.

(d) Source: Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education Reference Document No. 1: Staff Development Leave, July 1976

n.a. - information not provided.

Source: Colleges of Advanced Education Study Leave Policies Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education Reference Document No. 1 - Staff Development Leave July 1976

6.9 The standard period of staff development leave is one year after six years of service. In most of the colleges included in the table, teaching staff are eligible for a shorter period of leave after two or three years service. This leave is calculated on a pro rata basis from the standard period so that six months leave can be taken after three years

of service. Eligibility for leave is generally not restricted to staff above a particular grade and in some cases it is not restricted to teaching staff. Of the forty-five colleges which

have provided information on leave schemes only ten restrict leave to staff of the status of lecturer and above and a further three to the status of assistant lecturer and above. In eleven colleges all teaching and administrative staff are eligible for

leave. In some colleges, permanency of appointment is a condition of eligibility for leave - fifteen colleges in the sample have indicated that leave is available only to permanent teaching staff.

Operation of Staff Development Leave Schemes

6.10 State advanced education co-ordinating authorities have provided statistical data on the operation of staff development leave schemes in all colleges of advanced education for the year 1975 and this has been used as the basis of the

analysis of staff development leave which follows. In contrast to universities, the colleges are, by and large, recently established, and historical data is not available for them. The total number of institutions is much larger and the range of activities that they cover more diverse than for universities. The data provided are therefore different from that available

for universities and this is reflected in the way they are presented. Difficulties in the collection of data and differences in approach to its collection between institutions have resulted in reliability being less than is normally the case with the regular statistical collections of data from colleges of advanced

education. Nevertheless, the data are believed to be sufficiently accurate to allow the identification of national trends.

6.11 The Working Party was principally concerned with full-time leave which extended over several months and in the following analysis has excluded leave periods of less than three months duration. However, information on leave periods of less

than three months duration and on part-time leave was also available to the Working Party and is referred to in para­ graphs 6.25 and 6.26.

6.12 Incidence of leave. There is a variety of ways in

which the incidence of staff development leave and its impact on the advanced education system can be measured. The Working Party has chosen to examine the incidence of leave in four ways - in terms of the number of staff taking leave periods which fell substantially within the calendar year 1975, in

terms of the proportion of teaching staff taking leave periods in 1975, in terms of "man-years" of leave taken in 1975 and in terms of "teaching man-weeks" of leave taken in that year. Similar measures were used in the case of study leave in

71.

universities and the Working Party has commented on their significance and interpretation in paragraph 3.14.

6.13 Table 6.2 shows the number of teaching staff who took staff development leave periods falling substantially within 1975, by State. There were 452 staff taking staff development leave in that year from 53 colleges of advanced

education (66 per cent of the colleges in the advanced education system in 1975) . Table 5 of Appendix E gives details of the number of staff taking staff development leave in 1975, by institution.

TABLE 6.2

TEACHING STAFF TAKING STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(a), BY STATE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

State

Staff Taking Leave

New South Wales 95

Victoria

Victoria Institute of Colleges 131

State College of Victoria 33

Total 164

Queensland 73

South Australia 46

Western Australia 36

Tasmania 18

Australian Capital Territory 20

AUSTRALIA. ' 452

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Souvae·. Colleges of advanced education.

6.14 Table 6.3 relates the number of teaching staff on staff development leave in 1975 to the number of teaching staff in the advanced education sector in each State. The table shows that, for the advanced education system as a whole, the proportion of teaching staff of the grade of lecturer and above taking staff development leave in that year was 6.7 per cent. However, the proportion is considerably higher than this in Queensland, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. In New South Wales the lower rate may be attribut­ able to the policy included in guidelines laid down by the Public Service Board that numbers absent do not exceed 10 per

72.

cent of teaching staff in any one institution and in the State College of Victoria system to the fact that many staff take part-time leave. The Working Party, however, does not have at its disposal sufficient information to identify why rates vary

from State to State.

TABLE 6.3

PROPORTION OF TEACHING STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) TAKING STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(b), BY STATE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

State

Total Staff (lecturer and above)

Staff Taking Leave

Number Proportion

New South Wales 1,562 95

per cent

6.1

Victoria

Victoria Institute of Colleges 1,598 131 8.2

State College of Victoria 980 33 3.4

Total 2,578 164 6.4

Queensland 810 73 9.0

South Australia 675 46 6.8

Western Australia 750 36 4.8

Tasmania 171 18 10.5

Australian Capital Territory 190 20 10.5

AUSTRALIA 6,736 452 6.7

(a) Full-time teaching staff of the grade of lecturer and above.

(b) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Source · . Colleges of advanced education.

6.15 As the length of individual staff development leave periods actually taken varies, an informative measure of the commitment of college staff resources to staff development leave may be obtained by relating the "man-years" of leave taken within a particular year to the number of available

"man-years" for all teaching staff. This measure gives an indication of the notional proportion of teaching staff absent at any given time throughout a year. Table 6.4 shows the

73.

proportion of total available "man-years" of staff of the grade of lecturer and above taken as staff development leave in 1975, by State. For Australia as a whole, 5.1 per cent of teaching staff were absent on staff development leave in 1975, with some differences in proportions from State to State.

TABLE 6.4

PROPORTION OF AVAILABLE MAN-YEARS OF TEACHING STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) TAKEN AS STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(b), BY STATE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

State Available

Man-Years

Staff Taking Leave

Man-Years of Leave Taken Proportion

per cent

New South Wales 1,562 77 4.9

Victoria ;

Victoria Institute of Colleges 1,598 94 5.9

State College of Victoria 980 22 2.2

Total 2,578 116 4.5

Queensland 810 55 6.8

South Australia 675 39 5.8

Western Australia 750 32 4.3

Tasmania 171 10 5.9

Australian Capital Territory 190 12 6.3

AUSTRALIA 6,736 341 5.1

(a) Full-time teaching staff of the grade of lecturer and above.

(b) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Source·. Colleges of advanced education.

6.16 It is not possible from available data to draw firm conclusions about the extent to which the staff of colleges have taken the full amount of leave implied by the provisions of staff development leave schemes. As noted in paragraph 3.18,

it is sometimes argued that if all eligible staff obtained one year of leave after six years of service then one in seven (or 14 per cent of staff) would be absent on leave in each year. However, it must be borne in mind that the growth in staff numbers in colleges in the early seventies was such that many staff would not be immediately eligible for leave and, consequently, even if all staff took one year of leave as they became eligible, the proportion of teaching staff absent would

74.

have been less than 14 per cent. In the Working Party's view, the data available for 1975 suggest that college staff have in general taken leave less frequently and for shorter periods than theoretically provided for in staff development leave schemes. . .

6.17 The effect of staff development leave on the teaching programs of colleges may be demonstrated by comparing the number of teaching weeks taken as leave with the total number of available "teaching man-weeks". Table 6 .5 shows the proportion of the total number of available "teaching man-weeks" of staff of the grade of lecturer and above taken as staff development

leave in 1975, by State. The data presented is subject to the limitation that the calculation of teaching weeks taken as staff development leave is based on standardised semester dates and does not take into account varying term and semester dates between institutions. Similarly, a standardised number of teaching weeks for the year 1975 has been used in the calculation of available "teaching man-weeks". Nevertheless, subject to these limitations the table serves to illustrate approximate proportions of teaching resources in the advanced education

sector committed to staff development leave in that year. The table shows that, for the advanced education system as a whole, 5.2 per cent of available "teaching man-weeks" of the staff of the grade of lecturer and above were taken as staff

development leave in 1975. The lowest proportion of teaching time committed to such leave was 4.6 per cent in Western Australia, and the highest, 6.8 per cent in Queensland.

TABLE 6.5

PROPORTION OF AVAILABLE TEACHING MAN-WEEKS OF STAFF OF THE GRADE OF LECTURER AND ABOVE(a) TAKEN AS STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(b), BY STATE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975(c)

State .

Available Teaching Man-Weeks

Staff Taking Leave

Teaching Weeks of Proportion Leave Taken

New South Wales 49,984 2,502

per cent

5.0

Victoria Victoria Institute of Colleges 51,136 3,259 6.4

State College of Victoria 31,360 694 2.2

Total 82,496 3,953 4.8

Queensland . 25,920 1,752 6.8

South Australia 21,600 1,258 5.8

Western Australia 24,000 1,104 4.6

Tasmania 5,472 303 5.5

Australian Capital Territory 6,080 401 6.6

AUSTRALIA 215,552 11,273 5.2

(a) Full-time staff of the grade (b) Excluding leave of less than of lecturer and three months.

above.

(c) Calculated in terms of standardised term dates.

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

75.

6.18 Activities undertaken by staff on leave. Table 6.6 sets out the activities undertaken by teaching staff on leave in 1975 and the distribution of activities within each grade. The table shows that the majority of staff (57.5 per cent) were engaged in improving their formal qualifications with the

second most numerous activity being research (14.6 per cent). The proportion improving qualifications is in sharp contrast to the relatively small proportion of staff engaged in activities such as working in industrial or professional establishments (5.1 per cent), teaching at another institu­ tion (3.5 per cent) or visiting other institutions (6.0 per cent).

6.19 If the data are considered by grade, it can be seen that a surprisingly large proportion (27.6 per cent) of staff above the grade of senior lecturer who were on leave in that year spent their leave improving formal qualifications, though their activities generally were more evenly spread among the I several categories than those of less senior grades. The table 1 also shows that there was a particular concentration on research activity by senior lecturers who took leave in that year.

TABLE 6.6 ;

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN ON STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE, BY GRADE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Staff on Leave

Activity Undertaken on Leave Number

Above Senior Lecturer

Senior Lecturer Lecturer

Other Teaching Staff Total

per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent

Study for higher qualifications 260 27.6 45.8 68.4 80.0 57.5

Research 66 14.0 20.8 12.0 - 14.6

Teach at another institution 16 5.7 5.4 2.4 ' 3.5

Administrative work for college 2 1.8 0.4 0.1 _ 0.4

Visit other institutions 27 19.6 7.5 3.0 _ 6.0

Investigate the design of new courses 24 14.0 7.5 2.9 5.3

Attend conferences 4 3.6 0.7 0.5 - 0.9

Work in industrial or professional establishment 23 0.9 5.1 5.5 10.0 5.1

Field work' 4 2.3 0.3 1.0 - 0.9

Other 26 10.5 6.5 4.2 10.0 5.8

TOTAL 452 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source·. Colleges of advanced education.

76.

6.20 Duration of leave. Table 6.7 shows, by State, the proportion of staff development leave absences in 1975 which were of 5-7 months and 10-12 months duration. The table indicates that, for the advanced education system as a whole, 46.2 per cent of staff taking leave in that year took

leave of 10-12 months duration while 25.4 per cent took leave periods of 5-7 months duration. The proportion of staff taking longer leave periods was noticeably high in South Australia and Western Australia and noticeably low in Tasmania

and the Australian Capital Territory.

t a b l e 6.7

LENGTH OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE PERIODS(a), BY STATE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

State

Proportion of Absences of 5-7 Months

Proportion of Absences of 10-12 Months

per cent per cent

New South Wales 42.1 30.5

Victoria

Victoria Institute of Colleges State College of Victoria 18.3 18.2

51.9 45.5

Queensland 20.5 52.1

South Australia 13.0 60.7

Western Australia 2.8 66.6

Tasmania 55.6 11.1

Australian Capital Territory 65.0 25.0

AUSTRALIA 25.4 46.2

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

6.21 Two other relationships (a) length of leave and academic rank and (b) length of leave and discipline group were also considered for 1975. Table 6.8 shows the proportion of the staff on leave in 1975 in each grade who took leave

periods of 5-7 months and 10-12 months duration. The table shows that, for that year, there was a tendency for staff in the higher grades to take shorter periods of leave. The proportion of those on leave in each grade taking leave periods of 10-12 months duration ranged from 60 per cent in the case of staff below the grade of lecturer down to 22.5 per cent of

staff above the grade of senior lecturer. At the same time, 50 per cent of staff on leave above the grade of senior lecturer took leave of 5-7 months while only 30 per cent of staff below the grade of lecturer took periods of that duration.

77.

TABLE 6.8

LENGTH OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE PERIODS, BY GRADE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Grade

Proportion of Absences of 5-7 Months

Proportion of Absences of 10-12 Months

per cent per cent

Above senior lecturer 50.0 22.5

Senior lecturer 27.8 42.4

Lecturer 20.2 51.6

Other teaching staff 30.0 60.0

TOTAL 25.4 46.2

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

6.22 Results of an analysis of length of staff development leave by broad discipline group show that there are no signifi­ cant differences between disciplines in the length of leave taken.

6.23 Leave periods greater than twelve months. Thirty-two staff members took leave periods of greater than twelve months in 1975. Of the thirty-two, eleven were absent for between twelve and fifteen months, seventeen were absent between fifteen months and two years, while the remainder were on leave for

three years. Host Of these staff were improving their qualifications, most were on full pay and many were overseas.

6.24 Location of leave. Table 6.9 shows the location in which staff development leave periods were taken in 1975, by activity undertaken. Activities included under "Other" are those listed in Table 6.6. Of the 452 staff taking staff development leave in 1975, 294 spent all of their leave overseas. Those taking leave overseas comprised 54 per cent of

those improving qualifications, 77 per cent of those engaged in research and 80 per cent of those taking leave for other purposes.

78.

TABLE 6.9

LOCATION IN WHICH STAFF BY ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(a) UNDERTAKEN, 1975

TAKEN,

Activity Undertaken on Leave

Location

Australia Australia and Overseas

Overseas

Not . Indicated Total

Study for higher qualifications 113 3 141 3 260

Research 12 1 51 2 66

Other 18 1 102 5 126

TOTAL 143 5 294 10 452

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

6.25 Part-time leave for staff development. The Working Party has noted that some use has been made of part-time leave for staff development purposes. Staff taking part-time leave are released from teaching duties for a certain time each week

to allow them to undertake other activities. Statistics provided indicate that, in 1975, 99 staff (76 in Victoria and 23 in Western Australia) were taking part-time leave for the purpose of improving qualifications. The amount of leave taken varied

from half a day per week to 2^ days per week and was dependent on the requirements of the course undertaken by the staff member.

6.26 Leave of less than three months. The data provided to the Working Party also included 75 staff who took leave periods of less than three months duration in 1975. The activities undertaken by those staff are set out in Table 6.10. Over 73 per cent of them were engaged in three activities -

studying for higher qualifications, visiting other institutions and investigating the design of new courses. It would appear that activities such as visiting other institutions and investigating the design of new courses can be quite adequately undertaken in such short periods and that staff are utilising

short staff development leave principally for these purposes. Of those staff taking short-term leave, 70 per cent went overseas.

79.

TABLE 6.10

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY STAFF WHO TOOK LESS THAN THREE MONTHS LEAVE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Activity Undertaken on Leave

Proportion of Staff per cent

Study for higher qualifications 33.9

Research 7.9

Teach at another institution 2.7

Visit other institutions 18.7

Investigate the design of new courses Assist in the development of overseas 21.0 countries , 1.5

Attend conferences Work in industrial or professional 2.2 establishment 1.5

Field work 2.9

Other . 6.2

Not specified 1.5

TOTAL 100.0

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

6.27 Non-teaching staff. A small number of non-teaching staff in colleges of advanced education were on full-time staff development leave in 1975. The number on leave and the areas in which they were employed are set out in Table 6.11. Most of them were employed in administrative areas. Certain categories of non-teaching staff are defined by institutions as having the status of teaching staff and, therefore, some of the opportunities available to teaching staff are also open to them.

TABLE 6.11

NON-TEACHING STAFF ON STAFF OF EMPLOYMENT, COLLEGES OF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE BY AREA ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Area of Employment Number of Staff

Administration 11

Library 3

External studies 1

TOTAL 15

Source: Colleges of advanced education.

80.

Costs

6.28 Direct costs. It has been difficult to obtain definitive data on the costs of staff development leave but analysis of information provided by State advanced education authorities for 1975 indicates that the major direct costs, which are in the form of travel grants and other assistance

to staff, are comparatively small. Expenditure by colleges of advanced education on travel assistance grants in 1975 . amounted to approximately $500,000.

6.29 The other major direct cost associated with staff development leave is the provision of replacement staff. Policies on the replacement of staff vary from institution to institution. Although the Working Party did not have comprehensive information on the policies of individual

colleges, the information available indicates that, in general, no arrangements for replacement staff are made or that such arrangements are only made in special circumstances. The taking of staff development leave is usually dependent on the capacity of departments to re-arrange the duties of existing

staff so that teaching commitments can be met. The Working Party did not have sufficient data to place a cost on the provision of replacement staff.

6.30 Indirect costs. It is in the area of salaries and

salary related costs that the major expenditure may appear to occur; the claim is sometimes made that the salaries of teaching staff on leave are an indirect cost of the system of staff development leave. Although policies on the payment of salaries to staff on staff development leave vary from

institution to institution, information available to the Working Party indicates that only 20 per cent of staff taking staff development leave in 1975 did not receive full salary. Based on available data on "man-years" of absence in each grade

in 1975 and assuming an average salary level for each grade, it is estimated that the salaries and salary related costs (superannuation, workers compensation and payroll tax) of staff on staff development leave in 1975 amounted to about $7.5 million.

6.31 Using the above data, it follows that the share of resources which may be attributed to staff development leave in 1975 was approximately $8 million which represented 3.2 per cent of general recurrent grants to colleges of advanced

education in that year.

81.

C H A P T E R S E V E N : S U B M I S S I O N S A N D O T H E R V IEWS

The Submissions

7.1 Submissions on staff development leave were received from all State advanced education authorities, the Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education, the State College of Victoria/Victoria Institute of Colleges Principals' Liaison Committee, the Federation of Staff Associations of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education (FSAACAE) and five

individual colleges. The submissions, which are listed in Appendix D, varied in length, some being of only one or two pages. They were primarily concerned with the need for staff development leave in colleges of advanced education and means of furthering the availability of such opportunities. Some submissions also addressed themselves to a consideration of the financial implications of staff development leave both in terms of the total costs of such leave to the advanced education system, and to more specific matters relating to the effect of the costs of leave on the individual taking it.

7.2 The Working Party also had available to it results of surveys on staff development leave conducted by the Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education and the Federation of Staff Associations of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education which were included

in the submissions of those bodies.

7.3 The need fov staff development leave. The submiss­ ions adopted the views expressed in the Martin and Sweeney reports and the reports of the former Commission on Advanced Education and its predecessor, namely, that study leave

could legitimately be granted to the staff of colleges of advanced education on much the same basis as it is granted to the staff of universities.

7.4 Historically, the isolation of the Australian community created a climate in which it was believed that there were special needs for scholars to renew contact with others in the same field of study. Staff development leave schemes in colleges of advanced education have been developed with the need for this contact in mind and the submissions

suggest that the staff of the colleges are still conscious of the lack of possibilities for interaction particularly if they are located in non-metropolitan areas. To quote one example, the submission received from the Mitchell College of Advanced Education (Bathurst, New South Wales) stated:

The College believes that there is a very strong case to support the continuation of staff development leave provisions at the College in at least their present form. Staff who have returned from such leave to date have always brought back with them a wealth of knowledge and experience which would be impossible to

82.

gain in a regional centre such as Bathurst, and we believe that much of the innovative work undertaken by this College in the past few years has directly resulted from the benefits so derived by staff from staff development leave.

7.5 The submissions argued that staff development leave should be made available for two broad purposes - the advance­ ment of teaching capacities by the development of professional and vocational knowledge and the continuation of personal development. Within these two broad purposes a range of

activities was designated as appropriate for staff development leave, which is considered to cover a broader range of activities than study leave in universities.

7.6 The submission made by the Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education included a list of purposes for which leave should be made available. These

are:

(1) to upgrade qualifications;

(2) to retain vocational and teaching connections;

(3) to update qualifications;

(4) to obtain experience outside Australia;

(5) to prepare to participate in new course developments;

(6) to meet the special demands of a limited growth period; and

(7) to enable retraining of certain members of staff.

The purposes listed are representative of those set out in other submissions,although some submissions placed more emphasis on the need for advanced education staff to undertake research.

7.7 A number of submissions drew particular attention to the desirability of increasing the strength of links with industry and commerce. They emphasised the importance of the interaction between college staff and the workplace for which

the students are being prepared, since college staff hold a key position in bringing new knowledge and ideas to the notice of both students and employers. They contended that this capacity would be increased if college staff had opportunities

to spend periods in the relevant workplace (e.g. teacher education staff could spend a period in schools, engineering staff in a factory and administrative course staff in business or public service situations). The FSAACAE submission supported

the establishment of special liaison bureaux to facilitate the placement of academic staff in business and industry.

83.

7.8 Several submissions expressed support for the implementation of a recommendation which the former Commission on Advanced Education had made in its Fourth Report. In that report, which was not implemented, the former Commission had recommended that "the Government make available a sum of $6,354,000 in the 1976-78 triennium only, to enable colleges

to provide special leave for academic staff development". (1) Submissions argued that such a provision was necessary on the grounds that newer institutions generally need to provide additional opportunities for staff development.

7.9 The State College of Victoria put forward a special case for the provision of additional funds to allow for the expansion of opportunities for leave for its staff to improve qualifications. It considered that the former teachers colleges have been significantly disadvantaged in comparison with other colleges of advanced education in the provision of staff development leave and that they need a period of time - at least five years - to catch up.

7.10 The submissions reveal the variety in the terms and conditions of employment of teaching staff and their opportunities for study leave or staff development leave. In many colleges ; the concept is a relatively new one and few staff have as yet been able to make use of leave opportunities. In some States,

the terms of employment are determined by the relevant State authority. In one State, staff development leave is a right established by award. There is, however, a common thread in many submissions proposing that staff development leave should be regarded as a right of all teaching staff.

7.11 Costs of staff development leave. FSAACAE referred in its submission to the costs of staff development leave. The Federation identified the costs as being limited to the travel allowances paid to staff taking leave and the cost of any replacement staff; no mention was made of salaries of staff on leave. Responses to a questionnaire distributed by the Federation in 1976 indicate that the budgetary allocations of

the colleges included in the sample constituted only a small percentage of recurrent grants (an average of 0.4 per cent for the colleges in the sample). It was, however, not clear what costs were included in the staff development budgets referred to by the Federation.

7.12 Concern was expressed in submissions about financial loss to staff participating in staff development programs and some made the claim that adequate provision in the way of travel grants and allowances should be made to ensure that financial

loss is not incurred by individuals. FSAACAE considered that staff on leave away from their normal place of residence should receive allowances at a level equivalent to those paid to officers of the Australian Public Service. 1

(1) Commission on Advanced Education Fourth Report 1976-78 (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1975) p. 50.

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7.13 The FSAACAE submission also pointed out that under the present taxation system the travel assistance grant paid by colleges in respect of dependants is taxable and that travelling and other expenses incurred in relation to dependants

accompanying staff on leave are not tax deductible. The Federation urged that any recommendations to the Government on staff development leave should include support for the proposals of the Taxation Review Committee (Asprey Committee) on this matter (a similar argument was put forward by FAUSA in relation

to university study leave grants; details of the Asprey Committee's proposal are set out in paragraph 4.11).

Other Views

7.14 Many of the criticisms mentioned in paragraphs 4.14 to 4.17 have been raised in relation to colleges as much as to universities. In particular, some additional attention has been directed to the number of college staff who appear to be on

staff development leave for periods extending in some cases to two and three years to enable staff to obtain higher degree qualifications.

7.15 Comparative data. Comparisons with other institutions both in Australia and overseas were explored but in the absence of closely similar institutions elsewhere it is not easy to draw useful conclusions. Since colleges are not strongly oriented

toward research the CSIRO is not necessarily relevant and perhaps a better parallel would be with some branches of the Commonwealth and State Public Services. In these, the concept of staff development is strongly supported but in practice it usually takes the form of training internal to the service together with release for, say, 5 hours per week for part-time study and some

limited opportunities for full-time study through various scholarship schemes.

7.16 In the business and commercial sector staff training is also regarded as highly important, but few organisations are able to provide opportunities for staff to be released full-time for further study.

C H A P T E R E I G H T : T H E W O R K I N G P A R T Y ' S V IEWS

1

8.1 In examining the existing staff development schemes in colleges of advanced education the Working Party has proceeded in much the same way as it approached its consider­ ation of study leave schemes in universities. It has been concerned to identify the needs of colleges which have been served by staff development schemes, to assess such schemes in relation to those needs and to put forward proposals which it believes would be better suited to the contemporary requirements of the colleges.

General

8.2 Basic institutional needs. As noted in paragraph 6.18 the major use to which staff development leave schemes have been put is study for the improvement of formal qualifications. Other activities which have been prominent are research, visits

to other institutions and work in business and industry. On : - the evidence available to it, the Working Party is convinced that staff development schemes have played an important part in maintaining a high academic standard in colleges of advanced education. Many members of staff have been able to improve their formal qualifications, worthwhile research has been undertaken and, to a lesser extent, a useful contact has been established between industry and commerce on the one hand and the colleges on the other. The Working Party believes, therefore, that there should continue to be provision of opportunities for college staff to be released from teaching duties in order to undertake activities of benefit to their

institutions.

8.3 The Working Party accepts that the development of an alternative form of tertiary education in Australia has required that the institutions providing advanced education courses adapt quickly to new teaching demands. The colleges have grown out of a wide variety of institutions ranging from

small single-discipline colleges, such as agricultural colleges, to large multi-disciplinary institutions already offering tertiary courses. Some colleges were originally private institutions and others originated within State education systems. New colleges have been established, often in areas where staff are isolated from professional life and there is

little possibility of maintaining contact with their area of study. These changes have placed demands, often unforeseen, on college staff and it can be readily understood that a considerable number of staff have sought to improve their formal qualifications.

8.4 However, the situation of colleges has undergone some transformation in recent years - the number of staff still needing to improve their formal qualifications is much

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reduced, newly recruited Staff now generally hold higher formal qualifications when appointed since the growth of tertiary education is now much less and competition for all posts is keener. In this regard, statistics included in the submission of the Conference of Principals of colleges

of Advanced Education show that the proportion of staff, in a sample of colleges, using their leave for improving qualifications has diminished over the period 1970 to 1976.

8.5 The Working Party therefore believes that a change in emphasis or a change in priorities within the general objectives of staff development is now appropriate. In the Working Party's view much less emphasis should be placed on

the improving of formal qualifications. In some cases the returns from higher degree study may be slight, particularly if staff are seeking qualifications designed to prepare tnem for careers in academic research rather than to develop their

professional capacity as a member of college teaching staff. Staff seeking higher qualifications may in fact be well fitted to perform the duties required of them without such qualific­ ations and their value to their employing institution may be more greatly enhanced by other forms of staff development.

8.6 The Working Party considers that, when staff are released from teaching duties for development purposes, more emphasis should be placed on activities which could provide more immediate benefits to their institutions. Activities which are likely to be of direct benefit to colleges and

their students include:

. refreshing of vocational and professional knowledge by attending appropriate short courses - not usually for the purposes of acquiring a higher qualification - or by participating with others in similar

situations ;

. maintenance of contact with industry by working in factories or other industrial establishments, by conducting research projects of mutual benefit in conjunction

with industry, bv participating in the workplace be it a school classroom, government office or a library, depending on the professional skill or discipline involved;

. maintenance of contact with other colleges or universities both in Australia and overseas.

The Workinn Dartv wishes t o .encourage teaching staff in collenes of advanced education to make greater use of periods of release from teaching to participate in activities of this nature with a view to maintaining the highest possible quality of teaching.

8.7 There may, of course, be some occasions in which

it will be of benefit for institutions for individual members to be granted full-time release from teaching duties for the purpose of improving formal qualifications. However, release from teaching for this purpose should only be provided on a limited basis and should be considered

separately from release from teaching duties for other purposes.

8.8 In considering the arrangements which might be appropriate to provide for the activities outlined above, the Working Party noted that the detailed provisions of staff development leave schemes, which in many cases followed closely university study leave schemes, have been subject to the same influences which led it to recommend modifications to university schemes (paragraphs 5.7 to 5.12 refer). It believes, therefore, that a revision of staff development leave schemes must be undertaken to ensure the most effective use of resources available for the important purposes which it has identified.

The Working Party recommends:

(6) that existing staff development leave schemes in colleges of advanced education be revised to enable more effective use of resources in a way which:

(a) makes provision for members of the teaching staff of colleges, chosen on the basis of proposals submitted, to be released periodically from teaching duties in order to:

(i) maintain and improve their professional and vocational knowledge; and

(ii) obtain practical experience in the workplace for which they ,

are preparing students;

and

(b) makes provision for a limited number of members of the teaching staff of colleges of advanced education to obtain full-time release from teaching duties for the purpose of improving their formal qualifications.

Proposals for Change

8.9 Individual colleges of advanced education have primary responsibility for the administration of arrangements which provide their staff with opportunities for release from teaching duties to undertake activities of benefit to

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their institution. In most States, the advanced education co-ordinating authority plays an important role by setting down broad guidelines on staff development leave within which each college has freedom to determine schemes with detailed provisions appropriate to its own needs. The precise role of the advanced education authority differs

from State to State and the position in each State is described in Appendix F.

8.10 While the Working Party recognises the importance attached by colleges to their independence in such matters it is concerned to see that the State advanced education authorities continue to play a significant role, both in the process of revising the existing schemes in terms of the present recommendations and in overseeing the new programs proposed.

8.11 The essence of the Working Party's approach is that the arrangements which colleges adopt to provide for release from teaching duties should closely relate to the needs identified in Recommendation (6) and should represent

an effective use of resources. It envisages that such release viould be granted primarily for activities related to the maintenance of professional and vocational knowledge and that participants would be chosen on a merit basis. Where possible these activities would be carried out in

Australia; college provisions should not encourage extended periods of overseas travel. Release from teaching duties for the purpose of improving formal qualifications should be provided for under separate arrangements.

The Working Party therefore recommends;

(7) that colleges of advanced education, in conjunction with State advanced education co-ordinating authorities, make the revisions proposed in Recommendation (6)

in accordance with the following requirements:

8.12 Nomenclature . The Working Party is aware that the title "staff development leave" has been adopted by many colleges of advanced education but is concerned that use of the term "leave" may create false impressions in the minds both of the staff and of the public at large. It has noted

a considerable number of comments on staff development leave which imply that it is being granted primarily for recreational purposes and would like to dispel such implications. Some institutions use the term "study leave", but it too suffers

from the same kind of misunderstandings. The FSAACAE submission also expressed dissatisfaction with such use of the word "leave". In view of these problems, and the Working Party's intention of giving greater emphasis to involvement of college staff with industry and commerce during periods of release

from teaching, there are good reasons for changing the term used to describe such arrangements.

The Working Party therefore recommends that:

(7) (a) use of the terms "staff development leave" and "study leave" be discontinued.

Professional Experience Programs

8.13 Professional experience programs. Colleges of advanced education in each State should establish, within guidelines determined by the advanced education co-ordinating authority, arrangements which provide opportunities for teachincr staff to be released from their normal duties for the purposes set out in Recommendation 6(a) (i) and (ii). Under these arrangements institutions should order their teaching timetable in such a way that staff may, periodically, obtain release to carry out approved activities which will . enable them to maintain up-to-date professional and vocational [ knowledge and to obtain practical experience in the workplace j for which they are preparing students. The activities will j vary from college to college. In some cases staff may be j

able to work by arrangement with local firms or government ; | instrumentalities, in others staff may be engaged jointly j with colleagues in other institutions in solving problems or | investigating new techniques and facilities. !

8.14 The purposes identified by the Working Party for which release from teaching duties should be granted to college teaching staff are closely related to the primary role of colleges of advanced education - professional and vocational preparation. The Working Party believes that this should be reflected in the name given to the arrangements proposed and suggests that they be known as "professional experience programs".

8.15 Release from teaching duties under professional experience programs should not be regarded in any sense as leave; rather, it is a part of the normal range.of duties expected of staff if they are to be properly effective- as members of the teaching staff.

The Working Party therefore recommends that:

(7) (b) arrangements, which might be known as professional experience programs, be established by each college to enable staff to be released periodically from teaching duties for the purposes set out in Recommendation (6)(a) (i) and

(ii). .

8.16 The Working Party envisages that activities undertaken within the auspices of professional experience programs would normally be carried out in Australia. The arrangements which the Working Party considers should apply if college staff wish

to work overseas are set out in paragraph 8.27 to 8.33.

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8.17 Resources. In paragraph 6.30 the Working Party . noted that, for all colleges of advanced education, the apparent indirect costs (salaries and on-costs of staff taking staff development leave) of the system of staff development leave in 1975 were approximately $7.5 million. The commitment of staff resources in that year amounted

to 5.1 per cent of available man-years of teaching staff of the grade of lecturer and above and approximately 5.2 per cent of available teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above. Although these figures provide

some guide to the level of resources devoted to staff development leave, the necessary information, particularly in relation to the cost of staff replacements, has not been available in sufficiently detailed form to enable a completely reliable assessment to be made. The growth in

staff numbers and the rapid development which has taken place in some areas together with the relatively recent transfer of a number of institutions into the advanced education sector makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain a clear

picture of any trend in resource allocation.

8.18 However, the Working Party believes that opport­ unities for staff development leave have been broadly comparable with opportunities for study leave in the university sector.

It further believes that there should continue to be substantial similarity in the opportunities for release from teaching in colleges and universities, although the objects to be achieved in such release will be different. In the advanced education

sector it proposes to make separate provision to enable some staff to improve formal qualifications and therefore proposes a somewhat lower level of resources to be provided for the purposes set out in Recommendation (6)(a) (i) and (ii). The Working Party has commented in paragraph 5.22 on the nature of the measures which it believes should be used in determining the level of resources devoted to these activities.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (c) the total amount of release from teaching duties granted to the teaching staff of any college in aggregate, in each year, under the professional experience program be not

greater than five per cent of available teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above;

8.19 Basis of release from teaching duties. The FSAACAE submission expressed the view that "participation in staff development programs should be both a right of academic staff as well as an obligation". The Working Party accepts that

the staff of colleges of advanced education have an obligation to maintain satisfactory professional standards and would expect that staff would be encouraged to participate in teaching release schemes. However, it holds strongly to the view that such release should not be a right and should not be granted automatically to staff after they have completed

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a requisite period of service. The opportunity for release from teaching duties under a professional experience program should be available to any member of the teaching staff of a college on the basis of the quality of the case presented

for such release. The needs of the institution should be the major factor in determining whether a staff member should be granted release from teaching duties in a particular case.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (dj the granting of release from teaching duties to a member of teaching staff by a college under a professional experience program be not an entitlement but based on the needs of the institution and the capacity of the

staff member to make effective use of such an opportunity;

8.20 The Working Party would expect that each college ;

would establish arrangements under which proposals by teaching ; staff for release from duties under the professional experience ; program could be considered. j ·

8.21 Periodicity of release. The Working Party considered the question of the duration and frequency of release periods which should be available to college teaching staff for the j · purpose of maintaining and improving professional and vocational !

knowledge. i

8.22 The Working Party believes that the concept of ;

teaching release for staff to gain professional experience carries with it an expectation that staff will be absent for shorter periods than the traditional twelve months of study leave schemes. Attention has been drawn elsewhere to many changes in world conditions since the idea of twelve months absence was first developed. In the opinion of the Working Party modern technology is advancing so rapidly that teaching

staff in many areas may need to be released more frequently for shorter periods if they are to retain their effectiveness as staff members. However, situations will vary from College to college as well as from discipline to discipline and individual to individual. For this reason the Working Party believes it appropriate only to place an upper limit on the absence from teaching of any individual member of staff, provided the total release for the staff in aggregate each year remains within the ceiling set in Recommendation (7)(c). The Working Party proposes that the amount of release granted to an individual member of the teaching staff of a college should be no greater than thirteen teaching weeks in any

three year period.

8.23 In fixing this period the Workinq Party is aware that college teaching staff, will also have available vacation periods fur activities related to maintaining professional and vocational knowledge. Staff members seeking release from teaching duties during term time will be able to combine such release periods with vacations. The Working Party sees this

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as an appropriately flexible arrangement which will enable members of staff,- with approval, to adjust their commitments to the needs at the time of the institution. The combination of the proposed limits on the aggregate teaching weeks of

release each year and the maximum release in any three year period for an individual member of staff should enable colleges to achieve a suitable balance between the needs of the students and staff.

8.24 The Working Party accepts that sometimes circum­ stances may arise which make it desirable for a staff member to be released from teaching duties for more than thirteen teaching weeks in a three year period and considers that colleges should be in a position to grant such release. However, extended periods of release require special justifi­

cation and should be granted only after the staff member concerned has submitted a detailed proposal outlining the specific project to be undertaken and the necessity for release in excess of thirteen teaching weeks.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (e) unless there are exceptional circumstances, the total release from teaching duties granted to an individual member of the teaching staff of a college under the professional experience program be not more

than thirteen teaching weeks in any three year period;

8.25 Activities during release period. In paragraphs 8.6 and 8.13, the Working Party identified certain activities which it believes would enable the teaching staff of colleges to develop their professional and vocational knowledge and

practical experience of the workplace for which they are preparing students. It recognises, however, that there may well be some problem in determining whether or not particular proposals for release from teaching are appropriate to a

professional experience program. Activities, other than those identified, for which colleges may wish to grant release periods could include teaching at other institutions whether in Australia or overseas, investigating the design of new courses or attendance at conferences or seminars.

8.26 The Working Party wishes to leave considerable freedom in detailed arrangements in the hands of the colleges. It considers, however, that there should be consistency in the granting of periods of release from teaching for all such

activities and proposes that any release for these purposes should be regarded as part of the professional experience program.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (f) any release from normal teaching duties (including release for short periods for activities such as visiting other

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institutions, investigating the design of new courses and attendance at conferences) be regarded as release under the professional experience program;

Overseas Ac t i v i t i e s

8.27 Most of the time spent on extending professional experience while released from teaching is likely to be spent in Australia - often in situations near to a college where there are likely to be the best prospects of developing valuable relations. There will, however, be many occasions when it will be of benefit to an institution for members of

the teaching staff to work overseas for varying periods to extend their professional experience.

8.28 The Working Party believes that the resources available for overseas travel purposes would be used most effectively if college staff wishing to work overseas were to compete for travel assistance grants on the basis of specifically identified projects or needs and has developed ; its proposals with this in mind.

8.29 The Working Party proposes that responsibility for the allocation of travel assistance grants should remain with individual colleges of advanced education. Members of teaching staff wishing to work overseas should gain approval first for release from teaching under a professional experience program and then have the opportunity to place proposals for work overseas before an appropriately constituted body within each college for consideration on their merits. Some form of peer review machinery among members of the teaching staff in each college might be a useful element in determining the allocation of travel grants.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (g) arrangements be established under which -financial assistance for travel purposes may be made available to members of the teaching staff of colleges who establish a specific case to work overseas on approved activities while released from teaching duties under a professional experience program;

8.30 Duration of overseas absences. The Working Party has already stated its views on the diminishing need for staff to be absent from their regular teaching duties for long periods. This applies with equal strength to absences overseas, but it should be recognised that by combining vacation periods with periods of release from teaching it is possible for a member of staff to have a period of some six months available for a particular project under a professional

94.

experience program. Such an opportunity should be sufficient in the view of the Working Party for all but the most exceptional situations. Travelling time is now no more than a few hours to any part of the world and the arrangements proposed should enable a college to make appropriate arrange­ ments for members of staff to gain experience overseas on a

satisfactory basis.

The Working Party recommends that:

(7) (h) unless there are exceptional circumstances, any period of absence overseas from a college be not greater than six months.

8.31 Financial provision for overseas travel. It was noted in paragraph 6.28 that expenditure by colleges of advanced education on travel assistance grants in 1975 was $500,000. The Working Party considers that there should be

a limit on the total amount of funds available for this purpose in the future. However, because of the great diversity of size, interests and experience among the colleges and because of the absence of detailed information on overseas travel by

college staff and the level of resources devoted to it over a period of years, the Working Party has found difficulty in assessing the appropriate level of funding which might be identified for overseas travel purposes in the advanced

education sector. It sees this as a matter which might properly be considered by the Advanced Education Council together with the State advanced education co-ordinating authorities in the light of available resources and the established needs of the various institutions. The Working Party believes that the

proportion of resources to be provided for this purpose may vary from one college to another but in the absence of adequate information it hesitates to make such a recommendation.

8.32 The other important aspect of the question of finan­ cial provision for overseas travel is the level of overseas travel grants which may be made available to individual members of staff. At present, arrangements for the provision of

travel assistance grants vary widely between institutions and there is a need for greater consistency in approach. The Working Party believes that the precise level and form of travel assistance should be determined either by each college or by the relevant State authority within the arrangements

agreed with the Advanced Education Council.

8.33 In considering the level and form of travel assist­ ance grants which should be available to academic staff in the university sector, the Working Party commented, in para­ graphs 5.36 and 5.37, on the frequency with which such grants

could be made available and the circumstances in which grants should be made in respect of dependants. The Working Party considers that these comments are equally applicable to the teaching staff of colleges of advanced education and recommends

that the Advanced Education Council and State advanced education authorities should incorporate these principles in arrangements determined for travel assistance grants.

95.

The Working Party recommends:

(8) that State advanced education co-ordinating authorities and the Advanced Education Council consider appropriate arrangements for determining:

(a) the total amount of funds available for travel assistance grants to teaching staff of colleges in each year; and

(b) the level and form of travel assistance grants which may be made available to members of the teaching staff of colleges, subject to the proviso that any such procedures provide that grants may be made

in respect of dependants only in those exceptional cases where the staff member's period of absence is greater than six months.

Reporting and Ac c o u n ta b ility

8.34 The Working Party is concerned at the level of public understanding of the existing staff development programs. Many misunderstandings and misconceptions exist. In order to demonstrate clearly their responsibility in this area it is

important for colleges to furnish publicly information and reports on the activities being pursued in the proposed professional experience programs. In addition, the Working Party considers it desirable that colleges should provide statistical information on the operation of their professional experience programs annually to the relevant State advanced education co-ordinating authority and to the Tertiary Education Commission so that the effectiveness of the programs may be assessed and, if necessary, the basis of funding revised.

8.35 It is also important that staff participating in professional experience programs be required to submit reports of their activities from the point of view of assessing, both the use which is made of such opportunities and evaluation of the operation of professional experience programs as a whole. Most colleges have some form of reporting requirement and, although no specific collection of past staff development

leave reports was made for the purposes of this enquiry, a number of reports of a high standard were forwarded to the Commission by individuals. The Working Party proposes that all individuals completing periods of release under profess­

ional experience programs be required to submit reports. The nature of the reports will vary depending on the length of release granted, but should be of a kind which will enable colleges to fulfil the requirements of accountability in relation to professional experience programs.

(9) that each college:

(a) publish information annually on the operation of the professional experience program, including data on grants made for overseas travel purposes, and provide

such other statistical data on the program to the State advanced education co-ordinating authority and the Tertiary Education Commission as is determined by the Commission; and

(b) require members of the teaching staff obtaining release from teaching duties under the professional experience program to submit such reports as would enable the

college to fulfil effectively the require­ ment in (a) .

The Working Party recommends:

Improvement of Formal Qu a l if ic a t io n s

8.36 The Working Party recognises that there may be a need for some staff in colleges to improve their formal qualifications, but does not consider that this should be provided for under professional experience programs. It

considers that professional experience programs should be devoted to activities which are intended primarily to meet: the needs of employing institutions and the students of these institutions rather than the needs of staff for personal development. It is, however, aware that staff may wish to

undertake various forms of personal development, and that there may be some staff in the advanced education system who feel themselves disadvantaged by lack of higher academic qualifications. The Working Party considers that two avenues should be made available to people who wish to improve their

formal qualifications. These are part-time release from teaching duties and a scholarship scheme.

8.37 Part-time release from teaching duties. Two States, Victoria and Western Australia, have indicated that they have successful part-time leave programs for staff who are improvina their qualifications. In the Working Party's view more

consideration should be given by other States to the use of part-time leave for this and other staff development purposes. The conditions of release should be such as to ensure that the needs of the employing institution in terms of teaching

commitments are met, i.e. a limited amount of time might be allowed for study per week, in a manner with that frequently adopted in public service and other avenues of employment. The Commonwealth Public Service scheme allows staff to take

time off for study purposes for up to five hours per week without loss of pay. Courses undertaken by staff who take leave under these conditions must be in areas that will improve the staff member’s capacity to perform his job.

8.38 An alternative form of part-time release would be to allow staff to take lighter teaching loads at reduced pay. This form of release would operate most satisfactorily in a situation where staff are, for example, in a position to work

for another organisation and to receive payment for this work. Part-time leave need not be restricted to purposes such as improving qualifications. It can also be used for other purposes and is ideally suited to staff who may not be able

for a variety of reasons to have full-time release from teaching duties under a professional experience program.

8.39 Scholarship scheme. The Working Party considers that full-time release from teaching duties for improving formal qualifications should be dealt with quite separately from the professional experience programs and should be provided by a suitable scholarship scheme. A limited number of such scholarships should be made available annually to enable staff with the necessary background and capacity to pursue a course of study or research full-time for a year in much the same way as scholarships are provided in small numbers within the Commonwealth Public Service.

8.40 As the scheme is designed to provide better qualified staff for the advanced education sector, scholarships should be open on a competitive basis to all teaching staff. The Working Party envisages that scholarships would normally be

granted to the more junior members of staff but would not wish to see any limitation placed on the grades of staff eligible to apply. The total number of scholarships available throughout Australia should be limited to forty per year.

8.41 The scholarship scheme should be administered by the State advanced education co-ordinating authorities. The Working Party sees a need for the scholarship scheme at the present time, and perhaps for some years to come, but expects that this need will diminish as more staff already holding higher qualifications are recruited into the advanced education system. It. considers that the scholarship scheme should be reviewed after, three years with a view to phasing it out or reducing the number of scholarships available. '

8.42 The Working Party would not wish to confine study under the scholarship scheme to Australian institutions, but, where possible, study should be undertaken in Australia. It is recognised, however, that Australian institutions do not provide appropriate courses in some disciplines and it would be beneficial to the advanced education system as a whole if

some staff obtained further qualifications overseas.

The Working Party recommends:

(10) that arrangements be established to provide opportunities for members of the teaching staff to improve their formal qualifications through:

98.

(a) a system of part-time release from teaching duties to be administered by individual colleges; and

(b) a scholarship scheme, providing for full­ time release for one year from teaching duties, to be administered by the advanced education co-ordinating authority in each

State, in which the total number of scholarships available is not to exceed forty per year throughout Australia.

(11) that the scholarship scheme be reviewed by the Tertiary Education Commission after three years.

8.43 Accountability. In the same way that information and reports are required on the operation of the professional experience programs, the Working Party believes that it will be necessary for the effectiveness of the proposed scholarship

scheme to be monitored. To this end it proposes that the State advanced education co-ordinating authorities, which will be responsible for the administration of the scheme, should obtain appropriate information from individual colleges and

staff in order to report to the Tertiary Education Commission.

The Working Party recommends:

(12) that State advanced education co-ordinating authorities provide such statistical data on the operation of the scholarship scheme to the Tertiary Education Commission as is determined by the Commission.

Other Matters

8.44 Terms of appointment. Some colleges of advanced education, notably those in Western Australia, include provision for staff development leave in their terms of appointment. In that State, staff development leave is

incoroorated into the industrial awards of staff. The Working Party considers it desirable that, where possible, any reference to opportunities for release from teaching duties in terms of appointment of college teaching staff

should be in accordance with the proposals which it has set out in preceding paragraphs.

The Working Party recommends:

(13) that each college of advanced education, and State advanced education co-ordinating authority as appropriate: .

(a) examine terms of appointment of existing teaching staff, insofar as they relate to staff development leave, with a view to accommodating the proposals contained in Recommendation (7) (a) to (h) ; and

(b) base relevant terms of appointment of new teaching staff on the proposals contained in Recommendation (7) (a) to (h) .

8.45 Non-teaching staff. Table 6.1 shows that certain categories of non-teaching staff are eligible for staff development leave (or equivalent) privileges under existing

arrangements in colleges. In view of its belief that professional experience programs should be directed towards improving the quality of teaching in colleges, the Working Party sees no case for the participation of non-teaching

staff in those programs„ Where there is a need for a member of the non-teaching staff to be absent from an institution to undertake work on its behalf, either in Australia or overseas, each institution should make such arrangements as

it deems necessary and appropriate. Such absences, however, should generally not be in excess of 2 to 3 months duration.

The Working Party recommends:

(14) that participation in professional experience programs and the scholarship scheme be limited ; - to members of the teaching staff of colleges.

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P A R T IV - S U M M A R Y

101.

C H A P T E R N I N E : S U M M A R Y OF C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S

General

9.1 in accordance with the terms of reference, the

Working Party examined the system of study leave in univer­ sities and the system of staff development leave in colleges of advanced education. In forming its views, the Working Party had regard to statistical information obtained from the

institutions, submissions from interested parties and information on similar practices in overseas institutions and other fields of Australian employment. The position in universities and colleges of advanced education was examined separately because of the differences between them - the emphasis being primarily on research in universities and the emphasis in colleges being primarily on professional and vocational preparation.

9.2 The Working Party concluded that over the years the system of study leave had been an important factor in helping · , Australian universities to overcome problems associated with their isolation from the centres of learning in Europe and North America and had enabled Australian scholars to establish

a presence in the international community of scholarship out of proportion to Australia's relatively small population. Similarly, the Working Party concluded that staff development leave schemes in colleges of advanced education have been important in meeting particular needs of the developing college system. While it appeared that some academic staff have taken unreasonable advantage of study leave and staff development

leave arrangements, the Working Party had no evidence of widespread misuse of such opportunities and considered that the schemes had brought many benefits to the institutions and to the community.

9.3 Nevertheless, the Working Party regards present study leave and staff development leave schemes as being in need of revision if they are to adapt to the contemporary circumstances of Australian universities and colleges of advanced education.

In view of the changes both in the university system and in Australia generally which have taken place in the last thirty years ~ including reduction in the isolation of Australia through better means of travel and communication, expansion of opportunities for research within Australia and the more rapid dissemination of knowledge - existing university study leave

schemes, with their emphasis on extended absences overseas, are outdated and do not represent the most effective use of available resources. In the case of staff development leave in colleges there is a need for a re-ordering of priorities within the schemes away from activities relating to personal development of staff towards activities likely to be of more direct benefit to the teaching programs of the institutions.

102.

Study Leave in Un iv e r s it ie s

9.4 The Working Party considers that there are two basic institutional requirements served by the system of study leave which have continuing importance:

. the need for members of academic staff to have the opportunity periodically to carry out sustained research or scholarly activity free from teaching and routine administrative

duties; and

. the need for some members of academic staff to work overseas in order to keep abreast of developments or to utilise research facilities or resource material not available in Australia.

These needs must be met if Australian universities are to fulfil the role expected of them within the international community of scholarship, to expand the frontiers of knowledge and to bring to Australia knowledge of world developments in diverse fields of intellectual endeavour.

9.5 Although it is a matter for each university to

determine the details of its own arrangements and although the question of variation to study leave schemes may pose contractual problems, the Working Party considers that universities should undertake a revision of their schemes with a view to adopting provisions which closely relate to the

institutional requirements set out above. Use of the terms 'sabbatical leave' or ' study leave' should be discontinued as they are misleading and tend to create a false impression in the minds of both academic staff and the community at large Universities should introduce arrangements, which might be known as special studies programs, under which academic staff,

chosen on the basis of proposed research or scholarly work, have the opportunity'of being released from teaching duties in order to undertake sustained research. It is expected that much of this research activity would be conducted in Australia

9.6 The granting of release from teaching duties should not be regarded as a right or entitlement which accrues to individuals after a specified period of service as has been generally the case under study leave schemes. The resources available for this purpose will be used most effectively if

release is granted in response to specific proposals submitted by an academic staff member, assessed on the criteria of the needs of the institution and the capacity of the staff member to make effective use of such opportunity, regard being had to

the particular work in which the staff member proposes to engage.

9.7 Those academic staff members, released from teaching duties under special studies programs, who establish a need to work overseas on research or other scholarly pursuits should be able to apply for travel assistance grants within each

institution. .

103.

9.8 The Working Party proposes that all release from normal teaching duties, whether for research or other scholarly pursuits, be regarded as release under special studies programs and that an upper limit be placed on the total number of

teaching man-weeks of release available to the academic staff in aggregate each year in each university. Within this, the Working Party proposes that a limit be placed on the number of teaching weeks for which an individual staff member may be released.

9.9 In relation to those members of academic staff employed within the university system engaged only to conduct research, the majority of whom are within the Institute of Advanced Studies of the Australian National University, there

is no need for the kind of release proposed for teaching staff. Such research-only staff should, however, have the opportunity of release from normal duties in order to carry out other approved scholarly activities, whether in Australia or

overseas.

9.10 The Working Party considered that study leave schemes j - j have placed too much emphasis on the taking of leave overseas, | and therefore proposes limitations on the amount of funds | available for travel assistance grants for academic staff j ! members and on the duration of absences overseas, with a view [

to encouraging universities to make travel grants available only to those staff members with an established need to work abroad. j

9.11 Details of the arrangements proposed by the Working j Party are set out in the recommendations which follow. The Working Party considered that there were inadequacies in the arrangements adopted by universities to monitor and control

their study leave schemes and has included in its recommendations proposals which it believes will achieve a higher level of accountability in special studies programs.

Recommendations -

The Working Party recommends:

(1) that universities revise their existing arrange­ ments for study leave to take account of the changes in the Australian academic situation which have occurred in the past thirty years in a way which makes appropriate provision for the following institutional needs:

(a) the need for members of academic staff chosen on the basis of proposals for research or scholarly work, to have the opportunity periodically to carry out

sustained research or scholarly activity free from teaching and routine adminis­ trative duties; and

104.

(b) the need for some members of academic staff to work overseas in order to keep abreast of developments or to use research facilities or resource materials not available in Australia.

(2) that each university make the revisions proposed in Recommendation Ί) in accordance with the following requirements:

(a) use of the term 1 sabbatical leave1 or 'study leave1 be discontinued;

(b) arrangements, which might be known as a special studies program, be established to provide an opportunity for some members of academic staff to undertake a period of

sustained research or scholarship, from time to time, by their being released from teaching and administrative duties;

(c) the total amount of release from teaching duties granted to the academic staff in aggregate in each year under the special studies programs be not greater than seven

per cent of available man-weeks of teaching time of staff of the grade of lecturer and above;

(d) the granting of release from teaching and administrative duties to an academic staff member for research purposes under the special studies program be not an entitle­

ment but be based on the needs of the institution and the capacity of the staff member to make effective use of such an opportunity;

(e) unless there are exceptional circumstances, the total release from teaching and administrative duties granted to an individual academic staff member under the special

studies program be not more than thirteen teaching weeks in any three year period;

(f) any release from teaching and administrative duties for scholarly purposes (e.g. for the improvement of teaching or to attend a conference) be regarded as release under the

special studies program;

(g) arrangements be established under which financial assistance for travel purposes may be made available to members of academic staff who establish a specific case to work overseas on approved research or other approved activities while released from teaching and

administrative duties under the special studies program;

105.

(h) total annual expenditure on overseas travel assistance grants to members of academic staff be not greater than 0.5 per cent of the total cost of academic salaries;

(i) unless there are exceptional circumstances, any period of absence overseas from the university be not greater than six months;

(j) the level and form of travel assistance grants be determined by the university, subject to the proviso that grants may be made in respect of dependants only in those exceptional cases where the staff member's period of absence is greater than six months;

(k) academic staff obtaining release from teaching duties under the special studies program be required to submit such reports as would enable the university to fulfil effectively the requirement in Recommendation (3) below.

(3) that each university publish information annually On the operation of the special studies program, including data on grants made for overseas travel purposes, and provide such other statistical data on the program to the Tertiary Education Commission

as is determined by the Commission.

(4) that each university:

(a) examine terms of appointment of existing academic staff, insofar as they relate to study leave, with a view to accommodating the proposals contained in Recommendation

(2) (a) to (k) ; and

(b) base relevant terms of appointment of new academic staff on the proposals contained in Recommendation (2) (a) to (k). '

(5) that participation in special studies programs be limited to members of the teaching and research staff.

Staff Development Leave Schemes in Colleges of Advanced Education

g.12 The Working Party recognises the importance to both the institution and to the individual of members of the teaching staff of colleges of advanced education being released from teaching duties periodically in order to carry out activities of benefit to their institutions. However, more than half the

leave granted under staff development leave schemes at present

106.

is devoted to the improvement of academic qualifications, with the remainder distributed between activities such as research, work in industrial or professional establishments, visits to other institutions and design of new courses. The Working Party considers that, since advanced education

is now firmly established, the emphasis on improvement of formal qualifications is less necessary than it has been formerly and proposes that there should be a re-ordering of priorities to encourage participation in activities which will be of more direct benefit to institutions and students.

In view of the special role of colleges of advanced education in professional and vocational preparation, the principal purposes for which teaching staff should be released are:

. to maintain and improve their professional and vocational knowledge; and

. to obtain practical experience in the workplace for which they are preparing students.

Release from teaching duties for the purpose of improving formal qualifications, which relates principally to the personal development of staff members, should be permitted on a limited scale only and separately from the forms of release

described above (paragraph 9.17 refers).

9.13 The Working Party considers that colleges of advanced education, in conjunction with State advanced education co-ordinating authorities, should undertake a revision of their staff development leave schemes with a view to adopting provisions based as closely as possible on the purposes outlined

above. Use of the term "staff development leave" should be discontinued and the granting of periods of release from teaching duties for the purpose of maintaining professional and vocational knowledge should be through arrangements which might be known as professional experience programs. State advanced

education co-ordinating authorities should be invited to draw up guidelines for the operation of professional experience programs in each State in conformity with the proposals of the Working Party; detailed administration of the programs should

rest with individual colleges.

9.14 The granting of release from teaching duties for the purpose of maintaining professional or vocational knowledge should not be regarded as a right or entitlement. The resources available for the purpose will be used to greatest effect if

release is granted only in response to specific proposals submitted by members of teaching staff and assessed on the criteria of the needs of the institution and the capacity of the staff member to make effective use of such an opportunity, regard being had to the particular work in which the staff member proposes to engage. Members of teaching staff of

colleges obtaining such release should normally spend their period of release in Australia.

107 .

9.15 The Working Party proposes that all release from normal teaching duties, whether for maintaining professional and vocational knowledge or for undertaking other activities such as attendance at conferences, be regarded as release under professional experience programs. In addition the Working Party has proposed an upper limit on the total amount of teaching man-weeks of release which each institution may grant to the teaching staff in aggregate in each year and a

limit on the number of teaching weeks of release which may be granted to an individual staff member.

9.16 There may be occasions where it will be of benefit

to an institution for the staff member obtaining release under a professional experience program to work overseas. Staff ; members wishing to obtain travel assistance grants for overseas ; work should be able to apply for grants from funds available for(:

this purpose. There is a need for a limitation on the level of r funds to be available in colleges for such grants and for some μ consistency of principles applying to the level of grants to )

individuals.

9.17 The Working Party considered that the provision of '

opportunities for the staff of colleges of advanced education to improve formal qualifications should generally be by means of part-time release from teaching duties and proposes that arrangements be established for such release by individual colleges. The Working Party accepts that in certain cases the college system may benefit from the granting of full-time release to staff for the purpose of improving formal qualifications and proposes that a limited number of scholar­ ships be made available for this purpose each year under a scholarship scheme to be administered by State advanced education co-ordinating authorities.

9.18 Details of the arrangements proposed by the Working Party are set out in the recommendations which follow. The Working Party also considered that there was much room for improvement in administrative arrangements adopted to control

staff development leave schemes in colleges and has included in its recommendations proposals which it believes will achieve a higher level of accountability in professional experience programs and the scholarship scheme.

Recommendations

The Working Party recommends:

(6) that existing staff development leave schemes in colleges of advanced education be revised to enable more effective use of resources in a way which:

(a) makes provision for members of the teaching staff of colleges, chosen on the basis of proposals submitted, to be released periodically from teaching duties in order to:

108.

(i) maintain and improve their professional and vocational knowledge; and

(ii) obtain practical experience in the workplace for which they are preparing students;

and

(b) makes provision for a limited number of members of the teaching staff of colleges of advanced education to obtain full-time release from teaching duties

for the purpose of improving their formal qualifications.

(7) that colleges of advanced education, in conjunction with State advanced education co-ordinating authorities, make the revisions proposed in Recommend­ ation (6) in accordance with the following requirements:

(a) use of the terms 'staff development leave' and 'study leave' be discontinued;

(b) arrangements, which might be known as professional experience programs, be established by each college to enable staff to be released periodically from teaching duties for the purposes set out

in Recommendation 6(a)(i) and (ii);

(c) the total amount of release from teaching duties granted to the teaching staff of any college in aggregate, in each year, under the professional experience program be not greater than five per cent of available

teaching man-weeks of staff of the grade of lecturer and above;

(d) the granting of release from teaching duties to a member of teaching staff by a college under a professional experience program be not an entitlement but based on the needs of the institution and the capacity of the

staff member to make effective use of such an opportunity;

(e) unless there are exceptional circumstances, the total release from teaching duties granted to an individual member of the teaching staff of a college under the

professional experience program be not more than thirteen teaching weeks in any three year period;

109.

(f) any release from normal teaching duties (including release for short periods for activities such as visiting other institutions, investigating the design of new courses and attendance at conferences) be regarded as release under the professional

experience program;

(g) arrangements be established under which financial assistance for travel purposes may be made available to members of the teaching staff of colleges who establish

a specific case to work overseas on approved activities while released from teaching duties under a professional experience program;

(h) unless there are exceptional circumstances, any period of absence overseas from a college be not greater than six months.

(8) that State advanced education co-ordinating authorities and the Advanced Education Council consider appropriate arrangements for determining;

(a) the total amount of funds available for travel assistance grants to teaching staff of colleges in each year; and

(b) the level and form of travel assistance grants which may be made available to members of the teaching staff of colleges, subject to the proviso that any such procedures provide that grants may be made

in respect of dependants only in those exceptional cases where the staff member's period of absence is greater than six months.'

(9) that each college: -

(a) publish information annually on the operation of the professional experience program, including data on grants made for overseas travel purposes, and provide such other statistical data on the program to the State advanced education co-ordinating authority and the Tertiary Education Commission as is determined by the Commission; and

(b) require members of the teaching staff obtaining release from teaching duties under the professional experience program to submit such reports as would enable the college to fulfil effectively the requirement in (a).

110.

(10) that arrangements be established to provide opportunities for members of the teaching staff to improve their formal qualifications through:

(a) a system of part-time release from teaching duties to be administered by individual colleges; and

(b) a scholarship scheme, providing for full­ time release for one year from teaching duties, to be administered by the advanced education co-ordinating authority

in each State, in which the total number of scholarships available is not to exceed forty per year throughout Australia.

(11) that the scholarship scheme be reviewed by the Tertiary Education Commission after three years.

(12) that State advanced education co-ordinating authorities provide such statistical data on the operation of the scholarship scheme to the Tertiary Education Commission as is determined by the Commission.

(13) that each college of advanced education, and State advanced education co-ordinating authority as appropriate:

(a) examine terms of appointment of existing teaching staff, insofar as they relate to staff development leave, with a view to accommodating the proposals contained in Recommendation (7) (a) to (h); and

(b) base relevant terms of appointment of new teaching staff on the proposals contained in Recommendation (7) (a) to (h).

(14) that participation in professional experience programs and the scholarship scheme be limited to members of the teaching staff of colleges.

111.

!

A P P E N D I C E S

113 .

ϊ«

MINISTER FOR EDUCATION

PARLIAMENT HOUSE !

CANB E R R A A.C.T. !

1 0 N O V 1376 Emeritus Professor P. H. Karmel, AC, CBE, Chairman, Universities Commission, P.0. Box 250, CANBERRA CITY A.C.T. 2601

Dear Professor Karmel,

Study Leave at Universities

Consistent with the Government’s concern to ensure that the resources devoted to tertiary education in Australia are utilised as efficiently and economically as possible, I have decided that there should be an enquiry into the system of study leave at universities.

I should be grateful if, in accordance with Section 16 of the Universities Commission Act 1959, you would arrange to report to me on:

(i) the place of study leave in relation to the functioning of universities:

(ii) the nature of existing study leave schemes at universities including information relating to eligibility for and conditions of study leave and information on the cost, both direct and indirect, of study leave: -

(iii) the desirability of modifications to existing study leave schemes and the possible nature of any such modifications: and

(iv) any other matters which the Commission considers relevant to this enquiry.

I do not envisage a public enquiry, but the Commission should be prepared to receive submissions . from interested organisations, including the universities themselves and staff associations. I would ask that, in conducting this enquiry, the Universities Commission consult with the States and with the Commission on Advanced Education on the implications of its conclusions for the advanced education sector.

Yours sincerely,

Appendix B

MINISTER FOR EDUCATION

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

CANBERRA A.C.T.

Dr E S Swinbourne, Chairman, Commission on Advanced Education,

PO Box 1860, CANBERRA CITY A.C.T. 2601

Dear Dr Swinbourne,

STUDY LEAVE AT COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION

Consistent with the Government’s concern to ensure that the resources devoted to tertiary education in Australia are utilised as efficiently and economically as possible, I have decided that there should be an enquiry

into the system of study leave and similar arrangements at colleges of advanced education.

I should be grateful if, in accordance with Section 16 of the Commission on Advanced Education Act 1971, you would arrange to report to me on:

(i) the place of study leave and similar arrangements in relation to the functioning of colleges of advanced education;

(ii) the nature of existing study leave schemes at the colleges including information relating to eligibility for and conditions of study leave and information on the cost, both direct and indirect, of study leave;

(iii) the desirability of modifications to existing study leave schemes and the possible nature of any such modifications; and

(iv) any other matters which the Commission considers relevant to this enquiry.

. ../2

115.

2.

I do not envisage a public enquiry, but the Commission should be prepared to receive submissions from interested organisations, including the colleges themselves and staff associations. I would ask that, in conducting this enquiry, the Commission on Advanced Education consult with the State coordinating authorities in advanced education and with the Universities Commission.

Yours sincerely,

J. L. GARRICK

1 16.

Appendix C

S T U D Y L EAVE IN U N I V E R S I T I E S

Lis t of Submissions

Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee

UNIVERSITIES

New South Wales New England Macquarie Wollongong Melbourne Monash

La Trobe Deakin Queensland James Cook

Griffith Adelaide Western Australia Tasmania

Australian National University

STAFF ASSOCIATIONS

Federation of Australian University Staff Associations Sydney Association of University Teachers Staff Association of Monash University La Trobe University Staff Association Flinders University Staff Association Queensland University Academic Staff Association University of Tasmania Staff Association A.N.U. Staff Association

OTHER CONTRIBUTORS

Mr. C.L. Dyer - University of Queensland Associate Professor K. Rivett - University of New South Wales

117.

Appendix D

S T A F F D E V E L O P M E N T L E A V E IN C O L L E G E S OF A D V A N C E D E D U C A T I O N

Lis t of Submissions

STATE ADVANCED EDUCATION CO-ORDINATING AUTHORITIES

New South Wales Higher Education Board Victoria Institute of Colleges State College of Victoria Queensland Board of Advanced Education South Australian Board of Advanced Education Western Australian Post-Secondary Education Commission Tasmanian Council of Advanced Education ;

OTHER ORGANISATIONS

Australian Conference of Principals of Colleges of Advanced Education State College of Victoria/Victoria Institute of Colleges Principals Liaison Committee

COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION

Mitchell College of Advanced Education Riverina College of Advanced Education Caulfield Institute of Technology State College of Victoria, Toorak South Australian Institute of Technology

STAFF ASSOCIATIONS

Federation of Staff Associations of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education

118.

A P P E N D I X E

TABLE 1

YEAR(a) IN WHICH INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED AS COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION

Institution Year

NEW SOUTH WALES

Alexander Mackie College of Advanced Education 1973

Armidale College of Advanced Education 1973

Catholic College of Education 1974

Catholic Teachers College 1974

College of Paramedical Studies 1967

Department of Technical and Further Education 1967

Good Samaritan Teachers College 1974

Goulburn College of Advanced Education 1973

Hawkesbury Agricultural College 1967

Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education 1973

Mitchell College of Advanced Education 1970

Nepean College of Advanced Education 1972

Newcastle College of Advanced Education 1973

New South Wales State Conservetorium of Music 1967

Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education 1973

Nursery School Teachers College 1973

Orange Agricultural College 1970

Riverina College of Advanced Education 1970

Sydney Kindergarten Teachers College 1973

Sydney Teachers College 1973

The Guild Teachers College 1974

The New South Wales Institute of Technology 1965

Wagga Agricultural College 1966

Wollongong Institute of Education 1973

VICTORIA

Victoria Institute of Colleges

Ballarat Institute of Advanced Education 1967

Bendigo Institute of Technology 1965

Caulfield Institute of Technology 1967

College of Nursing, Australia 1967

Emily McPherson College 1967

Footscray institute of Technology 1967

Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education 1967

Gordon Institute of Technology(b) 1965

Lincoln Institute 1967

Prahran College of Advanced Education 1970

Preston Institute of Technology . 1967

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 1965

Swinburne College of Technology 1967

The Victorian College of the Arts 1973

Victorian School of Forestry, Creswick 1967

Victorian College of Pharmacy 1967

Warrnambool Institute of Advanced Education 1970

119.

TABLE 1 (continued)

Institution

v i c t o r i a (continued)

State College of Victoria

State College of Victoria, Ballarat State College of Victoria, Bendigo State College of Victoria, Burwood State college of Victoria, Coburg State College of Victoria, Frankston State College of Victoria, Geelong(b) State College of Victoria, Hawthorn State College of Victoria, Institute of Catholic Education State College of Victoria, Institute of Early Childhood

Development State College of Victoria, Melbourne State College of Victoria, Rusden State College of Victoria, Toorak

QUEENSLAND

Brisbane Kindergarten Teachers college Capricornia Institute of Advanced Education Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education Mount Gravatt College of Advanced Education North Brisbane College of Advanced Education Queensland Agricultural College Queensland Conservatorium of Music Queensland Institute of Technology Townsville College of Advanced Education

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide College of Advanced Education Kingston College of Advanced Education Murray Park College of Advanced Education Roseworthy Agricultural College Salisbury College of Advanced Education South Australian Institute of Technology Sturt College of Advanced Education Torrens College· of Advanced Education

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Churchlands Teachers College Claremont Teachers College Graylands Teachers College Mount Lawley Teachers College Western Australian Institute of Technology Western Australian Secondary Teachers College

TASMANIA

Tasmanian College of Advanced Education .

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY ■

Canberra College of Advanced Education

(a) Year in which institution or its predecessor became part of the advanced education system.

(b) Incorporated into Deakin University, 1977.

T e a r

1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1974

1973 1973 1973 1973

1973 1965 1965 1973 1973 1973 1967 1967 1965 1973

1973 1973 1973 1970 1973 1965 1973 1973

1973 1973 1973 1973 1965 1973

1967

1969

120.

A P P E N D I X E

TABLE 2

FIELDS OF STUDY - COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Institution Fields of Study

NEW SOUTH WALES

Alexander Mackie College of Advanced Education Art & Design Teacher Education

Armidale College of Advanced Education Commercial & Business Studies Paramedical

Teacher Education

Catholic College of Education Teacher Education

Catholic Teachers College Teacher Education

College of Paramedical Studies Paramedical

Department of Technical and Further Education Art & Design Building, Surveying & Architecture

Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Paramedical

Teacher Education

Good Samaritan Teachers College Teacher Education

Goulburn College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

Hawkesbury Agricultural College Agriculture

Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education Commercial & Business Studies Teacher Education

Mitchell College of Advanced Education Art & Design Applied Science

Commercial & Business Studies Liberal Studies Teacher Education

Nepean College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

Newcastle College of Advanced Education Art & Design Teacher Education

New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music

Music Teacher Education

Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education Commercial S Business Studies Teacher Education

121

t a b l e 2 (continued)

Institution Fields of Study ,

NEW SOUTH WALES (continued)

; '

Nursery School Teachers College Teacher Education

Orange Agricultural College Agriculture

Riverina College of Advanced Education Agriculture Applied Science

Art and Design Commercial & Business Studies Liberal studies :

Paramedical Teacher Education

Sydney Kindergarten Teachers College Teacher Education

Sydney Teachers College Teacher Education ■

The Guild Teachers College

' . - , ■ :

Teacher Education

The New South Wales Institute of Technology Applied Science |

Building, Surveying & Architecture j Commercial & Business Studies 1 Engineering & Technology j.

Liberal Studies i ; '

Paramedical

Wagga Agricultural College Agriculture

Wollongong Institute of Education Teacher Education ;

VICTORIA

Victoria Institute of Colleges ' j

Ballarat Institute of Advanced Education Applied Science 1

Art & Design j

Commercial & Business Studies |

Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

Bendigo Institute of Technology Applied Science 1

Art & Design !

Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

Caulfield Institute of Technology

Applied Science Art & Design Commercial s Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

122.

TABLE 2 (continued)

Institution Fields of Study

v i c t o r i a (continued)

Victoria Institute of Colleges (cont'd)

College of Nursing, Australia

Emily McPherson College

Footscray Institute of Technology

Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education

Gordon Institute of Technology(a)

Lincoln Institute

Prahran College of Advanced Education

Preston Institute of Technology

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

Paramedical

Art & Design Commercial & Business Studies Paramedical

Applied Science Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

Art s Design Applied Science Commercial S Business Studies Engineering s Technology Liberal Studies

Teacher Education

Applied Science Art & Design Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

Paramedical

Paramedical

Art & Design Commercial & Business Studies Liberal Studies

Applied Science Art & Design Commercial S Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies

Applied Science Art & Design Building, Surveying S Architecture Commercial & Business studies Engineering & Technology

Liberal Studies Paramedical

123

TABLE 2 (continued)

Institution Fields of Study

v i c t o r i a (continued)

Victoria Institute of Colleges (cont'd)

Swinburne College of Technology

The Victorian college of the Arts

Victorian School of Forestry, Creswick

Victorian College of Pharmacy

Warrnambool Institute of Advanced Education

State College of Victoria

State College of Victoria, Ballarat

State College of Victoria, Bendigo

State College of Victoria, Burwood

State College of Victoria, Coburg

State College of Victoria, Frankston

State College of Victoria, Geelong(a)

State College of Victoria, Hawthorn

State College of Victoria, Institute of Catholic Education

State College of Victoria, Institute of Early Childhood Development

State College of Victoria, Melbourne

State College of Victoria, Rusden

State College of Victoria, Toorak

Applied Science Art & Design Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering Liberal Studies

Art & Design Music

Agriculture

Paramedical

Applied Science Art & Design Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

124 .

TABLE 2 (continued)

Institution Fields of Study

QUEENSLAND

Brisbane Kindergarten Teachers College Teacher Education ■

Capricornia Institute of Advanced Education Applied Science Commercial & Business Studies

Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Teacher Education

Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education Applied Science Art & Design

Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Teacher Education

Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

Mount Gravatt College of Advanced Education Commercial & Business Studies Teacher Education

North Brisbane College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

Queensland Agricultural College Agriculture Commercial & Business Studies

Queensland Conservatorium of Music Music Teacher Education

Queensland Institute of Technology Applied Science Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering s Technology Liberal Studies

Paramedical

Townsville College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide College of Advanced Education Commercial & Business Studies Paramedical

Teacher Education

Kingston College of Advanced Education Teacher Education

125.

t a b l e 2 (continued)

Fields of Study Institution

s o u t h Au s t r a l i a (continued)

Murray Park College of Advanced Education

Roseworthy Agricultural College

Salisbury College of Advanced Education

South Australian Institute of Technology

Sturt College of Advanced Education

Torrens College of Advanced Education

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Churchlands Teachers College

Claremont Teachers College

Graylands Teachers College

Mount Lawley Teachers College

Western Australian Institute of Technology

Western Australian Secondary Teachers College

Liberal Studies ,

Music Teacher Education :!

!

Agriculture ;j

i

Teacher Education ? !

'!

ii

Applied Science l : !

Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology ;

Liberal Studies '

Paramedical j

Paramedical ; j

Teacher Education i

Art & Design P

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Teacher Education

Agriculture -

Applied Science Art & Design Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Music Paramedical Teacher Education

Liberal Studies Teacher Education

126

r

TABLE 2 (continued)

Institution Fields of Study

TASMANIA

Tasmanian College of Advanced Applied Science

Education Art & Design

Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Engineering & Technology Liberal Studies Music

Paramedical Teacher Education

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

Canberra College of Advanced Education Applied Science Art & Design

Building, Surveying & Architecture Commercial & Business Studies Liberal Studies Teacher Education

(a) Incorporated into Deakin University, 1977

127

A P P E N D I X E

TABLE 3 .

STUDENTS IN COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Institution Students

NEW SOUTH WALES

Alexander Mackie College of Advanced Education 1,252

Armidale College of Advanced Education 1,311

Catholic College of Education 334

Catholic Teachers College 965

College of Paramedical Studies 860

Department of Technical, and Further Education 1,563

Good Samaritan Teachers College 165

Goulburn College of Advanced Education 975

Hawkesbury Agricultural College 431

Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education 1,430

Mitchell College of Advanced Education 2,494

Nepean College of Advanced Education 643

Newcastle College of Advanced Education 2,184

New South Wales State Conservetorium of Music 440

Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education 623;

Nursery School Teachers College 224

Orange Agricultural College 63

Riverina College of Advanced Education 1,994

Sydney Kindergarten Teachers College 304

Sydney Teachers College 2,634

The Guild Teachers College 366

The New South Wales Institute of Technology 5,483

Wagga Agricultural College 179

Wollongong Institute of Education 1,140

NEW SOUTH WALES 28,057

VICTORIA

Viatovia Institute of Colleges

Ballarat Institute of Advanced Education . 945

Bendigo Institute of Technology 1,165

Caulfield Institute of Technology 3,989

College of Nursing, Australia 190

Emily McPherson College 451

Footscray Institute of Technology . 2,009

Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education 1,363

Gordon Institute of Technology(a) 1,412

Lincoln Institute 619

Prahran College of Advanced Education 1,246

Preston Institute of Technology 1,548

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 10,461

Swinburne College of Technology 4,552

The Victorian College of the Arts 170

Victorian School of Forestry, Creswick 39

Victorian College of Pharmacy 381

Warrnambool Institute of Advanced Education 656

TOTAL V.I.C. 31,196

128.

table 3 (continued)

Institution Students

v i c t o r i a (continued)

State College of Victoria

State College of Victoria, Ballarat 718

State College of Victoria, Bendigo 849

State College of Victoria, Burwood 1,555

State College of Victoria, Coburg 1,153

State College of Victoria, Frankston 1,060

State College of Victoria, Geelong(a) 684

State College of Victoria, Hawthorn 1,311

State College of Victoria, Institute of Catholic Education 996

State College of Victoria, Institute of Early Childhood Development 655

State College of Victoria, Melbourne 4,127

State College of Victoria, Rusden 2,153

State College of Victoria, Toorak 1,304

TOTAL S.C.V. 16,565

VICTORIA 47,761

QUEENSLAND

Brisbane Kindergarten Teachers College 572

Capricornia Institute of Advanced Education 1,229

Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education 1,888

Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education 1,670

Mount Gravatt College of Advanced Education 1,592

North Brisbane College of Advanced Education 972

Queensland Agricultural College 493

Queensland Conservatorium of Music 180

Queensland Institute of Technology 4,349

Townsville College of Advanced Education 528

QUEENSLAND 13,473

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide College of Advanced Education 2,068

Kingston College of Advanced Education 369

Murray Park College of Advanced Education 1,525

Roseworthy Agricultural College 165

Salisbury College of Advanced Education 955

South Australian Institute of Technology 4,415

Sturt College of Advanced Education 1,151

Torrens College of Advanced Education 3,125

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 13,773

129.

t a b l e 3 (continued\)

Institution Students

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Churchlands Teachers College 1,156

Claremont Teachers College 897

Graylands Teachers College 491

Mount Lawley Teachers College 1,161

Western Australian institute of Technology 9,620

Western Australian Secondary Teachers College 2,102

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 15,427

TASMANIA

Tasmanian College of Advanced Education 2,435

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

Canberra College of Advanced Education 4,240

AUSTRALIA 125,166

(a) Incorporated into Deakin University, 1977.

130.

A P P E N D I X E

TABLE 4

FULL-TIME TEACHING STAFF BY GRADE, COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

■Institution

Above Senior· Lecturer

Senior Lecturer Lecturer Other Teaching

Staff

Total

NEW SOUTH WALES

Alexander Mackie College of Advanced Education 11 15 65 91

Armidale College of Advanced Education 8 16 61 85

Catholic College of Education 2 4 15 3 24

Catholic Teachers College 5 7 28 7 47

College of Paramedical Studies 8 8 40 25 81

Department of Technical and Further Education 1 4 15 20

Good Samaritan Teachers College 1 3 5 9

Goulburn College of Advanced Education 6 14 34 6 60

Hawkesbury Agricultural College 3 10 26 1 40

Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education 12 20 79 4 115

Mitchell College of Advanced Education 12 28 79 18 137

Nepean College of Advanced Education 5 8 33 5 51

Newcastle College of Advanced Education , 16 34 101 10 161

New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music 3 10 20 4 37

Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education 6 10 39 3 58

Nursery School Teachers College 1 8 5 14

Orange Agricultural College Riverina College of Advanced Education 11

3

19

5

50 28

8

108

Sydney Kindergarten Teachers College 3 12 10 25

Sydney Teachers College 16 37 137 10 200

The Guild Teachers College 1 2 17 7 27

The New South Wales Institute of Technology 18 58 147 37 260

Wagga Agricultural College 1 4 14 19

Wollongong Institute of Education 8 14 51 9 82

NEW SOUTH WALES 154 329 1,079 197 1,759

131.

t a b l e 4 (continued)

Institution

Above Senior Lecturer

Senior Lecturer

Other

Lecturer Teaching __________ Staff

Total

VICTORIA

Victoria Institute of Colleges

Ballarat Institute of Advanced Education 9 19 37 6 71

Bendigo Institute of Technology 12 19 69 5 105

Caulfield Institute of Technology 25 49 112 27 213

College of Nursing, Australia 1 6 7

Emily McPherson College 1 2 8 11

Footscray Institute of Technology 13 28 71 10 122

Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education 7 20 35 3 65

Gordon Institute of Technology(a) 13 29 58 8 108

Lincoln Institute 4 7 15 25 51

Prahran College of ■

Advanced Education 3 14 52 2 71

Preston Institute of Technology 11 16 73 12 112

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 53 105 280 7 445

Swinburne College of Technology 34 62 147 31 274

The Victorian College of the Arts 3 3 4 2 12

Victorian School of Forestry, Creswick 3 1 4

Victorian College of Pharmacy 4 7 10 18 39

Warrnambool Institute of Advanced Education 7 13 25 4 49

TOTAL V.I.C. 199 394 1,005 161' 1,759

State College of Victoria

State College of Victoria, Ballarat 3 13 26 9 51

State College Of Victoria, Bendigo State College of Victoria, 4 15 36 18 73

Burwood 9 24 63 28 124

State College of Victoria, Coburg State College of Victoria, 5 20 35 20 80

Frankston 6 17 38 26 87

State College of Victoria, Geelong (a) State College of Victoria, 5 14 39 10 68

Hawthorn 6 22 42 8 78

132

TABLE 4 (continued)

Institution

Vi c t o r i a (continued

Above Senior· Lecturer

Senior Lecturer Lecturer

Other Teaching Staff Total

State College of Victoria (cont'd)

State College of Victoria, Institute of Catholic Education State College of Victoria,

3 16 48 9 76

Institute of Early Childhood Development 2 10 27 7 46

State College of Victoria, Melbourne State College of Victoria, 25 57 154 L01 337

Rusden 10 27 91 38 166

State College of Victoria, Toorak 6 21 41 28 96

TOTAL S.C.V. 84 256 640 302 1,282

VICTORIA 283 650 1,645 463 3,041

QUEENSLAND

Brisbane Kindergarten Teachers College Capricornia Institute

5 15 12 32

of Advanced Education Darling Downs Institute 11 17 53 2 83

of Advanced Education 13 24 83 2 122

Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education Mount Gravatt College of

31 115 146

Advanced Education -North Brisbane College 2 2 0 95 117

of Advanced Education 1 14 63 78

Queensland Agricultural College Queensland Conservetorium 1 7 26 4 38

of Music 3 7 10

Queensland Institute of Technology Townsville College of 10 43 115 15 183

Advanced Education 2 9 25 36

QUEENSLAND 40 173 597 35 845

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide College of Advanced Education 2 22 67 8 99

Kingston College of Advanced Education Murray Park college

4 11 8 23

of Advanced Education 18 57 75

133.

TABLE 4 (continued)

Institution

Above Senior Lecturer

Senior Lecturer Lecturer

Other Teaching Staff Total

s o u t h AUSTRALIA (continued.)

Roseworthy Agricultural College Salisbury College of 1 2 . 2 3 8

Advanced Education South Australian

23 60 7 90

Institute of Technology 26 56 117 33 232

Sturt College of Advanced Education Torrens College of

16 40 4 60

Advanced Education 7 37 107 10 161

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 36 178 461 73 748

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

!

Churchlands Teachers 1

College 7 66 73 i

Claremont.Teachers College Graylands Teachers

9 48 2 59 j

College Mount Lawley Teachers

9 38 47

College Western Australian

12 76 8 8

Institute of Technology 35 122 252 59 468

Western Australian Secondary Teachers College 14 62 76

WESTERN AUSTRALIA . 35 173 542 61 811

TASMANIA

Tasmanian College of Advanced Education 22 45 104 32 203

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

Canberra College of Advanced Education 33 52 105 14 204

AUSTRALIA 603 1,600 4,533 875 7 611

(a) Incorporated into Deakin University, 1977.

134.

A P P E N D I X E

TABLE 5

STAFF ON STAFF DEVELOPMENT LEAVE(a). COLLEGES OF ADVANCED EDUCATION, 1975

Institution Staff on Leave

NEW SOUTH WALES

Alexander Mackie College of Advanced Education 2

Armidale College of Advanced Education 6

Goulburn College of Advanced Education 4

Hawkesbury Agricultural College Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education Mitchell College of Advanced Education 11

Nepean College of Advanced Education 2

Newcastle College of Advanced Education 7

Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education 7

Orange Agricultural College 1

Riverina College of Advanced Education 3

Sydney Kindergarten Teachers College 1

Sydney Teachers College 6

New South Wales Institute of Technology 29

Wollongong Institute of Education 4

NEW SOUTH WALES 95

VICTORIA

Victoria Institute of Colleges

Ballarat Institute of Advanced Education 7

Bendigo Institute of Technology 11

Caulfield Institute of Technology 9

Footscray Institute of Technology 18

Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education 6

Prahran College of Advanced Education 1

Preston Institute of Technology 11

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 51

Swinburne College of Technology 11

Warrnambool Institute of Advanced Education 6

TOTAL V.I.C. ' 131

State College of Victoria

State College of Victoria, Burwood 2

State College of Victoria, Institute of Early Childhood Development 2

State College of Victoria, Melbourne 13

State College of Victoria, Rusden . 13

State College of Victoria, Toorak 3

TOTAL S.C.V. 33

VICTORIA 164

135.

σ > σ >

TABLE 5 (continued.)

Institution Staff on Leave

QUEENSLAND

Capricornia Institute of Advanced Education 10

Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education 10

Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education 13

Mount Gravatt College of Advanced Education 9

North Brisbane College of Advanced Education 4

Queensland Agricultural College 4

Queensland Conservetorium of Music 1

Queensland Institute of Technology 18

Townsville College of Advanced Education 4

QUEENSLAND 73

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide College of Advanced Education 8

Murray Park College of Advanced Education 3

Roseworthy Agricultural College 1

Salisbury College of Advanced Education 9

South Australian Institute of Technology 11

Sturt College of Advanced Education 5

Torrens College of Advanced Education 9

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 46

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Churchlands Teachers college 3

Claremont Teachers College 5

Mount Lawley Teachers College 1

Western Australian Institute of Technology 27

WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 36

TASMANIA . '

Tasmanian College of Advanced Education 18

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

Canberra College of Advanced Education 20

AUSTRALIA 452

(a) Excluding leave of less than three months.

Appendix F

R OLE O F S T A T E A D V A N C E D E D U C A T I O N C O - O R D I N A T I N G A U T H O R I T I E S

State Present Situation

NEW SOUTH WALES Public Service Board has statutory

responsibility for employment conditions (including provision of staff development leave) in colleges of advanced education and has established guidelines for

staff development leave schemes. Existing policy on staff develop­ ment leave is under review by the Public Service Board and the

Higher Education Board.

VICTORIA

Victoria Institute of Colleges

State college of Victoria

QUEENSLAND

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

TASMANIA

Both VIC and SCV have issued policy statements which provide guidelines for staff development leave schemes.

Provisions concerning staff development leave are included in the statement of conditions of employment for permanent teaching

staff of colleges approved by State Executive Council on the recommendation of the Board of Advanced Education.

No guidelines provided by Board of Advanced Education.

The Western Australian Post­ Secondary Education Commission has prepared a statement in which it outlines principles which

should be applied in the granting of staff development leave. Staff development leave provisions are incorporated into industrial awards

for the staff of teachers colleges and the Western Australian Institute of Technology.

Staff development leave scheme is administered by the Council of Advanced Education which provides an annual allocation for staff

development leave purposes.

137 .